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Sample records for assessment findings condition

  1. Trout Creek, Oregon Watershed Assessment; Findings, Condition Evaluation and Action Opportunities, 2002 Technical Report.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Runyon, John

    2002-08-01

    The purpose of the assessment is to characterize historical and current watershed conditions in the Trout Creek Watershed. Information from the assessment is used to evaluate opportunities for improvements in watershed conditions, with particular reference to improvements in the aquatic environment. Existing information was used, to the extent practicable, to complete this work. The assessment will aid the Trout Creek Watershed Council in identifying opportunities and priorities for watershed restoration projects.

  2. The Engagement in Physical Activity for Middle-Aged and Older Adults with Multiple Chronic Conditions: Findings from a Community Health Assessment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wei-Chen Lee

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The current aging trends accompanying the increasing prevalence of multiple chronic conditions (MCCs and decreasing participation in physical activity (PA have swept the United States. In light of the magnitude of this phenomenon, this study seeks to identify the most common MCC combinations and their relationships with PA level. A cross-sectional study, Brazos Valley Health Assessment, was conducted between October 2009 and July 2010. All data analyses were performed by STATA 12.0. The overall sample which met the inclusion criteria is 2,603. Among people older than 45 years, chronic conditions of cardiovascular, endocrine, and musculoskeletal systems were the most prevalent. Participants with three chronic conditions were less likely to meet the PA standard than those with only two chronic conditions. Younger age, women, rural residence, and unsafe environments were related to the lower PA level. After adjusting for seven covariates, all MCCs combinations adversely affect the level of PA (, . People with MCCs were among the least active subgroups despite the health benefits of doing exercise. Given the well-documented benefits of physical activity for delaying the onset or progression of MCCs, public health efforts to enhance regular PA in middle-aged and older adults are recommended.

  3. U.S. Student and Adult Performance on International Assessments of Educational Achievement. Findings from "The Condition of Education, 2006." NCES 2006-073

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lemke, Mariann; Gonzales, Patrick

    2006-01-01

    Currently, the United States participates in four international assessments: the Progress in International Reading Literacy Study (PIRLS), which assesses reading performance in grade 4; the Program for International Student Assessment (PISA), which assesses the reading, mathematics, and science literacy of 15-year-olds; the Trends in International…

  4. Could a continuous measure of individual transmissible risk be useful in clinical assessment of substance use disorder? Findings from the National Epidemiological Survey on Alcohol and Related Conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ridenour, Ty A; Kirisci, Levent; Tarter, Ralph E; Vanyukov, Michael M

    2011-12-01

    Toward meeting the need for a measure of individual differences in substance use disorder (SUD) liability that is grounded in the multifactorial model of SUD transmission, this investigation tested to what degree transmissible SUD risk is better measured using the continuous Transmissible Liability Index (TLI) (young adult version) compared to alternative contemporary clinical methods. Data from 9535 18- to 30-year-olds in the 2001-2002 National Epidemiologic Survey on Alcohol and Related Conditions, a U.S. representative sample, were used to compute TLI scores and test hypotheses. Other variables were SUDs of each DSM-IV drug class, clinical predictors of SUD treatment outcomes, treatment seeking and usage, age of onset of SUDs and substance use (SU), and eligibility for SUD clinical trials. TLI scores account for variation in SUD risk over and above parental lifetime SUD, conduct and antisocial personality disorder criteria and frequency of SU. SUD risk increases two- to four-fold per standard deviation increment in TLI scores. The TLI is associated with SUD treatment seeking and usage, younger age of onset of SU and SUD, and exclusion from traditional clinical trials of SUD treatment. The TLI can identify persons with high versus low transmissible SUD risk, worse prognosis of SUD recovery and to whom extant SUD clinical trials results may not generalize. Recreating TLI scores in extant datasets facilitates etiology and applied research on the full range of transmissible SUD risk in development, treatment and recovery without obtaining new samples. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Find Funds for Wellness Assessment Equipment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buck, Marilyn M.; Kirkpatrick, Beth

    1995-01-01

    Many physical education teachers have difficulty finding ways to purchase wellness assessment equipment. The article provides strategies to help them find the money for needed equipment, highlighting the physical education budget, the computer equipment budget, grants, local businesses, statewide organizations, universities, and national…

  6. Rape victim assessment: Findings by psychiatrists and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    valid at the lower end of the IQ range. The assessment of rape victims is a sensitive matter and poses a number of challenges to the clinician. Rape victims are often traumatised by their experience, and this can make them reluctant to talk about the incident. In a study done by Elklit et al.,[2] it was found that ~70% of sexual ...

  7. Wind conditions and resource assessment

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lundtang Petersen, Erik; Troen, Ib

    2012-01-01

    The development of wind power as a competitive energy source requires resource assessment of increasing accuracy and detail (including not only the long-term ‘raw’ wind resource, but also turbulence, shear, and extremes), and in areas of increasing complexity. This in turn requires the use of the...

  8. Condition assessment of nonlinear processes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hively, Lee M. (Philadelphia, TN); Gailey, Paul C. (Athens, OH); Protopopescu, Vladimir A. (Knoxville, TN)

    2002-01-01

    There is presented a reliable technique for measuring condition change in nonlinear data such as brain waves. The nonlinear data is filtered and discretized into windowed data sets. The system dynamics within each data set is represented by a sequence of connected phase-space points, and for each data set a distribution function is derived. New metrics are introduced that evaluate the distance between distribution functions. The metrics are properly renormalized to provide robust and sensitive relative measures of condition change. As an example, these measures can be used on EEG data, to provide timely discrimination between normal, preseizure, seizure, and post-seizure states in epileptic patients. Apparatus utilizing hardware or software to perform the method and provide an indicative output is also disclosed.

  9. Associations between pain conditions and borderline personality disorder symptoms: findings from the National Comorbidity Survey Replication.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McWilliams, Lachlan A; Higgins, Kristen S

    2013-06-01

    Associations between 4 forms of pain (ie, arthritis, severe/frequent headaches, chronic spinal pain, and other chronic pain) and borderline personality disorder (BPD) symptoms were investigated in the general population. Data from part II of the National Comorbidity Survey Replication (N=5692) were used. Pain conditions were assessed with self-reports. Arthritis was assessed on a lifetime basis. For the other pain conditions, variables were created to identify those with a remitted condition and those experiencing the condition in the past year. BPD symptoms were assessed with items from the International Personality Disorder Examination Screening Questionnaire. Axis I disorders were assessed with the Composite International Diagnostic Interview. Multiple regression analyses adjusting for sociodemographic variables and past-year psychiatric disorders indicated that those with a history of each pain condition (either remitted or past-year) had higher levels of BPD symptoms relative to those with a lifetime absence of the condition. For each condition, follow-up analyses indicated that those experiencing the condition in the past year had higher levels of BPD symptoms than those reporting a remitted condition. After adjusting for axis I psychiatric disorders, only the difference between the remitted and past-year severe/frequent headache groups remained significant. This is the first study to demonstrate that BPD symptoms are positively associated with chronic spinal pain, severe/frequent headaches, and other chronic pain conditions in a sample representative of the general population. The findings also suggest that relationships between remitted pain conditions and BPD symptoms warrant additional study.

  10. Wood Condition Assessment Manual: Second Edition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robert J. Ross; Robert H. White

    2014-01-01

    This report summarizes information on condition assessment of in-service wood, including visual inspection of wood and timbers, use of ultrasound and probing/boring techniques for inspection, and assessment of wood and timbers that have been exposed to fire. The report also includes information on assigning allowable design values for in-service wood.

  11. A Resilient Condition Assessment Monitoring System

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Humberto Garcia; Wen-Chiao Lin; Semyon M. Meerkov

    2012-08-01

    An architecture and supporting methods are presented for the implementation of a resilient condition assessment monitoring system that can adaptively accommodate both cyber and physical anomalies to a monitored system under observation. In particular, the architecture includes three layers: information, assessment, and sensor selection. The information layer estimates probability distributions of process variables based on sensor measurements and assessments of the quality of sensor data. Based on these estimates, the assessment layer then employs probabilistic reasoning methods to assess the plant health. The sensor selection layer selects sensors so that assessments of the plant condition can be made within desired time periods. Resilient features of the developed system are then illustrated by simulations of a simplified power plant model, where a large portion of the sensors are under attack.

  12. Conditional random field modelling of interactions between findings in mammography

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kooi, Thijs; Mordang, Jan-Jurre; Karssemeijer, Nico

    2017-03-01

    Recent breakthroughs in training deep neural network architectures, in particular deep Convolutional Neural Networks (CNNs), made a big impact on vision research and are increasingly responsible for advances in Computer Aided Diagnosis (CAD). Since many natural scenes and medical images vary in size and are too large to feed to the networks as a whole, two stage systems are typically employed, where in the first stage, small regions of interest in the image are located and presented to the network as training and test data. These systems allow us to harness accurate region based annotations, making the problem easier to learn. However, information is processed purely locally and context is not taken into account. In this paper, we present preliminary work on the employment of a Conditional Random Field (CRF) that is trained on top the CNN to model contextual interactions such as the presence of other suspicious regions, for mammography CAD. The model can easily be extended to incorporate other sources of information, such as symmetry, temporal change and various patient covariates and is general in the sense that it can have application in other CAD problems.

  13. Nutritional Assessment of Children with Handicapping Conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, Judith E.; And Others

    1979-01-01

    Discusses the methods and results of a nutritional assessment involving 64 noninstitutionalized children (ages 2-19 years) with various types of handicapping conditions. It is explained that, in general, children were smaller in weight and height than average and frequently consumed unbalanced diets. (Author/PHR)

  14. Early warning and crop condition assessment research

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boatwright, G. O.; Whitehead, V. S.

    1986-01-01

    The Early Warning Crop Condition Assessment Project of AgRISTARS was a multiagency and multidisciplinary effort. Its mission and objectives were centered around development and testing of remote-sensing techniques that enhance operational methodologies for global crop-condition assessments. The project developed crop stress indicators models that provide data filter and alert capabilities for monitoring global agricultural conditions. The project developed a technique for using NOAA-n satellite advanced very-high-resolution radiometer (AVHRR) data for operational crop-condition assessments. This technology was transferred to the Foreign Agricultural Service of the USDA. The project developed a U.S. Great Plains data base that contains various meteorological parameters and vegetative index numbers (VIN) derived from AVHRR satellite data. It developed cloud screening techniques and scan angle correction models for AVHRR data. It also developed technology for using remotely acquired thermal data for crop water stress indicator modeling. The project provided basic technology including spectral characteristics of soils, water, stressed and nonstressed crop and range vegetation, solar zenith angle, and atmospheric and canopy structure effects.

  15. Unexpected pathological findings in skills training and assessing skills

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Boendermaker, PM; Pols, J; Scherpbier, AJJA

    1999-01-01

    This article draws attention to unexpected pathological findings encountered by students and teachers when examining one another and/or simulated patients in skips training and assessment sessions. Although no literature on the subject was found it appears to be not uncommon far students and

  16. GEOGLAM Crop Monitor Assessment Tool: Developing Monthly Crop Condition Assessments

    Science.gov (United States)

    McGaughey, K.; Becker Reshef, I.; Barker, B.; Humber, M. L.; Nordling, J.; Justice, C. O.; Deshayes, M.

    2014-12-01

    The Group on Earth Observations (GEO) developed the Global Agricultural Monitoring initiative (GEOGLAM) to improve existing agricultural information through a network of international partnerships, data sharing, and operational research. This presentation will discuss the Crop Monitor component of GEOGLAM, which provides the Agricultural Market Information System (AMIS) with an international, multi-source, and transparent consensus assessment of crop growing conditions, status, and agro-climatic conditions likely to impact global production. This activity covers the four primary crop types (wheat, maize, rice, and soybean) within the main agricultural producing regions of the AMIS countries. These assessments have been produced operationally since September 2013 and are published in the AMIS Market Monitor Bulletin. The Crop Monitor reports provide cartographic and textual summaries of crop conditions as of the 28th of each month, according to crop type. This presentation will focus on the building of international networks, data collection, and data dissemination.

  17. Assessing Inaccuracies in Automated Information Extraction of Breast Imaging Findings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lacson, Ronilda; Goodrich, Martha E; Harris, Kimberly; Brawarsky, Phyllis; Haas, Jennifer S

    2017-04-01

    We previously identified breast imaging findings from radiology reports using an expert-based information extraction algorithm as part of the National Cancer Institute's Population-based Research Optimizing Screening through Personalized Regimens (PROSPR) initiative. We validate this algorithm and assess inaccuracies in a different institutional setting. Mammography, ultrasound (US), and breast magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) reports of patients at an academic health system between 4/2013 and 6/2013 were included for analysis. Accuracy of automatically extracting imaging findings using an algorithm developed at a different institution compared to manual gold standard review is reported. Extraction errors are further categorized based on manual review. Precision and recall for extracting BI-RADS categories remain between 0.9 and 1.0, except for MRI (0.7). F measures for extracting other findings are 0.9 for non-mass enhancement (in MRI) and 0.8-0.9 for cysts (in MRI and US). Extracting breast imaging findings resulted in lowest accuracy for findings of calcification (range 0.4-0.6 in mammography) and asymmetric density (0.5-0.7 in mammography). Majority of errors for extracting imaging findings were due to qualifier-based errors, descriptors which indicate absence of findings, missed by automated extraction (e.g., "benign" calcifications). Our information extraction algorithm provides an effective approach to extracting some breast imaging findings for populating a breast screening registry. However, errors in information extraction when utilizing methods in new settings demonstrate that further work is necessary to extract information content from unstructured multi-institutional radiology reports.

  18. [Third working conditions and health survey in Navarre, Spain: main findings].

    Science.gov (United States)

    García, Vega

    To describe health problems and working conditions perceived by workers of Navarra, Spain. Conduct of the Third Survey of Working Conditions and Health in Navarre. We administered the Seventh Spanish National Survey of Working Conditions questionnaire by personal interviews conducted in the workers' homes between October 2014 and December 2014, and using a three-stage stratified sampling approach, by economic activity, work establishment size and gender. A total of 2744 interviews were completed, with a confidence level of 95.5% and P=Q, error ± 1.99. The analysis was weighted by the sampling variables. The results were summarized as percentages for qualitative variables and point estimates for quantitative variables. Among the postivie findings, 85% of respondents were well informed of job risks, 68% had access to a health and safety representative, 50% underwent risk assessments and 60% received periodic medical examinations. Among the notable self-reported occupational risk factors were exposure to loud noise (16%), chemicals (33%), accident-prone situations (76%), repetitive movements (62%), awkward postures (41%) and biological agents (11%). Issues of concern include a high percentage of overtime work (44% of men and 39% of women), feelings of being overworked (30.6% and 29.4%, respectively) and exposure to abusive behaviors (11.7% for verbal abuse), especially among women, healthcare workers and teachers. The most prevalent health problems were musculoskeletal (49% reporting back pain) and issues related to work stress (20%). The current working conditions in Navarre feature improved preventive services, persistence of traditional occupational risk factors and emergence of new issues such as violence and work stressors. Copyright belongs to the Societat Catalana de Salut Laboral.

  19. 24 CFR 58.47 - Re-evaluation of environmental assessments and other environmental findings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 24 Housing and Urban Development 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Re-evaluation of environmental....47 Re-evaluation of environmental assessments and other environmental findings. (a) A responsible... circumstances and environmental conditions which may affect the project or have a bearing on its impact, such as...

  20. Lymphoplasmacytic sclerosing cholangitis: assessment of clinical, CT, and pathological findings

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Itoh, S., E-mail: shigekimiyo@luck.ocn.ne.j [Department of Technical Radiology, Nagoya University School of Health Sciences, Nagoya (Japan); Nagasaka, T. [Department of Pathology, Nagoya University Graduate School of Medicine, Nagoya (Japan); Suzuki, K.; Satake, H.; Ota, T.; Naganawa, S. [Department of Radiology, Nagoya University Graduate School of Medicine, Nagoya (Japan)

    2009-11-15

    Aim: To assess the clinical, computed tomography (CT), and pathological findings in patients with lymphoplasmacytic sclerosing cholangitis. Materials and methods: Fifteen consecutive patients (four women and 11 men, mean age 71 years) with lymphoplasmacytic sclerosing cholangitis and without the characteristic features of underlying disorders causing benign biliary strictures were retrospectively recruited. Two radiologists evaluated multiphase contrast-enhanced CT images acquired with 0.5 or 1-mm collimation. One pathologist performed all histological examinations, including IgG4 immunostaining. Results: The intrahepatic biliary ducts showed dilatation in all 15 patients, but only seven presented with jaundice. Although laboratory data were not available in all patients, serum gammaglobulin and IgG levels were elevated in five of six patients and six of eight patients, respectively. Anti-nuclear antibody was detected in three of six patients. The involved biliary ducts showed the following CT findings: involvement of the hilar biliary duct (14/15), a mean wall thickness of 4.9 mm, a smooth margin (10/15), a narrow but visible lumen (6/15), hyper-attenuation during the late arterial phase (9/15), homogeneous hyper-attenuation during the delayed phase (11/11), and no vascular invasion (14/15). Abnormal findings in the pancreas and urinary tract were detected in eight of 15 patients. In 13 patients with adequate specimens, moderate to severe lymphoplasmacytic infiltration associated with dense fibrosis was observed. Infiltration of IgG4-positive plasma cells was moderate or severe in nine patients and minimal or absent in four patients. Conclusion: Lymphoplasmacytic sclerosing cholangitis exhibits relatively characteristic clinical and CT findings, although they are not sufficiently specific for differentiation from other biliary diseases.

  1. Findings

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... topic Print Magazine Subscribe & Order a Free Copy Classroom Poster Order a Free Poster Findings showcases diverse ... Genetics, Evolution, Stem Cells, Model Organisms, Diseases, Sleep Research Pharmacology Biochemical Actions of Drugs in the Body, Pharmacogenomics, Drug Design, ...

  2. Is suicide assessment harmful to participants? Findings from a randomized controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harris, Keith M; Goh, Melissa Ting-Ting

    2017-04-01

    There is considerable debate on whether suicide assessment carries an iatrogenic risk for participants/patients. A double-blind randomized controlled trial (registration: R000022314) tested the emotional impact of suicide assessment on participants (n = 259) randomly assigned to experimental (n = 122) or control conditions (n = 137). The experimental condition included the Suicidal Affect-Behavior-Cognition Scale and intensive death-related questions, the control condition a quality of life scale. Both included measures of depression, social support and loneliness. Affective states were assessed immediately before and after testing, and research biases minimized. Post-test debriefing interviews collected qualitative reactions. Experimental participants ranged from nonsuicidal to highly suicidal. Between-groups ANCOVAs and repeated measures ANOVAs showed no differences by study condition, and no pre-post-test affect changes for either condition or suicidal participants (P > 0.10), supporting the null hypothesis of no iatrogenic effects. However, depressive participants in both conditions showed significant decreases in positive affect (P suicidality or other factors, predicted negative affect changes, which was supported by qualitative findings. Social desirability bias was also found in qualitative survey responses. No evidence of iatrogenic effects of suicide assessment were found. Recommendations are made to counter possible negative assessment effects on depressive participants/patients, and nurses and other caregivers are encouraged to talk to patients about suicidal symptoms. © 2016 Australian College of Mental Health Nurses Inc.

  3. Prevalence of podiatric conditions seen in Special Olympics athletes: Structural, biomechanical and dermatological findings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jenkins, David W; Cooper, Kimbal; O'Connor, Rachel; Watanabe, Liane; Wills, Christine

    2011-03-01

    Podiatric conditions are frequently seen in persons with intellectual disabilities. Unfortunately, many are not detected or addressed. This study attempts to determine the prevalence of a variety of selected podiatric conditions in Special Olympics athletes and compare the findings to studies of a similarly matched general population. Screenings from 1580 Special Olympics athletes participating in a sampling of United States competitions in 2004-2006 were used for the analysis. The athletes voluntarily underwent a foot screening which followed the standardized Special Olympics Fit Feet protocol. The most commonly identified conditions included overpronated gait, abducted gait, restriction in both the ankle and the first metatarsal phalangeal joint, pes planus, metatarsus adductus, brachymetatarsia, hallux abducto valgus, onychomycosis, onychocryptosis and tinea pedis. The prevalence of all the structural conditions was notably higher than a similarly matched general population and both conditions and biomechanical/gait findings associated with ligamentous laxity like pes planus and hallux abducto valgus had especially high prevalence rates. Restricted motion in the ankle and first metatarsal phalangeal joint was surprising and may indicate some athletes have intellectual disabilities with contractures. The higher rates of dermatophyte related conditions may reflect increased exposure from the athletic competition environment, immunocompromise, issues with hygiene or both. Higher rates of onychocryptosis in the athletes may be due to ill fitting shoes and/or hygiene issues. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. A Classical Conditioning Procedure for the Hearing Assessment of Multiply Handicapped Persons.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lancioni, Giulio E.; And Others

    1989-01-01

    Hearing assessments of multiply handicapped children/adolescents were conducted using classical conditioning (with an air puff as unconditioned stimulus) and operant conditioning (with a modified visual reinforcement audiometry procedure or edible reinforcement). Findings indicate that classical conditioning was successful with 21 of the 23…

  5. NNP-LANL Utilities - Condition Assessment and Project Approach

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stewart, Grant Lorenz [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States)

    2017-11-21

    This report is a presentation on LANL Utilities & Transportation Asset Management; Utility Assets Overview; Condition Assessment; Utilities Project Nominations & Ranking; and Utilities Project Execution.

  6. Condition assessment and strengthening of residential units

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tatheer Zahra

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available About 40, ground plus one (G+1 residential units were designed using a hybrid structural framing system (RC frame and load bearing walls. A few months after the completion of the ground floor of the residential units, cracks appeared at several locations in the structure. Field and Laboratory testing was conducted to ascertain the in situ strength of concrete and steel reinforcement. The results of the experimental work were used in the analytical ETABS model for the structural stability calculations. The results indicated that residential units were marginally safe in the existing condition (completed ground floor, but the anticipated construction of the floor above the ground floor (G+1 could not be carried out as the strength of the structural system was inadequate. To increase the safety of existing ground floor and to provide the option of the construction of one floor above, rehabilitation and strengthening design was performed. The proposed strengthening design made use of welded wire fabric (WWF and carbon fibre reinforced polymer (CFRP laminates/sheets for the strengthening of walls, columns and slabs. The residential units will be strengthened in the near future.

  7. Low-Load Space Conditioning Needs Assessment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Puttagunta, Srikanth [Consortium for Advanced Residential Buildings (CARB), Norwalk, CT (United States)

    2015-05-19

    Heating, ventilating, and air-conditioning (HVAC) equipment must be right-sized to ensure energy performance and comfort. With limited low-load options in the HVAC market, many new-construction housing units are being fitted with oversized equipment that creates system efficiency, comfort, and cost penalties. To bridge the gap between currently available HVAC equipment that is oversized or inefficient and the rising demand for low-load HVAC equipment in the marketplace, HVAC equipment manufacturers need to be fully aware of the needs of the multifamily building and attached single-family (duplex and townhouse) home market. Over the past decade, Steven Winter Associates, Inc. (SWA) has provided certification and consulting services for hundreds of housing projects and has accrued a large pool of data that describe multifamily and attached single-family home characteristics. The U.S. Department of Energy’s Building America research team Consortium for Advanced Residential Buildings (CARB) compiled and analyzed these data to outline the characteristics of low-load dwellings such as the heating and cooling design loads.

  8. Initial Findings Using an Alternative Assessment of Body Shape Preferences.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ryujin, Donald H.; And Others

    Due to concerns that body shape preferences contribute to eating disorders among women, a new method to assess observer preferences for female body shapes was devised. In prior studies women have preferred thin models, but men have preferred models of average weight. In Experiment 1, an underweight female model was photographed in a white top and…

  9. Clinical and ultrasonographic findings of some ocular conditions in sheep and goats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    O. El-Tookhy

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available This study was carried out to describe the ultrasonographic findings in relation to the clinical symptoms of some common ocular conditions in sheep and goats. Fifty animals (32 goats and 18 sheep with different ocular problems were examined. Ultrasonographic examination was performed using a B-mode ocular ultrasound unit, and the structure of the globe was evaluated at a depth of 4-6 cm. Early cases (n=35, 70% showed varying ocular conditions; hypopyon, (n=8, 16%, stromal abscesses, (n=4, 8%, and anterior uveitis (n=23, 46%. Hypopyon appeared clinically as a white or yellowish material in the anterior chamber, and ultrasonographically as a hyperechoic mass in the anterior chamber. Severe iridocyclitis was noticed in acute cases of infectious keratoconjunctivitis (IKC accompanied by blepharospasm, photophobia, excessive tearing and eyelid margin crust formation. Ultrasonographically, the pupil appeared constricted with increased hyperechoic thickening of the ciliary body. In chronic cases of IKC, corneal pigmentation (n=5, 10% and cataract (n=10, 20% were seen. Ultrasonographically the type and degree of cataract were diagnosed. The present study provides an inside view of the inner ocular structures during the course of certain eye diseases where ophthalmoscopic examination is not possible. Our findings, although preliminary, are relevant for the more complete diagnosis of certain external ocular conditions in sheep and goat herds.

  10. An organizational assessment of disruptive clinician behavior: findings and implications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walrath, Jo M; Dang, Deborah; Nyberg, Dorothy

    2013-01-01

    This study investigated registered nurses' (RNs) and physicians' (MD) experiences with disruptive behavior, triggers, responses, and impacts on clinicians, patients, and the organization. Using the Disruptive Clinician Behavior Survey for Hospital Settings, it was found that RNs experienced a significantly higher frequency of disruptive behaviors and triggers than MDs; MDs (45% of 295) and RNs (37% of 689) reported that their peer's disruptive behavior affected them most negatively. The most frequently occurring trigger was pressure from high census, volume, and patient flow; 189 incidences of harm to patients as a result of disruptive behavior were reported. Findings provide organizational leaders with evidence to customize interventions to strengthen the culture of safety.

  11. Finding Multiple Peaks Signal in Fast Beam Conditions Monitor (BCM1F)

    CERN Document Server

    Bin Ab Maalek, Abu Ubaidah Amir; CERN. Geneva. EP Department

    2017-01-01

    Fast Beam Conditions Monitor (BCM1F) is diamond and silicon sensors based luminometer of CMS detector. The methods of finding multiple peaks signal in BCM1F is shown. Multiple peaks signal found at signal with width between 60 ns - 300 ns. Double peaks are counted as single hit in the constant threshold analysis and leads to underestimation in the luminosity. Therefore it should be estimated for different filling schemes and sensor types. The percentage of long width pulse in different sensor for different fill are calculated. About 30 \\% long width pulse found in sCVD sensor, 12 \\% in pCVD and no more than 1 \\% for silicon sensor.

  12. Personality assessment and feedback (PAF): strategies and preliminary findings

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hesse, Morten; Fridell, Mats; Pedersen, Mads Kjær

    2008-01-01

    , and antisocial personality disorder is particularly common. However, clinical strategies must vary strongly across disorders. Objectives: To test the clinical effectiveness of a full personality disorder assessment and individual feedback to patient and caseworker, against screening for axis I disorders alone......, and outcomes of the first 30 patients randomized. We present clinical examples of patients with antisocial, borderline and narcissistic personality disorders.......Background: Co-morbid personality disorders are common in substance dependent patients, and personality disorders are associated with worse clinical outcomes, worse retention and compliance, and alliance problems. The whole range of personality disorders is present in substance dependent patients...

  13. Assessing the ecological condition of streams in a southeastern Brazilian basin using a probabilistic monitoring design.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiménez-Valencia, Juliana; Kaufmann, Philip R; Sattamini, Ana; Mugnai, Riccardo; Baptista, Darcilio Fernandes

    2014-08-01

    Prompt assessment and management actions are required if we are to reduce the current rapid loss of habitat and biodiversity worldwide. Statistically valid quantification of the biota and habitat condition in water bodies are prerequisites for rigorous assessment of aquatic biodiversity and habitat. We assessed the ecological condition of streams in a southeastern Brazilian basin. We quantified the percentage of stream length in good, fair, and poor ecological condition according to benthic macroinvertebrate assemblage. We assessed the risk of finding degraded ecological condition associated with degraded aquatic riparian physical habitat condition, watershed condition, and water quality. We describe field sampling and implementation issues encountered in our survey and discuss design options to remedy them. Survey sample sites were selected using a spatially balanced, stratified random design, which enabled us to put confidence bounds on the ecological condition estimates derived from the stream survey. The benthic condition index indicated that 62 % of stream length in the basin was in poor ecological condition, and 13 % of stream length was in fair condition. The risk of finding degraded biological condition when the riparian vegetation and forests in upstream catchments were degraded was 2.5 and 4 times higher, compared to streams rated as good for the same stressors. We demonstrated that the GRTS statistical sampling method can be used routinely in Brazilian rain forests and other South American regions with similar conditions. This survey establishes an initial baseline for monitoring the condition and trends of streams in the region.

  14. Common practices in assessing conditions of concrete bridges

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alsharqawi Mohammed

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Bridge condition assessment is an essential step in bridge management. To ensure safety and serviceability of bridge infrastructure, accurate condition assessment is needed to provide basis for bridge Maintenance, Repair, and Replacement (MRR decisions. In Canada and the United States, visual inspection is the common practice to evaluate a bridge condition. Meanwhile, this practice is limited to detect surface defects and external flaws. For subsurface defects, Non-Destructive Testing and Evaluation (NDT&E technologies are being used to supplement visual inspection. This paper reviews the common practices in assessing concrete bridges’ conditions and discusses the limitations of available condition assessment models. Further, this research studies six NDT&E techniques and establishes a set of selection criteria which is utilized to compare each technique in terms of providing the best inspection results. Based on the comparison, it is found that Ground Penetrating Radar (GPR appears to be the most appropriate NDT&E techniques for inspection of concrete bridges. Thus, this paper recommends integrating GPR technology with the dominant visual inspection practice in order to establish a more accurate overall bridge condition rating system where surface and subsurface defects are assessed.

  15. METAL STRUCTURES SURVIVABILITY ASSESSMENT WHEN SIMULATING SERVICE CONDITIONS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    O. M. Gibalenko

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Purpose. The research is aimed at improving the quality and reliability of measures of primary and secondary protection of metal structures at manufacturing companies, to prolong the service life of cyclically loaded structures of production facilities taking into account the corrosion level of danger. Methodology. Authors proposed to use the principles of process approach for statement and realization of management problems of operational service life in corrosion environments. The principles of ensuring reliability on the level of corrosion danger include justification of stages sequence for survivability assessment of a structural metalwork based on the strategy of DMAIC (define, measure, analyze, improve, control: definitions, measurements, analysis, improvement and monitoring of measures of primary and secondary corrosion protection. Findings. Providing control measures from corrosion according to the criterion of corrosion danger allows providing requirements of reliability of structural metalwork based on calculated provisions of the limiting conditions method and solving the problems of management in technological safety during the expected service life of structural objects. Originality. The developed strategy of maintenance of the industrial facilities on an actual state includes the process approach to resource management by creation of system for the account and the functional controlling, risk analysis and regulation of technological safety in production facilities of the enterprises. Realization of the principles of process approach to management of technological safety at the object level is directed to perfecting of tools and methods of anticorrosive protection, extension of a resource taking into account indexes of survivability (, and justification of program measures to ensure the reliability of enterprises(PER. Practical value. On the basis of process approach to quality and reliability management, generalizations of the

  16. Chemical looping combustion in a rotating bed reactor--finding optimal process conditions for prototype reactor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Håkonsen, Silje Fosse; Blom, Richard

    2011-11-15

    A lab-scale rotating bed reactor for chemical looping combustion has been designed, constructed, and tested using a CuO/Al(2)O(3) oxygen carrier and methane as fuel. Process parameters such as bed rotating frequency, gas flows, and reactor temperature have been varied to find optimal performance of the prototype reactor. Around 90% CH(4) conversion and >90% CO(2) capture efficiency based on converted methane have been obtained. Stable operation has been accomplished over several hours, and also--stable operation can be regained after intentionally running into unstable conditions. Relatively high gas velocities are used to avoid fully reduced oxygen carrier in part of the bed. Potential CO(2) purity obtained is in the range 30 to 65%--mostly due to air slippage from the air sector--which seems to be the major drawback of the prototype reactor design. Considering the prototype nature of the first version of the rotating reactor setup, it is believed that significant improvements can be made to further avoid gas mixing in future modified and up-scaled reactor versions.

  17. Perceived sanction risk, individual propensity and adolescent offending : Assessing key findings from the deterrence literature in a dutch sample

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Pauwels, Lieven; Weerman, Frank; Bruinsma, Gerben; Bernasco, Wim

    Deterrence studies have shown that perceived sanction risk is related to delinquent behaviour, independent of other variables, and that this relation may be conditioned by individual propensity towards crime. The principal goal of this study is to assess these findings with data from a sample of 843

  18. 78 FR 43183 - Notice of Availability for Sharpe Permit Relinquishment Project Environmental Assessment Finding...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-07-19

    ... Availability (NOA) for Sharpe Permit Relinquishment Project Environmental Assessment (EA) Finding of No... environmental assessment, David Rodriquez, Director, DLA Installation Support, concludes the proposed action to... of the Secretary Notice of Availability for Sharpe Permit Relinquishment Project Environmental...

  19. What Campuses Assess When They Assess Their Learning Community Programs: Selected Findings from a National Survey of Learning Community Programs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lardner, Emily

    2014-01-01

    In spring 2013, the Washington Center administered a national survey to find what campuses assessed when they assessed their learning community programs, how they assessed those outcomes, and what they did with the results. Sixty-six campuses responded to the survey. Most campuses assess at least one measure of student success (pass rates, course…

  20. The medical contribution to assessing allegations of torture in international fact-finding missions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pounder, Derrick J

    2011-05-20

    International fact-finding missions directed towards the exposure of possible ill-treatment of persons deprived of their liberty have become increasingly common within the framework of international treaties. Such country visits occur with the consent and co-operation of government, provide unfettered access to all places of detention and allow private interviews with detainees. The Committee for the Prevention of Torture of the Council of Europe, the United Nations Special Rapporteur on Torture, and the United Nations Subcommittee on Prevention of Torture all engage in such missions, and make use of a medical professional as part of the investigative team. The medical contribution to fact finding missions assessing ill-treatment of detainees includes an assessment of the conditions of detention, the regime and the medical services. Custody doctors and their records can be a rich source of information about physical ill-treatment. The interview and examination of detainees often occurs in circumstances which are far from ideal. The safety and wellbeing of the detainees, including protection from reprisals, is always paramount. A medical examination may disclose injuries corroborative of specific allegations. More often, a medical history of the effects of ill treatment and the description of resolved transient injuries provides corroboration, and also forms part of assessing the overall credibility of the detainee. Equally important is the consistency of the allegation with other evidence obtained from a wide variety of sources including the inspection of the place of alleged ill-treatment. The evolved working methods draw on the basic principles underlying police criminal investigations and crime scene examinations as well as forensic medicine. A forensic medical expert can be a useful part of the team in such international fact finding missions. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. Cardiotocography (CTG as the screening method of fetal condition assessment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. Zulčić-Nakić

    2007-02-01

    Full Text Available A basic function of fetal monitoring is an analysis of fetal cardiac action. Cardiotocography (CTG cannot provide all necessary information for assessment of the fetal condition as it is not sufficiently reliable and gives a large number of false positive results that increase the number of cesarean sections. An objective of this work was to establish CTG reliability as a method for assessment of intrapartal fetal condition. Based on CTG parameters (baseline fetal heart rate, fetal heart rate variability, oscillations and decelerations 100 pathological CTG records, collected at Obstetrics and Gynecology Department of the Tuzla University Clinic Hospital from 01.12.2004 to 05.08.2005 were identified. Using binomial distribution they were classified as non-pathological (indicating absence of asphyxia and pathological (indicating possible presence of asphyxia. After the delivery the condition of newborns was assessed according to the Apgar score. Based on comparison between certain pathological parametres of CTG records and newborns’ conditions at birth the results indicated high positive predictive values whereas sensitivity and accuracy were low. Apgar score 1. from 7 upwards was given to 96 (96% newborns whereas Apgar score 2 from 7 upwards was given to all the newborns with previous pathological CTG records. Results have confirmed that CTG can be used only as a screening method for assessment of intrapartal fetal condition.

  2. 21 CFR 25.51 - Environmental assessments and findings of no significant impact.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Environmental assessments and findings of no... HUMAN SERVICES GENERAL ENVIRONMENTAL IMPACT CONSIDERATIONS Public Participation and Notification of Environmental Documents § 25.51 Environmental assessments and findings of no significant impact. (a) Data and...

  3. An attempt to describe a relationship between concrete deterioration quantities and bridge deck condition assessment techniques

    Science.gov (United States)

    Varnavina, Aleksandra V.; Sneed, Lesley H.; Khamzin, Aleksey K.; Torgashov, Evgeniy V.; Anderson, Neil L.

    2017-07-01

    This paper presents a study of the performance of four techniques - visual inspection, Ground Penetrating Radar (GPR), Ultrasonic Surface Wave (USW), and core control - that were used to assess condition of a concrete bridge deck. The bridge deck was then rehabilitated using hydrodemolition, and the concrete removed during hydrodemolition was assumed to be deteriorated. LiDAR measurements of concrete depth removal collected after hydrodemolition were used as ground truth. Comparisons of bridge deck condition assessment data and LiDAR concrete removal measurements were performed in this study. The comparisons attempt to find and describe a possible relationship between bridge deck assessment techniques and quantities of concrete deterioration.

  4. Assessing and monitoring rangeland condition in extensive pastoral ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Describes the use of satellite remote sensing and GIS techniques in applying a localized range condition assessment methodology based on fence-line contrasts. The approach was to compute six dissimilarity indices for data on vegetation cover and composition from paired, site-specific surveys across farm boundaries.

  5. A laboratory assessment of various treatment conditions affecting ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    A laboratory assessment of various treatment conditions affecting the ammoniation of wheat straw ... levels of 250 and 375 g/kg wheat straw and treatment periods of 0;. 1; 2; 4; 6 and 8 weeks. Dependent variables .... Individual samples were sealed airtightly in 2 000 ml plastic containers. Subsequently the urea included in ...

  6. Modeling current climate conditions for forest pest risk assessment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frank H. Koch; John W. Coulston

    2010-01-01

    Current information on broad-scale climatic conditions is essential for assessing potential distribution of forest pests. At present, sophisticated spatial interpolation approaches such as the Parameter-elevation Regressions on Independent Slopes Model (PRISM) are used to create high-resolution climatic data sets. Unfortunately, these data sets are based on 30-year...

  7. ASSESSING THE ECOLOGICAL CONDITION OF VERACRUZ, MEXICO ESTUARIES

    Science.gov (United States)

    Macauley, John, Hector A. Vasquez, George Craven and P. Thomas Heitmuller. In press. Assessing the Ecological Condition of Veracruz, Mexico Estuaries (Abstract). To be presented at the EPA Science Forum: Healthy Communities and Ecosystems, 1-3 June 2004, Washington, DC. 1 p. (ERL...

  8. Structural condition assessment of in-service wood

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robert J. Ross; Brian K. Brashaw; Xiping Wang

    2006-01-01

    Wood is used extensively for both interior and exterior applications in the construction of a variety of structures (residential, agricultural, commercial, government, religious). The deterioration of an in-service wood member may result from a variety of causes during the life of a structure. It is important, therefore, to periodically assess the condition of wood...

  9. A comparison of some range condition assessment techniques used ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Techniques currently used to assess range condition in the grassland biome of Southern Africa are reviewed. These indices were then used to evaluate each method in terms of sensitivity, index interpretation and efficiency, bearing in mind the objectives of each technique. The weighted key species method and ...

  10. Cigarette smoking among intimate partner violence perpetrators and victims: findings from the National Epidemiologic Survey on Alcohol and Related Conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crane, Cory A; Pilver, Corey E; Weinberger, Andrea H

    2014-01-01

    Cigarette smoking and intimate partner violence (IPV) are preventable, major public health issues that result in severe physical and psychological consequences. The primary aim of the current study was to examine the consistency and strength of the association between these highly variable behaviors using a nationally representative sample. Self-reported IPV perpetration, victimization, and smoking data were collected from 25,515 adults (54% female) through the National Epidemiologic Survey on Alcohol and Related Conditions. Multinomial logistic regression models were constructed to determine the relationships among smoking status (current daily, intermittent, former, and never smoker) and IPV (minor and sever victimization as well as perpetration). Results indicated a robust relationship between IPV and smoking among both victims and perpetrators. The odds for current daily and intermittent smoking were significantly elevated among those who reported both minor and severe IPV relative to their non-violent counterparts. Mood and anxiety disorders were significant comorbid conditions in the interpretation of the relationship between severe IPV and smoking. The current study provides strong evidence for a robust relationship between IPV and smoking across current smoking patterns, IPV severity levels, and IPV experience patterns. Findings emphasize the need to better understand the mechanisms by which smoking and IPV are associated and how this interdependence may impact approaches to treatment. Specifically, research is required to assess the efficacy of integrated smoking cessation and IPV treatment or recovery programs over more traditional, exclusive approaches. © American Academy of Addiction Psychiatry.

  11. Methodology for quantitative assessment of technical condition in industrial systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Steinbach, C. [Marintek AS (Norway); Soerli, A. [Statoil (Norway)

    1998-12-31

    As part of the Eureka project Ageing Management a methodology has been developed to assess the technical condition of industrial systems. The first part of the presentation argues for the use of technical condition parameters in the context of maintenance strategies. Thereafter the term `technical condition` is defined more thoroughly as it is used within the project. It is claimed that the technical condition of a system - such as a feed water system of a nuclear power plant, or a water injection system on an oil platform - may be determined by aggregating the condition of its smaller components using a hierarchic approach. The hierarchy has to be defined in co-operation with experienced personnel and reflects the impact of degradation of elements on a lower level to nodes higher in the hierarchy. The impact is divided into five categories with respect to safety, environment, availability, costs and man-hours. To determine the technical condition of the bottom elements of the hierarchy, available data is used from both an on-line condition monitoring system and maintenance history. The second part of the presentation introduces the prototype software tool TeCoMan which utilises the theory and applies it to installations of the participating companies. First results and gained experiences with the method and tool are discussed. (orig.)

  12. Clinical and Radiographic Findings and Usefulness of Computed Tomographic Assessment in Two Children with Regional Odontodysplasia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Junko Matsuyama

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Regional odontodysplasia is a rare, severe, and nonhereditary developmental disorder in tooth formation and involves epithelial and mesenchymal-derived dental tissue. On radiographs, affected teeth have an abnormal morphology, a hypoplastic crown, and only a faint outline of hard tissue, a condition termed “ghost teeth.” We report clinical and radiographic findings from two children with regional odontodysplasia. Using computed tomography (CT, we calculated attenuation coefficients (i.e., Hounsfield units for affected teeth and assessed the condition of dental follicles. To measure density, regions of interest were delimited and CT values were calculated. In our two patients, the CT values for enamel were lower in affected teeth than in sound teeth, while CT values for dentin were similar for affected and sound teeth. The average CT value for dental follicles in affected teeth was about 65 to 120, which suggests that dense fibrous connective tissues or hard tissue-like structures might be present in dental follicles. Analysis of CT values may be quite useful in the diagnosis and treatment of regional odontodysplasia.

  13. Living under harsh conditions - finding your way as a public sector manager

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rasmussen, Jørgen Gulddahl; Larsen, Mette Vinther

    2014-01-01

    and the organizational and institutional framework they work within. The theoretical inspiration is drawn from research on management: Mintzberg and Pettigrew, from strategy-in-practice: Chia and Holt, and from relational leadership: Cunliffe, Hosking, Shotter, and Gergen. The purpose of the paper is to create micro...... harsh conditions created by a stream of structural changes and budget cuts. It is about how managers handle daily tasks and experiment with ways to match the ongoing or-ganizational and structural changes in hospitals, and how this inspires the way they experience the actual conditions as managers...

  14. Assessment of bioclimatic conditions within the area of Szczecin agglomeration

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jadwiga Nidzgorska-Lencewicz

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this paper is to characterise the bioclimatic conditions in the city of Szczecin, particularly the recognition of the frequency of occurrence of the conditions unfavourable to humans. The analysis is based on the hourly values of particular meteorological elements and pollutant concentrations in the period 2005?2010 taken at the three measuring stations located in various settlement structures in Szczecin metropolitan area. The Universal Thermal Climate Index (UTCI was used to assess heat stress of human organism and the assessment of thermal sensation was based on the Effective Temperature index (ET. It was established that on a yearly basis the most favourable biothermal conditions are observed in the centre of the city and in its southern districts ? categories no thermal stress (UTCI and thermal comfort (ET are most frequently recorded there. However, in the northern parts of the city the most common class of thermal stress (UTCI is moderate cold stress and thermal sensation category (ET cool and cold. Among the situations which thermal stress, the conditions connected with discomfort related to cold rather than heat are more frequent. Throughout the year, the strong cold stress (UTCI < 13 ° C and sensations (ET related to cold stress occurred in 12.5% and 25% of time respectively, whereas thermal discomfort related to strong heat stress with UTCI values over 32 ° C and ET thermal sensations hot and very hot were observed incomparably less frequently ? 0.3% and 3.7% respectively. However, heat-related discomfort is more frequently observed in the city centre, and cold-related discomfort is most frequently experienced by residents of the outskirts of the city, particularly its northern parts. The statistically strongest relationships were observed between biothermal sensation and ozone (O3 and particulate matter PM2.5 immissions. During the analysed period, the most unfavourable bioclimatic conditions occurred predominantly in

  15. 77 FR 76050 - Draft Environmental Assessment and Preliminary Finding of No Significant Impact Concerning a...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-12-26

    ... HUMAN SERVICES Food and Drug Administration Draft Environmental Assessment and Preliminary Finding of No... the availability for public comment of the Agency's draft environmental assessment (EA) of the... produced and grown- out in the physically contained freshwater culture facilities specified in the sponsor...

  16. 77 FR 66874 - Environmental Assessment and Finding of No Significant Impact

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-11-07

    ... COMMISSION Environmental Assessment and Finding of No Significant Impact AGENCY: Nuclear Regulatory... Environmental Assessment (EA) to evaluate the potential environmental impacts that may arise as a result of this... Section 102(2) of the National Environmental Policy Act of 1969 as amended. Based on the EA, and in...

  17. Understanding Vocalization Might Help to Assess Stressful Conditions in Piglets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    da Silva Cordeiro, Alexandra Ferreira; de Alencar Nääs, Irenilza; Oliveira, Stanley R M; Violaro, Fabio; de Almeida, Andréia C M; Neves, Diego Pereira

    2013-09-12

    Assessing pigs' welfare is one of the most challenging subjects in intensive pig farming. Animal vocalization analysis is a noninvasive procedure and may be used as a tool for assessing animal welfare status. The objective of this research was to identify stress conditions in piglets reared in farrowing pens through their vocalization. Vocal signals were collected from 40 animals under the following situations: normal (baseline), feeling cold, in pain, and feeling hunger. A unidirectional microphone positioned about 15 cm from the animals' mouth was used for recording the acoustic signals. The microphone was connected to a digital recorder, where the signals were digitized at the 44,100 Hz frequency. The collected sounds were edited and analyzed. The J48 decision tree algorithm available at the Weka(®) data mining software was used for stress classification. It was possible to categorize diverse conditions from the piglets' vocalization during the farrowing phase (pain, cold and hunger), with an accuracy rate of 81.12%. Results indicated that vocalization might be an effective welfare indicator, and it could be applied for assessing distress from pain, cold and hunger in farrowing piglets.

  18. Understanding Vocalization Might Help to Assess Stressful Conditions in Piglets

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Diego Pereira Neves

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Assessing pigs’ welfare is one of the most challenging subjects in intensive pig farming. Animal vocalization analysis is a noninvasive procedure and may be used as a tool for assessing animal welfare status. The objective of this research was to identify stress conditions in piglets reared in farrowing pens through their vocalization. Vocal signals were collected from 40 animals under the following situations: normal (baseline, feeling cold, in pain, and feeling hunger. A unidirectional microphone positioned about 15 cm from the animals’ mouth was used for recording the acoustic signals. The microphone was connected to a digital recorder, where the signals were digitized at the 44,100 Hz frequency. The collected sounds were edited and analyzed. The J48 decision tree algorithm available at the Weka® data mining software was used for stress classification. It was possible to categorize diverse conditions from the piglets’ vocalization during the farrowing phase (pain, cold and hunger, with an accuracy rate of 81.12%. Results indicated that vocalization might be an effective welfare indicator, and it could be applied for assessing distress from pain, cold and hunger in farrowing piglets.

  19. Toxicological assessment of kretek cigarettes: Part 1: background, assessment approach, and summary of findings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roemer, E; Dempsey, R; Schorp, M K

    2014-12-01

    This publication introduces a series of six other publications describing the toxicological assessment of kretek cigarettes, i.e., cigarettes characterized primarily by the use of a significant amount of cloves as an ingredient added to the tobacco. This paper presents background information on kretek cigarettes, describes the general approach of the in vitro and in vivo toxicological assessment of mainstream smoke from kretek cigarettes, presents the methodology used, and summarizes the results of the assessment program. In summary, the smoke from kretek cigarettes gives rise to the typical cigarette smoke-related effects known from American-blended cigarettes, does not reveal any novel toxicity, and exhibits an unexpected distinct attenuation of pulmonary inflammation. Based on equal amounts of smoke total particulate matter (TPM), kretek cigarettes deliver less toxicants when compared to American-blended cigarettes; when assessed in vitro, the smoke from kretek cigarettes is less cytotoxic (gas/vapor phase) and less mutagenic (TPM). When assessed in vivo, kretek cigarette smoke shows lower toxicity in the respiratory tract. When based on an equal nicotine basis, several of the toxicity endpoints in kretek cigarettes become equivalent to American-blended cigarettes. The data do not indicate an increased hazard potential of kreteks compared to American-blended cigarettes. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  20. Bridge Condition Assessment based on Vibration Responses of Passenger Vehicle

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miyamoto, Ayaho; Yabe, Akito

    2011-07-01

    In this paper, we propose a new method of assessing the condition of existing short- and medium-span reinforced/prestressed concrete bridges based on vibration monitoring data obtained from a public bus. This paper not only describes details of a prototype monitoring system that uses information technology and sensors capable of providing more accurate knowledge of bridge performance than conventional ways but also shows a few specific examples of bridge condition assessment based on vehicle vibrations measured by using an in-service public bus equipped with vibration measurement instrumentation. This paper also describes a sensitivity analysis of deteriorating bridges based on simulation of the acceleration response of buses conducted by the "substructure method" employing a finite element model to verify the above bridge performance results. The main conclusions obtained in this study can be summarized as follows: (1) Because the vibration responses of passenger vehicles, such as buses, have a good linear relationship with the vibration responses of the target bridges, the proposed system can be used as a practical monitoring system for bridge condition assessment. (2) The results of sensitivity analysis performed by the substructure method show that bus vibration responses are useful for evaluating target bridge performance. (3) The proposed method was applied to a network of real bridges in a local area to evaluate its effectiveness. The results indicate that the proposed method can be used to prioritize the repair/strengthening works of existing bridges based on various vibration information in order to help bridge administrators establish rational maintenance strategies.

  1. Bridge Condition Assessment based on Vibration Responses of Passenger Vehicle

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Miyamoto, Ayaho [Graduate School of Science and Engineering, Yamaguchi University, Ube (Japan); Yabe, Akito, E-mail: miya818@yamaguchi-u.ac.jp, E-mail: nagai@kke.co.jp [Seismic Engineering Department, KOZO KEIKAKU Engineering Inc. Tokyo (Japan)

    2011-07-19

    In this paper, we propose a new method of assessing the condition of existing short- and medium-span reinforced/prestressed concrete bridges based on vibration monitoring data obtained from a public bus. This paper not only describes details of a prototype monitoring system that uses information technology and sensors capable of providing more accurate knowledge of bridge performance than conventional ways but also shows a few specific examples of bridge condition assessment based on vehicle vibrations measured by using an in-service public bus equipped with vibration measurement instrumentation. This paper also describes a sensitivity analysis of deteriorating bridges based on simulation of the acceleration response of buses conducted by the 'substructure method' employing a finite element model to verify the above bridge performance results. The main conclusions obtained in this study can be summarized as follows: (1) Because the vibration responses of passenger vehicles, such as buses, have a good linear relationship with the vibration responses of the target bridges, the proposed system can be used as a practical monitoring system for bridge condition assessment. (2) The results of sensitivity analysis performed by the substructure method show that bus vibration responses are useful for evaluating target bridge performance. (3) The proposed method was applied to a network of real bridges in a local area to evaluate its effectiveness. The results indicate that the proposed method can be used to prioritize the repair/strengthening works of existing bridges based on various vibration information in order to help bridge administrators establish rational maintenance strategies.

  2. Further exploration during open appendicectomy; assessment of some common intraoperative findings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oguntola, Adetunji Saliu; Adeoti, Moses Layiwola; Agodirin, Sulaiman Olayide; Oremakinde, Adetunji Adeniyi; Ojemakinde, Kunle O

    2014-03-01

    Very few studies are available to relate the final histology of excised appendix with the detailed intra-operative findings during appendectomy, both open and laparoscopic. This study was aimed to correlate the histological features of appendix specimen with the intra operative findings at open appendicectomy (OA) in a bid to determine when to change the planned procedure to include further exploration. Methods : A prospective study that observes the condition of the greater omentum (GO), the vermiform appendix and peritoneal exudates at all OA done for uncomplicated appendicitis. Histological examination of the appendices done using the H&E stain. Results : Eighty-five patients had emergency open OA, their(') ages range from 6 to 62 yrs (median = 23yrs). Histology showed 7 normal appendix (HNA), 56 acute (HAA) and 22 "non acute" appendicitis (HNAA). Negative appendicectomy rate was 8.2%. The GO was sighted more in patients with HAA than HNAA (p=0.00015) and also significantly more inflamed in the former (p=0.00028). It is not significantly inflamed in those with HNAA (p=0.945). The negative predictive value (NPV) of absent GO is 35.7% while the positive predictive value (PPV) of sighted normal GO and inflamed GO are 92.8% and 100% respectively. The PPV and NPV of presence of pus for diseased appendix are 95.8% and 9.8% respectively while those of excess fluid are 94.8% and 10.8%. The PPV and NPV of macroscopic assessment of the appendix for inflammation are 97% and 45.5% respectively giving the diagnostic accuracy of 90.6%. A significant trend of increasing probability of histologically inflamed appendix with increasing severity of macroscopic feature was seen (X(2) = 004 df=1, pappearance of the appendix has a predictive likelihood ratio for further exploration.

  3. Fatigue in child chronic health conditions: a systematic review of assessment instruments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crichton, Alison; Knight, Sarah; Oakley, Ed; Babl, Franz E; Anderson, Vicki

    2015-04-01

    Fatigue is common in chronic health conditions in childhood, associated with decreased quality of life and functioning, yet there are limited data to compare assessment instruments across conditions and childhood development. Our objective was to describe fatigue assessment instruments used in children with chronic health conditions and critically appraise the evidence for the measurement properties of identified instruments. Data sources included Medline, Cumulative Index to Nursing and Allied Health Literature, and PsycINFO (using the EBSCOhost platform). Study selection included quantitative assessment of fatigue in children with health conditions. Data extraction was as follows: (1) study design, participant and fatigue instruments, (2) measurement properties of fatigue instruments, (3) methodological quality of included studies, and (4) synthesis of the quality of evidence across studies for the measurement properties of fatigue instruments. Twenty fatigue assessment instruments were identified (12 child reports, 7 parent reports, 1 staff report), used in 89 studies. Fatigue was assessed in over 14 health conditions, most commonly in children with cancer and chronic fatigue syndrome. Evidence for the measurement properties of instruments varied, and overall quality was low. Two fatigue instruments demonstrated strong measurement properties for use in children with diverse health conditions and children with cancer. The review is limited to children younger than 18 years and results are specific to health conditions described, limiting generalizability of findings to other populations. Evidence for the measurement properties of fatigue instruments varied according to the population in which instruments were used and informant. Further evidence is required for assessment of fatigue in younger children, and children with particular health conditions. Copyright © 2015 by the American Academy of Pediatrics.

  4. The evolution of conditional moral assessment in indirect reciprocity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sasaki, Tatsuya; Okada, Isamu; Nakai, Yutaka

    2017-02-01

    Indirect reciprocity is a major mechanism in the maintenance of cooperation among unrelated individuals. Indirect reciprocity leads to conditional cooperation according to social norms that discriminate the good (those who deserve to be rewarded with help) and the bad (those who should be punished by refusal of help). Despite intensive research, however, there is no definitive consensus on what social norms best promote cooperation through indirect reciprocity, and it remains unclear even how those who refuse to help the bad should be assessed. Here, we propose a new simple norm called “Staying” that prescribes abstaining from assessment. Under the Staying norm, the image of the person who makes the decision to give help stays the same as in the last assessment if the person on the receiving end has a bad image. In this case, the choice about whether or not to give help to the potential receiver does not affect the image of the potential giver. We analyze the Staying norm in terms of evolutionary game theory and demonstrate that Staying is most effective in establishing cooperation compared to the prevailing social norms, which rely on constant monitoring and unconditional assessment. The application of Staying suggests that the strict application of moral judgment is limited.

  5. A Natural Resource Condition Assessment for Rocky Mountain National Park

    Science.gov (United States)

    Theobald, D.M.; Baron, Jill S.; Newman, P.; Noon, B.; Norman, J. B.; Leinwand, I.; Linn, S.E.; Sherer, R.; Williams, K.E.; Hartman, M.

    2010-01-01

    We conducted a natural resource assessment of Rocky Mountain National Park (ROMO) to provide a synthesis of existing scientific data and knowledge to address the current conditions for a subset of important park natural resources. The intent is for this report to help provide park resource managers with data and information, particularly in the form of spatially-explicit maps and GIS databases, about those natural resources and to place emerging issues within a local, regional, national, or global context. With an advisory team, we identified the following condition indicators that would be useful to assess the condition of the park: Air and Climate: Condition of alpine lakes and atmospheric deposition Water: Extent and connectivity of wetland and riparian areas Biotic Integrity: Extent of exotic terrestrial plant species, extent of fish distributions, and extent of suitable beaver habitat Landscapes: Extent and pattern of major ecological systems and natural landscapes connectivity These indicators are summarized in the following pages. We also developed two maps of important issues for use by park managers: visitor use (thru accessibility modeling) and proportion of watersheds affected by beetle kill. Based on our analysis, we believe that there is a high degree of concern for the following indicators: condition of alpine lakes; extent and connectivity of riparian/wetland areas; extent of exotic terrestrial plants (especially below 9,500’); extent of fish distributions; extent of suitable beaver habitat; and natural landscapes and connectivity. We found a low degree of concern for: the extent and pattern of major ecological systems. The indicators and issues were also summarized by the 34 watershed units (HUC12) within the park. Generally, we found six watersheds to be in “pristine” condition: Black Canyon Creek, Comanche Creek, Middle Saint Vrain Creek, South Fork of the Cache la Poudre, Buchanan Creek, and East Inlet. Four watersheds were found to have

  6. Microbiologic and Clinical Findings of Implants in Healthy Condition and with Peri-Implantitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Canullo, Luigi; Peñarrocha-Oltra, David; Covani, Ugo; Rossetti, Paulo Henrique Orlato

    2015-01-01

    To compare implants in healthy conditions and implants with peri-implantitis with regard to their clinical parameters and the microbiologic composition at the peri-implant sulcus, inside the implant connection, and the gingival sulcus of neighboring teeth. A cross-sectional study was performed including consecutive patients with implants in healthy conditions and with peri-implantitis. Clinical parameters for which patients were screened included bleeding on probing, pocket depth, and plaque index at six sites. Samples for microbiologic analysis were obtained from three locations: the peri-implant sulcus, inside the implant connection, and the gingival sulcus of neighboring teeth. Quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction (PCR) was carried out for total counts of 10 microorganisms: Aggregatibacter actinomycetemcomitans, Porphyromona gingivalis, Tanerella forsythia, Tanerella denticola, Prevotela intermedia, Peptostreptococcus micros, Fusobacterium nucleatum, Campylobacter rectus, Eikenella corrodens, and Candida albicans. The response variables were the percentage of positive sites and total bacterial counts. One hundred twenty-two implants in 57 patients were analyzed in the healthy group and 113 implants in 53 patients in the peri-implantitis group. Differences between the groups were statistically significant for bruxism, probing pocket depth, bleeding on probing, and radiographic bone level. Orange complex species (P intermedia, P micros, F nucleatum) were the most prevalent in the three types of sites for both groups, and prevalence values were higher in the peri-implantitis group. Differences in prevalence between groups were more marked inside the connection than in the peri-implant sulcus. Absolute loads of most microbes and total bacterial counts were higher for the peri-implantitis group in the three locations. Again, differences were bigger inside the connection than at the peri-implant sulcus. Significant interactions were found for prevalence

  7. Preventative and Therapeutic Probiotic Use in Allergic Skin Conditions: Experimental and Clinical Findings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Özdemir, Öner; Göksu Erol, Azize Yasemin

    2013-01-01

    Probiotics are ingested live microbes that can modify intestinal microbial populations in a way that benefits the host. The interest in probiotic preventative/therapeutic potential in allergic diseases stemmed from the fact that probiotics have been shown to improve intestinal dysbiosis and permeability and to reduce inflammatory cytokines in human and murine experimental models. Enhanced presence of probiotic bacteria in the intestinal microbiota is found to correlate with protection against allergy. Therefore, many studies have been recently designed to examine the efficacy of probiotics, but the literature on the allergic skin disorders is still very scarce. Here, our objective is to summarize and evaluate the available knowledge from randomized or nonrandomized controlled trials of probiotic use in allergic skin conditions. Clinical improvement especially in IgE-sensitized eczema and experimental models such as atopic dermatitis-like lesions (trinitrochlorobenzene and picryl chloride sensitizations) and allergic contact dermatitis (dinitrofluorobenzene sensitization) has been reported. Although there is a very promising evidence to recommend the addition of probiotics into foods, probiotics do not have a proven role in the prevention or the therapy of allergic skin disorders. Thus, being aware of possible measures, such as probiotics use, to prevent/heal atopic diseases is essential for the practicing allergy specialist. PMID:24078929

  8. Condition Assessment for Power Transformer Using Health Index

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Jian; Wu, Kuihua; Zhu, Wenbing; Gu, Chao

    2017-05-01

    To improve the forecasting accuracy and ensure reliable and stable operation of transformer, based on health index estimation model is proposed. The transformer data is divided into different levels and parts, so multi-parameter statistical analysis is carried on. The indicator system is scored and weighted by computing history data (inspection and maintenance, family defects, basic information and loading history) and condition data (such as routine test data). The condition parameters, which are classified on the component level, are scored and weighted, using statistical tools calculation. By using the statistical tools SPSS (statistical product and service solutions), multivariate statistical analysis was carried out. On the basis of studying the relationship between various parameters, a health evaluation model, which is based on contribution analysis, is presented. A condition-based evaluation tool, that quantifies power transformer degradation and clarifies the relationship between each health index, is put forward. Results are presented to verify the validity and feasibility of evaluating model and assessment algorithm. This paper provides a scientific method for the transmitting and transforming field.

  9. Ensemble learning as approach for pipeline condition assessment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Camacho-Navarro, Jhonatan; Ruiz, Magda; Villamizar, Rodolfo; Mujica, Luis; Moreno-Beltrán, Gustavo

    2017-05-01

    The algorithms commonly used for damage condition monitoring present several drawbacks related to unbalanced data, optimal training requirements, low capability to manage feature diversity and low tolerance to errors. In this work, an approach based on ensemble learning is discussed as alternative to obtain more efficient diagnosis. The main advantage of ensemble learning is the use of several algorithms at the same time for a better proficiency. Thereby, combining simplest tree decision algorithms in bagging scheme, the accuracy of damage detection is improved. It takes advantage by combining prediction of preliminary algorithms based on regression models. The methodology is experimentally validated on a carbon steel pipe section, where mass adding conditions are studied as possible failures. Data from an active system based on piezoelectric sensors are stored and characterized through the T2 and Q statistical indexes. Then, they are the inputs to the ensemble learning. The proposed methodology allows determining the condition assessment and damage localizations in the structure. The results of the studied cases show the feasibility of ensemble learning for detecting occurrence of structural damages with successful results.

  10. Comprehensive condition assessment of bridge decks by multimodal NDE

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gucunski, Nenad; Feldmann, Ruediger; Romero, Francisco; Kruschwitz, Sabine; Parvardeh, Hooman

    2010-04-01

    Corrosion induced bridge deck delamination is a common problem in reinforced concrete decks. While condition assessment can be done using a number of traditional and NDE methods, the presented study concentrates on a complementary use of five NDE techniques: impact echo (IE), ground penetrating radar (GPR), half-cell potential (H-C), ultrasonic surface waves (USW) and electrical resistivity (ER). Each of the five techniques has its advantages and limitations. However, each of them can contribute to a more comprehensive assessment of the condition of a deck. For example, GPR can identify deteriorated bridge deck areas, while IE can accurately detect and characterize delaminations in the deck. USW, on the other hand, provides information about material degradation through a measurement of concrete elastic moduli. Finally, H-C will provide information about the likelihood for active corrosion, while ER will assess potential for corrosive environment. There are also secondary benefits of the use of the five techniques, like e.g. mapping of concrete cover from GPR surveys. A brief overview of the techniques and their complementary use illustrated by the results from deck testing on several bridges is presented. The presented surveys were conducted on both decks (typical thickness 7 to 9 inches) and slabs (typical thickness 14-20 inches), some with an additional PC overlay. Results include delamination maps from IE, attenuation maps from GPR, modulus distribution maps from USW, H-C potential maps, and resistivity maps from ER. Some of the results are validated through a series of "ground truth" measurements, like inspection of cores taken from the decks.

  11. International Global Crop Condition Assessments in the framework of GEOGLAM

    Science.gov (United States)

    Becker-Reshef, I.; Justice, C. O.; Vermote, E.; Whitcraft, A. K.; Claverie, M.

    2013-12-01

    The Group on Earth Observations (partnership of governments and international organizations) developed the Global Agricultural Monitoring (GEOGLAM) initiative in response to the growing calls for improved agricultural information. The goal of GEOGLAM is to strengthen the international community's capacity to produce and disseminate relevant, timely and accurate forecasts of agricultural production at national, regional and global scales through the use of Earth observations. This initiative is designed to build on existing agricultural monitoring initiatives at national, regional and global levels and to enhance and strengthen them through international networking, operationally focused research, and data/method sharing. GEOGLAM was adopted by the G20 as part of the action plan on food price volatility and agriculture and is being implemented through building on the extensive GEO Agricultural Community of Practice (CoP) that was initiated in 2007 and includes key national and international agencies, organizations, and universities involved in agricultural monitoring. One of the early GEOGLAM activities is to provide harmonized global crop outlooks that offer timely qualitative consensus information on crop status and prospects. This activity is being developed in response to a request from the G-20 Agricultural Market Information System (AMIS) and is implemented within the global monitoring systems component of GEOGLAM. The goal is to develop a transparent, international, multi-source, consensus assessment of crop growing conditions, status, and agro-climatic conditions, likely to impact global production. These assessments are focused on the four primary crop types (corn, wheat, soy and rice) within the main agricultural producing regions of the world. The GEOGLAM approach is to bring together international experts from global, regional and national monitoring systems that can share and discuss information from a variety of independent complementary sources in

  12. Superior labrum anterior to posterior lesion type II with accompanied findings: assessment of shoulder MR arthrographic findings

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Choi, Sun Young; Chun, Kyung Ah; Kwon, Oh Soo; Kim, Ki Tae [The Catholic University of Korea, Uijeongbu St. Mary' s Hospital, Uijeongbu (Korea, Republic of)

    2006-12-15

    To describe the pattern of various shoulder abnormalities with an associated superior labrum anterior to posterior (SLAP) lesion type II using magnetic resonance (MR) arthrography, and to assess the clinical significance of the associated abnormalities. A retrospective review of the MR arthrographic findings of 92 cases of a shoulder with an arthroscopically confirmed SLAP lesion type II was performed. The MR arthrography images were reviewed and analyzed. MR arthrographic analysis noted the presence of a rotator cuff abnormality, acromioclavicular arthritis, adhesive capsulitis, glenohumeral arthritis, a labral abnormality besides the SLAP lesion, and a paralabral cyst. The patients with SLAP lesions were divided into two age groups: those over 40 years of age and those forty years old or younger. Statistical analysis was performed to evaluate the influence of age on the various shoulder abnormalities with associated SLAP lesion. Of the 92 SLAP lesions type II, there were 7 cases (8%) of isolated SLAP lesions without any associated any shoulder abnormality. Eighty-five (92%) SLAP lesions were associated with various shoulder abnormalities including rotator cuff tendinosis (30/92, 33%), partial-thickness tear (36/92, 39%), full-thickness tear (2/92, 2%), acromioclavicular arthritis (46/92, 50%), adhesive capsulitis (7/92, 8%), glenohumeral arthritis (15/92, 16%), labral abnormality (26/92, 28%) and paralabral cyst (7/92, 8%). The SLAP lesions (60/92, 65%) in patients over forty years of age were accompanied by a significantly high number of rotator cuff abnormalities ({rho} < 0.001), glenohumeral osteoarthritis ({rho} = 0.001), and acromioclavicular osteoarthritis ({rho} < 0.001). In contrast, the SLAP lesions (32/92, 35%) in patients forty years old or younger had a significantly high number of anterior or posterior labral lesions ({rho} < 0.001). Isolated SLAP lesions type II without other associated shoulder abnormalities are uncommon, and the age of the patient

  13. Assessment of bioclimatic conditions in Crete Island, Greece

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bleta, A.; Nastos, P. T.; Matzarakis, A.

    2012-04-01

    The objective of this study is to assess and analyze the human bioclimatic conditions of Crete Island, using the Physiologically Equivalent Temperature (PET), which is one of the most popular human thermal indices derived from the human energy balance. Bioclimatic studies provide a framework linking biophysical climate sensitivity to social/economic factors that mitigate or amplify the consequences of environmental changes. PET is defined as the physiological equivalent temperature at any given place (outdoors or indoors). It is equivalent to the air temperature at which, in a typical indoor setting, the heat balance of the human body (work metabolism 80 W of light activity, added to basic metabolism; heat resistance of clothing 0.9 clo) is maintained with core and skin temperatures equal to those of the under assessment conditions. It has been realized that, to estimate the thermal effect of the environment to the human body, the total of effects of all of the thermal components, not only as individual parameters, should be taken into account. The climatic data (air temperature, relative humidity, cloudiness, wind speed) for Crete Island, were obtained by archives of fifteen meteorological stations of the Hellenic National Meteorological Service (HNMS). These data of period 1955-2010 were used for the calculation of PET in order to interpret the grade of the thermo-physiological stress. Crete Island, as it is located in the Southeastern Mediterranean basin, is of great touristic interest due to its splendid landscapes, archaeological sites and coastal areas combined with its excellent climatic conditions. However, Crete Island is frequently affected by Saharan outbreaks which are associated with miscellaneous phenomena, such as Föhn winds - hot and dry winds - causing extreme bioclimatic conditions (strong heat stress). The exploitation of the results of this analysis, such as bioclimatic diagrams, temporal and spatial distributions of PET as well as trends and

  14. Conditional risk assessment of adolescents' electronic cigarette perceptions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chaffee, Benjamin W; Gansky, Stuart A; Halpern-Felsher, Bonnie; Couch, Elizabeth T; Essex, Gwen; Walsh, Margaret M

    2015-05-01

    To adapt an established instrument for measuring adolescents' cigarette-related perceptions for new application with electronic cigarettes (e-cigarettes). In this exploratory study, 104 male high school students (40% tobacco ever-users) estimated the probability of potential e-cigarette risks (eg, lung cancer) or benefits (eg, look cool). We calculated associations between risk/benefit composite scores, ever-use, and use intention for e-cigarettes, and analogously, for combustible cigarettes. E-cigarette ever-use was associated with lower perceived risks, with adjusted differences versus never-users greater for e-cigarettes than for cigarettes. Risk composite score was inversely associated, and benefit score positively associated, with e-cigarette ever-use and use intention. Conditional risk assessment characterized adolescents' perceived e-cigarette risk/benefit profile, with potential utility for risk-perception measurement in future studies.

  15. Time-dependent reliability analysis and condition assessment of structures

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ellingwood, B.R. [Johns Hopkins Univ., Baltimore, MD (United States)

    1997-01-01

    Structures generally play a passive role in assurance of safety in nuclear plant operation, but are important if the plant is to withstand the effect of extreme environmental or abnormal events. Relative to mechanical and electrical components, structural systems and components would be difficult and costly to replace. While the performance of steel or reinforced concrete structures in service generally has been very good, their strengths may deteriorate during an extended service life as a result of changes brought on by an aggressive environment, excessive loading, or accidental loading. Quantitative tools for condition assessment of aging structures can be developed using time-dependent structural reliability analysis methods. Such methods provide a framework for addressing the uncertainties attendant to aging in the decision process.

  16. Internet Use by Parents of Children With Rare Conditions: Findings From a Study on Parents' Web Information Needs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nicholl, Honor; Tracey, Catherine; Begley, Thelma; King, Carole; Lynch, Aileen M

    2017-02-28

    Parents of children with rare conditions increasingly use the Internet to source information on their child's condition. This study reports on part of a larger study whose overall aim was to identify the Internet use by parents when seeking information on their child's rare condition, with the specific purpose of using the findings to aid in the development of a website specifically designed to meet the parents' needs. It presents findings on why these parents use the Internet, the information and support content they source, and the impact these resources have on their capacity to care for and manage their child's condition. To (1) ascertain parents' general Internet usage patterns, (2) identify the nature of the information parents most frequently searched for, and (3) determine the effect the Internet-sourced information had on parents of children with rare conditions. Data collection was conducted in 2 parts: Part 1 was a focus group interview (n=8) to inform the development of the questionnaire, and Part 2 was a questionnaire (Web- and paper-based). All respondents (N=128) completed the questionnaire using the Internet. Parents frequently and habitually used the Internet and social media to gather information on their child's condition. These Web-based resources provide parents with a parent-to-parent support platform that allows them to share their experiences and information with other parents, which, the respondents considered, improved their knowledge and understanding of their child's condition. The respondents also reported that these resources positively impacted on their decision making, care, and management of their child's condition. However, they reported receiving mixed responses when wishing to engage and share with health care professionals their Internet and social media interactions and information outcomes. This study adds to the emerging body of research on the Internet use by parents of children with rare conditions to source information on

  17. Assessment of highway condition using combined geophysical surveys

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dera, Abdallah Alhadi

    Four pavement sections were investigated using ground penetrating radar (GPR) and Ultrasonic Surface Wave (USW). The objective of this research was to compare the effectiveness of two non-destructive geophysical tools, GPR and the PSPA, in assessing the condition of the pavements, composed of different construction materials. The GPR data were acquired using a 1.5 GHz antenna along five traverses spaced at two ft. intervals approximately 1000 ft. long. On the other hand, the PSPA data were acquired at the stations spaced at 1000 ft. along the five GPR traverses. Core samples were collected at each site to constrain the interpretation of the acquired geophysical data. The sites include section US 63 about three miles north of Rolla, US 54 in Camdenton County, MO 179 in Jefferson City, and HWY U in Dent County. The types of pavement in these sites were, asphalt concrete overlaying portland cement concrete (AC/PCC), and full-depth asphalt concrete (AC) pavements or full depth bituminous mix (BM). Based on the acquired and analyzed data of the GPR and PSPA, the data of both tools correlated reasonably well. The PSPA technique successfully measured the elastic modulus and the thickness of pavement and detected horizontal flaws (e.g. debonding and delaminations). Similarly, the GPR technique successfully measured the thickness of pavement and detected horizontal flaws (e.g. debonding and delaminations) within the pavement. The research demonstrated that both non-destructive geophysical tools (GPR and PSPA) are effective in assessing the condition of different types of pavement.

  18. Wire system aging assessment and condition monitoring (WASCO)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fantoni, P.F. [Institutt for energiteknikk (Norway); Nordlund, A. [Chalmers Univ. of Technology (Sweden)

    2006-04-15

    Nuclear facilities rely on electrical wire systems to perform a variety of functions for successful operation. Many of these functions directly support the safe operation of the facility; therefore, the continued reliability of wire systems, even as they age, is critical. Condition Monitoring (CM) of installed wire systems is an important part of any aging program, both during the first 40 years of the qualified life and even more in anticipation of the license renewal for a nuclear power plant. This report describes a method for wire system condition monitoring, developed at the Halden Reactor Project, which is based on Frequency Domain Reflectometry. This method resulted in the development of a system called LIRA (LIne Resonance Analysis), which can be used on-line to detect any local or global changes in the cable electrical parameters as a consequence of insulation faults or degradation. LIRA is composed of a signal generator, a signal analyser and a simulator that can be used to simulate several failure/degradation scenarios and assess the accuracy and sensitivity of the LIRA system. Chapter 5 of this report describes an complementary approach based on positron measurement techniques, used widely in defect physics due to the high sensitivity to micro defects, in particular open volume defects. This report describes in details these methodologies, the results of field experiments and the proposed future work. (au)

  19. 75 FR 14473 - Entergy Nuclear Operations, Inc., Palisades Nuclear Plant; Environmental Assessment and Finding...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-03-25

    ... COMMISSION Entergy Nuclear Operations, Inc., Palisades Nuclear Plant; Environmental Assessment and Finding of... protection of plants and materials,'' for Facility Operating License No. DPR-20, issued to Entergy Nuclear Operations, LLC (ENO) (the licensee), for operation of the Palisades Nuclear Plant (PNP), located in Van...

  20. 78 FR 46378 - La Crosse Boiling Water Reactor, Environmental Assessment and Finding of No Significant Impact...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-07-31

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION La Crosse Boiling Water Reactor, Environmental Assessment and Finding of No Significant Impact... of Title 10 of the Code of Federal Regulations (10 CFR) for the La Crosse Boiling Water Reactor...

  1. 75 FR 2480 - Wildlife Services; Availability of an Environmental Assessment and Finding of No Significant Impact

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-15

    ... Animal and Plant Health Inspection Service Wildlife Services; Availability of an Environmental Assessment and Finding of No Significant Impact AGENCY: Animal and Plant Health Inspection Service, USDA. ACTION... of no significant impact relative to oral rabies vaccination programs in several States. The...

  2. 76 FR 28480 - Environmental Assessment and Finding of No Significant Impact Related to Exemption From Certain...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-05-17

    ... environmental impacts. There will be minor savings of energy and vehicular use associated with the security... Division of Nuclear Safety, Illinois Emergency Management Agency, regarding the environmental impact of the... COMMISSION ; Docket No. 50-010 Environmental Assessment and Finding of No Significant Impact Related to...

  3. Research-Doctorate Programs in the Biomedical Sciences: Selected Findings from the NRC Assessment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lorden, Joan F., Ed.; Kuh, Charlotte V., Ed.; Voytuk, James A., Ed.

    2011-01-01

    "Research Doctorate Programs in the Biomedical Sciences: Selected Findings from the NRC Assessment" examines data on the biomedical sciences programs to gather additional insight about the talent, training environment, outcomes, diversity, and international participation in the biomedical sciences workforce. This report supports an…

  4. Overweight can be used as a tool to guide case-finding for cardiovascular risk assessment

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Boer, A.W. de; Mutsert, R. de; Heijer, M. den; Jukema, J.W.; Rosendaal, F.R.; Blom, J.W.; Assendelft, W.J.J.

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND: In general practice, it is too time-consuming to invite all patients for cardiovascular risk assessment. OBJECTIVE: To examine how many patients with an indication for treatment with cardiovascular medication can be identified by ad hoc case-finding when all patients with

  5. 77 FR 8903 - Environmental Assessment and Finding of No Significant Impact; Carolina Power and Light Company...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-02-15

    ... effects on the aquatic or terrestrial habitat in the vicinity of the plant, or to threatened, endangered... COMMISSION Environmental Assessment and Finding of No Significant Impact; Carolina Power and Light Company Shearon Harris Nuclear Power Plant, Unit 1 AGENCY: Nuclear Regulatory Commission. ACTION: Notice of...

  6. 75 FR 11575 - James A. Fitzpatrick Nuclear Power Plant Environmental Assessment and Finding of No Significant...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-03-11

    ... COMMISSION James A. Fitzpatrick Nuclear Power Plant Environmental Assessment and Finding of No Significant... Program for Nuclear Power Facilities Operating Prior to January 1, 1979,'' issued to Entergy Nuclear Operations, Inc. (the licensee), for the operation of the James A. FitzPatrick Nuclear Power Plant (JAFNPP...

  7. 75 FR 62892 - Massachusetts Institute of Technology Research Reactor Environmental Assessment and Finding of No...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-13

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION Massachusetts Institute of Technology Research Reactor Environmental Assessment and Finding of No Significant Impact Correction In notice document 2010-24809 beginning on page 61220 in the issue of Monday...

  8. Finding the Optimum Scenario in Risk-benefit Assessment: An Example on Vitamin D

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Berjia, Firew Lemma; Hoekstra, J.; Verhagen, H.

    2014-01-01

    that provides maximum net health gains. As a common health metric, Disability Adjusted Life Years (DALY) has been used to project the net health effect by using the QALIBRA (Quality of Life for Benefit Risk Assessment) software. Results: The method used in the vitamin D example shows that it is feasible to find...

  9. Keeping Students "on Their Toes and on Their Game": Serendipitous Findings in Students' Assessments and Reactions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pelletier, Kathie L.

    2017-01-01

    This study extends the empirical findings of the use of continuous, lecture-embedded assessments to increase engagement and enhance learning. Outcome data (exam performance and attendance rates) from college students in three upper-division business course sections who took quizzes and wrote two-minute papers (test group) were compared to outcome…

  10. Bearing Condition Recognition and Degradation Assessment under Varying Running Conditions Using NPE and SOM

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shaohui Zhang

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Manifold learning methods have been widely used in machine condition monitoring and fault diagnosis. However, the results reported in these studies focus on the machine faults under stable loading and rotational speeds, which cannot interpret the practical machine running. Rotating machine is always running under variable speeds and loading, which makes the vibration signal more complicated. To address such concern, the NPE (neighborhood preserving embedding is applied for bearing fault classification. Compared with other algorithms (PCA, LPP, LDA, and ISOP, the NPE performs well in feature extraction. Since the traditional time domain signal denoising is time consuming and memory consuming, we denoise the signal features directly in feature space. Furthermore, NPE and SOM (self-organizing map are combined to assess the bearing degradation performance. Simulation and experiment results validate the effectiveness of the proposed method.

  11. Reliability-based condition assessment of steel containment and liners

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ellingwood, B.; Bhattacharya, B.; Zheng, R. [Johns Hopkins Univ., Baltimore, MD (United States). Dept. of Civil Engineering

    1996-11-01

    Steel containments and liners in nuclear power plants may be exposed to aggressive environments that may cause their strength and stiffness to decrease during the plant service life. Among the factors recognized as having the potential to cause structural deterioration are uniform, pitting or crevice corrosion; fatigue, including crack initiation and propagation to fracture; elevated temperature; and irradiation. The evaluation of steel containments and liners for continued service must provide assurance that they are able to withstand future extreme loads during the service period with a level of reliability that is sufficient for public safety. Rational methodologies to provide such assurances can be developed using modern structural reliability analysis principles that take uncertainties in loading, strength, and degradation resulting from environmental factors into account. The research described in this report is in support of the Steel Containments and Liners Program being conducted for the US Nuclear Regulatory Commission by the Oak Ridge National Laboratory. The research demonstrates the feasibility of using reliability analysis as a tool for performing condition assessments and service life predictions of steel containments and liners. Mathematical models that describe time-dependent changes in steel due to aggressive environmental factors are identified, and statistical data supporting the use of these models in time-dependent reliability analysis are summarized. The analysis of steel containment fragility is described, and simple illustrations of the impact on reliability of structural degradation are provided. The role of nondestructive evaluation in time-dependent reliability analysis, both in terms of defect detection and sizing, is examined. A Markov model provides a tool for accounting for time-dependent changes in damage condition of a structural component or system. 151 refs.

  12. Environmental water demand assessment under climate change conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sarzaeim, Parisa; Bozorg-Haddad, Omid; Fallah-Mehdipour, Elahe; Loáiciga, Hugo A

    2017-07-01

    Measures taken to cope with the possible effects of climate change on water resources management are key for the successful adaptation to such change. This work assesses the environmental water demand of the Karkheh river in the reach comprising Karkheh dam to the Hoor-al-Azim wetland, Iran, under climate change during the period 2010-2059. The assessment of the environmental demand applies (1) representative concentration pathways (RCPs) and (2) downscaling methods. The first phase of this work projects temperature and rainfall in the period 2010-2059 under three RCPs and with two downscaling methods. Thus, six climatic scenarios are generated. The results showed that temperature and rainfall average would increase in the range of 1.7-5.2 and 1.9-9.2%, respectively. Subsequently, flows corresponding to the six different climatic scenarios are simulated with the unit hydrographs and component flows from rainfall, evaporation, and stream flow data (IHACRES) rainfall-runoff model and are input to the Karkheh reservoir. The simulation results indicated increases of 0.9-7.7% in the average flow under the six simulation scenarios during the period of analysis. The second phase of this paper's methodology determines the monthly minimum environmental water demands of the Karkheh river associated with the six simulation scenarios using a hydrological method. The determined environmental demands are compared with historical ones. The results show that the temporal variation of monthly environmental demand would change under climate change conditions. Furthermore, some climatic scenarios project environmental water demand larger than and some of them project less than the baseline one.

  13. Assessing environmental conditions of Antarctic footpaths to support management decisions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tejedo, Pablo; Benayas, Javier; Cajiao, Daniela; Albertos, Belén; Lara, Francisco; Pertierra, Luis R; Andrés-Abellán, Manuela; Wic, Consuelo; Luciáñez, Maria José; Enríquez, Natalia; Justel, Ana; Reck, Günther K

    2016-07-15

    Thousands of tourists visit certain Antarctic sites each year, generating a wide variety of environmental impacts. Scientific knowledge of human activities and their impacts can help in the effective design of management measures and impact mitigation. We present a case study from Barrientos Island in which a management measure was originally put in place with the goal of minimizing environmental impacts but resulted in new undesired impacts. Two alternative footpaths used by tourist groups were compared. Both affected extensive moss carpets that cover the middle part of the island and that are very vulnerable to trampling. The first path has been used by tourists and scientists since over a decade and is a marked route that is clearly visible. The second one was created more recently. Several physical and biological indicators were measured in order to assess the environmental conditions for both paths. Some physical variables related to human impact were lower for the first path (e.g. soil penetration resistance and secondary treads), while other biochemical and microbiological variables were higher for the second path (e.g. β-glucosidase and phosphatase activities, soil respiration). Moss communities located along the new path were also more diverse and sensitive to trampling. Soil biota (Collembola) was also more abundant and richer. These data indicate that the decision to adopt the second path did not lead to the reduction of environmental impacts as this path runs over a more vulnerable area with more outstanding biological features (e.g. microbiota activity, flora and soil fauna diversity). In addition, the adoption of a new route effectively doubles the human footprint on the island. We propose using only the original path that is less vulnerable to the impacts of trampling. Finally from this process, we identify several key issues that may be taken into account when carrying out impact assessment and environmental management decision-making in the

  14. Functional assessment of ubiquitin-depended processes under microgravity conditions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhabereva, Anastasia; Shenkman, Boris S.; Gainullin, Murat; Gurev, Eugeny; Kondratieva, Ekaterina; Kopylov, Arthur

    , were separated by SDS-PAGE and subjected for mass spectrometry-based analysis.With the described workflow, we identified more than 200 proteins including of 26S proteasome subunits, members of SUMO (Small Ubiquitin-like Modifier) family and ubiquitylated substrates. On the whole, our results provide an unbiased view of ubiquitylation state under microgravity conditions and thereby demonstrate the utility of proposed combination of analytical methods for functional assessment of ubiquitin-depended processes. Acknowledgment - We thank teams of Institute of Biomedical Problems of Russian Academy of Sciences and TsSKB “Progress” Samara for organization and preparation for spaceflight. This work is partially supported by the Russian Foundation for Basic Research (grant12-04-01836).

  15. Oral Health Status of Older Adults in Sweden Receiving Elder Care: Findings From Nursing Assessments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johansson, Isabelle; Jansson, Henrik; Lindmark, Ulrika

    2016-01-01

    Frail elderly people often have poor oral hygiene, contributing to oral health problems that can detract significantly from quality of life. The aim of this study was to describe oral health status of frail elderly individuals using the Revised Oral Assessment Guide-Jönköping (ROAG-J), a mouth assessment instrument that can be used in daily nursing care. Data were obtained from the Swedish Senior Alert quality registry in one Swedish municipality. ROAG-J assessments on admission to elder care and one subsequent occasion were used. ROAG-J measurements documented oral health in nine areas: voice, lips, oral mucosa, tongue, gums, teeth, saliva, swallowing, and presence of any prostheses or implants. Assessments were made by nursing staff during the course of daily nursing care. Individuals 65 years of age or older and receiving elder care services (N = 667) were involved; 1,904 assessments made between November 2011 and March 2014 were used for the analysis. On the basis of both assessments, less than one third of participants had oral health problems. No significant difference in any of the oral health variables was found between first and subsequent assessments. At first assessment, men and women differed in tongue health (p nursing staff using the ROAG-J demonstrate that this tool can be used in daily nursing care, where different, important oral conditions may be encountered. However, knowledge about oral health conditions and the ROAG-J instrument is important to ensure high validity. The ROAG-J enables nursing staff to detect problems in the mouth and to guide decisions related to oral health interventions.

  16. Assessing the Probability that a Finding Is Genuine for Large-Scale Genetic Association Studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuo, Chia-Ling; Vsevolozhskaya, Olga A; Zaykin, Dmitri V

    2015-01-01

    Genetic association studies routinely involve massive numbers of statistical tests accompanied by P-values. Whole genome sequencing technologies increased the potential number of tested variants to tens of millions. The more tests are performed, the smaller P-value is required to be deemed significant. However, a small P-value is not equivalent to small chances of a spurious finding and significance thresholds may fail to serve as efficient filters against false results. While the Bayesian approach can provide a direct assessment of the probability that a finding is spurious, its adoption in association studies has been slow, due in part to the ubiquity of P-values and the automated way they are, as a rule, produced by software packages. Attempts to design simple ways to convert an association P-value into the probability that a finding is spurious have been met with difficulties. The False Positive Report Probability (FPRP) method has gained increasing popularity. However, FPRP is not designed to estimate the probability for a particular finding, because it is defined for an entire region of hypothetical findings with P-values at least as small as the one observed for that finding. Here we propose a method that lets researchers extract probability that a finding is spurious directly from a P-value. Considering the counterpart of that probability, we term this method POFIG: the Probability that a Finding is Genuine. Our approach shares FPRP's simplicity, but gives a valid probability that a finding is spurious given a P-value. In addition to straightforward interpretation, POFIG has desirable statistical properties. The POFIG average across a set of tentative associations provides an estimated proportion of false discoveries in that set. POFIGs are easily combined across studies and are immune to multiple testing and selection bias. We illustrate an application of POFIG method via analysis of GWAS associations with Crohn's disease.

  17. Worth it? Findings from a study of how academics assess students’ Web 2.0 activities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kathleen Gray

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available Educational commentators have offered many pedagogical rationales for using Web 2.0 to support learning in higher education, and academics are being encouraged to find ways for their students to use social web technologies. Questions arise as to the value of these activities compared to more conventional assignments, and whether implementing such changes to student assessment is worth the effort. We conducted a survey of academics’ assessment of students’ Web 2.0 activities in Australian universities and found that this form of assessment is being conducted by a small number of academics, in a range of fields of study, but mainly in Humanities and Social Sciences, with varying kinds of intended and actual learning outcomes. Blogging and wiki-writing predominate, low and medium-stakes assessment are most common, and different methods of marking and feedback are in use. Qualitative feedback from the survey and follow-up interviews gave further insights into benefits and challenges of Web 2.0 assessment in relation to pedagogy, policy and practice. It appears that academics’ conservative approaches to conducting assessment and their novice approaches to utilising social web technologies are factors which seriously limit realising the potential of Web 2.0 for medium or high-stakes assessment.

  18. Physical Ergonomics at Translators’ Workplaces: Findings from Ergonomic Workplace Assessments and Interviews

    OpenAIRE

    Meidert, Ursula; Neumann, Silke; Ehrensberger-Dow, Maureen; Becker, Heidrun

    2016-01-01

    Most professional translators in the Western world are heavy computer users and thus may be exposed to health risks known to be associated with computer work. These include musculoskeletal ailments of the upper extremities, back, shoulders, arms, hands and problems with the eyes. This paper reports on the findings of workplace assessments and interviews with professional translators with respect to the ergonomics of their workplaces and related health issues. A total of 36 professional transl...

  19. Bruxism is unlikely to cause damage to the periodontium: findings from a systematic literature assessment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manfredini, Daniele; Ahlberg, Jari; Mura, Rossano; Lobbezoo, Frank

    2015-04-01

    This paper systematically reviews the MEDLINE and SCOPUS literature to answer the following question: Is there any evidence that bruxism may cause periodontal damage per se? Clinical studies on humans, assessing the potential relationship between bruxism and periodontal lesions (i.e., decreased attachment level, bone loss, tooth mobility/migration, altered periodontal perception) were eligible. Methodologic shortcomings were identified by the adoption of the Critical Appraisal Skills Program quality assessment, mainly concerning the internal validity of findings according to an unspecific bruxism diagnosis. The six included articles covered a high variability of topics, without multiple papers on the same argument. Findings showed that the only effect of bruxism on periodontal structures was an increase in periodontal sensation, whereas a relationship with periodontal lesions was absent. Based on the analysis of Hill criteria, the validity of causation conclusions was limited, mainly owing to the absence of a longitudinal evaluation of the temporal relationship and dose-response effects between bruxism and periodontal lesions. Despite the scarce quantity and quality of the literature that prevents sound conclusions on the causal link between bruxism and the periodontal problems assessed in this review, it seems reasonable to suggest that bruxism cannot cause periodontal damage per se. It is also important to emphasize, however, that because of methodologic problems, particularly regarding sleep bruxism assessment, more high-quality studies (e.g., randomized controlled trials) are needed to further clarify this issue.

  20. Assessment of stream biological responses under multiple-stress conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Comte, Lise; Lek, Sovan; de Deckere, Eric; de Zwart, Dick; Gevrey, Muriel

    2010-09-01

    Due to the numerous anthropogenic stress factors that affect aquatic ecosystems, a better understanding of the adverse consequences on the biological community of combined pressures is needed to attain the objectives of the European Water Framework Directive. In this study we propose an innovative approach to assess the biological impact of toxicants under field conditions on a large spatial scale. Artificial Neural Network (ANN) analyses, focusing on impacts at the community level, were carried out to identify the relative importance of environmental and toxic stress factors on the patterns observed in the aquatic invertebrate fauna from the Scheldt basin (Belgium). Our results show that the use of the backpropagation algorithm of the ANN is a promising method to highlight the relationship between environmental pollution and biological responses. This method allows the effects of chemical exposure to be distinguished from the effects caused by other stressors in running waters. Moreover, the use of an overall estimate for toxic pressure in predictive models enables the links between toxicants and community alterations in the field to be clarified. The ANN correctly predicts 74% of samples with an area under the curve of 0.89 and a Cohen's kappa coefficient of 0.64. Organic load, oxygen availability, water temperature and the nitrate concentration appeared important factors in predicting aquatic invertebrate assemblages. On the other hand, toxic pressure did not seem relevant for these assemblages, suggesting that the water quality characteristics were therefore more important than exposure to toxicants in the water phase for the aquatic invertebrate communities in the study area. However, we suggest that the high organic load encountered in the Scheldt basin may lead to an underestimation of the impact of toxicity.

  1. ls with Chronic Conditions Want More Guidance from Health Professionals in Finding Quality Online Health SourcesIndividua

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cari Merkley

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Objective – To explore how and when individuals with chronic health conditions seek out health information online, and the challenges they encounter when doing so. Design – Qualitative study employing thematic analysis. Setting – Urban Western Australia. Subjects – 17 men and women between 19 and 85 years of age with at least 1 chronic health condition. Methods – Participants were recruited in late 2013 at nine local pharmacies, through local radio, media channels, and a university's social media channels. Participants were adult English speakers who had looked for information on their chronic health condition(s using the Internet. Semi-structured face-to-face interviews were conducted with each participant, audio recorded, and transcribed. The transcripts were coded in QSR Nvivo using two different processes – an initial data-driven inductive approach to coding, followed by a theory driven analysis of the data. Main Results – Three major themes emerged: trust, patient activation, and relevance. Many of the participants expressed trust both in health professionals and in the efficacy of search engines like Google. However, there was uncertainty about the quality of some of the health information sources found. Searching for information online was seen by some participants as a way to feel more empowered about their condition(s and treatment, but they reported frustration in finding information that was relevant to their specific condition(s given the volume of information available. Low health literacy emerged in participant interviews as an intrinsic barrier to effective online searches for health information, along with low patient motivation and lack of time. The many extrinsic barriers identified included difficulty determining the quality of information found, the accessibility of the information (e.g., journal paywalls, and poor relationships with health care providers. Conclusion – Individuals look for online health

  2. Functional near infrared spectroscopy as a potential biological assessment of addiction recovery: preliminary findings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dempsey, Jared P; Harris, Kitty S; Shumway, Sterling T; Kimball, Thomas G; Herrera, J Caleb; Dsauza, Cynthia M; Bradshaw, Spencer D

    2015-03-01

    Addiction science has primarily utilized self-report, continued substance use, and relapse factors to explore the process of recovery. However, the entry into successful abstinence substantially reduces our assessment abilities. Advances in neuroscience may be the key to objective understanding, treating, and monitoring long-term success in addiction recovery. To explore functional near infrared spectroscopy (fNIR) as a viable technique in the assessment of addiction-cue reactivity. Specifically, prefrontal cortex (PFC) activation to alcohol cues was explored among formally alcohol-dependent individuals, across varying levels of successful abstinence. The aim of the investigation was to identify patterns of PFC activation change consistent with duration of abstinence. A total of 15 formally alcohol-dependent individuals, with abstinence durations ranging from 1 month to 10 years, viewed alcohol images during fNIR PFC assessment. Participants also subjectively rated the same images for affect and arousal level. Subjective ratings of alcohol cues did not significantly correlate with duration of abstinence. As expected, days of abstinence did not significantly correlate with neutral cue fNIR reactivity. However, for alcohol cues, fNIR results showed increased days of abstinence was associated with decreased activation within the dorsolateral and dorsomedial prefrontal cortex regions. The present results suggest that fNIR may be a viable tool in the assessment of addiction-cue reactivity. RESULTS also support previous findings on the importance of dorsolateral and dorsomedial PFC in alcohol-cue activation. The findings build upon these past results suggesting that fNIR-assessed activation may represent a robust biological marker of successful addiction recovery.

  3. 42 CFR 416.43 - Conditions for coverage-Quality assessment and performance improvement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... Conditions for Coverage § 416.43 Conditions for coverage—Quality assessment and performance improvement. The ASC must develop, implement and maintain an ongoing, data-driven quality assessment and performance... 42 Public Health 3 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Conditions for coverage-Quality assessment and...

  4. CT findings in autoimmune pancreatitis: assessment using multiphase contrast-enhanced multisection CT

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Suzuki, K., E-mail: Kojiro@med.nagoya-u.ac.j [Department of Radiology, Nagoya University Graduate School of Medicine, Nagoya (Japan); Itoh, S. [Department of Radiology, Nagoya Hirokoji Clinic, Nagoya (Japan); Nagasaka, T. [Departments of Medical Technology, Nagoya University School of Health Science, Nagoya (Japan); Ogawa, H.; Ota, T.; Naganawa, S. [Department of Radiology, Nagoya University Graduate School of Medicine, Nagoya (Japan)

    2010-09-15

    Aim: To assess the spectrum of findings using multiphase contrast-enhanced computed tomography (CT) in patients with autoimmune pancreatitis (AIP). Materials and methods: Fifty patients (four female and 46 male, mean age 65 years) were retrospectively identified from consecutive patients with abnormal CT findings of the pancreas and negative work-up for known causes. These patients had at least one finding supporting the diagnosis of AIP: serological abnormality, histopathological abnormality, or response to steroid. Two radiologists evaluated multiphase contrast-enhanced CT images in consensus. Results: The pancreas showed diffuse enlargement (n = 16; 32%), focal enlargement (n = 18; 36%), or no enlargement (n = 16; 32%). Forty-nine (98%) patients showed abnormal contrast enhancement in the affected pancreatic parenchyma, including hypoattenuation during the pancreatic phase (n = 45; 90%) and hyperattenuation during the delayed phase (n = 39; 87%). The following findings were also seen in the pancreas: a capsule-like rim (n = 24; 48%); no visualization of the main pancreatic duct lumen (n = 48; 96%); ductal enhancement (n = 26; 52%); upstream dilatation of the main pancreatic duct (n = 27; 54%); upstream atrophy of the pancreatic parenchyma (n = 27; 54%); calcification (n = 7; 14%); and cysts (n = 5; 10%). Forty-two (84%) patients showed one or more of the following extrapancreatic findings: biliary duct or gallbladder abnormality (n = 40; 80%); peripancreatic (n = 8; 16%) or para-aortic (n = 10; 20%) soft-tissue proliferation; and renal involvement (n = 15; 30%). Conclusion: Patients with AIP presented with a variety of CT findings in the pancreas and the extrapancreatic organs. The present study highlights pancreatic ductal enhancement in a subset of patients with AIP.

  5. Constitutive and regulative conditions for the assessment of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    If we characterise language tests as applied linguistic instruments, we may argue that they therefore need to conform to the conditions that apply to the development of responsible applied linguistic designs. Conventionally, language tests are required to possess both validity and reliability; these are necessary conditions for ...

  6. Assessment of the Clinical and Radiological Findings of Cases with Subacute Sclerosing Panencephalitis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mustafa Calik

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available Aim: Subacute sclerosing panencephalitis (SSPE is a slow virus infection, arising in the central nervous system in the form of late complication of measles virus. In this study we aimed to research the clinical and radiological features of our patients with SSPE. Material and Method: The study was attended by 19 patients with SSPE being followed-up in the Child Neurology Clinic of the Medical Faculty of Harran University. Patients were assessed as per the following aspects, including age, gender, measles case, complaints resulting in the application, findings from clinical phase and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI of brain. Results: While 68.4% (n = 13 of the patients were male, remaining 31.6% (n = 6 thereof were female. At the time of application, atonic and myoclonus seizures were seen among 31.5% (n = 6 of the patients, and mental and behavioral changes were seen among 20% (n = 4 thereof. In MRI of brain, involvement was seen the most in cortical, sub-cortical, and periventricular white matter fields. Among the findings from MRI of brain, those detected as normal were 36.8% (n = 7 of the total. Discussion: At places where SSPE is seen as endemic, presence of such psychological findings among children, including atonic and myoclonic seizures, personality changes, aggressive behaviors, or autism, should be considered as a warning. Meanwhile, it should further be considered that, MRI of the brain at the earlier stages of the disease may bring forth normal findings in high ratios.

  7. Pain assessment strategies in patients with musculoskeletal conditions

    OpenAIRE

    Carotti, M; A. Ciapetti; Salaffi, F

    2012-01-01

    Valid and reliable assessment of pain is fundamental for both clinical trials and effective pain management. The nature of pain makes objective measurement impossible. Chronic musculoskeletal pain assessment and its impact on physical, emotional and social functions require multidimensional qualitative tools and healthrelated quality of life instruments. The recommendations concerning outcome measurements for pain trials are useful for making routine assessments that should include an evaluat...

  8. Greedy Algorithms for Finding a Small Set of Primers Satisfying Cover and Length Resolution Conditions in PCR Experiments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Doi; Imai

    1997-01-01

    Selecting a good collection of primers is very important for polymerase chain reaction (PCR) experiments. Most existing algorithms for primer selection are concerned with computing a primer pair for each DNA sequence. In generalizing the arbitrarily primed PCR, etc., to the case that all DNA sequences of target objects are already known, like about 6000 ORFs of yeast, we may design a small set of primers so that all the targets are PCR amplified and resolved electrophoretically in a series of experiments. This is quite useful because deceasing the number of primers greatly reduces the cost of experiments. Pearson et al. (ISMB 1995: 285-291, 1995; Discrete Appl. Math. 71: 231-246, 1996) consider finding a minimum set of primers covering all given DNA sequences, but their method does not meet necessary biological conditions such as primer amplification and electrophoresis resolution. In this paper, based on the modeling and computational complexity analysis by Doi, we propose algorithms for this primer selection problem. These algorithms do not necessarily minimize the number of primers, but, since basic versions of these problems are shown to be computationally intractable, especially even for approximability with the length resolution condition, this is inevitable. In the algorithms, the amplification condition by a primer pair and the length resolution condition by electrophoresis are incorporated. These algorithms are based on the theoretically well-founded greedy algorithm for the set cover in computer science. Preliminary computational results are presented to show the validity of this approach. The number of computed primers is much less than a half of the number of targets, and hence is less than one forth of the number needed in the multiplex PCR.

  9. Needs, Effectiveness, and Gap Assessment for Key A-10C Missions: An Overview of Findings

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-01-01

    C O R P O R A T I O N Needs, Effectiveness, and Gap Assessment for Key A-10C Missions An Overview of Findings Jeff Hagen, David Blancett, Michael...destroyed or countered by other means.5 We conducted detailed one-on-one modeling with U.S. Department of Defense (DoD) standard tools, where possible...the purposes of attacks against ground forces. As the U.S. Army becomes more dispersed , lighter, and more deployable, it is making many trade-offs

  10. Pneumoperitoneum diagnosed as an incidental finding using focus assessed transthoracic echocardiography: a case report

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Laursen, Christian Borbjerg

    2010-01-01

    Introduction In this case report we describe how pneumoperitoneum was diagnosed in a patient admitted with acute chest pain, as an incidental finding using focus assessed transthoracic echocardiography (FATE). Case report A 79-year-old male smoker with arterial hypertension was admitted...... to a coronary unit with a sudden onset of constant left sided thoracic pain. At position 1 (subcostal) of the FATE protocol, the heart and liver could not be visualised. Instead the peritoneum could be seen as a hyperechoic stripe, corresponding horizontal reverberation artefacts was visible under...

  11. Environmental Assessment and Finding of No Significant Impact: Kalina Geothermal Demonstration Project Steamboat Springs, Nevada

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    N/A

    1999-02-22

    The Department of Energy (DOE) has prepared an Environmental Assessment (EA) to provide the DOE and other public agency decision makers with the environmental documentation required to take informed discretionary action on the proposed Kalina Geothermal Demonstration project. The EA assesses the potential environmental impacts and cumulative impacts, possible ways to minimize effects associated with partial funding of the proposed project, and discusses alternatives to DOE actions. The DOE will use this EA as a basis for their decision to provide financial assistance to Exergy, Inc. (Exergy), the project applicant. Based on the analysis in the EA, DOE has determined that the proposed action is not a major Federal action significantly affecting the quality of the human or physical environment, within the meaning of the National Environmental Policy Act (NEPA) of 1969. Therefore, the preparation of an environmental impact statement is not required and DOE is issuing this Finding of No Significant Impact (FONSI).

  12. Assessing ecological departure from reference conditions with the Fire Regime Condition Class (FRCC) Mapping Tool

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stephen W. Barrett; Thomas DeMeo; Jeffrey L. Jones; J.D. Zeiler; Lee C. Hutter

    2006-01-01

    Knowledge of ecological departure from a range of reference conditions provides a critical context for managing sustainable ecosystems. Fire Regime Condition Class (FRCC) is a qualitative measure characterizing possible departure from historical fire regimes. The FRCC Mapping Tool was developed as an ArcMap extension utilizing the protocol identified by the Interagency...

  13. Assessment Data-Informed Guidance to Individualize Kindergarten Reading Instruction: Findings from a Cluster-Randomized Control Field Trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al Otaiba, Stephanie; Connor, Carol M; Folsom, Jessica Sidler; Greulich, Luana; Meadows, Jane; Li, Zhi

    2011-06-01

    The purpose of this cluster-randomized control field trial was to was to examine the extent to which kindergarten teachers could learn a promising instructional strategy, wherein kindergarten reading instruction was differentiated based upon students' ongoing assessments of language and literacy skills and documented child characteristic by instruction (CXI) interactions; and to test the efficacy of this differentiated reading instruction on the reading outcomes of students from culturally diverse backgrounds. The study involved 14 schools and included 23 treatment ( n = 305 students) and 21 contrast teacher ( n = 251 students). Teachers in the contrast condition received only a baseline professional development that included a researcher-delivered summer day-long workshop on individualized instruction. Data sources included parent surveys, individually administered child assessments of language, cognitive, and reading skills and videotapes of classroom instruction. Using Hierarchical Multivariate Linear Modeling (HMLM), we found students in treatment classrooms outperformed students in the contrast classrooms on a latent measure of reading skills, comprised of letter-word reading, decoding, alphabetic knowledge, and phonological awareness (ES = .52). Teachers in both conditions provided small group instruction, but teachers in the treatment condition provided significantly more individualized instruction. Our findings extend research on the efficacy of teachers using Individualized Student Instruction to individualize instruction based upon students' language and literacy skills in first through third grade. Findings are discussed regarding the value of professional development related to differentiating core reading instruction and the challenges of using Response to Intervention approaches to address students' needs in the areas of reading in general education contexts.

  14. Assessment Data-Informed Guidance to Individualize Kindergarten Reading Instruction: Findings from a Cluster-Randomized Control Field Trial

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al Otaiba, Stephanie; Connor, Carol M; Folsom, Jessica Sidler; Greulich, Luana; Meadows, Jane; Li, Zhi

    2010-01-01

    The purpose of this cluster-randomized control field trial was to was to examine the extent to which kindergarten teachers could learn a promising instructional strategy, wherein kindergarten reading instruction was differentiated based upon students’ ongoing assessments of language and literacy skills and documented child characteristic by instruction (CXI) interactions; and to test the efficacy of this differentiated reading instruction on the reading outcomes of students from culturally diverse backgrounds. The study involved 14 schools and included 23 treatment (n = 305 students) and 21 contrast teacher (n = 251 students). Teachers in the contrast condition received only a baseline professional development that included a researcher-delivered summer day-long workshop on individualized instruction. Data sources included parent surveys, individually administered child assessments of language, cognitive, and reading skills and videotapes of classroom instruction. Using Hierarchical Multivariate Linear Modeling (HMLM), we found students in treatment classrooms outperformed students in the contrast classrooms on a latent measure of reading skills, comprised of letter-word reading, decoding, alphabetic knowledge, and phonological awareness (ES = .52). Teachers in both conditions provided small group instruction, but teachers in the treatment condition provided significantly more individualized instruction. Our findings extend research on the efficacy of teachers using Individualized Student Instruction to individualize instruction based upon students’ language and literacy skills in first through third grade. Findings are discussed regarding the value of professional development related to differentiating core reading instruction and the challenges of using Response to Intervention approaches to address students’ needs in the areas of reading in general education contexts. PMID:21818158

  15. Operant conditioning and assessment of stereopsis in young children

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Cooper, J; Feldman, J

    1978-01-01

    ...) and operant conditioning. After five traditional screening tests of stereopsis, all children were trained to perform a match-to-sample discrimination task involving RDSs with and without lateral disparity...

  16. Assessment of Water Quality Conditions: Agassiz National Wildlife Refuge, 2012

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This is an assessment of water quality data collected from source water, discharge and within Agassiz Pool. In the summer of 2012, the U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service...

  17. Assessing cover crop management under actual and climate change conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alonso-Ayuso, María; Quemada, Miguel; Vanclooster, Marnik; Ruiz-Ramos, Margarita; Rodriguez, Alfredo; Gabriel, José Luis

    2017-10-22

    The termination date is recognized as a key management factor to enhance cover crops for multiple benefits and to avoid competition with the following cash crop. However, the optimum date depends on annual meteorological conditions, and climate variability induces uncertainty in a decision that needs to be taken every year. One of the most important cover crop benefits is reducing nitrate leaching, a major concern for irrigated agricultural systems and highly affected by the termination date. This study aimed to determine the effects of cover crops and their termination date on the water and N balances of an irrigated Mediterranean agroecosystem under present and future climate conditions. For that purpose, two field experiments were used for inverse calibration and validation of the WAVE model (Water and Agrochemicals in the soil and Vadose Environment), based on continuous soil water content data, soil nitrogen content and crop measurements. The calibrated and validated model was subsequently used in advanced scenario analysis under present and climate change conditions. Under present conditions, a late termination date increased cover crop biomass and subsequently soil water and N depletion. Hence, preemptive competition risk with the main crop was enhanced, but a reduction of nitrate leaching also occurred. The hypothetical planting date of the following cash crop was also an important tool to reduce preemptive competition. Under climate change conditions, the simulations showed that the termination date will be even more important to reduce preemptive competition and nitrate leaching. Copyright © 2017 The Authors. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  18. Executive Functioning in Alcohol Use Studies: A Brief Review of Findings and Challenges in Assessment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Day, Anne M; Kahler, Christopher W; Ahern, David C; Clark, Uraina S

    2015-01-01

    There is a wealth of research about the links between executive functioning (EF) and alcohol use. However, difficulty may arise in interpreting findings because of the variability between studies regarding the specific components of EF measured, as well as the variability of tasks used to examine each EF construct. The current article considers each of these problems within the context of a literature review that focuses on two topics: (1) the efficacy of EF in predicting alcohol use and alcohol-related consequences, and (2) the effect of acute alcohol intoxication on EF task performance. An additional goal was to identify and describe commonly used EF measures with the intention of providing alcohol researchers information on the assessment of different EF domains. Our findings indicate that there is strong evidence supporting a relation between EF difficulties (particularly response inhibition and information updating) and alcohol use, with additional evidence of a significant interaction between EF and implicit associations on alcohol use. In contrast, research supporting a link between set shifting abilities and later alcohol use is scarce. Additionally, this review found evidence of alcohol acutely affecting many EF processes (particularly response inhibition). Overall, there is a need to replicate these findings with commonly used EF tasks (versus developing numerous tasks within individual laboratories) to better advance our understanding of the relation between EF and alcohol use.

  19. Missed pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma: Assessment of early imaging findings on prediagnostic magnetic resonance imaging

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jang, Kyung Mi; Kim, Seong Hyun, E-mail: sh6453.kim@samsung.com; Kim, Young Kon; Song, Kyoung Doo; Lee, Soon Jin; Choi, Dongil

    2015-08-15

    Highlights: • MR imaging was superior to CT for the detection of early PDAC. • A focal lesion with no MPD interruption is common MR finding of early PDAC. • A mean volume doubling time of early PDAC was about five months. - Abstract: Objective: To investigate the early imaging findings and growth rate of pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma (PDAC), and to assess whether MR imaging detects early PDAC better than CT. Materials and methods: The institutional review board approved this retrospective study and waived the requirement for informed consent. Twenty-two patients were included, and two radiologists, by consensus, assessed the presence of focal lesions, interruption of the main pancreatic duct (MPD), MPD dilatation, and pancreatitis, volume doubling time (VDT) of PDAC on prediagnostic MR imaging. Two other observers independently reviewed three image sets (CT images, unenhanced MR images, and unenhanced and contrast-enhanced MR images) for the detection of early PDAC. Paired Wilcoxon signed rank test and receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curve analysis were used for statistical analyses. Results: In 20 (90.9%) patients, prediagnostic MR exams showed abnormality, and all of them showed focal lesions on the first abnormal prediagnostic MR exams. Thirteen lesions (65%) showed no MPD interruption and one lesion (5%) was accompanied by pancreatitis. The mean VDT of PDAC was 151.7 days (range, 18.3–417.8 days). Diagnostic performance of unenhanced MR images (Az, 0.971–0.989) and combined unenhanced and contrast-enhanced MR images (Az, 0.956–0.963) was significantly better than that of CT images (Az, 0.565–0.583; p < 0.01) for both observers, Conclusion: The most common early imaging finding of PDAC on prediagnostic MR exams was a focal lesion with no MPD interruption with a mean volume doubling time of five months. MR imaging was superior to CT for the detection of early PDAC.

  20. Radiographic assessment of findings in the maxillary sinus using cone-beam computed tomography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dobele, Ilze; Kise, Ligija; Apse, Peteris; Kragis, Gints; Bigestans, Andris

    2013-01-01

    OBJECTIVES. To assess the presence of anatomic variations and pathology of the maxillary sinus using cone beam computed tomography (CBCT) of the maxilla where pre- implant surgery is planned. MATERIAL AND METHODS. This retrospective study evaluates a sample CBCT scans of 34 dental patients (68 sinuses). CBCT is used to assess maxillary sinus mucosa and outflow and prevalence of septa. The mucosal thickening was measured and the sinus outflow was classified as open or obstructed. RESULTS. Mucosal thickening was found in 48.5%, septa in 20.6% and total opacity in 2.9% of the sinuses. Maxillary sinus outflow was blocked in 26.5% of the scans. Strong association between radiological signs of maxillary sinus ostium blockage and thickened mucosa was observed. CONCLUSIONS. Anatomic variations and lesions of the maxillary sinus were common findings in CBCT examinations of the maxilla required for dental preprosthetic planning. Routine CBCT scans, including maxillary sinus ostium are recommended for risk assessment prior to surgery.

  1. 42 CFR 494.80 - Condition: Patient assessment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... participation in the dialysis care process; the preferred modality (hemodialysis or peritoneal dialysis), and... days or 13 outpatient hemodialysis sessions beginning with the first outpatient dialysis session. (2) A..., including co-morbid conditions. (2) Evaluation of the appropriateness of the dialysis prescription, blood...

  2. Present and future assessment of growing degree days over selected Greek areas with different climate conditions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paparrizos, Spyridon; Matzarakis, Andreas

    2017-10-01

    The determination of heat requirements in the first developing phases of plants has been expressed as Growing Degree Days (GDD). The current study focuses on three selected study areas in Greece that are characterised by different climatic conditions due to their location and aims to assess the future variation and spatial distribution of Growing Degree Days (GDD) and how these can affect the main cultivations in the study areas. Future temperature data were obtained and analysed by the ENSEMBLES project. The analysis was performed for the future periods 2021-2050 and 2071-2100 with the A1B and B1 scenarios. Spatial distribution was performed using a combination of dynamical and statistical downscaling technique through ArcGIS 10.2.1. The results indicated that for all the future periods and scenarios, the GDD are expected to increase. Furthermore, the increase in the Sperchios River basin will be the highest, followed by the Ardas and the Geropotamos River basins. Moreover, the cultivation period will be shifted from April-October to April-September which will have social, economical and environmental benefits. Additionally, the spatial distribution indicated that in the upcoming years the existing cultivations can find favourable conditions and can be expanded in mountainous areas as well. On the other hand, due to the rough topography that exists in the study areas, the wide expansion of the existing cultivations into higher altitudes is unaffordable. Nevertheless, new more profitable cultivations can be introduced which can find propitious conditions in terms of GDD.

  3. Assessing Transaction Environment Conditions for Investment and Construction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mishlanova Marina

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper contains characteristic description of the transaction-based approach and identifies problems of studying the transaction envi-ronment for investments and construction. It also discusses the results of transaction cost analysis in the real estate sector, and assessment of the business environment in Russia. The authors present indirect assessment of transaction environment through the economic freedom index, detailed particularly for Russia; they demonstrate the transaction environment structure and offer methodological recommendations on evaluation of transaction environment for investment and construction.

  4. Fuzzy Based Decision Support System for Condition Assessment and Rating of Bridges

    Science.gov (United States)

    Srinivas, Voggu; Sasmal, Saptarshi; Karusala, Ramanjaneyulu

    2016-09-01

    In this work, a knowledge based decision support system has been developed to efficiently handle the issues such as distress diagnosis, assessment of damages and condition rating of existing bridges towards developing an exclusive and robust Bridge Management System (BMS) for sustainable bridges. The Knowledge Based Expert System (KBES) diagnoses the distresses and finds the cause of distress in the bridge by processing the data which are heuristic and combined with site inspection results, laboratory test results etc. The coupling of symbolic and numeric type of data has been successfully implemented in the expert system to strengthen its decision making process. Finally, the condition rating of the bridge is carried out using the assessment results obtained from the KBES and the information received from the bridge inspector. A systematic procedure has been developed using fuzzy mathematics for condition rating of bridges by combining the fuzzy weighted average and resolution identity technique. The proposed methodologies and the decision support system will facilitate in developing a robust and exclusive BMS for a network of bridges across the country and allow the bridge engineers and decision makers to carry out maintenance of bridges in a rational and systematic way.

  5. Assessment of a PML Boundary Condition for Simulating an MRI Radio Frequency Coil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yunsuo Duan

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Computational methods such as the finite difference time domain (FDTD play an important role in simulating radiofrequency (RF coils used in magnetic resonance imaging (MRI. The choice of absorbing boundary conditions affects the final outcome of such studies. We have used FDTD to assess the Berenger's perfectly matched layer (PML as an absorbing boundary condition for computation of the resonance patterns and electromagnetic fields of RF coils. We first experimentally constructed a high-pass birdcage head coil, measured its resonance pattern, and used it to acquire proton (1H phantom MRI images. We then computed the resonance pattern and B1 field of the coil using FDTD with a PML as an absorbing boundary condition. We assessed the accuracy and efficiency of PML by adjusting the parameters of the PML and comparing the calculated results with measured ones. The optimal PML parameters that produce accurate (comparable to the experimental findings FDTD calculations are then provided for the birdcage head coil operating at 127.72 MHz, the Larmor frequency of 1H at 3 Tesla (T.

  6. Pain assessment strategies in patients with musculoskeletal conditions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Carotti

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Valid and reliable assessment of pain is fundamental for both clinical trials and effective pain management. The nature of pain makes objective measurement impossible. Chronic musculoskeletal pain assessment and its impact on physical, emotional and social functions require multidimensional qualitative tools and healthrelated quality of life instruments. The recommendations concerning outcome measurements for pain trials are useful for making routine assessments that should include an evaluation of pain, fatigue, disturbed sleep, physical functioning, emotional functioning, patient global ratings of satisfaction, and quality of life. Despite the growing availability of instruments and theoretical publications related to measuring the various aspects of chronic pain, there is still little agreement and no unified approach has been devised. There is, therefore, still a considerable need for the development of a core set of measurement tools and response criteria, as well as for the development and refinement of the related instruments, standardized assessor training, the cross-cultural adaptation of health status questionnaires, electronic data capture, and the introduction of valid, reliable and responsive standardized quantitative measurement procedures into routine clinical care. This article reviews a selection of the instruments used to assess chronic musculoskeletal pain, including validated newly developed and well-established screening instruments, and discusses their advantages and limitations.

  7. Assessment of anomalous seepage conditions in the Opa dam ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Verdant vegetation on the downstream side of the embankment and location of water ponds at the toe of the embankment around the identified seepage zones are field confirmation of the anomalous seepage. KEY WORDS: Anomalous seepage; Assessment; Opa Dam Embankment. Global Journal of Geological Sciences ...

  8. [Assessment of periodontal condition of kidney patients in hemodialysis].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Souza, Cláudia Régia Dias de; Libério, Silvana Amado; Guerra, Rosane Nassar Meireles; Monteiro, Silvio; Silveira, Ericka Janine Dantas da; Pereira, Antonio Luiz Amaral

    2005-01-01

    Thirty patients undergoing hemodialysis were evaluated for their periodontal condition through plaque, calculus and gingival indexes; PSR and IgA present in the saliva were also appraised in order to determine the periodontal condition of patients presenting chronic kidney disease. Results obtained demonstrated that in the studied group the plaque, calculus and gingival indexes were high. With regard to these patients' requirement to undergo periodontal treatment, most patients submitted to hemodialysis needed better oral hygiene, in addition to supra and sub gingival scraping and topic application of fluor (code 2). As to the IgA amount present in the saliva, only three patients showed a low density. Patients presenting chronic kidney disease disclosed a tendency for greater bacterial plaque concentration, high formation of dental calculus suggesting the need for periodontal treatment comprising supra and sub gingival scraping.

  9. Insulation Condition Assessment of Power Transformers Using Accelerated Ageing Tests

    OpenAIRE

    MIRZAIE, Mohammad; Gholami, Ahmad; TAYEBI, Hamid Reza

    2009-01-01

    Thermal stress due to losses and environment temperature causes degradation to paper/oil insulation systems in transformers, even at operating temperature. Experience indicates that thermal ageing of oil and paper in power transformers leads to the change of some insulation characteristics. In this paper, insulating papers immersed in oil have been acceleratory aged at 140, 150, and 160 °C under laboratory conditions. Some of the oil properties, such as water content, breakdown vo...

  10. Mid-Columbia Coho Reintroduction Feasibility Project : Final Environmental Assessment and Finding of No Significant Impact.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    United States. Bonneville Power Administration; Confederated Tribes and Bands of the Yakama Nation; Washington State Department of Fish and Wildlife

    1999-04-01

    Bonneville Power Administration (BPA) is proposing to fund research for 2 to 3 years on the feasibility of reintroducing coho salmon into mid-Columbia River basin tributaries. The research would take place in the Methow and Wenatchee river basins in Chelan and Okanogan Counties, Washington. BPA has prepared an Environmental Assessment (EA) (DOE/EA-1282) evaluating the proposed project. Based on the analysis in the EA, BPA has determined that the proposed action is not a major Federal action significantly affecting the quality of the human environment, within the meaning of the National Environmental Policy Act (NEPA) of 1969. Therefore, the preparation of an Environmental Impact Statement (EIS) is not required, and BPA is issuing this Finding of No Significant Impact.

  11. MR findings of spondylolisthesis: assessment of associated spinal and neural foraminal stenosis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Jae Seung; Kang, Heung Sik; Yoon, Hye Kyung; Kim, Chu Wan [Seoul National University College of Medicine, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    1994-02-15

    To assess the spinal canal and neural foraminal stenosis associated with spondylolisthesis on MR imaging. We retrospectively analysed MR findings of 63 cases of spondylolisthesis(degenerative type: 23 cases, isthmic type: 40 cases) regarding the type and grade of spondylolisthesis, presence or absence of associated spinal canal stenosis, and the severity of associated neural foraminal stenosis. Central canal stenosis were more frequent in degenerative type(91%) than isthmic type(33%), and more frequent in grade II spondylolisthesis of degenerative type(100%) and isthmic type(89%) than in grade I spondylolisthesis of degenerative type(45%) and isthmic type(20%). There was positive correlation between the severity of neural foraminal stenosis and the grade of spondylolisthesis, whereas there was no significant difference between degenerative and isthmic types. Degenerative spondylolisthesis were frequently associated with central canal stenosis more than isthmic type. When the grade of spondylolisthesis was higher, it was more frequently associated with central canal stenosis and severe neural foraminal stenosis.

  12. Tucannon River Spring Chinook Captive Broodstock Program Final Environmental Assessment and Finding of No Significant Impact

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    N/A

    2000-05-24

    Bonneville Power Administration (BPA) is proposing to fund the Tucannon River Spring Chinook Captive Broodstock Program, a small-scale production initiative designed to increase numbers of a weak but potentially recoverable population of spring chinook salmon in the Tucannon River in the State of Washington. BPA has prepared an Environmental Assessment (EA) (DOE/EA-l326) evaluating the proposed project. Based on the analysis in the EA, BPA has determined that the proposed action is not a major Federal action significantly affecting the quality of the human environment, within the meaning of the National Environmental Policy Act (NEPA) of 1969. Therefore, the preparation of an Environmental Impact Statement (EIS) is not required, and BPA is issuing this Finding of No Significant Impact (FONSI).

  13. Comparison of methods used in European countries to assess buildings' condition

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vilhena, A.; Costa Branco De Oliveira Pedro, J.A.; De Brito, J.

    2011-01-01

    This paper presents a comparative analysis of methods used in European countries to assess buildings’ condition. The following methods were compared: a Portuguese method to assess buildings condition, an English housing health and safety rating system, a French method to assess buildings that may be

  14. Development and application of benthic algal reference condition models to assess stream condition in the South Nahanni Watershed.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thomas, Kathryn E; Hall, Roland I; Scrimgeour, Garry J

    2017-07-01

    Monitoring biologists continually strive to improve the effectiveness of protocols to quantify environmental and ecological effects of anthropogenic activities. We developed and applied a reference condition approach (RCA) model to assess the ability of 3 descriptors of algal community structure (algal taxonomy, diatom taxonomy, and algal pigments) to identify impairment in 2 northern rivers in the South Nahanni River Watershed, Northwest Territories, Canada. We established reference conditions by sampling 62 regional reference (i.e., minimally disturbed) sites in 2008 (n = 44) and 2009 (n = 18) and assessed the condition of 38 test sites downstream of 2 mines in 2008 (N = 20 sites) and 2009 (N = 18 sites). Patterns of impairment downstream of the 2 mines were assessed and zones of influence were identified for each algal descriptor. Results showed that the 3 RCA models using the 3 descriptors of algal community structure identified reasonably consistent assessments downstream of Prairie Creek mine with changes in algal pigments being more sensitive than the other 2 descriptors. In Flat River, however, assessment of test sites varied considerably depending on the descriptor of algal community structure. Our results suggest that benthic algal RCA models show promise as biological monitoring tools, but additional investigations are required to better understand variance in site assessments among the 3 algal community descriptors. Integr Environ Assess Manag 2017;13:728-745. © 2016 SETAC. © 2016 SETAC.

  15. Delusions, anger, and serious violence: new findings from the MacArthur Violence Risk Assessment Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ullrich, Simone; Keers, Robert; Coid, Jeremy W

    2014-09-01

    Recent research on the association between delusions and violence has suggested complex and differing pathways. Furthermore, it has been emphasized that temporal proximity is fundamental when investigating these relationships. We reanalyzed data from the MacArthur Violence Risk Assessment Study utilizing a different methodological approach to investigate associations between specific delusions and violence. Longitudinal study of 1136 male and female civil psychiatric inpatients after discharge. Delusions, affect due to delusions, and violence were measured at baseline and in 5 follow-up assessments. Serious violence was established using the MacArthur Community Violence Interview. Logistic mixed-effect models for repeated measures were performed. A "prospective" model confirmed previous findings that delusions do not predict later violence. However, reanalysis, considering temporal proximity, indicated a relationship between specific delusions and outcome including: being spied upon (adjusted OR [AOR] = 1.62, 95% CI = 1.06-2.47, P = .027), being followed (AOR = 1.90, 95% CI = 1.29-2.80, P = .001), being plotted against (AOR = 1.70, 95% CI = 1.14-2.52, P = .009), being under control of person/force (AOR = 1.92, 95% CI = 1.24-2.97, P = .003), thought insertion (AOR = 1.63, 95% CI = 1.00-2.66, P = .048), and having special gifts/powers (AOR = 1.95, 95% CI = 1.31-2.92, P = .001). All these delusions were associated with angry affect (P violence. Anger due to delusions is the key factor in this pathway. Our findings have important implications for identification of psychotic patients at risk for violent behavior and, most importantly, management of their risk. © The Author 2013. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Maryland Psychiatric Research Center. All rights reserved. For permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  16. A scoring system for the assessment of angiographic findings in non-occlusive mesenteric ischemia (NOMI)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Minko, P.; Stroeder, J.; Miodek, J.; Buecker, A.; Katoh, M. [Saarland Univ. Hospital, Homburg/Saar (Germany). Diagnostic and Interventional Radiology; Groesdonk, H.; Schaefers, H.J. [Saarland Univ. Hospital, Homburg/Saar (Germany). Dept. of Thoracic and Cardiovascular Surgery; Graeber, S. [Saarland Univ. Hospital, Homburg/Saar (Germany). Inst. of Medical Biometry, Epidemiology and Medical Informatics

    2012-09-15

    Purpose: To establish a standardized scoring system for angiographic findings in patients with non-occlusive mesenteric ischemia (NOMI). Materials and Methods: In 36 patients (mean age: 72 years), 53 angiographies of the superior mesenteric artery (SMA) were performed for suspected NOMI after cardiac or major aortic surgery. All examinations were performed using a standardized DSA technique. Two experienced radiologists performed a consensus reading blinded to the clinical information, on two occasions with an interval of two weeks. In order to investigate the reproducibility of the criteria, the images were assessed once by an intensivist and a medical student. Image analysis was performed with respect to vessel morphology, reflux of contrast medium into the aorta, small bowel parenchymal contrast enhancement and distension and the delay between arterial injection and portal vein filling. Results: Almost perfect intra-observer correlation was obtained for the assessment of the contrast medium reflux ({kappa} = 0.82) and substantial correlation for the time of portal vein filling ({kappa} = 0.66). Moderate correlations were obtained for the vessel morphology ({kappa} = 0.51), small bowel enhancement ({kappa} = 0.63) and distension ({kappa} = 0.53). Contrast medium reflux into the aorta ({kappa} = 0.77 and 0.63) and the time of portal vein filling ({kappa} = 0.42 and 0.58) resulted in the highest inter-observer correlations between the radiologists and the intensivist as well as the radiologists and the student. Conclusion: In patients with suspected NOMI, using our scoring system yields high intra- and inter-observer correlations, allowing a standardized evaluation of angiographic findings. (orig.)

  17. Assessing the psychological predictors of benefit finding in patients with head and neck cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Llewellyn, Carrie D; Horney, Debbie J; McGurk, Mark; Weinman, John; Herold, Jim; Altman, Keith; Smith, Helen E

    2013-01-01

    Some individuals are able to gain psychological benefits from illness and adversity, such as a greater sense of purpose and closer relationships, termed 'benefit finding' (BF). The main aim of this study was to explore the extent to which BF is reported in patients with head and neck cancer (HNC). Secondary aims were to establish the relationships between BF, other patient-reported outcomes and predictive factors such as coping strategy and level of optimism. This repeat measures study was conducted with 103 newly diagnosed patients with HNC. Self-completion questionnaires were used to assess BF pre-treatment and 6 months after treatment and pre-treatment coping, optimism, quality of life, anxiety and depression. Sixty-eight patients (66%) completed follow-ups. Moderate to high levels of BF were reported. Anxiety, depression and quality of life were not related to BF. Regression models of BF total score and three new factor analysed BF scales indicated that use of emotional support and active coping strategies were predictive of finding more positive consequences. Optimism, living with a partner and higher educational attainment were also found to have a protective effect. The amount of variance in BF explained by these five pre-treatment factors ranged from 32 to 46%. These findings demonstrate that both dispositional and potentially modifiable factors, in particular optimism and coping strategies, were associated with patients identifying positive consequences of a diagnosis of HNC. To maximise patient's longer-term resilience and adaptation, components of BF, either directly or via coping strategies, could be targeted for intervention. Copyright © 2011 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  18. A comparison of magnetic resonance arthrography and arthroscopic findings in the assessment of anterior shoulder dislocations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jordan, R.W.; Naeem, R.; Srinivas, K.; Shyamalan, G. [Birmingham Heartlands Hospital, Birmingham (United Kingdom)

    2015-05-01

    The aim of this study is to establish the sensitivity and specificity of MRA in the investigation of patients with traumatic anterior shoulder dislocations. A retrospective analysis of consecutive patients undergoing both magnetic resonance arthrography and arthroscopic assessment after a traumatic anterior shoulder dislocation between January 2011 and 2014 was performed. Demographic data were collected from electronic records. Images were interpreted by 8 musculoskeletal radiologists and patients were treated by 8 consultant orthopaedic surgeons. Arthroscopic findings were obtained from surgical notes and these findings were used as a reference for MRA. The sensitivity, specificity, and positive predictive value were calculated for the different injuries. Sixty-nine patients underwent both an MRA and shoulder arthroscopy during the study period; however, clinical notes were unavailable in 9 patients. Fifty-three patients (88 %) were male, the mean age was 28 years (range 18 to 50) and 16 subjects (27 %) had suffered a primary dislocation. The overall sensitivity and specificity of MRA to all associated injuries was 0.9 (CI 0.83-0.95) and 0.94 (CI 0.9-0.96) retrospectively. The lowest sensitivity was seen in osseous Bankart 0.8 (CI 0.44-0.96) and superior labral tear (SLAP) lesions 0.5 (CI 0.14-0.86). The overall positive predictive value was 0.88 (CI 0.76-0.91) with the lowest values found in rotator cuff 0.4 (CI 0.07-0.83) and glenohumeral ligament (GHL) lesions 0.29 (CI 0.05-0.7). Magnetic resonance angiography has a high sensitivity when used to identify associated injuries in shoulder dislocation, although in 8 patients (13 %) arthroscopy identified an additional injury. The overall agreement between MRA and arthroscopic findings was good, but the identification of GHL and rotator cuff injuries was poor. (orig.)

  19. Reliability data update using condition monitoring and prognostics in probabilistic safety assessment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Hyeon Min; Lee, Sang Hwan; Park, Jun Seok; Kim, Hyung Dae; Chang, Yoon Suk; Heo, Gyun Young [Dept. of Nuclear Engineering, Kyung Hee University, Yongin (Korea, Republic of)

    2015-03-15

    Probabilistic safety assessment (PSA) has had a significant role in quantitative decision making by finding design and operational vulnerabilities and evaluating cost-benefit in improving such weak points. In particular, it has been widely used as the core methodology for risk-informed applications (RIAs). Even though the nature of PSA seeks realistic results, there are still 'conservative' aspects. One of the sources for the conservatism is the assumptions of safety analysis and the estimation of failure frequency. Surveillance, diagnosis, and prognosis (SDP), utilizing massive databases and information technology, is worth highlighting in terms of its capability for alleviating the conservatism in conventional PSA. This article provides enabling techniques to solidify a method to provide time and condition-dependent risks by integrating a conventional PSA model with condition monitoring and prognostics techniques. We will discuss how to integrate the results with frequency of initiating events (IEs) and probability of basic events (BEs). Two illustrative examples will be introduced: (1) how the failure probability of a passive system can be evaluated under different plant conditions and (2) how the IE frequency for a steam generator tube rupture (SGTR) can be updated in terms of operating time. We expect that the proposed model can take a role of annunciator to show the variation of core damage frequency (CDF) depending on operational conditions.

  20. Comparative study between subjective assessment and quantitative evaluation of CT findings with cerebral palsy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sugie, Y.; Sugie, H.; Kitai, A.; Maruyama, H.; Fukuyama, Y. (Tokyo Women' s Medical Coll. (Japan))

    1982-07-01

    Computed tomography (CT) was performed on 200 children with cerebral palsy with Hitachi CT-H250. The CT scans of 136 cases revealed cerebral atrophy with ventricular and/or subarachnoid space enlargement. The lateral ventricles, the third ventricle and the two parts of subarachnoid space on the CT picture were subjectively evaluated and divided into five grades ranging from no enlargement to marked enlargement. In addition, the size of the ventricles and the subarachnoid spaces were quantitatively determined; the transverse diameter of brain (b), the largest width of the anterior horns of the lateral ventricles (c), the bicaudate nuclear distance (d), the greatest width of the third ventricle, the longitudinal cerebral fissure and sylvian fissures as described by Miyao et al. (1978). Comparison of these quantitative techniques confirmed the initial subjective evaluation. However, in some cases, amendment of the subjective evaluation was needed. As mentioned before (Miyao et al.), the cerebral longitudinal fissure was relatively wide in normal infants. Accordingly, it was often difficult to find out abnormal widening only by subjective evaluation. The purpose of this paper was to establish the criteria of quantitative measuring and assessing of the lateral and third ventricles, the cerebral longitudinal fissures, and the sylvian fissures enlargement. Interpretation of some problem cases associated with measuring was also discussed. The quantitative CT evaluation may be a good reference in assessing cerebral atrophy in cerebral palsy and other neurological diseases.

  1. Current obstacles in replicating risk assessment findings: a systematic review of commonly used actuarial instruments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rossegger, Astrid; Gerth, Juliane; Seewald, Katharina; Urbaniok, Frank; Singh, Jay P; Endrass, Jérôme

    2013-01-01

    An actuarial risk assessment instrument can be considered valid if independent investigations using novel samples can replicate the findings of the instrument's development study. In order for a study to qualify as a replication, it has to adhere to the methodological protocol of the development study with respect to key design characteristics, as well as ensuring that manual-recommended guidelines of test administration have been followed. A systematic search was conducted to identify predictive validity studies (N = 84) on three commonly used actuarial instruments: the Violence Risk Appraisal Guide (VRAG), the Sex Offender Risk Appraisal Guide (SORAG), and the Static-99. Sample (sex, age, criminal history) and design (follow-up, attrition, recidivism) characteristics, as well as markers of assessment integrity (scoring reliability, item omissions, prorating procedure), were extracted from 84 studies comprising 108 samples. None of the replications matched the development study of the instrument they were attempting to cross-validate with respect to key sample and design characteristics. Furthermore none of the replications strictly followed the manual-recommended guidelines for the instruments' administration. Additional replication studies that follow the methodological protocols outlined in actuarial instruments' development studies are needed before claims of generalizability can be made. Copyright © 2013 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  2. Psychiatric correlates of past year adult bullying behaviors: Findings from the National Epidemiology Survey of Alcohol and Related Conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McMillan, Katherine A; Thorisdottir, Audur S; Asmundson, Gordon J G

    2016-12-30

    Previous research on bully perpetration and psychiatric outcomes has been limited to examination of lifetime associations and has not included evaluation of posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD), despite previously reported correlations between PTSD and anger and aggression. The purpose of the present study was to provide a comprehensive evaluation of the association between bullying behaviour and mental disorders within a past-year framework. Data was obtained from Wave 2 of the National Epidemiologic Survey of Alcohol and Related Conditions (NESARC; n=34,653), a nationally-representative survey of American adults. Cross-tabulations and logistic regression analyses were conducted to evaluate the relationship between bullying behaviour and psychiatric diagnosis. A total of 239 individuals (138 males, 101 females) reported engaging in bullying behaviour within the past-year. Mood, anxiety, substance use, and personality disorders were all more common among bully perpetrators compared to others. Of note, strong associations were found between PTSD and bully perpetration. Findings from the current study demonstrate strong associations between bullying perpetration and mental health concerns. The proximity of bullying behaviors and mental health concerns may be important, suggesting avenues for efforts at intervention and bullying prevention. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Working Conditions and Lifestyle of Female Surgeons Affiliated to the Japan Neurosurgical Society: Findings of Individual and Institutional Surveys.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fujimaki, Takamitsu; Shibui, Soichiro; Kato, Yoko; Matsumura, Akira; Yamasaki, Mami; Date, Isao; Hongo, Kazuhiro; Kuroda, Satoshi; Matsumae, Mitsunori; Nakao, Naoyuki; Sakurada, Kaori; Shimokawa, Shoko; Kayama, Takamasa

    2016-11-15

    To investigate the working conditions of female neurosurgeons in Japan, two surveys were conducted by The Japan Neurosurgical Society: one involving female neurosurgeons themselves and the other involving the chiefs of neurosurgical departments. The responses were received from 224 (43.8%) female neurosurgeons and 496 (61.2%) departmental chiefs. About half (50.2%) of the female neurosurgeons were married and 39.2% had children (average number of children, 1.27). Their work was full-time in 80.6% of cases; on average, they worked 51.9 h per week, had night duty 2.8 times per month, and had 5.7 days off per month. Many of them stated that they were satisfied with their job status, but about half of them reported difficulty in maintaining a correct work-life balance. Among the institutions surveyed, 29% had female neurosurgeons. The survey of departmental chiefs revealed that the proxies for maternity leave were not available at most institutions, and that there was only limited availability of night child care (41%) or sick child care (39%); female neurosurgeons did not appear to be well-informed of these support systems. These findings suggest that apart from systematic approaches already in place, female neurosurgeons would prefer to have more understanding from their peers and chiefs.

  4. Atmospheric stability assessment for the characterization of offshore wind conditions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sanz Rodrigo, J.; Cantero, E.; García, B.; Borbón, F.; Irigoyen, U.; Lozano, S.; Fernande, P. M.; Chávez, R. A.

    2015-06-01

    Based on the Fino-1 offshore met mast database, different instrument set-ups and methodologies for stability characterization have been tested using non-dimensional numbers like the gradient and bulk Richardson number, and their equivalences with the Obukhov parameter ζ = z/L, which can be measured locally with the use of a sonic anemometer. These equivalences depend to a large extent on the suitability of empirical stability functions obtained in horizontally-homogeneous conditions. The bulk Richardson number method, based on Grachev and Fairall (1997) empirical function, is the least demanding measurement method for stability characterization offering a more practical approach to wind farm designers than using the sonic method. Alternatively, the AMOK method, used by FUGA wake model and also based on the bulk Richardson number, assumes surface-layer theory and avoids using stability functions, which results in a more robust formulation. A 9-class stability classification based on Sorbjan and Grachev (2010) is used to generalize the categorization of wind conditions. Based on flux-profile analysis it was concluded that unfortunately the local ζ is not sufficient to describe the scaling behaviour of the stable boundary layer. Indeed, larger wind shear than predicted by classical onshore stability functions is found, probably as a result of lower boundary layer depths.

  5. Monitoring of High-Power Microwave Tube Systems Using the Integrated Condition Assessment System (ICAS)

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Joshi, N

    2002-01-01

    .... This report details the next step in transitioning the laboratory MTBIT system into a system that is compatible with condition-based maintenance systems employing the Integrated Condition Assessment System (ICAS) used by the Fleet...

  6. Risk Assessment of Oil Pipeline Accidents in Special Climatic Conditions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vtorushina, A. N.; Anishchenko, Y. V.; Nikonova, E. D.

    2017-05-01

    The present study identifies the main accidents’ factors and causes for oil pipeline located in Siberia and operated in special climatic conditions. Various types of pipeline accident scenarios were modeled. It is showed that the most dangerous scenarios are oil spills fire and oil vapor explosion due to the loss of piping integrity (rupture) of the pipeline’s section, laying on marshlands and oil spill on the water surface due to the loss of piping integrity (puncture). The most probable scenario is oil spills fire due to the loss of piping integrity (puncture) of the pipeline’s section, laying on dry lands and marshlands. To estimate the scenarios «event tree analysis» is used. Also such risk indexes as individual, societal, public and potential risks were determined.

  7. Performance assessment on continuous air monitors under real operating conditions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Monsanglant-Louvet, C.; Liatimi, N.; Gensdarmes, F. [Inst. of Radioprotection and Nuclear Safety- IRSN, Saclay (France)

    2011-07-01

    In the nuclear industry, workers may be exposed to artificial radioactive aerosols. These aerosols are generally composed of particles with a diameter measuring between 0.1 {mu}m and 10 {mu}m. To protect workers in nuclear facilities, monitors that continuously measure radioactivity in the air are used. The main function of the monitor is to provide real-time measurement of activity concentration. Measurement of aerosol activity concentration can be affected by a number of factors specific to the aerosols and the instrument. The first part of the article will present the general operating principles of continuous air monitors (CAMs) and inherent measurement difficulties, as well as the main standard tests. The second section describes the experimental ICARE facility The ICARE facility generates standard artificial and natural radioactive aerosols for calibrating continuous air monitors under real operating conditions. (authors)

  8. ASSESSMENT OF IRRIGATION EFFICIENCIES UNDER CENTRAL ANATOLIA CONDITIONS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yusuf Ersoy Yildirim

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Turkey is located within semi-arid climate zone and large portion of the country experience water deficits. Thus, efficient water use has become a significand issue in agricultural practices. Current global warming and climate change have aggravated such deficiencies. Konya province is located right at the center of Central Anatolia region and mostly groundwater is used in irrigations. Excessive groundwater withdrawals drop groundwaters levels and also increase energy costs. Although farmers pay quite high sums for energy, they were not using water efficiently and thus were not able to get desired benefits from the irrigations. In this study, irrigation practices of an irrigation cooperative were assessed and compared with optimum irrigation programs created through IRSIS irrigation scheduling software. It was concluded that all irrigation practices of the region were wrong and way behind the optimum ones.

  9. Concrete Pavement Service Condition Assessment Using Infrared Thermography

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yang Lu

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Infrared thermography (IRT, an effective nondestructive testing method, is used to obtain an initial evaluation of the concrete pavement surface and near surface in a time effective manner. In this paper, the effect of the depth of delamination inside concrete pavement on infrared thermography technique is studied for bridge decks inspection. To be able to mimic the delamination in subsurface, two Styrofoam cubes have been inserted in different depth near the surface of the concrete cylinder. After heating up the specimen, thermal images were taken from the surface using an infrared thermal camera to evaluate the effect of subsurface defects on detection sensitivity and accuracy. We also investigated the precision to which the shape and the size of the subsurface anomalies can be perceived using an uncooled thermal camera. To achieve this goal, we used image processing technique to accurately compute the size of delamination in order to compare it with the actual size. In addition, distance/thermal graph is used to detect the presence of the defect underneath the concrete surface. Furthermore, thermal transfer modeling was adopted in this paper to assist the setup of this experiment and the results are compared with laboratory findings.

  10. Urban Flood Risk Assessment Under Uncertain Conditions and Scarce Information

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodríguez-Gaviria, E. M.; Botero-Fernandez, V.

    2015-12-01

    Flood risk management in small urban areas in Colombia has a great degree of uncertainty due to the low availability and quality of data, the non-existent personnel qualified in the collection and processing of data, and the insufficient information to evaluate the risk and vulnerability. It is because of this that two methods are developed: one for the generation of flood threat maps for different return periods combining historical, geomorphological, and hydrological hydraulic methods assisted by remote sensors and SIG through the use of data acquired through field campaigns, official hydrological networks, orthophotos, multitemporal topographic maps, and ASTER, STRM, and LiDAR images. And another method in which categorical variables are established, linking local physical, social, economical, environmental and political-institutional factors that are explored through different media such as reports, news, databases, transects, interviews, community workshops, and surveys conducted at homes. Such variables were included within an analysis of multiple correspondence to conduct a descriptive study of the exposure, susceptibility, and capacity conditions and to create a vulnerability index that was spatially plotted spatially on maps. The uncertainty is reduced in the measure in which local knowledge is used as a source of information acquisition, of validation of what already exists, and of calibration of the proposed methods. This research was applied to the urban centers of Caucasia (Antioquia) and Plato (Magdalena), which have been historically affected by slow flooding of the Magdalena and Cauca river, it being especially useful in the selection of best alternatives for risk management, planning for development, and land use management, with the possibility of replicating it to benefit other municipalities that experience the same reality.

  11. Quality of life following remission of mental disorders: findings from the National Epidemiologic Survey on Alcohol and Related Conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rubio, Jose M; Olfson, Mark; Villegas, Laura; Pérez-Fuentes, Gabriela; Wang, Shuai; Blanco, Carlos

    2013-05-01

    Although psychiatric disorders are associated with decreased health-related quality of life, it is unknown whether symptom remission is associated with its improvement or normalization. Data were derived from the National Epidemiologic Survey on Alcohol and Related Conditions, a large national sample of the United States population. A total of 34,653 adults 18 years and older residing in households completed 2 waves (2001-2002 and 2004-2005) of face-to-face surveys. DSM-IV psychiatric diagnoses of mood, anxiety, and substance use disorders were based on the Alcohol Use Disorder and Associated Disabilities Interview Schedule-DSM-IV Version. Health-related quality of life was assessed with the Short Form-12 Health Survey, Version 2 (SF-12). Remission from alcohol dependence, major depressive disorder, bipolar disorder, dysthymia, social anxiety disorder, and generalized anxiety disorder was associated with significant improvement in SF-12 scores compared to nonremission (ranging from β = 7.28 in dysthymia to β = 3.16 in social anxiety disorder, all P alcohol abuse, individuals who had remitted from all other disorders had lower SF-12 scores than individuals without lifetime history of the disorder. Furthermore, remission of alcohol abuse, cannabis use disorder, nicotine dependence, panic disorder, and specific phobia was not associated with significant improvement in SF-12 scores. The relationship between psychiatric disorders and health-related quality of life is complex and differs across disorders. Although remission of several psychiatric disorders was associated with significant improvements, remission was generally not associated with full restoration of health-related quality of life, even among those without comorbid disorders. © Copyright 2013 Physicians Postgraduate Press, Inc.

  12. A visual analytical approach to rock art panel condition assessment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vogt, Brandon J.

    Rock art is a term for pecked, scratched, or painted symbols found on rock surfaces, most typically joint faces called rock art panels. Because rock art exists on rock at the atmosphere interface, it is highly susceptible to the destructive processes of weathering. Thus, rock weathering scientists, including those that study both natural and cultural surfaces, play a key role towards understanding rock art longevity. The mapping of weathering forms on rock art panels serves as a basis from which to assess overall panel instability. This work examines fissures, case hardened surfaces, crumbly disintegration, and lichen. Knowledge of instability, as measured through these and other weathering forms, provides integral information to land managers and archaeological conservators required to prioritize panels for remedial action. The work is divided into five chapters, three of which are going to be submitted as a peer-reviewed journal manuscript. The second chapter, written as a manuscript for International Newsletter on Rock Art, describes a specific set of criteria that lead to the development of a mapping tool for weathering forms, called 'mapping weathering forms in three dimensions' (MapWeF). The third chapter, written as a manuscript for Remote Sensing of Environment, presents the methodology used to develop MapWeF. The chapter incorporates terrestrial laser scanning, a geographic information system (GIS), geovisualization, image analysis, and exploratory spatial data analysis (ESDA) to identify, map, and quantify weathering features known to cause instability on rock art panels. The methodology implemented in the third chapter satisfies the criteria described in Chapter Two. In the fourth chapter, prepared as a manuscript for Geomorphology, MapWeF is applied to a site management case study, focusing on a region---southeastern Colorado---with notoriously weak and endangered sandstone rock art panels. The final conclusions chapter describes contributions of the

  13. A comparison of five methods for assessing veld condition in the ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Reports the results of a study conducted to assess the precision with which five selected veld condition assessment methods are able to estimate the degree ofchange of a range site in relation to some agreed standard of excellence; Site rankings obtained from five methods of scoring veld condition in the Highland ...

  14. HEPATIC STEATOSIS ASSESSMENT: a comparative study between surgeon evaluation and forward histopathologic findings

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aline M. A. MARTINS

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available Context Liver transplantation is one of the last viable resources for patients with end-stage liver disease. Many strategies are been used to improve the number of available organs and overcome waiting list delay. However, hepatic steatosis is one of the mainly concerns when organs are consider to transplantation due to it is importance as a risk factor for primary dysfunction. Surgeons play an important role to decide each organ will be accept or decline and its righteous allocation. Objective Retrospectively evaluate the surgeon assessment of steatosis degree and its confrontation with further histopathologic findings. Methods We analyzed 117 patients underwent deceased liver transplantation for end-stage liver disease in University Hospital Walter Cantideo, Fortaleza, CE, Brazil. A matrix table was organized to estimate the categorical data observed. We clustered the subjects into mild (0%–30% and moderate (30%-60% steatosis degree under the clinical criteria of organ suitability for transplantation. We categorized the organs as suitable organ for transplant and as non-suitable organ for transplant. Evaluations between the two first assessments, before perfusion (pre-perfusion vs biopsy findings and after perfusion vs biopsy findings observations were analyzed and also a comparison between pre-perfusion and after perfusion data was performed. Results On the first assessment, we obtained a 93% of agreement (n = 109 between the two evaluations. On the second assessment, we had an 8% (n = 9 of mistaken allocation. Comparing the observation before (pre-perfusion and after (after perfusion, we obtained a strong agreement between the surgeons. Conclusions Although our experienced surgeon team, we have wrongly evaluated feasible organs for transplantation. Nonetheless, our faulty percentage is low comparing to worldwide percentage. Contexto O transplante ortotópico de fígado é considerado um dos últimos recursos terapêuticos viáveis para os

  15. Effects of a Modified Conditional Cash Transfer Program in Two American Cities: Findings from Family Rewards 2.0

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, Cynthia; Miller, Rhiannon; Verma, Nandita; Dechausay, Nadine; Yang, Edith; Rudd, Timothy; Rodriguez, Jonathan; Honig, Sylvie

    2016-01-01

    Family Rewards was an innovative approach to poverty reduction in the United States that was modeled on the conditional cash transfer (CCT) programs common in lower- and middle-income countries. The program offered cash assistance to low-income families, provided that they met certain conditions related to family health care, children's education,…

  16. Developing an ICT-Literacy Task-Based Assessment Instrument: The Findings on the Final Testing Phase

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mat-jizat, Jessnor Elmy

    2013-01-01

    This paper reports the findings of a study which seeks to identify the information and communications technology (ICT) literacy levels of trainee teachers, by investigating their ICT proficiency using a task-bask assessment instrument. The Delphi technique was used as a primary validation method for the new assessment tool and the ICT literacy…

  17. 42 CFR 418.58 - Condition of participation: Quality assessment and performance improvement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ...: Patient Care § 418.58 Condition of participation: Quality assessment and performance improvement. The... assessment and performance improvement program. The hospice's governing body must ensure that the program... documentary evidence of its quality assessment and performance improvement program and be able to demonstrate...

  18. 42 CFR 484.55 - Condition of participation: Comprehensive assessment of patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... assessment of patients. 484.55 Section 484.55 Public Health CENTERS FOR MEDICARE & MEDICAID SERVICES... Furnishing of Services § 484.55 Condition of participation: Comprehensive assessment of patients. Each patient must receive, and an HHA must provide, a patient-specific, comprehensive assessment that...

  19. The Expanded FindCore Method for Identification of a Core Atom Set for Assessment of Protein Structure Prediction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Snyder, David A.; Grullon, Jennifer; Huang, Yuanpeng J.; Tejero, Roberto; Montelione, Gaetano T.

    2014-01-01

    Maximizing the scientific impact of NMR-based structure determination requires robust and statistically sound methods for assessing the precision of NMR-derived structures. In particular, a method to define a core atom set for calculating superimpositions and validating structure predictions is critical to the use of NMR-derived structures as targets in the CASP competition. FindCore (D.A. Snyder and G.T. Montelione PROTEINS 2005;59:673–686) is a superimposition independent method for identifying a core atom set, and partitioning that set into domains. However, as FindCore optimizes superimposition by sensitively excluding not-well-defined atoms, the FindCore core may not comprise all atoms suitable for use in certain applications of NMR structures, including the CASP assessment process. Adapting the FindCore approach to assess predicted models against experimental NMR structures in CASP10 required modification of the FindCore method. This paper describes conventions and a standard protocol to calculate an “Expanded FindCore” atom set suitable for validation and application in biological and biophysical contexts. A key application of the Expanded FindCore method is to identify a core set of atoms in the experimental NMR structure for which it makes sense to validate predicted protein structure models. We demonstrate the application of this Expanded FindCore method in characterizing well-defined regions of 18 NMR-derived CASP10 target structures. The Expanded FindCore protocol defines “expanded core atom sets” that match an expert’s intuition of which parts of the structure are sufficiently well-defined to use in assessing CASP model predictions. We also illustrate the impact of this analysis on the CASP GDT assessment scores. PMID:24327305

  20. Assessing health-related resiliency in HIV+ Latin women: Preliminary psychometric findings.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gladys J Jimenez-Torres

    Full Text Available HIV-associated vulnerabilities-especially those linked to psychological issues-and limited mental health-treatment resources have the potential to adversely affect the health statuses of individuals. The concept of resilience has been introduced in the literature to shift the emphasis from vulnerability to protective factors. Resilience, however, is an evolving construct and is measured in various ways, though rarely among underserved, minority populations. Herein, we present the preliminary psychometric properties of a sample of HIV-seropositive Puerto Rican women, measured using a newly developed health-related resilience scale.The Resilience Scales for Children and Adolescents, an instrument with solid test construction properties, acted as a model in the development (in both English and Spanish of the HRRS, providing the same dimensions and most of the same subscales. The present sample was nested within the Hispanic-Latino longitudinal cohort of women (HLLC, that is part of the NeuroAIDS Research Program at the University of Puerto Rico (UPR, Medical Sciences Campus (MSC. Forty-five consecutively recruited, HIV+ women from the HLLC completed a demographic survey, the HRRS, and the Beck Depression Inventory-I, Spanish version.The results demonstrate excellent overall internal consistency for the total HRRS score (α = 0.95. Each of the dimensional scores also evidenced acceptable internal consistency (α ≥ 0.88. All the dimensional and subscale content validity indices were above the 0.42 cut-off. Analysis revealed a significant negative correlation between the HRRS total score and BDI-I-S (r(45 = -0.453, p < 0.003.Albeit preliminary in nature, the present study provides support for the HRRS as a measure to assess resilience among individuals living with chronic medical conditions. Minority populations, especially non-English speaking ones, are understudied across the field of medicine, and when efforts are made to include these patient

  1. Rapid assessment of stony coral richness and condition on Saba Bank, Netherlands Antilles.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sheila A McKenna

    Full Text Available The benthic habitats of Saba Bank (17 degrees 25'N, 63 degrees 30'W are at risk from maritime traffic, especially oil tankers (e.g., anchoring. To mitigate this risk, information is needed on the biodiversity and location of habitats to develop a zone use plan. A rapid survey to document the biodiversity of macro-algae, sponges, corals and fishes was conducted. Here we report on the richness and condition of stony coral species at 18 select sites, and we test for the effects of bottom type, depth, and distance from platform edge. Species richness was visually assessed by roving scuba diver with voucher specimens of each species collected. Coral tissue was examined for bleaching and diseases. Thirty-three coral species were documented. There were no significant differences in coral composition among bottom types or depth classes (ANOSIM, P>0.05. There was a significant difference between sites (ANOSIM, P<0.05 near and far from the platform edge. The number of coral species observed ranged from zero and one in algal dominated habitats to 23 at a reef habitat on the southern edge of the Bank. Five reef sites had stands of Acropora cervicornis, a critically endangered species on the IUCN redlist. Bleaching was evident at 82% of the sites assessed with 43 colonies bleached. Only three coral colonies were observed to have disease. Combining our findings with that of other studies, a total of 43 species have been documented from Saba Bank. The coral assemblage on the bank is representative and typical of those found elsewhere in the Caribbean. Although our findings will help develop effective protection, more information is needed on Saba Bank to create a comprehensive zone use plan. Nevertheless, immediate action is warranted to protect the diverse coral reef habitats documented here, especially those containing A. cervicornis.

  2. New findings with respect to key conditions controlling the Jurassic-Cretaceous petroleum system, Dutch Central Graben (W046)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Verweij, J.M.; Nelskamp, S.; Witmans, N.; Carneiro Echternach, M.S.

    2009-01-01

    The Netherlands represent a mature area for hydrocarbon exploration, and only less obvious targets are left for finding more oil and gas. One of these targets is the Chalk Group. This paper presents selected results of a multidisciplinary project that aims to develop a new stratigraphic trap model

  3. Assessment Literacy of Foreign Language Teachers: Findings of a European Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vogt, Karin; Tsagari, Dina

    2014-01-01

    Training of pre- and in-service teachers constitutes one of the most important aspects in the quality assurance of language testing and assessment (LTA). For instance, foreign language (FL) teachers have to deal with standardised tests as well as their own classroom-based assessment procedures. This means they need the necessary expertise that can…

  4. Trajectories of Psychosocial Problems in Adolescents Predicted by Findings From Early Well-Child Assessments

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jaspers, Merlijne; de Winter, Andrea F.; Huisman, Mark; Verhulst, Frank C.; Ormel, Johan; Stewart, Roy E.; Reijneveld, Sijmen A.

    2012-01-01

    Purpose: To describe trajectories of emotional and behavioral problems in adolescents and to identify early indicators of these trajectories using data from routine well-child assessments at ages 0-4 years. Methods: Data from three assessment waves of adolescents (n = 1,816) of the TRAILS were used

  5. Using alternative biological information in stock assessment: condition-corrected natural mortality of Eastern Baltic cod

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Casini, Michele; Eero, Margit; Carlshamre, Sofia

    2016-01-01

    The inclusion of biological and ecological aspects in the assessment of fish population status is one of the bases for an ecosystem-based fisheries management. During the past two decades the Eastern Baltic cod has experienced a drastic reduction in growth and body condition that may have affected......) assumed in the analytical stock assessment model. The results in terms of Spawning Stock Biomass (SSB), Fishing mortality (F) and Recruitment (R) in the final year from the stock assessment using M values adjusted for low condition were up to 40% different compared with the assessment assuming a constant...

  6. A rating tool to assess the condition of South African infrastructure

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Wall, K

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available In 2006 the South African Institution of Civil Engineering (SAICE), in partnership with the Council for Scientific and Industrial Research (CSIR), released the first ever “report card” assessment rating of the condition of engineering infrastructure...

  7. Innovative Internal Camera Inspection and Data Management for Effective Condition Assessment of Collection Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    The primary objective of this guidance document is to identify and evaluate innovative closed-circuit television (CCTV) and related technologies currently used by more advanced wastewater utilities to conduct condition assessment programs. The document is intended to facilitate ...

  8. conditions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Venkatesulu

    1996-01-01

    Full Text Available Solutions of initial value problems associated with a pair of ordinary differential systems (L1,L2 defined on two adjacent intervals I1 and I2 and satisfying certain interface-spatial conditions at the common end (interface point are studied.

  9. Review of Physical Based Monitoring Techniques for Condition Assessment of Corrosion in Reinforced Concrete

    OpenAIRE

    Ying Lei; Zhu-Peng Zheng

    2013-01-01

    Monitoring the condition of steel corrosion in reinforced concrete (RC) is imperative for structural durability. In the past decades, many electrochemistry based techniques have been developed for monitoring steel corrosion. However, these electrochemistry techniques can only assess steel corrosion through monitoring the surrounding concrete medium. As alternative tools, some physical based techniques have been proposed for accurate condition assessment of steel corrosion through direct measu...

  10. How do types of employment relate to health indicators? Findings from the Second European Survey on Working Conditions

    OpenAIRE

    Benavides, F; Benach, J; Diez-Roux, A; Roman, C

    2000-01-01

    STUDY OBJECTIVE—To investigate the associations of various types of employment with six self reported health indicators, taking into account the part played by demographic variables, individual working conditions and four ecological indicators at the country level.
DESIGN—Cross sectional survey (structured interview) of a sample of the active population of 15 European countries aged 15 years or over. Main independent variables were nine types of employment categorised as follows: small employ...

  11. 78 FR 21919 - Finding of No Significant Impact and Final Programmatic Environmental Assessment for Army 2020...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-04-12

    ... Programmatic Environmental Assessment for Army 2020 Force Structure Realignment (PEA), supporting studies, and... Impact Statement; therefore, one will not be prepared. An electronic version of the FNSI and PEA is...

  12. Trajectories of Psychosocial Problems in Adolescents Predicted by Findings From Early Well-Child Assessments

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Jaspers, Merlijne; de Winter, Anea F; Huisman, Mark; Verhulst, Frank C; Ormel, Johan; Stewart, Roy E; Reijneveld, Sijmen A

    2012-01-01

    Purpose: To describe trajectories of emotional and behavioral problems in adolescents and to identify early indicators of these trajectories using data from routine well-child assessments at ages 0-4 years. Methods...

  13. 75 FR 36701 - Issuance of Environmental Assessment and Finding of No Significant Impact for Modification of...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-06-28

    ... alternative to the proposed action. The alternative to the proposed action is denial of the request to amend... variability in climate and weather and the effects of radioactive decay and ingrowth when assessing...

  14. Rail passengers’ time use and utility assessment: 2010 findings from Great Britain with multivariate analysis

    OpenAIRE

    Susilo , Yusak O.; Lyons, Glenn; Jain, Juliet; Atkins, Steve

    2013-01-01

    Using data from Great Britain’s National Passenger Survey 2010 this paper examines the travel time use of rail passengers and their indicative assessment of its utility. The paper explores the impacts of individuals’ socio demographic characteristics, types of activity undertaken and the perceived difficulties that may be faced by the travellers on their assessment of travel time use utility. The study shows that only 13% of travellers considered their travel time as wasted. However, this var...

  15. 77 FR 47707 - Public Housing Assessment System (PHAS): Physical Condition Scoring Notice and Revised Dictionary...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-08-09

    ...): Physical Condition Scoring Notice and Revised Dictionary of Deficiency Definitions; Notice #0;#0;Federal... DEVELOPMENT Public Housing Assessment System (PHAS): Physical Condition Scoring Notice and Revised Dictionary... February 23, 2011. In addition, this notice makes changes to the Dictionary of Deficiency Definitions...

  16. Use of Braun-Blanquet for the assessment of veld condition and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Braun-Blanquet vegetation surveys are easier and quicker to undertake than point surveys. This paper reports on assessment of veld condition and calculation of grazing capacity of five plant communities of the Ea land type of the northeastern Orange Free State using Braun-Blanquet data. Veld condition scores were ...

  17. Reliability of the Conditioned Pain Modulation Paradigm to Assess Endogenous Inhibitory Pain Pathways

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gwyn N Lewis

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Conditioned pain modulation paradigms are often used to assess the diffuse noxious inhibitory control (DNIC system. DNICs provide one of the main supraspinal pain inhibitory pathways and are impaired in several chronic pain populations. Only one previous study has examined the psychometric properties of the conditioned pain modulation technique and this study did not evaluate intersession reliability.

  18. Comprehensive geriatric assessment: recognition of identified geriatric conditions by community-dwelling older persons

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Rijn, Marjon; Suijker, Jacqueline J.; Bol, Wietske; Hoff, Eva; ter Riet, Gerben; de Rooij, Sophia E.; Moll van Charante, Eric P.; Buurman, Bianca M.

    2016-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: to study (i) the prevalence of geriatric conditions in community-dwelling older persons at increased risk of functional decline and (ii) the extent to which older persons recognise comprehensive geriatric assessment (CGA)-identified conditions as relevant problems. METHODS: trained

  19. Comprehensive geriatric assessment: recognition of identified geriatric conditions by community-dwelling older persons

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Rijn, Marjon; Suijker, Jacqueline J.; Bol, Wietske; Hoff, Eva; ter Riet, Gerben; de Rooij, Sophia E.; Moll van Charante, Eric P.; Buurman, Bianca M.

    2016-01-01

    to study (i) the prevalence of geriatric conditions in community-dwelling older persons at increased risk of functional decline and (ii) the extent to which older persons recognise comprehensive geriatric assessment (CGA)-identified conditions as relevant problems. trained registered nurses

  20. Comprehensive geriatric assessment : recognition of identified geriatric conditions by community-dwelling older persons

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Rijn, Marjon; Suijker, Jacqueline J.; Bol, Wietske; Hoff, Eva; ter Riet, Gerben; de Rooij, Sophia E.; van Charante, Eric P. Moll; Buurman, Bianca M.

    2016-01-01

    Objectives: to study (i) the prevalence of geriatric conditions in community-dwelling older persons at increased risk of functional decline and (ii) the extent to which older persons recognise comprehensive geriatric assessment (CGA)-identified conditions as relevant problems. Methods: trained

  1. Predictors of physician performance on competence assessment: Findings from CPEP, the Center for Personalized Education for Physicians.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grace, Elizabeth S; Wenghofer, Elizabeth F; Korinek, Elizabeth J

    2014-06-01

    To identify factors associated with physician performance in a comprehensive competence assessment. The authors conducted a retrospective analysis of 683 physicians referred for assessment at the Center for Personalized Education for Physicians from 2000 to 2010, who were evaluated as either safe or unsafe to return to practice. Multivariate logistic regression was used to determine factors predictive of unsafe assessment outcome. Covariates included personal characteristics (e.g., age), practice context (e.g., solo practice), and referral information (e.g., previous board license action). Older physicians were more likely to have unsafe assessment outcomes (odds ratio [OR] = 1.07; P personal characteristics, practice context, and reasons for assessment referral. These findings have implications for development of policies and programs designed to assess risk of poor physician performance and quality of care improvement efforts through organizational/practice design or remedial education.

  2. 76 FR 71619 - Availability of the Final Environmental Assessment (EA) and Finding of No Significant Impact...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-11-18

    ..., and cultural resources; hazardous materials, pollution prevention, and solid waste; light emissions... concluded that there would be no significant short-term, long-term, or cumulative effects to the environment... significantly affect the quality of the human environment or otherwise include any condition requiring...

  3. How to Improve Integrated Care for People with Chronic Conditions: Key Findings from EU FP-7 Project INTEGRATE and Beyond

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Liesbeth Borgermans

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Background: Political and public health leaders increasingly recognize the need to take urgent action to address the problem of chronic diseases and multi-morbidity. European countries are facing unprecedented demand to find new ways to deliver care to improve patient-centredness and personalization, and to avoid unnecessary time in hospitals. People-centred and integrated care has become a central part of policy initiatives to improve the access, quality, continuity, effectiveness and sustainability of healthcare systems and are thus preconditions for the economic sustainability of the EU health and social care systems. Purpose: This study presents an overview of lessons learned and critical success factors to policy making on integrated care based on findings from the EU FP-7 Project Integrate, a literature review, other EU projects with relevance to this study, a number of best practices on integrated care and our own experiences with research and policy making in integrated care at the national and international level. Results: Seven lessons learned and critical success factors to policy making on integrated care were identified. Conclusion: The lessons learned and critical success factors to policy making on integrated care show that a comprehensive systems perspective should guide the development of integrated care towards better health practices, education, research and policy.

  4. National Wetland Condition Assessment 2011: A Collaborative Survey of the Nation's Wetlands

    Science.gov (United States)

    The National Wetland Condition Assessment 2011: A Collaborative Survey presents the results of an unprecedented assessment of the nation’s wetlands. This report is part of the National Aquatic Resource Surveys, a series of statistically based surveys designed to provide the publi...

  5. Towards quantitative condition assessment of biodiversity outcomes: Insights from Australian marine protected areas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Addison, Prue F E; Flander, Louisa B; Cook, Carly N

    2017-08-01

    Protected area management effectiveness (PAME) evaluation is increasingly undertaken to evaluate governance, assess conservation outcomes and inform evidence-based management of protected areas (PAs). Within PAME, quantitative approaches to assess biodiversity outcomes are now emerging, where biological monitoring data are directly assessed against quantitative (numerically defined) condition categories (termed quantitative condition assessments). However, more commonly qualitative condition assessments are employed in PAME, which use descriptive condition categories and are evaluated largely with expert judgement that can be subject to a range of biases, such as linguistic uncertainty and overconfidence. Despite the benefits of increased transparency and repeatability of evaluations, quantitative condition assessments are rarely used in PAME. To understand why, we interviewed practitioners from all Australian marine protected area (MPA) networks, which have access to long-term biological monitoring data and are developing or conducting PAME evaluations. Our research revealed that there is a desire within management agencies to implement quantitative condition assessment of biodiversity outcomes in Australian MPAs. However, practitioners report many challenges in transitioning from undertaking qualitative to quantitative condition assessments of biodiversity outcomes, which are hampering progress. Challenges include a lack of agency capacity (staff numbers and money), knowledge gaps, and diminishing public and political support for PAs. We point to opportunities to target strategies that will assist agencies overcome these challenges, including new decision support tools, approaches to better finance conservation efforts, and to promote more management relevant science. While a single solution is unlikely to achieve full evidence-based conservation, we suggest ways for agencies to target strategies and advance PAME evaluations toward best practice. Copyright

  6. The Assessment of Afterschool Program Practices Tool (APT): Findings from the APT Validation Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tracy, Allison; Surr, Wendy; Richer, Amanda

    2012-01-01

    The Assessment of Afterschool Program Practices Tool ("APT"), developed by the National Institute of Out-of-School Time (NIOST), is an observational instrument designed to measure the aspects of afterschool program quality that research suggests contribute to the 21st century skills, attitudes, and behaviors youth need to be successful…

  7. Auditing for Score Inflation Using Self-Monitoring Assessments: Findings from Three Pilot Studies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koretz, Daniel; Jennings, Jennifer L.; Ng, Hui Leng; Yu, Carol; Braslow, David; Langi, Meredith

    2016-01-01

    Test-based accountability often produces score inflation. Most studies have evaluated inflation by comparing trends on a high-stakes test and a lower stakes audit test. However, Koretz and Beguin (2010) noted weaknesses of audit tests and suggested self-monitoring assessments (SMAs), which incorporate audit items into high-stakes tests. This…

  8. Towards a Standardized e-Assessment System: Motivations, Challenges and First Findings

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Denis Helic

    2009-10-01

    Full Text Available “Global Learning” with shared learning contents, resources, activities and goals is one of the contributions of Globalization. With the capability to use new Information and Communication Technologies (ICT it is a bit easier to have a technology based learning systems that enable learners to share the learning resources and possibilities. As a result many Learning Management Systems (LMS were developed with divers of platforms and approaches. Consequently, sharing learning resources and components has become a major challenge. E-assessment as a primary activity of any LMS is facing the same challenges and problems. In order to stand on this challenge people in the field of technology enhanced learning have recommended that LMS should conform to specific standards. This paper discuses this challenge, the consequences and limitations of standards in the modern learning settings. Moreover, it shows a service oriented framework for assessment which aims to make the e-assessment systems flexible and also to initiate the term of “Global Learning Assessment” with the possibility of sharing the e-assessment system components.

  9. 78 FR 17383 - Notice of Availability of Environmental Assessment and Draft Finding of No Significant Impact...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-03-21

    ... programs for mobility fuel contracts, Direct Delivery Fuels (DDF) and Bulk Petroleum, which were considered...: The attached EA presents assessments of potential impacts to human health and the human environment... transportation and storage, including the current safety policies. The proposed action would have a negligible...

  10. Bruxism is unlikely to cause damage to the periodontium: findings from a systematic literature assessment

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Manfredini, D.; Ahlberg, J.; Mura, R.; Lobbezoo, F.

    2015-01-01

    Background: This paper systematically reviews the MEDLINE and SCOPUS literature to answer the following question: Is there any evidence that bruxism may cause periodontal damage per se? Methods: Clinical studies on humans, assessing the potential relationship between bruxism and periodontal lesions

  11. Applying GRADE-CERQual to qualitative evidence synthesis findings-paper 3: how to assess methodological limitations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Munthe-Kaas, Heather; Bohren, Meghan A; Glenton, Claire; Lewin, Simon; Noyes, Jane; Tunçalp, Özge; Booth, Andrew; Garside, Ruth; Colvin, Christopher J; Wainwright, Megan; Rashidian, Arash; Flottorp, Signe; Carlsen, Benedicte

    2018-01-25

    The GRADE-CERQual (Confidence in Evidence from Reviews of Qualitative research) approach has been developed by the GRADE (Grading of Recommendations Assessment, Development and Evaluation) Working Group. The approach has been developed to support the use of findings from qualitative evidence syntheses in decision-making, including guideline development and policy formulation. CERQual includes four components for assessing how much confidence to place in findings from reviews of qualitative research (also referred to as qualitative evidence syntheses): (1) methodological limitations, (2) coherence, (3) adequacy of data and (4) relevance. This paper is part of a series providing guidance on how to apply CERQual and focuses on CERQual's methodological limitations component. We developed the methodological limitations component by searching the literature for definitions, gathering feedback from relevant research communities and developing consensus through project group meetings. We tested the CERQual methodological limitations component within several qualitative evidence syntheses before agreeing on the current definition and principles for application. When applying CERQual, we define methodological limitations as the extent to which there are concerns about the design or conduct of the primary studies that contributed evidence to an individual review finding. In this paper, we describe the methodological limitations component and its rationale and offer guidance on how to assess methodological limitations of a review finding as part of the CERQual approach. This guidance outlines the information required to assess methodological limitations component, the steps that need to be taken to assess methodological limitations of data contributing to a review finding and examples of methodological limitation assessments. This paper provides guidance for review authors and others on undertaking an assessment of methodological limitations in the context of the CERQual

  12. Incidental Findings in the Use of DNA to Identify Human Remains: An Ethical Assessment

    OpenAIRE

    Parker, Lisa S.; London, Alex John; Aronson, Jay D.

    2012-01-01

    DNA analysis is increasingly used to identify the remains of victims of conflicts and disasters. This is especially true in cases where remains are badly damaged and fragmented, or where antemortem records are unavailable. Incidental findings (IFs)—that is, genetics-related information for which investigators were not looking—may result from these identification efforts employing DNA analysis. Because of the critical role played by family members of the missing in identification efforts, as w...

  13. How To Find, Assess And Value Open Innovation Opportunities By Leveraging IP Databases?

    OpenAIRE

    Germeraad, Paul; Vanhaverbeke, Wim

    2016-01-01

    An increasing number of companies are practicing open innovation by relying on external sources of technology. However, inbound open innovation is not always leading to the expected improvements in innovation performance. A key factor for success is quickly and reliably determining which technology or solution a company should source externally. In this study, we explore reliable ways of finding relevant technology using intellectual property databases. Open Innovation opportunities; lever...

  14. Quantitative Assessment of Synovial Vascularity Using Contrast-Enhanced Power Doppler Ultrasonography: Correlation with Histologic Findings and MR Imaging Findings in Arthritic Rabbit Knee Model

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Sang Hoon; Shin, Myung Jin; Kim, Seong Moon; Kim, Namkug; Suh, Sang Hyun [Asan Medical Center, University of Ulsan College of Medicine, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Suh, Jin Suck [Yonsei University College of Medicine, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2008-02-15

    To validate contrast-enhanced power Doppler ultrasonography (PD US) for the evaluation of synovial vascularity in an arthritic rabbit knee model in correlation with MR and histological findings. Power Doppler ultrasonography was performed for carrageenin-induced arthritic left knee and control right knee of 13 rabbits, first without and then with sonic contrast agent enhancement (Levovist, Schering, Berlin Germany), followed by gadolinium-enhanced MR imaging. Synovial vascularity was quantitatively assessed by calculating the color pixel area in power Doppler sonography using a computer-aided image analysis program and by grading the enhancement on MR images: grade 1, enhancement of knee joint is less than one-third of the area; grade 2, one-third to two-thirds enhancement; and grade 3, more than two-thirds enhancement. Microvessel density (MVD) was measured on slides stained immunohistochemically for CD31 antigen for histological assessment. The mean area of color pixels in PD US changed from 4.37 to 16.42 mm{sup 2} in the arthritic knee after enhancement (p < 0.05), whereas it changed from 0.77 to 2.31 mm{sup 2} in the control knee (p < 0.05). Arthritic knees had greater power Doppler signal than control knees both before and after contrast administration (p < 0.05). The average MVD was 88 in arthritic knees and 46 in control knees. MVDs correlated with color pixel areas of contrast-enhanced power Doppler imaging in arthritic knees. In MR grading of arthritic knees, five were grade 2 and eight were grade 3. MVD and PD US revealed no significant difference between grade 2 and 3 arthritic knees (p > 0.05). Sonic contrast-enhanced PD US improves the visualization of synovial vascularity and allows quantitative measurement in experimentally induced rabbit arthritic knees.

  15. The Shared Conceptual System and Language Processing in Bilingual Children: Findings from Literacy Assessment in Spanish and Nahuatl.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Francis, Norbert

    2000-01-01

    Findings are reported from a series of literacy assessments in which four classes of bilingual Grade 3 and Grade 5 students from an indigenous community in Central Mexico participated. Subjects who completed the battery of tests of reading and writing in Spanish and Nahuatl range from balanced bilinguals to Spanish-dominant speakers with at least…

  16. 75 FR 14637 - James A. FitzPatrick Nuclear Power Plant; Environmental Assessment and Finding of No Significant...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-03-26

    ... COMMISSION James A. FitzPatrick Nuclear Power Plant; Environmental Assessment and Finding of No Significant...), for the operation of the James A. FitzPatrick Nuclear Power Plant (JAFNPP) located in Oswego County... related to operation of James A. FitzPatrick Nuclear Power Plant Power Authority of the State of New York...

  17. 62 FR 56152 - Environmental Assessment and Finding of No Significant Impact for the BRAC 95 Disposal and Refuse...

    Science.gov (United States)

    1997-10-29

    ... environment. Issuance of a FNSI would be appropriate. An Environmental Impact Statement is not required prior... Department of the Army Environmental Assessment and Finding of No Significant Impact for the BRAC 95 Disposal and Refuse of the Detroit Army Tank Plant, Warren, Michigan AGENCY: Department of the Army, DoD...

  18. Analytic approaches for assessing long-term treatment effects. Examples of empirical applications and findings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hser, Y I; Shen, H; Chou, C P; Messer, S C; Anglin, M D

    2001-04-01

    Analytic approaches, including the structural equation model (autoregressive panel model), hierarchical linear model, latent growth curve model, survival/event history analysis, latent transition model, and time-series analysis (interrupted time series, multivariate time-series analysis) are discussed for their applicability to data of different structures and their utility in evaluating temporal effects of treatment. Methods are illustrated by presenting applications of the various approaches in previous studies examining temporal patterns of treatment effects. Recent advancements in these longitudinal modeling approaches and the accompanying computer software development offer tremendous flexibility in examining long-term treatment effects through longitudinal data with varying numbers and intervals of assessment and types of measures. A multimethod assessment will contribute to a more complete understanding of the complex phenomena of the long-term courses of substance use and its treatment.

  19. Definition and Reliability Assessment of Elementary Ultrasonographic Findings in Calcium Pyrophosphate Deposition Disease

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Filippou, Georgios; Scirè, Carlo A; Damjanov, Nemanja

    2017-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To define the ultrasonographic characteristics of calcium pyrophosphate crystal (CPP) deposits in joints and periarticular tissues and to evaluate the intra- and interobserver reliability of expert ultrasonographers in the assessment of CPP deposition disease (CPPD) according to the new...... definitions. METHODS: After a systematic literature review, a Delphi survey was circulated among a group of expert ultrasonographers, who were members of the CPPD Ultrasound (US) Outcome Measures in Rheumatology (OMERACT) subtask force, to obtain definitions of the US characteristics of CPPD at the level...... of fibrocartilage (FC), hyaline cartilage (HC), tendon, and synovial fluid (SF). Subsequently, the reliability of US in assessing CPPD at knee and wrist levels according to the agreed definitions was tested in static images and in patients with CPPD. Cohen's κ was used for statistical analysis. RESULTS: HC and FC...

  20. Study addiction - a new area of psychological study: conceptualization, assessment, and preliminary empirical findings

    OpenAIRE

    Atroszko, PA; Andreassen, CS; Griffiths, M.; Pallesen, S

    2015-01-01

    Aims: Recent research has suggested that for some individuals, educational studying may become compulsive and excessive and lead to ‘study addiction’. The present study conceptualized and assessed study addiction within the framework of workaholism, defining it as compulsive over-involvement in studying that interferes with functioning in other domains and that is detrimental for individuals and/or their environment. Methods: The Bergen Study Addiction Scale (BStAS) was tested - reflecting se...

  1. Research needs for community-based risk assessment: findings from a multi-disciplinary workshop.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sanchez, Yolanda Anita; Deener, Kacee; Hubal, Elaine Cohen; Knowlton, Carrie; Reif, David; Segal, Deborah

    2010-03-01

    Communities face exposures to multiple environmental toxicants and other non-chemical stressors. In addition, communities have unique activities and norms that influence exposure and vulnerability. Yet, few studies quantitatively consider the role of cumulative exposure and additive impacts. Community-based risk assessment (CBRA) is a new approach for risk assessment that aims to address the cumulative stressors faced by a particular community, while incorporating a community-based participatory research framework. This paper summarizes an Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) sponsored workshop, "Research Needs for Community-Based Risk Assessment." This workshop brought together environmental and public health scientists and practitioners for fostering an innovative discussion about tools, methods, models, and approaches for CBRA. This workshop was organized around three topics: (1) Data and Measurement Methods; (2) The Biological Impact of Non-Chemical Stressors and Interaction with Environmental Exposures; and (3) Statistical and Mathematical Modeling. This report summarizes the workshop discussions, presents identified research needs, and explores future research opportunities in this emerging field.

  2. Assessment of anal fistulas with high-resolution subtraction MR-fistulography: comparison with surgical findings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schaefer, Oliver; Lohrmann, Christian; Langer, Mathias

    2004-01-01

    To investigate a new MR-imaging protocol defined as subtraction MR-fistulography for the detection of fistula-in-ano. A total of 36 patients (18 men, 18 women) with the clinical diagnosis of anal fistula or abscess who were scheduled for surgical exploration were preoperatively imaged at 1.5 T in the supine position; coronal STIR sequences and axial T1-weighted three-dimensional FLASH sequences before and after intravenous injection of gadobenate dimeglumine (Gd-BOPTA) were obtained. Image subtraction was routinely used. The image findings were compared with the findings at surgical exploration according to a uniform classification system. A total of 46 fistulas were seen on subtraction MR-fistulography, whereas surgery described 41 fistulas. MRI and surgery concordantly depicted a total number of 40 fistulas, six fistulas were only described by MRI, and one fistula was only seen during surgery. A total of 27 abscesses were detected with MRI, compared to 22 during surgery. A total of 22 abscesses were concordantly diagnosed. Complete agreement between subtraction MR-fistulography and surgery occurred in 32 (89%) of the 36 patients. The four patients in whom both procedures disagreed had complex anal sepsis with multiple fistulas and/or abscesses due to Crohn disease. High-resolution subtraction MR-fistulography is an important complement to surgical exploration and especially suitable for investigating complex anal sepsis. Copyright 2003 Wiley-Liss, Inc.

  3. A Geomorphologically Driven Conditional Assessment for the Study of Urban Stone Decay

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnston, Brian; McKinley, Jennifer; Warke, Patricia; Ruffell, Alastair

    2017-04-01

    into consideration these limitations by undertaking two conditional assessments, using differing techniques, of wall sections at Fitzroy Presbyterian Church in Belfast. These assessments will be undertaken using a classification system focusing upon percentage of surface alteration. Initially, an assessment was carried out focussing on classifying each block individually. This was then followed by observations in a regular grid of 10x10cm squares across the wall sections. Results suggest that decay features develop beyond the extents of a single stone when situated within a larger built structure, with mortar and blocks providing both interconnectivity and barriers that influence the spread of decay. The results suggest the presence of three wall scale processes; urban microclimatic influencing capillary rise of ground water, architectural features creating a barrier and the passage of moisture through deteriorating mortar. Probe permeametry, GPR and 3D modelling of the wall sections were used to provide support for these findings. For the conservationist, application of a gridded observation approach is time consuming and of little use when deciding upon the remediation of individual blocks. However, in geomorphologically focused studies it facilitates a greater understanding of processes that extend beyond a single block, particularly when considering sites where the development of decay appears to be spatially complex.

  4. Lifecycle Assessment of Beijing-Area Building Energy Use and Emissions: Summary Findings and Policy Applications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Aden, Nathaniel; Qin, Yining; Fridley, David

    2010-09-15

    Buildings are at the locus of three trends driving China's increased energy use and emissions: urbanization, growing personal consumption, and surging heavy industrial production. Migration to cities and urban growth create demand for new building construction. Higher levels of per-capita income and consumption drive building operational energy use with demand for higher intensity lighting, thermal comfort, and plug-load power. Demand for new buildings, infrastructure, and electricity requires heavy industrial production. In order to quantify the implications of China's ongoing urbanization, rising personal consumption, and booming heavy industrial sector, this study presents a lifecycle assessment (LCA) of the energy use and carbon emissions related to residential and commercial buildings. The purpose of the LCA model is to quantify the impact of a given building and identify policy linkages to mitigate energy demand and emissions growth related to China's new building construction. As efficiency has become a higher priority with growing energy demand, policy and academic attention to buildings has focused primarily on operational energy use. Existing studies estimate that building operational energy consumption accounts for approximately 25% of total primary energy use in China. However, buildings also require energy for mining, extracting, processing, manufacturing, and transporting materials, as well as energy for construction, maintenance, and decommissioning. Building and supporting infrastructure construction is a major driver of industry consumption--in 2008 industry accounted for 72% of total Chinese energy use. The magnitude of new building construction is large in China--in 2007, for example, total built floor area reached 58 billion square meters. During the construction boom in 2007 and 2008, more than two billion m{sup 2} of building space were added annually; China's recent construction is estimated to account for half of global

  5. [Health impact assessment of policies for municipal solid waste management: findings of the SESPIR Project].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ranzi, Andrea; Ancona, Carla; Angelini, Paola; Badaloni, Chiara; Cernigliaro, Achille; Chiusolo, Monica; Parmagnani, Federica; Pizzuti, Renato; Scondotto, Salvatore; Cadum, Ennio; Forastiere, Francesco; Lauriola, Paolo

    2014-01-01

    The SESPIR Project (Epidemiological Surveillance of Health Status of Resident Population Around the Waste Treatment Plants) assessed the impact on health of residents nearby incinerators, landfills and mechanical biological treatment plants in five Italian regions (Emilia-Romagna, Piedmont, Lazio, Campania, and Sicily). The assessment procedure took into account the available knowledge on health effects of waste disposal facilities. Analyses were related to three different scenarios: a Baseline scenario, referred to plants active in 2008-2009; the regional future scenario, with plants expected in the waste regional plans; a virtuous scenario (Green 2020), based on a policy management of municipal solid waste (MSW) through the reduction of production and an intense recovery policy. Facing with a total population of around 24 million for the 5 regions, the residents nearby the plants were more than 380,000 people at Baseline. Such a population is reduced to approximately 330.000 inhabitants and 170.000 inhabitants in the regional and Green 2020 scenarios, respectively. The health impact was assessed for the period 2008-2040. At Baseline, 1-2 cases per year of cancer attributable to MSW plants were estimated, as well as 26 cases per year of adverse pregnancy outcomes (including low birth weight and birth defects), 102 persons with respiratory symptoms, and about a thousand affected from annoyance caused by odours. These annual estimates are translated into 2,725 years of life with disability (DALYs) estimated for the entire period. The DALYs are reduced by approximately 20% and 80% in the two future scenarios. Even in these cases, health impact is given by the greater effects on pregnancy and the annoyance associated with the odours of plants. In spite of the limitations due to the inevitable assumptions required by the present exercise, the proposed methodology is suitable for a first approach to assess different policies that can be adopted in regional planning in

  6. The National Epidemiologic Survey on Alcohol and Related Conditions (NESARC) Waves 1 and 2: Review and summary of findings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hasin, Deborah S.; Grant, Bridget F.

    2015-01-01

    Purpose The NESARC, a “third generation” psychiatric epidemiologic survey that integrated detailed measures of alcohol and drug use and problems, has been the data source for over >850 publications. A comprehensive review of NESARC findings and their implications is lacking. Method NESARC was a survey of 43,093 participants that covered alcohol, drug and psychiatric disorders, risk factors, and consequences. Wave 1 of the NESARC was conducted in 2001-2002. Three years later, Wave 2 follow-up re-interviews were conducted with 34,653 of the original participants. Scopus and Pubmed were used to search for NESARC papers, which were sorted into topic areas and summarized. Result The most common disorders were alcohol and post-traumatic stress disorders, and major depression. Females had more internalizing disorders and males had more externalizing disorders, although the preponderance of males with alcohol disorders (the “gender gap”) is less pronounced than it was in previous decades. A race/ethnic “paradox” (lower risk among disadvantaged minorities than whites) remains unexplained. Younger participants had higher risk for substance and personality disorders, but not unipolar depressive or anxiety disorders. Psychiatric comorbidity was extensive and often formed latent trans-diagnostic domains. Since 1991-1992, risk for marijuana and prescription drug disorders increased, while smoking decreased, although smoking decreases were less pronounced among those with comorbidity. A nexus of comorbidity, social support, and stress predicted transitions in diagnostic status between Waves 1 and 2. Childhood maltreatment predicted psychopathology. Alcohol and drug use disorders were seldom treated; attitudinal barriers (little perceived need, perceived alcoholism stigma, pessimism about efficacy) were more important in predicting non-treatment than financial barriers. Conclusions Understanding comorbidity and the effects of early stressors will require research

  7. Recent Canadian ophthalmology graduates: experiences in finding jobs and assessment of their training.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bellan, Lorne

    2012-06-01

    To examine the ability of recent Canadian ophthalmology graduates to commence clinical practice and obtain surgical privileges. A secondary objective was to assess their perception of the adequacy of their residency training. An Internet questionnaire survey. Canadian graduates of Canadian ophthalmology residency programs between 2005 and 2009, inclusive. Email addresses for the participants were obtained from the Canadian Ophthalmological Society and invitations to participate were sent, followed by 2 reminder emails. A 44% response rate was obtained (65 out of 154 emails sent). Of the respondents, 91% were working full time, and 89% had operating-room time. Training was adequate for all CanMEDs competencies except working as a manager. Assessment that one's practice did not live up to expectations correlated with male gender, dissatisfaction with location, inability to get operating-room time, inability to get other hospital resources, feelings about fairness of distribution of resources, and net income below expectations. For the most part, recent graduates are successful in establishing practices that meet their expectations. Training in management skills should be improved in residency programs. Copyright © 2012 Canadian Ophthalmological Society. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  8. Assessing the benefits of stereoscopic displays to visual search: methodology and initial findings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Godwin, Hayward J.; Holliman, Nick S.; Menneer, Tamaryn; Liversedge, Simon P.; Cave, Kyle R.; Donnelly, Nicholas

    2015-03-01

    Visual search is a task that is carried out in a number of important security and health related scenarios (e.g., X-ray baggage screening, radiography). With recent and ongoing developments in the technology available to present images to observers in stereoscopic depth, there has been increasing interest in assessing whether depth information can be used in complex search tasks to improve search performance. Here we outline the methodology that we developed, along with both software and hardware information, in order to assess visual search performance in complex, overlapping stimuli that also contained depth information. In doing so, our goal is to foster further research along these lines in the future. We also provide an overview with initial results of the experiments that we have conducted involving participants searching stimuli that contain overlapping objects presented on different depth planes to one another. Thus far, we have found that depth information does improve the speed (but not accuracy) of search, but only when the stimuli are highly complex and contain a significant degree of overlap. Depth information may therefore aid real-world search tasks that involve the examination of complex, overlapping stimuli.

  9. Study addiction--a new area of psychological study: conceptualization, assessment, and preliminary empirical findings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Atroszko, Paweł A; Andreassen, Cecilie Schou; Griffiths, Mark D; Pallesen, Ståle

    2015-06-01

    Recent research has suggested that for some individuals, educational studying may become compulsive and excessive and lead to 'study addiction'. The present study conceptualized and assessed study addiction within the framework of workaholism, defining it as compulsive over-involvement in studying that interferes with functioning in other domains and that is detrimental for individuals and/or their environment. The Bergen Study Addiction Scale (BStAS) was tested - reflecting seven core addiction symptoms (salience, mood modification, tolerance, withdrawal, conflict, relapse, and problems) - related to studying. The scale was administered via a cross-sectional survey distributed to Norwegian (n = 218) and Polish (n = 993) students with additional questions concerning demographic variables, study-related variables, health, and personality. A one-factor solution had acceptable fit with the data in both samples and the scale demonstrated good reliability. Scores on BStAS converged with scores on learning engagement. Study addiction (BStAS) was significantly related to specific aspects of studying (longer learning time, lower academic performance), personality traits (higher neuroticism and conscientiousness, lower extroversion), and negative health-related factors (impaired general health, decreased quality of life and sleep quality, higher perceived stress). It is concluded that BStAS has good psychometric properties, making it a promising tool in the assessment of study addiction. Study addiction is related in predictable ways to personality and health variables, as predicted from contemporary workaholism theory and research.

  10. Assessing the effectiveness of a longitudinal knowledge dissemination intervention: Sharing research findings in rural South Africa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rhian Twine

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Knowledge dissemination interventions (KDIs are integral to knowledge brokerage activities in research as part of the ethics of practice, but are seldom evaluated. In this case study, we critically reflect on an annual KDI as part of knowledge brokerage activities in the MRC/Wits-Agincourt Unit health and demographic surveillance system (HDSS in rural South Africa from 2001 to 2015. The HDSS findings on births, deaths and migrations, as well as nested research project results, were shared with villagers, village leaders and service providers. The data used for this case study comprised secondary analysis of 13 reports and 762 evaluation forms of annual village-based meetings; records of requests for data from stakeholders; and qualitative analysis of 15 individual and five focus group interviews with local leaders and service providers involving 60 people. Over time, the KDI evolved from taking place over one week a year to being extended over six months, and to include briefings with service providers and local leaders. Attendance at village-level meetings remained low at an average of 3 per cent of the total adult population. Since 2011, the KDI village-based meetings have developed into an embedded community forum for discussion of topical village issues. There has been a decrease in requests for health-care and other services from the research unit, with a concurrent increase in research-related questions and requests for data from service providers, village leaders and political representatives. We conclude that, in this setting, the dissemination of research findings is not a linear exchange of information from the researchers to village residents and their leadership, but is increasingly multi-directional. KDIs are a key component of knowledge brokerage activities and involve, influence and are influenced by other aspects of knowledge brokerage, such as identifying, engaging and connecting with stakeholders and supporting sustainability.

  11. Incidental findings in the use of DNA to identify human remains: an ethical assessment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parker, Lisa S; London, Alex John; Aronson, Jay D

    2013-02-01

    DNA analysis is increasingly used to identify the remains of victims of conflicts and disasters. This is especially true in cases where remains are badly damaged and fragmented, or where antemortem records are unavailable. Incidental findings (IFs)-that is, genetics-related information for which investigators were not looking-may result from these identification efforts employing DNA analysis. Because of the critical role played by family members of the missing in identification efforts, as well as the familial nature of DNA, identification initiatives employing DNA analysis are particularly prone to reveal IFs about familial relationships, such as misattributed paternity or false beliefs about sibling relationships. Despite forensic scientists' widespread awareness of the possibility of generating IFs, to date there has been relatively little explicit guidance about their management. This paper fills that gap. It offers substantive guidance about the ethical management of IFs in this context. To ensure that the analysis addresses actual needs and practices in the field, one author (JDA) conducted semi-structured interviews with key informants from six regionally diverse organizations involved in post-conflict or post-disaster identification efforts. The paper first describes how methods of DNA analysis give rise to IFs. Next, it explains the importance of developing an ethically justified general policy for managing IFs and discusses features of DNA identification efforts that are relevant to such a policy. Then it presents an argument in support of a general policy of nondisclosure-specifically, that considerations of fair access to the individual and social benefits of identification efforts, and the concern to minimize and fairly distribute the risks of participation, support a policy of nondisclosure. It concludes by considering some implications of this argument for the choice among scientific practices involved in using DNA analysis to identify human remains

  12. Health-related productivity losses increase when the health condition is co-morbid with psychological distress: findings from a large cross-sectional sample of working Australians

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-01-01

    Background The health condition of workers is known to impact on productivity outcomes. The relationship between health and productivity is of increasing interest amid the need to increase productivity to meet global financial challenges. Prevalence of psychological distress is also of growing concern in Australia with a two-fold increase in the prevalence of psychological distress in Australia from 1997-2005. Methods We used the cross-sectional data set from the Australian Work Outcomes Research Cost-benefit (WORC) study to explore the impacts of health conditions with and without co-morbid psychological distress, compared to those with neither condition, in a sample of approximately 78,000 working Australians. The World Health Organisation Health and Performance Questionnaire was used which provided data on demographic characteristics, health condition and working conditions. Data were analysed using negative binomial logistic regression and multinomial logistic regression models for absenteeism and presenteeism respectively. Results For both absenteeism and presenteeism productivity measures there was a greater risk of productivity loss associated when health conditions were co-morbid with psychological distress. For some conditions this risk was much greater for those with co-morbid psychological distress compared to those without. Conclusions Co-morbid psychological distress demonstrates an increased risk of productivity loss for a range of health conditions. These findings highlight the need for further research to determine whether co-morbid psychological distress potentially exacerbates lost productivity. PMID:21627840

  13. Health-related productivity losses increase when the health condition is co-morbid with psychological distress: findings from a large cross-sectional sample of working Australians

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vecchio Nerina

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The health condition of workers is known to impact on productivity outcomes. The relationship between health and productivity is of increasing interest amid the need to increase productivity to meet global financial challenges. Prevalence of psychological distress is also of growing concern in Australia with a two-fold increase in the prevalence of psychological distress in Australia from 1997-2005. Methods We used the cross-sectional data set from the Australian Work Outcomes Research Cost-benefit (WORC study to explore the impacts of health conditions with and without co-morbid psychological distress, compared to those with neither condition, in a sample of approximately 78,000 working Australians. The World Health Organisation Health and Performance Questionnaire was used which provided data on demographic characteristics, health condition and working conditions. Data were analysed using negative binomial logistic regression and multinomial logistic regression models for absenteeism and presenteeism respectively. Results For both absenteeism and presenteeism productivity measures there was a greater risk of productivity loss associated when health conditions were co-morbid with psychological distress. For some conditions this risk was much greater for those with co-morbid psychological distress compared to those without. Conclusions Co-morbid psychological distress demonstrates an increased risk of productivity loss for a range of health conditions. These findings highlight the need for further research to determine whether co-morbid psychological distress potentially exacerbates lost productivity.

  14. Prevalence and Correlates of DSM-5 Cannabis Use Disorder, 2012–2013: Findings from the National Epidemiologic Survey on Alcohol and Related Conditions – III

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hasin, Deborah S.; Kerridge, Bradley T.; Saha, Tulshi D.; Huang, Boji; Pickering, Roger; Smith, Sharon M.; Jung, Jeesun; Zhang, Haitao; Grant, Bridget F.

    2016-01-01

    Objective Attitudes towards marijuana are changing, the prevalence of DSM-IV cannabis use disorder has increased, and DSM-5 modified the diagnostic criteria for cannabis use disorders. Therefore, updated information is needed on the prevalence, demographic characteristics, psychiatric comorbidity, disability and treatment for DSM-5 cannabis use disorders in the US adult population. Method In 2012–2013, a nationally representative sample of 36,309 participants ≥18 years were interviewed in the National Epidemiologic Survey on Alcohol and Related Conditions-III (NESARC-III). Psychiatric and substance use disorders were assessed using the Alcohol Use Disorders and Associated Disabilities Interview Schedule-5. Results Prevalence of 12-month and lifetime marijuana use disorder was 2.5% and 6.3%. Among those with 12-month and lifetime marijuana use disorder, marijuana use was frequent; mean days used per year was 225.3 (SE=5.69) and 274.2 (SE=3.76). Odds of 12-month and lifetime marijuana use disorder were higher for men, Native Americans, those unmarried, with low incomes, and young adults, (e.g., OR=7.2, 95% CI 5.5–9.5 for 12-month disorder among those 18–24 years compared to those ≥45 years). Marijuana use disorder was associated with other substance disorders, affective, anxiety and personality disorders. Twelve-month marijuana use disorder was associated with disability. As disorder severity increased, virtually all associations became stronger. Only 24.3% with lifetime marijuana use disorder participated in 12-step programs or professional treatment. Conclusions DSM-5 marijuana use disorder is prevalent, associated with comorbidity and disability, and often untreated. Findings suggest the need to improve prevention methods, and educate the public, professionals and policy makers about the harms associated with marijuana use disorders and available interventions. PMID:26940807

  15. Online Information Exchanges for Parents of Children With a Rare Health Condition: Key Findings From an Online Support Community

    Science.gov (United States)

    Campo, Shelly; Lowe, John; Andsager, Julie; Morcuende, Jose A

    2013-01-01

    Background The Internet provides new opportunities for parents of children with difficult illnesses and disabilities to find information and support. The Internet is particularly important for caregivers of children with special needs due to numerous health-related decisions they face. For at-risk populations, online support communities can become key settings and channels for health promotion and communication. Objective This study is an initial exploration of the information-seeking and information-provision processes present in an online support community, which is an area of opportunity and interest for Internet-based medical research and practice. The aim of this study was to explore and describe information-related processes of uncertainty management in relationship to clubfoot. Specifically, the study explored interpersonal communication (information seeking and provision) in an online support community serving the needs of parents of children with clubfoot. Methods The study population consisted of messages posted to an online community by caregivers (parents) of children with clubfoot. The theoretical framework informing the study was the Uncertainty Management Theory (UMT). The study used content analysis to explore and categorize the content of 775 messages. Results Women authored 664 of 775 messages (86%) and men authored 47 messages (6%). Caregivers managed uncertainty through information seeking and provision behaviors that were dynamic and multilayered. The ratio of information-seeking messages to information-provision responses was 1 to 4. All five types of information-seeking behaviors proposed by Brashers’ schema were identified, most of them being correlated. Information seeking using direct questions was found to be positively correlated to self-disclosure (r=.538), offering of a candidate answer (r=.318), and passive information seeking (r=.253). Self-disclosure was found to be positively correlated to provision of a candidate answer (r=.324

  16. Assessing the benefits and the shortcomings of participation – findings from a test in Bari (Italy)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Franceschini, Simone; Marletto, Gerardo

    2015-01-01

    , thus confirming that the involvement of the relevant Authority is an essential requisite for successful participation. We suggest that the generation of new knowledge and learning could be further assured by the participation of citizens and stakeholders to the definition of the alternatives......Participation is advocated as an essential component of strategies and policies for sustainable urban mobility. This paper refers to the overall literature on participation and provides the design, test and ex-post evaluation of a deliberative-participative procedure (DPP) aimed at selecting a new......” and the “citizens’ jury”. The ex-post evaluation of the test confirmed ex-ante design choices. The DPP was effective and learning was generated: the use of understandable techniques for deliberation and assessment helped participants to generate an unambiguous final result which was based on the “hybridisation...

  17. Billy Shaw Dam and Reservoir : Environmental Assessment and Finding of No Significant Impacts.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    United States. Bonneville Power Administration; Shoshone-Paiute Tribes of the Duck Valley Reservation, Nevada.

    1997-03-01

    This notice announces BPA`s decision to fund the construction, operation, and maintenance of the Billy Shaw Dam and Reservoir on the Duck Valley Reservation. This project is part of a continuing effort to address system-wide fish and wildlife losses caused by the development of the hydropower system in the Columbia River Basin. BPA has prepared an Environmental Assessment (EA) evaluating the potential environmental impacts of the proposed project. Based on the analysis in the EA, BPA has determined that the Proposed Action is not a major Federal action significantly affecting the quality of the human environment, within the meaning of the National Environmental Policy Act (NEPA) of 1969. Therefore, the preparation of an Environmental Impact Statement (EIS) is not required and BPA is issuing this FONSI.

  18. Assessing Adherence to Antihypertensive Therapy in Primary Health Care in Namibia: Findings and Implications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nashilongo, M M; Singu, B; Kalemeera, F; Mubita, M; Naikaku, E; Baker, A; Ferrario, A; Godman, B; Achieng, L; Kibuule, D

    2017-12-01

    Namibia has the highest burden and incidence of hypertension in sub-Sahara Africa. Though non-adherence to antihypertensive therapy is an important cardiovascular risk factor, little is known about potential ways to improve adherence in Namibia following universal access. The objective of this study is to validate the Hill-Bone compliance scale and determine the level and predictors of adherence to antihypertensive treatment in primary health care settings in sub-urban townships of Windhoek, Namibia. Reliability was determined by Cronbach's alpha. Principal component analysis (PCA) was used to assess construct validity. The PCA was consistent with the three constructs for 12 items, explaining 24.1, 16.7 and 10.8% of the variance. Cronbach's alpha was 0.695. None of the 120 patients had perfect adherence to antihypertensive therapy, and less than half had acceptable levels of adherence (≥ 80%). The mean adherence level was 76.7 ± 8.1%. Three quarters of patients ever missed their scheduled clinic appointment. Having a family support system (OR = 5.4, 95% CI 1.687-27.6, p = 0.045) and attendance of follow-up visits (OR = 3.1, 95% CI 1.1-8.7, p = 0.03) were significant predictors of adherence. Having HIV/AIDs did not lower adherence. The modified Namibian version of the Hill-Bone scale is reliable and valid for assessing adherence to antihypertensives in Namibia. There is sub-optimal adherence to antihypertensive therapy among primary health cares in Namibia. This needs standardized systems to strengthen adherence monitoring as well as investigation of other factors including transport to take full advantage of universal access.

  19. Health impact assessment on urban development projects in France: finding pathways to fit practice to context.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roué-Le Gall, Anne; Jabot, Françoise

    2017-06-01

    In France, there is increasing interest in health impact assessments (HIAs) and most are performed on urban projects. The field of expertise is still under development and mostly established within the public health sector. To date, in France, all HIAs conducted in urban planning are stand-alone HIAs disconnected from the required environmental impact assessment (EIA). The paper opens with an introduction of the close and complex relationship between health and urban planning, HIA and a description of key elements needed for understanding the French context. Then, the paper analyses the context and the implementation process for four HIAs in progress in order to understand the specific characteristics of urban development, identify the key stages for introducing a health perspective into urban projects, and extract avenues to be explored when adapting HIAs applied to urban planning in France. Using a qualitative multiple case study design, an analysis framework was built to compare several aspects of the four HIAs and made it possible to highlight three pathways for adapting HIA to the urban planning sector: the schedule, links between the EIA and HIA, and the complementarity of the initiatives to involve residents. Legal measures enable a point of contact that brings health institutions and cities closer together. HIA is yet another tool that public authorities now have at their fingertips to work together in strengthening democracy and in reducing social, geographical and environmental health inequalities. More research must be undertaken to develop an understanding of the practice-related context; to judge HIA's capacity to draw on existing approaches in different fields; and to explore the different avenues leading to increased health, wellbeing and equity.

  20. Comparison of Health Information Technology Use Between American Adults With and Without Chronic Health Conditions: Findings From The National Health Interview Survey 2012.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Yan; Lauche, Romy; Sibbritt, David; Olaniran, Bolanle; Cook, Ronald; Adams, Jon

    2017-10-05

    Health information technology (HIT) is utilized by people with different chronic conditions such as diabetes and hypertension. However, there has been no comparison of HIT use between persons without a chronic condition, with one chronic condition, and multiple (≥2) chronic conditions (MCCs). The aim of the study was to assess the difference in HIT use between persons without a chronic condition, with one chronic condition, and with MCCs, to describe the characteristics of HIT use among those with chronic conditions and to identify the predictors of HIT use of the persons with one chronic condition and MCCs. A secondary data analysis was conducted in spring 2017 using the National Health Interview Survey (NHIS) 2012 Family Core and Sample Adult Core datasets that yielded 34,525 respondents aged 18 years and older. Measures included overall HIT use (ie, any use of the following five HIT on the Internet: seeking health information, ordering prescription, making appointment, emailing health provider, and using health chat groups), as well as sociodemographic and health-related characteristics. Sociodemographic and health characteristics were compared between HIT users and nonusers among those who reported having at least one chronic condition using chi-square tests. Independent predictors of HIT use were identified using multiple logistic regression analyses for those with one chronic condition, with MCCs, and without a chronic condition. Analyses were weighted and performed at significance level of .005. In 2012, adults with one health chronic condition (raw count 4147/8551, weighted percentage 48.54%) was significantly higher than among those with MCCs (3816/9637, 39.55%) and those with none of chronic condition (7254/16,337, 44.40%, P<.001). Seeking health information was the most prevalent HIT use. Chi-square tests revealed that among adults with chronic conditions, those who used HIT were significantly different from their counterpart peers who did not use HIT

  1. Assessment of the contralesional corticospinal tract in early-onset pediatric hemiplegia: Preliminary findings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hawe, Rachel L; Dewald, Jules P A

    2014-01-01

    While pediatric hemiplegia results from a unilateral lesion, the immature state of the brain at the time of injury increases the likelihood of observing changes in the non-lesioned hemisphere as well. The purpose of this preliminary study was to use diffusion tensor imaging to evaluate the contralesional corticospinal tracts in individuals with early-onset pediatric hemiplegia. Twelve individuals with pediatric hemiplegia and ten age-matched controls underwent diffusion tensor imaging (DTI). Corticospinal projections were reconstructed using probabilistic tractography for both the lesioned and contralesional side in pediatric hemiplegia as well as the dominant and non-dominant sides in control subjects. The contralesional tract was found to have decreased white matter integrity relative to control subjects. Compared to controls, the contralesional tract also showed increased tract volume. The increase in volume suggests the presence of ipsilateral corticospinal projections from the contralesional hemisphere that are maintained during development to control the paretic extremities. Decreases in integrity may be explained by diffuse damage or incomplete maturation. The findings of this study support the notion of bilateral motor involvement in pediatric hemiplegia, and the need to address bilateral neural changes as well as motor deficits in this population.

  2. Environmental Assessment and Finding of No Significant Impact: Pond B Dam Repair Project at the Savannah River Site

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    N/A

    1999-09-27

    The Department of Energy (DOE) has prepared an environmental assessment (EA) (DOE/EA-1285) for the proposed repair of the Pond B dam at the Savannah River Site (SRS), located near Aiken, South Carolina. Based on the analyses in the EA, DOE has determined that the proposed action is not a major Federal action significantly affecting the quality of the human environment within the meaning of the National Environmental Policy Act of 1969 (NEPA). Therefore, the preparation of an environmental impact statement (EIS) is not required, and DOE is issuing this Finding of No Significant Impact (FONSI) and Floodplain Statement of Findings.

  3. Environmental Assessment and Finding of No Significant Impact: Implementation of the Wetland Mitigation Bank Program at the Savannah River Site

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    N/A

    1999-04-28

    The Department of Energy (DOE) has prepared an environmental assessment (EA) (DOE/EA-1205) for the proposed implementation of a wetland mitigation bank program at the Savannah River Site (SRS), located near Aiken, South Carolina. Based on the analyses in the EA, DOE has determined that the proposed action is not a major Federal action significantly affecting the quality of the human environment within the meaning of the National Environmental Policy Act of 1969 (NEPA). Therefore, the preparation of an environmental impact statement (EIS) is not required, and DOE is issuing this Finding of No Significant Impact (FONSI) and Floodplain Statement of Findings.

  4. Assessment of Climate Change in the Southwest United States: Key Findings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garfin, G. M.

    2012-12-01

    The Assessment of Climate Change in the Southwest United States, is a technical input to the National Climate Assessment. The 121-author report summarizes knowledge about climate change and its impacts across Arizona, California, Colorado, Nevada, New Mexico, and Utah. The report looks at links between climate and natural resources, vulnerabilities to climate variability and change across the region and along the U.S.-Mexico border, and adaptation and mitigation choices for addressing future changes. The period since 1950 has been warmer than any period of comparable length in the last 600 years. Droughts of the past 2,000 years have exceeded the most severe and sustained drought during 1901-2010. In the last decade, flows in the major river basins of the Southwest have been lower than their 20th century averages; many snowmelt-fed streams in the region exhibited earlier snowmelt and earlier center of mass of annual streamflows. Climate models project continued temperature increases, with longer and hotter summer heat waves. Average precipitation is projected to decrease in the southern part of the region. Reduced streamflows are projected for the Rio Grande, Colorado, and San Joaquin rivers. More frequent and intense winter flooding is projected for the western Sierra Nevada, whereas Colorado Front Range summer flooding is projected to increase. Observed ecosystems impacts include changes in phenology, widespread forest disturbance due to the confluence of drought, increased temperatures, and changes to insect life cycles. Area burned by wildfire is projected to increase in most of the Southwest. Plant and animal species' distributions will be affected by climate change, and studies show that observed climate changes are strongly associated with observed changes in species' distributions. California coastal ecosystems will be affected by a combination of ocean warming, reduced oxygen content, sea level rise and ocean acidification. When west coast sea levels are

  5. Concrete Condition Assessment Using Impact-Echo Method and Extreme Learning Machines

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Jing-Kui; Yan, Weizhong; Cui, De-Mi

    2016-01-01

    The impact-echo (IE) method is a popular non-destructive testing (NDT) technique widely used for measuring the thickness of plate-like structures and for detecting certain defects inside concrete elements or structures. However, the IE method is not effective for full condition assessment (i.e., defect detection, defect diagnosis, defect sizing and location), because the simple frequency spectrum analysis involved in the existing IE method is not sufficient to capture the IE signal patterns associated with different conditions. In this paper, we attempt to enhance the IE technique and enable it for full condition assessment of concrete elements by introducing advanced machine learning techniques for performing comprehensive analysis and pattern recognition of IE signals. Specifically, we use wavelet decomposition for extracting signatures or features out of the raw IE signals and apply extreme learning machine, one of the recently developed machine learning techniques, as classification models for full condition assessment. To validate the capabilities of the proposed method, we build a number of specimens with various types, sizes, and locations of defects and perform IE testing on these specimens in a lab environment. Based on analysis of the collected IE signals using the proposed machine learning based IE method, we demonstrate that the proposed method is effective in performing full condition assessment of concrete elements or structures. PMID:27023563

  6. Concrete Condition Assessment Using Impact-Echo Method and Extreme Learning Machines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Jing-Kui; Yan, Weizhong; Cui, De-Mi

    2016-03-26

    The impact-echo (IE) method is a popular non-destructive testing (NDT) technique widely used for measuring the thickness of plate-like structures and for detecting certain defects inside concrete elements or structures. However, the IE method is not effective for full condition assessment (i.e., defect detection, defect diagnosis, defect sizing and location), because the simple frequency spectrum analysis involved in the existing IE method is not sufficient to capture the IE signal patterns associated with different conditions. In this paper, we attempt to enhance the IE technique and enable it for full condition assessment of concrete elements by introducing advanced machine learning techniques for performing comprehensive analysis and pattern recognition of IE signals. Specifically, we use wavelet decomposition for extracting signatures or features out of the raw IE signals and apply extreme learning machine, one of the recently developed machine learning techniques, as classification models for full condition assessment. To validate the capabilities of the proposed method, we build a number of specimens with various types, sizes, and locations of defects and perform IE testing on these specimens in a lab environment. Based on analysis of the collected IE signals using the proposed machine learning based IE method, we demonstrate that the proposed method is effective in performing full condition assessment of concrete elements or structures.

  7. An improved fuzzy synthetic condition assessment of a wind turbine generator system

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Li, H.; Hu, Y. G.; Yang, Chao

    2013-01-01

    This paper presents an improved fuzzy synthetic model that is based on a real-time condition assessment method of a grid-connected wind turbine generator system (WTGS) to improve the operational reliability and optimize the maintenance strategy. First, a condition assessment framework is proposed...... by analyzing the monitored physical quantities of an actual WTGS with an electrically excited synchronous generator (EESG) and a full-scale converter. To examine the variable speed operational performances, the dynamic limits and the deterioration degree functions of the characteristic variables are determined...

  8. Washington Wildlife Mitigation Projects : Final Programmatic Environmental Assessment and Finding of No Significant Impact.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    United States. Bonneville Power Administration; Washington (State). Dept. of Fish and Wildlife.

    1996-08-01

    Bonneville Power Administration (BPA) proposes to fund the portion of the Washington Wildlife Mitigation Agreement (Agreement) pertaining to wildlife habitat mitigation projects to be undertaken in a cooperative effort with the Washington Department of Fish and Wildlife (WDFW). This Agreement serves to establish a monetary budget funded by BPA for projects proposed by Washington Wildlife Coalition members and approved by BPA to protect, mitigate, and improve wildlife and/or wildlife habitat within the State of Washington that has been affected by the construction of Federal dams along the Columbia River. This Environmental Assessment examines the potential environmental effects of acquiring and/or improving wildlife habitat within five different project areas. These project areas are located throughout Grant County and in parts of Okanogan, Douglas, Adams, Franklin, Kittias, Yakima, and Benton Counties. The multiple projects would involve varying combinations of five proposed site-specific activities (habitat improvement, operation and maintenance, monitoring and evaluation, access and recreation management, and cultural resource management). All required Federal, State, and tribal coordination, permits and/or approvals would be obtained prior to ground-disturbing activities.

  9. Herbicide and insect resistant Bt cotton pollen assessment finds no detrimental effects on adult honey bees.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Niu, Lin; Ma, Weihua; Lei, Chaoliang; Jurat-Fuentes, Juan Luis; Chen, Lizhen

    2017-11-01

    One important concern regarding the use of transgenic cotton expressing insecticidal toxins from the bacterium Bacillus thuringiensis (Bt) is its potential detrimental effect on non-target organisms. The honey bee (Apis mellifera) is the most important pollinator species worldwide and it is directly exposed to transgenic crops by the consumption of genetically modified (GM) pollen. However, the potential effects of Bt cotton on A. mellifera remain unclear. In the present study, we assessed the effects of two Bt cotton varieties; ZMSJ expressing the Cry1Ac and Cry2Ab insecticidal proteins, and ZMKCKC producing Cry1Ac and EPSPS, on A. mellifera. Feeding on pollen from two Bt cotton varieties led to detection of low levels of Cry toxins (<10 ng/g fresh weight) in the midgut of A. mellifera adults, yet expression of detoxification genes did not change significantly compared to feeding on non-Bt cotton. Binding assays showed no Cry1Ac or Cry2Ab binding to midgut brush border membrane proteins from A. mellifera adults. Taken together, these results support minimal risk for potential negative effects on A. mellifera by exposure to Bt cotton. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Surface water drainage system. Environmental assessment and finding of no significant impact

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1996-05-01

    This Environmental Assessment (EA) is written pursuant to the National Environmental Policy Act (NEPA). The document identifies and evaluates the action proposed to correct deficiencies in, and then to maintain, the surface water drainage system serving the Department of Energy`s Rocky Flats Environmental Technology Site (Site), located north of Golden, Colorado. Many of the activities proposed would not normally be subject to this level of NEPA documentation. However, in many cases, maintenance of the system has been deferred to the point that wetlands vegetation has become established in some ditches and culverts, creating wetlands. The proposed activities would damage or remove some of these wetlands in order to return the drainage system to the point that it would be able to fully serve its intended function - stormwater control. The Department of Energy (DOE) regulations require that activities affecting environmentally sensitive areas like wetlands be the subject of an EA. Most portions of the surface water drainage system are presently inadequate to convey the runoff from a 100-year storm event. As a result, such an event would cause flooding across much of the Site and possibly threaten the integrity of the dams at the terminal ponds. Severe flooding would not only cause damage to facilities and equipment, but could also facilitate the transport of contaminants from individual hazardous substance sites (IHSSs). Uncontrolled flow through the A- and B-series ponds could cause contaminated sediments to become suspended and carried downstream. Additionally, high velocity flood flows significantly increase erosion losses.

  11. Assessment of Surgical Success Rate and Acoustic Test Findings in Children after Tympanostomy Tube Insertion

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    MH Baradaranfar

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Otoacoustic emissions are low density sounds produced from intact cochlea measureable in the presence of an intact conduction structure. The goal of this study was to assess the surgical success rate after tympanostomy tube insertion by Distortion Product Otoacoustic Emission (DPOAE and Transient Evoked Otoacoustic Emission (TEOAE as methods of evaluation of postoperative hearing. Methods: A descriptive-analytic study was conducted on 130 patients with OME. Audiometrical tests included TEOAE, DPOAE that were performed before, one month and three months after surgery on patients and results were compared. Results: Prior to surgery, TEOAE and DPOAE responses were not recordable in any of the patients, whereas after surgery, the responses were significant. Conclusion: OAE tests can be used as objective, simple tests in children, especially in toddlers who are not able to cooperate in performing PTA before surgery. These tests can be also be used for follow up of patients for hearing loss improvement and resolvement of middle ear effusion.

  12. Environmental Condition Assessment of US Military Installations Using GIS Based Spatial Multi-Criteria Decision Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singer, Steve; Wang, Guangxing; Howard, Heidi; Anderson, Alan

    2012-08-01

    Environment functions in various aspects including soil and water conservation, biodiversity and habitats, and landscape aesthetics. Comprehensive assessment of environmental condition is thus a great challenge. The issues include how to assess individual environmental components such as landscape aesthetics and integrate them into an indicator that can comprehensively quantify environmental condition. In this study, a geographic information systems based spatial multi-criteria decision analysis was used to integrate environmental variables and create the indicator. This approach was applied to Fort Riley Military installation in which land condition and its dynamics due to military training activities were assessed. The indicator was derived by integrating soil erosion, water quality, landscape fragmentation, landscape aesthetics, and noise based on the weights from the experts by assessing and ranking the environmental variables in terms of their importance. The results showed that landscape level indicator well quantified the overall environmental condition and its dynamics, while the indicator at level of patch that is defined as a homogeneous area that is different from its surroundings detailed the spatiotemporal variability of environmental condition. The environmental condition was mostly determined by soil erosion, then landscape fragmentation, water quality, landscape aesthetics, and noise. Overall, environmental condition at both landscape and patch levels greatly varied depending on the degree of ground and canopy disturbance and their spatial patterns due to military training activities and being related to slope. It was also determined the environment itself could be recovered quickly once military training was halt or reduced. Thus, this study provided an effective tool for the army land managers to monitor environmental dynamics and plan military training activities. Its limitation lies at that the obtained values of the indicator vary and are

  13. Environmental condition assessment of US military installations using GIS based spatial multi-criteria decision analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singer, Steve; Wang, Guangxing; Howard, Heidi; Anderson, Alan

    2012-08-01

    Environment functions in various aspects including soil and water conservation, biodiversity and habitats, and landscape aesthetics. Comprehensive assessment of environmental condition is thus a great challenge. The issues include how to assess individual environmental components such as landscape aesthetics and integrate them into an indicator that can comprehensively quantify environmental condition. In this study, a geographic information systems based spatial multi-criteria decision analysis was used to integrate environmental variables and create the indicator. This approach was applied to Fort Riley Military installation in which land condition and its dynamics due to military training activities were assessed. The indicator was derived by integrating soil erosion, water quality, landscape fragmentation, landscape aesthetics, and noise based on the weights from the experts by assessing and ranking the environmental variables in terms of their importance. The results showed that landscape level indicator well quantified the overall environmental condition and its dynamics, while the indicator at level of patch that is defined as a homogeneous area that is different from its surroundings detailed the spatiotemporal variability of environmental condition. The environmental condition was mostly determined by soil erosion, then landscape fragmentation, water quality, landscape aesthetics, and noise. Overall, environmental condition at both landscape and patch levels greatly varied depending on the degree of ground and canopy disturbance and their spatial patterns due to military training activities and being related to slope. It was also determined the environment itself could be recovered quickly once military training was halt or reduced. Thus, this study provided an effective tool for the army land managers to monitor environmental dynamics and plan military training activities. Its limitation lies at that the obtained values of the indicator vary and are

  14. [From Science to Law: Findings of Reha XI Project on Ascertaining the Need for Rehabilitation in Medical Service Assessments].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kalwitzki, T; Huter, K; Runte, R; Breuninger, K; Janatzek, S; Gronemeyer, S; Gansweid, B; Rothgang, H

    2017-03-01

    Introduction: In the broad-based consortium project "Reha XI - Identifying rehabilitative requirements in medical service assessments: evaluation and implementation", a comprehensive analysis of the corresponding procedures was carried out by the medical services of the German Health Insurance Funds (MDK). On the basis of this analysis, a Good Practice Standard (GPS) for assessments was drawn up and scientifically evaluated. This article discusses the findings and applicability of the GPS as the basis for a nationwide standardized procedure in Germany as required by the Second Act to Strengthen Long-Term Care (PSG II) under Vol. XI Para. 18 (6) of the German Social Welfare Code. Method: The consortium project comprised four project phases: 1. Qualitative and quantitative situation analysis of the procedures for ascertaining rehabilitative needs in care assessments carried out by the MDK; 2. Development of a Good Practice Standard (GPS) in a structured, consensus-based procedure; 3. Scientific evaluation of the validity, reliability and practicability of the assessment procedure according to the GPS in the MDK's operational practice; 4. Survey of long-term care insurance funds with respect to the appropriateness of the rehabilitation recommendations drawn up by care assessors in line with the GPS for providing a qualified recommendation for the applicant. The evaluation carried out in the third project phase was subject to methodological limitations that may have given rise to distortions in the findings. Findings: On the basis of the situation analysis, 7 major thematic areas were identified in which improvements were implemented by applying the GPS. For the evaluation of the GPS, a total of 3 247 applicants were assessed in line with the GPS; in 6.3% of the applicants, an indication for medical rehabilitation was determined. The GPS procedure showed a high degree of reliability and practicability, but the values for the validity of the assessment procedure were

  15. Southern California Socioeconomic Assessment: Sociodemographic Conditions, Projections, and Quality of Life Indices

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rachel Struglia; Patricia l. Winter; Andrea Meyer

    2003-01-01

    This report summarizes findings from the regional and county socioeconomic assessment conducted for southern California. The 26-county region extends from San Diego to the San Francisco Bay Area. A majority of the state’s population resides within this region, which surrounds the four southern California National Forests (Angeles, Cleveland, Los Padres, and San...

  16. Integrated policy making in England for adults with long-term neurological conditions (LTNCs: some preliminary findings from a scoping study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sylvia Bernard

    2008-07-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Long-term neurological conditions are a major cause of disability in the UK and internationally. Their successful management, in order to enhance health and well-being, requires both sophisticated organisation across a number of health, social care and other service boundaries, and the real involvement of people with neurological conditions and members of their support networks. Policy development: This paper reports on part of the preliminary scoping phase of a study designed to evaluate the impact of the National Service Framework for long-term neurological conditions on integrated care. It describes current policies in England and reports on discussions with a range of people involved in the planning, provision or use of services, which took place during the scoping exercise. These interviews inform how policy affecting people with long-term neurological conditions has been received and implemented so far. Conclusion and discussion: Findings suggest that progress towards integrated service provision is patchy and slow. In the competing priorities within government policy, neurological conditions have tended to be marginalised, within healthcare policy generally and in initiatives to support people with long-term conditions in particular. The reasons for this are explored and will inform the next stages of the research.

  17. Acoustic Signal Processing for Pipe Condition Assessment (WaterRF Report 4360)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Unique to prestressed concrete cylinder pipe (PCCP), individual wire breaks create an excitation in the pipe wall that may vary in response to the remaining compression of the pipe core. This project was designed to improve acoustic signal processing for pipe condition assessment...

  18. Satellite assessment of early season forecast for vegetation condition in grazing allotments in Nevada.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fifteen years of enhanced vegetation index data from the MODIS sensor are examined in conjunction with precipitation and the Palmer drought severity index to assess how well growing season conditions for vegetation within grazing allotments of Nevada can be predicted at different times of the year. ...

  19. 42 CFR 494.110 - Condition: Quality assessment and performance improvement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... that reflect processes of care and facility operations. These performance components must influence or... RENAL DISEASE FACILITIES Patient Care § 494.110 Condition: Quality assessment and performance... limited to, the following: (i) Adequacy of dialysis. (ii) Nutritional status. (iii) Mineral metabolism and...

  20. Building condition assessment: a performance evaluation tool towards sustainable asset management

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Abbott, GR

    2007-05-01

    Full Text Available Health Facilities Audit of hospitals in South Africa, condition assessments have evolved into a technology that adds a new dimension to strategic management and maintenance of buildings and related infrastructure. A five-point colour-coded rating system...

  1. Smart City Research : Contextual Conditions, Governance Models, and Public Value Assessment

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Meijer, Albert J.|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/172436729; Gil-Garcia, J. Ramon; Bolívar, Manuel Pedro Rodríguez

    2016-01-01

    There are three issues that are crucial to advancing our academic understanding of smart cities: (1) contextual conditions, (2) governance models, and (3) the assessment of public value. A brief review of recent literature and the analysis of the included papers provide support for the assumption

  2. Use of key grass species for assessing veld condition in the Eastern ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The current technique used in the Eastern Cape for assessing veld condition and trend assumes that the operator is able to identify all the grass species in the sample site. This is a serious limitation to its use by extension officers, consultants and farmers. Data from the Dohne Sourveld and the False Thornveld of the ...

  3. Assessment of Smolt Condition for Travel Time Analysis, 1993-1994 Annual Report.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schrock, Robin M; Beeman, John W; VanderKooi, Scott P [US Geological Survey, Western Fisheries Research Center, Columbia River Research Laboratory, Cook, WA

    1999-02-01

    The assessment of smolt condition for travel time analysis (ASCTTA) project provided information on the level of smoltification in Columbia River hatchery and wild salmonid stocks to the Fish Passage Center (FPC), for the primary purpose of in-river management of flows.

  4. The effect of a discrete signal on context conditioning: Assessment by preference and freezing tests

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Maes, J.H.R.; LoLordo, V.M.

    1996-01-01

    Four experiments with rats assessed conditioning to contextual cues after the delivery of footshocks that were either signaled by a discrete stimulus or unsignaled. Two different tests were used. The first was a context preference test in which subjects were allowed to move freely in a brightly lit,

  5. Neurological condition assessed with the Hempel examination and cognition and behaviour at 4 years

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schendelaar, Pamela; Seggers, Jorien; Heineman, Maas Jan; Hadders-Algra, Mijna

    Aim: To investigate associations between neurological condition, assessed with the Hempel examination, in terms of minor neurological dysfunction (MND) and neurological optimality, and cognition and behaviour at 4 years. Study design: Cross-sectional analyses within a prospective, assessor-blinded

  6. An assessment of the soil-conditioning capacity of gums exuded by ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This study assesses the soil conditioning capacity of tree gums based on the level of resistance to crumble posed by moulds of treated soils to the impacts of artificial raindrops. Gums exuded by trees viz., Acacia occidental and Parkia bicolor as well as a sample of poly(vinyl) alcohol (PVA) were used as soil conditioners.

  7. Condition assessment of power cables using partial discharge diagnosis at damped AC voltages

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wester, F.J.

    2004-01-01

    The thesis focuses on the condition assessment of the distribution power cables, which have a very critical part in the distribution of electrical power over regional distances. The majority of the outages in the power system is related to the distribution cables, of which for more than 60% to

  8. Review of Physical Based Monitoring Techniques for Condition Assessment of Corrosion in Reinforced Concrete

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ying Lei

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Monitoring the condition of steel corrosion in reinforced concrete (RC is imperative for structural durability. In the past decades, many electrochemistry based techniques have been developed for monitoring steel corrosion. However, these electrochemistry techniques can only assess steel corrosion through monitoring the surrounding concrete medium. As alternative tools, some physical based techniques have been proposed for accurate condition assessment of steel corrosion through direct measurements on embedded steels. In this paper, some physical based monitoring techniques developed in the last decade for condition assessment of steel corrosion in RC are reviewed. In particular, techniques based on ultrasonic guided wave (UGW and Fiber Bragg grating (FBG are emphasized. UGW based technique is first reviewed, including important characters of UGW, corrosion monitoring mechanism and feature extraction, monitoring corrosion induced deboning, pitting, interface roughness, and influence factors. Subsequently, FBG for monitoring corrosion in RC is reviewed. The studies and application of the FBG based corrosion sensor developed by the authors are presented. Other physical techniques for monitoring corrosion in RC are also introduced. Finally, the challenges and future trends in the development of physical based monitoring techniques for condition assessment of steel corrosion in RC are put forward.

  9. Description of a method for assessing veld condition in the Karoo ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Reports the results of a study conducted to assess the veld condition in the Karoo by means of the grazing-index method. The principles governing the method of botanical survey remains the same. The method is based on canopy-spread cover strikes, and these strikes are assumed to represent mass as well as number of ...

  10. Using underwater video imaging as an assessment tool for coastal condition

    Science.gov (United States)

    As part of an effort to monitor ecological conditions in nearshore habitats, from 2009-2012 underwater videos were captured at over 400 locations throughout the Laurentian Great Lakes. This study focuses on developing a video rating system and assessing video images. This ratin...

  11. [Assessment of psychological conditions for the use of firearms in law enforcement].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vilardell Molas, Jordi; Martí Agustí, Gabriel; Solé i Sanosa, M Angels

    2014-03-01

    To handle firearms safely, an individual needs to be in sound psychological conditions. This point is especially relevant in law enforcement, given that this group is likely to experience situations where there is a reasonably severe risk to life, physical integrity and that of third parties. These conditions cause high levels of stress and become a significant source of psychological strain. The assessment of these psychological conditions in law enforcement must stay ahead of this strain and should act preventively, establishing surveillance that is the product of a consensus between the needs of professionals and organizations. This evaluation should be conducted by technical specialists who understand and know the occupational reality of these professionals. A good assessment methodology starts with the need to discover the basic areas that need exploring, the ideal procedure for assessing these issues and the criteria that determine the aptitude (or lack thereof) for handling firearms. Once these goals have been established, we can be assured that the assessment will follow a set of principles that will give it homogeneity, effectiveness and efficiency. This type of assessment will help accomplish the mission that these security professionals are entrusted to by law, which is to protect the free exercise of rights and freedoms and ensure citizen safety. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier España, S.L. All rights reserved.

  12. Toxicity assessment of TiO{sub 2} nanoparticles in zebrafish embryos under different exposure conditions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Clemente, Z., E-mail: zairaclemente@yahoo.com.br [Laboratório de Ecotoxicologia e Biossegurança, Embrapa CNPMA, Jaguariúna, SP (Brazil); Programa de Pós-graduação em Biologia Funcional e Molecular, UNICAMP, Campinas, SP (Brazil); Castro, V.L.S.S. [Laboratório de Ecotoxicologia e Biossegurança, Embrapa CNPMA, Jaguariúna, SP (Brazil); Moura, M.A.M. [Laboratório da Ciência das Plantas Daninhas, Instituto Biológico, APTA/SAA, Campinas, SP (Brazil); Jonsson, C.M. [Laboratório de Ecotoxicologia e Biossegurança, Embrapa CNPMA, Jaguariúna, SP (Brazil); Fraceto, L.F. [Programa de Pós-graduação em Biologia Funcional e Molecular, UNICAMP, Campinas, SP (Brazil); Departamento de Engenharia Ambiental, UNESP, Sorocaba, SP (Brazil)

    2014-02-15

    Highlights: •Nano-TiO{sub 2} accelerated hatching of the larvae. •Exposure to anatase/rutile mixture under UV light altered the equilibrium and survival of the larvae. •Nano-TiO{sub 2} caused alterations in the activities of CAT and GST. -- Abstract: The popularity of TiO{sub 2} nanoparticles (nano-TiO{sub 2}) lies in their wide range of nanotechnological applications, together with low toxicity. Meanwhile, recent studies have shown that the photocatalytic properties of this material can result in alterations in their behavior in the environment, causing effects that have not yet been fully elucidated. The objective of this study was to evaluate the toxicity of two formulations of nano-TiO{sub 2} under different illumination conditions, using an experimental model coherent with the principle of the three Rs of alternative animal experimentation (reduction, refinement, and replacement). Embryos of the fish Danio rerio were exposed for 96 h to different concentrations of nano-TiO{sub 2} in the form of anatase (TA) or an anatase/rutile mixture (TM), under either visible light or a combination of visible and ultraviolet light (UV). The acute toxicity and sublethal parameters evaluated included survival rates, malformation, hatching, equilibrium, and overall length of the larvae, together with biochemical biomarkers (specific activities of catalase (CAT), glutathione S-transferase (GST), and acid phosphatase (AP)). Both TA and TM caused accelerated hatching of the larvae. Under UV irradiation, there was greater mortality of the larvae of the groups exposed to TM, compared to those exposed to TA. Exposure to TM under UV irradiation altered the equilibrium of the larvae. Alterations in the activities of CAT and GST were indicative of oxidative stress, although no clear dose-response relationship was observed. The effects of nano-TiO{sub 2} appeared to depend on both the type of formulation and the illumination condition. The findings contribute to elucidation of the

  13. Best in show but not best shape: a photographic assessment of show dog body condition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Such, Z R; German, A J

    2015-08-01

    Previous studies suggest that owners often wrongly perceive overweight dogs to be in normal condition. The body shape of dogs attending shows might influence owners' perceptions, with online images of overweight show winners having a negative effect. This was an observational in silico study of canine body condition. 14 obese-prone breeds and 14 matched non-obese-probe breeds were first selected, and one operator then used an online search engine to identify 40 images, per breed, of dogs that had appeared at a major national UK show (Crufts). After images were anonymised and coded, a second observer subjectively assessed body condition, in a single sitting, using a previously validated method. Of 1120 photographs initially identified, 960 were suitable for assessing body condition, with all unsuitable images being from longhaired breeds. None of the dogs (0 per cent) were underweight, 708 (74 per cent) were in ideal condition and 252 (26 per cent) were overweight. Pugs, basset hounds and Labrador retrievers were most likely to be overweight, while standard poodles, Rhodesian ridgebacks, Hungarian vizslas and Dobermanns were least likely to be overweight. Given the proportion of show dogs from some breeds that are overweight, breed standards should be redefined to be consistent with a dog in optimal body condition. British Veterinary Association.

  14. A Two-Dimensional Cloud Model for Condition Assessment of HVDC Converter Transformers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Linjie Zhao

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Converter transformers are the key and the most important components in high voltage direct current (HVDC power transmission systems. Statistics show that the failure rate of HVDC converter transformers is approximately twice of that of transformers in AC power systems. This paper presents an approach integrated with a two-dimensional cloud model and an entropy-based weight model to evaluate the condition of HVDC converter transformers. The integrated approach can describe the complexity of HVDC converter transformers and achieve an effective assessment of their condition. Data from electrical testing, DGA, oil testing, and visual inspection were chosen to form the double-level assessment index system. Analysis results show that the integrated approach is capable of providing a relevant and effective assessment which in turn, provides valuable information for the maintenance of HVDC converter transformers.

  15. Using Online Assessment to Replace Invigilated Assessment in Times of Natural Disaster: Are Some Online Assessment Conditions Better than Others?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Agnew, Steve; Hickson, Stephen

    2012-01-01

    As a result of the Canterbury earthquake on 4 September 2010, and associated aftershocks on 22 February 2011 and 13 June 2011, final examinations in the two first-year Economics papers at Canterbury University were cancelled at short notice in Semester 1, 2011. The final examination weightings were spread over the remaining assessments to obtain a…

  16. Monitoring and Assessment of Military Installation Land Condition under Training Disturbance Using Remote Sensing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rijal, Santosh

    Various military training activities are conducted in more than 11.3 million hectares of land (> 5,500 training sites) in the United States (U.S.). These training activities directly and indirectly degrade the land. Land degradation can impede continuous military training. In order to sustain long term training missions and Army combat readiness, the environmental conditions of the military installations need to be carefully monitored and assessed. Furthermore, the National Environmental Policy Act of 1969 (NEPA) and the U.S. Army Regulation 200-2 require the DoD to minimize the environmental impacts of training and document the environmental consequences of their actions. To achieve these objectives, the Department of Army initiated an Integrated Training Area Management (ITAM) program to manage training lands through assessing their environmental requirements and establishing policies and procedures to achieve optimum, sustainable use of training lands. One of the programs under ITAM, Range and Training Land Assessment (RTLA) was established to collect field-based data for monitoring installation's environmental condition. Due to high cost and inefficiencies involved in the collection of field data, the RTLA program was stopped in several military installations. Therefore, there has been a strong need to develop an efficient and low cost remote sensing based methodology for assessing and monitoring land conditions of military installations. It is also important to make a long-term assessment of installation land condition for understanding cumulative impacts of continuous military training activities. Additionally, it is unclear that compared to non-military land condition, to what extent military training activities have led to the degradation of land condition for military installations. The first paper of this dissertation developed a soil erosion relevant and image derived cover factor (ICF) based on linear spectral mixture (LSM) analysis to assess and

  17. Exploring classical conditioning for strengthening the links between semantic and lexical representations in pure anomia: Preliminary findings from a single case study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zannino, Gian Daniele; Barban, Francesco; Caltagirone, Carlo; Carlesimo, Giovanni A

    2017-03-01

    The same language symptom might arise at different functional loci in people with aphasia. Therefore, it is plausible that different therapeutic interventions should be adopted to approach the same difficulties in different patients. Although this point of view is still widely accepted, recently the focus has shifted from the functional locus of a rehabilitative intervention to the mechanisms of action underlying the relearning process. We maintain that both aspects should be taken into account when programming a rehabilitative intervention; furthermore, investigating relearning mechanisms might shed new light on the functional architecture of the disrupted processes. Here, we investigated, in a single case study, whether classical conditioning was a suitable relearning paradigm for targeting word-finding difficulties in pure anomia, that is in a patient with an impairment in accessing intact output lexical representations from a spared semantic system. Using a word-repetition task on picture presentation, we contrasted a condition in which the stimulus onset asynchrony between word and picture stimuli was well suited to produce classical conditioning with a condition in which repetition training could not benefit from this learning mechanism. Only classical conditioning training exerted a significant, long-lasting effect on our patient's naming skill. Tentative implications of our results for the functional architecture of single-word processing are discussed. © 2015 The British Psychological Society.

  18. Remote monitoring as a tool in condition assessment of a highway bridge

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tantele, Elia A.; Votsis, Renos A.; Onoufriou, Toula; Milis, Marios; Kareklas, George

    2016-08-01

    The deterioration of civil infrastructure and their subsequent maintenance is a significant problem for the responsible managing authorities. The ideal scenario is to detect deterioration and/or structural problems at early stages so that the maintenance cost is kept low and the safety of the infrastructure remains undisputed. The current inspection regimes implemented mostly via visual inspection are planned at specific intervals but are not always executed on time due to shortcomings in expert personnel and finance. However the introduction of technological advances in the assessment of infrastructures provides the tools to alleviate this problem. This study describes the assessment of a highway RC bridge's structural condition using remote structural health monitoring. A monitoring plan is implemented focusing on strain measurements; as strain is a parameter influenced by the environmental conditions supplementary data are provided from temperature and wind sensors. The data are acquired using wired sensors (deployed at specific locations) which are connected to a wireless sensor unit installed at the bridge. This WSN application enables the transmission of the raw data from the field to the office for processing and evaluation. The processed data are then used to assess the condition of the bridge. This case study, which is part of an undergoing RPF research project, illustrates that remote monitoring can alleviate the problem of missing structural inspections. Additionally, shows its potential to be the main part of a fully automated smart procedure of obtaining structural data, processed them and trigger an alarm when certain undesirable conditions are met.

  19. The recent findings of the "Scientific Assessment of Ozone Depletion: 2010" and the World Avoided by the Montreal Protocol

    Science.gov (United States)

    Newman, P. A.; Scientific Assessment Panel to the Montreal Protocol

    2011-12-01

    The ozone layer is the Earth's natural sunscreen, blocking harmful solar ultraviolet radiation. In 1974, Mario Molina and F. Sherwood Rowland proposed that the ozone layer could be depleted by chlorine released from human-produced chlorofluorocarbons (CFCs). Follow-up science investigations supported this hypothesis, leading to the landmark 1987 Montreal Protocol on Substances That Deplete the Ozone Layer (a protocol to the Vienna Convention for the Protection of the Ozone Layer). One of the Montreal Protocol provisions is that science assessments on ozone depletion be written and submitted to the signatory Parties every 4 years. In this talk, I will primarily focus on the science findings from the recently published "Scientific Assessment of Ozone Depletion: 2010". This assessment is written and reviewed (multiple times) by the international science community. The 2010 assessment is the latest in a long series of reports that provide the science foundation for the Montreal Protocol. This assessment demonstrates that the Montreal Protocol is working, and that there are early signs that ozone is beginning to respond to decreasing CFC levels. There are now state-of-the-art simulations that show that the ozone layer would have been largely destroyed if CFCs had not been regulated, and therefore extreme levels of UV radiation have been avoided. The 2010 assessment also spotlights new insights into the impact of ozone depletion on surface climate, and climate impacts on ozone. However, the assessment also reveals that greenhouse gases are modifying the stratosphere and that the ozone layer will evolve into a different state than its pre-industrial values - you can't go home again.

  20. A Modelling Framework to Assess the Effect of Pressures on River Abiotic Habitat Conditions and Biota.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jochem Kail

    Full Text Available River biota are affected by global reach-scale pressures, but most approaches for predicting biota of rivers focus on river reach or segment scale processes and habitats. Moreover, these approaches do not consider long-term morphological changes that affect habitat conditions. In this study, a modelling framework was further developed and tested to assess the effect of pressures at different spatial scales on reach-scale habitat conditions and biota. Ecohydrological and 1D hydrodynamic models were used to predict discharge and water quality at the catchment scale and the resulting water level at the downstream end of a study reach. Long-term reach morphology was modelled using empirical regime equations, meander migration and 2D morphodynamic models. The respective flow and substrate conditions in the study reach were predicted using a 2D hydrodynamic model, and the suitability of these habitats was assessed with novel habitat models. In addition, dispersal models for fish and macroinvertebrates were developed to assess the re-colonization potential and to finally compare habitat suitability and the availability/ability of species to colonize these habitats. Applicability was tested and model performance was assessed by comparing observed and predicted conditions in the lowland Treene River in northern Germany. Technically, it was possible to link the different models, but future applications would benefit from the development of open source software for all modelling steps to enable fully automated model runs. Future research needs concern the physical modelling of long-term morphodynamics, feedback of biota (e.g., macrophytes on abiotic habitat conditions, species interactions, and empirical data on the hydraulic habitat suitability and dispersal abilities of macroinvertebrates. The modelling framework is flexible and allows for including additional models and investigating different research and management questions, e.g., in climate impact

  1. A Modelling Framework to Assess the Effect of Pressures on River Abiotic Habitat Conditions and Biota.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kail, Jochem; Guse, Björn; Radinger, Johannes; Schröder, Maria; Kiesel, Jens; Kleinhans, Maarten; Schuurman, Filip; Fohrer, Nicola; Hering, Daniel; Wolter, Christian

    2015-01-01

    River biota are affected by global reach-scale pressures, but most approaches for predicting biota of rivers focus on river reach or segment scale processes and habitats. Moreover, these approaches do not consider long-term morphological changes that affect habitat conditions. In this study, a modelling framework was further developed and tested to assess the effect of pressures at different spatial scales on reach-scale habitat conditions and biota. Ecohydrological and 1D hydrodynamic models were used to predict discharge and water quality at the catchment scale and the resulting water level at the downstream end of a study reach. Long-term reach morphology was modelled using empirical regime equations, meander migration and 2D morphodynamic models. The respective flow and substrate conditions in the study reach were predicted using a 2D hydrodynamic model, and the suitability of these habitats was assessed with novel habitat models. In addition, dispersal models for fish and macroinvertebrates were developed to assess the re-colonization potential and to finally compare habitat suitability and the availability/ability of species to colonize these habitats. Applicability was tested and model performance was assessed by comparing observed and predicted conditions in the lowland Treene River in northern Germany. Technically, it was possible to link the different models, but future applications would benefit from the development of open source software for all modelling steps to enable fully automated model runs. Future research needs concern the physical modelling of long-term morphodynamics, feedback of biota (e.g., macrophytes) on abiotic habitat conditions, species interactions, and empirical data on the hydraulic habitat suitability and dispersal abilities of macroinvertebrates. The modelling framework is flexible and allows for including additional models and investigating different research and management questions, e.g., in climate impact research as well as

  2. How general practitioners perceive and assess self-care in patients with multiple chronic conditions: a qualitative study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kristensen, Mads Aage Toft; Hølge-Hazelton, Bibi; Waldorff, Frans Boch; Guassora, Ann Dorrit

    2017-12-22

    It is not known how general practitioners (GPs) perceive the concept of self-care and how they assess self-care ability in patients with multiple chronic conditions. As a part of the strategy to improve the care of people living with chronic conditions, disease management programs in Denmark require GPs and other health care workers to assess and support patients' self-care ability. The aim of the present study was to explore GPs' perceptions and assessment of self-care ability in patients with multiple chronic conditions who have difficulty following a given treatment. A qualitative study conducted through in-depth, semi-structured interviews with a purposive sample of 12 GPs in rural areas of Denmark with economically disadvantaged populations. The interviews involved 36 complex patient cases selected by the GPs themselves. Our analysis followed the principles of systematic text condensation. Most GPs in our study had a health-related perception of self-care, but some had a broader perception encompassing the situational context of the patient's life. The GPs' assessments of patients' self-care ability were based on information from the ongoing and often long-term relationships with the patients. GPs identified four major factors that influenced patients' self-care ability, which accumulated and fluctuated over time: multimorbidity, cognitive resources, material resources, and the patients' social contexts. The GPs in this study had dual perceptions of self-care, related to both the chronic health conditions and to the broader situational contexts of their patients' lives. GPs' assessments of self-care ability depended largely on their experiences from the doctor-patient relationship, and they emphasized that the factors affecting self-care ability were highly dynamic over the patient's lifetime. However, these findings might be resisted by the Danish disease management programs, which tend to have a static and more narrow, health-related view of patient self

  3. Planning for sustainable tourism in southern Pulau Banggi: an assessment of biophysical conditions and their implications for future tourism development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Teh, Lydia; Cabanban, Annadel S

    2007-12-01

    A priori assessments of a site's biophysical and socio-economic capacity for accommodating tourism are less common than tourism impact studies. A priori evaluations can provide a contextual understanding of ecological, economic and socio-cultural forces, which shape the prospects for sustainable tourism development at the host destination, and can avert adverse impacts of tourism. We conduct an a priori assessment of the biophysical environment of Pulau Banggi, in the Malaysian state of Sabah for sustainable tourism development. We characterise baseline conditions of the island's marine biodiversity, seasonality, and infrastructure. We then evaluate how existing biophysical conditions will influence options for sustainable tourism development. In particular, we suggest conditions, if there are any, which constitute a limit to future tourism development in terms of compatibility for recreation and resilience to visitor impacts. We find that the biggest constraint is the lack of adequate water and sanitation infrastructure. Blast fishing, although occurring less than once per hour, can potentially destroy the major attraction for tourists. We conclude that while Pulau Banggi possesses natural qualities that are attractive for ecotourism, financial and institutional support must be made available to provide facilities and services that will enable local participation in environmental protection and enhance prospects for future sustainable tourism.

  4. Surface-water-quality assessment of the Yakima River Basin in Washington: Overview of major findings, 1987-91

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morace, Jennifer L.; Fuhrer, Gregory J.; Rinella, Joseph F.; McKenzie, Stuart W.; Gannett, Marshall W.; Bramblett, Karen L.; Pogue, Ted R.; Skach, Kenneth A.; Embrey, Sandra S.; Cuffney, Thomas F.; Meador, Michael R.; Porter, Stephen D.; Gurtz, Martin E.

    1999-01-01

    Surface-water-quality conditions were assessed in the Yakima River Basin, which drains 6,155 square miles of mostly forested, range, and agricultural land in Washington. The Yakima River Basin is one of the most intensively farmed and irrigated areas in the United States, and is often referred to as the “Nation’s Fruitbowl.” Natural and anthropogenic sources of contaminants and flow regulation control water-quality conditions throughout the basin. This report summarizes the spatial and temporal distribution, sources, and implications of the dissolved oxygen, water temperature, pH, suspended sediment, nutrient, organic compound (pesticide), trace element, fecal indicator bacteria, radionuclide, and aquatic ecology data collected during the 1987–91 water years.

  5. Language lateralization of a bilingual person with epilepsy using a combination of fMRI and neuropsychological assessment findings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Grady, Christopher; Omisade, Antonina; Sadler, R Mark

    2016-10-01

    This report describes the findings of language functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) in a left-handed Urdu and English speaker with right hemisphere-originating epilepsy and unclear language dominance. fMRI is a reliable method for determining hemispheric language dominance in presurgical planning. However, the effects of bilingualism on language activation depend on many factors including age of acquisition and proficiency in the tested language, and morphological properties of the language itself. This case demonstrates that completing fMRI in both spoken languages and interpreting the results within the context of a neuropsychological assessment are essential in arriving at accurate conclusions about language distribution in bilingual patients.

  6. Current Conditions Risk Assessment for the 300-FF-5 Groundwater Operable Unit

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Miley, Terri B.; Bunn, Amoret L.; Napier, Bruce A.; Peterson, Robert E.; Becker, James M.

    2007-11-01

    This report updates a baseline risk assessment for the 300 Area prepared in 1994. The update includes consideration of changes in contaminants of interest and in the environment that have occurred during the period of interim remedial action, i.e., 1996 to the present, as well as the sub-regions, for which no initial risk assessments have been conducted. In 1996, a record of decision (ROD) stipulated interim remedial action for groundwater affected by releases from 300 Area sources, as follows: (a) continued monitoring of groundwater that is contaminated above health-based levels to ensure that concentrations continue to decrease, and (b) institutional controls to ensure that groundwater use is restricted to prevent unacceptable exposure to groundwater contamination. In 2000, the groundwater beneath the two outlying sub-regions was added to the operable unit. In 2001, the first 5-year review of the ROD found that the interim remedy and remedial action objectives were still appropriate, although the review called for additional characterization activities. This report includes a current conditions baseline ecological and human health risk assessment using maximum concentrations in the environmental media of the 300-FF-5 Operable Unit and downstream conditions at the City of Richland, Washington. The scope for this assessment includes only current measured environmental concentrations and current use scenarios. Future environmental concentrations and future land uses are not considered in this assessment.

  7. Neurological condition assessed with the Hempel examination and cognition and behaviour at 4years.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schendelaar, Pamela; Seggers, Jorien; Heineman, Maas Jan; Hadders-Algra, Mijna

    2017-09-01

    To investigate associations between neurological condition, assessed with the Hempel examination, in terms of minor neurological dysfunction (MND) and neurological optimality, and cognition and behaviour at 4years. Cross-sectional analyses within a prospective, assessor-blinded follow-up study. Four-year-old singletons born to subfertile parents (n=235; 120 boys). Outcome parameters were complex minor neurological dysfunction (complex MND) and the neurological optimality score (NOS). Cognitive outcome was evaluated with the Kaufman Assessment Battery for Children, resulting in a total intelligence quotient (IQ). Behavioural outcome was evaluated with the Child Behavior Checklist, resulting in a total problem T-score. Fifty-seven (24.3%) children had complex MND. None of the children showed fine motor dysfunction, suggesting a ceiling effect of the Hempel assessment. Complex MND was not correlated with IQ or total problem T-score. Nevertheless, a higher NOS was correlated with a higher IQ and a lower total problem T-score (adjusted mean estimate [95% confidence interval]: cognition: 0.445 [0.026; 0.865], p=0.038; behaviour: -0.458 [-0.830; -0.087], p=0.016). At age 4, complex MND assessed with the Hempel assessment was not associated with cognition and behaviour, presumably due to a ceiling effect in the Hempel domain of fine motor function. A more optimal neurological condition was associated with higher IQ and better behaviour. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  8. Prevalence of neurological conditions across the continuum of care based on interRAI assessments

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-01-01

    Background Although multiple studies have estimated the prevalence of neurological conditions in the general Canadian population, limited research exists regarding the proportion affected with these conditions in non-acute health care settings in Canada. Data from standardized clinical assessments based on the interRAI suite of instruments were used to estimate the prevalence of eight neurological conditions across the continuum of care including Alzheimer’s disease, Parkinson’s disease, epilepsy, traumatic brain injury, multiple sclerosis, cerebral palsy, Huntington’s disease, and amyotrophic lateral sclerosis. Methods Cohorts of individuals receiving care in nursing homes (N=103,820), home care (N=91,021), complex continuing care (N=10,581), and psychiatric hospitals (N=23,119) in Canada were drawn based on their most recent interRAI assessment within each sector for a six-month period in 2010. These data were linked to the Discharge Abstract Database and National Ambulatory Care Reporting System data sets to develop five different case definition scenarios for estimating prevalence. Results The conditions with the highest estimated prevalences in these care settings in Canada were Alzheimer’s disease and related dementias, Parkinson’s disease, epilepsy, and traumatic brain injury. However, there were notable cross-sector differences in the prevalence of each condition, and regional variations. Prevalence estimates based on acute hospital administrative data alone were substantially lower for all conditions evaluated. Conclusions The proportion of persons with neurological conditions in non-acute health care settings in Canada is substantially higher than is generally reported for the general population. It is essential for these care settings to have the expertise and resources to respond effectively to the strengths, preferences, and needs of the growing population of persons with neurological conditions. The use of hospital or emergency department

  9. Assessment of nerve involvement in the lumbar spine: agreement between magnetic resonance imaging, physical examination and pain drawing findings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bertilson, Bo C; Brosjö, Eva; Billing, Hans; Strender, Lars-Erik

    2010-09-10

    Detection of nerve involvement originating in the spine is a primary concern in the assessment of spine symptoms. Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) has become the diagnostic method of choice for this detection. However, the agreement between MRI and other diagnostic methods for detecting nerve involvement has not been fully evaluated. The aim of this diagnostic study was to evaluate the agreement between nerve involvement visible in MRI and findings of nerve involvement detected in a structured physical examination and a simplified pain drawing. Sixty-one consecutive patients referred for MRI of the lumbar spine were - without knowledge of MRI findings - assessed for nerve involvement with a simplified pain drawing and a structured physical examination. Agreement between findings was calculated as overall agreement, the p value for McNemar's exact test, specificity, sensitivity, and positive and negative predictive values. MRI-visible nerve involvement was significantly less common than, and showed weak agreement with, physical examination and pain drawing findings of nerve involvement in corresponding body segments. In spine segment L4-5, where most findings of nerve involvement were detected, the mean sensitivity of MRI-visible nerve involvement to a positive neurological test in the physical examination ranged from 16-37%. The mean specificity of MRI-visible nerve involvement in the same segment ranged from 61-77%. Positive and negative predictive values of MRI-visible nerve involvement in segment L4-5 ranged from 22-78% and 28-56% respectively. In patients with long-standing nerve root symptoms referred for lumbar MRI, MRI-visible nerve involvement significantly underestimates the presence of nerve involvement detected by a physical examination and a pain drawing. A structured physical examination and a simplified pain drawing may reveal that many patients with "MRI-invisible" lumbar symptoms need treatment aimed at nerve involvement. Factors other than present

  10. Afternoon Napping and Cognition in Chinese Older Adults: Findings from the China Health and Retirement Longitudinal Study Baseline Assessment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Junxin; Cacchione, Pamela Z; Hodgson, Nancy; Riegel, Barbara; Keenan, Brendan T; Scharf, Mathew T; Richards, Kathy C; Gooneratne, Nalaka S

    2017-02-01

    To examine the cross-sectional associations between self-reported postlunch napping and structured cognitive assessments in Chinese older adults. Cross-sectional cohort study. China. Individuals aged 65 and older from the baseline national wave of the China Health and Retirement Longitudinal Study (CHARLS) (N = 2,974). Interview-based cognitive assessments of orientation and attention, episodic memory, visuospatial abilities, and a combined global cognition score incorporating these assessments. Other self-reported or interview-based assessments included postlunch napping duration, nighttime sleep duration, demographic characteristics, health habits, comorbidities, functional status and social activities. According to reported napping duration, older adults were categorized as non-nappers (0 minutes), short nappers (90 minutes). Postlunch napping was reporting in 57.7% of participants for a mean of 63 minutes. Cognitive function was significantly associated with napping (P napping was significantly associated with better cognition than non- (P = .004), short (P = .04), and extended napping (P = .002), after controlling for demographic characteristics, body mass index, depression, instrumental activities of daily living, social activities, and nighttime sleep duration. A cross-sectional association was found between moderate postlunch napping and better cognition in Chinese older adults. The cross-sectional design and self-reported measures of sleep limited the findings. Longitudinal studies with objective napping measures are needed to further test this hypothesis. © 2016, Copyright the Authors Journal compilation © 2016, The American Geriatrics Society.

  11. Inertial Measures of Motion for Clinical Biomechanics: Comparative Assessment of Accuracy under Controlled Conditions - Effect of Velocity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lebel, Karina; Boissy, Patrick; Hamel, Mathieu; Duval, Christian

    2013-01-01

    Background Inertial measurement of motion with Attitude and Heading Reference Systems (AHRS) is emerging as an alternative to 3D motion capture systems in biomechanics. The objectives of this study are: 1) to describe the absolute and relative accuracy of multiple units of commercially available AHRS under various types of motion; and 2) to evaluate the effect of motion velocity on the accuracy of these measurements. Methods The criterion validity of accuracy was established under controlled conditions using an instrumented Gimbal table. AHRS modules were carefully attached to the center plate of the Gimbal table and put through experimental static and dynamic conditions. Static and absolute accuracy was assessed by comparing the AHRS orientation measurement to those obtained using an optical gold standard. Relative accuracy was assessed by measuring the variation in relative orientation between modules during trials. Findings Evaluated AHRS systems demonstrated good absolute static accuracy (mean error motions (mean error between 0.5o and 3.1o). In slow motions, relative accuracy varied from 2o to 7o depending on the type of AHRS and the type of rotation. Absolute and relative accuracy were significantly affected (pmotions. The extent of that effect varied across AHRS. Interpretation Absolute and relative accuracy of AHRS are affected by environmental magnetic perturbations and conditions of motions. Relative accuracy of AHRS is mostly affected by the ability of all modules to locate the same global reference coordinate system at all time. Conclusions Existing AHRS systems can be considered for use in clinical biomechanics under constrained conditions of use. While their individual capacity to track absolute motion is relatively consistent, the use of multiple AHRS modules to compute relative motion between rigid bodies needs to be optimized according to the conditions of operation. PMID:24260324

  12. Condition Assessment and End-of-Life Prediction System for Electric Machines and Their Loads

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parlos, Alexander G.; Toliyat, Hamid A.

    2005-01-01

    An end-of-life prediction system developed for electric machines and their loads could be used in integrated vehicle health monitoring at NASA and in other government agencies. This system will provide on-line, real-time condition assessment and end-of-life prediction of electric machines (e.g., motors, generators) and/or their loads of mechanically coupled machinery (e.g., pumps, fans, compressors, turbines, conveyor belts, magnetic levitation trains, and others). In long-duration space flight, the ability to predict the lifetime of machinery could spell the difference between mission success or failure. Therefore, the system described here may be of inestimable value to the U.S. space program. The system will provide continuous monitoring for on-line condition assessment and end-of-life prediction as opposed to the current off-line diagnoses.

  13. Condition assessment of corroded steel rebar in free space using synthetic aperture radar images

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ingemi, Christopher M.; Owusu Twumasi, Jones; Litt, Swinderjit; Yu, Tzuyang

    2017-04-01

    Synthetic aperture radar (SAR) imaging of construction materials offers civil engineers an opportunity to better assess the condition of aging civil infrastructures such as reinforced concrete (RC) structures. Corrosion of steel rebar in RC structures is a major problem responsible for their premature failure and unexpected collapse. In this paper, SAR imaging is applied to the quantitative assessment of corroded steel rebar in free space as the first step toward the use of SAR imaging for subsurface sensing of aging RC structures. A 10 GHz stripmap SAR system was used inside an anechoic chamber. The bandwidth of the radar system was 1.5 GHz. Steel rebar specimens were artificially corroded to different levels by regularly applying a mist of 5% NaCl solution for different durations of time in order to simulate the condition of natural corrosion. Two sizes (No. 3 and No. 4) of steel rebar were used in this research. Different orientations of steel rebar were considered. Corrosion level was determined by measuring the mass loss of corroded steel rebar specimens. From our results, feasibility of SAR images for the condition assessment of corroded steel rebar was experimentally demonstrated. It was found that the presence of surface rust on corroded steel rebar reduces the amplitude in SAR images. The SAR image of corroded steel rebar also exhibited a distribution of SAR amplitudes different from the one of intact steel rebar. In addition, it was also found that there is an optimal range for the condition assessment of corroded steel rebar in free space. In our experiment, the optimal range was determined to be 30.4 cm.

  14. Condition Assessment of a 2,500-Year-Old Mummy Coffin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robert J. Ross; Turker Dundar

    2012-01-01

    This work was conducted to assess the condition of a 2,500-year-old mummy coffin. The coffin, part of a collection of funerary objects at the Nelson–Atkins Museum of Art in St. Louis, Missouri, is made of wood obtained from a sycamore fig tree, Ficus sycomorus. Visual and acoustic-based nondestructive testing techniques were used to inspect the...

  15. Defense Facility Condition: Revised Guidance Needed to Improve Oversight of Assessments and Ratings

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-06-01

    and repair amounts could change in future financial statements as the services complete implementation of the standardized process. Separate from...and financial reports; interviewed installation officials; and held 16 focus groups at a non-generalizable sample of eight U.S. installations...are to implement the standardized process in part by assessing the condition of buildings, pavement, and rail using the same set of software tools

  16. Global structural condition assessment of highway bridges by ambient vibration monitoring

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feng, Maria Q.; Chen, Yangbo; Tan, Chin-An

    2005-05-01

    Structural condition assessment of highway bridges has long been relying on visual inspection, which, however, involves subjective judgment of the inspector and detects only local flaws. Local flaws might not affect the global performance of the bridge. By instrumenting bridges with accelerometers and other sensors, one is able to monitor ambient or forced vibration of the bridge and assess its global structural condition. Ambient vibration measurement outwits forced vibration measurement in that it requires no special test arrangement, such as traffic control or a heavy shaker. As a result, it can be continuously executed while the bridge is under its normal serving condition. For short-to mid-span highway bridges, ambient vibration is predominantly due to traffic excitation, inducing the bridge to vibrate mainly in vertical direction. Based on its physical nature, traffic excitation is modeled as moving loads from the passing vehicles whose arrivals and speeds are extracted from digital video. Traffic-induced vibration provides valuable information for assessing the health of super-structure, but is less sensitive to possible seismic damage in the sub-structure. During earthquakes, bridges are excited in all directions by short-duration un-stationary ground motion, and are expected to better reveal their sub-structure integrity. Therefore, traffic-induced and ground-motion-induced ambient vibration data are treated separately in this paper for different assessment objectives, because of the different characteristics and measurability of the excitation. By continuously monitoring the ambient vibration of the instrumented bridge, its global structural conditions of both super- and sub-structures can be evaluated with possible damage locations identified, which will aid local non-destructive evaluation or visual inspection to further localize and access the damage.

  17. Assessment of condition in pejerrey Odontesthes bonariensis (Atheriniformes: Atherinopsidae populations: which index works best?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Claudio R. M. Baigún

    Full Text Available The pejerrey Odontesthes bonariensis is the most important target species in temperate freshwater fisheries of Argentina, and assessment of condition has been a regular practice and common diagnostic tool. Most pejerrey fishery studies have used Fulton's (K index, without testing whether underlying assumptions or requirements were met. We analyzed and contrasted the applicability of K, Kn and Wr indices to assess condition status in several pejerrey populations inhabiting Pampean lakes. Our results showed that whereas Wr and Kn displayed significant condition changes across length at some study lakes, Kn portrayed a small range of variation. We also noted that pejerrey maximum length and size structure strongly varied among populations probably due to the characteristics of trophic niche changes through lifespan, depending on lake limnological characteristics and zooplankton availability. We conclude that the K index should be disregarded in those cases where populations show allometric growth and size ranges strongly vary. In turn, the Kn index appears to be only appropriate for regular within population assessment, being difficult to apply when comparisons between populations are needed and when they exhibit different weight-length relationship slopes. Finally, the Wr index should be strongly preferred if the objective is to perform comparisons between pejerrey populations, particularly when population structure is not well known, stocking has been used for population recovery, lakes are strongly supported by limnological changes, data are limited to only one or few samplings and metaphoetesis is suspected in pejerrey populations.

  18. Assessment of the Conditions for Introducing the All-Day Model in Basic Schools

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andreja Tinta

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available The results of the PISA 2000 prompted the German school authorities to extend the network of all-day schools and already the results of the PISA 2012 research showed good students results justify the actions in the direction of designing a quality educational system in Germany. So, we wondered, whether Slovenian basic schools meet the conditions for the introduction of the full-day model. We carried out a non-experimental survey on a sample of headteachers who were asked to assess the spatial and personnel conditions for the implementation of the all-day basic school. In doing so, we paid attention to the differences in terms of the stratum and the number of students. The survey showed that, regardless of the stratum and the number of pupils, most of the schools met the relevant conditions. The schools in which these have not been met yet, could assure them with minimum financial investment.

  19. Assessing changes in a patient's condition – perspectives of intensive care nurses

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kvande, Monica; Delmar, Charlotte; Lykkeslet, Else

    2017-01-01

    to the bedside and (4) being trained and familiar with the routines. Conclusions Nurses understand each patient's situation and foresee clinical eventualities through a sensitive and attentive way of thinking and working. This requires nurses to be present at the bedside with both their senses (sight, hearing......Aim To explore the phenomenon of assessing changes in patients' conditions in intensive care units from the perspectives of experienced intensive care nurses. Background Providing safe care for patients in intensive care units requires an awareness and perception of the signs that indicate changes...... in a patient's condition. Nurses in intensive care units play an essential role in preventing the deterioration of a patient's condition and in improving patient outcomes. Design and methods This hermeneutic phenomenological study conducted close observations and in-depth interviews with 11 intensive care...

  20. Model Development for Risk Assessment of Driving on Freeway under Rainy Weather Conditions.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiaonan Cai

    Full Text Available Rainy weather conditions could result in significantly negative impacts on driving on freeways. However, due to lack of enough historical data and monitoring facilities, many regions are not able to establish reliable risk assessment models to identify such impacts. Given the situation, this paper provides an alternative solution where the procedure of risk assessment is developed based on drivers' subjective questionnaire and its performance is validated by using actual crash data. First, an ordered logit model was developed, based on questionnaire data collected from Freeway G15 in China, to estimate the relationship between drivers' perceived risk and factors, including vehicle type, rain intensity, traffic volume, and location. Then, weighted driving risk for different conditions was obtained by the model, and further divided into four levels of early warning (specified by colors using a rank order cluster analysis. After that, a risk matrix was established to determine which warning color should be disseminated to drivers, given a specific condition. Finally, to validate the proposed procedure, actual crash data from Freeway G15 were compared with the safety prediction based on the risk matrix. The results show that the risk matrix obtained in the study is able to predict driving risk consistent with actual safety implications, under rainy weather conditions.

  1. Towards a sampling strategy for the assessment of forest condition at European level: combining country estimates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Travaglini, Davide; Fattorini, Lorenzo; Barbati, Anna; Bottalico, Francesca; Corona, Piermaria; Ferretti, Marco; Chirici, Gherardo

    2013-04-01

    A correct characterization of the status and trend of forest condition is essential to support reporting processes at national and international level. An international forest condition monitoring has been implemented in Europe since 1987 under the auspices of the International Co-operative Programme on Assessment and Monitoring of Air Pollution Effects on Forests (ICP Forests). The monitoring is based on harmonized methodologies, with individual countries being responsible for its implementation. Due to inconsistencies and problems in sampling design, however, the ICP Forests network is not able to produce reliable quantitative estimates of forest condition at European and sometimes at country level. This paper proposes (1) a set of requirements for status and change assessment and (2) a harmonized sampling strategy able to provide unbiased and consistent estimators of forest condition parameters and of their changes at both country and European level. Under the assumption that a common definition of forest holds among European countries, monitoring objectives, parameters of concern and accuracy indexes are stated. On the basis of fixed-area plot sampling performed independently in each country, an unbiased and consistent estimator of forest defoliation indexes is obtained at both country and European level, together with conservative estimators of their sampling variance and power in the detection of changes. The strategy adopts a probabilistic sampling scheme based on fixed-area plots selected by means of systematic or stratified schemes. Operative guidelines for its application are provided.

  2. The Next Generation of Risk Assessment Multi-Year Study—Highlights of Findings, Applications to Risk Assessment, and Future Directions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cote, Ila; Andersen, Melvin E.; Ankley, Gerald T.; Barone, Stanley; Birnbaum, Linda S.; Boekelheide, Kim; Bois, Frederic Y.; Burgoon, Lyle D.; Chiu, Weihsueh A.; Crawford-Brown, Douglas; Crofton, Kevin M.; DeVito, Michael; Devlin, Robert B.; Edwards, Stephen W.; Guyton, Kathryn Z.; Hattis, Dale; Judson, Richard S.; Knight, Derek; Krewski, Daniel; Lambert, Jason; Maull, Elizabeth Anne; Mendrick, Donna; Paoli, Gregory M.; Patel, Chirag Jagdish; Perkins, Edward J.; Poje, Gerald; Portier, Christopher J.; Rusyn, Ivan; Schulte, Paul A.; Simeonov, Anton; Smith, Martyn T.; Thayer, Kristina A.; Thomas, Russell S.; Thomas, Reuben; Tice, Raymond R.; Vandenberg, John J.; Villeneuve, Daniel L.; Wesselkamper, Scott; Whelan, Maurice; Whittaker, Christine; White, Ronald; Xia, Menghang; Yauk, Carole; Zeise, Lauren; Zhao, Jay; DeWoskin, Robert S.

    2016-01-01

    Background: The Next Generation (NexGen) of Risk Assessment effort is a multi-year collaboration among several organizations evaluating new, potentially more efficient molecular, computational, and systems biology approaches to risk assessment. This article summarizes our findings, suggests applications to risk assessment, and identifies strategic research directions. Objective: Our specific objectives were to test whether advanced biological data and methods could better inform our understanding of public health risks posed by environmental exposures. Methods: New data and methods were applied and evaluated for use in hazard identification and dose–response assessment. Biomarkers of exposure and effect, and risk characterization were also examined. Consideration was given to various decision contexts with increasing regulatory and public health impacts. Data types included transcriptomics, genomics, and proteomics. Methods included molecular epidemiology and clinical studies, bioinformatic knowledge mining, pathway and network analyses, short-duration in vivo and in vitro bioassays, and quantitative structure activity relationship modeling. Discussion: NexGen has advanced our ability to apply new science by more rapidly identifying chemicals and exposures of potential concern, helping characterize mechanisms of action that influence conclusions about causality, exposure–response relationships, susceptibility and cumulative risk, and by elucidating new biomarkers of exposure and effects. Additionally, NexGen has fostered extensive discussion among risk scientists and managers and improved confidence in interpreting and applying new data streams. Conclusions: While considerable uncertainties remain, thoughtful application of new knowledge to risk assessment appears reasonable for augmenting major scope assessments, forming the basis for or augmenting limited scope assessments, and for prioritization and screening of very data limited chemicals. Citation: Cote I

  3. The Next Generation of Risk Assessment Multi-Year Study-Highlights of Findings, Applications to Risk Assessment, and Future Directions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cote, Ila; Andersen, Melvin E; Ankley, Gerald T; Barone, Stanley; Birnbaum, Linda S; Boekelheide, Kim; Bois, Frederic Y; Burgoon, Lyle D; Chiu, Weihsueh A; Crawford-Brown, Douglas; Crofton, Kevin M; DeVito, Michael; Devlin, Robert B; Edwards, Stephen W; Guyton, Kathryn Z; Hattis, Dale; Judson, Richard S; Knight, Derek; Krewski, Daniel; Lambert, Jason; Maull, Elizabeth Anne; Mendrick, Donna; Paoli, Gregory M; Patel, Chirag Jagdish; Perkins, Edward J; Poje, Gerald; Portier, Christopher J; Rusyn, Ivan; Schulte, Paul A; Simeonov, Anton; Smith, Martyn T; Thayer, Kristina A; Thomas, Russell S; Thomas, Reuben; Tice, Raymond R; Vandenberg, John J; Villeneuve, Daniel L; Wesselkamper, Scott; Whelan, Maurice; Whittaker, Christine; White, Ronald; Xia, Menghang; Yauk, Carole; Zeise, Lauren; Zhao, Jay; DeWoskin, Robert S

    2016-11-01

    The Next Generation (NexGen) of Risk Assessment effort is a multi-year collaboration among several organizations evaluating new, potentially more efficient molecular, computational, and systems biology approaches to risk assessment. This article summarizes our findings, suggests applications to risk assessment, and identifies strategic research directions. Our specific objectives were to test whether advanced biological data and methods could better inform our understanding of public health risks posed by environmental exposures. New data and methods were applied and evaluated for use in hazard identification and dose-response assessment. Biomarkers of exposure and effect, and risk characterization were also examined. Consideration was given to various decision contexts with increasing regulatory and public health impacts. Data types included transcriptomics, genomics, and proteomics. Methods included molecular epidemiology and clinical studies, bioinformatic knowledge mining, pathway and network analyses, short-duration in vivo and in vitro bioassays, and quantitative structure activity relationship modeling. NexGen has advanced our ability to apply new science by more rapidly identifying chemicals and exposures of potential concern, helping characterize mechanisms of action that influence conclusions about causality, exposure-response relationships, susceptibility and cumulative risk, and by elucidating new biomarkers of exposure and effects. Additionally, NexGen has fostered extensive discussion among risk scientists and managers and improved confidence in interpreting and applying new data streams. While considerable uncertainties remain, thoughtful application of new knowledge to risk assessment appears reasonable for augmenting major scope assessments, forming the basis for or augmenting limited scope assessments, and for prioritization and screening of very data limited chemicals. Citation: Cote I, Andersen ME, Ankley GT, Barone S, Birnbaum LS, Boekelheide K

  4. Assessment of hypervapotron heat sink performance using CFD under DEMO relevant first wall conditions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Domalapally, Phani, E-mail: p_kumar.domalapally@cvrez.cz

    2016-11-01

    Highlights: • Performance of Hypervapotron heat sink was tested for First wall limiter application. • Two different materials were tested Eurofer 97 and CuCrZr at PWR conditions. • Simulations were performed to see the effect of the different inlet conditions and materials on the maximum temperature. • It was found that CuCrZr heat sink performance is far better than Eurofer heat sink at the same operating conditions. - Abstract: Among the proposed First Wall (FW) cooling concepts for European Demonstration Fusion Power Plant (DEMO), water cooled FW is one of the options. The heat flux load distribution on the FW of the DEMO reactor is not yet precisely defined. But if the heat loads on the FW are extrapolated from ITER conditions, the numbers are quite high and have to be handled none the less. The design of the FW itself is challenging as the thermal conductivity ratio of heat sink materials in ITER (CuCrZr) and in DEMO (Eurofer 97) is ∼10–12 and the operating conditions are of Pressurized Water Reactor (PWR) in DEMO instead of 70 °C and 4 MPa as in ITER. This paper analyzes the performance of Hypervapotron (HV) heat sink for FW limiter application under DEMO conditions. Where different materials, temperatures, heat fluxes and velocities are considered to predict the performance of the HV, to establish its limits in handling the heat loads before reaching the upper limits from temperature point of view. In order to assess the performance, numerical simulations are performed using commercial CFD code, which was previously validated in predicting the thermal hydraulic performance of HV geometry. Based on the results the potential usage of HV heat sink for DEMO will be assessed.

  5. Development of a methodological tool for the assessment of the hydromorphological conditions of lakes in Europe

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gay, Aurore; Argillier, Christine; Reynaud, Nathalie; Nicolas, Delphine; Baudoin, Jean-Marc

    2017-04-01

    The assessment of the ecological status of surface waters considering the biological, physico-chemical and hydromorphological conditions is requested by the European Water Framework Directive (WFD). If research efforts have particularly concentrated on rivers, lakes have yet received less attention. Nevertheless, due to their function of receptacles of inland waters, the habitats they provide to an important biodiversity and the numerous services they support (water supply, recreational activities, hydroelectricity), assessing the ecological quality of lakes becomes crucial for their protection. Still, this task remains challenging, especially considering the hydromorphological compartments. Indeed, while promising tools already exist to assess the lake biological and physico-chemical status, our comprehension of the impact of hydromophological impairments on the global ecosystem functioning remains poor and existing tools to assess such impacts often focus only on morphological aspects and in a qualitative rather than quantitative way. In this context, our study aims at providing stakeholders with a methodology to assess quantitatively the hydrological and morphological quality of lakes in Europe. The developed methodology, LAKe HYdromorphological Conditions tool (LAKHYC tool) is based on our current knowledge of the functioning of lakes and pre-existing works (e.g., Rowan et al., 2012; Rinaldi et al., 2013). The LAKHYC tool integrates the six parameters requested by the WFD, each one being assessed by at least three descriptors that are calculated as Ecological Quality Ratios, i.e. as the deviation from a reference condition. The originality of the present method lies in the fact that specific reference conditions are defined for each descriptor. In this way, we avoid using a predetermined set of lakes considered as not impacted by human activities and which often corresponds to natural lakes in specific areas (e.g., mountains) and do not represent the diversity

  6. The Design of Research Laboratories. Part I: A General Assessment. Part II: Air Conditioning and Conditioned Rooms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Legget, R. F.; Hutcheon, N. B.

    Design factors in the planning of research laboratories are described which include--(1) location, (2) future expansion, (3) internal flexibility, (4) provision of services, (5) laboratory furnishing, (6) internal traffic, (7) space requirements, and (8) building costs. A second part discusses air-conditioning and conditioned rooms--(1)…

  7. Operation reliability assessment for cutting tools by applying a proportional covariate model to condition monitoring information.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cai, Gaigai; Chen, Xuefeng; Li, Bing; Chen, Baojia; He, Zhengjia

    2012-09-25

    The reliability of cutting tools is critical to machining precision and production efficiency. The conventional statistic-based reliability assessment method aims at providing a general and overall estimation of reliability for a large population of identical units under given and fixed conditions. However, it has limited effectiveness in depicting the operational characteristics of a cutting tool. To overcome this limitation, this paper proposes an approach to assess the operation reliability of cutting tools. A proportional covariate model is introduced to construct the relationship between operation reliability and condition monitoring information. The wavelet packet transform and an improved distance evaluation technique are used to extract sensitive features from vibration signals, and a covariate function is constructed based on the proportional covariate model. Ultimately, the failure rate function of the cutting tool being assessed is calculated using the baseline covariate function obtained from a small sample of historical data. Experimental results and a comparative study show that the proposed method is effective for assessing the operation reliability of cutting tools.

  8. Increasing the reliability of online insulation condition assessment of MV-HV equipment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Agou, S.; Tsvetkov, V.; Paoletti, G.; Golubev, A. [Cutler-Hammer Engineering Services and Systems, Moon Township, PA (United States)

    2000-08-01

    The electric power industry is beginning to recognize the advantages of new methods for the assessment of on-line insulation. These methods have been developed for medium voltage and high voltage alternating current (MV and HV AC) equipment and can be used while the equipment is in operation without the need for shut down. In order to increase the reliability of the applied methods, several assessment methods that are based on different principles should be used to diagnose any problems. This paper identified and described the following on-line assessment methods: (1) partial discharge, (2) partial discharge monitoring as an arc preventive measure in switchgear, (3) partial discharge monitoring in rotating machines, (4) detection of loose wedging condition in rotating machines, (5) dissolved gas analysis, partial discharge analysis and vibroacoustic analysis in transformers, and (6) detecting problems in high-voltage transformer bushings. 5 refs., 2 figs.

  9. Analysis of the possibilities of using EEG in assessing pilots’ psychophysical condition

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marta GALANT

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available An excessive load on an operator’s cognitive system can cause deterioration in perceptual abilities, decreased reaction time and increased probability of making an incorrect decision, which in turn can lead to a dangerous situation. Researching the cognitive load of an operator can therefore contribute to safer transportation. While there are many methods used in the study of cognitive load, they can be classified as either subjective assessments or objective assessments. This paper presents an analysis of the possibilities of using electroencephalography in assessing the psychophysical condition of the pilot. The investigation was conducted in the Simulation Research Laboratory in the Institute of Combustion Engines and Transport at Poznan University of Technology.

  10. Musculoskeletal Conditions of the Foot and Ankle: Assessments and Treatment Options

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rao, Smita; Riskowski, Jody; Hannan, Marian T.

    2012-01-01

    Musculoskeletal conditions of the foot and ankle are an important public health challenge due to their increasing incidence combined with their substantial negative impact on patients’ quality of life. Non-pharmacological treatments serve as the first line of treatment and are frequently used for patients with musculoskeletal conditions of the foot and ankle. This review provides a summary of the assessments and non-invasive treatment options based upon available evidence. Recent studies show that individuals with foot and ankle pain have multiple co-existing impairments in alignment, motion, load distribution and muscle performance that may be evident in static and/or dynamic tasks. Additionally, both clinical and epidemiological studies support the inter-dependence between the foot and proximal joints. For instance, aberrant foot structure has been linked to foot osteoarthritis (OA), as well as OA and pain at the knee and hip. Most recently, advances in motion capture technology and plantar load distribution measurement offer opportunities for precise dynamic assessments of the foot and ankle. In individuals with musculoskeletal conditions of the foot and ankle, the chief objectives of treatment are to afford pain relief, restore mechanics (alignment, motion and/or load distribution) and return the patient to their desired level of activity participation. Given that most patients present with multiple impairments, combinational therapies that target foot-specific as well as global impairments have shown promising results. In particular, in individuals with rheumatoid arthritis and other rheumatic diseases, comprehensive rehabilitation strategies including early detection, foot-based interventions (such as orthoses) and wellness-based approaches for physical activity and self-management have been successful. While significant improvements have been made in the last decade to the assessment and treatment of foot and ankle conditions, few randomized clinical

  11. Grey Relational Analysis for Insulation Condition Assessment of Power Transformers Based Upon Conventional Dielectric Response Measurement

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jiefeng Liu

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Conventional dielectric response measurement techniques, for instance, recovery voltage measurement (RVM, frequency domain spectroscopy (FDS and polarization–depolarization current (PDC are effective nondestructive insulation monitoring techniques for oil-impregnated power transformers. Previous studies have focused mainly on some single type of dielectric measurement method. However, the condition of oil paper insulation in transformer is affected by many factors, so it is difficult to predict the insulation status by means of a single method. In this paper, the insulation condition assessment is performed by grey relational analysis (GRA technique after carefully investigating different dielectric response measurement data. The insulation condition sensitive parameters of samples with unknown insulation status are extracted from different dielectric response measurement data and then these are used to contrast with the standard insulation state vector models established in controlled laboratory conditions by using GRA technique for predicting insulation condition. The performance of the proposed approach is tested using both the laboratory samples and a power transformer to demonstrate that it can provide reliable and effective insulation diagnosis.

  12. The Role of Condition-Specific Preference-Based Measures in Health Technology Assessment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rowen, Donna; Brazier, John; Ara, Roberta; Azzabi Zouraq, Ismail

    2017-12-01

    A condition-specific preference-based measure (CSPBM) is a measure of health-related quality of life (HRQOL) that is specific to a certain condition or disease and that can be used to obtain the quality adjustment weight of the quality-adjusted life-year (QALY) for use in economic models. This article provides an overview of the role and the development of CSPBMs, and presents a description of existing CSPBMs in the literature. The article also provides an overview of the psychometric properties of CSPBMs in comparison with generic preference-based measures (generic PBMs), and considers the advantages and disadvantages of CSPBMs in comparison with generic PBMs. CSPBMs typically include dimensions that are important for that condition but may not be important across all patient groups. There are a large number of CSPBMs across a wide range of conditions, and these vary from covering a wide range of dimensions to more symptomatic or uni-dimensional measures. Psychometric evidence is limited but suggests that CSPBMs offer an advantage in more accurate measurement of milder health states. The mean change and standard deviation can differ for CSPBMs and generic PBMs, and this may impact on incremental cost-effectiveness ratios. CSPBMs have a useful role in HTA where a generic PBM is not appropriate, sensitive or responsive. However, due to issues of comparability across different patient groups and interventions, their usage in health technology assessment is often limited to conditions where it is inappropriate to use a generic PBM or sensitivity analyses.

  13. Multicultural assessment of child and adolescent psychopathology with ASEBA and SDQ instruments: research findings, applications, and future directions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Achenbach, Thomas M; Becker, Andreas; Döpfner, Manfred; Heiervang, Einar; Roessner, Veit; Steinhausen, Hans-Christoph; Rothenberger, Aribert

    2008-03-01

    Around the world, cultural blending and conflict pose challenges for assessment and understanding of psychopathology. Economical, evidence-based, culturally robust assessment is needed for research, for answering public health questions, and for evaluating immigrant, refugee, and minority children. This article applies multicultural perspectives to behavioral, emotional, and social problems assessed on dimensions describing children's functioning, as rated by parents, teachers, children, and others. The development of Achenbach System of Empirically Based Assessment (ASEBA) and Strengths and Difficulties Questionnaire (SDQ) forms and their applications to multicultural research are presented. A primary aim of both questionnaires is to identify children at high risk of psychiatric disorders and who therefore warrant further assessment. The forms are self-administered or administered by lay interviewers. ASEBA problem items are scored on 6 DSM-oriented scales and 3 broader band scales, plus 8 syndromes derived statistically as taxonomic constructs and supported by uniform confirmatory factor analyses of samples from many populations. Comparisons of ASEBA scale scores, psychometrics, and correlates are available for diverse populations. SDQ forms are scored on one broad-band scale and 5 a priori behavioral dimensions supported by data from various populations. For both instruments, factor analyses, psychometrics, and correlates are available for diverse populations. The willingness and ability of hundreds of thousands of respondents from diverse groups to complete ASEBA and SDQ forms support this approach to multicultural assessment. Although particular items and scales may have differential relevance among groups and additional assessment procedures are needed, comparable results are found in many populations. Scale scores vary more within than between populations, and distributions of scores overlap greatly among different populations. Ratings of children's problems

  14. How can we assess the burden of muscle, bone and joint conditions in rural Botswana

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hondras, Maria; Myburgh, Corrie; Hartvigsen, Jan

    2015-01-01

    - and middle-income countries in Africa. Since 2011, World Spine Care, a nongovernmental organisation, has collaborated with the Botswana Ministry of Health to open spine care centres and to conduct research. The broad aim of the Muscle, Bone and Joint (MuBoJo) research project is to examine the sociocultural......-participant and participant observations, and informal and in-depth interviews with villagers and healthcare providers. Villager interviews were typically conducted in Setswana with an interpreter. Audio recordings were transcribed verbatim in the language spoken with Setswana contextually translated into English. Computer...... software supported qualitative data management. Analysis is ongoing using constant comparison and a template organising style to facilitate pattern-finding and reveal insights for the burden and care of musculoskeletal conditions. DISCUSSION: Findings from the MuBoJo Project will document the context...

  15. Primary care assessment instruments for patients at risk of, or with, persistent pain: opportunistic findings from a systematic literature review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karen Grimmer-Somers

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available Karen Grimmer-Somers1, Saravana Kumar1, Nic Vipond2, Gillian Hall21Centre for Allied Health Evidence, University of South Australia, Australia; 2Accident Compensation Corporation, Wellington, New ZealandBackground: Early identification in primary care settings of individuals with, or at-risk of, developing persistent pain, is important to limit development of disability. There is little information to assist primary care providers to choose or deliver relevant, efficient, and soundly constructed assessment instruments for this purpose.Objective: We recently published the findings of a literature review, which produced a compendium of assessment instruments to identify adults with, or at-risk of developing, persistent pain of noncancer origin. This paper reports on instruments opportunistically identified during this review which may be appropriate to primary health care settings for early identification of such patients.Results: One hundred sixteen potentially useful instruments were initially identified in the review, measuring pain severity, psychological distress, functional capacity, quality of life or multidimensional constructs of persistent pain. Following a series of steps, 45 instruments were shortlisted, with sound clinical utility and strong psychometric properties. Of these, 16 instruments were appropriate to primary health care settings because of simple wording, brief items, short administration time, and ease of scoring.Conclusion: No one assessment instrument captured all constructs of persistent pain. The 16 instruments provide a broad choice for primary care clinicians to assist with early identification of adults at risk of, or with persistent pain.Keywords: adults with persistent pain, primary health care assessment, early identification

  16. Operational Reliability Assessment of Compressor Gearboxes with Normalized Lifting Wavelet Entropy from Condition Monitoring Information

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiaoli Zhang

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Classical reliability assessment methods have predominantly focused on probability and statistical theories, which are insufficient in assessing the operational reliability of individual mechanical equipment with time-varying characteristics. A new approach to assess machinery operational reliability with normalized lifting wavelet entropy from condition monitoring information is proposed, which is different from classical reliability assessment methods depending on probability and statistics analysis. The machinery vibration signals with time-varying operational characteristics are firstly decomposed and reconstructed by means of a lifting wavelet package transform. The relative energy of every reconstructed signal is computed as an energy percentage of the reconstructed signal in the whole signal energy. Moreover, a normalized lifting wavelet entropy is defined by the relative energy to reveal the machinery operational uncertainty. Finally, operational reliability degree is defined by the quantitative value obtained by the normalized lifting wavelet entropy belonging to the range of [0, 1]. The proposed method is applied in the operational reliability assessment of the gearbox in an oxy-generator compressor to validate the effectiveness.

  17. Comparative economic assessment of the energy performance of air-conditioning within the Mexican residential sector

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ivan Oropeza-Perez

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available This work shows a sensitivity analysis of the economic impact of different energy performances of air-conditioning within the Mexican housing sector. For this purpose, a cooling-load calculator program in function of the indoor temperature is developed. The program also calculates the electricity consumption along with the expenditure with the different residential rates of the Mexican Federal Commission of Electricity (CFE, initials in Spanish set according to the season of the year and zone of the country. After the results onto the national-scale scenario are validated with the literature, a sensitivity analysis is carried out by changing three parameters that are considered as influential on the consumption and which can be considered as energy saving strategies. With these strategies, it is found that the indoor temperature decrease due to the use of a passive cooling system is the most important characteristic to take into account followed by the coefficient of performance (COP of the air-conditioning and the increase of the comfort temperature set-point, respectively. Thereby, an economic analysis is carried out, finding an annual saving up to 770 USD within a single air-conditioned dwelling having a payback period of 3 years for using a combination of passive cooling techniques and increasing the comfort temperature set-point; or a 2 years payback period if the air-conditioning is changed by a high-efficient equipment.

  18. Transition from pediatric to adult healthcare: assessment of specific needs of patients with chronic endocrine conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Godbout, Ariane; Tejedor, Isabelle; Malivoir, Sabine; Polak, Michel; Touraine, Philippe

    2012-01-01

    Transition from pediatric to adult care is a challenging turning point. The aim was to evaluate the transition process and needs expressed by patients with chronic endocrine conditions at transition in order to ensure program optimization. Prospective assessment of the transition period was conducted through completion of standardized questionnaires given to targeted patients. Two types were created: (1) a general questionnaire (GQ) addressing universal aspects of transition, and (2) a specific questionnaire (SQ) exploring concerns related to each endocrine condition. Three endocrinopathies (congenital adrenal hyperplasia, hypogonadotropic hypogonadism and growth hormone deficiency) were selected for assessment since they present specific challenges requiring characterization. Over the last decade, 244 patients in transition were registered in our department and 153 were included since they presented one of the endocrinopathies selected. A total of 73 subjects completed both the GQ and the SQ. Over 80% of the patients were satisfied with the transition process in terms of organization, accessibility and medical care. The actual age of transition corresponded for most to the age considered by patients as ideal for transition. SQs identified psychosexual issues that must be addressed more systematically. This study identified key elements allowing the creation of an improved transition program tailored for our center and for each endocrine condition studied. Copyright © 2012 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  19. Assessing the condition of bayous and estuaries: Bayou Chico Gulf of Mexico demonstration study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dickson, K.; Acevedo, M.; Waller, T.; Kennedy, J.; Simons, J. [Univ. of North Texas, Denton, TX (United States). Environmental Science Program; Mayer, F.; Lewis, M. [Environmental Research Lab., Gulf Breeze, FL (United States); Walker, W. [Univ. of Southern Mississippi, Ocean Springs, MS (United States). Gulf Coast Research Lab.; Ammann, L. [Univ. of Texas, Richardson, TX (United States). Dept. of Statistics

    1995-12-31

    A demonstration study was conducted in May 1994 on Bayou Chico to assess the utility of various assessment and measurement endpoints in determining the condition of bayous and estuaries. Bayou Chico has water quality problems attributed to its low flushing rate and urban/industrial land use in its watershed. The sampling scheme assessed the within-sampling station and spatial variability of measurement endpoints. Fourteen sampling stations in Bayou Chico and 3 stations in Pensacola Bay were selected based on an intensified EMAP sampling grid. Time and space coordinated sampling was conducted for: sediment contaminants and properties, sediment toxicity, water quality, benthic infauna, zooplankton and phytoplankton populations. Fish and crabs were also collected and analyzed for a suite of biomarkers and organic chemical residues. Primary productivity was measured via the light bottle dark bottle oxygen method and via diurnal oxygen measurements made with continuous recording data sondes. Stream sites were evaluated for water and sediment quality, water and sediment toxicity, benthic invertebrates and fish. Watershed analyses included assessment of land use/landcover (via SPOT and TM images), soils, pollution sources (point and non-point) and hydrography. These data were coordinated via an Arc/Info GIS system for display and spatial analysis. 1994 survey data were used to parameterize environmental fate models such as SWMM (Storm Water Management Model), DYNHYD5 (WASP5 hydrodynamics model) and WASP5 (Water Quality Analysis Simulation Program) to make predictions about the dynamics and fate of chemical contaminants in Bayou Chico. This paper will present an overview, and report on the results in regards to within-site and spatial variability in Bayou Chico. Conclusions on the efficacy of the assessment and measurement endpoints in evaluating the condition (health) of Bayou Chico will be presented.

  20. Evaluation of a questionnaire to assess selected infectious diseases and their risk factors : findings of a multicenter study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sievers, Claudia; Akmatov, Manas K; Kreienbrock, Lothar; Hille, Katja; Ahrens, Wolfgang; Günther, Kathrin; Flesch-Janys, Dieter; Obi, Nadia; Michels, Karin B; Fricke, Julia; Greiser, Karin H; Kaaks, Rudolf; Peter, Hans-Hartmut; Pessler, Frank; Nieters, Alexandra; Krause, Gérard

    2014-11-01

    The risk to die from an infectious disease in Germany has been continuously decreasing over the last century. Since infections are, however, not only causes of death but risk factors for diseases like cardiovascular diseases, it is essential to monitor and analyze their prevalence and frequency, especially in consideration of the increased life expectancy. To gain more knowledge about infectious diseases as risk factors and their implications on the condition and change of the immune status, the German National Cohort (GNC), a population-based prospective cohort study, will recruit 200,000 subjects between 2014 and 2017. In Pretest 1, a feasibility study for the GNC, we evaluated a self-administered and self-report questionnaire on infectious diseases and on the use of health care facilities (hereinafter called "ID Screen") for feasibility and validity. From August-November 2011, 435 participants between the ages of 20-69 completed the ID Screen. All subjects had been recruited via a random sample from the local residents' registration offices by 4 of the 18 participating study centers. The questionnaire encompasses 77 variables in six sections assessing items such as 12-month prevalence of infections, cumulative prevalence of infectious diseases, visit of health care facilities and vaccination. The feasibility was amongst others evaluated by assessing the completeness and comprehensiveness of the questionnaire. To assess the questionnaires ability to measure "immune status" and "susceptibility to infections", multivariate analysis was used. The overall practicability was good and most items were well understood, demonstrated by  5 % of missing values. However, direct comparison of the items 12-month prevalence and lifetime prevalence of nephritis/pyelitis showed poor agreement and thereby poor understanding by 80 % of the participants, illustrating the necessity for a clear, lay person appropriate description of rare diseases to increase

  1. Assessing the relationship between farming practices, laboratory analyses and post-mortem findings: a case study in pig fattening.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Langkabel, N; Fries, R

    2013-12-01

    European Union legislation on animal production associated with food safety requires the collection and management of information and data about the farm, the herd and the individual animal. This paper describes the technical steps of the generation, collection and interpretation of data from 296 pig-fattening farms, belonging to two farming associations and using indoor production systems (56 management parameters). The paper also describes post-mortem findings and the results of enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays (ELISA) for antibodies to salmonellae, Trichinella spp. and Yersinia spp. A total of nearly 30 million data points were collected and analysed for this study. The results of the ELISA were negative for Trichinella spp.; for salmonellae and Yersinia spp., both negative and positive results were obtained. Analysis of the farm management parameters showed no significant differences; therefore, the cut-off levels for salmonellae and Yersinia spp. were increased, in order to identify farms with a greater hygiene burden. Post-mortem findings, possibly related to 'farm hygiene', were used in the analysis. As a result, three farms with particular management decisions were identified as potentially having contributed to the high burden of pathogens detected using ELISA. A relationship between laboratory results and farm management parameters assessed from yes/no answers could not be established in this study without further work on the available data set.

  2. A Biological Condition Gradient Model for Historical Assessment of Estuarine Habitat Structure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shumchenia, Emily J.; Pelletier, Marguerite C.; Cicchetti, Giancarlo; Davies, Susan; Pesch, Carol E.; Deacutis, Christopher F.; Pryor, Margherita

    2015-01-01

    Coastal ecosystems are affected by ever-increasing natural and human pressures. Because the physical, chemical, and biological characteristics unique to estuarine ecosystems control the ways that biological resources respond to ecosystem stressors, we present a flexible and adaptable biological assessment method for estuaries. The biological condition gradient (BCG) is a scientific framework of biological response to increasing anthropogenic stress that is comprehensive and ecosystem based and evaluates environmental conditions and the status of ecosystem services in order to identify, communicate, and prioritize management action. Using existing data, we constructed the first estuarine BCG framework that examines changes in habitat structure through time. Working in a New England (U.S.) estuary with a long history of human influence, we developed an approach to define a reference level, which we described as a "minimally disturbed" range of conditions for the ecosystem, anchored by observations before 1850 AD. Like many estuaries in the U.S., the relative importance of environmental stressors changed over time, but even qualitative descriptions of the biological indicators' status provided useful information for defining condition levels. This BCG demonstrated that stressors rarely acted alone and that declines in one biological indicator influenced the declines of others. By documenting the biological responses to cumulative stressors, the BCG inherently suggests an ecosystem-based approach to management. Additionally, the BCG process initiates thinking over long time scales and can be used to inspire scientists, managers, and the public toward environmental action.

  3. Electrical-Based Diagnostic Techniques for Assessing Insulation Condition in Aged Transformers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Issouf Fofana

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available The condition of the internal cellulosic paper and oil insulation are of concern for the performance of power transformers. Over the years, a number of methods have been developed to diagnose and monitor the degradation/aging of the transformer internal insulation system. Some of this degradation/aging can be assessed from electrical responses. Currently there are a variety of electrical-based diagnostic techniques available for insulation condition monitoring of power transformers. In most cases, the electrical signals being monitored are due to mechanical or electric changes caused by physical changes in resistivity, inductance or capacitance, moisture, contamination or aging by-products in the insulation. This paper presents a description of commonly used and modern electrical-based diagnostic techniques along with their interpretation schemes.

  4. Rock Strength Anisotropy in High Stress Conditions: A Case Study for Application to Shaft Stability Assessments

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Watson Julian Matthew

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Although rock strength anisotropy is a well-known phenomenon in rock mechanics, its impact on geotechnical design is often ignored or underestimated. This paper explores the concept of anisotropy in a high stress environment using an improved unified constitutive model (IUCM, which can account for more complex failure mechanisms. The IUCM is used to better understand the typical responses of anisotropic rocks to underground mining. This study applies the IUCM to a proposed rock shaft located in high stress/anisotropic conditions. Results suggest that the effect of rock strength anisotropy must be taken into consideration when assessing the rock mass response to mining in high stress and anisotropic rock conditions.

  5. Assessment of Smolt Condition for Travel Time Analysis Project, 1987-1997 Project Review.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schrock, Robin M.; Hans, Karen M.; Beeman, John W. [US Geological Survey, Western Fisheries Research Center, Columbia River Research Laboratory, Cook, WA

    1997-12-01

    The assessment of Smolt Condition for Travel Time Analysis Project (Bonneville Power Administration Project 87-401) monitored attributes of salmonid smolt physiology in the Columbia and Snake River basins from 1987 to 1997, under the Northwest Power Planning Council Fish and Wildlife Program, in cooperation with the Smolt Monitoring Program of the Fish Passage Center. The primary goal of the project was to investigate the physiological development of juvenile salmonids related to migration rates. The assumption was made that the level of smolt development, interacting with environmental factos such as flow, would be reflected in travel times. The Fish Passage Center applied the physiological measurements of smolt condition to Water Budget management, to regulate flows so as to decrease travel time and increase survival.

  6. Assessment of skin conductance in African American and Non-African American participants in studies of conditioned fear.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alexandra Kredlow, M; Pineles, Suzanne L; Inslicht, Sabra S; Marin, Marie-France; Milad, Mohammed R; Otto, Michael W; Orr, Scott P

    2017-11-01

    Skin conductance (SC) is a psychophysiological measure of sympathetic nervous system activity that is commonly used in research to assess conditioned fear responses. A portion of individuals evidence very low or unmeasurable SC levels (SCL) and/or response (SCR) during fear conditioning, which precludes the use of their SC data. The reason that some individuals do not produce measurable SCL and/or SCR is not clear; some early research suggested that race may be an influencing factor. In the current article, archival data from five fear conditioning samples collected from four different laboratories were examined to explore SCL and SCR magnitude in African American (AA) and non-African American (non-AA) participants. Across studies, the aggregate group difference for exclusion due to unmeasurable SCL or no measurable SCR to an unconditioned stimulus reflected a significant medium effect size (d = 0.54). Furthermore, 24.3% (range: 0-48.3%) of AA participants met SC exclusion criteria versus 14.3% (range: 4.3-24.2%) of non-AA participants. AA participants also displayed significantly lower SCL during habituation (d = 0.58). The low SC levels and responses in AA individuals and the consequent exclusion of their contributions to fear conditioning study results impacts the generalizability of findings across races. Given higher rates of posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) and chronic anxiety in AA individuals, it is important that AA individuals not be excluded from fear conditioning research, which informs the treatment of anxiety and PTSD. Examination of the basis of very low SCL and/or SCR is a potentially informative direction for future research. © 2017 Society for Psychophysiological Research.

  7. Automatic Assessment of a Rollator-User's Condition During Rehabilitation Using the i-Walker Platform.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ballesteros, Joaquin; Urdiales, Cristina; Martinez, Antonio B; Tirado, Marina

    2017-11-01

    Patient condition during rehabilitation has been traditionally assessed using clinical scales. These scales typically require the patient and/or the clinician to rate a number of condition-related items to obtain a final score. This is a time-consuming task, specially if a large number of patients are involved. Furthermore, during rehabilitation, user condition is expected to change steadily in time, so assessment may require to run these scales several times to each user. To save time, much effort has been focused on developing clinical scales that require little time to be completed. This is usually achieved by measuring a reduced set of features, i.e., focusing the scales on specific features of a defined target population (Parkinson's disease, Stroke, and so on). However, these scales still require the therapist's intervention and may be tiresome for patients who have to fill them repeatedly. This paper proposes a novel approach to automatically obtain balance scales from the onboard sensors of a robotic rollator. These sensors are used to extract spatiotemporal gait parameters from patients using the rollator for support. These parameters are derived from the user forces on the rollator handles and its odometry. Resulting parameters are used to predict the Tinetti mobility clinical scale on the fly, without therapist intervention. Our approach has been validated with 19 rollator volunteers with a variety of physical and neurological disabilities at Hospital Civil (Malaga) and Fondazione Santa Lucia (Rome). Clinicians provided traditionally obtained Tinetti scores and the proposed system was used to estimate them on the fly. Results show a small root mean squared prediction error. This method can be used for any rollator user anywhere in everyday walking conditions to obtain the Tinetti scores as often as desired and, hence evaluate their progress.

  8. Intercomparison of chemical mechanisms for air quality policy formulation and assessment under North American conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Derwent, Richard

    2017-07-01

    The intercomparison of seven chemical mechanisms for their suitability for air quality policy formulation and assessment is described. Box modeling techniques were employed using 44 sets of background environmental conditions covering North America to constrain the chemical development of the longer lived species. The selected mechanisms were modified to enable an unbiased assessment of the adequacy of the parameterizations of photochemical ozone production from volatile organic compound (VOC) oxidation in the presence of NOx. Photochemical ozone production rates responded differently to 30% NOx and VOC reductions with the different mechanisms, despite the striking similarities between the base-case ozone production rates. The 30% reductions in NOx and VOCs also produced changes in OH. The responses in OH to 30% reductions in NOx and VOCs appeared to be more sensitive to mechanism choice, compared with the responses in the photochemical ozone production rates. Although 30% NOx reductions generally led to decreases in OH, 30% reductions in VOCs led to increases in OH, irrespective of mechanism choice and background environmental conditions. The different mechanisms therefore gave different OH responses to NOx and VOC reductions and so would give different responses in terms of changes in the fate and behavior of air toxics, acidification and eutrophication, and fine particle formation compared with others, in response to ozone control strategies. Policymakers need to understand that there are likely to be inherent differences in the responses to ozone control strategies between different mechanisms, depending on background environmental conditions and the extents of NOx and VOC reductions under consideration. The purpose of this paper is to compare predicted ozone responses to NOx and VOC reductions with seven chemical mechanisms under North American conditions. The good agreement found between the tested mechanisms should provide some support for their application

  9. Assessment of production risks for winter wheat in different German regions under climate change conditions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kersebaum, K. C.; Gandorfer, M.; Wegehenkel, M.

    2012-04-01

    The study shows climate change impacts on wheat production in selected regions across Germany. To estimate yield and economic effects the agro-ecosystem model HERMES was used. The model performed runs using 2 different releases of the model WETTREG providing statistically downscaled climate change scenarios for the weather station network of the German Weather Service. Simulations were done using intersected GIS information on soil types and land use identifying the most relevant sites for wheat production. The production risks for wheat yields at the middle of this century were compared to a reference of the present climate. The irrigation demand was determined by the model using an automatic irrigation mode. Production risks with and without irrigation were assessed and the economic feasibility to reduce production risks by irrigation was evaluated. Costs and benefits were compared. Additionally, environmental effects, e.g. groundwater recharge and nitrogen emissions were assessed for irrigated and rain fed systems. Results show that positive and negative effects of climate change occur within most regions depending on the site conditions. Water holding capacity and groundwater distance were the most important factors which determined the vulnerability of sites. Under climate change condition in the middle of the next century we can expect especially at sites with low water holding capacity decreasing average gross margins, higher production risks and a reduced nitrogen use efficiency under rainfed conditions. Irrigation seems to be profitable and risk reducing at those sites, provided that water for irrigation is available. Additionally, the use of irrigation can also increase nitrogen use efficiency which reduced emissions by leaching. Despite the site conditions results depend strongly on the used regional climate scenario and the model approach to consider the effect of elevated CO2 in the atmosphere.

  10. A 3D DEM-LBM approach for the assessment of the quick condition for sands

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mansouri, M.; Delenne, J.-Y.; El Youssoufi, M. S.; Seridi, A.

    2009-09-01

    We present a 3D numerical model to assess the quick condition (the onset of the boiling phenomenon) in a saturated polydisperse granular material. We use the Discrete Element Method (DEM) to study the evolution of the vertical intergranular stress in a granular sample subjected to an increasing hydraulic gradient. The hydrodynamic forces on the grains of the sample are computed using the Lattice Boltzmann Method (LBM). The principal assumption used is that grains remain at rest until the boiling onset. We show that the obtained critical hydraulic gradient is close to that defined in classical soil mechanics. To cite this article: M. Mansouri et al., C. R. Mecanique 337 (2009).

  11. Elastic Wave Propagation for Condition Assessment of Steel Bar Embedded in Mortar

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rucka, M.; Zima, B.

    2015-02-01

    This study deals with experimental and numerical investigations of elastic wave propagation in steel bars partially embedded in mortar. The bars with different bonding lengths were tested. Two types of damage were considered: damage of the steel bar and damage of the mortar. Longitudinal waves were excited by a piezoelectric actuator and a vibrometer was used to non-contact measurements of velocity signals. Numerical calculations were performed using the finite elements method. As a result, this paper discusses the possibility of condition assessment in bars embedded in mortar by means of elastic waves.

  12. Improving the Consistency of Conditional Probability Assessments for Forecasting and Decision Making

    OpenAIRE

    Herbert Moskowitz; Rakesh K. Sarin

    1983-01-01

    "Public agencies are very keen on amassing statistics---they collect them, add them, raise them to the nth power, take the cube root and prepare wonderful diagrams. But what you must never forget is that every one of those figures comes in the first instance from the village watchman, who just puts down what he damn pleases." (Sir Josiah Stamp) The assessment of the conditional probabilities of events is useful and needed for forecasting, planning, and decision making. In this paper the diffi...

  13. Status report on assessment of environmentally assisted fatigue for LWR extended service conditions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mohanty, S. [Argonne National Lab. (ANL), Argonne, IL (United States); Soppet, W. K. [Argonne National Lab. (ANL), Argonne, IL (United States); Majumdar, S. [Argonne National Lab. (ANL), Argonne, IL (United States); Natesan, K. [Argonne National Lab. (ANL), Argonne, IL (United States)

    2014-07-09

    This report provides an update on an earlier assessment of environmentally assisted fatigue for light water reactor (LWR) materials under extended service conditions. This report is a deliverable in September 2013, under the work package for environmentally assisted fatigue in the Light Water Reactor Sustainability (LWRS) program. The overall objective of this LWRS project is to assess the degradation by environmentally assisted cracking/fatigue of LWR materials, such as various alloy base metals and their welds used in reactor coolant system piping. This effort is to support the U.S. Department of Energy LWRS program for developing tools to predict the aging/failure mechanism and to correspondingly predict the remaining life of LWR components for anticipated 60-80 year operation.

  14. How general practitioners perceive and assess self-care in patients with multiple chronic conditions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kristensen, Mads Aage Toft; Hølge-Hazelton, Bibi; Waldorff, Frans Boch

    2017-01-01

    -term relationships with the patients. GPs identified four major factors that influenced patients' self-care ability, which accumulated and fluctuated over time: multimorbidity, cognitive resources, material resources, and the patients' social contexts. Conclusions: The GPs in this study had dual perceptions of self-care......, related to both the chronic health conditions and to the broader situational contexts of their patients' lives. GPs' assessments of self-care ability depended largely on their experiences from the doctor-patient relationship, and they emphasized that the factors affecting self-care ability were highly...... and do not consider whether a relationship with the patient is established. If GPs' perceptions and assessments of self-care ability are not included in chronic disease management models, there is a risk that they vill be insufficiently implemented in general practice....

  15. Quantitative histological assessment of hepatic ischamia-reperfusion injuries following ischemic pre- and post-conditioning in the rat liver

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Knudsen, Anders Riegels; Kannerup, Anne-Sofie; Grønbæk, Henning

    2013-01-01

    Quantitative histological assessment of hepatic ischamia-reperfusion injuries following ischemic pre- and post-conditioning in the rat liver......Quantitative histological assessment of hepatic ischamia-reperfusion injuries following ischemic pre- and post-conditioning in the rat liver...

  16. Assessment of primary health care from the perspective of patients hospitalized for ambulatory care sensitive conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dos Santos de Sá, Francisco; Di Lorenzo Oliveira, Cláudia; de Moura Fernandino, Débora; Menezes de Pádua, Cristiane A; Cardoso, Clareci Silva

    2016-06-01

    The hospitalization for ambulatory care sensitive conditions (ACSC) has been used to assess the effectiveness of primary health care (PHC). Due to the existence of different models of organization of PHC in Brazil, it is important to develop indicators and tools for their assessment. Assessment PHC from the perspective of patients hospitalized for ACSC. A cross-sectional study was carried out. The patients were interviewed for assessment of PHC quality using the primary care assessment tool and a questionnaire. Descriptive analyses were performed and the Primary Health Care Index (PHCI) was calculated according to the health service modality, either the traditional primary health care (TPHC) or the Family Health Program (FHP). The PHCI of the two health care models were compared. A total of 314 ACSC patients were interviewed 26.4% from the FHP and 73.6% from the TPHC. In general, the PHCI dimension with the lowest score was health service access. There was no significant difference in the general PHCI for the two modalities of services (P = 0.16); however, comprehensiveness was better assessed in the TPHC, while longitudinality, family focus and community orientation were better evaluated by FHP users (P ≤ 0.05). The FHP was found to be better qualified to establish longitudinality in the community, an important dimension for continued care. However, promoting access to and consolidating a proactive care model focussed on family shows to be a great challenge for the implementation of a quality and resolutive PHC in large urban centres. © The Author 2015. Published by Oxford University Press. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  17. Environmental risk assessment of GE plants under low-exposure conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roberts, Andrew; Devos, Yann; Raybould, Alan; Bigelow, Patrick; Gray, Alan

    2014-12-01

    The requirement for environmental risk assessment (ERA) of genetically engineered (GE) plants prior to large scale or commercial introduction into the environment is well established in national laws and regulations, as well as in international agreements. Since the first introductions of GE plants in commercial agriculture in the 1990s, a nearly universal paradigm has emerged for conducting these assessments based on a few guiding principles. These include the concept of case-by-case assessment, the use of comparative assessments, and a focus of the ERA on characteristics of the plant, the introduced trait, and the receiving environment as well as the intended use. In practice, however, ERAs for GE plants have frequently focused on achieving highly detailed characterizations of potential hazards at the expense of consideration of the relevant levels of exposure. This emphasis on exhaustive hazard characterization can lead to great difficulties when applied to ERA for GE plants under low-exposure conditions. This paper presents some relevant considerations for conducting an ERA for a GE plant in a low-exposure scenario in the context of the generalized ERA paradigm, building on discussions and case studies presented during a session at ISBGMO 12.

  18. Case management of individuals with long-term conditions by community matrons: report of qualitative findings of a mixed method evaluation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Randall, Sue; Daly, Guy; Thunhurst, Colin; Mills, Natalie; Guest, David A; Barker, Annette

    2014-01-01

    To consider findings from a study that evaluated case management of individuals with long-term conditions (LTCs) by a community matron (CM) service. The paper highlights issues related to the implementation of a new role and the impact this had on the experience of care across hospital and community settings for patients and their carers. The introduction of the role of CM was intended to increase effective management of patients with complex comorbid LTCs through the introduction of case management, thereby reducing unplanned hospital admissions. The overall methodological approach was one of mixed methods. This paper reports the qualitative findings from CMs (n = 15); patients (n = 13); family carers (n = 8); and secondary care staff who interface with the CM service (n = 7). Data were collected between October 2009 and May 2010. A thematic analysis resulted in the identification of four themes: (1) visibility; (2) interpersonal relationships; (3) leadership; and (4) systems/professional boundaries. Patients enjoyed being seen as a whole and family carers appreciated the coordination aspect of the role. Difficulties arose from the limited understanding of the CM role and from a lack of a shared vision across healthcare professionals concerning the role and its goals.

  19. Assessing pesticide risks to threatened and endangered species using population models: Findings and recommendations from a CropLife America Science Forum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Forbes, V E; Brain, R; Edwards, D; Galic, N; Hall, T; Honegger, J; Meyer, C; Moore, D R J; Nacci, D; Pastorok, R; Preuss, T G; Railsback, S F; Salice, C; Sibly, R M; Tenhumberg, B; Thorbek, P; Wang, M

    2015-07-01

    This brief communication reports on the main findings and recommendations from the 2014 Science Forum organized by CropLife America. The aim of the Forum was to gain a better understanding of the current status of population models and how they could be used in ecological risk assessments for threatened and endangered species potentially exposed to pesticides in the United States. The Forum panelists' recommendations are intended to assist the relevant government agencies with implementation of population modeling in future endangered species risk assessments for pesticides. The Forum included keynote presentations that provided an overview of current practices, highlighted the findings of a recent National Academy of Sciences report and its implications, reviewed the main categories of existing population models and the types of risk expressions that can be produced as model outputs, and provided examples of how population models are currently being used in different legislative contexts. The panel concluded that models developed for listed species assessments should provide quantitative risk estimates, incorporate realistic variability in environmental and demographic factors, integrate complex patterns of exposure and effects, and use baseline conditions that include present factors that have caused the species to be listed (e.g., habitat loss, invasive species) or have resulted in positive management action. Furthermore, the panel advocates for the formation of a multipartite advisory committee to provide best available knowledge and guidance related to model implementation and use, to address such needs as more systematic collection, digitization, and dissemination of data for listed species; consideration of the newest developments in good modeling practice; comprehensive review of existing population models and their applicability for listed species assessments; and development of case studies using a few well-tested models for particular species to

  20. Condition assessment survey of onsite sewage disposal systems (OSDSs) in Hawaii.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Babcock, Roger W; Lamichhane, Krishna M; Cummings, Michael J; Cheong, Gloria H

    2014-01-01

    Onsite sewage disposal systems (OSDSs) are the third leading cause of groundwater contamination in the USA. The existing condition of OSDSs in the State of Hawaii was investigated to determine whether a mandatory management program should be implemented. Based on observed conditions, OSDSs were differentiated into four categories: 'pass', 'sludge scum', 'potential failure' and 'fail'. Of all OSDSs inspected, approximately 68% appear to be in good working condition while the remaining 32% are failing or are in danger of failing. Homeowner interviews found that 80% of OSDSs were not being serviced in any way. About 70% of effluent samples had values of total-N and total-P greater than typical values and 40% had total suspended solids (TSS) and 5-day biochemical oxygen demand (BOD5) greater than typical values. The performance of aerobic treatment units (ATUs) was no better than septic tanks and cesspools indicating that the State's approach of requiring but not enforcing maintenance contracts for ATUs is not working. In addition, effluent samples from OSDSs located in drinking water wells estimated 2-year capture zones had higher average concentrations of TSS, BOD5, and total-P than units outside of these zones, indicating the potential for contamination. These findings suggest the need to introduce a proactive, life-cycle OSDS management program in the State of Hawaii.

  1. MANAGEMENT OF ACUTE SPORTS INJURIES AND MEDICAL CONDITIONS BY PHYSICAL THERAPISTS: ASSESSMENT VIA CASE SCENARIOS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karges, Joy Renae; Salsbery, Mitchell A.; Smith, Danna; Stanley, Erica J.

    2011-01-01

    Purpose/Background: Some physical therapists (PTs) provide services at sporting events, but there are limited studies investigating whether PTs are properly prepared to provide such services. The purpose of this study was to assess acute sports injury and medical condition management decision-making skills of PTs. Methods: A Web-based survey presented 17 case scenarios related to acute medical conditions and sport injuries. PTs from the Sports Physical Therapy Section of The American Physical Therapy Association were e-mailed a cover letter/Web link to the survey and invited to participate over a 30-day period. Data were analyzed using SPSS 18.0. Results: A total of 411 of 5158 PTs who were members of the Sports Physical Therapy Association in 2009 and had valid e-mail addresses completed the survey, of which 389 (7.5%) were appropriate for analysis. Over 75.0% of respondents felt “prepared” or “somewhat prepared” to provide immediate care for 13 out of 16 medical conditions, with seizures, spinal cord injuries, and internal organ injuries having the lowest percentages. Over 75.0% of the respondents made “appropriate” or “overly cautious” decisions for 11 of the 17 acute injury or medical condition cases. Conclusions: Results of the current study indicate that PTs felt more “prepared” and tended to make “appropriate” return to play decisions on the acute sports injury and medical condition case studies more often than coaches who participated in a similar study, regardless of level of importance of the game or whether the athlete was a starter vs. non-starter. However, for PTs who plan on assisting at sporting events, additional preparation/education may be recommended, such as what is taught in an emergency responder course. PMID:21904695

  2. Development of a multimetric index for integrated assessment of salt marsh ecosystem condition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nagel, Jessica L.; Neckles, Hilary A.; Guntenspergen, Glenn R.; Rocks, Erika N.; Schoolmaster, Donald; Grace, James B.; Skidds, Dennis; Stevens, Sara

    2018-01-01

    Tools for assessing and communicating salt marsh condition are essential to guide decisions aimed at maintaining or restoring ecosystem integrity and services. Multimetric indices (MMIs) are increasingly used to provide integrated assessments of ecosystem condition. We employed a theory-based approach that considers the multivariate relationship of metrics with human disturbance to construct a salt marsh MMI for five National Parks in the northeastern USA. We quantified the degree of human disturbance for each marsh using the first principal component score from a principal components analysis of physical, chemical, and land use stressors. We then applied a metric selection algorithm to different combinations of about 45 vegetation and nekton metrics (e.g., species abundance, species richness, and ecological and functional classifications) derived from multi-year monitoring data. While MMIs derived from nekton or vegetation metrics alone were strongly correlated with human disturbance (r values from −0.80 to −0.93), an MMI derived from both vegetation and nekton metrics yielded an exceptionally strong correlation with disturbance (r = −0.96). Individual MMIs included from one to five metrics. The metric-assembly algorithm yielded parsimonious MMIs that exhibit the greatest possible correlations with disturbance in a way that is objective, efficient, and reproducible.

  3. Somatosensory assessment and conditioned pain modulation in temporomandibular disorders pain patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kothari, Simple Futarmal; Baad-Hansen, Lene; Oono, Yuka; Svensson, Peter

    2015-12-01

    The pathophysiology and underlying pain mechanisms of temporomandibular disorders (TMD) are poorly understood. The aims were to assess somatosensory function at the temporomandibular joints (TMJs) and to examine whether conditioned pain modulation (CPM) differs between TMD pain patients (n = 34) and healthy controls (n = 34). Quantitative sensory testing was used to assess the somatosensory function. Z-scores were calculated for patients based on reference data. Conditioned pain modulation was tested by comparing pressure pain thresholds (PPTs) before, during, and after the application of painful and nonpainful cold stimuli. Pressure pain thresholds were measured at the most painful TMJ and thenar muscle (control). Data were analyzed with analyses of variance. Most (85.3%) of the patients exhibited at least 1 or more somatosensory abnormalities at the most painful TMJ with somatosensory gain with regard to PPT and punctate mechanical pain stimuli, and somatosensory loss with regard to mechanical detection and vibration detection stimuli as the most frequent abnormalities. There was a significant CPM effect (increased PPT) at both test sites during painful cold application in healthy controls and patients (P painful cold application between groups (P = 0.227). In conclusion, somatosensory abnormalities were commonly detected in TMD pain patients and CPM effects were similar in TMD pain patients and healthy controls.

  4. Assessing the Implicit Achievement Motive: Effects of Input- Condition, Administration And Picture -Position

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nicole Gruber

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Implicit measurements are sensitive for influences of experimenter and situation. An assessment using computers could therefore avert those negative effects, if there is an adequate translation to computer (Blankenship, 2010. We split the implicit achievement motive into the two components hope of success (HS and fear of failure (FF and investigated the effects of input condition (handwritten vs. keyboard, administration (online vs. computer vs. human experimenter and picture-position for each of these two components. Therefore 140 undergraduates were randomly assigned to 18 experimental groupsof a counterbalance within-between-design and assessed with the Thematic-Apperception-Test (TAT; Heckhausen, 1963. The outcome is that handwriting increases the HS-score, whereby FF- score did not differ in typed and handwritten answers. People instructed by human experimenter show higher FF and lower HS compared tocomputer based tested people in the labor and online There is no statistical significant interaction effectof administration and input condition. There is either no position effect for any of these motive-components. The TAT seems to be more robust than commonly thought.

  5. Assessment of Smolt Condition for Travel Time Analysis, 1991-1992 Annual Report.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Maule, Alec G.; Beeman, John W.; Schrock, Robin M. (Seattle National Fishery Research Center, Columbia River Field Station, Cook, WA)

    1994-05-01

    Regression techniques were used to determine the effects of several biotic and abiotic variables on the migration rates of juvenile spring chinook salmon and steelhead in the Columbia and Snake rivers. Comparisons of the effects of river flow and smoltification, assessed using gill Na{sup +}-K{sup +} ATPase activity, were of primary interest. Day of the year, water temperature, change in flow, condition factor, and fork length were also considered as independent variables. Groups of fish were sampled to assess smoltification 2-3 times per week during the spring outmigrations during 1989-1992. These groups were assumed to be representative of other fish which were PIT-tagged and released as a part of the Smolt Monitoring Program in the Columbia Basin. River flow, gill ATPase activity, condition factor, water temperature, and change in flow were significant variables in regressions predicting the time for juvenile spring chinook salmon to travel between specific points (travel time), whereas river flow was the only significant contributor to models describing travel times of steelhead. Predicted travel times of wild steelhead were shorter than those of hatchery steelhead. River flow was the only variable common to all regression equations. Based on the characteristic, changes in river flow would be the most logical means to decrease travel times of both juvenile spring chinook salmon and steelhead in the Columbia and Snake rivers.

  6. Application of biomarkers to assess the condition of European Marine Sites

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hagger, Josephine A., E-mail: j.hagger@exeter.ac.u [School of Biosciences, University of Exeter, Prince of Wales Road, Exeter, Devon EX4 4PS (United Kingdom); Galloway, Tamara S. [School of Biosciences, University of Exeter, Prince of Wales Road, Exeter, Devon EX4 4PS (United Kingdom); Langston, William J. [Marine Biological Association, Citadel Hill, Plymouth PL1 2PB, Devon (United Kingdom); Jones, Malcolm B. [School of Biological Sciences, University of Plymouth, Drake Circus, Plymouth PL4 8AA, Devon (United Kingdom)

    2009-07-15

    A series of European Marine Sites has been designated as Special Areas of Conservation (SAC) in England. The aim of this study was to develop a practical methodology to assess the condition of SACs by applying a suite of biomarkers. Biomarkers were applied to the blue mussel Mytilus edulis and the shore crab Carcinus maenas from the Fal and Helford SAC (Cornwall). Individual biomarkers provided useful diagnostic information on the activity of certain classes of contaminants and an integrated Biomarker Response Index (BRI) was used to achieve a more holistic understanding of the condition of the SAC. The BRI indicated that the general health of both organisms was impacted in the upper part of the SAC (Fal Estuary) which correlated well with known chemical hotspots and sources of contamination. The BRI allows a pragmatic way to prioritise SAC sites that may require further investigative studies. - A suite of biomarkers was successfully used to create a Biomarker Response Index to assess the health of aquatic organisms from European Marine Sites.

  7. Preliminary Geophysical Survey for Assessing the Geotechnical Conditions and Geohazards at Huaca de La Luna, Peru

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zavala, G. J.; Lopez, S.; Ebinger, C. J.; Pando, M. A.; Lambert, C.; Morales, R.; Uceda, S.; Perucchio, R.; Castaneda, B.; Aguilar, R.

    2014-12-01

    This paper presents results of near surface geophysical tests to help assess the geotechnical conditions of the archaeological complex of Huaca de la Luna located near the coastal city of Trujillo, Peru. This area of Peru has experienced damaging earthquakes and tsunamis in historic time. The huaca complex is a massive adobe temple progressively built by the Moche civilization from 100 AD to 650 AD. The geophysical tests carried out included Ground Penetrating Radar (GPR), magnetic gradiometer, and Multichannel Analysis of Surface Waves (MASW) to help assess geotechnical conditions such as buried cavities and hallways, thickness and elastic properties of sand sediments, and the depth to the underlying granitic bedrock. The tests were performed to help with the investigation of structural damage observed along a massive adobe wall (north façade) which has shown signs of distress including fissures, settlements, and other damage. The geophysical results together with detailed Lidar surveying are being used as part of this investigation and highlight the usefulness of these non-destructive techniques for archaeological and historical sites.

  8. Assessment of thermal environments: working conditions in the portuguese glass industry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oliveira, A Virgílio M; Gaspar, Adélio R; Raimundo, António M; Quintela, Divo A

    2017-08-19

    The objective of the present contribution is to assess the exposure to hot thermal environments in the Portuguese glass industry. For this purpose a field survey was carried out and the measurements took place in industrial units - five industries and nineteen workplaces were considered - so all the results are based on real working conditions. In order to assess the level of heat exposure the Wet Bulb Globe Temperature (WBGT) index and the Predicted Heat Strain (PHS) model, defined in ISO Standards 7243 (1989) and 7933 (2004), respectively, were used. According to the WBGT index, the results show that almost 80% of the workplaces under analysis are prone to heat stress conditions. If the PHS model is considered, the results highlight that the predicted and the maximum sweat rates present equal values in about 40% of the workplaces. In addition, in almost 25% of the workplaces the estimated rectal temperature was higher than 38°C, just for an exposure period of one hour. Thus, the present study brings to light the characteristics of the glass industry in terms of the occupational exposure to hot environments and places this activity sector as one of the most difficult to deal with.

  9. River basin soil-vegetation condition assessment applying mathematic simulation methods

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mishchenko, Natalia; Trifonova, Tatiana; Shirkin, Leonid

    2013-04-01

    Meticulous attention paid nowadays to the problem of vegetation cover productivity changes is connected also to climate global transformation. At the same time ecosystems anthropogenic transformation, basically connected to the changes of land use structure and human impact on soil fertility, is developing to a great extent independently from climatic processes and can seriously influence vegetation cover productivity not only at the local and regional levels but also globally. Analysis results of land use structure and soil cover condition influence on river basin ecosystems productive potential is presented in the research. The analysis is carried out applying integrated characteristics of ecosystems functioning, space images processing results and mathematic simulation methods. The possibility of making permanent functional simulator defining connection between macroparameters of "phytocenosis-soil" system condition on the basis of basin approach is shown. Ecosystems of river catchment basins of various degrees located in European part of Russia were chosen as research objects. For the integrated assessment of ecosystems soil and vegetation conditions the following characteristics have been applied: 1. Soil-productional potential, characterizing the ability of natural and natural-anthropogenic ecosystem in certain soil-bioclimatic conditions for long term reproduction. This indicator allows for specific phytomass characteristics and ecosystem produce, humus content in soil and bioclimatic parameters. 2. Normalized difference vegetation index (NDVI) has been applied as an efficient, remotely defined, monitoring indicator characterizing spatio-temporal unsteadiness of soil-productional potential. To design mathematic simulator functional simulation methods and principles on the basis of regression, correlation and factor analysis have been applied in the research. Coefficients values defining in the designed static model of phytoproductivity distribution has been

  10. PRISM: a novel research tool to assess the prevalence of pseudobulbar affect symptoms across neurological conditions.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Benjamin Rix Brooks

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Pseudobulbar affect (PBA is a neurological condition characterized by involuntary, sudden, and frequent episodes of laughing and/or crying, which can be socially disabling. Although PBA occurs secondary to many neurological conditions, with an estimated United States (US prevalence of up to 2 million persons, it is thought to be under-recognized and undertreated. The PBA Registry Series (PRISM was established to provide additional PBA symptom prevalence data in a large, representative US sample of patients with neurological conditions known to be associated with PBA. METHODS: Participating clinicians were asked to enroll ≥20 consenting patients with any of 6 conditions: Alzheimer's disease (AD, amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS, multiple sclerosis (MS, Parkinson's disease (PD, stroke, or traumatic brain injury (TBI. Patients (or their caregivers completed the Center for Neurologic Study-Lability Scale (CNS-LS and an 11-point scale measuring impact of the neurological condition on the patient's quality of life (QOL. Presence of PBA symptoms was defined as a CNS-LS score ≥13. Demographic data and current use of antidepressant or antipsychotic medications were also recorded. RESULTS: PRISM enrolled 5290 patients. More than one third of patients (n = 1944; 36.7% had a CNS-LS score ≥13, suggesting PBA symptoms. The mean (SD score measuring impact of neurological condition on QOL was significantly higher (worse in patients with CNS-LS ≥13 vs <13 (6.7 [2.5] vs. 4.7 [3.1], respectively; P<0.0001 two-sample t-test. A greater percentage of patients with CNS-LS ≥13 versus <13 were using antidepressant/antipsychotic medications (53.0% vs 35.4%, respectively; P<0.0001, chi-square test. CONCLUSIONS: Data from PRISM, the largest clinic-based study to assess PBA symptom prevalence, showed that PBA symptoms were common among patients with diverse neurological conditions. Higher CNS-LS scores were associated with impaired QOL and

  11. Assessment of soil-vegetation cover condition in river basins applying remote sensing data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mishchenko, Natalia; Petrosian, Janna; Shirkin, Leonid; Repkin, Roman

    2017-04-01

    Constant observation of vegetation and soil cover is one of the key issues of river basins ecologic monitoring. Lately remotely determining vegetation indices have been used for this purpose alongside with terrestrial data. It is necessary to consider that observation objects have been continuously changing and these changes are comprehensive and depend on temporal and dimensional parameters. Remote sensing data, embracing vast areas and reflecting various interrelations, allow excluding accidental and short-term changes though concentrating on the transformation of the observed river basin ecosystem environmental condition. The research objective is to assess spatial - temporal peculiarities and the dynamics of soil-vegetation condition of the Klyazma basin as whole and minor river basins within the area. Research objects are located in the centre of European Russia. Data used in our research include both statistic and published data, characterizing soil-vegetation cover of the area, space images («Landsat» ETM+ etc.) Research methods. 1. Dynamics analysis NDVI (Normalized difference vegetation index) 2. Remote data have been correlated to terrestrial measurement results of phytomass reserve, phytoproductivity, soil fertility characteristics, crop capacity (http://biodat.ru) 3. For the digital processing of space images software Erdas Imagine has been used, GIS analysis has been carried out applying Arc GIS. NDVI computation for each image pixel helped to map general condition of the Klyazma vegetation cover and to determine geographic ranges without vegetation or with depressed vegetation. For instance high vegetation index geographic range has been defined which corresponded to Vladimir Opolye characterized with the most fertile grey forest soil in the region. Comparative assessment of soil vegetation cover of minor river basins within the Klyazma basin, judging by the terrestrial data, revealed its better condition in the Koloksha basin which is also located

  12. Assessing Crop Conditions through the Use of Remote Sensing and Agricultural and Radar Modelling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davitt, A. W. D.; McDonald, K. C.; Winter, J.

    2016-12-01

    California and The Central Valley are presently experiencing one of that region's worst, persistent droughts on record. Due to the drought, the majority of the agricultural regions located in the Central Valley have faced reduced surface water allocations, negatively impacting crop production and the socioeconomics of the region. As a result of these effects, there has been an increased incentive to consider new ways to maximize agricultural water use efficiency. Recent advances in remote sensing and agricultural modelling provide the ability to improve agricultural management for end users to better understand field conditions, allowing the users to make informed decisions on irrigation timing and amounts. Our research explores the effectiveness of Decision Support System for Agrotechnology Transfer Cropping Systems Model (DSSAT-CSM) in simulating wheat, corn, and rice for water year 2015 in Yolo County, California. This will be accomplished through the evaluation of multi-temporal C-band radar backscatter from the Sentinel-1 satellite and the Michigan's microwave canopy scattering model (MIMICS) to simulate Sentinel-1 radar for each crop type based on vegetation structure outputs from DSSAT-CSM. By linking Sentinel-1 and MIMICS to DSSAT-CSM, we create a verified model for agricultural monitoring that can potentially support the assessment of conditions within agricultural fields. This would allow growers to optimize use of limited water supplies through informed water management practices, improving crop conditions and yield in a water stressed region.

  13. Structural Condition Assessment of the Herringbone Middle Pylon of the Taizhou Bridge Using SHM Strain Data

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Huaping Ding

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Taizhou Bridge is the world’s first kilometer-scale three-pylon suspension bridge. To minimize the impacts on navigation, a longitudinal herringbone steel pylon was adopted in the middle of the bridge without additional piers. This structure is unique, and little research has focused on its structural condition assessment. In this paper, eighty fiber Bragg grating strain sensors were deployed along the height of the steel tower to collect strain data about the key components and to monitor the pylon’s structural condition. Because temperature-induced strain contributes little to the stress in the pylon, the empirical mode decomposition method was proposed to remove the noise and the temperature-induced strain, leaving the dynamic strain response. The frequency characteristics were obtained from both the dynamic strain and the raw strain, and they show good agreement. A statistical analysis was adopted assuming that the extracted dynamic stress peaks and valleys were normally distributed. The expected maximum values from the statistical analysis were compared with the measured maximum values at different heights, and they agree well with each other. The maximum compression and tension of the key segments of the middle tower exhibited considerable redundancy, which indicates that the middle pylon is in good condition.

  14. The use of new practices for assessment of body condition score

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Deniz Alic Ural

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Objective. Two body condition scoring systems were compared to those of interpretation of cow’s body condition at a local farm located in Aydin region, Turkey. Materials and methods. A total of 50 head Holstein-Friesian cows at 1st-4rd parity (mid-lactation, raised at a private dairy farm located in Aydin, Turkey was constituted the animal material of the present study. Scores were obtained by use of the primary systems utilized within the US (1-5 scale with 0.25 intervals and compared to those of Bayer Health Care Animal Health’s BCS Cowdition Smartphone App. Results. The overall means of BCS were found as 3.37±0.068 and 3.45±0.060 for BCS Cowdition and USBCS, respectively. The positive correlation among BCS Cowdition and USBCS systems was found as 0.81 in evaluating body condition (p<0.01. The positive linear relationship (p<0.001 was found between BCS Cowdition and USBCS systems (R2=0.66. The linear relationship between the latter assessment methods demonstrated that both usual and digital systems tended to scare cows similarly. Conclusions. This comparison represented progress within the understanding of the relationship between these two systems. Moreover, it may be suggested that BCS Cowdition Smartphone App. may be a good alternative for interpretation of BCS.

  15. Qualitative Assessment of the Condition of Tatarstan Medieval Fortified Settlements Under the Data of Remote Sensing

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    Gainullin Iskander I.

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available The article considers the modern condition of the archaeological monuments of the Republic of Tatarstan as an essential manmade part of the cultural landscape. According to UNESCO directive, the “cultural landscape” is considered not only as a result of cooperation between man and nature, but also as a natural and cultural territorial complex with a structural and functional integrity developing in specific physical and geographical, cultural and historical conditions. Medieval fortified settlements with a system of defensive fortifications which are easily identified on the basis of remote sensing data were selected as research subjects. The identification and evaluation of monument destruction risks are a priority in the investigation of cultural heritage sites. Due to the fact that most of the monuments are located on the banks of minor rivers, the primary task of investigation was the assessment of the risk of their destruction as a result of natural (dangerous exogenous processes. The second objective was to evaluate the role of the human factor in the destruction of archaeological sites. One of the main utilized techniques is the search and analysis of archival and modern remote sensing data. This approach allows to correct settlement shapes, confirm their sizes and location in the landscape, thus resolving the issue of updating the information on cultural heritage sites. For the first time in the Tatarstan Republic, investigation results will allow to determine the past and current changes in the condition of the monuments and conduct a quantitative assessment of the risks of their destruction prior to the determination of priority regions for the performance of salvage and rescue excavations.

  16. Welfare Conditions of Donkeys in Europe: Initial Outcomes from On-Farm Assessment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Francesca Dai

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper is a baseline study to present the initial outcomes of data collected in a sample of EU donkey farms using the AWIN welfare assessment protocol for donkeys, comprehensive of 22 valid, reliable and feasible animal-based indicators. A total of 20 donkey facilities (N = 12 in Italy and N = 8 in United Kingdom were visited and 278 donkeys of different breed, aged 2–45 years, were assessed. Three assessors underwent a common training period to learn how to perform and score all the indicators included in the protocol. Data was collected using digitalized systems and downloaded to a database. A descriptive statistic for each welfare indicator was calculated. The authors found recurrent issues: 25% of donkeys were moderately over weight; although most of the assessed animals had good quality hoof care, 15.16% of them presented some signs of neglect, such as overgrowth and/or incorrect trimming; 18.05% of donkeys showed an avoidance reaction to an approaching human in the avoidance distance test. The protocol has proven to be applicable in different management conditions and for donkeys of different attitude.

  17. Welfare Conditions of Donkeys in Europe: Initial Outcomes from On-Farm Assessment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dai, Francesca; Dalla Costa, Emanuela; Murray, Leigh Margareth Anne; Canali, Elisabetta; Minero, Michela

    2016-01-08

    This paper is a baseline study to present the initial outcomes of data collected in a sample of EU donkey farms using the AWIN welfare assessment protocol for donkeys, comprehensive of 22 valid, reliable and feasible animal-based indicators. A total of 20 donkey facilities (N = 12 in Italy and N = 8 in United Kingdom) were visited and 278 donkeys of different breed, aged 2-45 years, were assessed. Three assessors underwent a common training period to learn how to perform and score all the indicators included in the protocol. Data was collected using digitalized systems and downloaded to a database. A descriptive statistic for each welfare indicator was calculated. The authors found recurrent issues: 25% of donkeys were moderately over weight; although most of the assessed animals had good quality hoof care, 15.16% of them presented some signs of neglect, such as overgrowth and/or incorrect trimming; 18.05% of donkeys showed an avoidance reaction to an approaching human in the avoidance distance test. The protocol has proven to be applicable in different management conditions and for donkeys of different attitude.

  18. Methods of Assessment of Variants of Technical and Technological Renovation under Modern Conditions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shevchuk Larysa M.

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available The article marks out stages of planning of the moment of renovation, considers an algorithm of selection of the best variant of renovation out of alternative variants with consideration of such aspects as the degree of risk of each investment project, financial capabilities and economic efficiency of renovation. The article studies the scheme of analysis of alternative variants of technical and technological renovation, which includes preliminary, financial and economic, technical and other types of analysis. The article forms an economic model of assessment of introduction of a new technology at an enterprise moving by the technological scheme of development and realisation of novelty; it calculates expenses (engineering and design, material, technical and personnel training costs and identifies economic possibilities of an enterprise on the conduct of renovation. In the result it allocates the indicator of realisation of a new technology in general by an aggregate group of factors. Due to absence of indicators of assessment of efficiency of renovation adapted to market conditions, the article offers to calculate the indicator of assessment of efficiency of investing into renovation, showing what portion of the investment is returned in the form of profit during one period of planning.

  19. Assessment of Safety Condition in One of the Teaching Hospitals in Kermanshah (2015: A Case Study

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    Masod Ghanbari Kakavand

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Background & Aims of the Study: Many working conditions-related stress factors that can produce injuries and illnesses are important in hospital environments. So, the health and safety of nurses and patients from workplace-induced injuries and illnesses is important. In this study, we have assessed the safety condition of one of the teaching hospitals in Kermanshah (2015. Materials and Methods: This descriptive and cross-sectional study was conducted in one of the teaching hospital of Kermanshah University of medical sciences. For this aim a checklist was prepared based on the Occupational Safety and Health Administration's standards and Part 3 of the manual of National Building Regulations. These checklists comprised (The final checklist had 239 questions of 9 dimensions various sections of safety including; fire safety, building safety, electrical safety, emergency exit routes safety, heating and cooling equipment safety, operating room and laundry room and salty home safety. Eventually, using SPSS 16 and descriptive statistics, data were analyzed. Results: According to the results of this study, 66.6% of the units had poor safety and 33.4% of them were moderately safe. As well as, only ICU and CCU unit, heating and cooling equipment and operational room showed moderate compliance with safety requirements and other sections were poorly complied. Conclusion: The results of this study showed that safety conditions of hospital were not at favorable level. These poor safety statues can jeopardize patients and hospital personnel. Thus some interventions such as improvement of working conditions, compliance with safety acts and implementation of health, safety and environmental management system would be necessary.

  20. Assessing trail conditions in protected areas: Application of a problem-assessment method in Great Smoky Mountains National Park, USA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leung, Y.-F.; Marion, J.

    1999-01-01

    The degradation of trail resources associated with expanding recreation and tourism visitation is a growing management problem in protected areas worldwide. In order to make judicious trail and visitor management decisions, protected area managers need objective and timely information on trail resource conditions. This paper introduces a trail survey method that efficiently characterizes the lineal extent of common trail problems. The method was applied to a large sample of trails within Great Smoky Mountains National Park, a highuse protected area in the USA. The Trail ProblemAssessment Method (TPAM) employs a continuous search for multiple indicators of predefined tread problems, yielding census data documenting the location, occurrence and extent of each problem. The present application employed 23 different indicators in three categories to gather inventory, resource condition, and design and maintenance data of each surveyed trail. Seventy-two backcountry hiking trails (528 km), or 35% of the Park's total trail length, were surveyed. Soil erosion and wet soil were found to be the two most common impacts on a lineal extent basis. Trails with serious tread problems were well distributed throughout the Park, although wet muddy treads tended to be concentrated in areas where horse use was high. The effectiveness of maintenance features installed to divert water from trail treads was also evaluated. Water bars were found to be more effective than drainage dips. The TPAM was able to provide Park managers with objective and quantitative information for use in trail planning, management and maintenance decisions, and is applicable to other protected areas elsewhere with different environmental and impact characteristics.

  1. Dynamic contrast-enhanced MRI assessment of hyperemic fractional microvascular blood plasma volume in peripheral arterial disease: initial findings.

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    Bas Versluis

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVES: The aim of the current study was to describe a method that assesses the hyperemic microvascular blood plasma volume of the calf musculature. The reversibly albumin binding contrast agent gadofosveset was used in dynamic contrast-enhanced magnetic resonance imaging (DCE MRI to assess the microvascular status in patients with peripheral arterial disease (PAD and healthy controls. In addition, the reproducibility of this method in healthy controls was determined. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Ten PAD patients with intermittent claudication and 10 healthy control subjects were included. Patients underwent contrast-enhanced MR angiography of the peripheral arteries, followed by one DCE MRI examination of the musculature of the calf. Healthy control subjects were examined twice on different days to determine normative values and the interreader and interscan reproducibility of the technique. The MRI protocol comprised dynamic imaging of contrast agent wash-in under reactive hyperemia conditions of the calf musculature. Using pharmacokinetic modeling the hyperemic fractional microvascular blood plasma volume (V(p, unit: % of the anterior tibial, gastrocnemius and soleus muscles was calculated. RESULTS: V(p was significantly lower for all muscle groups in PAD patients (4.3±1.6%, 5.0±3.3% and 6.1±3.6% for anterior tibial, gastrocnemius and soleus muscles, respectively compared to healthy control subjects (9.1±2.0%, 8.9±1.9% and 9.3±2.1%. Differences in V(p between muscle groups were not significant. The coefficient of variation of V(p varied from 10-14% and 11-16% at interscan and interreader level, respectively. CONCLUSIONS: Using DCE MRI after contrast-enhanced MR angiography with gadofosveset enables reproducible assessment of hyperemic fractional microvascular blood plasma volume of the calf musculature. V(p was lower in PAD patients than in healthy controls, which reflects a promising functional (hemodynamic biomarker for the

  2. Multidetector CT urography in urogenital tuberculosis: use of reformatted images for the assessment of the radiological findings. A pictorial essay.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gaudiano, Caterina; Tadolini, Marina; Busato, Fiorenza; Vanino, Elisa; Pucci, Simone; Corcioni, Beniamino; Golfieri, Rita

    2017-04-08

    Urogenital tuberculosis (UGTB) is the most common form of extrapulmonary TB and is responsible for a destructive inflammation of the renal parenchyma and urinary tract often leading to the loss of kidney function. For these reasons, the early diagnosis of this disease, once considered disappeared in developed countries, is very important to establish a prompt and efficient treatment. However, the subtle and non-specific symptoms, often represented by recurrent and persistent lower urinary tract symptoms, can confound and delay the diagnosis. Therefore, an adequate and comprehensive imaging study is necessary in patients with persistent urinary tract infections not responding to the antibiotics and can suggest the hypothesis although bacteriological and/or histologic analysis is required for a definitive diagnosis. In the past years, intravenous urography (IVU) has allowed a comprehensive study of the urinary excretory tract, promoting the knowledge of the radiological findings of this disease. Nowadays, computed tomography urography (CTU), with the implementation of multidetector (MD) technology, has replaced IVU in all its indications; the MDCTU improves the assessment of renal and urinary tract lesions using reformatted images [such as multiplanar reconstruction (MPR) and maximum intensity projection (MIP)]. Therefore, our paper aims to provide a guide for radiologist for searching the classic signs of UGTB on MDCTU, encouraging the use of the MPR and MIP reformatted images.

  3. National-Scale Air Quality Data Assessment: Initial Findings from the Near-Road NO2 Monitoring Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    DeWinter, J. L.

    2015-12-01

    In 2010, the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) revised the National Ambient Air Quality Standards (NAAQS) for nitrogen dioxide (NO2) to include a primary health-based standard for hourly NO2. NO2 is a reactive gas that is emitted from motor vehicles, such as cars, trucks, and off-road equipment, as well as non-mobile sources, and is known to adversely affect human respiratory health. In conjunction with the NAAQS revision, EPA has mandated air quality monitoring next to selected major roadways throughout the United States that are in large urban areas where peak hourly NO2 concentrations are expected. Monitoring began in phases during 2012-2015 and included nitrogen dioxide (NO2), carbon monoxide (CO), and particulate matter smaller than 2.5 microns (PM2.5) at 40 monitoring sites nationwide. We conducted a national-scale review of near-road air pollutant concentrations, identified areas where high concentrations of NO2, PM2.5, and CO occurred, and evaluated how concentrations varied by factors such as location, distance to roadway, fleet mix characteristics, and traffic volume. We present the findings from our national near-road data assessment for the 2014 monitoring year.

  4. Assessing the effects of adaptation measures on optimal water resources allocation under varied water availability conditions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Dedi; Guo, Shenglian; Shao, Quanxi; Liu, Pan; Xiong, Lihua; Wang, Le; Hong, Xingjun; Xu, Yao; Wang, Zhaoli

    2018-01-01

    Human activities and climate change have altered the spatial and temporal distribution of water availability which is a principal prerequisite for allocation of different water resources. In order to quantify the impacts of climate change and human activities on water availability and optimal allocation of water resources, hydrological models and optimal water resource allocation models should be integrated. Given that increasing human water demand and varying water availability conditions necessitate adaptation measures, we propose a framework to assess the effects of these measures on optimal allocation of water resources. The proposed model and framework were applied to a case study of the middle and lower reaches of the Hanjiang River Basin in China. Two representative concentration pathway (RCP) scenarios (RCP2.6 and RCP4.5) were employed to project future climate, and the Variable Infiltration Capacity (VIC) hydrological model was used to simulate the variability of flows under historical (1956-2011) and future (2012-2099) conditions. The water availability determined by simulating flow with the VIC hydrological model was used to establish the optimal water resources allocation model. The allocation results were derived under an extremely dry year (with an annual average water flow frequency of 95%), a very dry year (with an annual average water flow frequency of 90%), a dry year (with an annual average water flow frequency of 75%), and a normal year (with an annual average water flow frequency of 50%) during historical and future periods. The results show that the total available water resources in the study area and the inflow of the Danjiangkou Reservoir will increase in the future. However, the uneven distribution of water availability will cause water shortage problems, especially in the boundary areas. The effects of adaptation measures, including water saving, and dynamic control of flood limiting water levels (FLWLs) for reservoir operation, were

  5. Assessment of bridge abutment scour and sediment transport under various flow conditions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gilja, Gordon; Valyrakis, Manousos; Michalis, Panagiotis; Bekić, Damir; Kuspilić, Neven; McKeogh, Eamon

    2017-04-01

    Safety of bridges over watercourses can be compromised by flow characteristics and bridge hydraulics. Scour process around bridge foundations can develop rapidly during low-recurrence interval floods when structural elements are exposed to increased flows. Variations in riverbed geometry, as a result of sediment removal and deposition processes, can increase flood-induced hazard at bridge sites with catastrophic failures and destructive consequences for civil infrastructure. The quantification of flood induced hazard on bridge safety generally involves coupled hydrodynamic and sediment transport models (i.e. 2D numerical or physical models) for a range of hydrological events covering both high and low flows. Modelled boundary conditions are usually estimated for their probability of occurrence using frequency analysis of long-term recordings at gauging stations. At smaller rivers gauging station records are scarce, especially in upper courses of rivers where weirs, drops and rapids are common elements of river bathymetry. As a result, boundary conditions that accurately represent flow patterns on modelled river reach cannot be often reliably acquired. Sediment transport process is also more complicated to describe due to its complexity and dependence to local flow field making scour hazard assessment a particularly challenging issue. This study investigates the influence of flow characteristics to the development of scour and sedimentation processes around bridge abutments of a single span masonry arch bridge in south Ireland. The impact of downstream weirs on bridge hydraulics through variation of downstream model domain type is also considered in this study. The numerical model is established based on detailed bathymetry data surveyed along a rectangular grid of 50cm spacing. Acquired data also consist of riverbed morphology and water level variations which are monitored continuously on bridge site. The obtained data are then used to compare and calibrate

  6. A Conditioned Behavioral Paradigm for Assessing Onset and Lasting Tinnitus in Rats.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Edward Pace

    Full Text Available Numerous behavioral paradigms have been developed to assess tinnitus-like behavior in animals. Nevertheless, they are often limited by prolonged training requirements, as well as an inability to simultaneously assess onset and lasting tinnitus behavior, tinnitus pitch or duration, or tinnitus presence without grouping data from multiple animals or testing sessions. To enhance behavioral testing of tinnitus, we developed a conditioned licking suppression paradigm to determine the pitch(s of both onset and lasting tinnitus-like behavior within individual animals. Rats learned to lick water during broadband or narrowband noises, and to suppress licking to avoid footshocks during silence. After noise exposure, rats significantly increased licking during silent trials, suggesting onset tinnitus-like behavior. Lasting tinnitus-behavior, however, was exhibited in about half of noise-exposed rats through 7 weeks post-exposure tested. Licking activity during narrowband sound trials remained unchanged following noise exposure, while ABR hearing thresholds fully recovered and were comparable between tinnitus(+ and tinnitus(- rats. To assess another tinnitus inducer, rats were injected with sodium salicylate. They demonstrated high pitch tinnitus-like behavior, but later recovered by 5 days post-injection. Further control studies showed that 1: sham noise-exposed rats tested with footshock did not exhibit tinnitus-like behavior, and 2: noise-exposed or sham rats tested without footshocks showed no fundamental changes in behavior compared to those tested with shocks. Together, these results demonstrate that this paradigm can efficiently test the development of noise- and salicylate-induced tinnitus behavior. The ability to assess tinnitus individually, over time, and without averaging data enables us to realistically address tinnitus in a clinically relevant way. Thus, we believe that this optimized behavioral paradigm will facilitate investigations into the

  7. A Conditioned Behavioral Paradigm for Assessing Onset and Lasting Tinnitus in Rats

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pace, Edward; Luo, Hao; Bobian, Michael; Panekkad, Ajay; Zhang, Xueguo; Zhang, Huiming; Zhang, Jinsheng

    2016-01-01

    Numerous behavioral paradigms have been developed to assess tinnitus-like behavior in animals. Nevertheless, they are often limited by prolonged training requirements, as well as an inability to simultaneously assess onset and lasting tinnitus behavior, tinnitus pitch or duration, or tinnitus presence without grouping data from multiple animals or testing sessions. To enhance behavioral testing of tinnitus, we developed a conditioned licking suppression paradigm to determine the pitch(s) of both onset and lasting tinnitus-like behavior within individual animals. Rats learned to lick water during broadband or narrowband noises, and to suppress licking to avoid footshocks during silence. After noise exposure, rats significantly increased licking during silent trials, suggesting onset tinnitus-like behavior. Lasting tinnitus-behavior, however, was exhibited in about half of noise-exposed rats through 7 weeks post-exposure tested. Licking activity during narrowband sound trials remained unchanged following noise exposure, while ABR hearing thresholds fully recovered and were comparable between tinnitus(+) and tinnitus(-) rats. To assess another tinnitus inducer, rats were injected with sodium salicylate. They demonstrated high pitch tinnitus-like behavior, but later recovered by 5 days post-injection. Further control studies showed that 1): sham noise-exposed rats tested with footshock did not exhibit tinnitus-like behavior, and 2): noise-exposed or sham rats tested without footshocks showed no fundamental changes in behavior compared to those tested with shocks. Together, these results demonstrate that this paradigm can efficiently test the development of noise- and salicylate-induced tinnitus behavior. The ability to assess tinnitus individually, over time, and without averaging data enables us to realistically address tinnitus in a clinically relevant way. Thus, we believe that this optimized behavioral paradigm will facilitate investigations into the mechanisms of

  8. The conditioned place preference test for assessing welfare consequences and potential refinements in a mouse bladder cancer model.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    John V Roughan

    Full Text Available Most pre-clinical analgesic efficacy assays still involve nociceptive testing in rodents. This is despite concerns as to the relevance of these tests for evaluating the pain-preventative properties of drugs. More appropriate methods would target pain rather than nociception, but these are currently not available, so it remains unknown whether animal pain equates to the negatively affective and subjective/emotional state it causes in humans. Mouse cancer models are common despite the likelihood of substantial pain. We used Conditioned Place Preference (CPP testing, assessments of thermal hyperalgesia and behaviour to determine the likelihood that MBT-2 bladder cancer impacts negatively on mouse welfare, such as by causing pain. There was no CPP to saline, but morphine preference in tumour bearing mice exceeded that seen in tumour-free controls. This occurred up to 10 days before the study end-point alongside reduced body weight, development of hyperalgesia and behaviour changes. These effects indicated mice experienced a negative welfare state caused by malaise (if not pain before euthanasia. Due to the complexity of the assessments needed to demonstrate this, it is unlikely that this approach could be used for routine welfare assessment on a study-by-study basis. However, our results show mice in sufficiently similar studies are likely to benefit from more intensive severity assessment and re-evaluation of end-points with a view to implementing appropriate refinements. In this particular case, a refinement would have been to have euthanased mice at least 7 days earlier or possibly by provision of end-stage pain relief. CPP testing was found to be a helpful method to investigate the responses of mice to analgesics, possibly on a subjective level. These findings and those of other recent studies show it could be a valuable method of screening candidate analgesics for efficacy against cancer pain and possibly other pain or disease models.

  9. Comparison of two ActiGraph accelerometer generations in the assessment of physical activity in free living conditions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vanhelst Jérémy

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The aim of this study was to compare physical activity measured using GT1M ActiGraph and GT3X ActiGraph accelerometers in free living conditions. Findings Twenty-five adults wore GT1M and GT3X Actigraph accelerometers simultaneously during a typical weekday of activity. Data were uploaded from the monitor to a computer at the end of test (one day. Previously established thresholds were used for defining time spent at each level of physical activity, physical activity was assessed at varying intensities comparing data from the two accelerometers by ANOVA and Bland and Altman statistical analysis. The concordance correlation coefficient between accelerometers at each intensity level was 0.99. There were no significant differences between accelerometers at any of the activity levels. Differences between data obtained in minutes with the GT1M accelerometer and the GT3X monitor were to 0.56, 0.36, 0.52 and 0.44% for sedentary, light, moderate and vigorous, respectively. The Bland and Altman method showed good agreement between data obtained for the two accelerometers. Conclusions Findings suggest that the two accelerometers provided similar results and therefore the GT3X may be used in clinical and epidemiological studies without additional calibration or validation studies.

  10. A coupled Bayesian and fault tree methodology to assess future groundwater conditions in light of climate change

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, J. J.; Du, M.; McBean, E. A.; Wang, H.; Wang, J.

    2014-08-01

    Maintaining acceptable groundwater levels, particularly in arid areas, while protecting ecosystems, are key measures against desertification. Due to complicated hydrological processes and their inherent uncertainties, investigations of groundwater recharge conditions are challenging, particularly in arid areas under climate changing conditions. To assist planning to protect against desertification, a fault tree methodology, in conjunction with fuzzy logic and Bayesian data mining, are applied to Minqin Oasis, a highly vulnerable regime in northern China. A set of risk factors is employed within the fault tree framework, with fuzzy logic translating qualitative risk data into probabilities. Bayesian data mining is used to quantify the contribution of each risk factor to the final aggregated risk. The implications of both historical and future climate trends are employed for temperature, precipitation and potential evapotranspiration (PET) to assess water table changes under various future scenarios. The findings indicate that water table levels will continue to drop at the rate of 0.6 m yr-1 in the future when climatic effects alone are considered, if agricultural and industrial production capacity remain at 2004 levels.

  11. An application of a hydraulic model simulator in flood risk assessment under changing climatic conditions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Doroszkiewicz, J. M.; Romanowicz, R. J.

    2016-12-01

    The standard procedure of climate change impact assessment on future hydrological extremes consists of a chain of consecutive actions, starting from the choice of GCM driven by an assumed CO2 scenario, through downscaling of climatic forcing to a catchment scale, estimation of hydrological extreme indices using hydrological modelling tools and subsequent derivation of flood risk maps with the help of a hydraulic model. Among many possible sources of uncertainty, the main are the uncertainties related to future climate scenarios, climate models, downscaling techniques and hydrological and hydraulic models. Unfortunately, we cannot directly assess the impact of these different sources of uncertainties on flood risk in future due to lack of observations of future climate realizations. The aim of this study is an assessment of a relative impact of different sources of uncertainty on the uncertainty of flood risk maps. Due to the complexity of the processes involved, an assessment of total uncertainty of maps of inundation probability might be very computer time consuming. As a way forward we present an application of a hydraulic model simulator based on a nonlinear transfer function model for the chosen locations along the river reach. The transfer function model parameters are estimated based on the simulations of the hydraulic model at each of the model cross-sections. The study shows that the application of a simulator substantially reduces the computer requirements related to the derivation of flood risk maps under future climatic conditions. Biala Tarnowska catchment, situated in southern Poland is used as a case study. Future discharges at the input to a hydraulic model are obtained using the HBV model and climate projections obtained from the EUROCORDEX project. The study describes a cascade of uncertainty related to different stages of the process of derivation of flood risk maps under changing climate conditions. In this context it takes into account the

  12. Life cycle assessment of biofuel production from brown seaweed in Nordic conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alvarado-Morales, Merlin; Boldrin, Alessio; Karakashev, Dimitar B; Holdt, Susan L; Angelidaki, Irini; Astrup, Thomas

    2013-02-01

    The use of algae for biofuel production is expected to play an important role in securing energy supply in the next decades. A consequential life cycle assessment (LCA) and an energy analysis of seaweed-based biofuel production were carried out in Nordic conditions to document and improve the sustainability of the process. Two scenarios were analyzed for the brown seaweed (Laminaria digitata), namely, biogas production (scenario 1) and bioethanol+biogas production (scenario 2). Potential environmental impact categories under investigation were Global Warming, Acidification and Terrestrial Eutrophication. The production of seaweed was identified to be the most energy intensive step. Scenario 1 showed better performance compared to scenario 2 for all impact categories, partly because of the energy intensive bioethanol separation process and the consequently lower overall efficiency of the system. For improved environmental performance, focus should be on optimization of seaweed production, bioethanol distillation, and management of digestate on land. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Assessing potential changes of chestnut productivity in Europe under future climate conditions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Calheiros, T.; Pereira, M. G.; Pinto, J. G.; Caramelo, L.; Gomes-Laranjo, J.; Dacamara, C. C.

    2012-04-01

    The European chestnut is cultivated for its nuts and wood. Several studies point to the dependency of chestnut productivity on specific soil and climate characteristics. For instance, this species dislikes chalky and poorly drained soils, appreciates sedimentary, siliceous and acidic to neutral soils. Chestnut trees also seems to appreciate annual mean values of sunlight spanning between 2400 and 2600 h, rainfall ranging between 600 and 1500 mm, mean annual temperature between 9 and 13°C, 27°C being the mean of the maximum temperature (Heiniger and Conedera, 1992; Gomes-Laranjo et al.,2008). The amount of heat between May and October must range between 1800°D and 2400°D (Dinis et al., 2011) . In Poland, the growing season is defined as the period of time when the mean 24-h temperature is greater than 5°C (Wilczynski and Podalski, 2007). In Portugal, maximum photosynthetic activity occurs at 24-28°C for adult trees, but exhibits more than 50% of termoinhibition when the air temperature is above 32°C, which is frequent during summer (Gomes- Laranjo et al., 2006, 2008). Recently Pereira et al (2011) identified a set of meteorological variables/parameters with high impact on chestnut productivity. The main purpose of this work is to assess the potential impacts of future climate change on chestnut productivity in Portugal as well as on European chestnut orchards. First, observed data from the European Climate assessment (ECA) and simulations with the Regional Circulation Model (RCM) COSMO-CLM for recent climate conditions are used to assess the ability of the RCM to model the actual meteorological conditions. Then, ensemble projections from the ECHAM5/COSMO-CLM model chain for two climate scenarios (A1B and B1) are used to estimate the values of relevant meteorological variables and parameters und future climate conditions. Simulated values are then compared with those obtained for present climate. Results point to changes in the spatial and temporal

  14. Comparison of core sampling and visual inspection for assessment of concrete sewer pipe condition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stanić, N; de Haan, C; Tirion, M; Langeveld, J G; Clemens, F H L R

    2013-01-01

    Sewer systems are costly to construct and even more costly to replace, requiring proper asset management. Sewer asset management relies to a large extent on available information. In sewer systems where pipe corrosion is the dominant failure mechanism, visual inspection by closed circuit television (CCTV) and core sampling are among the methods mostly applied to assess sewer pipe condition. This paper compares visual inspection and drill core analysis in order to enhance further understanding of the limitations and potentials of both methods. Both methods have been applied on a selected sewer reach in the city of The Hague, which was reportedly subject to pipe corrosion. Results show that both methods, visual inspection and core sampling, are associated with large uncertainties and that there is no obvious correlation between results of visual inspection and results of drill core analysis.

  15. Analysis of Frequency of Use of Different Scar Assessment Scales Based on the Scar Condition and Treatment Method

    OpenAIRE

    Seong Hwan Bae; Yong Chan Bae

    2014-01-01

    Analysis of scars in various conditions is essential, but no consensus had been reached on the scar assessment scale to select for a given condition. We reviewed papers to determine the scar assessment scale selected depending on the scar condition and treatment method. We searched PubMed for articles published since 2000 with the contents of the scar evaluation using a scar assessment scale with a Journal Citation Report impact factor >0.5. Among them, 96 articles that conducted a scar evalu...

  16. A functional approach to the body condition assessment of lactating donkeys as a tool for welfare evaluation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Emanuela Valle

    2017-03-01

    the first principal component (PC1. PC1 revealed a meaningful positive correlation between the BCS and the neck measurements (NT, NH and FNS, with high positive loadings, while a negative correlation was found for dental abnormalities. The owners’ evaluation of BCS was different from the expert evaluator’ assessment, since they tended to give higher score that was slightly but significantly correlated to AC. Discussion A new scoring system, called Fatty Neck Score (FNS, has been proposed for the judgement of the adiposity status of donkey neck. The results suggest that caregivers might use the proposed animal based indicators (BCS, FNS and dental scores together as a tool for the evaluation of the body condition of lactating donkeys. Our findings highlight that caregivers need to be trained in order to be able to properly record these indicators. Ultimately use of these indicators may help to improve the welfare of lactating donkeys.

  17. Assessing cost-effectiveness in mental health: vocational rehabilitation for schizophrenia and related conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chalamat, Maturot; Mihalopoulos, Cathrine; Carter, Rob; Vos, Theo

    2005-08-01

    Existing evidence suggests that vocational rehabilitation services, in particular individual placement and support (IPS), are effective in assisting people with schizophrenia and related conditions gain open employment. Despite this, such services are not available to all unemployed people with schizophrenia who wish to work. Existing evidence suggests that while IPS confers no clinical advantages over routine care, it does improve the proportion of people returning to employment. The objective of the current study is to investigate the net benefit of introducing IPS services into current mental health services in Australia. The net benefit of IPS is assessed from a health sector perspective using cost-benefit analysis. A two-stage approach is taken to the assessment of benefit. The first stage involves a quantitative analysis of the net benefit, defined as the benefits of IPS (comprising transfer payments averted, income tax accrued and individual income earned) minus the costs. The second stage involves application of 'second-filter' criteria (including equity, strength of evidence, feasibility and acceptability to stakeholders) to results. The robustness of results is tested using the multivariate probabilistic sensitivity analysis. The costs of IPS are 10.3M Australian dollars (95% uncertainty interval 7.4M-13.6M Australian dollars), the benefits are 4.7M (3.1M-6.5M Australian dollars), resulting in a negative net benefit of 5.6M Australian dollars (8.4M-3.4M Australian dollars). The current analysis suggests that IPS costs are greater than the monetary benefits. However, the evidence-base of the current analysis is weak. Structural conditions surrounding welfare payments in Australia create disincentives to full-time employment for people with disabilities.

  18. Statistical approach for assessing the influence of synoptic and meteorological conditions on ozone concentrations over Europe

    Science.gov (United States)

    Otero, Noelia; Butler, Tim; Sillmann, Jana

    2015-04-01

    Air pollution has become a serious problem in many industrialized and densely-populated urban areas due to its negative effects on human health, damages agricultural crops and ecosystems. The concentration of air pollutants is the result of several factors, including emission sources, lifetime and spatial distribution of the pollutants, atmospheric properties and interactions, wind speed and direction, and topographic features. Episodes of air pollution are often associated with stationary or slowly migrating anticyclonic (high-pressure) systems that reduce advection, diffusion, and deposition of atmospheric pollutants. Certain weather conditions facilitate the concentration of pollutants, such as the incidence of light winds that contributes to the increasing of stagnation episodes affecting air quality. Therefore, the atmospheric circulation plays an important role in air quality conditions that are affected by both, synoptic and local scale processes. This study assesses the influence of the large-scale circulation along with meteorological conditions on tropospheric ozone in Europe. The frequency of weather types (WTs) is examined under a novel approach, which is based on an automated version of the Lamb Weather Types catalog (Jenkinson and Collison, 1977). Here, we present an implementation of such classification point-by-point over the European domain. Moreover, the analysis uses a new grid-averaged climatology (1°x1°) of daily surface ozone concentrations from observations of individual sites that matches the resolution of global models (Schnell,et al., 2014). Daily frequency of WTs and meteorological conditions are combined in a multiple regression approach for investigating the influence on ozone concentrations. Different subsets of predictors are examined within multiple linear regression models (MLRs) for each grid cell in order to identify the best regression model. Several statistical metrics are applied for estimating the robustness of the

  19. Assessment of access to primary health care among children and adolescents hospitalized due to avoidable conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferrer, Ana Paula Scoleze; Grisi, Sandra Josefina Ferraz Ellero

    2016-09-01

    Hospitalizations for ambulatory care-sensitive conditions (HACSC) are considered an indicator of the effectiveness of primary health care (PHC). High rates of HACSC represent problems in the access or the quality of health care. In Brazil, HACSC rates are high and there are few studies on the factors associated with it. To evaluate the access to PHC offered to children and adolescents hospitalized due to ACSC and analyze the conditioning factors. Cross-sectional study with a quantitative and qualitative approach. Five hundred and one (501) users (guardians/caregivers) and 42 professionals of PHC units were interviewed over one year. Quantitative data were obtained using Primary Care Assessment Tool validated in Brazil (PCATool-Brazil), while qualitative data were collected by semi-structured interview. The independent variables were: age, maternal education, family income, type of diagnosis, and model of care offered, and the dependent variables were access and its components (accessibility and use of services). Sixty-five percent (65.2%) of hospitalizations were ACSC. From the perspective of both users and professionals, access and its components presented low scores. Age, type of diagnosis, and model of care affected the results. The proportion of HACSC was high in this population. Access to services is inappropriate due to: barriers to access, appreciation of the emergency services, and attitude towards health needs. Professional attitudes and opinions reinforce inadequate ideas of users reflecting on the pattern of service use.

  20. Multitarget survey on the Finance Police personnel: assessment of the health condition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barraco, Giancarlo; Pagano, Stefano; Lupoli, Grazia; Dolci, Alessandro; Colagrosso, Beniamino

    2014-01-01

    Over the past 10-15 years, Italy has undergone a social transformation, and the class of employees and workers has become more economically stable with a higher buying power. Along with the increased expectations of patients on the quality of life, it has now become a priority to make health and social services ready to face users bearing new requirements and different needs. To provide a description of the state of health of the operating personnel of the Finance Police (Guardia di Finanza), including elements for planning the most appropriate interventions for health promotion and prevention. The study analyzed the health condition of a group of soldiers (178 subjects, divided into different age classes) by evaluating the effectiveness of a training and information program and subsequently the level of benefit. The study population showed a good state of health correlated to the quality of life. Although the population voluntarily submitted to health assessment, the rigour of the calls and briefings carried out in the military health unit and the attention of the group to follow instructions on prevention underlined a positive trend, even in behaviours considered as health-risky. Socio-cultural components and the work environment influence the quality of life. In the case of military health care, the specific military organization was useful to monitor the health condition of the population, maximizing the effectiveness of services, enhancing the information and carrying out prevention strategies and demand of care, which should be an example for the public health services.

  1. The National Library of Kosovo "PJETER Bogdani" Rapid Condition Assessment and Documentation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eppich, R.; Ramku, B.; Binakaj, N.

    2017-08-01

    The National Library of Kosovo "Pjetër Bogdani" is a symbol of Prishtina, Kosovo and the quest for knowledge. It is simultaneously an icon of modernity and symbol of the past. Unfortunately, it suffered through the Kosovo war and neglect in times of economic difficulty. It was also unfortunately featured in the British newspaper The Telegraph in their travel section: "One of the world's 30 ugliest buildings?" In late 2015 the Kosovo Architectural Foundation, a non-profit dedicated to spirit of creating and preserving unique architecture, became concerned with the reputation and condition of the Library and contacted the Kosovo Ministry of Culture, visited the site and initiated a project to raise awareness and document this modern masterpiece. The Getty Foundation and their Keeping it Modern grant program awarded funding for initial condition assessment, documentation, capacity building and investigations. This paper discusses the project to document and improve the image and awareness of this important structure and set priorities for its future.

  2. Axial Fan Blade Vibration Assessment under Inlet Cross-Flow Conditions Using Laser Scanning Vibrometry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Till Heinemann

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available In thermal power plants equipped with air-cooled condensers (ACCs, axial cooling fans operate under the influence of ambient flow fields. Under inlet cross-flow conditions, the resultant asymmetric flow field is known to introduce additional harmonic forces to the fan blades. This effect has previously only been studied numerically or by using blade-mounted strain gauges. For this study, laser scanning vibrometry (LSV was used to assess fan blade vibration under inlet cross-flow conditions in an adapted fan test rig inside a wind tunnel test section. Two co-rotating laser beams scanned a low-pressure axial fan, resulting in spectral, phase-resolved surface vibration patterns of the fan blades. Two distinct operating points with flow coefficients of 0.17 and 0.28 were examined, with and without inlet cross-flow influence. While almost identical fan vibration patterns were found for both reference operating points, the overall blade vibration increased by 100% at the low fan flow rate as a result of cross-flow, and by 20% at the high fan flow rate. While numerically predicted natural frequency modes could be confirmed from experimental data as minor peaks in the vibration amplitude spectrum, they were not excited significantly by cross-flow. Instead, primarily higher rotation-rate harmonics were amplified; that is, a synchronous blade-tip flapping was strongly excited at the blade-pass frequency.

  3. The human spirit as a necessary condition for higher education: a risk assessment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J S Wessels

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Risk management can either protect or endanger higher education institutions (HEIs in South Africa. A crucial determining factor is how the core risks for these institutions are identified and mitigated. This article contributes to the continuing discourse on both risk management and managerialism in higher education. The thesis for this article is that the presence of a caring human spirit within HEIs is a necessary condition for them to fulfil their reason for existence. The purpose of this article is thus to reflect on the risk of HEIs not being able to fulfil their fundamental reason for existence due to the smothering or absence of a caring human spirit in these institutions. A reading of official and scholarly texts has shown that HEIs’ primary reason for existence is embedded risk, namely a concern with the new or the unknown and by implication a critical curiosity about an uncertain future. The presence of a caring human spirit is not only a necessary condition for fulfilling the reason for the existence of an HEI, but also a crucial risk category currently absent from the standard list of institutional risk categories. Risk assessment reveals that the absence or smothering of a caring human spirit in HEIs poses a high to very high risk for their survival.

  4. Assessing changes in a patient's condition - perspectives of intensive care nurses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kvande, Monica; Delmar, Charlotte; Lykkeslet, Else; Storli, Sissel Lisa

    2017-03-01

    To explore the phenomenon of assessing changes in patients' conditions in intensive care units from the perspectives of experienced intensive care nurses. Providing safe care for patients in intensive care units requires an awareness and perception of the signs that indicate changes in a patient's condition. Nurses in intensive care units play an essential role in preventing the deterioration of a patient's condition and in improving patient outcomes. This hermeneutic phenomenological study conducted close observations and in-depth interviews with 11 intensive care nurses. The nurses' experience ranged from 7 to 28 years in the intensive care unit. Data were collected at two intensive care units in two Norwegian university hospitals. The analysis was performed using the reflective methods of van Manen. An overarching theme of 'sensitive situational attention' was identified, in which the nurses were sensitive in relation to a patient and understood the significance of a given situation. This theme was further unfolded in four subthemes: (1) being sensitive and emotionally present, (2) being systematic and concentrating, (3) being physically close to the bedside and (4) being trained and familiar with the routines. Nurses understand each patient's situation and foresee clinical eventualities through a sensitive and attentive way of thinking and working. This requires nurses to be present at the bedside with both their senses (sight, hearing, smell and touch) and emotions and to work in a concentrated and systematic manner. Knowledge about the unique patient exists in interplay with past experiences and medical knowledge, which are essential for nurses to understand the situation. Clinical practice should develop routines that enable nurses to be present at the bedside and to work in a concentrated and systematic manner. Furthermore, providing safe care requires nurses to be sensitive and attentive to each patient's unique situation. © 2016 British Association of

  5. Assessment of the Conditions for Linking Microfinance to Household Biodigester Construction in Cambodia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chandararot, K.; Dannet, L.

    2006-10-15

    This report presents a comprehensive assessment of the conditions for helping households finance the construction of a biodigester. A micro-credit programme for biodigester users was jointly designed by the National Biodigester Programme (NBP), Netherlands Development Finance Company (FMO) and Microfinance Institutions (MFIs). By using in-depth interviews, a household survey and a desk study, it was determined that the demand for biodigester market was significant, with 96.5% of the studied households possessing the capacity to operate a biodigester. The research for demand for micro-credit showed that households were indeed in need of a financial aid (84%) but the majority was unwilling to borrow credit due to fear of inability to repay it. The ones willing to borrow demanded a credit size of 400,000-1,200,000 riels. The MFIs contacted (ACLEDA, Amret, CEB, Prasac, HURREDO) were interested in lending a micro-credit to biodigester users but were also concerned for the credit as it was for consumption and not production. It appeared that credit conditions desired by potential biodigester users were overall in line with MFIs offered conditions, but an interest rate gap was also in place. Some of the extensive suggestions on how to alleviate the problem offered in the report place FMO in the centre of operations as a possible guarantor of default loans, among other duties. The challenges likely to arise because of a roll-out strategy (linking potential biodigester users with micro-credit), as well plausible solutions are presented as well.

  6. Characterizing the Source Water for Montane Meadows to Assess Resiliency under Changing Hydroclimatic Condition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yarnell, S. M.; Peek, R.; Bell, A.; Weixelman, D.; Viers, J. H.

    2015-12-01

    Ecologically and hydrologically functioning montane meadows provide a variety of ecosystem services and create biological hotspots in high-elevation landscapes. They serve as wetlands that filter water, attenuate floods, sequester carbon, sustain downstream flows, and provide high productivity habitat in typically lower productivity mountain regions. Their importance to watershed quality and health is well recognized, and restoration of meadows is a high priority for resource management agencies and non-governmental organizations. Yet many meadow restoration projects have limited outcomes or fail to achieve the desired effects due to a lack of understanding the underlying hydrological and geomorphic processes inherent to meadows that contribute to their resiliency. Few studies exist on how meadows are sustained through time despite various land use impacts or how the origin of water supplying the meadow (snowmelt-dominated versus regional groundwater-dominated) may influence meadow conditions. Furthermore, as climate conditions continue to change, questions remain regarding which meadows will be most resistant to and resilient from climate warming and thus have the highest potential for successful and sustainable restoration of meadow processes. We discuss these concepts and present two methods for assessing the regional and local contributions of source water to meadows as an indicator of resiliency. On a broad scale, comparisons of satellite imagery using metrics such as normalized difference vegetation index (NDVI) for regions with meadows may be useful to detect inter-annual and seasonal variations in meadow wetness and thus indicate meadow sites with larger groundwater sources that are more resilient over time. Locally, use of a hydrogeomorphic typing key that relates water source, geomorphic position, groundwater table elevation, and plant species composition may be useful to detect local groundwater sources that provide greater consistency of conditions and

  7. Relationship between self-assessment and clinical evaluation of dental plaque and gingival condition in Japanese adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shizuma, Y; Zaitsu, T; Ueno, M; Ohnuki, M; Kawaguchi, Y

    2018-02-01

    To apply a self-administered assessment form about dental plaque level and gingival condition to Japanese adolescents and to examine the extent to which they can evaluate their own dental plaque and gingivae by comparing with dentists' clinical evaluation. Participants were 151 senior high school students (adolescents) who observed their own mouths and recorded dental plaque seen on their 12 anterior teeth, and gingival inflammation condition of 10 anterior interdental papillae, on a self-assessment form. Dentists clinically evaluated dental plaque using the, modified Debris Index (modified DI) and gingival condition, modified PMA index (P-index). "Recognition score" of dental plaque and gingival condition was the total number of agreement between the adolescents' self-assessment and dentists' evaluation. Proportion of agreement on dental plaque between the adolescents' self-assessment and dentists' evaluation with modified DI was 37.4%, and agreement on modified DI score 1, 2 or 3 was significantly lower than that on score 0 (Pplaque or gingival condition were significantly lower in adolescents with fair or poor modified DI or P-index than in those with good condition (Pplaque and gingival condition. Adolescents with poorer dental plaque level or gingival condition had lower recognition scores compared to those with better oral health. Improving oral health self-assessment skills could help adolescents achieve better oral health. © 2017 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  8. Residual bioassay to assess the toxicity of Acaricides against Aceria guerreronis (Acari: Eriophyidae) under laboratory conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Monteiro, Vaneska B; Lima, Debora B; Gondim, Manoel G C; Siqueira, Herbert A A

    2012-08-01

    Aceria guerreronis Keifer (Acari: Eriophyidae) is considered a major pest of the coconut (Cocos nucifera L.), and the use of pesticides is the current method to control it. However, no standard toxicological tests exist to select and assess the efficiency of molecules against the coconut mite. The aim of this study was to develop a methodology that allows for the evaluation of the relative toxicity of acaricides to A. guerreronis through rapid laboratory procedures. We confined A. guerreronis on arenas made out of coconut leaflets and tested two application methods: immersing the leaf fragments in acaricides and spraying acaricides on the leaf fragments under a Potter spray tower. In the latter application method, we sprayed leaf fragments both populated with and devoid of mites. We evaluated the comparative toxicity of two populations (Itamaracá and Petrolina, Pernambuco, Brazil) by spraying on leaflets without mites and submitted the mortality data to probit analysis after 24 h of exposure. No difference was observed in the LC50, regardless of whether the leaflets were immersed or sprayed with acaricide (abamectin, chlorfenapyr or fenpyroximate). The toxicity of chlorfenapyr and fenpyroximate did not differ, irrespective of whether it was applied directly to the leaflet or to the mite; however, the toxicity of abamectin was higher when applied directly to the mite. Chlorpyrifos and abamectin toxicities were lower for the Petrolina population than for the Itamaracá population. Immersing and spraying coconut leaflets can be used to assess the mortality of A. guerreronis under laboratory conditions.

  9. Ancient sandstone condition assessment in relation to degradation, cleaning and consolidation phenomena

    Science.gov (United States)

    Drdácký, Miloš; Frankeová, Dita; Slížková, Zuzana

    2015-04-01

    Non-invasive methods for assessing the state of historic stone types rely on measurement of their surface or subsurface characteristics, which are supposed to correlate with objective physical characteristics. Such measurements are influenced by surface conditions of stone, as well as by previous conservation treatments. The authors performed a comprehensive study of characteristics and behaviour of typical sandstone types present in the Charles' Bridge in Prague as a preparatory work for its diagnostic and restoration in order to understand the problem of a large, important, and non-homogeneous (from the material point of view) historic structure, that was intended for repair interventions. The study itself took advantage of the combination of non-invasive, or considerately destructive methods and fully destructive tests, because it was possible to use damaged sandstone blocks, which were extracted from a masonry rail of the bridge before replacement with new elements. Stone characteristics were studied on test specimens prepared from materials in various conditions and after various interventions. Seven types of sandstone were tested in nine sets (degraded surface layer with a crust, degraded surface layer after cleaning, and unweathered core material; all three without any consolidation treatment, and all three after consolidation with two products based on silicic acid ester - Funcosil 100 and 300). The paper will present only selected results of experiments and the most important conclusions taken from the tests and their comparison. During experimental work the following characteristics were investigated: bending strength, modulus of elasticity, ultrasonic velocity, micro-drilling resistance, water uptake, porosity, frost resistance, hydric dilation and thermal dilation. The degraded stone had a rather strong variation of its characteristics along the depth profile from the surface inside the stone ashlar. Therefore, the stone samples were prepared in a form

  10. Rainfall Downscaling Conditional on Upper-air Variables: Assessing Rainfall Statistics in a Changing Climate

    Science.gov (United States)

    Langousis, Andreas; Deidda, Roberto; Marrocu, Marino; Kaleris, Vassilios

    2014-05-01

    Due to its intermittent and highly variable character, and the modeling parameterizations used, precipitation is one of the least well reproduced hydrologic variables by both Global Climate Models (GCMs) and Regional Climate Models (RCMs). This is especially the case at a regional level (where hydrologic risks are assessed) and at small temporal scales (e.g. daily) used to run hydrologic models. In an effort to remedy those shortcomings and assess the effect of climate change on rainfall statistics at hydrologically relevant scales, Langousis and Kaleris (2013) developed a statistical framework for simulation of daily rainfall intensities conditional on upper air variables. The developed downscaling scheme was tested using atmospheric data from the ERA-Interim archive (http://www.ecmwf.int/research/era/do/get/index), and daily rainfall measurements from western Greece, and was proved capable of reproducing several statistical properties of actual rainfall records, at both annual and seasonal levels. This was done solely by conditioning rainfall simulation on a vector of atmospheric predictors, properly selected to reflect the relative influence of upper-air variables on ground-level rainfall statistics. In this study, we apply the developed framework for conditional rainfall simulation using atmospheric data from different GCM/RCM combinations. This is done using atmospheric data from the ENSEMBLES project (http://ensembleseu.metoffice.com), and daily rainfall measurements for an intermediate-sized catchment in Italy; i.e. the Flumendosa catchment. Since GCM/RCM products are suited to reproduce the local climatology in a statistical sense (i.e. in terms of relative frequencies), rather than ensuring a one-to-one temporal correspondence between observed and simulated fields (i.e. as is the case for ERA-interim reanalysis data), we proceed in three steps: a) we use statistical tools to establish a linkage between ERA-Interim upper-air atmospheric forecasts and

  11. Assessment of metals bioavailability to vegetables under field conditions using DGT, single extractions and multivariate statistics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Senila Marin

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The metals bioavailability in soils is commonly assessed by chemical extractions; however a generally accepted method is not yet established. In this study, the effectiveness of Diffusive Gradients in Thin-films (DGT technique and single extractions in the assessment of metals bioaccumulation in vegetables, and the influence of soil parameters on phytoavailability were evaluated using multivariate statistics. Soil and plants grown in vegetable gardens from mining-affected rural areas, NW Romania, were collected and analysed. Results Pseudo-total metal content of Cu, Zn and Cd in soil ranged between 17.3-146 mg kg-1, 141–833 mg kg-1 and 0.15-2.05 mg kg-1, respectively, showing enriched contents of these elements. High degrees of metals extractability in 1M HCl and even in 1M NH4Cl were observed. Despite the relatively high total metal concentrations in soil, those found in vegetables were comparable to values typically reported for agricultural crops, probably due to the low concentrations of metals in soil solution (Csoln and low effective concentrations (CE, assessed by DGT technique. Among the analysed vegetables, the highest metal concentrations were found in carrots roots. By applying multivariate statistics, it was found that CE, Csoln and extraction in 1M NH4Cl, were better predictors for metals bioavailability than the acid extractions applied in this study. Copper transfer to vegetables was strongly influenced by soil organic carbon (OC and cation exchange capacity (CEC, while pH had a higher influence on Cd transfer from soil to plants. Conclusions The results showed that DGT can be used for general evaluation of the risks associated to soil contamination with Cu, Zn and Cd in field conditions. Although quantitative information on metals transfer from soil to vegetables was not observed.

  12. Assessment of potential doses to workers during postulated accident conditions at the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hoover, M.D.; Farrell, R.F. [DOE, Carlsbad, NM (United States); Newton, G.J.

    1995-12-01

    The recent 1995 WIPP Safety Analysis Report (SAR) Update provided detailed analyses of potential radiation doses to members of the public at the site boundary during postulated accident scenarios at the U.S. Department of Energy`s Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP). The SAR Update addressed the complete spectrum of potential accidents associated with handling and emplacing transuranic waste at WIPP, including damage to waste drums from fires, punctures, drops, and other disruptions. The report focused on the adequacy of the multiple layers of safety practice ({open_quotes}defense-in-depth{close_quotes}) at WIPP, which are designed to (1) reduce the likelihood of accidents and (2) limit the consequences of those accidents. The safeguards which contribute to defense-in-depth at WIPP include a substantial array of inherent design features, engineered controls, and administrative procedures. The SAR Update confirmed that the defense-in-depth at WIPP is adequate to assure the protection of the public and environment. As a supplement to the 1995 SAR Update, we have conducted additional analyses to confirm that these controls will also provide adequate protection to workers at the WIPP. The approaches and results of the worker dose assessment are summarized here. In conformance with the guidance of DOE Standard 3009-94, we emphasize that use of these evaluation guidelines is not intended to imply that these numbers constitute acceptable limits for worker exposures under accident conditions. However, in conjunction with the extensive safety assessment in the 1995 SAR Update, these results indicate that the Carlsbad Area Office strategy for the assessment of hazards and accidents assures the protection of workers, members of the public, and the environment.

  13. Assessment of production conditions for efficient use of Escherichia coli in high-yield heterologous recombinant selenoprotein synthesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rengby, Olle; Johansson, Linda; Carlson, Lars A; Serini, Elena; Vlamis-Gardikas, Alexios; Kårsnäs, Per; Arnér, Elias S J

    2004-09-01

    The production of heterologous selenoproteins in Escherichia coli necessitates the design of a secondary structure in the mRNA forming a selenocysteine insertion sequence (SECIS) element compatible with SelB, the elongation factor for selenocysteine insertion at a predefined UGA codon. SelB competes with release factor 2 (RF2) catalyzing translational termination at UGA. Stoichiometry between mRNA, the SelB elongation factor, and RF2 is thereby important, whereas other expression conditions affecting the yield of recombinant selenoproteins have been poorly assessed. Here we expressed the rat selenoprotein thioredoxin reductase, with titrated levels of the selenoprotein mRNA under diverse growth conditions, with or without cotransformation of the accessory bacterial selA, selB, and selC genes. Titration of the selenoprotein mRNA with a pBAD promoter was performed in both TOP10 and BW27783 cells, which unexpectedly could not improve yield or specific activity compared to that achieved in our prior studies. Guided by principal component analysis, we instead discovered that the most efficient bacterial selenoprotein production conditions were obtained with the high-transcription T7lac-driven pET vector system in presence of the selA, selB, and selC genes, with induction of production at late exponential phase. About 40 mg of rat thioredoxin reductase with 50% selenocysteine content could thereby be produced per liter bacterial culture. These findings clearly illustrate the ability of E. coli to upregulate the selenocysteine incorporation machinery on demand and that this is furthermore strongly augmented in late exponential phase. This study also demonstrates that E. coli can indeed be utilized as cell factories for highly efficient production of heterologous selenoproteins such as rat thioredoxin reductase.

  14. Assessing the surgical and obstetrics-gynecology workload of medical officers: findings from 10 district hospitals in Ghana.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mehtsun, Winta T; Weatherspoon, Kimberly; McElrath, LaPortia; Chima, Adaora; Torsu, Victus E K; Obeng, Ernestina N B; Papandria, Dominic J; Mehes, Mira M; Ortega, Gezzer; Hesse, Afua A J; Sory, Elias; Perry, Henry; Sampson, John; Anderson, Jean; Abdullah, Fizan

    2012-06-01

    Surgical and obstetrics-gynecology (Ob-Gyn) workload of medical officers (MOs) is substantial and may inform policies for training investment and surveillance to strengthen surgical care at district hospitals in Ghana. Observational study. Academic research. Using standardized criteria, 12 trained on-site observers assessed the surgical and Ob-Gyn workload of MOs at 10 district hospitals in each of 10 administrative regions in Ghana, West Africa. The number of patients seen by MOs and the time spent managing each patient were recorded. According to each patient's diagnosis, the encounters were categorized as medical/nonsurgical, Ob-Gyn, or surgical. The proportions of patients having Ob-Gyn and surgical conditions and the time expended providing care to Ob-Gyn and surgical patients. Of the observed patient encounters, 1600 (64.5%) were classified as medical or nonsurgical, 514 (20.7%) as Ob-Gyn, and 368 (14.8%) as surgical (9.0% nontrauma and 5.8% trauma). The most common diagnosis among Ob-Gyn patients was obstetric complication requiring cesarean section. The most common diagnosis among surgical patients was inguinal hernia. Medical officers devoted 24.8% of their time to managing Ob-Gyn patients and 18.9% to managing surgical patients (which included 5.4% for the management of traumatic injuries). Surgical and Ob-Gyn patients represent a substantial proportion of the workload among MOs at district hospitals in Ghana. Strategies to increase surgical capacity at these facilities must include equipping MOs with the appropriate training and resources to address the significant surgical and Ob-Gyn workload they face.

  15. Key findings: a qualitative assessment of provider and patient perceptions of HIV/AIDS in South Africa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ransom, James; Johnson, Anton F

    2009-01-01

    In 1997, at the Davos International Economic Forum, Nelson Mandela stated that "the poor, the vulnerable, the unschooled, the socially marginalized, the women, and the children, those who bear the burden of colonial legacy-these are the sectors of society which bear the burden of AIDS" (Richter, 2001). Nearly a decade later, that statement still holds true, especially in Mr. Mandela's home country. South Africa continues to have one of the world's highest prevalence ratios of HIV infection (UNAIDS, 2002). This paper explores the significance of perceptions, knowledge, practices, and attitudes toward HIV/AIDS in two important groups in South Africa: health care providers based in public health clinics and their patients. This paper will assess the provider-patient interaction from the perspective of members of the South African HIV/AIDS treatment and prevention community. The analysis will examine the results of in-depth interviews and focus group discussions with providers and patients, respectively, in two of South Africa's nine provinces. Between December 2002 and April 2003 in Guateng and KwaZulu-Natal provinces, we conducted (1) in-depth interviews of a spectrum of health care providers at five local public health clinics and (2) focus groups of patients who patronize those clinics. The results show that there are gaps in the HIV/AIDS knowledge of some of the health care providers and that the participants' health beliefs and practices are embedded in the social conditions in which they live and work, which has a ripple effect on their risk behaviors and trumps any intervention messages from their health care providers and larger public health intervention messages.

  16. Ultrasonic Measurement of Body Fat as a Means of Assessing Body Condition in Free-Ranging Raccoons (Procyon lotor

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elizabeth M. Stringer

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Assessment of body condition of free-ranging animals is important when evaluating population health and fitness. The following study used body condition scoring, ultrasound, and dissected physical measurement to assess fat stores in free-ranging raccoons (Procyon lotor. Measurements were taken of subcutaneous fat at interscapular, thoracolumbar, and lumbosacral paraspinal and ventral midline sites. These measurements were examined in relationship to body condition scores and body weight. The ultrasound technique accurately measured the subcutaneous fat of raccoons when compared to dissected physical measurement and yielded data that strongly correlated with both body condition score and body weight, with the ventral midline measurement most strongly correlated. This noninvasive method may be useful in conjunction with body condition score and body weight when assessing the nutritional status of raccoons and potentially other small carnivore species.

  17. Comparison of methods for assessing the impact of different disturbances and nutrient conditions upon functional characteristics of grassland communities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duru, M.; Ansquer, P.; Jouany, C.; Theau, J. P.; Cruz, P.

    2010-01-01

    Background and Aims Predicting the response of plant communities to variation in resources and disturbance is still a challenge, because findings depend on how ecological gradients are characterized and how grassland functional composition is assessed. Focusing on leaf dry matter content (LDMC), the efficacy of different methods for evaluating the best response of plant communities to either environmental or disturbance change is examined. Methods Data were collected on 69 grasslands located at four sites in the Pyrenees and Massif Central. N-Ellenberg indices and plant nutrient content (Ni) were compared to assess fertility, and either LDMC (meas) measured or calculated from a trait database for which traits were measured under the same environmental conditions (db). Management regime (MR) was characterized in terms of categories (grazing, cutting) and plant height. Key Results LDMCdb was positively correlated to LDMCmeas, but depended significantly on site temperature. N-Ellenberg and Ni were significantly correlated, and there was a significant effect of MR and temperature. LDMC responded to fertility, MR and temperature. Replacing MR by plant height in an REML analysis reduced the uncertainty of the LDMC prediction. LDMC was correlated to plant height at community level, whereas the correlation was weak at species level. Differences in LDMC between plant communities under any of the management regimes were significantly correlated to the standing herbage mass. Conclusion The N-Ellenberg index is a better indicator of fertility than Ni which is short-term and environment-dependent. LDMC taken from a database allows plant trait variation due to species abundance (excluding variation due to trait plasticity in response to management) to be captured. So the former is better suited for assessing agricultural services that mainly depend on plant phenology and tissue composition. LDMC responded to defoliation regime in addition to fertility because plant height is

  18. Social assistance needs of children with chronic health conditions: a comparative study of international and South african eligibility assessment instruments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berry, Lizette; Smit, Andre de V

    2011-01-01

    The efficacy of the current instrument to assess the social assistance needs of children with chronic health conditions in South Africa is questioned. To develop an improved assessment instrument for South African use, this instrument was pitted against two international social assistance assessment instruments, the United Kingdom (UK) Disability Living Allowance (DLA) and the Australian Child Disability Assessment Tool (CDAT). A purposive sample of 18 children representing six types of disability and chronic illnesses was selected, and all three assessment instruments were used to assess the needs of these children. A juxtaposition of the outcomes of the assessment instruments revealed significant differences. The South African instrument deemed the majority (56%) of the sample ineligible for assistance. On the contrary, significant majorities were deemed eligible for assistance in terms of the U.K. (94%) and Australian (89%) instruments. The study recommended that a holistic approach to need assessment be adopted in the design of a more appropriate assessment instrument for South African use.

  19. Longitudinal assessment of injury recidivism among adults in the United States: findings from a population-based sample.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alghnam, Suliman; Tinkoff, Glen H; Castillo, Renan

    2016-12-01

    Repeated injuries, as known as injury recidivism, pose a significant burden on population health and healthcare settings. Therefore, identifying those at risk of recidivism can highlight targeted populations for primary prevention in order to improve health and reduce healthcare expenditures. There has been limited research on factors associated with recidivism in the U.S. Using a population-based sample, we aim to: 1) identify the prevalence and risk factors for injury recidivism among non-institutionalized adults; 2) investigate the trend in nationwide recidivism rates over time. Using the Medical Expenditure Panel Survey (MEPS), 19,134 adults with at least one reported injury were followed for about 2 years. Reported injuries were those associated with healthcare utilization, disability days or any effects on self-reported health. The independent associations between risk factors for recidivism were evaluated incorporating a weighted logistic regression model. There were 4,136 recidivists representing over nine million individuals in the U.S. over a 2-year follow-up. About 44 % of recidivists sustained severe injuries requiring a hospitalization, a physician's office visit or an emergency department visit. Compared with those who sustained a single injury, recidivists were more likely to be white, unmarried, reside in metropolitan areas, and report a higher prevalence of chronic conditions. Age, sex, race/ethnicity, marital status, urbanicity, region, diabetes, stroke, asthma and depression symptoms were significant predictors of recidivism. Significant interaction effects between age and gender suggested those in the 18-25 age group, the odds of being a recidivist were 1.45 higher among males than females adjusting for other covariates. While having positive screens for depression in both follow-up years was associated with 1.46 (95 % CI = 1.21-1.77) higher odds of recidivisms than the reference group adjusting for other variables. We observed a higher

  20. Assessing survival of dairy propionibacteria in gastrointestinal conditions and adherence to intestinal epithelia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zárate, Gabriela; González, Silvia; Chaia, Adriana Pérez

    2004-01-01

    The genus Propionibacterium consists of two principal groups, cutaneous and classical or dairy. Cutaneous species are predominant members of the microbial population of human skin and have also been isolated from the feces of humans and other vertebrate animals. They are often considered opportunistic organisms and have been occasionally associated with infections in humans. Dairy propionibacteria are microorganisms extensively used in the industry for manufacture of Swiss-type cheeses and biological production of propionic acid and vitamin B12. They can be isolated from soil, vegetables, silage, raw milk, and dairy products such as kefir and different cheeses with "eyes."In the last decade, several studies have demonstrated probiotic properties for members of the genus Propionibacterium. The effects claimed are based on the production of bacteriocins, vitamins, stimulation of growth of other colonic bacteria like bifidobacteria, beneficial modification of the composition and metabolic activities of the intestinal microflora, immunomodulation, and antimutagenic activity. It is thought that to produce many of these health benefits, the probiotic microorganisms must be able to survive the transit through the hostile conditions of the gastrointestinal tract (GIT) and remain at high levels in the intestine, avoiding removal by peristaltic contractions of the gut. In this sense, microorganisms with a short generation time or the ability to adhere to the intestinal mucosa will survive for prolonged periods in the body of the host. Therefore, two desirable properties for probiotic microorganisms are (1) resistance to gastric acidity, bile, and pancreatic enzymes; and (2) adhesion ability to mucosal surfaces. Dairy bacteria are traditionally not considered to persist as normal inhabitants of the human intestinal tract. Therefore, survival under GIT conditions and adherence are important properties to be considered, and tests to study them would be useful tools. In the

  1. Technology in Strength and Conditioning: Assessing Bodyweight Squat Technique With Wearable Sensors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    OʼReilly, Martin A; Whelan, Darragh F; Ward, Tomas E; Delahunt, Eamonn; Caulfield, Brian M

    2017-08-01

    O'Reilly, MA, Whelan, DF, Ward, TE, Delahunt, E, and Caulfield, BM. Technology in strength and conditioning: assessing bodyweight squat technique with wearable sensors. J Strength Cond Res 31(8): 2303-2312, 2017-Strength and conditioning (S&C) coaches offer expert guidance to help those they work with achieve their personal fitness goals. However, it is not always practical to operate under the direct supervision of an S&C coach and consequently individuals are often left training without expert oversight. Recent developments in inertial measurement units (IMUs) and mobile computing platforms have allowed for the possibility of unobtrusive motion tracking systems and the provision of real-time individualized feedback regarding exercise performance. These systems could enable S&C coaches to remotely monitor sessions and help individuals record their workout performance. One aspect of such technologies is the ability to assess exercise technique and detect common deviations from acceptable exercise form. In this study, we investigate this ability in the context of a bodyweight (BW) squat exercise. Inertial measurement units were positioned on the lumbar spine, thighs, and shanks of 77 healthy participants. Participants completed repetitions of BW squats with acceptable form and 5 common deviations from acceptable BW squatting technique. Descriptive features were extracted from the IMU signals for each BW squat repetition, and these were used to train a technique classifier. Acceptable or aberrant BW squat technique can be detected with 98% accuracy, 96% sensitivity, and 99% specificity when using features derived from all 5 IMUs. A single IMU system can also distinguish between acceptable and aberrant BW squat biomechanics with excellent accuracy, sensitivity, and specificity. Detecting exact deviations from acceptable BW squatting technique can be achieved with 80% accuracy using a 5 IMU system and 72% accuracy when using a single IMU positioned on the right shank

  2. Interoceptive conditioning with nicotine using extinction and re-extinction to assess stimulus similarity with bupropion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Charntikov, Sergios; deWit, Nicole R; Bevins, Rick A

    2014-11-01

    Bupropion is an atypical antidepressant that increases long-term quit rates of tobacco smokers. A better understanding of the relation between nicotine and this first-line medication may provide insight into improving treatment. For all experiments, rats first had nicotine (0.4 mg base/kg) and saline session intermixed; intermittent access to sucrose only occurred on nicotine session. Nicotine in this protocol comes to differentially control "anticipatory" dipper entries. To more closely examine the overlap in the interoceptive stimulus effects of nicotine and bupropion, we assessed whether subsequent prolonged and repeated non-reinforced (extinction) sessions with the bupropion stimulus could weaken responding to nicotine (i.e., transfer of extinction). We also examined whether retraining the discrimination after initial extinction and then conducting extinction again (i.e., re-extinction) with bupropion would affect responding. We found that bupropion (20 and 30 mg/kg) fully substituted for the nicotine stimulus in repeated 20-min extinction sessions. The extent of substitution in extinction did not necessarily predict performance in the transfer test (e.g., nicotine responding unchanged after extinction with 20 mg/kg bupropion). Generalization of extinction back to nicotine was not seen with 20 mg/kg bupropion even after increasing the number of extinction session from 6 to 24. Finally, there was evidence that learning in the initial extinction phase was retained in the re-extinction phase for nicotine and bupropion. These findings indicate that learning involving the nicotine stimuli are complex and that assessment approach for stimulus similarity changes conclusions regarding substitution by bupropion. Further research will be needed to identify whether such differences may be related to different facets of nicotine dependence and/or its treatment. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Interoceptive conditioning with nicotine using extinction and re-extinction to assess stimulus similarity with bupropion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Charntikov, Sergios; deWit, Nicole R.; Bevins, Rick A

    2014-01-01

    Bupropion is an atypical antidepressant that increases long-term quit rates of tobacco smokers. A better understanding of the relation between nicotine and this first-line medication may provide insight into improving treatment. For all experiments, rats first had nicotine (0.4 mg base/kg) and saline session intermixed; intermittent access to sucrose only occurred on nicotine session. Nicotine in this protocol comes to differentially control “anticipatory” dipper entries. To more closely examine the overlap in the interoceptive stimulus effects of nicotine and bupropion, we assessed whether subsequent prolonged and repeated non-reinforced (extinction) sessions with the bupropion stimulus could weaken responding to nicotine (i.e., transfer of extinction). We also examined whether retraining the discrimination after initial extinction and then conducting extinction again (i.e., re-extinction) with bupropion would affect responding. We found that bupropion (20 and 30 mg/kg) fully substituted for the nicotine stimulus in repeated 20-min extinction sessions. The extent of substitution in extinction did not necessarily predict performance in the transfer test (e.g., nicotine responding unchanged after extinction with 20 mg/kg bupropion). Generalization of extinction back to nicotine was not seen with 20 mg/kg bupropion even after increasing the number of extinction session from 6 to 24. Finally, there was evidence that learning in the initial extinction phase was retained in the re-extinction phase for nicotine and bupropion. These findings indicate that learning involving the nicotine stimuli are complex and that assessment approach for stimulus similarity changes conclusions regarding substitution by bupropion. Further research will be needed to identify whether such differences may be related to different facets of nicotine dependence and/or its treatment. PMID:25080073

  4. Neuromuscular Responses to Conditioned Soccer Sessions Assessed Via GPS-Embedded Accelerometers: Insights Into Tactical Periodization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buchheit, Martin; Lacome, Mathieu; Cholley, Yannick; Simpson, Ben M

    2017-09-05

    To 1) examine the reliability of field-based running-specific measures of neuromuscular function assessed via GPS-embedded accelerometers and 2) examine their responses to three typical conditioned sessions (i.e., Strength, Endurance and Speed) in elite soccer players. Before and immediately after each session, vertical jump (CMJ) and adductors squeeze strength (Groin) performances were recorded. Players also performed a 4-min run at 12 km/h followed by 4 ~60-m runs (run =12 s, r =33 s). GPS (15-Hz) and accelerometer (100 Hz) data collected during the four runs + the recovery periods excluding the last recovery period were used to derive vertical stiffness (K), peak loading force (peak force over all the foot-strikes, Fpeak) and propulsion efficiency (i.e., ratio between velocity and force loads, Vl/Fl). Typical errors were small (CMJ, Groin, K and Vl/Fl) and moderate (Fpeak), with moderate (Fpeak), high (K and Vl/Fl) and very high ICC (CMJ and Groin). After all sessions, there were small decreases in Groin and increases in K, while changes in F were all unclear. In contrast, the CMJ and Vl/Fl ratio responses were session-dependent: small increase in CMJ after Speed and Endurance, but unclear changes after Strength; the Vl/Fl ratio increased largely after Strength, while there was a small and a moderate decrease after the Endurance and Speed, respectively. Running-specific measures of neuromuscular function assessed in the field via GPS-embedded accelerometers show acceptable levels of reliability. While the three sessions examined may be associated with limited neuromuscular fatigue, changes in neuromuscular performance and propulsion-efficiency are likely session objective-dependent.

  5. Assessment of illumination conditions in a single-pixel imaging configuration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garoi, Florin; Udrea, Cristian; Damian, Cristian; Logofǎtu, Petre C.; Colţuc, Daniela

    2016-12-01

    Single-pixel imaging based on multiplexing is a promising technique, especially in applications where 2D detectors or raster scanning imaging are not readily applicable. With this method, Hadamard masks are projected on a spatial light modulator to encode an incident scene and a signal is recorded at the photodiode detector for each of these masks. Ultimately, the image is reconstructed on the computer by applying the inverse transform matrix. Thus, various algorithms were optimized and several spatial light modulators already characterized for such a task. This work analyses the imaging quality of such a single-pixel arrangement, when various illumination conditions are used. More precisely, the main comparison is made between coherent and incoherent ("white light") illumination and between two multiplexing methods, namely Hadamard and Scanning. The quality of the images is assessed by calculating their SNR, using two relations. The results show better images are obtained with "white light" illumination for the first method and coherent one for the second.

  6. An assessment of the skid resistance effect on traffic safety under wet-pavement conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pardillo Mayora, José M; Jurado Piña, Rafael

    2009-07-01

    Pavement-tire friction provides the grip that is required for maintaining vehicle control and for stopping in emergency situations. Statistically significant negative correlations of skid resistance values and wet-pavement accident rates have been found in previous research. Skid resistance measured with SCRIM and crash data from over 1750km of two-lane rural roads in the Spanish National Road System were analyzed to determine the influence of pavement conditions on safety and to assess the effects of improving pavement friction on safety. Both wet- and dry-pavement crash rates presented a decreasing trend as skid resistance values increased. Thresholds in SCRIM coefficient values associated with significant decreases in wet-pavement crash rates were determined. Pavement friction improvement schemes were found to yield significant reductions in wet-pavement crash rates averaging 68%. The results confirm the importance of maintaining adequate levels of pavement friction to safeguard traffic safety as well as the potential of pavement friction improvement schemes to achieve significant crash reductions.

  7. Methodology for reliability based condition assessment. Application to concrete structures in nuclear plants

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mori, Y.; Ellingwood, B. [Johns Hopkins Univ., Baltimore, MD (US). Dept. of Civil Engineering

    1993-08-01

    Structures in nuclear power plants may be exposed to aggressive environmental effects that cause their strength to decrease over an extended period of service. A major concern in evaluating the continued service for such structures is to ensure that in their current condition they are able to withstand future extreme load events during the intended service life with a level of reliability sufficient for public safety. This report describes a methodology to facilitate quantitative assessments of current and future structural reliability and performance of structures in nuclear power plants. This methodology takes into account the nature of past and future loads, and randomness in strength and in degradation resulting from environmental factors. An adaptive Monte Carlo simulation procedure is used to evaluate time-dependent system reliability. The time-dependent reliability is sensitive to the time-varying load characteristics and to the choice of initial strength and strength degradation models but not to correlation in component strengths within a system. Inspection/maintenance strategies are identified that minimize the expected future costs of keeping the failure probability of a structure at or below an established target failure probability during its anticipated service period.

  8. Responsiveness of five condition-specific and generic outcome assessment instruments for chronic pain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Verra Martin L

    2008-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Changes of health and quality-of-life in chronic conditions are mostly small and require specific and sensitive instruments. The aim of this study was to determine and compare responsiveness, i.e. the sensitivity to change of five outcome instruments for effect measurement in chronic pain. Methods In a prospective cohort study, 273 chronic pain patients were assessed on the Numeric Rating Scale (NRS for pain, the Short Form 36 (SF-36, the Multidimensional Pain Inventory (MPI, the Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale (HADS, and the Coping Strategies Questionnaire (CSQ. Responsiveness was quantified by effect size (ES and standardized response mean (SRM before and after a four week in-patient interdisciplinary pain program and compared by the modified Jacknife test. Results The MPI measured pain more responsively than the SF-36 (ES: 0.85 vs 0.72, p = 0.053; SRM: 0.72 vs 0.60, p = 0.027 and the pain NRS (ES: 0.85 vs 0.62, p Conclusion The MPI was most responsive in all comparable domains followed by the SF-36. The pain-specific MPI and the generic SF-36 can be recommended for comprehensive and specific bio-psycho-social effect measurement of health and quality-of-life in chronic pain.

  9. Risk assessment during operating self-propelled lifting jib cranes in conditions of insufficient information

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lagerev A.V.

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Presents the results of statistical analyses identified by the expert diagnostics of defects of the self-propelled lifting jib cranes, spent a normative term of exploitation. The greatest number of defects associated with the destruction and dete-rioration of structural elements, the occurrence of fatigue cracks and a violation of the conditions of operation of the equipment. The greatest number of defects occurs in the hydraulic system of cranes, the rope-block system, and rarely in steel structures. To conduct risk analysis of self-propelled jib cranes in case of insufficient information, proposed the method of expert estimations. It allows to assess the impact of potential defects on self-propelled jib cranes on the value of the economic damage of the crane and moving cargo and the value of the traumatic exposure on men. The proposed list of possible defects self-propelled lifting jib cranes and a checklist of questions about the degree of influence of these defects. Proposed calculated dependences to the approximate calculation of the magnitude of technical risk in the opera-tion of self-propelled jib cranes. The results of statistical analysis of expert estimations for each possible defect and per-formed their ranking in terms of impact on the magnitude of the economic damage of the crane and moving loads, the value of the traumatic exposure. Was calculated the value of technical risk for the surveyed taps.

  10. Sensing technologies to measure metabolic activities in soil and assess its health conditions

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Cesare, Fabrizio; Macagnano, Antonella

    2013-04-01

    (olfactory fingerprint) typical of the analysed air sample. Due to these features, we decided to apply such a sensing technology to the analyses of soil atmospheres, because several processes in soil, both abiotic and biotic, result in gas and/or volatile production and the dynamics of such releases may also be affected by several additional environmental factors, such as soil moisture, temperature, gas exchange rates with outer atmosphere, adsorption/desorption processes, etc. Then, the analysis of soil atmosphere may provide information about global soil conditions (e.g. soil quality and health), according to a holistic approach, where several factors are contemporarily taken into account. At the same time, the use of such a technology, if adequately trained on purpose, can supply information about a single or a pool of processes sharing similar features, which occur in soil over a certain period of time and mostly affecting soil atmosphere. According to these premises and hypotheses, we demonstrated that EN is an useful technology to measure soil microbial activity, through its correlation to specific metabolic activities occurring in soil (i.e. global and specific respiration and some enzyme activities), but also soil microbial biomass. On the basis of such evidences, we also were able to use this technology to assess the quality and health conditions of soil ecosystems in terms of metabolic indices previously identified, according to some metabolic parameters and biomass quantification of microbial populations. In other studies, we also applied EN technology, despite using a different set of sensors in the array, to analyse the atmosphere of soil ecosystems in order to assess their environmental conditions after contamination with polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) (i.e. semivolatile - SVOCs - organic pollutants). In this case, EN technology resulted capable of distinguishing between contaminated and uncontaminated soils, according to the differences in a list of

  11. Assessment of students’ health condition by indicators of adaptation potential, biological age and bio-energetic reserves of organism

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    O.V. Martyniuk

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: to assess students’ health condition by indicators of adaptation potential, biological age and express-assessment. Material: in the research 47 first and second year girl students participated, who belonged to main health group. Results: we distributed the girl students into three groups: 14.89% of them were included in group with “safe” health condition; 34.04% - in group of “third state”; 51.06% were related to group with “ dangerous” health condition. We established that dangerous level was characterized by energy potential of below middle and low level. It is accompanied by accelerated processes of organism’s age destructions and tension of regulation mechanisms. Conclusions: the received results permit to further develop and generalize the data of students’ health’s assessment by indicators of adaptation potentials, biological age and physical health’s condition.

  12. Technical Needs for Enhancing Risk Monitors with Equipment Condition Assessment for Advanced Small Modular Reactors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Coble, Jamie B.; Coles, Garill A.; Ramuhalli, Pradeep; Meyer, Ryan M.; Berglin, Eric J.; Wootan, David W.; Mitchell, Mark R.

    2013-04-04

    Advanced small modular reactors (aSMRs) can provide the United States with a safe, sustainable, and carbon-neutral energy source. The controllable day-to-day costs of aSMRs are expected to be dominated by operation and maintenance costs. Health and condition assessment coupled with online risk monitors can potentially enhance affordability of aSMRs through optimized operational planning and maintenance scheduling. Currently deployed risk monitors are an extension of probabilistic risk assessment (PRA). For complex engineered systems like nuclear power plants, PRA systematically combines event likelihoods and the probability of failure (POF) of key components, so that when combined with the magnitude of possible adverse consequences to determine risk. Traditional PRA uses population-based POF information to estimate the average plant risk over time. Currently, most nuclear power plants have a PRA that reflects the as-operated, as-modified plant; this model is updated periodically, typically once a year. Risk monitors expand on living PRA by incorporating changes in the day-by-day plant operation and configuration (e.g., changes in equipment availability, operating regime, environmental conditions). However, population-based POF (or population- and time-based POF) is still used to populate fault trees. Health monitoring techniques can be used to establish condition indicators and monitoring capabilities that indicate the component-specific POF at a desired point in time (or over a desired period), which can then be incorporated in the risk monitor to provide a more accurate estimate of the plant risk in different configurations. This is particularly important for active systems, structures, and components (SSCs) proposed for use in aSMR designs. These SSCs may differ significantly from those used in the operating fleet of light-water reactors (or even in LWR-based SMR designs). Additionally, the operating characteristics of aSMRs can present significantly different

  13. New findings on iron absorption conditioning factors Novos achados sobre os fatores condicionantes da absorção do ferro

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rute Cândida Pereira

    2004-09-01

    Full Text Available The authors focus iron intake regulation in the body and the probable mechanisms related to iron absorption. They analyze the impact of iron absorption deficiency resulting in iron deficiency anemia, a public health issue of great impact in the world influencing child and maternal health risk increase. This paper aims at highlighting the problems affecting the uptake or inhibiting processes of iron absorption in an attempt to correlate information on conditioning factors and current findings. This study is a document based descriptive study comprising literature review. In food, iron has different forms, such as the heme and non-heme forms following different absorption pathways with different efficiency rates, depending on conditioning factors, such as diet profile, physiological aspects, iron chemical state, absorption regulation, transportation, storing, excretion and the presence of disease, They also discuss the current difficulties in dealing with iron nutritional deficiency in vulnerable groups, children and pregnant women, and focus data on iron consumption, adhesion to breast feeding and the frequency of prenatal care visits.Os autores abordam a regulação da entrada de ferro no organismo e os prováveis mecanismos que permeiam essa regulação. Analisam o impacto da deficiência de absorção de ferro que acarreta anemia ferropriva, que se constitui hoje num problema de saúde pública de grande repercussão e, é reconhecidamente, a doença de maior magnitude em âmbito mundial, concorrendo com elevação de riscos à saúde materna e infantil. O objetivo do trabalho é ressaltar os problemas que afetam o processo de captação ou inibição da absorção do ferro, buscando correlacionar os conhecimentos sobre os fatores condicionantes e os achados atuais. O estudo foi do tipo descritivo, de base documental, compondo uma revisão de literatura. Nos alimentos, o ferro se encontra em formas diferentes, ferro heme e não heme as quais

  14. Natural animal models of human psychiatric conditions: assessment of mechanism and validity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Overall, K L

    2000-07-01

    1. The classic animal models for human psychiatric conditions involves rodents. As prey species, their normal behaviors of avoidance would be considered pathological in humans and dogs. Hence, such models may not be homologous for similar behaviors found in psychiatric pathology in humans. 2. Dogs exhibit pathological behavioral conditions that may be equivalent to certain human psychiatric conditions. These canine conditions appear spontaneously or endogenously in the absence of genetic or neurochemcial manipulation, and as such, may be homologous to the human condition. 3. If canine conditions approach homology with human conditions they should have excellent face, predictive, and construct validity. 4. The canine conditions of separation anxiety, obsessive-compulsive disorder, cognitive dysfunction, dominance aggression, and panic disorder have good to excellent validity at all explored levels for human generalized anxiety disorder, obsessive-compulsive disorder, Alzheimer's disease, impulse control disorders, and panic disorder. 5. Natural canine models can aid our understanding of human psychiatric conditions.

  15. Assessment of Salmonids and their Habitat Conditions in the Walla Walla River Basin of Washington : 2000 Annual Report.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mendel, Glen Wesley; Karl, David; Coyle, Terrence

    2001-11-01

    Concerns about the decline of native salmon and trout populations have increased among natural resource managers and the public in recent years. As a result, a multitude of initiatives have been implemented at the local, state, and federal government levels. These initiatives include management plans and actions intended to protect and restore salmonid fishes and their habitats. In 1998 bull trout were listed under the Endangered Species Act (ESA), as ''Threatened'', for the Walla Walla River and its tributaries. Steelhead were listed as ''Threatened'' in 1999 for the mid-Columbia River and its tributaries. These ESA listings emphasize the need for information about the threatened salmonid populations and their habitats. The Washington Department of Fish and Wildlife (WDFW) is entrusted with ''the preservation, protection, and perpetuation of fish and wildlife....[and to] maximize public recreational or commercial opportunities without impairing the supply of fish and wildlife (WAC 77. 12.010).'' In consideration of this mandate, the WDFW submitted a proposal in December 1997 to the Bonneville Power Administration (BPA) for a study to assess salmonid distribution, relative abundance, genetics, and the condition of their habitats in the Walla Walla River basin. The primary purposes of this project are to collect baseline biological and habitat data, to identify major data gaps, and to draw conclusions whenever possible. The study reported herein details the findings of the 2000 field season (March to November, 2000).

  16. Assessment of Salmonids and their Habitat Conditions in the Walla Walla River Basin within Washington, 2001 Annual Report.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mendel, Glen Wesley; Trump, Jeremy; Karl, David

    2002-12-01

    Concerns about the decline of native salmon and trout populations have increased among natural resource managers and the public in recent years. As a result, a multitude of initiatives have been implemented at the local, state, and federal government levels. These initiatives include management plans and actions intended to protect and restore salmonid fishes and their habitats. In 1998 bull trout (Salvelinus confluentus) were listed under the Endangered Species Act (ESA), as ''Threatened'', for the Walla Walla River and its tributaries. Steelhead (Oncorhynchus mykiss) were listed as ''Threatened'' in 1999 for the mid-Columbia River and its tributaries. These ESA listings emphasize the need for information about these threatened salmonid populations and their habitats. The Washington Department of Fish and Wildlife (WDFW) is entrusted with ''the preservation, protection, and perpetuation of fish and wildlife....[and to] maximize public recreational or commercial opportunities without impairing the supply of fish and wildlife (WAC 77.12.010).'' In consideration of this mandate, the WDFW submitted a proposal in December 1997 to the Bonneville Power Administration (BPA) for a study to assess salmonid distribution, relative abundance, genetics, and the condition of salmonid habitats in the Walla Walla River basin. The primary purposes of this project are to collect baseline biological and habitat data, to identify major data gaps, and to draw conclusions whenever possible. The study reported herein details the findings of the 2001 field season (March to November, 2001).

  17. Assessing the interplay of childhood adversities with more recent stressful life events and conditions in predicting panic pathology among adults from the general population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Asselmann, E; Stender, J; Grabe, H J; König, J; Schmidt, C O; Hamm, A O; Pané-Farré, C A

    2018-01-01

    Although research suggests that (a) childhood adversities and more recent stressful life events/conditions are risk factors for panic pathology and that (b) early life stress increases vulnerability to later psychopathology, it remains unclear whether childhood adversities amplify the association between more recent stressful life events/conditions and panic pathology. Data were derived from a general population sample (Study of Health in Pomerania, SHIP). Lifetime panic pathology was assessed with the Munich Composite International Diagnostic Interview (M-CIDI). Childhood adversities (emotional, physical and sexual abuse; emotional and physical neglect) were assessed with the Childhood Trauma Questionnaire (CTQ). More recent separation/loss events and long-lasting stressful conditions were assessed with the Stralsund Life Event List (SEL). Individuals with lifetime panic pathology (fearful spell, panic attack or panic disorder, N = 286) were compared to controls without any psychopathology (N = 286, matched for sex and age). Conditional logistic regressions revealed that childhood adversities as well as more recent separation/loss events and long-lasting stressful conditions were associated with panic pathology (OR 1.1-2.5). Moreover, more recent separation/loss events - but not long-lasting stressful conditions - interacted statistically with each of the examined childhood adversities except for sexual abuse in predicting panic pathology (OR 1.1-1.3). That is, separation/loss events were associated more strongly with panic pathology among individuals with higher childhood adversities. Data were assessed retrospectively and might be subject to recall biases. Findings suggest that early childhood adversities amplify the risk of developing panic pathology after experiencing separation or loss events. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  18. Exploring the correlates of suicide attempts among individuals with major depressive disorder: findings from the national epidemiologic survey on alcohol and related conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bolton, James M; Belik, Shay-Lee; Enns, Murray W; Cox, Brian J; Sareen, Jitender

    2008-07-01

    There are no previous studies describing the correlates of suicide attempts in individuals with major depressive disorder in a nationally representative sample. This study explores the sociodemographic variables, mental disorders, and specific depressive symptoms associated with suicide attempts in depression. Data were drawn from Wave 1 of the National Epidemiologic Survey on Alcohol and Related Conditions (NESARC), a large (N = 43,093) nationally representative survey of mental illness in the United States conducted between 2001 and 2002. Persons with lifetime major depressive disorder (N = 5128; diagnosed according to DSM-IV) were categorized according to the presence (N = 865) or absence (N = 4263) of a lifetime history of suicide attempts. Multivariate logistic regression was used to compare the 2 groups across a broad range of socio-demographic and mental disorder correlates, as well as to compare specific depressive symptoms associated with a history of suicide attempts. Positive predictive values (PPVs) were calculated to evaluate the effectiveness of each correlate in predicting suicide attempts. Analyses were conducted separately for men and women. Sociodemographic factors significantly associated with a history of suicide attempts included Hispanic or Latino ethnicity (p suicide attempt was significantly associated with any anxiety, personality, or substance use disorder among both men and women (all p suicide attempt. In men, suicide attempts had a strong association with dependent personality disorder (adjusted odds ratio [AOR] = 3.81; 95% CI = 1.14 to 12.73), whereas in women, suicide attempts had a strong association with antisocial personality disorder (AOR = 2.71; 95% CI = 1.72 to 4.25). Dependent personality disorder predicted suicide attempt in almost three quarters of depressed men (PPV = 74.3%; 95% CI = 54.2 to 87.6). The depressive symptom most strongly associated with a history of suicide attempts in both men and women was feelings of

  19. AN ASSESSMENT OF HOUSING AND NEIGHBOURHOOD QUALITY CONDITION IN ILESA, NIGERIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    YOADE Adewale Olufunlola

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Quality housing is the goal of all localities; such assurance reflects a community’s ability to respond to the needs of its citizens, as well as to accommodate growth and economic development. This paper focuses its study onhousing and neighbourhood quality condition in Ilesa, Nigeria.Data for the study were generated from both primary and secondary sources.204 households were surveyed using multi-stage sampling. Information was obtained on basic socioeconomic, housing and environmental characteristics of the respondent‘s household. The study reveals that more than half 54.3% of the respondents have open drainage in their neighbourhood, 33.8% have covered/buried drainage while the remaining 11.9% have soak away in their buildings. The finding reveals that 45.6% of the respondents are inherited occupier if their building, 34.4% of them is tenancy while the remaining 20.0% are owner occupier. However, positive and direct relationship exists between income and housing type (p = 0.000; r = 0.711, educational attainment (p = 0.000; r = 0.647 and type of toilet (p =0.000; r = 0.556. It was recommended among others that there should be activation in the senses embraces the emergence of citizens who will be aware of their environmental problems, who will believe changes are not only possible but feasible, and who will have a keen desire to change and accept changes.The paper therefore concludes that if the trend continues sustainable development in the area will remain unattainable.

  20. Assessment of smolt condition for travel time analysis. Annual report 1988

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rondorf, D.W.; Beeman, J.W.; Faler, J.C.; Free, M.E.; Wagner, E.J.

    1989-01-01

    Estimates of migration rates and travel times of juvenile salmonids within index reaches of the Columbia River basin are collected through the Smolt Monitoring Program for use by the Fish Passage Center. With increased reliance upon travel time estimates in 1988 by the Fish Passage Center, this study was implemented to monitor the biological attributes of juvenile chinook salmon Oncorhynchus tshawytscha and steelhead trout 0.- mykiss used for the travel time estimates, The physiological ability of fish to respond to stress was assessed by measuring levels of plasma cortisol, glucose, and chloride before and after a stress-challenge test. Most mid-Columbia and Snake river groups responded normally to the stress challenge exhibiting an increase in plasma glucose and cortisol and a slight decrease in chloride. Fish trucked to release sites were more stressed than those released directly from the hatchery, but most still responded to the stress challenge test normally. An abnormal or extreme stress response occurred when there were deviations from preferred protocol, disease problems at hatcheries, or when fish were trucked over long periods (7h). The development of smoltification was evaluated by measuring gill Na+K+-ATPase, plasma thyroxine, purines, and body morphology. Most groups were similar at the hatcheries but differed as the migration to McNary Dam proceeded. Gill ATPase activity increased 2-3 fold during the first 20 days of migration, after which it changed little. Fish with longer in-river travel times appeared to be more smolted than those which were in the river for a shorter period of time. The prevalence of bacterial kidney disease (BKD) in spring chinook salmon was evaluated using the enzyme linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) and fluorescent antibody technique (FAT). Prevalence of BKD in groups tested using the ELISA method was as high as 99% at some downstream locations. A review of indices is presented as a guide, to the development of an index of

  1. Recent developments in predictive uncertainty assessment based on the model conditional processor approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. Coccia

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available The work aims at discussing the role of predictive uncertainty in flood forecasting and flood emergency management, its relevance to improve the decision making process and the techniques to be used for its assessment.

    Real time flood forecasting requires taking into account predictive uncertainty for a number of reasons. Deterministic hydrological/hydraulic forecasts give useful information about real future events, but their predictions, as usually done in practice, cannot be taken and used as real future occurrences but rather used as pseudo-measurements of future occurrences in order to reduce the uncertainty of decision makers. Predictive Uncertainty (PU is in fact defined as the probability of occurrence of a future value of a predictand (such as water level, discharge or water volume conditional upon prior observations and knowledge as well as on all the information we can obtain on that specific future value from model forecasts. When dealing with commensurable quantities, as in the case of floods, PU must be quantified in terms of a probability distribution function which will be used by the emergency managers in their decision process in order to improve the quality and reliability of their decisions.

    After introducing the concept of PU, the presently available processors are introduced and discussed in terms of their benefits and limitations. In this work the Model Conditional Processor (MCP has been extended to the possibility of using two joint Truncated Normal Distributions (TNDs, in order to improve adaptation to low and high flows.

    The paper concludes by showing the results of the application of the MCP on two case studies, the Po river in Italy and the Baron Fork river, OK, USA. In the Po river case the data provided by the Civil Protection of the Emilia Romagna region have been used to implement an operational example, where the predicted variable is the observed water level. In the Baron Fork River

  2. Hygienic assessment of priority risk factors of environment and health condition of the population of Moscow

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E.E. Andreeva

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available The article describes the results of work on the dual hygienic assessment of priority risk factors of the environment and the health condition of the population of Moscow. It is shown that in the territory of the metropolis the impact of conditions of negative factors on human health is retained. These trends are confirmed by the excess of the hygienic standards of pollutants in ambient air (up to 6.6 TLVc.e., by the substantial increase (up to 65.8 % of share of the centralized sources of water supply, water quality does not meet the hygienic standards due to the high level of non-standard samples of soil (more than 50 % on a number of sanitary-chemical and microbiological parameters in the territories of certain administrative districts. At the same time there is a tendency to a decrease in non-standard drinking water samples taken from the distribution network of centralized drinking water supply (from 4.36 % to 2.45 %. It was established that the primary morbidity have a number of positive trends to decrease, but exceeds the average indicators for individual classes and nosology, including the classes of "Respiratory diseases", "Diseases of the skin and subcutaneous tissue", "Neoplasms" and etc. by 4.1–68.3 %. Analysis of causality (about 50 significant biologically-based mathematical models were received on the system of "quality of habitat (a risk factor – health status (morbidity, mortality " showed that the impact of negative environmental factors probably shape up to 29.2 ‰ of additional cases and up to 0.056 ‰ of the additional deaths per year. The largest contribution to the formation of the probability of additional cases is made by the excess of morbidity by hygienic standards of air quality and soil, mortality and air quality. Risk factors are phenol, benzo a pyrene, nitrogen dioxide, suspended solids, ammonia, chlorine and its compounds, and sulfur dioxide, etc., coming from the atmospheric air, and cadmium

  3. Real-Time Web-Based Assessment of Total Population Risk of Future Emergency Department Utilization: Statewide Prospective Active Case Finding Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Chunqing; Zhao, Yifan; Hao, Shiying; Zheng, Le; Fu, Changlin; Wen, Qiaojun; Ji, Jun; Li, Zhen; Wang, Yong; Zheng, Xiaolin; Dai, Dorothy; Culver, Devore S; Alfreds, Shaun T; Rogow, Todd; Stearns, Frank; Sylvester, Karl G; Widen, Eric

    2015-01-01

    Background An easily accessible real-time Web-based utility to assess patient risks of future emergency department (ED) visits can help the health care provider guide the allocation of resources to better manage higher-risk patient populations and thereby reduce unnecessary use of EDs. Objective Our main objective was to develop a Health Information Exchange-based, next 6-month ED risk surveillance system in the state of Maine. Methods Data on electronic medical record (EMR) encounters integrated by HealthInfoNet (HIN), Maine’s Health Information Exchange, were used to develop the Web-based surveillance system for a population ED future 6-month risk prediction. To model, a retrospective cohort of 829,641 patients with comprehensive clinical histories from January 1 to December 31, 2012 was used for training and then tested with a prospective cohort of 875,979 patients from July 1, 2012, to June 30, 2013. Results The multivariate statistical analysis identified 101 variables predictive of future defined 6-month risk of ED visit: 4 age groups, history of 8 different encounter types, history of 17 primary and 8 secondary diagnoses, 8 specific chronic diseases, 28 laboratory test results, history of 3 radiographic tests, and history of 25 outpatient prescription medications. The c-statistics for the retrospective and prospective cohorts were 0.739 and 0.732 respectively. Integration of our method into the HIN secure statewide data system in real time prospectively validated its performance. Cluster analysis in both the retrospective and prospective analyses revealed discrete subpopulations of high-risk patients, grouped around multiple “anchoring” demographics and chronic conditions. With the Web-based population risk-monitoring enterprise dashboards, the effectiveness of the active case finding algorithm has been validated by clinicians and caregivers in Maine. Conclusions The active case finding model and associated real-time Web-based app were designed to

  4. Finding of No Significant Impact and Environmental Assessment for Establishment of Proposed Manatee Sanctuaries in Kings Bay of Crystal River

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This environmental assessment (EA) evaluates seven alternatives for controlling human harassment of the West Indian Manatee an endangered species. The preferred...

  5. Health technology assessments conducted in health care facilities: A strategic practice? Findings from a content analysis of HTA reports.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mathieu Ouimet

    Full Text Available In this paper, we test the hypothesis that health technology assessment units located in hospitals tend to be more optimistic toward technologies that are currently in use in their organization than technologies that are not. The data include 108 health technologies assessed in 87 full-scale health technology assessment reports produced by the four main local health technology assessment units in Quebec (Canada on behalf of decision makers from the same facility. We found that 58 (53.7 percent of the 108 technologies were currently in use within the hospital during their assessment. Based on the assessors' interpretation of the scientific evidence regarding the efficacy of the technologies, 67.3 percent of the technologies that were in use in the hospital during the evaluation were effective (56 percent for those that were not currently being used, but the difference is not statistically significant (chi-square 1.38; p = 0.24. Controlling for the efficacy judgment, the type of technologies (i.e. preventive, diagnostic, therapeutic or organizational, the number of technologies assessed in the report and the assessment unit, we found that the technologies that were currently in use in the facility during the evaluation were 62 percent more likely to be recommended favorably by the assessment unit than the technologies that were not currently being used (RR = 1.62; 95 percent CI = 1.06-1.88. This suggests that the local health technology units that were examined in the study tended to be more optimistic toward technologies that were currently in use in their hospital at the time of the evaluation.

  6. Rapid assessment of visual impairment (RAVI in marine fishing communities in South India - study protocol and main findings

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Madala Sreenivas R

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Reliable data are a pre-requisite for planning eye care services. Though conventional cross sectional studies provide reliable information, they are resource intensive. A novel rapid assessment method was used to investigate the prevalence and causes of visual impairment and presbyopia in subjects aged 40 years and older. This paper describes the detailed methodology and study procedures of Rapid Assessment of Visual Impairment (RAVI project. Methods A population-based cross-sectional study was conducted using cluster random sampling in the coastal region of Prakasam district of Andhra Pradesh in India, predominantly inhabited by fishing communities. Unaided, aided and pinhole visual acuity (VA was assessed using a Snellen chart at a distance of 6 meters. The VA was re-assessed using a pinhole, if VA was Results The data collection was completed in Conclusion There is a high prevalence of visual impairment in marine fishing communities in Prakasam district in India. The data from this rapid assessment survey can now be used as a baseline to start eye care services in this region. The rapid assessment methodology (RAVI reported in this paper is robust, quick and has the potential to be replicated in other areas.

  7. Terrestrial Condition Assessment for National Forests of the USDA Forest Service in the Continental US

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David Cleland

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available The terrestrial condition assessment (TCA evaluates effects of uncharacteristic stressors and disturbance agents on land-type associations (LTAs to identify restoration opportunities on national forest system (NFS lands in the United States. A team of agency scientists and managers, representing a broad array of natural resource disciplines, developed a logic structure for the TCA to identify appropriate data sources to support analyses. Primary national data sources included observed insect- and pathogen-induced mortality, key critical loads for soil and the atmosphere, long term seasonal departures in temperature and precipitation, road densities, uncharacteristic wildfires, historical fire regime departure, wildfire potential, insect and pathogen risk, and vegetation departure from natural range of variability. The TCA was implemented with the ecosystem management decision support (EMDS system, a spatial decision support system for landscape analysis and planning. EMDS uses logic models to interpret data, synthesizes information over successive layers of logic topics, and draws inferences about the ecological integrity of LTAs as an initial step to identifying high priority LTAs for landscape restoration on NFS lands. Results from the analysis showed that about 74 percent of NFS lands had moderate or better overall ecological integrity. Major impacts to ecological integrity included risk of mortality due to insects and disease, extent of current mortality, extent of areas with high and very high wildfire hazard potential, uncharacteristically severe wildfire, and elevated temperatures. In the discussion, we consider implications for agency performance reporting on restoration activities, and subsequent possible steps, including strategic and tactical planning for restoration. The objective of the paper is to describe the TCA framework with results from a national scale application on NFS lands.

  8. Condition assessment of concrete pavements using both ground penetrating radar and stress-wave based techniques

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Mengxing; Anderson, Neil; Sneed, Lesley; Torgashov, Evgeniy

    2016-12-01

    Two stress-wave based techniques, ultrasonic surface wave (USW) and impact echo (IE), as well as ground penetrating radar (GPR) were used to assess the condition of a segment of concrete pavement that includes a layer of concrete, a granular base and their interface. Core specimens retrieved at multiple locations were used to confirm the accuracy and reliability of each non-destructive testing (NDT) result. Results from this study demonstrate that the GPR method is accurate for estimating the pavement thickness and locating separations (air voids) between the concrete and granular base layers. The USW method is a rapid way to estimate the in-situ elastic modulus (dynamic elastic modulus) of the concrete, however, the existence of air voids at the interface could potentially affect the accuracy and reliability of the USW test results. The estimation of the dynamic modulus and the P-wave velocity of concrete was improved when a shorter wavelength range (3 in. to 8.5 in.) corresponding to the concrete layer thickness was applied instead of the full wavelength rage (3 in. to 11 in.) based on the standard spacing of the receiver transducers. The IE method is proved to be fairly accurate in estimating the thickness of concrete pavements. However, the flexural mode vibration could affect the accuracy and reliability of the test results. Furthermore, the existence of air voids between the concrete and granular base layers could affect the estimation of the compression wave velocity of concrete when the full wavelength range was applied (3 in. to 11 in.). Future work is needed in order to improve the accuracy and reliability of both USW and IE test results.

  9. Climate Twins - a tool to explore future climate impacts by assessing real world conditions: Exploration principles, underlying data, similarity conditions and uncertainty ranges

    Science.gov (United States)

    Loibl, Wolfgang; Peters-Anders, Jan; Züger, Johann

    2010-05-01

    To achieve public awareness and thorough understanding about expected climate changes and their future implications, ways have to be found to communicate model outputs to the public in a scientifically sound and easily understandable way. The newly developed Climate Twins tool tries to fulfil these requirements via an intuitively usable web application, which compares spatial patterns of current climate with future climate patterns, derived from regional climate model results. To get a picture of the implications of future climate in an area of interest, users may click on a certain location within an interactive map with underlying future climate information. A second map depicts the matching Climate Twin areas according to current climate conditions. In this way scientific output can be communicated to the public which allows for experiencing climate change through comparison with well-known real world conditions. To identify climatic coincidence seems to be a simple exercise, but the accuracy and applicability of the similarity identification depends very much on the selection of climate indicators, similarity conditions and uncertainty ranges. Too many indicators representing various climate characteristics and too narrow uncertainty ranges will judge little or no area as regions with similar climate, while too little indicators and too wide uncertainty ranges will address too large regions as those with similar climate which may not be correct. Similarity cannot be just explored by comparing mean values or by calculating correlation coefficients. As climate change triggers an alteration of various indicators, like maxima, minima, variation magnitude, frequency of extreme events etc., the identification of appropriate similarity conditions is a crucial question to be solved. For Climate Twins identification, it is necessary to find a right balance of indicators, similarity conditions and uncertainty ranges, unless the results will be too vague conducting a

  10. A Robust and Automated Hyperspectral Damage Assessment System Under Varying Illumination Conditions and Viewing Geometry Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Some target signatures of interest in drought monitoring, flooding assessment, fire damage assessment, coastal changes, urban changes, etc. may need to be tracked...

  11. 76 FR 8708 - Availability of an Environmental Assessment and Finding of No Significant Impact for a Biological...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-02-15

    ... Significant Impact for a Biological Control Agent for Arundo donax AGENCY: Animal and Plant Health Inspection... Service relative to a proposed biological control program for Arundo donax (giant reed, Carrizo cane). The... biological control program. Based on its finding of no significant impact, the Animal and Plant Health...

  12. Oral Assessment and Postgraduate Medical Examinations: Establishing Conditions for Validity, Reliability and Fairness

    Science.gov (United States)

    Memon, Muhammed Ashraf; Joughin, Gordon Rowland; Memon, Breda

    2010-01-01

    The purpose of this review was to examine the practice of oral assessment in postgraduate medical education in the context of the core assessment constructs of validity, reliability and fairness. Although oral assessment has a long history in the certification process of medical specialists and is a well-established part of such proceedings for a…

  13. 42 CFR 403.732 - Condition of participation: Quality assessment and performance improvement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... participation: Quality assessment and performance improvement. The RNHCI must develop, implement, and maintain a quality assessment and performance improvement program. (a) Standard: Program scope. (1) The quality assessment and performance improvement program must include, but is not limited to, measures to evaluate: (i...

  14. 42 CFR 416.52 - Conditions for coverage-Patient admission, assessment and discharge.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... recently documented medical history and physical assessment, including documentation of any allergies to drugs and biologicals. (3) The patient's medical history and physical assessment must be placed in the... comprehensive medical history and physical assessment completed by a physician (as defined in section 1861(r) of...

  15. Assessment of Body Condition in African (Loxodonta africana) and Asian (Elephas maximus) Elephants in North American Zoos and Management Practices Associated with High Body Condition Scores.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morfeld, Kari A; Meehan, Cheryl L; Hogan, Jennifer N; Brown, Janine L

    2016-01-01

    Obesity has a negative effect on health and welfare of many species, and has been speculated to be a problem for zoo elephants. To address this concern, we assessed the body condition of 240 elephants housed in North American zoos based on a set of standardized photographs using a 5-point Body Condition Score index (1 = thinnest; 5 = fattest). A multi-variable regression analysis was then used to determine how demographic, management, housing, and social factors were associated with an elevated body condition score in 132 African (Loxodonta africana) and 108 Asian (Elephas maximus) elephants. The highest BCS of 5, suggestive of obesity, was observed in 34% of zoo elephants. In both species, the majority of elephants had elevated BCS, with 74% in the BCS 4 (40%) and 5 (34%) categories. Only 22% of elephants had BCS 3, and less than 5% of the population was assigned the lowest BCS categories (BCS 1 and 2). The strongest multi-variable model demonstrated that staff-directed walking exercise of 14 hours or more per week and highly unpredictable feeding schedules were associated with decreased risk of BCS 4 or 5, while increased diversity in feeding methods and being female was associated with increased risk of BCS 4 or 5. Our data suggest that high body condition is prevalent among North American zoo elephants, and management strategies that help prevent and mitigate obesity may lead to improvements in welfare of zoo elephants.

  16. Assessment of Body Condition in African (Loxodonta africana and Asian (Elephas maximus Elephants in North American Zoos and Management Practices Associated with High Body Condition Scores.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kari A Morfeld

    Full Text Available Obesity has a negative effect on health and welfare of many species, and has been speculated to be a problem for zoo elephants. To address this concern, we assessed the body condition of 240 elephants housed in North American zoos based on a set of standardized photographs using a 5-point Body Condition Score index (1 = thinnest; 5 = fattest. A multi-variable regression analysis was then used to determine how demographic, management, housing, and social factors were associated with an elevated body condition score in 132 African (Loxodonta africana and 108 Asian (Elephas maximus elephants. The highest BCS of 5, suggestive of obesity, was observed in 34% of zoo elephants. In both species, the majority of elephants had elevated BCS, with 74% in the BCS 4 (40% and 5 (34% categories. Only 22% of elephants had BCS 3, and less than 5% of the population was assigned the lowest BCS categories (BCS 1 and 2. The strongest multi-variable model demonstrated that staff-directed walking exercise of 14 hours or more per week and highly unpredictable feeding schedules were associated with decreased risk of BCS 4 or 5, while increased diversity in feeding methods and being female was associated with increased risk of BCS 4 or 5. Our data suggest that high body condition is prevalent among North American zoo elephants, and management strategies that help prevent and mitigate obesity may lead to improvements in welfare of zoo elephants.

  17. Assessing the Relationship Between Chronic Health Conditions and Productivity Loss Trajectories

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pranksy, Glenn

    2014-01-01

    Objective: To examine the relationship between health conditions and the risk for membership in longitudinal trajectories of productivity loss. Methods: Trajectories of productivity loss from the ages of 25 to 44 years, previously identified in the National Longitudinal Survey of Youth (NLSY79), were combined with information on health conditions from the age 40 years health module in the NLSY79. Multinomial logistic regression was used to examine the relative risk of being in the low-risk, early-onset increasing risk, late-onset increasing risk, or high-risk trajectories compared with the no-risk trajectory for having various health conditions. Results: The trajectories with the greatest probability of productivity loss longitudinally had a greater prevalence of the individual health conditions and a greater total number of health conditions experienced. Conclusions: Health conditions are associated with specific longitudinal patterns of experiencing productivity loss. PMID:25479294

  18. Mesial temporal lobe morphology in intractable pediatric epilepsy: so-called hippocampal malrotation, associated findings, and relevance to presurgical assessment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leach, James L; Awwad, Reem; Greiner, Hansel M; Vannest, Jennifer J; Miles, Lili; Mangano, Francesco T

    2016-06-01

    OBJECTIVE Diagnostic criteria for hippocampal malrotation (HIMAL) on brain MRI typically include a rounded hippocampus, vertical collateral sulcus, and architectural blurring. Relationship to epileptogenesis remains speculative, and usefulness for surgical guidance is unknown. The study was performed to determine the prevalence of hippocampal rotational anomalies in a cohort of pediatric patients with intractable epilepsy undergoing evaluation for surgery and to determine the significance of this finding in the context of surgical planning. METHODS Forty-eight surgically treated children with intractable epilepsy were compared with matched healthy subjects; reviewers were blinded to surgical side. Each temporal lobe was evaluated for rounded hippocampus, blurring, vertical collateral sulcus, wide choroidal fissure, enlarged temporal horn, low fornix, hippocampal signal, and findings of hippocampal sclerosis. A mesial temporal lobe (MTL) score was calculated by summing the number of features, and the collateral sulcus angle (CSA) was measured in each temporal lobe. Surgical side, pathological diagnosis, and imaging findings elsewhere in the brain were tabulated. Presence of HIMAL, associated imaging features, and MTL score were compared between sides, between epilepsy and control groups, in relationship to side of surgery, and in relationship to postoperative outcome. RESULTS Only 3 epilepsy patients (6.2%) and no controls exhibited all 3 features of HIMAL (p = 0.12). Eight of 48 (16.7%) epilepsy versus 2 of 48 (4.6%) control subjects had both a rounded hippocampus and vertical collateral sulcus (suggesting HIMAL) (p = 0.045). In control and epilepsy subjects, most findings were more prevalent on the left, and the left CSA was more vertical (p Epilepsy subjects had higher MTL scores (z = -2.95, p = 0.002) and more acute CSAs (p = 0.04) than controls. Only lateralizing raw MTL score had a significant association with surgical side (p = 0.03, OR 7.33); however, this

  19. Using alternative biological information in stock assessment: condition-corrected natural mortality of Eastern Baltic cod

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Casini, Michele; Eero, Margit; Carlshamre, Sofia

    2016-01-01

    its survival. We used results from published experimental literature linking cod condition to starvation and mortality, to estimate the annual proportion of cod close to the lethal condition level in the Eastern Baltic cod stock. Thereafter we applied these results to adjust the natural mortality (M...... M = 0.2. This method could be used for adjusting natural mortalities for other cod stocks where changes in condition are observed....

  20. An Assessment of Performance and Condition Monitoring Requirements of Foreign Marine Diesel Propulsion Systems

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    1982-01-01

    This report presents a synopsis of the requirements and recommended practices for diesel engine diagnostic, performance and condition monitoring systems for medium and slow speed diesel propulsion systems...

  1. Dentists' use of caries risk assessment in children: findings from the Dental Practice-Based Research Network

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Riley, Joseph L; Qvist, Vebeke; Fellows, Jeffrey L

    2010-01-01

    This study surveyed Dental Practice-Based Research Network (DPBRN) member dentists (from four regions in the U.S. and Scandinavia) who perform restorative dentistry in their practices. The survey asked a range of questions about caries risk assessment in patients aged 6 to 18. Among respondents, 73...

  2. An integrated assessment of regional air pollution and climate change in Europe: findings of the AIR-CLIM project

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Alcamo, J.; Mayerhofer, P.; Guardans, R.; Harmelen, T. van; Minnen, J. van; Onigkeit, J.; Posch, M.; Vries, B. de

    2002-01-01

    This paper presents results of an assessment of the linkages between regional air pollution and climate change in Europe (the AIR-CLIM Project). The main research tool was an integrated modeling framework and the main product was a consistent set of long-term scenarios covering Europe between 1995

  3. The assessment of interpersonal pleasure: introduction of the Anticipatory and Consummatory Interpersonal Pleasure Scale (ACIPS) and preliminary findings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gooding, Diane Carol; Pflum, Madeline Johnson

    2014-01-30

    Although several valid measures of pleasure and anhedonia exist, there is a relative paucity of measures that adequately assess pleasure for social interactions. The Anticipatory and Consummatory Interpersonal Pleasure Scale (ACIPS) is a measure specifically designed to assess hedonic capacity for social and interpersonal pleasure. Various aspects of the validity and reliability of the ACIPS were examined in several ways. First, we assessed the factor structure as well as the internal consistency, convergent, and discriminant validity of the ACIPS in 496 young adults recruited from undergraduate classes. Second, we investigated the temporal stability of the measure by having a subset of the group return for retesting. Results from the factor analysis suggested a three-factor model. The ACIPS was found to be highly reliable in terms of internal consistency and test-retest stability. Further, the ACIPS correlated in a theoretically meaningful way with other measures of pleasure and affect. The current research indicates that the ACIPS is a reliable and valid questionnaire to assess hedonic capacity for social and interpersonal pleasure in nonclinical samples. Suggestions for further clinical and research applications using the ACIPS are offered. © 2013 Published by Elsevier Ireland Ltd.

  4. 75 FR 42820 - Notice of Availability of a Final Environmental Assessment (Final EA) and a Finding of No...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-22

    ... conforming to the guidelines of the Terminal Facilities Design Standards for Base Building and Environmental... 1050.1E, ``Environmental Impacts: Policies and Procedures.'' In addition, FAA Order 5050.4B, ``National... Federal Aviation Administration Notice of Availability of a Final Environmental Assessment (Final EA) and...

  5. 75 FR 9015 - Notice of Availability of a Final Environmental Assessment (Final EA) and a Finding of No...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-02-26

    ... conform to the guidelines of the Terminal Facilities Design Standards for Base Building and Environmental..., ``Environmental Impacts: Policies and Procedures.'' In addition, FAA Order 5050.4B, ``National Environmental... Federal Aviation Administration Notice of Availability of a Final Environmental Assessment (Final EA) and...

  6. Assessing Developmental Trajectories of Sexual Minority Youth: Discrepant Findings from a Life History Calendar and a Self-Administered Survey

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fisher, Colleen M.

    2012-01-01

    Research suggests that the timing and sequence of sexual identity development milestones impact myriad health and mental health outcomes for sexual minority youth. Because these milestone events are typically assessed retrospectively, traditional data collection approaches are limited by recall bias and lack of precision in the recording of…

  7. Confidence in Mathematics and Algebra Achievement of Eighth-Grade Students in Japan: Findings from the TIMSS 2011 Assessment

    Science.gov (United States)

    House, J. Daniel; Telese, James A.

    2014-01-01

    There is continuing interest in the identification of student and instructional factors associated with the mathematics achievement of students in Japan. The Trends in International Mathematics and Science Study (TIMSS) assessments have provided opportunities to examine factors associated with mathematics achievement. The purpose of this study was…

  8. Quantitative and Qualitative Criteria for Assessing Endurance in Women over 60 Years of Age – Findings from a Pilot Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kortas Jakub

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Introduction. If it is to be effective, health training needs to be monitored based on regular and periodic assessment. The norms that have been proposed for standardised endurance tests for the 60-plus age group, particularly for women, still require evaluation. In light of the above, we have undertaken to design quantitative and qualitative criteria for assessing the level of endurance. Such criteria are urgently needed by persons working with this age group. Material and methods. We developed a quantitative and qualitative system for evaluating endurance based on Zatsiorky’s model, and we verified it in a group of 90 women aged over 60 years. We analysed data measured directly during a 2-km walk test. Results. We developed a set of quantitative and qualitative criteria for assessing endurance in women aged over 60 years based on the results of a 2-km walk test, measured on a scale ranging from 24:18 to 15:52 min:s. Conclusion. The pilot study has proven that a scale based on Zatsiorsky’s model can be an effective tool for assessing endurance in women aged over 60 years. We can thus recommend that it be widely used in practice. It is important to compare these results with the norms for the group in question and to establish comprehensive norms that could be useful for persons who organise physical activity for older adults.

  9. Assessing risks from drought and heat stress in productive grasslands under present and future climatic conditions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Calanca, Pierluigi; Mosimann, Eric; Meisser, Marco; Deléglise, Claire

    2014-05-01

    Grasslands cover the majority of the world's agricultural area, provide the feedstock for animal production, contribute to the economy of farms, and deliver a variety of ecological and societal services. Assessing responses of grassland ecosystems to climate change, in particular climate-related risks, is therefore an important step toward identifying adaptation options necessary to secure grassland functioning and productivity. Of particular concern are risks in relation to drought and extreme temperatures, on the one hand because grasslands are very sensitive to water stress, on the other hand also because global warming is expected to increase the occurrence and intensity of these events in many agricultural areas of the world. In this contribution we review findings of ongoing experimental and modelling activities that aim at examining the implications of climate extremes and climate change for grassland vegetation dynamics and herbage productivity. Data collected at the Jura foot in western Switzerland indicate that water scarcity and associated anomalous temperatures slowed plant development in relation to both the summer drought of 2003 as well as the spring drought of 2011, with decline in annual yields of up to 40%. Further effects of drought found from the analysis of recent field trials explicitly designed to study the effects of different water management regimes are changes in the functional composition and nutritive value of grasslands. Similar responses are disclosed by simulations with a process based grassland ecosystem model that was originally developed for the simulation of mixed grass/clover swards. Simulations driven with historical weather records from the Swiss Plateau suggest that drought and extreme temperature could represent one of the main reasons for the observed yield variability in productive systems. Simulations with climate change scenarios further reveal important changes in ecosystem dynamics for the current century. The results

  10. A validation study to find highly correlated parameters with visual assessment for clinical evaluation of cosmetic anti-cellulite products.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yoo, Mi Ae; Seo, Young Kyoung; Ryu, Ja Hyun; Back, Ji Hwoon; Koh, Jae Sook

    2014-05-01

    There has been growing interest in cellulite on parts of the body; however, no objective assessment has been specifically established. This study aims to demonstrate an optimized method by comparing the existing assessments of cellulite. In Test 1, for subjects of 20 healthy females who have cellulite, we measured volume and roughness of cellulite using fringe projection method, roughness using replica method, dermo-subcutaneous interface length and subcutaneous thickness using ultrasonography and skin temperature using infrared ray, elasticity and blood flow. In Test 2, we applied an anti-cellulite cosmetic to 28 subjects for 6 weeks and observed if they have any changes. In Test 1, the effective parameter that is the most correlated with visual assessment was volume of skin measured using fringe projection method (r = 0.780). Dermo-subcutaneous interface length (r = 0.355) and subcutaneous thickness (r = 0.502) measured using ultrasonography followed in order. In Test 2, after applying a tested product, the correlation coefficient of volume of skin, of dermo-subcutaneous interface length and of subcutaneous thickness are 0.409 (P = 0.000), 0.275 (P = 0.016) and 0.311 (P = 0.012) respectively. We conclude that visual assessment, volume of skin (cavities), dermo-subcutaneous interface length and subcutaneous thickness are optimized methods for assessing an effect of cosmetics on cellulite. © 2013 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  11. Scientific information and the Tongass land management plan: key findings derived from the scientific literature, species assessments, resource analyses, workshops, and risk assessment panels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Douglas N. Swanston; Charles G. Shaw; Winston P. Smith; Kent R. Julin; Guy A. Cellier; Fred H. Everest

    1996-01-01

    This document highlights key items of information obtained from the published literature and from specific assessments, workshops, resource analyses, and various risk assessment panels conducted as part of the Tongass land management planning process. None of this information dictates any particular decision; however, it is important to consider during decisionmaking...

  12. Laser Scanning Technology as Part of a Comprehensive Condition Assessment for Covered Bridges

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brian K. Brashaw; Samuel Anderson; Robert J. Ross

    2015-01-01

    New noncontact technologies have been developed and implemented for determining as-built condition and current dimensions for a wide variety of objects and buildings. In this study, a three-dimensional laser scanner was used to determine the dimensions and visual condition of a historic bridge in the Amnicon Falls State Park in northern Wisconsin. 3D scanning provides...

  13. 76 FR 10047 - Changes to the Public Housing Assessment System (PHAS): Financial Condition Scoring Notice

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-02-23

    ... public about HUD's process for issuing scores under the financial condition indicator of the Public... information. This notice updates and clarifies the audit flags and tier classification chart. DATES: Effective... the scoring process for PHAS indicator 2, financial condition, under the PHAS. The purpose of the...

  14. Assessment of social transmission of threats in humans using observational fear conditioning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haaker, Jan; Golkar, Armita; Selbing, Ida; Olsson, Andreas

    2017-07-01

    Across the human life span, fear is often acquired indirectly by observation of the emotional expressions of others. The observational fear conditioning protocol was previously developed as a laboratory model for investigating socially acquired threat responses. This protocol serves as a suitable alternative to the widely used Pavlovian fear conditioning, in which threat responses are acquired through direct experiences. In the observational fear conditioning protocol, the participant (observer) watches a demonstrator being presented with a conditioned stimulus (CS) paired with an aversive unconditioned stimulus (US). The expression of threat learning is measured as the conditioned response (CR) expressed by the observer in the absence of the demonstrator. CRs are commonly measured as skin conductance responses, but behavioral and neural measures have also been implemented. The experimental procedure is suitable for divergent populations, can be administered by a graduate student and takes ∼40 min. Similar protocols are used in animals, emphasizing its value as a translational tool for studying socioemotional learning.

  15. Dynamic magnetic resonance imaging to quantify pelvic organ prolapse: reliability of assessment and correlation with clinical findings and pelvic floor symptoms

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lakeman, Mariëlle M. E.; Zijta, F. M.; Peringa, J.; Nederveen, A. J.; Stoker, J.; Roovers, J. P. W. R.

    2012-01-01

    The aim of this study was to assess the interobserver agreement of magnetic resonance imaging (MRI)-based staging of pelvic organ prolapse (POP) and to quantify associations between MRI-based POP staging, findings at pelvic examination, and pelvic floor symptoms. This was a cross-sectional study of

  16. The Intervention Effect Assessment on Social Support Condition of the First Settlers in Dan jiangkou Reservoir Area, China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sun Jinfeng

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To assess the effect of psychological intervention on social support condition of the first settlers in Dan jiangkou reservoir area. Methods: Using the Social Support Rating Scale (SSRS to measure the social support condition of the first batch of immigrants before and after the intervention, and then compare it with the immigrants who were not intervened. Results: Compared with the immigrants who were not intervened, the immigrants who received intervention have a higher score on the availability of social support (P<0.05.Conclusion: Psychological intervention can improve the social support condition for immigrants, especially in enhancing the availability of social support.

  17. Demographic and clinical factors associated with radiographic severity of first metatarsophalangeal joint osteoarthritis: cross-sectional findings from the Clinical Assessment Study of the Foot.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Menz, H B; Roddy, E; Marshall, M; Thomas, M J; Rathod, T; Myers, H; Thomas, E; Peat, G M

    2015-01-01

    To explore demographic and clinical factors associated with radiographic severity of first metatarsophalangeal joint osteoarthritis (OA) (First MTPJ OA). Adults aged ≥50 years registered with four general practices were mailed a Health Survey. Responders reporting foot pain within the last 12 months were invited to undergo a clinical assessment and weight-bearing dorso-plantar and lateral radiographs of both feet. Radiographic first MTPJ OA in the most severely affected foot was graded into four categories using a validated atlas. Differences in selected demographic and clinical factors were explored across the four radiographic severity subgroups using analysis of variance (ANOVA) and ordinal regression. Clinical and radiographic data were available from 517 participants, categorised as having no (n = 105), mild (n = 228), moderate (n = 122) or severe (n = 62) first MTPJ OA. Increased radiographic severity was associated with older age and lower educational attainment. After adjusting for age, increased radiographic first MTPJ OA severity was significantly associated with an increased prevalence of dorsal hallux and first MTPJ pain, hallux valgus, first interphalangeal joint (IPJ) hyperextension, keratotic lesions on the dorsal aspect of the hallux and first MTPJ, decreased first MTPJ dorsiflexion, ankle/subtalar joint eversion and ankle joint dorsiflexion range of motion, and a trend towards a more pronated foot posture. This cross-sectional study has identified several dose-response associations between radiographic severity of first MTPJ OA and a range of demographic and clinical factors. These findings highlight the progressive nature of first MTPJ OA and provide insights into the spectrum of presentation of the condition in clinical practice. Crown Copyright © 2014. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. Use of Video Podcasts to Communicate Scientific Findings to Non-Scientists— Examples from the U.S. Geological Survey National Water-Quality Assessment Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harned, D. A.; McMahon, G.; Capelli, K.

    2010-12-01

    The U.S Geological Survey (USGS) National Water-Quality Assessment Program (NAWQA) provides information about (1) water-quality conditions and how those conditions vary locally, regionally, and nationally, (2) water-quality trends, and (3) factors that affect those conditions. As part of the NAWQA Program, the Effects of Urbanization on Stream Ecosystems (EUSE) study examined the vulnerability and resilience of streams to urbanization. Completion of the EUSE study has resulted in over 20 scientific publications. Video podcasts are being used to communicate the relevance of these scientific findings to resource managers and the general public. Two video podcasts have been produced to date (9-1-2010). The first film “Effects of Urbanization on Stream Ecosystems” is a 3-minute summary of results of the EUSE study. The film is accessible on the USGS Corecast website (http://www.usgs.gov/corecast/details.asp?ep=127) and is available in MPG, WMV, and QuickTime formats, as an audio-only podcast, with a complete transcript of the film; and as a YouTube video (http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=BYwZiiORYG8) with subtitles. The film has been viewed over 6200 times, with most downloads occurring in the first 3 weeks after the June release. Views of the film declined to approximately 60 a week for the following 9 weeks. Most of the requests for the film have originated from U.S. domain addresses with 13 percent originating from international addresses. The film was posted on YouTube in June and has received 262 views since that time. A 15-minute version of the film with more technical content is also available for access from the EUSE website (http://water.usgs.gov/nawqa/urban/html/podcasts.html). It has been downloaded over 660 times. The bulk of the requests occurred in the first 2 weeks after release, with most requests originating from U.S. addresses and 11 percent originating internationally. In the second film “Stormwater, Impervious Surface, and Stream Health” (not

  19. Findings From the National Machine Guarding Program: Safety Climate, Hazard Assessment, and Safety Leadership in Small Metal Fabrication Businesses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parker, David L; Yamin, Samuel; Xi, Min; Gordon, Robert; Most, Ivan; Stanley, Rod

    2017-12-01

    This manuscript assesses safety climate data from the National Machine Guarding Program (NMGP)-a nationwide intervention to improve machine safety. Baseline safety climate surveys were completed by 2161 employees and 341 owners or managers at 115 businesses. A separate onsite audit of safety management practices and machine guarding equipment was conducted at each business. Safety climate measures were not correlated with machine guarding or safety management practices. The presence of a safety committee was correlated with higher scores on the safety management audit when contrasted with those without one. The presence of a safety committee is easily assessed and provides a basis on which to make recommendations with regard to how it functions. Measures of safety climate fail to provide actionable information. Future research on small manufacturing firms should emphasize the presence of an employee-management safety committee.

  20. Assessment challenges in open learning: Way-finding, fork in the road, or end of the line?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dianne Conrad

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Growing global commitments to open learning through the use of Open Educational Resources (OERs are accompanied by concerns over what “to do” with that learning when learners present it to traditional institutions for assessment and accreditation. This paper proposes that established RPL (recognizing prior learningprotocols, in place at many institutions worldwide, can offer a pedagogically sound framework that supports the spirit of open learning and respects the diversity of learners’ efforts.

  1. Validation of Simplified Tools for Assessment of Sodium Intake in Iranian Population: Rationale, Design and Initial Findings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mohammadifard, Noushin; Khosravi, Ali Reza; Esmaillzadeh, Ahmad; Feizi, Awat; Abdollahi, Zahra; Salehi, Forouzan; Sarrafzadegan, Nizal

    2016-09-01

    The 24-hour urine sodium excretion is considered the gold standard method to estimate salt intake. However, since this method is not easy to perform, this study developed two instruments, including a semi-quantitative food frequency questionnaire (FFQ) and one spot urine sodium excretion, to assess sodium intake. These two methods were then compared with 24-h urine sodium excretion and twelve 24-h recalls during a year. This study was performed on 219 healthy subjects aged ≥ 6 years in 2014-2015. The FFQ was completed twice, at baseline and one year thereafter, to examine the reproducibility of the FFQ. The validity of three spot urine sodium excretions in the morning, afternoon, and evening and FFQ for the assessment of sodium intake were compared against the 24-h urine sodium excretion method. Moreover, the validity of FFQ was examined against 24-h dietary recalls for the assessment of total sodium consumption and contribution of food groups to sodium intake. The content validity of the FFQ was estimated by an expert panel including 10 nutritionists. Based on their nutrients, the final food items were categorized into 11 groups including: 1) dairy products, 2) fruits, 3) vegetables, 4) meat and egg, 5) grains and legumes, 6) mixed dishes, prepared foods, and restaurant foods, 8) nuts and seeds, 8) oils and fats, 9) sauces and desserts, 10) drinks, and 11) others. Spot urine and a specific FFQ comprising 136 items were used to develop a method for the assessment of sodium intake and contribution of foods to its intake among the Iranian population. This method can be used in large-scale population studies at the national level.

  2. Assessment of medical students’ proficiency in dermatology: Are medical students adequately prepared to diagnose and treat common dermatologic conditions in the United States?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Catherine A. Ulman

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available This study assessed whether a current medical school curriculum is adequately preparing medical students to diagnose and treat common dermatologic conditions. A 15-item anonymous multiple choice quiz covering fifteen diseases was developed to test students’ ability to diagnose and treat common dermatologic conditions. The quiz also contained five items that assessed students’ confidence in their ability to diagnose common dermatologic conditions, their perception of whether they were receiving adequate training in dermatology, and their preferences for additional training in dermatology. The survey was performed in 2014, and was completed by 85 students (79.4%. Many students (87.6% felt that they received inadequate training in dermatology during medical school. On average, students scored 46.6% on the 15-item quiz. Proficiency at the medical school where the study was performed is considered an overall score of greater than or equal to 70.0%. Students received an average score of 49.9% on the diagnostic items and an average score of 43.2% on the treatment items. The findings of this study suggest that United States medical schools should consider testing their students and assessing whether they are being adequately trained in dermatology. Then schools can decide if they need to re-evaluate the timing and delivery of their current dermatology curriculum, or whether additional curriculum hours or clinical rotations should be assigned for dermatologic training.

  3. Summary Findings from the AVT-191 Project to Assess Sensitivity Analysis and Uncertainty Quantification Methods for Military Vehicle Design

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benek, John A.; Luckring, James M.

    2017-01-01

    A NATO symposium held in Greece in 2008 identified many promising sensitivity analysis and uncertainty quantification technologies, but the maturity and suitability of these methods for realistic applications was not clear. The NATO Science and Technology Organization, Task Group AVT-191 was established to evaluate the maturity and suitability of various sensitivity analysis and uncertainty quantification methods for application to realistic vehicle development problems. The program ran from 2011 to 2015, and the work was organized into four discipline-centric teams: external aerodynamics, internal aerodynamics, aeroelasticity, and hydrodynamics. This paper summarizes findings and lessons learned from the task group.

  4. Algorithms for the extension of precise and imprecise conditional probability assessments: an implementation with maple V

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Veronica Biazzo

    2000-05-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, we illustrate an implementation with Maple V of some procedures which allow to exactly propagate precise and imprecise probability assessments. The extension of imprecise assessments is based on a suitable generalization of the concept of coherence of de Finetti. The procedures described are supported by some examples and relevant cases.

  5. Cardiac findings in the precompetition medical assessment of football players participating in the 2009 African Under-17 Championships in Algeria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schmied, C; Zerguini, Y; Junge, A; Tscholl, P; Pelliccia, A; Mayosi, B M; Dvorak, J

    2009-09-01

    To screen all players registered for the 8th CAF African Under-17 Championship for risk factors of sudden cardiac death. Standardised cardiac evaluation prior to the start of the competition. 155 male football players from all eight qualified teams; mean age 16.4 (SD 0.68) years (range 14 to 17). The cardiac evaluation consisted of a medical history, clinical examination, 12-lead resting electrocardiogram (ECG) and echocardiography, and was performed by three experienced cardiologists using established guidelines. Nine (5.8%) players reported cardiac symptoms, and the clinical examination was abnormal in only two players with elevated blood pressure. A total of 40 players (25.8%) showed abnormal ECG patterns. None of the players with a positive ECG showed correlating echocardiographic findings. The echocardiogram of one player appeared highly suspicious for early-stage hypertrophic cardiomyopathy, and in another player the myocardium was suspicious for non-compaction cardiomyopathy, but both had normal ECGs. Thirteen (8.4%) players showed echocardiographic findings that needed further follow-up. The percentage of players with pathological ECG patterns and some abnormal echocardiographic measurements varied substantially between different ethnic groups. Cardiological screening for risk factors of sudden cardiac death of football players prior to an international competition proved feasible, and conduction by independent experts allowed high-quality standards and a consistent protocol for the examinations. Differences observed between ethnic groups indicate that guidelines for the analysis of ECGs and echocardiography might be adjusted to the target population.

  6. Find a Surgeon

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... disease. Click here to find out more. Find a Surgeon Locate a surgeon using address, city or ... lead to gum disease. Obstructive Sleep Apnea is a serious and life-threatening condition Learn the risks ...

  7. A quantitative assessment of the effectiveness of PRRSV vaccination in pigs under experimental conditions

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Nodelijk, G.; Jong, de M.C.M.; Leengoed, van L.A.M.G.; Wensvoort, G.; Pol, J.M.A.; Steverink, P.J.G.M.; Verheijden, J.H.M.

    2001-01-01

    This paper presents a quantitative approach to evaluate effectiveness of vaccination under experimental conditions. We used two consecutive experimental designs to investigate whether PRRSV transmission among vaccinated pigs was reduced compared to control pigs and to estimate the reproduction

  8. Assessment of crown condition in eucalypt vegetation by remotely sensed optical indices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coops, Nicholas C; Stone, Christine; Culvenor, Darius S; Chisholm, Laurie

    2004-01-01

    Leaf and crown damage and discoloration characteristics are important variables when defining the health of eucalypt tree species and have been used as key indicators of environmental quality. These indicators can vary significantly over a few hectares, especially in mixed-species forests, making field-based environmental surveillance of crown condition an extremely expensive and logistically impractical task. Reflectance in narrow spectral wavelengths obtained from a field-based spectroradiometer and a Compact Airborne Spectrographic Imager 2 (CASI-2) were collected over eucalypt vegetation of varying condition in southeastern Australia and compared with leaf- and crown-based attributes including percent red foliage discoloration, percent leaf damage, and crown density and crown foliage condition. Of the leaf attributes sampled, percent leaf damage was well correlated with a red-green spectral index (r = 0.68, p index of plant stress with crown foliage condition (r = 0.88, p forest ecosystem environmental quality indicators.

  9. Prevalence and socio-demographic characteristics of disability in older adults in China: Findings from China Comprehensive Geriatric Assessment Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, Lina; Li, Zhenzhen; Tang, Zhe; Sun, Fei; Diao, Lijun; Li, Jian; He, Yao; Dong, Birong; Li, Yun

    2017-11-01

    Disability affects older adults' quality of life. This study aimed to examine the socio-demographic characteristics of disability in older adults in China. Data was obtained from the China Comprehensive Geriatric Assessment Study (CCGAS). The sample comprised 6864 people aged 60 years and above from seven provinces in China. A door-to-door survey was conducted by formally trained interviewers using a unified questionnaire. Disability was assessed with physical health assessment comprising activities of daily living (ADL), and independent activities of daily living (IADL). For the purpose of this study, we analyzed only disability and some socio-demographic dimensions. The rates were standardized based on China's Sixth National Census population distribution. The disability rate in older adults was 7.0%. The disability rate was significantly higher in women than men, significantly higher in rural areas than urban areas, and higher in northern China than southern China. Urban disability rates ranged from 5.7% to 1.2%. The differences were statistically significant, with Beijing having the highest and Shanghai the lowest disability rates. Disability increased with age. In China, the disability rate in older adults is 7.0%, and increases with age. The disability rate is significantly higher in women, rural area, and northern China. This is the first study to report the epidemiology of disability in older adults in China in recent years and indicates the need for further epidemiological data on disability in China to facilitate long-term care and care policy formulation. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  10. Dynamic in-vivo assessment of navicular drop while running in barefoot, minimalist, and motion control footwear conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoffman, Scott E; Peltz, Cathryn D; Haladik, Jeffrey A; Divine, George; Nurse, Matthew A; Bey, Michael J

    2015-03-01

    Running-related injuries are common and previous research has suggested that the magnitude and/or rate of pronation may contribute to the development of these injuries. Accurately and directly measuring pronation can be challenging, and therefore previous research has often relied on navicular drop (under both static and dynamic conditions) as an indirect assessment of pronation. The objectives of this study were to use dynamic, biplane X-ray imaging to assess the effects of three footwear conditions (barefoot, minimalist shoes, motion control shoes) on the magnitude and rate of navicular drop during running, and to determine the association between static and dynamic measures of navicular drop. Twelve healthy distance runners participated in this study. The magnitude and rate of navicular drop were determined by tracking the 3D position of the navicular from biplane radiographic images acquired at 60Hz during the stance phase of overground running. Static assessments of navicular drop and foot posture were also recorded in each subject. Footwear condition was not found to have a significant effect on the magnitude of navicular drop (p=0.22), but motion control shoes had a slower navicular drop rate than running barefoot (p=0.05) or in minimalist shoes (p=0.05). In an exploratory analysis, static assessments of navicular drop and foot posture were found to be poor predictors of dynamic navicular drop in all footwear conditions (p>0.18). Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  11. Safe use of mine winding ropes, volume 4: studies towards a code of practice for rope condition assessment.

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Borrello, M

    1996-06-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this investigation was the verification of the code of Practice for Rope Condition Assessment. Ropes were meant to be discarded according to the discard criteria as outlined in the code and then tested by the CSIR. The results...

  12. Object-based analysis of 8-bands Worldview2 imagery for assessing health condition of desert trees

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Chávez Oyanadel, R.O.; Clevers, J.G.P.W.

    2012-01-01

    High spatial resolution panchromatic and multispectral WorldView2 images were used to assess the health condition of Tamarugo (Prosopis tamarugo Phil.) trees in the hyperarid Atacama desert in Northern Chile. Tamarugo is a very valuable species for biodiversity conservation due to its endemic

  13. How do you know things are getting better (or not?) Assessing resource conditions in National Parks and Protected Areas

    Science.gov (United States)

    James D. Nations

    2011-01-01

    The National Parks Conservation Association’s Center for State of the Parks uses an easily explained, fact-based methodology to determine the condition of natural and cultural resources in the United States National Park System. Researchers assess and numerically score natural resources that include water quality and quantity, climate change impacts, forest...

  14. Quantitative assessment of left ventricular function with dual-source CT in comparison to cardiac magnetic resonance imaging: initial findings

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Busch, S.; Johnson, T.R.C.; Wintersperger, B.J.; Minaifar, N.; Bhargava, A.; Rist, C.; Reiser, M.F.; Becker, C.; Nikolaou, K. [University of Munich, Department of Clinical Radiology, Munich (Germany)

    2008-03-15

    Cardiac magnetic resonance imaging and echocardiography are currently regarded as standard modalities for the quantification of left ventricular volumes and ejection fraction. With the recent introduction of dual-source computedtomography (DSCT), the increased temporal resolution of 83 ms should also improve the assessment of cardiac function in CT. The aim of this study was to evaluate the accuracy of DSCT in the assessment of left ventricular functional parameters with cardiac magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) as standard of reference. Fifteen patients (two female, 13 male; mean age 50.8 {+-} 19.2 years) underwent CT and MRI examinations on a DSCT (Somatom Definition; Siemens Medical Solutions, Forchheim, Germany) and a 3.0-Tesla MR scanner (Magnetom Trio; Siemens Medical Solutions), respectively. Multiphase axial CT images were analysed with a semiautomatic region growing algorithms (Syngo Circulation; Siemens Medical Solutions) by two independent blinded observers. In MRI, dynamic cine loops of short axis slices were evaluated with semiautomatic contour detection software (ARGUS; Siemens Medical Solutions) independently by two readers. End-systolic volume (ESV), end-diastolic volume (EDV), ejection fraction (EF) and stroke volume (SV) were determined for both modalities, and correlation coefficient, systematic error, limits of agreement and inter-observer variability were assessed. In DSCT, EDV and ESV were 135.8 {+-} 41.9 ml and 54.9 {+-} 29.6 ml, respectively, compared with 132.1 {+-} 40.8 ml EDV and 57.6 {+-} 27.3 ml ESV in MRI. Thus, EDV was overestimated by 3.7 ml (limits of agreement -46.1/+53.6), while ESV was underestimated by 2.6 ml (-36.6/+31.4). Mean EF was 61.6 {+-} 12.4% in DSCT and 57.9 {+-} 9.0% in MRI, resulting in an overestimation of EF by 3.8% with limits of agreement at -14.7 and +22.2%. Rank correlation rho values were 0.81 for EDV (P = 0.0024), 0.79 for ESV (P = 0.0031) and 0.64 for EF (P = 0.0168). The kappa value of inter

  15. An assessment of the soil-conditioning capacity of gums exuded by ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    (96.6, 111 and 114 % for samples B, A and C, respectively) was imparted to the soil samples when they were treated with 1% (w/v) CaCl2 solution on its own; prior treatment of the soil samples with the CaCl2 solution enhanced the soil conditioning properties of the tree gums as well as the PVA. The soil conditioning effect ...

  16. Edge-Effect in the Winter Food Finding by Red Squirrel (Sciurus vulgaris L. Under the Conditions of Fragmented Tree Stands

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    А. V. Gurov

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available The network of edge ecosystems is organized due to the fragmentation of tree stands. It is characterized by high biodiversity and by the presence of available food base for small mammals. The red squirrel is an important furs trade resource. It is attracted to the forest edges, and its intensive food-obtaining activity under the border conditions must be taken into consideration.

  17. Do weather conditions correlate with findings in failed, provision-filled nest cells of Megachile rotundata (Hymenoptera: Megachilidae) in western North America?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pitts-Singer, Theresa L; James, Rosalind R

    2008-06-01

    Cavity-nesting alfalfa leafcutting bees, Megachile rotundata (F.) (Hymenoptera: Megachilidae), are excellent pollinators of alfalfa, Medicago savita L., for seed production. In commercial settings, artificial cavities are placed in field domiciles for nesting and, thereby, bee populations are sustained for future use. For this study, cells from leafcutting bee nests were collected in late summer from commercial seed fields. Over 3 yr (2003-2005), 39 samples in total of approximately equal to 1,000 cells each were taken from several northwestern U.S. states and from Manitoba, Canada. X-radiography of 500 cells from each sample was used to identify "pollen balls" (i.e., cells in which the pollen-nectar provision remained, but the egg or larva, if present, was not detectable on an x-radiograph). Most U.S. samples seemed to have higher proportions of pollen ball cells than Manitoba samples. Pollen ball cells were dissected to determine the moisture condition of the mass provision and true contents of each cell. Most pollen ball cells from Manitoba samples contained fungus, the frequency of which was positively correlated with cool, wet weather. In the United States, most pollen ball cells had moist provisions, and many of them lacked young brood. Correlation analysis revealed that pollen ball cells occurred in greater proportions in fields with more hot days (above 38 degrees C). Broodless pollen ball cells occurred in greater proportions under cool conditions, but dead small larvae (second-third instars) seemed to occur in greater proportions under hot conditions. Pollen ball cells with unhatched eggs and first instars (in the chorion) occurred in lesser proportions under hot conditions.

  18. Pathological conditions of the reproductive organs of male stray dogs in the tropics: prevalence, risk factors, morphological findings and testosterone concentrations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ortega-Pacheco, A; Rodríguez-Buenfil, J C; Segura-Correa, J C; Bolio-Gonzalez, M E; Jiménez-Coello, M; Linde Forsberg, C

    2006-10-01

    The objective of this study was to estimate the prevalence of and risk factors for pathological conditions of the reproductive organs in stray dogs under tropical conditions. Three hundred and eighteen dogs were examined post-mortem in the period from 1 July 2002 to 30 June 2003. Before killing, a blood sample (from the cephalic vein) for testosterone assay was taken. Pathological conditions of the reproductive organs were found in 135 of the dogs (42.5%) and in 175 of the testes (64.8%). The most frequent pathologies found were testicular degeneration, cryptorchidism, testicular hypoplasia and testicular tumours (in 15.1%, 6.6%, 6.6% and 5.4% of the dogs and 15.1, 4.6, 6.0 and 3.5 of the testes, respectively). Transmissible venereal tumour (TVT) was seen in 5.4% of the dogs. Testicular degeneration was more common in old dogs and underweight dogs (p dogs. Age was another important factor for the development of testicular tumours (p dogs with advanced testicular degeneration (0.7 +/- 0.8 nM), dogs with hypoplastic testicles (0.8 +/- 0.9 nM) and dogs with one degenerated and one retained testis or with bilateral cryptorchidism (1.2 +/- 0.9 nM) compared to dogs with one or two normal testes (7.0 +/- 5.5 nM). Testicular volume and weight were significantly lower in degenerated, hypoplastic and retained testes compared with the contralateral normal testis. Some spermatogenic activity was found in three of the retained testes, producing oligozoospermic smears with a high percentage of sperm abnormalities. No comparable epidemiological data about male pathological conditions of the reproductive organs in the dog is available. The prevalence found in this study, yet, appears high.

  19. Assessment of dentinal tubule invasion capacity of Enterococcus faecalis under stress conditions ex vivo.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ran, S; Wang, J; Jiang, W; Zhu, C; Liang, J

    2015-04-01

    To investigate the dentinal tubule invasion capacity of Enterococcus faecalis under alkaline and energy starvation stress conditions. The root canals from human single-rooted teeth (n = 40) were infected with E. faecalis under alkaline (pH 9, 10, 11 and 12) and energy starvation (no glucose, 0.05% glucose and 0.15% glucose) stress conditions. The root canals were prepared in a standard manner and treated to remove the smear layer before incubation. After 4 weeks of cultivation, the roots were split vertically into two halves: one half was processed for biofilm formation analysis using a scanning electron microscope; the other half was stained with fluorescent DNA-binding reagents, washed thoroughly and sectioned (100 μm thick), and the depth of tubule invasion by the microorganism was examined by confocal laser-scanning microscopy. The extent of dentine tubule invasion was analysed statistically. The E. faecalis strain resulted in biofilm formation and dentine tubules invasion under all of the stress conditions, except for pH 11 and 12 conditions. However, the tubule penetration distance was markedly reduced in these stress conditions (P faecalis formed biofilms and colonized dentine under alkaline and glucose starvation stress conditions, but its ability to invade dentine tubules was significantly decreased. © 2014 International Endodontic Journal. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  20. Assessment of existing local houses condition as analysis tools for shore housing improvement program in Weriagar district, Bintuni Bay

    Science.gov (United States)

    Firmansyah, F.; Fernando, A.; Allo, I. P. R.

    2018-01-01

    The housing assessment is a part of the pre-feasibility study inThe Shore Housing Improvement Program in Weriagar District, West Papua. The housing assessment was conducted to identify the physical condition of existing houses. The parameters of assessment formulated from local references, practices and also national building regulation that covers each building system components, such as building structure/frame, building floor, building cover, and building roof. This study aims to explains lessons from local practices and references, used as the formula to generate assessment parameter, elaborate with Indonesia building regulation. The result of housing assessment were used as a basis to develop the house improvement strategy, the design alternative for housing improvement and further planning recommendations. The local knowledges involved in housing improvement program expected that the local-based approach could respect to the local build culture, respect the local environment, and the most important can offer best suitable solutions for functional utility and livability.

  1. Ultrastructural and histopathologic findings after pars plana vitrectomy with a new hypersonic vitrector system. Qualitative preliminary assessment.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Salvador Pastor-Idoate

    Full Text Available Preliminary assessment of a new prototype ultrasound-based hypersonic vitrector (HV by qualitatively examining the histopathological changes in the retina and vitreous body after pars plana vitrectomy (PPV and its ability to fragment vitreous collagen.Fourteen porcine cadaveric eyes, 20 eyes in live swine and six human cadaveric eyes underwent PPV using the HV or a pneumatic guillotine vitrector (GV. An additional 4 porcine crystalline lenses were touched with either the HV or GV for 1 minute. Following PPV, human vitreous was removed and processed for electron microscopy (EM. Eyes and lenses were fixed and sectioned for light microscopy (LM.There were no macroscopic retinal or optic nerve defects associated with either HV or GV PPVs. Cadaveric retinal specimens showed separation of the inner limiting membrane (ILM and vacuolization and fragmentation at the nerve fiber layer (NFL and the ganglion cell layer (GCL. ILM fragmentation and separation were found after PPV in live swine with both vitrectors. Small disruptions of the posterior capsule or structural lens defects were found after HV touch. The EM analysis revealed more fragmentation of human vitreous collagen fibrils after HV compared to GV PPV.LM and EM analysis of retina, vitreous, and crystalline lens after PPV showed similar morphological changes using the HV or the GV. Vitreous fragmentation appeared more effective with the HV. Overall this study suggests that the HV may be a promising new technology. More work is needed to quantitatively assess its safety and efficacy.

  2. Assessing the Health Needs of Chinese Older Adults: Findings from a Community-Based Participatory Research Study in Chicago's Chinatown

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    XinQi Dong

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this study is to examine the cultural views of healthy aging, knowledge and barriers to services, and perception of health sciences research among community-dwelling Chinese older adults in Chicago's Chinatown. This qualitative study is guided by the Precede-Proceed conceptual model with community-based participatory research design. Data analysis is based on eight focus group interviews with Chinese older (age 60+ adults (n=78. We used a grounded theory framework to systematically guide the thematic structure of our data. Findings show participants described cultural conception of health in terms of physical function, psychological well-being, social support, and cognitive function. The availability, affordability, and cultural barriers towards health care services were major negative enabling factors that inhibit participants from fulfilling health needs. Perception and knowledge of health sciences research were also discussed. This study has implications for the delivery of culturally appropriate health care services to the Chinese aging population.

  3. Assessment of electromyograghic findings in peroneus tertius, tibialis posterior and dorsal interoseous pedis muscles in patients with axonal polyneuropathy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Majid Ghasemi

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Axonal polyneuropathy (APN is a common kind of neurologic disorders, which is normally diagnosed by electrodiagnostic methods. Different muscles were studied to find a muscle, which can be considered as a reliable site for early diagnosis of mild APN; this muscle should be easily activated by patient, has the highest sensitivity to EMG changes of APN, and has the lowest rate of false positive results in normal subjects. Materials and Methods: Based on the inclusion and exclusion criteria, 32 patients were recruited, and all of them underwent needle EMG of 3 different muscles including Peroneus tertius (PT, tibialis posterior (TP, and dorsal interoseous pedis (DIP. EMG Findings of different muscles [Motor Unite Action Potential (MUAP duration, MUAP amplitude, polyphasic MUAP, fibrillation potential (FP, and the ability of subjects to contract special muscle] were recorded and compared. Results: Mean of MUAP amplitude was significantly different between all 3 muscles (P-values < 0.001. PT showed a significantly higher frequency of polyphasic MUAP than others (P-value: 0.001. The frequency of FP was significantly lower in TP than PT and DIP (P-values: 0.03 and 0.001, respectively. DIP showed significantly shorter MUAP duration than PT and TP (P-values 0.002 and 0.003, respectively. All cases were able to activate TP and PT voluntarily though only 20 patients could activate DIP (P-value < 0.0001. Conclusion: The higher frequency of polyphasic MUAP, the higher frequency of FP, and finally, the ability of all patients in activation of PT voluntarily, all support the usefulness of PT for EMG studies in APN patients.

  4. Using Content-Aligned Assessments to Find Gaps in Understanding of Fundamental Concepts for Weather and Climate

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wertheim, J.; Deboer, G. E.

    2009-12-01

    Efforts to assess students’ climate literacy so far have focused mainly on evaluating their understanding of advanced ideas about earth’s complex climate system. It is widely accepted that students, their teachers, and most other adults have persistent misconceptions about climate processes (e.g., the hole in the ozone layer is the main cause of global warming) that preclude them having an accurate understanding of more advanced ideas about the climate. Having established that significant gaps in climate literacy exist even at the college level, it is important to identify where the gaps in understanding of concepts fundamental to climate literacy occur. Here we present results from the most comprehensive assessment of middle and high school students’ understanding of the weather and climate topic to date. Students were given 90 multiple-choice assessment items aligned to various fundamental ideas about weather and climate. Students were also asked to justify their answer choices and to explain why each answer choice was either correct or incorrect. The items were administered to 2063 middle school students and 1006 high school students from 76 schools across the country, sampling a wide range of demographic groups. For the entire set of items, the percent correct for middle school students was 39% and for high school students was 47%. With high school students scoring only 8% better than middle school students overall, and middle school students equaling or outperforming high school students on 20% of the items, it is evident that most high school students do not adequately understand the foundational concepts that climate literacy is built upon, knowledge that is needed if they are going to successfully learn more sophisticated concepts in college. The results from this study are used to validate known misconceptions for middle and high school students, identify new misconceptions, and examine previously reported misconceptions that were not supported by

  5. Health effects of fine particulate matter in life cycle impact assessment: findings from the Basel Guidance Workshop

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fantke, Peter; Jolliet, Olivier; Evans, John S.

    2015-01-01

    )/Society for Environmental Toxicology and Chemistry(SETAC) Life Cycle Initiative, respiratory inorganics’ impacts expressed as health effects from PM2.5 exposure were selected as one of the initial impact categories to undergo review with the goal of providing global guidance for implementation in life cycle impact...... various elements of the health impact pathways for PM2.5. Within the next two years, our goal is to build a global guidance framework and to determine characterization factors that are more reliable for incorporating the health effects from exposure to PM2.5into LCIA. Ideally, this will allow......Purpose Fine particulate matter (PM2.5) is considered to be one of the most important environmental factors contributing to the global human disease burden. However, due to the lack of broad consensus and harmonization in the life cycle assessment (LCA) community, there is no clear guidance on how...

  6. Environmental assessment and finding of no significant impact: Biorecycling Technologies, Inc., Noble Biogas and Fertilizer Plant, Fresno County, California

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1997-09-01

    The US Department of Energy (DOE) is considering a proposal from the California Energy Commission for partial funding up to $1,500,000 of the construction of the biorecycling Technologies, Inc., (BTI) Noble Biogas and Fertilizer Plant in Fresno County, California. BTI along with its contractors and business partners would develop the plant, which would use manure and green waste to produce biogas and a variety of organic fertilizer products. The California Energy Commission has requested funding from the DOE Commercialization Ventures program to assist in the construction of the plant, which would produce up to one megawatt of electricity by burning biogas in a cogeneration unit. The purpose of this environmental assessment (EA) is to provide DOE and the public with information on potential environmental impacts associated with funding development of the proposed project.

  7. Burlington Bottoms Wildlife Mitigation Project. Final Environmental Assessment/Management Plan and Finding of No Significant Impact.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1994-12-01

    Bonneville Power Administration (BPA) proposes to fund wildlife management and enhancement activities for the Burlington bottoms wetlands mitigation site. Acquired by BPA in 1991, wildlife habitat at Burlington bottoms would contribute toward the goal of mitigation for wildlife losses and inundation of wildlife habitat due to the construction of Federal dams in the lower Columbia and Willamette River Basins. Target wildlife species identified for mitigation purposes are yellow warbler, great blue heron, black-capped chickadee, red-tailed hawk, valley quail, spotted sandpiper, wood duck, and beaver. The Draft Management Plan/Environmental Assessment (EA) describes alternatives for managing the Burlington Bottoms area, and evaluates the potential environmental impacts of the alternatives. Included in the Draft Management Plan/EA is an implementation schedule, and a monitoring and evaluation program, both of which are subject to further review pending determination of final ownership of the Burlington Bottoms property.

  8. Assessment and Management of Developer Company Competitiveness in the Conditions of Business Changes

    OpenAIRE

    Uvarova Svetlana; Voronov Dmitrii; Erypalov Sergei

    2017-01-01

    Based on the analysis and assessment of modern of dynamics of organizational-economic changes, performed by the authors, there was revealed the necessity of improvement of approaches to the assessment and management by the companies’ competitiveness. Main fluctuations of the system of management by construction complex were defined and their influence on the level of competitiveness as both largest companies of the industry and the industry group as a whole was justified. Control structure di...

  9. Assessing and improving organizational readiness to implement substance use disorder treatment in primary care: findings from the SUMMIT study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ober, Allison J; Watkins, Katherine E; Hunter, Sarah B; Ewing, Brett; Lamp, Karen; Lind, Mimi; Becker, Kirsten; Heinzerling, Keith; Osilla, Karen C; Diamant, Allison L; Setodji, Claude M

    2017-12-21

    Millions of people with substance use disorders (SUDs) need, but do not receive, treatment. Delivering SUD treatment in primary care settings could increase access to treatment because most people visit their primary care doctors at least once a year, but evidence-based SUD treatments are underutilized in primary care settings. We used an organizational readiness intervention comprised of a cluster of implementation strategies to prepare a federally qualified health center to deliver SUD screening and evidence-based treatments (extended-release injectable naltrexone (XR-NTX) for alcohol use disorders, buprenorphine/naloxone (BUP/NX) for opioid use disorders and a brief motivational interviewing/cognitive behavioral -based psychotherapy for both disorders). This article reports the effects of the intervention on key implementation outcomes. To assess changes in organizational readiness we conducted pre- and post-intervention surveys with prescribing medical providers, behavioral health providers and general clinic staff (N = 69). We report on changes in implementation outcomes: acceptability, perceptions of appropriateness and feasibility, and intention to adopt the evidence-based treatments. We used Wilcoxon signed rank tests to analyze pre- to post-intervention changes. After 18 months, prescribing medical providers agreed more that XR-NTX was easier to use for patients with alcohol use disorders than before the intervention, but their opinions about the effectiveness and ease of use of BUP/NX for patients with opioid use disorders did not improve. Prescribing medical providers also felt more strongly after the intervention that XR-NTX for alcohol use disorders was compatible with current practices. Opinions of general clinic staff about the appropriateness of SUD treatment in primary care improved significantly. Consistent with implementation theory, we found that an organizational readiness implementation intervention enhanced perceptions in some domains of

  10. Portuguese native Artemia parthenogenetica resisting invasion by Artemia franciscana - Assessing reproductive parameters under different environmental conditions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pinto, Pedro M.; Hontoria, Francisco; Vieira, Natividade; Bio, Ana

    2014-05-01

    There is widespread interest in the conservation of native Artemia biodiversity. In Portugal, only two known populations of native Artemia remain: one in the Rio Maior salina, the other in the Aveiro salina complex, both of the diploid Artemia parthenogenetica species. All other Portuguese hypersaline environments where Artemia can be found have been invaded by Artemia franciscana, which has eradicated the native strains. Invasiveness and resilience of, respectively, exotic and indigenous species are thought to depend on strain-specific traits and adaptation to local conditions. This work evaluates the reproductive performance of the two Portuguese native strains and the invasive species exposed to different salinities, temperatures, photoperiods and food supplies. Reproduction periods, quantity and quality of offspring varied significantly, depending on both the Artemia strain and environmental conditions. A. parthenogenetica from Rio Maior reproduced better than A. franciscana at high salinity (150) and low food supply, which may reflect an adaptation to its biotope that aids its resistance to invasion. But A. parthenogenetica form Aveiro performed much worse than its invasive competitor, under most of the conditions tested. It is unlikely that A. franciscana has not been introduced in this salina by chance alone. Other biological traits of the local A. parthenogenetica or adaptation to unstudied local factors (e.g. pollution) are probably responsible for this strain's survival. Further knowledge on specific local conditions and trait-specific tolerances to biotic and abiotic conditions are needed to understand (non-)invasion patterns and preserve the remaining native populations.

  11. Use of a driving simulator to assess performance under adverse weather conditions in adults with albinism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hofman, Gwen M; Summers, C Gail; Ward, Nicholas; Bhargava, Esha; Rakauskas, Michael E; Holleschau, Ann M

    2012-04-01

    Participants with albinism have reduced vision and nystagmus with reduced foveation times. This prospective study evaluated driving in 12 participants with albinism and 12 matched controls. Participants drove a vehicle simulator through a virtual rural course in sunny and foggy conditions. Under sunny conditions, participants with albinism showed a narrower preferred minimum safety boundary during car-following tasks than did controls, but there was no difference under foggy conditions. Their driving did not differ significantly from that of controls when approaching a stop sign or when choosing gap size between oncoming vehicles when crossing an intersection. However, when compared to control drivers, participants with albinism had a decreased minimum safety boundary for car-following that should be included in counseling regarding driving safety.

  12. Building better systems of care for Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander people: findings from the Kanyini health systems assessment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peiris David

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Australian federal and jurisdictional governments are implementing ambitious policy initiatives intended to improve health care access and outcomes for Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander people. In this qualitative study we explored Aboriginal Medical Service (AMS staff views on factors needed to improve chronic care systems and assessed their relevance to the new policy environment. Methods Two theories informed the study: (1 ‘candidacy’, which explores “the ways in which people’s eligibility for care is jointly negotiated between individuals and health services”; and (2 kanyini or ‘holding’, a Central Australian philosophy which describes the principle and obligations of nurturing and protecting others. A structured health systems assessment, locally adapted from Chronic Care Model domains, was administered via group interviews with 37 health staff in six AMSs and one government Indigenous-led health service. Data were thematically analysed. Results Staff emphasised AMS health care was different to private general practices. Consistent with kanyini, community governance and leadership, community representation among staff, and commitment to community development were important organisational features to retain and nurture both staff and patients. This was undermined, however, by constant fear of government funding for AMSs being withheld. Staff resourcing, information systems and high-level leadership were perceived to be key drivers of health care quality. On-site specialist services, managed by AMS staff, were considered an enabling strategy to increase specialist access. Candidacy theory suggests the above factors influence whether a service is ‘tractable’ and ‘navigable’ to its users. Staff also described entrenched patient discrimination in hospitals and the need to expend considerable effort to reinstate care. This suggests that Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander people are still

  13. Building better systems of care for Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander people: findings from the Kanyini health systems assessment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peiris, David; Brown, Alex; Howard, Michael; Rickards, Bernadette A; Tonkin, Andrew; Ring, Ian; Hayman, Noel; Cass, Alan

    2012-10-28

    Australian federal and jurisdictional governments are implementing ambitious policy initiatives intended to improve health care access and outcomes for Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander people. In this qualitative study we explored Aboriginal Medical Service (AMS) staff views on factors needed to improve chronic care systems and assessed their relevance to the new policy environment. Two theories informed the study: (1) 'candidacy', which explores "the ways in which people's eligibility for care is jointly negotiated between individuals and health services"; and (2) kanyini or 'holding', a Central Australian philosophy which describes the principle and obligations of nurturing and protecting others. A structured health systems assessment, locally adapted from Chronic Care Model domains, was administered via group interviews with 37 health staff in six AMSs and one government Indigenous-led health service. Data were thematically analysed. Staff emphasised AMS health care was different to private general practices. Consistent with kanyini, community governance and leadership, community representation among staff, and commitment to community development were important organisational features to retain and nurture both staff and patients. This was undermined, however, by constant fear of government funding for AMSs being withheld. Staff resourcing, information systems and high-level leadership were perceived to be key drivers of health care quality. On-site specialist services, managed by AMS staff, were considered an enabling strategy to increase specialist access. Candidacy theory suggests the above factors influence whether a service is 'tractable' and 'navigable' to its users. Staff also described entrenched patient discrimination in hospitals and the need to expend considerable effort to reinstate care. This suggests that Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander people are still constructed as 'non-ideal users' and are denied from being 'held' by hospital staff

  14. Acculturation and School Adjustment of Immigrant Youth in Six European Countries: Findings from the Programme for International Student Assessment (PISA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maja K. Schachner

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available School adjustment determines long-term adjustment in society. Yet, immigrant youth do better in some countries than in others. Drawing on acculturation research (Berry, 1997; Ward, 2001 and self-determination theory (Ryan and Deci, 2000, we investigated indirect effects of adolescent immigrants’ acculturation orientations on school adjustment (school-related attitudes, truancy, and mathematics achievement through school belonging. Analyses were based on data from the Programme for International Student Assessment from six European countries, which were combined into three clusters based on their migrant integration and multicultural policies: Those with the most supportive policies (Belgium and Finland, those with moderately supportive policies (Italy and Portugal, and those with the most unsupportive policies (Denmark and Slovenia. In a multigroup path model, we confirmed most associations. As expected, mainstream orientation predicted higher belonging and better outcomes in all clusters, whereas the added value of students’ ethnic orientation was only observed in some clusters. Results are discussed in terms of differences in acculturative climate and policies between countries of settlement.

  15. Control of the Public Health IT Physical Infrastructure: Findings From the 2015 Informatics Capacity and Needs Assessment Survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chester, Kelley; Massoudi, Barbara L; Shah, Gulzar H

    2016-01-01

    Despite improvements in information technology (IT) infrastructure in public health, there is still much that can be done to improve the adoption of IT in state and local health departments, by better understanding the impact of governance and control structures of physical infrastructure. To report out the current status of the physical infrastructure control of local health departments (LHDs) and to determine whether there is a significant association between an LHD's governance status and control of the physical infrastructure components. Data came from the 2015 Informatics Capacity and Needs Assessment Survey, conducted by Georgia Southern University in collaboration with the National Association of County and City Health Officials. A total of 324 LHDs from all 50 states completed the survey (response rate: 50%). Outcome measures included control of LHD physical infrastructure components. Predictors of interest included LHD governance category. The majority of the control of the physical infrastructure components in LHDs resides in external entities. The type of governance structure of the LHD is significantly associated with the control of infrastructure. Additional research is needed to determine best practices in IT governance and control of physical infrastructure for public health.

  16. Assessing the National School Social Work Practice Model: Findings from the Second National School Social Work Survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kelly, Michael S; Frey, Andy; Thompson, Aaron; Klemp, Heather; Alvarez, Michelle; Berzin, Stephanie Cosner

    2016-01-01

    The Second National School Social Work Survey in 2014 aimed to update knowledge of school social work practice by examining how practitioner characteristics, practice context, and practice choices have evolved since the last national survey in 2008. This second survey was also developed to assess how the new national school social work practice model created by the School Social Work Association of America aligns with early 21st century school social work practice realities. The second survey was conducted from February through April 2014 (3,769 total responses were collected) and represents the largest sample of American school social workers surveyed in two decades. Data from the Second National School Social Work Survey showed a field that still has not fully responded to calls to implement evidence-informed and data-driven practices. This article notes the need to better integrate pre- and postservice training in data-driven practices and provides recommendations for ways to overcome barriers that school social workers report facing.

  17. Acculturation and School Adjustment of Immigrant Youth in Six European Countries: Findings from the Programme for International Student Assessment (PISA).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schachner, Maja K; He, Jia; Heizmann, Boris; Van de Vijver, Fons J R

    2017-01-01

    School adjustment determines long-term adjustment in society. Yet, immigrant youth do better in some countries than in others. Drawing on acculturation research (Berry, 1997; Ward, 2001) and self-determination theory (Ryan and Deci, 2000), we investigated indirect effects of adolescent immigrants' acculturation orientations on school adjustment (school-related attitudes, truancy, and mathematics achievement) through school belonging. Analyses were based on data from the Programme for International Student Assessment from six European countries, which were combined into three clusters based on their migrant integration and multicultural policies: Those with the most supportive policies (Belgium and Finland), those with moderately supportive policies (Italy and Portugal), and those with the most unsupportive policies (Denmark and Slovenia). In a multigroup path model, we confirmed most associations. As expected, mainstream orientation predicted higher belonging and better outcomes in all clusters, whereas the added value of students' ethnic orientation was only observed in some clusters. Results are discussed in terms of differences in acculturative climate and policies between countries of settlement.

  18. Assessing the impacts of regional characteristics on the location of manufacturing facilities: A review of recent methods and findings

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Calzonetti, F.J. [West Virginia Univ., Morgantown, WV (United States). Dept. of Geology and Geography; Hemphill, R.C. [Argonne National Lab., IL (United States). Environmental Assessment and Information Sciences Div.

    1992-01-01

    This report gives federal agencies background information to help them assess the impacts that siting a nuclear-waste storage facility could have on industries making location decisions in various regions of influence. It reviews two major research methods used to analyze reasons for location choices: economic-based or econometric methods and survey-based factor-ranking methods. It summarizes the results of studies that have used these methods, identifying and ranking factors shown to be important to industries making location decisions throughout the nation and in western states. Neither economic-based nor survey-based studies have shown the public`s perceptions of a region to be an important determinant in the selection of new manufacturing sites, although consideration of the level of amenities is gaining importance in the West. In general, available studies are inconclusive with respect to the extent to which perceptions about hazards play a role in the location of manufacturing facilities in any region of the nation.

  19. Assessing the impacts of regional characteristics on the location of manufacturing facilities: A review of recent methods and findings

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Calzonetti, F.J. (West Virginia Univ., Morgantown, WV (United States). Dept. of Geology and Geography); Hemphill, R.C. (Argonne National Lab., IL (United States). Environmental Assessment and Information Sciences Div.)

    1992-01-01

    This report gives federal agencies background information to help them assess the impacts that siting a nuclear-waste storage facility could have on industries making location decisions in various regions of influence. It reviews two major research methods used to analyze reasons for location choices: economic-based or econometric methods and survey-based factor-ranking methods. It summarizes the results of studies that have used these methods, identifying and ranking factors shown to be important to industries making location decisions throughout the nation and in western states. Neither economic-based nor survey-based studies have shown the public's perceptions of a region to be an important determinant in the selection of new manufacturing sites, although consideration of the level of amenities is gaining importance in the West. In general, available studies are inconclusive with respect to the extent to which perceptions about hazards play a role in the location of manufacturing facilities in any region of the nation.

  20. Acculturation and School Adjustment of Immigrant Youth in Six European Countries: Findings from the Programme for International Student Assessment (PISA)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schachner, Maja K.; He, Jia; Heizmann, Boris; Van de Vijver, Fons J. R.

    2017-01-01

    School adjustment determines long-term adjustment in society. Yet, immigrant youth do better in some countries than in others. Drawing on acculturation research (Berry, 1997; Ward, 2001) and self-determination theory (Ryan and Deci, 2000), we investigated indirect effects of adolescent immigrants’ acculturation orientations on school adjustment (school-related attitudes, truancy, and mathematics achievement) through school belonging. Analyses were based on data from the Programme for International Student Assessment from six European countries, which were combined into three clusters based on their migrant integration and multicultural policies: Those with the most supportive policies (Belgium and Finland), those with moderately supportive policies (Italy and Portugal), and those with the most unsupportive policies (Denmark and Slovenia). In a multigroup path model, we confirmed most associations. As expected, mainstream orientation predicted higher belonging and better outcomes in all clusters, whereas the added value of students’ ethnic orientation was only observed in some clusters. Results are discussed in terms of differences in acculturative climate and policies between countries of settlement. PMID:28522980

  1. ASSESSING AGRICULTURAL PRODUCTION SYSTEMS FROM A SUSTAINABILITY PERSPECTIVE: SOME FINDINGS FROM AGRO-ECOLOGICAL ZONES OF AFRICA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kalu Ukpai IFEGWU

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available The paper assessed agricultural production systems from a sustainability perspective defined in terms of relatively homogeneous agro-ecological zones of Africa, using the framework of a production function. Data used were drawn from FAOSTAT, the National Centre for Atmospheric Research and World Bank Indicators respectively for the period 1961-2009. The data were separated into three sub periods, namely: entire period (1961-2009, the pre-Structural Adjustment Period (SAP reform period (1961-1985 and the post SAP reform period (1986-2009. This was necessitated by the need to examine whether production systems may have been shifted out of the overall trajectory of system evolution by shocks e.g. policy (SAP among others. To investigate whether there has been a degradation of the quality of the natural resource base across the diverse agro-ecological zones; the estimated TFP trends were related to changes in selected resource quality variables over time. The results showed that the Northern and Southern agro-ecological zones had non-negative trends in TFP, indicating sustainability of production systems. However, the result indicated that the policy instrument (structural adjustment programme may have shifted farming or production systems out of the overall trajectory of system evolution in three out of the five agro-ecological zones studied which showed negative TFP trends. A degradation of resource quality over time was noted during the pre-SAP reform period, but was maintained during the post-SAP period.

  2. Control of the Public Health IT Physical Infrastructure: Findings From the 2015 Informatics Capacity and Needs Assessment Survey

    Science.gov (United States)

    Massoudi, Barbara L.; Shah, Gulzar H.

    2016-01-01

    Background: Despite improvements in information technology (IT) infrastructure in public health, there is still much that can be done to improve the adoption of IT in state and local health departments, by better understanding the impact of governance and control structures of physical infrastructure. Objective: To report out the current status of the physical infrastructure control of local health departments (LHDs) and to determine whether there is a significant association between an LHD's governance status and control of the physical infrastructure components. Design: Data came from the 2015 Informatics Capacity and Needs Assessment Survey, conducted by Georgia Southern University in collaboration with the National Association of County and City Health Officials. Participants: A total of 324 LHDs from all 50 states completed the survey (response rate: 50%). Main Outcome Measure(s): Outcome measures included control of LHD physical infrastructure components. Predictors of interest included LHD governance category. Results: The majority of the control of the physical infrastructure components in LHDs resides in external entities. The type of governance structure of the LHD is significantly associated with the control of infrastructure. Conclusions: Additional research is needed to determine best practices in IT governance and control of physical infrastructure for public health. PMID:27684612

  3. Sensory and histamine assessment of the freshness of Sardine (Sardine sindensis during different storage conditions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sohail Hassan Khan

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Background: Storage of fish under refrigerated conditions from the time it is caught until when it is consumed has been found to be very important in reducing outbreaks of histamine poisoning. Methods: Low temperatures control bacterial histamine formation during fish processing. The shelf life of sardine (sardine sindensis during storage at ambient temperature (33°C, ice box temperature (0°C and freezing temperature (-7°C were studied in terms of sensory and histamine production. The sensory acceptability limit was up to one day at ambient temperature and 11 days at ice storage condition. However, freezing storage had a good preserving effect on sensory acceptability at the end of experiment. The formation of histamine was determined at day 0, 1, 2, 3, 4, 7, 8, 9, 11, 14, 16 and 18 of experiment using high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC fluorometeric method. Results: Histamine development had not exceeded the permissible level (200 mg/kg recommended by the FAO (2012 during storage condition at -7°C throughout the experiment. At 0°C, histamine concentration was lower than safe level for up to 16 days (135 mg/kg. At ambient temperature, the sardine was spoiled on 3rd day and histamine concentration was found 500.48 mg/kg which was above the FAO recommended level for histamine. Conclusion: Freezing storage condition has a good preserving effect on sensory acceptability and histamine production and seems the best means of storage.

  4. Risk Assessment of Heating, Ventilating, and Air-Conditioning Strategies in Low-Load Homes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Poerschke, Andrew [IBACOS, Inc., Pittsburgh, PA (United States)

    2016-02-17

    "Modern, energy efficient homes conforming to the Zero Energy Ready Home standard face the challenge of meeting high customer expectations for comfort. Traditional heating, ventilation, and air conditioning (HVAC) sizing and control strategies may be insufficient to adequately condition each zone due to unique load patterns in each room caused by a number of factors. These factors include solar heat gains, occupant-related gains, and gains associated with appliances and electronics. Because of shrinking shell loads, these intermittent factors are having an increasingly significant impact on the thermal load in each zone. Consequently, occupant comfort can be compromised. To evaluate the impact of climate and house geometry, as well as HVAC system and control strategies on comfort conditions, IBACOS analyzed the results of 99 TRNSYS multiple-zone simulations. The results of this analysis indicate that for simple-geometry and single-story plans, a single zone and thermostat can adequately condition the entire house. Demanding house geometry and houses with multiple stories require the consideration of multiple thermostats and multiple zones.

  5. Satellite Based Assessment of Hydroclimatic Conditions Related to Cholera in Zimbabwe.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Antarpreet Jutla

    Full Text Available Cholera, an infectious diarrheal disease, has been shown to be associated with large scale hydroclimatic processes. The sudden and sporadic occurrence of epidemic cholera is linked with high mortality rates, in part, due to uncertainty in timing and location of outbreaks. Improved understanding of the relationship between pathogenic abundance and climatic processes allows prediction of disease outbreak to be an achievable goal. In this study, we show association of large scale hydroclimatic processes with the cholera epidemic in Zimbabwe reported to have begun in Chitungwiza, a city in Mashonaland East province, in August, 2008.Climatic factors in the region were found to be associated with triggering cholera outbreak and are shown to be related to anomalies of temperature and precipitation, validating the hypothesis that poor conditions of sanitation, coupled with elevated temperatures, and followed by heavy rainfall can initiate outbreaks of cholera. Spatial estimation by satellite of precipitation and global gridded air temperature captured sensitivities in hydroclimatic conditions that permitted identification of the location in the region where the disease outbreak began.Satellite derived hydroclimatic processes can be used to capture environmental conditions related to epidemic cholera, as occurred in Zimbabwe, thereby providing an early warning system. Since cholera cannot be eradicated because the causative agent, Vibrio cholerae, is autochthonous to the aquatic environment, prediction of conditions favorable for its growth and estimation of risks of triggering the disease in a given population can be used to alert responders, potentially decreasing infection and saving lives.

  6. An assessment of the condition of South Africa's transport fixed infrastructure

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Wall, Kevin

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of the “report cards” of the condition of engineering infrastructure in South Africa, the product of cooperation between the CSIR and SAICE, have been to draw the attention of government, and of the public at large, to the importance...

  7. QEEG Spectral and Coherence Assessment of Autistic Children in Three Different Experimental Conditions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Machado, Calixto; Estévez, Mario; Leisman, Gerry; Melillo, Robert; Rodríguez, Rafael; DeFina, Phillip; Hernández, Adrián; Pérez-Nellar, Jesús; Naranjo, Rolando; Chinchilla, Mauricio; Garófalo, Nicolás; Vargas, José; Beltrán, Carlos

    2015-01-01

    We studied autistics by quantitative EEG spectral and coherence analysis during three experimental conditions: basal, watching a cartoon with audio (V-A), and with muted audio band (VwA). Significant reductions were found for the absolute power spectral density (PSD) in the central region for delta and theta, and in the posterior region for sigma…

  8. Condition assessment of timber bridges. 2, Evaluation of several stress-wave tools

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brian K. Brashaw; Robert J. Vatalaro; James P. Wacker; Robert J. Ross

    2005-01-01

    This study was conducted to evaluate the accuracy and reliability of several stress-wave devices widely used for locating deteriorated areas in timber bridge members. Bridge components containing different levels of natural decay were tested using various devices. The specimens were then sawn (along their length) into slabs to expose their interior condition. The...

  9. Satellite Based Assessment of Hydroclimatic Conditions Related to Cholera in Zimbabwe.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jutla, Antarpreet; Aldaach, Haidar; Billian, Hannah; Akanda, Ali; Huq, Anwar; Colwell, Rita

    2015-01-01

    Cholera, an infectious diarrheal disease, has been shown to be associated with large scale hydroclimatic processes. The sudden and sporadic occurrence of epidemic cholera is linked with high mortality rates, in part, due to uncertainty in timing and location of outbreaks. Improved understanding of the relationship between pathogenic abundance and climatic processes allows prediction of disease outbreak to be an achievable goal. In this study, we show association of large scale hydroclimatic processes with the cholera epidemic in Zimbabwe reported to have begun in Chitungwiza, a city in Mashonaland East province, in August, 2008. Climatic factors in the region were found to be associated with triggering cholera outbreak and are shown to be related to anomalies of temperature and precipitation, validating the hypothesis that poor conditions of sanitation, coupled with elevated temperatures, and followed by heavy rainfall can initiate outbreaks of cholera. Spatial estimation by satellite of precipitation and global gridded air temperature captured sensitivities in hydroclimatic conditions that permitted identification of the location in the region where the disease outbreak began. Satellite derived hydroclimatic processes can be used to capture environmental conditions related to epidemic cholera, as occurred in Zimbabwe, thereby providing an early warning system. Since cholera cannot be eradicated because the causative agent, Vibrio cholerae, is autochthonous to the aquatic environment, prediction of conditions favorable for its growth and estimation of risks of triggering the disease in a given population can be used to alert responders, potentially decreasing infection and saving lives.

  10. Assessment of C-Type Darrieus Wind Turbine Under Low Wind Speed Condition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Misaran, M. S.; Rahman, Md. M.; Muzammil, W. K.; Ismail, M. A.

    2017-07-01

    Harvesting wind energy in in a low wind speed region is deem un-economical if not daunting task. Study shows that a minimum cut in speed of 3.5 m/s is required to extract a meaningful wind energy for electricity while a mean speed of 6 m/s is preferred. However, in Malaysia the mean speed is at 2 m/s with certain potential areas having 3 m/s mean speed. Thus, this work aims to develop a wind turbine that able to operate at lower cut-in speed and produce meaningful power for electricity generation. A C-type Darrieus blade is selected as it shows good potential to operate in arbitrary wind speed condition. The wind turbine is designed and fabricated in UMS labs while the performance of the wind turbine is evaluated in a simulated wind condition. Test result shows that the wind turbine started to rotate at 1 m/s compared to a NACA 0012 Darrieus turbine that started to rotate at 3 m/s. The performance of the turbine shows that it have good potential to be used in an intermittent arbitrary wind speed condition as well as low mean wind speed condition.

  11. Assessing uncertainties in global cropland futures using a conditional probabilistic modelling framework

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Engström, Kerstin; Olin, Stefan; Rounsevell, Mark D A; Brogaard, Sara; Van Vuuren, Detlef P.; Alexander, Peter; Murray-Rust, Dave; Arneth, Almut

    2016-01-01

    We present a modelling framework to simulate probabilistic futures of global cropland areas that are conditional on the SSP (shared socio-economic pathway) scenarios. Simulations are based on the Parsimonious Land Use Model (PLUM) linked with the global dynamic vegetation model LPJ-GUESS

  12. A modelling framework to assess the effect of pressures on river abiotic habitat conditions and biota

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kail, Jochem; Guse, Björn; Radinger, Johannes; Schröder, Maria; Kiesel, Jens; Kleinhans, Maarten; Schuurman, Filip; Fohrer, Nicola; Hering, Daniel; Wolter, Christian

    2015-01-01

    River biota are affected by global reach-scale pressures, but most approaches for predicting biota of rivers focus on river reach or segment scale processes and habitats. Moreover, these approaches do not consider long-term morphological changes that affect habitat conditions. In this study, a

  13. Finding self-directed learning readiness and fostering self-directed learning through weekly assessment of self-directed learning topics during undergraduate clinical training in ophthalmology

    OpenAIRE

    Sahoo, Soumendra

    2016-01-01

    Background: To know the individual?s current level of readiness and to manage self-directed learning (SDL) not only help learners but also the instructors. The objectives of this study were to find SDL readiness among 4th year medical student and to analyze the effect of weekly assessment of SDL topics. Methodology: This was a cross-sectional study to analyze the effect of weekly assessment of SDL topics in fostering SDL. The 51 4th year students during a clinical posting in ophthalmology par...

  14. Assessment of Wind Turbine for Site-Specific Conditions using Probabilistic Methods

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Heras, Enrique Gómez de las; Gutiérrez, Roberto; Azagra, Elena

    2013-01-01

    state equation is defined making the loads and resistance depending on a set of stochastic variables representing the uncertainties. In this paper, special focus is put on the uncertainties related to the assessment of wind data, which is the main input for the sitespecific load assessment, and can...... be very dependent on the site. The uncertainties on the wind properties depend on issues like the available wind data, the quality of the measurement sensors, the type of terrain or the accuracy of the engineering models for horizontal and vertical spatial extrapolation. An example is included showing two...... fictitious sites with different uncertainty scenarios, which would result in a different verdict depending whether a traditional deterministic approach or a probabilistic approach is used to assess the structural integrity of the wind turbine....

  15. Experimental observation and assessment of ice conditions with a fixed-wing unmanned aerial vehicle over Yellow River, China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Jiayuan; Shu, Li; Zuo, Hang; Zhang, Baosen

    2012-01-01

    Due to its unique geographical location and regional climate, the Yellow River and its tributaries are prone to ice jams almost every spring. Ice jams can cause levees to burst, leading to severe flooding, property damage, and human casualties. Hence, there is an urgent need to carry out observations of ice conditions and make risk assessments of ice jam occurrence. Field observation is the most reliable technique, but it is usually too expensive and time-consuming, which has led to the evaluation of applied remote sensing for data capture and analysis. Owing to the factors of timeliness, image resolution, human safety, and cost, satellite or manned aerial remote sensing cannot fully meet the requirements of ice condition observation. An unmanned aerial vehicle (UAV) remote sensing system is proposed for the collection of river ice imagery, providing the benefits of low cost, flexible launch and landing logistics, safety, and appropriate hyperspatial image resolution. One Inner Mongolian segment of the Yellow River was chosen as a test area to demonstrate key technologies and specific procedures of observation and assessment of ice conditions using the UAV system. The specific UAV remote sensing system and its components are introduced along with the procedures of UAV operation and imagery acquisition. Image preprocessing techniques and ice information extraction are described in detail followed by analysis and risk assessment of the ice conditions based on the resulting panoramic imagery. Results prove the feasibility and effectiveness of applying the fixed-wing UAV system to rapid observation and risk assessment of ice jam formation over the Yellow River under harsh weather conditions including low temperatures and strong winds.

  16. Assessment and Management of Developer Company Competitiveness in the Conditions of Business Changes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Uvarova Svetlana

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Based on the analysis and assessment of modern of dynamics of organizational-economic changes, performed by the authors, there was revealed the necessity of improvement of approaches to the assessment and management by the companies’ competitiveness. Main fluctuations of the system of management by construction complex were defined and their influence on the level of competitiveness as both largest companies of the industry and the industry group as a whole was justified. Control structure diagram of the competitiveness of the developer’s company, which will lead to increasing of the business capitalization, imperative of which is high competitive stability, was proposed on the basis of the performed analysis.

  17. Masked assessment of MRI findings: is it possible to differentiate neuro-Behcet`s disease from other central nervous system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Coban, O.; Bahar, S.; Akman-Demir, G.; Tasci, B.; Serdaroglu, P. [Univ. of Istanbul (Turkey). Dept. of Neurology; Yurdakul, S.; Yazici, H. [Univ. of Istanbul (Turkey). Dept. of Internal Medicine

    1999-04-01

    Two neuroradiologists reviewed MRI studies of 34 patients with neuro-Behcet`s disease (NBD), 22 with multiple sclerosis (MS) and 7 with systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE) with ce