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Sample records for assessment emergency response

  1. Emergency Response Capability Baseline Needs Assessment Compliance Assessment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sharry, John A. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States)

    2013-09-16

    This document is the second of a two-part analysis of Emergency Response Capabilities of Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory. The first part, 2013 Baseline Needs Assessment Requirements Document established the minimum performance criteria necessary to meet mandatory requirements. This second part analyses the performance of Lawrence Livermore Laboratory Emergency Management Department to the contents of the Requirements Document. The document was prepared based on an extensive review of information contained in the 2009 BNA, the 2012 BNA document, a review of Emergency Planning Hazards Assessments, a review of building construction, occupancy, fire protection features, dispatch records, LLNL alarm system records, fire department training records, and fire department policies and procedures.

  2. Emergency Response Capability Baseline Needs Assessment - Compliance Assessment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sharry, John A. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States)

    2016-09-01

    This document was prepared by John A. Sharry, LLNL Fire Marshal and Division Leader for Fire Protection and was reviewed by LLNL Emergency Management Department Head, James Colson. This document is the second of a two-part analysis on Emergency Response Capabilities of Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory. The first part, 2016 Baseline Needs Assessment Requirements Document established the minimum performance criteria necessary to meet mandatory requirements. This second part analyses the performance of Lawrence Livermore Laboratory Emergency Management Department to the contents of the Requirements Document. The document was prepared based on an extensive review of information contained in the 2016 BNA, a review of Emergency Planning Hazards Assessments, a review of building construction, occupancy, fire protection features, dispatch records, LLNL alarm system records, fire department training records, and fire department policies and procedures. The 2013 BNA was approved by NNSA’s Livermore Field Office on January 22, 2014.

  3. Gap Assessment in the Emergency Response Community

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Barr, Jonathan L.; Burtner, Edwin R.; Pike, William A.; Peddicord, Annie M Boe; Minsk, Brian S.

    2010-09-27

    This report describes a gap analysis of the emergency response and management (EM) community, performed during the fall of 2009. Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) undertook this effort to identify potential improvements to the functional domains in EM that could be provided by the application of current or future technology. To perform this domain-based gap analysis, PNNL personnel interviewed subject matter experts (SMEs) across the EM domain; to make certain that the analyses reflected a representative view of the community, the SMEs were from a variety of geographic areas and from various sized communities (urban, suburban, and rural). PNNL personnel also examined recent and relevant after-action reports and U.S. Government Accountability Office reports.

  4. Emergency Response Capability Baseline Needs Assessment - Requirements Document

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sharry, J A

    2016-10-04

    This document was prepared by John A. Sharry, LLNL Fire Marshal and LLNL Division Leader for Fire Protection and reviewed by LLNL Emergency Management Department Head James Colson. The document follows and expands upon the format and contents of the DOE Model Fire Protection Baseline Capabilities Assessment document contained on the DOE Fire Protection Web Site, but only addresses emergency response.

  5. Transportation needs assessment: Emergency response section

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1989-05-01

    The transportation impacts of moving high level nuclear waste (HLNW) to a repository at Yucca Mountain in Nevada are of concern to the residents of the State as well as to the residents of other states through which the nuclear wastes might be transported. The projected volume of the waste suggests that shipments will occur on a daily basis for some period of time. This will increase the risk of accidents, including a catastrophic incident. Furthermore, as the likelihood of repository construction and operation and waste shipments increase, so will the attention given by the national media. This document is not to be construed as a willingness to accept the HLNW repository on the part of the State. Rather it is an initial step in ensuring that the safety and well-being of Nevada residents and visitors and the State`s economy will be adequately addressed in federal decision-making pertaining to the transportation of HLNW into and across Nevada for disposal in the proposed repository. The Preferred Transportation System Needs Assessment identifies critical system design elements and technical and social issues that must be considered in conducting a comprehensive transportation impact analysis. Development of the needs assessment and the impact analysis is especially complex because of the absence of information and experience with shipping HLNW and because of the ``low probability, high consequence`` aspect of the transportation risk.

  6. Optimal network solution for proactive risk assessment and emergency response

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cai, Tianxing

    Coupled with the continuous development in the field industrial operation management, the requirement for operation optimization in large scale manufacturing network has provoked more interest in the research field of engineering. Compared with the traditional way to take the remedial measure after the occurrence of the emergency event or abnormal situation, the current operation control calls for more proactive risk assessment to set up early warning system and comprehensive emergency response planning. Among all the industries, chemical industry and energy industry have higher opportunity to face with the abnormal and emergency situations due to their own industry characterization. Therefore the purpose of the study is to develop methodologies to give aid in emergency response planning and proactive risk assessment in the above two industries. The efficacy of the developed methodologies is demonstrated via two industrial real problems. The first case is to handle energy network dispatch optimization under emergency of local energy shortage under extreme conditions such as earthquake, tsunami, and hurricane, which may cause local areas to suffer from delayed rescues, widespread power outages, tremendous economic losses, and even public safety threats. In such urgent events of local energy shortage, agile energy dispatching through an effective energy transportation network, targeting the minimum energy recovery time, should be a top priority. The second case is a scheduling methodology to coordinate multiple chemical plants' start-ups in order to minimize regional air quality impacts under extreme meteorological conditions. The objective is to reschedule multi-plant start-up sequence to achieve the minimum sum of delay time compared to the expected start-up time of each plant. All these approaches can provide quantitative decision support for multiple stake holders, including government and environment agencies, chemical industry, energy industry and local

  7. Emergency Response

    Science.gov (United States)

    Information for first responders, industry, federal, state and local governments on EPA's role and available resources for response to oil spills, chemical, biological, radiological releases, and large-scale national emergencies.

  8. The assessment of information technology maturity in emergency response organizations

    OpenAIRE

    Santos, Rafael S.; Marcos R. S. Borges; Canos Cerda, José Hilario; Gomes, José Orlando

    2011-01-01

    In emergency response organizations, information technologies are not adequately explored. Sometimes, the mere adoption of new information technologies is not productive, as their efficient use depends on other interrelated technologies and the environment where they are installed. This work describes a model to help organizations understand their capability in respect to the adoption of these technologies. The model also helps the performing of the evaluation from different pe...

  9. Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory Emergency Response Capability 2009 Baseline Needs Assessment Performance Assessment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sharry, J A

    2009-12-30

    This document was prepared by John A. Sharry, LLNL Fire Marshal and Division Leader for Fire Protection and was reviewed by Sandia/CA Fire Marshal, Martin Gresho. This document is the second of a two-part analysis of Emergency Response Capabilities of Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory. The first part, 2009 Baseline Needs Assessment Requirements Document established the minimum performance criteria necessary to meet mandatory requirements. This second part analyses the performance of Lawrence Livermore Laboratory Emergency Management Department to the contents of the Requirements Document. The document was prepared based on an extensive review of information contained in the 2004 BNA, a review of Emergency Planning Hazards Assessments, a review of building construction, occupancy, fire protection features, dispatch records, LLNL alarm system records, fire department training records, and fire department policies and procedures. On October 1, 2007, LLNL contracted with the Alameda County Fire Department to provide emergency response services. The level of service called for in that contract is the same level of service as was provided by the LLNL Fire Department prior to that date. This Compliance Assessment will evaluate fire department services beginning October 1, 2008 as provided by the Alameda County Fire Department.

  10. Institutionalizing Emerging Technology Assessment Process into National Incident Response

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-10-01

    operations • High Interest Technology Test ( HITT ) Team and/or NOAA’s ARTES desktop evaluation and/or field test. • Closing response to correspondent...and access to High Interest Technology Testing ( HITT ) resources and direct RP funding gave them a distinct advantage over IATAP in terms of field

  11. Longitudinal Community Assessment for Public Health Emergency Response to Wildfire, Bastrop County, Texas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kirsch, Katie R; Feldt, Bonnie A; Zane, David F; Haywood, Tracy; Jones, Russell W; Horney, Jennifer A

    2016-01-01

    On September 4, 2011, a wildfire ignited in Bastrop County, Texas, resulting in losses of 34,068 acres of land and 1,645 homes and 2 deaths. At the request of the Texas Department of State Health Services Health Service Region 7 and the Bastrop County Office of Emergency Management, Community Assessments for Public Health Emergency Response (CASPER) were conducted in the weeks following the wildfire and again 3.5 years later to assess both the immediate and long-term public health and preparedness impacts of the wildfire. The objective of these assessments was to learn more about the trajectory of disaster recovery, including rebuilding, evacuation, household emergency planning, and mental and physical health outcomes among both adults and children. In 2015, households exposed to the 2011 wildfires were significantly more likely to have established a family meeting place and evacuation route, to have confidence in the local government's ability to respond to disaster, and to report symptoms of depression and higher stress. Longitudinal assessments using the CASPER method can provide actionable information for improved planning, preparedness, and recovery to public health and emergency management agencies and community residents.

  12. Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory Emergency Response Capability Baseline Needs Assessment Requirement Document

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sharry, J A

    2009-12-30

    This revision of the LLNL Fire Protection Baseline Needs Assessment (BNA) was prepared by John A. Sharry, LLNL Fire Marshal and LLNL Division Leader for Fire Protection and reviewed by Martin Gresho, Sandia/CA Fire Marshal. The document follows and expands upon the format and contents of the DOE Model Fire Protection Baseline Capabilities Assessment document contained on the DOE Fire Protection Web Site, but only address emergency response. The original LLNL BNA was created on April 23, 1997 as a means of collecting all requirements concerning emergency response capabilities at LLNL (including response to emergencies at Sandia/CA) into one BNA document. The original BNA documented the basis for emergency response, emergency personnel staffing, and emergency response equipment over the years. The BNA has been updated and reissued five times since in 1998, 1999, 2000, 2002, and 2004. A significant format change was performed in the 2004 update of the BNA in that it was 'zero based.' Starting with the requirement documents, the 2004 BNA evaluated the requirements, and determined minimum needs without regard to previous evaluations. This 2010 update maintains the same basic format and requirements as the 2004 BNA. In this 2010 BNA, as in the previous BNA, the document has been intentionally divided into two separate documents - the needs assessment (1) and the compliance assessment (2). The needs assessment will be referred to as the BNA and the compliance assessment will be referred to as the BNA Compliance Assessment. The primary driver for separation is that the needs assessment identifies the detailed applicable regulations (primarily NFPA Standards) for emergency response capabilities based on the hazards present at LLNL and Sandia/CA and the geographical location of the facilities. The needs assessment also identifies areas where the modification of the requirements in the applicable NFPA standards is appropriate, due to the improved fire protection

  13. Utility and assessment of non-technical skills for rapid response systems and medical emergency teams.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chalwin, R P; Flabouris, A

    2013-09-01

    Efforts are ongoing to improve outcomes from cardiac arrest and medical emergencies. A promising quality improvement modality is use of non-technical skills (NTS) that aim to address human factors through improvements in performance of leadership, communication, situational awareness and decision-making. Originating in the airline industry, NTS training has been successfully introduced into anaesthesia, surgery, emergency medicine and other acute medical specialities. Some aspects of NTS have already achieved acceptance for cardiac arrest teams. Leadership skills are emphasised in advanced life support training and have shown favourable results when employed in simulated and clinical resuscitation scenarios. The application of NTS in medical emergency teams as part of a rapid response system attending medical emergencies is less certain; however, observations of simulations have also shown promise. This review highlights the potential benefits of NTS competency for cardiac arrest teams and, more importantly, medical emergency teams because of the diversity of clinical scenarios encountered. Discussion covers methods to assess and refine NTS and NTS training to optimise performance in the clinical environment. Increasing attention should be applied to yielding meaningful patient and organisational outcomes from use of NTS. Similarly, implementation of any training course should receive appropriate scrutiny to refine team and institutional performance. © 2013 The Authors; Internal Medicine Journal © 2013 Royal Australasian College of Physicians.

  14. Assessing School Emergency Care Preparedness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hale, Charles; Varnes, Jill

    A study assessed the emergency health care preparedness of a north central Florida public school district in light of seven criteria: (1) school policies regarding delivery of emergency health care; (2) identification of school personnel responsible for rendering emergency care; (3) training levels of emergency health care providers (first aid and…

  15. Radiological Emergency Response Data

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — Quality Data Asset includes all current and historical emergency radiological response event and incident of national significance data and surveillance, monitoring,...

  16. Use of the community assessment for public health emergency response to conduct community health assessments for public health accreditation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Conley, Ashley M; Vagi, Sara; Horney, Jennifer A

    2014-01-01

    A community health assessment (CHA) is a collaborative process of collecting and analyzing data to learn about the health status of a community. Community health assessments are also a requirement of public health accreditation for state and local health departments and of the Affordable Care Act for nonprofit hospitals. One element of a CHA is primary data collection. This article describes the use of the Community Assessment for Public Health Emergency Response (CASPER) method for primary data collection to meet public health accreditation requirements in 2 case study communities--Nashua, New Hampshire, and Davidson County, North Carolina; CASPER is a flexible and efficient method for the collection of population-based primary data in an urban or rural setting.

  17. OEM Emergency Response Information

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — The Office of Emergency Management retains records of all incident responses in which it participates. This data asset includes three major sources of information:...

  18. Application of the Bulgarian emergency response system in case of nuclear accident in environmental assessment study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Syrakov, Dimiter; Veleva, Blagorodka; Georgievs, Emilia; Prodanova, Maria; Slavov, Kiril; Kolarova, Maria

    2014-05-01

    The development of the Bulgarian Emergency Response System (BERS) for short term forecast in case of accidental radioactive releases to the atmosphere has been started in the mid 1990's [1]. BERS comprises of two main parts - operational and accidental, for two regions 'Europe' and 'Northern Hemisphere'. The operational part runs automatically since 2001 using the 72 hours meteorological forecast from DWD Global model, resolution in space of 1.5o and in time - 12 hours. For specified Nuclear power plants (NPPs), 3 days trajectories are calculated and presented on NIMH's specialized Web-site (http://info.meteo.bg/ews/). The accidental part is applied when radioactive releases are reported or in case of emergency exercises. BERS is based on numerical weather forecast information and long-range dispersion model accounting for the transport, dispersion, and radioactive transformations of pollutants. The core of the accidental part of the system is the Eulerian 3D dispersion model EMAP calculating concentration and deposition fields [2]. The system is upgraded with a 'dose calculation module' for estimation of the prognostic dose fields of 31 important radioactive gaseous and aerosol pollutants. The prognostic doses significant for the early stage of a nuclear accident are calculated as follows: the effective doses from external irradiation (air submersion + ground shinning); effective dose from inhalation; summarized effective dose and absorbed thyroid dose [3]. The output is given as 12, 24, 36, 48, 60 and 72 hours prognostic dose fields according the updated meteorology. The BERS was upgraded to simulate the dispersion of nuclear materials from Fukushima NPP [4], and results were presented in NIMH web-site. In addition BERS took part in the respective ENSEMBLE exercises to model 131I and 137Cs in Fukushima source term. In case of governmental request for expertise BERS was applied for environmental impact assessment of hypothetical accidental transboundary

  19. Survey on methodologies in the risk assessment of chemical exposures in emergency response situations in Europe

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Heinälä, Milla; Gundert-Remy, Ursula; Wood, Maureen Heraty

    2013-01-01

    A scientifically sound assessment of the risk to human health resulting from acute chemical releases is the cornerstone for chemical incident prevention, preparedness and response. Although the general methodology to identify acute toxicity of chemicals has not substantially changed in the last...

  20. Hanford Emergency Response Plan

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wagoner, J.D.

    1994-04-01

    The Hanford Emergency Response Plan for the US Department of Energy (DOE), Richland Operations Office (RL), incorporates into one document an overview of the emergency management program for the Hanford Site. The program has been developed in accordance with DOE orders, and state and federal regulations to protect worker and public health and safety and the environment in the event of an emergency at or affecting the Hanford Site. This plan provides a description of how the Hanford Site will implement the provisions of DOE 5500 series and other applicable Orders in terms of overall policies and concept of operations. It should be used as the basis, along with DOE Orders, for the development of specific contractor and RL implementing procedures.

  1. A dasymetric data supported earthquake disaster loss quick assessment method for emergency response in China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, J.; An, J.; Nie, G.

    2015-02-01

    Improving earthquake disaster loss estimation speed and accuracy is one of key factors in effective earthquake response and rescue. The presentation of exposure data by applying a dasymetric map approach has good potential for addressing this issue. With the support of 30'' × 30'' areal exposure data (population and building data in China), this paper presents a new two-phase earthquake disaster loss estimation method for emergency response situations. This method has two phases: a pre-earthquake phase and a co-earthquake phase. In the pre-earthquake phase, we pre-calculate the earthquake loss related to different seismic intensities and store them in a 30'' × 30'' grid format, which has four stages: determining the earthquake loss calculation factor, gridding possible damage matrixes, the building damage calculation and the people loss calculation. The dasymetric map approach makes this possible. Then, in the co-earthquake phase, there are two stages of estimating loss: generating a theoretical isoseismal map to depict the spatial distribution of the seismic intensity field; then, using the seismic intensity field to extract statistics of disaster loss from pre-calculated loss estimation data to obtain the final estimation results. The method is validated by four actual earthquakes that occurred in China. The method not only significant improves the speed and accuracy of loss estimation, but gives spatial distribution for the loss, which will be effective in aiding earthquake emergency response and rescue. Additionally, related pre-calculated earthquake loss estimation data in China could serve to provide disaster risk analysis before earthquakes happen. Currently, the pre-calculated loss estimation data and the two-phase estimation method are used by the China Earthquake Administration.

  2. A quick earthquake disaster loss assessment method supported by dasymetric data for emergency response in China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Jinghai; An, Jiwen; Nie, Gaozong

    2016-04-01

    Improving earthquake disaster loss estimation speed and accuracy is one of the key factors in effective earthquake response and rescue. The presentation of exposure data by applying a dasymetric map approach has good potential for addressing this issue. With the support of 30'' × 30'' areal exposure data (population and building data in China), this paper presents a new earthquake disaster loss estimation method for emergency response situations. This method has two phases: a pre-earthquake phase and a co-earthquake phase. In the pre-earthquake phase, we pre-calculate the earthquake loss related to different seismic intensities and store them in a 30'' × 30'' grid format, which has several stages: determining the earthquake loss calculation factor, gridding damage probability matrices, calculating building damage and calculating human losses. Then, in the co-earthquake phase, there are two stages of estimating loss: generating a theoretical isoseismal map to depict the spatial distribution of the seismic intensity field; then, using the seismic intensity field to extract statistics of losses from the pre-calculated estimation data. Thus, the final loss estimation results are obtained. The method is validated by four actual earthquakes that occurred in China. The method not only significantly improves the speed and accuracy of loss estimation but also provides the spatial distribution of the losses, which will be effective in aiding earthquake emergency response and rescue. Additionally, related pre-calculated earthquake loss estimation data in China could serve to provide disaster risk analysis before earthquakes occur. Currently, the pre-calculated loss estimation data and the two-phase estimation method are used by the China Earthquake Administration.

  3. The hydrological impact assessment in the decision support of nuclear emergency response.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vamanu, Dan V; Slavnicu, Dan S; Gheorghiu, Dorina; Acasandrei, Valentin T; Slavnicu, Elena

    2010-07-01

    The paper presents several aspects believed to be relevant for the integration in the decision support systems for the management of radiological emergencies, of assessment tools addressing surface water contamination. Three exemplary cases are discussed in the context-the CONVEX 2005 international alert exercise, AXIOPOLIS 09, a national drill targeting a CANDU reactor at Cernavoda nuclear power plant in Romania, and Oltenia 07-a nation-wide drill around a scenario, involving trans-border effects of a virtual accident at a VVER reactor at Kozloduy, Bulgaria. The capability of different analytic tools were tested, including public deliverables like real-time, online decision support system's HDM module and model-based computerised system for management support to identify optimal remedial strategies for restoring radionuclide-contaminated aquatic ecosystems and drainage areas, as well as research-grade, home-made facilities, in order to identify and sort out merits and issues of interest in steering their effective utilisation.

  4. Risk Communication Emergency Response Preparedness: Contextual Assessment of the Protective Action Decision Model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heath, Robert L; Lee, Jaesub; Palenchar, Michael J; Lemon, Laura L

    2017-06-14

    Studies are continuously performed to improve risk communication campaign designs to better prepare residents to act in the safest manner during an emergency. To that end, this article investigates the predictive ability of the protective action decision model (PADM), which links environmental and social cues, predecision processes (attention, exposure, and comprehension), and risk decision perceptions (threat, alternative protective actions, and stakeholder norms) with protective action decision making. This current quasi-longitudinal study of residents (N = 400 for each year) in a high-risk (chemical release) petrochemical manufacturing community investigated whether PADM core risk perceptions predict protective action decision making. Telephone survey data collected at four intervals (1995, 1998, 2002, 2012) reveal that perceptions of protective actions and stakeholder norms, but not of threat, currently predict protective action decision making (intention to shelter in place). Of significance, rather than threat perceptions, perception of Wally Wise Guy (a spokes-character who advocates shelter in place) correlates with perceptions of protective action, stakeholder norms, and protective action decision making. Wally's response-efficacy advice predicts residents' behavioral intentions to shelter in place, thereby offering contextually sensitive support and refinement for PADM. © 2017 Society for Risk Analysis.

  5. Emergency Response Guideline Development

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gary D. Storrick

    2007-09-30

    Task 5 of the collaborative effort between ORNL, Brazil, and Westinghouse for the International Nuclear Energy Research Initiative entitled “Development of Advanced Instrumentation and Control for an Integrated Primary System Reactor” focuses on operator control and protection system interaction, with particular emphasis on developing emergency response guidelines (ERGs). As in the earlier tasks, we will use the IRIS plant as a specific example of an integrated primary system reactor (IPSR) design. The present state of the IRIS plant design – specifically, the lack of a detailed secondary system design – precludes establishing detailed emergency procedures at this time. However, we can create a structure for their eventual development. This report summarizes our progress to date. Section 1.2 describes the scope of this effort. Section 2 compares IPSR ERG development to the recent AP1000 effort, and identifies three key plant differences that affect the ERGs and control room designs. The next three sections investigate these differences in more detail. Section 3 reviews the IRIS Safety-by-Design™ philosophy and its impact on the ERGs. Section 4 looks at differences between the IRIS and traditional loop PWR I&C Systems, and considers their implications for both control room design and ERG development. Section 5 examines the implications of having one operating staff control multiple reactor units. Section 6 provides sample IRIS emergency operating procedures (EOPs). Section 7 summarizes our conclusions.

  6. An Evaluation of Community Assessment for Public Health Emergency Response (CASPER) in North Carolina, 2003-2010.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Horney, Jennifer; Davis, Meredith K; Davis, Sarah E H; Fleischauer, Aaron

    2013-04-01

    Community Assessment for Public Health Emergency Response (CASPER) is a group of tools and methods designed by the US Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) to provide rapid, reliable, and accurate population-based public health information. Since 2003, North Carolina public health professionals have used CASPERs to facilitate public health emergency responses and gather information on other topics including routine community health assessments. To date, there has been no evaluation of CASPER use by public health agencies at the state or local level in the US. Local health departments of North Carolina reported when and how CASPERs were used during the period 2003 to 2010 via an online survey. Data on barriers and future plans for using CASPERs also were collected. Fifty-two of North Carolina's 85 local health departments (61%) completed the survey. Twenty-eight departments reported 46 instances of CASPER use during 2003 to 2010. The majority of CASPERs were performed for community health assessments (n = 20, 43%) or exercises (n = 11, 24%). Fifty-six percent of respondents indicated they were "likely" or "very likely" to use CASPERs in the future; those who had prior experience with CASPERs were significantly more likely (P = .02) to report planned future use of CASPERs compared to those without prior experience with the tool. Lack of training, equipment, and time were the most frequently reported barriers to using CASPERs. Local public health agencies with clear objectives and goals can effectively use CASPERs in both routine public health practice and disaster settings.

  7. Assessment of the level of knowledge of Physicians in Bushehr Province about preparedness and response for Nuclear Emergency

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eshagh Abbasi

    2005-02-01

    Full Text Available Responses to recent incidents involving radiation indicate that most general practitioners are uncertain about the health consequences of exposure to ionizing radiation and the medical management of exposed patients. Acute radiation syndrome is an acute illness caused by irradiation of the entire body by a high dose of penetrating radiation in a very short period of time. In order to assess the level of knowledge of physicians in Bushehr province about preparedness and response for nuclear emergency, we used a questionnaire based on IAEA-WHO protocol. A total of 233 doctors (47 of specialist and 186 of general practitioners participated in a cross-sectional study. The mean of score for doctors was 3.99 (from 13 3.7 score for general practitioners and 4.28 scores for specialists. Overall, the doctors did not gain the acceptable scores in subjects like physics of radiation, diagnosis and management of acute radiation syndrome, triage and management of nuclear accidents. In conclusion, the level of doctors’ knowledge in Bushehr province about preparedness and response to nuclear or radiological emergency is deficient. Therefore, medical education and postgraduate training programs for doctors should be designed.

  8. System model for evaluation of an emergency response plan for a nuclear power plant based on an assessment of nuclear emergency exercises

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Silva, Marcos Vinicius C.; Medeiros, Jose A.C.C. [Universidade Federal do Rio de Janeiro (PEN/COPPE/UFRJ), RJ (Brazil). Coordenacao dos Programas de Pos-Graduacao de Engenharia. Programa de Engenharia Nuclear

    2011-07-01

    Nuclear power plants are designed and built with systems dedicated to provide a high degree of protection to its workers, the population living in their neighborhoods and the environment. Among the requirements for ensuring safety there are the existence of the nuclear emergency plan. Due to the relationship between the actions contemplated in the emergency plan and the nuclear emergency exercise, it becomes possible to assess the quality of the nuclear emergency plan, by means of emergency exercise evaluation, The techniques used in this work aim at improving the evaluation method of a nuclear emergency exercise through the use of performance indicators in the evaluation of the structures, actions and procedures involved. The proposed model enables comparisons between different moments of an emergency plan directed to a nuclear power plant as well as comparisons between plans dedicated to different facilities. (author)

  9. Anthelmintic administration to small ruminants in emergency drought responses: assessing the impact in two locations of northern Kenya.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Okell, Claire Natasha; Mariner, Jeffrey; Allport, Robert; Buono, Nicoletta; Mutembei, Henry M'Ikiugu; Rushton, Jonathan; Verheyen, Kristien

    2016-03-01

    Internal parasites are a significant determinant of the productivity of ruminant species in the tropics. Provision of anthelmintics has become a predominant part of animal health interventions in emergency drought responses, aiming to maintain the food conversion efficiency of livestock when pasture is scarce. This study aimed to assess the owner-perceived impact of anthelmintic provision on the health and productivity of small ruminants in the drought-prone counties of Isiolo and Marsabit, northern Kenya. Participatory approaches were used to retrospectively measure differences in key indicators of livestock output before and after anthelmintic administration. Results showed that there was no perceived impact of anthelmintic administration during droughts on small ruminant health and productivity, but some benefit of anthelmintic administration during rainy season was perceived. The study also provided some evidence of potential differences in the epidemiology of internal parasites between the counties. These findings may be utilised to inform future livestock intervention programmes in drought-prone areas.

  10. An Assessment of Environmental Drivers Responsible for the Emergence of Mixotrophy in the Arabian Sea

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goes, J. I.; Gomes, H. R.; Al-Azri, A.; Al-Hashmi, K.

    2016-02-01

    In the last decade and half, the northern Arabian Sea (AS) has witnessed a radical shift in the composition of winter phytoplankton blooms. Diatoms typical of the winter monsoon and favoured by nutrient-enriched waters from convective mixing have been replaced by thick and widespread blooms of, a large, green dinoflagellate Noctiluca scintillans (Noctiluca). Unlike the exclusively heterotrophic red Noctiluca found in temperate waters, the green species of Noctiluca from the Arabian Sea is a mixotroph. It harbors hundreds of green, free-swimming cells of the symbiont Pedinomonas noctilucae within the central vacuole of its cytoplasm, and can sustain itself either through carbon fixation by its endosymbionts or via ingestion of exogenous prey. Data collected by us aboard Indian research vessels in the Arabian Sea suggest that these recent outbreaks of green Noctiluca blooms are being caused by the spread of hypoxic waters into the euphotic zone and possibly exacerbated by warming and enhanced stratification of the water column as well as greater nutrient inputs via aerosols and land runoff. Noctiluca is not a preferred food for micro- and mesozooplankton. It uses inorganic nutrients and grazes on other phytoplankton. Thus, it competes with both its prey and predators for resources, posing special challenges for ecosystem modeling studies. The emergence of this mixotroph as the major plankton player in the ecosystem will require a revision of our earlier understanding of the Arabian Sea food web dynamics and allied biogeochemistry gained from the Joint Global Flux Studies (JGOFS) expeditions of the 1990s.

  11. Reforming Disaster and Emergency Response

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-03-24

    St ra te gy R es ea rc h Pr oj ec t REFORMING DISASTER AND EMERGENCY RESPONSE BY COLONEL MARK D. JOHNSON United States Army...From - To) 4. TITLE AND SUBTITLE Reforming Disaster and Emergency Response 5a. CONTRACT NUMBER 5b. GRANT NUMBER 5c. PROGRAM...the Federal Emergency Management Agency (FEMA) has focused too much on day- to-day disasters , from snow storms to forest fires, tripling the number

  12. Emergency Response Alternatives

    Science.gov (United States)

    Based on the National Contingency Plan, EPA defines the following types: classic emergencies, requiring on-site activities within minutes/hours; time-critical actions, which must occur within 6 months; and non-time-critical actions, which can take longer.

  13. Fire Department Emergency Response

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Blanchard, A. [Westinghouse Savannah River Company, AIKEN, SC (United States); Bell, K.; Kelly, J.; Hudson, J.

    1997-09-01

    In 1995 the SRS Fire Department published the initial Operations Basis Document (OBD). This document was one of the first of its kind in the DOE complex and was widely distributed and reviewed. This plan described a multi-mission Fire Department which provided fire, emergency medical, hazardous material spill, and technical rescue services.

  14. NOAA Emergency Response Imagery

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The imagery posted on this site is in response to natural disasters. The aerial photography missions were conducted by the NOAA Remote Sensing Division. The majority...

  15. Emergency Response and Management Activities

    Science.gov (United States)

    This quarterly report, highlighting accomplishments over the past several months, showcases EPA’s unique emergency response capabilities through the use of cutting-edge technologies and innovative cleanup strategies.

  16. Data modelling for emergency response

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dilo, Arta; Zlatanova, Sidi

    2010-01-01

    Emergency response is one of the most demanding phases in disaster management.The fire brigade, paramedics, police and municipality are the organisations involved in the first response to the incident. They coordinate their work based on welldefined policies and procedures, but they also need the

  17. Hazardous Materials Management and Emergency Response (HAMMER)

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — The Volpentest Hazardous Materials Management and Emergency Response (HAMMER) Federal Training Center is a safety and emergency response training center that offers...

  18. Emergency Response Virtual Environment for Safe Schools

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wasfy, Ayman; Walker, Teresa

    2008-01-01

    An intelligent emergency response virtual environment (ERVE) that provides emergency first responders, response planners, and managers with situational awareness as well as training and support for safe schools is presented. ERVE incorporates an intelligent agent facility for guiding and assisting the user in the context of the emergency response operations. Response information folders capture key information about the school. The system enables interactive 3D visualization of schools and academic campuses, including the terrain and the buildings' exteriors and interiors in an easy to use Web..based interface. ERVE incorporates live camera and sensors feeds and can be integrated with other simulations such as chemical plume simulation. The system is integrated with a Geographical Information System (GIS) to enable situational awareness of emergency events and assessment of their effect on schools in a geographic area. ERVE can also be integrated with emergency text messaging notification systems. Using ERVE, it is now possible to address safe schools' emergency management needs with a scaleable, seamlessly integrated and fully interactive intelligent and visually compelling solution.

  19. Conducting Community Health Needs Assessments in the Local Public Health Department: A Comparison of Random Digit Dialing and the Community Assessment for Public Health Emergency Response.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stone, Kahler; Sierocki, Allison; Shah, Vaidehi; Ylitalo, Kelly R; Horney, Jennifer A

    2017-01-30

    Community health needs assessments (CHNAs) are now required by the Affordable Care Act (ACA) for nonprofit hospitals and the Public Health Accreditation Board (PHAB) for local health departments that seek accreditation. Currently, various primary data collection methods exist that meet the ACA and PHAB requirements. To compare 2 CHNA data collection methods implemented in the same geographical area from a local health department perspective. Two community surveys, one door-to-door and one telephone, in the 76706 zip code area of McLennan County, Texas. Adult survey respondents (Community Assessment for Public Health Emergency Response [CASPER]: N = 184; random digit dialing [RDD]: N = 133) of the 76706 zip code in McLennan County, Texas. Survey response rates, sociodemographic characteristics of survey respondents, and self-reported health behaviors from both community survey types. The CASPER survey had a contact rate of 36.0% and a cooperation rate of 60.5%, compared with a 10.1% response rate for the RDD survey. CASPER respondents were younger (26.6% aged 18-24 years), had lower education attainment (17.4% less than high school), and had a higher proportion of Hispanics (24.5%) than RDD respondents (4.6%, 10.5%, and 17.3%, respectively). CASPER respondents were less likely to report being overweight or obese (56.5%), to report days where no fruit or vegetables were consumed (7.1%), and to report days where no walking activity was conducted (9.8%) than RDD respondents (70.2%, 27.8%, and 21.8%, respectively). The CASPER survey cost less to conduct ($13 500) than the RDD survey ($100 000) and was logistically easier for the local health department to conduct using internally available resources. Local health departments use various data collection methods to conduct CHNAs for their populations and require varying levels of commitment and resources. RDD and CASPER can be used to meet ACA and PHAB requirements, collecting valuable health needs estimates and offer

  20. Assessing the assessment in emergency care training.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mary E W Dankbaar

    Full Text Available Each year over 1.5 million health care professionals attend emergency care courses. Despite high stakes for patients and extensive resources involved, little evidence exists on the quality of assessment. The aim of this study was to evaluate the validity and reliability of commonly used formats in assessing emergency care skills.Residents were assessed at the end of a 2-week emergency course; a subgroup was videotaped. Psychometric analyses were conducted to assess the validity and inter-rater reliability of the assessment instrument, which included a checklist, a 9-item competency scale and a global performance scale.A group of 144 residents and 12 raters participated in the study; 22 residents were videotaped and re-assessed by 8 raters. The checklists showed limited validity and poor inter-rater reliability for the dimensions "correct" and "timely" (ICC = .30 and.39 resp.. The competency scale had good construct validity, consisting of a clinical and a communication subscale. The internal consistency of the (subscales was high (α = .93/.91/.86. The inter-rater reliability was moderate for the clinical competency subscale (.49 and the global performance scale (.50, but poor for the communication subscale (.27. A generalizability study showed that for a reliable assessment 5-13 raters are needed when using checklists, and four when using the clinical competency scale or the global performance scale.This study shows poor validity and reliability for assessing emergency skills with checklists but good validity and moderate reliability with clinical competency or global performance scales. Involving more raters can improve the reliability substantially. Recommendations are made to improve this high stakes skill assessment.

  1. PHMC post-NPH emergency response training

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Conrads, T.J.

    1997-04-08

    This document describes post-Natural Phenomena Hazard (NPH) emergency response training that was provided to two teams of Project Hanford Management Contractors (PHMC) staff that will be used to assess potential structural damage that may occur as a result of a significant natural phenomena event. This training supports recent plans and procedures to use trained staff to inspect structures following an NPH event on the Hanford Site.

  2. Short-term emergency response planning and risk assessment via an integrated modeling system for nuclear power plants in complex terrain

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chang, Ni-Bin; Weng, Yu-Chi

    2013-03-01

    Short-term predictions of potential impacts from accidental release of various radionuclides at nuclear power plants are acutely needed, especially after the Fukushima accident in Japan. An integrated modeling system that provides expert services to assess the consequences of accidental or intentional releases of radioactive materials to the atmosphere has received wide attention. These scenarios can be initiated either by accident due to human, software, or mechanical failures, or from intentional acts such as sabotage and radiological dispersal devices. Stringent action might be required just minutes after the occurrence of accidental or intentional release. To fulfill the basic functions of emergency preparedness and response systems, previous studies seldom consider the suitability of air pollutant dispersion models or the connectivity between source term, dispersion, and exposure assessment models in a holistic context for decision support. Therefore, the Gaussian plume and puff models, which are only suitable for illustrating neutral air pollutants in flat terrain conditional to limited meteorological situations, are frequently used to predict the impact from accidental release of industrial sources. In situations with complex terrain or special meteorological conditions, the proposing emergency response actions might be questionable and even intractable to decisionmakers responsible for maintaining public health and environmental quality. This study is a preliminary effort to integrate the source term, dispersion, and exposure assessment models into a Spatial Decision Support System (SDSS) to tackle the complex issues for short-term emergency response planning and risk assessment at nuclear power plants. Through a series model screening procedures, we found that the diagnostic (objective) wind field model with the aid of sufficient on-site meteorological monitoring data was the most applicable model to promptly address the trend of local wind field patterns

  3. Standardized emergency management system and response to a smallpox emergency.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim-Farley, Robert J; Celentano, John T; Gunter, Carol; Jones, Jessica W; Stone, Rogelio A; Aller, Raymond D; Mascola, Laurene; Grigsby, Sharon F; Fielding, Jonathan E

    2003-01-01

    The smallpox virus is a high-priority, Category-A agent that poses a global, terrorism security risk because it: (1) easily can be disseminated and transmitted from person to person; (2) results in high mortality rates and has the potential for a major public health impact; (3) might cause public panic and social disruption; and (4) requires special action for public health preparedness. In recognition of this risk, the Los Angeles County Department of Health Services (LAC-DHS) developed the Smallpox Preparedness, Response, and Recovery Plan for LAC to prepare for the possibility of an outbreak of smallpox. A unique feature of the LAC-DHS plan is its explicit use of the Standardized Emergency Management System (SEMS) framework for detailing the functions needed to respond to a smallpox emergency. The SEMS includes the Incident Command System (ICS) structure (management, operations, planning/intelligence, logistics, and finance/administration), the mutual-aid system, and the multi/interagency coordination required during a smallpox emergency. Management for incident command includes setting objectives and priorities, information (risk communications), safety, and liaison. Operations includes control and containment of a smallpox outbreak including ring vaccination, mass vaccination, adverse events monitoring and assessment, management of confirmed and suspected smallpox cases, contact tracing, active surveillance teams and enhanced hospital-based surveillance, and decontamination. Planning/intelligence functions include developing the incident action plan, epidemiological investigation and analysis of smallpox cases, and epidemiological assessment of the vaccination coverage status of populations at risk. Logistics functions include receiving, handling, inventorying, and distributing smallpox vaccine and vaccination clinic supplies; personnel; transportation; communications; and health care of personnel. Finally, finance/administration functions include monitoring

  4. The Student Volunteer Army: a 'repeat emergent' emergency response organisation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carlton, Sally; Mills, Colleen E

    2017-10-01

    This paper seeks to contribute to understanding of the factors associated with an effective emergent emergency response organisation and to provide new insights into this understudied area. It examines, through an analysis of a range of textual resources, the emergence and re-emergence of the Student Volunteer Army (SVA) during the devastating earthquakes in Canterbury, New Zealand, in 2010-11. This evaluation is conducted in relation to the four key features of an effective emergency response organisation: adaptability; direction; leadership; and communication. In addition, the paper aims to further understanding of 'emergency entrepreneurship' and thus of the values and strategies that underpin social entrepreneur organisations in times of normalcy. The paper concludes that the unique position of the SVA as a 'repeat emergent' emergency response organisation enabled it to innovate continually and to improve repeatedly its systems, relationships, and image, such that it exhibited features common to emergent and established emergency response organisations. © 2017 The Author(s). Disasters © Overseas Development Institute, 2017.

  5. The effect of the emergency medical services vehicle location and response strategy on response times

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stein, C.

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Response time is currently considered to be an important performance indicator in Emergency Medical Services (EMS systems. A number of factors may affect response times, including the location of emergency vehicles and the type of response system design used. This study aimed to assess the effects of emergency vehicle location and response system design on response time performance in a model of a large South African urban EMS system, using discrete-event simulation. Results indicated that both the emergency vehicle location and response system design factors had a significant effect on response time performance.

  6. Achieving reliable communication in dynamic emergency responses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chipara, Octav; Plymoth, Anders N; Liu, Fang; Huang, Ricky; Evans, Brian; Johansson, Per; Rao, Ramesh; Griswold, William G

    2011-01-01

    Emergency responses require the coordination of first responders to assess the condition of victims, stabilize their condition, and transport them to hospitals based on the severity of their injuries. WIISARD is a system designed to facilitate the collection of medical information and its reliable dissemination during emergency responses. A key challenge in WIISARD is to deliver data with high reliability as first responders move and operate in a dynamic radio environment fraught with frequent network disconnections. The initial WIISARD system employed a client-server architecture and an ad-hoc routing protocol was used to exchange data. The system had low reliability when deployed during emergency drills. In this paper, we identify the underlying causes of unreliability and propose a novel peer-to-peer architecture that in combination with a gossip-based communication protocol achieves high reliability. Empirical studies show that compared to the initial WIISARD system, the redesigned system improves reliability by as much as 37% while reducing the number of transmitted packets by 23%.

  7. Emergency Preparedness and Response Systems

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Alvarez, Maria D

    2006-01-01

    .... Natural and man-made disasters, such as earthquakes, floods, plane crashes, high-rise building collapses, or major nuclear facility malfunctions, pose an ever-present danger challenge to public emergency services...

  8. A Tactical Emergency Response Management System (Terms ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2013-03-01

    Mar 1, 2013 ... of mobile technology to enhance communication between emergency response personnel. The test results obtained revealed that if fully implemented, this technology can improve the speed of intervention between the use cases ... the impact of an emergency on the public and the environment. Emergency ...

  9. Public Health Emergency Response in Taiwan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Cheng-Hao; Lee, Tsui-Feng

    2017-01-01

    In recent years, growth of international travel and trade, as well as climate change, has resulted in the frequent emergence and reemergence of infectious diseases such as Ebola, Zika, and MERS. In 2016, Taiwan used the Joint External Evaluation (JEE) tool to evaluate its public health emergency response capacities and understand important areas for improvement. This article presents Taiwan's disaster and public health emergency response organizational structure, real-time integrated information, response processes, and command center structure. After reviewing the results of the JEE tool and drawing lessons from emergency response efforts in the United States, we provide 3 recommendations that may enhance Taiwan's public health emergency response capacities: establish common principles for disaster response regardless of which agency is in charge, standardize operation procedures, and perform regular training that includes nongovernmental organizations and a range of government departments. PMID:28418737

  10. Adaptive workflow simulation of emergency response

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bruinsma, Guido Wybe Jan

    2010-01-01

    Recent incidents and major training exercises in and outside the Netherlands have persistently shown that not having or not sharing information during emergency response are major sources of emergency response inefficiency and error, and affect incident mitigation outcomes through workflow planning

  11. IEA Response System for Oil Supply Emergencies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2008-12-15

    Emergency response to oil supply disruptions has remained a core mission of the International Energy Agency since its founding in 1974. This information pamphlet explains the decisionmaking process leading to an IEA collective action, the measures available -- focusing on stockdraw -- and finally, the historical background of major oil supply disruptions and the IEA response to them. It also demonstrates the continuing need for emergency preparedness, including the growing importance of engaging key transition and emerging economies in dialogue about energy security.

  12. IEA Response System for Oil Supply Emergencies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2010-07-15

    Emergency response to oil supply disruptions has remained a core mission of the International Energy Agency since its founding in 1974. This information pamphlet explains the decisionmaking process leading to an IEA collective action, the measures available -- focusing on stockdraw -- and finally, the historical background of major oil supply disruptions and the IEA response to them. It also demonstrates the continuing need for emergency preparedness, including the growing importance of engaging key transition and emerging economies in dialogue about energy security.

  13. Disaster Response and Preparedness Application: Emergency Environmental Response Tool (EERT)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smoot, James; Carr, Hugh; Jester, Keith

    2003-01-01

    In 2000, the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) Environmental Office at the John C. Stennis Space Center (SSC) developed an Environmental Geographic Information Systems (EGIS) database. NASA had previously developed a GIS database at SSC to assist in the NASA Environmental Office's management of the Center. This GIS became the basis for the NASA-wide EGIS project, which was proposed after the applicability of the SSC database was demonstrated. Since its completion, the SSC EGIS has aided the Environmental Office with noise pollution modeling, land cover assessment, wetlands delineation, environmental hazards mapping, and critical habitat delineation for protected species. At SSC, facility management and safety officers are responsible for ensuring the physical security of the facilities, staff, and equipment as well as for responding to environmental emergencies, such as accidental releases of hazardous materials. All phases of emergency management (planning, mitigation, preparedness, and response) depend on data reliability and system interoperability from a variety of sources to determine the size and scope of the emergency operation. Because geospatial data are now available for all NASA facilities, it was suggested that this data could be incorporated into a computerized management information program to assist facility managers. The idea was that the information system could improve both the effectiveness and the efficiency of managing and controlling actions associated with disaster, homeland security, and other activities. It was decided to use SSC as a pilot site to demonstrate the efficacy of having a baseline, computerized management information system that ultimately was referred to as the Emergency Environmental Response Tool (EERT).

  14. Technical information management in an emergency response

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Berry, H.A.; Greve, C.; Best, R.G.; Phillipson, D.S.

    1991-01-01

    Through many experiences in responding to real radiation accidents and emergency response exercises, the Department of Energy (DOE) has developed a technical information management system that will be used in the Federal Radiological Monitoring and Assessment Center (FRMAC) in the event of a major radiological accident. The core of the system is the Data Center in the FRMAC, utilizing a computerized database of all off-site environmental radiological data. The information contained and managed by the Data Center will be comprehensive, accountable, and traceable, providing information to the assessors for immediate health and safety needs as well as for long-term documentation requirements. A DOE task force has been formed to develop compatibility guidelines for video, automated data processing, and communication systems. An electronic mail, information status, and bulletin board system is also being developed to assist in the dissemination of information. Geographic Information Systems (GIS) offer a giant step forward in displaying and analyzing information in a geographically referenced system.

  15. Emergency Response to Gold King Mine Release

    Science.gov (United States)

    Description of August 5, 2015 release of contaminated waters from the Gold King Mine into Cement Creek and the Animas River, and the resulting emergency response remediation efforts, including monitoring of affected waterways.

  16. Media Spaces, Emergency Response and Palpable Technologies

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kyng, Morten; Kristensen, Margit

    2009-01-01

    In this chapter we present and discuss a case on the development and use of technologies for emergency response, which shares important aspects with Media Spaces. We first describe the characteristics of emergency response, based on field and literature studies. We then present visions...... for technological support of emergency responders and outline important design issues and principles regarding the design. We finally reflect upon our findings in relation to Media Spaces, and describe a number of possibilities and related challenges, by the use of examples. We suggest that moving from symmetry...

  17. Tackling Complex Emergency Response Solutions Evaluation Problems in Sustainable Development by Fuzzy Group Decision Making Approaches with Considering Decision Hesitancy and Prioritization among Assessing Criteria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qi, Xiao-Wen; Zhang, Jun-Ling; Zhao, Shu-Ping; Liang, Chang-Yong

    2017-10-02

    In order to be prepared against potential balance-breaking risks affecting economic development, more and more countries have recognized emergency response solutions evaluation (ERSE) as an indispensable activity in their governance of sustainable development. Traditional multiple criteria group decision making (MCGDM) approaches to ERSE have been facing simultaneous challenging characteristics of decision hesitancy and prioritization relations among assessing criteria, due to the complexity in practical ERSE problems. Therefore, aiming at the special type of ERSE problems that hold the two characteristics, we investigate effective MCGDM approaches by hiring interval-valued dual hesitant fuzzy set (IVDHFS) to comprehensively depict decision hesitancy. To exploit decision information embedded in prioritization relations among criteria, we firstly define an fuzzy entropy measure for IVDHFS so that its derivative decision models can avoid potential information distortion in models based on classic IVDHFS distance measures with subjective supplementing mechanism; further, based on defined entropy measure, we develop two fundamental prioritized operators for IVDHFS by extending Yager's prioritized operators. Furthermore, on the strength of above methods, we construct two hesitant fuzzy MCGDM approaches to tackle complex scenarios with or without known weights for decision makers, respectively. Finally, case studies have been conducted to show effectiveness and practicality of our proposed approaches.

  18. Tackling Complex Emergency Response Solutions Evaluation Problems in Sustainable Development by Fuzzy Group Decision Making Approaches with Considering Decision Hesitancy and Prioritization among Assessing Criteria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiao-Wen Qi

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available In order to be prepared against potential balance-breaking risks affecting economic development, more and more countries have recognized emergency response solutions evaluation (ERSE as an indispensable activity in their governance of sustainable development. Traditional multiple criteria group decision making (MCGDM approaches to ERSE have been facing simultaneous challenging characteristics of decision hesitancy and prioritization relations among assessing criteria, due to the complexity in practical ERSE problems. Therefore, aiming at the special type of ERSE problems that hold the two characteristics, we investigate effective MCGDM approaches by hiring interval-valued dual hesitant fuzzy set (IVDHFS to comprehensively depict decision hesitancy. To exploit decision information embedded in prioritization relations among criteria, we firstly define an fuzzy entropy measure for IVDHFS so that its derivative decision models can avoid potential information distortion in models based on classic IVDHFS distance measures with subjective supplementing mechanism; further, based on defined entropy measure, we develop two fundamental prioritized operators for IVDHFS by extending Yager’s prioritized operators. Furthermore, on the strength of above methods, we construct two hesitant fuzzy MCGDM approaches to tackle complex scenarios with or without known weights for decision makers, respectively. Finally, case studies have been conducted to show effectiveness and practicality of our proposed approaches.

  19. Radiological Emergency Response Health and Safety Manual

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    D. R. Bowman

    2001-05-01

    This manual was created to provide health and safety (H&S) guidance for emergency response operations. The manual is organized in sections that define each aspect of H and S Management for emergency responses. The sections are as follows: Responsibilities; Health Physics; Industrial Hygiene; Safety; Environmental Compliance; Medical; and Record Maintenance. Each section gives guidance on the types of training expected for managers and responders, safety processes and procedures to be followed when performing work, and what is expected of managers and participants. Also included are generic forms that will be used to facilitate or document activities during an emergency response. These ensure consistency in creating useful real-time and archival records and help to prevent the loss or omission of information.

  20. Emergency Response: Elearning for Paramedics and Firefighters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taber, Nancy

    2008-01-01

    This article is based on an innovative research project with academics, software developers, and organizational pilot sites to design and develop elearning software for an emergency response simulation with supporting collaborative tools. In particular, this article focuses on the research that the author has conducted to provide the theoretical…

  1. Simulation analysis of the use of emergency resources during the emergency response to a major fire

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zhou, Jianfeng; Reniers, G.L.L.M.E.

    2016-01-01

    During an emergency response to an accident or disaster, emergency response actions often need to use various emergency resources. The use of resources plays an important role in the successful implementation of emergency response, but there may be conflicts in the use of resources for emergency

  2. Use of Bibliometric Analysis to Assess the Scientific Productivity and Impact of the Global Emerging Infections Surveillance and Response System Program, 2006-2012.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reaves, Erik J; Valle, Ruben; Chandrasekera, Ruvani M; Soto, Giselle; Burke, Ronald L; Cummings, James F; Bausch, Daniel G; Kasper, Matthew R

    2017-05-01

    Scientific publication in academic literature is a key venue in which the U.S. Department of Defense's Global Emerging Infections Surveillance and Response System (GEIS) program disseminates infectious disease surveillance data. Bibliometric analyses are tools to evaluate scientific productivity and impact of published research, yet are not routinely used for disease surveillance. Our objective was to incorporate bibliometric indicators to measure scientific productivity and impact of GEIS-funded infectious disease surveillance, and assess their utility in the management of the GEIS surveillance program. Metrics on GEIS program scientific publications, project funding, and countries of collaborating institutions from project years 2006 to 2012 were abstracted from annual reports and program databases and organized by the six surveillance priority focus areas: respiratory infections, gastrointestinal infections, febrile and vector-borne infections, antimicrobial resistance, sexually transmitted infections, and capacity building and outbreak response. Scientific productivity was defined as the number of scientific publications in peer-reviewed literature derived from GEIS-funded projects. Impact was defined as the number of citations of a GEIS-funded publication by other peer-reviewed publications, and the Thomson Reuters 2-year journal impact factor. Indicators were retrieved from the Web of Science and Journal Citation Report. To determine the global network of international collaborations between GEIS partners, countries were organized by the locations of collaborating institutions. Between 2006 and 2012, GEIS distributed approximately US $330 million to support 921 total projects. On average, GEIS funded 132 projects (range 96-160) with $47 million (range $43 million-$53 million), annually. The predominant surveillance focus areas were respiratory infections with 317 (34.4%) projects and $225 million, and febrile and vector-borne infections with 274 (29

  3. Value of the internet in emergency response.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Herzenberg, C. L.; Newsom, D. E.; Swietlik, C. E.

    1999-05-26

    Can the Internet be of value in emergency response? The answer is yes, judging by its use in the Kobe earthquake in Japan in 1995, ice storms in the US and Canada in 1998, and other disasters. Current and future areas of application are numerous, including exchanging messages, documents, and data files via e-mail; accessing operational data on-line; visualizing events via photos and maps; providing backup communications in lieu of broadcast media, exchanging information between crisis managers and responders; and providing information to media and the public. However, the Internet has some drawbacks, such as hardware/software requirements, computer literacy requirements, traffic jams, dependence on power and communication networks, and risks to information integrity and security. This paper examines some of the advantages, drawbacks, concerns, and potential uses of the Internet for emergency response.

  4. Kemptville site of upcoming live emergency response

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Anon

    2011-05-15

    Propane transfer facilities are now required to submit a risk and safety management plan (RSMP). Beginning in January 2011, Ontario's propane facilities will have to provide an emergency response and preparedness plan to the province's Technical Standards and Safety Authority. W.O. Stinson and Son, a family business working in the propane supplier since 2006, decided to do a complete emergency response exercise in order to give them a template for their RSMP. During this exercise, an engine fire at the Stinson bar was to be simulated, then people at the gas bar or nearby were to be evacuated and traffic diverted with local fire and police departments taking part.

  5. Improvements in emergency preparedness and response

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kirchner, Gerald [Bundesamt fuer Strahlenschutz, Berlin (Germany); Wirth, Erich [Bundesamt fuer Strahlenschutz, Freiburg im Breisgau (Germany). Inst. fuer Atmosphaerische Radioaktivitaet

    2012-07-01

    The accident of Fukushima was characterized by long term releases with intensive release peaks. In this contribution it is analyzed what kind of improvements in the emergency preparedness and response system are needed to evaluate and manage such a radiological situation. The paper focuses on the external radiation protection and deals with the specific lessons learned for measures and intervention levels, evaluation of the radiological situation and on the protection of citizens abroad. (orig.)

  6. Challenges During a Chlorine Gas Emergency Response.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Christensen, Bryan E; Duncan, Mary Anne; King, Sallyann C; Hunter, Candis; Ruckart, Perri; Orr, Maureen F

    2016-08-01

    A chlorine gas release occurred at a poultry processing plant as a result of an accidental mixing of sodium hypochlorite and an acidic antimicrobial treatment. We evaluated the public health and emergency medical services response and developed and disseminated public health recommendations to limit the impact of future incidents. We conducted key informant interviews with the state health department; local fire, emergency medical services, and police departments; county emergency management; and representatives from area hospitals to understand the response mechanisms employed for this incident. After being exposed to an estimated 40-pound chlorine gas release, 170 workers were triaged on the scene and sent to 5 area hospitals. Each hospital redistributed staff or called in extra staff (eg, physicians, nurses, and respiratory therapists) in response to the event. Interviews with hospital staff emphasized the need for improved communication with responders at the scene of a chemical incident. While responding, hospitals handled the patient surge without outside assistance because of effective planning, training, and drilling. The investigation highlighted that greater interagency communication can play an important role in ensuring that chemical incident patients are managed and treated in a timely manner. (Disaster Med Public Health Preparedness. 2016;10:553-556).

  7. Multi-objective evolutionary emergency response optimization for major accidents

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Georgiadou, Paraskevi S., E-mail: pgeor@central.ntua.gr [School of Chemical Engineering, National Technical University of Athens, Zografou Campus, Athens 157 80 (Greece); Papazoglou, Ioannis A., E-mail: yannisp@ipta.demokritos.gr [Systems Reliability and Industrial Safety Laboratory, National Center of Scientific Research ' Demokritos' , Agia Paraskevi, Athens 153 10 (Greece); Kiranoudis, Chris T., E-mail: kyr@chemeng.ntua.gr [School of Chemical Engineering, National Technical University of Athens, Zografou Campus, Athens 157 80 (Greece); Markatos, Nikolaos C., E-mail: n.markatos@ntua.gr [School of Chemical Engineering, National Technical University of Athens, Zografou Campus, Athens 157 80 (Greece)

    2010-06-15

    Emergency response planning in case of a major accident (hazardous material event, nuclear accident) is very important for the protection of the public and workers' safety and health. In this context, several protective actions can be performed, such as, evacuation of an area; protection of the population in buildings; and use of personal protective equipment. The best solution is not unique when multiple criteria are taken into consideration (e.g. health consequences, social disruption, economic cost). This paper presents a methodology for multi-objective optimization of emergency response planning in case of a major accident. The emergency policy with regards to protective actions to be implemented is optimized. An evolutionary algorithm has been used as the optimization tool. Case studies demonstrating the methodology and its application in emergency response decision-making in case of accidents related to hazardous materials installations are presented. However, the methodology with appropriate modification is suitable for supporting decisions in assessing emergency response procedures in other cases (nuclear accidents, transportation of hazardous materials) or for land-use planning issues.

  8. Principles for emergency response to bioterrorism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keim, M; Kaufmann, A F

    1999-08-01

    The recent occurrence of a series of anthrax-related hoaxes illustrates the need to educate emergency services personnel about how to best ensure patient and worker safety in the case of suspected exposure to biological threat agents. There are very few data to support the methods being used or the variation in current care. Emergency physicians, first responders, and hazardous materials response teams need a standardized approach to the management of patients who may have been exposed to biological threat agents. Currently recommended hospital infection control procedures seem appropriate for the level of risk involved with aerosolized biological threat agents. Such recommendations include standard and transmission-based precautions. These groups need a working knowledge of the isolation and infection control measures recommended for the treatment of patients exposed to those biological threat agents at outlined in the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention Guideline for Isolation Precautions in Hospitals.

  9. Emergency communications for evacuation (EVAC) in New Orleans impact assessment report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-05-01

    This document constitutes the Impact Assessment Report for Emergency Communications for Evacuation (EVAC) in : New Orleans. Response, Emergency Staging and Communications, Uniform Management, and Evacuation : (R.E.S.C.U.M.E.) is a bundle of applicati...

  10. Emergency response readiness for primary school children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilks, Jeff; Kanasa, Harry; Pendergast, Donna; Clark, Ken

    2015-09-14

    Objective The aim of the present study was to determine whether a 1-day basic life support (BLS) training program can significantly increase emergency response readiness for primary school children.Methods One hundred and seven children aged 11-12 years completed a program led by surf lifesaving instructors. A 50-item quiz was administered 1 week before and 1 and 8 weeks after training.Results Significant improvements were gained in knowledge of cardiopulmonary resuscitation (CPR; P school-based training that provides a general foundation for emergency response readiness.What is known about this topic? The importance and value of teaching BLS to school children is well established in the US, UK and Europe. However, in the past 20 years there has been little or no published Australian evaluation research in this area, despite thousands of training programs running each year around the country for children in first aid, CPR and water safety.What does this paper add? This paper confirms that Australian primary school children can benefit significantly from short, targeted BLS training programs that provide the basic skills and confidence for them to respond in an emergency situation.What are the implications for practitioners? The paper provides a training and evaluation framework that can be used by health educators for age-appropriate BLS programs. The study shows that making training real-world and relevant, especially having hands-on CPR practice with manikins, can address common barriers to performing first aid and CPR reported by young people.

  11. Radiation emergency response in Illinois, Alabama, and Texas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Larsen, D.K.; Chester, R.O.

    1978-03-01

    The objective of this study was to examine state radiation emergency response and to locate any areas of emergency planning in need of improvement. This report briefly presents a summary of laws and defining documents governing radiation emergency response, describes the existing and projected need for such response, and presents the authors' analyses of the evolution of state response plans and their application to radiation incidents. Three states' programs are discussed in detail: Illinois, Alabama, and Texas. These states were selected because they have quite different emergency-response programs. Therefore, these state programs provide a wide variety of approaches to state radiation emergency response.

  12. Some Qualitative Requirements for Testing of Nuclear Emergency Response Robots

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Eom, Heungseop; Cho, Jai Wan; Choi, Youngsoo; Jeong, Kyungmin [Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2014-05-15

    Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute (KAERI) is carrying out the project 'Development of Core Technology for Remote Response in Nuclear Emergency Situation', and as a part of the project, we are studying the reliability and performance requirements of nuclear emergency response robots. In this paper, we described some qualitative requirements for testing of nuclear emergency response robots which are different to general emergency response robots. We briefly introduced test requirements of general emergency response robots and described some qualitative aspects of test requirements for nuclear emergency response robots. When considering an immature field-robot technology and variety of nuclear emergency situations, it seems hard to establish quantitative test requirements of these robots at this time. However, based on studies of nuclear severe accidents and the experience of Fukushima NPP accident, we can expect some test requirements including quantitative ones for nuclear emergency response robots.

  13. Field exercises are useful for improving public health emergency responses

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kirsty Hope

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Problem: Emergencies resulting from disease outbreaks and extreme environmental events present significant challenges for health services.Context: Preparing to effectively manage emergencies is a core activity in public health units. Field exercises support consolidation of biopreparedness by testing plans, identifying weaknesses, providing training opportunities and developing surge capacity.Action: An extended field exercise to test response to a novel influenza strain was conducted in New South Wales, Australia in September 2008, eight months before the influenza A(H1N1 2009 pandemic emerged. Lasting four days and involving over 300 participants, the exercise was set in the early response phase with the staggered presentation of 41 cases to 36 emergency departments in the health area. An additional 150 contacts were written into a complex scenario to test the public health response.Outcome: The subsequent pandemic emergence in mid-2009 offered a unique opportunity to assess the field exercise format for disaster preparedness. Most roles were adequately tested with recognized benefit during the actual pandemic response. However, the exercise did not adequately challenge the public health planning team that synthesizes surveillance data and forecasts risk, nor did it identify planning issues that became evident during the subsequent pandemic. Discussion: Field exercises offer the opportunity to rigorously test public health emergency preparedness but can be expensive and labour-intensive. Our exercise provided effective and timely preparation for the influenza A(H1N1 2009 pandemic but showed that more emphasis needs to be placed on the role and training of the public health planning team.

  14. Simulation Training in Early Emergency Response (STEER).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Generoso, Jose Roberto; Latoures, Renee Elizabeth; Acar, Yahya; Miller, Dean Scott; Ciano, Mark; Sandrei, Renan; Vieira, Marlon; Luong, Sean; Hirsch, Jan; Fidler, Richard Lee

    2016-06-01

    HOW TO OBTAIN CONTACT HOURS BY READING THIS ISSUE Instructions: 1.3 contact hours will be awarded by Villanova University College of Nursing upon successful completion of this activity. A contact hour is a unit of measurement that denotes 60 minutes of an organized learning activity. This is a learner-based activity. Villanova University College of Nursing does not require submission of your answers to the quiz. A contact hour certificate will be awarded after you register, pay the registration fee, and complete the evaluation form online at http://goo.gl/gMfXaf. In order to obtain contact hours you must: 1. Read the article, "Simulation Training in Early Emergency Response (STEER)," found on pages 255-263, carefully noting any tables and other illustrative materials that are included to enhance your knowledge and understanding of the content. Be sure to keep track of the amount of time (number of minutes) you spend reading the article and completing the quiz. 2. Read and answer each question on the quiz. After completing all of the questions, compare your answers to those provided within this issue. If you have incorrect answers, return to the article for further study. 3. Go to the Villanova website to register for contact hour credit. You will be asked to provide your name, contact information, and a VISA, MasterCard, or Discover card number for payment of the $20.00 fee. Once you complete the online evaluation, a certificate will be automatically generated. This activity is valid for continuing education credit until May 31, 2019. CONTACT HOURS This activity is co-provided by Villanova University College of Nursing and SLACK Incorporated. Villanova University College of Nursing is accredited as a provider of continuing nursing education by the American Nurses Credentialing Center's Commission on Accreditation. OBJECTIVES Define the purpose of the Simulation Training in Early Emergency Response (STEER) study. Review the outcome of the STEER study. DISCLOSURE

  15. Using spatial hypertext to visualize composite knowledge in emergency responses

    OpenAIRE

    Canos, Jose H.; Penades, Maria Carmen; Solis, Carlos; Borges, Marcos R.S.; Llavador, Manuel

    2010-01-01

    peer-reviewed Having the right information at the right time is crucial to make decisions during emergency responses. To fulfill this requirement, emergency management systems must provide emergency managers with knowledge management and visualization tools. The goal is twofold: on one hand, to organize knowledge coming from different sources, mainly the emergency response plans (the formal knowledge) and the information extracted from the emergency development (the contextual knowledge); ...

  16. Psychological assessment of children in disasters and emergencies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Balaban, Victor

    2006-06-01

    Children and adolescents are among the most vulnerable members of communities affected by disasters and emergencies. There is a tremendous need for a systematic post-disaster psychological assessment of children and adolescents in order to understand better post-traumatic symptomatology in children and to identify populations that require an early intervention. This article reviews psychological instruments that are suitable for screening children and adolescents in emergency and disaster contexts for four different types of post-traumatic responses: post-traumatic stress disorder; depression; anxiety disorders; and behavioural disorders. A description of each instrument and psychometric data are provided, along with recommendations on the most appropriate instruments to be utilised in different emergency environments and a summary of previous post-disaster evaluations that have used each type. In addition to selecting apposite instruments, other important issues that should be taken into account when conducting post-emergency mental health needs appraisals of children and adolescents are discussed.

  17. Southern states radiological emergency response laws and regulations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1990-06-01

    The purpose of this report is to provide a summary of the emergency response laws and regulations in place in the various states within the southern region for use by legislators, emergency response planners, the general public and all persons concerned about the existing legal framework for emergency response. SSEB expects to periodically update the report as necessary. Radiation protection regulations without emergency response provisions are not included in the summary. The radiological emergency response laws and regulations of the Southern States Energy Compact member states are in some cases disparate. Several states have very specific laws on radiological emergency response while in others, the statutory law mentions only emergency response to ``natural disasters.`` Some states have adopted extensive regulations on the topic, others have none. For this reason, any general overview must necessarily discuss laws and regulations in general terms. State-by-state breakdowns are given for specific states.

  18. Assessment of internal doses in emergency situations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rahola, T.; Muikku, M. [Radiation and Nuclear Safety Authority - STUK (Finland); Falk, R.; Johansson, J. [Swedish Radiation Protection Authority - SSI (Sweden); Liland, A.; Thorshaug, S. [NRPA (Norway)

    2006-04-15

    The need for assessing internal radiation doses in emergency situations was demonstrated after accidents in Brazil, Ukraine and other countries. Lately more and more concern has been expressed regarding malevolent use of radiation and radioactive materials. The scenarios for such use are more difficult to predict than for nuclear power plant or weapons accidents. Much of the results of the work done in the IRADES project can be adopted for use in various accidental situations involving radionuclides that are not addressed in this report. If an emergency situation occurs in only one or a few of the Nordic countries, experts from the other countries could be called upon to assist in monitoring. A big advantage is then our common platform. In the Nordic countries much work has been put down on quality assurance of measurements and on training of dose assessment calculations. Attention to this was addressed at the internal dosimetry course in October 2005. Nordic emergency preparedness exercises have so far not included training of direct measurements of people in the early phase of an emergency. The aim of the IRADES project was to improve the preparedness especially for thyroid measurements. The modest financial support did not enable the participants to make big efforts but certainly acted as a much appreciated reminder of the importance of being prepared also to handle situations with malevolent use of radioactive materials. It was left to each country to decide to which extent to improve the practical skills. There is still a need for detailed national implementation plans. Measurement strategies need to be developed in each country separately taking into account national regulations, local circumstances and resources. End users of the IRADES report are the radiation protection authorities. (au)

  19. Incidence of emergency contacts (red responses to Norwegian emergency primary healthcare services in 2007 – a prospective observational study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hansen Elisabeth

    2009-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The municipalities are responsible for the emergency primary health care services in Norway. These services include casualty clinics, primary doctors on-call and local emergency medical communication centres (LEMC. The National centre for emergency primary health care has initiated an enterprise called "The Watchtowers", comprising emergency primary health care districts, to provide routine information (patients' way of contact, level of urgency and first action taken by the out-of-hours services over several years based on a minimal dataset. This will enable monitoring, evaluation and comparison of the respective activities in the emergency primary health care services. The aim of this study was to assess incidence of emergency contacts (potential life-threatening situations, red responses to the emergency primary health care service. Methods A representative sample of Norwegian emergency primary health care districts, "The Watchtowers" recorded all contacts and first action taken during the year of 2007. All the variables were continuously registered in a data program by the attending nurses and sent by email to the National Centre for Emergency Primary Health Care at a monthly basis. Results During 2007 the Watchtowers registered 85 288 contacts, of which 1 946 (2.3% were defined as emergency contacts (red responses, corresponding to a rate of 9 per 1 000 inhabitants per year. 65% of the instances were initiated by patient, next of kin or health personnel by calling local emergency medical communication centres or meeting directly at the casualty clinics. In 48% of the red responses, the first action taken was a call-out of doctor and ambulance. On a national basis we can estimate approximately 42 500 red responses per year in the EPH in Norway. Conclusion The emergency primary health care services constitute an important part of the emergency system in Norway. Patients call the LEMC or meet directly at casualty clinics

  20. Assessing Imaging Response to Therapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Minocha, Jeet; Lewandowski, Robert J

    2015-09-01

    Locoregional therapies (LRTs) have proved valuable in the treatment of patients with cancer, most commonly in the liver. Accurate assessment of response to these therapies is crucial because objective response can be a surrogate of improved survival. Imaging plays an essential role in the objective evaluation of tumor response to most cancer therapies, including LRTs. Assessing imaging response to LRTs, however, can be challenging and is evolving. This article reviews the different criteria used to assess radiologic response to LRTs, with special attention to imaging assessment following treatment of hepatocellular carcinoma. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  1. Web GIS for Airport Emergency Response - UML Model

    OpenAIRE

    Martina Baučić; Damir Medak

    2015-01-01

    The main objective of integrating Web GIS in airport emergency response should be to provide the most appropriate geospatial information to all participants. Airport emergency response still needs a model that will explain its complexity: its participants, their tasks and information needs. This paper presents the UML model of airport emergency response. Such a model facilitates a common understanding of the system by participants coming from airport, police, fire brigade, etc. It also enable...

  2. Southern states radiological emergency response laws and regulations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1989-02-01

    The radiological emergency response laws and regulations of the Southern States Energy Compact member states are in some cases disparate. Several states have very specific laws on radiological emergency response while in others, the statutory law mentions only emergency response to ``natural disasters.`` Some states have adopted extensive regulations on the topic; others have none. For this reason, any general overview must necessarily discuss laws and regulations in general terms.

  3. UN assesses tsunami response

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marion Couldrey

    2005-07-01

    Full Text Available A report to the UN’s Economic and Social Council (ECOSOC identifies lessons learned from the humanitarian response. Recommendations stress the need for national ownership and leadership of disaster response and recovery, improved coordination, transparent use of resources, civil society engagement and greater emphasis on risk reduction.

  4. Illustrating anticipatory life cycle assessment for emerging photovoltaic technologies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wender, Ben A; Foley, Rider W; Prado-Lopez, Valentina; Ravikumar, Dwarakanath; Eisenberg, Daniel A; Hottle, Troy A; Sadowski, Jathan; Flanagan, William P; Fisher, Angela; Laurin, Lise; Bates, Matthew E; Linkov, Igor; Seager, Thomas P; Fraser, Matthew P; Guston, David H

    2014-09-16

    Current research policy and strategy documents recommend applying life cycle assessment (LCA) early in research and development (R&D) to guide emerging technologies toward decreased environmental burden. However, existing LCA practices are ill-suited to support these recommendations. Barriers related to data availability, rapid technology change, and isolation of environmental from technical research inhibit application of LCA to developing technologies. Overcoming these challenges requires methodological advances that help identify environmental opportunities prior to large R&D investments. Such an anticipatory approach to LCA requires synthesis of social, environmental, and technical knowledge beyond the capabilities of current practices. This paper introduces a novel framework for anticipatory LCA that incorporates technology forecasting, risk research, social engagement, and comparative impact assessment, then applies this framework to photovoltaic (PV) technologies. These examples illustrate the potential for anticipatory LCA to prioritize research questions and help guide environmentally responsible innovation of emerging technologies.

  5. Putting It All Together: Integrating Ordinary People Into Emergency Response

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Scanlon, J.; Helsloot, I.; Groenendaal, J.

    2014-01-01

    Ordinary citizens may play an important role in the response to large or even small-scale emergencies. This however is often not recognized in the emergency plans and procedures developed by emergency services. As a consequence, the help of ordinary citizens is often underutilized or even rejected

  6. Emergency response training with the BNL plant analyzer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cheng, H.S.; Guppy, J.G.; Mallen, A.N.; Wulff, W.

    1987-01-01

    Presented is the experience in the use of the BNL Plant Analyzer for NRC emergency response training to simulated accidents in a BWR. The unique features of the BNL Plant Analyzer that are important for the emergency response training are summarized. A closed-loop simulation of all the key systems of a power plant in question was found essential to the realism of the emergency drills conducted at NRC. The faster than real-time simulation speeds afforded by the BNL Plant Analyzer have demonstrated its usefulness for the timely conduct of the emergency response training.

  7. 340 Facility emergency preparedness hazards assessment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    CAMPBELL, L.R.

    1998-11-25

    This document establishes the technical basis in support of Emergency Planning activities for the 340 Facility on the Hanford Site. Through this document, the technical basis for the development of facility specific Emergency Action Levels and Emergency Planning Zone, is demonstrated.

  8. Contraceptive Availability During an Emergency Response in the United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ellington, Sascha R; Kourtis, Athena P; Curtis, Kathryn M; Tepper, Naomi; Gorman, Susan; Jamieson, Denise J; Zotti, Marianne; Barfield, Wanda

    2015-01-01

    This article provides the evidence for contraceptive need to prevent unintended pregnancy during an emergency response, discusses the most appropriate types of contraceptives for disaster situations, and details the current provisions in place to provide contraceptives during an emergency response. PMID:23421580

  9. IEA Response System for Oil Supply Emergencies (2012 update)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2012-09-05

    Emergency response to oil supply disruptions has remained a core mission of the International Energy Agency since its founding in 1974. This information pamphlet explains the decisionmaking process leading to an IEA collective action, the measures available -- focusing on stockdraw -- and finally, the historical background of major oil supply disruptions and the IEA response to them. It also demonstrates the continuing need for emergency preparedness, including the growing importance of engaging key transition and emerging economies in dialogue about energy security.

  10. Comprehensive geriatric assessment in the emergency department

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ellis G

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available Graham Ellis,1 Trudi Marshall,2 Claire Ritchie2 1Medicine for the Elderly, Monklands Hospital, Airdrie, Scotland, UK; 2Kirklands Hospital, Bothwell, Scotland, UK Abstract: Changing global demography is resulting in older people presenting to emergency departments (EDs in greater numbers than ever before. They present with greater urgency and are more likely to be admitted to hospital or re-attend and utilize greater resources. They experience longer waits for care and are less likely to be satisfied with their experiences. Not only that, but older people suffer poorer health outcomes after ED attendance, with higher mortality rates and greater dependence in activities of daily living or rates of admission to nursing homes. Older people’s assessment and management in the ED can be complex, time consuming, and require specialist skills. The interplay of multiple comorbidities and functional decline result in the complex state of frailty that can predispose to poor health outcomes and greater care needs. Older people with frailty may present to services in an atypical fashion requiring detailed, multidimensional, and increasingly multidisciplinary care to provide the correct diagnosis and management as well as appropriate placement for ongoing care or admission avoidance. ­Specific challenges such as delirium, functional decline, or carer strain need to be screened for and managed appropriately. Identifying patients with specific frailty syndromes can be critical to identifying those at highest risk of poor outcomes and most likely to benefit from further specialist interventions. Models of care are evolving that aim to deliver multidimensional assessment and management by multidisciplinary specialist care teams (comprehensive geriatric assessment. Increasingly, these models are demonstrating improved outcomes, including admission avoidance or reduced death and dependence. Delivering this in the ED is an evolving area of practice that adapts the

  11. Technology Assessment and Roadmap for the Emergency Radiation Dose Assessment Program

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Turteltaub, K W; Hartman-Siantar, C; Easterly, C; Blakely, W

    2005-10-03

    A Joint Interagency Working Group (JIWG) under the auspices of the Department of Homeland Security Office of Research and Development conducted a technology assessment of emergency radiological dose assessment capabilities as part of the overall need for rapid emergency medical response in the event of a radiological terrorist event in the United States. The goal of the evaluation is to identify gaps and recommend general research and development needs to better prepare the Country for mitigating the effects of such an event. Given the capabilities and roles for responding to a radiological event extend across many agencies, a consensus of gaps and suggested development plans was a major goal of this evaluation and road-mapping effort. The working group consisted of experts representing the Departments of Homeland Security, Health and Human Services (Centers for Disease Control and the National Institutes of Health), Food and Drug Administration, Department of Defense and the Department of Energy's National Laboratories (see appendix A for participants). The specific goals of this Technology Assessment and Roadmap were to: (1) Describe the general context for deployment of emergency radiation dose assessment tools following terrorist use of a radiological or nuclear device; (2) Assess current and emerging dose assessment technologies; and (3) Put forward a consensus high-level technology roadmap for interagency research and development in this area. This report provides a summary of the consensus of needs, gaps and recommendations for a research program in the area of radiation dosimetry for early response, followed by a summary of the technologies available and on the near-term horizon. We then present a roadmap for a research program to bring present and emerging near-term technologies to bear on the gaps in radiation dose assessment and triage. Finally we present detailed supporting discussion on the nature of the threats we considered, the status of

  12. Web GIS for Airport Emergency Response - UML Model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Martina Baučić

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available The main objective of integrating Web GIS in airport emergency response should be to provide the most appropriate geospatial information to all participants. Airport emergency response still needs a model that will explain its complexity: its participants, their tasks and information needs. This paper presents the UML model of airport emergency response. Such a model facilitates a common understanding of the system by participants coming from airport, police, fire brigade, etc. It also enables institutional agreements for sharing data. The developers have got specifications of geospatial data and GIS functions imposed by participants and standards. A prototype Web GIS application is developed and presented to the users for evaluation. The prototype has shown how GIS functions can improve airport emergency response. The users have shown great interest, and they have great expectations in further integration of Web GIS in airport emergency response.

  13. Collective response of human populations to large-scale emergencies

    CERN Document Server

    Bagrow, James P; Barabási, Albert-László; 10.1371/journal.pone.0017680

    2011-01-01

    Despite recent advances in uncovering the quantitative features of stationary human activity patterns, many applications, from pandemic prediction to emergency response, require an understanding of how these patterns change when the population encounters unfamiliar conditions. To explore societal response to external perturbations we identified real-time changes in communication and mobility patterns in the vicinity of eight emergencies, such as bomb attacks and earthquakes, comparing these with eight non-emergencies, like concerts and sporting events. We find that communication spikes accompanying emergencies are both spatially and temporally localized, but information about emergencies spreads globally, resulting in communication avalanches that engage in a significant manner the social network of eyewitnesses. These results offer a quantitative view of behavioral changes in human activity under extreme conditions, with potential long-term impact on emergency detection and response.

  14. Development of agent based model for predicting emergency response time

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mainak Bandyopadhyay

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Determining the time to reach any incident location by an emergency service is a very important aspect for emergency management. In most of the developing countries road network is considered as a main infrastructure for transporting emergency services. Therefore in order to predict the response time consideration must be given to the characteristics of road segments and driving behaviour of emergency vehicle drivers. In this paper real time driving data by Fire emergency service of Allahabad city is collected using GPS logger HOLUX M1000C. The spatial trajectories collected from GPS logger are analysed in GIS along with road network, population density and landuse data to determine the driver's route deciding behaviour. Based on the integrated analysis the Fire Emergency Vehicle Agent is designed. The Agent based model is simulated to determine the response time which is subsequently compared with the real response time.

  15. Collective Response of Human Populations to Large-Scale Emergencies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barabási, Albert-László

    2011-01-01

    Despite recent advances in uncovering the quantitative features of stationary human activity patterns, many applications, from pandemic prediction to emergency response, require an understanding of how these patterns change when the population encounters unfamiliar conditions. To explore societal response to external perturbations we identified real-time changes in communication and mobility patterns in the vicinity of eight emergencies, such as bomb attacks and earthquakes, comparing these with eight non-emergencies, like concerts and sporting events. We find that communication spikes accompanying emergencies are both spatially and temporally localized, but information about emergencies spreads globally, resulting in communication avalanches that engage in a significant manner the social network of eyewitnesses. These results offer a quantitative view of behavioral changes in human activity under extreme conditions, with potential long-term impact on emergency detection and response. PMID:21479206

  16. Collective response of human populations to large-scale emergencies.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    James P Bagrow

    Full Text Available Despite recent advances in uncovering the quantitative features of stationary human activity patterns, many applications, from pandemic prediction to emergency response, require an understanding of how these patterns change when the population encounters unfamiliar conditions. To explore societal response to external perturbations we identified real-time changes in communication and mobility patterns in the vicinity of eight emergencies, such as bomb attacks and earthquakes, comparing these with eight non-emergencies, like concerts and sporting events. We find that communication spikes accompanying emergencies are both spatially and temporally localized, but information about emergencies spreads globally, resulting in communication avalanches that engage in a significant manner the social network of eyewitnesses. These results offer a quantitative view of behavioral changes in human activity under extreme conditions, with potential long-term impact on emergency detection and response.

  17. Communication, information seeking, and evacuation plans for a disaster using Community Assessment for Public Health Emergency Response in the GulF Coast counties of Alabama and Mississippi, 2011.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buttke, Danielle; Vagi, Sara; Bayleyegn, Tesfaye; Schnall, Amy; Morrison, Melissa; Allen, Mardi; Wolkin, Amy

    2013-01-01

    To determine communication, information seeking, and evacuation behaviors of coastal residents in a disaster-prone area. A two-stage, probability sampling design to select 210 households in each assessment area was used. Data were analyzed using a weighted cluster analysis to report projected households for each assessment area. Public health services areas of coastal Alabama and Mississippi. Eligible respondents were 18 years of age or older, had lived in the community for at least 30 days, and were residents of the selected household. Evacuation propensity, primary communication forms, primary information forms, and special needs. Most coastal residents would evacuate if recommended by public health authorities. Fewer residents had landlines (45.9-58.8 percent) compared to residents using cellular or mobile phone service only (84.3-95.8 percent), and these residents were significantly older compared to non-landline owning residents. Most residents own pets (61.9-70.1 percent). Our assessment suggests that the majority of Alabama and Mississippi coastal residents plan to evacuate during a disaster if recommended by public health authorities. However, public health authorities should strive to evaluate multiple forms of communication to disseminate disaster preparedness and response messages to reach all vulnerable residents, especially in situations where electric services might be compromised. Emergency preparedness personnel should also be prepared for a large pet population in the event of an evacuation.

  18. Preparedness Measures for Emergency and Disaster Response

    OpenAIRE

    Andersson Granberg, Tobias

    2013-01-01

    Quantitative preparedness measures can be used to calculate the level of preparedness for handling disasters or emergencies. They are useful for evaluating plans and preparations, and for comparing areas and organizations with each other. This chapter gives an introduction to the construction and use of such measures, and proposes a general methodology that can be applied when developing them. The methodology is exemplified on two case studies, the first concerning disaster preparedness, and ...

  19. CDC Online Course: Reproductive Health in Emergency Preparedness and Response.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zotti, Marianne E; Ellington, Sascha R; Perez, Mirna

    2016-09-01

    In an emergency, the needs of women of reproductive age, particularly pregnant and postpartum women, introduce unique challenges for public health and clinical care. Incorporating reproductive health issues and considerations into emergency preparedness and response is a relatively new field. In recent years, several resources and tools specific to reproductive health have been developed. However, there is still a need for training about the effects of emergencies on women of reproductive age. In an effort to train medical and public health professionals about these topics, the CDC Division of Reproductive Health developed Reproductive Health in Emergency Preparedness and Response, an online course that is available across the United States.

  20. Science in Emergency Response at CDC: Structure and Functions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rose, Dale A.; Ghiya, Neelam D.

    2017-01-01

    Recent high-profile activations of the US Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) Emergency Operations Center (EOC) include responses to the West African Ebola and Zika virus epidemics. Within the EOC, emergency responses are organized according to the Incident Management System, which provides a standardized structure and chain of command, regardless of whether the EOC activation occurs in response to an outbreak, natural disaster, or other type of public health emergency. By embedding key scientific roles, such as the associate director for science, and functions within a Scientific Response Section, the current CDC emergency response structure ensures that both urgent and important science issues receive needed attention. Key functions during emergency responses include internal coordination of scientific work, data management, information dissemination, and scientific publication. We describe a case example involving the ongoing Zika virus response that demonstrates how the scientific response structure can be used to rapidly produce high-quality science needed to answer urgent public health questions and guide policy. Within the context of emergency response, longer-term priorities at CDC include both streamlining administrative requirements and funding mechanisms for scientific research. PMID:28892452

  1. Science in Emergency Response at CDC: Structure and Functions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iskander, John; Rose, Dale A; Ghiya, Neelam D

    2017-09-01

    Recent high-profile activations of the US Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) Emergency Operations Center (EOC) include responses to the West African Ebola and Zika virus epidemics. Within the EOC, emergency responses are organized according to the Incident Management System, which provides a standardized structure and chain of command, regardless of whether the EOC activation occurs in response to an outbreak, natural disaster, or other type of public health emergency. By embedding key scientific roles, such as the associate director for science, and functions within a Scientific Response Section, the current CDC emergency response structure ensures that both urgent and important science issues receive needed attention. Key functions during emergency responses include internal coordination of scientific work, data management, information dissemination, and scientific publication. We describe a case example involving the ongoing Zika virus response that demonstrates how the scientific response structure can be used to rapidly produce high-quality science needed to answer urgent public health questions and guide policy. Within the context of emergency response, longer-term priorities at CDC include both streamlining administrative requirements and funding mechanisms for scientific research.

  2. Community Assessment Tool for Public Health Emergencies Including Pandemic Influenza

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    HCTT-CHE

    2011-04-14

    The Community Assessment Tool (CAT) for Public Health Emergencies Including Pandemic Influenza (hereafter referred to as the CAT) was developed as a result of feedback received from several communities. These communities participated in workshops focused on influenza pandemic planning and response. The 2008 through 2011 workshops were sponsored by the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC). Feedback during those workshops indicated the need for a tool that a community can use to assess its readiness for a disaster—readiness from a total healthcare perspective, not just hospitals, but the whole healthcare system. The CAT intends to do just that—help strengthen existing preparedness plans by allowing the healthcare system and other agencies to work together during an influenza pandemic. It helps reveal each core agency partners' (sectors) capabilities and resources, and highlights cases of the same vendors being used for resource supplies (e.g., personal protective equipment [PPE] and oxygen) by the partners (e.g., public health departments, clinics, or hospitals). The CAT also addresses gaps in the community's capabilities or potential shortages in resources. While the purpose of the CAT is to further prepare the community for an influenza pandemic, its framework is an extension of the traditional all-hazards approach to planning and preparedness. As such, the information gathered by the tool is useful in preparation for most widespread public health emergencies. This tool is primarily intended for use by those involved in healthcare emergency preparedness (e.g., community planners, community disaster preparedness coordinators, 9-1-1 directors, hospital emergency preparedness coordinators). It is divided into sections based on the core agency partners, which may be involved in the community's influenza pandemic influenza response.

  3. Emergency response networks for disaster monitoring and detection from space

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vladimirova, Tanya; Sweeting, Martin N.; Vitanov, Ivan; Vitanov, Valentin I.

    2009-05-01

    Numerous man-made and natural disasters have stricken mankind since the beginning of the new millennium. The scale and impact of such disasters often prevent the collection of sufficient data for an objective assessment and coordination of timely rescue and relief missions on the ground. As a potential solution to this problem, in recent years constellations of Earth observation small satellites and in particular micro-satellites (<100 kg) in low Earth orbit have emerged as an efficient platform for reliable disaster monitoring. The main task of the Earth observation satellites is to capture images of the Earth surface using various techniques. For a large number of applications the resulting delay between image capture and delivery is not acceptable, in particular for rapid response remote sensing aiming at disaster monitoring and detection. In such cases almost instantaneous data availability is a strict requirement to enable an assessment of the situation and instigate an adequate response. Examples include earthquakes, volcanic eruptions, flooding, forest fires and oil spills. The proposed solution to this issue are low-cost networked distributed satellite systems in low Earth orbit capable of connecting to terrestrial networks and geostationary Earth orbit spacecraft in real time. This paper discusses enabling technologies for rapid response disaster monitoring and detection from space such as very small satellite design, intersatellite communication, intelligent on-board processing, distributed computing and bio-inspired routing techniques.

  4. Evolutionary emergence of responsive and unresponsive personalities

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wolf, M.; Van Doorn, G.S.; Weissing, F.J.

    2008-01-01

    In many animal species, individuals differ consistently in suites of correlated behaviors, comparable with human personalities. Increasing evidence suggests that one of the fundamental factors structuring personality differences is the responsiveness of individuals to environmental stimuli. Whereas

  5. Unmanned Mobile Monitoring for Nuclear Emergency Response

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Choi, YoungSoo; Park, JongWon; Kim, TaeWon; Jeong, KyungMin [Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2016-10-15

    Severe accidents at nuclear power plant have led to significant consequences to the people, the environment or the facility. Therefore, the appropriate response is required for the mitigation of the accidents. In the past, most of responses were performed by human beings, but it was dangerous and risky. In this paper, we proposed unmanned mobile system for the monitoring of nuclear accident in order to response effectively. For the integrity of reactor cooling and containment building, reactor cooling pipe and hydrogen distribution monitoring with unmanned ground vehicle was designed. And, for the safety of workers, radiation distribution monitoring with unmanned aerial vehicle was designed. Unmanned mobile monitoring system was proposed to respond nuclear accidents effectively. Concept of reinforcing the integrity of RCS and containment building, and radiation distribution monitoring were described. RCS flow measuring, hydrogen distribution measuring and radiation monitoring deployed at unmanned vehicle were proposed. These systems could be a method for the preparedness of effective response of nuclear accidents.

  6. Emergency Medicine Resident Assessment of the Emergency Ultrasound Milestones and Current Training Recommendations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stolz, Lori A; Stolz, Uwe; Fields, J Matthew; Saul, Turandot; Secko, Michael; Flannigan, Matthew J; Sheele, Johnathan M; Rifenburg, Robert P; Weekes, Anthony J; Josephson, Elaine B; Bedolla, John; Resop, Dana M; Dela Cruz, Jonathan; Boysen-Osborn, Megan; Caffery, Terrell; Derr, Charlotte; Bengiamin, Rimon; Chiricolo, Gerardo; Backlund, Brandon; Heer, Jagdipak; Hyde, Robert J; Adhikari, Srikar

    2017-03-01

    Emergency ultrasound (EUS) has been recognized as integral to the training and practice of emergency medicine (EM). The Council of Emergency Medicine Residency-Academy of Emergency Ultrasound (CORD-AEUS) consensus document provides guidelines for resident assessment and progression. The Accredited Council for Graduate Medical Education (ACGME) has adopted the EM Milestones for assessment of residents' progress during their residency training, which includes demonstration of procedural competency in bedside ultrasound. The objective of this study was to assess EM residents' use of ultrasound and perceptions of the proposed ultrasound milestones and guidelines for assessment. This study is a prospective stratified cluster sample survey of all U.S. EM residency programs. Programs were stratified based on their geographic location (Northeast, South, Midwest, West), presence/absence of ultrasound fellowship program, and size of residency with programs sampled randomly from each stratum. The survey was reviewed by experts in the field and pilot tested on EM residents. Summary statistics and 95% confidence intervals account for the survey design, with sampling weights equal to the inverse of the probability of selection, and represent national estimates of all EM residents. There were 539 participants from 18 residency programs with an overall survey response rate of 85.1%. EM residents considered several applications to be core applications that were not considered core applications by CORD-AEUS (quantitative bladder volume, diagnosis of joint effusion, interstitial lung fluid, peritonsillar abscess, fetal presentation, and gestational age estimation). Of several core and advanced applications, the Focused Assessment with Sonography in Trauma examination, vascular access, diagnosis of pericardial effusion, and cardiac standstill were considered the most likely to be used in future clinical practice. Residents responded that procedural guidance would be more crucial to

  7. Fight or flight: the ethics of emergency physician disaster response.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iserson, Kenneth V; Heine, Carlton E; Larkin, Gregory Luke; Moskop, John C; Baruch, Jay; Aswegan, Andrew L

    2008-04-01

    Most disaster plans depend on using emergency physicians, nurses, emergency department support staff, and out-of-hospital personnel to maintain the health care system's front line during crises that involve personal risk to themselves or their families. Planners automatically assume that emergency health care workers will respond. However, we need to ask: Should they, and will they, work rather than flee? The answer involves basic moral and personal issues. This article identifies and examines the factors that influence health care workers' decisions in these situations. After reviewing physicians' response to past disasters and epidemics, we evaluate how much danger they actually faced. Next, we examine guidelines from medical professional organizations about physicians' duty to provide care despite personal risks, although we acknowledge that individuals will interpret and apply professional expectations and norms according to their own situation and values. The article goes on to articulate moral arguments for a duty to treat during disasters and social crises, as well as moral reasons that may limit or override such a duty. How fear influences behavior is examined, as are the institutional and social measures that can be taken to control fear and to encourage health professionals to provide treatment in crisis situations. Finally, the article emphasizes the importance of effective risk communication in enabling health care professionals and the public to make informed and defensible decisions during disasters. We conclude that the decision to stay or leave will ultimately depend on individuals' risk assessment and their value systems. Preparations for the next pandemic or disaster should include policies that encourage emergency physicians, who are inevitably among those at highest risk, to "stay and fight."

  8. Current status of research on emergency response measures at JAERI

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ishigami, Tsutomu; Kobayashi, Kensuke [Japan Atomic Energy Research Inst., Tokai, Ibaraki (Japan). Tokai Research Establishment

    1998-03-01

    If an accident occurs at a nuclear power plant and if it affects, or is anticipated to affect, the environment by radioactive material release, it is important to minimize consequences to the public by conducting appropriate protective measures, in evaluating source terms (an amount of fission products released to the environment), environmental radiological consequences, effects of the protective measures, and so on. It is also important to give necessary information on the protective measures to the public so as to conduct the measures effectively. In order to support radiological emergency response measures and to contribute to improve emergency plans, the Japan Atomic Energy Research Institute (JAERI) is developing a computerized support system for the Emergency Technical Advisory Body and a computerized system for optimizing off-site emergency protective measures, and is studying appropriate information transmission methods in an emergency. This report describes current status of research on emergency response measures performed at JAERI. (author)

  9. Exploring mHealth Participation for Emergency Response Communities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David G. Schwartz

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available We explore the challenges of participation by members of emergency response communities who share a similar condition and treatment, and are called upon to participate in emergency events experienced by fellow members. Smartphones and location-based social networking technologies present an opportunity to re-engineer certain aspects of emergency medical response. Life-saving prescription medication extended in an emergency by one individual to another occurs on a micro level, anecdotally documented. We illustrate the issues and our approach through the example of an app to support patients prone to anaphylaxis and prescribed to carry epinephrine auto-injectors. We address unique participation challenges in an mHealth environment in which interventions are primarily short-term interactions which require clear and precise decision-making and constant tracking of potential participants in responding to an emergency medical event. The conflicting effects of diffused responsibility and shared identity are identified as key factors in modeling participation.

  10. Current Trends in Gamma Ray Detection for Radiological Emergency Response

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mukhopadhyay, S., Guss, P., Maurer, R.

    2011-08-18

    Passive and active detection of gamma rays from shielded radioactive materials, including special nuclear materials, is an important task for any radiological emergency response organization. This article reports on the current trends and status of gamma radiation detection objectives and measurement techniques as applied to nonproliferation and radiological emergencies.

  11. 49 CFR 172.602 - Emergency response information.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... Involving Dangerous Goods” and, aboard vessels, the IMO “Emergency Procedures for Ships Carrying Dangerous... 49 Transportation 2 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Emergency response information. 172.602 Section 172.602 Transportation Other Regulations Relating to Transportation PIPELINE AND HAZARDOUS MATERIALS...

  12. Simulation of Operators' Response in Emergencies

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rasmussen, Jens

    1986-01-01

    For the simulation of the accidental course of events in industrial process plants, a model is needed of operators' response to the cues presented by the system. A model is proposed, based on the simplifications which can be made when restricting attention to the operator functions having...

  13. EMERGENCY RESPONSE FOR PUBLIC WATER SUPPLIES AFTER HURRICANE KATRINA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hurricane Katrina resulted in damage and destruction to local water supplies in Mississippi and Louisiana affecting millions of people. Immediately following the devastation, a multidisciplinary team of 30 EPA emergency response, research, and water program personnel joined force...

  14. Minicomputer Capabilities Related to Meteorological Aspects of Emergency Response

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rarnsdell, J. V.; Athey, G. F.; Ballinger, M. Y.

    1982-02-01

    The purpose of this report is to provide the NRC staff involved in reviewing licensee emergency response plans with background information on the capabilities of minicomputer systems that are related to the collection and dissemination of meteorological infonmation. The treatment of meteorological information by organizations with existing emergency response capabilities is described, and the capabilities, reliability and availability of minicomputers and minicomputer systems are discussed.

  15. Ocular responses and visual performance after emergent acceleration stress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsai, Ming-Ling; Horng, Chi-Ting; Liu, Chun-Cheng; Shieh, Pochuen; Hung, Chun-Ling; Lu, Da-Wen; Chiang, Shang-Yi; Wu, Yi-Cheng; Chiou, Wen-Yaw

    2011-11-07

    To evaluate visual function after emergent acceleration stress. Sixteen subjects were enrolled in this study. Human ejection seat trainer was used to induce six times gravitational force in the head-to-toe (z-axis) direction (+6 Gz). Visual performance was evaluated using the visual chart and contrast sensitivity (CS) at indicated times. Ocular reactions were assessed with biomicroscopy and topographic mapping. Temporary visual acuity reduction (0.02 ± 0.05 vs. 0.18 ± 0.08 logMAR visual acuity [VA]; P spatial frequencies immediately after ejection. However, CS returned to the initial range at high spatial frequency by 30 minutes. Emergent acceleration force induces significant ocular responses and visual fluctuation. Prolonged ACD deepening (>15 minutes) and PD (>30 minutes) were noted, but cornea and refraction remain stable. CS at all spatial frequencies revealed remarkable reduction immediately after ejection, and recovered to baseline levels within 30 minutes only at high spatial frequency. Neuroretinal function may involve visual fluctuation after acceleration stress, because visual fluctuation corresponds with the characters of neuroretinal function. However, further studies are necessary.

  16. Elder neglect assessment in the emergency department.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fulmer, T; Paveza, G; Abraham, I; Fairchild, S

    2000-10-01

    Emergency departments are often the first point of contact for elder neglect victims. The purpose of this article is to describe a pilot study pertaining to the screening of patients and detection of elder neglect conducted in a large metropolitan medical center emergency department. The research question to be answered was, "Is it feasible for ED nurses to conduct accurate screening protocols for elder neglect in the context of their busy practice?" During a 3-week period, 180 patients older than age 70 years (90% of all possible elderly patients during the screening hours) were screened to determine if they met the study criteria and could be enrolled into the protocol. Thirty-six patients met the eligibility criteria to enroll in the study, and 7 patients screened positive for neglect by a home caregiver. The nurses were able to screen and detect elder neglect with more than 70% accuracy, confirming the research question. The true-positive rate was 71%, and the false-positive rate was 7%. Elder neglect protocols are feasible in busy emergency departments, and neglect can be accurately detected in the emergency department when screening procedures are in place.

  17. Simulation for Assessment of Milestones in Emergency Medicine Residents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hart, Danielle; Bond, William; Siegelman, Jeffery; Miller, Daniel; Cassara, Michael; Barker, Lisa; Anders, Shilo; Ahn, James; Huang, Hubert; Strother, Christopher; Hui, Joshua

    2017-08-20

    All residency programs in the United States are required to report their residents' progress on the milestones to the Accreditation Council for Graduate Medical Education (ACGME) biannually. Since the development and institution of this competency-based assessment framework, residency programs have been attempting to ascertain the best ways to assess resident performance on these metrics. Simulation was recommended by the ACGME as one method of assessment for many of the milestone subcompetencies. We developed three simulation scenarios with scenario-specific milestone-based assessment tools. We aimed to gather validity evidence for this tool. We conducted a prospective observational study to investigate the validity evidence for three mannequin-based simulation scenarios for assessing individual residents on emergency medicine (EM) milestones. The subcompetencies (i.e., patient care [PC]1, PC2, PC3) included were identified via a modified Delphi technique using a group of experienced EM simulationists. The scenario-specific checklist (CL) items were designed based on the individual milestone items within each EM subcompetency chosen for assessment and reviewed by experienced EM simulationists. Two independent live raters who were EM faculty at the respective study sites scored each scenario following brief rater training. The inter-rater reliability (IRR) of the assessment tool was determined by measuring intraclass correlation coefficient (ICC) for the sum of the CL items as well as the global rating scales (GRSs) for each scenario. Comparing GRS and CL scores between various postgraduate year (PGY) levels was performed with analysis of variance. Eight subcompetencies were chosen to assess with three simulation cases, using 118 subjects. Evidence of test content, internal structure, response process, and relations with other variables were found. The ICCs for the sum of the CL items and the GRSs were >0.8 for all cases, with one exception (clinical management

  18. Analysis of emergency response procedures and air traffic accidents ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Incessant air transport accidents have been a source of concern to stakeholders and aviation experts in Nigeria, yet the response and process has not been adequately appraised. This study attempts an evaluation of the emergency response procedures in the aviation industry with particular focus on Murtala Muhammed ...

  19. Social Media in Emergency Management: Capability Assessment

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-05-01

    est de trouver le moyen de concilier la culture hiérarchique de type « commandement et contrôle » des organismes de gestion des urgences avec la...implementing an effective capability is resolving how to bridge the command-and-control, hierarchical culture of emergency management organizations to...the horizontal, networked culture of the digital domain. The report offers suggestions on how to improve and mature the implementation of social

  20. Employer Requirements to Work during Emergency Responses: Key Ethics Considerations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rutkow, Lainie; Taylor, Holly A; Powell, Tia

    2017-03-01

    Local health departments and their employees are at the forefront of emergency preparedness and response. Yet, recent studies have found that some local public health workers are unwilling to report to work in a variety of disaster scenarios. This can greatly compromise a response, as many local health departments need "all hands on deck" to effectively meet increased demands. To address these concerns, local health departments have employed varied policy strategies to ensure that employees do report to work. After describing different approaches taken by local health departments throughout the United States, we briefly identify and explore key ethics considerations that arise for local health departments when employees are required to report to work for emergency responses. We then discuss how these ethics considerations may inform local health department practices intended to promote a robust emergency response.

  1. UTILIZING SAR AND MULTISPECTRAL INTEGRATED DATA FOR EMERGENCY RESPONSE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Havivi

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Satellite images are used widely in the risk cycle to understand the exposure, refine hazard maps and quickly provide an assessment after a natural or man-made disaster. Though there are different types of satellite images (e.g. optical, radar these have not been combined for risk assessments. The characteristics of different remote sensing data type may be extremely valuable for monitoring and evaluating the impacts of disaster events, to extract additional information thus making it available for emergency situations. To base this approach, two different change detection methods, for two different sensor's data were used: Coherence Change Detection (CCD for SAR data and Covariance Equalization (CE for multispectral imagery. The CCD provides an identification of the stability of an area, and shows where changes have occurred. CCD shows subtle changes with an accuracy of several millimetres to centimetres. The CE method overcomes the atmospheric effects differences between two multispectral images, taken at different times. Therefore, areas that had undergone a major change can be detected. To achieve our goals, we focused on the urban areas affected by the tsunami event in Sendai, Japan that occurred on March 11, 2011 which affected the surrounding area, coastline and inland. High resolution TerraSAR-X (TSX and Landsat 7 images, covering the research area, were acquired for the period before and after the event. All pre-processed and processed according to each sensor. Both results, of the optical and SAR algorithms, were combined by resampling the spatial resolution of the Multispectral data to the SAR resolution. This was applied by spatial linear interpolation. A score representing the damage level in both products was assigned. The results of both algorithms, high level of damage is shown in the areas closer to the sea and shoreline. Our approach, combining SAR and multispectral images, leads to more reliable information and provides a

  2. Utilizing SAR and Multispectral Integrated Data for Emergency Response

    Science.gov (United States)

    Havivi, S.; Schvartzman, I.; Maman, S.; Marinoni, A.; Gamba, P.; Rotman, S. R.; Blumberg, D. G.

    2016-06-01

    Satellite images are used widely in the risk cycle to understand the exposure, refine hazard maps and quickly provide an assessment after a natural or man-made disaster. Though there are different types of satellite images (e.g. optical, radar) these have not been combined for risk assessments. The characteristics of different remote sensing data type may be extremely valuable for monitoring and evaluating the impacts of disaster events, to extract additional information thus making it available for emergency situations. To base this approach, two different change detection methods, for two different sensor's data were used: Coherence Change Detection (CCD) for SAR data and Covariance Equalization (CE) for multispectral imagery. The CCD provides an identification of the stability of an area, and shows where changes have occurred. CCD shows subtle changes with an accuracy of several millimetres to centimetres. The CE method overcomes the atmospheric effects differences between two multispectral images, taken at different times. Therefore, areas that had undergone a major change can be detected. To achieve our goals, we focused on the urban areas affected by the tsunami event in Sendai, Japan that occurred on March 11, 2011 which affected the surrounding area, coastline and inland. High resolution TerraSAR-X (TSX) and Landsat 7 images, covering the research area, were acquired for the period before and after the event. All pre-processed and processed according to each sensor. Both results, of the optical and SAR algorithms, were combined by resampling the spatial resolution of the Multispectral data to the SAR resolution. This was applied by spatial linear interpolation. A score representing the damage level in both products was assigned. The results of both algorithms, high level of damage is shown in the areas closer to the sea and shoreline. Our approach, combining SAR and multispectral images, leads to more reliable information and provides a complete scene for

  3. Emergency Response Program Designing Based On Case Study ERP Regulations In Ilam Gas Refinery

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mehdi Tahmasbi

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available The study of Emergency response plan designing is one of the most important prevention approaches in crisis management. This study aims to design emergency response plan based on case study ERP regulations in Ilam gas refinery. On the basis of risk assessment and identification techniques such as HAZOP and FMEA in Ilam gas refinery the risks have been prioritized and then according to this prioritization the design of possible scenarios which have the highest rate of occurrence and the highest level of damage has been separated. Possible scenarios were simulated with PHAST software. Then emergency response program has been designed for the special mode or similar cases. According to the internal emergency response plan for Ilam gas refinery and predictable conditions of the process special instructions should be considered at the time of the incident to suffer the least damage on people and environment in the shortest time possible.

  4. Hanford Site emergency response needs, Volumes 1 and 2

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Good, D.E.

    1996-04-16

    This report presents the results of a comprehensive third party needs assessment of the Hanford Fire Department (HFD), conducted by Hughes Associates Inc. The assessment was commissioned with the intent of obtaining an unbiased report which could be used as a basis for identifying needed changes/modifications to the fire department and its services. This report serves several functions: (1) it documents current and future site operations and associated hazards and risks identified as a result of document review, site and facility surveys, and interviews with knowledgeable personnel; (2) describes the HFD in terms of organization, existing resources and response capabilities; (3) identifies regulatory and other requirements that are applicable to the HFD and includes a discussion of associated legal liabilities; and (4) provides recommendations based on applicable requirements and existing conditions. Each recommendation is followed by a supporting statement to clarify the intent or justification of the recommendation. This report will be followed by a Master Plan document which will present an implementation method for the recommendations (with associated costs) considered to be essential to maintaining adequate, cost effective emergency services at the Hanford site in the next five to seven years.

  5. SRNL EMERGENCY RESPONSE CAPABILITY FOR ATMOSPHERIC CONTAMINANT RELEASES

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Koffman, L; Chuck Hunter, C; Robert Buckley, R; Robert Addis, R

    2006-07-12

    Emergency response to an atmospheric release of chemical or radiological contamination is enhanced when plume predictions, field measurements, and real-time weather information are integrated into a geospatial framework. The Weather Information and Display (WIND) System at Savannah River National Laboratory (SRNL) utilizes such an integrated framework. The rapid availability of predictions from a suite of atmospheric transport models within this geospatial framework has proven to be of great value to decision makers during an emergency involving an atmospheric contaminant release.

  6. Emergency response preparedness: the French experience of large scale exercises

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chanson, D.; Desnoyers, B. [COGEMA Logistics (AREVA Group) (France); Chabane, J.M. [Autorite de Surete Nucleaire (Direction Generale de la Surete Nucleaire et de la Radioprotection) (France)

    2004-07-01

    In compliance with the IAEA regulations for the transport of radioactive material in the event of accidents during transport of radioactive material, emergency provisions to protect persons, property and environment have to be established and developed by the relevant national organisations. In France, the prefect of the department where the accident occurs is responsible for decisions and measures required to ensure the protection of both population and property at risk owing to the accident. During an accident, the ministers concerned provide the prefect with recommendations and information, in order to help him take the requisite decisions. On their side, the nuclear industry and transport companies also have to be prepared to intervene and to support the authorities at their request, depending on their capacities and their specialities. To prepare the emergency teams properly and acquire effective emergency plans, training exercises have to be conducted regularly with every ministerial department involved, the nuclear industry and transport companies, members of the public and the media. Then, the feedback from such exercises shall be taken into account to improve the emergency procedures. This paper will introduce: - emergency response preparedness: what is required by the relevant regulations? - emergency response preparedness: how is France organised? - the French experience of conducting large training exercises simulating accidents involving the transport of radioactive material; - the main difficulties and lessons learned; - the perspectives.

  7. Integrating Social Media Monitoring Into Public Health Emergency Response Operations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hadi, Tamer A; Fleshler, Keren

    2016-10-01

    Social media monitoring for public health emergency response and recovery is an essential response capability for any health department. The value of social media for emergency response lies not only in the capacity to rapidly communicate official and critical incident information, but as a rich source of incoming data that can be gathered to inform leadership decision-making. Social media monitoring is a function that can be formally integrated into the Incident Command System of any response agency. The approach to planning and required resources, such as staffing, logistics, and technology, is flexible and adaptable based on the needs of the agency and size and scope of the emergency. The New York City Department of Health and Mental Hygiene has successfully used its Social Media Monitoring Team during public health emergency responses and planned events including major Ebola and Legionnaires' disease responses. The concepts and implementations described can be applied by any agency, large or small, interested in building a social media monitoring capacity. (Disaster Med Public Health Preparedness. 2016;page 1 of 6).

  8. Government of Alberta emergency response plan for sour gas release

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1988-01-20

    This plan explains the Government of Alberta's response to a sour gas emergency. The Energy Resources Conservation Board (ERCB) is the lead agency in overseeing government response to the emergency and is responsible for initiating the plan. The industrial operator is required by the ERCB to have a comprehensive emergency plan in place that is initiated as soon as any sour gas release occurs. In the event a release appears imminent, the operator and ERCB will jointly agree on initiating the appropriate plans. This plan includes drilling and operating wells and other sour facilities. Individuals living within a designated emergency planning zone (based on predicted sour gas release rates) are aware of such plans and would be evacuated immediately by the operator if a release occurred. The operator would also commence mobile monitoring for sour gas. An on-site command post is established by the operator to control sour gas release. Local municipalities are advised in the very early municipal and industrial operator's plans must be mutually supportive and co-ordinated. Concurrently, the Government's plan is activated when a sour gas release occurs or is imminent. This plan describes the concept of operations, responsibilities of Alberta Government departments and agencies, and some detailed aspects of the management of the actual emergency. 2 figs.

  9. A Framework for Evaluating Emergency Preparedness Plans and Response Strategies

    OpenAIRE

    A. Larson

    2008-01-01

    A framework for evaluating emergency preparedness plans is presented, aimed at preparedness plans requiring multi-agency cooperation and coordination. The approach relies on an evaluation by criteria, assessing degrees of fulfillment for criteria which are collected from findings in social science research on emergency management. The criteria are categorised into 1) organisational criteria, 2) maturity criteria, and 3) effectiveness criteria. The first category is concerned with properties ...

  10. Effect of simulated emergency skills training and assessments on ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The strategy of teaching/learning and assessment of emergency skills in simulation was highly effective in enhancing the competence and confidence of medical students when managing a clinical emergency. However, students appeared to be overconfident, which could be ascribed to ignorance, and possibly indicates ...

  11. Assessment of Emergency Obstetric Care Services in Ibadan ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Nigeria's high maternal mortality has been attributed to poor utilization of obstetric care services to handle complications of pregnancy and childbirth. But how available are standard emergency obstetric care services? This facility based cross sectional study assessed the availability and accessibility of emergency obstetric ...

  12. Assessment of emergency medical services in the Ashanti region of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background: We aimed to assess the structure, function and performance of Ashanti Region's emergency medical services system in the context of the regional need for prehospital emergency care. Design: A mixed-methods approach was employed, using retrospective collection of quantitative data and prospectively ...

  13. Japan introduces a SPEEDI response to emergencies. [System for Prediction of Environmental Emergency Dose Information

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fukuyama, Shigeru (Nuclear Safety Technology Center, Tokyo (Japan))

    1993-01-01

    The system for Prediction of Environmental Emergency Dose Information (SPEEDI), has been under development since 1980 by the Science and Technology Agency of Japan (STA), JAERI, and the Japan Meteorological Research Institute. SPEEDI provides realistic dose assessments and estimates of radiation concentrations they may result from an atmospheric release of radioactive materials, using advanced computer-based data communications and processing systems to calculate atmospheric dispersion for radiation consequence assessments. These assessments include applicable meteorological data and source term information. (Author).

  14. Exploratory analysis of real personal emergency response call conversations: considerations for personal emergency response spoken dialogue systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Young, Victoria; Rochon, Elizabeth; Mihailidis, Alex

    2016-11-14

    The purpose of this study was to derive data from real, recorded, personal emergency response call conversations to help improve the artificial intelligence and decision making capability of a spoken dialogue system in a smart personal emergency response system. The main study objectives were to: develop a model of personal emergency response; determine categories for the model's features; identify and calculate measures from call conversations (verbal ability, conversational structure, timing); and examine conversational patterns and relationships between measures and model features applicable for improving the system's ability to automatically identify call model categories and predict a target response. This study was exploratory and used mixed methods. Personal emergency response calls were pre-classified according to call model categories identified qualitatively from response call transcripts. The relationships between six verbal ability measures, three conversational structure measures, two timing measures and three independent factors: caller type, risk level, and speaker type, were examined statistically. Emergency medical response services were the preferred response for the majority of medium and high risk calls for both caller types. Older adult callers mainly requested non-emergency medical service responders during medium risk situations. By measuring the number of spoken words-per-minute and turn-length-in-words for the first spoken utterance of a call, older adult and care provider callers could be identified with moderate accuracy. Average call taker response time was calculated using the number-of-speaker-turns and time-in-seconds measures. Care providers and older adults used different conversational strategies when responding to call takers. The words 'ambulance' and 'paramedic' may hold different latent connotations for different callers. The data derived from the real personal emergency response recordings may help a spoken dialogue system

  15. Emergency nurses' decisions regarding frequency and nature of vital sign assessment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lambe, Katherine; Currey, Judy; Considine, Julie

    2017-07-01

    To explore the factors emergency nurses use to inform their decisions regarding frequency and nature of vital sign assessment. Research related to clinical deterioration and vital sign assessment in the emergency department is in its infancy. Studies to date have explored the frequency of vital sign assessment in the emergency department; however, there are no published studies that have examined factors that emergency nurses use to inform their decisions regarding frequency and nature of ongoing vital sign assessment. A prospective exploratory design was used. Data were collected using a survey consisting of eight patient vignettes. The study was conducted in one emergency department in metropolitan Melbourne. Participants were emergency nurses permanently employed at the study site. A 96% response rate was achieved (n = 47/49). The most common frequency of patient reassessment nominated by participants was 15 or 30 minutely, with an equal number of participants choosing these frequency intervals. Abnormality in initial vital sign parameters was the most common factor identified for choosing either a 15- or 30-minute assessment interval. Frequency of assessment decisions was influenced by years of emergency nursing experience in one vignette and level of postgraduate qualification in three vignettes. Heart rate, respiratory rate and blood pressure were all nominated by over 80% of participants as vital signs that participants considered important for reassessment. The frequency and nature of vital signs selected varied according to vignette content. There were significant negative correlations between assessment of conscious state and years of nursing experience and assessment of respiratory rate and years of emergency nursing experience. Level of postgraduate qualification did not influence selection of parameters for reassessment. Emergency nurses are tailoring vital sign assessment to patients' clinical status, and nurses are integrating known vital sign data

  16. Oil supply security -- Emergency response of IEA countries 2007

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2007-11-29

    When Hurricane Katrina hit the Gulf of Mexico in 2005, the region's oil production and refining infrastructure was devastated and world energy markets were disrupted. The International Energy Agency decided in a matter of days to bring 60 million barrels of additional oil to the market. The emergency response system worked - the collective action helped to stabilise global markets. Since its founding in 1974, oil supply security has been a core mission of the IEA and the Agency has improved its mechanisms to respond to short-term oil supply disruptions. Nevertheless, numerous factors will continue to test the delicate balance of supply and demand. Oil demand growth will continue to accelerate in Asia; oil will be increasingly produced by a shrinking number of countries; and capacities in the supply chain will need to expand. These are just a few of the challenges facing an already tight market. What are the emergency response systems of IEA countries? How are their emergency structures organised? How prepared is the IEA to deal with an oil supply disruption? This publication addresses these questions. It presents another cycle of rigorous reviews of the emergency response mechanisms of IEA member countries. The goal of these reviews is to ensure that the IEA stays ready to respond effectively to oil supply disruptions. This publication also includes overviews of how China, India and countries of Southeast Asia are progressing with domestic policies to improve oil supply security, based on emergency stocks.

  17. Emergency Response using Ephemeral Social Communities across Online Social Networks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Youna Jung

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available In an emergency situation, receiving prompt and organized help from nearby people is of critical importance. The growing use of online social networks (OSNs in emergency situations is a clear indication of the natural applicability of online social networking technologies to emergency responses. Despite this intense interest, a number of fundamental limitations still exist, such as lack of conceptual models and limitations on group organization and cooperation. To address existing limitations, we propose Whistle+ – a cooperation framework for OSN users which can 1 dynamically organize an emergency community with nearby eligible users who are distributed in heterogeneous online social networks, and 2 guarantee secure communication, unrestricted cooperation and resource sharing by leveraging the SocialVPN virtual network and the Jitsi communicator. To test the feasibility and applicability of Whistle+, we present a prototype implementation and demonstrate its applicability to an example use case.

  18. Assessing inhalation injury in the emergency room

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tanizaki S

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Shinsuke Tanizaki Department of Emergency Medicine, Fukui Prefectural Hospital, Fukui, Japan Abstract: Respiratory tract injuries caused by inhalation of smoke or chemical products are related to significant morbidity and mortality. While many strategies have been built up to manage cutaneous burn injuries, few logical diagnostic strategies for patients with inhalation injuries exist and almost all treatment is supportive. The goals of initial management are to ensure that the airway allows adequate oxygenation and ventilation and to avoid ventilator-induced lung injury and substances that may complicate subsequent care. Intubation should be considered if any of the following signs exist: respiratory distress, stridor, hypoventilation, use of accessory respiratory muscles, blistering or edema of the oropharynx, or deep burns to the face or neck. Any patients suspected to have inhalation injuries should receive a high concentration of supplemental oxygen to quickly reverse hypoxia and to displace carbon monoxide from protein binding sites. Management of carbon monoxide and cyanide exposure in smoke inhalation patients remains controversial. Absolute indications for hyperbaric oxygen therapy do not exist because there is a low correlation between carboxyhemoglobin levels and the severity of the clinical state. A cyanide antidote should be administered when cyanide poisoning is clinically suspected. Although an ideal approach for respiratory support of patients with inhalation injuries do not exist, it is important that they are supported using techniques that do not further exacerbate respiratory failure. A well-organized strategy for patients with inhalation injury is critical to reduce morbidity and mortality. Keywords: inhalation injury, burn, carbon monoxide poisoning, cyanide poisoning

  19. Assessing ecorelevance of emerging chemicals in sediments

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Forbes, Valery E.; Selck, Henriette; Salvito, D.

    2007-01-01

    Environmental monitoring of the Great Lakes and elsewhere has detected the presence of a wide variety of chemicals which has raised concern that these chemicals pose risks to resident species. Sediments are of particular interest due to their tendency to accumulate hydrophobic and persistent...... chemicals and because less is known about toxic effects of chemicals to sediment-feeding organisms than to pelagic species. Data collected on the polycyclic musks provides available evidence relevant to assessing exposure and effects in Great Lakes' sediments. Studies at Roskilde University demonstrate how...

  20. Gamification for data gathering in emergency response exercises

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Meesters, Kenny; Ruhe, Aaron; Soetanto, Marvin; Munkvold, R.; Kolås, L.

    2015-01-01

    Our paper describes how gamification can be implemented in an emergency response exercise. In particular, we focus on the potential of gamification to support self-evaluation processes through the automated gathering of data about the participants' performance. Disaster-exercises are typically

  1. 78 FR 34031 - Burned Area Emergency Response, Forest Service

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-06-06

    ...; ] DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE Forest Service RIN 0596-AC73 Burned Area Emergency Response, Forest Service AGENCY: Forest Service, USDA. ACTION: Notice of interim directive; request for public comment. SUMMARY: The Forest Service is issuing an interim directive to guide its employees in revised procedures for Burned...

  2. 78 FR 44523 - Burned Area Emergency Response, Forest Service

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-07-24

    ... Forest Service RIN 0596-AC73 Burned Area Emergency Response, Forest Service AGENCY: Forest Service, USDA. ACTION: Notice of interim directive; Correction and extension of comment period. SUMMARY: The Forest... current Forest Service Manual in the Supplementary Information section of this notice and extends the...

  3. Correlates of emergency response interval and mortality from ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    A retrospective study to determine the influence of blood transfusion emergency response interval on Mortality from childhood severe anemia was carried out. An admission record of all children with severe anemia over a 5-year period was reviewed. Those who either died before transfusion or got discharged against ...

  4. 75 FR 43232 - Revisions of the Emergency Response Guidebook

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-23

    ... Floor, Room W12-140, Routing Symbol M-30, 1200 New Jersey Avenue, SE., Washington, DC 20590-0001. Hand... regulations deemed necessary to ensure the safe transport of hazardous materials in commerce. In addition, the... of PHMSA that all public emergency response vehicles (fire-fighting, police, and rescue squads) will...

  5. 4-H Teen Community Emergency Response Team (CERT)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Black, Lynette; Powell, Pamela

    2012-01-01

    The Community Emergency Response Team (CERT) program is designed to train Americans to safely help themselves and their community in the event of a widespread disaster. This program is designed for adults. Despite youth increasingly becoming recognized as valuable resources, able to equally partner with adults in leadership and decision-making…

  6. Challenges in designing interactive systems for emergency response

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kristensen, Margit; Kyng, Morten; Nielsen, Esben Toftdahl

    2007-01-01

    This paper presents research on participatory design of interactive systems for emergency response. We present the work by going through the design method with a focus on the new elements that we developed for the participatory design toolkit, in particular we emphasize the use of challenges and ...... and maintenance of a situational overview....

  7. Emergency response to landslide using GNSS measurements and UAV

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nikolakopoulos, Konstantinos G.; Koukouvelas, Ioannis K.

    2017-10-01

    Landslide monitoring can be performed using many different methods: Classical geotechnical measurements like inclinometer, topographical survey measurements with total stations or GNSS sensors and photogrammetric techniques using airphotos or high resolution satellite images. However all these methods are expensive or difficult to be developed immediately after the landslide triggering. In contrast airborne technology and especially the use of Unmanned Aerial Vehicles (UAVs) make response to landslide disaster easier as UAVs can be launched quickly in dangerous terrains and send data about the sliding areas to responders on the ground either as RGB images or as videos. In addition, the emergency response to landslide is critical for the further monitoring. For proper displacement identification all the above mentioned monitoring methods need a high resolution and a very accurate representation of the relief. The ideal solution for the accurate and quick mapping of a landslide is the combined use of UAV's photogrammetry and GNSS measurements. UAVs have started their development as expensive toys but they currently became a very valuable tool in large scale mapping of sliding areas. The purpose of this work is to demonstrate an effective solution for the initial landslide mapping immediately after the occurrence of the phenomenon and the possibility of the periodical assessment of the landslide. Three different landslide cases from Greece are presented in the current study. All three landslides have different characteristics: occurred in different geomorphologic environments, triggered by different causes and had different geologic bedrock. In all three cases we performed detailed GNSS measurements of the landslide area, we generated orthophotos as well as Digital Surface Models (DSMs) at an accuracy of less than +/-10 cm. Slide direction and velocity, mass balances as well as protection and mitigation measurements can be derived from the application of the UAVs

  8. Quantifying Response of Chickpea Emergence to Air Temperature

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    B. Torabi

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available This study was conducted to evaluate the response of emergence to temperature in 4 chickpea cultivars (Beauvanij, Arman, Hashem and Jam using 12 sowing dates (one per month under Gorgan environmental conditions (northern Iran in 2001-2002 and 2002-2003. A dent-like function was used to quantify the response of emergence to temperature. Using this function, the cardinal temperatures (base, lower optimum and higher optimum and biological day requirement for emergence were determined for different percentiles. Ceiling temperature was taken constantly as 39 ˚C. There was no significant difference between cultivars for cardinal temperatures of 50% population and they were estimated as 4.5, 20.2 and 29.0 ˚C, respectively. Base temperature of 3.4 and 3.0 ˚C, lower optimum of 23.8 and 20 ˚C and higher optimum of 30.3 and 30.0 ˚C were estimated for 10 and 90% populations without significant difference between cultivars. Cultivar differences for biological day requirement of emergence were not significant for 10, 50 and 90% populations. Biological day requirement was estimated as 4.4, 6.1 and 7.9 days for 10, 50 and 90% populations, respectively. Chickpea emergence could be predicted for different percentiles using estimated parameters of this study and weather data.

  9. Methodology for Estimating Ingestion Dose for Emergency Response at SRS

    CERN Document Server

    Simpkins, A A

    2002-01-01

    At the Savannah River Site (SRS), emergency response models estimate dose for inhalation and ground shine pathways. A methodology has been developed to incorporate ingestion doses into the emergency response models. The methodology follows a two-phase approach. The first phase estimates site-specific derived response levels (DRLs) which can be compared with predicted ground-level concentrations to determine if intervention is needed to protect the public. This phase uses accepted methods with little deviation from recommended guidance. The second phase uses site-specific data to estimate a 'best estimate' dose to offsite individuals from ingestion of foodstuffs. While this method deviates from recommended guidance, it is technically defensibly and more realistic. As guidance is updated, these methods also will need to be updated.

  10. Community Assessment Tool for Public Health Emergencies Including Pandemic Influenza

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    ORAU' s Oak Ridge Institute for Science Education (HCTT-CHE)

    2011-04-14

    The Community Assessment Tool (CAT) for Public Health Emergencies Including Pandemic Influenza (hereafter referred to as the CAT) was developed as a result of feedback received from several communities. These communities participated in workshops focused on influenza pandemic planning and response. The 2008 through 2011 workshops were sponsored by the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC). Feedback during those workshops indicated the need for a tool that a community can use to assess its readiness for a disaster - readiness from a total healthcare perspective, not just hospitals, but the whole healthcare system. The CAT intends to do just that - help strengthen existing preparedness plans by allowing the healthcare system and other agencies to work together during an influenza pandemic. It helps reveal each core agency partners (sectors) capabilities and resources, and highlights cases of the same vendors being used for resource supplies (e.g., personal protective equipment [PPE] and oxygen) by the partners (e.g., public health departments, clinics, or hospitals). The CAT also addresses gaps in the community's capabilities or potential shortages in resources. This tool has been reviewed by a variety of key subject matter experts from federal, state, and local agencies and organizations. It also has been piloted with various communities that consist of different population sizes, to include large urban to small rural communities.

  11. Voice Assessment of Student Work: Recent Studies and Emerging Technologies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eckhouse, Barry; Carroll, Rebecca

    2013-01-01

    Although relatively little attention has been given to the voice assessment of student work, at least when compared with more traditional forms of text-based review, the attention it has received strongly points to a promising form of review that has been hampered by the limits of an emerging technology. A fresh review of voice assessment in light…

  12. Emergency responses to water disasters in coalmines, China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Qiang; Zhou, Wanfang; Guan, Entai

    2009-07-01

    Emergency response to water-related disasters is an important part of many coalmine operations in China. It usually consists of both incident prevention measures and rescue counter-plans. In principle, prevention is always the top priority, followed by rescue. The prevention measures relies on thorough understanding of the mine hydrogeology, correct identification of water burst risk levels, and an effective monitoring program for inundations. The emergency rescue is initiated when an accident occurs, and a rescue plan often includes a self-rescue and mutual-rescue program.

  13. We Need to "Catch Them before They Fall": Response to Intervention and Elementary Emergent Bilinguals

    Science.gov (United States)

    López, Minda Morren; Mendoza, Marie Arnold

    2013-01-01

    The authors of this case study examine response to intervention (RTI) implementation with Emergent Bilinguals in a large urban district. As participants noted, it is not appropriate to assess, instruct, and intervene with students through a one-size-fits-all approach. Instead, multiple factors such as language background, program participation,…

  14. Improving Emergency Response and Human-Robotic Performance

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    David I. Gertman; David J. Bruemmer; R. Scott Hartley

    2007-08-01

    Preparedness for chemical, biological, and radiological/nuclear incidents at nuclear power plants (NPPs) includes the deployment of well trained emergency response teams. While teams are expected to do well, data from other domains suggests that the timeliness and accuracy associated with incident response can be improved through collaborative human-robotic interaction. Many incident response scenarios call for multiple, complex procedure-based activities performed by personnel wearing cumbersome personal protective equipment (PPE) and operating under high levels of stress and workload. While robotic assistance is postulated to reduce workload and exposure, limitations associated with communications and the robot’s ability to act independently have served to limit reliability and reduce our potential to exploit human –robotic interaction and efficacy of response. Recent work at the Idaho National Laboratory (INL) on expanding robot capability has the potential to improve human-system response during disaster management and recovery. Specifically, increasing the range of higher level robot behaviors such as autonomous navigation and mapping, evolving new abstractions for sensor and control data, and developing metaphors for operator control have the potential to improve state-of-the-art in incident response. This paper discusses these issues and reports on experiments underway intelligence residing on the robot to enhance emergency response.

  15. Emergency preparedness needs assessment of centralized school foodservice and warehousing operations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Story, Cyndie; Sneed, Jeannie; Oakley, Charlotte B; Stretch, Theresa

    2007-12-01

    Managers of onsite retail foodservice operations, particularly those in centralized school foodservice operations, are called on to provide meals during emergencies, yet there is a paucity of research on their readiness to handle emergencies. Qualitative research and a cross-sectional survey design were used to conduct a needs assessment for emergency preparedness (emergency readiness, food recalls, and food defense) in centralized school foodservice operations, including warehousing. An open-ended written questionnaire was mailed to eight foodservice directors, and responses were used to develop a written questionnaire that was mailed to school foodservice directors in 200 districts identified as having centralized food production and warehousing. Directors from 78 districts responded (39% response rate). Most districts (n=72) had an emergency response team, and foodservice was included as part of 63 of those teams. Not all districts had written procedures for food recalls (47 of 73), natural disasters (37 of 74), or food defense (30 of 74). Barriers to implementing emergency preparedness policies and procedures included limited money, emergency equipment, and time. Most current training related to food safety with little training related to emergency preparedness. Training on the emergency preparedness plan was done in 61 of 78 districts. Training on emergency procedures was done by less than half of the districts during the previous year. This study identified best practices related to emergency preparedness that can be implemented in onsite retail foodservice operations. Results indicate a need to emphasize emergency preparedness, develop written standard operating procedures, and train employees to be prepared to respond to emergencies.

  16. Learning from Japan: strengthening US emergency care and disaster response.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parmar, Parveen; Arii, Maya; Kayden, Stephanie

    2013-12-01

    As Hurricane Katrina demonstrated in 2005, US health response systems for disasters-typically designed to handle only short-term mass-casualty events-are inadequately prepared for disasters that result in large-scale population displacements. Similarly, after the 2011 Great East Japan Earthquake, Japan found that many of its disaster shelters failed to meet international standards for long-term provision of basic needs and health care for the vulnerable populations that sought refuge in the shelters. Hospital disaster plans had not been tested and turned out to be inadequate, and emergency communication equipment did not function. We make policy recommendations that aim to improve US responses to mass-displacement disasters based on Japan's 2011 experience. First, response systems must provide for the extended care of large populations of chronically ill and vulnerable people. Second, policies should ensure that shelters meet or exceed international standards for the provision of food, water, sanitation, and privacy. Third, hospital disaster plans should include redundant communication systems and sufficient emergency provisions for both staff and patients. Finally, there must be routine drills for responses to mass-displacement disasters so that areas needing improvement can be uncovered before an emergency occurs.

  17. A simulator-based nuclear reactor emergency response training exercise.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Waller, Edward; Bereznai, George; Shaw, John; Chaput, Joseph; Lafortune, Jean-Francois

    Training offsite emergency response personnel basic awareness of onsite control room operations during nuclear power plant emergency conditions was the primary objective of a week-long workshop conducted on a CANDU® virtual nuclear reactor simulator available at the University of Ontario Institute of Technology, Oshawa, Canada. The workshop was designed to examine both normal and abnormal reactor operating conditions, and to observe the conditions in the control room that may have impact on the subsequent offsite emergency response. The workshop was attended by participants from a number of countries encompassing diverse job functions related to nuclear emergency response. Objectives of the workshop were to provide opportunities for participants to act in the roles of control room personnel under different reactor operating scenarios, providing a unique experience for participants to interact with the simulator in real-time, and providing increased awareness of control room operations during accident conditions. The ability to "pause" the simulator during exercises allowed the instructors to evaluate and critique the performance of participants, and to provide context with respect to potential offsite emergency actions. Feedback from the participants highlighted (i) advantages of observing and participating "hands-on" with operational exercises, (ii) their general unfamiliarity with control room operational procedures and arrangements prior to the workshop, (iii) awareness of the vast quantity of detailed control room procedures for both normal and transient conditions, and (iv) appreciation of the increased workload for the operators in the control room during a transient from normal operations. Based upon participant feedback, it was determined that the objectives of the training had been met, and that future workshops should be conducted.

  18. Assessing interpersonal and communication skills in emergency medicine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chan, Teresa M; Wallner, Clare; Swoboda, Thomas K; Leone, Katrina A; Kessler, Chad

    2012-12-01

    Interpersonal and communication skills (ICS) are a key component of several competency-based schemata and key competency in the set of six Accreditation Council for Graduate Medical Education (ACGME) core competencies. With the shift toward a competency-based educational framework, the importance of robust learner assessment becomes paramount. The journal Academic Emergency Medicine (AEM) hosted a consensus conference to discuss education research in emergency medicine (EM). This article summarizes the initial preparatory research that was conducted to brief consensus conference attendees and reports the results of the consensus conference breakout session as it pertains to ICS assessment of learners. The goals of this consensus conference session were to twofold: 1) to determine the state of assessment of observable learner performance and 2) to determine a research agenda within the ICS field for medical educators. The working group identified six key recommendations for medical educators and researchers. © 2012 by the Society for Academic Emergency Medicine.

  19. Assessment of emergency medicine residents: a systematic review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Colmers-Gray, Isabelle N.; Walsh, Kieran; Chan, Teresa M.

    2017-01-01

    Background Competency-based medical education is becoming the new standard for residency programs, including Emergency Medicine (EM). To inform programmatic restructuring, guide resources and identify gaps in publication, we reviewed the published literature on types and frequency of resident assessment. Methods We searched MEDLINE, EMBASE, PsycInfo and ERIC from Jan 2005 – June 2014. MeSH terms included “assessment,” “residency,” and “emergency medicine.” We included studies on EM residents reporting either of two primary outcomes: 1) assessment type and 2) assessment frequency per resident. Two reviewers screened abstracts, reviewed full text studies, and abstracted data. Reporting of assessment-related costs was a secondary outcome. Results The search returned 879 articles; 137 articles were full-text reviewed; 73 met inclusion criteria. Half of the studies (54.8%) were pilot projects and one-quarter (26.0%) described fully implemented assessment tools/programs. Assessment tools (n=111) comprised 12 categories, most commonly: simulation-based assessments (28.8%), written exams (28.8%), and direct observation (26.0%). Median assessment frequency (n=39 studies) was twice per month/rotation (range: daily to once in residency). No studies thoroughly reported costs. Conclusion EM resident assessment commonly uses simulation or direct observation, done once-per-rotation. Implemented assessment systems and assessment-associated costs are poorly reported. Moving forward, routine publication will facilitate transitioning to competency-based medical education. PMID:28344722

  20. Combining internet technology and mobile phones for emergency response management

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Palsson, S.E. [Icelandic Radiation Protection Inst. (Finland)

    2002-12-01

    The report is intended for persons involved in radiological emergency response management. An introduction is given to the technical basis of the mobile Internet and ongoing development summarised. Examples are given describing how mobile Internet technology has been used to improve monitoring media coverage of incidents and events, and a test is described where web based information was selectively processed and made available to WAP enabled mobile phones. The report concludes with recommendations stressing the need for following mobile Internet developments and taking them into account when designing web applications for radiological response management. Doing so can make web based material accessible to mobile devices at minimal additional cost. (au)

  1. Engineering risk assessment for emergency disposal projects of sudden water pollution incidents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shi, Bin; Jiang, Jiping; Liu, Rentao; Khan, Afed Ullah; Wang, Peng

    2017-06-01

    Without an engineering risk assessment for emergency disposal in response to sudden water pollution incidents, responders are prone to be challenged during emergency decision making. To address this gap, the concept and framework of emergency disposal engineering risks are reported in this paper. The proposed risk index system covers three stages consistent with the progress of an emergency disposal project. Fuzzy fault tree analysis (FFTA), a logical and diagrammatic method, was developed to evaluate the potential failure during the process of emergency disposal. The probability of basic events and their combination, which caused the failure of an emergency disposal project, were calculated based on the case of an emergency disposal project of an aniline pollution incident in the Zhuozhang River, Changzhi, China, in 2014. The critical events that can cause the occurrence of a top event (TE) were identified according to their contribution. Finally, advices on how to take measures using limited resources to prevent the failure of a TE are given according to the quantified results of risk magnitude. The proposed approach could be a potential useful safeguard for the implementation of an emergency disposal project during the process of emergency response.

  2. Emerging concepts in T follicular helper cell responses to malaria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hansen, Diana S; Obeng-Adjei, Nyamekye; Ly, Ann; Ioannidis, Lisa J; Crompton, Peter D

    2017-02-01

    Antibody responses to malaria and candidate malaria vaccines are short-lived in children, leaving them susceptible to repeated malaria episodes. Because T follicular helper (TFH) cells provide critical help to B cells to generate long-lived antibody responses, they have become the focus of recent studies of Plasmodium-infected mice and humans. The emerging data converge on common themes, namely, that malaria-induced TH1 cytokines are associated with the activation of (i) T-like memory TFH cells with impaired B cell helper function, and (ii) pre-TFH cells that acquire Th1-like features (T-bet expression, IFN-γ production), which impede their differentiation into fully functional TFH cells, thus resulting in germinal center dysfunction and suboptimal antibody responses. Deeper knowledge of TFH cells in malaria could illuminate strategies to improve vaccines through modulating TFH cell responses. This review summarizes emerging concepts in TFH cell responses to malaria. Copyright © 2016. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  3. 44 CFR 352.27 - Federal role in the emergency response.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 44 Emergency Management and Assistance 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Federal role in the emergency response. 352.27 Section 352.27 Emergency Management and Assistance FEDERAL EMERGENCY MANAGEMENT AGENCY... Federal Participation § 352.27 Federal role in the emergency response. In addition to the Federal...

  4. An assessment of emotional intelligence in emergency medicine resident physicians.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Papanagnou, Dimitrios; Linder, Kathryn; Shah, Anuj; London, Kory Scott; Chandra, Shruti; Naples, Robin

    2017-12-27

    To define the emotional intelligence (EI) profile of emergency medicine (EM) residents, and identify resident EI strengths and weaknesses. First-, second-, and third-year residents (post-graduate years [PGY] 1, 2, and 3, respectively) of Thomas Jefferson University Hospital's EM Program completed the Emotional Quotient Inventory (EQ-i 2.0), a validated instrument offered by Multi-Health Systems. Reported scores included total mean EI, 5 composite scores, and 15 subscales of EI. Scores are reported as means with 95% CIs. The unpaired, two-sample t-test was used to evaluate differences in means. Thirty-five residents completed the assessment (response rate 97.2%). Scores were normed to the general population (mean 100, SD 15). Total mean EI for the cohort was 103 (95%CI,100-108). EI was higher in female (107) than male (101) residents. PGY-2s demonstrated the lowest mean EI (95) versus PGY-1s (104) and PGY-3s (110). The difference in PGY-3 EI (110; 95%CI,103-116) and PGY-1 EI (95, 95%CI,87-104) was statistically significant (unpaired t-test, pself-expression. Further study is required to ascertain if patterns in level of training are idiosyncratic or relate to the natural maturation of residents.

  5. WMD first response: requirements, emerging technologies, and policy implications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vergino, E S; Hoehn, W E

    2000-06-19

    In the US today, efforts are underway to defend against the possible terrorist use of weapons of mass destruction (WMD) against US cities. These efforts include the development and adaptation of technologies to support prevention and detection, to defend against a possible attack, and, if these fail, to provide both mitigation responses and attribution for a WMD incident. Technologies under development span a range of systems, from early detection and identification of an agent or explosive, to diagnostic and systems analysis tools; and to forensic analysis for law enforcement. Also, many techniques and tools that have been developed for other applications are being examined to determine whether, with some modification, they could be of use by the emergency preparedness, public health, and law enforcement communities. However, anecdotal evidence suggests the existence of a serious disconnect between the technology development communities and these user communities. This disconnect arises because funding for technology development is derived primarily from sources (principally federal agencies) distant from the emergency response communities, which are predominantly state, county, or local entities. Moreover, the first responders with whom we have worked candidly admit that their jurisdictions have been given, or have purchased for them, a variety of technological devices, typically without consulting the emergency responders about their utility. In private discussions, emergency responders derisively refer to these as a closet full of useless toys. Technology developers have many new and relevant technologies currently in the development pipeline, but most have not been adequately vetted against the field needs or validated for field use. The Center for Global Security Research at the Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory and the Sam Nunn School of International Affairs at the Georgia Institute of Technology recently sponsored a two-day workshop to bring together

  6. Assessment of hospital-based adult triage at emergency receiving ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background: Limited health service resources must be used in a manner which does “the most for the most”. This is partly achieved through the use of a triage system. Whereas efforts have been made to introduce paediatric triage in Uganda such as Emergency Triage Assessment and Treatment Plus (ETAT+), it is not clear ...

  7. Assessment of the Effects of Emerging Grazing Policies on Land ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This study examines the effects of the emerging grazing policies on land degradation in Nigeria using soil, vegetation and sustainability as variables for the assessment. Data was acquired and analyzed and ... from degradation. Key words: Grazing reserve, Land degradation, Livestock production, Ranching, Sustainability.

  8. Assessment of Emergency Medical Services in the Ashanti Region of Ghana.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mould-Millman, N K; Oteng, R; Zakariah, A; Osei-Ampofo, M; Oduro, G; Barsan, W; Donkor, P; Kowalenko, T

    2015-09-01

    We aimed to assess the structure, function and performance of Ashanti Region's emergency medical services system in the context of the regional need for prehospital emergency care. A mixed-methods approach was employed, using retrospective collection of quantitative data and prospectively gathered qualitative data. Setting - pertinent data were collected from Ghanaian and international sources; interviews and technical assessments were performed primarily in the Ashanti Region of Ghana. All stakeholders relevant to emergency medical services in the Ashanti Region of Ghana were assessed; there was a special focus on National Ambulance Service (NAS) and Ashanti Region healthcare personnel. This was an observational study using qualitative and quantitative assessment techniques. The structure, function and performance of the Ashanti emergency medical services system, guided by a relevant technical assessment framework. NAS is the premier and only true prehospital agency in the Ashanti Region. NAS has developed almost every essential aspect of an EMS system necessary to achieve its mission within a low-resource setting. NAS continues to increase its number of response units to address the overwhelming Ashanti region demand, especially primary calls. Deficient areas in need of development are governance, reliable revenue, public access, community integration, clinical care guidelines, research and quality assurance processes. The Ashanti Region has a growing and thriving emergency medical services system. Although many essential areas for development were identified, NAS is well poised to meet the regional demand for prehospital emergency care and transport.

  9. Survey of state and tribal emergency response capabilities for radiological transportation incidents

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vilardo, F J; Mitter, E L; Palmer, J A; Briggs, H C; Fesenmaier, J [Indiana Univ., Bloomington, IN (USA). School of Public and Environmental Affairs

    1990-05-01

    This publication is the final report of a project to survey the fifty states, the District of Columbia, Puerto Rico, and selected Indian Tribal jurisdictions to ascertain their emergency-preparedness planning and capabilities for responding to transportation incidents involving radioactive materials. The survey was conducted to provide the Nuclear Regulatory Commission and other federal agencies with information concerning the current level of emergency-response preparedness of the states and selected tribes and an assessment of the changes that have occurred since 1980. There have been no major changes in the states' emergency-response planning strategies and field tactics. The changes noted included an increased availability of dedicated emergency-response vehicles, wider availability of specialized radiation-detection instruments, and higher proportions of police and fire personnel with training in the handling of suspected radiation threats. Most Indian tribes have no capability to evaluate suspected radiation threats and have no formal relations with emergency-response personnel in adjacent states. For the nation as a whole, the incidence of suspected radiation threats declined substantially from 1980 to 1988. 58 tabs.

  10. Assessment of Simulated Emergency Scenarios: Are Trained Observers Necessary?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Noveanu, Juliane; Amsler, Felix; Ummenhofer, Wolfgang; von Wyl, Thomas; Zuercher, Mathias

    2017-01-01

    Simulation-based medical training is associated with superior educational outcomes and improved cost efficiency. Self- and peer-assessment may be a cost-effective and flexible alternative to expert-led assessment. We compared accuracy of self- and peer-assessment of untrained raters using basic evaluation tools to expert assessment using advanced validation tools including validated questionnaires and post hoc video-based analysis. Twenty-eight simulated emergency airway management scenarios were observed and video-recorded for further assessment. Participants consisted of 28 emergency physicians who were involved in four different airway management scenarios with different roles: One scenario as a team leader, one as an assisting team member, and two as an observer. Non-technical skills (NTS) and technical skills (TS) were analyzed by three independent groups: 1) the performing team (PT) consisted of the two emergency physicians acting either in the role of team leader or team member (self-assessment); 2) the observing team (OT), consisted of two of the participating emergency physicians not involved in the current clinical scenario (peer-assessment) and assessment occurred during (OT) or directly after (PT) the simulation without prior specific interpretational training but using standardized questionnaires; and 3) the expert team (ET) consisted of two specifically trained external observers (one psychologist and one emergency physician) using video-assisted objective assessment combined with standardized questionnaires. Intragroup reliability demonstrated by intra-class correlation (ICC) was moderate to good for TS (ICC 0.42(*)) and NTS (ICC 0.55(*)) in PT and moderate to good for TS (ICC 0.41(*)) or poor for NTS (ICC 0.27) in OT. ET showed an excellent intragroup reliability for both TS (ICC 0.78(*)) and NTS (ICC 0.81(*)). Interrater reliability was significantly different between ET and PT and between ET and OT for both TS and NTS. There was no difference

  11. Formation mechanism of quick emergency response capability for urban rail transit: Inter-organizational collaboration perspective

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yanchun Zhang

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available With the rapid development of urban rail transit in China recently, improving its quick emergency response capability is becoming an important issue. Based on the perspective of inter-organizational collaboration, this article examines the formation mechanism of quick emergency response capability of urban rail transit and proposes the concept model hypothesis, in order to highlight the inter-organizational emergency collaboration relationships and the quick emergency response capability. According to site surveys and analysis of the elements of inter-organizational collaboration in emergency rescue and the meaning of quick emergency response capability, the scale of emergency collaboration and emergency response capability is designed, and the hypothetical concept model is tested by structural equation model. The results indicate that the emergency collaboration can be realized mainly through emergency organizations, resources, plans, and information. These elements interact with each other; the quick emergency response capability includes fast reaction and emergency disposal capability, emergency decision and execution capability, and coordination and joint action capability. These capabilities restrict each other. Moreover, emergency collaboration has significant but different influence on different dimensions of quick emergency response capability. Therefore, allocating and controlling emergency elements are pivotal to realizing inter-organizational emergency collaboration and generating the quick emergency response capability of urban rail transit.

  12. Response of human populations to large-scale emergencies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bagrow, James; Wang, Dashun; Barabási, Albert-László

    2010-03-01

    Until recently, little quantitative data regarding collective human behavior during dangerous events such as bombings and riots have been available, despite its importance for emergency management, safety and urban planning. Understanding how populations react to danger is critical for prediction, detection and intervention strategies. Using a large telecommunications dataset, we study for the first time the spatiotemporal, social and demographic response properties of people during several disasters, including a bombing, a city-wide power outage, and an earthquake. Call activity rapidly increases after an event and we find that, when faced with a truly life-threatening emergency, information rapidly propagates through a population's social network. Other events, such as sports games, do not exhibit this propagation.

  13. TWO-GRAPH BUILDING INTERIOR REPRESENTATION FOR EMERGENCY RESPONSE APPLICATIONS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. Boguslawski

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Nowadays, in a rapidly developing urban environment with bigger and higher public buildings, disasters causing emergency situations and casualties are unavoidable. Preparedness and quick response are crucial issues saving human lives. Available information about an emergency scene, such as a building structure, helps for decision making and organizing rescue operations. Models supporting decision-making should be available in real, or near-real, time. Thus, good quality models that allow implementation of automated methods are highly desirable. This paper presents details of the recently developed method for automated generation of variable density navigable networks in a 3D indoor environment, including a full 3D topological model, which may be used not only for standard navigation but also for finding safe routes and simulating hazard and phenomena associated with disasters such as fire spread and heat transfer.

  14. Towards Location-Based Access Control in Healthcare Emergency Response

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vicente, Carmen Ruiz; Kirkpatrick, Michael; Ghinita, Gabriel

    2009-01-01

    Recent advances in positioning and tracking technologies have led to the emergence of novel location-based applications that allow participants to access information relevant to their spatio-temporal context. Traditional access control models, such as role-based access control (RBAC...... of complex access control decisions based on spatio-temporal relationships among subjects and objects. Furthermore, such relationships change frequently in dynamic environments, requiring efficient mechanisms to monitor and re-evaluate access control decisions. In this position paper, we present a healthcare...... emergency response scenario which highlights the novel challenges that arise when enforcing access control in an environment with moving subjects and objects. To address a realistic application scenario, we consider movement on road networks, and we identify complex access control decisions relevant...

  15. Establishment of exposure dose assessment laboratory in National Radiation Emergency Medical Center (NREMC)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yoo, Jae Ryong; Ha, Wi Ho; Yoon, Seok Won; Han, Eun Ae; Lee, Seung Sook [Korea Institute of Radiological and Medical Sciences, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2011-10-15

    As unclear industry grown, 432 of the nuclear power plants are operating and 52 of NPPs are under construction currently. Increasing use of radiation or radioisotopes in the field of industry, medical purpose and research such as non-destructive examination, computed tomography and x-ray, etc. constantly. With use of nuclear or radiation has incidence possibility for example the Fukushima NPP incident, the Goiania accident and the Chernobyl Nuclear accident. Also the risk of terror by radioactive material such as Radiological Dispersal Device(RDD) etc. In Korea, since the 'Law on protection of nuclear facilities and countermeasure for radioactive preparedness was enacted in 2003, the Korean institute of Radiological and Medical Sciences(KIRAMS) was established for the radiation emergency medical response in radiological disaster due to nuclear accident, radioactive terror and so on. Especially National Radiation Emergency Medical Center(NREMC) has the duty that is protect citizens from nuclear, radiological accidents or radiological terrors through the emergency medical preparedness. The NREMC was established by the 39-article law on physical protection of nuclear material and facilities and measures for radiological emergencies. Dose assessment or contamination survey should be performed which provide the radiological information for medical response. For this reason, the NREMC establish and re-organized dose assessment system based on the existing dose assessment system of the NREMC recently. The exposure dose could be measured by physical and biological method. With these two methods, we can have conservative dose assessment result. Therefore the NREMC established the exposure dose assessment laboratory which was re-organized laboratory space and introduced specialized equipment for dose assessment. This paper will report the establishment and operation of exposure dose assessment laboratory for radiological emergency response and discuss how to enhance

  16. Obstetric training in Emergency Medicine: a needs assessment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adam James Janicki

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Background: Identification and management of obstetric emergencies is essential in emergency medicine (EM, but exposure to pregnant patients during EM residency training is frequently limited. To date, there is little data describing effective ways to teach residents this material. Current guidelines require completion of 2 weeks of obstetrics or 10 vaginal deliveries, but it is unclear whether this instills competency. Methods: We created a 15-item survey evaluating resident confidence and knowledge related to obstetric emergencies. To assess confidence, we asked residents about their exposure and comfort level regarding obstetric emergencies and eight common presentations and procedures. We assessed knowledge via multiple-choice questions addressing common obstetric presentations, pelvic ultrasound image, and cardiotocography interpretation. The survey was distributed to residency programs utilizing the Council of Emergency Medicine Residency Directors (CORD listserv. Results: The survey was completed by 212 residents, representing 55 of 204 (27% programs belonging to CORD and 11.2% of 1,896 eligible residents. Fifty-six percent felt they had adequate exposure to obstetric emergencies. The overall comfort level was 2.99 (1–5 scale and comfort levels of specific presentations and procedures ranged from 2.58 to 3.97; all increased moderately with postgraduate year (PGY level. Mean overall percentage of items answered correctly on the multiple-choice questions was 58% with no statistical difference by PGY level. Performance on individual questions did not differ by PGY level. Conclusions: The identification and management of obstetric emergencies is the cornerstone of EM. We found preliminary evidence of a concerning lack of resident comfort regarding obstetric conditions and knowledge deficits on core obstetrics topics. EM residents may benefit from educational interventions to increase exposure to these topics.

  17. Obstetric training in Emergency Medicine: a needs assessment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Janicki, Adam James; MacKuen, Courteney; Hauspurg, Alisse; Cohn, Jamieson

    2016-01-01

    Background Identification and management of obstetric emergencies is essential in emergency medicine (EM), but exposure to pregnant patients during EM residency training is frequently limited. To date, there is little data describing effective ways to teach residents this material. Current guidelines require completion of 2 weeks of obstetrics or 10 vaginal deliveries, but it is unclear whether this instills competency. Methods We created a 15-item survey evaluating resident confidence and knowledge related to obstetric emergencies. To assess confidence, we asked residents about their exposure and comfort level regarding obstetric emergencies and eight common presentations and procedures. We assessed knowledge via multiple-choice questions addressing common obstetric presentations, pelvic ultrasound image, and cardiotocography interpretation. The survey was distributed to residency programs utilizing the Council of Emergency Medicine Residency Directors (CORD) listserv. Results The survey was completed by 212 residents, representing 55 of 204 (27%) programs belonging to CORD and 11.2% of 1,896 eligible residents. Fifty-six percent felt they had adequate exposure to obstetric emergencies. The overall comfort level was 2.99 (1-5 scale) and comfort levels of specific presentations and procedures ranged from 2.58 to 3.97; all increased moderately with postgraduate year (PGY) level. Mean overall percentage of items answered correctly on the multiple-choice questions was 58% with no statistical difference by PGY level. Performance on individual questions did not differ by PGY level. Conclusions The identification and management of obstetric emergencies is the cornerstone of EM. We found preliminary evidence of a concerning lack of resident comfort regarding obstetric conditions and knowledge deficits on core obstetrics topics. EM residents may benefit from educational interventions to increase exposure to these topics.

  18. Emergency response arrangements for the transport of radioactive materials

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Morgan-Warren, E. [Radioactive Materials Transport Div., Dept. for Transport, London (United Kingdom)

    2004-07-01

    Response arrangements are required for the transport of radioactive materials, under both transport and health and safety legislation, to safeguard persons, property and the environment in the event of incidents and emergencies. Responsibilities fall on both government and industry: government is responsible for ensuring public safety and providing information and reassurance. This responsibility is discharged for each type of incident by a nominated ''lead department'', supported as appropriate by other government departments and agencies; for their part, operators are obliged to have arrangements in place for dealing with the practicalities of any reasonably foreseeable incident, including recovery and onward transport of a package, and any required clean-up or restoration of the environment. This paper outlines both the government and industry arrangements in Great Britain. The principles of response and intervention are discussed, together with the lead department concept, regulatory requirements, and the plans developed by the transport industry to ensure a nation-wide response capability.

  19. Assessing Team Leadership in Emergency Medicine: The Milestones and Beyond

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosenman, Elizabeth D.; Branzetti, Jeremy B.; Fernandez, Rosemarie

    2016-01-01

    Background Team leadership is a critical skill for emergency medicine physicians that directly affects team performance and the quality of patient care. There exists a robust body of team science research supporting team leadership conceptual models and behavioral skill sets. However, to date, this work has not been widely incorporated into health care team leadership education. Objective This narrative review has 3 aims: (1) to synthesize the team science literature and to translate important concepts and models to health care team leadership; (2) to describe how team leadership is currently represented in the health care literature and in the Accreditation Council for Graduate Medical Education Milestones for emergency medicine; and (3) to propose a novel, evidence-based framework for the assessment of team leadership in emergency medicine. Methods We conducted a narrative review of the team science and health care literature. We summarized our findings and identified a list of team leadership behaviors that were then used to create a framework for team leadership assessment. Results Current health care team leadership measurement tools do not incorporate evidence-based models of leadership concepts from other established domains. The emergency medicine milestones include several team leadership behaviors as part of a larger resident evaluation program. However, they do not offer a comprehensive or cohesive representation of the team leadership construct. Conclusions Despite the importance of team leadership to patient care, there is no standardized approach to team leadership assessment in emergency medicine. Based on the results of our review, we propose a novel team leadership assessment framework that is supported by the team science literature. PMID:27413434

  20. Complex humanitarian emergencies: A review of epidemiological and response models

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Burkle Frederick

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available Complex emergencies (CEs have been the most common human-generated disaster of the past two decades. These internal conflicts and associated acts of genocide have been poorly understood and poorly managed. This article provides an epidemiological background and understanding of developing and developed countries, and chronic or smoldering countries′ CEs, and explains in detail the prevailing models of response seen by the international community. Even though CEs are declining in number, they have become more complex and dangerous. The UN Charter reform is expected to address internal conflicts and genocide but may not provide a more effective and efficient means to respond.

  1. Federal and State Responses to the Emergency Response Communications Program. Draft Report, March 1979.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1979-06-01

    requirements too general; specific system description pre- Space Administration mature; need for economic/ marketing studies Identified U.S. Postal...34. Our principal interest in satellite communications is for emergency medical services in rural areas as well as backupIcommunications in case of...comentarios relacionados con el informe titulado "Emergency Response Communications Program". Le agradecer6 estudie este informe y favor de enviarle

  2. Performance and Participation Dynamics in an Emergency Response Simulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guastello, Stephen J; Marra, David E; Castro, Julian; Gomez, Maribeth; Perna, Claire

    2017-04-01

    This study examined relationships between participation and performance within a team and performance transfer effects between opponents in an Emergency Response (ER) simulation. Classical organizational theories have emphasized the importance of group participation for organizational performance, but there have been few or no attempts to investigate participation-performance relationships in short-interval time series. The experimental task was a Stag Hunt game, as defined in game theory; performance trends would be affected by levels of participation, which in turn should be affected by recent performance experiences that modulate the players' self-efficacy for the task. Participants were 62 undergraduates who were organized into 11 teams of 3 or 4 members playing an ER board game against one attacker. Time series analyses were conducted through nonlinear regression with exponential structural equations and by linear analyses for comparison. Results showed that performance time series of one opponent did not affect the other for teams of this size. Teams showed higher levels of adaptability compared to attackers, as evidenced by higher Lyapunov exponents. Performance affected group participation levels more so than the other way around. There appeared to be emergent group dynamics occurring between two experimental sessions that moderated the validity of the core linear and nonlinear models. Emergent group properties are one of several possible directions for further investigation within this experimental paradigm. Nonlinear models were more accurate than linear models after correcting for correlated residuals.

  3. Southern state radiological emergency preparedness and response agencies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1988-11-01

    This Report provides information on the state agencies assigned to radioactive materials transportation incidents in 16 Southern States Energy Board member states. For each, the report lists the agencies with primary authority for preparedness and response, their responsibilities and personnel within the agencies who can offer additional information on their radioactive materials transportation programs. The report also lists each state`s emergency team members and its laboratory and analytical capabilities. Finally, the governor`s designee for receiving advance notification of high-level radioactive materials and spent fuel shipments under 10 CFR Parts 71 and 73 of the US Nuclear Regulatory Commission`s regulations is listed for each state. Part 71 requires prenotification for large quantity radioactive waste shipments. Part 73 addresses prenotification for spent nuclear reactor fuel shipments.

  4. Southern state radiological emergency preparedness and response agencies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1988-11-01

    This Report provides information on the state agencies assigned to radioactive materials transportation incidents in 16 Southern States Energy Board member states. For each, the report lists the agencies with primary authority for preparedness and response, their responsibilities and personnel within the agencies who can offer additional information on their radioactive materials transportation programs. The report also lists each state's emergency team members and its laboratory and analytical capabilities. Finally, the governor's designee for receiving advance notification of high-level radioactive materials and spent fuel shipments under 10 CFR Parts 71 and 73 of the US Nuclear Regulatory Commission's regulations is listed for each state. Part 71 requires prenotification for large quantity radioactive waste shipments. Part 73 addresses prenotification for spent nuclear reactor fuel shipments.

  5. Current Trends in Gamma Radiation Detection for Radiological Emergency Response

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mukhopadhyay, S., Guss, P., Maurer, R.

    2011-09-01

    Passive and active detection of gamma rays from shielded radioactive materials, including special nuclear materials, is an important task for any radiological emergency response organization. This article reports on the current trends and status of gamma radiation detection objectives and measurement techniques as applied to nonproliferation and radiological emergencies. In recent years, since the establishment of the Domestic Nuclear Detection Office by the Department of Homeland Security, a tremendous amount of progress has been made in detection materials (scintillators, semiconductors), imaging techniques (Compton imaging, use of active masking and hybrid imaging), data acquisition systems with digital signal processing, field programmable gate arrays and embedded isotopic analysis software (viz. gamma detector response and analysis software [GADRAS]1), fast template matching, and data fusion (merging radiological data with geo-referenced maps, digital imagery to provide better situational awareness). In this stride to progress, a significant amount of interdisciplinary research and development has taken place–techniques and spin-offs from medical science (such as x-ray radiography and tomography), materials engineering (systematic planned studies on scintillators to optimize several qualities of a good scintillator, nanoparticle applications, quantum dots, and photonic crystals, just to name a few). No trend analysis of radiation detection systems would be complete without mentioning the unprecedented strategic position taken by the National Nuclear Security Administration (NNSA) to deter, detect, and interdict illicit trafficking in nuclear and other radioactive materials across international borders and through the global maritime transportation–the so-called second line of defense.

  6. Current trends in gamma radiation detection for radiological emergency response

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mukhopadhyay, Sanjoy; Guss, Paul; Maurer, Richard

    2011-09-01

    Passive and active detection of gamma rays from shielded radioactive materials, including special nuclear materials, is an important task for any radiological emergency response organization. This article reports on the current trends and status of gamma radiation detection objectives and measurement techniques as applied to nonproliferation and radiological emergencies. In recent years, since the establishment of the Domestic Nuclear Detection Office by the Department of Homeland Security, a tremendous amount of progress has been made in detection materials (scintillators, semiconductors), imaging techniques (Compton imaging, use of active masking and hybrid imaging), data acquisition systems with digital signal processing, field programmable gate arrays and embedded isotopic analysis software (viz. gamma detector response and analysis software [GADRAS]1), fast template matching, and data fusion (merging radiological data with geo-referenced maps, digital imagery to provide better situational awareness). In this stride to progress, a significant amount of inter-disciplinary research and development has taken place-techniques and spin-offs from medical science (such as x-ray radiography and tomography), materials engineering (systematic planned studies on scintillators to optimize several qualities of a good scintillator, nanoparticle applications, quantum dots, and photonic crystals, just to name a few). No trend analysis of radiation detection systems would be complete without mentioning the unprecedented strategic position taken by the National Nuclear Security Administration (NNSA) to deter, detect, and interdict illicit trafficking in nuclear and other radioactive materials across international borders and through the global maritime transportation-the so-called second line of defense.

  7. Assessment and Management of Bullied Children in the Emergency Department

    Science.gov (United States)

    Waseem, Muhammad; Ryan, Mary; Foster, Carla Boutin; Peterson, Janey

    2015-01-01

    Bullying is an important public health issue in the United States. Up to 30% of children report exposure to such victimization. Not only does it hurt bully victim, but it also negatively impacts the bully, other children, parents, school staff, and health care providers. Because bullying often presents with accompanying serious emotional and behavioral symptoms, there has been an increase in psychiatric referrals to emergency departments. Emergency physicians may be the first responders in the health care system for bullying episodes. Victims of bullying may present with nonspecific symptoms and be reluctant to disclose being victimized, contributing to the underdiagnosis and underreporting of bully victimization. Emergency physicians therefore need to have heightened awareness of physical and psychosocial symptoms related to bullying. They should rapidly screen for bullying, assess for injuries and acute psychiatric issues that require immediate attention, and provide appropriate referrals such as psychiatry and social services. This review defines bullying, examines its presentations and epidemiology, and provides recommendations for the assessment and evaluation of victims of bullying in the emergency department. PMID:23462401

  8. Rating medical emergency teamwork performance: development of the Team Emergency Assessment Measure (TEAM).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cooper, Simon; Cant, Robyn; Porter, Joanne; Sellick, Ken; Somers, George; Kinsman, Leigh; Nestel, Debra

    2010-04-01

    To develop a valid, reliable and feasible teamwork assessment measure for emergency resuscitation team performance. Generic and profession specific team performance assessment measures are available (e.g. anaesthetics) but there are no specific measures for the assessment of emergency resuscitation team performance. (1) An extensive review of the literature for teamwork instruments, and (2) development of a draft instrument with an expert clinical team. (3) Review by an international team of seven independent experts for face and content validity. (4) Instrument testing on 56 video-recorded hospital and simulated resuscitation events for construct, consistency, concurrent validity and reliability and (5) a final set of ratings for feasibility on fifteen simulated 'real time' events. Following expert review, selected items were found to have a high total content validity index of 0.96. A single 'teamwork' construct was identified with an internal consistency of 0.89. Correlation between the total item score and global rating (rho 0.95; pleadership, teamwork and task management. In this primary study TEAM was found to be a valid and reliable instrument and should be a useful addition to clinicians' tool set for the measurement of teamwork during medical emergencies. Further evaluation of the instrument is warranted to fully determine its psychometric properties. Copyright (c) 2009 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Technical Basis for Radiological Emergency Plan Annex for WTD Emergency Response Plan: West Point Treatment Plant

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hickey, Eva E.; Strom, Daniel J.

    2005-08-01

    Staff of the King County Wastewater Treatment Division (WTD) have concern about the aftermath of a radiological dispersion event (RDE) leading to the introduction of significant quantities of radioactive material into the combined sanitary and storm sewer system in King County, Washington. Radioactive material could come from the use of a radiological dispersion device (RDD). RDDs include "dirty bombs" that are not nuclear detonations but are explosives designed to spread radioactive material (National Council on Radiation Protection and Measurements (NCRP) 2001). Radioactive material also could come from deliberate introduction or dispersion of radioactive material into the environment, including waterways and water supply systems. This document, Volume 3 of PNNL-15163 is the technical basis for the Annex to the West Point Treatment Plant (WPTP) Emergency Response Plan related to responding to a radiological emergency at the WPTP. The plan primarily considers response to radioactive material that has been introduced in the other combined sanitary and storm sewer system from a radiological dispersion device, but is applicable to any accidental or deliberate introduction of materials into the system.

  10. Experiences of an Engineer working in Reactor Safety and Emergency Response

    Science.gov (United States)

    Osborn, Douglas

    2015-04-01

    The U.S. Department of Energy's Federal Radiological Monitoring and Assessment Center Consequence Management Home Team (FRMAC/CMHT) Assessment Scientist's roles, responsibilities incorporate the FRMAC with other federal, state, and local agencies during a nuclear/radiological emergency. Before the Consequence Management Response Team arrives on-site, the FRMAC/CMHT provides technical and logistical support to the FRMAC and to state, local, and tribal authorities following a nuclear/radiological event. The FRMAC/CMHT support includes analyzing event data, evaluating hazards that relate to protection of the public, and providing event information and data products to protective action decision makers. The Assessment Scientist is the primary scientist responsible for performing calculations and analyses and communicating results to the field during any activation of the FRMAC/CMHT assets. As such, the FRMAC/CMHT Assessment Scientist has a number of different roles and responsibilities to fill depending upon the type of response that is required. Additionally, the Sandia National Laboratories (SNL) Consequence Assessment Team (CAT) Consequence Assessor roles, responsibilities involve hazardous materials operational emergency at SNL New Mexico facilities (SNL/NM) which include loss of control over radioactive, chemical, or explosive hazardous materials. When a hazardous materials operational emergency occurs, key decisions must be made in order to regain control over the hazards, protect personnel from the effects of the hazards, and mitigate impacts on operations, facilities, property, and the environment. Many of these decisions depend in whole or in part on the evaluation of potential consequences from a loss of control over the hazards. As such, the CAT has a number of different roles and responsibilities to fill depending upon the type of response that is required. Primary consequence-based decisions supported by the CAT during a hazardous materials operational

  11. In the Face of an Emergency: What Makes a Responsive and Resilient Society?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Montine L Walters

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available This article intends to highlight the ways in which the response required to deal with terrorist threats of the 21st Century differs from that required to respond to threats the UK has faced in the past. In addition it will assess ways in which the UK may strengthen the population’s resilience and the ability of the population to respond to emergency incidents.

  12. Future Roles for Autonomous Vertical Lift in Disaster Relief and Emergency Response

    Science.gov (United States)

    Young, Larry A.

    2006-01-01

    System analysis concepts are applied to the assessment of potential collaborative contributions of autonomous system and vertical lift (a.k.a. rotorcraft, VTOL, powered-lift, etc.) technologies to the important, and perhaps underemphasized, application domain of disaster relief and emergency response. In particular, an analytic framework is outlined whereby system design functional requirements for an application domain can be derived from defined societal good goals and objectives.

  13. Does Young Age Merit Increased Emergency Department Trauma Team Response?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Holmes, James F.

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available ntroduction: To determine if increased trauma team response results in alterations in resource use in a population of children<6 years, especially in those least injured. Methods: We conducted a retrospective before and after study of children <6 years sustaining blunt trauma and meeting defined prehospital criteria. We compared hospitalization rates and missed injuries (injuries identified after discharge from the emergency department/hospital among patients with and without an upgraded trauma team response. We compared the computed tomography (CT rate and laboratory testing rate among minimally injured patients (Injury Severity Score [ISS] 6. Results: We enrolled 352 patients with 180 (mean age 2.7 ± 1.5 years in the upgrade cohort and 172 (mean age 2.6 ± 1.5 years in the no-upgrade cohort. Independent predictors of hospital admission in a regression analysis included: Glasgow Coma Scale <14 (odds ratio [OR]=11.4, 95% confidence interval [CI] 2.3, 56, ISS (OR=1.55, 95% CI 1.33, 1.81, and evaluation by the upgrade trauma team (OR=5.66, 95% CI 3.14, 10.2. In the 275 patients with ISS < 6, CT (relative risk=1.34, 95% CI 1.09, 1.64 and laboratory tests (relative risk=1.71, 95% CI 1.39, 2.11 were more likely to be obtained in the upgrade cohort as compared to the no-upgrade cohort. We identified no cases of a missed diagnosis. Conclusion: Increasing the trauma team response based upon young age results in increased resource use without altering the rate of missed injuries. In hospitals with ED physicians capable of evaluating and treating injured children, increasing ED trauma team resources solely for young age of the patient is not recommended. [West J Emerg Med. 2013;14(6:569–575.

  14. Coordinating a Team Response to Behavioral Emergencies in the Emergency Department: A Simulation-Enhanced Interprofessional Curriculum

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ambrose H. Wong

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: While treating potentially violent patients in the emergency department (ED, both patients and staff may be subject to unintentional injury. Emergency healthcare providers are at the greatest risk of experiencing physical and verbal assault from patients. Preliminary studies have shown that a teambased approach with targeted staff training has significant positive outcomes in mitigating violence in healthcare settings. Staff attitudes toward patient aggression have also been linked to workplace safety, but current literature suggests that providers experience fear and anxiety while caring for potentially violent patients. The objectives of the study were (1 to develop an interprofessional curriculum focusing on improving teamwork and staff attitudes toward patient violence using simulation-enhanced education for ED staff, and (2 to assess attitudes towards patient aggression both at pre- and post-curriculum implementation stages using a survey-based study design. Methods: Formal roles and responsibilities for each member of the care team, including positioning during restraint placement, were predefined in conjunction with ED leadership. Emergency medicine residents, nurses and hospital police officers were assigned to interprofessional teams. The curriculum started with an introductory lecture discussing de-escalation techniques and restraint placement as well as core tenets of interprofessional collaboration. Next, we conducted two simulation scenarios using standardized participants (SPs and structured debriefing. The study consisted of a survey-based design comparing pre- and post-intervention responses via a paired Student t-test to assess changes in staff attitudes. We used the validated Management of Aggression and Violence Attitude Scale (MAVAS consisting of 30 Likert-scale questions grouped into four themed constructs. Results: One hundred sixty-two ED staff members completed the course with >95% staff participation

  15. Quantitative approach of organizational resilience for a Dutch Emergency Response Safety Region

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Van Trijp, J. M P; Ulieru, Mihaela; Van Gelder, Pieter H A J M

    2012-01-01

    Resilience of an Emergency Response Organization is an important concept to determine how well a Dutch Emergency Response Safety Region behaves under stress. The main objective of this study is to determine the intrinsic value "Resilience" in case of a Dutch Emergency Response Safety Region. In this

  16. Emergency Response and the International Charter Space and Major Disasters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, B.; Lamb, R.

    2011-12-01

    Responding to catastrophic natural disasters requires information. When the flow of information on the ground is interrupted by crises such as earthquakes, landslides, volcanoes, hurricanes, and floods, satellite imagery and aerial photographs become invaluable tools in revealing post-disaster conditions and in aiding disaster response and recovery efforts. USGS is a global clearinghouse for remotely sensed disaster imagery. It is also a source of innovative products derived from satellite imagery that can provide unique overviews as well as important details about the impacts of disasters. Repeatedly, USGS and its resources have proven their worth in assisting with disaster recovery activities in the United States and abroad. USGS has a well-established role in emergency response in the United States. It works closely with the Federal Emergency Management Agency (FEMA) by providing first responders with satellite and aerial images of disaster-impacted sites and products developed from those images. The combination of the USGS image archive, coupled with its global data transfer capability and on-site science staff, was instrumental in the USGS becoming a participating agency in the International Charter Space and Major Disasters. This participation provides the USGS with access to international members and their space agencies, to information on European and other global member methodology in disaster response, and to data from satellites operated by Charter member countries. Such access enhances the USGS' ability to respond to global emergencies and to disasters that occur in the United States (US). As one example, the Charter agencies provided imagery to the US for over 4 months in response to the Gulf oil spill. The International Charter mission is to provide a unified system of space data acquisition and delivery to those affected by natural or man-made disasters. Each member space agency has committed resources to support the provisions of the Charter and

  17. The assessment of language and the emergence from disorders of consciousness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pundole, Amy; Crawford, Sarah

    2017-04-06

    In order to demonstrate emergence from a disorder of consciousness (DoC) an individual is currently required to demonstrate functional object use of two objects, or functional communication defined as accurately answering six yes/no questions on two consecutive occasions (Giacino et al., 2002 ). In practice, experienced speech and language therapists (SLTs) working with this group often focus on facilitating object use or employ other language tasks, since achieving a 100% accurate yes/no response can be difficult for patients following an extensive brain injury due to language and/or cognitive impairments. There is an increasing awareness of this issue in the literature and in practice and there is discussion about reviewing the current definition of emergence. This paper outlines the traditional definition of emergence and recent updates, discusses some of the problems and implications associated with current assessment, highlights the importance of getting it right, explores potential other ways to determine emergence, and suggests further areas for research.

  18. Image and Imaging an Emergency Department: Expense and Benefit of Different Quality Assessment Methods

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carmen Andrea Pfortmueller

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction. In this era of high-tech medicine, it is becoming increasingly important to assess patient satisfaction. There are several methods to do so, but these differ greatly in terms of cost, time, and labour and external validity. The aim of this study is to describe and compare the structure and implementation of different methods to assess the satisfaction of patients in an emergency department. Methods. The structure and implementation of the different methods to assess patient satisfaction were evaluated on the basis of a 90-minute standardised interview. Results. We identified a total of six different methods in six different hospitals. The average number of patients assessed was 5012, with a range from 230 (M5 to 20 000 patients (M2. In four methods (M1, M3, M5, and M6, the questionnaire was composed by a specialised external institute. In two methods, the questionnaire was created by the hospital itself (M2, M4.The median response rate was 58.4% (range 9–97.8%. With a reminder, the response rate increased by 60% (M3. Conclusion. The ideal method to assess patient satisfaction in the emergency department setting is to use a patient-based, in-emergency department-based assessment of patient satisfaction, planned and guided by expert personnel.

  19. Emergent Phototactic Responses of Cyanobacteria under Complex Light Regimes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chau, Rosanna Man Wah; Bhaya, Devaki; Huang, Kerwyn Casey

    2017-03-07

    Environmental cues can stimulate a variety of single-cell responses, as well as collective behaviors that emerge within a bacterial community. These responses require signal integration and transduction, which can occur on a variety of time scales and often involve feedback between processes, for example, between growth and motility. Here, we investigate the dynamics of responses of the phototactic, unicellular cyanobacterium Synechocystis sp. PCC6803 to complex light inputs that simulate the natural environments that cells typically encounter. We quantified single-cell motility characteristics in response to light of different wavelengths and intensities. We found that red and green light primarily affected motility bias rather than speed, while blue light inhibited motility altogether. When light signals were simultaneously presented from different directions, cells exhibited phototaxis along the vector sum of the light directions, indicating that cells can sense and combine multiple signals into an integrated motility response. Under a combination of antagonistic light signal regimes (phototaxis-promoting green light and phototaxis-inhibiting blue light), the ensuing bias was continuously tuned by competition between the wavelengths, and the community response was dependent on both bias and cell growth. The phototactic dynamics upon a rapid light shift revealed a wavelength dependence on the time scales of photoreceptor activation/deactivation. Thus, Synechocystis cells achieve exquisite integration of light inputs at the cellular scale through continuous tuning of motility, and the pattern of collective behavior depends on single-cell motility and population growth.IMPORTANCE The photosynthetic cyanobacterium Synechocystis sp. exhibits phototaxis that is dependent on the incident light wavelength through the action of various photoreceptors. In natural environments, cells experience a set of highly dynamic and complex light inputs, yet how cells transduce

  20. HAZBOT - A hazardous materials emergency response mobile robot

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stone, H. W.; Edmonds, G.

    1992-01-01

    The authors describe the progress that has been made towards the development of a mobile robot that can be used by hazardous materials emergency response teams to perform a variety of tasks including incident localization and characterization, hazardous material identification/classification, site surveillance and monitoring, and ultimately incident mitigation. In September of 1991, the HAZBOT II vehicle performed its first end-to-end demonstration involving a scenario in which the vehicle: navigated to the incident location from a distant (150-200 ft.) deployment site; entered a building through a door with thumb latch style handle and door closer; located and navigated to the suspected incident location (a chemical storeroom); unlocked and opened the storeroom's door; climbed over the storeroom's 12 in. high threshold to enter the storeroom; and located and identified a broken container of benzene.

  1. Consumer response to food labels in an emerging market

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Festila, Alexandra Florina; Chrysochou, Polymeros; Krystallis Krontalis, Athanasios

    2014-01-01

    This study investigates consumer response to food labels in an emerging market. More specifically, it measures the levels of awareness, objective and perceived understanding, perceived usefulness and perceived trustworthiness of the most prominent food labels found in the Romanian market. An online...... survey was conducted with a convenience sample of 428 respondents (45.6% males of an average age of 30.6 years). Results revealed that for most respondents awareness levels towards food labels are generally low, except for the Guideline Daily Amount and the organic food labels. Objective understanding...... towards food labels was relatively high, especially towards those food labels that included a clear text element. Perceived understanding, perceived usefulness and perceived trustworthiness were found to be consistently high with regard to the GDA and the national organic food labels, while the European...

  2. Linking GIS and storm water modeling for emergency risk assessment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Newkirk, R.T. [Univ. of Waterloo, Ontario (Canada)

    1995-12-31

    Many emergencies involve the deposition of chemical contaminants on land either as a direct event or as a secondary byproduct. GIS can be useful in estimating the initial deposition area. Chemical product attribute data bases can be accessed to determine the degree that the contaminants might be transportable in a water medium. An important issue is to estimate the potential impact of the deposition on surface and subsurface water flows. This particularly important since millions of people rely on subsurface ground water as their main source of potable water. Thus, a modeling system is needed by planners and emergency managers to assess the potential for short and long term risks to communities due to storm water transport of deposited contaminants. GIS itself cannot provide the complete analysis. A prototype system to assist in estimating the flows of contaminants related to an emergency has been developed by linking an Arc/Info database, Digital Terrain Model, and SWMM the storm water management modeling system. This system also has important planning applications in assessing alternative land development plans for their impact on ground water recharge and management of storm water.

  3. Assessing emergency medical care in low income countries: A pilot study from Pakistan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Akhtar Tasleem

    2008-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Emergency Medical Care is an important component of health care system. Unfortunately it is however, ignored in many low income countries. We assessed the availability and quality of facility-based emergency medical care in the government health care system at district level in a low income country – Pakistan. Methods We did a quantitative pilot study of a convenience sample of 22 rural and 20 urban health facilities in 2 districts – Faisalabad and Peshawar – in Pakistan. The study consisted of three separate cross-sectional assessments of selected community leaders, health care providers, and health care facilities. Three data collection instruments were created with input from existing models for facility assessment such as those used by the Joint Commission of Accreditation of Hospitals and the National Center for Health Statistics in USA and the Medical Research Council in Pakistan. Results The majority of respondents 43/44(98%, in community survey were not satisfied with the emergency care provided. Most participants 36/44(82% mentioned that they will not call an ambulance in health related emergency because it does not function properly in the government system. The expenses on emergency care for the last experience were reported to be less than 5,000 Pakistani Rupees (equivalent to US$ 83 for 19/29(66% respondents. Most health care providers 43/44(98% were of the opinion that their facilities were inadequately equipped to treat emergencies. The majority of facilities 31/42(74% had no budget allocated for emergency care. A review of medications and equipment available showed that many critical supplies needed in an emergency were not found in these facilities. Conclusion Assessment of emergency care should be part of health systems analysis in Pakistan. Multiple deficiencies in emergency care at the district level in Pakistan were noted in our study. Priority should be given to make emergency care responsive to

  4. Probabilistic risk assessment of emerging materials: case study of titanium dioxide nanoparticles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsang, Michael P; Hristozov, Danail; Zabeo, Alex; Koivisto, Antti Joonas; Jensen, Alexander Christian Østerskov; Jensen, Keld Alstrup; Pang, Chengfang; Marcomini, Antonio; Sonnemann, Guido

    2017-05-01

    The development and use of emerging technologies such as nanomaterials can provide both benefits and risks to society. Emerging materials may promise to bring many technological advantages but may not be well characterized in terms of their production volumes, magnitude of emissions, behaviour in the environment and effects on living organisms. This uncertainty can present challenges to scientists developing these materials and persons responsible for defining and measuring their adverse impacts. Human health risk assessment is a method of identifying the intrinsic hazard of and quantifying the dose-response relationship and exposure to a chemical, to finally determine the estimation of risk. Commonly applied deterministic approaches may not sufficiently estimate and communicate the likelihood of risks from emerging technologies whose uncertainty is large. Probabilistic approaches allow for parameters in the risk assessment process to be defined by distributions instead of single deterministic values whose uncertainty could undermine the value of the assessment. A probabilistic approach was applied to the dose-response and exposure assessment of a case study involving the production of nanoparticles of titanium dioxide in seven different exposure scenarios. Only one exposure scenario showed a statistically significant level of risk. In the latter case, this involved dumping high volumes of nano-TiO2 powders into an open vessel with no personal protection equipment. The probabilistic approach not only provided the likelihood of but also the major contributing factors to the estimated risk (e.g. emission potential).

  5. Clustering Emergency Department patients - an assessment of group normality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schmidt, Thomas; Hallam, John; Lassen, Annmarie; Wiil, Uffe Kock

    2015-01-01

    This paper presents an investigation into clustering of vital signs from Emergency Department patients with an intention of uncovering distinct thresholds for groups of patients. Emergency Department clinicians have to deal with an enormous spectrum of symptoms and diseases. The variety in patients is a cause for false alarms which greatly burden clinicians. Better targeted alarm thresholds may mitigate the risk of alarm fatigue. The study is based on vital signs from a prospective cohort study at a Danish Hospital coupled with health registry data, and utilizes k-means clustering and novel evaluation metrics for cluster assessment. All combinations of 5 key vital signs are clustered in a range from 2..20. We evaluate the clustering of respiration and arterial peripheral oxygen saturation for k=7. The study fails to identify distinct groups, but does uncover relevant traits and contribute with an evaluation strategy for further studies.

  6. Manual for best practice for emergency response procedures, part 2: the management of inrushes, fires, explosions and other emergencies.

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Spencer, KC

    2000-02-01

    Full Text Available FOR EMERGENCY RESPONSE PROCEDURES PART 2 THE MANAGEMENT OF INRUSHES, FIRES, EXPLOSIONS AND OTHER EMERGENCIES Authors: K C Spencer, D M Walters, T P T Page and A G du Plessis. Research Agency: Turgis Technology (Pty) Ltd. Project No. COL 605 Date...-planning .................................................................................................................2 2.2 Awareness of the emergency situation..........................................................................2 2.3 Self contained self rescuers (SCSRs) ...........................................................................3 2...

  7. Assessing Knowledge Base on Geriatric Competencies for Emergency Medicine Residents

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Teresita M. Hogan

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Emergency care of older adults requires specialized knowledge of their unique physiology, atypical presentations, and care transitions. Older adults often require distinctive assessment, treatment and disposition. Emergency medicine (EM residents should develop expertise and efficiency in geriatric care. Older adults represent over 25% of most emergency department (ED volumes. Yet many EM residencies lack curricula or assessment tools for competent geriatric care. Fully educating residents in emergency geriatric care can demand large amounts of limited conference time. The Geriatric Emergency Medicine Competencies (GEMC are high-impact geriatric topics developed to help residencies efficiently and effectively meet this training demand. This study examines if a 2-hour didactic intervention can significantly improve resident knowledge in 7 key domains as identified by the GEMC across multiple programs. Methods: A validated 29-question didactic test was administered at six EM residencies before and after a GEMC-focused lecture delivered in summer and fall of 2009. We analyzed scores as individual questions and in defined topic domains using a paired student t test. Results: A total of 301 exams were administered; 86 to PGY1, 88 to PGY2, 86 to PGY3, and 41 to PGY4 residents. The testing of didactic knowledge before and after the GEMC educational intervention had high internal reliability (87.9%. The intervention significantly improved scores in all 7 GEMC domains (improvement 13.5% to 34.6%; p<0.001. For all questions, the improvement was 23% (37.8% pre, 60.8% post; P<0.001 Graded increase in geriatric knowledge occurred by PGY year with the greatest improvement post intervention seen at the PGY 3 level (PGY1 19.1% versus PGY3 27.1%. Conclusion: A brief GEMC intervention had a significant impact on EM resident knowledge of critical geriatric topics. Lectures based on the GEMC can be a high-yield tool to enhance resident knowledge of

  8. Typhoon emergency response planning for the South China Sea

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Corona, E.N.; Lynch, R.D.; Riffe, D.; Cardone, V.J.; Cox, A.; Chen, H.

    1996-12-31

    This paper describes the development, implementation and performance of a comprehensive typhoon emergency response plan (ERP) utilized during 1995 by Arco China Inc. (ACI) for their offshore Hainan Is. South China Sea development. An important component of the enhanced plan is a new system to forecast winds and sea states generated by tropical cyclones (TC) built around known uncertainties in forecasts of cyclones and well proven numerical models of the TC surface wind field and the spectral wave field. The forecast system provides specification of time histories of the winds and waves at the site for the nominally predicted track as well as the probabilities of exceedance of critical evacuation thresholds of wind speed and sea state. The ERP and forecast system were operated throughout the 1995 typhoon season and evaluated at the Yacheng development, which was seriously threatened by 15 tropical cyclones between June and November. The response to these threats in terms of interruption of operations, partial or total evacuation of offshore personnel and average downtime is described and compared to previous experience which used more conventional forecast services. The evaluation has shown the new system to provide significant benefits in terms of safety, efficiency and cost savings. The wind and sea state forecast histories provided year-round by the forecast system are also of significant benefit to the management of floating production systems.

  9. Emergency Response to and Preparedness for Extreme Weather Events and Environmental Changes in China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Li; Liao, Yongfeng; Yang, Linsheng; Li, Hairong; Ye, Bixiong; Wang, Wuyi

    2016-03-01

    China has achieved impressive rapid economic growth over the past 30 years but accompanied by significant extreme weather events and environmental changes caused by global change and overfast urbanization. Using the absolute hazards index (AHI), we assessed the spatial distribution patterns and related health effects of 4 major extreme natural disasters, including drought, floods (landslides, mudslides), hails, and typhoons from 2000 to 2011 at the provincial level in China. The results showed that (1) central and south China were the most affected by the 4 natural disasters, and north China suffered less; (2) the provinces with higher AHI suffered most from total death, missing people, collapse, and emergently relocated population; (3) the present health emergency response system to disasters in China mainly lacks a multidisciplinary approach. In the concluding section of this article, suggestions on preparedness and rapid response to extreme health events from environmental changes are proposed. © 2014 APJPH.

  10. DOE Response to the Fukushima Accident: Advancing the Science of Emergency Response

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blumenthal, Daniel

    2015-04-01

    The US Department of Energy maintains specialized technical teams to respond to radiological/nuclear emergencies. They apply well-established laboratory nuclear measurement techniques in field environments, conduct rapid analysis, and deliver data products to government leaders in support of real-time public safety decisions. Meeting these requirements, often in the face of incomplete and imperfect information, takes a great deal of training and practice to effectively translate science into operations. Since large-scale emergencies are rare, the Fukushima nuclear accident in March 2011 provided an opportunity to employ these teams. Their timely support to both US and Japanese decision makers provides an excellent case study in the application of instrumentation, analysis methods, data presentation, and training to emergency response.

  11. A FTA-based method for risk decision-making in emergency response

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Liu, Yang; Li, Hongyan

    2014-01-01

    Decision-making problems in emergency response are usually risky and uncertain due to the limited decision data and possible evolvement of emergency scenarios. This paper focuses on a risk decisionmaking problem in emergency response with several distinct characteristics including dynamic...

  12. Assessment of acute motor deficit in the pediatric emergency room

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcio Moacyr Vasconcelos

    Full Text Available Abstract Objectives: This review article aimed to present a clinical approach, emphasizing the diagnostic investigation, to children and adolescents who present in the emergency room with acute-onset muscle weakness. Sources: A systematic search was performed in PubMed database during April and May 2017, using the following search terms in various combinations: “acute,” “weakness,” “motor deficit,” “flaccid paralysis,” “child,” “pediatric,” and “emergency”. The articles chosen for this review were published over the past ten years, from 1997 through 2017. This study assessed the pediatric age range, from 0 to 18 years. Summary of the data: Acute motor deficit is a fairly common presentation in the pediatric emergency room. Patients may be categorized as having localized or diffuse motor impairment, and a precise description of clinical features is essential in order to allow a complete differential diagnosis. The two most common causes of acute flaccid paralysis in the pediatric emergency room are Guillain-Barré syndrome and transverse myelitis; notwithstanding, other etiologies should be considered, such as acute disseminated encephalomyelitis, infectious myelitis, myasthenia gravis, stroke, alternating hemiplegia of childhood, periodic paralyses, brainstem encephalitis, and functional muscle weakness. Algorithms for acute localized or diffuse weakness investigation in the emergency setting are also presented. Conclusions: The clinical skills to obtain a complete history and to perform a detailed physical examination are emphasized. An organized, logical, and stepwise diagnostic and therapeutic management is essential to eventually restore patient's well-being and full health.

  13. An integrated approach to oversight assessment for emerging technologies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuzma, Jennifer; Paradise, Jordan; Ramachandran, Gurumurthy; Kim, Jee-Ae; Kokotovich, Adam; Wolf, Susan M

    2008-10-01

    Analysis of oversight systems is often conducted from a single disciplinary perspective and by using a limited set of criteria for evaluation. In this article, we develop an approach that blends risk analysis, social science, public administration, legal, public policy, and ethical perspectives to develop a broad set of criteria for assessing oversight systems. Multiple methods, including historical analysis, expert elicitation, and behavioral consensus, were employed to develop multidisciplinary criteria for evaluating oversight of emerging technologies. Sixty-six initial criteria were identified from extensive literature reviews and input from our Working Group. Criteria were placed in four categories reflecting the development, attributes, evolution, and outcomes of oversight systems. Expert elicitation, consensus methods, and multidisciplinary review of the literature were used to refine a condensed, operative set of criteria. Twenty-eight criteria resulted spanning four categories: seven development criteria, 15 attribute criteria, five outcome criteria, and one evolution criterion. These criteria illuminate how oversight systems develop, operate, change, and affect society. We term our approach "integrated oversight assessment" and propose its use as a tool for analyzing relationships among features, outcomes, and tradeoffs of oversight systems. Comparisons among historical case studies of oversight using a consistent set of criteria should result in defensible and evidence-supported lessons to guide the development of oversight systems for emerging technologies, such as nanotechnology.

  14. Faster response time : effective use of resources : integrating transportation systems and emergency management systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    1999-01-01

    This brochure discusses how coordinating the efforts of emergency dispatchers with transportation management agencies can improve efficiency and response times. It is noted that when emergency services agencies share facilities and traffic monitoring...

  15. Report on the emergency response to the event on May 14, 1997, at the plutonuim reclamation facility, Hanford Site, Richland,Washington

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shoop, D.S.

    1997-08-20

    On the evening of May 14,1997, a chemical explosion Occurred at the Plutonium Reclamation Facility (PRF) in the 200 West Area(200-W) of the Hanford Site. The event warranted the declaration of an Alert emergency, activation of the Hanford Emergency Response Organization (BRO), and notification of offsite agencies. As a result of the emergency declaration, a subsequent evaluation was conducted to assess: 9 the performance of the emergency response organization o the occupational health response related to emergency activities o event notifications to offsite and environmental agencies. Additionally, the evaluation was designed to: 9 document the chronology of emergency and occupational health responses and environmental notifications connected with the explosion at the facility 0 assess the adequacy of the Hanford Site emergency preparedness activities; response readiness; and emergency management actions, occupational health, and environmental actions 0 provide an analysis of the causes of the deficiencies and weaknesses in the preparedness and response system that have been identified in the evaluation of the response a assign organizational responsibility to correct deficiencies and weaknesses a improve future performance 0 adjust elements of emergency implementing procedures and emergency preparedness activities.

  16. The 2012 derecho: emergency medical services and hospital response.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kearns, Randy D; Wigal, Mark S; Fernandez, Antonio; Tucker, March A; Zuidgeest, Ginger R; Mills, Michael R; Cairns, Bruce A; Cairns, Charles B

    2014-10-01

    During the early afternoon of June 29, 2012, a line of destructive thunderstorms producing straight line winds known as a derecho developed near Chicago (Illinois, USA). The storm moved southeast with wind speeds recorded from 100 to 160 kilometers per hour (kph, 60 to 100 miles per hour [mph]). The storm swept across much of West Virginia (USA) later that evening. Power outage was substantial as an estimated 1,300,000 West Virginians (more than half) were without power in the aftermath of the storm and approximately 600,000 citizens were still without power a week later. This was one of the worst storms to strike this area and occurred as residents were enduring a prolonged heat wave. The wind damage left much of the community without electricity and the crippling effect compromised or destroyed critical infrastructure including communications, air conditioning, refrigeration, and water and sewer pumps. This report describes utilization of Emergency Medical Services (EMS) and hospital resources in West Virginia in response to the storm. Also reported is a review of the weather phenomena and the findings and discussion of the disaster and implications.

  17. Rapid screening of radioactivity in food for emergency response.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bari, A; Khan, A J; Semkow, T M; Syed, U-F; Roselan, A; Haines, D K; Roth, G; West, L; Arndt, M

    2011-06-01

    This paper describes the development of methods for the rapid screening of gross alpha (GA) and gross beta (GB) radioactivity in liquid foods, specifically, Tang drink mix, apple juice, and milk, as well as screening of GA, GB, and gamma radioactivity from surface deposition on apples. Detailed procedures were developed for spiking of matrices with (241)Am (alpha radioactivity), (90)Sr/(90)Y (beta radioactivity), and (60)Co, (137)Cs, and (241)Am (gamma radioactivity). Matrix stability studies were performed for 43 days after spiking. The method for liquid foods is based upon rapid digestion, evaporation, and flaming, followed by gas proportional (GP) counting. For the apple matrix, surface radioactivity was acid-leached, followed by GP counting and/or gamma spectrometry. The average leaching recoveries from four different apple brands were between 63% and 96%, and have been interpreted on the basis of ion transport through the apple cuticle. The minimum detectable concentrations (MDCs) were calculated from either the background or method-blank (MB) measurements. They were found to satisfy the required U.S. FDA's Derived Intervention Levels (DILs) in all but one case. The newly developed methods can perform radioactivity screening in foods within a few hours and have the potential to capacity with further automation. They are especially applicable to emergency response following accidental or intentional contamination of food with radioactivity. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  18. Evaluation of management of communication in the actions of preparedness and response to nuclear and radiological emergencies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mello Filho, Mauro Otto de Cavalcanti; Beserra, Marcela Tatiana Fernandes, E-mail: maurootto@cefet-rj.br, E-mail: maurootto@gmail.com, E-mail: mbeserra@cefet-rj.br [Centro Federal de Educacao Celso Sucknow da Fonseca (CEFET-RJ), Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil); Wasserman, Maria Angelica Vergara, E-mail: mwasserman@ien.gov.br [Instituto de Engenharia Nuclear (IEN/CNEN-RJ), Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil); Wasserman, Julio Cesar de Faria Alvim, E-mail: geowass@vm.uff.br [Universidade Federal Fluminense (UFF), Niteroi, RJ (Brazil)

    2013-07-01

    The use of practices involving the use of ionizing radiation in diverse areas of knowledge increases every day. This growth warning about the increased probability of accidents, radiological and nuclear emergencies, with possible consequences for the public, workers and the environment. Within this scenario, it is clear that studies and reassessments of the emergency response actions, receive proposals for continuous improvement. The achievement of the objectives of the response must be sustained by tactical, operation and logistics optimized processes. The articulation through communication between the teams involved in the response must be adaptable to each accident or emergency, respecting its size. The objectives of this study is to perform an assessment on the management of communication in the actions of Preparedness and Response to Nuclear and Radiological Emergencies. This assessment is supported by best practices of the Incident Command System (ICS) and the Institute of Project Management (Project Management Institute-PMI). For this purpose, based on models referred were established performance indicators supported by the BSC (Balanced Scorecard). These indicators allowed to evaluate more objectively the performance of the communication processes associated with each phase of the response. The study resulted in the proposed model documents aiming to assist planning of communications exercises in preparation and response actions, supported and adapted the best practices of PMI. These methodologies were evaluated by real cases selected from radiological and nuclear emergencies published by the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA). (author)

  19. EPA’s Role in Emergency Response - Special Teams

    Science.gov (United States)

    The Environmental Response Team; Radiological Response Team; Chemical, Biological, Radiological, and Nuclear Consequence Management Advisory Division; and National Criminal Enforcement Response Team provide specialized support.

  20. Pain assessment by emergency nurses at triage in the emergency department: A qualitative study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vuille, Marilène; Foerster, Maryline; Foucault, Eliane; Hugli, Olivier

    2018-02-01

    To investigate the assessment of pain intensity in the specific context of triage. Acute pain affects most patients admitted to emergency departments, but pain relief in this setting remains insufficient. Evaluation of pain and its treatment at the time of patient triage expedites the administration of analgesia, but may be awkward at this time-pressured moment. The assessment of pain intensity by a validated pain scale is a critical initial step, and a patient's self-reporting is widely considered as the key to effective pain management. According to good practice guidelines, clinicians must accept a patient's statement, regardless of their own opinions. A qualitative methodology rooted in interactionist sociology and on the Grounded theory was used to provide an opportunity to uncover complex decision-making processes, such as those involved in assessing pain. A sociologist conducted semi-structured interviews during the 2013-2014 winter months with twelve nurses and trained in the use of an established protocol, focusing on the assessment of pain intensity. The interviews were recorded, fully transcribed and analysed. The most frequently used pain scale was the Verbal Numerical Rating Scale. Discrepancies between self-assessment and evaluation by a nurse were common. To restore congruence between the two, nurses used various tactics, such as using different definitions of the high-end anchor of the scale, providing additional explanations about the scale, or using abnormal vital signs or the acceptance of morphine as a proof of the validity of severe pain ratings. Nurses cannot easily suspend their own judgement. Their tactics do not express a lack of professionalism, but are consistent with the logic of professional intervention. This article presents triage nurses' reality in a time-pressured environment, and understanding this conflict may outline new educational targets to further improve pain management in ED. © 2017 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  1. Essentials for emergency care: Lessons from an inventory assessment of an emergency centre in Sub-Saharan Africa

    OpenAIRE

    Osei, Kofi Marfo; Hamilton, Baker; Freeman, Felicia Birch; Nunoo, Nii; Torrey, Susan B.; Soghoian, Sari

    2014-01-01

    The World Health Organization (WHO) has published lists of essential equipment and supplies for delivering emergency care in resource-limited settings. The objective of this study was to assess material resources available for adult emergency care at a major academic tertiary care referral centre in Accra, Ghana, to determine quality improvement needs. Methods: A spot inventory of emergency centre equipment and supplies was conducted in Korle-Bu Teaching Hospital (KBTH) and compared to the...

  2. Health impact assessment in China: Emergence, progress and challenges

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Huang Zheng, E-mail: huangzhg@mails.tjmu.edu.cn

    2012-01-15

    The values, concepts and approaches of health impact assessment (HIA) were outlined in the Gothenburg consensus paper and some industrialized countries have implemented HIA for many years. HIA has played an important role in environmental protection in China, however, the emergence, progress and challenges of HIA in China have not been well described. In this paper, the evolution of HIA in China was analyzed and the challenges of HIA were presented based on the author's experiences. HIA contributed to decision-making for large capital construction projects, such as the Three Gorges Dam project, in its emergence stage. Increasing attention has been given to HIA in recent years due to supportive policies underpinning development of the draft HIA guidelines in 2008. However enormous challenges lie ahead in ensuring the institutionalization of HIA into project, program and policy decision-making process due to limited scope, immature tools and insufficient professionals in HIA practice. HIA should broaden its horizons by encompassing physical, chemical, biological and socio-economic aspects and constant attempts should be made to integrate HIA into the decision-making process, not only for projects and programs but also for policies as well.

  3. Risk assessment of aggression toward emergency health care workers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martini, A; Fantini, S; D'Ovidio, M C; Ceracchi, A; De Santis, A

    2012-04-01

    Health care and social service workers face a significant risk of job-related violence. To develop a method for quantitative evaluation of the risk of violence, as required by Italian and European regulations, against extra-hospital emergency health care workers employed by the Regional Emergency Healthcare Service (ARES 118) in the Lazio Region in Italy. Violence to the ARES 118 workers during working hours was examined by analysing injuries reported by them between 2005 and 2007. The assessment method proposed should give a numerical indicator of the risk of violence for each homogeneous group. The quantitative risk was evaluated on the basis of variables such as the days off work for each episode, the total number of aggressive attacks, the type of health intervention involved, etc. The rate of accidents related to aggression during working hours at the ARES unit was 6.3%, which is significantly higher than the figure of 2% reported for the entire health care sector. The present evaluation is largely based on analysis of the Injury Register. To increase the sensitivity of the method so that it closely reflects active reporting of events, it would be necessary to implement a procedure for reporting events in a 'company register of acts of violence' and to make workers more aware of the need to report all such episodes.

  4. Development of emergency response plans for community water ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ers through emergencies as part of managing risks in the water supply system. Emergencies in the water supply system may result from, among other causes, natural disasters, inappropri- ate or poor design and planning, system neglect or poor main- tenance, poor operations and intentional acts (e.g. vandalism).

  5. Development of emergency response plans for community water ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ... among other causes, natural disasters, equipment failure, human error and intentional acts (e.g. vandalism). Simply put, an ERP prepares the organisation for emergencies and gives specific instructions about what to do if there is an emergency situation that may affect the water system. To assist water services institutions ...

  6. [Instrument for assessing the quality of mobile emergency pre-hospital care: content validation].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dantas, Rodrigo Assis Neves; Torres, Gilson de Vasconcelos; Salvetti, Marina de Góes; Dantas, Daniele Vieira; Mendonça, Ana Elza Oliveira de

    2015-06-01

    To validate an instrument to assess quality of mobile emergency pre-hospital care. A methodological study where 20 professionals gave their opinions on the items of the proposed instrument. The analysis was performed using Kappa test (K) and Content Validity Index (CVI), considering K> 0.80 and CVI ≥ 0.80. Three items were excluded from the instrument: Professional Compensation; Job Satisfaction and Services Performed. Items that obtained adequate K and CVI indexes and remained in the instrument were: ambulance conservation status; physical structure; comfort in the ambulance; availability of material resources; user/staff safety; continuous learning; safety demonstrated by the team; access; welcoming; humanization; response time; costumer privacy; guidelines on care; relationship between professionals and costumers; opportunity for costumers to make complaints and multiprofessional conjunction/actuation. The instrument to assess quality of care has been validated and may contribute to the evaluation of pre-hospital care in mobile emergency services.

  7. Lessons Learned from Emergency Response Vaccination Efforts for Cholera, Typhoid, Yellow Fever, and Ebola.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walldorf, Jenny A; Date, Kashmira A; Sreenivasan, Nandini; Harris, Jennifer B; Hyde, Terri B

    2017-12-01

    Countries must be prepared to respond to public health threats associated with emergencies, such as natural disasters, sociopolitical conflicts, or uncontrolled disease outbreaks. Rapid vaccination of populations vulnerable to epidemic-prone vaccine-preventable diseases is a major component of emergency response. Emergency vaccination planning presents challenges, including how to predict resource needs, expand vaccine availability during global shortages, and address regulatory barriers to deliver new products. The US Centers for Disease Control and Prevention supports countries to plan, implement, and evaluate emergency vaccination response. We describe work of the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention in collaboration with global partners to support emergency vaccination against cholera, typhoid, yellow fever, and Ebola, diseases for which a new vaccine or vaccine formulation has played a major role in response. Lessons learned will help countries prepare for future emergencies. Integration of vaccination with emergency response augments global health security through reducing disease burden, saving lives, and preventing spread across international borders.

  8. Formation mechanism of quick emergency response capability for urban rail transit: Inter-organizational collaboration perspective

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Zhang, Yanchun; Zou, Dejian; Zheng, Junwei; Fang, Xiaoping; Luo, Haijuan

    2016-01-01

    .... Based on the perspective of inter-organizational collaboration, this article examines the formation mechanism of quick emergency response capability of urban rail transit and proposes the concept...

  9. PBT assessment and prioritization of contaminants of emerging concern: Pharmaceuticals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sangion, Alessandro; Gramatica, Paola

    2016-05-01

    The strong and widespread use of pharmaceuticals, together with incorrect disposal procedures, has recently made these products contaminants of emerging concern (CEC). Unfortunately, little is known about pharmaceuticals' environmental behaviour and ecotoxicity, so that EMEA (European Medicines Agency) released guidelines for the pharmaceuticals' environmental risk assessment. In particular, there is a severe lack of information about persistence, bioaccumulation and toxicity (PBT) of the majority of the thousands of substances on the market. Computational tools, like QSAR (Quantitative Structure Activity Relationship) models, are the only way to screen large sets of chemicals in short time, with the aim of ranking, highlighting and prioritizing the most environmentally hazardous for focusing further experimental studies. In this work we propose a screening method to assess the potential persistence, bioaccumulation and toxicity of more than 1200 pharmaceutical ingredients, based on the application of two different QSAR models. We applied the Insubria-PBT Index, a MLR (Multiple Linear Regression) QSAR model based on four simple molecular descriptors, implemented in QSARINS software, and able to synthesize the PBT potential in a unique cumulative value and the US-EPA PBT Profiler that assesses the PBT behaviour evaluating separately P, B and T. Particular attention was given to the study of Applicability Domain in order to provide reliable predictions. An agreement of 86% was found between the two models and a priority list of 35 pharmaceuticals, highlighted as potential PBTs by consensus, was proposed for further experimental validation. Moreover, the results of this computational screening are in agreement with preliminary experimental data in the literature. This study shows how in silico models can be applied in the hazard assessment to perform preliminary screening and prioritization of chemicals, and how the identification of the structural features, mainly

  10. Variation in implementation of corporate social responsibility practices in emerging economies' firms: A survey of Chilean fruit exporters

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Klerkx, L.W.A.; Villalobos, P.; Engler, A.

    2012-01-01

    As in many sectors in emerging economies, the concept of corporate social responsibility (CSR) has become important for exporting agri-food firms in view of their integration in global supply chains. The purpose of this research was to assess the implementation by Chilean fruit exporters of CSR

  11. Emergency management program operational responses to weapons of mass destruction: Veterans Health Administration, 2001-2004.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hodgson, Michael J; Bierenbaum, Arnold; Mather, Susan; Brown, Mark A; Beatty, John; Scott, Margie; Brewster, Peter

    2004-11-01

    Despite the recognition of chemical emergencies, terrorist events, and ongoing threats, little practical guidance exists for healthcare facilities. An approach and materials developed by the Veterans Health Administration in a five-element program over the last 2 years to enhance the existing emergency management program is outlined. Nine steps to the development of a comprehensive all-hazards, emergency plan and program, with auditing and improvement tools are offered. Cognitive aids for clinical use are available on-line and in hard copy. A hazard assessment modeled patients as emission sources documenting the operations strategies under which level C personal protective equipment will protect healthcare workers. The development of this response program appears to support a broader, long-standing VHA approach to problem solving. This involves bringing together individual talented field staff, representing specific skills, geographic regions, and work styles; investing in face-to-face consensus development; and developing programs with extensive internal peer-review ("field-based," "bottom-up and top-down," and external reviews). Comprehensive and effective programs can be constructed at low cost with reasonable speed within large systems with a public mandate, leading to responsible use of public funds internally, and as models for private sector programs. It is the long-term operational cost implications, under budget constraints in health care, which often present the true challenge. Copyright 2004 Wiley-Liss, Inc.

  12. Encountering Anger in the Emergency Department: Identification, Evaluations and Responses of Staff Members to Anger Displays

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cheshin Arik

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. Anger manifestations in emergency departments (EDs occur daily, interrupting workflow and exposing staff to risk. Objectives. How staff assess and recognize patients’ angry outbursts in EDs and elucidate responses to anger expressions, while considering effects of institution guidelines. Methods. Observations of staff patient interaction in EDs and personal interviews of staff (n=38 were conducted. Two questionnaires were administered (n=80 & n=144. Assessment was based mainly on regression statistic tests. Results. Staff recognizes two types of anger displays. Magnitude of anger expressions were correlated with staff’s fear level. Staff’s responses ranged from ignoring incidents, giving in to patients’ requests or immediately calling security. When staff felt fear and became angry they tended to call security. Staff was more likely to ignore anger when incident responsibility was assigned to patients. Discussion. Anger encounters are differentiated according to intensity level, which influences interpretations and response. Organizational policy has an effect on staff’s response. Conclusions. Staff recognizes anger at varying levels and responds accordingly. The level of danger staff feels is a catalyst in giving in or calling security. Call security is influenced by fear, and anger. Permanent guidelines can help staff in responding to anger encounters.

  13. Identification and assessment of site treatment plan implementation opportunities for emerging technologies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bernard, E.A. [Sandia National Labs., Germantown, MD (United States)

    1995-12-31

    The Department of Energy (DOE), in response to the 1992 Federal Facility Compliance Act, has prepared Site Treatment Plans (STP) for the approximately 2,000 waste streams identified within its mixed waste inventory Concurrently, emerging mixed waste treatment technologies are in final development. This paper defines a three-phase process to identify and assess implementation opportunities for these emerging technologies within the STP. It highlights the first phase, functional matching of expected treatment capabilities with proposed treatment requirements. Matches are based on treatment type, regulated contaminant and waste matrix type, for both capabilities and requirements. Results identify specific waste streams and volumes that could be treated by each emerging technology. A study for Plasma Hearth Process, Delphi DETOX{sup sm}, Supercritical Water Oxidation and Vitrification shows that about 200,000 ml of DOE`s mixed waste inventory can potentially be treated by one or more of these emerging technologies. Actual implementations are small fractions of the treatable inventory. Differences between potential and actual implementations must be minimized to accrue optimum benefit from implementation of emerging or alternative treatment technologies. Functional matching is the first phase in identifying and quantifying benefits, addressing technology system and treatment issues, and providing, in part, the basis for STP implementation decisions. DOE, through EM`s Office of Technology Development, has funded this work.

  14. A data model for operational and situational information in emergency response: The Dutch case

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dilo, Arta; Zlatanova, Sidi

    2011-01-01

    Many software systems have been created to help the emergency responders in their activities all over the world. These systems are usually dedicated to a specific emergency situation or emergency response sector. Exchange of information between the different systems is difficult or not possible.

  15. 78 FR 19357 - Allocation of Public Transportation Emergency Relief Funds in Response to Hurricane Sandy

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-03-29

    ... Federal Transit Administration Allocation of Public Transportation Emergency Relief Funds in Response to...,000 under the Public Transportation Emergency Relief Program (Emergency Relief Program, Catalogue of... disaster that affects public transportation systems. The Appropriations Act provides $10.9 billion for FTA...

  16. Rapid post-earthquake modelling of coseismic landslide intensity and distribution for emergency response decision support

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T. R. Robinson

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Current methods to identify coseismic landslides immediately after an earthquake using optical imagery are too slow to effectively inform emergency response activities. Issues with cloud cover, data collection and processing, and manual landslide identification mean even the most rapid mapping exercises are often incomplete when the emergency response ends. In this study, we demonstrate how traditional empirical methods for modelling the total distribution and relative intensity (in terms of point density of coseismic landsliding can be successfully undertaken in the hours and days immediately after an earthquake, allowing the results to effectively inform stakeholders during the response. The method uses fuzzy logic in a GIS (Geographic Information Systems to quickly assess and identify the location-specific relationships between predisposing factors and landslide occurrence during the earthquake, based on small initial samples of identified landslides. We show that this approach can accurately model both the spatial pattern and the number density of landsliding from the event based on just several hundred mapped landslides, provided they have sufficiently wide spatial coverage, improving upon previous methods. This suggests that systematic high-fidelity mapping of landslides following an earthquake is not necessary for informing rapid modelling attempts. Instead, mapping should focus on rapid sampling from the entire affected area to generate results that can inform the modelling. This method is therefore suited to conditions in which imagery is affected by partial cloud cover or in which the total number of landslides is so large that mapping requires significant time to complete. The method therefore has the potential to provide a quick assessment of landslide hazard after an earthquake and may therefore inform emergency operations more effectively compared to current practice.

  17. Rapid post-earthquake modelling of coseismic landslide intensity and distribution for emergency response decision support

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robinson, Tom R.; Rosser, Nicholas J.; Densmore, Alexander L.; Williams, Jack G.; Kincey, Mark E.; Benjamin, Jessica; Bell, Heather J. A.

    2017-09-01

    Current methods to identify coseismic landslides immediately after an earthquake using optical imagery are too slow to effectively inform emergency response activities. Issues with cloud cover, data collection and processing, and manual landslide identification mean even the most rapid mapping exercises are often incomplete when the emergency response ends. In this study, we demonstrate how traditional empirical methods for modelling the total distribution and relative intensity (in terms of point density) of coseismic landsliding can be successfully undertaken in the hours and days immediately after an earthquake, allowing the results to effectively inform stakeholders during the response. The method uses fuzzy logic in a GIS (Geographic Information Systems) to quickly assess and identify the location-specific relationships between predisposing factors and landslide occurrence during the earthquake, based on small initial samples of identified landslides. We show that this approach can accurately model both the spatial pattern and the number density of landsliding from the event based on just several hundred mapped landslides, provided they have sufficiently wide spatial coverage, improving upon previous methods. This suggests that systematic high-fidelity mapping of landslides following an earthquake is not necessary for informing rapid modelling attempts. Instead, mapping should focus on rapid sampling from the entire affected area to generate results that can inform the modelling. This method is therefore suited to conditions in which imagery is affected by partial cloud cover or in which the total number of landslides is so large that mapping requires significant time to complete. The method therefore has the potential to provide a quick assessment of landslide hazard after an earthquake and may therefore inform emergency operations more effectively compared to current practice.

  18. Assessment of male involvement in emergency contraception in the ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background: Emergency contraception (EC) refers to the use of drugs or a device as an emergency measure to prevent pregnancy. Lack of awareness and appropriate use of emergency contraception after unprotected sexual intercourse can lead to unwanted pregnancies and unsafe abortions. Male involvement in ...

  19. Integrating quantitative and qualitative methodologies for the assessment of health care systems: emergency medicine in post-conflict Serbia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nelson, Brett D; Dierberg, Kerry; Sćepanović, Milena; Mitrović, Mihajlo; Vuksanović, Milos; Milić, Ljiljana; VanRooyen, Michael J

    2005-02-17

    Due to the complexity of health system reform in the post-conflict, post-disaster, and development settings, attempts to restructure health services are fraught with pitfalls that are often unanticipated because of inadequate preliminary assessments. Our proposed Integrated Multimodal Assessment - combining quantitative and qualitative methodologies - may provide a more robust mechanism for identifying programmatic priorities and critical barriers for appropriate and sustainable health system interventions. The purpose of this study is to describe this novel multimodal assessment using emergency medicine in post-conflict Serbia as a model. Integrated quantitative and qualitative methodologies--system characterization and observation, focus group discussions, free-response questionnaires, and by-person factor analysis--were used to identify needs, problems, and potential barriers to the development of emergency medicine in Serbia. Participants included emergency and pre-hospital personnel from all emergency medical institutions in Belgrade. Demographic data indicate a loosely ordered network of part-time emergency departments supported by 24-hour pre-hospital services and an academic emergency center. Focus groups and questionnaires reveal significant impediments to delivery of care and suggest development priorities. By-person factor analysis subsequently divides respondents into distinctive attitudinal types, compares participant opinions, and identifies programmatic priorities. By combining quantitative and qualitative methodologies, our Integrated Multimodal Assessment identified critical needs and barriers to emergency medicine development in Serbia and may serve as a model for future health system assessments in post-conflict, post-disaster, and development settings.

  20. Evidence-based communications strategies: NWPERLC response to training on effectively reaching limited English-speaking (LEP) populations in emergencies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    DʼAmbrosio, Luann; Huang, Claire E; Sheng Kwan-Gett, Tao

    2014-01-01

    Identifying and overcoming barriers to effective emergency preparedness and response is one of the objectives for the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention's network of 14 Preparedness and Emergency Response Learning Centers (PERLCs) and 9 Preparedness and Response Research Centers (PERRCs). This report describes how a PERLC and a PERRC colocated at the Northwest Center for Public Health Practice responded to Los Angeles County Department of Public Health's (DPH's) request to improve emergency communications with limited English-proficient (LEP) populations. Activities included an assessment of training needs of the DPH preparedness workforce, a training series on social media and community engagement, and a toolkit of evidence-based findings to improve LEP populations' emergency communications and community resilience. Most respondents to the training needs assessment considered themselves essential personnel during an emergency and stated that they have received proper training. Respondents would like to receive further emergency preparedness training, including additional clarity on their role during an emergency. The majority of participants rated the training series as excellent/very good and agreed that they will be able to apply the course content to their work. The percentage of participants who reported confidence in their knowledge and skills related to each course learning objective increased from the precourse survey to the postcourse survey. This article discusses how the colocation of PERRC and PERLC offers efficiencies and expertise to accomplish multicomponent evidence-based requests. The ability to translate research findings quickly into evidence-based training and best practice resources is a strategic benefit to public health practice agencies working on emergency preparedness. LA County DPH was able to use knowledge and lessons learned gained from this work to design and prioritize education and training offerings to improve the capacity

  1. Development of urban planning guidelines for improving emergency response capacities in seismic areas of Iran.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hosseini, Kambod Amini; Jafari, Mohammad Kazem; Hosseini, Maziar; Mansouri, Babak; Hosseinioon, Solmaz

    2009-10-01

    This paper presents the results of research carried out to improve emergency response activities in earthquake-prone areas of Iran. The research concentrated on emergency response operations, emergency medical care, emergency transportation, and evacuation-the most important issues after an earthquake with regard to saving the lives of victims. For each topic, some guidelines and criteria are presented for enhancing emergency response activities, based on evaluations of experience of strong earthquakes that have occurred over the past two decades in Iran, notably Manjil (1990), Bam (2003), Firouz Abad-Kojour (2004), Zarand (2005) and Broujerd (2006). These guidelines and criteria are applicable to other national contexts, especially countries with similar seismic and social conditions as Iran. The results of this study should be incorporated into comprehensive plans to ensure sustainable development or reconstruction of cities as well as to augment the efficiency of emergency response after an earthquake.

  2. Nursing Home Self-assessment of Implementation of Emergency Preparedness Standards.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lane, Sandi J; McGrady, Elizabeth

    2016-08-01

    Introduction Disasters often overwhelm a community's capacity to respond and recover, creating a gap between the needs of the community and the resources available to provide services. In the wake of multiple disasters affecting nursing homes in the last decade, increased focus has shifted to this vital component of the health care system. However, the long-term care sector has often fallen through the cracks in both planning and response. Problem Two recent reports (2006 and 2012) published by the US Department of Health and Human Services (DHHS), Office of Inspector General (OIG), elucidate the need for improvements in nursing homes' comprehensive emergency preparedness and response. The Center for Medicare and Medicaid Services (CMS) has developed an emergency preparedness checklist as a guidance tool and proposed emergency preparedness regulations. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the progress made in nursing home preparedness by determining the level of completion of the 70 tasks noted on the checklist. The study objectives were to: (1) determine the preparedness levels of nursing homes in North and South Carolina (USA), and (2) compare these findings with the 2012 OIG's report on nursing home preparedness to identify current gaps. A survey developed from the checklist of items was emailed to 418 North Carolina and 193 South Carolina nursing home administrators during 2014. One hundred seventeen were returned/"bounced back" as not received. Follow-up emails and phone calls were made to encourage participation. Sixty-three completed surveys and 32 partial surveys were received. Responses were compared to data obtained in a 2010 study to determine progress. Progress had been made in many of the overall planning and sheltering-in-place tasks, such as having contact information of local emergency managers as well as specifications for availability of potable water. Yet, gaps still persisted, especially in evacuation standards, interfacing with emergency

  3. UAV Deployment Exercise for Mapping Purposes: Evaluation of Emergency Response Applications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Piero Boccardo

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Exploiting the decrease of costs related to UAV technology, the humanitarian community started piloting the use of similar systems in humanitarian crises several years ago in different application fields, i.e., disaster mapping and information gathering, community capacity building, logistics and even transportation of goods. Part of the author’s group, composed of researchers in the field of applied geomatics, has been piloting the use of UAVs since 2006, with a specific focus on disaster management application. In the framework of such activities, a UAV deployment exercise was jointly organized with the Regional Civil Protection authority, mainly aimed at assessing the operational procedures to deploy UAVs for mapping purposes and the usability of the acquired data in an emergency response context. In the paper the technical features of the UAV platforms will be described, comparing the main advantages/disadvantages of fixed-wing versus rotor platforms. The main phases of the adopted operational procedure will be discussed and assessed especially in terms of time required to carry out each step, highlighting potential bottlenecks and in view of the national regulation framework, which is rapidly evolving. Different methodologies for the processing of the acquired data will be described and discussed, evaluating the fitness for emergency response applications.

  4. UAV Deployment Exercise for Mapping Purposes: Evaluation of Emergency Response Applications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boccardo, Piero; Chiabrando, Filiberto; Dutto, Furio; Tonolo, Fabio Giulio; Lingua, Andrea

    2015-07-02

    Exploiting the decrease of costs related to UAV technology, the humanitarian community started piloting the use of similar systems in humanitarian crises several years ago in different application fields, i.e., disaster mapping and information gathering, community capacity building, logistics and even transportation of goods. Part of the author's group, composed of researchers in the field of applied geomatics, has been piloting the use of UAVs since 2006, with a specific focus on disaster management application. In the framework of such activities, a UAV deployment exercise was jointly organized with the Regional Civil Protection authority, mainly aimed at assessing the operational procedures to deploy UAVs for mapping purposes and the usability of the acquired data in an emergency response context. In the paper the technical features of the UAV platforms will be described, comparing the main advantages/disadvantages of fixed-wing versus rotor platforms. The main phases of the adopted operational procedure will be discussed and assessed especially in terms of time required to carry out each step, highlighting potential bottlenecks and in view of the national regulation framework, which is rapidly evolving. Different methodologies for the processing of the acquired data will be described and discussed, evaluating the fitness for emergency response applications.

  5. Joint research and development on toxic-material emergency response between ENEA and LLNL. 1982 progress report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gudiksen, P.; Lange, R.; Dickerson, M.; Sullivan, T.; Rosen, L.; Walker, H.; Boeri, G.B.; Caracciolo, R.; Fiorenza, R.

    1982-11-01

    A summary is presented of current and future cooperative studies between ENEA and LLNL researchers designed to develop improved real-time emergency response capabilities for assessing the environmental consequences resulting from an accidental release of toxic materials into the atmosphere. These studies include development and evaluation of atmospheric transport and dispersion models, interfacing of data processing and communications systems, supporting meteorological field experiments, and integration of radiological measurements and model results into real-time assessments.

  6. Quality Assessment of Established and Emerging Blood Components for Transfusion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marks, Denese C.

    2016-01-01

    Blood is donated either as whole blood, with subsequent component processing, or through the use of apheresis devices that extract one or more components and return the rest of the donation to the donor. Blood component therapy supplanted whole blood transfusion in industrialized countries in the middle of the twentieth century and remains the standard of care for the majority of patients receiving a transfusion. Traditionally, blood has been processed into three main blood products: red blood cell concentrates; platelet concentrates; and transfusable plasma. Ensuring that these products are of high quality and that they deliver their intended benefits to patients throughout their shelf-life is a complex task. Further complexity has been added with the development of products stored under nonstandard conditions or subjected to additional manufacturing steps (e.g., cryopreserved platelets, irradiated red cells, and lyophilized plasma). Here we review established and emerging methodologies for assessing blood product quality and address controversies and uncertainties in this thriving and active field of investigation. PMID:28070448

  7. Intelligent Emergency Response System for Police Vehicles in India

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ganeshan, Ishan; Memon, Nasrullah

    2015-01-01

    When faced with emergency situations there might be several critical factors that could preclude the possibility for the victims to call for the help. In situations like kidnapping, rape, robbery making use of the traditional voice based methods to call for the help might alert the offenders and ...

  8. The effect of emergency medical services response on outcome of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background: Due to resource constrained pre-hospital emergency medical services (EMSs) there is a significant delay in injured patients arriving at Groote Schuur Hospital Trauma Centre (GSHTC). The aim of the study was to examine the effectiveness of EMSs in transferring trauma patients to GSHTC. The effect of any ...

  9. Massive Open Online Librarianship: Emerging Practices in Response to MOOCs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mune, Christina

    2015-01-01

    Massive Open Online Courses, or MOOCs, have recently emerged as a disruptive pedagogy gaining rapid momentum in higher education. In some states, proposed legislations would accredit MOOCs to provide college-credit courses in the name of cost saving, efficiency and access. While debates rage regarding the place of MOOCs in higher education, some…

  10. [What response in the face of health emergencies?].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bergeran, Pierick

    2015-01-01

    Heat wave, extreme cold, air pollution, epidemics, nuclear plant accidents, production incidents in the pharmaceutical or agro-food sectors, bioterrorism, social movements: over the last thirty years, health emergencies have multiplied. What is the strategy to adopt? Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  11. Physiological response of emergency care students during a ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Twenty emergency care students performed i) a simulated (SIM) extrication of a patient trapped in a light motor vehicle, where maximum VO2, VE, HR and RER were measured. These results were compared to values measured during a maximal incremental treadmill test in the laboratory (LAB). VO2max (SIM) was ...

  12. Context-dependent conservation responses to emerging wildlife diseases

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kate E Langwig; Jamie Voyles; Mark Q Wilber; Winifred F Frick; Kris A Murray; Benjamin M Bolker; James P Collins; Tina L Cheng; Matthew C Fisher; Joseph R Hoyt; Daniel L Lindner; Hamish I McCallum; Robert Puschendorf; Erica Bree Rosenblum; Mary Toothman; Craig KR Willis; Cheryl J Briggs; A Marm Kilpatrick

    2015-01-01

    Emerging infectious diseases pose an important threat to wildlife. While established protocols exist for combating outbreaks of human and agricultural pathogens, appropriate management actions before, during, and after the invasion of wildlife pathogens have not been developed. We describe stage-specific goals and management actions that minimize disease impacts on...

  13. Child Passenger Safety: An Assessment of Emergency Nurses' Knowledge and Provision of Information in the Emergency Department.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuska, Thelma C; Zonfrillo, Mark R

    2017-05-01

    Each year, more than 130,000 children younger than 13 years are treated in the emergency department after evaluation of injuries sustained from motor vehicle crashes (MVCs). Many of these injuries can be prevented with use of child restraints. In this study we sought to assess emergency nurses' knowledge of child passenger safety (CPS) and its use to keep children safe while traveling in motor vehicles. A cross-sectional anonymous study was distributed electronically to 530 emergency nurses who were asked to forward the survey link to other emergency nurses through snowball sampling. The target population included full-time and part-time emergency nurses, including nurse practitioners caring for pediatric patients. Emergency nurses' CPS knowledge, attitudes, and practices were ascertained. Nine hundred eighty-four emergency nurses completed a Web-based survey. All 6 CPS knowledge and scenario-based items were answered correctly by only 18.8% of the sample; these respondents were identified as the "high knowledge" group. Similarly, ED nurses rarely addressed CPS during ED visits in the prior 6 months. Those with high knowledge were more likely to be confident about providing recommendations for CPS topics. Emergency nurses can improve their knowledge and provision of CPS in the emergency department, particularly for children presenting for care following MVCs. These results identify opportunities to increase the knowledge and confidence of emergency nurses in providing CPS information to parents seen in the emergency department, especially those involved in MVCs. The gap in knowledge can be overcome by providing the nurses with increased CPS-focused educational opportunities. Copyright © 2016 Emergency Nurses Association. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  14. Essentials for emergency care: Lessons from an inventory assessment of an emergency centre in Sub-Saharan Africa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kofi Marfo Osei

    2014-12-01

    Conclusion: Beyond pointing out specific material resource deficiencies at the Surgical Medical Emergency (SME centre, our inventory assessment indicated a need to develop better implementation strategies for infection control policies, to collaborate with other departments on coordination of patient care, and to set a research agenda to develop emergency and acute care protocols that are both effective and sustainable in our setting. Equipment and supplies are essential elements of emergency preparedness that must be both available and ‘ready-to-hand’. Consequently, key factors in determining readiness to provide quality emergency care include supply-chain, healthcare financing, functionality of systems, and a coordinated institutional vision. Lessons learnt may be useful for others facing similar challenges to emergency medicine development.

  15. Hybrid Decision-making Method for Emergency Response System of Unattended Train Operation Metro

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bobo Zhao

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Suitable selection of the emergency alternatives is a critical issue in emergency response system of Unattended Train Operation (UTO metro system of China. However, there is no available method for dispatcher group in Operating Control Center (OCC to evaluate the decision under emergency situation. It was found that the emergency decision making in UTO metro system is relative with the preferences and the importance of multi-dispatcher in emergency. Regarding these factors, this paper presents a hybrid method to determinate the priority weights of emergency alternatives, which aggregates the preference matrix by constructing the emergency response task model based on the Weighted Ordered Weighted Averaging (WOWA operator. This calculation approach derives the importance weights depending on the dispatcher emergency tasks and integrates it into the Ordered Weighted Averaging (OWA operator weights based on a fuzzy membership relation. A case from train fire is given to demonstrate the feasibility and practicability of the proposed methods for Group Multi-Criteria Decision Making (GMCDM in emergency management of UTO metro system. The innovation of this research is paving the way for a systematic emergency decision-making solution which connects the automatic metro emergency response system with the GMCDM theory.

  16. Assessment of the Availability and Accessibility of Emergency ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background: The availability of emergency obstetric care services is measured by the number of facilities that perform all the signal functions in relation to the size of the population. When personnel have carried out the seven signal functions of basic emergency obstetric care services in the 3-month period before the ...

  17. Assessment of hospital-based adult triage at emergency receiving ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    as triage scale makes much input in emergency care of patients. A recent survey regarding emergency and sur- .... Each participant had the comfort and confidence required during filling of the questionnaires. ..... new infrastructure which is resource intensive given these poor settings. Triage was done in OPD and Wards in ...

  18. Assessment of the Availability and Accessibility of Emergency ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    femi oloka

    ABSTRACT. Background: The availability of emergency obstetric care services is measured by the number of facilities that perform all the signal functions in relation to the size of the population. When personnel have carried out the seven signal functions of basic emergency obstetric care services in the 3-month.

  19. Uncertainties in modeling hazardous gas releases for emergency response

    OpenAIRE

    Kathrin Baumann-Stanzer; Sirma Stenzel

    2011-01-01

    In case of an accidental release of toxic gases the emergency responders need fast information about the affected area and the maximum impact. Hazard distances calculated with the models MET, ALOHA, BREEZE, TRACE and SAMS for scenarios with chlorine, ammoniac and butane releases are compared in this study. The variations of the model results are measures for uncertainties in source estimation and dispersion calculation. Model runs for different wind speeds, atmospheric stability and roughness...

  20. Learning lessons in emergency management: the 4th International Conference on Healthcare System Preparedness and Response to Emergencies and Disasters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adini, B; Ohana, A; Furman, E; Ringel, R; Golan, Y; Fleshler, E; Keren, U; Reisner, S

    2016-01-01

    The International Preparedness & Response to Emergencies & Disasters (IPRED) conferences are conducted bi-annually in order to share insights and lessons learned from diverse crises. The aim of the article is to bring the IPRED conferences into better professional attention and to share the main insights that were presented in IPRED IV, which was held in January 2016. The major lessons learned included: Planning, regional/global collaboration and public-private cooperation should be implemented in developing novel technologies. International humanitarian action necessitates coordination between diverse actors concerning all potential threats. Leadership/coordination and decision-making capacities of emergency response leaders should be enhanced to ensure quality of care. Ethics in disaster management: Triage decisions must not discriminate against terrorists, even when attackers and victims are treated simultaneously. Resilience management: Establishing family and community networks increases resilience of individuals and society. Training programs & exercises must be evaluated considering cost-benefits. Human resources: Teams of experts should be transformed into expert teams. Communication: A common disaster-management language needs to be established. Social media is useful due to bi-directional communication. Civil-military cooperation should be established to facilitate a coordinated response including common terminologies and exercises. Animal sheltering: First responders and pet owners are jeopardized if animals are not included in emergency planning. Re-unification of animals with their owners should be included in response models. IPRED conferences provide a platform for sharing insights and lessons learned from diverse emergencies and disasters. The conferences offer a unique opportunity to share knowledge aimed at improving emergency preparedness, networking between various parties, and substantiates the knowledge and experience of all professionals who

  1. Preparedness and Emergency Response Research Centers: Using a Public Health Systems Approach to Improve All-Hazards Preparedness and Response

    OpenAIRE

    Leinhos, Mary; Qari,Shoukat H.; Williams-Johnson, Mildred

    2014-01-01

    In 2008, at the request of the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC), the Institute of Medicine (IOM) prepared a report identifying knowledge gaps in public health systems preparedness and emergency response and recommending near-term priority research areas. In accordance with the Pandemic and All-Hazards Preparedness Act mandating new public health systems research for preparedness and emergency response, CDC provided competitive awards establishing nine Preparedness and Emergenc...

  2. Initial pen and field assessment of baits to use in oral rabies vaccination of Formosan ferret-badgers in response to the re-emergence of rabies in Taiwan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wallace, Ryan M; Lai, Yuching; Doty, Jeffrey B; Chen, Chen-Chih; Vora, Neil M; Blanton, Jesse D; Chang, Susan S; Cleaton, Julie M; Pei, Kurtis J C

    2018-01-01

    Taiwan had been considered rabies free since 1961, until a newly established wildlife disease surveillance program identified rabies virus transmission within the Formosan ferret-badger (Melogale moschata subaurantiaca) in 2013. Ferret-badgers occur throughout southern China and Southeast Asia, but their ecological niche is not well described. As an initial feasibility assessment for potential rabies control measures, field camera trapping and pen assessment of 6 oral rabies vaccine (ORV) baits were conducted in Taiwan in 2013. 46 camera nights were recorded; 6 Formosan ferret-badgers and 14 non-target mammals were sighted. No baits were consumed by ferret-badgers and 8 were consumed by non-target mammals. Penned ferret-badgers ingested 5 of the 18 offered baits. When pen and field trials were combined, and analyzed for palatability, ferret-badgers consumed 1 of 9 marshmallow baits (11.1%), 1 of 21 fishmeal baits (4.8%), 0 of 3 liver baits, and 3 of 3 fruit-flavored baits. It took an average of 261 minutes before ferret-badgers made oral contact with the non-fruit flavored baits, and 34 minutes for first contact with the fruit-based bait. Overall, ferret-badgers sought out the fruit baits 8 times faster, spent a greater proportion of time eating fruit baits, and were 7.5 times more likely to have ruptured the vaccine container of the fruit-based bait. Ferret-badgers are now recognized as rabies reservoir species in China and Taiwan, through two independent 'dog to ferret-badger' host-shift events. Species of ferret-badgers can be found throughout Indochina, where they may be an unrecognized rabies reservoir. Findings from this initial study underscore the need for further captive and field investigations of fruit-based attractants or baits developed for small meso-carnivores. Non-target mammals' competition for baits, ants, bait design, and dense tropical landscape represent potential challenges to effective ORV programs that will need to be considered in future

  3. Conceptual design report, Hazardous Materials Management and Emergency Response (HAMMER) Training Center

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kelly, K.E. [Westinghouse Hanford Co., Richland, WA (United States)

    1994-11-09

    For the next 30 years, the main activities at the US Department of Energy (DOE) Hanford Site will involve the management, handling, and cleanup of toxic substances. If the DOE is to meet its high standards of safety, the thousands of workers involved in these activities will need systematic training appropriate to their tasks and the risks associated with these tasks. Furthermore, emergency response for DOE shipments is the primary responsibility of state, tribal, and local governments. A collaborative training initiative with the DOE will strengthen emergency response at the Hanford Site and within the regional communities. Local and international labor has joined the Hazardous Materials Management and Emergency Response (HAMMER) partnership, and will share in the HAMMER Training Center core programs and facilities using their own specialized trainers and training programs. The HAMMER Training Center will provide a centralized regional site dedicated to the training of hazardous material, emergency response, and fire fighting personnel.

  4. Emergence of microbial networks as response to hostile environments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Madeo, Dario; Comolli, Luis R; Mocenni, Chiara

    2014-01-01

    The majority of microorganisms live in complex communities under varying conditions. One pivotal question in evolutionary biology is the emergence of cooperative traits and their sustainment in altered environments or in the presence of free-riders. Co-occurrence patterns in the spatial distribution of biofilms can help define species' identities, and systems biology tools are revealing networks of interacting microorganisms. However, networks of inter-dependencies involving micro-organisms in the planktonic phase may be just as important, with the added complexity that they are not bounded in space. An integrated approach linking imaging, "Omics" and modeling has the potential to enable new hypothesis and working models. In order to understand how cooperation can emerge and be maintained without abilities like memory or recognition we use evolutionary game theory as the natural framework to model cell-cell interactions arising from evolutive decisions. We consider a finite population distributed in a spatial domain (biofilm), and divided into two interacting classes with different traits. This interaction can be weighted by distance, and produces physical connections between two elements allowing them to exchange finite amounts of energy and matter. Available strategies to each individual of one class in the population are the propensities or "willingness" to connect any individual of the other class. Following evolutionary game theory, we propose a mathematical model which explains the patterns of connections which emerge when individuals are able to find connection strategies that asymptotically optimize their fitness. The process explains the formation of a network for efficiently exchanging energy and matter among individuals and thus ensuring their survival in hostile environments.

  5. Emergence of microbial networks as response to hostile environments

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dario eMadeo

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available The majority of microorganisms live in complex communities under varying conditions. One pivotal question in evolutionary biology is the emergence of cooperative traits and their sustainment in altered environments or in the presence of free-riders. Co-occurrence patterns in the spatial distribution of biofilms can help define species' identities, and systems biology tools are revealing networks of interacting microorganisms. However, networks of inter-dependencies involving micro-organisms in the planktonic phase may be just as important, with the added complexity that they are not bounded in space. An integrated approach linking imaging, ``Omics'' and modeling has the potential to enable new hypothesis and working models. In order to understand how cooperation can emerge and be maintained without abilities like memory or recognition we use evolutionary game theory as the natural framework to model cell-cell interactions arising from evolutive decisions. We consider a finite population distributed in a spatial domain (biofilm, and divided into two interacting classes with different traits. This interaction can be weighted by distance, and produces physical connections between two elements allowing them to exchange finite amounts of energy and matter. Available strategies to each individual of one class in the population are the propensities or ``willingness'' to connect any individual of the other class. Following evolutionary game theory, we propose a mathematical model which explains the patterns of connections which emerge when individuals are able to find connection strategies that asymptotically optimize their fitness. The process explains the formation of a network for efficiently exchanging energy and matter among individuals and thus ensuring their survival in hostile environments.

  6. Improving the non-technical skills of hospital medical emergency teams: The Team Emergency Assessment Measure (TEAM™).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cant, Robyn P; Porter, Joanne E; Cooper, Simon J; Roberts, Kate; Wilson, Ian; Gartside, Christopher

    2016-12-01

    This prospective descriptive study aimed to test the validity and feasibility of the Team Emergency Assessment Measure (TEAM™) for assessing real-world medical emergency teams' non-technical skills. Second, the present study aimed to explore the instrument's contribution to practice regarding teamwork and learning outcomes. Registered nurses (RNs) and medical staff (n = 104) in two hospital EDs in rural Victoria, Australia, participated. Over a 10 month period, the (TEAM™) instrument was completed by multiple clinicians at medical emergency episodes. In 80 real-world medical emergency team resuscitation episodes (283 clinician assessments), non-technical skills ratings averaged 89% per episode (39 of a possible 44 points). Twenty-one episodes were rated in the lowest quartile (i.e. ≤37 points out of 44). Ratings differed by discipline, with significantly higher scores given by medical raters (mean: 41.1 ± 4.4) than RNs (38.7 ± 5.4) (P = 0.001). This difference occurred in the Leadership domain. The tool was reliable with Cronbach's alpha 0.78, high uni-dimensional validity and mean inter-item correlation of 0.45. Concurrent validity was confirmed by strong correlation between TEAM™ score and the awarded Global Rating (P technical skills of medical emergency teams are known to often be suboptimal; however, average ratings of 89% were achieved in this real-world study. TEAM™ is a valid, reliable and easy to use tool, for both training and clinical settings, with benefits for team performance when used as an assessment and/or debriefing tool. © 2016 Australasian College for Emergency Medicine and Australasian Society for Emergency Medicine.

  7. Emerging applications of stimuli-responsive polymer materials

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Stuart, M.A.C.; Genzer, J.; Muller, M.; Ober, C.; Stamm, M.; Sukhorukov, G.B.; Szleifer, I.; Tsukruk, V.V.; Urban, M.; Winnik, F.; Zauscher, S.; Luzinov, I.; Minko, S.

    2010-01-01

    Responsive polymer materials can adapt to surrounding environments, regulate transport of ions and molecules, change wettability and adhesion of different species on external stimuli, or convert chemical and biochemical signals into optical, electrical, thermal and mechanical signals, and vice

  8. A secure mobile multimedia system to assist emergency response teams.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Belala, Yacine; Issa, Omneya; Gregoire, Jean-Charles; Wong, James

    2008-08-01

    Long wait times after injury and greater distances to travel between accident scenes and medical facilities contribute to increased, possibly unnecessary deaths. This paper describes a mobile emergency system aimed at reducing mortality by improving the readiness of hospital personnel, therefore allowing for more efficient treatment procedures to be performed when the victim arrives. The system is designed to provide a secure transmission of voice, medical data, and video in real-time over third-generation cellular networks. Test results obtained on a commercial network under real-life conditions demonstrate the ability to effectively transmit medical data over 3G networks, making them a viable option available to healthcare professionals.

  9. Assessment of the Availability and Accessibility of Emergency ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    femi oloka

    presenting with obstetric emergency to the hospital during the study period, which included Obstructed labour, Haemorrhages (both antepartum and postpartum),Puerperal sepsis, Complications of abortions, Pregnancy induced hypertensive disorders (eclampsia and pre-eclampsia), Ectopic pregnancy and Ruptured uterus.

  10. Targeted Needs Assessment of Off Service Residents in Emergency Medicine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kessler, Chad S

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: The purpose of this study is to evaluate the needs of internal medicine residents rotating through the emergency department (ED.Methods: A survey was distributed to 100 internal medicine residents (post-graduate years 2 and 3 from two different residency programs before the start of their emergency medicine (EM rotation. Residents ranked the level of importance and the level of preparedness for 23 different EM topics, using a Likert-type scale ranging from 1 (least important/least prepared to 4 (most important/most prepared. We calculated delta values (Δ from the difference between importance and preparedness and undertook significance testing of this difference.Results: A total of 71 out of 100 surveys were completed properly and returned. Internal medicine residents felt most ill-prepared in the areas of orthopedics, environmental emergencies, otolaryngology, airway management, and ophthalmology. The largest perceived gaps between importance and preparedness lay within the areas of airway management ( Δ=1.30, ophthalmology ( Δ=1.10, environmental emergencies (Δ=0.96, and orthopedics ( Δ=0.96.Conclusion: Our data suggest that internal medicine residents are inadequately prepared for EM topics that they feel are important to their education, specifically airway management, ophthalmology, environmental emergencies and orthopedics. It is quite possible that other specialty residents are also poorly prepared for similar core EM topics. These data will hopefully guide future curricular change for off-service residents in the ED. [West J Emerg Med. 2010;11(5:470-473.

  11. Coupling multi-criteria decision analysis, life-cycle assessment, and risk assessment for emerging threats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Linkov, Igor; Seager, Thomas P

    2011-06-15

    Emerging environmental threats such as novel chemical compounds, biological agents, and nanomaterials present serious challenges to traditional models of risk analysis and regulatory risk management processes. Even a massive expansion of risk and life-cycle assessment research efforts is unlikely to keep pace with rapid technological change resulting in new and modified materials with changing properties. Therefore, it is essential to have a framework for interpreting available information in the context of high uncertainty and a strategy for prioritizing research efforts to reduce those uncertainties that are most critical. We discuss how integrating the three analytic approaches of risk assessment, life-cycle assessment, and multicriteria decision analysis into a framework permits understanding uncertainty and prioritizes needs for scientific research. Our approach is illustrated with two separate cases: nanomaterials and contaminated sediment remediation.

  12. Coping responses of emergency physicians and nurses to the 2003 severe acute respiratory syndrome outbreak.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Phua, D H; Tang, H K; Tham, K Y

    2005-04-01

    During the 2003 severe acute respiratory syndrome (SARS) outbreak, health care workers (HCWs) experienced unusual stressors. The study hospital introduced psychosocial interventions to help HCWs. This study aimed to examine the coping strategies adopted by the emergency department (ED) HCWs who cared for the SARS patients. In November 2003, a self-administered questionnaire of physicians and nurses was conducted in the hospital ED that is the national SARS screening center in Singapore. Data collected included demographics and responses to these instruments: 1) the Coping Orientation to Problems Experienced (COPE) to assess coping strategies, 2) the Impact of Event Scale (IES) to measure psychological reactions, and 3) the General Health Questionnaire 28 (GHQ 28) to measure psychiatric morbidity. Thirty-eight of 41 (92.7%) physicians and 58 of 83 (69.9%) nurses responded. The respondents reported a preference for problem-focused and emotion-focused coping measures. The physicians chose humor as a coping response significantly more frequently (p GHQ 28, with the trend for physicians to report lower psychiatric morbidity. With a supportive hospital environment, ED HCWs chose adaptive coping in response to the outbreak and reported low psychiatric morbidity. Physicians chose humor and Filipinos chose turning to religion as their preferred responses. Psychosocial interventions to help HCWs need to take these preferences into account.

  13. Communication of emergency public warnings: A social science perspective and state-of-the-art assessment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mileti, D.S. (Colorado State Univ., Fort Collins, CO (USA)); Sorensen, J.H. (Oak Ridge National Lab., TN (USA))

    1990-08-01

    More than 200 studies of warning systems and warning response were reviewed for this social science perspective and state-of-the-art assessment of communication of emergency public warnings. The major findings are as follows. First, variations in the nature and content of warnings have a large impact on whether or not the public heeds the warning. Relevant factors include the warning source; warning channel; the consistency, credibility, accuracy, and understandability of the message; and the warning frequency. Second, characteristics of the population receiving the warning affect warning response. These include social characteristics such as gender, ethnicity and age, social setting characteristics such as stage of life or family context, psychological characteristics such as fatalism or risk perception, and knowledge characteristics such as experience or training. Third, many current myths about public response to emergency warning are at odds with knowledge derived from field investigations. Some of these myths include the keep it simple'' notion, the cry wolf'' syndrome, public panic and hysteria, and those concerning public willingness to respond to warnings. Finally, different methods of warning the public are not equally effective at providing an alert and notification in different physical and social settings. Most systems can provide a warning given three or more hours of available warning time. Special systems such as tone-alert radios are needed to provide rapid warning. 235 refs., 8 figs., 2 tabs.

  14. [Validity and Reliability of ARQ-K (Korean Version of the Assault Response Questionnaire) for Emergency Department Nurses in Korea].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jang, Moon Jung; Lee, Eun Nam

    2015-08-01

    To investigate the validity and reliability of the Korean Version of the Assault Response Questionnaire (ARQ-K) measuring the intensity of reaction to victimization of emergency nurses in Korea. An internal consistency reliability and construct validity using exploratory and confirmatory factor analysis were conducted using SPSS WIN (20.0) and AMOS (20.0). Survey data were collected from 321 nurses who worked in 3 levels - wide regional emergency centers, regional emergency centers, appointed emergency centers - of emergency care facilities in Busan, Korea. The Cronbach's alpha values regarding internal consistency were .77~.93 for the subscales of ARQ-K. Factor loadings of the 26 items on the four subscales ranged from .59 to .84. The four-subscale model was validated by confirmatory factor analysis (χ²/df=3.85, p<.001, RMR=.06, GFI=.80, NFI=.81, TLI=.83, CFI=.85, RMSEA=.09). This study shows that the Korean Version of the Assault Response Questionnaire is a valid and reliable instrument to assess nurses' reaction to victimization of emergency nurses in Korea.

  15. Physical and Digital Design of the BlueBio Biomonitoring System Prototype, to be used in Emergency Medical Response

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kramp, Gunnar; Kristensen, Margit; Pedersen, Jacob Frølund

    2007-01-01

    This paper presents the physical and digital design of a wireless biomonitoring system meant to be used especially in the prehospital medical emergency response. The handling of many patients with a minimum of ressources at major incidents is an immense challenge for the emergency personnel at work...... and user control. Our design framework, in relation to the BlueBio monitoring system, approaches these challenges from the perspective of familiarity, medical assessment and person ID/registration of data. We present how this informs and has implications for both the physical and digital design...

  16. Emerging strategic corporate social responsibility partnership initiatives in agribusiness

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pötz, Katharina Anna; Haas, Rainer; Balzarova, Michaela

    2012-01-01

    Over the past 20 years the concept of Corporate Social Responsibility (CSR) has gained momentum in business practices and strategies. In the agribusiness sector, the need for CSR integration has recently triggered a number of private sector led initiatives that should contribute to sustainable...

  17. Canadian biodosimetry capacity for response to radiation emergencies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wilkinson, D. [Defense Research and Development Canada-Ottawa, 3701 Carling Avenue, Ottawa, Ont., K1A 0Z4 (Canada)], E-mail: diana.wilkinson@drdc-rddc.gc.ca; Segura, T.; Prud' homme-Lalonde, L.; Mullins, D.; Lachapelle, S. [Defense Research and Development Canada-Ottawa, 3701 Carling Avenue, Ottawa, Ont., K1A 0Z4 (Canada); Qutob, S.; Thorleifson, E.; Wilkins, R. [Consumer and Clinical Radiation Protection Bureau, 775 Brookfield Road, PL6303B Health Canada, Ottawa, Ont., K1A 1C1 (Canada); Morrison, D. [Atomic Energy of Canada Limited, Chalk River, Ont. (Canada); Dolling, J.-A. [Genetics Department, Credit Valley Hospital, 2200 Eglinton Avenue West, Mississauga, Ont., L8S 4L8 (Canada); Boreham, D. [McMaster Institute of Applied Radiation Sciences, McMaster University, 1280 Main Street West, Hamilton, Ont., L5M 2N1 (Canada)

    2007-07-15

    In December 2001, Canada's response to the international political climate was launched by the creation of the Chemical, Biological, Radiological/Nuclear Research and Technology Initiative (CRTI). The National Biological Dosimetry Response Plan (NBDRP), established through partnering the expertise of three federal departments and one university, was created in response to this initiative. The NBDRP objectives were to develop a network of laboratories with expertise to perform biological dosimetry by cytogenetics and to investigate new technologies that may be applicable in the development of the new biodosimetry program. Since the creation of the NBDRP, Canada has made significant progress in enhancing expertise and resources to be better prepared for radiological/nuclear events. Through participation in exercises, the existing capacities were tested and recommendations for improvements were made. This paper describes the results from two exercises. The first exercise was designed to test the culturing, analysis, and reporting procedures within a single laboratory, and the second exercise was intended to test the capacity of the NBDRP. Future exercises will further challenge the network resulting in an improved national response capability.

  18. Emergency Response System for Pollution Accidents in Chemical Industrial Parks, China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duan, Weili; He, Bin

    2015-07-10

    In addition to property damage and loss of lives, environment pollution, such as water pollution and air pollution caused by accidents in chemical industrial parks (CIPs) is a significant issue in China. An emergency response system (ERS) was therefore planned to properly and proactively cope with safety incidents including fire and explosions occurring in the CIPs in this study. Using a scenario analysis, the stages of emergency response were divided into three levels, after introducing the domino effect, and fundamental requirements of ERS design were confirmed. The framework of ERS was composed mainly of a monitoring system, an emergency command center, an action system, and a supporting system. On this basis, six main emergency rescue steps containing alarm receipt, emergency evaluation, launched corresponding emergency plans, emergency rescue actions, emergency recovery, and result evaluation and feedback were determined. Finally, an example from the XiaoHu Chemical Industrial Park (XHCIP) was presented to check on the integrality, reliability, and maneuverability of the ERS, and the result of the first emergency drill with this ERS indicated that the developed ERS can reduce delays, improve usage efficiency of resources, and raise emergency rescue efficiency.

  19. Effectiveness of light paths coupled with personal emergency response systems in preventing functional decline among the elderly.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lachal, Florent; Tchalla, Achille Edem; Cardinaud, Noëlle; Saulnier, Isabelle; Nessighaoui, Hichem; Laubarie-Mouret, Cécile; Dantoine, Thierry

    2016-01-01

    The elderly population is at high risk of functional decline, which will induce significant costs due to long-term care. Dependency could be delayed by preventing one of its major determinants: falls. Light paths coupled with personal emergency response systems could prevent the functional decline through fall prevention. This study aimed to evaluate the effectiveness of light paths coupled with personal emergency response systems on the functional decline in an elderly population living at home. It is a secondary analysis on data from a previous cohort. In all, 190 older adults (aged 65 years or more) living at home participated. Participants in the exposed group were equipped with home-based technologies: light paths coupled with personal emergency response systems. The participants' functional status was assessed using the Functional Autonomy Measurement System scale at baseline (T0) and at the end of the study (T12-month). Baseline characteristics were evaluated by a comprehensive geriatric assessment. After 1 year, 43% of the unexposed group had functional decline versus 16% of the exposed group. Light paths coupled with personal emergency response systems were significantly associated with a decrease in the functional decline (Δ Functional Autonomy Measurement System ⩾ 5) at home (odds ratio = 0.24, 95% confidence interval (0.11-0.54), p = 0.002). This study suggests that light paths coupled with personal emergency response systems prevent the functional decline over 12 months. This result may encourage the prescription and use of home-based technologies to postpone dependency and institutionalization, but they need a larger cost-effectiveness study to demonstrate the efficiency of these technologies.

  20. Effectiveness of light paths coupled with personal emergency response systems in preventing functional decline among the elderly

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Florent Lachal

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: The elderly population is at high risk of functional decline, which will induce significant costs due to long-term care. Dependency could be delayed by preventing one of its major determinants: falls. Light paths coupled with personal emergency response systems could prevent the functional decline through fall prevention. Methods: This study aimed to evaluate the effectiveness of light paths coupled with personal emergency response systems on the functional decline in an elderly population living at home. It is a secondary analysis on data from a previous cohort. In all, 190 older adults (aged 65 years or more living at home participated. Participants in the exposed group were equipped with home-based technologies: light paths coupled with personal emergency response systems. The participants’ functional status was assessed using the Functional Autonomy Measurement System scale at baseline (T0 and at the end of the study (T12-month. Baseline characteristics were evaluated by a comprehensive geriatric assessment. Results: After 1 year, 43% of the unexposed group had functional decline versus 16% of the exposed group. Light paths coupled with personal emergency response systems were significantly associated with a decrease in the functional decline (Δ Functional Autonomy Measurement System ⩾ 5 at home (odds ratio = 0.24, 95% confidence interval (0.11–0.54, p = 0.002. Discussion: This study suggests that light paths coupled with personal emergency response systems prevent the functional decline over 12 months. This result may encourage the prescription and use of home-based technologies to postpone dependency and institutionalization, but they need a larger cost-effectiveness study to demonstrate the efficiency of these technologies.

  1. Emergency Response System for Pollution Accidents in Chemical Industrial Parks, China

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Duan, Weili; He, Bin

    2015-01-01

    ...) is a significant issue in China. An emergency response system (ERS) was therefore planned to properly and proactively cope with safety incidents including fire and explosions occurring in the CIPs in this study...

  2. A Framework of Task-Oriented Decision Support System in Disaster Emergency Response

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tian, Jun; Zou, Qin; Cheng, Shaochuan; Wang, Kanliang

    Based on the analysis of organizing of rescuing process of Wenchuan Earthquake in China, the paper developed a task-oriented management model to deal with the disaster emergency response. The management mechanism of task generating in emergency response has been established. Four kinds of task generation mechanism have been studied and three decision-making patterns have been suggested. The routings to produce task system were discussed, which could dispose the essential task into sub-task and form the task system through the processes of Work Breakdown Structure (WBS). A framework of decision support system in emergency response has been proposed, which based on the Hall for Workshop of Mate-synthetic Engineering. It could help the operation team to transfer the predetermined plan to execution plan in emergency response and to assign and dynamic supervise the task system.

  3. Assessing emergency obstetric and newborn care : Can performance indicators capture health system weaknesses?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Miltenburg, Andrea Solnes; Kiritta, Richard Forget; Bishanga, Thabea Benedicto; van Roosmalen, Jos; Stekelenburg, Jelle

    2017-01-01

    Background: Regular monitoring and assessment of performance indicators for emergency obstetric and newborn care can help to identify priorities to improve health services for women and newborns. The aim of this study was to perform a district wide assessment of emergency obstetric and newborn care

  4. Assessment and Evaluation of National Human Resource Development System Competitiveness in Emerging Countries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oh, HunSeok; Seo, DongIn; Kim, JuSeuk; Yoo, SangOk; Seong, HeeChang

    2015-01-01

    This study assessed and evaluated the competitiveness of national human resource development (NHRD) systems in emerging countries with potential for growth. The literature on emerging countries and NHRD systems was reviewed. The study developed a model mechanism with forty-one indices and nine sub-components for the NHRD system assessment in…

  5. Discharge from an emergency department observation unit and a surgical assessment unit

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schultz, Helen; Qvist, Niels; Backer Mogensen, Christian

    2014-01-01

    To investigate the experiences of patients with acute abdominal pain at discharge from an emergency department observation unit compared with discharge from a surgical assessment unit.......To investigate the experiences of patients with acute abdominal pain at discharge from an emergency department observation unit compared with discharge from a surgical assessment unit....

  6. Uses of the Internet in post-emergency response: Some issues

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Herzenberg, C.L.

    1998-09-01

    Can the Internet be of value in post-emergency response? The answer is yes, to judge by its use following the Kobe earthquake in Japan and the ice storms in the US and Canada last winter. This will not be a technical account of the Internet, but rather a quick look at some advantages, disadvantages, promising applications, and issues that may arise in using the Internet for post-emergency response.

  7. assessment of knowledge, attitudes and practices of emergency ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Vihar

    Emergency Contraceptive Pills (ECPs) are effective and cost effective contraceptive methods that can be used after unprotected sexual intercourse, or a contraceptive method failure. When used within. 72hours of unprotected intercourse, ECPs can prevent 75 to 85% of un-expected pregnancies. The effectiveness of ECPs ...

  8. Assessment of Male Involvement in Emergency Contraception in the ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    UNIBEN

    emergency contraception after unprotected sexual intercourse can lead to unwanted pregnancies and unsafe abortions. Male involvement in ... contraceptive pills, or are sexually assaulted.1,. 2 They comprise of hormonal method which ... prevent pregnancy up to five days after unprotected sexual intercourse and while the.

  9. Assessment of the Birth and Emergency Preparedness Level of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Only 58(23.2%) of the pregnant women made arrangements for blood donation, while majority (83.6%) of the women saved money for the purchase of delivery items. The finding s of this study suggests therefore, that a large proportion of the pregnant women did not prepare for childbirth and emergencies especially the ...

  10. Privacy Impact Assessment for the Emergency Management Portal

    Science.gov (United States)

    The Emergency Management Portal System collects cleanup site data, and personnel readiness data. Learn how this data will be collected in the system, how it will be used, access to the data, the purpose of data collection, and record retention policies.

  11. EMERGENCY FORECASTING FOR INVESTIGATED OBJECT AND ASSESSMENT OF POSSIBLE CONSEQUENCES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L. P. Pilinevich

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The paper presents an analysis of factors inducing an occurrence and development of technogenic emergencies. Zones of object destruction have been determined on a certain example. The object destruction is a result of the impulse wave occurred during an explosion of one propane tank.

  12. Assessment of emergency obstetric care services in Ibadan-Ibarapa ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    AJRH Managing Editor

    perceived poor quality of health care delivery and lack of knowledge of where to receive adequate obstetric ... EmOC services9. In pursuance of improving the availability, accessibility, quality and use of Emergency .... Essential Software for Android machine and these were further represented on the digitized map using.

  13. An Assessment of the Emerging Networks of Support for Street ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Nigeria, being asignatory to the Convention on the Rights of the Child (UNCRC, 1989) promulgated the Child Rights Act 2003, which aimed at ameliorating the condition of street children in Nigeria. In line with this, there are emerging networks of support for street children. The extent to which these support networks are ...

  14. Assessing Self Organization and Emergence in C2 Processes

    Science.gov (United States)

    2006-06-01

    nucleic/amino acids. Culture is a strong emergent property of memes , language, and writing systems no mystical processes, no supernatural...textually and digitally • decontextualized and abstract • significant in ’technologies of representation’ 11 Figure 1 – The Knowledge

  15. Assessing Automatic Aid as an Emergency Response Model

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-12-01

    is their units have GPS locators and they are dispatched by those. Same thing with Prince William. Having the radio makes it easy, you just go to...operating manuals were supposed to be the playbook that everybody operates from, to extend the football metaphor. The problem is that not everybody uses

  16. A case of timely satellite image acquisitions in support of coastal emergency environmental response management

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramsey, Elijah W.; Werle, Dirk; Lu, Zhong; Rangoonwala, Amina; Suzuoki, Yukihiro

    2009-01-01

    The synergistic application of optical and radar satellite imagery improves emergency response and advance coastal monitoring from the realm of “opportunistic” to that of “strategic.” As illustrated by the Hurricane Ike example, synthetic aperture radar imaging capabilities are clearly applicable for emergency response operations, but they are also relevant to emergency environmental management. Integrated with optical monitoring, the nearly real-time availability of synthetic aperture radar provides superior consistency in status and trends monitoring and enhanced information concerning causal forces of change that are critical to coastal resource sustainability, including flooding extent, depth, and frequency.

  17. Emergency response planning to reduce the impact of contaminated drinking water during natural disasters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patterson, Craig L.; Adams, Jeffrey Q.

    2011-12-01

    Natural disasters can be devastating to local water supplies affecting millions of people. Disaster recovery plans and water industry collaboration during emergencies protect consumers from contaminated drinking water supplies and help facilitate the repair of public water systems. Prior to an event, utilities and municipalities can use "What if"? scenarios to develop emergency operation, response, and recovery plans designed to reduce the severity of damage and destruction. Government agencies including the EPA are planning ahead to provide temporary supplies of potable water and small drinking water treatment technologies to communities as an integral part of emergency response activities that will ensure clean and safe drinking water.

  18. The IAEAs incident and emergency centre: the global focal point for nuclear and radiological emergency preparedness and response

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Buglova, E.

    2016-08-01

    The continuous use of nuclear power to generate electricity and the continued threat of radioactive materials being used for nefarious reasons reminds us of the importance to stay prepared to respond to nuclear or radiological emergencies. Stringent nuclear safety and nuclear security requirements, the training of personnel, operational checks and legal frameworks cannot always prevent radiation-related emergencies. Though these events can range in severity, each has the potential to cause harm to the public, employees, patients, property and the environment. Until the Chernobyl nuclear accident in 1986, there was no international information exchange system. Immediately following that accident, the international community negotiated the so-called Emergency Conventions to ensure that the country suffering an accident with an international transboundary release of radioactive material would issue timely, authenticated information, while the States that could field technical support, would do so in a coordinated fashion. The Conventions also place specific legal obligations on the International Atomic energy Agency (IAEA) with regard to emergency preparedness and response. (Author)

  19. Uncertainties in modeling hazardous gas releases for emergency response

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Baumann-Stanzer, Kathrin; Stenzel, Sirma [Zentralanstalt fuer Meteorologie und Geodynamik, Vienna (Austria)

    2011-02-15

    In case of an accidental release of toxic gases the emergency responders need fast information about the affected area and the maximum impact. Hazard distances calculated with the models MET, ALOHA, BREEZE, TRACE and SAMS for scenarios with chlorine, ammoniac and butane releases are compared in this study. The variations of the model results are measures for uncertainties in source estimation and dispersion calculation. Model runs for different wind speeds, atmospheric stability and roughness lengths indicate the model sensitivity to these input parameters. In-situ measurements at two urban near-traffic sites are compared to results of the Integrated Nowcasting through Comprehensive Analysis (INCA) in order to quantify uncertainties in the meteorological input. The hazard zone estimates from the models vary up to a factor of 4 due to different input requirements as well as due to different internal model assumptions. None of the models is found to be 'more conservative' than the others in all scenarios. INCA wind-speeds are correlated to in-situ observations at two urban sites in Vienna with a factor of 0.89. The standard deviations of the normal error distribution are 0.8 ms{sup -1} in wind speed, on the scale of 50 degrees in wind direction, up to 4 C in air temperature and up to 10 % in relative humidity. The observed air temperature and humidity are well reproduced by INCA with correlation coefficients of 0.96 to 0.99. INCA is therefore found to give a good representation of the local meteorological conditions. Besides of real-time data, the INCA-short range forecast for the following hours may support the action planning of the first responders. (orig.)

  20. Uncertainties in modeling hazardous gas releases for emergency response

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kathrin Baumann-Stanzer

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available In case of an accidental release of toxic gases the emergency responders need fast information about the affected area and the maximum impact. Hazard distances calculated with the models MET, ALOHA, BREEZE, TRACE and SAMS for scenarios with chlorine, ammoniac and butane releases are compared in this study. The variations of the model results are measures for uncertainties in source estimation and dispersion calculation. Model runs for different wind speeds, atmospheric stability and roughness lengths indicate the model sensitivity to these input parameters. In-situ measurements at two urban near-traffic sites are compared to results of the Integrated Nowcasting through Comprehensive Analysis (INCA in order to quantify uncertainties in the meteorological input. The hazard zone estimates from the models vary up to a factor of 4 due to different input requirements as well as due to different internal model assumptions. None of the models is found to be 'more conservative' than the others in all scenarios. INCA wind-speeds are correlated to in-situ observations at two urban sites in Vienna with a factor of 0.89. The standard deviations of the normal error distribution are 0.8 ms-1 in wind speed, on the scale of 50 degrees in wind direction, up to 4°C in air temperature and up to 10 % in relative humidity. The observed air temperature and humidity are well reproduced by INCA with correlation coefficients of 0.96 to 0.99. INCA is therefore found to give a good representation of the local meteorological conditions. Besides of real-time data, the INCA-short range forecast for the following hours may support the action planning of the first responders.

  1. Analysis of the resilience of team performance during a nuclear emergency response exercise.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gomes, José Orlando; Borges, Marcos R S; Huber, Gilbert J; Carvalho, Paulo Victor R

    2014-05-01

    The current work presents results from a cognitive task analysis (CTA) of a nuclear disaster simulation. Audio-visual records were collected from an emergency room team composed of individuals from 26 different agencies as they responded to multiple scenarios in a simulated nuclear disaster. This simulation was part of a national emergency response training activity for a nuclear power plant located in a developing country. The objectives of this paper are to describe sources of resilience and brittleness in these activities, identify cues of potential improvements for future emergency simulations, and leveraging the resilience of the emergency response system in case of a real disaster. Multiple CTA techniques were used to gain a better understanding of the cognitive dimensions of the activity and to identify team coordination and crisis management patterns that emerged from the simulation exercises. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd and The Ergonomics Society. All rights reserved.

  2. A Vision-Based Emergency Response System with a Paramedic Mobile Robot

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jeong, Il-Woong; Choi, Jin; Cho, Kyusung; Seo, Yong-Ho; Yang, Hyun Seung

    Detecting emergency situation is very important to a surveillance system for people like elderly live alone. A vision-based emergency response system with a paramedic mobile robot is presented in this paper. The proposed system is consisted of a vision-based emergency detection system and a mobile robot as a paramedic. A vision-based emergency detection system detects emergency by tracking people and detecting their actions from image sequences acquired by single surveillance camera. In order to recognize human actions, interest regions are segmented from the background using blob extraction method and tracked continuously using generic model. Then a MHI (Motion History Image) for a tracked person is constructed by silhouette information of region blobs and model actions. Emergency situation is finally detected by applying these information to neural network. When an emergency is detected, a mobile robot can help to diagnose the status of the person in the situation. To send the mobile robot to the proper position, we implement mobile robot navigation algorithm based on the distance between the person and a mobile robot. We validate our system by showing emergency detection rate and emergency response demonstration using the mobile robot.

  3. Renaissance CFO emerges in response to market pressures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1995-08-01

    A 1995 survey of chief financial officers (CFOs) in healthcare organizations finds that as the healthcare industry reshapes itself through mergers, acquisitions, and downsizing, the CFOs of the mid-1990s also are reshaping themselves into "Renaissance CFOs." They are acquiring new skills and expertise beyond the traditional area of finance. About one-third of the CFOs who took part in the February 1995 survey, which updates similar surveys in 1992 and 1990, said they are working to enhance their knowledge of managed care because they expect to assume responsibility for managed care as part of their expanding CFO responsibilities. Other new areas survey respondents said they expect to oversee before the decade's end are financial costing and pricing and physician relations. The 1995 CFO survey was commissioned by HFMA and Executive Risk Management Associates, Inc., and was conducted by Elrick & Lavidge, Inc. Previous CFO profile surveys have included analysis of CFO compensation data. This year, however, a separate, more indepth survey of CFO compensation was commissioned by HFMA; the findings of this survey will be presented in the October issue of HFM.

  4. Effects of Emergency Preparedness and Disaster Response on Hospital Focusing on Ancillary and Support Services: Policy Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    2007-02-12

    2007 FINAL REPORT I JULY 2006 to JULY 2007 4. TITLE AND SUBTITLE Sm. CONTRACT NUMBER Effects of Emergency Preparedness and Disaster Response on...public release; distribution is unlimited 13. SUPPLEMENTARY NOTES 14. ABSTRACT Emergency preparedness and disaster response requires collaboration...training, personnel, equipment, supplies and large amounts of funding. Disaster response strains not only the emergency departments of hospitals, but also

  5. Hazard analysis of critical control points assessment as a tool to respond to emerging infectious disease outbreaks.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kelly L Edmunds

    Full Text Available Highly pathogenic avian influenza virus (HPAI strain H5N1 has had direct and indirect economic impacts arising from direct mortality and control programmes in over 50 countries reporting poultry outbreaks. HPAI H5N1 is now reported as the most widespread and expensive zoonotic disease recorded and continues to pose a global health threat. The aim of this research was to assess the potential of utilising Hazard Analysis of Critical Control Points (HACCP assessments in providing a framework for a rapid response to emerging infectious disease outbreaks. This novel approach applies a scientific process, widely used in food production systems, to assess risks related to a specific emerging health threat within a known zoonotic disease hotspot. We conducted a HACCP assessment for HPAI viruses within Vietnam's domestic poultry trade and relate our findings to the existing literature. Our HACCP assessment identified poultry flock isolation, transportation, slaughter, preparation and consumption as critical control points for Vietnam's domestic poultry trade. Introduction of the preventative measures highlighted through this HACCP evaluation would reduce the risks posed by HPAI viruses and pressure on the national economy. We conclude that this HACCP assessment provides compelling evidence for the future potential that HACCP analyses could play in initiating a rapid response to emerging infectious diseases.

  6. Hazard analysis of critical control points assessment as a tool to respond to emerging infectious disease outbreaks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Edmunds, Kelly L; Hunter, Paul R; Few, Roger; Bell, Diana J

    2013-01-01

    Highly pathogenic avian influenza virus (HPAI) strain H5N1 has had direct and indirect economic impacts arising from direct mortality and control programmes in over 50 countries reporting poultry outbreaks. HPAI H5N1 is now reported as the most widespread and expensive zoonotic disease recorded and continues to pose a global health threat. The aim of this research was to assess the potential of utilising Hazard Analysis of Critical Control Points (HACCP) assessments in providing a framework for a rapid response to emerging infectious disease outbreaks. This novel approach applies a scientific process, widely used in food production systems, to assess risks related to a specific emerging health threat within a known zoonotic disease hotspot. We conducted a HACCP assessment for HPAI viruses within Vietnam's domestic poultry trade and relate our findings to the existing literature. Our HACCP assessment identified poultry flock isolation, transportation, slaughter, preparation and consumption as critical control points for Vietnam's domestic poultry trade. Introduction of the preventative measures highlighted through this HACCP evaluation would reduce the risks posed by HPAI viruses and pressure on the national economy. We conclude that this HACCP assessment provides compelling evidence for the future potential that HACCP analyses could play in initiating a rapid response to emerging infectious diseases.

  7. Integrating quantitative and qualitative methodologies for the assessment of health care systems: emergency medicine in post-conflict Serbia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    VanRooyen Michael J

    2005-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Due to the complexity of health system reform in the post-conflict, post-disaster, and development settings, attempts to restructure health services are fraught with pitfalls that are often unanticipated because of inadequate preliminary assessments. Our proposed Integrated Multimodal Assessment – combining quantitative and qualitative methodologies – may provide a more robust mechanism for identifying programmatic priorities and critical barriers for appropriate and sustainable health system interventions. The purpose of this study is to describe this novel multimodal assessment using emergency medicine in post-conflict Serbia as a model. Methods Integrated quantitative and qualitative methodologies – system characterization and observation, focus group discussions, free-response questionnaires, and by-person factor analysis – were used to identify needs, problems, and potential barriers to the development of emergency medicine in Serbia. Participants included emergency and pre-hospital personnel from all emergency medical institutions in Belgrade. Results Demographic data indicate a loosely ordered network of part-time emergency departments supported by 24-hour pre-hospital services and an academic emergency center. Focus groups and questionnaires reveal significant impediments to delivery of care and suggest development priorities. By-person factor analysis subsequently divides respondents into distinctive attitudinal types, compares participant opinions, and identifies programmatic priorities. Conclusions By combining quantitative and qualitative methodologies, our Integrated Multimodal Assessment identified critical needs and barriers to emergency medicine development in Serbia and may serve as a model for future health system assessments in post-conflict, post-disaster, and development settings.

  8. Sustainability Ethics Emergency and Media Responsibility in the Consumption Society

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rogério Bianchi de Araujo

    2008-08-01

    Full Text Available In this article, it is discussed the sustainable development and the importance of the environmental cause, in order to create models of development that consider the sustainability and environmental preservation for the future generations. The participation of all society is essential in this debate. The establishment of new habits that do not compromise the subsistence and the conscience of the real self-destruction possibility must be studied and analysed; they consist in challenging intentions, which detach the relevance and the moral duty of the media to restore a new ethics and a new way to understand the reality, as well as to divulge the impact of this different perception in the human life. Therefore occurs the requirement of a responsible compromise relating to the development, by way of understanding the biosphere as the social life basis, considering that, in these ecosystems, the human being is only one of the many species that live in an interdependence relationship.

  9. Integrating international responses to complex emergencies, unconventional war, and terrorism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burkle, Frederick M

    2005-01-01

    The world is experiencing unprecedented violence and threats of violence, taking the form of complex internal nation-state conflicts, unconventional or guerrilla warfare against established governments, and stateless threats of terrorism by potential biologic, chemical, and nuclear weapons. What happens locally has immediate ramifications internationally. Real and potential health consequences of these events have evoked global concerns and realization that capacities and capabilities to respond to such events require unparalleled integration, coordination, and cooperation of the international community. However, politics and the institutions singular governments form are inherently limited in their objectives and capability to effectively respond. Public health, broadly defined, must be recognized as a security and strategic requirement, one that serves to build a foundation for an international integrated response capacity.

  10. Assessing public health capabilities during emergency preparedness tabletop exercises: reliability and validity of a measurement tool.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Savoia, Elena; Testa, Marcia A; Biddinger, Paul D; Cadigan, Rebecca O; Koh, Howard; Campbell, Paul; Stoto, Michael A

    2009-01-01

    Improving the ability of local public health agencies to respond to large-scale emergencies is an ongoing challenge. Tabletop exercises can provide an opportunity for individuals and groups to practice coordination of emergency response and evaluate performance. The purpose of this study was to develop a valid and reliable self-assessment performance measurement tool for tabletop exercise participants. The study population comprised 179 public officials who attended three tabletop exercises in Massachusetts and Maine between September 2005 and November 2006. A 42-item questionnaire was developed to assess five public health functional capabilities: (1) leadership and management, (2) mass casualty care, (3) communication, (4) disease control and prevention, and (5) surveillance and epidemiology. Analyses were undertaken to examine internal consistency, associations among scales, the empirical structure of the items, and inter-rater agreement. Thirty-seven questions were retained in the final questionnaire and grouped according to the original five domains. Alpha coefficients were 0.81 or higher for all scales. The five-factor solution from the principal components analysis accounted for 60% of the total variance, and the factor structure was consistent with the five domains of the original conceptual model. Inter-rater agreement ranged from good to excellent. The resulting 37-item performance measurement tool was found to reliably measure public health functional capabilities in a tabletop exercise setting, with preliminary evidence of a factor structure consistent with the original conceptualization and of criterion-related validity.

  11. Instrument for assessing the quality of mobile emergency pre-hospital care: content validation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rodrigo Assis Neves Dantas

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVES To validate an instrument to assess quality of mobile emergency pre-hospital care. METHOD A methodological study where 20 professionals gave their opinions on the items of the proposed instrument. The analysis was performed using Kappa test (K and Content Validity Index (CVI, considering K> 0.80 and CVI ≥ 0.80. RESULTS Three items were excluded from the instrument: Professional Compensation; Job Satisfaction and Services Performed. Items that obtained adequate K and CVI indexes and remained in the instrument were: ambulance conservation status; physical structure; comfort in the ambulance; availability of material resources; user/staff safety; continuous learning; safety demonstrated by the team; access; welcoming; humanization; response time; costumer privacy; guidelines on care; relationship between professionals and costumers; opportunity for costumers to make complaints and multiprofessional conjunction/actuation. CONCLUSION The instrument to assess quality of care has been validated and may contribute to the evaluation of pre-hospital care in mobile emergency services.

  12. Comprehensive Oculomotor Behavioral Response Assessment (COBRA)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stone, Leland S. (Inventor); Liston, Dorion B. (Inventor)

    2017-01-01

    An eye movement-based methodology and assessment tool may be used to quantify many aspects of human dynamic visual processing using a relatively simple and short oculomotor task, noninvasive video-based eye tracking, and validated oculometric analysis techniques. By examining the eye movement responses to a task including a radially-organized appropriately randomized sequence of Rashbass-like step-ramp pursuit-tracking trials, distinct performance measurements may be generated that may be associated with, for example, pursuit initiation (e.g., latency and open-loop pursuit acceleration), steady-state tracking (e.g., gain, catch-up saccade amplitude, and the proportion of the steady-state response consisting of smooth movement), direction tuning (e.g., oblique effect amplitude, horizontal-vertical asymmetry, and direction noise), and speed tuning (e.g., speed responsiveness and noise). This quantitative approach may provide fast and results (e.g., a multi-dimensional set of oculometrics and a single scalar impairment index) that can be interpreted by one without a high degree of scientific sophistication or extensive training.

  13. LEADERS: Lightweight Epidemiology Advanced Detection and Emergency Response System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ritter, Todd A.

    2002-06-01

    Technological advancements in molecular biology now offer a wide-range of applications for bio-warfare defense, medical surveillance, agricultural surveillance and pure research. Idaho Technology has designed and produced the world's fastest DNA-based identifiers. The R.A.P.I.D. TM (Ruggedized Advanced Pathogen Identification Device) provides several options for using sensitive and specific molecular biology-based technology One of the key features of the RAPID is a software package called Detector*. Detector* allows Minimally Trained Care Providers (MTCP) to operate the instrument by automating the steps of running PCR and automatically analyzing the sample data. Pathogen identification is carried out automatically using positive and negative controls to protect against false positive and false negative results. As part of the LEADER system, the Remote RAPID Viewer (RRV) component allows for real-time remote monitoring of PCR reactions run on the RAPID, thus giving the Subject Matter Expert (SME) the ability to request specific tests when triggered by the auto-analysis system. In addition the RRV component facilitates in result verification of tests run by MTCP, assists in tracking outbreaks, and helps coordinate large scale real-time crisis management. The system will allow access to epidemiological data from thin client (i.e. web browser), thus allowing the SME to connect from anywhere with an internet connection. In addition the LEADER system will automatically contact and alert SME when threshold criteria are met, helping reduce the time to first response.

  14. An Ontology-Underpinned Emergency Response System for Water Pollution Accidents

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiaoliang Meng

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available With the unceasing development and maturation of environment geographic information system, the response to water pollution accidents has been digitalized through the combination of monitoring sensors, management servers, and application software. However, most of these systems only achieve the basic and general geospatial data management and functional process tasks by adopting mechanistic water-quality models. To satisfy the sustainable monitoring and real-time emergency response application demand of the government and public users, it is a hotspot to study how to make the water pollution information being semantic and make the referred applications intelligent. Thus, the architecture of the ontology-underpinned emergency response system for water pollution accidents is proposed in this paper. This paper also makes a case study for usability testing of the water ontology models, and emergency response rules through an online water pollution emergency response system. The system contributes scientifically to the safety and sustainability of drinking water by providing emergency response and decision-making to the government and public in a timely manner.

  15. Comprehensive Emergency Airway Response Team (EART) Training and Education: Impact on Team Effectiveness, Personnel Confidence, and Protocol Knowledge.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsai, Angela C; Krisciunas, Gintas P; Brook, Chris; Basa, Krystyne; Gonzalez, Mauricio; Crimlisk, Janet; Silva, Julie; Grillone, Gregory A

    2016-06-01

    To evaluate the efficacy and utility of simulation of the Emergency Airway Response Team (EART) at a tertiary care hospital to improve team dynamics and confidence and knowledge in managing an emergency airway. This was a descriptive, quantitative performance improvement study. From September 1, 2013, to December 1, 2013, 177 members of the EART from anesthesia, otolaryngology, trauma surgery, emergency medicine, ICU nursing, and respiratory therapy participated in emergency airway simulations. Team dynamics and confidence levels and knowledge of EART were assessed using pre-and post-simulation questionnaires. All participants regardless of their role, experience in the medical field, or any prior exposure to a difficult airway showed significant improvement in self-rated team participation and confidence and objective knowledge regarding EART after undergoing simulation. Our study highlights the efficacy and utility of simulation in assessing personnel team dynamics and confidence levels and knowledge of emergency airway scenarios. Practitioners in all fields and level of experience benefit in EART training and simulation. We hope that with this information, we will be able to conduct future studies on reduction of patient morbidity and mortality. © The Author(s) 2015.

  16. Emergency response to a highway accident in Springfield, Massachusetts, on December 16, 1991

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1992-06-01

    On December 16, 1991, a truck carrying unirradiated (fresh) nuclear fuel was involved in an accident on US Interstate 91, in Springfield, Massachusetts. This report describes the emergency response measures undertaken by local, State, Federal, and private parties. The report also discusses ``lessons learned`` from the response to the accident and suggests areas where improvements might be made.

  17. Emergency response to a highway accident in Springfield, Massachusetts, on December 16, 1991

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1992-06-01

    On December 16, 1991, a truck carrying unirradiated (fresh) nuclear fuel was involved in an accident on US Interstate 91, in Springfield, Massachusetts. This report describes the emergency response measures undertaken by local, State, Federal, and private parties. The report also discusses lessons learned'' from the response to the accident and suggests areas where improvements might be made.

  18. [Consciousness and abilities on health emergency and the roles of emergency response among public at the communities].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Yang; Dong, Xao-mei; Wang, Sheng-yong; Tian, Jun-zhang; Ye, Ze-bing; Yang, Jian; Li, Guan-ming; Peng, Lin; Zhang, Si-heng

    2013-10-01

    To evaluate the consciousness of health emergency and the abilities on self- and mutual medical aids among the public at the community level, as well as the community responses on health-related emergencies and other factors. Random equidistant sampling method was used to extract 617 households before choosing a family member sampled by Kish Grid method. All the members were investigated face to face on a questionnaire-"Health emergency and related ability regarding self and mutual medical aids of the residents". Data were entered into computer database by using software Epi Data 3.1 and were analyzed by SPSS 21.0. Among the 617 households under survey, 47.84% of the public had general awareness on health-related emergencies. Regarding the following items as:prevention and isolation strategies of infectious disease, on safely procedures of earthquake and fires, on prevention of food poisoning, on prevention and first aid of emerging infectious diseases etc., the rates of awareness were 65.04%, 62.92%, 43.62% and 18.79% respectively. Proportions of households which had the first aid supplies were:first aid medicine box as 56.08%; fire extinguisher as 43.60%; spare water and food as 39.40%; having facilities as ropes, whistles and smoke masks for escape were all less than 15%. Rates of awareness on the following items as: correct use of gas switch as 81.52%, knowing the location of the circuit with gear and the fire hydrant as 74.39% and 35.98% , respectively. The correct disposal rates of the residents on the following items were:electric shock and falls (89.63%), patients of infectious diseases (83.31%), gas poisoning (82.98%), suspected symptoms on infectious diseases(82.66%), explosion and burns (66.78%), scald (62.72%)and sprain (57.05%). Scores on the related abilities were as follows: emergency(7.65, out of 10 points), escape(3.55, out of 5 points), self- and mutual medical aids (10.71, out of 16 points). Proportions of having learned and applied of first aid

  19. Clinical review criteria and medical emergency teams: evaluating a two-tier rapid response system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bingham, Gordon; Fossum, Mariann; Barratt, Macey; Bucknall, Tracey

    2015-09-01

    To assess the prevalence of patients fulfilling clinical review criteria (CRC), to determine activation rates for CRC assessments, to compare baseline characteristics and outcomes of patients who fulfilled CRC with patients who did not, and to identify the documented nursing actions in response to CRC values. A cross-sectional study using a retrospective medical record audit, in a universityaffiliated, tertiary referral hospital with a two-tier rapid response system in Melbourne, Australia. We used a convenience sample of hospital inpatients on general medical, surgical and specialist service wards admitted during a 24-hour period in 2013. Medical emergency team (MET) or code blue activation, unplanned intensive care unit admissions, hospital length of stay and inhospital mortality. For patients who fulfilled CRC or MET criteria during the 24- hour period, the specific criteria fulfilled, escalation treatments and outcomes were collected. Of the sample (N = 422), 81 patients (19%) fulfilled CRC on 109 occasions. From 109 CRC events, 66 patients (81%) had at least one observation fulfilling CRC, and 15 patients (18%) met CRC on multiple occasions. The documented escalation rate was 58 of 109 events (53%). The number of patients who fulfilled CRC and subsequent MET call activation criteria within 24 hours was significantly greater than the number who did not meet CRC (P CRC during the study period; these patients were about four times more likely to also fulfil MET call criteria. Contrary to hospital policy, escalation was not documented for about half the patients meeting CRC values. Despite the clarity of escalation procedures on the graphic observation chart, escalation remains an ongoing problem. Further research is needed on the impact on patient outcomes over time and to understand factors influencing staff response.

  20. [Factors related to the psychological stress response of nurses working in emergency and critical care centers].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Uda, Kazu; Morioka, Ikuharu

    2011-01-01

    This questionnaire survey was performed in order to reveal the characteristics of work-related stressors on nurses working in emergency and critical care centers (emergency nurses) and factors related to their stress responses. There were 347 subjects who replied to the survey: 199 emergency nurses and 148 nurses working in internal medicine departments (control group) in 11 hospitals in the Kinki and Tokai areas of Japan. The work-related stressor scores among the emergency nurses were significantly higher than those in the control group for 6 out of 8 factors: work difficulties, patient life-support duties, relationships with patients and their families, dealing with patient death, relationships with doctors and technical innovation. The work-related stressor score was significantly lower among the emergency nurses for one factor: lack of communication. Multiple logistic regression analysis was used to evaluate the relationship between the stress response and the other factors such as work-related stressors, individual and situational factors, non-work factors and social support. Risk factors related to the stress response of the emergency nurses were: perceived stress due to work difficulties, negative lifestyles and desiring a career change. Important aspects of mental health support for emergency nurses are: strengthening technical support, such as holding study sessions to reduce work difficulties, as well as adjusting the working environment to improve individual lifestyles.

  1. Emerging contaminants: presentations at the 2009 Toxicology and Risk Assessment Conference.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murnyak, George; Vandenberg, John; Yaroschak, Paul J; Williams, Larry; Prabhakaran, Krishnan; Hinz, John

    2011-07-15

    A session entitled "Emerging Contaminants" was held in April 2009 in Cincinnati, OH at the 2009 Toxicology and Risk Assessment Conference. The purpose of the session was to share information on both programmatic and technical aspects associated with emerging contaminants. Emerging contaminants are chemicals or materials that are characterized by a perceived or real threat to human health or environment, a lack of published health standards or an evolving standard. A contaminant may also be "emerging" because of the discovery of a new source, a new pathway to humans, or a new detection method or technology. The session included five speakers representing the Department of Defense (DoD), the Environmental Protection Agency (EPA), and each of the military services. The DoD created the Emerging Contaminant Directorate to proactively address environmental, health, and safety concerns associated with emerging contaminants. This session described the scan-watch-action list process, impact assessment methodology, and integrated risk management concept that DoD has implemented to manage emerging contaminants. EPA presented emerging trends in health risk assessment. Researchers made technical presentations on the status of some emerging contaminates in the assessment process (i.e. manganese, RDX, and naphthalene). Copyright © 2011. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  2. Risk assessment framework for emerging vector-borne livestock diseases

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vos, de C.J.; Hoek, M.R.; Fischer, E.A.J.; Koeijer, de A.A.; Bremmer, J.

    2012-01-01

    The objective of this project was to develop a framework for risk assessment of introduction, establishment, spread and persistence of vector-borne livestock diseases by integrating the essential elements of different approaches. This framework will help risk analysts to assess the risk of

  3. Emerging concepts in wildfire risk assessment and management (Publ.)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Joe H. Scott; Matthew P. Thompson

    2015-01-01

    A quantitative measure of wildfire risk across a landscape - expected net change in value of resources and assets exposed to wildfire - was established nearly a decade ago. Assessments made using that measure have been completed at spatial extents ranging from an individual county to the continental United States. The science of wildfire risk assessment and management...

  4. Zika--an emerging infectious disease. The risk assessment from Polish perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gańczak, Maria

    2016-01-01

    In the last years, attention has been paid to Zika virus (ZIKV) infection, the emerging vector-borne disease. It is responsible for major outbreaks in Africa, Asia and, more recently, in previously infection-naïve territories of the Pacific area, South America and Caribbean. The etiology, epidemiology, transmission, and clinical manifestations of ZIKV disease are discussed, along with the diagnostic possibilities in the aim to assessing the risk of its introduction to Poland. ZIKV is spread by Aedes mosquitoes which are not found throughout Poland. The prevention strategies adopted by national public health authorities should be based on a surveillance of imported cases and on increasing awareness among healthcare professionals and travelers. Due to a large number of asymptomatic ZIKV infections and limitations in the availability of diagnostic tests, monitoring based on laboratory results is likely to be unreliable in Poland. There are no requirements to report ZIKV infections to the European Centre for Disease Prevention and Control. Nevertheless, the global epidemic continues to spread, and despite travels of Poles to countries in which Aedes mosquitoes are active, Polish sportsmen will be travelling to Brazil in August 2016 to participate in the Olympic Games, the will also be true of the many fans who will follow them; therefore imported cases of ZIKV infection are possible. As the awareness of the infection risk will increase among medical staff and travelers, the number of suspected cases of travel-related ZIKV infections may rise in Poland. Medical staff should be informed where and how to report such cases. Thorough surveillance, adequate assessment of possible threats, action plans, rapid and effective intervention development, spread of up to date information of ZIKV, as well as other emerging or re-emerging infectious pathogens can play a key role in guaranteeing population health.

  5. Assessing Emergency Department Utilization in the Era of Population Health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schold, Jesse D; Locke, Jayme E

    2017-12-30

    Population health has been broadly defined as "health outcomes of a group of individuals, including the distribution of such outcomes within the group." (1) Increasingly, population health has gained prominence and impact with emergence of Accountable Care Organizations that serve populations across transitions of care and different providers (often extended to communities). Population health has also been a focus of healthcare reform and development of policies and interventions aimed at simultaneously improving quality and reducing costs. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.

  6. A comparative assessment of major international disasters: the need for exposure assessment, systematic emergency preparedness, and lifetime health care.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lucchini, Roberto G; Hashim, Dana; Acquilla, Sushma; Basanets, Angela; Bertazzi, Pier Alberto; Bushmanov, Andrey; Crane, Michael; Harrison, Denise J; Holden, William; Landrigan, Philip J; Luft, Benjamin J; Mocarelli, Paolo; Mazitova, Nailya; Melius, James; Moline, Jacqueline M; Mori, Koji; Prezant, David; Reibman, Joan; Reissman, Dori B; Stazharau, Alexander; Takahashi, Ken; Udasin, Iris G; Todd, Andrew C

    2017-01-07

    The disasters at Seveso, Three Mile Island, Bhopal, Chernobyl, the World Trade Center (WTC) and Fukushima had historic health and economic sequelae for large populations of workers, responders and community members. Comparative data from these events were collected to derive indications for future preparedness. Information from the primary sources and a literature review addressed: i) exposure assessment; ii) exposed populations; iii) health surveillance; iv) follow-up and research outputs; v) observed physical and mental health effects; vi) treatment and benefits; and vii) outreach activities. Exposure assessment was conducted in Seveso, Chernobyl and Fukushima, although none benefited from a timely or systematic strategy, yielding immediate and sequential measurements after the disaster. Identification of exposed subjects was overall underestimated. Health surveillance, treatment and follow-up research were implemented in Seveso, Chernobyl, Fukushima, and at the WTC, mostly focusing on the workers and responders, and to a lesser extent on residents. Exposure-related physical and mental health consequences were identified, indicating the need for a long-term health care of the affected populations. Fukushima has generated the largest scientific output so far, followed by the WTCHP and Chernobyl. Benefits programs and active outreach figured prominently in only the WTC Health Program. The analysis of these programs yielded the following lessons: 1) Know who was there; 2) Have public health input to the disaster response; 3) Collect health and needs data rapidly; 4) Take care of the affected; 5) Emergency preparedness; 6) Data driven, needs assessment, advocacy. Given the long-lasting health consequences of natural and man-made disasters, health surveillance and treatment programs are critical for management of health conditions, and emergency preparedness plans are needed to prevent or minimize the impact of future threats.

  7. A comparative assessment of major international disasters: the need for exposure assessment, systematic emergency preparedness, and lifetime health care

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roberto G. Lucchini

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The disasters at Seveso, Three Mile Island, Bhopal, Chernobyl, the World Trade Center (WTC and Fukushima had historic health and economic sequelae for large populations of workers, responders and community members. Methods Comparative data from these events were collected to derive indications for future preparedness. Information from the primary sources and a literature review addressed: i exposure assessment; ii exposed populations; iii health surveillance; iv follow-up and research outputs; v observed physical and mental health effects; vi treatment and benefits; and vii outreach activities. Results Exposure assessment was conducted in Seveso, Chernobyl and Fukushima, although none benefited from a timely or systematic strategy, yielding immediate and sequential measurements after the disaster. Identification of exposed subjects was overall underestimated. Health surveillance, treatment and follow-up research were implemented in Seveso, Chernobyl, Fukushima, and at the WTC, mostly focusing on the workers and responders, and to a lesser extent on residents. Exposure-related physical and mental health consequences were identified, indicating the need for a long-term health care of the affected populations. Fukushima has generated the largest scientific output so far, followed by the WTCHP and Chernobyl. Benefits programs and active outreach figured prominently in only the WTC Health Program. The analysis of these programs yielded the following lessons: 1 Know who was there; 2 Have public health input to the disaster response; 3 Collect health and needs data rapidly; 4 Take care of the affected; 5 Emergency preparedness; 6 Data driven, needs assessment, advocacy. Conclusions Given the long-lasting health consequences of natural and man-made disasters, health surveillance and treatment programs are critical for management of health conditions, and emergency preparedness plans are needed to prevent or minimize the impact of

  8. Radiological emergency response for community agencies with cognitive task analysis, risk analysis, and decision support framework.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meyer, Travis S; Muething, Joseph Z; Lima, Gustavo Amoras Souza; Torres, Breno Raemy Rangel; del Rosario, Trystyn Keia; Gomes, José Orlando; Lambert, James H

    2012-01-01

    Radiological nuclear emergency responders must be able to coordinate evacuation and relief efforts following the release of radioactive material into populated areas. In order to respond quickly and effectively to a nuclear emergency, high-level coordination is needed between a number of large, independent organizations, including police, military, hazmat, and transportation authorities. Given the complexity, scale, time-pressure, and potential negative consequences inherent in radiological emergency responses, tracking and communicating information that will assist decision makers during a crisis is crucial. The emergency response team at the Angra dos Reis nuclear power facility, located outside of Rio de Janeiro, Brazil, presently conducts emergency response simulations once every two years to prepare organizational leaders for real-life emergency situations. However, current exercises are conducted without the aid of electronic or software tools, resulting in possible cognitive overload and delays in decision-making. This paper describes the development of a decision support system employing systems methodologies, including cognitive task analysis and human-machine interface design. The decision support system can aid the coordination team by automating cognitive functions and improving information sharing. A prototype of the design will be evaluated by plant officials in Brazil and incorporated to a future trial run of a response simulation.

  9. WHO-REMPAN for global health security and strengthening preparedness and response to radiation emergencies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carr, Zhanat

    2010-06-01

    In response to the changing global environment and emerging new issues related to health security, the World Health Organization (WHO) is putting in place new tools for collective defense, such as the revised International Health Regulations (IHR) (2005). The new framework puts additional responsibilities on both Member States and WHO itself in order to effectively implement the IHR (2005) and react effectively in case of public health emergency events of any nature. Since its establishment in 1987, the Radiation Emergency Medical Preparedness and Assistance Network of WHO (WHO-REMPAN) has become an important asset for the organization's capacity to respond to radiation emergencies and to assist its Member States to strengthen their own response capacities. The paper describes in detail the framework for the WHO's role in preparedness and response to radiation emergencies, including Emergency Conventions and IHR (2005), and how the WHO-REMPAN, through its activities (i.e., technical guidelines development, training, education, research, and information sharing), provides a significant contribution to the organization's program of work towards achievement of the global health security goal.

  10. Geriatric nursing assessment and intervention in an emergency department

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rosted, Elizabeth Emilie; Wagner, Lis; Hendriksen, Carsten

    2012-01-01

    : At discharge, and at 1 and 6 months follow-up, a brief standardised nursing assessment (ISAR 2) developed by McCusker et al. was carried out. The focus was on unresolved problems that required medical or nursing intervention, new or different home care services or comprehensive geriatric assessment. After...... assessment, the nurse made relevant referrals to the geriatric outpatient clinic, community health centre, general practitioner or made arrangements with next of kin. Results. One hundred and fifty people participated, mean age was 81.7. At discharge, they had a mean of 1.9 unresolved problems, after 1 month...

  11. The role of evidence in humanitarian assessment: the Seed System Security Assessment and the Emergency Market Mapping and Analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goeldner Byrne, Karri; March, Julie; McGuire, Shawn; Meissner, Laura; Sperling, Louise

    2013-07-01

    This paper reviews advances in the development and use of two evidence-based assessment toolkits: the Seed System Security Assessment (SSSA) and the Emergency Market Mapping and Analysis (EMMA). Both were created in the past five years and have been employed in a range of acute and chronic stress contexts across Africa, Asia, and parts of the Americas, in periods of civil strife, displacement, and drought, as well as following earthquakes, flooding, and political instability. The aims of this paper are threefold: to review advances with regard to each tool; to compare how each toolkit gathers and uses evidence, while considering possibilities for greater complementarity; and to reflect on the nature of 'evidence' used to guide humanitarian response in sudden-onset and chronic crisis situations. A comparison highlights the importance of triangulation and informed analysis for drawing conclusions from imperfect evidence, understanding the limitations of each assessment methodology, and confronting tacit assumptions. © 2013 The Author(s). Journal compilation © Overseas Development Institute, 2013.

  12. Traumatic Stress, Depression, and Recovery: Child and Parent Responses After Emergency Medical Care for Unintentional Injury.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kassam-Adams, Nancy; Bakker, Anne; Marsac, Meghan L; Fein, Joel A; Winston, Flaura Koplin

    2015-11-01

    To assess psychological symptoms in injured children (aged 8-17 years) and their parents after emergency department (ED) care to examine the relationship between posttraumatic stress and depression symptoms, co-occurrence of symptoms within families, and the relationship of these symptoms to parent-reported overall recovery. Children and parents (n = 263 child-parent dyads) were enrolled during ED treatment for unintentional injury. Approximately 5 months later, children and parents (n = 178 dyads) completed standardized measures of posttraumatic stress and depression symptoms and parents reported on child overall recovery. Follow-up assessments found significant posttraumatic stress symptoms in 15% of children and 5% of parents, significant depression symptoms in 13% of children and 16% of parents, and problematic overall recovery in 17% of children. For both children and parents, posttraumatic stress and depression symptom severity were strongly associated. Child and parent symptoms were only modestly associated with each other, and there were few families in which both child and parent had significant posttraumatic stress or depression. Parent symptoms, but not child symptoms, were inversely associated with children's overall recovery. For about 1 in 6 children and parents, unintentional injury treated in the ED can be associated with negative psychological sequelae and suboptimal recovery. Within families, child and parent responses may differ; their relative association with overall recovery deserves additional research. To promote emotional recovery, ED clinicians should be aware of the potential psychological impact of unintentional injury, provide timely evidence-based anticipatory guidance, and communicate these concerns to primary care clinicians.

  13. Response surface model predictions of emergence and response to pain in the recovery room: an evaluation of patients emerging from an isoflurane and fentanyl anesthetic

    Science.gov (United States)

    Syroid, Noah D.; Johnson, Ken B.; Pace, Nathan L.; Westenskow, Dwayne R.; Tyler, Diane; Brühschwein, Frederike; Albert, Robert W.; Roalstad, Shelly; Costy-Bennett, Samuel; Egan, Talmage D.

    2009-01-01

    Introduction Sevoflurane - remifentanil interaction models that predict responsiveness and response to painful stimuli have been evaluated in patients undergoing elective surgery. Preliminary evaluations of model predictions were found to be consistent with observations in patients anesthetized with sevoflurane, remifentanil and fentanyl. The present study explored the feasibility of adapting the predictions of sevoflurane-remifentanil interaction models to an isoflurane-fentanyl anesthetic. We hypothesized that model predictions adapted for isoflurane and fentanyl are consistent with observed patient responses and are similar to the predictions observed in our prior work with sevoflurane-remifentanil/fentanyl anesthetics. Methods Twenty-five patients scheduled for elective surgery received a fentanyl-isoflurane anesthetic. Model predictions of unresponsiveness were recorded at emergence and predictions of a response to noxious stimulus were recorded when patients first required analgesics in the recovery room. Model predictions were compared to observations with graphical and temporal analyses. Results were also compared to our prior predictions following a sevoflurane-remifentanil/fentanyl anesthetic. Results While patients were anesthetized, model predictions indicated a high likelihood that patients would be unresponsive (≥ 99%). Following termination of the anesthetic, model predictions of responsiveness well described the actual fraction of patients observed to be responsive during emergence. Half of the patients awoke within 2 minutes of the 50% model predicted probability of unresponsiveness; 70% awoke within 4 minutes. Similarly, predictions of a response to a noxious stimulus were consistent with the number of patients who required fentanyl in the recovery room. Model predictions following an isoflurane-fentanyl anesthetic were similar to model predictions following a sevoflurane-remifentanil/fentanyl anesthetic. Discussion Results confirmed our study

  14. Assessment of Common and Emerging Bioinformatics Pipelines for Targeted Metagenomics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Siegwald, Léa; Touzet, Hélène; Lemoine, Yves; Hot, David; Audebert, Christophe; Caboche, Ségolène

    2017-01-01

    Targeted metagenomics, also known as metagenetics, is a high-throughput sequencing application focusing on a nucleotide target in a microbiome to describe its taxonomic content. A wide range of bioinformatics pipelines are available to analyze sequencing outputs, and the choice of an appropriate tool is crucial and not trivial. No standard evaluation method exists for estimating the accuracy of a pipeline for targeted metagenomics analyses. This article proposes an evaluation protocol containing real and simulated targeted metagenomics datasets, and adequate metrics allowing us to study the impact of different variables on the biological interpretation of results. This protocol was used to compare six different bioinformatics pipelines in the basic user context: Three common ones (mothur, QIIME and BMP) based on a clustering-first approach and three emerging ones (Kraken, CLARK and One Codex) using an assignment-first approach. This study surprisingly reveals that the effect of sequencing errors has a bigger impact on the results that choosing different amplified regions. Moreover, increasing sequencing throughput increases richness overestimation, even more so for microbiota of high complexity. Finally, the choice of the reference database has a bigger impact on richness estimation for clustering-first pipelines, and on correct taxa identification for assignment-first pipelines. Using emerging assignment-first pipelines is a valid approach for targeted metagenomics analyses, with a quality of results comparable to popular clustering-first pipelines, even with an error-prone sequencing technology like Ion Torrent. However, those pipelines are highly sensitive to the quality of databases and their annotations, which makes clustering-first pipelines still the only reliable approach for studying microbiomes that are not well described.

  15. Ubiquitous robust communications for emergency response using multi-operator heterogeneous networks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Verikoukis Christos

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract A number of disasters in various places of the planet have caused an extensive loss of lives, severe damages to properties and the environment, as well as a tremendous shock to the survivors. For relief and mitigation operations, emergency responders are immediately dispatched to the disaster areas. Ubiquitous and robust communications during the emergency response operations are of paramount importance. Nevertheless, various reports have highlighted that after many devastating events, the current technologies used, failed to support the mission critical communications, resulting in further loss of lives. Inefficiencies of the current communications used for emergency response include lack of technology inter-operability between different jurisdictions, and high vulnerability due to their centralized infrastructure. In this article, we propose a flexible network architecture that provides a common networking platform for heterogeneous multi-operator networks, for interoperation in case of emergencies. A wireless mesh network is the main part of the proposed architecture and this provides a back-up network in case of emergencies. We first describe the shortcomings and limitations of the current technologies, and then we address issues related to the applications and functionalities a future emergency response network should support. Furthermore, we describe the necessary requirements for a flexible, secure, robust, and QoS-aware emergency response multi-operator architecture, and then we suggest several schemes that can be adopted by our proposed architecture to meet those requirements. In addition, we suggest several methods for the re-tasking of communication means owned by independent individuals to provide support during emergencies. In order to investigate the feasibility of multimedia transmission over a wireless mesh network, we measured the performance of a video streaming application in a real wireless metropolitan multi

  16. Reactive Metabolites: Current and Emerging Risk and Hazard Assessments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thompson, Richard A; Isin, Emre M; Ogese, Monday O; Mettetal, Jerome T; Williams, Dominic P

    2016-04-18

    Although idiosyncratic adverse drug reactions are rare, they are still a major concern to patient safety. Reactive metabolites are widely accepted as playing a pivotal role in the pathogenesis of idiosyncratic adverse drug reactions. While there are today well established strategies for the risk assessment of stable metabolites within the pharmaceutical industry, there is still no consensus on reactive metabolite risk assessment strategies. This is due to the complexity of the mechanisms of these toxicities as well as the difficulty in identifying and quantifying short-lived reactive intermediates such as reactive metabolites. In this review, reactive metabolite risk and hazard assessment approaches are discussed, and their pros and cons highlighted. We also discuss the nature of idiosyncratic adverse drug reactions, using acetaminophen and nefazodone to exemplify the complexity of the underlying mechanisms of reactive metabolite mediated hepatotoxicity. One of the key gaps moving forward is our understanding of and ability to predict the contribution of immune activation in idiosyncratic adverse drug reactions. Sections are included on the clinical phenotypes of immune mediated idiosyncratic adverse drug reactions and on the present understanding of immune activation by reactive metabolites. The advances being made in microphysiological systems have a great potential to transform our ability to risk assess reactive metabolites, and an overview of the key components of these systems is presented. Finally, the potential impact of systems pharmacology approaches in reactive metabolite risk assessments is highlighted.

  17. Child Protection Assessment in Humanitarian Emergencies: Case Studies from Georgia, Gaza, Haiti and Yemen

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ager, Alastair; Blake, Courtney; Stark, Lindsay; Daniel, Tsufit

    2011-01-01

    Objectives: The paper reviews the experiences of conducting child protection assessments across four humanitarian emergencies where violence and insecurity, directly or indirectly, posed a major threat to children. We seek to identify common themes emerging from these experiences and propose ways to guide the planning and implementation of…

  18. Development of a Real-Time Radiological Area Monitoring Network for Emergency Response at Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bertoldo, N; Hunter, S; Fertig, R; Laguna, G; MacQueen, D

    2004-03-08

    A real-time radiological sensor network for emergency response was developed and deployed at the Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL). The Real-Time Radiological Area Monitoring (RTRAM) network is comprised of 16 Geiger-Mueller (GM) sensors positioned on the LLNL Livermore site perimeter to continuously monitor for a radiological condition resulting from a terrorist threat to site security and the health and safety of LLNL personnel. The RTRAM network sensor locations coincide with wind sector directions to provide thorough coverage of the one square mile site. These low-power sensors are supported by a central command center (CCC) and transmit measurement data back to the CCC computer through the LLNL telecommunications infrastructure. Alarm conditions are identified by comparing current data to predetermined threshold parameters and are validated by comparison with plausible dispersion modeling scenarios and prevailing meteorological conditions. Emergency response personnel are notified of alarm conditions by automatic radio and computer based notifications. A secure intranet provides emergency response personnel with current condition assessment data that enable them to direct field response efforts remotely. The RTRAM network has proven to be a reliable system since initial deployment in August 2001 and maintains stability during inclement weather conditions.

  19. Strategic Models and the Response of Government Agencies to Extreme Emergencies

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Casler, Catherine; Pierides, Dean

    and address how military and strategic management models organize the response of government agencies to extreme emergencies whilst also failing to address their core organizational problems. We are interested in the relatively recent creation of centralized organizations like the US Federal Emergency...... to emergency management in the Australian State of Victoria after the catastrophic 2009 ‘Black Saturday’ bushfires. In the public inquiry into the disaster, centralization became an important antidote for previous shortcomings in ‘command, control and coordination’, eventually leading to the creation...

  20. Guidelines for preparation of emergency response plans for drilling, completion and testing of sour wells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1987-04-01

    The purpose of an emergency response plan is to describe procedures to ensure the health and safety of the public in the event of a release of sour gas during well drilling, completion, and testing operations. This guideline has been prepared to assist Canadian companies in preparation of such plans. It has been prepared to establish a high standard in planning for emergency situations where the health and safety of the public may be threatened. It describes when an emergency response plan is required and sets out the minimum degree of detail required, and also suggests a format for the plan and provides information on how to prepare a plan. While each plan must be site-specific, the content and format of most plans can be similar. Plans must be quite specific in setting out all actions to be taken in the event of an emergency. Contents of a plan include emergency definition and action, evacuation procedures, communications, monitoring, ignition procedures, post-emergency procedures, emergency and an equipment list. Appendices include characteristics and dangers of H/sub 2/S and SO/sub 2/ and a sample resident information package.

  1. Zika Virus in Ontario: Evaluating a Rapid Risk Assessment Tool for Emerging Infectious Disease Threats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van Meer, Ryan; Hohenadel, Karin; Fitzgerald-Husek, Alanna; Warshawsky, Bryna; Sider, Doug; Schwartz, Brian; Nelder, Mark P

    To determine the Ontario-specific risk of local and travel-related Zika virus transmission in the context of a public health emergency of international concern, Public Health Ontario (PHO) completed a rapid risk assessment (RRA) on January 29, 2016, using a newly developed RRA guidance tool. The RRA concluded that risk of local mosquito-borne transmission was low, with a high risk of imported cases through travel. The RRA was updated 3 times based on predetermined triggers. An independent evaluation assessed both the application of the RRA guidance tool (process evaluation) and the usefulness of the RRA (outcome evaluation). We conducted face-to-face, semi-structured interviews with 7 individuals who participated in the creation or review of the Zika virus RRA and 4 end-users at PHO and the Ministry of Health and Long-Term Care. An inductive thematic analysis of responses was undertaken, whereby themes were directly informed by the data. The process evaluation determined that most steps outlined in the RRA guidance tool were adhered to, including forming a cross-functional writing team, clarifying the scope and describing context, completing the RRA summary report, and updating the RRA based on predefined triggers. The outcome evaluation found that end-users judged the Zika virus RRA as evidence-informed, useful, consistent, and timely. The evaluation established that the locally tailored guidance tool, adapted from national and international approaches to RRAs, facilitated a systematic, evidence-informed, and timely formal RRA process at PHO for the Zika virus RRA, which met the needs of end-users. Based on the evaluation, PHO will modify future RRAs by incorporating some flexibility into the literature review process to support timeliness of the RRA, explicitly describing the limitations of studies used to inform the RRA, and refining risk algorithms to better suit emerging infectious disease threats. It is anticipated that these refinements will improve upon the

  2. Constructive technology assessment of emerging nanotechnologies : experiments in interactions

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Robinson, D.K.R.

    2010-01-01

    In January 2003, the Dutch R&D consortium NanoNed (at first supported by special NanoImpulse funding) started its work, and from the beginning it included a component on Technology Assessment and Societal Aspects of Nanotechnology, organized as an additional “flagship”, labelled TA NanoNed. The

  3. Update of the Nuclear Criticality Slide Rule for the Emergency Response to a Nuclear Criticality Accident

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Duluc Matthieu

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available AWE (UK, IRSN (France, LLNL (USA and ORNL (USA began a long term collaboration effort in 2015 to update the nuclear criticality Slide Rule for the emergency response to a nuclear criticality accident. This document, published almost 20 years ago, gives order of magnitude estimates of key parameters, such as number of fissions and doses (neutron and gamma, useful for emergency response teams and public authorities. This paper will present, firstly the motivation and the long term objectives for this update, then the overview of the initial configurations for updated calculations and preliminary results obtained with modern 3D codes.

  4. Health risk assessment of environmental selenium: Emerging evidence and challenges

    OpenAIRE

    Vinceti,Marco; Filippini, Tommaso; Cilloni, Silvia; Bargellini, Annalisa; Vergoni, Anna Valeria; Tsatsakis, Aristides; Ferrante, Margherita

    2017-01-01

    New data have been accumulated in the scientific literature in recent years which allow a more adequate risk assessment of selenium with reference to human health. This new evidence comes from environmental studies, carried out in populations characterized by abnormally high or low selenium intakes, and from high-quality and large randomized controlled trials with selenium recently carried out in the US and in other countries. These trials have consistently shown no beneficial effect on cance...

  5. [Assessment of resident physicians' performance in a university hospital's emergency department].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guillén Astete, Carlos Antonio; de la Casa, Cristina; Braña Cardeñosa, Adela; Gallego Rodríguez, Paloma; Zamorano Serrano, Miguel

    2015-01-01

    To describe an experience with the evaluation of resident physicians doing rotations in a tertiary-care hospital emergency department and to analyze the correlation between results on the various assessment tools and the resident's rank on Spain's standardized selection examination for admission to residency programs. The residents took 2 written examinations in 2013 and 2014, and rotation supervisors wrote subjective evaluations of the residents' clinical performance in the workplace. The residents also provided self-assessments of theoretical and practical knowledge and their aptitude for emergency department work. The results on these assessment tools were tabulated independently, and it was investigated if there were correlations between them. We observed an inverse correlation between the residents' rank on the standardized selection examination and their scores on the written examinations of knowledge and the supervisors' workplace assessments. The written examination scores after the rotation correlated positively with workplace assessments. Self-assessments were distributed normally, suggesting they were of scarce value, and they did not correlate with the results of the other assessment tools. Written examinations are acceptably correlated with subjective workplace assessments of practical competencies, whereas ranking on the residency program admissions examination is not acceptably correlated with emergency department workplace performance. We believe that efforts to prepare ways to evaluate residents' emergency department performance will be of interest in the future, once a specialization in emergency medicine is approved.

  6. Assessing the impact of workshops promoting concepts of psychosocial support for emergency events.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johal, Sarb

    2012-09-17

    BACKGROUND Psychosocial support is a widely accepted term referring to activities designed to promote social and psychological recovery in disasters, and is a crucial concept in the organisation and management of preparedness, response and recovery systems. The New Zealand Ministry of Health recognised the importance of a common framework of understanding this concept, and commissioned a series of workshops to promote the understanding and implementation of psychosocial support concepts in disasters. METHODS Two hundred and eighty-eight people participated in 9 educational workshops across New Zealand - before the recent Canterbury earthquakes - designed to educate people about the key concepts and delivery models of psychosocial support during and after emergency events. Participants were also asked to note down three key ideas concerning what psychosocial support meant to them both before and after participating in the workshop. FINDINGS The level of satisfaction reported both for the workshop presentations (4.5 out of 5) and the resources provided (4.6 out of 5) suggested that participants were highly engaged with the presented material, and that this may be a useful training resource tool for education about psychosocial support in emergency events. Although the general concepts of support and recovery remained important both before and after the workshops, there was a shift to expressing attitudes acknowledging the importance of the management and organisation of psychosocial support activities. CONCLUSIONS Overall, the findings suggest that participants' attitudes about psychosocial support in disasters changed after attending the workshop, from a consideration of the experience of the individual in a disaster to more structured ideas about how supportive interventions might be organised and implemented. Although care should be taken to reinforce the core actions of psychosocial support for practitioners, the workshops seem to offer a promising approach for

  7. Preparedness and emergency response research centers: using a public health systems approach to improve all-hazards preparedness and response.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leinhos, Mary; Qari, Shoukat H; Williams-Johnson, Mildred

    2014-01-01

    In 2008, at the request of the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC), the Institute of Medicine (IOM) prepared a report identifying knowledge gaps in public health systems preparedness and emergency response and recommending near-term priority research areas. In accordance with the Pandemic and All-Hazards Preparedness Act mandating new public health systems research for preparedness and emergency response, CDC provided competitive awards establishing nine Preparedness and Emergency Response Research Centers (PERRCs) in accredited U.S. schools of public health. The PERRCs conducted research in four IOM-recommended priority areas: (1) enhancing the usefulness of public health preparedness and response (PHPR) training, (2) creating and maintaining sustainable preparedness and response systems, (3) improving PHPR communications, and (4) identifying evaluation criteria and metrics to improve PHPR for all hazards. The PERRCs worked closely with state and local public health, community partners, and advisory committees to produce practice-relevant research findings. PERRC research has generated more than 130 peer-reviewed publications and nearly 80 practice and policy tools and recommendations with the potential to significantly enhance our nation's PHPR to all hazards and that highlight the need for further improvements in public health systems.

  8. Paradigm lost, paradigm found: The re-emergence of hormesis as a fundamental dose response model in the toxicological sciences

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Calabrese, Edward J. [Environmental Health Sciences, School of Public Health, Morrill I, N344, University of Massachusetts, Amherst, MA 01003 (United States)]. E-mail: edwardc@schoolph.umass.edu

    2005-12-15

    This paper provides an assessment of the toxicological basis of the hormetic dose-response relationship including issues relating to its reproducibility, frequency, and generalizability across biological models, endpoints measured and chemical class/physical stressors and implications for risk assessment. The quantitative features of the hormetic dose response are described and placed within toxicological context that considers study design, temporal assessment, mechanism, and experimental model/population heterogeneity. Particular emphasis is placed on an historical evaluation of why the field of toxicology rejected hormesis in favor of dose response models such as the threshold model for assessing non-carcinogens and linear no threshold (LNT) models for assessing carcinogens. The paper argues that such decisions were principally based on complex historical factors that emerged from the intense and protracted conflict between what is now called traditional medicine and homeopathy and the overly dominating influence of regulatory agencies on the toxicological intellectual agenda. Such regulatory agency influence emphasized hazard/risk assessment goals such as the derivation of no observed adverse effect levels (NOAELs) and the lowest observed adverse effect levels (LOAELs) which were derived principally from high dose studies using few doses, a feature which restricted perceptions and distorted judgments of several generations of toxicologists concerning the nature of the dose-response continuum. Such historical and technical blind spots lead the field of toxicology to not only reject an established dose-response model (hormesis), but also the model that was more common and fundamental than those that the field accepted. - The quantitative features of the hormetic dose/response are described and placed within the context of toxicology.

  9. 76 FR 63308 - Data and Data Needs To Advance Risk Assessment for Emerging Infectious Diseases Relevant to Blood...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-10-12

    ... [Docket No. FDA-2011-N-0002] Data and Data Needs To Advance Risk Assessment for Emerging Infectious... entitled: ``Data and Data Needs to Advance Risk Assessment for Emerging Infectious Diseases Relevant to... risk assessments (QRAs) are an important tool for evaluating the risks associated with new emerging...

  10. Sodium dichromate expedited response action assessment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1993-09-01

    The US Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) and Washington Department of Ecology (Ecology) recommended that the US Department of Energy (DOE) perform an expedited response action (ERA) for the Sodium Dichromate Barrel Disposal Landfill. The ERA lead regulatory agency is Ecology and EPA is the support agency. The ERA was categorized as non-time-critical, which required preparation of an engineering evaluation and cost analysis (EE/CA). The EE/CA was included in the ERA proposal. The EE/CA is a rapid, focused evaluation of available technologies using specific screening factors to assess feasibility, appropriateness, and cost. The ERA goal is to reduce the potential for any contaminant migration from the landfill to the soil column, groundwater, and Columbia River. Since the Sodium Dichromate Barrel Disposal Landfill is the only waste site within the operable unit, the removal action may be the final remediation of the 100-IU-4 Operable Unit. This ERA process started in March 1992. The ERA proposal went through a parallel review process with Westinghouse Hanford Company (WHC), DOE Richland Operations (RL), EPA, Ecology, and a 30-day public comment period. Ecology and EPA issued an Action Agreement Memorandum in March 1993 (Appendix A). The memorandum directed excavation of all anomalies and disposal of the collected materials at the Hanford Site Central Landfill. Primary field activities were completed by the end of April 1993. Final waste disposal of a minor quantity of hazardous waste was completed in July 1993.

  11. National Assessment of Quality Programs in Emergency Medical Services.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Redlener, Michael; Olivieri, Patrick; Loo, George T; Munjal, Kevin; Hilton, Michael T; Potkin, Katya Trudeau; Levy, Michael; Rabrich, Jeffrey; Gunderson, Michael R; Braithwaite, Sabina A

    2018-01-03

    This study aims to understand the adoption of clinical quality measurement throughout the United States on an EMS agency level, the features of agencies that do participate in quality measurement, and the level of physician involvement. It also aims to barriers to implementing quality improvement initiatives in EMS. A 46-question survey was developed to gather agency level data on current quality improvement practices and measurement. The survey was distributed nationally via State EMS Offices to EMS agencies nation-wide using Surveymonkey©. A convenience sample of respondents was enrolled between August and November, 2015. Univariate, bivariate and multiple logistic regression analyses were conducted to describe demographics and relationships between outcomes of interest and their covariates using SAS 9.3©. A total of 1,733 surveys were initiated and 1,060 surveys had complete or near-complete responses. This includes agencies from 45 states representing over 6.23 million 9-1-1 responses annually. Totals of 70.5% (747) agencies reported dedicated QI personnel, 62.5% (663) follow clinical metrics and 33.3% (353) participate in outside quality or research program. Medical director hours varied, notably, 61.5% (649) of EMS agencies had quality measures compared to fire-based agencies. Agencies in rural only environments were less likely to follow clinical quality metrics. (OR 0.47 CI 0.31 -0.72 p quality improvement resources, medical direction and specific clinical quality measures. More research is needed to understand the impact of this variation on patient care outcomes.

  12. New insights into flood warning reception and emergency response by affected parties

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kreibich, Heidi; Müller, Meike; Schröter, Kai; Thieken, Annegret H.

    2017-11-01

    Flood damage can be mitigated if the parties at risk are reached by flood warnings and if they know how to react appropriately. To gain more knowledge about warning reception and emergency response of private households and companies, surveys were undertaken after the August 2002 and the June 2013 floods in Germany. Despite pronounced regional differences, the results show a clear overall picture: in 2002, early warnings did not work well; e.g. many households (27 %) and companies (45 %) stated that they had not received any flood warnings. Additionally, the preparedness of private households and companies was low in 2002, mainly due to a lack of flood experience. After the 2002 flood, many initiatives were launched and investments undertaken to improve flood risk management, including early warnings and an emergency response in Germany. In 2013, only a small share of the affected households (5 %) and companies (3 %) were not reached by any warnings. Additionally, private households and companies were better prepared. For instance, the share of companies which have an emergency plan in place has increased from 10 % in 2002 to 34 % in 2013. However, there is still room for improvement, which needs to be triggered mainly by effective risk and emergency communication. The challenge is to continuously maintain and advance an integrated early warning and emergency response system even without the occurrence of extreme floods.

  13. Study on emergency response to critical accident of the nuclear fuel processing plant

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Urabe, Itsumasa [Fukuyama Univ., Hiroshima (Japan). Faculty of Engineering

    2000-03-01

    On the review of information concerning JCO accident sent to the authorities of government, prefecture and Tokaimura and their responses, the author studied what the early emergency response should be. The time series of the information and response after the accident, from 10:35, September 30, 1999 (alarm at the JCO office site) to October 7, 1999, described in detail in this review, revealed the slight difference in the earliest understanding of the emergency between the government and the actual accident regions: At the early stage, the possibility of criticality was recognized by people near the actual site. The importance of decision making based on professional knowledge at the actual region was emphasized for the effective response to nuclear power accident. (K.H.)

  14. A strategy for real time improvement (RTI) in communication during the H1N1 emergency response.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seidl, Isaac A; Johnson, Andrew J; Mantel, Peta; Aitken, Peter

    2010-11-01

    To develop and implement a strategy that would enable the Emergency Operations Centre (EOC) to assess the effectiveness of communication strategies and guide real time improvements within the life cycle of the emergency. An anonymous internet-based questionnaire featuring multiple choice and open text questions was administered to stakeholders of the EOC of a regional tertiary hospital. The outcomes were perceptions of sufficiency and relative usefulness of various sources of information on Pandemic (H1N1) 2009, including differences between local, state-wide and authoritative worldwide information sources. A total of 328 responses were received over two rounds of questionnaires. Email communication from the Health Incident Controller (HIC) was the most useful source of information (74% found it very useful, compared with authoritative international websites at 21% (Centers of Disease Control) and 29% (World Health Organization)). A total of 94% felt this strategy contributed to improvements. Free text responses also helped the EOC and HIC to tailor communication methods, style, content and tone during the response. Real time improvement is a useful strategy for implementing change to practice during the life cycle of the current emergency and has broader applicability than Pandemic (H1N1) 2009. Local stakeholders demand local content for their information feed and messages from a trusted local leader are the most superior forms of communication.

  15. An outcomes evaluation of an emergency department early pregnancy assessment service and early pregnancy assessment protocol

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wendt, Kim; Crilly, Julia; May, Chris; Bates, Kym; Saxena, Rakhee

    2014-01-01

    Background Complications in early pregnancy, such as threatened or actual miscarriage is a common occurrence resulting in many women presenting to the emergency department (ED). Early pregnancy service delivery models described in the literature vary in terms of approach, setting and outcomes. Our objective was to determine outcomes of women who presented to an Australian regional ED with diagnoses consistent with early pregnancy complications following the implementation of an early pregnancy assessment service (EPAS) and early pregnancy assessment protocol (EPAP) in July 2011. Methods A descriptive, comparative (6 months before and after) study was undertaken. Data were extracted from the hospital ED information system and medical healthcare records. Outcome measures included: time to see a clinician, ED length of stay, admission rate, re-presentation rate, hospital admission and types of pathology tests ordered. Results Over the 12 -month period, 584 ED presentations were made to the ED with complications of early pregnancy (268 PRE and 316 POST EPAS–EPAP). Outcomes that improved statistically and clinically following implementation included: time to see a clinician (decreased by 6 min from 35 to 29 min), admission rate (decreased 6% from 14.5% to 8.5%), increase in β-human chorionic gonadotrophin ordering by 10% (up to 80% POST), increase in ultrasound (USS) performed by 10% (up to 73% POST) and increase in pain score documentation by 23% (up to 36% POST). Conclusions The results indicate that patient and service delivery improvements can be achieved following the implementation of targeted service delivery models such as EPAS and EPAP in the ED. PMID:24136123

  16. An outcomes evaluation of an emergency department early pregnancy assessment service and early pregnancy assessment protocol.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wendt, Kim; Crilly, Julia; May, Chris; Bates, Kym; Saxena, Rakhee

    2014-10-01

    Complications in early pregnancy, such as threatened or actual miscarriage is a common occurrence resulting in many women presenting to the emergency department (ED). Early pregnancy service delivery models described in the literature vary in terms of approach, setting and outcomes. Our objective was to determine outcomes of women who presented to an Australian regional ED with diagnoses consistent with early pregnancy complications following the implementation of an early pregnancy assessment service (EPAS) and early pregnancy assessment protocol (EPAP) in July 2011. A descriptive, comparative (6 months before and after) study was undertaken. Data were extracted from the hospital ED information system and medical healthcare records. Outcome measures included: time to see a clinician, ED length of stay, admission rate, re-presentation rate, hospital admission and types of pathology tests ordered. Over the 12 -month period, 584 ED presentations were made to the ED with complications of early pregnancy (268 PRE and 316 POST EPAS-EPAP). Outcomes that improved statistically and clinically following implementation included: time to see a clinician (decreased by 6 min from 35 to 29 min), admission rate (decreased 6% from 14.5% to 8.5%), increase in β-human chorionic gonadotrophin ordering by 10% (up to 80% POST), increase in ultrasound (USS) performed by 10% (up to 73% POST) and increase in pain score documentation by 23% (up to 36% POST). The results indicate that patient and service delivery improvements can be achieved following the implementation of targeted service delivery models such as EPAS and EPAP in the ED. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://group.bmj.com/group/rights-licensing/permissions.

  17. The Gulf Coast Vulnerability Assessment: Mangrove, Tidal Emergent Marsh, Barrier Islands, and Oyster Reef

    Science.gov (United States)

    Watson, Amanda; Reece, Joshua S.; Tirpak, Blair; Edwards, Cynthia Kallio; Geselbracht, Laura; Woodrey, Mark; LaPeyre, Megan K.; Dalyander, P. Soupy

    2015-01-01

    Climate, sea level rise, and urbanization are undergoing unprecedented levels of combined change and are expected to have large effects on natural resources—particularly along the Gulf of Mexico coastline (Gulf Coast). Management decisions to address these effects (i.e., adaptation) require an understanding of the relative vulnerability of various resources to these stressors. To meet this need, the four Landscape Conservation Cooperatives along the Gulf partnered with the Gulf of Mexico Alliance to conduct this Gulf Coast Vulnerability Assessment (GCVA). Vulnerability in this context incorporates the aspects of exposure and sensitivity to threats, coupled with the adaptive capacity to mitigate those threats. Potential impact and adaptive capacity reflect natural history features of target species and ecosystems. The GCVA used an expert opinion approach to qualitatively assess the vulnerability of four ecosystems: mangrove, oyster reef, tidal emergent marsh, and barrier islands, and a suite of wildlife species that depend on them. More than 50 individuals participated in the completion of the GCVA, facilitated via Ecosystem and Species Expert Teams. Of the species assessed, Kemp’s ridley sea turtle was identified as the most vulnerable species across the Gulf Coast. Experts identified the main threats as loss of nesting habitat to sea level rise, erosion, and urbanization. Kemp’s ridley also had an overall low adaptive capacity score due to their low genetic diversity, and higher nest site fidelity as compared to other assessed species. Tidal emergent marsh was the most vulnerable ecosystem, due in part to sea level rise and erosion. In general, avian species were more vulnerable than fish because of nesting habitat loss to sea level rise, erosion, and potential increases in storm surge. Assessors commonly indicated a lack of information regarding impacts due to projected changes in the disturbance regime, biotic interactions, and synergistic effects in both

  18. Gulf Coast vulnerability assessment: Mangrove, tidal emergent marsh, barrier islands and oyster reef

    Science.gov (United States)

    Watson, Amanda; Reece, Joshua; Tirpak, Blair; Edwards, Cynthia Kallio; Geselbracht, Laura; Woodrey, Mark; LaPeyre, Megan K.; Dalyander, Patricia (Soupy)

    2017-01-01

    Climate, sea level rise, and urbanization are undergoing unprecedented levels of combined change and are expected to have large effects on natural resources—particularly along the Gulf of Mexico coastline (Gulf Coast). Management decisions to address these effects (i.e., adaptation) require an understanding of the relative vulnerability of various resources to these stressors. To meet this need, the four Landscape Conservation Cooperatives along the Gulf partnered with the Gulf of Mexico Alliance to conduct this Gulf Coast Vulnerability Assessment (GCVA). Vulnerability in this context incorporates exposure and sensitivity to threats (potential impact), coupled with the adaptive capacity to mitigate those threats. Potential impact and adaptive capacity reflect natural history features of target species and ecosystems. The GCVA used an expert opinion approach to qualitatively assess the vulnerability of four ecosystems: mangrove, oyster reef, tidal emergent marsh, and barrier islands, and a suite of wildlife species that depend on them. More than 50 individuals participated in the completion of the GCVA, facilitated via Ecosystem and Species Expert Teams. Of the species assessed, Kemp’s ridley sea turtle was identified as the most vulnerable species across the Gulf Coast. Experts identified the main threats as loss of nesting habitat to sea level rise, erosion, and urbanization. Kemp’s ridley also had an overall low adaptive capacity score due to their low genetic diversity, and higher nest site fidelity as compared to other assessed species. Tidal emergent marsh was the most vulnerable ecosystem, due in part to sea level rise and erosion. In general, avian species were more vulnerable than fish because of nesting habitat loss to sea level rise, erosion, and potential increases in storm surge. Assessors commonly indicated a lack of information regarding impacts due to projected changes in the disturbance regime, biotic interactions, and synergistic effects in

  19. Bulgarian Emergency Response System (BERS) in case of nuclear accident with exposure doses estimation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Syrakov, D.; Prodanova, M.; Slavov, K.; Veleva, B.

    2015-07-01

    A PC-oriented Emergency Response System in case of nuclear accident (BERS) is developed and works operationally in the National Institute of Meteorology and Hydrology (NIMH). The creation and development of BERS was highly stimulated by the ETEX (European Tracer Experiment) project. BERS comprises two main parts - the operational and the accidental ones. The operational part, run automatically every 12 hours, prepares the input meteorological file used by both trajectory and dispersion models, runs the trajectory models, visualizes the results and uploads the maps of trajectories to a dedicated web-site. The accidental part is activated manually when a real radioactive releases occur or during emergency exercises. Its core is the Bulgarian dispersion models EMAP. Outputs are concentration, accumulated deposition and selected doses fields. In the paper, the BERS overall structure is described and examples of its products are presented. Key words: nuclear accident, emergency response, early warning system, air dispersion models, radioactive exposure dose. (Author)

  20. The Umbra Simulation and Integration Framework Applied to Emergency Response Training

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hamilton, Paul Lawrence; Britain, Robert

    2010-01-01

    The Mine Emergency Response Interactive Training Simulation (MERITS) is intended to prepare personnel to manage an emergency in an underground coal mine. The creation of an effective training environment required realistic emergent behavior in response to simulation events and trainee interventions, exploratory modification of miner behavior rules, realistic physics, and incorporation of legacy code. It also required the ability to add rich media to the simulation without conflicting with normal desktop security settings. Our Umbra Simulation and Integration Framework facilitated agent-based modeling of miners and rescuers and made it possible to work with subject matter experts to quickly adjust behavior through script editing, rather than through lengthy programming and recompilation. Integration of Umbra code with the WebKit browser engine allowed the use of JavaScript-enabled local web pages for media support. This project greatly extended the capabilities of Umbra in support of training simulations and has implications for simulations that combine human behavior, physics, and rich media.

  1. Manual for best practice for emergency response procedures, part 3: a review of the department of Minerals and Energy guidelines relevant to inrushes, fires, explosions and other emergencies.

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Spencer, KC

    2000-02-01

    Full Text Available PRACTICE FOR EMERGENCY RESPONSE PROCEDURES PART 3 A REVIEW OF THE DEPARTMENT OF MINERALS AND ENERGY GUIDELINES RELEVANT TO INRUSHES, FIRES, EXPLOSIONS AND OTHER EMERGENCIES Authors: K C Spencer, D M Walters, T P T Page and A G du Plessis. Research.... 12) This comprehensive draft document was drawn up by a tripartite working group. The document also appears to be satisfactory. 3 Conclusions It is our opinion that no further guidelines with respect to emergencies in collieries require...

  2. Is this child sick? Usefulness of the Pediatric Assessment Triangle in emergency settings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fernandez, Ana; Benito, Javier; Mintegi, Santiago

    The Pediatric Assessment Triangle is a rapid assessment tool that uses only visual and auditory clues, requires no equipment, and takes 30-60s to perform. It's being used internationally in different emergency settings, but few studies have assessed its performance. The aim of this narrative biomedical review is to summarize the literature available regarding the usefulness of the Pediatric Assessment Triangle in clinical practice. The authors carried out a non-systematic review in the PubMed®, MEDLINE®, and EMBASE® databases, searching for articles published between 1999-2016 using the keywords "pediatric assessment triangle," "pediatric triage," "pediatric assessment tools," and "pediatric emergency department." The Pediatric Assessment Triangle has demonstrated itself to be useful to assess sick children in the prehospital setting and make transport decisions. It has been incorporated, as an essential instrument for assessing sick children, into different life support courses, although little has been written about the effectiveness of teaching it. Little has been published about the performance of this tool in the initial evaluation in the emergency department. In the emergency department, the Pediatric Assessment Triangle is useful to identify the children at triage who require more urgent care. Recent studies have assessed and proved its efficacy to also identify those patients having more serious health conditions who are eventually admitted to the hospital. The Pediatric Assessment Triangle is quickly spreading internationally and its clinical applicability is very promising. Nevertheless, it is imperative to promote research for clinical validation, especially for clinical use by emergency pediatricians and physicians. Copyright © 2017 Sociedade Brasileira de Pediatria. Published by Elsevier Editora Ltda. All rights reserved.

  3. Emotional Intelligence in Library Disaster Response Assistance Teams: Which Competencies Emerged?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilkinson, Frances C.

    2015-01-01

    This qualitative study examines the relationship between emotional intelligence competencies and the personal attributes of library disaster response assistance team (DRAT) members. Using appreciative inquiry protocol to conduct interviews at two academic libraries, the study presents findings from emergent thematic coding of interview…

  4. Evaluating the effectiveness of burned area emergency response (BAER) efforts after the 2003 wildfires, southern California

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peter M. Wohlgemuth; Ken R. Hubbert; Jan L. Beyers; David R. Weise

    2007-01-01

    Wildfires burned approximately 300,000 hectares (750,000 acres) across southern California in the fall of 2003. Over 10 million dollars were spent on Burned Area Emergency Response (BAER) treatments following these fires. To support the BAER efforts, we designed a comprehensive strategy with standardized protocols to evaluate the effectiveness of various erosion...

  5. Evaluation of the Emergency Education Response for Syrian Refugee Children and Host Communities in Jordan

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Culbertson, S.; Ling, T.; Henham, M.L.; Corbett, J.; Karam, R.; Pankowska, P.K.P.; Saunders, C.L.; Bellasio, J.; Baruch, B.

    2016-01-01

    The Emergency Education Response Programme (EER), launched by UNICEF, the Government of Jordan and partners in 2012, aims to provide free public formal education, as well as safe and appropriate supportive educational services, for Syrian refugee children living in Jordan. RAND's evaluation

  6. Experience Report: Constraint-Based Modelling and Simulation of Railway Emergency Response Plans

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Debois, Søren; Hildebrandt, Thomas; Sandberg, Lene

    2016-01-01

    We report on experiences from a case study applying a constraint-based process-modelling and -simulation tool, dcrgraphs.net, to the modelling and rehearsal of railway emergency response plans with domain experts. The case study confirmed the approach as a viable means for domain experts to analyse...

  7. A data model for operational and situational information in emergency response: the Dutch case

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zlatanova, S.; Dilo, Arta

    2010-01-01

    During emergency response a lot of dynamic information is created and needs to be studied and analysed in the decision-making process. However, this analysis of data is difficult and often not possible. A major reason for this is that a lot of information coming from the field operations is not

  8. Work Scope for Developing Standards for Emergency Preparedness and Response: Fiscal Year 2004 Final Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stenner, Robert D.

    2005-09-28

    Summarizes the fiscal year 2004 work completed on PNNL's Department of Homeland Security Emergency Preparedness and Response Standards Development Project. Also, the report includes key draft standards, in various stages of development and publication, that were associated with various tasks of the fiscal year 2004 scope of the project.

  9. Design of a High Power Robotic Manipulator for Emergency Response to the Nuclear Accidents

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Park, Jongwon; Bae, Yeong-Geol; Kim, Myoung Ho; Choi, Young Soo [Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2016-10-15

    An accident in a nuclear facility causes a great social cost. To prevent an unexpected nuclear accident from spreading to the catastrophic disaster, emergency response action in early stage is required. However, high radiation environment has been proved as a challenging obstacle for human workers to access to the accident site and take an action in previous accident cases. Therefore, emergency response robotic technology to be used in a nuclear accident site instead of human workers are actively conducted in domestically and internationally. Robots in an accident situation are required to carry out a variety of tasks depend on the types and patterns of accidents. An emergency response usually includes removing of debris, make an access road to a certain place and handling valves. These tasks normally involve high payload handling. A small sized high power robotic manipulator can be an appropriate candidate to deal with a wide spectrum of tasks in an emergency situation. In this paper, we discuss about the design of a high power robotic manipulator, which is capable of handling high payloads for an initial response action to the nuclear facility accident. In this paper, we presented a small sized high power robotic manipulator design. Actuator types of manipulator was selected and mechanical structure was discussed. In the future, the servo valve and hydraulic pump systems will be determined. Furthermore, control algorithms and test bed experiments will be also conducted.

  10. A data model for operational and situational information in emergency response : The Dutch case

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zlatanova, S.; Dilo, A.

    2010-01-01

    During emergency response a lot of dynamic information is created and needs to be studied and analysed in the decision-making process. However, this analysis of data is difficult and often not possible. A major reason for this is that a lot of information coming from the field operations is not

  11. 77 FR 35962 - Utilizing Rapidly Deployable Aerial Communications Architecture in Response to an Emergency

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-06-15

    ... COMMISSION Utilizing Rapidly Deployable Aerial Communications Architecture in Response to an Emergency AGENCY... seeks comment on the role of deployable aerial communications architecture (DACA) in facilitating... eRulemaking Portal, or (3) by filing paper copies. Comments and reply comments may be filed...

  12. Brief Report: Effects of Tact Training on Emergent Intraverbal Vocal Responses in Adolescents with Autism

    Science.gov (United States)

    May, Richard J.; Hawkins, Emma; Dymond, Simon

    2013-01-01

    The present study evaluated the emergence of intraverbal responses following tact training with three adolescents diagnosed with autism spectrum disorders. Participants were taught to tact the name of a cartoon character (e.g., "What is the name of this monster?" ["Simon"]) and that character's preferred food (e.g., "What food does this monster…

  13. Community emergency response to nuclear power plant accidents: A selected and partially annotated bibliography

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Youngen, G.

    1988-10-01

    The role of responding to emergencies at nuclear power plants is often considered the responsibility of the personnel onsite. This is true for most, if not all, of the incidents that may happen during the course of the plant`s operating lifetime. There is however, the possibility of a major accident occurring at anytime. Major nuclear accidents at Chernobyl and Three Mile Island have taught their respective countries and communities a significant lesson in local emergency preparedness and response. Through these accidents, the rest of the world can also learn a great deal about planning, preparing and responding to the emergencies unique to nuclear power. This bibliography contains books, journal articles, conference papers and government reports on emergency response to nuclear power plant accidents. It does not contain citations for ``onsite`` response or planning, nor does it cover the areas of radiation releases from transportation accidents. The compiler has attempted to bring together a sampling of the world`s collective written experience on dealing with nuclear reactor accidents on the sate, local and community levels. Since the accidents at Three Mile Island and Chernobyl, that written experience has grown enormously.

  14. Emergency Preparedness and Response in the School Setting--The Role of the School Nurse. Position Statement

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tuck, Christine M.; Haynie, Kathey; Davis, Catherine

    2014-01-01

    It is the position of the National Association of School Nurses (NASN) that the registered professional school nurse (hereinafter referred to as school nurse) provides leadership in all phases of emergency preparedness and response. School nurses are a vital part of the school team responsible for developing emergency response procedures for the…

  15. Interview: Health technology assessment in Asia: an emerging trend.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Bong-min

    2012-05-01

    Bong-min Yang, PhD (in economics), is Professor and former Dean of the School of Public Health at the Seoul National University, South Korea. Professor Yang has led research and written many papers in health economics and healthcare systems in Korea and Asia. His recent research and publications focus on the field of economic evaluation and outcomes research. He played a key role in the introduction of a formal health technology assessment system within Korean healthcare. He is currently serving as Executive Director, Institute of Health and Environment, Seoul National University. In addition to his research and publications, Professor Yang is Associate Editor for Journal of Comparative Effectiveness Research, is co-editor-in-chief for Value in Health Regional Issues, and is currently chair of the Management Advisory Board of Value in Health and a member of the editorial board of the Journal of Medical Economics. He has been a policy consultant to China, Japan, Indonesia, Hong Kong, Malaysia, Taiwan, Thailand and India. He has also worked as a short-term consultant at the WHO, ADB, UNDP and the World Bank. For the Korean government, he served as Chairperson of the Health Insurance Reform Committee, and Chairperson of the Drug Pricing and Reimbursement Committee. He is currently serving as Chair of the International Society of Pharmacoeconomics and Outcomes Research-Asia Consortium, and a member of the Board of Directors of the International Society of Pharmacoeconomics and Outcomes Research.

  16. Assessment of professional responsibilities of pharmacists towards ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The overall response rate was 86.4%. Responsibilities towards the use of vitamins/mineral supplements, nutraceuticals and herbal supplements were accepted by 85.4%, 47.5% and 24.1% of the pharmacists, respectively. The responsibilities that have most support were that of “knowledge” and “counseling” (p<0.001, ...

  17. Assessing the threat of chikungunya virus emergence in Australia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Viennet, Elvina; Knope, Katrina; Faddy, Helen M; Williams, Craig R; Harley, David

    2013-06-30

    Chikungunya virus (CHIKV) is a major threat to Australia given the distribution of competent vectors, and the large number of travellers returning from endemic regions. We describe current knowledge of CHIKV importations into Australia, and quantify reported viraemic cases, with the aim of facilitating the formulation of public health policy and ensuring maintenance of blood safety. Cases reported to the National Notifiable Disease Surveillance System (NNDSS) from 2002 to 2012 were analysed by place, month of acquisition, and place of residence. Rates of chikungunya importation were estimated based on reported cases and on the numbers of short-term movements. Between 2002 and 2012, there were 168 cases of chikungunya virus (CHIKV) imported into Australia. Victoria and New South Wales had the largest number of notifications. The main sources were Indonesia, India and Malaysia. The number of cases increased from 2008 to reach a peak in 2010 (n=64; 40%). Although Indonesia accounted for the majority of CHIKV notifications in Australia, travel from India had the highest CHIKV importation rate (number of imported cases per 100,000 travellers). The Australian population is increasingly at risk from CHIKV. Arrivals from endemic countries have increased concurrently with vector incursions via imported goods, as well as via local movement from the Torres Strait to North Queensland ports. An outbreak of CHIKV could have a significant impact on health, the safety of the blood supply and on tourism. Case and vector surveillance as well as population health responses are crucial for minimising any potential impact of CHIKV establishment in Australia. This work is copyright. Apart from any use as permitted under the Copyright Act 1968, no part may be reproduced by any process without prior written permission from the Commonwealth. Requests and inquiries concerning reproduction and rights should be addressed to the Commonwealth Copyright Administration, Attorney General

  18. Development of emergency response tools for accidental radiological contamination of French coastal areas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duffa, Céline; Bailly du Bois, Pascal; Caillaud, Matthieu; Charmasson, Sabine; Couvez, Céline; Didier, Damien; Dumas, Franck; Fievet, Bruno; Morillon, Mehdi; Renaud, Philippe; Thébault, Hervé

    2016-01-01

    The Fukushima nuclear accident resulted in the largest ever accidental release of artificial radionuclides in coastal waters. This accident has shown the importance of marine assessment capabilities for emergency response and the need to develop tools for adequately predicting the evolution and potential impact of radioactive releases to the marine environment. The French Institute for Radiological Protection and Nuclear Safety (IRSN) equips its emergency response centre with operational tools to assist experts and decision makers in the event of accidental atmospheric releases and contamination of the terrestrial environment. The on-going project aims to develop tools for the management of marine contamination events in French coastal areas. This should allow us to evaluate and anticipate post-accident conditions, including potential contamination sites, contamination levels and potential consequences. In order to achieve this goal, two complementary tools are developed: site-specific marine data sheets and a dedicated simulation tool (STERNE, Simulation du Transport et du transfert d'Eléments Radioactifs dans l'environNEment marin). Marine data sheets are used to summarize the marine environment characteristics of the various sites considered, and to identify vulnerable areas requiring implementation of population protection measures, such as aquaculture areas, beaches or industrial water intakes, as well as areas of major ecological interest. Local climatological data (dominant sea currents as a function of meteorological or tidal conditions) serving as the basis for an initial environmental sampling strategy is provided whenever possible, along with a list of possible local contacts for operational management purposes. The STERNE simulation tool is designed to predict radionuclide dispersion and contamination in seawater and marine species by incorporating spatio-temporal data. 3D hydrodynamic forecasts are used as input data. Direct discharge points or

  19. Postresuscitation debriefing in the pediatric emergency department: a national needs assessment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sandhu, Naminder; Eppich, Walter; Mikrogianakis, Angelo; Grant, Vincent; Robinson, Traci; Cheng, Adam

    2014-09-01

    The objectives of this study were to assess current postresuscitation debriefing (PRD) practices in Canadian pediatric emergency departments (EDs) and identify areas for improvement. A national needs assessment survey was conducted to collect information on current PRD practices and perspectives on debriefing practice in pediatric EDs. A questionnaire was distributed to ED nurses, fellows, and attending physicians at 10 pediatric tertiary care hospitals across Canada. Summary statistics are reported. Data were analyzed from 183 participants (48.7% response rate). Although 88.8% of the participants believed that debriefing is an important process, 52.5% indicated that debriefing after real resuscitations occurs less than 25% of the time and 68.3% indicated that no expectation exists for PRD at their institution. Although 83.7% of participants believed that facilitators should have a specific skill set developed through formal training sessions, 63.4% had no previous training in debriefing. Seventy-two percent felt that medical and crisis resource management issues are dealt with adequately when PRD occurs, and 90.4% indicated that ED workload and time shortages are major barriers to effective debriefing. Most responded that a debriefing tool to guide facilitators might aid in multiple skills, such as creating realistic debriefing objectives and providing feedback with good judgment. PRD in Canadian pediatric EDs occurs infrequently, although most health care providers agreed on its importance and the need for skilled facilitators.

  20. Emergency imaging assessment of deep neck space infections.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maroldi, Roberto; Farina, Davide; Ravanelli, Marco; Lombardi, Davide; Nicolai, Piero

    2012-10-01

    Deep neck space infection may lead to severe and potentially life-threatening complications, such as airway obstruction, mediastinitis, septic embolization, dural sinus thrombosis, and intracranial abscess. The clinical presentation is widely variable, and often early symptoms do not reflect the disease severity. The complication risk depends on the extent and anatomical site: diseases that transgress fascial boundaries and spread along vertically oriented spaces (parapharyngeal, retropharyngeal, and paravertebral space) have a higher risk of complications and require a more aggressive treatment compared with those confined within a nonvertically oriented space (peritonsillar, sublingual, submandibular, parotid, and masticator space). Imaging has 5 crucial roles: (1) confirm the suspected clinical diagnosis, (2) define the precise extent of the disease, (3) identify complications, (4) distinguish between drainable abscesses and cellulitis, and (5) monitor deep neck space infection progression. Ultrasonography is the gold standard to differentiate abscesses from cellulitis, for the diagnosis of lymphadenitis. and to identify internal jugular thrombophlebitis in the infrahyoid neck. However, field-of-view limitation and poor anatomical information confine the use of ultrasonography to the evaluation of superficial lesions and to image-guided aspiration or drainage. Computed tomography (CT) combines fast image acquisition and precise anatomical information without field-of-view limitations. For these reasons, it is the most reliable technique for the evaluation of deep and multicompartment lesions and for the identification of mediastinal and intracranial complications. Contrast agent administration enhances the capability to differentiate fluid collections from cellulitis and allows the detection of vascular complications. Magnetic resonance imaging is more time-consuming than CT, limiting its use to selected indications. It is the technique of choice for assessing

  1. The National Clinical Assessment Tool for Medical Students in the Emergency Department (NCAT-EM).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jung, Julianna; Franzen, Douglas; Lawson, Luan; Manthey, David; Tews, Matthew; Dubosh, Nicole; Fisher, Jonathan; Haughey, Marianne; House, Joseph B; Trainor, Arleigh; Wald, David A; Hiller, Katherine

    2018-01-01

    Clinical assessment of medical students in emergency medicine (EM) clerkships is a highly variable process that presents unique challenges and opportunities. Currently, clerkship directors use institution-specific tools with unproven validity and reliability that may or may not address competencies valued most highly in the EM setting. Standardization of assessment practices and development of a common, valid, specialty-specific tool would benefit EM educators and students. A two-day national consensus conference was held in March 2016 in the Clerkship Directors in Emergency Medicine (CDEM) track at the Council of Residency Directors in Emergency Medicine (CORD) Academic Assembly in Nashville, TN. The goal of this conference was to standardize assessment practices and to create a national clinical assessment tool for use in EM clerkships across the country. Conference leaders synthesized the literature, articulated major themes and questions pertinent to clinical assessment of students in EM, clarified the issues, and outlined the consensus-building process prior to consensus-building activities. The first day of the conference was dedicated to developing consensus on these key themes in clinical assessment. The second day of the conference was dedicated to discussing and voting on proposed domains to be included in the national clinical assessment tool. A modified Delphi process was initiated after the conference to reconcile questions and items that did not reach an a priori level of consensus. The final tool, the National Clinical Assessment Tool for Medical Students in Emergency Medicine (NCAT-EM) is presented here.

  2. Can merging the roles of public health preparedness and emergency management increase the efficiency and effectiveness of emergency planning and response?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vielot, Nadja A; Horney, Jennifer A

    2014-03-10

    Some jurisdictions have reduced workforce and reallocated responsibilities for public health preparedness and emergency management to more efficiently use resources and improve planning and response. Key informant interviews were conducted in six counties in North Carolina (USA) to discuss perceptions of the challenges and opportunities provided by the new shared positions. Respondents feel that planning and response have improved, but that requirements related to activities or equipment that are eligible for funding (particularly on the public health side) can present an impediment to consolidating public health preparedness and emergency management roles. As the financial resources available for public health preparedness and emergency management continue to be reduced, the merging of the roles and responsibilities of public health preparedness and emergency management may present jurisdictions with an effective alternative to reducing staff, and potentially, readiness.

  3. Can Merging the Roles of Public Health Preparedness and Emergency Management Increase the Efficiency and Effectiveness of Emergency Planning and Response?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nadja A. Vielot

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Some jurisdictions have reduced workforce and reallocated responsibilities for public health preparedness and emergency management to more efficiently use resources and improve planning and response. Key informant interviews were conducted in six counties in North Carolina (USA to discuss perceptions of the challenges and opportunities provided by the new shared positions. Respondents feel that planning and response have improved, but that requirements related to activities or equipment that are eligible for funding (particularly on the public health side can present an impediment to consolidating public health preparedness and emergency management roles. As the financial resources available for public health preparedness and emergency management continue to be reduced, the merging of the roles and responsibilities of public health preparedness and emergency management may present jurisdictions with an effective alternative to reducing staff, and potentially, readiness.

  4. Software Systems for Prediction and Immediate Assessment of Emergency Situations on Municipalities Territories

    Science.gov (United States)

    Poluyan, L. V.; Syutkina, E. V.; Guryev, E. S.

    2017-11-01

    The comparative analysis of key features of the software systems TOXI+Risk and ALOHA is presented. The authors made a comparison of domestic (TOXI+Risk) and foreign (ALOHA) software systems allowing to give the quantitative assessment of impact areas (pressure, thermal, toxic) in case of hypothetical emergencies in potentially hazardous objects of the oil, gas, chemical, petrochemical and oil-processing industry. Both software systems use different mathematical models for assessment of the release rate of a chemically hazardous substance from a storage tank and its evaporation. The comparison of the accuracy of definition of impact areas made by both software systems to verify the examples shows good convergence of both products. The analysis results showed that the ALOHA software can be actively used for forecasting and immediate assessment of emergency situations, assessment of damage as a result of emergencies on the territories of municipalities.

  5. The Role of Assessment in a Response to Intervention Model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crawford, Lindy

    2014-01-01

    This article discusses the role of assessment in a response-to-intervention model. Although assessment represents only 1 component in a response-to-intervention model, a well-articulated assessment system is critical in providing teachers with reliable data that are easily interpreted and used to make instructional decisions. Three components of…

  6. Traumatic Stress, Depression, and Recovery: Child and Parent Responses After Emergency Medical Care for Unintentional Injury

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kassam-Adams, Nancy; Bakker, Anne; Marsac, Meghan L.; Fein, Joel A.; Winston, Flaura Koplin

    2015-01-01

    To assess psychological symptoms in injured children (aged 8-17 years) and their parents after emergency department (ED) care to examine the relationship between posttraumatic stress and depression symptoms, co-occurrence of symptoms within families, and the relationship of these symptoms to

  7. Optimization of in-vivo monitoring program for radiation emergency response

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ha, Wi Ho; Kim, Jong Kyung [Dept. of Nuclear Engineering, Hanyang University, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2016-12-15

    In case of radiation emergencies, internal exposure monitoring for the members of public will be required to confirm internal contamination of each individual. In-vivo monitoring technique using portable gamma spectrometer can be easily applied for internal exposure monitoring in the vicinity of the on-site area. In this study, minimum detectable doses (MDDs) for '1'3'4Cs, {sup 137}Cs, and {sup 131}I were calculated adjusting minimum detectable activities (MDAs) from 50 to 1,000 Bq to find out the optimal in-vivo counting condition. DCAL software was used to derive retention fraction of Cs and I isotopes in the whole body and thyroid, respectively. A minimum detectable level was determined to set committed effective dose of 0.1 mSv for emergency response. We found that MDDs at each MDA increased along with the elapsed time. 1,000 Bq for {sup 134}Cs and {sup 137}Cs, and 100 Bq for {sup 131}I were suggested as optimal MDAs to provide in-vivo monitoring service in case of radiation emergencies. In-vivo monitoring program for emergency response should be designed to achieve the optimal MDA suggested from the present work. We expect that a reduction of counting time compared with routine monitoring program can achieve the high throughput system in case of radiation emergencies.

  8. Emergency response to disaster-struck scale-free network with redundant systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ouyang, Min; Yu, Ming-Hui; Huang, Xiang-Zhao; Luan, En-Jie

    2008-07-01

    Disasters cause tremendous damage every year. In this paper, we have specifically studied emergency response to disaster-struck scale-free networks when some nodes in the network have redundant systems. If one node collapses, its redundant system will substitute it to work for a period of time. In the first part, according to the network structure, several redundant strategies have been formulated, and then our studies focused on their effectiveness by means of simulation. Results show that the strategy based on total degrees is the most effective one. However, many nodes still collapse in the end if redundant systems do not have sufficient capability, so emergency responses are necessary. Several emergent strategies controlling the distribution of external resources have been proposed in the second part. The effectiveness of those emergent strategies are then studied from three aspects, such as the effect of strategies on spreading processes, minimum sufficient quantities of external resources and determination of the most appropriate emergent strategy. In addition, the effects of redundant intensity on these aspects have been discussed as well.

  9. Defining Roles for Pharmacy Personnel in Disaster Response and Emergency Preparedness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alkhalili, Mohammad; Ma, Janice; Grenier, Sylvain

    2017-08-01

    Ongoing provision of pharmaceuticals and medical supplies is of key importance during and following a disaster or other emergency event. An effectively coordinated response involving locally available pharmacy personnel-drawing upon the efforts of licensed pharmacists and unlicensed support staff-can help to mitigate harms and alleviate hardship in a community after emergency events. However, pharmacists and their counterparts generally receive limited training in disaster medicine and emergency preparedness as part of their initial qualifications, even in countries with well-developed professional education programs. Pharmacy efforts have also traditionally focused on medical supply activities, more so than on general emergency preparedness. To facilitate future work between pharmacy personnel on an international level, our team undertook an extensive review of the published literature describing pharmacists' experiences in responding to or preparing for both natural and manmade disasters. In addition to identifying key activities that must be performed, we have developed a classification scheme for pharmacy personnel. We believe that this framework will enable pharmacy personnel working in diverse practice settings to identify and undertake essential actions that are necessary to ensure an effective emergency response and will promote better collaboration between pharmacy team members during actual disaster situations. (Disaster Med Public Health Preparedness. 2017;11:496-504).

  10. Rapid response seismic networks in Europe: lessons learnt from the L'Aquila earthquake emergency

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Angelo Strollo

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available

    The largest dataset ever recorded during a normal fault seismic sequence was acquired during the 2009 seismic emergency triggered by the damaging earthquake in L'Aquila (Italy. This was possible through the coordination of different rapid-response seismic networks in Italy, France and Germany. A seismic network of more than 60 stations recorded up to 70,000 earthquakes. Here, we describe the different open-data archives where it is possible to find this unique set of data for studies related to hazard, seismotectonics and earthquake physics. Moreover, we briefly describe some immediate and direct applications of emergency seismic networks. At the same time, we note the absence of communication platforms between the different European networks. Rapid-response networks need to agree on common strategies for network operations. Hopefully, over the next few years, the European Rapid-Response Seismic Network will became a reality.

  11. Do social media have a place in public health emergency response?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Black, David R; Dietz, J Eric; Stirratt, Amanda A; Coster, Daniel C

    2015-01-01

    To ascertain whether analyses of social media trends for various Twitter responses following a major disaster produce implications for improving the focus on public health resources and messaging to disaster victims. Radian6 and trend analyses were used to analyze 12-hour counts of Twitter data before, during, and after the March 2011 Japanese earthquake and tsunami. Radian6 was used to organize tweets into categories of preparedness, emergency response, and public health. Radian6 revealed that 49 percent of tweets were either positive or somewhat positive in sentiment about preparedness and only 7 percent were negative or somewhat negative. Trend analyses revealed a rapid onset of tweet activity associated with all keywords followed by mostly fast exponential decline. Analyses indicate that opportunities for improving public health awareness by leveraging social media communications exist for as much as 5 days after a disaster. Analyses suggest key times for public health social media communication to promote emergency response.

  12. The Emergence of Ethic Banks and Social Responsibility in Financing Local Development

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Teodora Barbu

    2007-12-01

    Full Text Available The evaluation of the present offer of banking products and services in the developed countries as well in the emerging ones shows the extent to which they fulfill or not the principles specific to social responsibility and ethics in economics. Considering heightened competition, some institutions adopt new strategies based on the creation of new concepts where human finality is to replace economical finality. Thus, banking ethics and social responsibility are concepts which are found at the level of credit cooperative and ethical banks. Oriented mainly towards rural financing and financing social responsible projects, within the study, the two approaches complete and sustain each other.

  13. Workshop proceedings : Emergency preparedness and response : March 4, 2003 (Grande Prairie) and March 6, 2003 (Calgary)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hunt, K. [Alberta Energy and Utilities Board, Calgary, AB (Canada); Gibson, T. [Gecko Management Consultants, Calgary, AB (Canada)

    2003-03-01

    Several issues had been identified during the stakeholder consultation program for Guide 71: Emergency Preparedness and Response Requirements For the Upstream Petroleum Industry, and the Alberta Energy and Utilities Board (EUB) conducted, in May 2002, a workshop to address these issues. In addition, two subsequent workshops were held, one in Grande Prairie on March 4, 2003, and another in Calgary on March 6, 2003. They were held to gather additional information concerning the requirements for testing and exercising emergency preparedness and response capabilities for sour gas facilities. Representatives from a variety of organizations were present, including: energy companies, Emergency Management Alberta, local municipalities, Alberta Health and Wellness and Regional Health Authorities, general public, other regulators, as well as emergency response planning consultants. Special emphasis was placed on the following topics in support of Public Safety and Sour Gas Provincial Advisory Committee recommendations: exercise criteria, EUB participation, and the role of the public in the exercises. The present document contains the opening slide presentation to the workshops, a list of attendees, notes taken throughout the course of the workshops, as well as the written submission from the City of Calgary, Disaster Services.

  14. Oil and Gas Security. Emergency Response of IEA Countries - New Zealand 2010 update

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2010-07-01

    This publication provides a detailed look at the specific systems in New Zealand for responding to an oil supply crisis. Initially prepared as a chapter in the overarching publication on the emergency response mechanisms in various IEA member countries, the IEA has started a new cycle of reviews which now includes reviewing gas emergency policies. Rather than waiting for the completion of the current review cycle to renew the full larger publication, the IEA will be making available updates to the country chapters as these become available following the country's review.

  15. Oil and Gas Security. Emergency Response of IEA Countries - Luxembourg 2010 update

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2010-07-01

    This publication provides a detailed look at the specific systems in Luxembourg for responding to an oil supply crisis. Initially prepared as a chapter in the overarching publication on the emergency response mechanisms in various IEA member countries, the IEA has started a new cycle of reviews which now includes reviewing gas emergency policies. Rather than waiting for the completion of the current review cycle to renew the full larger publication, the IEA will be making available updates to the country chapters as these become available following the country's review.

  16. Oil and Gas Security. Emergency Response of IEA Countries - Denmark 2011 update

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2011-08-12

    This publication provides a detailed look at the specific systems in Denmark for responding to an oil supply crisis. Initially prepared as a chapter in the overarching publication on the emergency response mechanisms in various IEA member countries, the IEA has started a new cycle of reviews which now includes reviewing gas emergency policies. Rather than waiting for the completion of the current review cycle to renew the full larger publication, the IEA will be making available updates to the country chapters as these become available following the country's review.

  17. Response time evaluation for emergency medical service as a part of its performance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duchateau, François-Xavier; Garnier-Connois, Delphine; Ricard-Hibon, Agnès; Josseaume, Julien; Casalino, Enrique

    2013-09-01

    The study aimed to evaluate the response time (RT) of a French physician-staffed emergency medical service unit in both first-line and second-line service zones a part of its performance and how best to integrate it into its geographical specificity and showed acceptable RTs (mostly <10 min). Interestingly, because of the particular location next to other districts, RTs are in the same range for some municipalities that are adjacent to the first-line and area. In a new system in which catching areas would not only be based on administrative criteria anymore but also on performance evaluation, RTs for emergency medical service might be optimised.

  18. Oil and Gas Security. Emergency Response of IEA Countries - Czech Republic 2010 update

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2010-07-01

    This publication provides a detailed look at the specific systems in Czech Republic for responding to an oil supply crisis. Initially prepared as a chapter in the overarching publication on the emergency response mechanisms in various IEA member countries, the IEA has started a new cycle of reviews which now includes reviewing gas emergency policies. Rather than waiting for the completion of the current review cycle to renew the full larger publication, the IEA will be making available updates to the country chapters as these become available following the country's review.

  19. Oil and Gas Security. Emergency Response of IEA Countries - Poland 2011 update

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2011-08-12

    This publication provides a detailed look at the specific systems in Poland for responding to an oil supply crisis. Initially prepared as a chapter in the overarching publication on the emergency response mechanisms in various IEA member countries, the IEA has started a new cycle of reviews which now includes reviewing gas emergency policies. Rather than waiting for the completion of the current review cycle to renew the full larger publication, the IEA will be making available updates to the country chapters as these become available following the country's review.

  20. Oil and Gas Security. Emergency Response of IEA Countries - Belgium 2010 update

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2011-08-12

    This publication provides a detailed look at the specific systems in Belgium for responding to an oil supply crisis. Initially prepared as a chapter in the overarching publication on the emergency response mechanisms in various IEA member countries, the IEA has started a new cycle of reviews which now includes reviewing gas emergency policies. Rather than waiting for the completion of the current review cycle to renew the full larger publication, the IEA will be making available updates to the country chapters as these become available following the country's review.

  1. Oil and Gas Security. Emergency Response of IEA Countries - Portugal 2011 update

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2011-08-12

    This publication provides a detailed look at the specific systems in Portugal for responding to an oil supply crisis. Initially prepared as a chapter in the overarching publication on the emergency response mechanisms in various IEA member countries, the IEA has started a new cycle of reviews which now includes reviewing gas emergency policies. Rather than waiting for the completion of the current review cycle to renew the full larger publication, the IEA will be making available updates to the country chapters as these become available following the country's review.

  2. Oil and Gas Security. Emergency Response of IEA Countries - United Kingdom 2010 update

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2010-07-01

    This publication provides a detailed look at the specific systems in United Kingdom for responding to an oil supply crisis. Initially prepared as a chapter in the overarching publication on the emergency response mechanisms in various IEA member countries, the IEA has started a new cycle of reviews which now includes reviewing gas emergency policies. Rather than waiting for the completion of the current review cycle to renew the full larger publication, the IEA will be making available updates to the country chapters as these become available following the country's review.

  3. Oil and Gas Security. Emergency Response of IEA Countries - Canada 2010 update

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2010-07-01

    This publication provides a detailed look at the specific systems in Canada for responding to an oil supply crisis. Initially prepared as a chapter in the overarching publication on the emergency response mechanisms in various IEA member countries, the IEA has started a new cycle of reviews which now includes reviewing gas emergency policies. Rather than waiting for the completion of the current review cycle to renew the full larger publication, the IEA will be making available updates to the country chapters as these become available following the country's review.

  4. Oil and Gas Security. Emergency Response of IEA Countries - Norway 2011 update

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2011-08-12

    This publication provides a detailed look at the specific systems in Norway for responding to an oil supply crisis. Initially prepared as a chapter in the overarching publication on the emergency response mechanisms in various IEA member countries, the IEA has started a new cycle of reviews which now includes reviewing gas emergency policies. Rather than waiting for the completion of the current review cycle to renew the full larger publication, the IEA will be making available updates to the country chapters as these become available following the country's review.

  5. Oil and Gas Security. Emergency Response of IEA Countries - Italy 2010 update

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2010-07-01

    This publication provides a detailed look at the specific systems in Italy for responding to an oil supply crisis. Initially prepared as a chapter in the overarching publication on the emergency response mechanisms in various IEA member countries, the IEA has started a new cycle of reviews which now includes reviewing gas emergency policies. Rather than waiting for the completion of the current review cycle to renew the full larger publication, the IEA will be making available updates to the country chapters as these become available following the country's review.

  6. Oil and Gas Security. Emergency Response of IEA Countries - Greece 2010 update

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2010-07-01

    This publication provides a detailed look at the specific systems in Greece for responding to an oil supply crisis. Initially prepared as a chapter in the overarching publication on the emergency response mechanisms in various IEA member countries, the IEA has started a new cycle of reviews which now includes reviewing gas emergency policies. Rather than waiting for the completion of the current review cycle to renew the full larger publication, the IEA will be making available updates to the country chapters as these become available following the country's review.

  7. Oil and Gas Security. Emergency Response of IEA Countries - Slovak Republic 2011 update

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2011-08-12

    This publication provides a detailed look at the specific systems in Slovak Republic for responding to an oil supply crisis. Initially prepared as a chapter in the overarching publication on the emergency response mechanisms in various IEA member countries, the IEA has started a new cycle of reviews which now includes reviewing gas emergency policies. Rather than waiting for the completion of the current review cycle to renew the full larger publication, the IEA will be making available updates to the country chapters as these become available following the country's review.

  8. Oil and Gas Security. Emergency Response of IEA Countries - Ireland 2011 update

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2011-08-12

    This publication provides a detailed look at the specific systems in Ireland for responding to an oil supply crisis. Initially prepared as a chapter in the overarching publication on the emergency response mechanisms in various IEA member countries, the IEA has started a new cycle of reviews which now includes reviewing gas emergency policies. Rather than waiting for the completion of the current review cycle to renew the full larger publication, the IEA will be making available updates to the country chapters as these become available following the country's review.

  9. Oil and Gas Security. Emergency Response of IEA Countries - Spain 2011 update

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2011-08-12

    This publication provides a detailed look at the specific systems in Spain for responding to an oil supply crisis. Initially prepared as a chapter in the overarching publication on the emergency response mechanisms in various IEA member countries, the IEA has started a new cycle of reviews which now includes reviewing gas emergency policies. Rather than waiting for the completion of the current review cycle to renew the full larger publication, the IEA will be making available updates to the country chapters as these become available following the country's review.

  10. An assessment of the faculty development needs of junior clinical faculty in emergency medicine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farley, Heather; Casaletto, Jennifer; Ankel, Felix; Young, Kelly D; Hockberger, Robert

    2008-07-01

    Academic physicians must be able to access the resources necessary to support their ongoing professional development and meet requirements for continued academic advancement. The authors sought to determine the self-perceived career development needs of junior clinical faculty in emergency medicine (EM) and the availability of educational resources to meet those needs. An educational "needs assessment" survey was distributed to 954 American College of Emergency Physicians (ACEP) members listed in the ACEP database as being faculty at EM residency programs in the United States and having graduated from an EM residency within the past 7 years. Respondents were asked to rank the importance of 22 areas of faculty development to their own professional growth and then to indicate whether educational resources in each area were available to them. Respondents were also asked to note the educational formats they prefer. A search for currently available resources in each topic area was undertaken and compared to the survey results. A total of 240 responses were received. Self-perceived career development needs were identified in the following areas: bedside teaching, lecture development, business skills, managerial skills, educational research, mentorship and career counseling, interpersonal skills, leadership skills, scholarly writing skills, physician wellness, and knowledge of the faculty development process. While a review of currently available educational resources revealed lectures, conferences, and online materials pertinent to most of these topics, a relative lack of resources in the areas of mentorship and physician wellness was identified. Junior clinical faculty in EM perceive a lack of educational resources in a number of areas of faculty development. The academic community of EM should strive to improve awareness of and access to currently existing resources and to develop additional resources to address the area of physician wellness. The lack of mentorship in

  11. Real-Time Surveillance in Emergencies Using the Early Warning Alert and Response Network.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cordes, Kristina M; Cookson, Susan T; Boyd, Andrew T; Hardy, Colleen; Malik, Mamunur Rahman; Mala, Peter; El Tahir, Khalid; Everard, Marthe; Jasiem, Mohamad; Husain, Farah

    2017-11-01

    Humanitarian emergencies often result in population displacement and increase the risk for transmission of communicable diseases. To address the increased risk for outbreaks during humanitarian emergencies, the World Health Organization developed the Early Warning Alert and Response Network (EWARN) for early detection of epidemic-prone diseases. The US Centers for Disease Control and Prevention has worked with the World Health Organization, ministries of health, and other partners to support EWARN through the implementation and evaluation of these systems and the development of standardized guidance. Although protocols have been developed for the implementation and evaluation of EWARN, a need persists for standardized training and additional guidance on supporting these systems remotely when access to affected areas is restricted. Continued collaboration between partners and the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention for surveillance during emergencies is necessary to strengthen capacity and support global health security.

  12. Disciplinary Literacy Assessment: A Neglected Responsibility

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gillis, Victoria; Van Wig, Ann

    2015-01-01

    This article describes a teacher created formative assessment useful for content area teachers in English, mathematics, science, and social studies. The assessment can be administered in one class period and results can be used to guide planning for disciplinary literacy implementation.

  13. Using Virtual Reality Simulation Environments to Assess Competence for Emergency Medicine Learners.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McGrath, Jillian L; Taekman, Jeffrey M; Dev, Parvati; Danforth, Douglas R; Mohan, Deepika; Kman, Nicholas; Crichlow, Amanda; Bond, William F

    2017-09-09

    Immersive learning environments that use virtual simulation (VS) technology are increasingly relevant as medical learners train in an environment of restricted clinical training hours and a heightened focus on patient safety. We conducted a consensus process with a breakout group of the 2017 Academic Emergency Medicine Consensus Conference "Catalyzing System Change Through Health Care Simulation: Systems, Competency, and Outcomes." This group examined the current uses of VS in training and assessment, including limitations and challenges in implementing VS into medical education curricula. We discuss the role of virtual environments in formative and summative assessment. Finally, we offer recommended areas of focus for future research examining VS technology for assessment, including high-stakes assessment in medical education. Specifically, we discuss needs for determination of areas of focus for VS training and assessment, development and exploration of virtual platforms, automated feedback within such platforms, and evaluation of effectiveness and validity of VS education. © 2017 by the Society for Academic Emergency Medicine.

  14. Prehospital Response Time Delays for Emergency Patients in Events of Concurrent Mass Casualty Incidents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Jungeun; Kim, Chu Hyun; Shin, Sang Do; Park, Ju Ok

    2017-09-19

    We investigated the extent of delays in the response time of emergency medical services (EMS) as an impact of mass casualty incidences (MCIs) in the same area. We defined an MCI case as an event that resulted in 6 or more patients being transported by EMS, and prehospital response time as the time from the call to arrival at the scene. We matched patients before and after MCIs by dividing them into categories of 3 hours before, 0-1 hour after, 1-2 hours after, and 2-3 hours after the MCIs. We compared prehospital response times using multiple linear regression. A total of 33,276 EMS-treated patients were matched. The prehospital response time for the category of 3 hours before the MCIs was 8.8 minutes (SD: 8.2), treated as the reference, whereas that for the category of 0-1 hour after the MCI was 11.3 minutes (Pprehospital response time increased by 2.5 minutes (95% CI: 2.3-2.8) during the first hour and by 0.3 minutes (95% CI: 0.1-0.6) during the second hour after MCIs. There were significant delays in the prehospital response time for emergency patients after MCIs, and it lasted for 2 hours as the spillover effect. (Disaster Med Public Health Preparedness. 2017; page 1 of 7).

  15. Epidemiology of the Systemic Inflammatory Response Syndrome (SIRS in the Emergency Department

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Timothy Horeczko

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Consensus guidelines recommend sepsis screening for adults with systemic inflammatory response syndrome (SIRS, but the epidemiology of SIRS among adult emergency department (ED patients is poorly understood. Recent emphasis on cost-effective, outcomes-based healthcare prompts the evaluation of the performance of large-scale efforts such as sepsis screening. We studied a nationally representative sample to clarify the epidemiology of SIRS in the ED and subsequent category of illness. Methods: This was a retrospective analysis of ED visits by adults from 2007 to 2010 in the National Hospital Ambulatory Medical Care Survey (NHAMCS. We estimated the incidence of SIRS using initial ED vital signs and a Bayesian construct to estimate white blood cell count based on test ordering. We report estimates with Bayesian modified credible intervals (mCIs. Results: We used 103,701 raw patient encounters in NHAMCS to estimate 372,844,465 ED visits over the 4-year period. The moderate estimate of SIRS in the ED was 17.8% (95% mCI: 9.7 to 26%. This yields a national moderate estimate of approximately 16.6 million adult ED visits with SIRS per year. Adults with and without SIRS had similar demographic characteristics, but those with SIRS were more likely to be categorized as emergent in triage (17.7% versus 9.9%, p<0.001, stay longer in the ED (210 minutes versus 153 minutes, p<0.0001, and were more likely to be admitted (31.5% versus 12.5%, p<0.0001. Infection accounted for only 26% of SIRS patients. Traumatic causes of SIRS comprised 10% of presentations; other traditional categories of SIRS were rare. Conclusion: SIRS is very common in the ED. Infectious etiologies make up only a quarter of adult SIRS cases. SIRS may be more useful if modified by clinician judgment when used as a screening test in the rapid identification and assessment of patients with the potential for sepsis.

  16. Emergency preparedness in Finland: improvement of the measurement equipment used in the assessment of internal doses

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Muikku, M.; Rahola, T. [STUK - Radiation and nuclear safety authority, Helsinki (Finland)

    2006-07-01

    The need for assessing internal radiation doses in emergency situations is evident. Internal exposure can be assessed using direct measurement results or by using information on activity concentrations in inhaled air and in foodstuffs combined with inhalation and consumption data. As a part of the continuous improving of emergency preparedness in Finland, S.T.U.K. - Radiation and Nuclear Safety Authority has obtained 35 monitors for thyroid measurements in field conditions and initiated a project to revise the radiation measurement equipment in local food and environmental laboratories. (authors)

  17. Response of vetch, lentil, chickpea and red pea to pre- or post-emergence applied herbicides

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I. Vasilakoglou

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Broad-leaved weeds constitute a serious problem in the production of winter legumes, but few selective herbicides controlling these weeds have been registered in Europe. Four field experiments were conducted in 2009/10 and repeated in 2010/11 in Greece to study the response of common vetch (Vicia sativa L., lentil (Lens culinaris Medik., chickpea (Cicer arietinum L. and red pea (Lathyrus cicera L. to several rates of the herbicides pendimethalin, S-metolachlor, S-metolachlor plus terbuthylazine and flumioxazin applied pre-emergence, as well as imazamox applied post-emergence. Phytotoxicity, crop height, total weight and seed yield were evaluated during the experiments. The results of this study suggest that common vetch, lentil, chickpea and red pea differed in their responses to the herbicides tested. Pendimethalin at 1.30 kg ha-1, S-metolachlor at 0.96 kg ha-1 and flumioxazine at 0.11 kg ha-1 used as pre-emergence applied herbicides provided the least phytotoxicity to legumes. Pendimethalin at 1.98 kg ha-1 and both rates of S-metolachlor plus terbuthylazine provided the greatest common lambsquarters (Chenopodium album L. control. Imazamox at 0.03 to 0.04 kg ha-1 could also be used as early post-emergence applied herbicide in common vetch and red pea without any significant detrimental effect.

  18. Teaching the Emergency Department Patient Experience: Needs Assessment from the CORD-EM Task Force.

    Science.gov (United States)

    London, Kory S; Druck, Jeffrey; Silver, Matthew; Finefrock, Douglas

    2017-01-01

    Since the creation of Hospital Consumer Assessment of Healthcare Providers and Systems (HCAHPS) patient satisfaction (PS) scores, patient experience (PE) has become a metric that can profoundly affect the fiscal balance of hospital systems, reputation of entire departments and welfare of individual physicians. While government and hospital mandates demonstrate the prominence of PE as a quality measure, no such mandate exists for its education. The objective of this study was to determine the education and evaluation landscape for PE in categorical emergency medicine (EM) residencies. This was a prospective survey analysis of the Council of Emergency Medicine Residency Directors (CORD) membership. Program directors (PDs), assistant PDs and core faculty who are part of the CORD listserv were sent an email link to a brief, anonymous electronic survey. Respondents were asked their position in the residency, the name of their department, and questions regarding the presence and types of PS evaluative data and PE education they provide. We obtained 168 responses from 139 individual residencies, representing 72% of all categorical EM residencies. This survey found that only 27% of responding residencies provide PS data to their residents. Of those programs, 61% offer simulation scores, 39% provide third-party attending data on cases with resident participation, 37% provide third-party acquired data specifically about residents and 37% provide internally acquired quantitative data. Only 35% of residencies reported having any organized PE curricula. Of the programs that provide an organized PE curriculum, most offer multiple modalities; 96% provide didactic lectures, 49% small group sessions, 47% simulation sessions and 27% specifically use standardized patient encounters in their simulation sessions. The majority of categorical EM residencies do not provide either PS data or any organized PE curriculum. Those that do use a heterogeneous set of data collection modalities

  19. Study on Inland River Vessel Fuel-oil Spillage and Emergency Response Strategies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, R. C.; Shi, N.; Wang, K. S.

    2017-12-01

    by making statistics and conducting regression analysis on the carrying volume of vessels navigating on inland rivers and coastal waters, the linear relation between the oil volume carried by a vessel and its gross tonnage (GT) is found. Based on the linear relation, the possible spillage of a 10,000 GT vessel is estimated by using the empirical formula method which is commonly used to measure oil spillage from any vessel spill incident. In the waters downstream of Yangtze River, the trajectory and fates model is used to predict the drifting paths and fates of the spilled oil under three weather scenarios, and then, the emergency response strategies for vessel oil spills are put forth. The results of the research can be used to develop an empirical method to quickly estimate oil spillage and provide recommendations on oil spill emergency response strategies for decision-makers.

  20. "Hits" emerge through self-organized coordination in collective response of free agents

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chakrabarti, Anindya S.; Sinha, Sitabhra

    2016-10-01

    Individuals in free societies frequently exhibit striking coordination when making independent decisions en masse. Examples include the regular appearance of hit products or memes with substantially higher popularity compared to their otherwise equivalent competitors or extreme polarization in public opinion. Such segregation of events manifests as bimodality in the distribution of collective choices. Here we quantify how apparently independent choices made by individuals result in a significantly polarized but stable distribution of success in the context of the box-office performance of movies and show that it is an emergent feature of a system of noninteracting agents who respond to sequentially arriving signals. The aggregate response exhibits extreme variability amplifying much smaller differences in individual cost of adoption. Due to self-organization of the competitive landscape, most events elicit only a muted response but a few stimulate widespread adoption, emerging as "hits".

  1. Immune regulation of therapy-resistant niches: emerging targets for improving anticancer drug responses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jinushi, Masahisa

    2014-09-01

    Emerging evidence has unveiled a critical role for immunological parameters in predicting tumor prognosis and clinical responses to anticancer therapeutics. On the other hand, responsiveness to anticancer drugs greatly modifies the repertoires, phenotypes, and immunogenicity of tumor-infiltrating immune cells, serving as a critical factor to regulate tumorigenic activities and the emergence of therapy-resistant phenotypes. Tumor-associated immune functions are influenced by distinct or overlapping sets of therapeutic modalities, such as cytotoxic chemotherapy, radiotherapy, or molecular-targeted therapy, and various anticancer modalities have unique properties to influence the mode of cross-talk between tumor cells and immune cells in tumor microenvironments. Thus, it is critical to understand precise molecular machineries whereby each anticancer strategy has a distinct or overlapping role in regulating the dynamism of reciprocal communication between tumor and immune cells in tumor microenvironments. Such an understanding will open new therapeutic opportunities by harnessing the immune system to overcome resistance to conventional anticancer drugs.

  2. Identifying Factors Associated with Risk Assessment Competencies of Public Health Emergency Responders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hao, Jiejing; Ren, Jiaojiao; Wu, Qunhong; Hao, Yanhua; Sun, Hong; Ning, Ning; Ding, Ding

    2017-06-04

    This study aimed to better understand the current situation of risk assessment and identify the factors associated with competence of emergency responders in public health risk assessment. The participants were selected by a multi-stage, stratified cluster sampling method in Heilongjiang Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC). The questionnaires that measured their perceptions on risk assessment competences were administered through the face-to-face survey. A final sample of 1889 staff was obtained. Of this sample, 78.6% of respondents rated their own risk assessment competences as "relatively low", contrasting with 21.4% rated as "relatively high". Most of the respondents (62.7%) did not participate in any risk assessment work. Only 13.7% and 42.7% of respondents reported participating in risk assessment training and were familiar with risk assessment tools. There existed statistical significance between risk assessment-related characteristics of respondents and their self-rated competences scores. Financial support from the government and administrative attention were regarded as the important factors contributing to risk assessment competences of CDC responders. Higher attention should be given to risk assessment training and enhancing the availability of surveillance data. Continuous efforts should be made to remove the financial and technical obstacles to improve the competences of risk assessment for public health emergency responders.

  3. Identifying Factors Associated with Risk Assessment Competencies of Public Health Emergency Responders

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jiejing Hao

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available This study aimed to better understand the current situation of risk assessment and identify the factors associated with competence of emergency responders in public health risk assessment. The participants were selected by a multi-stage, stratified cluster sampling method in Heilongjiang Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC. The questionnaires that measured their perceptions on risk assessment competences were administered through the face-to-face survey. A final sample of 1889 staff was obtained. Of this sample, 78.6% of respondents rated their own risk assessment competences as “relatively low”, contrasting with 21.4% rated as “relatively high”. Most of the respondents (62.7% did not participate in any risk assessment work. Only 13.7% and 42.7% of respondents reported participating in risk assessment training and were familiar with risk assessment tools. There existed statistical significance between risk assessment-related characteristics of respondents and their self-rated competences scores. Financial support from the government and administrative attention were regarded as the important factors contributing to risk assessment competences of CDC responders. Higher attention should be given to risk assessment training and enhancing the availability of surveillance data. Continuous efforts should be made to remove the financial and technical obstacles to improve the competences of risk assessment for public health emergency responders.

  4. Assessing the risk of an emerging zoonosis of worldwide concern: anisakiasis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bao, Miguel; Pierce, Graham J.; Pascual, Santiago; González-Muñoz, Miguel; Mattiucci, Simonetta; Mladineo, Ivona; Cipriani, Paolo; Bušelić, Ivana; Strachan, Norval J. C.

    2017-03-01

    Anisakiasis is an emerging zoonosis caused by the fish parasitic nematode Anisakis. Spain appears to have the highest reported incidence in Europe and marinated anchovies are recognised as the main food vehicle. Using data on fishery landings, fish infection rates and consumption habits of the Spanish population from questionnaires, we developed a quantitative risk assessment (QRA) model for the anchovy value chain. Spaniards were estimated to consume on average 0.66 Anisakis per untreated (non-frozen) raw or marinated anchovy meal. A dose-response relationship was generated and the probability of anisakiasis was calculated to be 9.56 × 10-5 per meal, and the number of annual anisakiasis cases requiring medical attention was predicted between 7,700 and 8,320. Monte Carlo simulations estimated post-mortem migration of Anisakis from viscera to flesh increases the disease burden by >1000% whilst an education campaign to freeze anchovy before consumption may reduce cases by 80%. However, most of the questionnaire respondents who ate untreated meals knew how to prevent Anisakis infection. The QRA suggests that previously reported figures of 500 anisakiasis per year in Europe is a considerable underestimate. The QRA tool can be used by policy makers and informs industry, health professionals and consumers about this underdiagnosed zoonosis.

  5. ANSI/ANS-8.23-1997: nuclear criticality accident emergency planning and response.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Baker, J. S. (James S.)

    2004-01-01

    American National Standard ANSUANS-8.23 was developed to expand upon the basic emergency response guidance given in American National Standard, 'Administrative Practices for Nuclear Criticality Safety' ANSI/ANS-8.19-1996 (Ref. 1). This standard provides guidance for minimizing risks to personnel during emergency response to a nuclear criticality accident outside reactors. This standard is intended to apply to those facilities for which a criticality accident alarm system, as specified in American National Standard, 'Criticality Accident Alarm System', ANSI/ANS-8.3-1997 (Ref. 2) is in use. The Working Group was established in 1990, with Norman L. Pruvost as chairman. The Working Group had up to twenty-three members representing a broad range of the nuclear industry, and has included members from Canada, Japan and the United Kingdom. The initial edition of ANSI/ANS-8.23 was approved by the American National Standards Institute on December 30, 1997. It provides guidance for the following topics: (1) Management and technical staff responsibilities; (2) Evaluation of a potential criticality accident; (3) Emergency plan provisions; (4) Evacuation; (5) Re-entry, rescue and stabilization; and (6) Classroom training, exercises and evacuation drills. This guidance is not for generic emergency planning issues, but is specific to nuclear criticality accidents. For example, it assumes that an Emergency Plan is already established at facilities that implement the standard. During the development of the initial edition of ANSI/ANS-8.23, each Working Group member evaluated potential use of the standard at a facility with which the member was familiar. This revealed areas where a facility could have difficulty complying with the standard. These reviews helped identify and eliminate many potential problems and ambiguities with the guidance. The Working Group has received very limited feedback from the user community since the first edition of the standard was

  6. An Assessment of Policies Guiding School Emergency Disaster Management for Students with Disabilities in Australia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boon, Helen Joanna; Pagliano, Paul; Brown, Lawrence; Tsey, Komla

    2012-01-01

    Recent weather-related disasters (i.e., floods, fires) impacting Australia may potentially increase in frequency and severity as a result of predicted climate variability. The dearth of literature pertaining to school emergency response planning for vulnerable students with disabilities (including those with intellectual disabilities) when such…

  7. The potential for congressional use of emergent telecommunications: An exploratory assessment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wood, F. B.

    1974-01-01

    A study of the use of newly emerging communications technology for improving the understanding between members of Congress and their constituents was conducted. The study employed a number of specific methodologies such as interdisciplinary systems model building, technology analysis, a sample survey, and semi-structured interviews using sketches of the emergent channels. The following configurations were identified as representative of emergent channel characteristics: (1) the teleconference, (2) the videoconference, (3) the videophone, (4) cable television, (5) cable television polling, and (6) information retrieval. Analysis of the interview data resulted in an overview of the current congressional-constituent communication system and an assessment of the potential for emergent telecommunications, as perceived by congressmen and senior staff from 40 offices in the stratified judgement sample.

  8. Focused assessment with sonography in nontraumatized dogs and cats in the emergency and critical care setting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McMurray, Jantina; Boysen, Søren; Chalhoub, Serge

    2016-01-01

    To evaluate the use of abdominal- and thoracic-focused assessment with sonography for trauma (AFAST and TFAST) in nontraumatized dogs and cats in the emergency and critical care setting and to compare prevalence of free fluid identified via these techniques between stable and unstable patients. Prospective observational study. University Distributed Veterinary Learning Community. One hundred client-owned dogs and cats presenting to an emergency service with no evidence of trauma. AFAST and TFAST performed within 12 hours of presentation. Free fluid was identified on AFAST or TFAST in 33% of dogs and cats in this study. Free fluid was identified in 27 of 36 (75%) cardiovascularly unstable or dyspneic patients, compared to 6 of 64 (9%) stable patients. A significantly greater proportion of unstable patients had free fluid compared to stable patients (P dogs and cats in the emergency and critical care setting, particularly patients that are unstable on presentation. © Veterinary Emergency and Critical Care Society 2015.

  9. Linking seasonal streamflow forecast performance to operational value in emergency response settings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Turner, Sean; Bennett, James; Robertson, David; Galelli, Stefano

    2017-04-01

    In this work we investigate the operational value of seasonal streamflow forecasts for water reservoirs. We consider two different operating settings, namely continually adjusted and emergency response operations—the former represents systems for which the water release decisions are adjusted at frequent intervals, while the latter is typical of systems for which key management decisions are made relatively infrequently (e.g., urban water supply systems). We define the operational value as the difference between the long-term operating objective provided by forecast-informed operations—a rolling horizon, adaptive control approach—and more traditional operating rules. In a first set of experiments carried out in four contrasting catchments located in Australia, we use synthetic forecasts of different quality to show that the operational value increases with the forecast skill for continuously adjusted operations. By contrast, we find a weaker relation between forecast skill and value for emergency response settings. In a second set of experiments carried out with a modern experimental forecasting systems, called Forecast Guided Stochastic Scenarios (FoGSS), we show that the forecast value for emergency response operations can be largely explained by the forecast skill at the time during which critical release decisions are made.

  10. Biosafety Practices and Emergency Response at the Idaho National Laboratory and Los Alamos National Laboratory

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Frank F. Roberto; Dina M. Matz

    2008-03-01

    Strict federal regulations govern the possession, use, and transfer of pathogens and toxins with potential to cause harm to the public, either through accidental or deliberate means. Laboratories registered through either the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC), the U.S. Dept. of Agriculture (USDA), or both, must prepare biosafety, security, and incident response plans, conduct drills or exercises on an annual basis, and update plans accordingly. At the Idaho National Laboratory (INL), biosafety, laboratory, and emergency management staff have been working together for 2 years to satisfy federal and DOE/NNSA requirements. This has been done through the establishment of plans, training, tabletop and walk-through exercises and drills, and coordination with local and regional emergency response personnel. Responding to the release of infectious agents or toxins is challenging, but through familiarization with the nature of the hazardous biological substances or organisms, and integration with laboratory-wide emergency response procedures, credible scenarios are being used to evaluate our ability to protect workers, the public, and the environment from agents we must work with to provide for national biodefense.

  11. Social Mobilization and Community Engagement Central to the Ebola Response in West Africa: Lessons for Future Public Health Emergencies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gillespie, Amaya M; Obregon, Rafael; El Asawi, Rania; Richey, Catherine; Manoncourt, Erma; Joshi, Kshiitij; Naqvi, Savita; Pouye, Ade; Safi, Naqibullah; Chitnis, Ketan; Quereshi, Sabeeha

    2016-12-23

    Following the World Health Organization (WHO) declaration of a Public Health Emergency of International Concern regarding the Ebola outbreak in West Africa in July 2014, UNICEF was asked to co-lead, in coordination with WHO and the ministries of health of affected countries, the communication and social mobilization component-which UNICEF refers to as communication for development (C4D)-of the Ebola response. For the first time in an emergency setting, C4D was formally incorporated into each country's national response, alongside more typical components such as supplies and logistics, surveillance, and clinical care. This article describes the lessons learned about social mobilization and community engagement in the emergency response to the Ebola outbreak, with a particular focus on UNICEF's C4D work in Guinea, Liberia, and Sierra Leone. The lessons emerged through an assessment conducted by UNICEF using 4 methods: a literature review of key documents, meeting reports, and other articles; structured discussions conducted in June 2015 and October 2015 with UNICEF and civil society experts; an electronic survey, launched in October and November 2015, with staff from government, the UN, or any partner organization who worked on Ebola (N = 53); and key informant interviews (N = 5). After triangulating the findings from all data sources, we distilled lessons under 7 major domains: (1) strategy and decentralization: develop a comprehensive C4D strategy with communities at the center and decentralized programming to facilitate flexibility and adaptation to the local context; (2) coordination: establish C4D leadership with the necessary authority to coordinate between partners and enforce use of standard operating procedures as a central coordination and quality assurance tool; (3) entering and engaging communities: invest in key communication channels (such as radio) and trusted local community members; (4) messaging: adapt messages and strategies continually as patterns

  12. What's the Evidence: Self-Assessment Implications for Life-Long Learning in Emergency Medicine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wolff, Margaret; Santen, Sally A; Hopson, Laura R; Hemphill, Robin R; Farrell, Susan E

    2017-07-01

    The 2012 Academic Emergency Medicine Consensus Conference, "Education Research in Emergency Medicine: Opportunities, Challenges, and Strategies for Success" noted that emergency medicine (EM) educators often rely on theory and tradition when molding their approaches to teaching and learning, and called on the EM education community to advance the teaching of our specialty through the performance and application of research in teaching and assessment methods, cognitive function, and the effects of education interventions. The purpose of this article was to review the research-based evidence for the effectiveness of self-assessment and to provide suggestions for its use in clinical teaching and practice in EM. This article reviews hypothesis-testing research related to self-assessment behaviors and learning. Evidence indicates that self-assessment is inherently flawed when used in isolation. We review a multi-dimensional approach to informed self-assessment that can serve as the basis for life-long learning and development. Advancing EM education will require that high-quality education research results be translated into actual curricular, pedagogical, assessment, and professional development changes. The informed self-assessment framework is a method that is applicable to teaching and practice in EM. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  13. Emotion Regulation in Emerging Adult Couples: Temperament, Attachment, and HPA Response to Conflict

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laurent, Heidemarie; Powers, Sally

    2007-01-01

    Difficulty managing the stress of conflict in close relationships can lead to mental and physical health problems, possibly through dysregulation of the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis, the neuroendocrine stress response system. Temperament, an individual characteristic, and attachment, a dyadic characteristic, have both been implicated in emotion regulation processes and physiological reactivity, yet there is no clear consensus on how the two work together to influence the stress response, especially after childhood. The present study investigated the ways in which temperament and attachment together predict HPA response in emerging adult couples. Analyses using multilevel modeling (HLM) found that partners' dyadic fit on attachment avoidance impacted females' cortisol response patterns, and attachment avoidance further moderated the effect of males' emotionality on both their own and their partners' cortisol. Results are discussed in terms of emotional coregulation processes in romantic attachment. PMID:17681662

  14. International Exchange of Emergency Phase Information and Assessment: An Aid to Inter/National Decision Makers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sullivan, T J; Chino, M; Ehrhardt, J; Shershakov, V

    2003-09-01

    This paper discusses a collaborative project whose purpose is (1) to demonstrate the technical feasibility and mutual benefit of a system seeking early review or preview, in a ''quasi peer review'' mode, of nuclear accident plume and dose assessment predictions by four major international nuclear accident emergency response systems before release of their calculations to their respective national authorities followed by (2) sharing these results with responsible international authorities. The extreme sensitivity of the general public to any nuclear accident information has been a strong motivation to seek peer review prior to public release. Another intended objective of this work is (3) the development of an affordable/accessible system for distribution of prediction results to countries having no prediction capabilities and (4) utilization of the link for exercises and collaboration studies. The project exploits the Internet as a ubiquitous communications medium, browser technology as a simple, user friendly interface, and low-cost PC level hardware. The participants are developing a web based dedicated node with ID and password access control, where the four systems can deposit a minimal set of XML-based data and graphics files, which are then displayed in a common identical map format. Side-by-side viewing and televideo conferencing will permit rapid evaluation, correction or elaboration of data, recalculation (if necessary) and should produce a strong level of consensus to assist international decision makers. Successful completion of this work could lead to easy utilization by national and international organizations, such as the IAEA and WHO, as well as by non-nuclear states at risk of a trans-boundary incursion on their territory.

  15. Measuring non-technical skills in medical emergency care: a review of assessment measures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Simon Cooper

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Simon Cooper1, Ruth Endacott2, Robyn Cant11School of Nursing and Midwifery, Monash University, Gippsland Campus, Churchill, Victoria, Australia; 2School of Nursing and Midwifery, University of Plymouth, Drake Circus, Plymouth UKAim: To review the literature on non-technical skills and assessment methods relevant to emergency care.Background: Non-technical skills (NTS include leadership, teamwork, decision making and situation awareness, all of which have an impact on healthcare outcomes. Significant concerns have been raised about the rates of adverse medical events, many of which are attributed to NTS failures.Methods: Ovid, Medline, ProQUEST, PsycINFO and specialty websites were searched for NTS measures using applicable access strategies, inclusion and exclusion criteria. Publications identified were assessed for relevance.Results: A range of non-technical skill measures relevant to emergency care was identified: leadership (n = 5, teamwork (n = 7, personality/behavior (n = 3 and situation awareness tools (n = 1. Of these, 9 have been used with emergency care populations/clinicians. All had varying degrees of reliability and validity. In the last decade there has been some development of teamwork measures specific to emergency care with a predominantly global and collective rating of broad skills.Conclusion: A variety of non-technical skill measures are available; only a few have been used in the emergency care arena. There is a need for an increase in the focused assessment of teamwork skills for a greater understanding of team performance to enhance patient safety in medical emergency care.Keywords: non-technical skills, teamwork, medical emergency, standards

  16. Emergency nurses' evaluation of observational pain assessment tools for older people with cognitive impairment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fry, Margaret; Arendts, Glenn; Chenoweth, Lynn

    2017-05-01

    To explore emergency nurses' perceptions of the feasibility and utility of Pain Assessment in Advanced Dementia tool in people over 65 with cognitive impairment. The Pain Assessment in Advanced Dementia tool was then compared with The Abbey Pain Scale, Doloplus-2 and PACSLAC. The objective was to determine which observational pain assessment tool was the most appropriate for the emergency department context and the cognitively impaired older person. The number of older people with cognitive impairment conditions, such as dementia, presenting to the emergency department is increasing. Approximately 28% of people over 65 years who present will have cognitive impairment. Older people with cognitive impairment often receive suboptimal pain management in the ED. There is limited evidence of the use and/or appropriateness of dementia-specific pain observation assessment tools in the ED. This was a multicentre exploratory qualitative study, which was conducted within a constructivist paradigm. Focus group interviews were conducted with nurses across three hospital emergency departments. Data were subject to thematic analysis. Six focus groups were conducted with 36 nurses over a 12-week period. Four themes emerged from the analysis: 1) cognitive impairment is a barrier to pain management; 2) PAINAD gives structure to pain assessment; 3) PAINAD assists to convey pain intensity; and 4) selection of an appropriate observational pain assessment tool. This study identified that emergency nurses find it challenging to detect, assess and manage pain in cognitively impaired people. While the use of the PAINAD helped to address these challenges compared to other tools, nurses also identified the important role that family and carers can play in pain assessment and management for older people with cognitive impairment. This study has generated new knowledge that has broad application across clinical settings, which can assist to transform pain management practice and reduce human

  17. The response of macro variables of emerging and developed oil importers to oil price movements

    OpenAIRE

    Taghizadeh-Hesary, Farhad; Yoshino, Naoyuki; Hossein Abadi, Majid Mohammadi; Farboudmanesh, Rosa

    2015-01-01

    This paper assesses the impact of crude oil price movements on two macro variables - the gross domestic product (GDP) growth rate and consumer price index inflation rate - in the developed economies of the United States and Japan, and an emerging economy, the People's Republic of China (PRC). These countries were chosen for this research because they are the world's three largest oil consumers. The main objective of this study is to see whether these economies are still reactive to oil price ...

  18. The Preparedness and Emergency Response Learning Centers: advancing standardized evaluation of public health preparedness and response trainings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hites, Lisle S; Sass, Marcia M; D'Ambrosio, Luann; Brown, Lisa M; Wendelboe, Aaron M; Peters, Karen E; Sobelson, Robyn K

    2014-01-01

    The Centers for Disease Control and Prevention funded Preparedness and Emergency Response Learning Centers (PERLCs) across the United States. The PERLCs provide training to state, local, and tribal public health organizations to meet workforce development needs in the areas of public health preparedness and response, specialized training, education, and consultation. Using Donald Kirkpatrick's training evaluation model, the PERLC network established 4 evaluation working groups that developed evaluation criteria to address each level of the model. The purpose of the working groups was to inform and promote center-level and program-level evaluation across the PERLC network; identify common training evaluation methods and measures; and share materials, resources, and lessons learned with state, local, and tribal public health organizations for potential replication. The evaluation of education and training, irrespective of its modality (eg, in-person, online, webinars, seminars, symposia) can be accomplished using Kirkpatrick's 4-level taxonomy. The 4 levels aim to measure the following aspects of training programs: (1) trainees' reaction; (2) knowledge acquired, skills improved, or attitudes changed; (3) behavior changed; and (4) results or impact. To successfully evaluate emergency preparedness training, drills and exercises, it is necessary to understand the fundamental tenets of each level and how to apply each to measure training outcomes. The PERLC evaluators have adopted the basic schema of Kirkpatrick's 4-level model and applied its structure to a wide variety of preparedness and emergency response training and related activities. The PERLC evaluation working groups successfully developed and tested survey methods and instruments for each of the 4 levels of Kirkpatrick's training evaluation model. Each can be used for replication by state, local, and tribal public health professionals.

  19. Ethnographic assessment of pain coping responses

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Moore, R.

    1990-01-01

    of these Ss. ((c) 1997 APA/PsycINFO, all rights reserved). Medline: A sample consisting of 54 patients and 31 dentists of Chinese, Anglo-American, and Scandinavian ethnic origin were interviewed about their ways of coping with pain. Instruments designed to assess pain coping were constructed from...

  20. Fast assessment of the effect of preventive wide area emergency control

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dmitrova, Evgenia; Jóhannsson, Hjörtur; Nielsen, Arne Hejde

    2013-01-01

    to determine whether the suggested counteraction is sufficient to avoid system instability during severely critical operating conditions. The fast assessment of the effect that a countermeasure has on system stability provides an important decision support for the control room personnel in emergency situations...

  1. Preliminary assessment on the bioaccessibility of contaminants of emerging concern in raw and cooked seafood

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Alves, Ricardo N.; Maulvault, Ana L.; Barbosa, Vera L.; Cunha, Sara; Kwadijk, Christiaan J.A.F.; Álvarez-Muñoz, Diana; Rodríguez-Mozaz, Sara; Aznar-Alemany, Òscar; Eljarrat, Ethel; Barceló, Damià; Fernandez-Tejedor, Margarita; Tediosi, Alice; Marques, António

    2017-01-01

    A preliminary assessment of the bioaccessibility of contaminants of emerging concern (CeCs), including perfluorinated compounds (PFCs; i.e. PFOS and PFUnA), brominated flame retardants (BFRs; i.e. BDE47, BDE100, a-HBCD) and pharmaceuticals and personal care products (PPCPs; i.e. venlafaxine,

  2. Information and Communications Technology (ICT) in Nigeria Educational Assessment System--Emerging Challenges

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aworanti, Olatunde Awotokun

    2016-01-01

    This paper examines Information and Communications Technology (ICT) in Nigeria educational assessment system with its emerging challenges. This is inevitable following the globalisation trend which has brought drastic changes in the world of technology. The essence of the paper is to describe the present status of ICT in the Nigeria educational…

  3. Response to Oil Sands Products Assessment

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-09-01

    indoors or leave the area to limit their exposure to toxic fumes. Specific information about the diluent added to an oil sands mixture of concern would...known as upgraders. These refineries essentially strip much of the carbon from the bitumen and produce a light synthetic crude oil (known as Syncrude...Minnesota’s new law, states: (Douglass, 2014) “ Essentially , there’s no meaningful regulation or requirements or standards for oil spill response for

  4. New tools for emergency managers: an assessment of obstacles to use and implementation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCormick, Sabrina

    2016-04-01

    This paper focuses on the role of the formal response community's use of social media and crowdsourcing for emergency managers (EMs) in disaster planning, response and recovery in the United States. In-depth qualitative interviews with EMs on the Eastern seaboard at the local, state and federal level demonstrate that emergency management tools are in a state of transition--from formal, internally regulated tools for crisis response to an incorporation of new social media and crowdsourcing tools. The first set of findings provides insight into why many EMs are not using social media, and describes their concerns that result in fear, uncertainty and doubt. Second, this research demonstrates how internal functioning and staffing issues within these agencies present challenges. This research seeks to examine the dynamics of this transition and offer lessons for how to improve its outcomes--critical to millions of people across the United States. © 2016 The Author(s). Disasters © Overseas Development Institute, 2016.

  5. R and D strategy on remote response technology for emergency situations of nuclear facilities in KAERI

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jeong, Kyung Min; Cho, Jae Wan; Choi, Young Soo; Eom, Heung Seup; Seo, Yong Chil; Shin, Hoch Ul; Lee, Sung Uk; Kim, Chang Hoi; Jeong, Seung Ho; Kim, Seung Ho [KAERI, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2012-10-15

    Generally speaking, robotic technologies are anticipated to be very useful for hazardous works in nuclear facilities because robotic systems are relatively immune to radiation exposure. But the application of robotic systems for such environments has not been increasing during past 20 years. Applying highly reliable and conservative 'defense in depth' concepts in the design and construction of NPPs, there is very little probability of accidents occurring or radioactive materials being released into the environments. As a precaution, however NPPs are prepared with emergency response procedures and routinely conduct exercises for post accident circumstances based on these procedures. The last year's accident at the Fukushima Daiichi nuclear power plant promotes the needs for remote response technologies based on mobile robotic system to recognize the internal status and mitigate the unanticipated events of nuclear power plants in emergency situations. For initial observation of reactor buildings two robots named 'PackBot' were used because the internal conditions were unknown so as to allow human workers for entrance into the reactor building. But there were severe limitations for the robots to perform the given tasks from various obstacles and poor visibility inside though they provided crucial information such as views of internal structures, dose level and temperature that supported the decision for human worker's entrance. The application of robots for emergency response tasks for post accidents in nuclear facilities is not a new concept. Robots were sent to recover the damaged reactor at Chernobyl where human workers could have received a lifetime dose of radiation in minutes. Based on NRC's TMI 2 Cleanup Program, several robots were built in the 1980s to help gather information and remove debris from a reactor at the Three Mile Island nuclear power plant that partially melted down in 1979. A robot was used for several years

  6. Do emergency medicine residents and faculty have similar learning styles when assessed with the Kolb learning style assessment tool?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fredette, Jenna; O'Brien, Corinne; Poole, Christy; Nomura, Jason

    2015-04-01

    Experiential learning theory and the Kolb Learning Style Inventory (Kolb LSI) have influenced educators worldwide for decades. Knowledge of learning styles can create efficient learning environments, increase information retention, and improve learner satisfaction. Learning styles have been examined in medicine previously, but not specifically with Emergency Medicine (EM) residents and attendings. Using the Kolb LSI, the learning styles of Emergency Medicine residents and attendings were assessed. The findings showed that the majority of EM residents and attendings shared the accommodating learning style. This result was different than prior studies that found the majority of medical professionals had a converging learning style and other studies that found attendings often have different learning styles than residents. The issue of learning styles among emergency medical residents and attendings is important because learning style knowledge may have an impact on how a residency program structures curriculum and how EM residents are successfully, efficiently, and creatively educated.

  7. Potential for Integrating Diffusion of Innovation Principles into Life Cycle Assessment of Emerging Technologies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharp, Benjamin E; Miller, Shelie A

    2016-03-15

    Life cycle assessment (LCA) measures cradle-to-grave environmental impacts of a product. To assess impacts of an emerging technology, LCA should be coupled with additional methods that estimate how that technology might be deployed. The extent and manner that an emerging technology diffuses throughout a region shapes the magnitude and type of environmental impacts. Diffusion of innovation is an established field of research that analyzes the adoption of new innovations, and its principles can be used to construct scenario models that enhance LCA of emerging technologies. Integrating diffusion modeling techniques with an LCA of emerging technology can provide estimates for the extent of market penetration, the displacement of existing systems, and the rate of adoption. Two general perspectives of application are macro-level diffusion models that use a function of time to represent adoption, and microlevel diffusion models that simulate adoption through interactions of individuals. Incorporating diffusion of innovation concepts complement existing methods within LCA to inform proactive environmental management of emerging technologies.

  8. Assessing BEPS: Origins, Standards, and Responses

    OpenAIRE

    Shay, Stephen E.; Christians, Allison

    2017-01-01

    The G20/OECD’s multi-year campaign to combat base erosion and profit shifting (BEPS) marks a critical step in the evolution of the international tax regime and the roles of institutions that guide it. This General Report for Subject 1, IFA Congress 2017, provides a snapshot of the outcomes of the BEPS project by comparing national responses to key mandates, recommendations and best practices through the end of October, 2016 based on National Reports representing the perspectives of 48 countri...

  9. An Assessment for Emergency Preparedness Plan in Hanul Nuclear Power Plant

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Park, Sunghyun; Jae, Moosung [Hanyang University, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2016-10-15

    The purpose of emergency preparedness aims to protect the accident and mitigate the radiation damage of public by setting emergency preparedness plan. In order to perform successfully the emergency preparedness plan, it should be optimized through a quantitative analysis. There are so many variables to analyze it quantitatively. It is mission to classify a realistic and suitable variables among these variables. The realistic variables is converted to the decision node in decision tree which is helpful to decide what evacuation or sheltering is effective to mitigate public damage. Base on it, it's idealistic method to analyze offsite consequences for each end points in the decision tree. In this study, we selected the reference plant which already has the emergency preparedness plan. Among the plan, we implemented offsite consequence analysis for a specific plan by using MACCS 2 code. In this study, target group is people who gathered in place 1 have sheltered and evacuated along the pathway. the offsite consequences analysis result of the group are 1.17·10-9 (early fatality), 1.77·10-7 (late fatality). Various cases need to be quantified for make an optimized decision. In the future, we will perform the verification and modification of decision node. After The assessment of emergency preparedness plan for Hanul nuclear power plant unit 5, 6 might be contribute to establish the optimized decision making of emergency prepared plan.

  10. The French responses organisation for dealing with radiological emergencies; L'organisation francaise de gestion des crises radiologiques

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Boude, B. [Secretariat General de la Defense Nationale, 31 - Toulouse (France)

    2006-07-15

    To meet the goal of population protection, the response that the authorities will have to implement in the event of a radiological emergency has to be organised. In a context of significant change at the beginning of this century, the response organisation was revised in depth. This article aims to describe the roles, structures and methods of action of the various parties involved in the current emergency response system. (author)

  11. Offshore industry: medical emergency response in the offshore oil and gas industry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ponsonby, Will; Mika, Frano; Irons, Greg

    2009-08-01

    The hunt for oil and gas has taken workers into new more distant locations including those offshore. The remoteness of the offshore platforms and vessels coupled with the potential risk of being cut off by bad weather presents particular challenges for medical emergency response (MER). Firstly to define the challenges for MER in terms of locations, population and epidemiology of injuries and illnesses in the offshore environment. Secondly to give examples of legal requirements and industry standards to manage MER. Thirdly to look at existing and emerging practice to manage these challenges. A review of published literature was supplemented with a summary of current practice in the industry. Medical professionals (medics) working offshore on installations and vessels are primarily responsible for the medical care of the workers. The medics have clinics with suitable medical equipment for managing emergencies as well as providing limited primary care. Some countries have legislation that stipulate minimum requirements. Where there is no national legislation, industry and company guidance is used to define the MER standards. Supervision of the offshore medics is often provided by doctors on shore via radio and phone links. These methods of communication are now being augmented with more sophisticated telemedicine solutions such as the Internet and live video links. These newer solutions allow for prompt high-quality care and provide the scope for a variety of new treatment options to be available for the offshore workforce.

  12. Reflection on pastoral care in Africa: Towards discerning emerging pragmatic pastoral ministerial responses

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vhumani Magezi

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Pastoral care takes different forms in responding to people’s needs in their context. Accordingly, over the centuries it has evolved in response to emerging needs. Historical developments in pastoral care are well-documented. However, pastoral care in Africa has a short and unsystematically documented history. Scholarly discussions on pastoral care concerning the continent tend to be considered under African theological frameworks. Notwithstanding the already existing weaknesses in African theological discussion, pastoral care in Africa has remained fragmented with diverse and seemingly knee-jerk approaches in guiding individuals who provide pastoral care. In view of this, this article firstly aims to provide a broad overview and initiate a discussion on the current challenges in pastoral care in Africa. Secondly, it aims to reveal some gaps worth pursuing by scholars in the discipline. Thirdly, it sheds some light on approaches employed by pastoral practitioners in pastoral ministry practice. In doing so, this article opens the lid on some perspectives adopted in ministry work on the frontlines, that is, providing pastoral care to people in their communities – particularly church communities. This article first outlines the problem to be addressed followed by an overview of pastoral care in Africa. It then proceeds to address potential research opportunities within the discipline. Finally, it highlights some emerging approaches in providing pastoral care in the communities. This article does not focus on one particular pastoral care issue, but gives an overview of the situation relative to pastoral care in Africa and the emerging responses.

  13. Secure Utilization of Beacons and UAVs in Emergency Response Systems for Building Fire Hazard.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seo, Seung-Hyun; Choi, Jung-In; Song, Jinseok

    2017-09-25

    An intelligent emergency system for hazard monitoring and building evacuation is a very important application area in Internet of Things (IoT) technology. Through the use of smart sensors, such a system can provide more vital and reliable information to first-responders and also reduce the incidents of false alarms. Several smart monitoring and warning systems do already exist, though they exhibit key weaknesses such as a limited monitoring coverage and security, which have not yet been sufficiently addressed. In this paper, we propose a monitoring and emergency response method for buildings by utilizing beacons and Unmanned Aerial Vehicles (UAVs) on an IoT security platform. In order to demonstrate the practicability of our method, we also implement a proof of concept prototype, which we call the UAV-EMOR (UAV-assisted Emergency Monitoring and Response) system. Our UAV-EMOR system provides the following novel features: (1) secure communications between UAVs, smart sensors, the control server and a smartphone app for security managers; (2) enhanced coordination between smart sensors and indoor/outdoor UAVs to expand real-time monitoring coverage; and (3) beacon-aided rescue and building evacuation.

  14. Industry's voluntary program: Community Awareness and Emergency Response Program and the Emergency Planning and Community Right-to-Know Act

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cooper, J.S. (Hill and Knowlton Public Affairs Worldwide, Washington, DC (USA))

    1990-10-01

    This paper describes the chemical industry's Community Awareness and Emergency Response (CAER) Program, and voluntary and mandatory actions by the chemical industry to comply with the major environmental legislation. The chemical industry started the voluntary CAER Program soon after the Bhopal Disaster in 1984; it is coordinated through the Chemical Manufacturer's Association. This program, which began in March 1985, is a long-term industry commitment to develop a community outreach program and to improve local emergency response planning. The Congress of the United States began, in 1985, to consider proposals for mandatory programs. This led to enactment of the Superfund Amendments and Reauthorization Act of 1986, known as SARA. A portion of this Act, entitled Title III is also known as the Emergency Planning and Community Right-to-Know Act. Although this legislation has many mandatory requirements, it should be emphasized that a significant degree of voluntary industrial participation is needed if the purposes of the statute are to be achieved. Title III has created an intricate and still evolving system that ties together the EPA, industrial plant managers, state emergency response commissions, local emergency planning committees and fire departments with jurisdiction over the facility. Each of these groups has a different role and responsibilities but must work cooperatively with other participants. Because of the intricate network of participants, the magnitude of the information flow, and the continuing evolution of the system, unique public relations problems exist in order to comply with Title III.

  15. Application of four-dimension criteria to assess rigour of qualitative research in emergency medicine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Forero, Roberto; Nahidi, Shizar; De Costa, Josephine; Mohsin, Mohammed; Fitzgerald, Gerry; Gibson, Nick; McCarthy, Sally; Aboagye-Sarfo, Patrick

    2018-02-17

    The main objective of this methodological manuscript was to illustrate the role of using qualitative research in emergency settings. We outline rigorous criteria applied to a qualitative study assessing perceptions and experiences of staff working in Australian emergency departments. We used an integrated mixed-methodology framework to identify different perspectives and experiences of emergency department staff during the implementation of a time target government policy. The qualitative study comprised interviews from 119 participants across 16 hospitals. The interviews were conducted in 2015-2016 and the data were managed using NVivo version 11. We conducted the analysis in three stages, namely: conceptual framework, comparison and contrast and hypothesis development. We concluded with the implementation of the four-dimension criteria (credibility, dependability, confirmability and transferability) to assess the robustness of the study, RESULTS: We adapted four-dimension criteria to assess the rigour of a large-scale qualitative research in the emergency department context. The criteria comprised strategies such as building the research team; preparing data collection guidelines; defining and obtaining adequate participation; reaching data saturation and ensuring high levels of consistency and inter-coder agreement. Based on the findings, the proposed framework satisfied the four-dimension criteria and generated potential qualitative research applications to emergency medicine research. We have added a methodological contribution to the ongoing debate about rigour in qualitative research which we hope will guide future studies in this topic in emergency care research. It also provided recommendations for conducting future mixed-methods studies. Future papers on this series will use the results from qualitative data and the empirical findings from longitudinal data linkage to further identify factors associated with ED performance; they will be reported

  16. Validity of teacher report for assessing the emergent literacy skills of at-risk preschoolers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cabell, Sonia Q; Justice, Laura M; Zucker, Tricia A; Kilday, Carolyn R

    2009-04-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine the predictive validity of teacher report for assessing the emergent literacy skills of preschool-age children. The aims were twofold: (a) to examine predictive relationships between teacher report and direct behavioral assessment, and (b) to examine the extent to which teacher report accurately differentiates children who are exhibiting low levels of emergent literacy skills relative to their peers. Forty-four preschool teachers completed a rating form reporting the print-related emergent literacy skills of 209 children who were enrolled in their classrooms. Approximately 2 months later, the children completed direct assessments of these skills. Correlations between teacher report and children's performance on direct behavioral assessments were positive, moderate to large in size, and statistically significant. In terms of classifying children into groupings based on risk (e.g., at risk, low risk), global teacher ratings demonstrated a sensitivity of 51.9% and a specificity of 87.9%. The present results indicate that teacher report provides a somewhat valid representation of children's skills. However, the diagnostic accuracy of teacher report for identifying children who are at risk is generally low. With this limitation in mind, teacher report can provide an important complement to current assessment approaches that are used in preschool settings.

  17. Preliminary assessment of appropriateness of emergency care service use: actions taken and consultations obtained before emergency care presentation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tzeng, Huey-Ming

    2011-01-01

    Inappropriate use of emergency care services can increase hospital readmissions and related costs. This pilot, cross-sectional survey project determined whether home health care patients who receive emergency care services during a Medicare-approved home care episode sought consultation from health care professionals before they made the emergency care visit. The two research questions were: (a) What actions were taken by the patient before making an emergency care visit?; (b) If prior consultation was obtained, what were the suggestions? Preliminary data were obtained from a Michigan-based, Medicare-certified, not-for-profit home health agency affiliated with a university health system. A two-page questionnaire recorded up to three emergency care visits. Volunteer participants were Medicare patients who had no cognitive deficits and were able to communicate with home health care providers (HHCPs) by themselves. Thirty-five emergency care visits were reported; 31 (88.6%) Medicare patients participated and 4 (11.4%) of them had two emergency care visits. Before the patients made an emergency care visit, they most often called their primary care physicians (PCPs; N = 20, 57.1%), followed by the HHCPs (N = 10, 28.6%). All 20 patients who contacted their PCPs and 7 patients who contacted their HHCPs were advised to seek emergency care services. In 20 emergency care visits the patient was admitted for an acute hospital stay; the other 15 patients went home. Most patients contacted their PCPs or HHCPs before they went to an emergency department or urgent care facility. These results implied that PCPs and HHCPs seemed to perceive that the need for emergency care should be determined at an emergency room or urgent care facility. This study was unable to differentiate the need for emergency care services or the appropriateness of the advice given by PCPs or HHCPs when the home care patients were under the care of a medical team.

  18. Assessing subject privacy and data confidentiality in an emerging region for clinical trials: United Arab Emirates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nair, Satish Chandrasekhar; Ibrahim, Halah

    2015-01-01

    Pharmaceutical sponsored clinical trials, formerly conducted predominantly in the United States and Europe, have expanded to emerging regions, including the Middle East. Our study explores factors influencing clinical trial privacy and confidentiality in the United Arab Emirates. Factors including concept familiarity, informed consent compliance, data access, and preservation, were analyzed to assess current practices in the Arab world. As the UAE is an emerging region for clinical trials, there is a growing need for regulations related to data confidentiality and subject privacy. Informational and decisional privacy should be viewed within the realms of Arab culture and religious background.

  19. A dynamic vulnerability evaluation model to smart grid for the emergency response

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Zhen; Wu, Xiaowei; Fang, Diange

    2018-01-01

    Smart grid shows more significant vulnerability to natural disasters and external destroy. According to the influence characteristics of important facilities suffered from typical kinds of natural disaster and external destroy, this paper built a vulnerability evaluation index system of important facilities in smart grid based on eight typical natural disasters, including three levels of static and dynamic indicators, totally forty indicators. Then a smart grid vulnerability evaluation method was proposed based on the index system, including determining the value range of each index, classifying the evaluation grade standard and giving the evaluation process and integrated index calculation rules. Using the proposed evaluation model, it can identify the most vulnerable parts of smart grid, and then help adopting targeted emergency response measures, developing emergency plans and increasing its capacity of disaster prevention and mitigation, which guarantee its safe and stable operation.

  20. Cortisol Awakening Response, Internalizing Symptoms, and Life Satisfaction in Emerging Adults

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Li Shen Chong

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available The cortisol awakening response (CAR has been associated with depression and a broader range of internalizing problems. Emerging adulthood is characterized by numerous stressful transitional life events. Furthermore, the functioning of the neurobiological stress system changes across development. These considerations underscore the importance of evaluating the physiological stress system in emerging adults in identifying the extent to which cortisol levels vary with risk and protective factors for mental health. The present study evaluated the association between internalizing symptoms and perceived life satisfaction with CAR in 32 young adults. Three saliva samples were collected to measure cortisol levels upon awakening and participants completed the Depression Anxiety Stress Scale (DASS and Satisfaction with Life Scale (SWLS. Results show a significant positive correlation between area under the curve for CAR with internalizing symptoms (DASS total and the DASS-depression subscale, but not with life satisfaction. Study limitations, implications, and future directions for these finding were discussed.

  1. Requirements and Challenges of Location-Based Access Control in Healthcare Emergency Response

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vicente, Carmen Ruiz; Kirkpatrick, Michael; Ghinita, Gabriel

    2009-01-01

    ), are not sufficient to address the new challenges introduced by these location-based applications. Several recent research efforts have enhanced RBAC with spatio-temporal features. Nevertheless, the state-of-the-art does not deal with mobility of both subjects and objects and does not support the utilization......Recent advances in positioning and tracking technologies have led to the emergence of novel location-based applications that allow participants to access information relevant to their spatio-temporal context. Traditional access control models, such as role-based access control (RBAC...... emergency response scenario which highlights the novel challenges that arise when enforcing access control in an environment with moving subjects and objects. To address a realistic application scenario, we consider movement on road networks, and we identify complex access control decisions relevant...

  2. Bulgarian Emergency Response System (BERS) in case of nuclear accident with exposure doses’estimation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Syrakov, M.; Prodanova, M.; Slavov, K.; Veleva, B.

    2015-07-01

    A PC-oriented Emergency Response System in case of nuclear accident (BERS) is developed and works operationally in the National Institute of Meteorology and Hydrology (NIMH). The creation and development of BERS was highly stimulated by the ETEX (European Tracer Experiment) project. BERS comprises two main parts - the operational and the accidental ones. The operational part, run automatically every 12 hours, prepares the input meteorological file used by both trajectory and dispersion models, runs the trajectory models, visualizes the results and uploads the maps of trajectories to a dedicated web-site. The accidental part is activated manually when a real radioactive releases occur or during emergency exercises. Its core is the Bulgarian dispersion models EMAP. Outputs are concentration, accumulated deposition and selected doses fields. In the paper, the BERS overall structure is described and examples of its products are presented. (Author)

  3. Risk-Averse Evolutionary Game Model of Aviation Joint Emergency Response

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wei Pan

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available We study effects of risk-averse attitude of both participators in aviation joint emergency response on the coevolution of cooperation mechanisms and individual preferences between airport and nonprofit organization. First, based on the current aviation joint emergency mechanism in China, we put forward two mechanisms to select the joint nonprofit organization, including reputation cooperation and bidding competition. Meanwhile, we consider two preferences including altruism and selfishness. Then we build replicator dynamics equations using the theory of conditional value-at-risk (CVaR taking risk aversion attitude into account. Finally, we introduce the factor of government and give all participators some suggestions. We show that the risk-averse attitude of the other game participator affects the one participator’s decision and the effects subject to some parameters.

  4. Emergency focussed assessment with sonography in trauma (FAST) and haemodynamic stability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Zoë A; Wood, Darryl

    2014-04-01

    Focussed assessment with sonography in trauma (FAST) has assumed a key role in the rapid non-invasive assessment of thoracoabdominal trauma and assists in decreasing disposition time. This study evaluates FAST's efficacy with respect to haemodynamic stability in a South African emergency department (ED). Data were collected prospectively by four emergency medicine doctors trained in emergency ultrasonography. FAST scans were performed by one ED doctor and timings, scan result and disposition were recorded. Patient haemodynamic stability was assessed by the emergency doctor performing the scan; subjectively at the time of scanning and objectively using calculation of the shock index. All scan results were subsequently verified by a second ED doctor in a blinded fashion and by CT scanning or operative intervention when clinically indicated. 166 FAST scans were conducted of which 36 (21.7%) were positive. Mean age was 30.6 years (SD 12.8). 74.1% of patients sustained blunt traumatic injury. Doctors' subjective haemodynamic stability assessments had higher specificity, sensitivity and predictive values than shock index alone. Haemodynamic instability and a positive FAST result were significantly related (p=0.004). Sensitivities and specificities of FAST scans for blunt and penetrating trauma were 93.1% and 100%, and 90.0% and 100%, respectively. Corresponding values for pneumothoraces were 84.6% and 100%. This study showed a valuable role for FAST in all traumas, particularly in haemodynamic compromise. As an addition to the physician's repertoire of bedside assessment tools, it improves diagnostic capabilities in comparison with simple haemodynamic assessments alone.

  5. Characteristics of pain and response to analgesic treatment in dogs and cats examined at a veterinary teaching hospital emergency service.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wiese, Ashley J; Muir, William W; Wittum, Thomas E

    2005-06-15

    To estimate the prevalence and characteristics of pain in dogs and cats examined by an emergency service at a veterinary teaching hospital and evaluate the response of dogs and cats with signs of pain to analgesic treatment. Cross-sectional study. 317 dogs and 112 cats. A questionnaire was used to categorize the characteristics of pain. The location, cause, and signs of pain were determined by obtaining a thorough history and conducting a physical examination. Pain was categorized by type (superficial somatic, deep somatic, or visceral), mechanism (inflammatory, neuropathic, or both), severity (mild, moderate, or severe), and duration. Evidence for primary or secondary hypersensitivity and hyposensitivity to manipulation was determined. The response to single or multiple analgesic drug administration was assessed. 179 (56%) dogs and 60 (54%) cats had signs of pain. In most of these dogs and cats, pain was classified as acute (dogs had deep somatic pain; most cats had visceral pain. Inflammation was the most common mechanism. One hundred nineteen (66%) dogs and 41 (68%) cats were treated with analgesic drugs. Analgesic treatment was considered effective in 73 (61%) dogs and 31 (76%) cats. Results suggest that moderate to severe acute somatic pain caused by inflammation is common in dogs and cats examined by an emergency service and that a combination of multiple analgesic drugs is more effective than any single analgesic drug in the treatment of pain in these dogs and cats.

  6. Magnitude-Based Postfire Debris Flow Rainfall Accumulation-Duration Thresholds for Emergency-Response Planning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cannon, S. H.; Boldt, E. M.; Laber, J. L.; Kean, J. W.; Staley, D. M.

    2011-12-01

    Following wildfires, emergency-response and public-safety agencies can be faced with evacuation and resource-deployment decisions well in advance of coming winter storms and during storms themselves. Information critical to these decisions is needed for recently burned areas in the San Gabriel Mountains of southern California. A compilation of information on the hydrologic response to winter storms from recently burned areas in southern California steeplands is used to develop a system for classifying magnitudes of hydrologic response in this setting. The four-class system describes combinations of reported volumes of individual debris flows, consequences of debris flows and floods in an urban setting, and spatial extents of the hydrologic response. Magnitude 0 events show a negligible response, while Magnitude I events are characterized by small (storm drains may be blocked, a few streets may be partially flooded or blocked by water and debris, and a few buildings near the mountain front may be damaged. Magnitude II events are characterized by two to five moderately-sized (1,000 to 10,000 m3) debris flows or one large (>10,000 m3) event. Several culverts or storm drains may be blocked or fail, several streets may be flooded or completely blocked by water and debris, and buildings, streets, and bridges may be damaged or destroyed. Magnitude III events consist of widespread and abundant debris flows of volumes >10,000 m3 and high discharge flooding causing significant impact to the built environment. Many streets, storm drains, and streets may be completely blocked by debris, making many streets unsafe for travel. Several large buildings, sections of infrastructure corridors and bridges may be damaged or destroyed. The range of rainfall conditions associated with different magnitude classes are defined by correlating local rainfall data with the response magnitude information. Magnitude 0 events can be expected when within-storm rainfall accumulations (A) of given

  7. Development and evaluation of an integrated emergency response facility location model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jae-Dong Hong

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: The purpose of this paper is to propose and compare the performance of the “two” robust mathematical models, the Robust Integer Facility Location (RIFL and the Robust Continuous Facility Location (RCFL models, to solve the emergency response facility and transportation problems in terms of the total logistics cost and robustness. Design/methodology/approach: The emergency response facilities include distribution warehouses (DWH where relief goods are stored, commodity distribution points (CDP, and neighborhood locations. Authors propose two robust models: the Robust Integer Facility Location (RIFL model where the demand of a CDP is covered by a main DWH or a backup CDP; the Robust Continuous Facility Location (RCFL model where that of a CDP is covered by multiple DWHs. The performance of these models is compared with each other and to the Regular Facility Location (RFL model where a CDP is covered by one main DWH. The case studies with multiple scenarios are analyzed. Findings: The results illustrate that the RFL outperforms others under normal conditions while the RCFL outperforms others under the emergency conditions. Overall, the total logistics cost and robustness level of the RCFL outperforms those of other models while the performance of RFL and RIFL is mixed between the cost and robustness index. Originality/value: Two new emergency distribution approaches are modeled, and evaluated using case studies. In addition to the total logistics cost, the robustness index is uniquely presented and applied. The proposed models and robustness concept are hoped to shed light to the future works in the field of disaster logistics management.

  8. A UAV BASED CLOSE-RANGE RAPID AERIAL MONITORING SYSTEM FOR EMERGENCY RESPONSES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K. Choi

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available As the occurrences and scales of disasters and accidents have been increased due to the global warming, the terrorists' attacks, and many other reasons, the demand for rapid responses for the emergent situations also has been thus ever-increasing. These emergency responses are required to be customized to each individual site for more effective management of the emergent situations. These requirements can be satisfied with the decisions based on the spatial changes on the target area, which should be detected immediately or in real-time. Aerial monitoring without human operators is an appropriate means because the emergency areas are usually inaccessible. Therefore, a UAV is a strong candidate as the platform for the aerial monitoring. In addition, the sensory data from the UAV system usually have higher resolution than other system because the system can operate at a lower altitude. If the transmission and processing of the data could be performed in real-time, the spatial changes of the target area can be detected with high spatial and temporal resolution by the UAV rapid mapping systems. As a result, we aim to develop a rapid aerial mapping system based on a UAV, whose key features are the effective acquisition of the sensory data, real-time transmission and processing of the data. In this paper, we will introduce the general concept of our system, including the main features, intermediate results, and explain our real-time sensory data georeferencing algorithm which is a core for prompt generation of the spatial information from the sensory data.

  9. Designing Mobile Applications for Emergency Response: Citizens Acting as Human Sensors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Romano, Marco; Onorati, Teresa; Aedo, Ignacio; Diaz, Paloma

    2016-03-19

    When an emergency occurs, citizens can be a helpful support for the operation centers involved in the response activities. As witnesses to a crisis, they initially can share updated and detailed information about what is going on. Moreover, thanks to the current technological evolution people are able to quickly and easily gather rich information and transmit it through different communication channels. Indeed, modern mobile devices embed several sensors such as GPS receivers, Wi-Fi, accelerometers or cameras that can transform users into well-equipped human sensors. For these reasons, emergency organizations and small and medium enterprises have demonstrated a growing interest in developing smart applications for reporting any exceptional circumstances. In this paper, we present a practical study about this kind of applications for identifying both limitations and common features. Based on a study of relevant existent contributions in this area and our personal direct experience in developing and evaluating emergency management solutions, our aim is to propose several findings about how to design effective and efficient mobile emergency notification applications. For this purpose we have exploited the basic sensors of modern mobile devices and the users' aptitude for using them. The evaluation consists of a practical and a theoretical part. In the practical part, we have simulated a traffic accident as closely as possible to a real scenario, with a victim lying on the ground near a car in the middle of a street. For the theoretical part, we have interviewed some emergency experts for collecting their opinions about the utility of the proposed solution. Results from this evaluation phase confirm the positive impact that EN application have for both operators' and citizens' perspective. Moreover, we collected several findings useful for future design challenges in the same area, as shown in the final redesign of the proposed application.

  10. EPA's role and requirements in Radiological Dispersive Device (RDD) Emergency Response

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mitchell, J.; Becker, N.

    2007-12-01

    The National Response Plan (NRP)'s Nuclear/Radiological Incident Annex describes how federal agencies should coordinate their actions when responding to nuclear/radiological incidents This would include sabotage and terrorist incidents, such as terrorist use of radiological dispersal devices (RDDs) or improvised nuclear devices, as well as reactor plant accidents (commercial or weapons production facilities), orphan radioactive material sources, transportation and foreign accidents involving nuclear/radioactive material, . For an Incident of National Significance (INS), DHS is always responsible for overall coordination of the Federal response taking the lead on external affairs (public, state/local, Congressional, White House), while working in consultation with the Coordinating Agency. The primary role of the Coordinating Agency during an INS is to focus on managing the technical aspects of the Federal radiological response, including establishing site perimeters, site characterization, contaminant control measures, data management, ensuring coordination of technical data, decontamination/cleanup, and waste management. EPA becomes the Coordinating Agency for non-terrorist incidents at nuclear facilities that are not DOD, DOE, or NRC/Agreement-State licensed facilities.even though DOD, DOE, and NRC become the Coordinating Agency for their own facilities, weapons, and materials. For all other radiological terrorist incidents, such as a RDD in a city, DOE is the initial Coordinating Agency. EPA will be expected to provide radiological emergency response of a magnitude, scope, and rapidity of response greater than in all their past experience. The EPA and Los Alamos National Laboratory have formed a partnership to current research to aid in response planning and enhance preparedness. Currently Los Alamos is defining the boundaries of contamination from an urban RDD using urban dispersion modeling, in order for the EPA to be able to identify, quantify and establish a

  11. The technical state of the art on an emergency response robot for a nuclear fuel handling machine in PHWR

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Seo, Y. C.; Kim, S. H.; Kim, C. H.; Shin, H. C.; Lee, S. U.; Jeong, K. M.; Jeong, S. H.; Jo, J. W.; Choi, Y. S

    2009-02-15

    The purpose of this research is to survey the state of art on restore a disabled nuclear fuel handling machine which is attached to pressure tube and also to suggest basic materials about emergency fuel handling machine response technology for future. The result of this research can apply to develop an emergency response robot which can maintain the safety of nuclear fuel handling machine in PHWR and could be utilized as basic materials for developing an emergency response robot for fuel handling machine which is planned for future.

  12. Life-Cycle Assessment of Prototype Unit of Emergency Housing. The search for the zero impact

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. M. Ros García

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Prototype Unit of Emergency Housing (PUEH is the result of the Applied Research Project VEM (Military Emergency Housing developed in collaboration with Escuela Politécnica Superior (Universidad CEU and the company Air-bus Defense & Space. It is designed as a modular and industrialized unit of basic habitability, with programmed and expandable growth, designed to provide shelter and protection in environments of humanitarian crises or contingencies of social vulnerability in order to ensure sustainable habitat for emergencies.The influence of the construction processes and materials involved in the manufacture of this PUEH have on the environment, analyzed using the methodology of life-cycle assessment (LCA, considered especially critical recycling the mate-rials used. Thus, in order to reduce the environmental impact environmental, each of the component parts of the developed prototype unit are quantified, evaluating the benefits resulting from the methodology DfMA (Design for Manufacturing and Assembly.

  13. Locating helicopter emergency medical service bases to optimise population coverage versus average response time.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garner, Alan A; van den Berg, Pieter L

    2017-10-16

    New South Wales (NSW), Australia has a network of multirole retrieval physician staffed helicopter emergency medical services (HEMS) with seven bases servicing a jurisdiction with population concentrated along the eastern seaboard. The aim of this study was to estimate optimal HEMS base locations within NSW using advanced mathematical modelling techniques. We used high resolution census population data for NSW from 2011 which divides the state into areas containing 200-800 people. Optimal HEMS base locations were estimated using the maximal covering location problem facility location optimization model and the average response time model, exploring the number of bases needed to cover various fractions of the population for a 45 min response time threshold or minimizing the overall average response time to all persons, both in green field scenarios and conditioning on the current base structure. We also developed a hybrid mathematical model where average response time was optimised based on minimum population coverage thresholds. Seven bases could cover 98% of the population within 45mins when optimised for coverage or reach the entire population of the state within an average of 21mins if optimised for response time. Given the existing bases, adding two bases could either increase the 45 min coverage from 91% to 97% or decrease the average response time from 21mins to 19mins. Adding a single specialist prehospital rapid response HEMS to the area of greatest population concentration decreased the average state wide response time by 4mins. The optimum seven base hybrid model that was able to cover 97.75% of the population within 45mins, and all of the population in an average response time of 18 mins included the rapid response HEMS model. HEMS base locations can be optimised based on either percentage of the population covered, or average response time to the entire population. We have also demonstrated a hybrid technique that optimizes response time for a given

  14. Assessment of a Chief Complaint–Based Curriculum for Resident Education in Geriatric Emergency Medicine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Robert L Muelleman

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: We hypothesized that a geriatric chief complaint–based didactic curriculum would improve resident documentation of elderly patient care in the emergency department (ED. Methods: A geriatric chief complaint curriculum addressing the 3 most common chief complaints—abdominal pain, weakness, and falls—was developed and presented. A pre- and postcurriculum implementation chart review assessed resident documentation of the 5 components of geriatric ED care: 1 differential diagnosis/patient evaluation considering atypical presentations, 2 determination of baseline function, 3 chronic care facility/caregiver communication, 4 cognitive assessment, and 5 assessment of polypharmacy. A single reviewer assessed 5 pre- and 5 postimplementation charts for each of 18 residents included in the study. We calculated 95% confidence and determined that statistical significance was determined by a 2-tailed z test for 2 proportions, with statistical significance at 0.003 by Bonferroni correction. Results: For falls, resident documentation improved significantly for 1 of 5 measures. For abdominal pain, 2 of 5 components improved. For weakness, 3 of 5 components improved. Conclusion: A geriatric chief complaint–based curriculum improved emergency medicine resident documentation for the care of elderly patients in the ED compared with a non–age-specific chief complaint–based curriculum. [West J Emerg Med. 2011;12(4:484–488.

  15. Biomarkers and assessment of vaccine responses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hogrefe, Wayne R

    2005-11-01

    Vaccines for infectious diseases have in the past, and will into the future, relied on a variety of surrogate markers to monitor vaccine efficacy. The primary surrogate markers have been either the antibody titer to vaccine antigens or the measurement of antibody function such as anti-viral neutralizing activity. In recent years, the measurement of T-cell function in conjunction with or independent of antibody measurements have been used to assess vaccine efficacy. ELISPOT, flow cytometry and intra-cellular staining methods are used to determine the impact of vaccines on immune mediators such as interleukins, interferons, MHC expression and pro-inflammatory mediators. The relevant B-cell and T-cell surrogate markers for vaccine efficacy is dependent on the vaccine being used, so that no universal set of surrogate markers can be applied to all vaccines. The use of T-cell surrogate markers can be complicated by the lack of sensitivity to accurately measure intra-cellular mediators. Although typically this is not a problem for infectious disease vaccines, it is a major problem for cancer vaccines.

  16. S(PEEDKITS & Smart Packaging. Novel textile application to redesign the emergency response

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alessandra Zanelli

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available The essay aims to give an overview of the on-going S(PEEDKITS collaborative project, co-financed by European Union, under 7FP - Activity SEC- 2011.4.2-3. In particular the research activities carried out the Politecnico di Milano (POLIMI are highlighted, both on the field of the Industrial Design and on Architectural Technology. The theme of designing new emergency response kits in situations of great disasters outlines a new frontier for the disciplines of Architectural Technology that aims to combine the traditional vocation of the components’ design with the innovative researches of technical textiles and lightweight construction.

  17. Stakeholder Attitudes Toward and Values Embedded in a Sensor-Enhanced Personal Emergency Response System

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dahl, Yngve; Farshchian, Babak; Vilarinho, Thomas

    2016-01-01

    This paper provides an empirical understanding of concerns that the application of a sensor-enhanced medical alert system, or personal emergency response (PER) system, raises from the perspective of care receivers (users) and care providers. Data were gathered in the context of a field trial...... of a PER system supporting both user-initiated alerts and automatic fall detection alerts. The system was tested at two residential care facilities for 3 weeks. Drawing on data primarily from post-trial group and pair interviews, we describe and compare care receivers' and providers' views on the following...

  18. The presence of an Emergency Airway Response Team and its effects on in-hospital Code Blue.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Henderson, Sean O; McClung, Christian D; Sintuu, Chanida; Swadron, Stuart P

    2009-02-01

    The survival rate from in-hospital cardiac arrest due to pulseless electrical activity (PEA)/asystole in our institution was higher than expected (70%). It was the impression of the Emergency Department-led Code Blue Team (CBT) that many of these patients were actually suffering respiratory arrests before their cardiac events. To address this, the facility developed an early intervention team focused on early airway intervention-the Emergency Airway Response Team (EART). The objective of this study was to assess the effect of early intervention in patients during the "pre-Code Blue" period, specifically with regard to airway stabilization. Our hypothesis was that there would be fewer CBT calls (cardiac arrests) due to PEA and asystole and that the survival from these events would decrease. This was a retrospective review of all cardiac arrests responded to by the CBT and EART for a period of 2 years. Charts were reviewed for the initial presenting rhythm (as defined by the Utstein Format) and event survival for the 12-month period immediately before and immediately after the establishment of the EART (Time Periods 1 and 2, respectively). The total number of CBT calls decreased by 15%, return of spontaneous circulation from any rhythm decreased by 9%, and survival to discharge decreased by 8% (p = non-significant). The number of CBT calls specifically for asystole/PEA decreased by 8%. Deaths in hospital were significantly associated with Period 2 (odds ratio 1.84; 95% confidence interval 1.03-3.28) after adjusting for age, gender, and presenting rhythms. The total number of CBT calls decreased slightly with the creation of the Emergency Airway Response Team. Return of spontaneous circulation and survival to hospital discharge after cardiac arrest due to asystole/PEA were significantly decreased, suggesting early intervention may have benefit.

  19. Electrocardiography interpretation training in emergency medicine: methods, resources, competency assessment, and national standardization

    OpenAIRE

    Özel, Betül Akbuğa; Demircan, Ahmet; Keleş, Ayfer; Bildik, Fikret; Özel, Deniz; Ergin, Mehmet; Günaydin, Gül Pamukçu

    2015-01-01

    Objective(s). The aim of this study was to evaluate the status of electrocardiography (ECG) training in emergency medicine residency programs in Turkey, and the attitude of the program representatives towards standardization of such training. Methods. This investigation was planned as a cross-sectional study. An 18-item questionnaire was distributed to directors of residency programs. Responses were evaluated using SPSS (v.16.0), and analyzed using the chi-square test. Results. Thirty...

  20. Satellite and Aerial Remote Sensing in Support of Disaster Response Operations Conducted by the Texas Division of Emergency Management

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wells, G. L.; Tapley, B. D.; Bettadpur, S. V.; Howard, T.; Porter, B.; Smith, S.; Teng, L.; Tapley, C.

    2014-12-01

    The effective use of remote sensing products as guidance to emergency managers and first responders during field operations requires close coordination and communication with state-level decision makers, incident commanders and the leaders of individual strike teams. Information must be tailored to meet the needs of different emergency support functions and must contain current (ideally near real-time) data delivered in standard formats in time to influence decisions made under rapidly changing conditions. Since 2003, a representative of the University of Texas Center for Space Research (CSR) has served as a member of the Governor's Emergency Management Council and has directed the flow of information from remote sensing observations and high performance computing modeling and simulations to the Texas Division of Emergency Management in the State Operations Center. The CSR team has supported response and recovery missions resulting from hurricanes, tornadoes, flash floods, wildfires, oil spills and other natural and man-made disasters in Texas and surrounding states. Through web mapping services, state emergency managers and field teams have received threat model forecasts, real-time vehicle tracking displays and imagery to support search-and-clear operations before hurricane landfall, search-and-rescue missions following floods, tactical wildfire suppression, pollution monitoring and hazardous materials detection. Data servers provide near real-time satellite imagery collected by CSR's direct broadcast receiving system and post data products delivered during activations of the United Nations International Charter on Space and Major Disasters. In the aftermath of large-scale events, CSR is charged with tasking state aviation resources, including the Air National Guard and Texas Civil Air Patrol, to acquire geolocated aerial photography of the affected region for wide area damage assessment. A data archive for each disaster is available online for years following

  1. PAGER - Prompt Assessment of Global Earthquakes for Response

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — PAGER (Prompt Assessment of Global Earthquakes for Response) is an automated system that estimates the impact of significant earthquakes around the world, informing...

  2. A two-stage optimization model for emergency material reserve layout planning under uncertainty in response to environmental accidents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Jie; Guo, Liang; Jiang, Jiping; Jiang, Dexun; Liu, Rentao; Wang, Peng

    2016-06-05

    In the emergency management relevant to pollution accidents, efficiency emergency rescues can be deeply influenced by a reasonable assignment of the available emergency materials to the related risk sources. In this study, a two-stage optimization framework is developed for emergency material reserve layout planning under uncertainty to identify material warehouse locations and emergency material reserve schemes in pre-accident phase coping with potential environmental accidents. This framework is based on an integration of Hierarchical clustering analysis - improved center of gravity (HCA-ICG) model and material warehouse location - emergency material allocation (MWL-EMA) model. First, decision alternatives are generated using HCA-ICG to identify newly-built emergency material warehouses for risk sources which cannot be satisfied by existing ones with a time-effective manner. Second, emergency material reserve planning is obtained using MWL-EMA to make emergency materials be prepared in advance with a cost-effective manner. The optimization framework is then applied to emergency management system planning in Jiangsu province, China. The results demonstrate that the developed framework not only could facilitate material warehouse selection but also effectively provide emergency material for emergency operations in a quick response. Copyright © 2016. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  3. A process evaluation of PRONTO simulation training for obstetric and neonatal emergency response teams in Guatemala.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walker, Dilys M; Holme, Francesca; Zelek, Sarah T; Olvera-García, Marisela; Montoya-Rodríguez, Airaín; Fritz, Jimena; Fahey, Jenifer; Lamadrid-Figueroa, Héctor; Cohen, Susanna; Kestler, Edgar

    2015-07-24

    Despite expanding access to institutional birth in Guatemala, maternal mortality remains largely unchanged over the last ten years. Enhancing the quality of emergency obstetric and neonatal care is one important strategy to decrease mortality. An innovative, low-tech, simulation-based team training program (PRONTO) aims to optimize care provided during obstetric and neonatal emergencies in low-resource settings. We conducted PRONTO simulation training between July 2012 and December 2012 in 15 clinics in Alta Verapaz, Huehuetenango, San Marcos, and Quiche, Guatemala. These clinics received PRONTO as part of a larger pair-matched cluster randomized trial of a comprehensive intervention package. Training participants were obstetric and neonatal care providers that completed pre- and post- training assessments for the two PRONTO training modules, which evaluated knowledge of evidence-based practice and self-efficacy in obstetric and neonatal topics. Part of the training included a session for trained teams to establish strategic goals to improve clinical practice. We utilized a pre/post-test design to evaluate the impact of the course on both knowledge and self-efficacy with longitudinal fixed effects linear regression with robust standard errors. Pearson correlation coefficients were used to assess the correlation between knowledge and self-efficacy. Poisson regression was used to assess the association between the number of goals achieved and knowledge, self-efficacy, and identified facility-level factors. Knowledge and self-efficacy scores improved significantly in all areas of teaching. Scores were correlated for all topics overall at training completion. More than 60 % of goals set to improve clinic functioning and emergency care were achieved. No predictors of goal achievement were identified. PRONTO training is effective at improving provider knowledge and self-efficacy in training areas. Further research is needed to evaluate the impact of the training on

  4. Planning guidance for emergency response to a hypothetical nuclear attack on Riyadh, Saudi Arabia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shubayr, Nasser Ali M.

    The threat of nuclear attack will remain imminent in an ever-advancing society. Saudi Arabia is not immune to this threat. This dissertation establishes planning guidance for response to a nuclear attack on Riyadh, the capital of Saudi Arabia, based on a hypothetical scenario of a nuclear detonation. A case scenario of a one-megaton thermonuclear bomb detonated at ground level over Riyadh is used to support the thesis. Previous nuclear tests and the Hiroshima and Nagasaki bombings have been used to present possible effects on Riyadh. US planning guidance and lessons learned from the Chernobyl and Fukushima nuclear plants accidents have been used to develop the emergency response guidance. The planning guidance outlines a rapid response to the nuclear detonation. Four damage zones have been identified; severe damage zone, moderate damage zone, light damage zone and dangerous fallout zone. Actions that are recommended, and those that should be avoided, have been determined for each zone. Shelter/ evacuation evaluation for blast-affected and fallout-affected areas is the basis for the recommendation that shelter in place is the best decision for the first hours to days after the attack. Guidelines for medical care response and population monitoring and decontamination are included to reduce the early and long-term effects of the attack. Recommendations to the Saudi Arabian authorities have been made to facilitate suitable preparedness and response for such an event.

  5. The Boston Marathon bombing: after-action review of the Brigham and Women's Hospital emergency radiology response.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brunner, John; Rocha, Tatiana C; Chudgar, Avni A; Goralnick, Eric; Havens, Joaquim M; Raja, Ali S; Sodickson, Aaron

    2014-10-01

    To analyze imaging utilization and emergency radiology process turnaround times in response to the April 15, 2013, Boston Marathon bombing in order to identify opportunities for improvement in the Brigham and Women's Hospital (BWH) emergency operations plan. Institutional review board approval was obtained with waivers of informed consent. Patient demographics, injuries, and outcomes were gathered, along with measures of emergency department (ED) imaging utilization and turnaround times, which were compared with operations from the preceding year by using the Wilcoxon rank sum test. Multivariate linear regression was used to assess contributors to examination cancellations. Forty patients presented to BWH after the bombing; 16 were admitted and 24 were discharged home. There were no fatalities. Ten patients required emergent surgery. Blast injury types included 13 (33%) primary, 20 (51%) secondary, three (8%) tertiary, and 19 (49%) quaternary. Thirty-one patients (78%) underwent imaging in the ED; 57 radiographic examinations in 30 patients and 16 computed tomographic (CT) examinations in seven patients. Sixty-two radiographic and 14 CT orders were cancelled. Median time from blast to patient arrival was 97 minutes (interquartile range [IQR], 43-139 minutes), patient arrival to ED examination order, 24 minutes (IQR, 12-50 minutes), order to examination completion, 49 minutes (IQR, 26-70 minutes), and examination completion to available dictated text report, 75 minutes (IQR, 19-147 minutes). Examination completion turnaround times were significantly increased for radiography (52 minutes [IQR, 26-73 minutes] vs annual median, 31 minutes [IQR, 19-48 minutes]; P = .001) and decreased for CT (37 minutes [IQR, 26-50 minutes] vs annual median, 72 minutes [IQR, 40-129 minutes]; P = .001). There were no significant differences in report availability turnaround time (75 minutes [IQR, 19-147 minutes] vs annual median, 74 minutes [IQR, 35-127 minutes]; P = .34). The surge in

  6. A 'mixed reality' simulator concept for future Medical Emergency Response Team training.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stone, Robert J; Guest, R; Mahoney, P; Lamb, D; Gibson, C

    2017-08-01

    The UK Defence Medical Service's Pre-Hospital Emergency Care (PHEC) capability includes rapid-deployment Medical Emergency Response Teams (MERTs) comprising tri-service trauma consultants, paramedics and specialised nurses, all of whom are qualified to administer emergency care under extreme conditions to improve the survival prospects of combat casualties. The pre-deployment training of MERT personnel is designed to foster individual knowledge, skills and abilities in PHEC and in small team performance and cohesion in 'mission-specific' contexts. Until now, the provision of airborne pre-deployment MERT training had been dependent on either the availability of an operational aircraft (eg, the CH-47 Chinook helicopter) or access to one of only two ground-based facsimiles of the Chinook's rear cargo/passenger cabin. Although MERT training has high priority, there will always be competition with other military taskings for access to helicopter assets (and for other platforms in other branches of the Armed Forces). This paper describes the development of an inexpensive, reconfigurable and transportable MERT training concept based on 'mixed reality' technologies-in effect the 'blending' of real-world objects of training relevance with virtual reality reconstructions of operational contexts. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://www.bmj.com/company/products-services/rights-and-licensing/.

  7. The Boston Marathon bombings: a post-event review of the robust emergency response.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-07-01

    With as many as five level I trauma centers, Boston is well-positioned to mount an emergency response, but the two terrorist bombs that went off near the finish line of the city's annual marathon on April 15 put high levels of stress and demand on emergency personnel. In post-crisis reviews, hospital administrators say that all the emergency planning and drilling that they carry out on a regular basis was instrumental in helping them quickly care for nearly 200 victims while also securing their facilities at a time when the threat to the city was not well understood. Medical personnel working in tents on site at the marathon were able to respond to the injured quickly, while also giving area EDs a heads-up on what to expect. ED leaders report that a robust effort from the upper floors of their hospitals was critical in: helping them clear their EDs for incoming patients; establishing a security perimeter around the facilities to thoroughly check any people entering or leaving to guard against potential external threats; and focusing on improving how many extra staff show up to help during the crisis because it actually requires extra resources to manage the personnel.

  8. From reactive to proactive use of social media in emergency response: A critical discussion of the Twitcident Project

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Boersma, F.K.; Diks, D.; Ferguson, J.E.; Wolbers, J.J.; Silvius, G.

    2016-01-01

    This chapter examines the introduction and implementation of the pilot project Twitcident in an emergency response room setting. Twitcident is a web-based system for filtering, searching and analyzing data on real-world incidents or crises. Social media data is seen as important for emergency

  9. Factors affecting the United Nations' response to natural disasters: what determines the allocation of the Central Emergency Response Fund?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robinson, Tyler D; Oliveira, Thiago M; Kayden, Stephanie

    2017-10-01

    Natural disasters can overwhelm the domestic response of a country, leaving it dependent on external humanitarian relief. The Central Emergency Response Fund (CERF) of the United Nations centralises humanitarian funding and thus allows for a rapid response. This study combined data to analyse the factors that affected the allocation of CERF funding to countries that suffered a natural disaster between 2007 and 2013. It generated descriptive statistics and information on relative risks, and performed regressions of CERF funding across countries. There were 4,346 disasters in total in 188 countries between 2007 and 2013. CERF provided USD 2.98 billion to 87 countries, comprising 3.3 per cent of their total humanitarian funding. CERF more frequently supplied aid to countries in North Africa and the Middle East, and to those that had suffered geophysical disasters. Appropriately, it funds vulnerable countries experiencing severe natural disasters, yet its funding may be affected by variables beyond severity and vulnerability. Further investigation is warranted, therefore. © 2017 The Author(s). Disasters © Overseas Development Institute, 2017.

  10. Development of an automated speech recognition interface for personal emergency response systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mihailidis Alex

    2009-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Demands on long-term-care facilities are predicted to increase at an unprecedented rate as the baby boomer generation reaches retirement age. Aging-in-place (i.e. aging at home is the desire of most seniors and is also a good option to reduce the burden on an over-stretched long-term-care system. Personal Emergency Response Systems (PERSs help enable older adults to age-in-place by providing them with immediate access to emergency assistance. Traditionally they operate with push-button activators that connect the occupant via speaker-phone to a live emergency call-centre operator. If occupants do not wear the push button or cannot access the button, then the system is useless in the event of a fall or emergency. Additionally, a false alarm or failure to check-in at a regular interval will trigger a connection to a live operator, which can be unwanted and intrusive to the occupant. This paper describes the development and testing of an automated, hands-free, dialogue-based PERS prototype. Methods The prototype system was built using a ceiling mounted microphone array, an open-source automatic speech recognition engine, and a 'yes' and 'no' response dialog modelled after an existing call-centre protocol. Testing compared a single microphone versus a microphone array with nine adults in both noisy and quiet conditions. Dialogue testing was completed with four adults. Results and discussion The microphone array demonstrated improvement over the single microphone. In all cases, dialog testing resulted in the system reaching the correct decision about the kind of assistance the user was requesting. Further testing is required with elderly voices and under different noise conditions to ensure the appropriateness of the technology. Future developments include integration of the system with an emergency detection method as well as communication enhancement using features such as barge-in capability. Conclusion The use of an automated

  11. Clinician-Reported Outcome Assessments of Treatment Benefit: Report of the ISPOR Clinical Outcome Assessment Emerging Good Practices Task Force.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Powers, John H; Patrick, Donald L; Walton, Marc K; Marquis, Patrick; Cano, Stefan; Hobart, Jeremy; Isaac, Maria; Vamvakas, Spiros; Slagle, Ashley; Molsen, Elizabeth; Burke, Laurie B

    2017-01-01

    A clinician-reported outcome (ClinRO) assessment is a type of clinical outcome assessment (COA). ClinRO assessments, like all COAs (patient-reported, observer-reported, or performance outcome assessments), are used to 1) measure patients' health status and 2) define end points that can be interpreted as treatment benefits of medical interventions on how patients feel, function, or survive in clinical trials. Like other COAs, ClinRO assessments can be influenced by human choices, judgment, or motivation. A ClinRO assessment is conducted and reported by a trained health care professional and requires specialized professional training to evaluate the patient's health status. This is the second of two reports by the ISPOR Clinical Outcomes Assessment-Emerging Good Practices for Outcomes Research Task Force. The first report provided an overview of COAs including definitions important for an understanding of COA measurement practices. This report focuses specifically on issues related to ClinRO assessments. In this report, we define three types of ClinRO assessments (readings, ratings, and clinician global assessments) and describe emerging good measurement practices in their development and evaluation. The good measurement practices include 1) defining the context of use; 2) identifying the concept of interest measured; 3) defining the intended treatment benefit on how patients feel, function, or survive reflected by the ClinRO assessment and evaluating the relationship between that intended treatment benefit and the concept of interest; 4) documenting content validity; 5) evaluating other measurement properties once content validity is established (including intra- and inter-rater reliability); 6) defining study objectives and end point(s) objectives, and defining study end points and placing study end points within the hierarchy of end points; 7) establishing interpretability in trial results; and 8) evaluating operational considerations for the implementation of

  12. Love Canal Emergency Declaration Area habitability study. Volume 2. Air assessment: indicator chemicals. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1988-02-01

    Environmental studies were conducted to provide data that could be used by the Commissioner of Health for the State of New York in determining whether the Emergency Declaration Area (EDA) surrounding the Love Canal hazardous-waste site is habitable. An air assessment was conducted for Love Canal Indicator Chemicals. Homes throughout the EDA were sampled using the Trace Atmospheric Gas Analyzer Model 6000E.

  13. Nanotechnology in food processing sector-An assessment of emerging trends

    OpenAIRE

    Kalpana Sastry, R.; Anshul, Shrivastava; Rao, N. H.

    2012-01-01

    Use of nanoscience based technology in the food industry is fast emerging as new area for research and development. Several research groups including private companies in the industry have initiated research programmes for exploring the wide scope of nanotechnology into the value chain of food processing and manufacturing. This paper discusses the current focus of research in this area and assesses its potential impacts. Using the developed relational database framework with R&D indicators li...

  14. Assessment of Wind Turbine Structural Integrity using Response Surface Methodology

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Toft, Henrik Stensgaard; Svenningsen, Lasse; Moser, Wolfgang

    2016-01-01

    Highlights •A new approach to assessment of site specific wind turbine loads is proposed. •The approach can be applied in both fatigue and ultimate limit state. •Two different response surface methodologies have been investigated. •The model uncertainty introduced by the response surfaces...

  15. Effectiveness of light paths coupled with personal emergency response systems in preventing functional decline among the elderly

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Lachal, Florent; Tchalla, Achille Edem; Cardinaud, Noëlle; Saulnier, Isabelle; Nessighaoui, Hichem; Laubarie-Mouret, Cécile; Dantoine, Thierry

    2016-01-01

    .... Dependency could be delayed by preventing one of its major determinants: falls. Light paths coupled with personal emergency response systems could prevent the functional decline through fall prevention. Methods...

  16. TRI Reporting Failures from No. Canaan, Conn. Companies Nets Emergency Response Equipment for Local Fire Departments under EPA Settlement

    Science.gov (United States)

    An EPA settlement with two North Canaan mineral processing companies for the companies' alleged failure to file required toxic release inventory information requires that two local emergency response units be provided with $28,700 of equipment...

  17. Stress among surgical attending physicians and trainees: A quantitative assessment during trauma activation and emergency surgeries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Joseph, Bellal; Parvaneh, Saman; Swartz, Tianyi; Haider, Ansab A; Hassan, Ahmed; Kulvatunyou, Narong; Tang, Andrew; Latifi, Rifat; Najafi, Bijan; Rhee, Peter

    2016-10-01

    The adverse effects of stress on the wellness of trauma team members are well established; however, the level of stress has never been quantitatively assessed. The aim of our study was to assess the level of stress using subjective data and objective heart rate variability (HRV) among attending surgeons (ASs), junior residents (JRs) (PGY2/PGY3), and senior residents (SRs) (PGY5/PGY6) during trauma activation and emergency surgery. We preformed a prospective study enrolling participants over eight 24-hour calls in our Level I trauma center. Stress was assessed based on decrease in HRV, which was recorded using body worn sensors. Stress was defined as HRV of less than 85% of baseline HRV. We collected subjective data on stress for each participant during calls. Three groups (ASs, JRs, SRs) were compared for duration of different stress levels through trauma activation and emergency surgery. A total of 22 participants (ASs: n = 8, JRs: n = 7, SRs: n = 7) were evaluated over 192 hours, which included 33 trauma activations and 50 emergency surgeries. Stress level increased during trauma activations and operations regardless of level of training. The ASs had significantly lower stress when compared with SRs and JRs during trauma activation (21.9 ± 10.7 vs. 51.9 ± 17.2 vs. 64.5 ± 11.6; p II.

  18. Design Concepts of Emergency Response Robot Platform K-R2D2

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    Noh, Sun Young; Jeong, Kyungmin [Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2016-10-15

    From the analysis for various mobile robots competed in DARPA Robotics Challenge, there are some drawbacks in using two or four legs because bipedal locomotion is not yet suitable for maintaining stability and quadrupedal locomotion is difficult to go through narrow aisles. Motivated by the above observations, we propose a K-R2D2 robot platform with three legs arranged in the form of a triangle like as R2-D2 robot which is a fictional robot character in the Star Wars movies. This robot has 3 legs with tracks in each sole of the leg. It is statically stable since there are three contact points to ground. In addition, three legs are also possible to design a structure walking stairs that can expand and contract in the vertical direction. This paper has presented the conceptual design, it is developed on the purpose of quick response instead of emergent workers to the extreme conditions disasters. This robot is emergency response robot platform KR2D2 with three legs, which is statically stable to walk or wheel depending on the terrains and move quickly as possible as on uneven terrain or stairs.

  19. Emergency response network design for hazardous materials transportation with uncertain demand

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    Kamran Shahanaghi

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Transportation of hazardous materials play an essential role on keeping a friendly environment. Every day, a substantial amount of hazardous materials (hazmats, such as flammable liquids and poisonous gases, need to be transferred prior to consumption or disposal. Such transportation may result in unsuitable events for people and environment. Emergency response network is designed for this reason where specialist responding teams resolve any issue as quickly as possible. This study proposes a new multi-objective model to locate emergency response centers for transporting the hazardous materials. Since many real-world applications are faced with uncertainty in input parameters, the proposed model of this paper also assumes that reference and demand to such centre is subject to uncertainty, where demand is fuzzy random. The resulted problem formulation is modelled as nonlinear non-convex mixed integer programming and we used NSGAII method to solve the resulted problem. The performance of the proposed model is examined with several examples using various probability distribution and they are compared with the performance of other existing method.

  20. Risk perception and effectiveness of uncoordinated behavioral responses in an emerging epidemic.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Poletti, Piero; Ajelli, Marco; Merler, Stefano

    2012-08-01

    Beyond control measures imposed by public authorities, human behavioral changes can be triggered by uncoordinated responses driven by the risk perception of an emerging epidemic. In order to account for spontaneous social distancing, a model based on an evolutionary game theory framework is here proposed. Behavioral changes are modeled through an imitation process in which the convenience of different behaviors depends on the perceived prevalence of infections. Effects of misperception of risk induced by partial or incorrect information concerning the state of the epidemic are considered as well. Our findings highlight that, if the perceived risk associated to an epidemic is sufficiently large, then even a small reduction in the number of potentially infectious contacts (as a response to the epidemic) can remarkably affect the infection spread. In particular, the earlier the warning about the epidemic appears, the larger the possible reduction of the peak prevalence, and of the final epidemic size. Moreover, the epidemic spread is delayed if individuals' perception of risk is based on a memory mechanism and the risk of infection is initially overestimated. In conclusion, this analysis allows noteworthy inferences about the role of risk perception and the effectiveness of spontaneous behavioral changes during an emerging epidemic. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.