WorldWideScience

Sample records for assessment committee methodology

  1. Environmental probabilistic quantitative assessment methodologies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crovelli, R.A.

    1995-01-01

    In this paper, four petroleum resource assessment methodologies are presented as possible pollution assessment methodologies, even though petroleum as a resource is desirable, whereas pollution is undesirable. A methodology is defined in this paper to consist of a probability model and a probabilistic method, where the method is used to solve the model. The following four basic types of probability models are considered: 1) direct assessment, 2) accumulation size, 3) volumetric yield, and 4) reservoir engineering. Three of the four petroleum resource assessment methodologies were written as microcomputer systems, viz. TRIAGG for direct assessment, APRAS for accumulation size, and FASPU for reservoir engineering. A fourth microcomputer system termed PROBDIST supports the three assessment systems. The three assessment systems have different probability models but the same type of probabilistic method. The type of advantages of the analytic method are in computational speed and flexibility, making it ideal for a microcomputer. -from Author

  2. Biosafety Risk Assessment Methodology

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Caskey, Susan Adele [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States). International Biological Threat Reduction Program; Gaudioso, Jennifer M. [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States). International Biological Threat Reduction Program; Salerno, Reynolds Mathewson [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States). International Biological Threat Reduction Program; Wagner, Stefan M. [Public Health Agency of Canada, Winnipeg, MB (Canada). Canadian Science Centre for Human and Animal Health (CSCHAH); Shigematsu, Mika [National Inst. of Infectious Diseases (NIID), Tokyo (Japan); Risi, George [Infectious Disease Specialists, P.C, Missoula, MT (United States); Kozlovac, Joe [US Dept. of Agriculture (USDA)., Beltsville, MD (United States); Halkjaer-Knudsen, Vibeke [Statens Serum Inst., Copenhagen (Denmark); Prat, Esmeralda [Bayer CropScience, Monheim am Rhein (Germany)

    2010-10-01

    Laboratories that work with biological agents need to manage their safety risks to persons working the laboratories and the human and animal community in the surrounding areas. Biosafety guidance defines a wide variety of biosafety risk mitigation measures, which include measures which fall under the following categories: engineering controls, procedural and administrative controls, and the use of personal protective equipment; the determination of which mitigation measures should be used to address the specific laboratory risks are dependent upon a risk assessment. Ideally, a risk assessment should be conducted in a manner which is standardized and systematic which allows it to be repeatable and comparable. A risk assessment should clearly define the risk being assessed and avoid over complication.

  3. Energy performance assessment methodology

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Platzer, W.J. [Fraunhofer Inst. for Solar Energy Systems, Freiburg (Germany)

    2006-01-15

    The energy performance of buildings are intimately connected to the energy performance of building envelopes. The better we understand the relation between the quality of the envelope and the energy consumption of the building, the better we can improve both. We have to consider not only heating but all service energies related to the human comfort in the building, such as cooling, ventilation, lighting as well. The complexity coming from this embracing approach is not to be underestimated. It is less and less possible to realted simple characteristic performance indicators of building envelopes (such as the U-value) to the overall energy performance. On the one hand much more paramters (e.g. light transmittance) come into the picture we have to assess the product quality in a multidimensional world. Secondly buildings more and more have to work on a narrow optimum: For an old, badly insulated building all solar gains are useful for a high-performance building with very good insulation and heat recovery systems in the ventilation overheating becomes more likely. Thus we have to control the solar gains, and sometimes we need high gains, sometimes low ones. And thirdly we see that the technology within the building and the user patterns and interactions as well influence the performance of a building envelope. The aim of this project within IEA Task27 was to improve our knowledge on the complex situation and also to give a principal approach how to assess the performance of the building envelope. The participants have contributed to this aim not pretending that we have reached the end. (au)

  4. 75 FR 59720 - Methodology Committee of the Patient-Centered Outcomes Research Institute (PCORI)

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-09-28

    ... OFFICE Methodology Committee of the Patient-Centered Outcomes Research Institute (PCORI) AGENCY... appointing not more than 15 members to a Methodology Committee of the Patient- Centered Outcomes Research Institute. In addition, the Directors of the Agency for Healthcare Research and Quality and the National...

  5. Pipeline external corrosion direct assessment methodology: lessons learned - part 1

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kowalski, Angel R. [DNV Columbus, Inc., OH (United States)

    2009-07-01

    DNV Columbus (Former CC Technologies) played a key role in the development of Direct Assessment (DA) methodologies, providing leadership in the NACE technical committees charged with development of DA standards. Since the first publication of NACE Standard RP-0502-2002, External Corrosion Direct Assessment (ECDA) has been successfully applied over a great number of pipelines to evaluate the impact of external corrosion on the pipeline integrity. This paper summarizes the results of applying ECDA over a selected number of underground pipelines and presents interesting facts about the methodology. (author)

  6. Simulation Enabled Safeguards Assessment Methodology

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Robert Bean; Trond Bjornard; Thomas Larson

    2007-09-01

    It is expected that nuclear energy will be a significant component of future supplies. New facilities, operating under a strengthened international nonproliferation regime will be needed. There is good reason to believe virtual engineering applied to the facility design, as well as to the safeguards system design will reduce total project cost and improve efficiency in the design cycle. Simulation Enabled Safeguards Assessment MEthodology (SESAME) has been developed as a software package to provide this capability for nuclear reprocessing facilities. The software architecture is specifically designed for distributed computing, collaborative design efforts, and modular construction to allow step improvements in functionality. Drag and drop wireframe construction allows the user to select the desired components from a component warehouse, render the system for 3D visualization, and, linked to a set of physics libraries and/or computational codes, conduct process evaluations of the system they have designed.

  7. Nanotoxicology materials, methodologies, and assessments

    CERN Document Server

    Durán, Nelson; Alves, Oswaldo L; Zucolotto, Valtencir

    2014-01-01

    This book begins with a detailed introduction to engineered nanostructures, followed by a section on methodologies used in research on cytotoxicity and genotoxicity, and concluding with evidence for the cyto- and genotoxicity of specific nanoparticles.

  8. European risk assessment methodology for critical infrastructures

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Klaver, M.H.A.; Luiijf, H.A.M.; Nieuwenhuijs, A.H.; Cavenne, F.; Ulisse, A.; Bridegeman, G.

    2008-01-01

    Most risk assessment methodologies aim at the risk at the level of an individual organization or company. The European Union commissioned a study to define the elements for a uniform and scalable risk assessment methodology which takes into account critical infrastructure dependencies across

  9. 77 FR 23250 - HIT Standards Committee; Schedule for the Assessment of HIT Policy Committee Recommendations

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-04-18

    ..., and privacy and security. Other groups are convened to address specific issues as needed, such as the... Vocabulary Task Force. HIT Standards Committee's Schedule for the Assessment of HIT Policy Committee... those priority areas, it will: (A) Direct the appropriate workgroup or other special group to develop a...

  10. Technology Performance Level Assessment Methodology.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Roberts, Jesse D.; Bull, Diana L; Malins, Robert Joseph; Costello, Ronan Patrick; Aurelien Babarit; Kim Nielsen; Claudio Bittencourt Ferreira; Ben Kennedy; Kathryn Dykes; Jochem Weber

    2017-04-01

    The technology performance level (TPL) assessments can be applied at all technology development stages and associated technology readiness levels (TRLs). Even, and particularly, at low TRLs the TPL assessment is very effective as it, holistically, considers a wide range of WEC attributes that determine the techno-economic performance potential of the WEC farm when fully developed for commercial operation. The TPL assessment also highlights potential showstoppers at the earliest possible stage of the WEC technology development. Hence, the TPL assessment identifies the technology independent “performance requirements.” In order to achieve a successful solution, the entirety of the performance requirements within the TPL must be considered because, in the end, all the stakeholder needs must be achieved. The basis for performing a TPL assessment comes from the information provided in a dedicated format, the Technical Submission Form (TSF). The TSF requests information from the WEC developer that is required to answer the questions posed in the TPL assessment document.

  11. Methodologies to assess paediatric adiposity.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Horan, M

    2014-05-04

    Childhood obesity is associated with increased risk of adult obesity, cardiovascular disease, diabetes and cancer. Appropriate techniques for assessment of childhood adiposity are required to identify children at risk. The aim of this review was to examine core clinical measurements and more technical tools to assess paediatric adiposity.

  12. Indirect Lightning Safety Assessment Methodology

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ong, M M; Perkins, M P; Brown, C G; Crull, E W; Streit, R D

    2009-04-24

    Lightning is a safety hazard for high-explosives (HE) and their detonators. In the However, the current flowing from the strike point through the rebar of the building The methodology for estimating the risk from indirect lighting effects will be presented. It has two parts: a method to determine the likelihood of a detonation given a lightning strike, and an approach for estimating the likelihood of a strike. The results of these two parts produce an overall probability of a detonation. The probability calculations are complex for five reasons: (1) lightning strikes are stochastic and relatively rare, (2) the quality of the Faraday cage varies from one facility to the next, (3) RF coupling is inherently a complex subject, (4) performance data for abnormally stressed detonators is scarce, and (5) the arc plasma physics is not well understood. Therefore, a rigorous mathematical analysis would be too complex. Instead, our methodology takes a more practical approach combining rigorous mathematical calculations where possible with empirical data when necessary. Where there is uncertainty, we compensate with conservative approximations. The goal is to determine a conservative estimate of the odds of a detonation. In Section 2, the methodology will be explained. This report will discuss topics at a high-level. The reasons for selecting an approach will be justified. For those interested in technical details, references will be provided. In Section 3, a simple hypothetical example will be given to reinforce the concepts. While the methodology will touch on all the items shown in Figure 1, the focus of this report is the indirect effect, i.e., determining the odds of a detonation from given EM fields. Professor Martin Uman from the University of Florida has been characterizing and defining extreme lightning strikes. Using Professor Uman's research, Dr. Kimball Merewether at Sandia National Laboratory in Albuquerque calculated the EM fields inside a Faraday-cage type

  13. A Security Assessment Methodology for Critical Infrastructures

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Caselli, M.; Kargl, Frank; Hämmerli, Bernhard M.; Lopez, Javier

    2014-01-01

    Interest in security assessment and penetration testing techniques has steadily increased. Likewise, security of industrial control systems (ICS) has become more and more important. Very few methodologies directly target ICS and none of them generalizes the concept of "critical infrastructures

  14. Establishment of Assessment Methodology Improvement of IAEA INPRO Proliferation Resistance

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Park, J. H.; Yang, M. S.; Song, K. C.; Ko, W. I.; Kim, H. D.; Kim, Y. I.; Rhee, B. W.; Kim, H. T.

    2008-03-15

    For the development of assessment methodology of acquisition and diversion pathway of nuclear material, the PR assessment methodology which has been developed by GEN-IV PR and PP group was reviewed regarding the acquisition and diversion pathway of nuclear material and we proposed the research areas to develop the model of acquisition and diversion pathway of nuclear material including misuse of fuel cycle facilities and one of the IAEA INPRO CRPs which is aiming to develop its model. From the present study, its preliminary model for acquisition and diversion pathway of nuclear material was obtained. For preliminary evaluation of DUPIC system using methodology of acquisition/diversion pathway of nm and review of pyro-processing system characteristics, the research direction and work procedure was established to develop the assessment methodology of User Requirement 4 of INPRO PR by; 1) selection of the possible pathway to acquire and divert the nuclear material of DUPIC system, 2) the analysis of selected pathway, 3) the development of the assessment methodology of robustness and multiplicity of an INS. And, the PR characteristics and process/material flow analysis of the Pyro-processing system were preliminarily studied. For establishment of R and D direction for an INS and supporting international cooperation research, the collaborative research project titled as 'Acquisition and Diversion pathway analysis of Proliferation Resistance' as one of activities of IAEA INPRO was proposed, since Korean Government decided to actively support the IAEA INPRO. In order to review and clarify the Terms of Reference (TOR) of a Korean Proposed Collaborative Project (ROK1), two INPRO Consultancy Meetings were held. Its results were presented at two INPRO Steering Committees and the finalized TOR of Korean Proposal submit the 12-th INPRO Steering Committee Meeting which was held Dec. 3-5 2007. Four participants including USA, Canada, China and European Community (EC

  15. Methodology of environmental risk assessment management

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Saša T. Bakrač

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available Successful protection of environment is mostly based on high-quality assessment of potential and present risks. Environmental risk management is a complex process which includes: identification, assessment and control of risk, namely taking measures in order to minimize the risk to an acceptable level. Environmental risk management methodology: In addition to these phases in the management of environmental risk, appropriate measures that affect the reduction of risk occurrence should be implemented: - normative and legal regulations (laws and regulations, - appropriate organizational structures in society, and - establishing quality monitoring of environment. The emphasis is placed on the application of assessment methodologies (three-model concept, as the most important aspect of successful management of environmental risk. Risk assessment methodology - European concept: The first concept of ecological risk assessment methodology is based on the so-called European model-concept. In order to better understand this ecological risk assessment methodology, two concepts - hazard and risk - are introduced. The European concept of environmental risk assessment has the following phases in its implementation: identification of hazard (danger, identification of consequences (if there is hazard, estimate of the scale of consequences, estimate of consequence probability and risk assessment (also called risk characterization. The European concept is often used to assess risk in the environment as a model for addressing the distribution of stressors along the source - path - receptor line. Risk assessment methodology - Canadian concept: The second concept of the methodology of environmental risk assessment is based on the so-called Canadian model-concept. The assessment of ecological risk includes risk arising from natural events (floods, extreme weather conditions, etc., technological processes and products, agents (chemical, biological, radiological, etc

  16. High risk process control system assessment methodology

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Santos, Venetia [Pontificia Universidade Catolica do Rio de Janeiro (PUC-Rio), RJ (Brazil); Zamberlan, Maria Cristina [National Institute of Tehnology (INT), Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil). Human Reliability and Ergonomics Research Group for the Oil, Gas and Energy Sector

    2009-07-01

    The evolution of ergonomics methodology has become necessary due to the dynamics imposed by the work environment, by the increase of the need of human cooperation and by the high interaction between various sections within a company. In the last 25 years, as of studies made in the high risk process control, we have developed a methodology to evaluate these situations that focus on the assessment of activities and human cooperation, the assessment of context, the assessment of the impact of work of other sectors in the final activity of the operator, as well as the modeling of existing risks. (author)

  17. A Methodology for Safety Culture Impact Assessment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Han, Kiyoon; Jae, Moosung [Hanyang Univ., Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2014-05-15

    The purpose of this study is to develop methodology for assessing safety culture impact on nuclear power plants. A new methodology for assessing safety culture impact index has been developed and applied for the reference nuclear power plants. The developed SCII model might contribute to comparing the level of safety culture among nuclear power plants as well as to improving the safety of nuclear power plants. Safety culture is defined to be fundamental attitudes and behaviors of the plant staff which demonstrate that nuclear safety is the most important consideration in all activities conducted in nuclear power operation. Through several accidents of nuclear power plant including the Fukusima Daiichi in 2011 and Chernovyl accidents in 1986, the safety of nuclear power plant is emerging into a matter of interest. From the accident review report, it can be easily found out that safety culture is important and one of dominant contributors to accidents. However, the impact methodology for assessing safety culture has not been established analytically yet. It is difficult to develop the methodology for assessing safety culture impact quantitatively.

  18. Critical infrastructure systems of systems assessment methodology.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sholander, Peter E.; Darby, John L.; Phelan, James M.; Smith, Bryan; Wyss, Gregory Dane; Walter, Andrew; Varnado, G. Bruce; Depoy, Jennifer Mae

    2006-10-01

    Assessing the risk of malevolent attacks against large-scale critical infrastructures requires modifications to existing methodologies that separately consider physical security and cyber security. This research has developed a risk assessment methodology that explicitly accounts for both physical and cyber security, while preserving the traditional security paradigm of detect, delay, and respond. This methodology also accounts for the condition that a facility may be able to recover from or mitigate the impact of a successful attack before serious consequences occur. The methodology uses evidence-based techniques (which are a generalization of probability theory) to evaluate the security posture of the cyber protection systems. Cyber threats are compared against cyber security posture using a category-based approach nested within a path-based analysis to determine the most vulnerable cyber attack path. The methodology summarizes the impact of a blended cyber/physical adversary attack in a conditional risk estimate where the consequence term is scaled by a ''willingness to pay'' avoidance approach.

  19. Assessment of methodological quality of economic evaluations in belgian drug reimbursement applications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simoens, Steven

    2013-01-01

    This paper aims to assess the methodological quality of economic evaluations included in Belgian reimbursement applications for Class 1 drugs. For 19 reimbursement applications submitted during 2011 and Spring 2012, a descriptive analysis assessed the methodological quality of the economic evaluation, evaluated the assessment of that economic evaluation by the Drug Reimbursement Committee and the response to that assessment by the company. Compliance with methodological guidelines issued by the Belgian Healthcare Knowledge Centre was assessed using a detailed checklist of 23 methodological items. The rate of compliance was calculated based on the number of economic evaluations for which the item was applicable. Economic evaluations tended to comply with guidelines regarding perspective, target population, subgroup analyses, comparator, use of comparative clinical data and final outcome measures, calculation of costs, incremental analysis, discounting and time horizon. However, more attention needs to be paid to the description of limitations of indirect comparisons, the choice of an appropriate analytic technique, the expression of unit costs in values for the current year, the estimation and valuation of outcomes, the presentation of results of sensitivity analyses, and testing the face validity of model inputs and outputs. Also, a large variation was observed in the scope and depth of the quality assessment by the Drug Reimbursement Committee. Although general guidelines exist, pharmaceutical companies and the Drug Reimbursement Committee would benefit from the existence of a more detailed checklist of methodological items that need to be reported in an economic evaluation.

  20. Vending machine assessment methodology. A systematic review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matthews, Melissa A; Horacek, Tanya M

    2015-07-01

    The nutritional quality of food and beverage products sold in vending machines has been implicated as a contributing factor to the development of an obesogenic food environment. How comprehensive, reliable, and valid are the current assessment tools for vending machines to support or refute these claims? A systematic review was conducted to summarize, compare, and evaluate the current methodologies and available tools for vending machine assessment. A total of 24 relevant research studies published between 1981 and 2013 met inclusion criteria for this review. The methodological variables reviewed in this study include assessment tool type, study location, machine accessibility, product availability, healthfulness criteria, portion size, price, product promotion, and quality of scientific practice. There were wide variations in the depth of the assessment methodologies and product healthfulness criteria utilized among the reviewed studies. Of the reviewed studies, 39% evaluated machine accessibility, 91% evaluated product availability, 96% established healthfulness criteria, 70% evaluated portion size, 48% evaluated price, 52% evaluated product promotion, and 22% evaluated the quality of scientific practice. Of all reviewed articles, 87% reached conclusions that provided insight into the healthfulness of vended products and/or vending environment. Product healthfulness criteria and complexity for snack and beverage products was also found to be variable between the reviewed studies. These findings make it difficult to compare results between studies. A universal, valid, and reliable vending machine assessment tool that is comprehensive yet user-friendly is recommended. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. Methodology for assessing laser-based equipment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pelegrina-Bonilla, Gabriel; Hermsdorf, Jörg; Thombansen, Ulrich; Abels, Peter; Kaierle, Stefan; Neumann, Jörg

    2017-10-01

    Methodologies for the assessment of technology's maturity are widely used in industry and research. Probably the best known are technology readiness levels (TRLs), initially pioneered by the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA). At the beginning, only descriptively defined TRLs existed, but over time, automated assessment techniques in the form of questionnaires emerged in order to determine TRLs. Originally TRLs targeted equipment for space applications, but the demands on industrial relevant equipment are partly different in terms of, for example, overall costs, product quantities, or the presence of competitors. Therefore, we present a commonly valid assessment methodology with the aim of assessing laser-based equipment for industrial use, in general. The assessment is carried out with the help of a questionnaire, which allows for a user-friendly and easy accessible way to monitor the progress from the lab-proven state to the application-ready product throughout the complete development period. The assessment result is presented in a multidimensional metric in order to reveal the current specific strengths and weaknesses of the equipment development process, which can be used to direct the remaining development process of the equipment in the right direction.

  2. EFSA Scientific Committee; Scientific Opinion on Risk Assessment Terminology

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hald, Tine

    The Scientific Committee of the European Food Safety Authority (EFSA) reviewed the use of risk assessment terminology within its Scientific Panels. An external report, commissioned by EFSA, analysed 219 opinions published by the Scientific Committee and Panels to recommend possible ways of improv......The Scientific Committee of the European Food Safety Authority (EFSA) reviewed the use of risk assessment terminology within its Scientific Panels. An external report, commissioned by EFSA, analysed 219 opinions published by the Scientific Committee and Panels to recommend possible ways...... of improving the expression and communication of risk and/or uncertainties in the selected opinions. The Scientific Committee concluded that risk assessment terminology is not fully harmonised within EFSA. In part this is caused by sectoral legislation defining specific terminology and international standards...... of definitions to improve both the understanding and harmonisation of terminology across EFSA’s scientific opinions. Follow-up action by EFSA is identified to develop appropriate detailed guidance to the Scientific Panels. Recommendations are made to improve the clarity, consistency and where possible...

  3. Salt vulnerability assessment methodology for urban streams

    Science.gov (United States)

    Betts, A. R.; Gharabaghi, B.; McBean, E. A.

    2014-09-01

    De-icing agents such as road salts while used for winter road maintenance can cause negative effects on urban stream water quality and drinking water supplies. A new methodology using readily available spatial data to identify Salt Vulnerable Areas (SVAs) for urban streams is used to prioritize implementation of best management practices. The methodology calculates the probable chloride concentration statistics at specified points in the urban stream network and compares the results with known aquatic species exposure tolerance limits to characterize the vulnerability scores. The approach prioritizes implementation of best management practices to areas identified as vulnerable to road salt. The vulnerability assessment is performed on seven sites in four watersheds in the Greater Toronto Area and validated using the Hanlon Creek watershed in Guelph. The mean annual in-stream chloride concentration equation uses readily available spatial data - with province-wide coverage - that can be easily used in any urban watershed.

  4. METHODOLOGICAL APPROACHES TO ASSESSMENTS OF HEALTH RISKS IN HYGIENIC RESEARCH

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. M. Biblin

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available This review of publications presents the analysis of national scientific publications and methodological documents on health risks assessments under unfavorable external impacts. In available research publications, the hygienic risks assessment is most often considered in situations of chemicals impact, and such assessment has sufficient methodological providing. Comparison of publications and methodological documents allows determination of the possibility of methodological unity for health risk assessment in conditions of chemical and radiation impacts.

  5. Methodologies for Social Life Cycle Assessment

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jørgensen, Andreas; Le Bocq, Agathe; Nazakina, Liudmila

    2008-01-01

    stage in the product life cycle. Another very important difference among the proposals is their position towards the use of generic data. Several of the proposals argue that social impacts are connected to the conduct of the company leading to the conclusion that each individual company in the product......Goal, Scope and Background. In recent years several different approaches towards Social Life Cycle Assessment (SLCA) have been developed. The purpose of this review is to compare these approaches in order to highlight methodological differences and general shortcomings. SLCA has several...... and formulation of indicators. The indicators address a wide variety of issues; some approaches focus on impacts created in the very close proximity of the processes included in the product system, whereas others focus on the more remote societal consequences. Only very little focus has been given to the use...

  6. Evaluation and assessment of nuclear power plant seismic methodology

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bernreuter, D.; Tokarz, F.; Wight, L.; Smith, P.; Wells, J.; Barlow, R.

    1977-03-01

    The major emphasis of this study is to develop a methodology that can be used to assess the current methods used for assuring the seismic safety of nuclear power plants. The proposed methodology makes use of system-analysis techniques and Monte Carlo schemes. Also, in this study, we evaluate previous assessments of the current seismic-design methodology.

  7. The strainer blockage assessment methodology used

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zigler, G.L.; Rao, D.V. [Science and Engineering Associates, Inc., Albuquerque, NM (United States)

    1996-03-01

    On July 28, 1992 a spurious opening of a safety valve at Barseback Unit 2 in Sweden resulted in clogging of the Containment Vessel Spray System strainers in less than one hour. Instances of ECCS strainer clogging have occurred in U.S. BWRs. Given these precursors the USNRC staff initiated analyses to estimate the potential for loss of NPSH of the ECCS pumps in BWRs due to clogging of suction strainers by a combination of fibrous and particulate material. The BLOCKAGE code was developed in support of NUREG/CR-6224, a probabilistic scoping analysis of a BWR/4 with a Mark 1 containment. This paper addresses the key elements of the methodology used in the BLOCKAGE code to assess head loss across ECCS strainers. The debris generation model, the debris drywell transport, and the suppression pool models are discussed briefly. NUREG/CR-6224 provides in-depth discussions of the models used in BLOCKAGE. Additionally, user interface features of BLOCKAGE are discussed.

  8. A methodology for urban flood resilience assessment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lhomme, Serge; Serre, Damien; Diab, Youssef; Laganier, Richard

    2010-05-01

    In Europe, river floods have been increasing in frequency and severity [Szöllösi-Nagy and Zevenbergen, 2005]. Moreover, climate change is expected to exacerbate the frequency and intensity of hydro meteorological disaster [IPCC, 2007]. Despite efforts made to maintain the flood defense assets, we often observe levee failures leading to finally increase flood risk in protected area. Furthermore, flood forecasting models, although benefiting continuous improvements, remain partly inaccurate due to uncertainties arising all along data calculation processes. In the same time, the year 2007 marks a turning point in history: half of the world population now lives in cities (UN-Habitat, 2007). Moreover, the total urban population is expected to double from two to four billion over the next 30 to 35 years (United Nations, 2006). This growing rate is equivalent to the creation of a new city of one million inhabitants every week, and this during the next four decades [Flood resilience Group]. So, this quick urban development coupled with technical failures and climate change have increased flood risk and corresponding challenges to urban flood risk management [Ashley et al., 2007], [Nie et al., 2009]. These circumstances oblige to manage flood risk by integrating new concepts like urban resilience. In recent years, resilience has become a central concept for risk management. This concept has emerged because a more resilient system is less vulnerable to risk and, therefore, more sustainable [Serre et al., 2010]. But urban flood resilience is a concept that has not yet been directly assessed. Therefore, when decision makers decide to use the resilience concept to manage urban flood, they have no tool to help them. That is why this paper proposes a methodology to assess urban flood resilience in order to make this concept operational. Networks affect the well-being of the people and the smooth functioning of services and, more generally, of economical activities. Yet

  9. Effective Methodology for Security Risk Assessment of Computer Systems

    OpenAIRE

    Daniel F. García; Adrián Fernández

    2013-01-01

    Today, computer systems are more and more complex and support growing security risks. The security managers need to find effective security risk assessment methodologies that allow modeling well the increasing complexity of current computer systems but also maintaining low the complexity of the assessment procedure. This paper provides a brief analysis of common security risk assessment methodologies leading to the selection of a proper methodology to fulfill these requirements. Then, a detai...

  10. Comparative analysis of seismic risk assessment methodology

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Park, Chang Kyoo; Kim, Tae Woon; Hwang, Mi Jung [Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, Taejon (Korea, Republic of)

    1994-07-01

    SRA methodologies are separated into SPSA and SMM. SPSA methodology that has been widely used for seismic risk analysis has two kinds of methodologies such as Zion method and SSMRP method. SPSA methodology is suitable to interfacing with the analysis of internal event. However, the results of SPSA have uncertainties because of uncertainties in seismic hazard analysis and subjective judgement. Zion method specially developed for commercial use is less expensive and less time consuming but more uncertain than SSMRP method, since the former performs the fragility analysis less in detail than the latter. SMM is impossible to interface with the analysis of internal event but the uncertainties that are occurred during seismic hazard analysis is reduced because of the screening using RLE (review level earthquake). Therefore, if SPSA-based SMM methodology is chosen to be developed, the results of SRA will be more reliable and it requires low costs and time. In addition, the new methodology will require the development of a new evaluating code for SRA. (Author) 26 refs., 25 figs., 16 tabs.

  11. 45 CFR 308.1 - Self-assessment implementation methodology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 45 Public Welfare 2 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Self-assessment implementation methodology. 308.1... methodology. (a) The IV-D agency must ensure the review meets Federal requirements and must maintain... sampling methodology maintains a minimum confidence level of 90 percent for each criterion; (2) The State...

  12. Risk Assessment Methodology for CO2 Storage: The Scenario Approach

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wildenborg, A.F.B.; Leijnse, A.L.; Kreft, E.; Nepveu, M.N.; Obdam, A.N.M.; Orlic, B.; Wipfler, E.L.; Grift, B. van der; Kesteren, W. van; Gaus, I.; Czernichowski-Lauriol, I.; Torfs, P.; Wójcik, R.

    2005-01-01

    This chapter introduces a "scenario approach," which is used as a methodology for the long-term safety assessment of underground CO2 storage and to demonstrate its applicability in an example of safety assessment. This developed methodology consists of three main parts-scenario analysis, model

  13. Methodology for Environmental Impact Assessment; Metodik foer miljoekonsekvensbedoemning

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Malmlund, Anna (Structor Miljoebyraan Stockholm AB (Sweden))

    2010-12-15

    This report is an appendix to 'Environmental Impact Assessment Interim storage, encapsulation and disposal of spent nuclear fuel'. The appendix presents the methodology and criteria used in support investigations to conduct impact assessments.

  14. Process assessment for use in very small enterprises: the NOEMI assess-ment methodology

    OpenAIRE

    DI RENZO, Bernard; FELTUS, Christophe

    2003-01-01

    This paper relates to the development and the experimentation of an IT process assessment methodology especially designed to be used in very small enterprises (VSEs). This methodology, called NOEMI , has been developed as a critical part of a public research project of the Centre de Recherche Public Henri Tudor (Luxembourg). Initially the main objective of the NOEMI process assessment methodology was to contribute directly to the implementation of a collaborative IT-sourcing model, developed ...

  15. Committees

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-11-01

    Leadership Team of the IAHR Committee for Hydraulic Machinery and Systems Eduard EGUSQUIZA, UPC Barcelona, Spain, Chair François AVELLAN, EPFL-LMH, Switzerland, Past Chair Richard K FISHER, Voith Hydro Inc., USA, Past Chair Fidel ARZOLA, Edelca, Venezuela Michel COUSTON, Alstom Hydro, France Niklas DAHLBÄCKCK, Vatenfall, Sweden Normand DESY, Andritz VA TECH Hydro Ltd., Canada Chisachi KATO, University of Tokyo, Japan Andrei LIPEJ, Turboinstitut, Slovenija Torbjørn NIELSEN, NTNU, Norway Romeo SUSAN-RESIGA, 'Politehnica' University Timisoara, Romania Stefan RIEDELBAUCH, Stuggart University, Germany Albert RUPRECHT, Stuttgart University, Germany Qing-Hua SHI, Dong Fang Electrical Machinery Co., China Geraldo TIAGO, Universidade Federal de Itajubá, Brazil International Advisory Committee Shouqi YUAN (principal) Jiangsu University China QingHua SHI (principal) Dong Fang Electrical Machinery Co. China Fidel ARZOLA EDELCA Venezuela Thomas ASCHENBRENNER Voith Hydro GmbH & Co. KG Germany Anton BERGANT Litostroj Power doo Slovenia B C BHAOYAL Research & Technology Centre India Hermod BREKKE NTNU Norway Stuart COULSON Voith Hydro Inc. USA Paul COOPER Fluid Machinery Research Inc USA V A DEMIANOV Power Machines OJSC Russia Bart van ESCH Technische Universiteit Eindhoven Netherland Arno GEHRER Andritz Hydro Graz Austria Akira GOTO Ebara Corporation Japan Adiel GUINZBURG The Boeing Company USA D-H HELLMANN KSB AG Germany Ashvin HOSANGADI Combustion Research and Flow Technology USA Byung-Sun HWANG Korea Institute of Material Science Korea Toshiaki KANEMOTO Kyushu Institute of Technology Japan Mann-Eung KIM Korean Register of Shipping Korea Jiri KOUTNIK Voith Hydro GmbH & Co. KG Germany Jinkook LEE Eaton Corporation USA Young-Ho LEE Korea Maritime University Korea Woo-Seop LIM Hyosung Goodsprings Inc Korea Jun MATSUI Yokohama National University Japan Kazuyoshi Mitsubishi H I Ltd, Japan MIYAGAWA Christophe NICOLET Power Vision Engineering Srl Switzerland Maryse PAGE Hydro

  16. Adaptation of methodology to select structural alternatives of one-way slab in residential building to the guidelines of the European Committee for Standardization (CEN/TC 350)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fraile-Garcia, Esteban, E-mail: esteban.fraile@unirioja.es [University of La Rioja, Department of Mechanical Engineering (Spain); Ferreiro-Cabello, Javier, E-mail: javier.ferreiro@unirioja.es [University of La Rioja, Department of Mechanical Engineering (Spain); Qualiberica S.L. (Spain); Martinez-Camara, Eduardo, E-mail: eduardo.martinezc@unirioja.es [University of La Rioja, Department of Mechanical Engineering (Spain); Jimenez-Macias, Emilio, E-mail: emilio.jimenez@unirioja.es [University of La Rioja, Department of Electrical Engineering (Spain)

    2015-11-15

    The European Committee for Standardization (CEN) through its Technical Committee CEN/TC-350 is developing a series of standards for assessing the building sustainability, at both product and building levels. The practical application of the selection (decision making) of structural alternatives made by one-way slabs leads to an intermediate level between the product and the building. Thus the present study addresses this problem of decision making, following the CEN guidelines and incorporating relevant aspects of architectural design into residential construction. A life cycle assessment (LCA) is developed in order to obtain valid information for the decision making process (the LCA was developed applying CML methodology although Ecoindicator99 was used in order to facilitate the comparison of the values); this information (the carbon footprint values) is contrasted with other databases and with the information from the Environmental Product Declaration (EPD) of one of the lightening materials (expanded polystyrene), in order to validate the results. Solutions of different column disposition and geometries are evaluated in the three pillars of sustainable construction on residential construction: social, economic and environmental. The quantitative analysis of the variables used in this study enables and facilitates an objective comparison in the design stage by a responsible technician; the application of the proposed methodology reduces the possible solutions to be evaluated by the expert to 12.22% of the options in the case of low values of the column index and to 26.67% for the highest values. - Highlights: • Methodology for selection of structural alternatives in buildings with one-way slabs • Adapted to CEN guidelines (CEN/TC-350) for assessing the building sustainability • LCA is developed in order to obtain valid information for the decision making process. • Results validated comparing carbon footprint, databases and Env. Product Declarations

  17. A Methodology for Anatomic Ultrasound Image Diagnostic Quality Assessment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hemmsen, Martin Christian; Lange, Theis; Brandt, Andreas Hjelm; Nielsen, Michael Bachmann; Jensen, Jorgen Arendt

    2017-01-01

    This paper discusses the methods for the assessment of ultrasound image quality based on our experiences with evaluating new methods for anatomic imaging. It presents a methodology to ensure a fair assessment between competing imaging methods using clinically relevant evaluations. The methodology is valuable in the continuing process of method optimization and guided development of new imaging methods. It includes a three phased study plan covering from initial prototype development to clinical assessment. Recommendations to the clinical assessment protocol, software, and statistical analysis are presented. Earlier uses of the methodology has shown that it ensures validity of the assessment, as it separates the influences between developer, investigator, and assessor once a research protocol has been established. This separation reduces confounding influences on the result from the developer to properly reveal the clinical value. This paper exemplifies the methodology using recent studies of synthetic aperture sequential beamforming tissue harmonic imaging.

  18. Analysis of Alternatives for Risk Assessment Methodologies and Tools

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nachtigal, Noel M. [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-CA), Livermore, CA (United States). System Analytics; Fruetel, Julia A. [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-CA), Livermore, CA (United States). Systems Research and Analysis; Gleason, Nathaniel J. [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-CA), Livermore, CA (United States). Systems Research and Analysis; Helms, Jovana [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-CA), Livermore, CA (United States). Systems Research and Analysis; Imbro, Dennis Raymond [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-CA), Livermore, CA (United States). Systems Research and Analysis; Sumner, Matthew C. [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-CA), Livermore, CA (United States). Systems Research and Analysis

    2013-10-01

    The purpose of this document is to provide a basic overview and understanding of risk assessment methodologies and tools from the literature and to assess the suitability of these methodologies and tools for cyber risk assessment. Sandia National Laboratories (SNL) performed this review in support of risk modeling activities performed for the Stakeholder Engagement and Cyber Infrastructure Resilience (SECIR) division of the Department of Homeland Security (DHS) Office of Cybersecurity and Communications (CS&C). The set of methodologies and tools covered in this document is not intended to be exhaustive; instead, it focuses on those that are commonly used in the risk assessment community. The classification of methodologies and tools was performed by a group of analysts with experience in risk analysis and cybersecurity, and the resulting analysis of alternatives has been tailored to address the needs of a cyber risk assessment.

  19. THE METHODOLOGY OF VALORISING AND ASSESSING LANDSCAPE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stanisław Jacek Bacior

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Landscape evaluation process requires access to particular information resources making it possible to regionalize (divide into zones the area under investigation. Thus, the starting point is landscape assessment and evaluation followed by regionalization. As a result of this step, we determine certain areas that are homogenous with regards to their landscape assets Keywords: assessing landscape, structure of rural areas, spatial planning of rural areas.

  20. [Current lines of methodology for risk assessment].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rakhmanin, Iu A; Novikov, S M; Shashina, T A

    2007-01-01

    The paper presents the results of some guidance studies assessing the risk, recently conducted at the A. N. Sysin Research Institute of Human Ecology and Environmental Health, such as validation of toxicological and hygienic criteria for risk assessment upon short- and long-term human exposures to deleterious substances; development and introduction of methods for assessing health risk and damage, by applying computer technologies; elaboration of guidelines for establishing the cause-and-effect relationship of changes in health indices to those in the environment; characterization of damage caused by ambient air pollution in Russian cities and towns; possibilities of using the guidance for assessing the risk to improve sociohygienic monitoring. It also gives the results of testing scientific developments in the assessment of a multienvironmental risk in the areas exposed to emission from aluminum works (Khakasia) and chemical and petrochemical enterprises (Samara Region) and in the determination of contribution of emission from the Moscow fuel-and-energy complex to risks and damages to human health, caused by ambient air pollution. The urgent issues of further development of modern trends in risk guidance studies are determined.

  1. Hanford Site baseline risk assessment methodology. Revision 2

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1993-03-01

    This methodology has been developed to prepare human health and environmental evaluations of risk as part of the Comprehensive Environmental Response, Compensation, and Liability Act remedial investigations (RIs) and the Resource Conservation and Recovery Act facility investigations (FIs) performed at the Hanford Site pursuant to the Hanford Federal Facility Agreement and Consent Order referred to as the Tri-Party Agreement. Development of the methodology has been undertaken so that Hanford Site risk assessments are consistent with current regulations and guidance, while providing direction on flexible, ambiguous, or undefined aspects of the guidance. The methodology identifies Site-specific risk assessment considerations and integrates them with approaches for evaluating human and environmental risk that can be factored into the risk assessment program supporting the Hanford Site cleanup mission. Consequently, the methodology will enhance the preparation and review of individual risk assessments at the Hanford Site.

  2. Current established risk assessment methodologies and tools

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ionita, Dan; Hartel, Pieter H.; Pieters, Wolter; Wieringa, Roelf J.

    2013-01-01

    The technology behind information systems evolves at an exponential rate, while at the same time becoming more and more ubiquitous. This brings with it an implicit rise in the average complexity of systems as well as the number of external interactions. In order to allow a proper assessment of the

  3. Selection of methodology to assess food intake

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Biró, G.; Hulshof, K.F.A.M.; Ovesen, L.; Amorim Cruz, J.A.

    2002-01-01

    Objective: The aim of the EFCOSUM project was to develop a method to estimate both acute and usual consumption levels in European countries and for the sake of comparison, a common basic method for dietary assessment was needed. The method should allow a reliable comparison of the intake of relevant

  4. A Methodology for Anatomic Ultrasound Image Diagnostic Quality Assessment

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hemmsen, Martin Christian; Lange, Theis; Brandt, Andreas Hjelm

    2017-01-01

    is valuable in the continuing process of method optimization and guided development of new imaging methods. It includes a three phased study plan covering from initial prototype development to clinical assessment. Recommendations to the clinical assessment protocol, software, and statistical analysis...... are presented. Earlier uses of the methodology has shown that it ensures validity of the assessment, as it separates the influences between developer, investigator, and assessor once a research protocol has been established. This separation reduces confounding influences on the result from the developer......This paper discusses methods for assessment of ultrasound image quality based on our experiences with evaluating new methods for anatomic imaging. It presents a methodology to ensure a fair assessment between competing imaging methods using clinically relevant evaluations. The methodology...

  5. Variability in activity and results from drug assessments by pharmacy and therapeutics committees in Spanish hospitals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Puigventós Latorre, F; Santos-Ramos, B; Ortega Eslava, A; Durán-García, M E

    2011-01-01

    To quantify the Spanish Pharmacy and Therapeutics Committees (P&TC) activity with regard to assessing and selecting drugs and describing variability in decisions made to include them. Descriptive, cross-sectional study based on a questionnaire aimed to 513 hospitals with more than 75 beds. We included questions referring to the P&TC resolutions, the therapeutic positioning and assessment reports. Recruitment was carried out between November 2007 and January 2008. Variability among P&TC conclusions were presented in five categories or levels of coincidence. One hundred and seventy-five hospitals participated, with a response rate of 34% (54% of beds). The mean (SD) number of drug-indications assessed per hospital was 10.35 (7.45). The proportion of assessments that conclude with drug inclusion or rejection was 75.3 and 21.4%, respectively. 16.2% concluded with therapeutic equivalence. Conditions for use were established for 64% of them, and 33% were included in a clinical guide. With regard to variability, 81.0% of assessments coincided with the conclusion to include or reject the drug. A contradictory decision was made for 19.0%. Drug assessment and selection activity in hospitals involve an amount of work. The proportion of drugs approved is similar in different types of hospitals. There is extensive variability as regards deciding upon inclusion and is similar to studies conducted in other countries. They indicate that a standardising methodology would be recommendable. Copyright © 2010 SEFH. Published by Elsevier Espana. All rights reserved.

  6. Methodology for Assessing Reusability of Spaceflight Hardware

    Science.gov (United States)

    Childress-Thompson, Rhonda; Thomas, L. Dale; Farrington, Phillip

    2017-01-01

    In 2011 the Space Shuttle, the only Reusable Launch Vehicle (RLV) in the world, returned to earth for the final time. Upon retirement of the Space Shuttle, the United States (U.S.) no longer possessed a reusable vehicle or the capability to send American astronauts to space. With the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) out of the RLV business and now only pursuing Expendable Launch Vehicles (ELV), not only did companies within the U.S. start to actively pursue the development of either RLVs or reusable components, but entities around the world began to venture into the reusable market. For example, SpaceX and Blue Origin are developing reusable vehicles and engines. The Indian Space Research Organization is developing a reusable space plane and Airbus is exploring the possibility of reusing its first stage engines and avionics housed in the flyback propulsion unit referred to as the Advanced Expendable Launcher with Innovative engine Economy (Adeline). Even United Launch Alliance (ULA) has announced plans for eventually replacing the Atlas and Delta expendable rockets with a family of RLVs called Vulcan. Reuse can be categorized as either fully reusable, the situation in which the entire vehicle is recovered, or partially reusable such as the National Space Transportation System (NSTS) where only the Space Shuttle, Space Shuttle Main Engines (SSME), and Solid Rocket Boosters (SRB) are reused. With this influx of renewed interest in reusability for space applications, it is imperative that a systematic approach be developed for assessing the reusability of spaceflight hardware. The partially reusable NSTS offered many opportunities to glean lessons learned; however, when it came to efficient operability for reuse the Space Shuttle and its associated hardware fell short primarily because of its two to four-month turnaround time. Although there have been several attempts at designing RLVs in the past with the X-33, Venture Star and Delta Clipper

  7. 77 FR 26292 - Risk Evaluation and Mitigation Strategy Assessments: Social Science Methodologies to Assess Goals...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-05-03

    ... Mitigation Strategy Assessments: Social Science Methodologies to Assess Goals Related to Knowledge.'' The... an issue paper entitled ``Risk Evaluation and Mitigation Strategy Assessments: Social Science...' knowledge about drugs' risks; (2) share current FDA experience regarding social science assessments of...

  8. Learning Potential Assessment: Theoretical, Methodological and Practical Issues.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hamers, J. H. M., Ed.; Sijtsma, K., Ed.; Ruijssenaars, A. J. J. M., Ed.

    The first part of this volume is concerned with theoretical and conceptual issues concerning learning potential assessment. The second part deals with methodological and measurement issues in learning potential assessment, and the third part is devoted to research projects and practical applications of learning potential tests. The following…

  9. Enhancing the Assessment of Verbal Aggression through Observational Methodology

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Dulmen, Manfred H. M.; Mata, Andrea D.; Klipfel, Katherine M.

    2012-01-01

    The assessment of verbal aggression in adolescent and young adult dating relationships has largely relied on self-report methodology. We investigated whether information on verbal aggression derived from an observational assessment would enhance the prediction of romantic relationship satisfaction and dissolution in a sample of young adult dating…

  10. 78 FR 4132 - National Climate Assessment and Development Advisory Committee

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-01-18

    ... and Development Advisory Committee, NOAA, 1315 East-West Highway--R/NCADAC, Silver Spring, Maryland..., ecological, and policy systems, and with this provide integrated analyses of impacts and vulnerability on...

  11. Online survey tools: ethical and methodological concerns of human research ethics committees.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buchanan, Elizabeth A; Hvizdak, Erin E

    2009-06-01

    A SURVEY OF 750 UNIVERSITY HUMAN Research Ethics Boards (HRECs) in the United States revealed that Internet research protocols involving online or Web surveys are the type most often reviewed (94% of respondents), indicating the growing prevalence of this methodology for academic research. Respondents indicated that the electronic and online nature of these survey data challenges traditional research ethics principles such as consent, risk, privacy, anonymity, confidentiality, and autonomy, and adds new methodological complexities surrounding data storage, security, sampling, and survey design. Interesting discrepancies surfaced among respondents regarding strengths and weaknesses within extant guidelines, which are highlighted throughout the paper. The paper concludes with considerations and suggestions towards consistent protocol review of online surveys to ensure appropriate human subjects protections in the face of emergent electronic tools and methodologies.

  12. Recommendations for benefit-risk assessment methodologies and visual representations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hughes, Diana; Waddingham, Ed; Mt-Isa, Shahrul

    2016-01-01

    PURPOSE: The purpose of this study is to draw on the practical experience from the PROTECT BR case studies and make recommendations regarding the application of a number of methodologies and visual representations for benefit-risk assessment. METHODS: Eight case studies based on the benefit......-risk balance of real medicines were used to test various methodologies that had been identified from the literature as having potential applications in benefit-risk assessment. Recommendations were drawn up based on the results of the case studies. RESULTS: A general pathway through the case studies...

  13. Life Cycle Assessment and Risk Assessment: A Methodological Comparison

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Olsen, Stig Irving; Christensen, Frans Møller; Hauschild, Michael Zwicky

    2001-01-01

    Life Cycle Assessment and Risk Assessment are two different tools in environmental management. The paper identifies harmonies, discrepancies and relations between the two tools exemplified by the risk assessment principles of the European Commission (EC) and the LCA method ‘EDIP’ (En......-vironmental Design of Industrial Products) developed in Denmark, respectively. A very important feature of LCA is the relative assessment due to the use of a functional unit. Risk assessment on the other hand is an absolute assessment, which may require very specific and detailed information on e.g. the exposure...

  14. Regional issue identification and assessment: study methodology. First annual report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1980-01-01

    The overall assessment methodologies and models utilized for the first project under the Regional Issue Identification and Assessment (RIIA) program are described. Detailed descriptions are given of the methodologies used by lead laboratories for the quantification of the impacts of an energy scenario on one or more media (e.g., air, water, land, human and ecology), and by all laboratories to assess the regional impacts on all media. The research and assessments reflected in this document were performed by the following national laboratories: Argonne National Laboratory; Brookhaven National Laboratory; Lawrence Berkeley Laboratory; Los Alamos Scientific Laboratory; Oak Ridge National Laboratory; and Pacific Northwest Laboratory. This report contains five chapters. Chapter 1 briefly describes the overall study methodology and introduces the technical participants. Chapter 2 is a summary of the energy policy scenario selected for the RIIA I study and Chapter 3 describes how this scenario was translated into a county-level siting pattern of energy development. The fourth chapter is a detailed description of the individual methodologies used to quantify the environmental and socioeconomic impacts of the scenario while Chapter 5 describes how these impacts were translated into comprehensive regional assessments for each Federal Region.

  15. The evolutionary role of the pharmacy and therapeutics committee in technology assessment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mehr, Stanton R

    2006-01-01

    The origins of the Pharmacy and Therapeutics (P&T) Committee is intertwined with the evolution of the modern practice of pharmacy. Although the P&T Committee has been uniquely developed to help make coverage decisions, this implies that its technology assessment function, particularly with regard to medicines, has paved the way to more cost-effective and evidence-based practice. This article, which briefly traces the lineage of the first known "formulary" employed during the Revolutionary War to today's P&T Committee, argues that its true function--technology assessment--serves as the basis for coverage decisions throughout health systems.

  16. A novel methodology for the rapid assessment of waterbird ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    A methodology for rapidly assessing the vulnerability of waterbirds to disturbance was tested at Sabaki estuary, Kenya. Three variables were employed to measure the responses of 15 species: (1) bird density, (2) minimum distance of birds from a stationary disturbance and (3) recovery times following a moving disturbance.

  17. Assessment of Wind Turbine Structural Integrity using Response Surface Methodology

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Toft, Henrik Stensgaard; Svenningsen, Lasse; Moser, Wolfgang

    2016-01-01

    Highlights •A new approach to assessment of site specific wind turbine loads is proposed. •The approach can be applied in both fatigue and ultimate limit state. •Two different response surface methodologies have been investigated. •The model uncertainty introduced by the response surfaces...

  18. Methodology for risk assessment of collapses of torrent check dams

    OpenAIRE

    Martinčič, Manica

    2014-01-01

    Slovenia has a lot of torrential check dams, but until now there was no uniform method one could apply in order to perform a review of the torrential check dams' condition and to assess their physical vulnerability. In 2013, we assessed the risk of torrential check dams on Suhelj, Belca and Pišnica torrents by applying the risk assessment methodology for large dams. Since, for various reasons, the results were deemed useless, we decided to adjust the risk assessment model for torrential ch...

  19. Methodology for assessing the impacts of distributed generation interconnection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luis E. Luna

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available This paper proposes a methodology for identifying and assessing the impact of distributed generation interconnection on distribution systems using Monte Carlo techniques. This methodology consists of two analysis schemes: a technical analysis, which evaluates the reliability conditions of the distribution system; on the other hand, an economic analysis that evaluates the financial impacts on the electric utility and its customers, according to the system reliability level. The proposed methodology was applied to an IEEE test distribution system, considering different operation schemes for the distributed generation interconnection. The application of each one of these schemes provided significant improvements regarding the reliability and important economic benefits for the electric utility. However, such schemes resulted in negative profitability levels for certain customers, therefore, regulatory measures and bilateral contracts were proposed which would provide a solution for this kind of problem.

  20. Teaching and assessing procedural skills using simulation: metrics and methodology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lammers, Richard L; Davenport, Moira; Korley, Frederick; Griswold-Theodorson, Sharon; Fitch, Michael T; Narang, Aneesh T; Evans, Leigh V; Gross, Amy; Rodriguez, Elliot; Dodge, Kelly L; Hamann, Cara J; Robey, Walter C

    2008-11-01

    Simulation allows educators to develop learner-focused training and outcomes-based assessments. However, the effectiveness and validity of simulation-based training in emergency medicine (EM) requires further investigation. Teaching and testing technical skills require methods and assessment instruments that are somewhat different than those used for cognitive or team skills. Drawing from work published by other medical disciplines as well as educational, behavioral, and human factors research, the authors developed six research themes: measurement of procedural skills; development of performance standards; assessment and validation of training methods, simulator models, and assessment tools; optimization of training methods; transfer of skills learned on simulator models to patients; and prevention of skill decay over time. The article reviews relevant and established educational research methodologies and identifies gaps in our knowledge of how physicians learn procedures. The authors present questions requiring further research that, once answered, will advance understanding of simulation-based procedural training and assessment in EM.

  1. Reef Fish Survey Techniques: Assessing the Potential for Standardizing Methodologies.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zachary R Caldwell

    Full Text Available Dramatic changes in populations of fishes living on coral reefs have been documented globally and, in response, the research community has initiated efforts to assess and monitor reef fish assemblages. A variety of visual census techniques are employed, however results are often incomparable due to differential methodological performance. Although comparability of data may promote improved assessment of fish populations, and thus management of often critically important nearshore fisheries, to date no standardized and agreed-upon survey method has emerged. This study describes the use of methods across the research community and identifies potential drivers of method selection. An online survey was distributed to researchers from academic, governmental, and non-governmental organizations internationally. Although many methods were identified, 89% of survey-based projects employed one of three methods-belt transect, stationary point count, and some variation of the timed swim method. The selection of survey method was independent of the research design (i.e., assessment goal and region of study, but was related to the researcher's home institution. While some researchers expressed willingness to modify their current survey protocols to more standardized protocols (76%, their willingness decreased when methodologies were tied to long-term datasets spanning five or more years. Willingness to modify current methodologies was also less common among academic researchers than resource managers. By understanding both the current application of methods and the reported motivations for method selection, we hope to focus discussions towards increasing the comparability of quantitative reef fish survey data.

  2. Methodology to Assess No Touch Audit Software Using Field Data

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cai, Jie [Purdue Univ., West Lafayette, IN (United States); Braun, James E. [Purdue Univ., West Lafayette, IN (United States); Langner, M. Rois [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States)

    2016-10-01

    The research presented in this report builds upon these previous efforts and proposes a set of tests to assess no touch audit tools using real utility bill and on-site data. The proposed assessment methodology explicitly investigates the behaviors of the monthly energy end uses with respect to outdoor temperature, i.e., the building energy signature, to help understand the Tool's disaggregation accuracy. The project team collaborated with Field Diagnosis Services, Inc. (FDSI) to identify appropriate test sites for the evaluation.

  3. Development of a methodology to assess the footprint of wastes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herva, Marta; Hernando, Ramón; Carrasco, Eugenio F; Roca, Enrique

    2010-08-15

    The ecological footprint (EF) is a widely used indicator to assess the sustainability of people, regions or business activities. Although this metric has grown in interest and popularity over the years, it has also been the subject of criticism and controversy. The advantages of an aggregated indicator are often overshadowed by the shortcomings of its corresponding methodology. One weakness of the EF is that it does not account for toxic or hazardous pollutants and wastes, which cannot be part of a closed biological cycle. The methodology developed in the present work estimates the EF of toxic and hazardous wastes considering a closed cycle modeled through a plasma process; a phenomenon that naturally occurs in stars and volcanoes. Wastes from industry can be treated in a thermal plasma gasification process, and, by developing a methodology to describe this process, the EF of hazardous wastes was calculated. A value of 56.5 gha was obtained, a figure on the same order of magnitude as that obtained in a previous study where a conventional ecological footprint methodology was applied to the same production process. Copyright 2010 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  4. Methodological Quality Assessment of Meta-analyses in Endodontics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kattan, Sereen; Lee, Su-Min; Kohli, Meetu R; Setzer, Frank C; Karabucak, Bekir

    2018-01-01

    The objectives of this review were to assess the methodological quality of published meta-analyses related to endodontics using the assessment of multiple systematic reviews (AMSTAR) tool and to provide a follow-up to previously published reviews. Three electronic databases were searched for eligible studies according to the inclusion and exclusion criteria: Embase via Ovid, The Cochrane Library, and Scopus. The electronic search was amended by a hand search of 6 dental journals (International Endodontic Journal; Journal of Endodontics; Australian Endodontic Journal; Oral Surgery, Oral Medicine, Oral Pathology, Oral Radiology; Endodontics and Dental Traumatology; and Journal of Dental Research). The searches were conducted to include articles published after July 2009, and the deadline for inclusion of the meta-analyses was November 30, 2016. The AMSTAR assessment tool was used to evaluate the methodological quality of all included studies. A total of 36 reports of meta-analyses were included. The overall quality of the meta-analyses reports was found to be medium, with an estimated mean overall AMSTAR score of 7.25 (95% confidence interval, 6.59-7.90). The most poorly assessed areas were providing an a priori design, the assessment of the status of publication, and publication bias. In recent publications in the field of endodontics, the overall quality of the reported meta-analyses is medium according to AMSTAR. Copyright © 2017 American Association of Endodontists. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  5. Health effects assessment of chemical exposures: ARIES methodology

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sierra, L; Montero, M.; Rabago, I.; Vidania, R.

    1995-07-01

    In this work, we present ARIES* update: a system designed in order to facilitate the human health effects assessment produced by accidental release of toxic chemicals. The first version of ARIES was developed in relation to 82/501/EEC Directive about mayor accidents in the chemical industry. So, the first aim was the support of the effects assessment derived for the chemicals included into this directive. From this establishment, it was considered acute exposures for high concentrations. In this report, we present the actual methodology for considering other type of exposures, such as environmental and occupational. Likewise other versions, the methodology comprises two approaches: quantitative and qualitative assessments. Quantitative assessment incorporates the mathematical algorithms useful to evaluate the effects produced by the most important routes of exposure: inhalation, ingestion, eye contact and skin absorption, in a short, medium and long term. It has been included models that realizes an accurate quantification of doses, effects,... and so on, such as simple approaches when the available information is not enough. Qualitative assessment, designed in order to complement or replace the previous one, is incorporated into an informatics system, developed in Clipper. It executes and displays outstanding and important toxicological information of about 100 chemicals. This information comes from ECDIN (Environmental Chemicals Data and Information Network) database through a collaboration with JRC-ISPRA working group. (Author) 24 refs.

  6. Symposium 'Methodology in Medical Education Research' organised by the Methodology in Medical Education Research Committee of the German Society of Medical Education May, 25th to 26th 2013 at Charité, Berlin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schüttpelz-Brauns, Katrin; Kiessling, Claudia; Ahlers, Olaf; Hautz, Wolf E

    2015-01-01

    In 2013, the Methodology in Medical Education Research Committee ran a symposium on "Research in Medical Education" as part of its ongoing faculty development activities. The symposium aimed to introduce to participants educational research methods with a specific focus on research in medical education. Thirty-five participants were able to choose from workshops covering qualitative methods, quantitative methods and scientific writing throughout the one and a half days. The symposium's evaluation showed participant satisfaction with the format as well as suggestions for future improvement. Consequently, the committee will offer the symposium again in a modified form in proximity to the next annual Congress of the German Society of Medical Education.

  7. Model evaluation methodology applicable to environmental assessment models

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shaeffer, D.L.

    1979-08-01

    A model evaluation methodology is presented to provide a systematic framework within which the adequacy of environmental assessment models might be examined. The necessity for such a tool is motivated by the widespread use of models for predicting the environmental consequences of various human activities and by the reliance on these model predictions for deciding whether a particular activity requires the deployment of costly control measures. Consequently, the uncertainty associated with prediction must be established for the use of such models. The methodology presented here consists of six major tasks: model examination, algorithm examination, data evaluation, sensitivity analyses, validation studies, and code comparison. This methodology is presented in the form of a flowchart to show the logical interrelatedness of the various tasks. Emphasis has been placed on identifying those parameters which are most important in determining the predictive outputs of a model. Importance has been attached to the process of collecting quality data. A method has been developed for analyzing multiplicative chain models when the input parameters are statistically independent and lognormally distributed. Latin hypercube sampling has been offered as a promising candidate for doing sensitivity analyses. Several different ways of viewing the validity of a model have been presented. Criteria are presented for selecting models for environmental assessment purposes.

  8. Renewable Energy Assessment Methodology for Japanese OCONUS Army Installations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Solana, Amy E.; Horner, Jacob A.; Russo, Bryan J.; Gorrissen, Willy J.; Kora, Angela R.; Weimar, Mark R.; Hand, James R.; Orrell, Alice C.; Williamson, Jennifer L.

    2010-08-30

    Since 2005, Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) has been asked by Installation Management Command (IMCOM) to conduct strategic assessments at selected US Army installations of the potential use of renewable energy resources, including solar, wind, geothermal, biomass, waste, and ground source heat pumps (GSHPs). IMCOM has the same economic, security, and legal drivers to develop alternative, renewable energy resources overseas as it has for installations located in the US. The approach for continental US (CONUS) studies has been to use known, US-based renewable resource characterizations and information sources coupled with local, site-specific sources and interviews. However, the extent to which this sort of data might be available for outside the continental US (OCONUS) sites was unknown. An assessment at Camp Zama, Japan was completed as a trial to test the applicability of the CONUS methodology at OCONUS installations. It was found that, with some help from Camp Zama personnel in translating and locating a few Japanese sources, there was relatively little difficulty in finding sources that should provide a solid basis for conducting an assessment of comparable depth to those conducted for US installations. Project implementation will likely be more of a challenge, but the feasibility analysis will be able to use the same basic steps, with some adjusted inputs, as PNNL’s established renewable resource assessment methodology.

  9. Biodiversity impact assessment (BIA+) - methodological framework for screening biodiversity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Winter, Lisa; Pflugmacher, Stephan; Berger, Markus; Finkbeiner, Matthias

    2017-11-10

    For the past 20 years, the life cycle assessment (LCA) community has sought to integrate impacts on biodiversity into the LCA framework. However, existing impact assessment methods still fail to do so comprehensively because they quantify only a few impacts related to specific species and regions. This paper proposes a methodological framework that will allow LCA practitioners to assess currently missing impacts on biodiversity on a global scale. Building on existing models that seek to quantify the impacts of human activities on biodiversity, the herein proposed methodological framework consists of 2 components: a habitat factor for 14 major habitat types and the impact on the biodiversity status in those major habitat types. The habitat factor is calculated by means of indicators that characterize each habitat. The biodiversity status depends on parameters from impact categories. The impact functions, relating these different parameters to a given response in the biodiversity status, rely on expert judgments. To ensure the applicability for LCA practitioners, the components of the framework can be regionalized on a country scale for which LCA inventory data is more readily available. The weighting factors for the 14 major habitat types range from 0.63 to 1.82. By means of area weighting of the major habitat types in a country, country-specific weighting factors are calculated. In order to demonstrate the main part of the framework, examples of impact functions are given for the categories "freshwater eutrophication" and "freshwater ecotoxicity" in 1 major habitat type. The results confirm suitability of the methodological framework. The major advantages are the framework's user-friendliness, given that data can be used from LCA databases directly, and the complete inclusion of all levels of biodiversity (genetic, species, and ecosystem). It is applicable for the whole world and a wide range of impact categories. Integr Environ Assess Manag 2017;00:000-000.

  10. Methodological considerations when assessing restricted and repetitive behaviors and aggression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keefer, A J; Kalb, L; Mazurek, M O; Kanne, S M; Freedman, B; Vasa, R A

    2014-11-01

    Methodological issues impacting the relationship between aggression and restricted, repetitive, and stereotyped behaviors and interests (RRSBI) were examined in 2648 children and adolescents with autism spectrum disorders (ASD) using a multi-method, multi-informant analysis model to assess the effects of informant, assessment method, and aggression phenotype. Overall, a significant, but small relationship was found between RRSBI and aggression (p < .05). There was significant heterogeneity of estimates with large effect sizes observed when utilizing teacher report and a broad phenotype of aggression. Variance in estimates was attributed to differences in informant and assessment method with two times greater effect attributed to informant. Results suggest strategies to optimize future investigations of the relationship between RRSBI and aggression. Findings also provide the opportunity for the development of targeted interventions for aggression in youth with ASD.

  11. Using Risk Assessment Methodologies to Meet Management Objectives

    Science.gov (United States)

    DeMott, D. L.

    2015-01-01

    Corporate and program objectives focus on desired performance and results. ?Management decisions that affect how to meet these objectives now involve a complex mix of: technology, safety issues, operations, process considerations, employee considerations, regulatory requirements, financial concerns and legal issues. ?Risk Assessments are a tool for decision makers to understand potential consequences and be in a position to reduce, mitigate or eliminate costly mistakes or catastrophic failures. Using a risk assessment methodology is only a starting point. ?A risk assessment program provides management with important input in the decision making process. ?A pro-active organization looks to the future to avoid problems, a reactive organization can be blindsided by risks that could have been avoided. ?You get out what you put in, how useful your program is will be up to the individual organization.

  12. Two Methodologies to Assess UrbanSim Scenarios

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-12-01

    Interservice/Jndustry Training, Simulation, and Education Conference (11/ TSEC ) 2013 Two Methodologies to Assess UrbanSim Scenarios Brian Vogt...Education Conference (11/ TSEC ) 2013 strategies and determine if 1) only acceptable strategies are among the highest rewarded strategies and 2) only...Education Conference (1// TSEC ) 2013 {J ’ ’’/~AR+fX1;7’-’?;’/’> i> :c~t~11o)0~~ iJcMi>red:(m);t~" ’A\\::f\\0--{;101/0’ <Y?J¥~1)\\f-j’f\\!-’ + 7;J

  13. Methodology to assess coastal infrastructure resilience to climate change

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roca Marta

    2016-01-01

    In order to improve the resilience of the line, several options have been considered to evaluate and reduce climate change impacts to the railway. This paper describes the methodological approach developed to evaluate the risks of flooding for a range of scenarios in the estuary and open coast reaches of the line. Components to derive the present day and future climate change coastal conditions including some possible adaptation measures are also presented together with the results of the hindcasting analysis to assess the performance of the modelling system. An overview of the modelling results obtained to support the development of a long-term Resilience Strategy for asset management is also discussed.

  14. METHODOLOGY OF AN ASSESSMENT OF RESULTS OF INTELLECTUAL ACTIVITY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Larisa I. Egorova

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The methodological bases of an assessment of the results of research, development and technological works and intangible assets are given in the article. A special attention is paid to the problems of formation of fair value of such assets for clients of financial accounting. The authors compare the methods of cost measurement of accounting entities regulated by Russian Accounting Standards (RAS and International Financial Reporting Standards (IFRS. Peculiarities of detection and acknowledgement of impairment of intangible assets (loss of value are considered.

  15. A Methodology to Assess Ionospheric Models for GNSS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rovira-Garcia, Adria; Juan, José Miguel; Sanz, Jaume; González-Casado, Guillermo; Ibánez, Deimos

    2015-04-01

    Testing the accuracy of the ionospheric models used in the Global Navigation Satellite System (GNSS) is a long-standing issue. It is still a challenging problem due to the lack of accurate enough slant ionospheric determinations to be used as a reference. The present study proposes a methodology to assess any ionospheric model used in satellite-based applications and, in particular, GNSS ionospheric models. The methodology complements other analysis comparing the navigation based on different models to correct the code and carrier-phase observations. Specifically, the following ionospheric models are assessed: the operational models broadcast in the Global Positioning System (GPS), Galileo and the European Geostationary Navigation Overlay System (EGNOS), the post-process Global Ionospheric Maps (GIMs) from different analysis centers belonging to the International GNSS Service (IGS) and, finally, a new GIM computed by the gAGE/UPC research group. The methodology is based in the comparison between the predictions of the ionospheric model with actual unambiguous carrier-phase measurements from a global distribution of permanent receivers. The differences shall be separated into the hardware delays (a receiver constant plus a satellite constant) per data interval, e.g., a day. The condition that these Differential Code Biases (DCBs) are commonly shared throughout the world-wide network of receivers and satellites provides a global character to the assessment. This approach generalizes simple tests based on double differenced Slant Total Electron Contents (STECs) between pairs of satellites and receivers on a much local scale. The present study has been conducted during the entire 2014, i.e., the last Solar Maximum. The seasonal and latitudinal structures of the results clearly reflect the different strategies used by the different models. On one hand, ionospheric model corrections based on a grid (IGS-GIMs or EGNOS) are shown to be several times better than the models

  16. Final Report to the Department of the Energy for Project Entitled Rare Isotope Science Assessment Committee

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Donald Shapero; Timothy I. Meyer

    2007-08-14

    The Rare Isotope Science Assessment Committee (RISAC) was convened by the National Research Council in response to an informal request from the DOE’s Office of Nuclear Physics and the White House Office of Management and Budget. The charge to the committee is to examine and assess the broader scientific and international contexts of a U.S.-based rare-isotope facility. The committee met for the first time on December 16-17, 2005, in Washington, DC, and held three subsequent meetings. The committee’s final report was publicly released in unedited, prepublication form on Friday, December 8, 2006. The report was published in full-color by the National Academies Press in April 2007. Copies of the report were distributed to key decision makers and stakeholders around the world.

  17. A study on safety assessment methodology for a vitrification plant

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Seo, Y. C.; Lee, G. S.; Choi, Y. C.; Kim, G. H. [Yonsei Univ., Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2002-03-15

    In this study, the technical and regulatory status of radioactive waste vitrification technologies in foreign and domestic plants is investigated and analyzed, and then significant factors are suggested which must be contained in the final technical guideline or standard for the safety assessment of vitrification plants. Also, the methods to estimate the stability of vitrified waste forms are suggested with property analysis of them. The contents and scope of the study are summarized as follows : survey of the status on radioactive waste vitrification technologies in foreign and domestic plants, survey of the characterization methodology for radioactive waste form, analysis of stability for vitrified waste forms, survey and analysis of technical standards and regulations concerned with them in foreign and domestic plants, suggestion of significant factors for the safety assessment of vitrification plants, submission of regulated technical standard on radioactive waste vitrification plats.

  18. 77 FR 43574 - National Climate Assessment and Development Advisory Committee (NCADAC); Open Meeting

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-07-25

    ... available at the office of the U.S. Global Change Research Program, Conference Room A, Suite 250, 1717... information pertaining to current and future impacts of climate change upon the United States; and to provide... mission, the committee's specific objective is to produce a National Climate Assessment. FOR FURTHER...

  19. 76 FR 17626 - National Climate Assessment Development and Advisory Committee; Announcement of Time Change and...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-03-30

    ... announces a change in the start time and provides the location of the meeting of the National Climate... National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration National Climate Assessment Development and Advisory Committee; Announcement of Time Change and Meeting Location AGENCY: National Oceanic and Atmospheric...

  20. A risk assessment methodology using intuitionistic fuzzy set in FMEA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chang, Kuei-Hu; Cheng, Ching-Hsue

    2010-12-01

    Most current risk assessment methods use the risk priority number (RPN) value to evaluate the risk of failure. However, conventional RPN methodology has been criticised as having five main shortcomings as follows: (1) the assumption that the RPN elements are equally weighted leads to over simplification; (2) the RPN scale itself has some non-intuitive statistical properties; (3) the RPN elements have many duplicate numbers; (4) the RPN is derived from only three factors mainly in terms of safety; and (5) the conventional RPN method has not considered indirect relations between components. To address the above issues, an efficient and comprehensive algorithm to evaluate the risk of failure is needed. This article proposes an innovative approach, which integrates the intuitionistic fuzzy set (IFS) and the decision-making trial and evaluation laboratory (DEMATEL) approach on risk assessment. The proposed approach resolves some of the shortcomings of the conventional RPN method. A case study, which assesses the risk of 0.15 µm DRAM etching process, is used to demonstrate the effectiveness of the proposed approach. Finally, the result of the proposed method is compared with the listing approaches of risk assessment methods.

  1. A methodology for physically based rockfall hazard assessment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. B. Crosta

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available Rockfall hazard assessment is not simple to achieve in practice and sound, physically based assessment methodologies are still missing. The mobility of rockfalls implies a more difficult hazard definition with respect to other slope instabilities with minimal runout. Rockfall hazard assessment involves complex definitions for "occurrence probability" and "intensity". This paper is an attempt to evaluate rockfall hazard using the results of 3-D numerical modelling on a topography described by a DEM. Maps portraying the maximum frequency of passages, velocity and height of blocks at each model cell, are easily combined in a GIS in order to produce physically based rockfall hazard maps. Different methods are suggested and discussed for rockfall hazard mapping at a regional and local scale both along linear features or within exposed areas. An objective approach based on three-dimensional matrixes providing both a positional "Rockfall Hazard Index" and a "Rockfall Hazard Vector" is presented. The opportunity of combining different parameters in the 3-D matrixes has been evaluated to better express the relative increase in hazard. Furthermore, the sensitivity of the hazard index with respect to the included variables and their combinations is preliminarily discussed in order to constrain as objective as possible assessment criteria.

  2. A methodology for assessing high intensity RF effects in aircraft

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zacharias, R.A.; Avalle, C.A.; Kunz, K.S.; Molau, N.E.; Pennock, S.T.; Poggio, A.J.; Sharpe, R.M.

    1993-07-01

    Optical components have an inherent immunity to the electromagnetic interference (EMI) associated with High Intensity Radiated Fields (HIRF). The optical technology embodied in Fly-by-Light (FBL) might therefore minimize the effects of HIRF on digitally controlled systems while providing lifetime immunity to signal EMI. This is one of the primary motivations for developing FBL systems for aircraft. FBL has the potential to greatly simplify EMI certification by enabling technically acceptable laboratory tests of subsystems, as opposed to expensive full airplane tests. In this paper the authors describe a methodology for assessing EMI effects on FBL aircraft that reduces or potentially eliminates the need for full airplane tests. This methodology is based on comparing the applied EMI stress--the level of interference signal that arrives at a unit under test--versus the EMI strength of the unit--the interference level it can withstand without upset. This approach allows one to use computer models and/or low power coupling measurement and similarity (to other previously tested aircraft) to determine the stress applied to installed subsystems, and to use benchtop cable injection tests and/or mode stirred chamber radiated tests to determine the strength of the subsystem.

  3. ENVIRONMENTAL ASSESSMENT METHODOLOGY FOR THE NUCLEAR FUEL CYCLE

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brenchley, D. L.; Soldat, J. K.; McNeese, J. A.; Watson, E. C.

    1977-07-01

    This report describes the methodology for determining where environmental control technology is required for the nuclear fuel cycle. The methodology addresses routine emission of chemical and radioactive effluents, and applies to mining, milling, conversion, enrichment, fuel fabrication, reactors (LWR and BWR) and fuel reprocessing. Chemical and radioactive effluents are evaluated independently. Radioactive effluents are evaluated on the basis of maximum exposed individual dose and population dose calculations for a 1-year emission period and a 50-year commitment. Sources of radionuclides for each facility are then listed according to their relative contribution to the total calculated dose. Effluent, ambient and toxicology standards are used to evaluate the effect of chemical effluents. First, each chemical and source configuration is determined. Sources are tagged if they exceed existirrg standards. The combined effect of all chemicals is assessed for each facility. If the additive effects are unacceptable, then additional control technology is recommended. Finally, sources and their chemicals at each facility are ranked according to their relative contribution to the ambient pollution level. This ranking identifies those sources most in need of environmental control.

  4. Advancing human health risk assessment: integrating recent advisory committee recommendations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dourson, Michael; Becker, Richard A; Haber, Lynne T; Pottenger, Lynn H; Bredfeldt, Tiffany; Fenner-Crisp, Penelope A

    2013-07-01

    Over the last dozen years, many national and international expert groups have considered specific improvements to risk assessment. Many of their stated recommendations are mutually supportive, but others appear conflicting, at least in an initial assessment. This review identifies areas of consensus and difference and recommends a practical, biology-centric course forward, which includes: (1) incorporating a clear problem formulation at the outset of the assessment with a level of complexity that is appropriate for informing the relevant risk management decision; (2) using toxicokinetics and toxicodynamic information to develop Chemical Specific Adjustment Factors (CSAF); (3) using mode of action (MOA) information and an understanding of the relevant biology as the key, central organizing principle for the risk assessment; (4) integrating MOA information into dose-response assessments using existing guidelines for non-cancer and cancer assessments; (5) using a tiered, iterative approach developed by the World Health Organization/International Programme on Chemical Safety (WHO/IPCS) as a scientifically robust, fit-for-purpose approach for risk assessment of combined exposures (chemical mixtures); and (6) applying all of this knowledge to enable interpretation of human biomonitoring data in a risk context. While scientifically based defaults will remain important and useful when data on CSAF or MOA to refine an assessment are absent or insufficient, assessments should always strive to use these data. The use of available 21st century knowledge of biological processes, clinical findings, chemical interactions, and dose-response at the molecular, cellular, organ and organism levels will minimize the need for extrapolation and reliance on default approaches.

  5. Methodologies For A Physically Based Rockfall Hazard Assessment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Agliardi, F.; Crosta, G. B.; Guzzetti, F.; Marian, M.

    Rockfall hazard assessment is an important land planning tool in alpine areas, where settlements progressively expand across rockfall prone areas, rising the vulnerability of the elements at risk, the worth of potential losses and the restoration costs. Nev- ertheless, hazard definition is not simple to achieve in practice and sound, physically based assessment methodologies are still missing. In addition, the high mobility of rockfalls implies a more difficult hazard definition with respect to other slope insta- bilities for which runout is minimal. When coping with rockfalls, hazard assessment involves complex definitions for "occurrence probability" and "intensity". The local occurrence probability must derive from the combination of the triggering probability (related to the geomechanical susceptibility of rock masses to fail) and the transit or impact probability at a given location (related to the motion of falling blocks). The intensity (or magnitude) of a rockfall is a complex function of mass, velocity and fly height of involved blocks that can be defined in many different ways depending on the adopted physical description and "destructiveness" criterion. This work is an attempt to evaluate rockfall hazard using the results of numerical modelling performed by an original 3D rockfall simulation program. This is based on a kinematic algorithm and allows the spatially distributed simulation of rockfall motions on a three-dimensional topography described by a DTM. The code provides raster maps portraying the max- imum frequency of transit, velocity and height of blocks at each model cell, easily combined in a GIS in order to produce physically based rockfall hazard maps. The results of some three dimensional rockfall models, performed at both regional and lo- cal scale in areas where rockfall related problems are well known, have been used to assess rockfall hazard, by adopting an objective approach based on three-dimensional matrixes providing a positional

  6. Life Cycle Assessment of electricity generation: overview and methodological issues

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Turconi, Roberto; Boldrin, Alessio; Astrup, Thomas Fruergaard

    Electricity production is currently responsible for a large share of global Greenhouse Gas (GHG), NOx and SO2 emissions, and their related environmental impacts. This study provides a critical review of the status of research on life cycle assessment (LCA) of electricity generation. NREL [1...... of emissions, those were divided among three life cycle phases: fuel provision, operation of the plant and infrastructure. It was possible to estimate typical emission factors for all technologies except for biomass, where methodological and technical aspects result in very variable outcomes. Within...... these ranges, we identified direct emissions at the plant as the main contributor to the total GHG emissions for fossil fuels, with thermal efficiency being the most determining parameter. Nevertheless, with high thermal efficiency fuel provision becomes increasingly important (e.g. natural gas combined cycle...

  7. Methodological approaches to climate change vulnerability assessment of Protected Areas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Oksana N. Lipka

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Climate change impacts in Russia's territory make species and ecosystems conservation in Protected Areas a more difficult challenge. Additional adaptation measures are required. Before they are developed, it is important to assess the vulnerability of a territory: what exactly, and to which extent, is exposed to adverse climate impacts? The accomplished research will help develop an action plan consistent with the current unstable climate and extreme weather events, as well as with projections by the leading research institutions of Roshydromet and the Russian Academy of Science. Today, methodologies have been developed and successfully tested for some natural zones. The conservation science is now facing a new challenge: how to combine collected information with climate projections and identify development perspectives for concrete territories.

  8. Comparative study of probabilistic methodologies for small signal stability assessment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rueda, J.L.; Colome, D.G. [Universidad Nacional de San Juan (IEE-UNSJ), San Juan (Argentina). Inst. de Energia Electrica], Emails: joseluisrt@iee.unsj.edu.ar, colome@iee.unsj.edu.ar

    2009-07-01

    Traditional deterministic approaches for small signal stability assessment (SSSA) are unable to properly reflect the existing uncertainties in real power systems. Hence, the probabilistic analysis of small signal stability (SSS) is attracting more attention by power system engineers. This paper discusses and compares two probabilistic methodologies for SSSA, which are based on the two point estimation method and the so-called Monte Carlo method, respectively. The comparisons are based on the results obtained for several power systems of different sizes and with different SSS performance. It is demonstrated that although with an analytical approach the amount of computation of probabilistic SSSA can be reduced, the different degrees of approximations that are adopted, lead to deceptive results. Conversely, Monte Carlo based probabilistic SSSA can be carried out with reasonable computational effort while holding satisfactory estimation precision. (author)

  9. METHODOLOGY OF SYSTEM APPROACHE TO SEISMIC RISK ASSESSMENT AND REDUCTION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. D. Abakarov

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract. Ensuring of urban areas seismic safety is a task which do not require delay. But it cannot be solved by separate parts. It is essential that all components of the seismic hazard must be grouped together in one problem based on the system approach. In the present paper is presented not only the main flowchart of systems approach to ensuring the territory seismic safety but also the flowcharts of components of each main unit. They cover the whole package of measures for a full assessment of territory seismic hazard, seismic risk and its reduction.The proposed methodology can be carried out for design and implementation of regional territory seismic safety programs. 

  10. Report of the ADE Ad Hoc Committee on Assessment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    ADE Bulletin, 1996

    1996-01-01

    Presents a report of the Association of Departments of English's (ADE) investigation of issues and procedures concerning assessment in English departments. Offers advice to educators, based on information from department chairs and colleagues. (TB)

  11. A methodology for adaptable and robust ecosystem services assessment.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ferdinando Villa

    Full Text Available Ecosystem Services (ES are an established conceptual framework for attributing value to the benefits that nature provides to humans. As the promise of robust ES-driven management is put to the test, shortcomings in our ability to accurately measure, map, and value ES have surfaced. On the research side, mainstream methods for ES assessment still fall short of addressing the complex, multi-scale biophysical and socioeconomic dynamics inherent in ES provision, flow, and use. On the practitioner side, application of methods remains onerous due to data and model parameterization requirements. Further, it is increasingly clear that the dominant "one model fits all" paradigm is often ill-suited to address the diversity of real-world management situations that exist across the broad spectrum of coupled human-natural systems. This article introduces an integrated ES modeling methodology, named ARIES (ARtificial Intelligence for Ecosystem Services, which aims to introduce improvements on these fronts. To improve conceptual detail and representation of ES dynamics, it adopts a uniform conceptualization of ES that gives equal emphasis to their production, flow and use by society, while keeping model complexity low enough to enable rapid and inexpensive assessment in many contexts and for multiple services. To improve fit to diverse application contexts, the methodology is assisted by model integration technologies that allow assembly of customized models from a growing model base. By using computer learning and reasoning, model structure may be specialized for each application context without requiring costly expertise. In this article we discuss the founding principles of ARIES--both its innovative aspects for ES science and as an example of a new strategy to support more accurate decision making in diverse application contexts.

  12. A methodology for adaptable and robust ecosystem services assessment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Villa, Ferdinando; Bagstad, Kenneth J; Voigt, Brian; Johnson, Gary W; Portela, Rosimeiry; Honzák, Miroslav; Batker, David

    2014-01-01

    Ecosystem Services (ES) are an established conceptual framework for attributing value to the benefits that nature provides to humans. As the promise of robust ES-driven management is put to the test, shortcomings in our ability to accurately measure, map, and value ES have surfaced. On the research side, mainstream methods for ES assessment still fall short of addressing the complex, multi-scale biophysical and socioeconomic dynamics inherent in ES provision, flow, and use. On the practitioner side, application of methods remains onerous due to data and model parameterization requirements. Further, it is increasingly clear that the dominant "one model fits all" paradigm is often ill-suited to address the diversity of real-world management situations that exist across the broad spectrum of coupled human-natural systems. This article introduces an integrated ES modeling methodology, named ARIES (ARtificial Intelligence for Ecosystem Services), which aims to introduce improvements on these fronts. To improve conceptual detail and representation of ES dynamics, it adopts a uniform conceptualization of ES that gives equal emphasis to their production, flow and use by society, while keeping model complexity low enough to enable rapid and inexpensive assessment in many contexts and for multiple services. To improve fit to diverse application contexts, the methodology is assisted by model integration technologies that allow assembly of customized models from a growing model base. By using computer learning and reasoning, model structure may be specialized for each application context without requiring costly expertise. In this article we discuss the founding principles of ARIES--both its innovative aspects for ES science and as an example of a new strategy to support more accurate decision making in diverse application contexts.

  13. A methodology for adaptable and robust ecosystem services assessment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Villa, Ferdinando; Bagstad, Kenneth J.; Voigt, Brian; Johnson, Gary W.; Portela, Rosimeiry; Honzák, Miroslav; Batker, David

    2014-01-01

    Ecosystem Services (ES) are an established conceptual framework for attributing value to the benefits that nature provides to humans. As the promise of robust ES-driven management is put to the test, shortcomings in our ability to accurately measure, map, and value ES have surfaced. On the research side, mainstream methods for ES assessment still fall short of addressing the complex, multi-scale biophysical and socioeconomic dynamics inherent in ES provision, flow, and use. On the practitioner side, application of methods remains onerous due to data and model parameterization requirements. Further, it is increasingly clear that the dominant “one model fits all” paradigm is often ill-suited to address the diversity of real-world management situations that exist across the broad spectrum of coupled human-natural systems. This article introduces an integrated ES modeling methodology, named ARIES (ARtificial Intelligence for Ecosystem Services), which aims to introduce improvements on these fronts. To improve conceptual detail and representation of ES dynamics, it adopts a uniform conceptualization of ES that gives equal emphasis to their production, flow and use by society, while keeping model complexity low enough to enable rapid and inexpensive assessment in many contexts and for multiple services. To improve fit to diverse application contexts, the methodology is assisted by model integration technologies that allow assembly of customized models from a growing model base. By using computer learning and reasoning, model structure may be specialized for each application context without requiring costly expertise. In this article we discuss the founding principles of ARIES - both its innovative aspects for ES science and as an example of a new strategy to support more accurate decision making in diverse application contexts.

  14. Methodology for Assessment and Optimization of Industrial Eco-Systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Edwin Zondervan

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available There is an emerging trend in evaluating industrial activities using principles of industrial ecology because of the emphasis on sustainability initiatives by major process industries. Attention has also been targeted at developing planned industrial ecosystems (IEs across the globe. We point out the current state-of-the art in this exciting discipline and subsequently identify the challenges that have not been encountered by the scientific community yet. Ecological Input Output Analysis (EIOA may be considered as an “all-inclusive model” for the assessment of an IE because of its ability to capture the economic, environmental, and societal behavior of an IE. It could also be utilized to illustrate the detailed inter-relationships among the entities of an IE. Optimization of a fully integrated IE using conventional multi-objective optimization techniques would be too complex. For such multi-objective optimization problems, Hierarchical-Pareto optimization discussed in the literature has shown promise, but there is a need to establish a methodology to assess and/or improve the robustness of an IE using such techniques.

  15. Programmer`s manual for CAMCON: Compliance Assessment Methodology CONtroller

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rechard, R.P. [Sandia National Labs., Albuquerque, NM (United States); Gilkey, A.P.; Rudeen, D.K.; Byle, K.A. [New Mexico Engineering Research Inst., Albuquerque, NM (United States); Iuzzolino, H.J. [Geo-Centers, Inc., Albuquerque, NM (United States)

    1993-05-01

    CAMCON, the Compliance Assessment Methodology CONtroller, is an analysis system that assists in assessing the compliance of the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP) with applicable long-term regulations of the US Environmental Protection Agency, including Subpart B of the Environmental Standards for the Management and Disposal of spent Nuclear Fuel, High-Level and Transuranic Radioactive Wastes, 40 CFR 191 and 40CFR268.6, which is the portion of the Land Disposal Restrictions implementing the Resource, Conservative, and Recovery Act of 1976, as amended that states the conditions for disposal of hazardous chemical wastes. This manual provides an architectural overview of the CAMCON system. Furthermore this manual presents guidelines and presents suggestions for programmers developing the many different types of software necessary to investigate various events and physical processes of the WIPP. These guidelines include user interface requirements, minimum quality assurance requirements, coding style suggestions, and the use of numerous software libraries developed specifically for or adapted for the CAMCON system.

  16. Towards the evaluation of current wind farm assessment methodologies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dorval, J.; Masson, C. [Ecole de Technologie Superieure, Montreal, PQ (Canada); Gagnon, Y. [Moncton Univ., NB (Canada). Dept. of Wind Engineering

    2010-07-01

    Canada's wind energy industry is experiencing significant growth. Government initiatives such as the wind power production incentive program (WPPI) may result in a cumulative installed wind energy capacity of up to 10,000 MW by 2015. However, the methods used to assess wind farm performance have never been thoroughly investigated in a specifically Canadian context. This project was conducted to provide a more accurate understanding of the limitations of various wind farm performance measuring methods and recommend effective methodologies based on the effect of terrain, the position of the wind turbines, and wind characteristics. The study was conducted at 5 wind farms in various Canadian locations, including Prince Edward Island (PEI). A full year of data for each wind farm was used to determine wind speed, wind direction, temperature, pressure, relative humidity, power, and Nacelle orientation. Various wind resource assessment software programs were analyzed in order to evaluate topography and roughness effects, wake analyses, and to compare results from the models with actual wind speed data. tabs., figs.

  17. Committee opinion no. 634: Hereditary cancer syndromes and risk assessment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-06-01

    A hereditary cancer syndrome is a genetic predisposition to certain types of cancer, often with onset at an early age, caused by inherited mutations in one or more genes. Cases of cancer commonly encountered by obstetrician-gynecologists or other obstetric-gynecologic providers--such as breast cancer, ovarian cancer, and endometrial cancer--are features of specific hereditary cancer syndromes. The most common hereditary cancer syndromes related to gynecologic cancer include hereditary breast and ovarian cancer syndrome, Lynch syndrome, Li-Fraumeni syndrome, Cowden syndrome, and Peutz-Jeghers syndrome. A hereditary cancer risk assessment is the key to identifying patients and families who may be at increased risk of developing certain types of cancer. Screening should include, at minimum, a personal cancer history and a first- and second-degree relative cancer history that includes a description of the type of primary cancer, the age of onset, and the lineage (paternal versus maternal) of the family member. In addition, a patient's ethnic background can influence her genetic risk. If a hereditary cancer risk assessment suggests an increased risk of a hereditary cancer syndrome, referral to a specialist in cancer genetics or a health care provider with expertise in genetics is recommended for expanded gathering of family history information, risk assessment, education, and counseling, which may lead to genetic testing.

  18. Symposium 'methodology in medical education research' organised by the Methodology in Medical Education Research Committee of the German Society of Medical Education May, 25 to 26 2013 at Charité, Berlin

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Schüttpelz-Brauns, Katrin

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available In 2013, the Methodology in Medical Education Research Committee ran a symposium on “Research in Medical Education” as part of its ongoing faculty development activities. The symposium aimed to introduce to participants educational research methods with a specific focus on research in medical education. Thirty-five participants were able to choose from workshops covering qualitative methods, quantitative methods and scientific writing throughout the one and a half days. The symposium’s evaluation showed participant satisfaction with the format as well as suggestions for future improvement. Consequently, the committee will offer the symposium again in a modified form in proximity to the next annual Congress of the German Society of Medical Education.

  19. Current methodological issues in the economic assessment of personalized medicine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Annemans, Lieven; Redekop, Ken; Payne, Katherine

    2013-01-01

    There is a need for methodological scrutiny in the economic assessment of personalized medicine. In this article, we present a list of 10 specific issues that we argue pose specific methodological challenges that require careful consideration when designing and conducting robust model-based economic evaluations in the context of personalized medicine. Key issues are related to the correct framing of the research question, interpretation of test results, data collection of medical management options after obtaining test results, and expressing the value of tests. The need to formulate the research question clearly and be explicit and specific about the technology being evaluated is essential because various test kits can have the same purpose and yet differ in predictive value, costs, and relevance to practice and patient populations. The correct reporting of sensitivity/specificity, and especially the false negatives and false positives (which are population dependent), of the investigated tests is also considered as a key element. This requires additional structural complexity to establish the relationship between the test result and the consecutive treatment changes and outcomes. This process involves translating the test characteristics into clinical utility, and therefore outlining the clinical and economic consequences of true and false positives and true and false negatives. Information on treatment patterns and on their costs and outcomes, however, is often lacking, especially for false-positive and false-negative test results. The analysis can even become very complex if different tests are combined or sequentially used. This potential complexity can be handled by explicitly showing how these tests are going to be used in practice and then working with the combined sensitivities and specificities of the tests. Each of these issues leads to a higher degree of uncertainty in economic models designed to assess the added value of personalized medicine compared

  20. MODERN METHODOLOGICAL TOOLS FOR STUDENTS’ LANGUAGE SKILLS SELF-ASSESSMENT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. N. Astanina

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction. Nowadays, the problem of standardization of foreign language training at the higher school is becoming currently topical. With regard to the processes of globalization, the international educational projects and students exchange programs gain greater international recognition. Such international programmes involve foreign language knowledge graded as not only high certified academic levels but also as basic language skills. The lack of foreign language competence becomes the obstacle for successful training, depriving a future graduate of a part of chances to become the competitive and popular expert in the chosen profession. The success of a foreign language course completion among students depends on many factors; the most important factor is motivation which can affect self-assessment of training results. The aim of the study is to describe possibilities of the CanDos tools implementation for the organization of students self-consciousness and self-assessment of own achievements in order to influence the motivation for mastering a foreign language.Methodology and research methods. The research is based on competencybased approach. The methods involve comparative analysis, synthesis, and generalization.Results and scientific novelty. The questionnaire developed for the experiment helped to collect the data concerning the effectiveness of the CanDos software implementation for self-assessment of students’ foreign language skills. The corresponding self-assessment helps students to carry out a self-reflection of own knowledge and abilities, and to find “weak points” in language proficiency which need additional practice and improvement. By regularly using CanDos software as self-assessment tools, students learn to identify the correspondence of their language competence to the external requirements and standards of education. Orientation to training results will help future experts to create self-motivation that positively

  1. Methodology for quantitative assessment of technical condition in industrial systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Steinbach, C. [Marintek AS (Norway); Soerli, A. [Statoil (Norway)

    1998-12-31

    As part of the Eureka project Ageing Management a methodology has been developed to assess the technical condition of industrial systems. The first part of the presentation argues for the use of technical condition parameters in the context of maintenance strategies. Thereafter the term `technical condition` is defined more thoroughly as it is used within the project. It is claimed that the technical condition of a system - such as a feed water system of a nuclear power plant, or a water injection system on an oil platform - may be determined by aggregating the condition of its smaller components using a hierarchic approach. The hierarchy has to be defined in co-operation with experienced personnel and reflects the impact of degradation of elements on a lower level to nodes higher in the hierarchy. The impact is divided into five categories with respect to safety, environment, availability, costs and man-hours. To determine the technical condition of the bottom elements of the hierarchy, available data is used from both an on-line condition monitoring system and maintenance history. The second part of the presentation introduces the prototype software tool TeCoMan which utilises the theory and applies it to installations of the participating companies. First results and gained experiences with the method and tool are discussed. (orig.)

  2. A Systematic Methodology for Gearbox Health Assessment and Fault Classification

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jay Lee

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available A systematic methodology for gearbox health assessment and fault classification is developed and evaluated for 560 data sets of gearbox vibration data provided by the Prognostics and Health Management Society for the 2009 data challenge competition. A comprehensive set of signal processing and feature extraction methods are used to extract over 200 features, including features extracted from the raw time signal, time synchronous signal, wavelet decomposition signal, frequency domain spectrum, envelope spectrum, among others. A regime segmentation approach using the tachometer signal, a spectrum similarity metric, and gear mesh frequency peak information are used to segment the data by gear type, input shaft speed, and braking torque load. A health assessment method that finds the minimum feature vector sum in each regime is used to classify and find the 80 baseline healthy data sets. A fault diagnosis method based on a distance calculation from normal along with specific features correlated to different fault signatures is used to diagnosis specific faults. The fault diagnosis method is evaluated for the diagnosis of a gear tooth breakage, input shaft imbalance, bent shaft, bearing inner race defect, and bad key, and the method could be further extended for other faults as long as a set of features can be correlated with a known fault signature. Future work looks to further refine the distance calculation algorithm for fault diagnosis, as well as further evaluate other signal processing method such as the empirical mode decomposition to see if an improved set of features can be used to improve the fault diagnosis accuracy.

  3. A Probabilistic Tsunami Hazard Assessment Methodology and Its Application to Crescent City, CA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gonzalez, F. I.; Leveque, R. J.; Waagan, K.; Adams, L.; Lin, G.

    2012-12-01

    A PTHA methodology, based in large part on Probabilistic Seismic Hazard Assessment methods (e.g., Cornell, 1968; SSHAC, 1997; Geist and Parsons, 2005), was previously applied to Seaside, OR (Gonzalez, et al., 2009). This initial version of the method has been updated to include: a revised method to estimate tidal uncertainty; an improved method for generating stochastic realizations to estimate slip distribution uncertainty (Mai and Beroza, 2002; Blair, et al., 2011); additional near-field sources in the Cascadia Subduction Zone, based on the work of Goldfinger, et al. (2012); far-field sources in Japan, based on information updated since the 3 March 2011 Tohoku tsunami (Japan Earthquake Research Committee, 2011). The GeoClaw tsunami model (Berger, et. al, 2011) is used to simulate generation, propagation and inundation. We will discuss this revised PTHA methodology and the results of its application to Crescent City, CA. Berger, M.J., D. L. George, R. J. LeVeque, and K. T. Mandli, The GeoClaw software for depth-averaged flows with adaptive refinement, Adv. Water Res. 34 (2011), pp. 1195-1206. Blair, J.L., McCrory, P.A., Oppenheimer, D.H., and Waldhauser, F. (2011): A Geo-referenced 3D model of the Juan de Fuca Slab and associated seismicity: U.S. Geological Survey Data Series 633, v.1.0, available at http://pubs.usgs.gov/ds/633/. Cornell, C. A. (1968): Engineering seismic risk analysis, Bull. Seismol. Soc. Am., 58, 1583-1606. Geist, E. L., and T. Parsons (2005): Probabilistic Analysis of Tsunami Hazards, Nat. Hazards, 37 (3), 277-314. Goldfinger, C., Nelson, C.H., Morey, A.E., Johnson, J.E., Patton, J.R., Karabanov, E., Gutiérrez-Pastor, J., Eriksson, A.T., Gràcia, E., Dunhill, G., Enkin, R.J., Dallimore, A., and Vallier, T. (2012): Turbidite event history—Methods and implications for Holocene paleoseismicity of the Cascadia subduction zone: U.S. Geological Survey Professional Paper 1661-F, 170 p. (Available at http://pubs.usgs.gov/pp/pp1661f/). González, F

  4. Assessing Clinical Microbiology Practice Guidelines: American Society for MicrobiologyAd HocCommittee on Evidence-Based Laboratory Medicine Practice Guidelines Assessment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nachamkin, Irving; Kirn, Thomas J; Westblade, Lars F; Humphries, Romney

    2017-11-01

    As part of the American Society for Microbiology (ASM) Evidence-Based Laboratory Medicine Practice Guidelines Committee of the Professional Practice Committee, an ad hoc committee was formed in 2014 to assess guidelines published by the committee using an assessment tool, Appraisal of Guidelines for Research Evaluation II (AGREE II). The AGREE II assessment helps reviewers determine whether published guidelines are robust, transparent, and clear in presenting practice recommendations in a standardized manner. Identifying strengths and weaknesses of practice guidelines by ad hoc assessments helps with improving future guidelines through the participation of key stakeholders. This minireview describes the development of the ad hoc committee and results from their review of several ASM best practices guidelines and a non-ASM practice guideline from the Emergency Nurses Association. Copyright © 2017 American Society for Microbiology.

  5. Pharmacovigilance in Europe: Place of the Pharmacovigilance Risk Assessment Committee (PRAC) in organisation and decisional processes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laroche, Marie-Laure; Batz, Arnaud; Géniaux, Hélène; Féchant, Corinne; Merle, Louis; Maison, Patrick

    2016-04-01

    The new European legislation that came into force in July 2012 reinforced the organisation of pharmacovigilance by setting up a committee in charge of risk assessment for medicines, the Pharmacovigilance Risk Assessment Committee (PRAC). The PRAC has a remit covering the assessment of all aspects of the safety and the risk management of medicinal products for human use in the European Union. It deals with issues regarding pharmacovigilance signals, the periodic evaluation of benefit/risk reports from marketing authorization holders (MAH), risk management plans, post-marketing studies, variations or renewals of marketing authorisations, management of under surveillance drugs lists, inspections for pharmacovigilance reasons and audits of pharmacovigilance systems. The PRAC works with the pharmacovigilance systems of the European Member States, which draw up evaluation reports. These evaluations are circulated and discussed by Member States so as to issue recommendations, which serve as a basis for other European medicines committees, the Committee for Medicinal Products for Human Use (CHMP) or the Coordination Group for Mutual Recognition and Decentralised Procedures-Human (CMDh) which then give their opinion. The final decision, which applies to all Member States and to the concerned MAH, lies with the European Commission (EC). This decisional procedure thus rests on coordination involving the PRAC, the CHMP, the CMDh, the EC, the Member States and the pharmaceutical companies. In the 3 years from July 2012, the PRAC has processed nearly 4500 procedures and is still facing an increasing workload. Copyright © 2016 Société française de pharmacologie et de thérapeutique. Published by Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  6. E-survey with researchers, members of ethics committees and sponsors of clinical research in Brazil: an emerging methodology for scientific research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dainesi, Sonia Mansoldo; Goldbaum, Moisés

    2012-12-01

    The growth of Internet users enables epidemiological studies to be conducted electronically, representing a promising methodology for data collection. Members of Ethics Committees, Clinical Researchers and Sponsors were interviewed using questionnaires sent over the Internet. Along with the questionnaire, participants received a message explaining the survey and also the informed consent. Returning the questionnaire meant the consent of the participant was given. No incentive was offered; two reminders were sent. The response rate was 21% (124/599), 20% (58/290) and 45% (24/53) respectively for Ethics Committees, Researchers and Sponsors. The percentage of return before the two reminders was about 62%. Reasons for non-response: participant not found, refusal to participate, lack of experience in clinical research or in the therapeutic field. Characteristics of participants: 45% of Ethics Committee participants, 64% of Researchers and 63% of Sponsors were male; mean age (range), respectively: 47 (28-74), 53 (24-72) and 40 (29-65) years. Among Researchers and Sponsors, all respondents had at least a university degree and, in the Ethics Committees group, only two (1.7%) did not have one. Most of the questionnaires in all groups came from the Southeast Region of Brazil, probably reflecting the highest number of clinical trials and research professionals in this region. Despite the potential limitations of a survey done through the Internet, this study led to a response rate similar to what has been observed with other models, efficiency in obtaining responses (speed and quality), convenience for respondents and low cost.

  7. Vulnerability and Risk Analysis Program: Overview of Assessment Methodology

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    2001-01-01

    .... Over the last three years, a team of national laboratory experts, working in partnership with the energy industry, has successfully applied the methodology as part of OCIP's Vulnerability and Risk Analysis Program (VRAP...

  8. Risk Assessment Methodology for Software Supportability (RAMSS): User’s Handbook.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1986-04-14

    287 THE RON CORPORATION 1801 Randolph Road. S E. Albuquerque, NM 87106 0 505) 848-5000 Risk Assessment Methodology for Software Supportability ( RAMSS ...S.E., Albuquerque, NM 87106 * (505) 848-5000 RISK ASSESSMENT METHODOLOGY FOR SOFTWARE SUPPORTABILITY ( RAMSS ) USER’S HANDBOOK April 14, 1986 BDM/A.-85...NThe Risk Assessment Methodology for Software Supportability ( RAMSS ) was developed for the Air Force Operational Test and Evaluation Center (AFOTEC) to

  9. A Methodology for the Assessment of Experiential Learning Lean: The Lean Experience Factory Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Zan, Giovanni; De Toni, Alberto Felice; Fornasier, Andrea; Battistella, Cinzia

    2015-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this paper is to present a methodology to assess the experiential learning processes of learning lean in an innovative learning environment: the lean model factories. Design/methodology/approach: A literature review on learning and lean management literatures was carried out to design the methodology. Then, a case study…

  10. Assessment of compliance with regulatory requirements for a best estimate methodology for evaluation of ECCS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Un Chul; Jang, Jin Wook; Lim, Ho Gon; Jeong, Ik [Seoul National Univ., Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Sim, Suk Ku [Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, Taejon (Korea, Republic of)

    2000-03-15

    Best estimate methodology for evaluation of ECCS proposed by KEPCO(KREM) os using thermal-hydraulic best-estimate code and the topical report for the methodology is described that it meets the regulatory requirement of USNRC regulatory guide. In this research the assessment of compliance with regulatory guide. In this research the assessment of compliance with regulatory requirements for the methodology is performed. The state of licensing procedure of other countries and best-estimate evaluation methodologies of Europe is also investigated, The applicability of models and propriety of procedure of uncertainty analysis of KREM are appraised and compliance with USNRC regulatory guide is assessed.

  11. THE CRUCIAL ROLE OF CENTRAL BANK TRANSPARENCY IN ASSESSING THE MONETARY POLICY COMMITTEE MECHANISM

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dumiter Florin Cornel

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available In the past, central banks used to be very reserved regarding their activities, strategies and monetary policy decisions and actions. As central banks become more and more independent, transparency gained importance based upon accountability arguments. An important fact for adopting an increasing central bank transparency lies in its importance of influencing the development of expectations. The concept of central bank transparency has emerged in the economic literature relatively later than some other key concepts. The widespread agreement of an inflation targeting regime and a more transparent central bank is desired by the most central banks around the world in the context of the need of the public disclosure of macroeconomic models, the quarterly time series for indicators like: inflation, output, budgetary deficit, public debt, interest rate, inflation expectations, the public announcement of the monetary policy decisions, objectives and targets, the publication of some key monetary tools like: inflation report, financial stability report, monetary policy committee report, annual report. These are all key issues in the construction of a more transparent and independent central bank in the context of a good global governance. Moreover, for the fruitful success of the central bank, latum sensu, and monetary policy, stricto sensu, it must be encompassed a complex monetary policy committee mechanism. This complex mechanism must by edowed with the collegial approach of the monetary policy committee, structure of the voting mechanism within the committee, the importance of the person which announces the changes within the interest rates and the public disclosure of these information’s enriched in a communication strategy. This communication strategy is very important for assessing and public understanding of the central bank’s actions but also for communicating the objectives, targets and forward looking approaches of the monetary

  12. 78 FR 66681 - Census Advisory Committees

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-11-06

    ... Populations (NAC). The committee will address census policies, research and methodology, tests, operations.... Requests for sign language interpretation or other auxiliary aids should be directed to the Committee...

  13. Methodology for Integrated Socio-economic Assessment of Multi-use Offshore Platforms

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Koundouri, Phoebe; Dávila, Osiel G.; Stithou, Mavra; Babalos, Vasilis; Xepapadeas, Anastasios; Anastasiou, Ioannis; Antypas, Antonis; Kourogenis, Nikolaos; Mousoulides, Aris; Mousoulides, Marianna; Zanuttigh, Barbara; Zagonari, Fabio; Lange, Manfred A.; Jimenez, Carlos; Rosén, Lars; Lindhe, Andreas; Norrman, Jenny; Söderqvist, Tore; Troianos, Dimitris; Frentzos, Athanasios; Krontira, Yukiko; Diaz Simal, Pedro; Guanche, Raul; Bel, de Mark; He, Wei; Kabdasali, Sedat; Elginoz, Nilay; Bagci, Taylan; Bas, Bilge; Cantu, Matteo; Masotti, Matteo; Suffredini, Roberto; Stuiver, M.; Giannakis, Elias; Tsani, Stella

    2017-01-01

    This chapter presents the methodology employed for the Integrated Socio-Economic Assessment (MISEA) of different designs of Multi-Use Offshore Platforms (MUOPs). The methodology allows for the identification, the valuation and the assessment of the potential impacts and their magnitude. The analysis

  14. Towards a Methodology for a Risk Assessment System for Contaminated Sites

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Richardson-van der Poel MA; LBG

    1994-01-01

    This report describes a procedure to develop a risk assessment methodology for contaminated sites with respect to the risk of dispersal in groundwater. The methodology was originally intended for landfills, but is for example also usable for risk assessment of contaminated industrial sites and

  15. Soil-plant interrelations: the significance of soil degradation and the risk assessment methodology for salinization

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hagyó, A.; Tóth, T.; Bloem, E.; Zee, van der S.E.A.T.M.; Horváth, E.

    2008-01-01

    Numerous methodologies are used in the EU Member States to assess the risk for different soil threats related to various agricultural practices (erosion, salinisation, organic matter decline, compaction and landslides). Our aim was to evaluate the risk assessment methodologies (RAMs) utilized for

  16. Appropriate Methodology for Assessing the Economic Development Impacts of Wind Power

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NWCC Economic Development Work Group

    2003-12-17

    OAK-B135 Interest in wind power development is growing as a means of expanding local economies. Such development holds promise as a provider of short-term employment during facility construction and long-term employment from ongoing facility operation and maintenance. It may also support some expansion of the local economy through ripple effects resulting from initial increases in jobs and income. However, there is a need for a theoretically sound method for assessing the economic impacts of wind power development. These ripple effects stem from subsequent expenditures for goods and services made possible by first-round income from the development, and are expressed in terms of a multiplier. If the local economy offers a wide range of goods and services the resulting multiplier can be substantial--as much as three or four. If not, then much of the initial income will leave the local economy to buy goods and services from elsewhere. Loss of initial income to other locales is referred to as a leakage. Northwest Economic Associates (NEA), under contract to the National Wind Coordinating Committee (NWCC), investigated three case study areas in the United States where wind power projects were recently developed. The full report, ''Assessing the Economic Development Impacts of Wind Power,'' is available at NWCC's website http://www.nationalwind.org/. The methodology used for that study is summarized here in order to provide guidance for future studies of the economic impacts of other wind power developments. The methodology used in the NEA study was specifically designed for these particular case study areas; however, it can be generally applied to other areas. Significant differences in local economic conditions and the amount of goods and services that are purchased locally as opposed to imported from outside the will strongly influence results obtained. Listed below are some of the key tasks that interested parties should undertake to develop

  17. Health assessments for health governance-concepts and methodologies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fehr, Rainer; Alexanderson, Kristina; Favaretti, Carlo; de Jong, Judith; La Torre, Giuseppe; Lim, Tek-Ang; Martin-Olmedo, Piedad; Mekel, Odile C L; Michelsen, Kai; Rosenkötter, Nicole; Verschuuren, Marieke; de Waure, Chiara; Zeegers Paget, Dineke

    2017-08-01

    For better supporting the science-governance interface, the potential of health assessments appears underrated. To identify what various types of health assessment have in common; how they differ; which assessment(s) to apply for which purpose; and what needs and options there are for future joint development. This review is based on five types of health assessment: monitoring/surveillance/reporting, assessment of health impact, of health technology, of health systems performance, health-related economic assessment. The approach is exploratory and includes: applying an agreed set of comparative criteria; circulating and supplementing synoptic tables; and interpreting the results. Two of the assessments deal with the question 'Where do we stand?', two others with variants of 'What if' questions. Economic Assessment can take place in combination with any of the others. The assessments involve both overall 'procedures' and a variety of 'methods' which inescapably reflect some subjective assumptions and decisions, e.g. on issue framing. Resources and assistance exist for all these assessments. The paper indicates which type of assessment is appropriate for what purpose. Although scientific soundness of health assessments is not trivial to secure, existing types of health assessment can be interpreted as a useful 'toolkit' for supporting governance. If current traces of 'silo' thinking can be overcome, the attainability of a more unified culture of health assessments increases and such assessments might more widely be recognized as a prime, 'tried and tested' way to voice Public Health knowledge and to support rational governance and policy-making.

  18. Legislative process in Mexico. Assessing standing committee effectiveness in a non majoritarian Congress

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luisa Béjar Algazi

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available The way to assess Mexico’s Standing Committees efficiency in the lawmaking process has so far skipped the need to build a coalition for each bill due to the lack of a cohesive and stable majority in Congress. In this context, this paper focuses on how to cope with that task. It assumesthat any effort to that effect needs a deeper and more systematic understanding of the activities done within it in such circumstances, and of the ability of his president to steer that process.

  19. Legislative process in Mexico. Assessing standing committee effectiveness in a non majoritarian Congress

    OpenAIRE

    Luisa Béjar Algazi; Sergio Bárcena Juárez

    2016-01-01

    The way to assess Mexico’s Standing Committees efficiency in the lawmaking process has so far skipped the need to build a coalition for each bill due to the lack of a cohesive and stable majority in Congress. In this context, this paper focuses on how to cope with that task. It assumesthat any effort to that effect needs a deeper and more systematic understanding of the activities done within it in such circumstances, and of the ability of his president to steer that process.

  20. Quantitative assessments of distributed systems methodologies and techniques

    CERN Document Server

    Bruneo, Dario

    2015-01-01

    Distributed systems employed in critical infrastructures must fulfill dependability, timeliness, and performance specifications. Since these systems most often operate in an unpredictable environment, their design and maintenance require quantitative evaluation of deterministic and probabilistic timed models. This need gave birth to an abundant literature devoted to formal modeling languages combined with analytical and simulative solution techniques The aim of the book is to provide an overview of techniques and methodologies dealing with such specific issues in the context of distributed

  1. Cost Assessment Methodology and Economic Viability of Tidal Energy Projects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eva Segura

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available The exploitation of technologies with which to harness the energy from ocean currents will have considerable possibilities in the future thanks to their enormous potential for electricity production and their high predictability. In this respect, the development of methodologies for the economic viability of these technologies is fundamental to the attainment of a consistent quantification of their costs and the discovery of their economic viability, while simultaneously attracting investment in these technologies. This paper presents a methodology with which to determine the economic viability of tidal energy projects, which includes a technical study of the life-cycle costs into which the development of a tidal farm can be decomposed: concept and definition, design and development, manufacturing, installation, operation and maintenance and dismantling. These cost structures are additionally subdivided by considering their sub-costs and bearing in mind the main components of the tidal farm: the nacelle, the supporting tidal energy converter structure and the export power system. Furthermore, a technical study is developed in order to obtain an estimation of the annual energy produced (and, consequently, the incomes generated if the electric tariff is known by considering its principal attributes: the characteristics of the current, the ability of the device to capture energy and its ability to convert and export the energy. The methodology has been applied (together with a sensibility analysis to the particular case of a farm composed of first generation tidal energy converters in one of the Channel Island Races, the Alderney Race, in the U.K., and the results have been attained by means of the computation of engineering indexes, such as the net present value, the internal rate of return, the discounted payback period and the levelized cost of energy, which indicate that the proposed project is economically viable for all the case studies.

  2. Risk assessment by convergence methodology in RDD scenarios

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Araujo, Olga Maria Oliveira de; Andrade, Edson Ramos de; Rebello, Wilson Freitas; Silva, Gabriel Fidalgo Queiroz da, E-mail: olgafisica2013@hotmail.com, E-mail: fisica.dna@gmail.com, E-mail: rebello@ime.eb.br, E-mail: profgabriel.fisica@gmail.com [Instituto Militar de Engenharia (IME), Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil). Secao de Engenharia Nuclear

    2015-07-01

    An RDD event occurs by explosion and radioactive material dispersion where particles containing radioactive material can reach great distances from original point of the explosion and generating a plume of contamination. The use of a RDD is regarded as the most likely scenario involving radiological terrorist material. Accurate information on the population and the estimated dose are essential for analysis during the decision process. This work intends to present a proposal for a convergence of methodologies using the computer simulation codes Hotspot Health Physics 3.0 and the statistical model Radiation Effects Research Foundation (RERF) to calculate the approximate dose depending on the distance of the original point of the explosion of an RDD. From those data, the relative risk of developing tumors is estimated, as well as the probability of causation. At a later stage, the proposed combination of actions intended to help the decision-making and employment response personnel in emergency protection measures, such as sheltering and evacuation through the RESRAD-RDD software. The convergence of the proposed methodology can accelerate the process of acquiring information during the first hours of a radiological scenario and provide proper management of medical response and organization of the overall response. (author)

  3. INFORMATION SECURITY RISK ASSESSMENT USING EXISTING LEGAL AND METHODOLOGICAL BASE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. I. Trubei

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The article provides a survey of the existing regulatory framework for information security riskmanagement. Practical methods for information security risk and vulnerability assessment are proposed.

  4. Development of a Malicious Insider Composite Vulnerability Assessment Methodology

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    King, William H

    2006-01-01

    .... There are very few vulnerability and impact models capable of providing information owners with the ability to comprehensively assess the effectiveness an organization's malicious insider mitigation strategies...

  5. The PHM-Ethics methodology: interdisciplinary technology assessment of personal health monitoring.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schmidt, Silke; Verweij, Marcel

    2013-01-01

    The contribution briefly introduces the PHM Ethics project and the PHM methodology. Within the PHM-Ethics project, a set of tools and modules had been developed that may assist in the evaluation and assessment of new technologies for personal health monitoring, referred to as "PHM methodology" or "PHM toolbox". An overview on this interdisciplinary methodology and its comprising modules is provided, areas of application and intended target groups are indicated.

  6. Probabilistic assessment methodology for continuous-type petroleum accumulations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crovelli, R.A.

    2003-01-01

    The analytic resource assessment method, called ACCESS (Analytic Cell-based Continuous Energy Spreadsheet System), was developed to calculate estimates of petroleum resources for the geologic assessment model, called FORSPAN, in continuous-type petroleum accumulations. The ACCESS method is based upon mathematical equations derived from probability theory in the form of a computer spreadsheet system. ?? 2003 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  7. Learning Theories and Assessment Methodologies--An Engineering Educational Perspective

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hassan, O. A. B.

    2011-01-01

    This paper attempts to critically review theories of learning from the perspective of engineering education in order to align relevant assessment methods with each respective learning theory, considering theoretical aspects and practical observations and reflections. The role of formative assessment, taxonomies, peer learning and educational…

  8. Dietary Assessment Methodology for Adolescents: A Review of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Aim: The aim of this review is to explore the validity and/or reproducibility of dietary assessment methods used to assess food and nutrient intakes of adolescents. Method: A detailed literature search was undertaken to trace articles reporting on the validity and/or reproducibility of food records, food frequency questionnaires ...

  9. Advanced Bridge Capacity and Structural Integrity Assessment Methodology

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-03-01

    bridges , including reinforced concrete bridges with continuous girders across a support and prestressed structures. Identifying the class of...assessment of reinforced concrete bridges by making improved estimates of the level of longitudinal and shear reinforcement. The pro- posed assessment...Figure 7. AASHTO HS20-44 Truck (Precast/ Prestressed Concrete Institute 2003). ......................... 11 Figure 8. California Permit Truck (Caltrans

  10. Agricultural Worker Injury Comparative Risk Assessment Methodology: Assessing Corn and Biofuel Switchgrass Production Systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schwab, Charles V; Mosher, Gretchen A; Ryan, Saxon J

    2017-07-31

    Keeping workers safe is a continuing challenge in agricultural production. Risk assessment methodologies have been used widely in other industries to better understand systems and enhance decision making, yet their use in production agriculture has been limited. This article describes the considerations and the approach taken to measure the difference in worker injury risks between two agricultural production systems. A model was developed specifically for the comparison of worker injury risk between corn and biofuel switchgrass production systems. The model is composed of injury and exposure values that were used in a Monte Carlo simulation. The output of this risk assessment shows that approximately 99% of the values from the Monte Carlo simulation rank corn production as a greater worker injury risk than biofuel switchgrass production. Furthermore, the greatest contributing factors for each production system were identified as harvest, and that finding aligns with current literature. Copyright© by the American Society of Agricultural Engineers.

  11. Axiomatic safety-critical assessment process (ASCAP) simulation methodology

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kaufman, L.M.; Giras, T.C. [Virginia Univ., Charlottesville, VA (United States). Center for Safety-Critical Ssytems

    2000-07-01

    The ASCAP simulation methodology models continuous train movement using a hybrid simulation consisting of both time and event driven portions. The actual train movement is predicated upon the solution of a series of discrete equations to determine its velocity, acceleration and braking profile at a specific time in tandem with the behavior of the train crew and the dispatcher agents in relationship to the behavioral states of the various stationary and mobile objects that a given train encounters. From this hybrid simulation, it is possible to generate accident scenarios. By performing multiple experiments to collect data for various accident scenarios, it will be possible to statistically quantify the risk associated with the various accident scenarios that are identified. (orig.)

  12. The basle Committee's proposals for a new capital adequacy assessment framework: a critique

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maximilian J.B. Hall

    2001-06-01

    Full Text Available In June 1999, the Basle Committee of Banking Supervisors issued a consultative paper proposing the introduction of a new framework for the capital adequacyassessment of internationally-active banks operating in the G10 area. The initiative reflected a desire to address some of the long-acknowledged deficiencies in the current regime, operating under the guise of the Basle Capital Accord since 1988, and to accommodate recent market developments (especially in risk management and financial innovations. This article critically analyses the new proposals, as amended in January 2001, providing a "cost-benefit" analysis of the proposed framework and assessing the extent to which the flaws in the current assessment regime would be overcome.

  13. Comprehensive Assessment and Evaluation of Students with Learning Disabilities: A Paper Prepared by the National Joint Committee on Learning Disabilities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Learning Disability Quarterly, 2011

    2011-01-01

    The National Joint Committee on Learning Disabilities (NJCLD) strongly supports comprehensive assessment and evaluation of students with learning disabilities by a multidisciplinary team for the identification and diagnosis of students with learning disabilities. Comprehensive assessment of individual students requires the use of multiple data…

  14. Methodology for Radiological Risk Assessment of Deep Borehole Disposal Operations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hardin, Ernest; Su, Jiann-Cherng; Peretz, Fred(ORNL)

    2017-03-01

    The primary purpose of the preclosure radiological safety assessment (that this document supports) is to identify risk factors for disposal operations, to aid in design for the deep borehole field test (DBFT) engineering demonstration.

  15. Risk assessment methodology for the forniture industrial sector

    OpenAIRE

    Rodrigues, Matilde A.

    2014-01-01

    Companies need to constantly make decisions about risk. They need to decide if a certain risk level is low enough or if some measures for its reduction are still needed. In this regard, risk assessment appears as a basis for the decision-making about risks. However, risk acceptance is an important issue related to the risk assessment process, which may put into question its appropriateness. Despite the importance of risk acceptance, this subject is insufficiently discussed in the literature r...

  16. Bioaccumulation in aquatic systems: methodological approaches, monitoring and assessment

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schäfer, Sabine; Buchmeier, Georgia; Claus, Evelyn

    2015-01-01

    , various scientific and regulatory aspects of bioaccumulation in aquatic systems and the relevant critical issues are discussed. Monitoring chemical concentrations in biota can be used for compliance checking with regulatory directives, for identification of chemical sources or event-related environmental...... for bioaccumulation assessment still need to be harmonised for different regulations and groups of chemicals. To create awareness for critical issues and to mutually benefit from technical expertise and scientific findings, communication between risk assessment and monitoring communities needs to be improved...

  17. Comparison of three assessment methodologies of virtual learning objects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Edwin INSUASTY PORTILLA

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available This article is intended to exemplify the evaluation of a Learning Object «Construir la Geometría» using three different proposals that produce similar results for the object being evaluated. We describe two ways to perform an assessment, the internal and external; are used for evaluating proposals Rodríguez Sanz, Dodero et al. (2008, Morales Morgado (2007 and the assessment instrument used in the Universidad Autónoma de Aguascalientes (Mexico.

  18. Organizational Change Efforts: Methodologies for Assessing Organizational Effectiveness and Program Costs versus Benefits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Macy, Barry A.; Mirvis, Philip H.

    1982-01-01

    A standardized methodology for identifying, defining, and measuring work behavior and performance rather than production, and a methodology that estimates the costs and benefits of work innovation are presented for assessing organizational effectiveness and program costs versus benefits in organizational change programs. Factors in a cost-benefit…

  19. Reviewing residents' competence: a qualitative study of the role of clinical competency committees in performance assessment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hauer, Karen E; Chesluk, Benjamin; Iobst, William; Holmboe, Eric; Baron, Robert B; Boscardin, Christy K; Cate, Olle Ten; O'Sullivan, Patricia S

    2015-08-01

    Clinical competency committees (CCCs) are now required in graduate medical education. This study examined how residency programs understand and operationalize this mandate for resident performance review. In 2013, the investigators conducted semistructured interviews with 34 residency program directors at five public institutions in California, asking about each institution's CCCs and resident performance review processes. They used conventional content analysis to identify major themes from the verbatim interview transcripts. The purpose of resident performance review at all institutions was oriented toward one of two paradigms: a problem identification model, which predominated; or a developmental model. The problem identification model, which focused on identifying and addressing performance concerns, used performance data such as red-flag alerts and informal information shared with program directors to identify struggling residents.In the developmental model, the timely acquisition and synthesis of data to inform each resident's developmental trajectory was challenging. Participants highly valued CCC members' expertise as educators to corroborate the identification of struggling residents and to enhance credibility of the committee's outcomes. Training in applying the milestones to the CCC's work was minimal.Participants were highly committed to performance review and perceived the current process as adequate for struggling residents but potentially not for others. Institutions orient resident performance review toward problem identification; a developmental approach is uncommon. Clarifying the purpose of resident performance review and employing efficient information systems that synthesize performance data and engage residents and faculty in purposeful feedback discussions could enable the meaningful implementation of milestones-based assessment.

  20. Quality Assessment of Sharpened Images: Challenges, Methodology, and Objective Metrics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krasula, Lukas; Le Callet, Patrick; Fliegel, Karel; Klima, Milos

    2017-01-10

    Most of the effort in image quality assessment (QA) has been so far dedicated to the degradation of the image. However, there are also many algorithms in the image processing chain that can enhance the quality of an input image. These include procedures for contrast enhancement, deblurring, sharpening, up-sampling, denoising, transfer function compensation, etc. In this work, possible strategies for the quality assessment of sharpened images are investigated. This task is not trivial because the sharpening techniques can increase the perceived quality, as well as introduce artifacts leading to the quality drop (over-sharpening). Here, the framework specifically adapted for the quality assessment of sharpened images and objective metrics comparison in this context is introduced. However, the framework can be adopted in other quality assessment areas as well. The problem of selecting the correct procedure for subjective evaluation was addressed and a subjective test on blurred, sharpened, and over-sharpened images was performed in order to demonstrate the use of the framework. The obtained ground-truth data were used for testing the suitability of state-ofthe- art objective quality metrics for the assessment of sharpened images. The comparison was performed by novel procedure using ROC analyses which is found more appropriate for the task than standard methods. Furthermore, seven possible augmentations of the no-reference S3 metric adapted for sharpened images are proposed. The performance of the metric is significantly improved and also superior over the rest of the tested quality criteria with respect to the subjective data.

  1. Internet addiction assessment tools: dimensional structure and methodological status.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lortie, Catherine L; Guitton, Matthieu J

    2013-07-01

    Excessive internet use is becoming a concern, and some have proposed that it may involve addiction. We evaluated the dimensions assessed by, and psychometric properties of, a range of questionnaires purporting to assess internet addiction. Fourteen questionnaires were identified purporting to assess internet addiction among adolescents and adults published between January 1993 and October 2011. Their reported dimensional structure, construct, discriminant and convergent validity and reliability were assessed, as well as the methods used to derive these. Methods used to evaluate internet addiction questionnaires varied considerably. Three dimensions of addiction predominated: compulsive use (79%), negative outcomes (86%) and salience (71%). Less common were escapism (21%), withdrawal symptoms (36%) and other dimensions. Measures of validity and reliability were found to be within normally acceptable limits. There is a broad convergence of questionnaires purporting to assess internet addiction suggesting that compulsive use, negative outcome and salience should be covered and the questionnaires show adequate psychometric properties. However, the methods used to evaluate the questionnaires vary widely and possible factors contributing to excessive use such as social motivation do not appear to be covered. © 2013 Society for the Study of Addiction.

  2. Methodological development: structured outcome assessment and community risk monitoring (SORM).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grann, Martin; Sturidsson, Knut; Haggård-Grann, Ulrika; Hiscoke, Ulrika L; Alm, Per-Olof; Dernevik, Mats; Gumpert, Clara; Hallqvist, Johan; Hallquist, Tommy; Kullgren, Gunnar; Långström, Niklas; Lotterberg, Malin; Nordström, Kristina; Ståhle, Birgitta; Woodhouse, Anni

    2005-01-01

    This paper describes an effort to develop a clinical tool for the continuous monitoring of risk for violence in forensic mental health clients who have left their institutions and who are dwelling in the community on a conditional release basis. The model is called Structured Outcome Assessment and Community Risk Monitoring (SORM). The SORM consists of 30 dynamic factors and each factor in SORM is assessed in two ways: The current absence, presence or partial och intermittent presence of the factors, which is an actuarial (systematized and 'objective') assessment. Secondly, the risk effect, i.e. whether the presence/absence of factors currently increases, decreases or is perceived as unrelated to violence risk, is a clinical (or impressionistic) assessment. Thus, the factors considered via the SORM can be coded as risk factors or protective factors (or as factors unimportant to risk of violence) depending on circumstances that apply in the individual case. Further, the SORM has a built-in module for gathering idiographical information about risk-affecting contextual factors. The use of the SORM and its potential as a risk monitoring instrument is illustrated via preliminary data and case vignettes from an ongoing multicenter project. In this research project, patients leaving any of the 9 participating forensic hospitals in Sweden is assessed at release on a variety of static background factors, and the SORM is then administered every 30 days for 2 years.

  3. Integrating groundwater into land planning: a risk assessment methodology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lavoie, Roxane; Joerin, Florent; Vansnick, Jean-Claude; Rodriguez, Manuel J

    2015-05-01

    Generally, groundwater is naturally of good quality for human consumption and represents an essential source of drinking water. In Canada, small municipalities and individuals are particularly reliant on groundwater, since they cannot afford complex water treatment installations. However, groundwater is a vulnerable resource that, depending on its characteristics, can be contaminated by almost any land use. In recent decades, governments have launched programs to acquire more information on groundwater, in order to better protect it. Nevertheless, the data produced are rarely adequate to be understood and used by land planners. The aim of this study was to develop a method that helps planners interpret hydrogeological data in the Province of Quebec, Canada. Based on the requests and needs of planners during semi-directed interviews, a methodology was developed to qualitatively evaluate groundwater contamination risk by land uses. The method combines land planning data and hydrogeological data through the MACBETH multicriteria analysis method, to obtain maps of groundwater contamination risk. The method was developed through group and individual meetings with numerous hydrogeology, land planning, water's economics and drinking water specialists. The resulting maps allow planners to understand the dynamics of groundwater within their territory, identify problem areas where groundwater is threatened and analyse the potential impact of planning scenarios on the risk of groundwater contamination. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Development of tyre/road noise assessment methodology in India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammed Ali Boodihal

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The major objective of this research study was to develop a methodology to evaluate tyre/road noise of the various road types and sections in Bangalore. The scope of the effort included field noise measurements of the 17 conventional asphalt concrete (AC, four Portland cement concrete (PCC, and two plastic modified asphalt concrete (PMAC in Bangalore city covering about 24 km of roadway stretches at varying traffic speeds. Field noise measurements were performed using a noise meter mounted underneath a trailer developed in this study and attached to the parent vehicle. Overall, PMAC sections produced the highest noise levels than the PCC followed by the conventional AC sections; PMAC mix type had an average difference of about 6–8 decibels (dB(A compared with the AC mix, and 1–2 dB(A in comparison with the PCC mix types. It is noteworthy that although many traffic noise studies have been conducted in India, the contribution of tyre/road noise to the overall noise has not been developed and/or established till date. The approach taken in this study is first of its kind within the framework of tyre/road noise research and development in India.

  5. Fuel cycle assessment: A compendium of models, methodologies, and approaches

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1994-07-01

    The purpose of this document is to profile analytical tools and methods which could be used in a total fuel cycle analysis. The information in this document provides a significant step towards: (1) Characterizing the stages of the fuel cycle. (2) Identifying relevant impacts which can feasibly be evaluated quantitatively or qualitatively. (3) Identifying and reviewing other activities that have been conducted to perform a fuel cycle assessment or some component thereof. (4) Reviewing the successes/deficiencies and opportunities/constraints of previous activities. (5) Identifying methods and modeling techniques/tools that are available, tested and could be used for a fuel cycle assessment.

  6. Towards a methodology for educational modelling: a case in educational assessment

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Giesbers, Bas; Van Bruggen, Jan; Hermans, Henry; Joosten-ten Brinke, Desirée; Burgers, Jan; Koper, Rob; Latour, Ignace

    2005-01-01

    Giesbers, B., van Bruggen, J., Hermans, H., Joosten-ten Brinke, D., Burgers, J., Koper, R., & Latour, I. (2007). Towards a methodology for educational modelling: a case in educational assessment. Educational Technology & Society, 10 (1), 237-247.

  7. METHODOLOGY FOR ASSESSING THE DEGREE OF INTERNATIONALIZATION OF BUSINESS ACADEMIC STUDY PROGRAMMES

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Dan-Cristian Dabija; Catalin Postelnicu; Nicolae Al Pop

    2014-01-01

      The purpose of this paper is to develop a methodology for assessing the degree of internationalization of undergraduate, Master's and doctoral business programmes with the aid of complex indicators...

  8. Status of sperm morphology assessment: an evaluation of methodology and clinical value

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hoven, L. van den; Hendriks, J.C.M.; Verbeet, J.G.M.; Westphal, J.R.; Wetzels, A.M.M.

    2015-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To characterize methodological changes in sperm morphology assessment and to correlate sperm morphology with clinical outcome. DESIGN: In this observational study, sperm morphology profiles of patients were analyzed. The percentages of morphologically normal spermatozoa were evaluated

  9. The accidental risk assessment methodology for industries (ARAMIS)/layer of protection analysis (LOPA) methodology: a step forward towards convergent practices in risk assessment?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gowland, Richard

    2006-03-31

    In the last ten years, layer of protection analysis (LOPA) emerged as a simplified form of quantitative risk assessment (QRA). The European Commission funded project Accidental Risk Assessment Methodology for Industries in the context of the Seveso 2 Directive (ARAMIS) has recently been completed. ARAMIS has several modules which give a consistent simplified approach to risk assessment which does not approach the complexity or expense of full QRA. LOPA is potentially a means of carrying out the assessment of barriers required in ARAMIS. This paper attempts to explain the principles of LOPA and the means by which it can be used within ARAMIS.

  10. A qualitative risk assessment methodology for scientific expert panels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dufour, B; Plée, L; Moutou, F; Boisseleau, D; Chartier, C; Durand, B; Ganière, J P; Guillotin, J; Lancelot, R; Saegerman, C; Thébault, A; Hattenberger, A M; Toma, B

    2011-12-01

    Risk assessment can be either quantitative, i.e. providing a numeric estimate of the probability of risk and the magnitude of the consequences, or qualitative, using a descriptive approach. The French Agency for Food, Environmental and Occupational Health and Safety (ANSES), formerly the French Food Safety Agency (AFSSA), bases its assessments on the opinions of scientific panels, such as the ANSES Animal Health Scientific Panel (AH-SP). Owing to the lack of relevant data and the very short period of time usually allowed to assess animal health risks on particular topics, this panel has been using a qualitative risk method for evaluating animal health risks or crises for the past few years. Some experts have drawn attention to the limitations of this method, such as the need to extend the range of adjectives used for the lower probabilities and to develop a way to assess consequences. The aim of this paper is to describe the improved method now established by the AH-SP, taking into account the limitations of the first version. The authors describe a new set of levels for probabilities, as well as the items considered when addressing either animal or human health consequences.

  11. Assessment of soil nutrient balance: approaches and methodologies

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Roy, R.N.; Misra, R.V.; Lesschen, J.P.; Smaling, E.M.A.

    2003-01-01

    Nutrient-balance assessments are valuable tools for delineating the consequences of farming on soil fertility. Various approaches and methods for different situations have been used. This bulletin presents a state-of-the-art overview of nutrient-balance studies. It brings out the evolution of the

  12. Regional-scale risk assessment methodology using the Relative ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2012-04-18

    Apr 18, 2012 ... paper presents an integrated approach to carry out regional-scale ecological risk assessments using a Relative Risk Model. (RRM) adapted ..... Recreational activities. Dams&wiers. Plantations. Gold mine. Habitat alteration. Sugar mill. Sugar. Mixed. Flow alterations. Forestry. 1. Irrigation - dam. Exotic fish.

  13. Assessment of intelligibility using children's spontaneous speech: methodological aspects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lagerberg, Tove B; Åsberg, Jakob; Hartelius, Lena; Persson, Christina

    2014-01-01

    Intelligibility is a speaker's ability to convey a message to a listener. Including an assessment of intelligibility is essential in both research and clinical work relating to individuals with communication disorders due to speech impairment. Assessment of the intelligibility of spontaneous speech can be used as an overall indicator of the severity of a speech disorder. There is a lack of methods for measuring intelligibility on the basis of spontaneous speech. To investigate the validity and reliability of a method where listeners transcribe understandable words and an intelligibility score is calculated on the basis of the percentage of syllables perceived as understood. Spontaneous speech from ten children with speech-sound disorders (mean age = 6.0 years) and ten children with typical speech and language development (mean age = 5.9 years) was recorded and presented to 20 listeners. Results were compared between the two groups and correlation with percentage of consonants correct (PCC) was examined. The intelligibility scores obtained correlated with PCC in single words and differed significantly between the two groups, indicating high validity. Inter-judge reliability, analysed using intra-class correlation (ICC), was excellent in terms of the average measure for several listeners. The results suggest that this method can be recommended for assessing intelligibility, especially if the mean across several listeners is used. It could also be used in clinical settings when evaluating intelligibility over time, provided that the same listener makes the assessments. © 2013 Royal College of Speech and Language Therapists.

  14. Methodological Considerations in the Assessment of Depression in Alcoholics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hesselbrock, Michie N.; And Others

    1983-01-01

    Compared three instruments assessing depression in alcoholics: Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (DSM-II), the Minnesota Multiphasic Personality Inventory Depression scale (MMPI D), and the Beck Depression Inventory (BDI). The number of subjects who were diagnosed as "depressed" varied considerably according to the…

  15. The methodology of multicriterial assessment of Petri nets’ apparatus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pashchenko Dmitry

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available This article emphasizes the effectiveness and relevance of the using of the apparatus of Petri nets for modeling of complex computing systems. Due to the fact that the methods of analysis existing in this theory do not allow estimating the resources required to build the desired model of the system, there is a problem of shortage of criteria for its evaluation in terms of the complexity of the construction. In the article we consider the method of analysis of a random Petri net based on the complexity of its building and relationships of internal units - subnets. The purpose of this article is a software implementation of such an assessment within the theory of PN structures. Due to the fact, that structural approach allows to perform the operation of decomposition of the original system, this model can be divided into subnets of minimal dimension, that will allow to make its quantitative assessment - ranking. To determine the total assessment of the input and output data of the system we will perform the analysis of head and tail positions of the net taking into account the weights of the input and output arcs of these positions. In order to identify an extent of the cost required to build the system, the number of operations of union of subnet transitions and positions. These subnets have minimal dimension in the original PN. Thus, the article demonstrates the formal implementation of assessment technique modules with using of algebra of sets, and the rules of splitting the PN structure into elementary blocks are formulated. The example of a comparative assessment of the two Petri nets based on the proposed complexity criteria is given; the plots of PN in different coordinate systems are displayed. The article presents the results of the research - a plot of PN structures in three-dimensional space, implemented using described software. It demonstrates the accuracy of PN assessment by structural analysis in comparing with a non

  16. Published methodological quality of randomized controlled trials does not reflect the actual quality assessed in protocols

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mhaskar, Rahul; Djulbegovic, Benjamin; Magazin, Anja; Soares, Heloisa P.; Kumar, Ambuj

    2011-01-01

    Objectives To assess whether reported methodological quality of randomized controlled trials (RCTs) reflect the actual methodological quality, and to evaluate the association of effect size (ES) and sample size with methodological quality. Study design Systematic review Setting Retrospective analysis of all consecutive phase III RCTs published by 8 National Cancer Institute Cooperative Groups until year 2006. Data were extracted from protocols (actual quality) and publications (reported quality) for each study. Results 429 RCTs met the inclusion criteria. Overall reporting of methodological quality was poor and did not reflect the actual high methodological quality of RCTs. The results showed no association between sample size and actual methodological quality of a trial. Poor reporting of allocation concealment and blinding exaggerated the ES by 6% (ratio of hazard ratio [RHR]: 0.94, 95%CI: 0.88, 0.99) and 24% (RHR: 1.24, 95%CI: 1.05, 1.43), respectively. However, actual quality assessment showed no association between ES and methodological quality. Conclusion The largest study to-date shows poor quality of reporting does not reflect the actual high methodological quality. Assessment of the impact of quality on the ES based on reported quality can produce misleading results. PMID:22424985

  17. Tracer methodology: an appropriate tool for assessing compliance with accreditation standards?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bouchard, Chantal; Jean, Olivier

    2017-10-01

    Tracer methodology has been used by Accreditation Canada since 2008 to collect evidence on the quality and safety of care and services, and to assess compliance with accreditation standards. Given the importance of this methodology in the accreditation program, the objective of this study is to assess the quality of the methodology and identify its strengths and weaknesses. A mixed quantitative and qualitative approach was adopted to evaluate consistency, appropriateness, effectiveness and stakeholder synergy in applying the methodology. An online questionnaire was sent to 468 Accreditation Canada surveyors. According to surveyors' perceptions, tracer methodology is an effective tool for collecting useful, credible and reliable information to assess compliance with Qmentum program standards and priority processes. The results show good coherence between methodology components (appropriateness of the priority processes evaluated, activities to evaluate a tracer, etc.). The main weaknesses are the time constraints faced by surveyors and management's lack of cooperation during the evaluation of tracers. The inadequate amount of time allowed for the methodology to be applied properly raises questions about the quality of the information obtained. This study paves the way for a future, more in-depth exploration of the identified weaknesses to help the accreditation organization make more targeted improvements to the methodology. Copyright © 2016 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. Copyright © 2016 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  18. Assessment of perioperative antimicrobial prophylaxis using ATC/DDD methodology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bozkurt, Fatma; Kaya, Safak; Gulsun, Serda; Tekin, Recep; Deveci, Özcan; Dayan, Saim; Hoşoglu, Salih

    2013-12-01

    In the light of international experience and guidelines and in order to improve the quality of perioperative antimicrobial prophylaxis (PAP), various hospitals have set up their own multidisciplinary healthcare teams and have evaluated the density of PAP through close supervision and interventions. The aim of the present study was to compare the density, quality, and cost of PAP before and after an intervention implemented at our hospital in order to increase the quality of PAP. PAP was monitored using a form prepared in line with the international guidelines, which was completed by the infection control nurse under the supervision of the infectious diseases specialist. In order to reduce the frequent errors in our PAP procedures, an intervention was implemented, and the period before this intervention (January-April 2011) was compared with the post-intervention period 1 year later (January-April 2012). The density of PAP was calculated according to the Anatomical Therapeutic Chemical classification/defined daily dose (ATC/DDD) methodology. A total of 2398 patients received PAP during this period. The most frequently used antibiotic before and after the intervention was cefazolin. Its use further increased after the intervention (pDDD/100 procedures=3.1 DDD/procedure to 162.1 DDD/100 procedures=1.6 DDD/procedure. The quality of PAP may be improved through better compliance with healthcare guidelines, close supervision, and training activities. Also, surgical site infections and the cost of PAP may be reduced through more appropriate antibiotic use, thus contributing to the national healthcare budget. Copyright © 2013 International Society for Infectious Diseases. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Conference Committees

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-10-01

    Organising Committee Chair Dr. Georgios Priniotakis Scientific Committee Chair Prof. Dr. Savvas Vassiliadis List of International Organizing Committee, Honorary Scientific Committee, International Scientific Committee are available in this PDF

  20. Methodology of an Aircraft Accident Response System Assessment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Franc Željko Županič

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available The paper investigates the ability to learn from an aircraft accident as the opportunities for learning diminish with the decline in the accident rate. A safety compromising case is studied as the processes of aircraft accident intervention and recovery can degrade the ability of an aircraft accident investigation process to enhance aviation safety by revealing accident causation. In the case study an assessment of the Slovenian aircraft accident response system was made. For the purpose of evaluating the successfulness of aircraft accident intervention and effectiveness of recovery, a model of aircraft accident response system requirements has been developed. Based on non-conformances identified by the model of requirements, remedial measures are proposed for the enhancement of the aircraft accident response system operation. Criteria for the definition of the transition from accident intervention to recovery are derived from the assessment findings in a manner not to impede the aircraft accident investigation effectiveness and efficiency.

  1. Validating the Octave Allegro Information Systems Risk Assessment Methodology: A Case Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keating, Corland G.

    2014-01-01

    An information system (IS) risk assessment is an important part of any successful security management strategy. Risk assessments help organizations to identify mission-critical IS assets and prioritize risk mitigation efforts. Many risk assessment methodologies, however, are complex and can only be completed successfully by highly qualified and…

  2. Assessment: A Military Methodology in Need of an Overhaul

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-03-01

    important, it can lead the assessment team to fall victim to the old adage of losing the forest for the trees. High- tempo operations thus lead to a...entered. 1 BioMed Central, “BMC Medical Informatics & Decision Making,” BioMed Central, http...Success." Strategic Finance 93, no. 5 (November 2011): 27-33. BioMed Central. “BMC Medical Informatics & Decision Making.” BioMed Central. http

  3. A Risk Assessment Methodology and Excel Tool for Acquisition Programs

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-01-01

    RAND colleague Elliot Axelband for their thoughtful and constructive reviews of this document; Paul Deluca for his comments on an earlier draft of...2010, pp. 79–109. Kranz, Gordon M., Systems Engineering and Integration Challenges and Opportunities, briefing, July 2, 2009. Lebron, Ruben A...Lawrence Gresko, Ray Lowe, and Peter Nolte, System Readiness: Assessing Technical Risk Throughout the Lifecycle, PowerPoint Presentation, Office of

  4. A study on assessment methodology of surveillance test interval and allowed outage time

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chung, Chang Hyun; You, Young Woo; Cho, Jae Seon; Huh, Chang Wook; Kim, Do Hyoung; Kim, Ju Youl; Kim, Yoon Ik; Yang, Hui Chang; Park, Kang Min [Seoul National Univ., Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    1998-03-15

    The objectives of this study is the development of methodology by which assesses the optimization of Surveillance Test Internal(STI) and Allowed Outage Time(AOT) using PSA method that can supplement the current deterministic methods and the improvement of Korean nuclear power plant safety. In this study, the survey about the assessment methodologies, modelings and results performed by domestic and international researches are performed as the basic step before developing the assessment methodology of this study. The assessment methodology that supplement the revealed problems in many other studies is presented and the application of new methodology into the example system assures the feasibility of this method. The sensitivity analyses about the failure factors of the components are performed in the bases of the and AOT is quantified. And the reliability assessment methodology about the diesel generator is reviewed and applied to the PSA code. The qualitative assessment for the STI/AOR of RPS/ESFAS assured safety the most important system in the nuclear power plant are performed.

  5. Campania preventability assessment committee: a focus on the preventability of the contrast media adverse drug reactions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sessa, Maurizio; Rossi, Claudia; Rafaniello, Concetta; Mascolo, Annamaria; Cimmaruta, Daniela; Scavone, Cristina; Fiorentino, Sonia; Grassi, Enrico; Reginelli, Alfonso; Rotondo, Antonio; Sportiello, Liberata

    2016-12-01

    The current study aims to assess the preventability of the contrast media adverse drug reactions reported through the Campania spontaneous reporting system, identifying the possible limitations emerged in this type of evaluation. All the individual case safety reports validated by the Campania Pharmacovigilance Regional Centre from July 2012 to September 2015 were screened to select those that reported contrast media as suspected drug. Campania Preventability Assessment Committee, in collaboration with clinicians specialized in Radiology, assessed the preventability according to the P-Method, through a case-by-case approach. From July 2012 to September 2015, 13798 cases were inserted by pharmacovigilance managers in the Italian Pharmacovigilance Network database (in the geographical contest of the Campania Region), of which 67 reported contrast media as suspected drug. Five preventable cases were found. The most reported causes for preventability were the inappropriate drug use for the case clinical conditions and the absence of the preventive measure administrated prior to the contrast media administration. Several limitations were found in the evaluation of the critical criteria for the preventability assessment. Educational initiatives will be organized directly to the healthcare professionals involved in the contrast media administration, to promote an appropriate use of the contrast media.

  6. Combining several thermal indices to generate a unique heat comfort assessment methodology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wissam EL Hachem

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: The proposed methodology hopes to provide a systematic multi-disciplinary approach to assess the thermal environment while minimizing unneeded efforts. Design/methodology/approach: Different factors affect the perception of the human thermal experience: metabolic rate (biology, surrounding temperatures (heat balance and environmental factors and cognitive treatment (physiology.This paper proposes a combination of different multidisciplinary variables to generate a unique heat comfort assessment methodology. The variables at stake are physiological, biological, and environmental. Our own heat analysis is thoroughly presented and all relevant equations are described. Findings: Most companies are oblivious about potential dangers of heat stress accidents and thus about methods to monitor and prevent them. This methodology enables the company or the concerned individual to conduct a preliminary assessment with minimal wasted resources and time in unnecessary steps whilst providing a guideline for a detailed study with minimal error rates if needed. More so, thermal comfort is an integral part of sound ergonomics practices, which in turn are decisive for the success of any lean six sigma initiative. Research limitations/implications: This methodology requires several full implementations to finalize its design. Originality/value: Most used heat comfort models are inherently uncertain and tiresome to apply. An extensive literature review confirms the need for a uniform assessment methodology that combines the different thermal comfort models such as the Fanger comfort model (PMV, PPD and WGBT since high error rates coupled with tiresome calculations often hinder the thermal assessment process.

  7. The Development of Marine Accidents Human Reliability Assessment Approach: HEART Methodology and MOP Model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ludfi Pratiwi Bowo

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Humans are one of the important factors in the assessment of accidents, particularly marine accidents. Hence, studies are conducted to assess the contribution of human factors in accidents. There are two generations of Human Reliability Assessment (HRA that have been developed. Those methodologies are classified by the differences of viewpoints of problem-solving, as the first generation and second generation. The accident analysis can be determined using three techniques of analysis; sequential techniques, epidemiological techniques and systemic techniques, where the marine accidents are included in the epidemiological technique. This study compares the Human Error Assessment and Reduction Technique (HEART methodology and the 4M Overturned Pyramid (MOP model, which are applied to assess marine accidents. Furthermore, the MOP model can effectively describe the relationships of other factors which affect the accidents; whereas, the HEART methodology is only focused on human factors.

  8. The Health Technology Assessment-disease management instrument reliably measured methodologic quality of health technology assessments of disease management.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Steuten, L M G; Vrijhoef, H J M; van Merode, G G; Severens, J L; Spreeuwenberg, C

    2004-09-01

    Systematic reviews aim to summarize the evidence in a particular topic area, giving attention to the identified methodologic quality of published research. Because research in a specific area may be susceptible to specific biases, it is assumed that the methodologic quality of Health Technology Assessment (HTA) of disease management cannot properly be measured with the existing methodologic quality assessment instruments. The purpose of this study was to describe to what extent existing instruments are useful in assessing the methodologic quality of HTA of disease management. An inventory was made of the problems that arise when assessing the methodologic quality of six HTAs of disease management with three different instruments. Based on these findings, a new instrument is proposed and validated. Problems mainly concern the items related to the study design, criteria for selection and restriction of patients, baseline and outcome measures, blinding of patients and providers, and the description of (co)-interventions. With its more specific characteristics, the HTA-DM addresses the problems mentioned. The HTA-DM is a reliable instrument for methodologic quality assessment of HTA of disease management in comparison with the other three instruments.

  9. Quantitative assessment of brain volumes in fish: comparison of methodologies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ullmann, Jeremy F P; Cowin, Gary; Collin, Shaun P

    2010-01-01

    When correlating brain areas with behavioral and environmental characteristics, a variety of techniques are employed. In fishes (elasmobranchs and teleosts), 2 methods, histology and the idealized ellipsoid and/or half-ellipsoid technique, are primarily used to calculate the volume of a brain area and therefore its relationship to social or ecological complexity. In this study on a perciform teleost, we have quantitatively compared brain volumes obtained using the conventional techniques of histology and approximating brain volume to an idealized ellipsoid (or half ellipsoid) and magnetic resonance imaging, an established clinical tool typically used for assessing brain volume in other vertebrates. Our results indicate that, when compared to brain volumes measured using magnetic resonance imaging of brain regions in situ, variations in brain shape and histological artifacts can lead to significant differences in brain volume, especially in the telencephalon and optic tecta. Consequently, in comparative studies of brain volumes, we advise caution when using the histological and/or ellipsoid methods to make correlations between brain area size and environmental, behavioral and social characteristics and, when possible, we propose the use of magnetic resonance imaging. Copyright © 2010 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  10. Incremental Sampling Methodology: Applications for Background Screening Assessments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pooler, Penelope S; Goodrum, Philip E; Crumbling, Deana; Stuchal, Leah D; Roberts, Stephen M

    2018-01-01

    This article presents the findings from a numerical simulation study that was conducted to evaluate the performance of alternative statistical analysis methods for background screening assessments when data sets are generated with incremental sampling methods (ISMs). A wide range of background and site conditions are represented in order to test different ISM sampling designs. Both hypothesis tests and upper tolerance limit (UTL) screening methods were implemented following U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (USEPA) guidance for specifying error rates. The simulations show that hypothesis testing using two-sample t-tests can meet standard performance criteria under a wide range of conditions, even with relatively small sample sizes. Key factors that affect the performance include unequal population variances and small absolute differences in population means. UTL methods are generally not recommended due to conceptual limitations in the technique when applied to ISM data sets from single decision units and due to insufficient power given standard statistical sample sizes from ISM. © 2017 Society for Risk Analysis.

  11. Methodological Consequences of Situation Specificity: Biases in Assessments

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jean-Luc Patry

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available Social research is plagued by many biases. Most of them are due to situation specificity of social behavior and can be explained using a theory of situation specificity. The historical background of situation specificity in personality social psychology research is briefly sketched, then a theory of situation specificity is presented in detail, with as centerpiece the relationship between the behavior and its outcome which can be described as either the more, the better or not too much and not too little. This theory is applied to reliability and validity of assessments in social research. The distinction between maximum performance and typical performance is shown to correspond to the two behavior-outcome relations. For maximum performance, issues of reliability and validity are much easier to be solved, whereas typical performance is sensitive to biases, as predicted by the theory. Finally, it is suggested that biases in social research are not just systematic error, but represent relevant features to be explained just as other behavior, and that the respective theories should be integrated into a theory system.

  12. Advanced Test Reactor probabilistic risk assessment methodology and results summary

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Eide, S.A.; Atkinson, S.A.; Thatcher, T.A.

    1992-01-01

    The Advanced Test Reactor (ATR) probabilistic risk assessment (PRA) Level 1 report documents a comprehensive and state-of-the-art study to establish and reduce the risk associated with operation of the ATR, expressed as a mean frequency of fuel damage. The ATR Level 1 PRA effort is unique and outstanding because of its consistent and state-of-the-art treatment of all facets of the risk study, its comprehensive and cost-effective risk reduction effort while the risk baseline was being established, and its thorough and comprehensive documentation. The PRA includes many improvements to the state-of-the-art, including the following: establishment of a comprehensive generic data base for component failures, treatment of initiating event frequencies given significant plant improvements in recent years, performance of efficient identification and screening of fire and flood events using code-assisted vital area analysis, identification and treatment of significant seismic-fire-flood-wind interactions, and modeling of large loss-of-coolant accidents (LOCAs) and experiment loop ruptures leading to direct damage of the ATR core. 18 refs.

  13. Environmental assessment of digestate treatment technologies using LCA methodology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vázquez-Rowe, Ian; Golkowska, Katarzyna; Lebuf, Viooltje; Vaneeckhaute, Céline; Michels, Evi; Meers, Erik; Benetto, Enrico; Koster, Daniel

    2015-09-01

    The production of biogas from energy crops, organic waste and manure has augmented considerably the amounts of digestate available in Flanders. This has pushed authorities to steadily introduce legislative changes to promote its use as a fertilising agent. There is limited arable land in Flanders, which entails that digestate has to compete with animal manure to be spread. This forces many anaerobic digestion plants to further treat digestate in such a way that it can either be exported or the nitrogen be removed. Nevertheless, the environmental impact of these treatment options is still widely unknown, as well as the influence of these impacts on the sustainability of Flemish anaerobic digestion plants in comparison to other regions where spreading of raw digestate is allowed. Despite important economic aspects that must be considered, the use of Life Cycle Assessment (LCA) is suggested in this study to identify the environmental impacts of spreading digestate directly as compared to four different treatment technologies. Results suggest relevant environmental gains when the digestate mix is treated using the examined conversion technologies prior to spreading, although important trade-offs between impact categories were observed and discussed. The promising results of digestate conversion technologies suggest that further LCA analyses should be performed to delve into, for instance, the appropriateness to shift to nutrient recovery technologies rather than digestate conversion treatments. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. National Geospatial Data Asset Lifecycle Baseline Maturity Assessment for the Federal Geographic Data Committee

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peltz-Lewis, L. A.; Blake-Coleman, W.; Johnston, J.; DeLoatch, I. B.

    2014-12-01

    The Federal Geographic Data Committee (FGDC) is designing a portfolio management process for 193 geospatial datasets contained within the 16 topical National Spatial Data Infrastructure themes managed under OMB Circular A-16 "Coordination of Geographic Information and Related Spatial Data Activities." The 193 datasets are designated as National Geospatial Data Assets (NGDA) because of their significance in implementing to the missions of multiple levels of government, partners and stakeholders. As a starting point, the data managers of these NGDAs will conduct a baseline maturity assessment of the dataset(s) for which they are responsible. The maturity is measured against benchmarks related to each of the seven stages of the data lifecycle management framework promulgated within the OMB Circular A-16 Supplemental Guidance issued by OMB in November 2010. This framework was developed by the interagency Lifecycle Management Work Group (LMWG), consisting of 16 Federal agencies, under the 2004 Presidential Initiative the Geospatial Line of Business,using OMB Circular A-130" Management of Federal Information Resources" as guidance The seven lifecycle stages are: Define, Inventory/Evaluate, Obtain, Access, Maintain, Use/Evaluate, and Archive. This paper will focus on the Lifecycle Baseline Maturity Assessment, and efforts to integration the FGDC approach with other data maturity assessments.

  15. Assessment of methodologies for analysis of the dungeness B accidental aircraft crash risk.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    LaChance, Jeffrey L.; Hansen, Clifford W.

    2010-09-01

    The Health and Safety Executive (HSE) has requested Sandia National Laboratories (SNL) to review the aircraft crash methodology for nuclear facilities that are being used in the United Kingdom (UK). The scope of the work included a review of one method utilized in the UK for assessing the potential for accidental airplane crashes into nuclear facilities (Task 1) and a comparison of the UK methodology against similar International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA), United States (US) Department of Energy (DOE), and the US Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) methods (Task 2). Based on the conclusions from Tasks 1 and 2, an additional Task 3 would provide an assessment of a site-specific crash frequency for the Dungeness B facility using one of the other methodologies. This report documents the results of Task 2. The comparison of the different methods was performed for the three primary contributors to aircraft crash risk at the Dungeness B site: airfield related crashes, crashes below airways, and background crashes. The methods and data specified in each methodology were compared for each of these risk contributors, differences in the methodologies were identified, and the importance of these differences was qualitatively and quantitatively assessed. The bases for each of the methods and the data used were considered in this assessment process. A comparison of the treatment of the consequences of the aircraft crashes was not included in this assessment because the frequency of crashes into critical structures is currently low based on the existing Dungeness B assessment. Although the comparison found substantial differences between the UK and the three alternative methodologies (IAEA, NRC, and DOE) this assessment concludes that use of any of these alternative methodologies would not change the conclusions reached for the Dungeness B site. Performance of Task 3 is thus not recommended.

  16. Optimization of DRASTIC method by supervised committee machine artificial intelligence to assess groundwater vulnerability for Maragheh-Bonab plain aquifer, Iran

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fijani, Elham; Nadiri, Ata Allah; Asghari Moghaddam, Asghar; Tsai, Frank T.-C.; Dixon, Barnali

    2013-10-01

    Contamination of wells with nitrate-N (NO3-N) poses various threats to human health. Contamination of groundwater is a complex process and full of uncertainty in regional scale. Development of an integrative vulnerability assessment methodology can be useful to effectively manage (including prioritization of limited resource allocation to monitor high risk areas) and protect this valuable freshwater source. This study introduces a supervised committee machine with artificial intelligence (SCMAI) model to improve the DRASTIC method for groundwater vulnerability assessment for the Maragheh-Bonab plain aquifer in Iran. Four different AI models are considered in the SCMAI model, whose input is the DRASTIC parameters. The SCMAI model improves the committee machine artificial intelligence (CMAI) model by replacing the linear combination in the CMAI with a nonlinear supervised ANN framework. To calibrate the AI models, NO3-N concentration data are divided in two datasets for the training and validation purposes. The target value of the AI models in the training step is the corrected vulnerability indices that relate to the first NO3-N concentration dataset. After model training, the AI models are verified by the second NO3-N concentration dataset. The results show that the four AI models are able to improve the DRASTIC method. Since the best AI model performance is not dominant, the SCMAI model is considered to combine the advantages of individual AI models to achieve the optimal performance. The SCMAI method re-predicts the groundwater vulnerability based on the different AI model prediction values. The results show that the SCMAI outperforms individual AI models and committee machine with artificial intelligence (CMAI) model. The SCMAI model ensures that no water well with high NO3-N levels would be classified as low risk and vice versa. The study concludes that the SCMAI model is an effective model to improve the DRASTIC model and provides a confident estimate of the

  17. Assessment of monosodium glutamate (MSG) intake in a rural Thai community: questioning the methodological approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chinna, Karuthan; Karupaiah, Tilakavati

    2013-07-26

    We examined the methodological approach to the assessment of monosodium glutamate intake. The high carbohydrate and low fat consumption characteristic of this study population would be conducive to the development of metabolic syndrome. However, anomalies in the assessment of dietary information limits conclusion to a causal link of monosodium glutamate to metabolic syndrome and overweight because the study lacks data on the main dietary patterns of consumption. Given the current paucity of data from human studies on monosodium glutamate intake and risk, more studies with robust methodology are required to assess causal links to disease.

  18. An Application of the Methodology for Assessment of the Sustainability of Air Transport System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Janic, Milan

    2003-01-01

    An assessment and operationalization of the concept of sustainable air transport system is recognized as an important but complex research, operational and policy task. In the scope of the academic efforts to properly address the problem, this paper aims to assess the sustainability of air transport system. It particular, the paper describes the methodology for assessment of sustainability and its potential application. The methodology consists of the indicator systems, which relate to the air transport system operational, economic, social and environmental dimension of performance. The particular indicator systems are relevant for the particular actors such users (air travellers), air transport operators, aerospace manufacturers, local communities, governmental authorities at different levels (local, national, international), international air transport associations, pressure groups and public. In the scope of application of the methodology, the specific cases are selected to estimate the particular indicators, and thus to assess the system sustainability under given conditions.

  19. A Methodology To Incorporate The Safety Culture Into Probabilistic Safety Assessments

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Park, Sunghyun; Kim, Namyeong; Jae, Moosung [Hanyang University, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2015-10-15

    In order to incorporate organizational factors into PSA, a methodology needs to be developed. Using the AHP to weigh organizational factors as well as the SLIM to rate those factors, a methodology is introduced in this study. The safety issues related to nuclear safety culture have occurred increasingly. The quantification tool has to be developed in order to include the organizational factor into Probabilistic Safety Assessments. In this study, the state-of-the-art for the organizational evaluation methodologies has been surveyed. This study includes the research for organizational factors, maintenance process, maintenance process analysis models, a quantitative methodology using Analytic Hierarchy Process, Success Likelihood Index Methodology. The purpose of this study is to develop a methodology to incorporate the safety culture into PSA for obtaining more objective risk than before. The organizational factor considered in nuclear safety culture might affect the potential risk of human error and hardware-failure. The safety culture impact index to monitor the plant safety culture can be assessed by applying the developed methodology into a nuclear power plant.

  20. A methodology for assessment of road structures for the PBS pilot project in South Africa

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Nordengen, Paul A

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available This paper describes the methodology that is being used for the performance assessment of PBS vehicles in terms of road structures as part of the PBS pilot project in South Africa. The assessment approach has evolved from the standard “bridge...

  1. Data Management inside the Library: Assessing Electronic Resources Data Using the Data Asset Framework Methodology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ogier, Andi; Hall, Monena; Bailey, Annette; Stovall, Connie

    2014-01-01

    Rapidly growing within academic libraries, library data services have often been focused on assessing research trends and building partnerships outside the library. There are distinct benefits, however, to using data audit methodologies created for these external assessments of researcher practices inside the library as well. In this article, we…

  2. Characterizing chronic and acute health risks of residues of veterinary drugs in food: latest methodological developments by the joint FAO/WHO expert committee on food additives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boobis, Alan; Cerniglia, Carl; Chicoine, Alan; Fattori, Vittorio; Lipp, Markus; Reuss, Rainer; Verger, Philippe; Tritscher, Angelika

    2017-11-01

    The risk assessment of residues of veterinary drugs in food is a field that continues to evolve. The toxicological end-points to be considered are becoming more nuanced and in light of growing concern about the development of antimicrobial resistance, detailed analysis of the antimicrobial activity of the residues of veterinary drugs in food is increasingly incorporated in the assessment. In recent years, the Joint FAO/WHO Expert Committee on Food Additives (JECFA) has refined its approaches to provide a more comprehensive and fit-for-purpose risk assessment. This publication describes in detail the consideration of acute and chronic effects, the estimation of acute and chronic dietary exposure, current approaches for including microbiological endpoints in the risk assessment, and JECFA's considerations for the potential effects of food processing on residues from veterinary drugs. JECFA now applies these approaches in the development of health-based guidance values (i.e. safe exposure levels) for residues of veterinary drugs. JECFA, thus, comprehensively addresses acute and chronic risks by using corresponding estimates for acute and chronic exposure and suitable correction for the limited bioavailability of bound residues by the Gallo-Torres model. On a case-by-case basis, JECFA also considers degradation products that occur from normal food processing of food containing veterinary drug residues. These approaches will continue to be refined to ensure the most scientifically sound basis for the establishment of health-based guidance values for veterinary drug residues.

  3. ARAMIS : Accidental Risk Assessment Methodology for Industries in the framework of SEVESO II directive

    OpenAIRE

    Salvi, Olivier; Kirchsteiger, C.; Delvosalle, Christian; Duijm, Nijs-Jan; Casal, J.; Goosens, L.; Mazzarotta, Barbara; Lebecki, K.; Wybo, J.L.; Dusserre, Gilles; Londiche, H.; Calzia, J.

    2002-01-01

    This paper presents the ARAMIS project accepted for funding in the 5th Framework Programme of the European Commission, which should start end 2001. ARAMIS project aims at developing a new risk assessment methodology which allows to evaluate the risk level of an industrial plant by taking into account prevention measures against major accidents. The methodology will support the harmonised implementation of the SEVESO II Directive.

  4. Alternative BSE risk assessment methodology for beef and beef offal imported into Japan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yoshikawa, Yasuhiro; Horiuchi, Motohiro; Ishiguro, Naotaka; Kadohira, Mutsuyo; Kai, Satoshi; Mizusawa, Hidehiro; Nagata, Chisato; Onodera, Takashi; Sata, Tetsutaro; Tsutsui, Toshiyuki; Yamada, Masahito; Yamamoto, Shigeki

    2012-08-01

    The Food Safety Commission (FSC) of Japan, established in July 2003, has its own initiative to conduct risk assessments on food stuffs known as "self-tasking assessment". Within this framework, the FSC decided to conduct a risk assessment of beef and beef offal imported into Japan from countries with no previous BSE reports; thus, a methodology was formed to suit to this purpose. This methodology was partly based on the previous assessments of Japanese domestic beef and beef imported from U.S.A./Canada, but some modifications were made. Other organizations' assessment methods, such as those used for BSE status assessment in live cattle by the OIE and EFSA's GBR, were also consulted. In this review, the authors introduce this alternative methodology, which reflects (1) the risk of live cattle in the assessed country including temporal risks of BSE invasion and domestic propagation, with the assessment results verified by surveillance data, and (2) the risk of beef and beef offal consisting of cumulative BSE risk by types of slaughtering and meat production processes implemented and the status of mechanically recovered meat production. Other possible influencing factors such as atypical BSE cases were also reviewed. The key characteristic of the current assessment is a combination of the time-sequential risk level of live cattle and qualitative risk level of meat production at present in an assessed country.

  5. Cancer risk assessment of extremely low frequency electric and magnetic fields: a critical review of methodology.

    OpenAIRE

    McCann, J.

    1998-01-01

    This review provides a discussion of cancer risk assessment methodology pertinent to developing a strategy for extremely low frequency electric and magnetic fields (EMF). Approaches taken for chemical agents or ionizing radiation in six key topic areas are briefly reviewed, and then those areas are examined from the perspective of EMF, identifying issues to be addressed in developing a risk assessment strategy. The following recommendations are offered: 1) risk assessment should be viewed as ...

  6. Triangulation for the assessment of clinical nursing skills: a review of theory, use and methodology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fotheringham, Diane

    2010-03-01

    To review the use and usefulness of the methodological strategy of triangulation in the assessment of skill in nursing curricula. Systematic search of the literature relevant to the definition and assessment of skill, reliability and validity of assessment methods and triangulation of assessment strategies. One hundred and twenty papers from nursing, medical, educational and social scientific databases, relevant websites and relevant books were reviewed. Forty papers were included based on their relevance to the theory and methodology of clinical skills assessment of health care professionals, particularly nurses. Papers concerning vocational skills assessment and the assessment of skill in school children were excluded. There is a current imperative within the field of health care professional education to assess clinical skills and to quantify this assessment. However, clinical skill, as it relates to cognition, is poorly defined concept and may be viewed as a quality of the practitioner and, as such, is difficult to quantify. Very many methods of assessing clinical skill have been documented and there are inherent issues in ensuring both reliability and validity of these assessment strategies for clinical skill. This has led commentators to suggest that the process of triangulation should be employed. The paper fundamentally questions whether the concept of triangulation can be applied to skills assessment without dependable measures of reliability and validity of the tools of assessment and concludes that the process of applying multiple modes of assessment should not be confused with the process of triangulation. Copyright 2009 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. M&A Performance and Economic Impact: Integration and Critical Assessment of Methodological Approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karolis Andriuskevicius

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available Purpose of the article: Existing methodologies employed within the M&A performance framework are investigated and critically discuss. Methodology/methods: The research has been carried out as a structured assessment of past literature. The findings from scientific articles and studies by various scholars have been categorized, grouped and summarized to discern a meta-analytic view of the work carried out to date. Scientific aim: The conducted research seeks to ascertain and evaluate theoretically existing methodologies used in empirical studies that would allow proper and critical understanding of the results of various findings in the holistic and global M&As area. Findings: The research elaborates on several key developments in M&A methodology and performance studies carried out in empirical works during the last two decades. The findings help to independently and objectively assess performance of M&A from a holistic perspective. Conclusions: Each methodology measuring either M&A performance on a corporate level or effects of M&A on the economy level shall be interpreted and relied on with caution as each of them dispose their limitations whereas application of these methodologies is subject to data availability and case specific.

  8. Assessment of groundwater vulnerability using supervised committee to combine fuzzy logic models.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nadiri, Ata Allah; Gharekhani, Maryam; Khatibi, Rahman; Moghaddam, Asghar Asghari

    2017-03-01

    Vulnerability indices of an aquifer assessed by different fuzzy logic (FL) models often give rise to differing values with no theoretical or empirical basis to establish a validated baseline or to develop a comparison basis between the modeling results and baselines, if any. Therefore, this research presents a supervised committee fuzzy logic (SCFL) method, which uses artificial neural networks to overarch and combine a selection of FL models. The indices are expressed by the widely used DRASTIC framework, which include geological, hydrological, and hydrogeological parameters often subject to uncertainty. DRASTIC indices represent collectively intrinsic (or natural) vulnerability and give a sense of contaminants, such as nitrate-N, percolating to aquifers from the surface. The study area is an aquifer in Ardabil plain, the province of Ardabil, northwest Iran. Improvements on vulnerability indices are achieved by FL techniques, which comprise Sugeno fuzzy logic (SFL), Mamdani fuzzy logic (MFL), and Larsen fuzzy logic (LFL). As the correlation between estimated DRASTIC vulnerability index values and nitrate-N values is as low as 0.4, it is improved significantly by FL models (SFL, MFL, and LFL), which perform in similar ways but have differences. Their synergy is exploited by SCFL and uses the FL modeling results "conditioned" by nitrate-N values to raise their correlation to higher than 0.9.

  9. Social Life Cycle Assessment of a Concentrated Solar Power Plant in Spain: A Methodological Proposal

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Corona, Blanca; Bozhilova-Kisheva, Kossara Petrova; Olsen, Stig Irving

    2017-01-01

    Measuring the sustainability of goods and services in a systematic and objective manner has become an issue of paramount importance. Life cycle sustainability assessment (LCSA) is a holistic methodology whose aim is to integrate into a compatible format the analysis of the three pillars of sustai......Measuring the sustainability of goods and services in a systematic and objective manner has become an issue of paramount importance. Life cycle sustainability assessment (LCSA) is a holistic methodology whose aim is to integrate into a compatible format the analysis of the three pillars...... of sustainability, namely, economy, environment, and society. Social life cycle assessment (S-LCA) is a novel methodology still under development, used to cover the social aspects of sustainability within LCSA. The aim of this article is to provide additional discussion on the practical application of S......-LCA by suggesting a new classification and characterization model that builds upon previous methodological developments. The structure of the social analysis has been adapted to maintain coherence with that of standard LCA. The application of this methodology is demonstrated using a case study—the analysis of power...

  10. A comparison of radiological risk assessment models: Risk assessment models used by the BEIR V Committee, UNSCEAR, ICRP, and EPA (for NESHAP)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wahl, L.E.

    1994-03-01

    Radiological risk assessments and resulting risk estimates have been developed by numerous national and international organizations, including the National Research Council`s fifth Committee on the Biological Effects of Ionizing Radiations (BEIR V), the United Nations Scientific Committee on the Effects of Atomic Radiation (UNSCEAR), and the International Commission on Radiological Protection (ICRP). A fourth organization, the Environmental Protection Agency (EPA), has also performed a risk assessment as a basis for the National Emission Standards for Hazardous Air Pollutants (NESHAP). This paper compares the EPA`s model of risk assessment with the models used by the BEIR V Committee, UNSCEAR, and ICRP. Comparison is made of the values chosen by each organization for several model parameters: populations used in studies and population transfer coefficients, dose-response curves and dose-rate effects, risk projection methods, and risk estimates. This comparison suggests that the EPA has based its risk assessment on outdated information and that the organization should consider adopting the method used by the BEIR V Committee, UNSCEAR, or ICRP.

  11. Towards the development of a global probabilistic tsunami risk assessment methodology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schaefer, Andreas; Daniell, James; Wenzel, Friedemann

    2017-04-01

    The assessment of tsunami risk is on many levels still ambiguous and under discussion. Over the last two decades, various methodologies and models have been developed to quantify tsunami risk, most of the time on a local or regional level, with either deterministic or probabilistic background. Probabilistic modelling has significant difficulties, as the underlying tsunami hazard modelling demands an immense amount of computational time and thus limits the assessment substantially, being often limited to either institutes with supercomputing access or the modellers are forced to reduce modelling resolution either quantitatively or qualitatively. Furthermore, data on the vulnerability of infrastructure and buildings is empirically limited to a few disasters in the recent years. Thus, a reliable quantification of socio-economic vulnerability is still questionable. Nonetheless, significant improvements have been developed recently on both the methodological site as well as computationally. This study, introduces a methodological framework for a globally uniform probabilistic tsunami risk assessment. Here, the power of recently developed hardware for desktop-based parallel computing plays a crucial role in the calculation of numerical tsunami wave propagation, while large-scale parametric models and paleo-seismological data enhances the return period assessment of tsunami-genic megathrust earthquake events. Adaptation of empirical tsunami vulnerability functions in conjunction with methodologies from flood modelling support a more reliable vulnerability quantification. In addition, methodologies for exposure modelling in coastal areas are introduced focusing on the diversity of coastal exposure landscapes and data availability. Overall, this study introduces a first overview of how a global tsunami risk modelling framework may be accomplished, while covering methodological, computational and data-driven aspects.

  12. Survey on methodologies in the risk assessment of chemical exposures in emergency response situations in Europe

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Heinälä, Milla; Gundert-Remy, Ursula; Wood, Maureen Heraty

    2013-01-01

    A scientifically sound assessment of the risk to human health resulting from acute chemical releases is the cornerstone for chemical incident prevention, preparedness and response. Although the general methodology to identify acute toxicity of chemicals has not substantially changed in the last...

  13. Impact Assessment of University Libraries: A Consideration of Issues and Research Methodologies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Powell, Ronald R.

    1992-01-01

    Reviews research on impact assessment of libraries and considers potentially useful methodologies for measuring the impact of university libraries, i.e., how library use affects students' academic performance. Topics discussed include categories of library use, purposes of library use, and indicators of library impact. The user panel methodology…

  14. Using Delphi Methodology to Design Assessments of Teachers' Pedagogical Content Knowledge

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manizade, Agida Gabil; Mason, Marguerite M.

    2011-01-01

    Descriptions of methodologies that can be used to create items for assessing teachers' "professionally situated" knowledge are lacking in mathematics education research literature. In this study, researchers described and used the Delphi method to design an instrument to measure teachers' pedagogical content knowledge. The instrument focused on a…

  15. The PHM-Ethics methodology: interdisciplinary technology assessment of personal health monitoring

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schmidt, S.; Verweij, M.F.

    2013-01-01

    The contribution briefly introduces the PHM Ethics project and the PHM methodology. Within the PHM-Ethics project, a set of tools and modules had been developed that may assist in the evaluation and assessment of new technologies for personal health monitoring, referred to as “PHM methodology” or

  16. Using Critical Thinking Drills to Teach and Assess Proficiency in Methodological and Statistical Thinking

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cascio, Ted V.

    2017-01-01

    This study assesses the effectiveness of critical thinking drills (CTDs), a repetitious classroom activity designed to improve methodological and statistical thinking in relation to psychological claims embedded in popular press articles. In each of four separate CTDs, students critically analyzed a brief article reporting a recent psychological…

  17. Chair Report Consultancy Meeting on Nuclear Security Assessment Methodologies (NUSAM) Transport Case Study Working Group

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shull, Doug [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States)

    2015-08-19

    The purpose of the consultancy assignment was to (i) apply the NUSAM assessment methods to hypothetical transport security table top exercise (TTX) analyses and (ii) document its results to working materials of NUSAM case study on transport. A number of working group observations, using the results of TTX methodologies, are noted in the report.

  18. Developing TheoreticalMethodological Approaches to Assessment of Export Potential of Ukrainian Enterprises

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Matyushenko Igor Yu.

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available The article is aimed at studying the existing theoretical-methodological approaches to the analysis and assessment of export potential. The opinions by scientists regarding the disclosure of the categorial content of the concept of «export potential» have been considered, an own definition of the indicated economic category has been suggested. The main types of analytical procedures for assessment have been classified, some authorial methodical approaches to determine the level of export potential have been analyzed. The export potential of a hypothetical enterprise has been calculated by the selected methodologies of assessment. The urgency of improving and refining existing methods to implement more detailed and quantitative analysis has been substantiated. It has been suggested to implement a prognosis assessment of export potential of enterprises by combining the results of several methodologies in the aggregate indicator of export potential efficiency. A prognosis model for the dynamics of export potential of a hypothetical enterprise has been built, value of the aggregate indicator has been calculated on the basis of three selected valuation methodologies.

  19. European Unconventional Oil and Gas Assessment (EUOGA) - Development and application of a unified methodology

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Nelskamp, S.; Zijp, M.; Doornenbal, H.; Schovsbo, N.H.; Bocin-Dumitriu, A.

    2017-01-01

    Over the last decade, various international and national assessments of shale gas and shale oil resources for most EU-countries have been published. Due to methodological differences and in fundamental assumptions related to the quality and quantity of underlying geological information, these

  20. Methodological Demonstration of a Text Analytics Approach to Country Logistics System Assessments

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kinra, Aseem; Mukkamala, Raghava Rao; Vatrapu, Ravi

    2017-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to develop and demonstrate a semi-automated text analytics approach for the identification and categorization of information that can be used for country logistics assessments. In this paper, we develop the methodology on a set of documents for 21 countries using...... and the text analyst. Implications are discussed and future work is outlined....

  1. Water Footprint Symposium: where next for water footprint and water assessment methodology?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Tillotson, M.R.; Kiu, J.; Guan, D.; Wu, P.; Zhao, Xu; Zhang, Guoping; Pfister, S.; Pahlow, Markus

    2014-01-01

    Recognizing the need for a comprehensive review of the tools and metrics for the quantification and assessment of water footprints, and allowing for the opportunity for open discussion on the challenges and future of water footprinting methodology, an international symposium on water footprint was

  2. Safety, mobility and comfort assessment methodologies of intelligent transport systems for vulnerable road users

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Malone, K.; Silla, A.; Johanssen, C.; Bell, D.

    2017-01-01

    Introduction: This paper describes the modification and development of methodologies to assess the impacts of Intelligent Transport Systems (ITS) applications for Vulnerable Road users (VRUs) in the domains of safety, mobility and comfort. This effort was carried out in the context of the VRUITS

  3. Background for spatial differentiation in life cycle impact assessment. The EDIP2003 methodology

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Potting, José; Hauschild, Michael Zwicky

    2004-01-01

    agreement is limited to main lines and methodology has not yet been fully developed. A major problem to be solved is the poor accordance between impact as calculated in LCA and the expected occurrence of actual impact. Until recently, Life Cycle Impact Assessment (LCIA) typically focused on substance...

  4. Development of an Automated Security Risk Assessment Methodology Tool for Critical Infrastructures.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jaeger, Calvin Dell; Roehrig, Nathaniel S.; Torres, Teresa M.

    2008-12-01

    This document presents the security automated Risk Assessment Methodology (RAM) prototype tool developed by Sandia National Laboratories (SNL). This work leverages SNL's capabilities and skills in security risk analysis and the development of vulnerability assessment/risk assessment methodologies to develop an automated prototype security RAM tool for critical infrastructures (RAM-CITM). The prototype automated RAM tool provides a user-friendly, systematic, and comprehensive risk-based tool to assist CI sector and security professionals in assessing and managing security risk from malevolent threats. The current tool is structured on the basic RAM framework developed by SNL. It is envisioned that this prototype tool will be adapted to meet the requirements of different CI sectors and thereby provide additional capabilities.

  5. Methodology for constructive assessment of IT-based systems in an organisational context.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brender, J

    1999-12-01

    Even if painted in black and white, there is no doubt that the assumptions for the application of traditional approaches for user requirements specification are more or less unfulfilled. This indicates a need for evolutionary system development combined with constructive assessment throughout the life-cycle of an IT-based solution. A methodology for constructive technology assessment is presented, which 1) covers the entire system life-cycle; 2) has users from the application domain of the future system, or their representatives, as the target users of the assessment methodology; 3) enables constructive assessment during the development of an IT-based solution; 4) is applicable independently of the system development approach; and 5) provides users of the IT-based solution with information enabling them to decide whether or not to take the system into real-life clinical usage.

  6. Novel methodologies and technologies to assess mid-palatal suture maturation: a systematic review

    OpenAIRE

    Isfeld, Darren; Lagravere, Manuel; Leon-Salazar, Vladimir; Flores-Mir, Carlos

    2017-01-01

    Introduction A reliable method to assess midpalatal suture maturation to drive clinical decision-making, towards non-surgical or surgical expansion, in adolescent and young adult patients is needed. The objectives were to systematically review and evaluate what is known regarding contemporary methodologies capable of assessing midpalatal suture maturation in humans. Methods A computerized database search was conducted using Medline, PubMed, Embase and Scopus to search the literature up until ...

  7. The development of methodological tools to assess the health sector with the resulting standardized index

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hansuvarova Evgenia Adolfovna

    2016-10-01

    The proposed assessment methodology resulting standardized health index in the various countries of the world allows you to define the country implementing an effective management strategy in the health sector. The leading positions belong to the countries where the state health policy has shown its greatest efficiency. This technique can be used not only for point scoring result of a standardized health index in the world, but also to assess in a particular country.

  8. Assessments of the economic impacts of natural hazards in Albania: application of DaLA methodology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Massabo, Marco; Toto, Emanuela; Deda, Miranda; Prenci, Shemsi; Dhima, Maksimiljan

    2015-04-01

    Disaster loss datasets are built using economic assessments done by different parties and using different approaches which are in many cases inconsistent. This is observed in more than 75% of the Alabanian records with missing economic evaluations. To assess the economic impact of disasters at all scales in Global Assessment Report on Disaster Risk Reduction 2011 and 2013 has used the DaLA methodology that takes advantage of a common and homogeneous set of quantitative physical damage indicators contained in the disaster databases. These have to be taken as the lower bound of the damage, which in general is higher. The UN-ECLAC DaLA Methodology takes into account in its assessments the overall status of economy of the affected country. It uses the national accounts and statistics of the country government as baseline data to assess damage and loss. It also factors in the impact of disasters on individual livelihoods and incomes to fully define the needs for recovery and reconstruction. Similarly to national disaster loss databases DaLA assessments have a national level of observation and data produced at sub-national resolution, resulting in highly detailed and accurate data sets. In 2013 in Albania was implemented a collection of disaster losses based on Desinventar. We applied the DaLa methodology to the Albanian database of impacts of natural disasters.

  9. Methodological approach to assessment of organizational resources of the productive activity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexander Miller

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this article is to solve the problem connected with development of theoretical and methodological provisions of formation of the assessment procedure of organizational resources of the productive activity. Theoretical results of our research are: improvement of the concept of development of organizational resources of the productive activity; identifying the impact of organizational resources on the productive activity; justification of the basic principles of formation of the assessment system of efficiency of the organizational resources' use. We proposed a unified methodological approach allowing to combine the complexity of assessment of both quantity of core resources of the productive activity and organizational resources, which significantly develops traditional systems of the productive activity management based on identifying quantitative parameters of the subsystems, their assessment, comparison and analysis. We also substantiated our opinion on assessment of organizational resources' values. It is focused on the development of the productive activity and allows to use the developed tools of the methodological approach for forecast assessment of the impact of the quantity of core resources, used in the productive activity, and organizational resources of the productive activity on the economic results of the enterprise.

  10. Development of a Probabilistic Assessment Methodology for Evaluation of Carbon Dioxide Storage

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burruss, Robert A.; Brennan, Sean T.; Freeman, P.A.; Merrill, Matthew D.; Ruppert, Leslie F.; Becker, Mark F.; Herkelrath, William N.; Kharaka, Yousif K.; Neuzil, Christopher E.; Swanson, Sharon M.; Cook, Troy A.; Klett, Timothy R.; Nelson, Philip H.; Schenk, Christopher J.

    2009-01-01

    This report describes a probabilistic assessment methodology developed by the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) for evaluation of the resource potential for storage of carbon dioxide (CO2) in the subsurface of the United States as authorized by the Energy Independence and Security Act (Public Law 110-140, 2007). The methodology is based on USGS assessment methodologies for oil and gas resources created and refined over the last 30 years. The resource that is evaluated is the volume of pore space in the subsurface in the depth range of 3,000 to 13,000 feet that can be described within a geologically defined storage assessment unit consisting of a storage formation and an enclosing seal formation. Storage assessment units are divided into physical traps (PTs), which in most cases are oil and gas reservoirs, and the surrounding saline formation (SF), which encompasses the remainder of the storage formation. The storage resource is determined separately for these two types of storage. Monte Carlo simulation methods are used to calculate a distribution of the potential storage size for individual PTs and the SF. To estimate the aggregate storage resource of all PTs, a second Monte Carlo simulation step is used to sample the size and number of PTs. The probability of successful storage for individual PTs or the entire SF, defined in this methodology by the likelihood that the amount of CO2 stored will be greater than a prescribed minimum, is based on an estimate of the probability of containment using present-day geologic knowledge. The report concludes with a brief discussion of needed research data that could be used to refine assessment methodologies for CO2 sequestration.

  11. Application of Master Curve Methodology for Structural Integrity Assessments of Nuclear Components

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sattari-Far, Iradj [Det Norske Veritas, Stockholm (Sweden); Wallin, Kim [VTT, Esbo (Finland)

    2005-10-15

    The objective was to perform an in-depth investigation of the Master Curve methodology and also based on this method develop a procedure for fracture assessments of nuclear components. The project has sufficiently illustrated the capabilities of the Master Curve methodology for fracture assessments of nuclear components. Within the scope of this work, the theoretical background of the methodology and its validation on small and large specimens has been studied and presented to a sufficiently large extent, as well as the correlations between the charpy-V data and the Master Curve T{sub 0} reference temperature in the evaluation of fracture toughness. The work gives a comprehensive report of the background theory and the different applications of the Master Curve methodology. The main results of the work have shown that the cleavage fracture toughness is characterized by a large amount of statistical scatter in the transition region, it is specimen size dependent and it should be treated statistically rather than deterministically. The Master Curve methodology is able to make use of statistical data in a consistent way. Furthermore, the Master Curve methodology provides a more precise prediction of the fracture toughness of embrittled materials in comparison with the ASME K{sub IC} reference curve, which often gives over-conservative results. The suggested procedure in this study, concerning the application of the Master Curve method in fracture assessments of ferritic steels in the transition region and the low shelf regions, is valid for the temperatures range T{sub 0}-50{<=}T{<=}T{sub 0}+50 deg C. If only approximate information is required, the Master Curve may well be extrapolated outside this temperature range. The suggested procedure has also been illustrated for some examples.

  12. 78 FR 63972 - Notice of Proposed Methodology for the 2014 Delaware River and Bay Water Quality Assessment Report

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-10-25

    ... COMMISSION Notice of Proposed Methodology for the 2014 Delaware River and Bay Water Quality Assessment Report... methodology proposed to be used in the 2014 Delaware River and Bay Water Quality Assessment Report is...: Comments will be accepted via email to [email protected] , with ``Water Quality Assessment 2014...

  13. Using MFM methodology to generate and define major accident scenarios for quantitative risk assessment studies

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hua, Xinsheng; Wu, Zongzhi; Lind, Morten

    2017-01-01

    to calculate likelihood of each MAS. Combining the likelihood of each scenario with a qualitative risk matrix, each major accident scenario is thereby ranked for consideration for detailed consequence analysis. The methodology is successfully highlighted using part of BMA-process for production of hydrogen......Generating and defining Major Accident Scenarios (MAS) are commonly agreed as the key step for quantitative risk assessment (QRA). The aim of the study is to explore the feasibility of using Multilevel Flow Modeling (MFM) methodology to formulating MAS. Traditionally this is usually done based...

  14. Using MFM methodology to generate and define major accident scenarios for quantitative risk assessment studies

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hua, Xinsheng; Wu, Zongzhi; Lind, Morten

    2017-01-01

    Generating and defining Major Accident Scenarios (MAS) are commonly agreed as the key step for quantitative risk assessment (QRA). The aim of the study is to explore the feasibility of using Multilevel Flow Modeling (MFM) methodology to formulating MAS. Traditionally this is usually done based...... to calculate likelihood of each MAS. Combining the likelihood of each scenario with a qualitative risk matrix, each major accident scenario is thereby ranked for consideration for detailed consequence analysis. The methodology is successfully highlighted using part of BMA-process for production of hydrogen...

  15. Assessment of a methodology for transmission expansion planning around the North Sea

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jaehnert, Stefan; Farahmand, Hossein; Voeller, Steve; Wolfgang, Ove; Huertas-Hernando, Daniel [SINTEF Energy Research, Trondheim (Norway)

    2012-07-01

    The expected increase of wind power production in the North Sea area requires the access to resources of flexible power production. Since the Nordic hydro-based power system can provide such resources, a stronger interconnection between continental Europe and the Nordic is required. Transmission expansion planning is necessary to assess the benefit of potential new transmission lines. A transmission expansion methodology is presented in this paper. The methodology is based on merchant lines and is applied to a 2030 scenario of the Northern European power system. (orig.)

  16. A Hybrid Dynamic System Assessment Methodology for Multi-Modal Transportation-Electrification

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thomas J.T. van der Wardt

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available In recent years, electrified transportation, be it in the form of buses, trains, or cars have become an emerging form of mobility. Electric vehicles (EVs, especially, are set to expand the amount of electric miles driven and energy consumed. Nevertheless, the question remains as to whether EVs will be technically feasible within infrastructure systems. Fundamentally, EVs interact with three interconnected systems: the (physical transportation system, the electric power grid, and their supporting information systems. Coupling of the two physical systems essentially forms a nexus, the transportation-electricity nexus (TEN. This paper presents a hybrid dynamic system assessment methodology for multi-modal transportation-electrification. At its core, it utilizes a mathematical model which consists of a marked Petri-net model superimposed on the continuous time microscopic traffic dynamics and the electrical state evolution. The methodology consists of four steps: (1 establish the TEN structure; (2 establish the TEN behavior; (3 establish the TEN Intelligent Transportation-Energy System (ITES decision-making; and (4 assess the TEN performance. In the presentation of the methodology, the Symmetrica test case is used throughout as an illustrative example. Consequently, values for several measures of performance are provided. This methodology is presented generically and may be used to assess the effects of transportation-electrification in any city or area; opening up possibilities for many future studies.

  17. A Methodology to Assess and Evaluate Rainwater Harvesting Techniques in (Semi-)Arid Regions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ali, Ammar; Riksen, Michel; Ouessar, Mohamed; Ritsema, Coen

    2015-04-01

    Arid and semi-arid regions around the world are generally facing water scarcity problems due to lack of precipitation and unpredictable rainfall patterns. For thousands of years rainwater harvesting (RWH) techniques have been applied to cope with water scarcity. Many researchers have presented and applied different methodologies for determining suitable sites and techniques for RWH. However, there is still little attention given to evaluation of the performance of RWH structures. The aim of this research was to design a scientifically-based and generally applicable methodology to evaluate and assess the performance of existing RWH techniques in (semi-) arid regions. The methodology takes engineering, biophysical, and socio-economic criteria into account to assess the performance of RWH using the Analytical Hierarchy Process (AHP) supported by Geographic Information System (GIS). The Oum Zessar watershed in south-eastern Tunisia is used as a case study site to test this evaluation tool. The performance of 58 RWH locations (14 jessour and 44 tabias) in three main sub-catchments of Oum Zessar watershed were assessed and evaluated. Based on the criteria selected, 60performance, 36received good performance scores. The results very accurately represent the real performance of each site. This integrated methodology, which is highly flexible, saves time and costs, and is easy to adapt in different regions, provides a scientifically based analytical tool to support designers and decision makers aiming to improve the performance of existing and new RWH sites.

  18. Novel methodologies and technologies to assess mid-palatal suture maturation: a systematic review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Isfeld, Darren; Lagravere, Manuel; Leon-Salazar, Vladimir; Flores-Mir, Carlos

    2017-06-14

    A reliable method to assess midpalatal suture maturation to drive clinical decision-making, towards non-surgical or surgical expansion, in adolescent and young adult patients is needed. The objectives were to systematically review and evaluate what is known regarding contemporary methodologies capable of assessing midpalatal suture maturation in humans. A computerized database search was conducted using Medline, PubMed, Embase and Scopus to search the literature up until October 5, 2016. A supplemental hand search was completed of references from retrieved articles that met the final inclusion criteria. Twenty-nine abstracts met the initial inclusion criteria. Following assessment of full articles, only five met the final inclusion criteria. The number of subjects involved and quality of studies varied, ranging from an in-vitro study using autopsy material to prospective studies with in vivo human patients. Three types of evaluations were identified: quantitative, semi-quantitative and qualitative evaluations. Four of the five studies utilized computed tomography (CT), while the remaining study utilized non-invasive ultrasonography (US). No methodology was validated against a histological-based reference standard. Weak limited evidence exists to support the newest technologies and proposed methodologies to assess midpalatal suture maturation. Due to the lack of reference standard validation, it is advised that clinicians still use a multitude of diagnostic criteria to subjectively assess palatal suture maturation and drive clinical decision-making.

  19. [Assessment of the methodological quality of theses submitted to the Faculty of Medicine Fez].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boly, A; Tachfouti, N; Zohoungbogbo, I S S; Achhab, Y El; Nejjari, C

    2014-06-09

    A thesis in medicine is a scientific work which allows a medical student to acquire a Doctor of Medicine degree. It is therefore recommended that theses presented by students fulfill essential methodological criteria in order to obtain scientifically credible results and recommendations. The aim of this study was to assess the methodology of thesis presented to the Faculty of Medicine in Fez in 2008. We developed an evaluation table containing questions on the different sections of the IMRAD structure on which these theses were based and we estimated the proportion of theses that conformed to each criterion. There were 160 theses on various specialties presented in 2008. The majority of the theses (79.3%) were case series. Research questions were clearly expressed in 62.0% but the primary objectives were pertinent in only 52.0%. Our study shows that there were important deficiencies in the methodological rigor of the theses and very little representation of the theses in publications.

  20. Definition of a shortcut methodology for assessing flood-related Na-Tech risk

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E. Marzo

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available In this paper a qualitative methodology for the initial assessment of flood-related Na-Tech risk was developed as a screening tool to identify which situations require a much more expensive quantitative risk analysis (QRA. Through the definition of some suitable key hazard indicators (KHIs, the proposed methodology allows the identification of the Na-Tech risk level associated with a given situation; the analytical hierarchy process (AHP was used as a multi-criteria decision tool for the evaluation of such qualitative KHIs. The developed methodology was validated through two case studies by comparing the predicted risk levels with the results of much more detailed QRAs previously presented in literature and then applied to the real flood happened at Spolana a.s., Neratovice, Czech Republic in August 2002.

  1. Hypothesis testing on the fractal structure of behavioral sequences: the Bayesian assessment of scaling methodology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moscoso del Prado Martín, Fermín

    2013-12-01

    I introduce the Bayesian assessment of scaling (BAS), a simple but powerful Bayesian hypothesis contrast methodology that can be used to test hypotheses on the scaling regime exhibited by a sequence of behavioral data. Rather than comparing parametric models, as typically done in previous approaches, the BAS offers a direct, nonparametric way to test whether a time series exhibits fractal scaling. The BAS provides a simpler and faster test than do previous methods, and the code for making the required computations is provided. The method also enables testing of finely specified hypotheses on the scaling indices, something that was not possible with the previously available methods. I then present 4 simulation studies showing that the BAS methodology outperforms the other methods used in the psychological literature. I conclude with a discussion of methodological issues on fractal analyses in experimental psychology. PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2014 APA, all rights reserved.

  2. Definition of a short-cut methodology for assessing earthquake-related Na-Tech risk.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Busini, Valentina; Marzo, Enrico; Callioni, Andrea; Rota, Renato

    2011-08-15

    Na-Tech (Natural and Technological) refers to industrial accidents triggered by natural events such as storms, earthquakes, flooding, and lightning. Herein, a qualitative methodology for the initial assessment of earthquake Na-Tech risk has been developed as a screening tool to identify which situations require a much more expensive Quantitative Risk Analysis (QRA). The proposed methodology, through suitable Key Hazard Indicators (KHIs), identifies the Na-Tech risk level associated with a given situation (i.e., a process plant located in a given territory), using the Analytical Hierarchy Process as a multi-criteria decision tool for the evaluation of such KHIs. The developed methodology was validated by comparing its computational results with QRA results that involved Na-Tech events previously presented in literature. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  3. Development of a Methodology for Strategic Environmental Assessment: Application to the Assessment of Golf Course Installation Policy in Taiwan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Ching-Ho; Wu, Ray-Shyan; Liu, Wei-Lin; Su, Wen-Ray; Chang, Yu-Min

    2009-01-01

    Some countries, including Taiwan, have adopted strategic environmental assessment (SEA) to assess and modify proposed policies, plans, and programs (PPPs) in the planning phase for pursuing sustainable development. However, there were only some sketchy steps focusing on policy assessment in the system of Taiwan. This study aims to develop a methodology for SEA in Taiwan to enhance the effectiveness associated with PPPs. The proposed methodology comprises an SEA procedure involving PPP management and assessment in various phases, a sustainable assessment framework, and an SEA management system. The SEA procedure is devised based on the theoretical considerations by systems thinking and the regulative requirements in Taiwan. The positive and negative impacts on ecology, society, and economy are simultaneously considered in the planning (including policy generation and evaluation), implementation, and control phases of the procedure. This study used the analytic hierarchy process, Delphi technique, and systems analysis to develop a sustainable assessment framework. An SEA management system was built based on geographic information system software to process spatial, attribute, and satellite image data during the assessment procedure. The proposed methodology was applied in the SEA of golf course installation policy in 2001 as a case study, which was the first SEA in Taiwan. Most of the 82 existing golf courses in 2001 were installed on slope lands and caused a serious ecological impact. Assessment results indicated that 15 future golf courses installed on marginal lands (including buffer zones, remedied lands, and wastelands) were acceptable because the comprehensive environmental (ecological, social, and economic) assessment value was better based on environmental characteristics and management regulations of Taiwan. The SEA procedure in the planning phase for this policy was completed but the implementation phase of this policy was not begun because the related

  4. Development of a methodology for strategic environmental assessment: application to the assessment of golf course installation policy in Taiwan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Ching-Ho; Wu, Ray-Shyan; Liu, Wei-Lin; Su, Wen-Ray; Chang, Yu-Min

    2009-01-01

    Some countries, including Taiwan, have adopted strategic environmental assessment (SEA) to assess and modify proposed policies, plans, and programs (PPPs) in the planning phase for pursuing sustainable development. However, there were only some sketchy steps focusing on policy assessment in the system of Taiwan. This study aims to develop a methodology for SEA in Taiwan to enhance the effectiveness associated with PPPs. The proposed methodology comprises an SEA procedure involving PPP management and assessment in various phases, a sustainable assessment framework, and an SEA management system. The SEA procedure is devised based on the theoretical considerations by systems thinking and the regulative requirements in Taiwan. The positive and negative impacts on ecology, society, and economy are simultaneously considered in the planning (including policy generation and evaluation), implementation, and control phases of the procedure. This study used the analytic hierarchy process, Delphi technique, and systems analysis to develop a sustainable assessment framework. An SEA management system was built based on geographic information system software to process spatial, attribute, and satellite image data during the assessment procedure. The proposed methodology was applied in the SEA of golf course installation policy in 2001 as a case study, which was the first SEA in Taiwan. Most of the 82 existing golf courses in 2001 were installed on slope lands and caused a serious ecological impact. Assessment results indicated that 15 future golf courses installed on marginal lands (including buffer zones, remedied lands, and wastelands) were acceptable because the comprehensive environmental (ecological, social, and economic) assessment value was better based on environmental characteristics and management regulations of Taiwan. The SEA procedure in the planning phase for this policy was completed but the implementation phase of this policy was not begun because the related

  5. Steps towards the international regulatory acceptance of non-animal methodology in safety assessment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sewell, Fiona; Doe, John; Gellatly, Nichola; Ragan, Ian; Burden, Natalie

    2017-10-01

    The current animal-based paradigm for safety assessment must change. In September 2016, the UK National Centre for Replacement, Refinement and Reduction of Animals in Research (NC3Rs) brought together scientists from regulatory authorities, academia and industry to review progress in bringing new methodology into regulatory use, and to identify ways to expedite progress. Progress has been slow. Science is advancing to make this possible but changes are necessary. The new paradigm should allow new methodology to be adopted once it is developed rather than being based on a fixed set of studies. Regulatory authorities can help by developing Performance-Based Standards. The most pressing need is in repeat dose toxicology, although setting standards will be more complex than in areas such as sensitization. Performance standards should be aimed directly at human safety, not at reproducing the results of animal studies. Regulatory authorities can also aid progress towards the acceptance of non-animal based methodology by promoting "safe-haven" trials where traditional and new methodology data can be submitted in parallel to build up experience in the new methods. Industry can play its part in the acceptance of new methodology, by contributing to the setting of performance standards and by actively contributing to "safe-haven" trials. Copyright © 2017 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  6. Assessing the energy efficiency of pumps and pump units background and methodology

    CERN Document Server

    Bernd Stoffel, em Dr-Ing

    2015-01-01

    Assessing the Energy Efficiency of Pumps and Pump Units, developed in cooperation with Europump, is the first book available providing the background, methodology, and assessment tools for understanding and calculating energy efficiency for pumps and extended products (pumps+motors+drives). Responding to new EU requirements for pump efficiency, and US DOE exploratory work in setting pump energy efficiency guidelines, this book provides explanation, derivation, and illustration of PA and EPA methods for assessing energy efficiency. It surveys legislation related to pump energy eff

  7. Differences in methodologies used for externality assessment. Why are the numbers different?

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schleisner, Lotte

    1999-06-01

    During the last few years, externalities related to power production technologies have been calculated making use of different methodologies. The external costs may turn out to be very different for the same fuel cycle depending on the methodology that has been used to assess the externalities. The report gives a review of different valuation issues, which are used in different externality studies and focuses on why the numbers often are different for the same fuel cycle, using different methodologies for assessment of the externalities. The review of externality valuation focuses in this report on the assessment of environmental externalities. Importance has been attached to health effects, as these are the dominating effects in the external costs. Other effects are only mentioned on a superior level. The report points out different parameters, which are important to consider when externalities estimated for the same fuel cycle in different studies are compared. 8 studies have been chosen for further analysis and comparison in order to show the variation in external costs. The comparison shows the importance of possessing knowledge of which kind of methodologies have been used, which impacts are included etc. to explain why the numbers vary so much in different studies for the same fuel cycle. As an example a comparison of the impacts and damage costs related to air emissions has been made for three studies using different methodologies. The external costs are estimated for the same reference plant using the dispersion models, dose-response functions, impacts and monetary values from the three studies. The estimates from the three studies are compared two and two, and a more detailed analysis is performed in relation to human health, which is the dominating impact in all externality studies. (au) EFP-97. 29 tabs., 12 ills., 34 refs.

  8. Safety studies on Korean fusion DEMO plant using Integrated Safety Assessment Methodology: Part 2

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Oh, Kyemin; Kang, Myoung-suk [Kyung Hee University, Yongin-si, Gyeonggi-do 446-701 (Korea, Republic of); Heo, Gyunyoung, E-mail: gheo@khu.ac.kr [Kyung Hee University, Yongin-si, Gyeonggi-do 446-701 (Korea, Republic of); Kim, Hyoung-chan [National Fusion Research Institute, Daejeon-si 305-333 (Korea, Republic of)

    2015-10-15

    Highlights: • The purpose of this paper is to suggest methodology that can investigate safety issues and provides a case study for Korean fusion DEMO plant. • The concepts of Integrated Safety Assessment Methodology (ISAM) that can be applied in addressing regulatory requirements and recognizing safety issues for K-DEMO were emphasized. • Phenomena Identification Ranking Table (PIRT) and Objective Provision Tree (OPT) were performed and updated. • This work is expected to contribute on the conceptual design of safety features for K-DEMO to design engineers and the guidance for regulatory requirements to licensers. - Abstract: The purpose of this paper is to investigate safety issues using Integrated Safety Assessment Methodology (ISAM) proposed by Generation IV Forum Risk and Safety Working Group (RSWG) for Korean fusion DEMO plant (K-DEMO). In ongoing nuclear energy research such as Generation IV fission power plant (GEN-IV), new methodology based on Technology-Neutral Framework (TNF) has been applied for safety assessment. In this methodology, design and regulatory requirements for safety of nuclear power plants are considered simultaneously. The design based on regulatory requirements can save resource, time, and manpower while maintaining high level safety. ISAM is one of the options to apply TNF in K-DEMO. We have performed safety studies for K-DEMO using Phenomena Identification and Ranking Table (PIRT) and Objective Provision Tree (OPT) which are constitutive part of ISAM. Considering the design phase of K-DEMO, the current study focused on PIRT and OPT for K-DEMO. Results have been reviewed and updated by Korean fusion advisory group after considering the views of specialists from domestic universities, industries, and national institutes in South Korea.

  9. Improving life cycle assessment methodology for the application of decision support

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Herrmann, Ivan Tengbjerg

    There have been two overall objectives for this PhD thesis: a) To improve the life cycle assessment (LCA) methodology for the application of decision support and evaluation of uncertainty in LCA. b) LCA of biodiesel from a well-to-wheel (WTW) perspective. Improving the LCA methodology for the app......There have been two overall objectives for this PhD thesis: a) To improve the life cycle assessment (LCA) methodology for the application of decision support and evaluation of uncertainty in LCA. b) LCA of biodiesel from a well-to-wheel (WTW) perspective. Improving the LCA methodology...... for the application of decision support and evaluation of uncertainty in LCA. From a decision maker’s (DM’s) point of view there are at least three main “illness” factors influencing the quality of the information that the DM uses for making decisions. The factors are not independent of each other, but it seems...... helpful to use the following separations for clarification: • Uncertainty • Costs • Time Improvements in just one of these three factors can swiftly lead to an improvement of the others since they are highly dependent on each other. The focus of this PhD project has been on uncertainty. Most application...

  10. "Assessing the methodological quality of systematic reviews in radiation oncology: A systematic review".

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hasan, Haroon; Muhammed, Taaha; Yu, Jennifer; Taguchi, Kelsi; Samargandi, Osama A; Howard, A Fuchsia; Lo, Andrea C; Olson, Robert; Goddard, Karen

    2017-10-01

    The objective of our study was to evaluate the methodological quality of systematic reviews and meta-analyses in Radiation Oncology. A systematic literature search was conducted for all eligible systematic reviews and meta-analyses in Radiation Oncology from 1966 to 2015. Methodological characteristics were abstracted from all works that satisfied the inclusion criteria and quality was assessed using the critical appraisal tool, AMSTAR. Regression analyses were performed to determine factors associated with a higher score of quality. Following exclusion based on a priori criteria, 410 studies (157 systematic reviews and 253 meta-analyses) satisfied the inclusion criteria. Meta-analyses were found to be of fair to good quality while systematic reviews were found to be of less than fair quality. Factors associated with higher scores of quality in the multivariable analysis were including primary studies consisting of randomized control trials, performing a meta-analysis, and applying a recommended guideline related to establishing a systematic review protocol and/or reporting. Systematic reviews and meta-analyses may introduce a high risk of bias if applied to inform decision-making based on AMSTAR. We recommend that decision-makers in Radiation Oncology scrutinize the methodological quality of systematic reviews and meta-analyses prior to assessing their utility to inform evidence-based medicine and researchers adhere to methodological standards outlined in validated guidelines when embarking on a systematic review. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Assessment of possible airborne impact from nuclear risk sites - Part I: methodology for probabilistic atmospheric studies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baklanov, A. A.; Mahura, A. G.

    2003-10-01

    The main purpose of this study is to develop a methodology for a multidisciplinary nuclear risk and vulnerability assessment, and to test this methodology through estimation of a nuclear risk to population in the Northern European countries in case of a severe accident at the nuclear risk sites. For assessment of the probabilistic risk and vulnerability, a combination of social-geophysical factors and probabilities are considered. The main focus of this paper is the description of methodology for evaluation of the atmospheric transport of radioactive releases from the risk site regions. The suggested methodology is given from the probabilistic point of view. The main questions stated are: What are probabilities and times for radionuclide atmospheric transport to different neighbouring countries and territories in case of the hypothetical accidental release at the nuclear risk site? Which geographical territories or countries are at the highest risk from the hypothetical accidental releases? To answer this question we suggest applying the following research tools for probabilistic atmospheric studies. First, it is atmospheric modelling to calculate multiyear forward trajectories originated over the sites. Second, it is statistical analysis tools to explore temporal and spatial structure of calculated trajectories in order to evaluate different probabilistic impact indicators: atmospheric transport pathways, airflow, fast transport, typical transport time, maximum possible impact zone, maximum reaching distance, etc. These indicators are applicable for further GIS-analysis and integration to estimate regional risk and vulnerability in case of accidental releases at the risk sites and for planning the emergency response and preparedness systems.

  12. Development and Application of Urban Landslide Vulnerability Assessment Methodology Reflecting Social and Economic Variables

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yoonkyung Park

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available An urban landslide vulnerability assessment methodology is proposed with major focus on considering urban social and economic aspects. The proposed methodology was developed based on the landslide susceptibility maps that Korean Forest Service utilizes to identify landslide source areas. Frist, debris flows are propagated to urban areas from such source areas by Flow-R (flow path assessment of gravitational hazards at a regional scale, and then urban vulnerability is assessed by two categories: physical and socioeconomic aspect. The physical vulnerability is related to buildings that can be impacted by a landslide event. This study considered two popular building structure types, reinforced-concrete frame and nonreinforced-concrete frame, to assess the physical vulnerability. The socioeconomic vulnerability is considered a function of the resistant levels of the vulnerable people, trigger factor of secondary damage, and preparedness level of the local government. An index-based model is developed to evaluate the life and indirect damage under landslide as well as the resilience ability against disasters. To illustrate the validity of the proposed methodology, physical and socioeconomic vulnerability levels are analyzed for Seoul, Korea, using the suggested approach. The general trend found in this study indicates that the higher population density areas under a weaker fiscal condition that are located at the downstream of mountainous areas are more vulnerable than the areas in opposite conditions.

  13. A state-impact-state methodology for assessing environmental impact in land use planning

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chen, Longgao [Institute of land resources, Jiangsu Normal University, Xuzhou 221116 (China); Yang, Xiaoyan [Institute of land resources, Jiangsu Normal University, Xuzhou 221116 (China); School of Environmental Science and Spatial Informatics, China University of Mining and Technology, Xuzhou 221116 (China); Chen, Longqian, E-mail: cumt_chenlongqian@163.com [School of Environmental Science and Spatial Informatics, China University of Mining and Technology, Xuzhou 221116 (China); Potter, Rebecca; Li, Yingkui [Department of Geography, University of Tennessee, Knoxville, TN 37996 (United States)

    2014-04-01

    The implementation of land use planning (LUP) has a large impact on environmental quality. There lacks a widely accepted and consolidated approach to assess the LUP environmental impact using Strategic Environmental Assessment (SEA). In this paper, we developed a state-impact-state (SIS) model employed in the LUP environmental impact assessment (LUPEA). With the usage of Matter-element (ME) and Extenics method, the methodology based on the SIS model was established and applied in the LUPEA of Zoucheng County, China. The results show that: (1) this methodology provides an intuitive and easy understanding logical model for both the theoretical analysis and application of LUPEA; (2) the spatial multi-temporal assessment from base year, near-future year to planning target year suggests the positive impact on the environmental quality in the whole County despite certain environmental degradation in some towns; (3) besides the spatial assessment, other achievements including the environmental elements influenced by land use and their weights, the identification of key indicators in LUPEA, and the appropriate environmental mitigation measures were obtained; and (4) this methodology can be used to achieve multi-temporal assessment of LUP environmental impact of County or Town level in other areas. - Highlights: • A State-Impact-State model for Land Use Planning Environmental Assessment (LUPEA). • Matter-element (ME) and Extenics methods were embedded in the LUPEA. • The model was applied to the LUPEA of Zoucheng County. • The assessment shows improving environment quality since 2000 in Zoucheng County. • The method provides a useful tool for the LUPEA in the county level.

  14. Preliminary methodology to assess the national and regional impact of U.S. wind energy development on birds and bats

    Science.gov (United States)

    Diffendorfer, James E.; Beston, Julie A.; Merrill, Matthew D.; Stanton, Jessica C.; Corum, Margo D.; Loss, Scott R.; Thogmartin, Wayne E.; Johnson, Douglas H.; Erickson, Richard A.; Heist, Kevin W.

    2015-01-01

    The U.S. Geological Survey has developed a methodology to assess the impacts of wind energy development on wildlife; it is a probabilistic, quantitative assessment methodology that can communicate to decision makers and the public the magnitude of these effects on species populations. The methodology is currently applicable to birds and bats, focuses primarily on the effects of collisions, and can be applied to any species that breeds in, migrates through, or otherwise uses any part of the United States. The methodology is intended to assess species at the national scale and is fundamentally different from existing methods focusing on impacts at individual facilities.

  15. Methodology for assessment of undiscovered oil and gas resources for the 2008 Circum-Arctic Resource Appraisal

    Science.gov (United States)

    Charpentier, Ronald R.; Moore, T.E.; Gautier, D.L.

    2017-11-15

    The methodological procedures used in the geologic assessments of the 2008 Circum-Arctic Resource Appraisal (CARA) were based largely on the methodology developed for the 2000 U.S. Geological Survey World Petroleum Assessment. The main variables were probability distributions for numbers and sizes of undiscovered accumulations with an associated risk of occurrence. The CARA methodology expanded on the previous methodology in providing additional tools and procedures more applicable to the many Arctic basins that have little or no exploration history. Most importantly, geologic analogs from a database constructed for this study were used in many of the assessments to constrain numbers and sizes of undiscovered oil and gas accumulations.

  16. A probabilistic seismic risk assessment procedure for nuclear power plants: (I) Methodology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Y.-N.; Whittaker, A.S.; Luco, N.

    2011-01-01

    A new procedure for probabilistic seismic risk assessment of nuclear power plants (NPPs) is proposed. This procedure modifies the current procedures using tools developed recently for performance-based earthquake engineering of buildings. The proposed procedure uses (a) response-based fragility curves to represent the capacity of structural and nonstructural components of NPPs, (b) nonlinear response-history analysis to characterize the demands on those components, and (c) Monte Carlo simulations to determine the damage state of the components. The use of response-rather than ground-motion-based fragility curves enables the curves to be independent of seismic hazard and closely related to component capacity. The use of Monte Carlo procedure enables the correlation in the responses of components to be directly included in the risk assessment. An example of the methodology is presented in a companion paper to demonstrate its use and provide the technical basis for aspects of the methodology. ?? 2011 Published by Elsevier B.V.

  17. Methodology to assess quality of estimated disturbances in active disturbance rejection control structure for mechanical system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosas, A David; Velazquez, V Karla; Olivares, F Luz; Camacho, T Adrian; Williams, Ivan

    2017-09-01

    A methodology to assess the quality of estimation of disturbances in mechanical systems, by state observers, in the control structure with active compensation of disturbances (ADRC) is presented. Evaluation is carried out by four performance indices that depend on the steady-state error between reference signals and output of the plant. These indices are related with the accuracy and precision of the closed loop system in the sense of norms L2 and L∞, for a set of reference signals representing the typical operating conditions of the mechanism. The effectiveness of the methodology is illustrated with the quality assessment of the estimated disturbance of five state observers to control of a simple pendulum and validated on a SCARA robot arm. Copyright © 2017 ISA. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. A new methodology for assessing health policy and systems research and analysis capacity in African universities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lê, Gillian; Mirzoev, Tolib; Orgill, Marsha; Erasmus, Ermin; Lehmann, Uta; Okeyo, Stephen; Goudge, Jane; Maluka, Stephen; Uzochukwu, Benjamin; Aikins, Moses; de Savigny, Don; Tomson, Goran; Gilson, Lucy

    2014-10-08

    The importance of health policy and systems research and analysis (HPSR+A) has been increasingly recognised, but it is still unclear how most effectively to strengthen the capacity of the different organisations involved in this field. Universities are particularly crucial but the expansive literature on capacity development has little to offer the unique needs of HPSR+A activity within universities, and often overlooks the pivotal contribution of capacity assessments to capacity strengthening. The Consortium for Health Policy and Systems Analysis in Africa 2011-2015 designed and implemented a new framework for capacity assessment for HPSR+A within universities. The methodology is reported in detail. Our reflections on developing and conducting the assessment generated four lessons for colleagues in the field. Notably, there are currently no published capacity assessment methodologies for HPSR+A that focus solely on universities - we report a first for the field to initiate the dialogue and exchange of experiences with others. Second, in HPSR+A, the unit of assessment can be a challenge, because HPSR+A groups within universities tend to overlap between academic departments and are embedded in different networks. Third, capacity assessment experience can itself be capacity strengthening, even when taking into account that doing such assessments require capacity. From our experience, we propose that future systematic assessments of HPSR+A capacity need to focus on both capacity assets and needs and assess capacity at individual, organisational, and systems levels, whilst taking into account the networked nature of HPSR+A activity. A genuine partnership process between evaluators and those participating in an assessment can improve the quality of assessment and uptake of results in capacity strengthening.

  19. Comparison of DNA extraction methodologies used for assessing fungal diversity via ITS sequencing

    OpenAIRE

    Rittenour, William R.; Park, Ju-Hyeong; Cox-Ganser, Jean M.; Beezhold, Donald H.; Green, Brett J.

    2012-01-01

    Traditional methods of assessing fungal exposure have been confounded by a number of limiting variables. The recent utilization of molecular methods such as internal transcribed spacer (ITS) sequencing of ribosomal RNA genes has provided improved insight into the diversity of fungal bioaerosols in indoor, outdoor and occupational environments. However, ITS analyses may also be confounded by a number of methodological limitations. In this study, we have optimized this technology for use in occ...

  20. Service Design: An Introduction to a Holistic Assessment Methodology of Library Services

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joe Marquez

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper explores service design as a relevant method for service assessment and creation in a library environment. Service design allows for a holistic and systemic look at the various systems that make a library function. This methodology is a co-creative process conducted with library staff and patrons. By working together, librarians and patrons can create more relevant services or refine current services to be more effective and efficient.

  1. Assessing the methodological quality of clinical guidelines for preventing falls of patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kamila Majkusová

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Aim: The study aimed to assess the methodological quality of selected clinical practice guidelines (CPGs for preventing risk of falling in adult patients in acute and long-term institutional care. Design: Descriptive study using qualitative research techniques. Methods: CPGs were systematically searched in databases of clinical guidelines, systematic reviews, electronic databases, and websites of organizations and professional societies, based on predefined criteria and keywords fo the period 2000-2015. After sorting and analysing 53 documents, the methodological quality of seven selected CPGs were assessed with the AGREE II generic instrument. Results: All CPGs obtained highest domain scores in the dimensions Clarity and Framework, and Purpose, while the lowest standardized scores were achieved by the Applicability and Editorial independence domains. The Rigor of development and Stakeholder Involvement domains achieved an average score. A total of three recommended guidelines showed high methodological quality: Falls. Assessment and prevention of falls in older people - 572 b., 84 % (NICE, 2013; Preventing Falls and Harm From Falls in Older People. Best Practice Guidelines for Australian Hospitals - 556 b., 84 % (ACSQHC, 2009; and Prevention of falls and fall injuries in the older adult - 559 b., 82 % (RNAO, 2005. Conclusion: Assessing the methodological quality of clinical guidelines using the AGREE instrument is one of the key steps in the process of their adaptation for other socio-cultural and organizational conditions. It would be possible to adapt and use all of the three most highly-rated CPGs to reduce risk of falling of inpatients in the Czech organizational and socio-cultural context.

  2. Assessing the economics of large Energy Storage Plants with an optimisation methodology

    OpenAIRE

    Locatelli, G; Palerma, E; Mancini, M

    2015-01-01

    Power plants, such as wind farms, that harvest renewable energy are increasing their share of the energy portfolio in several countries, including the United Kingdom. Their inability to match demand power profiles is stimulating an increasing need for large ESP (Energy Storage Plants), capable of balancing their instability and shifting power produced during low demand to peak periods. This paper presents and applies an innovative methodology to assess the economics of ESP utilising UK electr...

  3. Methodological issues in assessing psychological adjustment in child witnesses of intimate partner violence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clements, Caroline M; Oxtoby, Claire; Ogle, Richard L

    2008-04-01

    This review summarizes a growing number of methodological concerns emerging from research on child witnesses of intimate partner violence (IPV). A brief summary of various psychological, biological, and cognitive impairments associated with witnessing IPV is presented. Directions for future research in this area are explored with particular attention paid to experimental design. Advantages and disadvantages of retrospective, cross-sectional, and longitudinal designs are evaluated. Suggested improvements include the use of multiple informants, behavioral observations, and prospective, longitudinal assessment.

  4. Outline for a human-based assessment methodology of urban projects. The case of Polis Gondomar

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paolo Marcolin

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents the results of a preliminary research project proposing an assessment methodology for the actual impacts of urban projects on city development[1]. At this stage, the research has focused on the identification of indicators about the success of urban projects according to the accomplishment, functioning and use of public spaces. A case study is presented as a means for exploring these indicators: the intervention made by the Polis Programme at Gondomar.

  5. Proposing a Research Methodology to Evaluate the Relation Between Training Needs Assessment and Employee Performance

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-06-01

    Research.pdf Creswell , J. W. (2012). Educational research : Planning, conducting, and evaluating quantitative and qualitative research (4th ed.). Upper...assessment processes via the Internet: System design and qualitative study. Internet Research , 16(4), 427–449. Retrieved from http://dx.doi.org...Bahrain. The study design is quantitative in nature, investigating via statistical tools that propose a research methodology including a survey of

  6. Identifying approaches for assessing methodological and reporting quality of systematic reviews: a descriptive study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pussegoda, Kusala; Turner, Lucy; Garritty, Chantelle; Mayhew, Alain; Skidmore, Becky; Stevens, Adrienne; Boutron, Isabelle; Sarkis-Onofre, Rafael; Bjerre, Lise M; Hróbjartsson, Asbjørn; Altman, Douglas G; Moher, David

    2017-06-19

    The methodological quality and completeness of reporting of the systematic reviews (SRs) is fundamental to optimal implementation of evidence-based health care and the reduction of research waste. Methods exist to appraise SRs yet little is known about how they are used in SRs or where there are potential gaps in research best-practice guidance materials. The aims of this study are to identify reports assessing the methodological quality (MQ) and/or reporting quality (RQ) of a cohort of SRs and to assess their number, general characteristics, and approaches to 'quality' assessment over time. The Cochrane Library, MEDLINE®, and EMBASE® were searched from January 1990 to October 16, 2014, for reports assessing MQ and/or RQ of SRs. Title, abstract, and full-text screening of all reports were conducted independently by two reviewers. Reports assessing the MQ and/or RQ of a cohort of ten or more SRs of interventions were included. All results are reported as frequencies and percentages of reports. Of 20,765 unique records retrieved, 1189 of them were reviewed for full-text review, of which 76 reports were included. Eight previously published approaches to assessing MQ or reporting guidelines used as proxy to assess RQ were used in 80% (61/76) of identified reports. These included two reporting guidelines (PRISMA and QUOROM) and five quality assessment tools (AMSTAR, R-AMSTAR, OQAQ, Mulrow, Sacks) and GRADE criteria. The remaining 24% (18/76) of reports developed their own criteria. PRISMA, OQAQ, and AMSTAR were the most commonly used published tools to assess MQ or RQ. In conjunction with other approaches, published tools were used in 29% (22/76) of reports, with 36% (8/22) assessing adherence to both PRISMA and AMSTAR criteria and 26% (6/22) using QUOROM and OQAQ. The methods used to assess quality of SRs are diverse, and none has become universally accepted. The most commonly used quality assessment tools are AMSTAR, OQAQ, and PRISMA. As new tools and guidelines are

  7. Assessment of bioenergy potential in Sicily: A GIS-based support methodology

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Beccali, Marco; D' Alberti, Vincenzo; Franzitta, Vincenzo [DREAM - Dipartimento di Ricerche Energetiche ed Ambientali Universita di Palermo, Viale delle Scienze, edif. 9-90128 Palermo (Italy); Columba, Pietro [DESAF - Dipartimento di Economia dei Sistemi Agro-Forestali, Universita di Palermo, Palermo (Italy)

    2009-01-15

    A Geographical Information System (GIS) supported methodology has been developed in order to assess the technical and economic potential of biomass exploitation for energy production in Sicily. The methodology was based on the use of agricultural, economic, climatic, and infrastructural data in a GIS. Data about land use, transportation facilities, urban cartography, regional territorial planning, terrain digital model, lithology, climatic types, and civil and industrial users have been stored in the GIS to define potential areas for gathering the residues coming from the pruning of olive groves, vineyards, and other agricultural crops, and to assess biomass available for energy cultivation. Further, it was possible to assess the potential of biodiesel production, supposing the cultivation of rapeseed in arable crop areas. For the biomass used for direct combustion purposes, the economic availability has been assessed assuming a price of the biomass and comparing it with other fuels. This assessment has shown the strong competitiveness of firewood in comparison with traditional fossil fuels when the collection system is implemented in an efficient way. Moreover, the economic potential of biodiesel was assessed considering the on-going financial regime for fuel. At the same time, the study has shown a significant competitiveness of the finished biomass (pellets), and good potential for a long-term development of this market. An important result was the determination of biofuel production potential in Sicily. An outcome of the study was to show the opportunities stemming from the harmonisation of Energy Policy with the Waste Management System and Rural Development Plan. (author)

  8. The sensitivity of agricultural impacts assessment to climate data and scenario methodologies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruane, A. C.; Rosenzweig, C.

    2011-12-01

    Assessments of climate change impacts on the agricultural sector are crucially important from the farm- to global levels. While impacts assessments have made wide and creative use of data products, climate models, and methods for downscaling and scenario generation, this variety also hinders our ability to compare impacts from one study to other assessments. The unique nature of many impacts assessments is especially problematic when evaluating the impacts of climate change on large agricultural regions and global production; a crucial scale in understanding the economic impacts and market influence on food security and land use. This presentation examines the influence of methodological choices on agricultural impacts assessment by describing results from several projects. First, the utility of a wide variety of global and regional observational data products are compared for an agricultural system in the Florida Panhandle to determine the influence of observational uncertainties, reanalysis products, remotely sensed information, and downscaled models on impacts assessment. Second, the role of future climate scenarios is isolated by running the same Panhandle station with scenarios generated through a variety of generation methods with a focus on downscaling methodologies and the climate statistics allowed to change. Finally, an ensemble of weather generators are compared across an ensemble of wheat models in a variety of major agricultural regions, isolating important sensitivities in the crop models and corresponding strengths and weaknesses in the weather generators.

  9. A Methodological Approach for Assessing Amplified Reflection Distributed Denial of Service on the Internet of Things

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    João José Costa Gondim

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Concerns about security on Internet of Things (IoT cover data privacy and integrity, access control, and availability. IoT abuse in distributed denial of service attacks is a major issue, as typical IoT devices’ limited computing, communications, and power resources are prioritized in implementing functionality rather than security features. Incidents involving attacks have been reported, but without clear characterization and evaluation of threats and impacts. The main purpose of this work is to methodically assess the possible impacts of a specific class–amplified reflection distributed denial of service attacks (AR-DDoS–against IoT. The novel approach used to empirically examine the threat represented by running the attack over a controlled environment, with IoT devices, considered the perspective of an attacker. The methodology used in tests includes that perspective, and actively prospects vulnerabilities in computer systems. This methodology defines standardized procedures for tool-independent vulnerability assessment based on strategy, and the decision flows during execution of penetration tests (pentests. After validation in different scenarios, the methodology was applied in amplified reflection distributed denial of service (AR-DDoS attack threat assessment. Results show that, according to attack intensity, AR-DDoS saturates reflector infrastructure. Therefore, concerns about AR-DDoS are founded, but expected impact on abused IoT infrastructure and devices will be possibly as hard as on final victims.

  10. Methodology for the assessment of possible damages in low voltage equipment due to lightning surges

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Matsuo, Nelson M.; Kagan, Nelson [University of Sao Paulo (USP), SP (Brazil)], Emails: matsuonm@usp.br, nelsonk@pea.usp.br; Domingues, Ivo T. [AES Eletropaulo, SP (Brazil); Jesus, Nelson C. de [AES Sul, Porto Alegre, RS (Brazil); Silva, Marcelo H.I. da [Grupo Rede, Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil); Takauti, Edson H. [Bandeirante, Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil)

    2007-07-01

    This paper deals with the development of a methodology to assess the possibility of equipment damages in low voltage customers due to lightning surges. The main objective is to incorporate this methodology in a computation system that supports distribution companies to determine the possible causes of equipment damages claimed by customers and to decide whether the claims are to be reimbursed or not. The proposed methodology determines whether a specific customer could be affected by a lightning strike according to his/her location and to the lightning main parameters, by using data from a lightning detection system and from the specific equipment surge withstand capability. A specific study using ATP (Alternative Transients Program) was carried out to assess the propagation of lightning surges in electric power distribution systems and their impact over low voltage customers. On the other hand, the withstand capability of the main household appliances was determined by a series of tests carried out in the University's power quality laboratory. The paper details the modeling used for simulation, such as network configuration, grounding points, and modelling of insulator flashover, distribution transformer, low voltage loads. It also presents some results regarding the evaluation of over voltages in low voltage customers installations. A practical method is proposed for assessing the possibility of equipment damage and describes how the existing uncertainties were handled. Also, some issues regarding the withstand capability of electric household appliances to lightning surges are discussed and some results of the laboratory tests are presented. (author)

  11. A safety assessment methodology applied to CNS/ATM-based air traffic control system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vismari, Lucio Flavio, E-mail: lucio.vismari@usp.b [Safety Analysis Group (GAS), School of Engineering at University of Sao Paulo (Poli-USP), Av. Prof. Luciano Gualberto, Trav.3, n.158, Predio da Engenharia de Eletricidade, Sala C2-32, CEP 05508-900, Sao Paulo (Brazil); Batista Camargo Junior, Joao, E-mail: joaocamargo@usp.b [Safety Analysis Group (GAS), School of Engineering at University of Sao Paulo (Poli-USP), Av. Prof. Luciano Gualberto, Trav.3, n.158, Predio da Engenharia de Eletricidade, Sala C2-32, CEP 05508-900, Sao Paulo (Brazil)

    2011-07-15

    In the last decades, the air traffic system has been changing to adapt itself to new social demands, mainly the safe growth of worldwide traffic capacity. Those changes are ruled by the Communication, Navigation, Surveillance/Air Traffic Management (CNS/ATM) paradigm , based on digital communication technologies (mainly satellites) as a way of improving communication, surveillance, navigation and air traffic management services. However, CNS/ATM poses new challenges and needs, mainly related to the safety assessment process. In face of these new challenges, and considering the main characteristics of the CNS/ATM, a methodology is proposed at this work by combining 'absolute' and 'relative' safety assessment methods adopted by the International Civil Aviation Organization (ICAO) in ICAO Doc.9689 , using Fluid Stochastic Petri Nets (FSPN) as the modeling formalism, and compares the safety metrics estimated from the simulation of both the proposed (in analysis) and the legacy system models. To demonstrate its usefulness, the proposed methodology was applied to the 'Automatic Dependent Surveillance-Broadcasting' (ADS-B) based air traffic control system. As conclusions, the proposed methodology assured to assess CNS/ATM system safety properties, in which FSPN formalism provides important modeling capabilities, and discrete event simulation allowing the estimation of the desired safety metric.

  12. A methodology to assess the effects of high altitude electromagnetic pulse (HEMP) on electric power systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taylor, E. R., Jr.; Eichler, C. H.; Barnes, P. R.

    Nuclear electromagnetic pulse (EMP) from high altitude nuclear detonations (HEMP) has the potential to seriously disrupt electric power systems. A methodology has been developed to assess the vulnerability of electric power systems to this phenomena for any specified nuclear burst scenario. The methodology is based on a structured approach whereby the power system is broken down into subsystems, functional groups, and circuits and devices. Vulnerability (likelihood of failure) is assessed for individual equipment (circuits and devices) for each nuclear burst scenario. These effects are then evaluated for their performance impact on successively higher system levels. This forms the input for classical load flow, short circuit and transient stability studies to evaluate system stability and survivability. Applicability of the assessment methodology is not dependent on the quality of component/equipment vulnerability data. Susceptibility of power equipment to HEMP damage may be determined by established technical analysis, by intepretation of equipment design and testing standards, and by laboratory testing. This paper has been written not only for the electric utility engineer, but also for experts in EMP who may not be knowledgeable in electric utility systems.

  13. A Methodological Approach for Assessing Amplified Reflection Distributed Denial of Service on the Internet of Things.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Costa Gondim, João José; de Oliveira Albuquerque, Robson; Clayton Alves Nascimento, Anderson; García Villalba, Luis Javier; Kim, Tai-Hoon

    2016-11-04

    Concerns about security on Internet of Things (IoT) cover data privacy and integrity, access control, and availability. IoT abuse in distributed denial of service attacks is a major issue, as typical IoT devices' limited computing, communications, and power resources are prioritized in implementing functionality rather than security features. Incidents involving attacks have been reported, but without clear characterization and evaluation of threats and impacts. The main purpose of this work is to methodically assess the possible impacts of a specific class-amplified reflection distributed denial of service attacks (AR-DDoS)-against IoT. The novel approach used to empirically examine the threat represented by running the attack over a controlled environment, with IoT devices, considered the perspective of an attacker. The methodology used in tests includes that perspective, and actively prospects vulnerabilities in computer systems. This methodology defines standardized procedures for tool-independent vulnerability assessment based on strategy, and the decision flows during execution of penetration tests (pentests). After validation in different scenarios, the methodology was applied in amplified reflection distributed denial of service (AR-DDoS) attack threat assessment. Results show that, according to attack intensity, AR-DDoS saturates reflector infrastructure. Therefore, concerns about AR-DDoS are founded, but expected impact on abused IoT infrastructure and devices will be possibly as hard as on final victims.

  14. Identifying items to assess methodological quality in physical therapy trials: a factor analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Armijo-Olivo, Susan; Cummings, Greta G; Fuentes, Jorge; Saltaji, Humam; Ha, Christine; Chisholm, Annabritt; Pasichnyk, Dion; Rogers, Todd

    2014-09-01

    Numerous tools and individual items have been proposed to assess the methodological quality of randomized controlled trials (RCTs). The frequency of use of these items varies according to health area, which suggests a lack of agreement regarding their relevance to trial quality or risk of bias. The objectives of this study were: (1) to identify the underlying component structure of items and (2) to determine relevant items to evaluate the quality and risk of bias of trials in physical therapy by using an exploratory factor analysis (EFA). A methodological research design was used, and an EFA was performed. Randomized controlled trials used for this study were randomly selected from searches of the Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews. Two reviewers used 45 items gathered from 7 different quality tools to assess the methodological quality of the RCTs. An exploratory factor analysis was conducted using the principal axis factoring (PAF) method followed by varimax rotation. Principal axis factoring identified 34 items loaded on 9 common factors: (1) selection bias; (2) performance and detection bias; (3) eligibility, intervention details, and description of outcome measures; (4) psychometric properties of the main outcome; (5) contamination and adherence to treatment; (6) attrition bias; (7) data analysis; (8) sample size; and (9) control and placebo adequacy. Because of the exploratory nature of the results, a confirmatory factor analysis is needed to validate this model. To the authors' knowledge, this is the first factor analysis to explore the underlying component items used to evaluate the methodological quality or risk of bias of RCTs in physical therapy. The items and factors represent a starting point for evaluating the methodological quality and risk of bias in physical therapy trials. Empirical evidence of the association among these items with treatment effects and a confirmatory factor analysis of these results are needed to validate these items.

  15. Methodology for full comparative assessment of direct gross glycerin combustion in a flame tube furnace

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Maturana, Aymer Yeferson; Pagliuso, Josmar D. [Dept. of Mechanical Engineering. Sao Carlos School of Engineering. University of Sao Paulo, Sao Carlos, SP (Brazil)], e-mails: aymermat@sc.usp.br, josmar@sc.usp.br

    2010-07-01

    This study is to develop a methodology to identify and evaluate the emissions and heat transfer associated to combustion of gross glycerin a by-product of the Brazilian biodiesel manufacture process as alternative energy source. It aims to increase the present knowledge on the matter and to contribute to the improvement of the economic and environmental perspective of biodiesel industry. This methodology was considered to be used for assessment of gross glycerin combustion from three different types of biodiesel (bovine tallow, palm and soy). The procedures for evaluation and quantification of emissions of sulphur and nitrogen oxides, total hydrocarbons, carbon monoxide, carbon dioxide, and acrolein were analyzed, described and standardized. Experimental techniques for mutagenic and toxic effects assessment of gases similarly were analyzed and standardized, as well as the calorific power, the associate heat transfer and fundamentals operational parameters. The methodology was developed, using a full-instrumented flame tube furnace, continuous gas analyzers, a chromatograph, automatic data acquisition systems and other auxiliary equipment. The mutagenic and toxic effects of the study was based on Tradescantia clone KU-20, using chambers of intoxication and biological analytical techniques previously developed and others were specially adapted. The benchmark for the initial set up was based on the performance evaluation of the previous equipment tested with diesel considering its behavior during direct combustion. Finally, the following factors were defined for the combustion of crude glycerin, configurations of equipment types, operational parameters such as air fuel ratio adiabatic temperature and other necessary aspect for successful application of the methodology. The developed and integrated methodology was made available to the concern industry, environmental authorities and researchers as procedures to access the viability of gross glycerin or similar fuels as

  16. A Methodology for the Development of a Reliability Database for an Advanced Reactor Probabilistic Risk Assessment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Grabaskas, Dave; Brunett, Acacia J.; Bucknor, Matthew

    2016-06-26

    GE Hitachi Nuclear Energy (GEH) and Argonne National Laboratory are currently engaged in a joint effort to modernize and develop probabilistic risk assessment (PRA) techniques for advanced non-light water reactors. At a high level the primary outcome of this project will be the development of next-generation PRA methodologies that will enable risk-informed prioritization of safety- and reliability-focused research and development, while also identifying gaps that may be resolved through additional research. A subset of this effort is the development of a reliability database (RDB) methodology to determine applicable reliability data for inclusion in the quantification of the PRA. The RDB method developed during this project seeks to satisfy the requirements of the Data Analysis element of the ASME/ANS Non-LWR PRA standard. The RDB methodology utilizes a relevancy test to examine reliability data and determine whether it is appropriate to include as part of the reliability database for the PRA. The relevancy test compares three component properties to establish the level of similarity to components examined as part of the PRA. These properties include the component function, the component failure modes, and the environment/boundary conditions of the component. The relevancy test is used to gauge the quality of data found in a variety of sources, such as advanced reactor-specific databases, non-advanced reactor nuclear databases, and non-nuclear databases. The RDB also establishes the integration of expert judgment or separate reliability analysis with past reliability data. This paper provides details on the RDB methodology, and includes an example application of the RDB methodology for determining the reliability of the intermediate heat exchanger of a sodium fast reactor. The example explores a variety of reliability data sources, and assesses their applicability for the PRA of interest through the use of the relevancy test.

  17. Methodological framework for ex-ante assessment of active policies on the labor market - experimental approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniela PASNICU

    2017-03-01

    The article presents a methodological framework for ex-ante assessment of active measures for the employment growth in the context of rural areas, on the bases of efficiency, effectiveness and coherence criteria. Ex-ante social impact assessment of an active policy can have beneficial effects on employment under quantitative and qualitative aspects. The novelty of the article consist in the specific, experimental approach of the development and of ex-ante evaluation of active labor market policies, in the context of rural areas.

  18. A methodology for the assessment of potential demand and optimal supply of entrepreneurial microcredit

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ayi Gavriel Ayayi

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available We propose a methodology for the assessment of potential demand and optimal supply for microcredit. We show that the total demand is a combination of the demand that stems from the active poor plus the demand generated by a motivator agent among the entrepreneurial non-motivated poor. We use French data to provide an illustration of the assessment of potential demand for microcredit. We also show that the proportion of the potential demand satisfied by a microfinance institution depends on its objective i.e. either it is socially oriented or a profit maximizer.

  19. A Methodological Approach to User Evaluation and Assessment of a Virtual Environment Hangout

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marco Pasin

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Innovation in virtual reality and motion sensing devices is pushing the development of virtual communication platforms towards completely immersive scenarios, which require full user interaction and create complex sensory experiences. This evolution influences user experiences and creates new paradigms for interaction, leading to an increased importance of user evaluation and assessment on new systems interfaces and usability, to validate platform design and development from the users’ point of view. The REVERIE research project aims to develop a virtual environment service for realistic inter-personal interaction. This paper describes the design challenges faced during the development process of user interfaces and the adopted methodological approach to user evaluation and assessment.

  20. Developing a methodology to assess the impact of research grant funding: a mixed methods approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bloch, Carter; Sørensen, Mads P; Graversen, Ebbe K; Schneider, Jesper W; Schmidt, Evanthia Kalpazidou; Aagaard, Kaare; Mejlgaard, Niels

    2014-04-01

    This paper discusses the development of a mixed methods approach to analyse research funding. Research policy has taken on an increasingly prominent role in the broader political scene, where research is seen as a critical factor in maintaining and improving growth, welfare and international competitiveness. This has motivated growing emphasis on the impacts of science funding, and how funding can best be designed to promote socio-economic progress. Meeting these demands for impact assessment involves a number of complex issues that are difficult to fully address in a single study or in the design of a single methodology. However, they point to some general principles that can be explored in methodological design. We draw on a recent evaluation of the impacts of research grant funding, discussing both key issues in developing a methodology for the analysis and subsequent results. The case of research grant funding, involving a complex mix of direct and intermediate effects that contribute to the overall impact of funding on research performance, illustrates the value of a mixed methods approach to provide a more robust and complete analysis of policy impacts. Reflections on the strengths and weaknesses of the methodology are used to examine refinements for future work. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. Methodology for Thermal Behaviour Assessment of Homogeneous Façades in Heritage Buildings

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Enrique Gil

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available It is fundamental to study the thermal behaviour in all architectural constructions throughout their useful life, in order to detect early deterioration ensuring durability, in addition to achieving and maintaining the interior comfort with the minimum energy consumption possible. This research has developed a methodology to assess the thermal behaviour of façades in heritage buildings. This paper presents methodology validation and verification (V & V through a laboratory experiment. Guidelines and conclusions are extracted with the employment of three techniques in this experiment (thermal sensors, thermal imaging camera, and 3D thermal simulation in finite element software. A small portion of a homogeneous façade has been reproduced with indoor and outdoor thermal conditions. A closed chamber was constructed with wood panels and thermal insulation, leaving only one face exposed to the outside conditions, with a heat source inside the chamber that induces a temperature gradient in the wall. With this methodology, it is possible to better understand the thermal behaviour of the façade and to detect possible damage with the calibration and comparison of the results obtained by the experimental and theoretical techniques. This methodology can be extrapolated to the analysis of the thermal behaviour of façades in heritage buildings, usually made up of homogeneous material.

  2. Development of Management Quality Assessment Methodology in the Public Sector: Problems and Contradictions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Olga Vladimirovna Kozhevina

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available The development management quality assessment methodology in the public sector is relevant scientific and practical problem of economic research. The utilization of the results of the assessment on the basis of the authors’ methodology allows us to rate the public sector organizations, to justify decisions on the reorganization and privatization, and to monitor changes in the level of the management quality of the public sector organizations. The study determined the place of the quality of the control processes of the public sector organization in the system of “Quality of public administration — the effective operation of the public sector organization,” the contradictions associated with the assessment of management quality are revealed, the conditions for effective functioning of the public sector organizations are proved, a mechanism of comprehensive assessment and algorithm for constructing and evaluating the control models of management quality are developed, the criteria for assessing the management quality in the public sector organizations, including economic, budgetary, social and public, informational, innovation and institutional criteria are empirically grounded. By utilizing the proposed algorithm, the assessment model of quality management in the public sector organizations, including the financial, economic, social, innovation, informational and institutional indicators is developed. For each indicator of quality management, the coefficients of importance in the management quality assessment model, as well as comprehensive and partial evaluation indicators are determined on the basis of the expert evaluations. The main conclusion of the article is that management quality assessment for the public sector organizations should be based not only on the indicators achieved in the dynamics and utilized for analyzing the effectiveness of management, but also should take into account the reference levels for the values of these

  3. Methodology, status and plans for development and assessment of Cathare code

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bestion, D.; Barre, F.; Faydide, B. [CEA - Grenoble (France)

    1997-07-01

    This paper presents the methodology, status and plans for the development, assessment and uncertainty evaluation of the Cathare code. Cathare is a thermalhydraulic code developed by CEA (DRN), IPSN, EDF and FRAMATOME for PWR safety analysis. First, the status of the code development and assessment is presented. The general strategy used for the development and the assessment of the code is presented. Analytical experiments with separate effect tests, and component tests are used for the development and the validation of closure laws. Successive Revisions of constitutive laws are implemented in successive Versions of the code and assessed. System tests or integral tests are used to validate the general consistency of the Revision. Each delivery of a code Version + Revision is fully assessed and documented. A methodology is being developed to determine the uncertainty on all constitutive laws of the code using calculations of many analytical tests and applying the Discrete Adjoint Sensitivity Method (DASM). At last, the plans for the future developments of the code are presented. They concern the optimization of the code performance through parallel computing - the code will be used for real time full scope plant simulators - the coupling with many other codes (neutronic codes, severe accident codes), the application of the code for containment thermalhydraulics. Also, physical improvements are required in the field of low pressure transients and in the modeling for the 3-D model.

  4. The systems of insulation and a methodology for assessing the durability

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rumiantcev Boris M.

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Formation of effective insulation possible only taking into account features of the insulation layer in the construction and use of high quality materials, preserving their characteristics as in the early stages of operation, and for the entire billing period. The operational stability of the heat-insulating material is determined not only by its properties, but also the ability to withstand long-term operating loads without a significant change in properties. Processing load on the heater may be divided into three groups: the load during transportation and storage, loading and mounting load during operation. Methodology for assessing the properties of insulation products includes two main components: the installation for testing and test methods, as well as the methodology for assessing the operational stability. The methodology of the accelerated testing and forecasting durability tested for mineral wool products laminating, corrugating and volume-oriented structure. The test results give good agreement with the methods recommended by the building codes. Accelerated test plates on the compressibility and compressive strength at 10% deformation after exposure to boiling water over the useful spending for operational control properties of materials, as well as when examining the state of the exploited mineral wool insulation in buildings and heat piping

  5. Development of performance assessment methodology for establishment of quantitative acceptance criteria of near-surface radioactive waste disposal

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, C. R.; Lee, E. Y.; Park, J. W.; Chang, G. M.; Park, H. Y.; Yeom, Y. S. [Korea Hydro and Nuclear Power Co., Ltd., Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2002-03-15

    The contents and the scope of this study are as follows : review of state-of-the-art on the establishment of waste acceptance criteria in foreign near-surface radioactive waste disposal facilities, investigation of radiological assessment methodologies and scenarios, investigation of existing models and computer codes used in performance/safety assessment, development of a performance assessment methodology(draft) to derive quantitatively radionuclide acceptance criteria of domestic near-surface disposal facility, preliminary performance/safety assessment in accordance with the developed methodology.

  6. Methodology for assessment of low level laser therapy (LLLT) irradiation parameters in muscle inflammation treatment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mantineo, M.; Pinheiro, J. P.; Morgado, A. M.

    2013-11-01

    Several studies in human and animals show the clinical effectiveness of low level laser therapy (LLLT) in reducing some types of pain, treating inflammation and wound healing. However, more scientific evidence is required to prove the effectiveness of LLLT since many aspects of the cellular and molecular mechanisms triggered by irradiation of injured tissue with laser remain unknown. Here, we present a methodology that can be used to evaluate the effect of different LLLT irradiation parameters on the treatment of muscle inflammation on animals, through the quantification of four cytokines (TNF-α, IL-1β, IL-2 and IL-6) in systemic blood and histological analysis of muscle tissue. We have used this methodology to assess the effect of LLLT parameters (wavelength, dose, power and type of illumination) in the treatment of inflammation induced in the gastrocnemius muscle of Wistar rats. Results obtained for laser dose evaluation with continuous illumination are presented.

  7. Development of a methodology for assessing the safety of embedded software systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garrett, C. J.; Guarro, S. B.; Apostolakis, G. E.

    1993-01-01

    A Dynamic Flowgraph Methodology (DFM) based on an integrated approach to modeling and analyzing the behavior of software-driven embedded systems for assessing and verifying reliability and safety is discussed. DFM is based on an extension of the Logic Flowgraph Methodology to incorporate state transition models. System models which express the logic of the system in terms of causal relationships between physical variables and temporal characteristics of software modules are analyzed to determine how a certain state can be reached. This is done by developing timed fault trees which take the form of logical combinations of static trees relating the system parameters at different point in time. The resulting information concerning the hardware and software states can be used to eliminate unsafe execution paths and identify testing criteria for safety critical software functions.

  8. SUSTAINABILITY ASSESSMENT IN URBAN PLANNING. A CHALLENGE FOR A METHODOLOGICAL CONSTRUCTION: MONTREAL AS CASE STUDY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    María de Lourdes Flores Lucero

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available In this paper we describe the methodological process for the qualitative evaluation of the concept of sustainability and its application in the island of Montreal. At the same time we present our theoretical approach and the main results issued of the assessment. We take as analytical tools the Montreal Urban Plan of 2004 and the Strategic Plan for Sustainable Development 2005. We conclude with two main points, first, that the theoretical and pragmatic aspects of urban sustainability in Montreal have been treated in an organic, complex, dynamic and flexible way, allowing social participation and the inclusion of the values of all stakeholders, which are both key elements to follow the path towards sustainability; and secondly, that the approach to an object with such features requires the construction of complex, organic and methodological processes.

  9. Assessing the adequacy of workload measurement tools using a quality-based methodology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gil, Maria Fuensanta Hellín; Montesinos, Maria José López; Llor, Ana Myriam Seva; Bas, Maria Pilar Ferrer; Soler, Maria Loreto Maciá

    2017-01-01

    determine which tool (NEMS and NAS) is most suitable for use in intensive care units using a quality-based methodology. after identifying the opportunity for improvement "Inadequacy of the NEMS for determining nursing workload in the intensive care unit (ICU)", we assessed the NEMS and the NAS, as a proposed improvement to the NEMS, using quality improvement cycles methodology based on the following criteria: measurement of daily nursing workload on a daily and shift basis; the tool encompasses all nursing activities undertaken in the ICU; and workload assessed per patient and unit. there was no significant difference in level of compliance for the NEMS (67%). The comparison NEMS-NAS showed that there was a statistically significant improvement for all criteria except criterion 1. The NEMS only assesses criterion 1 (64.22%); while the NAS assessed all four criteria, obtaining a compliance rate of 64.74% for criteria 1, 2, and 4, and 100% for criterion 3. the NAS is more suitable for measuring nursing workload in UCIs.

  10. METHODOLOGICAL APPROACHES AND CHALLENGES IN ASSESSING THE VALUE OF INTELLECTUAL CAPITAL

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E. D. Katulskij

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Presence at the enterprise znanievyh resources determines its capacity for sustainable and competitive development. The set of knowledge, skills and abilities (which has operational and management personnel, including transformed in intangible and other assets are considered to be the intellectual capital of the enterprise. Empirically, the presence of the intellectual capital of the enterprise can be identified by its success in the market and the ability to generate a high value added product. However, scientific and methodological point of view, approaches to assessing intellectual capital are currently not standardized and do not provide an objective valuation of the capital.This paper presents an overview of the methodological approaches to the valuation of the intellectual capital of companies and shows the problems of using these approaches in analytical procedures. Based on the materials conclusion about the necessity of further development of the intellectual capital evaluation methods enterprises it was made.The purpose / goal. The purpose of this article is to study the specifics of basic methodological approaches to the valuation of the intellectual capital of enterprises. Moreover, among the main tasks is to provide: an analysis of the most frequently used techniques in the Russian and international practice, assessment of intellectual capital.Methodology. The article is a content analysis of the theoretical and scientific-methodical positions, describing the key and the most frequently used Russian and international approaches to the evaluation of the intellectual capital of enterprises.Conclusions / relevance. The practical significance of this paper is to identify the main issues that arise in the evaluation of the intellectual capital of the enterprises, which determines the need for further scientific development and complement the currently used evaluation methods.

  11. [A preliminary mapping methodology for occupational hazards and biomechanical risk evaluation: presentation of a simple, computerized tool kit for ergonomic hazards identification and risk assessment].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Colombini, Daniela; Occhipinti, E; Di Leone, G

    2011-01-01

    During the last Congress of the International Ergonomics Association (IEA), Beijing, August 2009, an international group was founded with the task of developing a "toolkit for MSD prevention" under the IEA and in collaboration with the World Health Organization. The possible users of toolkits are: members of health and safety committees; health and safety representatives; line supervisors; foremen; workers; government representatives; health workers providing basic occupational health services; occupational health and safety specialists. According to the ISO standard 11228 series and the new Draft CD ISO 12259-2009: Application document guides for the potential user, our group developed a preliminary "mapping" methodology of occupational hazards in the craft industry, supported by software (Excel). The proposed methodology, using specific key enters and quick assessment criteria, allows a simple ergonomics hazards identification and risk estimation to be made. It is thus possible to decide for which occupational hazards a more exhaustive risk assessment will be necessary and which occupational consultant should be involved (occupational physician, safety engineer, industrial hygienist, etc.).

  12. Chemical footprint: a methodological framework for bridging life cycle assessment and planetary boundaries for chemical pollution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sala, Serenella; Goralczyk, Malgorzata

    2013-10-01

    The development and use of footprint methodologies for environmental assessment are increasingly important for both the scientific and political communities. Starting from the ecological footprint, developed at the beginning of the 1990s, several other footprints were defined, e.g., carbon and water footprint. These footprints-even though based on a different meaning of "footprint"-integrate life cycle thinking, and focus on some challenging environmental impacts including resource consumption, CO2 emission leading to climate change, and water consumption. However, they usually neglect relevant sources of impacts, as those related to the production and use of chemicals. This article presents and discusses the need and relevance of developing a methodology for assessing the chemical footprint, coupling a life cycle-based approach with methodologies developed in other contexts, such as ERA and sustainability science. Furthermore, different concepts underpin existing footprint and this could be the case also of chemical footprint. At least 2 different approaches and steps to chemical footprint could be envisaged, applicable at the micro- as well as at the meso- and macroscale. The first step (step 1) is related to the account of chemicals use and emissions along the life cycle of a product, sector, or entire economy, to assess potential impacts on ecosystems and human health. The second step (step 2) aims at assessing to which extent actual emission of chemicals harm the ecosystems above their capability to recover (carrying capacity of the system). The latter step might contribute to the wide discussion on planetary boundaries for chemical pollution: the thresholds that should not be surpassed to guarantee a sustainable use of chemicals from an environmental safety perspective. The definition of what the planetary boundaries for chemical pollution are and how the boundaries should be identified is an on-going scientific challenge for ecotoxicology and ecology. In

  13. Living with uncertainty: from the precautionary principle to the methodology of ongoing normative assessment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dupuy, Jean-Pierre; Grinbaum, Alexei

    2005-03-01

    The analysis of our epistemic situation regarding singular events, such as abrupt climate change, shows essential limitations in the traditional modes of dealing with uncertainty. Typical cognitive barriers lead to the paralysis of action. What is needed is taking seriously the reality of the future. We argue for the application of the methodology of ongoing normative assessment. We show that it is, paradoxically, a matter of forming a project on the basis of a fixed future which one does not want, and this in a coordinated way at the level of social institutions. Ongoing assessment may be viewed as a prescription to live with uncertainty, in a particular sense of the term, in order for a future catastrophe not to occur. The assessment is necessarily normative in that it must include the anticipation of a retrospective ethical judgment on present choices (notion of moral luck). To cite this article: J.-P. Dupuy, A. Grinbaum, C. R. Geoscience 337 (2005).

  14. Risk assessment of cryogenic installations – implementation, applicability of methodologies and challenges at CERN

    CERN Multimedia

    CERN. Geneva

    2016-01-01

    For the safe design of a cryogenic installation, it is essential to carry out a comprehensive hazard identification and risk estimate in order to put in place the necessary control measures for an adequate risk mitigation. According to CERN Safety Rules, it is mandatory that the organic unit owning a cryogenic facility conducts and documents a risk assessment. This requirement is also given by the European Directive 2014/68/EU to manufacturers of pressure equipment. During the talk, some of the challenges CERN faces in the development of risk assessments across the broad array of activities involving cryogenic equipment in the organization will be discussed. Challenges such as the choice of the best-suited risk assessment methodology based on the features and complexity of the installation/activities, the efforts to develop tools to facilitate hazard identification, risk analysis and definition of related measures to protect the health and safety of workers, such as streamlined guidelines, forms and check...

  15. Methodological and ethical aspects of the sexual maturation assessment in adolescents

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eliane Rodrigues de Faria

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE To analyze methodological and ethical aspects in the sexual maturation assessment of adolescents. DATA SOURCES Books and theses, articles and legislations on the Medline, SciELO, Science Direct databases, besides institutional documents of the World Health Organization and the Pediatric Societies of Brazil and São Paulo, considering the period from 1962 to 2012. The following keywords were used in Portuguese and English: "sexual maturation", "self-assessment", "ethics", "OBJECTIVE assessment of sexual maturation", "puberty", "adolescent", and "adolescentdevelopment". DATA SYNTHESIS The sexual maturation assessment is used in populatinal studies and in clinical daily care. The direct evaluation is performed by a specialized physician, whereas the self-assessment is carried out by the adolescent. This evaluation should be carefully performed in the appropriate place, taking into account the ethical aspects. The patient should not be constrained and the physician must respect the privacy and the confidentiality. Before this evaluation and independently of the used method, the adolescent should receive information and explanation about the procedure and the tools that will be applied. Furthermore, the patient has the right to want or not an adult close to him. CONCLUSIONS Validation studies showed that self-assessment is inferior to clinical assessment and should, therefore, be performed only when the direct examination by physicians is not possible.

  16. Methodological and ethical aspects of the sexual maturation assessment in adolescents

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Faria, Eliane Rodrigues; Franceschini, Sylvia do Carmo C.; Peluzio, Maria do Carmo G.; Sant'Ana, Luciana Ferreira da R.; Priore, Silvia Eloiza

    2013-01-01

    OBJECTIVE To analyze methodological and ethical aspects in the sexual maturation assessment of adolescents. DATA SOURCES Books and theses, articles and legislations on the Medline, SciELO, Science Direct databases, besides institutional documents of the World Health Organization and the Pediatric Societies of Brazil and São Paulo, considering the period from 1962 to 2012. The following keywords were used in Portuguese and English: "sexual maturation", "self-assessment", "ethics", "OBJECTIVE assessment of sexual maturation", "puberty", "adolescent", and "adolescentdevelopment". DATA SYNTHESIS The sexual maturation assessment is used in populatinal studies and in clinical daily care. The direct evaluation is performed by a specialized physician, whereas the self-assessment is carried out by the adolescent. This evaluation should be carefully performed in the appropriate place, taking into account the ethical aspects. The patient should not be constrained and the physician must respect the privacy and the confidentiality. Before this evaluation and independently of the used method, the adolescent should receive information and explanation about the procedure and the tools that will be applied. Furthermore, the patient has the right to want or not an adult close to him. CONCLUSIONS Validation studies showed that self-assessment is inferior to clinical assessment and should, therefore, be performed only when the direct examination by physicians is not possible. PMID:24142325

  17. A manipulative field experiment to evaluate an integrative methodology for assessing sediment pollution in estuarine ecosystems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sanz-Lázaro, Carlos; Marín, Arnaldo

    2009-05-15

    The assessment of sediment contamination is of crucial importance for the management of estuarine ecosystems. Environmental risk assessment of oil pollution must be specific to these ecosystems because of their unique toxicant bioavailability dynamics, which is not comparable with that of other ecosystems where the environmental parameters are less variable. The goal of this work was to test in two European estuarine areas (Ria de Aveiro, Portugal; La Manga, Spain) whether the common methodology used to evaluate sediment pollution in marine sediment (amphipod toxicity tests and community structure analysis) is suited to these physico-chemically unique systems. Manipulative field experiments were conducted at three oil concentration levels, to compare resulting changes in community structure with laboratory and in situ amphipod toxicity tests carried out with native amphipod species Corophium multisetosum (Atlantic area) and Microdeutopus gryllotalpa (Mediterranean area). The impact of the toxicant was reflected in the community structure and toxicity tests, both of which were correlated with oil concentration. These results point to this methodology being a reliable tool for assessing and monitoring pollution in estuarine areas.

  18. Graphical Methodology of Global Pollution Index for the Environmental Impact Assessment Using Two Environmental Components

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Corneliu Cojocaru

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available One of the applied methods for environmental impact assessment is the index of global pollution (IGP proposed by Rojanschi in 1991. This methodology enables the global estimation for the ecosystem state affected more or less by human activities. Unfortunately, Rojanschi’s method has a limitation; it can be applied only if at least three environmental components are considered. Frequently, many environmental impact assessment applications rely on analysis of only two environmental components. Therefore, this work aimed to develop a new graphical method to extend Rojanschi’s approach for the case of two environmental components. The proposed method avoids the average value of evaluation grades and uses only the graphical correspondence for calculation of the index of global pollution. A right-angle triangle graph methodology was proposed, where bases represented the values of evaluation grades. Thus, for the case of two environmental components, the index of global pollution was calculated as the relation between the ideal and real ecosystem states represented by the ratio between areas of external and enclosed right triangles. The developed graphical method was tested and validated for real case studies: the environmental impact assessment from a refinery located on the Romanian Black Sea Coast considering Air and Water environmental components and from a coal-fired thermoelectric power plant from Eastern Romania regarding Air and Soil environmental components. In this way, it was provided a reliable and faster tool to be used for the pollution characterization of human-derived chemicals for better decisions in risk management.

  19. The Impact of Novel Assessment Methodologies in Toxicology on Green Chemistry and Chemical Alternatives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rusyn, Ivan; Greene, Nigel

    2018-02-01

    The field of experimental toxicology is rapidly advancing by incorporating novel techniques and methods that provide a much more granular view into the mechanisms of potential adverse effects of chemical exposures on human health. The data from various in vitro assays and computational models are useful not only for increasing confidence in hazard and risk decisions, but also are enabling better, faster and cheaper assessment of a greater number of compounds, mixtures, and complex products. This is of special value to the field of green chemistry where design of new materials or alternative uses of existing ones is driven, at least in part, by considerations of safety. This article reviews the state of the science and decision-making in scenarios when little to no data may be available to draw conclusions about which choice in green chemistry is "safer." It is clear that there is no "one size fits all" solution and multiple data streams need to be weighed in making a decision. Moreover, the overall level of familiarity of the decision-makers and scientists alike with new assessment methodologies, their validity, value and limitations is evolving. Thus, while the "impact" of the new developments in toxicology on the field of green chemistry is great already, it is premature to conclude that the data from new assessment methodologies have been widely accepted yet. © The Author 2017. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Society of Toxicology. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  20. A Methodology for Assessing the Sustainability of Hydrogen Production from Solid Fuels

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nirmal V. Gnanapragasam

    2010-05-01

    Full Text Available A methodology for assessing the sustainability of hydrogen production using solid fuels is introduced, in which three sustainability dimensions (ecological, sociological and technological are considered along with ten indicators for each dimension. Values for each indicator are assigned on a 10-point scale based on a high of 1 and a low of 0, depending on the characteristic of the criteria associated with each element or process, utilizing data reported in the literature. An illustrative example is presented to compare two solid fuels for hydrogen production: coal and biomass. The results suggest that qualitative sustainability indicators can be reasonably defined based on evaluations of system feasibility, and that adequate flexibility and comprehensiveness is provided through the use of ten indicators for each of the dimensions for every process or element involved in hydrogen production using solid fuels. Also, the assessment index values suggest that biomasses have better sustainability than coals, and that it may be advantageous to use coals in combination with biomass to increase their ecological and social sustainability. The sustainability assessment methodology can be made increasingly quantitative, and is likely extendable to other energy systems, but additional research and development is needed to lead to a more fully developed approach.

  1. [Methodological and operational notes for the assessment and management of the risk of work-related stress].

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Ambrogi, Francesco; Ratti, Elisabetta Ceppi

    2011-01-01

    Today the Italian national debate over the Work-Related Stress Risk Assessment methodology is rather heated. Several methodological proposals and guidelines have been published in recent months, not least those by the "Commissione Consultiva". But despite this wide range of proposals, it appears that there is still a lack of attention to some of the basic methodological issues that must be taken into account in order to correctly implement the above-mentioned guidelines. The aim of this paper is to outline these methodological issues. In order to achieve this, the most authoritative methodological proposals and guidelines have been reviewed. The study focuses in particular on the methodological issues that could lead to important biases if not considered properly. The study leads to some considerations about the methodological validity of a Work-Related Stress Risk Assessment based exclusively on the literal interpretation of the considered proposals. Furthermore, the study provides some hints and working hypotheses on how to overcome these methodological limits. This study should be considered as a starting point for further investigations and debate on the Work-Related Stress Risk Assessment methodology on a national level.

  2. A deviation based assessment methodology for multiple machine health patterns classification and fault detection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jia, Xiaodong; Jin, Chao; Buzza, Matt; Di, Yuan; Siegel, David; Lee, Jay

    2018-01-01

    Successful applications of Diffusion Map (DM) in machine failure detection and diagnosis have been reported in several recent studies. DM provides an efficient way to visualize the high-dimensional, complex and nonlinear machine data, and thus suggests more knowledge about the machine under monitoring. In this paper, a DM based methodology named as DM-EVD is proposed for machine degradation assessment, abnormality detection and diagnosis in an online fashion. Several limitations and challenges of using DM for machine health monitoring have been analyzed and addressed. Based on the proposed DM-EVD, a deviation based methodology is then proposed to include more dimension reduction methods. In this work, the incorporation of Laplacian Eigen-map and Principal Component Analysis (PCA) are explored, and the latter algorithm is named as PCA-Dev and is validated in the case study. To show the successful application of the proposed methodology, case studies from diverse fields are presented and investigated in this work. Improved results are reported by benchmarking with other machine learning algorithms.

  3. Assessing EEG sleep spindle propagation. Part 1: theory and proposed methodology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Reilly, Christian; Nielsen, Tore

    2014-01-15

    A convergence of studies has revealed sleep spindles to be associated with sleep-related cognitive processing and even with fundamental waking state capacities such as intelligence. However, some spindle characteristics, such as propagation direction and delay, may play a decisive role but are only infrequently investigated because of technical complexities. A new methodology for assessing sleep spindle propagation over the human scalp using noninvasive electroencephalography (EEG) is described. This approach is based on the alignment of time-frequency representations of spindle activity across recording channels. This first of a two-part series concentrates on framing theoretical considerations related to EEG spindle propagation and on detailing the methodology. A short example application is provided that illustrates the repeatability of results obtained with the new propagation measure in a sample of 32 night recordings. A more comprehensive experimental investigation is presented in part two of the series. Compared to existing methods, this approach is particularly well adapted for studying the propagation of sleep spindles because it estimates time delays rather than phase synchrony and it computes propagation properties for every individual spindle with windows adjusted to the specific spindle duration. The proposed methodology is effective in tracking the propagation of spindles across the scalp and may thus help in elucidating the temporal aspects of sleep spindle dynamics, as well as other transient EEG and MEG events. A software implementation (the Spyndle Python package) is provided as open source software. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  4. Methodology for the Assessment of the Ecotoxicological Potential of Construction Materials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodrigues, Patrícia; Silvestre, José D.; Flores-Colen, Inês; Viegas, Cristina A.; de Brito, Jorge; Kurad, Rawaz; Demertzi, Martha

    2017-01-01

    Innovation in construction materials (CM) implies changing their composition by incorporating raw materials, usually non-traditional ones, which confer the desired characteristics. However, this practice may have unknown risks. This paper discusses the ecotoxicological potential associated with raw and construction materials, and proposes and applies a methodology for the assessment of their ecotoxicological potential. This methodology is based on existing laws, such as Regulation (European Commission) No. 1907/2006 (REACH—Registration, Evaluation, Authorization and Restriction of Chemicals) and Regulation (European Commission) No. 1272/2008 (CLP—Classification, Labelling and Packaging). Its application and validation showed that raw material without clear evidence of ecotoxicological potential, but with some ability to release chemicals, can lead to the formulation of a CM with a slightly lower hazardousness in terms of chemical characterization despite a slightly higher ecotoxicological potential than the raw materials. The proposed methodology can be a useful tool for the development and manufacturing of products and the design choice of the most appropriate CM, aiming at the reduction of their environmental impact and contributing to construction sustainability. PMID:28773011

  5. Assessment of radiotherapy photon beams: A practical and low cost methodology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reis, C. Q. M.; Nicolucci, P.

    2017-02-01

    Dosimetric properties of radiation beams used in radiotherapy are directly related to the energy spectrum produced by the treatment unit. Therefore, the development of methodologies to evaluate in a simple and accurate way the spectra of clinical beams can help establishing the quality control of the treatment. The purpose of this study is to present a practical and low cost methodology for determining primary spectra of radiotherapy photon beams from transmission measurements in attenuators of aluminum and using the method of the inverse Laplace transform. Monte Carlo simulation with PENELOPE code was used in order to evaluate and validate the reconstructed spectra by the calculation of dosimetric parameters that characterize the beam. Percentage depth dose values simulated with a 6 MV reconstructed spectrum shows maximum difference of 4.4% when compared to values measured at the corresponding clinical beam. For a 10 MV beam that difference was around 4.2%. Results obtained in this study confirm the adequacy of the proposed methodology for assessing primary photon beams produced by clinical accelerators.

  6. Developing the P2/6 methodology [to assess the security capability of modern distributed generation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Allan, Ron; Strbac, Goran; Djapic, Predrag; Jarrett, Keith [Manchester Univ. Inst. of Science and Technology, Manchester (United Kingdom)

    2004-04-29

    The main objective of the project was to use the methodology developed in the previous Methodology project (ETSU/FES Project K/EL/00287) to assess the security capability of modern distributed generation in order to review Table 2 and related text of Engineering Recommendation P2/5, and to propose information and results that could be used to create a new P2/6 that takes into account modern types of generating units; unit numbers; unit availabilities; and capacities. Technical issues raised in the previous study but held over until this project include: Treatment of single unit generation systems; Effect of shape of load duration curves; Persistence of intermittent generation, T{sub m}; Time resolution of intermittent generation output profiles; Ride-through capability; Risk to loss of supply. Three main ways of implementing the methodology were recommended: Look-up table(s), Graphical, and Computer program. The specification for the computer program was to produce a simple spreadsheet application package that an engineer with a reasonably knowledge of the approach could use. This prototype package has been developed in conjunction with Workstream 3. Its objective is to calculate the capability contribution to security of supply from distributed generation connected to a particular demand group. The application has been developed using Microsoft Excel and Visual Basic for Applications. New Tables for inclusion in P2/6 are included. (UK)

  7. Methodology for the Assessment of the Ecotoxicological Potential of Construction Materials

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Patrícia Rodrigues

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Innovation in construction materials (CM implies changing their composition by incorporating raw materials, usually non-traditional ones, which confer the desired characteristics. However, this practice may have unknown risks. This paper discusses the ecotoxicological potential associated with raw and construction materials, and proposes and applies a methodology for the assessment of their ecotoxicological potential. This methodology is based on existing laws, such as Regulation (European Commission No. 1907/2006 (REACH—Registration, Evaluation, Authorization and Restriction of Chemicals and Regulation (European Commission No. 1272/2008 (CLP—Classification, Labelling and Packaging. Its application and validation showed that raw material without clear evidence of ecotoxicological potential, but with some ability to release chemicals, can lead to the formulation of a CM with a slightly lower hazardousness in terms of chemical characterization despite a slightly higher ecotoxicological potential than the raw materials. The proposed methodology can be a useful tool for the development and manufacturing of products and the design choice of the most appropriate CM, aiming at the reduction of their environmental impact and contributing to construction sustainability.

  8. Methodology for the Assessment of the Ecotoxicological Potential of Construction Materials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodrigues, Patrícia; Silvestre, José D; Flores-Colen, Inês; Viegas, Cristina A; de Brito, Jorge; Kurad, Rawaz; Demertzi, Martha

    2017-06-13

    Innovation in construction materials (CM) implies changing their composition by incorporating raw materials, usually non-traditional ones, which confer the desired characteristics. However, this practice may have unknown risks. This paper discusses the ecotoxicological potential associated with raw and construction materials, and proposes and applies a methodology for the assessment of their ecotoxicological potential. This methodology is based on existing laws, such as Regulation (European Commission) No. 1907/2006 (REACH-Registration, Evaluation, Authorization and Restriction of Chemicals) and Regulation (European Commission) No. 1272/2008 (CLP-Classification, Labelling and Packaging). Its application and validation showed that raw material without clear evidence of ecotoxicological potential, but with some ability to release chemicals, can lead to the formulation of a CM with a slightly lower hazardousness in terms of chemical characterization despite a slightly higher ecotoxicological potential than the raw materials. The proposed methodology can be a useful tool for the development and manufacturing of products and the design choice of the most appropriate CM, aiming at the reduction of their environmental impact and contributing to construction sustainability.

  9. EXPERT PANEL OVERSIGHT COMMITTEE ASSESSMENT OF FY2008 CORROSION AND STRESS CORROSION CRACKING SIMULANT TESTING PROGRAM

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    BOOMER KD

    2009-01-08

    The Expert Panel Oversight Committee (EPOC) has been overseeing the implementation of selected parts of Recommendation III of the final report, Expert Panel workshop for Hanford Site Double-Shell Tank Waste Chemistry Optimization, RPP-RPT-22126. Recommendation III provided four specific requirements necessary for Panel approval of a proposal to revise the chemistry control limits for the Double-Shell Tanks (DSTs). One of the more significant requirements was successful performance of an accelerated stress corrosion cracking (SCC) experimental program. This testing program has evaluated the optimization of the chemistry controls to prevent corrosion in the interstitial liquid and supernatant regions of the DSTs.

  10. Methodological issues of assessing the effects of social inequality in Russia’s regions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ol’ga Anatol’evna Kozlova

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available The article deals with the issue concerning the assessment of the impact of social inequality on the socio-demographic characteristics of society. The authors evaluate the impact of the social inequality growth in the Russian Federation subjects on the basis of the analysis of the decile ratio dynamics. They propose a methodological approach to determine the degree of dependence of crime rate on the growth of social inequality. The authors compare the influence of the decile ratio and purchasing power on mortality rate in the regions of Russia

  11. Methodology to Assess No Touch Audit Software Using Simulated Building Utility Data

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cheung, Howard [Purdue Univ., West Lafayette, IN (United States); Braun, James E. [Purdue Univ., West Lafayette, IN (United States); Langner, M. Rois [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States)

    2016-10-01

    This report describes a methodology developed for assessing the performance of no touch building audit tools and presents results for an available tool. Building audits are conducted in many commercial buildings to reduce building energy costs and improve building operation. Because the audits typically require significant input obtained by building engineers, they are usually only affordable for larger commercial building owners. In an effort to help small building and business owners gain the benefits of an audit at a lower cost, no touch building audit tools have been developed to remotely analyze a building's energy consumption.

  12. Assessment by human research ethics committees of potential conflicts of interest arising from pharmaceutical sponsorship of clinical research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Newcombe, J P; Kerridge, I H

    2007-01-01

    Conflicts of interest arising from pharmaceutical industry sponsorship of clinical research have the potential to bias research outcomes and ultimately prejudice patient care. It is unknown how Australian Human Research Ethics Committees (HREC) assess and manage such conflicts of interest. We aimed to gain an understanding of how HREC approach the problem of potential conflicts of interest arising from pharmaceutical sponsorship of clinical research. We conducted a survey of HREC chairpersons in New South Wales. HREC vary widely in their approaches to conflicts of interest, including in their use of National Health and Medical Research Council guidelines, which were often misinterpreted or overlooked. Many committees rely primarily on researchers disclosing potential conflicts of interest, whereas a majority of HREC use disclosure to research participants as the primary tool for preventing and managing conflicts of interest. Almost no HREC place limitations on researcher relationships with pharmaceutical companies. These findings suggest reluctance on the part of HREC to regulate many potential conflicts of interest between researchers and pharmaceutical sponsors, which may arise from uncertainty regarding the meaning or significance of conflicts of interest in research, from ambiguity surrounding the role of HREC in assessing and managing conflicts of interest in research or from misinterpretation or ignorance of current National Health and Medical Research Council guidelines. Further review of policies and practices in this important area may prove beneficial in safeguarding clinical research and patient care while promoting continuing constructive engagement with the pharmaceutical industry.

  13. A methodology for the quantification of doctrine and materiel approaches in a capability-based assessment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tangen, Steven Anthony

    Due to the complexities of modern military operations and the technologies employed on today's military systems, acquisition costs and development times are becoming increasingly large. Meanwhile, the transformation of the global security environment is driving the U.S. military's own transformation. In order to meet the required capabilities of the next generation without buying prohibitively costly new systems, it is necessary for the military to evolve across the spectrum of doctrine, organization, training, materiel, leadership and education, personnel, and facilities (DOTMLPF). However, the methods for analyzing DOTMLPF approaches within the early acquisition phase of a capability-based assessment (CBA) are not as well established as the traditional technology design techniques. This makes it difficult for decision makers to decide if investments should be made in materiel or non-materiel solutions. This research develops an agent-based constructive simulation to quantitatively assess doctrine alongside materiel approaches. Additionally, life-cycle cost techniques are provided to enable a cost-effectiveness trade. These techniques are wrapped together in a decision-making environment that brings crucial information forward so informed and appropriate acquisition choices can be made. The methodology is tested on a future unmanned aerial vehicle design problem. Through the implementation of this quantitative methodology on the proof-of-concept study, it is shown that doctrinal changes including fleet composition, asset allocation, and patrol pattern were capable of dramatic improvements in system effectiveness at a much lower cost than the incorporation of candidate technologies. Additionally, this methodology was able to quantify the precise nature of strong doctrine-doctrine and doctrine-technology interactions which have been observed only qualitatively throughout military history. This dissertation outlines the methodology and demonstrates how potential

  14. Application of a new methodology for coastal multi-hazard-assessment and management on the state of Karnataka, India

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Appelquist, Lars Rosendahl; Balstrom, Thomas

    2015-01-01

    This paper presents the application of a new Methodology for coastal multi-hazard assessment & management under a changing global climate on the state of Karnataka, India. The recently published methodology termed the Coastal Hazard Wheel (CHW) is designed for local, regional and national hazard...

  15. An efficient methodology for assessing attention to and effect of nutrition information displayed front-of-pack

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bialkova, S.E.; Trijp, van H.C.M.

    2011-01-01

    A methodology for assessing attention to and effect of nutrition information displayed front-of-pack is presented. The methodology is based on an integration of the visual search paradigm, the choice paradigm and eye-tracking measures, and moves beyond reliance on self-report measures for attention

  16. Comparison of DNA extraction methodologies used for assessing fungal diversity via ITS sequencing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rittenour, William R; Park, Ju-Hyeong; Cox-Ganser, Jean M; Beezhold, Donald H; Green, Brett J

    2012-03-01

    Traditional methods of assessing fungal exposure have been confounded by a number of limiting variables. The recent utilization of molecular methods such as internal transcribed spacer (ITS) sequencing of ribosomal RNA genes has provided improved insight into the diversity of fungal bioaerosols in indoor, outdoor and occupational environments. However, ITS analyses may also be confounded by a number of methodological limitations. In this study, we have optimized this technology for use in occupational or environmental studies. Three commonly used DNA extraction methodologies (UltraClean Soil kit, High Pure PCR Template kit, and EluQuik/DNeasy kit) were compared in terms of sensitivity and susceptibility to PCR inhibitors in dust for three common fungal bioaerosols, Aspergillus versicolor, Rhizopus microsporus and Wallemia sebi. Environmental dust samples were then studied using each extraction methodology and results were compared to viable culture data. The extraction methods differed in terms of their ability to efficiently extract DNA from particular species of fungi (e.g. Aspergillus versicolor). In addition, the ability to remove PCR inhibitors from dust samples was most effective using the soil DNA extraction kit. The species composition varied greatly between ITS clone libraries generated with the different DNA extraction kits. However, compared to viable culture data, ITS clone libraries included additional fungal species that are incapable of growth on solid culture medium. Collectively, our data indicated that DNA extraction methodologies used in ITS sequencing studies of occupational or environmental dust samples can greatly influence the fungal species that are detected. This journal is © The Royal Society of Chemistry 2012

  17. A knowledge management methodology for the integrated assessment of WWTP configurations during conceptual design.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garrido-Baserba, M; Reif, R; Rodriguez-Roda, I; Poch, M

    2012-01-01

    The current complexity involved in wastewater management projects is arising as the XXI century sets new challenges leading towards a more integrated plant design. In this context, the growing number of innovative technologies, stricter legislation and the development of new methodological approaches make it difficult to design appropriate flow schemes for new wastewater projects. Thus, new tools are needed for the wastewater treatment plant (WWTP) conceptual design using integrated assessment methods in order to include different types of objectives at the same time i.e. environmental, economical, technical, and legal. Previous experiences used the decision support system (DSS) methodology to handle the specific issues related to wastewater management, for example, the design of treatment facilities for small communities. However, tools developed for addressing the whole treatment process independently of the plant size, capable of integrating knowledge from many different areas, including both conventional and innovative technologies are not available. Therefore, the aim of this paper is to present and describe an innovative knowledge-based methodology that handles the conceptual design of WWTP process flow-diagrams (PFDs), satisfying a vast number of different criteria. This global approach is based on a hierarchy of decisions that uses the information contained in knowledge bases (KBs) with the aim of automating the generation of suitable WWTP configurations for a specific scenario. Expert interviews, legislation, specialized literature and engineering experience have been integrated within the different KBs, which indeed constitute one of the main highlights of this work. Therefore, the methodology is presented as a valuable tool which provides customized PFD for each specific case, taking into account process unit interactions and the user specified requirements and objectives.

  18. Assessment of a generalizable methodology to assess learning from manikin-based simulation technology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giuliano, Dominic A; McGregor, Marion

    2014-01-01

    Objective : This study combined a learning outcomes-based checklist and salient characteristics derived from wisdom-of-crowds theory to test whether differing groups of judges (diversity maximized versus expertise maximized) would be able to appropriately assess videotaped, manikin-based simulation scenarios. Methods : Two groups of 3 judges scored 9 videos of interns managing a simulated cardiac event. The first group had a diverse range of knowledge of simulation procedures, while the second group was more homogeneous in their knowledge and had greater simulation expertise. All judges viewed 3 types of videos (predebriefing, postdebriefing, and 6 month follow-up) in a blinded fashion and provided their scores independently. Intraclass correlation coefficients (ICCs) were used to assess the reliability of judges as related to group membership. Scores from each group of judges were averaged to determine the impact of group on scores. Results : Results revealed strong ICCs for both groups of judges (diverse, 0.89; expert, 0.97), with the diverse group of judges having a much wider 95% confidence interval for the ICC. Analysis of variance of the average checklist scores indicated no significant difference between the 2 groups of judges for any of the types of videotapes assessed (F = 0.72, p = .4094). There was, however, a statistically significant difference between the types of videos (F = 14.39, p = .0004), with higher scores at the postdebrief and 6-month follow-up time periods. Conclusions : Results obtained in this study provide optimism for assessment procedures in simulation using learning outcomes-based checklists and a small panel of judges.

  19. Assessment of a generalizable methodology to assess learning from manikin-based simulation technology*

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giuliano, Dominic A.; McGregor, Marion

    2014-01-01

    Objective This study combined a learning outcomes-based checklist and salient characteristics derived from wisdom-of-crowds theory to test whether differing groups of judges (diversity maximized versus expertise maximized) would be able to appropriately assess videotaped, manikin-based simulation scenarios. Methods Two groups of 3 judges scored 9 videos of interns managing a simulated cardiac event. The first group had a diverse range of knowledge of simulation procedures, while the second group was more homogeneous in their knowledge and had greater simulation expertise. All judges viewed 3 types of videos (predebriefing, postdebriefing, and 6 month follow-up) in a blinded fashion and provided their scores independently. Intraclass correlation coefficients (ICCs) were used to assess the reliability of judges as related to group membership. Scores from each group of judges were averaged to determine the impact of group on scores. Results Results revealed strong ICCs for both groups of judges (diverse, 0.89; expert, 0.97), with the diverse group of judges having a much wider 95% confidence interval for the ICC. Analysis of variance of the average checklist scores indicated no significant difference between the 2 groups of judges for any of the types of videotapes assessed (F = 0.72, p = .4094). There was, however, a statistically significant difference between the types of videos (F = 14.39, p = .0004), with higher scores at the postdebrief and 6-month follow-up time periods. Conclusions Results obtained in this study provide optimism for assessment procedures in simulation using learning outcomes-based checklists and a small panel of judges. PMID:24576004

  20. Assessment and selection of the best treatment alternative for infectious waste by modified Sustainability Assessment of Technologies methodology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rafiee, Ata; Yaghmaeian, Kamyar; Hoseini, Mohammad; Parmy, Saeid; Mahvi, Amirhosein; Yunesian, Masud; Khaefi, Mehran; Nabizadeh, Ramin

    2016-01-01

    Improper treatment of infectious waste can cause numerous adverse environmental and health effects such as transmission of diseases through health personnel and other susceptible groups,who come in contact with such wastes. On the other hand, selection of appropriate treatment alternatives in infectious waste management has become a challenging task for public health authorities especially in developing countries. The objective of this paper is to select the best infectious waste treatment alternative by the modified Sustainability Assessment of Technologies (SAT) methodology, developed by the International Environmental Technology Center of the United Nations Environment Program (IETC-UNEP). SAT methodology consists of three main components, including screening, scoping and detailed assessment. In screening, different infectious waste treatment alternatives undergo screening using the finalized environmental and technical criteria. Short-listed treatment options from the previous step, then go through the comprehensive scoping and detailed assessment (2nd and 3rd components) which is more qualitative and quantitative in nature. An empirical case in Tehran, the largest city in Iran, is provided to illustrate the potential of the proposed methodology. According to the final score, "Hydroclave", was the most suitable infectious treatment technology. The ranking order of the treatment alternatives were "Autoclave with a shredder", "Autoclave", "Central Incineration" and "chemical treatment" on the basis of technical, economical, social and environmental aspects and their related criteria. According to the results it could be concluded that the top ranking technologies basically have higher scores in all the aspects. Hence it is easier to arrive at a decision for the final technology selection based on the principles of sustainability.

  1. A methodology for the assessment of flood hazards at the regional scale

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gallina, Valentina; Torresan, Silvia; Critto, Andrea; Zabeo, Alex; Semenzin, Elena; Marcomini, Antonio

    2013-04-01

    In recent years, the frequency of water-related disasters has increased and recent flood events in Europe (e.g. 2002 in Central Europe, 2007 in UK, 2010 in Italy) caused physical-environmental and socio-economic damages. Specifically, floods are the most threatening water-related disaster that affects humans, their lives and properties. Within the KULTURisk project (FP7) a Regional Risk Assessment (RRA) methodology is proposed to evaluate the benefits of risk prevention in terms of reduced environmental risks due to floods. The method is based on the KULTURisk framework and allows the identification and prioritization of targets (i.e. people, buildings, infrastructures, agriculture, natural and semi-natural systems, cultural heritages) and areas at risk from floods in the considered region by comparing the baseline scenario (i.e. current state) with alternative scenarios (i.e. where different structural and/or non-structural measures are planned). The RRA methodology is flexible and can be adapted to different case studies (i.e. large rivers, alpine/mountain catchments, urban areas and coastal areas) and spatial scales (i.e. from the large river to the urban scale). The final aim of RRA is to help decision-makers in examining the possible environmental risks associated with uncertain future flood hazards and in identifying which prevention scenario could be the most suitable one. The RRA methodology employs Multi-Criteria Decision Analysis (MCDA functions) in order to integrate stakeholder preferences and experts judgments into the analysis. Moreover, Geographic Information Systems (GISs) are used to manage, process, analyze, and map data to facilitate the analysis and the information sharing with different experts and stakeholders. In order to characterize flood risks, the proposed methodology integrates the output of hydrodynamic models with the analysis of site-specific bio-geophysical and socio-economic indicators (e.g. slope of the territory, land cover

  2. Drug assessment by a Pharmacy and Therapeutics committee: from drug selection criteria to use in clinical practice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lozano-Blázquez, Ana; Calvo-Pita, Cecilia; Carbajales-Álvarez, Mónica; Suárez-Gil, Patricio; Martínez-Martínez, Fernando; Calleja-Hernández, Miguel Ángel

    2014-01-01

    In Spain, hospital medicines are assessed and selected by local Pharmacy and Therapeutics committees (PTCs). Of all the drugs assessed, cancer drugs are particularly important because of their budgetary impact and the sometimes arguable added value with respect to existing alternatives. This study analyzed the PTC drug selection process and the main objective was to evaluate the degree of compliance of prescriptions for oncology drugs with their criteria for use. This was a retrospective observational study (May 2007 to April 2010) of PTC-assessed drugs. The variables measured to describe the committee's activity were number of drugs assessed per year and number of drugs included in any of these settings: without restrictions, with criteria for use, and not included in formulary. These drugs were also analyzed by therapeutic group. To assess the degree of compliance of prescriptions, a score was calculated to determine whether prescriptions for bevacizumab, cetuximab, trastuzumab, and bortezomib were issued in accordance with PTC drug use criteria. The PTC received requests for inclusion of 40 drugs, of which 32 were included in the hospital formulary (80.0%). Criteria for use were established for 28 (87.5%) of the drugs included. In total, 293 patients were treated with the four cancer drugs in eight different therapeutic indications. The average prescription compliance scores were as follows: bevacizumab, 83% for metastatic colorectal cancer, 100% for metastatic breast cancer, and 82.3% for non-small-cell lung cancer; cetuximab, 62.0% for colorectal cancer and 50% for head and neck cancer; trastuzumab, 95.1% for early breast cancer and 82.4% for metastatic breast cancer; and bortezomib, 63.7% for multiple myeloma. The degree of compliance with criteria for use of cancer drugs was reasonably high. PTC functions need to be changed so that they can carry out more innovative tasks, such as monitoring conditions for drug use.

  3. Applying GRADE-CERQual to qualitative evidence synthesis findings-paper 3: how to assess methodological limitations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Munthe-Kaas, Heather; Bohren, Meghan A; Glenton, Claire; Lewin, Simon; Noyes, Jane; Tunçalp, Özge; Booth, Andrew; Garside, Ruth; Colvin, Christopher J; Wainwright, Megan; Rashidian, Arash; Flottorp, Signe; Carlsen, Benedicte

    2018-01-25

    The GRADE-CERQual (Confidence in Evidence from Reviews of Qualitative research) approach has been developed by the GRADE (Grading of Recommendations Assessment, Development and Evaluation) Working Group. The approach has been developed to support the use of findings from qualitative evidence syntheses in decision-making, including guideline development and policy formulation. CERQual includes four components for assessing how much confidence to place in findings from reviews of qualitative research (also referred to as qualitative evidence syntheses): (1) methodological limitations, (2) coherence, (3) adequacy of data and (4) relevance. This paper is part of a series providing guidance on how to apply CERQual and focuses on CERQual's methodological limitations component. We developed the methodological limitations component by searching the literature for definitions, gathering feedback from relevant research communities and developing consensus through project group meetings. We tested the CERQual methodological limitations component within several qualitative evidence syntheses before agreeing on the current definition and principles for application. When applying CERQual, we define methodological limitations as the extent to which there are concerns about the design or conduct of the primary studies that contributed evidence to an individual review finding. In this paper, we describe the methodological limitations component and its rationale and offer guidance on how to assess methodological limitations of a review finding as part of the CERQual approach. This guidance outlines the information required to assess methodological limitations component, the steps that need to be taken to assess methodological limitations of data contributing to a review finding and examples of methodological limitation assessments. This paper provides guidance for review authors and others on undertaking an assessment of methodological limitations in the context of the CERQual

  4. Methodology for Assessing the Quality of Agribusiness Activity Based on the Environmentally Responsible Approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anna Antonovna Anfinogentova

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available The article is devoted to the research and development of quality evaluation methods of agro-industrial enterprises activity in the regional economy with the use of the ecological approach. The hypothesis of the study is that the activity of the economic entities (as well as of agribusiness must be assessed not only in the context of economic efficiency and effectiveness, but also in the context of environmental ethics and environmental aggression. As the initial data, we have used the indicators of economic statistics of Russian agrarian-oriented regions, as well as the data received from management reporting on the sample of enterprises of three regions (the Belgorod and Moscow regions, Krasnodar Territory. The article offers the economic and mathematical approach for measuring the level of the environmental responsibility of agro-industrial enterprises on the basic formula of the Mandelbrot set and statistical indicator of Hurst. Our scientific contribution is the development of a modified methodology for assessing the quality of the activity of agro-industrial enterprises using the parameter characterizing the level of environmental ethics and environmental aggression of these entities. The main result of the study is the approbation of the method, which has shown its practical applicability and relative coherence with certain indicators of regional ecological statistics. The proposed method is characterized by the integration of the different mathematical approaches and as an adaptive assessment tool that can be used to assess the quality of the activity of both agro-industrial enterprises and enterprises of other industries and fields of the economy. In the further works, the authors plan to develop methodological approaches to the assessment of the quality of agro-industrial products. At the same time, the main attention will be paid to the ecological and social component of the quality.

  5. Specification of Energy Assessment Methodologies to Satisfy ISO 50001 Energy Management Standard

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kanneganti, Harish

    Energy management has become more crucial for industrial sector as a way to lower their cost of production and in reducing their carbon footprint. Environmental regulations also force the industrial sector to increase the efficiency of their energy usage. Hence industrial sector started relying on energy management consultancies for improvements in energy efficiency. With the development of ISO 50001 standard, the entire energy management took a new dimension involving top level management and getting their commitment on energy efficiency. One of the key requirements of ISO 50001 is to demonstrate continual improvement in their (industry) energy efficiency. The major aim of this work is to develop an energy assessment methodology and reporting format to tailor the needs of ISO 50001. The developed methodology integrates the energy reduction aspect of an energy assessment with the requirements of sections 4.4.3 (Energy Review) to 4.4.6 (Objectives, Targets and Action Plans) in ISO 50001 and thus helping the facilities in easy implementation of ISO 50001.

  6. Methodology to account for uncertainties and tradeoffs in pharmaceutical environmental hazard assessment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coutu, Sylvain; Rossi, Luca; Barry, D A; Chèvre, Nathalie

    2012-05-15

    Many pharmaceutical products find their way into receiving waters, giving rise to concerns regarding their environmental impact. A procedure was proposed that enables ranking of the hazard to aquatic species and human health due to such products. In the procedure, hazard assessment is based on five of the pharmaceutical product's individual physico-chemical properties. These properties are aggregated using the weighted Euclidian distance as the utility function. The weights and physico-chemical properties are considered as random variables. Physico-chemical property uncertainty criteria are obtained from a literature review. Weight uncertainty is based on a hazard ranking from a panel of experts, the histogram of which is converted into a continuous probability density function using statistical Kernel smoothing technique. The hazard-ranking procedure was applied to a list of common pharmaceuticals used in Switzerland. The procedure is target-specific. Two rankings were presented: One giving priority to environmental protection and the other to human health. For most substances, the hazard rank depends on the target. For the Swiss case study, the ranking procedure led to the conclusion that the hormones ethinylestradiol and testosterone, along with the antibiotic erythromycin A, should be in all cases included in risk-assessment methodologies, environmental concentration estimates and regular measurement campaigns. The methodology proposed is flexible and can be extrapolated to other substances and groups of experts. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. A multi-methodological evaluation approach for assessing the impact of neighbourhood quality on public health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oppio, Alessandra; Bottero, Marta; Giordano, Giulio; Arcidiacono, Andrea

    2016-01-01

    Starting from a growing interest for urban neighbourhood health effects, the purpose of this paper is to suggest a multi-methodological approach for providing a comprehensive evaluation of the quality of open spaces under the urban design perspective. Despite the growing body of research and empirical evidence about the relationship among quality of built environment and public health, there is still a lack of studies on urban quality assessment. This paper brings forward a multi-methodological approach for assessing the quality of open spaces by the assignment of a composite score. The study combines Geographic Information Systems (GIS) and Multi-Attribute Value Theory (MAVT) with the aim of proposing urban quality maps. Open spaces, including green and walkable areas, streets and squares are evaluated with respect to the following attributes: accessibility, liveability, vitality, and identity. The urban quality maps provide a robust basis to run different kind of analysis and to support cross-sectorial policies towards the improvement of public health.

  8. A Methodology for Assessing Islanding of Microgrids: Between Utility Dependence and Off-Grid Systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Antonio Colmenar-Santos

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents a novel methodology for assessing islanding microgrids from the economical and functional perspective, for various stakeholders. The paper proposes the triggers for competitive deployment of microgeneration, storage, microgrid islanding, the market conditions that apply, and discusses the future tendencies and the policy recommendations to foster microgrid benefits. The validation of the proposed scheme is based on real market cases, where the triggers for autogeneration and islanding microgrids are present. Additionally, the new concept of grid independence cycle is presented and analyzed. The policy implications of a situation where grid consumption reduction leads to higher energy prices are presented and discussed. The paper concludes with a summary of prioritized technical and regulatory recommendations, proposed as a result of the assessment.

  9. Do farmers need relief seed? A methodology for assessing seed systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Longley, Catherine; Dominguez, Carlos; Saide, Momade A; Leonardo, Wilson José

    2002-12-01

    This article outlines a methodology to help agencies better determine whether or not relief seed is needed by farmers affected by disaster. A brief review of current seed needs assessment procedures in southern Somalia and Mozambique illustrates problems of knowing which crops and households are affected, the importance of seed access (not just availability) and the need to plan interventions earlier than at present. The development of a Seed Systems Profile (SSP) is proposed to understand better both the socio-economic and agro-ecological aspects of farmers' seed systems. A five-step framework for assessing seed systems in disaster situations is also presented. These tools are currently being tested and further refined in Mozambique. A better understanding of farmers' seed systems will allow for the development of relief and rehabilitation interventions that effectively enhance the resilience and reduce the vulnerability of these systems.

  10. Assessment of women's perspectives and experiences of childbirth and postnatal care using Q-methodology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shabila, N P; Ahmed, H M; Yasin, M Y

    2015-10-02

    To complement standard measures of maternity care outcomes, an assessment of women's satisfaction with care is needed. The aim of this study was to elicit the perspectives and experiences of Iraqi women about childbirth and postnatal care services. The study participants were a sample of 37 women of different educational and socioeconomic status who had given birth during the previous 6 months. Q-methodology was used for data collection and analysis. Three distinct viewpoints and experiences of childbirth and postnatal care services were identified: a general perception of poor childbirth and postnatal care with lack of appropriate interpersonal care and support; a high satisfaction and positive experience with childbirth and postnatal care services among the confident and well-supported women; and poor satisfaction with the childbirth and postnatal care services in terms of meeting traditional cultural practices. Needs assessment around providers' skills and attitudes and the wider sociocultural environment of childbirth and postnatal care is necessary in Iraq.

  11. Social Life Cycle Assessment as a Management Tool: Methodology for Application in Tourism

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roberto Merli

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available As is widely known, sustainability is an important factor in competition, increasing the added value of a company in terms of image and credibility. However, it is important that sustainability assessments are effectively addressed in a global perspective. Therefore, life cycle tools are adopted to evaluate environmental and social impacts. Among these, and of particular significance, appears the Social Life Cycle Assessment (SLCA, which, although in its early stage of development, seems to have extremely promising methodological features. For this reason, it seemed interesting to propose a first application to the tourism sector, which could be better than other methods, studied in terms of social sustainability data. The particular characteristics of service delivery lend themselves more to the development of data related to social sustainability than other sectors. In this paper the results of a case study carried out using social accounting and business management tools are shown.

  12. Life cycle assessment in green chemistry: overview of key parameters and methodological concerns

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tufvesson, Linda M.; Tufvesson, Pär; Woodley, John

    2013-01-01

    Several articles within the area of green chemistry often promote new techniques or products as ‘green’ or ‘more environmentally benign’ than their conventional counterpart although these articles often do not quantitatively assess the environmental performance. In order to do this, life cycle...... with the purpose to reduce the time-consuming steps in LCA.In this review, several LCAs of so-called ‘green chemicals’ are analysed and key parameters and methodological concerns are identified. Further, some conclusions on the environmental performance of chemicals were drawn.For fossil-based platform chemicals......, for example eutrophication and the use of land.To assess the environmental performance of green chemicals, quantitative methods are needed. For this purpose, both simple metrics and more comprehensive methods have been developed, one recognised method being LCA. However, this method is often too time...

  13. Wildlife strike risk assessment in several Italian airports: lessons from BRI and a new methodology implementation.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cecilia Soldatini

    Full Text Available The presence of wildlife in airport areas poses substantial hazards to aviation. Wildlife aircraft collisions (hereafter wildlife strikes cause losses in terms of human lives and direct monetary losses for the aviation industry. In recent years, wildlife strikes have increased in parallel with air traffic increase and species habituation to anthropic areas. In this paper, we used an ecological approach to wildlife strike risk assessment to eight Italian international airports. The main achievement is a site-specific analysis that avoids flattening wildlife strike events on a large scale while maintaining comparable airport risk assessments. This second version of the Birdstrike Risk Index (BRI2 is a sensitive tool that provides different time scale results allowing appropriate management planning. The methodology applied has been developed in accordance with the Italian Civil Aviation Authority, which recognizes it as a national standard implemented in the advisory circular ENAC APT-01B.

  14. The Self Diagnosis Method. A new methodology to assess environmental management in sea ports.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Darbra, R M; Ronza, A; Casal, J; Stojanovic, T A; Wooldridge, C

    2004-03-01

    A methodology has been designed to assess the performance of the environmental management in sea ports. The Self Diagnosis Method, developed by two research teams and about sixty sea ports, allows the comparison of the current environmental situation with that corresponding to previous years and the assessment of the opportunities for improvement. The main objective is to review the management activities and procedures that affect the environment and the way the port authority handles significant environmental aspects. It has been designed as a "first level" tool: it can be applied in approximately six hours by a non-expert user. It is based on the ISO 14001 vocabulary, requirements and structure, and it can be considered as a first step in the voluntary implementation of an environmental management system for port communities.

  15. Fire Risk Assessment: A Systematic Review of the Methodology and Functional Areas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Parisa Moshashaei

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Fire is a physical and social phenomenon that affects both individuals and the environment. Fire risk assessment is a critical part of a fire prevention program. In this process, the fire risk associated with the possibility of occurrence and severity of damage resulting from the fire is estimated and calculated. In this paper, a classification scheme and a systematic literature review are presented in order to classify and interpret the current researches on fire risk assessment methodologies and applications. Based on the scheme, 93 scholarly papers from 13 journals are categorized into application areas and other categories. The application areas include the papers on the topics of environmental impact, production and industry, transportation, buildings, power industry, oil and gas industry, urban fires and other topics. Scholarly papers are also classified by (1 year of publication, (2 journal of publication, (3 year of publication and application areas and (4 authors’ nationality. The survey results show that the largest number of papers was published during the period 2010-2012 with 31 (33.33%, the most of the studies have been carried out on environmental impact (47.31%, the journal of Forest Ecology and Management had the highest percentage of articles with 26.88%. It is hoped that the paper can meet the needs of researchers for easy references of fire risk assessment methodologies and applications. Therefore, this work would be able to provide useful insights into the anatomy of the fire-risk assessment methods, and suggest academic researchers and experts a framework for future attempts and researches.

  16. Review of Project SAFE: Comments on biosphere conceptual model description and risk assessment methodology

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Klos, Richard; Wilmot, Roger [Galson Sciences Ltd (United Kingdom)

    2002-09-01

    The Swedish Nuclear Fuel and Waste Management Company's (SKB's) most recent assessment of the safety of the Forsmark repository for low-level and intermediate-level waste (Project SAFE) is currently undergoing review by the Swedish regulators. As part of its review, the Swedish Radiation Protection Institute (SSI) identified that two components of SAFE require more detailed review: (i) the conceptual model description of the biosphere system, and (ii) SKB's risk assessment methodology. We have reviewed the biosphere system interaction matrix and how this has been used in the identification, justification and description of biosphere models for radiological assessment purposes. The risk assessment methodology has been reviewed considering in particular issues associated with scenario selection, assessment timescale, and the probability and risk associated with the well scenario. There is an extensive range of supporting information on which biosphere modelling in Project SAFE is based. However, the link between this material and the biosphere models themselves is not clearly set out. This leads to some contradictions and mis-matches between description and implementation. One example concerns the representation of the geosphere-biosphere interface. The supporting description of lakes indicates that interaction between groundwaters entering the biosphere through lake bed sediments could lead to accumulations of radionuclides in sediments. These sediments may become agricultural areas at some time in the future. In the numerical modelling of the biosphere carried out in Project SAFE, the direct accumulation of contaminants in bed sediments is not represented. Application of a more rigorous procedure to ensure numerical models are fit for purpose is recommended, paying more attention to issues associated with the geosphere-biosphere interface. A more structured approach to risk assessment would be beneficial, with a better explanation of the difference

  17. Advantages and disadvantages of different methodologies for assessing wind farm performance

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Langlois, J.-D.; Fotsing, I. [Helimax Energy Inc., Montreal, PQ (Canada)

    2009-07-01

    Germanischer Lloyd (GL) undertakes wind farm performance assessment in order to provide periodic independent reporting to wind farm operators, owners and insurers. The company also updates long-term budgeted energy yield with reduced uncertainty during mergers and acquisitions or project refinancing; targets end-of-warranty or periodic inspections; fine-tunes forecasting tools; and provides feedback on wind flow and wind farm models. This presentation discussed the advantages and disadvantages of different methodologies for assessing wind farm performance. A corporate overview of GL, renewables group was first presented, followed by a discussion on wind farm performance assessment. Turbine condition and health monitoring were addressed and performance assessment objectives were identified. Methods to calculate expected power were also presented along with a performance assessment example. Turbine model input options include permanent meteorological mast; nacelle anemometry; and power output of neighbouring representative wind turbines. It was concluded that using wind flow and wake models is not precise enough for short time scales and should only be used to validate pre-construction models. figs.

  18. A Methodology to Assess the Benefit of Operational or Tactic Adjustments to Reduce Marine Corps Fuel Consumption

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-12-01

    to continue research. 14. SUBJECT TERMS systems engineering, model based systems engineering, fuel consumption , close air support, ground combat...distribution is unlimited A METHODOLOGY TO ASSESS THE BENEFIT OF OPERATIONAL OR TACTIC ADJUSTMENTS TO REDUCE MARINE CORPS FUEL CONSUMPTION by Team...SUBTITLE A METHODOLOGY TO ASSESS THE BENEFIT OF OPERATIONAL OR TACTIC ADJUSTMENTS TO REDUCE MARINE CORPS FUEL CONSUMPTION 5. FUNDING NUMBERS 6. AUTHOR

  19. Training needs assessment in research ethics evaluation among research ethics committee members in three African countries: Cameroon, Mali and Tanzania.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ateudjieu, Jérôme; Williams, John; Hirtle, Marie; Baume, Cédric; Ikingura, Joyce; Niaré, Alassane; Sprumont, Dominique

    2010-08-01

    As actors with the key responsibility for the protection of human research participants, Research Ethics Committees (RECs) need to be competent and well-resourced in order to fulfil their roles. Despite recent programs designed to strengthen RECs in Africa, much more needs to be accomplished before these committees can function optimally. To assess training needs for biomedical research ethics evaluation among targeted countries. Members of RECs operating in three targeted African countries were surveyed between August and November 2007. Before implementing the survey, ethical approvals were obtained from RECs in Switzerland, Cameroon, Mali and Tanzania. Data were collected using a semi-structured questionnaire in English and in French. A total of 74 respondents participated in the study. The participation rate was 68%. Seventy one percent of respondents reported having received some training in research ethics evaluation. This training was given by national institutions (31%) and international institutions (69%). Researchers and REC members were ranked as the top target audiences to be trained. Of 32 topics, the top five training priorities were: basic ethical principles, coverage of applicable laws and regulations, how to conduct ethics review, evaluating informed consent processes and the role of the REC. Although the majority of REC members in the targeted African countries had received training in ethics, they expressed a need for additional training. The results of this survey have been used to design a training program in research ethics evaluation that meets this need.

  20. A Methodology for Texture Feature-based Quality Assessment in Nucleus Segmentation of Histopathology Image.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wen, Si; Kurc, Tahsin M; Gao, Yi; Zhao, Tianhao; Saltz, Joel H; Zhu, Wei

    2017-01-01

    Image segmentation pipelines often are sensitive to algorithm input parameters. Algorithm parameters optimized for a set of images do not necessarily produce good-quality-segmentation results for other images. Even within an image, some regions may not be well segmented due to a number of factors, including multiple pieces of tissue with distinct characteristics, differences in staining of the tissue, normal versus tumor regions, and tumor heterogeneity. Evaluation of quality of segmentation results is an important step in image analysis. It is very labor intensive to do quality assessment manually with large image datasets because a whole-slide tissue image may have hundreds of thousands of nuclei. Semi-automatic mechanisms are needed to assist researchers and application developers to detect image regions with bad segmentations efficiently. Our goal is to develop and evaluate a machine-learning-based semi-automated workflow to assess quality of nucleus segmentation results in a large set of whole-slide tissue images. We propose a quality control methodology, in which machine-learning algorithms are trained with image intensity and texture features to produce a classification model. This model is applied to image patches in a whole-slide tissue image to predict the quality of nucleus segmentation in each patch. The training step of our methodology involves the selection and labeling of regions by a pathologist in a set of images to create the training dataset. The image regions are partitioned into patches. A set of intensity and texture features is computed for each patch. A classifier is trained with the features and the labels assigned by the pathologist. At the end of this process, a classification model is generated. The classification step applies the classification model to unlabeled test images. Each test image is partitioned into patches. The classification model is applied to each patch to predict the patch's label. The proposed methodology has been

  1. The KULTURisk Regional Risk Assessment methodology for flood risk: the case of Sihl river in Zurich

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ronco, Paolo; Bullo, Martina; Gallina, Valentina; Torresan, Silvia; Critto, Andrea; Zabeo, Alex; Semenzin, Elena; Buchecker, Matthias; Marcomini, Antonio

    2014-05-01

    In recent years, the frequency of catastrophes induced by natural hazard has increased and flood events in particular have been recognized as one of the most threatening water-related disasters. Severe floods have occurred in Europe over the last decade causing loss of life, displacement of people and heavy economic losses. Flood disasters are growing as a consequence of many factors both climatic and non-climatic. Indeed, the current increase of water-related disasters can be mainly attributed to the increase of exposure (elements potentially at risk in floodplains area) and vulnerability (i.e. economic, social, geographic, cultural, and physical/environmental characteristics of the exposure). Besides these factors, the strong effect of climate change is projected to radically modify the usual pattern of the hydrological cycle by intensifying the frequency and severity of flood events both at local, regional and global scale. Within this context, it is necessary to develop effective and pro-active strategies, tools and actions which allow to assess and (possibly) to reduce the risk of floods. In light of the recent European Flood Directive (FD), the KULTURisk-FP7 Project developed a state-of-the-art Regional Risk Assessment (RRA) methodology for assessing the risk imposed by floods events. The KULTURisk RRA methodology is based on the concept of risk being function of hazard, exposure and vulnerability. It is a flexible that can be adapted to different case studies (i.e. large rivers, alpine/mountain catchments, urban areas and coastal areas) and spatial scales (i.e. from the large river to the urban scale) that integrates the outputs of various hydrodynamics models (hazard) with sito-specific geophysical and socio-economic indicators (exposure and vulnerability factors such as land cover, slope, soil permeability, population density, economic activities, etc.). The main outputs of the methodology are GIS-based risk maps that identify and prioritize relative hot

  2. Structural integrity assessments of steam generator tubes using the FAD methodology

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bergant, Marcos A., E-mail: marcos.bergant@cab.cnea.gov.ar [Gerencia CAREM, Centro Atómico Bariloche (CNEA), Av. Bustillo 9500, San Carlos de Bariloche 8400 (Argentina); Yawny, Alejandro A., E-mail: yawny@cab.cnea.gov.ar [División Física de Metales, Centro Atómico Bariloche (CNEA)/CONICET, Av. Bustillo 9500, San Carlos de Bariloche 8400 (Argentina); Perez Ipiña, Juan E., E-mail: juan.perezipina@fain.uncoma.edu.ar [Grupo Mecánica de Fractura, Universidad Nacional del Comahue/CONICET, Buenos Aires 1400, Neuquén 8300 (Argentina)

    2015-12-15

    Highlights: • The Failure Assessment Diagram (FAD) is used to assess cracked steam generator tubes. • Typical loading conditions and reported tensile and fracture properties are used. • The FAD is capable to predict the failure mode for different cracks and loads. • The FAD can be used to reduce the conservatism of the current plugging criteria. • Appropriate tensile and fracture properties at operating conditions are required. - Abstract: Steam generator tubes (SGTs) represents up to 60% of the total primary pressure retaining boundary area of a nuclear power plant. They have been found susceptible to diverse degradation mechanisms during service. Due to the significance of a SGT failure on the plant safe operation, nuclear regulatory authorities have established tube plugging or repairing criteria which are based on the defect depth. The widespreadly used “40% criterion” proposed in the 70s is an example whose use is still recommended in the last editions of the ASME Boiler and Pressure Vessel Code. In the present work, an alternative, more realistic and less conservative methodology for SGT integrity evaluation is proposed. It is based on the Failure Assessment Diagram (FAD) and takes advantage of the recent developments in non-destructive techniques which allow a more comprehensive characterization of tube defects, i.e., depth, length, orientation and type. The proposed approach has been applied to: the study of the influence of primary and secondary stresses on tube integrity; the prediction of failure mode (i.e., ductile fracture or plastic collapse) of defective SGTs for varied crack geometries and loading conditions; the analysis of the sensibility of tensile and fracture properties with temperature. The potentiality of the FAD as a comprehensive methodology for predicting the failure loads and failure modes of flawed SGTs is highlighted.

  3. Methodology for Assessing the Work of Small Business at the Municipal Level

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aleksandr Evgen’evich Kremin

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available In order to promote sustainable socio-economic development in a municipality, its local authorities face the task of establishing an industrial and financial base on their territory, it will help increase its level of economic independence. On the basis of foreign experience and domestic research on territorial development it can be concluded that one of the most effective ways to enhance the level of socio-economic development of the municipality is to boost its small business. Effective management of this economic sector requires adequate assessment of its functioning at the municipal level. The analysis of existing methodologies for assessing the functioning of small business at the municipal level shows that none of them meets the criteria that the author of the present paper has selected and that are necessary for efficient research into the small business sector. In this regard, a methodology for estimating the work of small business at the municipal level was elaborated, and tested on the statistic data of municipal formations of the Vologda Oblast. The study reveals municipalities with the highest and lowest levels of small business development. In addition, municipalities were grouped in three blocks that represent different characteristics of their functioning. Taking into account the problems of business subjects, the study has developed measures to increase the level of development for each group of municipalities. Implementing these activities will help intensify the work of the sector of the economy under consideration, and increase the economic independence of territorial formations in the region. The paper can be used to assess the effectiveness of activities aimed to support small business in the region and to help regional and municipal authorities to work out a strategy for further development of this economic sector

  4. Methodology for risk assessment and reliability applied for pipeline engineering design and industrial valves operation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Silveira, Dierci [Universidade Federal Fluminense (UFF), Volta Redonda, RJ (Brazil). Escola de Engenharia Industrial e Metalurgia. Lab. de Sistemas de Producao e Petroleo e Gas], e-mail: dsilveira@metal.eeimvr.uff.br; Batista, Fabiano [CICERO, Rio das Ostras, RJ (Brazil)

    2009-07-01

    Two kinds of situations may be distinguished for estimating the operating reliability when maneuvering industrial valves and the probability of undesired events in pipelines and industrial plants: situations in which the risk is identified in repetitive cycles of operations and situations in which there is a permanent hazard due to project configurations introduced by decisions during the engineering design definition stage. The estimation of reliability based on the influence of design options requires the choice of a numerical index, which may include a composite of human operating parameters based on biomechanics and ergonomics data. We first consider the design conditions under which the plant or pipeline operator reliability concepts can be applied when operating industrial valves, and then describe in details the ergonomics and biomechanics risks that would lend itself to engineering design database development and human reliability modeling and assessment. This engineering design database development and reliability modeling is based on a group of engineering design and biomechanics parameters likely to lead to over-exertion forces and working postures, which are themselves associated with the functioning of a particular plant or pipeline. This approach to construct based on ergonomics and biomechanics for a more common industrial valve positioning in the plant layout is proposed through the development of a methodology to assess physical efforts and operator reach, combining various elementary operations situations. These procedures can be combined with the genetic algorithm modeling and four elements of the man-machine systems: the individual, the task, the machinery and the environment. The proposed methodology should be viewed not as competing to traditional reliability and risk assessment bur rather as complementary, since it provides parameters related to physical efforts values for valves operation and workspace design and usability. (author)

  5. Survey of methodologies for developing media screening values for ecological risk assessment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barron, Mace G; Wharton, Steven R

    2005-11-01

    This review evaluates the methodologies of 13 screening value (SV) compilations that have been commonly used in ecological risk assessment (ERA), including compilations from state and U.S. federal agencies, the Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL), Canada, The Netherlands, and Australia. The majority of surfacewater SVs were primarily derived for the protection of aquatic organisms using 2 approaches: (1) a statistical assessment of toxicity values by species groupings, such as "ambient water quality criteria," or (2) extrapolation of a lowest observed adverse effect level determined from limited toxicity data using an uncertainty factor. Sediment SVs were primarily derived for the protection of benthic invertebrates using 2 approaches: (1) statistical interpretations of databases on the incidence of biological effects and chemical concentrations in sediment, or (2) values derived from equilibrium partitioning based on a surfacewater SV. Soil SVs were derived using a diversity of approaches and were usually based on the lowest value determined from soil toxicity to terrestrial plants or invertebrates and, less frequently, from modeled, incidental soil ingestion or chemical accumulation in terrestrial organisms. The various SV compilations and methodologies had varying levels of conservatism and were not consistent in the pathways and receptors considered in the SV derivation. Many SVs were derived from other compilations and were based on outdated values, or they relied on only older toxicity data. Risk assessors involved in ERA should carefully evaluate the technical basis of SVs and consider the uncertainty in any value used to determine the presence or absence of risk and the need for further assessment.

  6. Factor Analysis in Assessing the Research Methodology Quality of Systematic Reviews

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrada Elena URDA-CÎMPEAN

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Many high quality systematic reviews available from medical journals, data bases and other electronic sources differ in quality and provide different answers to the same question. The literature recommended the use of a checklist type approach, which exceeds many of the problems associated with measurements. Aim: This study proposes to identify in a checklist type approach the most commonly used factors (from a methodological point of view in assessing the quality of systematic reviews, and then mirror the actual stage of medical writing. We want to analyze the factors’ occurrence and / or their development in the text and in the abstract of systematic reviews published in 2011. Methods: The present study randomly selected only free full text systematic reviews published in 2011, systematic reviews found in Pubmed and in Cochrane Database. The most commonly used factors were identified in PRISMA statement and quality measurement tools. Results: The evaluated systematic reviews mentioned or developed several of the factors studied. Only 78% of the papers surveyed have used the correct IMRAD format and 59% of them have mentioned the sample size used. The correspondence between the content of the paper and its abstract is summarized in the proportion of 54.63% and 51.85% for the two sets of factors, and it can lead to scarce appreciation of the article provided that only abstracts are read. Conclusions: Researchers do not properly take into consideration scientific articles and assessment tools used for quality evaluation. They should place more value over methodological factors which help assess systematic review quality, while journals form the only party who can enforce quality standards in medical writing.

  7. Direct potable reuse microbial risk assessment methodology: Sensitivity analysis and application to State log credit allocations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soller, Jeffrey A; Eftim, Sorina E; Nappier, Sharon P

    2018-01-01

    Understanding pathogen risks is a critically important consideration in the design of water treatment, particularly for potable reuse projects. As an extension to our published microbial risk assessment methodology to estimate infection risks associated with Direct Potable Reuse (DPR) treatment train unit process combinations, herein, we (1) provide an updated compilation of pathogen density data in raw wastewater and dose-response models; (2) conduct a series of sensitivity analyses to consider potential risk implications using updated data; (3) evaluate the risks associated with log credit allocations in the United States; and (4) identify reference pathogen reductions needed to consistently meet currently applied benchmark risk levels. Sensitivity analyses illustrated changes in cumulative annual risks estimates, the significance of which depends on the pathogen group driving the risk for a given treatment train. For example, updates to norovirus (NoV) raw wastewater values and use of a NoV dose-response approach, capturing the full range of uncertainty, increased risks associated with one of the treatment trains evaluated, but not the other. Additionally, compared to traditional log-credit allocation approaches, our results indicate that the risk methodology provides more nuanced information about how consistently public health benchmarks are achieved. Our results indicate that viruses need to be reduced by 14 logs or more to consistently achieve currently applied benchmark levels of protection associated with DPR. The refined methodology, updated model inputs, and log credit allocation comparisons will be useful to regulators considering DPR projects and design engineers as they consider which unit treatment processes should be employed for particular projects. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  8. UPC Scaling-up methodology for Deterministic Safety Assessment and Support to Plant Operation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Martínez-Quiroga, V.; Reventós, F.; Batet, Il.

    2015-07-01

    Best Estimate codes along with necessary nodalizations are widely used tools in nuclear engineering for both Deterministic Safety Assessment (DSA) and Support to Plant Operation and Control. In this framework, the application of quality assurance procedures in both codes and nodalizations becomes an essential step prior any significant study. Along these lines the present paper introduces the UPC SCUP, a systematic methodology based on the extrapolation of the Integral Test Facilities (ITF) post-test simulations by means of scaling analyses. In that sense, SCUP fulfills a gap in current nodalization qualification procedures, the related with the validation of NPP nodalizations for Design Basis Accidents conditions. Three are the pillars that support SCUP: judicial selection of the experimental transients, full confidence in the quality of the ITF simulations, and simplicity in justifying discrepancies that appear between ITF and NPP counterpart transients. The techniques that are presented include the socalled Kv scaled calculations as well as the use of two new approaches, ”Hybrid nodalizations” and ”Scaled-up nodalizations”. These last two methods have revealed themselves to be very helpful in producing the required qualification and in promoting further improvements in nodalization. The study of both LSTF and PKL counterpart tests have allowed to qualify the methodology by the comparison with experimental data. Post-test simulations at different sizes allowed to define which phenomena could be well reproduced by system codes and which not, in this way also establishing the basis for the extrapolation to an NPP scaled calculation. Furthermore, the application of the UPC SCUP methodology demonstrated that selected phenomena can be scaled-up and explained between counterpart simulations by carefully considering the differences in scale and design. (Author)

  9. Use of Q methodology to assess the concerns of adult female individuals seeking orthodontic treatment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yao L

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Linjie Yao,1 Xingqiao Xu,2 Zhenyu Ni,3 Minling Zheng,3 Feiou Lin3 1Department of Pedodontics, 2Department of Oral and Maxillofacial Surgery, 3Department of Orthodontics, School and Hospital of Stomatology, Wenzhou Medical University, Wenzhou, People’s Republic of China Background: Orthodontic treatment may cause functional restrictions, discomfort, and pain, which may lead to dental anxiety and noncooperation among patients. This study aimed to assess the concerns of adult female patients with respect to such treatment.Patients and methods: We conducted an explorative study using Q methodology among 40 adult female patients with different educational and social backgrounds in Wenzhou, People’s Republic of China. We asked participants to rank a set of 41 statements about seeking orthodontic treatment on an 11-point scale from “agree most” to “disagree most”. The collected data were analyzed using the PQ Method 2.35 program. We extracted significant viewpoints using centroid factor extraction and varimax rotation.Results: We identified major factors based on how the patients ranked statements. Patients in group 1 worried about lack of information about orthodontic treatment, and may have suffered from dental phobia; patients in group 2 were all single women, and they were worried that the braces might lower their chances of finding a partner; patients in group 3 worried about appearance and speech with braces; and patients in group 4 worried about cost, pain, and dental hygiene. The remaining participants who had other viewpoints did not load to any of these four groups.Conclusion: The concerns of adult female individuals seeking orthodontic treatment are complex. A significant feature of this study was using Q methodology to analyze the psychological characteristics of the patients. This study identified four typical characterizations that are associated with each group, and our findings may aid orthodontists in improving doctor

  10. Designing reasonable accommodation of the workplace: a new methodology based on risk assessment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pigini, L; Andrich, R; Liverani, G; Bucciarelli, P; Occhipinti, E

    2010-05-01

    If working tasks are carried out in inadequate conditions, workers with functional limitations may, over time, risk developing further disabilities. While several validated risk assessment methods exist for able-bodied workers, few studies have been carried out for workers with disabilities. This article, which reports the findings of a Study funded by the Italian Ministry of Labour, proposes a general methodology for the technical and organisational re-design of a worksite, based on risk assessment and irrespective of any worker disability. To this end, a sample of 16 disabled workers, composed of people with either mild or severe motor disabilities, was recruited. Their jobs include business administration (5), computer programmer (1), housewife (1), mechanical worker (2), textile worker (1), bus driver (1), nurse (2), electrical worker (1), teacher (1), warehouseman (1). By using a mix of risk assessment methods and the International Classification of Functioning (ICF) taxonomy, their worksites were re-designed in view of a reasonable accommodation, and prospective evaluation was carried out to check whether the new design would eliminate the risks. In one case - a man with congenital malformations who works as a help-desk operator for technical assistance in the Information and Communication Technology (ICT) department of a big organisation - the accommodation was actually carried out within the time span of the study, thus making it possible to confirm the hypotheses raised in the prospective assessment.

  11. The landscape of systematic reviews in urology (1998 to 2015): an assessment of methodological quality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Han, Julia L; Gandhi, Shreyas; Bockoven, Crystal G; Narayan, Vikram M; Dahm, Philipp

    2017-04-01

    To assess the quality of published systematic reviews in the urology literature (an extension of our previously reported work), as high-quality systematic reviews play a paramount role in informing evidence-based clinical practice. Our focus was on systematic reviews in the urology literature that incorporated questions of prevention and therapy. To identify such reviews published during a 36-month period (2013-2015), we systematically searched PubMed and hand-searched the table of contents of four major urology journals. Two reviewers independently assessed the methodological quality of those reviews, using the 11-point 'Assessment of Multiple Systematic Reviews' (AMSTAR) instrument. We performed protocol-driven analyses of the data from our present study's 36-month period alone, as well as in aggregate with the data from our previously reported work's study periods (2009-2012 and 1998-2008). In our literature search of the 36-month period (2013-2015), we initially identified 490 possibly relevant reviews, of which 125 met our inclusion criteria. The most common topic of reviews for the 2013-2015 period was oncology (51.2%; n = 64), followed by voiding dysfunction (21.6%; n = 27). The mean [standard deviation (SD)] AMSTAR score in the 2013-2015 period (n = 125) was 4.8 (2.4); 2009-2012 (n = 113), 5.4 (2.3); and 1998-2008 (n = 57), 4.8 (2.0) (P = 0.127). In the 2013-2015 period, the mean (SD) AMSTAR score for the BJU International (n = 25) was 5.6 (2.9); for The Journal of Urology (n = 20), 5.1 (2.6); for European Urology (n = 60), 4.5 (2.2); and for Urology (n = 20), 4.4 (2.2) (P = 0.106). The number of systematic reviews published in the urology literature has exponentially increased, year by year, but their methodological quality has stagnated. To enhance the validity and impact of systematic reviews, all authors and editors must apply established methodological standards. © 2016 The Authors BJU International © 2016 BJU International Published by John Wiley

  12. Life cycle assessment of aquaculture systems-a review of methodologies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Henriksson, Patrik J G; Guinée, Jeroen B; Kleijn, René; de Snoo, Geert R

    As capture fishery production has reached its limits and global demand for aquatic products is still increasing, aquaculture has become the world's fastest growing animal production sector. In attempts to evaluate the environmental consequences of this rapid expansion, life cycle assessment (LCA) has become a frequently used method. The present review of current peer-reviewed literature focusing on LCA of aquaculture systems is intended to clarify the methodological choices made, identify possible data gaps, and provide recommendations for future development within this field of research. The results of this review will also serve as a start-up activity of the EU FP7 SEAT (Sustaining Ethical Aquaculture Trade) project, which aims to perform several LCA studies on aquaculture systems in Asia over the next few years. From a full analysis of methodology in LCA, six phases were identified to differ the most amongst ten peer-reviewed articles and two PhD theses (functional unit, system boundaries, data and data quality, allocation, impact assessment methods, interpretation methods). Each phase is discussed with regards to differences amongst the studies, current LCA literature followed by recommendations where appropriate. The conclusions and recommendations section reflects on aquaculture-specific scenarios as well as on some more general issues in LCA. Aquaculture LCAs often require large system boundaries, including fisheries, agriculture, and livestock production systems from around the globe. The reviewed studies offered limited coverage of production in developing countries, low-intensity farming practices, and non-finfish species, although most farmed aquatic products originate from a wide range of farming practices in Asia. Apart from different choices of functional unit, system boundaries and impact assessment methods, the studies also differed in their choice of allocation factors and data sourcing. Interpretation of results also differed amongst the studies

  13. A Methodology for a Comprehensive Probabilistic Tsunami Hazard Assessment: Multiple Sources and Short-Term Interactions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Grezio Anita

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available We propose a methodological approach for a comprehensive and total probabilistic tsunami hazard assessment (TotPTHA, in which many different possible source types concur to the definition of the total tsunami hazard at given target sites. In a multi-hazard and multi-risk perspective, the approach allows us to consider all possible tsunamigenic sources (seismic events, slides, volcanic eruptions, asteroids, etc.. In this respect, we also formally introduce and discuss the treatment of interaction/cascade effects in the TotPTHA analysis and we demonstrate how the triggering events may induce significant temporary variations in short-term analysis of the tsunami hazard. In two target sites (the city of Naples and the island of Ischia in Italy we prove the feasibility of the TotPTHA methodology in the multi—source case considering near submarine seismic sources and submarine mass failures in the study area. The TotPTHA indicated that the tsunami hazard increases significantly by considering both the potential submarine mass failures and the submarine seismic events. Finally, the importance of the source interactions is evaluated by applying a triggering seismic event that causes relevant changes in the short-term TotPTHA.

  14. Novel methodology for assessing biomaterial-biofluid interaction in cancellous bone.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bou-Francis, Antony; Widmer Soyka, René P; Ferguson, Stephen J; Hall, Richard M; Kapur, Nikil

    2015-06-01

    Understanding the cement flow behaviour and accurately predicting the cement placement within the vertebral body is extremely challenging. Vertebral cancellous bone displays highly complex geometrical structures and architectural inhomogeneities over a range of length scales, thus making the scientific understanding of the cement injection behaviour difficult in clinical or cadaveric studies. Previous experimental studies on cement flow have used open-porous aluminum foam to represent osteoporotic bone. Although the porosity was well controlled, the geometrical structure of each of the foams was inherently unique. This paper presents novel methodology using customized, reproducible and pathologically representative three-dimensional bone surrogates to help study biomaterial--biofluid interaction. The aim was to provide a robust tool for comprehensive assessment of biomaterial injection behaviour through controlling the bone surrogate morphology and the injection parameters (i.e. needle gauge, needle placement, flow rate and injected volume), measuring the injection pressure, and allowing the visualization and quantitative analysis of the spreading distribution. This methodology provides a clinically relevant representation of cement flow patterns and a tool for validating computational simulations. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Methodology for reliability based condition assessment. Application to concrete structures in nuclear plants

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mori, Y.; Ellingwood, B. [Johns Hopkins Univ., Baltimore, MD (US). Dept. of Civil Engineering

    1993-08-01

    Structures in nuclear power plants may be exposed to aggressive environmental effects that cause their strength to decrease over an extended period of service. A major concern in evaluating the continued service for such structures is to ensure that in their current condition they are able to withstand future extreme load events during the intended service life with a level of reliability sufficient for public safety. This report describes a methodology to facilitate quantitative assessments of current and future structural reliability and performance of structures in nuclear power plants. This methodology takes into account the nature of past and future loads, and randomness in strength and in degradation resulting from environmental factors. An adaptive Monte Carlo simulation procedure is used to evaluate time-dependent system reliability. The time-dependent reliability is sensitive to the time-varying load characteristics and to the choice of initial strength and strength degradation models but not to correlation in component strengths within a system. Inspection/maintenance strategies are identified that minimize the expected future costs of keeping the failure probability of a structure at or below an established target failure probability during its anticipated service period.

  16. Comparative assessment of CFD Tools and the Eurocode Methodology in describing Externally Venting Flames

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Asimakopoulou Eleni K.

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available The ability of currently available Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD tools to adequately describe Externally Venting Flames (EVF is assessed, aiming to demonstrate compliance with performance-based fire safety regulations. The Fire Dynamics Simulator (FDS CFD tool is used to simulate the EVF characteristics in a corridor-compartment-façade configuration exposed to natural fire conditions. Numerical results of the temporal evolution of gas velocity, gas temperatures and flame shape are obtained for both the interior and the exterior of the compartment. Predictions are compared to respective experimental data, as well as to correlations suggested by the Eurocode methodology. The effects of ventilation conditions are investigated by simulating both Forced Draught (FD and No Forced Draught (NoFD test cases. The obtained results suggest that currently available CFD tools are capable of achieving good qualitative agreement with experimental data and, in certain cases (e.g. FD conditions, adequate quantitative agreement, that generally outperforms the Eurocode prescriptive methodology.

  17. A methodological framework to assess the environmental and economic effects of injection barriers against seawater intrusion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Siarkos, Ilias; Latinopoulos, Dionysis; Mallios, Zisis; Latinopoulos, Pericles

    2017-05-15

    Seawater intrusion is responsible for the progressive deterioration of groundwater quality in numerous coastal aquifers worldwide. As a consequence, seawater intrusion may constitute a serious threat to local groundwater resources, as well as to the regional economy of coastal areas. To alleviate these negative effects, a number of well-designed protective measures could be implemented. The implementation of these measures is usually associated with significant benefits for the environment and the local economy. In this perspective, the present study investigates the particular case of constructing injection barriers for controlling seawater intrusion by developing a methodological framework that combines numerical modeling with spatial and cost-benefit analyses. To this task, we introduce a novel approach, which considers the socio-economic aspects of seawater intrusion in the modeling procedure, and at the same time focuses on the spatial and temporal relationships between water salinity and farmers' income. To test the proposed methodology two alternative artificial recharge scenarios - with different volumes of water used for injection - are assessed. According to the results of this analysis, both scenarios are likely to have a positive impact on groundwater quality, as well as, a net economic benefit to local society. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. Evaluating a methodology for assessing the strategic alignment of a mining company recruitment function

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adelé Janse van Rensburg

    2009-04-01

    Full Text Available In the human capital era, the strategic importance of measurement is unmistakable.  Therefore, the  objective  of  this  study  was  to  qualitatively  evaluate  a  methodology  for  assessing  the strategic alignment of a recruitment function. Persons working in the recruitment best practice community of a mining company were targeted as the case study for this research.  Individual (one-on-one and focus group interviews were conducted to elicit the research data.  Thematic coding was used to identify the emerging themes from the research data.  The findings indicated that  this methodology can be used effectively  to determine  the alignment of  the  recruitment function with the strategic objectives of the company.  However, the bottom line contribution is still unclear.

  19. A New Collaborative Methodology for Assessment and Management of Ecosystem Services

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marina Segura

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Collaborative management is a new framework to help implement programmes in protected areas. Within this context, the aim of this work is twofold. First, to propose a robust methodology to implement collaborative management focused on ecosystem services. Second, to develop indicators for the main functions of ecosystem services. Decision makers, technical staff and other stakeholders are included in the process from the beginning, by identifying ecosystem services and eliciting preferences using the AHP method. Qualitative and quantitative data are then integrated into a PROMETHEE based method in order to obtain indicators for provisioning, maintenance and direct to citizens services. This methodology, which has been applied in a forest area, provides a tool for exploiting available technical and social data in a continuous process, as well as providing easy to understand graphical results. This approach also overcomes the difficulties found in prioritizing management objectives in a multiple criteria context with limited resources and facilitates consensus between all of the people involved. The new indicators define an innovative approach to assessing the ecosystem services from the supply perspective and provide basic information to help establish payment systems for environmental services and compensation for natural disasters.

  20. Evaluation of methodologies for exposure assessment to atmospheric pollutants from a landfill site.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mohan, Richard; Leonardi, Giovanni S; Robins, Alan; Jefferis, Stephan; Coy, Joanne; Wight, Jeremy; Murray, Virginia

    2009-04-01

    Epidemiological studies around landfill sites are limited by several factors, particularly a lack of accurate exposure assessment. Traditionally, exposure estimates are based on distance between place of residence and the landfill site. However, this measure of exposure ignores the effects that environmental factors may have upon exposure. A previous epidemiological study at a landfill site in the United Kingdom provided the basis for a case study to investigate exposure assessment methodologies that could support ongoing and future epidemiological work. Estimation of relative exposure to atmospheric pollutants near the site was refined using the Atmospheric Dispersion Modeling System (ADMS) 3.1. Annual average concentrations were calculated around the landfill site, which was modeled as an area source with a steady release rate over its entire active surface. Local meteorological and terrain data were used in the assessment. A geographical information system (GIS) was then used to link the results of the modeling to population and other data. Sensitivity studies were included to examine the variation of predicted exposure with several modeling assumptions and hence set other uncertainties in context. No simple relationship existed between the relative individual exposure measured by distance from the site and by dispersion modeling. A reassessment of exposure assessment in epidemiological studies around landfill sites was then undertaken with the refined estimates of exposure. This concluded that use of distance from the site as a proxy for exposure could lead to significant exposure misclassification in comparison with exposure assessment using atmospheric dispersion modeling and GIS. The study also indicated that assessment of peak exposure rates (i.e., extreme concentration levels) might be necessary in some epidemiological work. Optimum strategies for increasing the probability of observing effects in the more highly exposed population can be derived by

  1. Report from the ASCE task committee on chimney and stack examination and retrofit. Chimney and stack condition assessment guidelines

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hertlein, B.H. [STS Consultants Ltd., Vernon Hills, IL (United States); Bochicchio, V. [ZBD Constructors Inc., Tampa, FL (United States)

    1999-11-01

    Industrial and Utility chimneys are typically exposed to severe environmental conditions, and sometimes subjected to changes in operating conditions. Extremes of weather and aggressive industrial atmospheres impose unavoidable stresses and can lead to rapid deterioration. Changes in fuel or the installation of flue gas scrubbers change the flue gas temperature and composition, and can create conditions unanticipated by the chimney designer. The purpose of the ASCE Task Committee for Chimney and Stack Examination and Retrofit was to develop a set of guidelines that would aid owners in understanding the issues involved in maintaining these structures, and at the same time ensure that owners, engineers, and contractors alike have a common frame of reference for the work involved. It is anticipated that, by using these guidelines, requests for chimney inspections or assessments can be answered with qualified responses that address the full scope of work required or expected by the owners.

  2. Assessing the impact of a medical librarian on identification of valid and actionable practice gaps for a continuing medical education committee.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bartkowiak, Barbara A; Safford, Lindsey A; Stratman, Erik J

    2014-01-01

    Identifying educational needs related to professional practice gaps can be a complex process for continuing medical education (CME) committees and for physicians who submit activity applications. Medical librarians possess unique skills that may be useful for identifying practice gaps relevant to CME committees. We assessed this assumption by assessing a medical librarian's contributions to practice gap identification for the Marshfield Clinic's CME Committee. We reviewed all locally relevant, locally actionable practice gaps identified annually by various stakeholders and presented to our CME Committee from 2010 to 2013. Total numbers of practice gaps identified, total categorized as actionable, and numbers of subsequent activities resulting from these gaps were calculated for each year. Medical librarian totals were compared to those of other CME committee stakeholders to determine the relative contribution. The medical librarian identified unique, actionable published practice gaps that directly contributed to CME activity planning. For each study year, contributions by the medical librarian grew, from 0 of 27 actionable gaps validated by CME Committee in 2010 to 49 of 108 (45.4%) in 2013. With the librarian's assistance, the number of valid practice gaps submitted between 2010 and 2013 by stakeholders climbed from 23 for 155 activities (14.8%) to 133 for 157 activities (84.7%). Medical librarians can provide a valuable service to CME committees by identifying valid professional practice gaps that inform decisions about educational activities aimed at improving clinical practice. Medical librarians bring into deliberations unique information, including national health policy priorities, practice gaps found in the literature, and point-of-care search engine statistics. © 2014 The Alliance for Continuing Education in the Health Professions, the Society for Academic Continuing Medical Education, and the Council on Continuing Medical Education, Association for

  3. Noise impact assessment methodology for a crude oil pipeline's facilities

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Everton, Pascal [HFP Acoustical Consultants Corp. (Canada)], email: pascal.everton@hfpacoustical.com

    2011-07-01

    The paper focuses on the construction of a crude oil pipeline from Alberta, Canada, to Illinois, USA, and reviews the methodology used to quickly and easily assess the noise emission of each of the 47 pump stations relative to topography, weather, and local regulations, and to predict mitigation costs for each pump. Instead of creating a time-consuming and non-versatile computer noise model for each pump, a spreadsheet tool with graphic user interface was designed, incorporating source noise levels and sound propagation calculations. An order-ranked list of noise sources for each station and noise mitigation corrections were applied, resulting in an easy-to-use, versatile tool, capable of predicting rapidly what noise control corrections are needed for each site. The spreadsheet results were validated by comparing the results with noise model predictions for specific locations. Use of this tool increased flexibility and cost-efficiency and it can be easily reconfigured for similar projects.

  4. Bacteria-material surface interactions: methodological development for the assessment of implant surface induced antibacterial effects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zaborowska, Magdalena; Welch, Ken; Brånemark, Rickard; Khalilpour, Poroshat; Engqvist, Håkan; Thomsen, Peter; Trobos, Margarita

    2015-01-01

    The choice of material for implanted prostheses is of great importance concerning bacterial colonization and biofilm formation. Consequently, methods to investigate bacterial behavior are needed in order to develop new infection resistant surfaces. In this study, different methodological setups were used to evaluate the antimicrobial effect of photocatalytic titanium oxide and silver surfaces. Biofilm formation and eradication under static and dynamic culture conditions were studied with the use of the following analytical techniques: viable colony-forming unit (CFU) counting, imprinting, fluorescence, and bioluminescence. The present study demonstrates that different methods are needed in order to evaluate the prophylactic and treatment effects on planktonic and biofilm bacteria and to assess the antimicrobial effect of different surface treatments/coatings. Choosing the right antibacterial testing model for the specific application is also of great importance. Both in situ approaches and indirect methods provide valuable complementary information. © 2014 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  5. Physiological and methodological aspects of rate of force development assessment in human skeletal muscle

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rodríguez-Rosell, David; Pareja-Blanco, Fernando; Aagaard, Per

    2018-01-01

    Rate of force development (RFD) refers to the ability of the neuromuscular system to increase contractile force from a low or resting level when muscle activation is performed as quickly as possible, and it is considered an important muscle strength parameter, especially for athletes in sports...... requiring high-speed actions. The assessment of RFD has been used for strength diagnosis, to monitor the effects of training interventions in both healthy populations and patients, discriminate high-level athletes from those of lower levels, evaluate the impairment in mechanical muscle function after acute...... bouts of eccentric muscle actions and estimate the degree of fatigue and recovery after acute exhausting exercise. Notably, the evaluation of RFD in human skeletal muscle is a complex task as influenced by numerous distinct methodological factors including mode of contraction, type of instruction...

  6. Using the Simulated Patient Methodology to Assess Paracetamol-Related Counselling for Headache

    Science.gov (United States)

    Horvat, Nejc; Koder, Marko; Kos, Mitja

    2012-01-01

    Objectives Firstly, to assess paracetamol-related counselling. Secondly, to evaluate the patient’s approach as a determinant of counselling and to test the acceptability of the simulated patient method in Slovenian pharmacies. Methods The simulated patient methodology was used in 17 community pharmacies. Three scenarios related to self-medication for headaches were developed and used in all participating pharmacies. Two scenarios were direct product requests: scenario 1: a patient with an uncomplicated short-term headache; scenario 2: a patient with a severe, long-duration headache who takes paracetamol for too long and concurrently drinks alcohol. Scenario 3 was a symptom-based request: a patient asking for medicine for a headache. Pharmacy visits were audio recorded and scored according to predetermined criteria arranged in two categories: counselling content and manner of counselling. The acceptability of the methodology used was evaluated by surveying the participating pharmacists. Results The symptom-based request was scored significantly better (a mean 2.17 out of a possible 4 points) than the direct product requests (means of 1.64 and 0.67 out of a possible 4 points for scenario 1 and 2, respectively). The most common information provided was dosage and adverse effects. Only the symptom-based request stimulated spontaneous counselling. No statistically significant differences in the duration of the consultation between the scenarios were found. There were also no significant differences in the quality of counselling between the Masters of Pharmacy and Pharmacy Technicians. The acceptability of the SP method was not as high as in other countries. Conclusion The assessment of paracetamol-related counselling demonstrates room for practice improvement. PMID:23300691

  7. Assessing Freshwater Ecosystem Service Risk over Ecological, Socioeconomic, and Cultural Gradients: Problem Space Characterization and Methodology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harmon, T. C.; Villamizar, S. R.; Conde, D.; Rusak, J.; Reid, B.; Astorga, A.; Perillo, G. M.; Piccolo, M. C.; Zilio, M.; London, S.; Velez, M.; Hoyos, N.; Escobar, J.

    2014-12-01

    Freshwater ecosystems and the services they provide are under increasing anthropogenic pressure at local (e.g., irrigation diversions, wastewater discharge) and global scales (e.g., climate change, global trading). The impact depends on an ecosystem's sensitivity, which is determined by its geophysical and ecological settings, and the population and activities in its surrounding watershed. Given the importance of ecosystem services, it is critical that we improve our ability to identify and understand changes in aquatic ecosystems, and translate them to risk of service loss. Furthermore, to inspire changes in human behavior, it is equally critical that we learn to communicate risk, and pose risk mitigation strategies, in a manner acceptable to a broad spectrum of stakeholders. Quantifying the nature and timing of the risk is difficult because (1) we often fail to understand the connection between anthropogenic pressures and the timing and extent of ecosystem changes; and (2) the concept of risk is inherently coupled to human perception, which generally differs with cultural and socio-economic conditions. In this study, we endeavor to assess aquatic ecosystem risks across an international array of six study sites. The challenge is to construct a methodology capable of capturing the marked biogeographical, socioeconomic, and cultural differences among the sites, which include: (1) Muskoka River watershed in humid continental Ontario, Canada; (2) Lower San Joaquin River, an impounded snow-fed river in semi-arid Central California; (3) Ciénaga Grande de Santa Marta, a tropical coastal lagoon in Colombia; (4) Senguer River basin in the semi-arid part of Argentina; (5) Laguna de Rocha watershed in humid subtropical Uruguay; and (6) Palomas Lake complex in oceanic Chilean Patagonia. Results will include a characterization of the experimental gradient over the six sites, an overview of the risk assessment methodology, and preliminary findings for several of the sites.

  8. LAVA (Los Alamos Vulnerability and Risk Assessment Methodology): A conceptual framework for automated risk analysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Smith, S.T.; Lim, J.J.; Phillips, J.R.; Tisinger, R.M.; Brown, D.C.; FitzGerald, P.D.

    1986-01-01

    At Los Alamos National Laboratory, we have developed an original methodology for performing risk analyses on subject systems characterized by a general set of asset categories, a general spectrum of threats, a definable system-specific set of safeguards protecting the assets from the threats, and a general set of outcomes resulting from threats exploiting weaknesses in the safeguards system. The Los Alamos Vulnerability and Risk Assessment Methodology (LAVA) models complex systems having large amounts of ''soft'' information about both the system itself and occurrences related to the system. Its structure lends itself well to automation on a portable computer, making it possible to analyze numerous similar but geographically separated installations consistently and in as much depth as the subject system warrants. LAVA is based on hierarchical systems theory, event trees, fuzzy sets, natural-language processing, decision theory, and utility theory. LAVA's framework is a hierarchical set of fuzzy event trees that relate the results of several embedded (or sub-) analyses: a vulnerability assessment providing information about the presence and efficacy of system safeguards, a threat analysis providing information about static (background) and dynamic (changing) threat components coupled with an analysis of asset ''attractiveness'' to the dynamic threat, and a consequence analysis providing information about the outcome spectrum's severity measures and impact values. By using LAVA, we have modeled our widely used computer security application as well as LAVA/CS systems for physical protection, transborder data flow, contract awards, and property management. It is presently being applied for modeling risk management in embedded systems, survivability systems, and weapons systems security. LAVA is especially effective in modeling subject systems that include a large human component.

  9. [Health impact assessment methodology for urban planning projects in Andalusia (Spain)].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moya-Ruano, Luis A; Candau-Bejarano, Ana; Rodríguez-Rasero, Francisco J; Ruiz-Fernández, Josefa; Vela-Ríos, José

    To describe the tool developed in Andalusia (Spain) to conduct an analysis and prospective assessment of health impacts from urban planning projects as well as the process followed to design it. On the one hand, direct and indirect relationships between urban setting and health were identified in light of the best scientific evidence available; and, on the other hand, methods and tools in impact assessment were reviewed. After the design of the tool, it was tested via both internal and external validation processes (meetings, workshops and interviews with key informants). The tool consists of seven phases, structured in two stages. A first descriptive stage shows how to obtain information about goals, objectives and general points pertaining the project and also to characterise the potentially affected population. The second one indicates, in several phases, how to identify and sort out potential impacts from the project using different supporting tools. Both in the testing phase and through its implementation since the entry into force of Andalusian Decree 169/2014 (16 June 2015) and forced all urban planning projects to be subjected to an Health Impact Assessment, this methodology has proved responsive, identifying major potential health impacts from the measures included in those projects. However, the tool has been shaped as a living tool and will be adapted in line with the experience acquired in its use. Copyright © 2017. Publicado por Elsevier España, S.L.U.

  10. Theoretical and Methodological Aspects of Assessment of the Adaptation Potential of Personnel

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sesina Iryna M.

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available The article is devoted to development of theoretical and methodological recommendations with respect to assessment of the adaptation potential of employees as an important prerequisite of development of employees and ensuring competitiveness of an enterprise. It contains the author’s interpretation of the adaptation potential as a possibility of adjusting to the environment with the aim of achieving socio-economic goals of an enterprise. Adaptation potential is a property of a person as a performer of labour functions and ability to master new methods of work, adjustment to new labour conditions, processing of information and also a communicative property. At the same time adaptation potential is an aggregate of motivational, professional, information and integration components of a person. For assessing the adaptation potential it is proposed to combine 360 degrees method and method of paired comparison, which facilitates increase of trustworthiness of results. The author marks out some criteria of assessment of the adaptation potential: ratio of professional experience, ratio of official experience, ratio of efficiency of work, independence in mastering new methods of work, fast adjustment to new labour conditions, ability to quickly process big volumes of information, mobility, high level of productivity under different labour conditions, sharpness of wit in different production situations, ability to form interpersonal relations in a collective and psychological features.

  11. An accelerometry-based methodology for assessment of real-world bilateral upper extremity activity.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ryan R Bailey

    Full Text Available The use of both upper extremities (UE is necessary for the completion of many everyday tasks. Few clinical assessments measure the abilities of the UEs to work together; rather, they assess unilateral function and compare it between affected and unaffected UEs. Furthermore, clinical assessments are unable to measure function that occurs in the real-world, outside the clinic. This study examines the validity of an innovative approach to assess real-world bilateral UE activity using accelerometry.Seventy-four neurologically intact adults completed ten tasks (donning/doffing shoes, grooming, stacking boxes, cutting playdough, folding towels, writing, unilateral sorting, bilateral sorting, unilateral typing, and bilateral typing while wearing accelerometers on both wrists. Two variables, the Bilateral Magnitude and Magnitude Ratio, were derived from accelerometry data to distinguish between high- and low-intensity tasks, and between bilateral and unilateral tasks. Estimated energy expenditure and time spent in simultaneous UE activity for each task were also calculated.The Bilateral Magnitude distinguished between high- and low-intensity tasks, and the Magnitude Ratio distinguished between unilateral and bilateral UE tasks. The Bilateral Magnitude was strongly correlated with estimated energy expenditure (ρ = 0.74, p<0.02, and the Magnitude Ratio was strongly correlated with time spent in simultaneous UE activity (ρ = 0.93, p<0.01 across tasks.These results demonstrate face validity and construct validity of this methodology to quantify bilateral UE activity during the performance of everyday tasks performed in a laboratory setting, and can now be used to assess bilateral UE activity in real-world environments.

  12. The KULTURisk Regional Risk Assessment methodology for water-related natural hazards - Part 1: Physical-environmental assessment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ronco, P.; Gallina, V.; Torresan, S.; Zabeo, A.; Semenzin, E.; Critto, A.; Marcomini, A.

    2014-12-01

    In recent years, the frequency of catastrophes induced by natural hazards has increased, and flood events in particular have been recognized as one of the most threatening water-related disasters. Severe floods have occurred in Europe over the last decade, causing loss of life, displacement of people and heavy economic losses. Flood disasters are growing in frequency as a consequence of many factors, both climatic and non-climatic. Indeed, the current increase of water-related disasters can be mainly attributed to the increase of exposure (elements potentially at risk in flood-prone area) and vulnerability (i.e. economic, social, geographic, cultural and physical/environmental characteristics of the exposure). Besides these factors, the undeniable effect of climate change is projected to strongly modify the usual pattern of the hydrological cycle by intensifying the frequency and severity of flood events at the local, regional and global scale. Within this context, the need for developing effective and pro-active strategies, tools and actions which allow one to assess and (possibly) to reduce the flood risks that threatens different relevant receptors becomes urgent. Several methodologies to assess the risk posed by water-related natural hazards have been proposed so far, but very few of them can be adopted to implement the last European Flood Directive (FD). This paper is intended to introduce and present a state-of-the-art Regional Risk Assessment (RRA) methodology to appraise the risk posed by floods from a physical-environmental perspective. The methodology, developed within the recently completed FP7-KULTURisk Project (Knowledge-based approach to develop a cULTUre of Risk prevention - KR) is flexible and can be adapted to different case studies (i.e. plain rivers, mountain torrents, urban and coastal areas) and spatial scales (i.e. from catchment to the urban scale). The FD compliant KR-RRA methodology is based on the concept of risk being function of hazard

  13. Critical assessment of jet erosion test methodologies for cohesive soil and sediment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karamigolbaghi, Maliheh; Ghaneeizad, Seyed Mohammad; Atkinson, Joseph F.; Bennett, Sean J.; Wells, Robert R.

    2017-10-01

    The submerged Jet Erosion Test (JET) is a commonly used technique to assess the erodibility of cohesive soil. Employing a linear excess shear stress equation and impinging jet theory, simple numerical methods have been developed to analyze data collected using a JET to determine the critical shear stress and erodibility coefficient of soil. These include the Blaisdell, Iterative, and Scour Depth Methods, and all have been organized into easy to use spreadsheet routines. The analytical framework of the JET and its associated methods, however, are based on many assumptions that may not be satisfied in field and laboratory settings. The main objective of this study is to critically assess this analytical framework and these methodologies. Part of this assessment is to include the effect of flow confinement on the JET. The possible relationship between the derived erodibility coefficient and critical shear stress, a practical tool in soil erosion assessment, is examined, and a review of the deficiencies in the JET methodology also is presented. Using a large database of JET results from the United States and data from literature, it is shown that each method can generate an acceptable curve fit through the scour depth measurements as a function of time. The analysis shows, however, that the Scour Depth and Iterative Methods may result in physically unrealistic values for the erosion parameters. The effect of flow confinement of the impinging jet increases the derived critical shear stress and decreases the erodibility coefficient by a factor of 2.4 relative to unconfined flow assumption. For a given critical shear stress, the length of time over which scour depth data are collected also affects the calculation of erosion parameters. In general, there is a lack of consensus relating the derived soil erodibility coefficient to the derived critical shear stress. Although empirical relationships are statistically significant, the calculated erodibility coefficient for a

  14. Human error risk management for engineering systems: a methodology for design, safety assessment, accident investigation and training

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cacciabue, P.C

    2004-02-01

    The objective of this paper is to tackle methodological issues associated with the inclusion of cognitive and dynamic considerations into Human Reliability methods. A methodology called Human Error Risk Management for Engineering Systems is presented that offers a 'roadmap' for selecting and consistently applying Human Factors approaches in different areas of application and contains also a 'body' of possible methods and techniques of its own. Two types of possible application are discussed to demonstrate practical applications of the methodology. Specific attention is dedicated to the issue of data collection and definition from specific field assessment.

  15. Development of a methodological tool for the assessment of the hydromorphological conditions of lakes in Europe

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gay, Aurore; Argillier, Christine; Reynaud, Nathalie; Nicolas, Delphine; Baudoin, Jean-Marc

    2017-04-01

    The assessment of the ecological status of surface waters considering the biological, physico-chemical and hydromorphological conditions is requested by the European Water Framework Directive (WFD). If research efforts have particularly concentrated on rivers, lakes have yet received less attention. Nevertheless, due to their function of receptacles of inland waters, the habitats they provide to an important biodiversity and the numerous services they support (water supply, recreational activities, hydroelectricity), assessing the ecological quality of lakes becomes crucial for their protection. Still, this task remains challenging, especially considering the hydromorphological compartments. Indeed, while promising tools already exist to assess the lake biological and physico-chemical status, our comprehension of the impact of hydromophological impairments on the global ecosystem functioning remains poor and existing tools to assess such impacts often focus only on morphological aspects and in a qualitative rather than quantitative way. In this context, our study aims at providing stakeholders with a methodology to assess quantitatively the hydrological and morphological quality of lakes in Europe. The developed methodology, LAKe HYdromorphological Conditions tool (LAKHYC tool) is based on our current knowledge of the functioning of lakes and pre-existing works (e.g., Rowan et al., 2012; Rinaldi et al., 2013). The LAKHYC tool integrates the six parameters requested by the WFD, each one being assessed by at least three descriptors that are calculated as Ecological Quality Ratios, i.e. as the deviation from a reference condition. The originality of the present method lies in the fact that specific reference conditions are defined for each descriptor. In this way, we avoid using a predetermined set of lakes considered as not impacted by human activities and which often corresponds to natural lakes in specific areas (e.g., mountains) and do not represent the diversity

  16. Overall Assessment of Human Research and Ethics Committees in the United Arab Emirates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abdulrahman, Mahera; Nair, Satish Chandrasekhar

    2017-04-01

    Growing demand for human health research in the United Arab Emirates (UAE) has prompted the need to develop a robust research ethics oversight. Examination of the structure, function, and practices of the human research ethics committees (HRECs), followed by evaluation of standards for measuring research output, was conducted. Results indicate that among the HRECs, 90% followed International Council for Harmonization-Good Clinical Practice guidelines, 66.6% have been in operation for more than 5 years, 95% reviewed proposals within 8 weeks, and 56% reviewed for scientific merit apart from ethics. However, systems to recognize accomplishments of researchers, funding transparency, and adverse event reporting were deployed in less than 30% of all HRECs. Research was incorporated into the vision and mission statements of many (65%) organizations. Research publications, collaborations, and recognitions were used to measure research output and report key performance indicators. In spite, resources to generate research output such as dedicated budget (20%), support staff (20%), and continuous training and mentoring program for medical residents (15%) and HREC members (25%) were somehow lacking. HREC structure and operations in the UAE are similar to other regions of the world. Systems to conduct research and report outcomes are defined in the UAE. Regulatory legislation and allocation of resources to support the clinical research enterprise will not only help to meet growing demand for clinical trials but also transform the quality of patient care in the UAE. It is anticipated that the results of this study will benefit investigators, regulators, pharmaceutical sponsors, and the policy makers in the region.

  17. Towards an Assessment Methodology to Support Decision Making for Sustainable Electronic Waste Management Systems: Automatic Sorting Technology

    OpenAIRE

    Ilaria Barletta; Jon Larborn; Mahesh Mani; Björn Johannson

    2016-01-01

    There is a lack of structured methodologies to support stakeholders in accessing the sustainability aspects for e-waste management. Moreover, the increasing volume of electronic waste (e-waste) and the availability of automated e-waste treatment solutions demand frequent reconfigurations of facilities for efficient e-waste management. To fill this gap and guide such ongoing developments, this paper proposes a novel methodological framework to enable the assessing, visualizing and comparing of...

  18. ARAMIS project : Accidental Risk Assessment Methodology for IndustrieS in the framework of SEVESO II directive

    OpenAIRE

    Hourtolou, David; Salvi, Olivier

    2002-01-01

    International audience; This paper presents the ARAMIS project accepted for funding in the 5th Framework Programme of the European Commission, which started on January 2002. The ARAMIS project aims at developing a new risk assessment methodology which allows to evaluate the risk level of an industrial plant by taking into account prevention measures against major accidents and the vulnerability of its environment. The methodology will support the harmonised implementation of the SEVESO II Dir...

  19. EU-Project ARAMIS (Accidental Risk Assessment Methodology for Industries in the framework of the SEVESO II directive)

    OpenAIRE

    Salvi, Olivier

    2005-01-01

    International audience; ARAMIS overall objective is to build up a new Accidental Risk Assessment Methodology for Industries that combines the strengths of both deterministic and risk-based approaches. This paper intends to summarise the major features of the methodology and to show how the needs of ARAMIS potential users were addressed. In a second part, the objectives of the case studies that are presently under progress will be discussed.

  20. Self-evaluation of ethical review committees functioning at Foundation University Medical College (FUMC) through structured constitution-practice-outcome (CPO) assessment model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahsin, Sadia; Naghma Saeed, Gul E

    2017-01-01

    To assess the operational efficiency of the ethical review committee of a medical college. This study was conducted at the Foundation University Medical College, Islamabad, Pakistan, from 2012 to 2014. On the basis of literature review, methods for assessment of various features of ethical review committee were studied. A constitution-practice-outcome measurement model for evaluation of ethical review committee assessment process was developed. Data submitted to ethical review committee since its constitution was extracted and quantitatively analysed. The ethical review committee comprised 14 members, including 4(28.6%) permanent and 10(71.4%) rotating clinical, basic sciences and non-medical members. As many as 45 research protocols were submitted, with submission frequency of 8(17.8%), 12(26.7%) and 25(55.5%) per year respectively, and issued ethical approval certificates within a mean duration of 7.2±3.2 days from the time of first submission to final notification. Issues looked into were according to World Health Organisation guidelines. Standard review was done on 29(64.4%) studies and expedited on 16(35.5%). In addition, 24(53.3%) protocols needed resubmission. Only 2(4.4%) protocols were not approved. The number of issues raised for resubmission was 71. Main reasons for resubmission were found to be incomplete documents 26(36.6%), invalid informed consent forms 12(16.9%) and negligence in maintaining confidentiality of study participants 9(12.7%). Ethical review committee with its limited resources was fulfilling its founding objectives as depicted by constitution-practice-outcome model.

  1. PRACTICAL ASPECTS OF OSAI METHODOLOGY IN ASSESSING THE ORGANIZATIONAL CULTURE OF AN ENGINEERING COMPANY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aleksandra Biletskaya

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available This article is intended to generalize and highlight the practical application of certain science-based approaches to assessment of an engineering company’s organizational culture. The OSAI method application has enabled determining the type of the organizational culture existing within a company and the desirable type thereof, i.e. the one which would produce a positive effect on the competitive status of a company, as well as on the utilization of its human resources. This is important because an appropriate level of the organizational culture within a company would enhance the psychological climate within a company and would provide an opportunity for improving its performance. Methodology. In order to attain the goal of our research, it is necessary to diagnose the type of the organizational culture of some selected companies and draw a conclusion as to amendment of their organizational culture. In order to ensure the successful outcome of the corporate organizational culture diagnosing procedure, let us use the OSAI tool to determine the foundation of such culture. This organizational culture assessment tool helps to define the organizational culture which members of a company are to achieve in order to meet the demands and to respond to the dynamic changes in the business environment. The results showed that the assessment of organizational culture using the method made it possible to determine the OSAI required type of organizational culture on the test plants. Practical implications. Definition of recommendation type of organizational culture has enabled the leadership to change the style of his behavior and better motivate the labor collective. Pay attention to the existing problems and improve the psychological atmosphere in the team, as well as improve the efficiency of plant personnel. Value/originality. The data obtained for the four businesses lead to the conclusion that it is the method of evaluation the optimum procedure for

  2. Assessing changes in high school students' environmental decision-making skills: Some methodological contributions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Switzer, Anne C.

    In this study, I developed three methods for the assessment of high-school students' environmental decision-making skills. The three methods were developed based on perspectives of decision-making expertise in psychology and are named Satisfying Results, Coherence, and Process Decomposition . Satisfying Results looked directly at the choices students made. Coherence looked at the match between students' choices and their values, and Satisfying Results focused on individual steps of decision-making, with my focus being consequential thinking. With these three methods. I examined changes in 172 secondary students' environmental decision-making skills. The students in the sample studied the first unit of Investigations in Environmental Science: A Case-Based Approach to the Study of Environmental Science (CASES), a curriculum designed for grades 9-12. Integrated with the science content in CASES, students were introduced to the Stakeholder-Consequences Decision Making (SCDM) process. I pre- and post-tested students who experienced the first out of three units of CASES. I used the New Ecological Paradigm scale to look at students' values, as that was necessary for the Coherence perspective. The students' results varied with the decision-making perspective as well as with instruction of two CASES teachers. Relative to instruction, classroom management and the values exemplified by the teacher were examined. The overall results reflect that the assessment methods were able to detect positive gains based on particular goals that CASES stated for teaching environmental decision-making. Specifically, there was evidence of progress with both the "Coherence" and "Process Decomposition" results, which were goals of CASES. The methodology used in this study may be useful for grounding future studies of students' decision-making skills. In particular, the methods developed here can be utilized for matching assessment methods to teaching goals, as well as to entering the realm of

  3. Scenario Methodology for Modelling of Future Landscape Developments as Basis for Assessing Ecosystem Services

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Matthias Rosenberg

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available The ecosystems of our intensively used European landscapes produce a variety of natural goods and services for the benefit of humankind, and secure the basics and quality of life. Because these ecosystems are still undergoing fundamental changes, the interest of the society is to know more about future developments and their ecological impacts. To describe and analyze these changes, scenarios can be developed and an assessment of the ecological changes can be carried out subsequently. In the project „Landscape Saxony 2050“; a methodology for the construction of exploratory scenarios was worked out. The presented methodology provides a possibility to identify the driving forces (socio-cultural, economic and ecological conditions of the landscape development. It allows to indicate possible future paths which lead to a change of structures and processes in the landscape and can influence the capability to provide ecosystem services. One essential component of the applied technique is that an approach for the assessment of the effects of the landscape changes on ecosystem services is integrated into the developed scenario methodology. Another is, that the methodology is strong designed as participatory, i.e. stakeholders are integrated actively. The method is a seven phase model which provides the option for the integration of the stakeholders‘ participation at all levels of scenario development. The scenario framework was applied to the district of Görlitz, an area of 2100 sq km located at the eastern border of Germany. The region is affected by strong demographic as well as economic changes. The core issue focused on the examination of landscape change in terms of biodiversity. Together with stakeholders, a trend scenario and two alternative scenarios were developed. The changes of the landscape structure are represented in story lines, maps and tables. On basis of the driving forces of the issue areas „cultural / social values“ and

  4. A methodology for texture feature-based quality assessment in nucleus segmentation of histopathology image

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Si Wen

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Context: Image segmentation pipelines often are sensitive to algorithm input parameters. Algorithm parameters optimized for a set of images do not necessarily produce good-quality-segmentation results for other images. Even within an image, some regions may not be well segmented due to a number of factors, including multiple pieces of tissue with distinct characteristics, differences in staining of the tissue, normal versus tumor regions, and tumor heterogeneity. Evaluation of quality of segmentation results is an important step in image analysis. It is very labor intensive to do quality assessment manually with large image datasets because a whole-slide tissue image may have hundreds of thousands of nuclei. Semi-automatic mechanisms are needed to assist researchers and application developers to detect image regions with bad segmentations efficiently. Aims: Our goal is to develop and evaluate a machine-learning-based semi-automated workflow to assess quality of nucleus segmentation results in a large set of whole-slide tissue images. Methods: We propose a quality control methodology, in which machine-learning algorithms are trained with image intensity and texture features to produce a classification model. This model is applied to image patches in a whole-slide tissue image to predict the quality of nucleus segmentation in each patch. The training step of our methodology involves the selection and labeling of regions by a pathologist in a set of images to create the training dataset. The image regions are partitioned into patches. A set of intensity and texture features is computed for each patch. A classifier is trained with the features and the labels assigned by the pathologist. At the end of this process, a classification model is generated. The classification step applies the classification model to unlabeled test images. Each test image is partitioned into patches. The classification model is applied to each patch to predict the patch

  5. A study to assess completeness of project application forms submitted to Institutional Ethics Committees (IEC of a tertiary care hospital

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yashashri C Shetty

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Objectives: To review Ethics Committee (EC application forms and to find out similarities and differences in content of five ECs forms in India. Materials and Methods: The completeness of EC application forms was assessed on the following themes: title, study team, sponsor responsibility, scientific aspects, patient safety, regulatory permissions, Informed consent process from 2008-2009. Application forms (available online of 5 ECs were studied and compared. Results: A total of 445 application forms were analyzed, 382 were academic, 63 were sponsored. The common deficiencies in academic studies were inappropriate titles (25.13%, lack of budget details (90%. More than 95% studies had not mentioned the method of recruitment. The issue of vulnerability was not marked in more than 50% of studies. Compensation for participation/injury was poorly stated in academic (99% studies. Among industry sponsored studies, 98% were compliant with regulatory permissions and 41% were CTRI registered. The information pertaining to Informed Consent was mentioned in all forms. Comparative analysis of application forms of 5 ECs showed that the requirements for submission were similar except 1-2 ECs asked for additional information like percentage of time allotted by investigator for studies, GCP training of study team, certification by investigator regarding accuracy of local versions of Informed consent. Conclusion: Our study recommends that increased awareness and vigilance by investigators of academic studies regarding submission of applications to EC will increase efficiency and speed of review process. A common application form for all ECs across India would be an important step to achieve uniformity in functioning of ethics committees.

  6. Nanoparticle analysis and characterization methodologies in environmental risk assessment of engineered nanoparticles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hassellöv, Martin; Readman, James W; Ranville, James F; Tiede, Karen

    2008-07-01

    Environmental risk assessments of engineered nanoparticles require thorough characterization of nanoparticles and their aggregates. Furthermore, quantitative analytical methods are required to determine environmental concentrations and enable both effect and exposure assessments. Many methods still need optimization and development, especially for new types of nanoparticles in water, but extensive experience can be gained from the fields of environmental chemistry of natural nanomaterials and from fundamental colloid chemistry. This review briefly describes most methods that are being exploited in nanoecotoxicology for analysis and characterization of nanomaterials. Methodological aspects are discussed in relation to the fields of nanometrology, particle size analysis and analytical chemistry. Differences in both the type of size measures (length, radius, aspect ratio, etc.), and the type of average or distributions afforded by the specific measures are compared. The strengths of single particle methods, such as electron microscopy and atomic force microscopy, with respect to imaging, shape determinations and application to particle process studies are discussed, together with their limitations in terms of counting statistics and sample preparation. Methods based on the measurement of particle populations are discussed in terms of their quantitative analyses, but the necessity of knowing their limitations in size range and concentration range is also considered. The advantage of combining complementary methods is highlighted.

  7. Environmental Impact Assessment--methodology with special emphasis on European pork production.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reckmann, K; Traulsen, I; Krieter, J

    2012-09-30

    One of the most discussed topics worldwide is climate change, upon which livestock production is known to have a great environmental impact. There are different methods to measure these environmental impacts, some of which are mentioned in this review. It especially focuses on the method of Life Cycle Assessment (LCA), because it is widely used, of high relevance and good quality. This review highlights a sample of the few published European LCA studies on pork production. These assessments result in an average global warming potential of 3.6 kg CO(2)- eq per kg pork, ranging from 2.6 to 6.3 kg CO(2)- eq per kg pork. Additionally, it illustrates the main limitations of the methodology itself (e.g. data intensiveness, different allocation techniques) and its application in pork production (e.g. limited data availability, use of multiple functional units, varying system boundaries). The missing comparability of various studies arising from a vague standard still represents the main problem in LCA. Therefore, a new standardisation and the development of a more exhaustive database would generate a future trend. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. METHODOLOGY FOR ASSESSING THE ENVIRONMENTAL SUSTAINABILITY OF MILK-PRODUCING FARMS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Claudete Rempel

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this paper is to present a methodology for assessing the environmental sustainability of milk-producing farms, which consists of a set of spreadsheets (MS-Excel platform comprising nine parameters (waste disposal, water sources, environmentally protected area, legal reserve, use of pesticides and fertilizers, property slope gradient, erosion, forest fires and land uses sub-divided into 13 sub-parameters. From these indicators, weighing matrices were constructed with sub-parameters, in which quantitative data obtained in field and laboratory were transformed into impact indices, numerically expressed. This proposal was developed and applied as a pilot project on four dairy farms in the municipality of Arroio do Meio/RS/BRAZIL, where field diagnosis, map use and land cover designs and the construction of an environmental sustainability index were carried out. The environmental assessment allows the producer/administrator to determine which attributes of the activity may be inconsistent with sustainability and the decision-maker to have an indication of measures to promote or control the activities according to local development plans; moreover, it provides an objective unit to measure the impact so as to assist in the qualification and certification of agricultural activities.

  9. Assessing the benefits of stereoscopic displays to visual search: methodology and initial findings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Godwin, Hayward J.; Holliman, Nick S.; Menneer, Tamaryn; Liversedge, Simon P.; Cave, Kyle R.; Donnelly, Nicholas

    2015-03-01

    Visual search is a task that is carried out in a number of important security and health related scenarios (e.g., X-ray baggage screening, radiography). With recent and ongoing developments in the technology available to present images to observers in stereoscopic depth, there has been increasing interest in assessing whether depth information can be used in complex search tasks to improve search performance. Here we outline the methodology that we developed, along with both software and hardware information, in order to assess visual search performance in complex, overlapping stimuli that also contained depth information. In doing so, our goal is to foster further research along these lines in the future. We also provide an overview with initial results of the experiments that we have conducted involving participants searching stimuli that contain overlapping objects presented on different depth planes to one another. Thus far, we have found that depth information does improve the speed (but not accuracy) of search, but only when the stimuli are highly complex and contain a significant degree of overlap. Depth information may therefore aid real-world search tasks that involve the examination of complex, overlapping stimuli.

  10. A Methodology to Assess the Water Energy Food Ecosystems Nexus in Transboundary River Basins

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lucia de Strasser

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available The “nexus” is a potentially very appropriate approach to enhance resource efficiency and good governance in transboundary basins. Until now, however, evidence has been confined to isolated case studies and the nexus approach remains largely undefined. The methodology presented in this paper, developed for preparing a series of nexus assessments of selected river basins under the Water Convention of the United Nations Economic Commission for Europe (UNECE, is a timely contribution to this ongoing debate. The nexus assessment of a transboundary basin has the objective of identifying trade-offs and impacts across sectors and countries and to propose possible policy measures and technical actions at national and transboundary levels to reduce intersectoral tensions. This is done jointly with policy makers and local experts. Compared to an Integrated Water Resource Management approach, the water energy food ecosystems nexus approach concurrently considers multiple sectors and their evolution. This offers the opportunity to better involve key economic sectors—energy and agriculture in particular—in the dialogue over transboundary water resource uses, protection and management.

  11. Drug assessment by a Pharmacy and Therapeutics committee: from drug selection criteria to use in clinical practice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lozano-Blázquez A

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Ana Lozano-Blázquez,1 Cecilia Calvo-Pita,2 Mónica Carbajales-Álvarez,1 Patricio Suárez-Gil,3 Fernando Martínez-Martínez,4 Miguel Ángel Calleja-Hernández51Pharmacy Department, Hospital de Cabueñes, Gijón, Spain; 2Pharmacy Department, Primary Health Care, Servicio Madrileño de Salud, Dirección Asistencial Oeste, Madrid, Spain; 3Research Unit Área V, Hospital de Cabueñes, Gijón, Spain; 4Responsable del Grupo de Investigación en Atención Farmacéutica, Universidad de Granada, 5UGC Provincial de Farmacia de Granada Instituto de Biomedicina de Granada, Hospital Virgen de las Nieves, Granada, SpainBackground: In Spain, hospital medicines are assessed and selected by local Pharmacy and Therapeutics committees (PTCs. Of all the drugs assessed, cancer drugs are particularly important because of their budgetary impact and the sometimes arguable added value with respect to existing alternatives. This study analyzed the PTC drug selection process and the main objective was to evaluate the degree of compliance of prescriptions for oncology drugs with their criteria for use.Methods: This was a retrospective observational study (May 2007 to April 2010 of PTC-assessed drugs. The variables measured to describe the committee's activity were number of drugs assessed per year and number of drugs included in any of these settings: without restrictions, with criteria for use, and not included in formulary. These drugs were also analyzed by therapeutic group. To assess the degree of compliance of prescriptions, a score was calculated to determine whether prescriptions for bevacizumab, cetuximab, trastuzumab, and bortezomib were issued in accordance with PTC drug use criteria.Results: The PTC received requests for inclusion of 40 drugs, of which 32 were included in the hospital formulary (80.0%. Criteria for use were established for 28 (87.5% of the drugs included. In total, 293 patients were treated with the four cancer drugs in eight different

  12. Development of probabilistic risk assessment methodology against extreme snow for sodium-cooled fast reactor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yamano, Hidemasa, E-mail: yamano.hidemasa@jaea.go.jp; Nishino, Hiroyuki; Kurisaka, Kenichi

    2016-11-15

    Highlights: • Snow PRA methodology was developed. • Snow hazard category was defined as the combination of daily snowfall depth (speed) and snowfall duration. • Failure probability models of snow removal action, manual operation of the air cooler dampers and the access route were developed. • Snow PRA showed less than 10{sup −6}/reactor-year of core damage frequency. - Abstract: This paper describes snow probabilistic risk assessment (PRA) methodology development through external hazard and event sequence evaluations mainly in terms of decay heat removal (DHR) function of a sodium-cooled fast reactor (SFR). Using recent 50-year weather data at a typical Japanese SFR site, snow hazard categories were set for the combination of daily snowfall depth (snowfall speed) and snowfall duration which can be calculated by dividing the snow depth by the snowfall speed. For each snow hazard category, the event sequence was evaluated by event trees which consist of several headings representing the loss of DHR. Snow removal action and manual operation of the air cooler dampers were introduced into the event trees as accident managements. Access route failure probability model was also developed for the quantification of the event tree. In this paper, the snow PRA showed less than 10{sup −6}/reactor-year of core damage frequency. The dominant snow hazard category was the combination of 1–2 m/day of snowfall speed and 0.5–0.75 day of snowfall duration. Importance and sensitivity analyses indicated a high risk contribution of the securing of the access routes.

  13. Assessment of critical minerals: Updated application of an early-warning screening methodology

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCullough, Erin; Nassar, Nedal

    2017-01-01

    Increasing reliance on non-renewable mineral resources reinforces the need for identifying potential supply constraints before they occur. The US National Science and Technology Council recently released a report that outlines a methodology for screening potentially critical minerals based on three indicators: supply risk (R), production growth (G), and market dynamics (M). This early-warning screening was initially applied to 78 minerals across the years 1996 to 2013 and identified a subset of minerals as “potentially critical” based on the geometric average of these indicators—designated as criticality potential (C). In this study, the screening methodology has been updated to include data for 2014, as well as to incorporate revisions and modifications to the data, where applicable. Overall, C declined in 2014 for the majority of minerals examined largely due to decreases in production concentration and price volatility. However, the results vary considerably across minerals, with some minerals, such as gallium, recording increases for all three indicators. In addition to assessing magnitudinal changes, this analysis also examines the significance of the change relative to historical variation for each mineral. For example, although mined nickel’s R declined modestly in 2014 in comparison to that of other minerals, it was by far the largest annual change recorded for mined nickel across all years examined and is attributable to Indonesia’s ban on the export of unprocessed minerals. Based on the 2014 results, 20 minerals with the highest C values have been identified for further study including the rare earths, gallium, germanium, rhodium, tantalum, and tungsten.

  14. Changes in Methodology for Assessing Performance of Research Organisations and Influence of Such Changes on Researchers' Behaviour

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luboš Marek

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Assessing quality of research results on an international scale is a basis for evaluating the level of scientific activities pursued in research organisations. In the past 15 years, significant changes have occurred in the Czech Republic in research management and, in particular, the methodology of assessing research results. The methodology of assessment and its modifications should always be focused on increasing quality of research results; the rules of assessment have their effects on researchers' behaviour. This paper studies a question of whether the changes applied to the methodology of assessing research results in the Czech Republic have supported higher quality research results, i.e., results published in high-quality international journals. The authors have developed their own statistical test to measure significance of such changes, as well as other statistical tests of hypotheses. The main source is represented by the results of assessing public universities in the Czech Republic according to "Methodology for assessing results of research organisations" in 2010 and 2013. Our tests have not proven any statistically significant differences in the numbers of papers published in the journals monitored in the Web of Science and Scopus databases.

  15. Assessing sarcopenic prevalence and risk factors in residential aged care: methodology and feasibility.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Henwood, Timothy R; Keogh, Justin W; Reid, Natasha; Jordan, Will; Senior, Hugh E

    2014-09-01

    Sarcopenia is a significant geriatric syndrome with both health care expenditure and personal burden. Most recently, the European Working Group in Sarcopenia in Older Adults has established a consensus definition and assessment criteria for sarcopenia that includes a below-normal muscle mass and muscle function (either or both of below-normal muscle strength and physical performance). Using these criteria, work is needed to identify the prevalence and risk factors among the old, and those most susceptible to sarcopenia, the very old. This manuscript describes the recruitment and data collection methodology, and direct burden to participants, among a very old cohort residing in a residential aged care (RAC) setting. Eleven RAC facilities participated in the study. Potential participants were identified by the facility service manager and then randomised into the study. All participants gave self or substitute decision maker consent. Participants undertook a single one on one assessment that included measures of sarcopenia, functional capacity, cognitive and nutritional health, falls, activity, facility and hospital history, physical activity and assessment burden. A sub-study of physical activity and sedentary behaviours measured by activPAL3™ inclinometer was also conducted. Of 709 residents, 328 were ineligible to participate. Two hundred and seventy-three residents were randomised to the study and 102 gave informed or substitute decision maker consent. Participants were 84.5 ± 8.2 years of age and had been in care for 1,204.2 ± 1,220.1 days. The groups need for care was high (Aged Care Funding Instrument score of 2.6 ± 1.7) and they had a below-normal functional (Short Physical Performance Battery summery score of 3.5 ± 2.4). The larger percentage of participants had no depression and normal cognitive capacity. A total of 33 residents participated in the activPAL study. Each assessment took an average of 27.0 ± 7.0 min, with a low

  16. A methodology to assess the contribution of biorefineries to a sustainable bio-based economy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Maga, Daniel

    2015-07-01

    Within this thesis for the first time an integrative methodology to assess the sustainability of biorefineries and bio-based products has been developed which is based on a fundamental understanding of sustainability as presented in the Brundtland report. The applied integrative concept of sustainability as developed by the Institute for Technology Assessment and Systems Analysis (ITAS) overcomes the widespread thinking in three pillars of sustainability and opens up new perspectives. The methodology developed addresses innovative life cycle assessment evaluation methods on midpoint level as well as on the area of protection and adopts state-of-the-art assessment procedures e.g. to determine water deprivation. It goes far beyond the scope of conventional LCA studies and examines effects on human health, on the environment, on the development of knowledge and physical capital, and on regional development and acceptance. In order to validate the developed method it was applied to an algae biorefinery currently under development and construction in the south of Spain. For this assessment for the first time extensive process data was collected of a real algae biorefinery which uses municipal waste water as a culture medium for microalgae. The use of waste water allows to reduce the demand for fresh water and avoids additional fertilisation of microalgae. Moreover, the analysed algae biorefinery replaces conventional waste water treatment by a biological purification and produces biogas by an anaerobic pretreatment of waste water as well as by anaerobic digestion of algae. After several purification steps the biogas can be used as automotive fuel and thus contributes to further development and increased use of biofuels. On the one hand the sustainability assessment shows that this way of waste water treatment contributes to climate protection and to the conservation of fossil energy carrier. On the other hand approximately ten times more land is needed and twenty times

  17. Social impact assessment and management methodology using social indicators and planning strategies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Olsen, M. E.; Curry, M. G.; Greene, M. R.; Melber, B. D.; Merwin, D. J.

    1978-08-01

    The scope of environmental impact statements prepared during the past few years has steadily expanded to incorporate all aspects of the social as well as the natural environment, including demographic, economic, social, political, and cultural conditions. Broadly conceived, social impacts are alterations in people's living conditions that occur in conjunction with a new policy, program, or project, and that (1) are in addition to all other concurrent changes produced by other factors, and (2) are seen by those affected as significant social events. Since any social environment is constantly changing, the crucial problems in analyzing social impacts are to identify those social alterations that are a direct or indirect result of the specific action under examination, apart from all other events and changes, and to determine which of these alterations are having significant social effects on the people involved. Three features of this conception of social impacts are especially noteworthy. First, although impacts are often thought of as undesirable or detrimental in nature, they may also be desirable or beneficial. Second, although impacts are often described as caused by prior intervening innovations, in reality they always interact with their original causes in a reciprocal process, either immediately or after some time lag. Third, the purpose of social impact assessment is to enable policy makers to anticipate and plan for potential impacts before they occur, and then act to prevent or mitigate undesired impacts. A new methodology for performing social impact assessment and management studies that meet current needs by emphasizing standardized social indicators and social planning techniques is proposed. We refer to our approach as the Social Impact and Planning (SIP) method of social impact assessment. (ERB)

  18. Test Methodologies for Hydrogen Sensor Performance Assessment: Chamber vs. Flow Through Test Apparatus: Preprint

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Buttner, William J [National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Hartmann, Kevin S [National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Schmidt, Kara [National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Cebolla, Rafeal O [Joint Research Centre, Petten, the Netherlands; Weidner, Eveline [Joint Research Centre, Petten, the Netherlands; Bonato, Christian [Joint Research Centre, Petten, the Netherlands

    2017-11-06

    Certification of hydrogen sensors to standards often prescribes using large-volume test chambers [1, 2]. However, feedback from stakeholders such as sensor manufacturers and end-users indicate that chamber test methods are often viewed as too slow and expensive for routine assessment. Flow through test methods potentially are an efficient, cost-effective alternative for sensor performance assessment. A large number of sensors can be simultaneously tested, in series or in parallel, with an appropriate flow through test fixture. The recent development of sensors with response times of less than 1s mandates improvements in equipment and methodology to properly capture the performance of this new generation of fast sensors; flow methods are a viable approach for accurate response and recovery time determinations, but there are potential drawbacks. According to ISO 26142 [1], flow through test methods may not properly simulate ambient applications. In chamber test methods, gas transport to the sensor can be dominated by diffusion which is viewed by some users as mimicking deployment in rooms and other confined spaces. Alternatively, in flow through methods, forced flow transports the gas to the sensing element. The advective flow dynamics may induce changes in the sensor behaviour relative to the quasi-quiescent condition that may prevail in chamber test methods. One goal of the current activity in the JRC and NREL sensor laboratories [3, 4] is to develop a validated flow through apparatus and methods for hydrogen sensor performance testing. In addition to minimizing the impact on sensor behaviour induced by differences in flow dynamics, challenges associated with flow through methods include the ability to control environmental parameters (humidity, pressure and temperature) during the test and changes in the test gas composition induced by chemical reactions with upstream sensors. Guidelines on flow through test apparatus design and protocols for the evaluation of

  19. Comparison of methodologies for the in vivo assessment of {sup 18}FLT utilisation in colorectal cancer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Visvikis, D. [Institute of Nuclear Medicine, Royal Free and University College Medical School, Middlesex Hospital, Mortimer Street, W1T 3AA, London (United Kingdom); INSERM ERM0102, Laboratoire de Traitement d' Information Medicale, Equipe ' Quantification en Tomographie d' Emission' , CHU Morvan, 5 avenue Foch, 29609, Brest (France); Francis, D. [Institute of Nuclear Medicine, Royal Free and University College Medical School, Middlesex Hospital, Mortimer Street, W1T 3AA, London (United Kingdom); Department of Surgery, Royal Free and University College Medical School, Middlesex Hospital, London (United Kingdom); Mulligan, R.; Costa, D.C.; Croasdale, I.; Ell, P.J. [Institute of Nuclear Medicine, Royal Free and University College Medical School, Middlesex Hospital, Mortimer Street, W1T 3AA, London (United Kingdom); Luthra, S.K. [IRSL Cyclotron Unit, Hammersmith Hospital, London (United Kingdom); Taylor, I. [Department of Surgery, Royal Free and University College Medical School, Middlesex Hospital, London (United Kingdom)

    2004-02-01

    Fluorine-18 3'-deoxy-3'-fluorothymidine ({sup 18}FLT) is a tissue proliferation marker which has been suggested as a new tumour-specific imaging tracer in positron emission tomography (PET). The objectives of this study were to investigate the pharmacokinetics of {sup 18}FLT in patients with colorectal cancer, defining methodologies for the quantitative analysis of the in vivo {sup 18}FLT uptake and subsequently assessing the accuracy of semi-quantitative measures. Dynamic acquisitions over a single field of view of interest identified by computed tomography were carried out for up to 60 min following injection of {sup 18}FLT (360{+-}25 MBq). Dynamic arterial blood sampling was carried out in order to provide a blood input function. Simultaneous venous samples were also taken in order to investigate their potential utilisation in deriving a hybrid input function. Arterial and venous blood samples at 5, 15, 30, 60 and 90 min p.i. were used for metabolite analysis. Eleven patients with primary and/or metastatic colorectal cancer were studied on a lesion by lesion basis (n=21). All acquired images were reconstructed using ordered subsets expectation maximisation and segmented attenuation correction. Time-activity curves were derived by image region of interest (ROI) analysis and image-based input functions were obtained using abdominal or thoracic aorta ROIs. Standardised uptake values (SUVs) were calculated to provide semi-quantitative indices of uptake, while non-linear regression (NLR) methodology in association with a three-compartment model and Patlak analysis were carried out to derive the net influx constant K{sub i}. The metabolite analysis revealed two radioactive metabolites, with the parent compound representing 80% of the total radioactivity in the 30-min plasma sample. In the case of NLR, better fits were obtained with a 3k model (i.e. k{sub 4}=0) for both lesion and bone marrow time-activity curves. For the same lesions, a high correlation was

  20. Outcomes assessment in the SPRINT multicenter tibial fracture trial: Adjudication committee size has trivial effect on trial results

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Simunovic, Nicole; Walter, Stephen; Devereaux, P. J.; Sprague, Sheila; Guyatt, Gordon H.; Schemitsch, Emil; Tornetta, Paul; Sanders, David; Swiontkowski, Marc; Bhandari, Mohit; Guyatt, Gordon; Sanders, David W.; Schemitsch, Emil H.; Heels-Ansdell, Diane; Buckingham, Lisa; Leece, Pamela; Viveiros, Helena; Mignott, Tashay; Ansell, Natalie; Sidorkewicz, Natalie; Agel, Julie; Bombardier, Claire; Berlin, Jesse A.; Bosse, Michael; Browner, Bruce; Gillespie, Brenda; O'Brien, Peter; Poolman, Rudolf; Macleod, Mark D.; Carey, Timothy; Leitch, Kellie; Bailey, Stuart; Gurr, Kevin; Konito, Ken; Bartha, Charlene; Low, Isolina; MacBean, Leila V.; Ramu, Mala; Reiber, Susan; Strapp, Ruth; Tieszer, Christina; Kreder, Hans; Stephen, David J. G.; Axelrod, Terry S.; Yee, Albert J. M.; Richards, Robin R.; Finkelstein, Joel; Holtby, Richard M.; Cameron, Hugh; Cameron, John; Gofton, Wade; Murnaghan, John; Schatztker, Joseph; Bulmer, Beverly; Conlan, Lisa; Laflamme, Yves; Berry, Gregory; Beaumont, Pierre; Ranger, Pierre; Laflamme, Georges-Henri; Jodoin, Alain; Renaud, Eric; Gagnon, Sylvain; Maurais, Gilles; Malo, Michel; Fernandes, Julio; Latendresse, Kim; Poirier, Marie-France; Daigneault, Gina; McKee, Michael M.; Waddell, James P.; Bogoch, Earl R.; Daniels, Timothy R.; McBroom, Robert R.; Vicente, Milena R.; Storey, Wendy; Wild, Lisa M.; McCormack, Robert; Perey, Bertrand; Goetz, Thomas J.; Pate, Graham; Penner, Murray J.; Panagiotopoulos, Kostas; Pirani, Shafique; Dommisse, Ian G.; Loomer, Richard L.; Stone, Trevor; Moon, Karyn; Zomar, Mauri; Webb, Lawrence X.; Teasdall, Robert D.; Birkedal, John Peter; Martin, David Franklin; Ruch, David S.; Kilgus, Douglas J.; Pollock, David C.; Harris, Mitchel Brion; Wiesler, Ethan Ron; Ward, William G.; Shilt, Jeffrey Scott; Koman, Andrew L.; Poehling, Gary G.; Kulp, Brenda; Creevy, William R.; Stein, Andrew B.; Bono, Christopher T.; Einhorn, Thomas A.; Desmond Brown, T.; Pacicca, Donna; Sledge, John B.; Foster, Timothy E.; Voloshin, Ilva; Bolton, Jill; Carlisle, Hope; Shaughnessy, Lisa; Ombremsky, William T.; LeCroy, C. Michael; Meinberg, Eric G.; Messer, Terry M.; Craig, William L.; Dirschl, Douglas R.; Caudle, Robert; Harris, Tim; Elhert, Kurt; Hage, William; Jones, Robert; Piedrahita, Luis; Schricker, Paul O.; Driver, Robin; Godwin, Jean; Hansley, Gloria; Obremskey, William Todd; Kregor, Philip James; Tennent, Gregory; Truchan, Lisa M.; Sciadini, Marcus; Shuler, Franklin D.; Driver, Robin E.; Nading, Mary Alice; Neiderstadt, Jacky; Vap, Alexander R.; Vallier, Heather A.; Patterson, Brendan M.; Wilber, John H.; Wilber, Roger G.; Sontich, John K.; Moore, Timothy Alan; Brady, Drew; Cooperman, Daniel R.; Davis, John A.; Cureton, Beth Ann; Health, Hamilton; Mandel, Scott; Orr, R. Douglas; Sadler, John T. S.; Hussain, Tousief; Rajaratnam, Krishan; Petrisor, Bradley; Drew, Brian; Bednar, Drew A.; Kwok, Desmond C. H.; Pettit, Shirley; Hancock, Jill; Cole, Peter A.; Smith, Joel J.; Brown, Gregory A.; Lange, Thomas A.; Stark, John G.; Levy, Bruce; Swiontkowski, Marc F.; Garaghty, Mary J.; Salzman, Joshua G.; Schutte, Carol A.; Tastad, Linda Toddie; Vang, Sandy; Seligson, David; Roberts, Craig S.; Malkani, Arthur L.; Sanders, Laura; Gregory, Sharon Allen; Dyer, Carmen; Heinsen, Jessica; Smith, Langan; Madanagopal, Sudhakar; Coupe, Kevin J.; Tucker, Jeffrey J.; Criswell, Allen R.; Buckle, Rosemary; Rechter, Alan Jeffrey; Sheth, Dhiren Shaskikant; Urquart, Brad; Trotscher, Thea; Anders, Mark J.; Kowalski, Joseph M.; Fineberg, Marc S.; Bone, Lawrence B.; Phillips, Matthew J.; Rohrbacher, Bernard; Stegemann, Philip; Mihalko, William M.; Buyea, Cathy; Augustine, Stephen J.; Jackson, William Thomas; Solis, Gregory; Ero, Sunday U.; Segina, Daniel N.; Berrey, Hudson B.; Agnew, Samuel G.; Fitzpatrick, Michael; Campbell, Lakina C.; Derting, Lynn; McAdams, June; Goslings, J. Carel; Ponsen, Kees Jan; Luitse, Jan; Kloen, Peter; Joosse, Pieter; Winkelhagen, Jasper; Duivenvoorden, Raphaël; Teague, David C.; Davey, Joseph; Sullivan, J. Andy; Ertl, William J. J.; Puckett, Timothy A.; Pasque, Charles B.; Tompkins, John F.; Gruel, Curtis R.; Kammerlocher, Paul; Lehman, Thomas P.; Puffinbarger, William R.; Carl, Kathy L.; Weber, Donald W.; Jomha, Nadr M.; Goplen, Gordon R.; Masson, Edward; Beaupre, Lauren A.; Greaves, Karen E.; Schaump, Lori N.; Jeray, Kyle J.; Goetz, David R.; Westberry, Davd E.; Broderick, J. Scott; Moon, Bryan S.; Tanner, Stephanie L.; Powell, James N.; Buckley, Richard E.; Elves, Leslie; Connolly, Stephen; Abraham, Edward P.; Eastwood, Donna; Steele, Trudy; Ellis, Thomas; Herzberg, Alex; Brown, George A.; Crawford, Dennis E.; Hart, Robert; Hayden, James; Orfaly, Robert M.; Vigland, Theodore; Vivekaraj, Maharani; Bundy, Gina L.; Miclau, Theodore; Matityahu, Amir; Coughlin, R. Richard; Kandemir, Utku; McClellan, R. Trigg; Hsin, Cindy; Lin, Hua; Karges, David; Cramer, Kathryn; Watson, J. Tracy; Moed, Berton; Scott, Barbara; Beck, Dennis J.; Orth, Carolyn; Puskas, David; Clark, Russell; Jones, Jennifer; Egol, Kenneth A.; Paksima, Nader; France, Monet; Wai, Eugene K.; Johnson, Garth; Wilkinson, Ross; Gruszczynski, Adam T.; Vexler, Liisa

    2011-01-01

    To evaluate how the size of an outcome adjudication committee, and the potential for dominance among its members, potentially impacts a trial's results. We conducted a retrospective analysis of data from the six-member adjudication committee in the Study to Prospectively Evaluate Reamed

  1. Using the Emanuel et al. framework to assess ethical issues raised by a biomedical research ethics committee in South Africa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsoka-Gwegweni, Joyce M; Wassenaar, Douglas R

    2014-12-01

    The Emanuel, Wendler, and Grady framework was designed as a universal tool for use in many settings including developing countries. However, it is not known whether the work of African health research ethics committees (RECs) is compatible with this framework. The absence of any normative or empirical weighting of the eight principles within this framework suggests that different health RECs may raise some ethical issues more frequently than others when reviewing protocols. We used the Emanuel et al. framework to assess, code, and rank the most frequent ethical issues considered by a biomedical REC during review of research protocols for the years 2008 to 2012. We extracted data from the recorded minutes of a South African biomedical REC for the years 2008 to 2012, designed the data collection sheet according to the Emanuel et al. framework, and removed all identifiers during data processing and analysis. From the 98 protocols that we assessed, the most frequent issues that emerged were the informed consent, scientific validity, fair participant selection, and ongoing respect for participants. This study represents the first known attempt to analyze REC responses/minutes using the Emanuel et al. framework, and suggests that this framework may be useful in describing and categorizing the core activities of an REC. © The Author(s) 2014.

  2. [Venous thromboembolism's risk assessment: rationale, objectives, and methodology--the ARTE study].

    Science.gov (United States)

    França, Ana; De Sousa, Joaquim Abreu; Felicíssimo, Paulo; Ferreira, Daniel

    2011-12-01

    ), haemorrhagic events (major and minor haemorrhages) and death at 6 months after discharge. Each patient will be contacted by telephone at 3 and 6 months after discharge, in order to assess the occurrence of thromboembolic and haemorrhagic events, as well as any readmission. This article describes the ARTE study's rationale, objectives, and methodology.

  3. [Health and environmental licensing: a methodological proposal for assessment of the impact of the oil and gas industry].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barbosa, Eduardo Macedo; Barata, Matha Macedo de Lima; Hacon, Sandra de Souza

    2012-02-01

    Bearing in mind the importance of the impacts of the oil industry on human health, this article seeks to present a methodological proposal for analysis of these aspects in environmental impact assessment studies, based on the established legal parameters and a validated matrix for the hydroelectric sector. The lack of health considerations in the environmental impact assessment was detected in most of the 21 oil production enterprises analyzed, that were licensed in the period from January 1, 2004 through October 30, 2009. The health matrix proved to be an appropriate methodological approach to analyze these aspects in the environmental licensing process, guiding decisions and interventions in socio-environmental management.

  4. Principles of epistemological accountability with methodological implications for measuring, assessing, and profiling human resilience

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Astier M. Almedom

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available We propose two fundamental principles of epistemological accountability with critical methodological implications for studies designed to measure, assess, and/or profile human psychosocial resilience. Firstly, researchers involved in human psychosocial resilience studies owe it to the individuals and communities that they engage to disclose their motives and possible misreadings of the situations they enter, albeit with good intentions. Secondly, researchers and those individuals researched need to share a language of colearning and coproduction, and utilization of knowledge that is mutually intelligible. Again, the onus is on researchers and their funders to respect the researched and their particular epistemological sovereignties. As the number of published examples of authentic community- and/or needs-driven research and action to strengthen human psychosocial resilience increases, the sustainability of human social well-being and harmony may also be expected to rise. Psychosocial resilience encompasses a dynamic multidimensional set of personal capabilities as well as social and material assets/resources that individuals, families, and communities mobilize to mentally and emotionally embrace "turbulent" change and transformation while maintaining routine functioning without loss of identity, integrity, or core purpose in life that defines them as who they are individually as well as collectively. These proposed informed predictions are yet to be widely adopted and applied in the new paradigm for advancing this century of human psychosocial resilience, well-being, and sustainability.

  5. Using outcomes-based methodology for the education, training and assessment of competence of healthcare professionals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harrison, Rosalind; Mitchell, Lindsay

    2006-03-01

    This paper outlines the job competence/functional analysis methodology that is used widely within the UK workforce and throughout the world. This outcomes-based approach to competence focuses on the description of the outcomes of work performance and is not concerned with job or professional titles. The four stages of functional analysis are outlined and illustrated with a functional map developed for the ophthalmic sector. The nature, purpose and format of occupational standards are described and illustrated, along with common errors in developing occupational standards. The knowledge and understanding of requirements that are described with the occupational standards can be used for curriculum development, but the de-linking of standards, learning and assessment means that qualifications can be awarded that are independent of any one learning process, and formal learning programmes are no longer the only access route to the qualification. This approach to competence can support meaningful discussions about how work may be shared between healthcare professions without compromising standards.

  6. Methodological artifacts in dimensionality assessment of the hospital anxiety and depression scale (HADS).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Straat, J Hendrik; van der Ark, L Andries; Sijtsma, Klaas

    2013-02-01

    The hospital anxiety and depression scale (HADS) is a brief, self-administered questionnaire for the assessment of anxiety and depression in hospital patients. A recent review discussed the disagreement among different studies with respect to the dimensionality of the HADS, leading Coyne and Van Sonderen to conclude from this disagreement that the HADS must be abandoned. Our study argues that the disagreement is mainly due to a methodological artifact, and that the HADS needs revision rather than abandonment. We used Mokken scale analysis (MSA) to investigate the dimensionality of the HADS items in a representative sample from the Dutch non-clinical population (N=3643) and compared the dimensionality structure with the results that Emons, Sijtsma, and Pedersen obtained in a Dutch cardiac-patient sample. We demonstrated how MSA can retrieve either one scale, two subscales, or three subscales, and that the result not only depends on the data structure but also on choices that the researcher makes. Two 5-item HADS scales for anxiety and depression seemed adequate. Four HADS items constituted a weak scale and contributed little to reliable measurement. We argued that several psychometric methods show only one level of a hierarchical dimensionality structure and that users of psychometric methods are often unaware of this phenomenon and miss information about other levels. In addition, we argued that a theory about the attribute may guide the researcher but that well-tested theories are often absent. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  7. Equine Assisted Interventions (EAIs): Methodological Considerations for Stress Assessment in Horses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cirulli, Francesca; Luzi, Fabio; Stefani, Annalisa; Toson, Marica; Odore, Rosangela; Farina, Luca

    2017-01-01

    Equine assisted interventions (EAIs) are recently facing an increasing popularity, and are characterized by a wide diversity of practices. However, information on the welfare of animals involved in this kind of activity is often lacking. Horses are highly susceptible to work stressors related to physical constraints and/or to the need to control emotions while interacting with humans. Considerations of the emotional state of horses involved in EAIs have multiple valences: for the safety of humans and animals involved, for the quality and efficacy of interventions, as well as for ethical reasons. The aim of this unsystematic narrative review is to summarize the different approaches used for the evaluation of horses’ stress responses, investigate their application in the context of EAIs, and discuss some methodological considerations for researchers and practitioners involved in EAI. The sources of information are mostly based on electronic databases (i.e., Medline, Scopus and Google scholar), as well as on hand searches of the references of retrieved literature, and discussions with experts in the field. At present, a few studies have investigated horses’ stress responses during EAIs, and further studies are recommended, with the final aim to derive a reliable multidimensional method for assessing a horse’s reaction during therapeutic programs, ultimately helping professionals to better develop interventions by taking into consideration the animal’s perspective. PMID:29056702

  8. Assessment of Seismic Vulnerability of Steel and RC Moment Buildings Using HAZUS and Statistical Methodologies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Iman Mansouri

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Designer engineers have always the serious challenge regarding the choice of the kind of structures to use in the areas with significant seismic activities. Development of fragility curve provides an opportunity for designers to select a structure that will have the least fragility. This paper presents an investigation into the seismic vulnerability of both steel and reinforced concrete (RC moment frames using fragility curves obtained by HAZUS and statistical methodologies. Fragility curves are employed for several probability parameters. Fragility curves are used to assess several probability parameters. Furthermore, it examines whether the probability of the exceedence of the damage limit state is reduced as expected. Nonlinear dynamic analyses of five-, eight-, and twelve-story frames are carried out using Perform 3D. The definition of damage states is based on the descriptions provided by HAZUS, which gives the limit states and the associated interstory drift limits for structures. The fragility curves show that the HAZUS procedure reduces probability of damage, and this reduction is higher for RC frames. Generally, the RC frames have higher fragility compared to steel frames.

  9. A theoretical and methodological proposal for the descriptive assessment of therapeutic interactions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Froján-Parga, María Xesús; Ruiz-Sancho, Elena M; Calero-Elvira, Ana

    2016-01-01

    The goal of this study is to show the development of a strategy for a descriptive assessment of the therapeutic interaction. In this study, we develop an observational methodology to analyze the dialogues that took place during 92 sessions conducted in a psychological center in Madrid, Spain, in which 19 adults were treated for various psychological problems by 9 behavioral therapists. A system was developed to codify vocal behavior of both the therapists and the clients; the software The Observer XT was used for recording. Therapeutic interactions were analyzed using sequential analysis. There are three main sequences that synthesize the therapist-client interaction: first, an utterance by the client preceded by a therapist's verbalization, specifically a question (discriminative morphology) and followed by an expression of approval (reinforcement morphology); second, verbalizations of failure or discomfort uttered by the client, followed most often by verbalizations of disapproval (punishing morphology) uttered by the therapist; and third, verbalizations uttered by the client that are discriminated by the therapist after an in-depth explanation and followed by different therapist's utterances (expressions of approval, technical information, etc.). Depending on how the client responds the results in this study present a starting point for the study of the functional sequences that form the basis of therapeutic change.

  10. Risk vs. Reward: A Methodology to Assess Investment in Marine Energy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    John Hutcheson

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available The majority of WEC (wave energy converter projects are expensive and pose a large risk to a developer. Currently no developers have been successful in commercialising a WEC. So far, many wave energy feasibility studies have only considered the LCOE (levelised cost of electricity, assessing investment in marine energy technologies from a purely financial point of view. No previous studies have, however, explicitly accounted for development risk as well as the LCOE to determine the feasibility of a project. This paper proposes a new methodology that can be used to account for both risk and the LCOE to give a clearer picture of the feasibility of a WEC development. By combining the LCOE and risk score for a particular development, the “value for risk” can be calculated, presented here as the “RR ratio” (“Risk/Reward ratio”. A number of case studies were chosen to test the model, investigating the RR ratio for a number of different WEC technologies and ranking them to suggest an optimal development path for the industry. Results showed that projects that combine many innovative technologies provide the best “value for risk”. These devices overall had the highest risk, suggesting that multiple developers are likely required to collaborate in order to reduce the risk down to acceptable levels for each.

  11. Development and methodology of level 1 probability safety assessment at PUSPATI TRIGA Reactor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maskin, Mazleha; Tom, Phongsakorn Prak; Lanyau, Tonny Anak; Brayon, Fedrick Charlie Matthew; Mohamed, Faizal; Saad, Mohamad Fauzi; Ismail, Ahmad Razali; Abu, Mohamad Puad Haji

    2014-02-01

    As a consequence of the accident at the Fukushima Dai-ichi Nuclear Power Plant in Japan, the safety aspects of the one and only research reactor (31 years old) in Malaysia need be reviewed. Based on this decision, Malaysian Nuclear Agency in collaboration with Atomic Energy Licensing Board and Universiti Kebangsaan Malaysia develop a Level-1 Probability Safety Assessment on this research reactor. This work is aimed to evaluate the potential risks of incidents in RTP and at the same time to identify internal and external hazard that may cause any extreme initiating events. This report documents the methodology in developing a Level 1 PSA performed for the RTP as a complementary approach to deterministic safety analysis both in neutronics and thermal hydraulics. This Level-1 PSA work has been performed according to the procedures suggested in relevant IAEA publications and at the same time numbers of procedures has been developed as part of an Integrated Management System programme implemented in Nuclear Malaysia.

  12. Commodity Systems Assessment Methodology of Postharvest Losses in Vegetable Amaranths: The Case of Tamale, Ghana

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mildred Osei-Kwarteng

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available A semistructured questionnaire based on the commodity system assessment methodology (CSAM was used to determine postharvest losses in vegetable amaranths (VA. Fifty producers and retailers were randomly selected from five and four major VA producing areas and markets, respectively, and interviewed. Data obtained were subjected to descriptive statistical analyses. The survey revealed that absence of laws, regulation, incentives, and inadequate technical information affected the production of VA. The utmost preproduction challenge was poor quality seeds with poor seed yield (35%, low viability (19%, and nontrueness (46%. It was noted that some cultural practices including planting pattern and density, irrigation, and fertiliser use had effects on postharvest losses. Some postharvest practices used were cleaning with water, trimming, sorting, and grading. Usually the produce was transported to marketing centers by cars and motor cycle trailers. Generally poor temperature management after harvest was a big challenge for the postharvest handling of VA. The potential of vegetable amaranths as a commodity in the study area can be enhanced by providing the necessary institutional support, incentives, and use of good management practices along the value chain. An interdisciplinary approach and quantification of losses along the chain are recommended for any future study.

  13. A novel methodology for assessing laryngeal and vagus nerve integrity in patients under general anesthesia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sinclair, Catherine F; Téllez, Maria J; Tapia, Oscar R; Ulkatan, Sedat; Deletis, Vedran

    2017-07-01

    To describe a novel methodology for intraoperative neuro-monitoring of laryngeal and vagus nerves by utilizing the laryngeal adductor reflex (LAR). Case series of 15 patients undergoing thyroid and cervical spine surgeries under total intravenous general anesthesia. Vocal fold mucosa was electrically stimulated to elicit a LAR using endotracheal tube based electrodes. Contralateral R1 (cR1) and R2 (cR2) responses were recorded using the endotracheal tube electrode contralateral to the simulating electrode. The LAR was reliably elicited in 100% of patients for the duration of each surgical procedure. Mean onset latency of cR1 response was 22.4±2.5ms (right) and 22.2±2.4ms (left). cR2 responses were noted in 10 patients (66.7%). No peri-operative complications or adverse outcomes were observed. The LAR is a novel neuro-monitoring technique for the vagus nerve. Advantages over current monitoring techniques including simplicity, ability to continuously monitor neural function without placement of additional neural probes and ability to assess integrity of both sensory and motor pathways. The LAR represents a novel method for intraoperatively monitoring laryngeal and vagus nerves. The LAR monitors the entire vagus nerve reflex arc and is thus applicable to all surgeries where vagal nerve integrity may be compromised. Copyright © 2017 International Federation of Clinical Neurophysiology. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  14. A Conceptual Methodology for Assessing Acquisition Requirements Robustness against Technology Uncertainties

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chou, Shuo-Ju

    2011-12-01

    -makers with the ability to assess or measure the robustness of program requirements against such uncertainties. A literature review of techniques for forecasting technology performance and development uncertainties and subsequent impacts on capability, budget, and schedule requirements resulted in the conclusion that an analysis process that coupled a probabilistic analysis technique such as Monte Carlo Simulations with quantitative and parametric models of technology performance impact and technology development time and cost requirements would allow the probabilities of meeting specific constraints of these requirements to be established. These probabilities of requirements success metrics can then be used as a quantitative and probabilistic measure of program requirements robustness against technology uncertainties. Combined with a Multi-Objective Genetic Algorithm optimization process and computer-based Decision Support System, critical information regarding requirements robustness against technology uncertainties can be captured and quantified for acquisition decision-makers. This results in a more informed and justifiable selection of program technologies during initial program definition as well as formulation of program development and risk management strategies. To meet the stated research objective, the ENhanced TEchnology Robustness Prediction and RISk Evaluation (ENTERPRISE) methodology was formulated to provide a structured and transparent process for integrating these enabling techniques to provide a probabilistic and quantitative assessment of acquisition program requirements robustness against technology performance and development uncertainties. In order to demonstrate the capabilities of the ENTERPRISE method and test the research Hypotheses, an demonstration application of this method was performed on a notional program for acquiring the Carrier-based Suppression of Enemy Air Defenses (SEAD) using Unmanned Combat Aircraft Systems (UCAS) and their enabling

  15. 78 FR 64481 - National Climate Assessment and Development Advisory Committee (NCADAC)

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-10-29

    ... materials will be available at the office of the U.S. Global Change Research Program, Conference Room A... summarize the science and information pertaining to current and future impacts of climate change upon the... National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration National Climate Assessment and Development Advisory...

  16. 78 FR 51711 - National Climate Assessment and Development Advisory Committee (NCADAC)

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-08-21

    ... materials will be available at the office of the U.S. Global Change Research Program, Conference Room A... summarize the science and information pertaining to current and future impacts of climate change upon the... National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration National Climate Assessment and Development Advisory...

  17. 78 FR 21598 - National Climate Assessment and Development Advisory Committee (NCADAC)

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-04-11

    ... materials will be available at the office of the U.S. Global Change Research Program, Conference Room A... pertaining to current and future impacts of climate change upon the United States; and to provide advice and... National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration National Climate Assessment and Development Advisory...

  18. 77 FR 32572 - (NOAA) National Climate Assessment and Development Advisory Committee (NCADAC)

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-06-01

    ... National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA) National Climate Assessment and Development Advisory... Atmospheric Administration (NOAA), Department of Commerce (DOC). ACTION: Notice of Open Meeting. SUMMARY: The.... These times are subject to change. Please refer to the Web page http:// www.nesdis.noaa.gov/NCADAC...

  19. Methodological approaches to assessing the innovativeness level of investment and construction projects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dolzhenko Yuliya Aleksandrovna

    Full Text Available The article presents the results of the analysis of the existing approaches to innovations evaluation in international and Russian practice. The authors examine the nature of the concept of “innovation”, especially innovation projects, methodological tools to measure various objects’ innovativeness level as well as innovative project economic efficiency assessing methods. It should be noted that at the legislative level up to date in the process of formation and implementation of capital construction projects there are no eligible requirements and assistance from public authorities to the developer for creating innovative products, providing the appropriate level of services. And if the financial indicators of the project are more or less clear, the level of innovativeness of them is much more complicated, although the requirements on the innovativeness of the projects are included in the Strategy of innovative development of Russia. The analysis shows that in Russian and international practice there are many approaches to assessing innovations, but they cannot be considered universal and they are applied differentially depending on the goals and tasks of applying the results of scientific achievements in the form of intellectual property to improve the efficiency and competitiveness of industries, products, services. In this case individual, specific evaluation method is selected and implemented basing on taking into account all the legal, economic, technical and other aspects. As a result, the author concluded that the innovativeness level rating requires development, which is in its analytical capabilities to provide flexible management tool, which can be applied at all the stages of the investment and construction project life cycle.

  20. Assessing levels of contaminants in breast milk: methodological issues and a framework for future research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Renfrew, Mary J; Hay, Alaistair M W; Shelton, Nicola; Law, Graham; Wallis, Susan; Madden, Shelley; Shires, Susan; Sutcliffe, Anne; Woolridge, Michael W

    2008-01-01

    To assess the scale of the possible exposure by the breast-fed infant to potentially harmful substances in breast milk, methodologically robust studies are essential. Many studies in this field, however, do not report details of crucial issues such as recruitment and milk sampling. The aims of the study reported here were to develop robust methods for the study of contaminants in breast milk, and to develop a framework for future research and population monitoring. Three cohorts of women and babies were recruited by midwives from five sites in northern England. Cohort 1 (cross-sectional, n = 322) were asked to provide two milk samples, one at one week following birth and one at a subsequent time point. Cohort 2 (longitudinal, n = 54) were asked to provide five samples at specified time points over the first 12-16 weeks after birth. Cohort 3 (convenience, n = 18), mothers of babies in the Special Care Unit, were asked to donate surplus breast milk. A novel method of analysing fat concentration in small volumes was developed and tested. A randomly selected set of samples from different donors and stages of lactation was screened for organochlorine pesticide residues, polychlorinated biphenyls, dioxins/furans, phthalates and heavy metals. A total of 453 samples were donated. Cohort 3 was the least successful route of recruitment. Cohorts 1 and 2 combined were most representative of the population. Sample collection, transport and storage procedures, and the collection of data on life style and diet, were robust and acceptable to women. Midwifery involvement in recruitment was an essential component. This study offers a framework both for the conduct of future research studies, and for the establishment of regional and national monitoring mechanisms for contaminants in breast milk. Similar work on contaminants in formula as fed to babies is needed to inform risk assessment methods.

  1. A methodological framework for coastal development assessment: A case study of Fujian Province, China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tian, Haiyan; Lindenmayer, David B; Wong, Gabriel T W; Mao, Zhu; Huang, Yi; Xue, Xiongzhi

    2018-02-15

    Decision-makers often have to make trade-offs between economic growth and environmental conservation when developing and managing coastal environments. Coastal development and management need to be subject to rigorous assessments to determine if they are sustainable over time. We propose a methodological framework - the Coastal Development Index (CDI) for the assessment of the changes in sustainability of coastal development over time. CDI is a modified version of the Ocean Health Index (OHI) but with two new indicators - ecological and environmental indicators (EEI), and social and economic indicators (SEI), both of which comprise three sub-indicators (coastal protection, clean waters and species protection for EEI, and food provision, coastal livelihoods and economies and tourism and recreation for SEI). The six sub-indicators represent key aspects of coastal development and the level of exploitation of natural resources that have previously been missing in other conceptual frameworks. We demonstrate the value of CDI with a detailed case study of Fujian Province in China, 2000-2013. The scores of CDI decreased from 1.01 in 2000 to 0.42 in 2013 suggesting that the Fujian coastal zone has experienced unsustainable development in that time. Meanwhile, the scores of EEI decreased from 22.1 to 20.4 while the scores of SEI increased from 21.9 to 48.1 suggesting that environmental values have been eroded by economic growth. Analysis of the scores of sub-indicators reveals a need to integrate economic growth and social development with environmental conservation on Fujian coastal management. Our case study highlights the potential value of the CDI for improving the ecological sustainability of coastal zone management and development practices. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  2. Methodology of using CFD-based risk assessment in road tunnels

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vidmar Peter

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available The definition of the deterministic approach in the safety analyses comes from the need to understand the conditions that come out during the fire accident in a road tunnel. The key factor of the tunnel operations during the fire is the ventilation, which during the initial fazes of the fire, impact strongly on the evacuation of people and latter on the access of the intervention units in the tunnel. The paper presents the use of the computational fluid dynamics model in the tunnel safety assessment process. The model is validated by comparing data with experimental and quantifying the differences. The set-up of the initial and boundary conditions and the requirement for grid density found during the validation tests is used to prepare three kind of fire scenarios 20 MW, 50 MW, and 100 MW, with different ventilation conditions; natural, semi transverse, full transverse, and longitudinal ventilation. The observed variables, soot density and temperature, are presented in minutes time steps trough the entire tunnel length. Comparing the obtained data in a table, allows the analyses of the ventilation conditions for different heat releases from fires. The second step is to add additional criteria of human behaviour inside the tunnel (evacuation and human resistance to the elevated gas concentrations and temperature. What comes out is a fully deterministic risk matrix that is based on the calculated data where the risk is ranged on five levels, from the lowest to a very danger level. The deterministic risk matrix represents the alternative to a probabilistic safety assessment methodology, where the fire risk is represented in detail as well as the computational fluid dynamics model results are physically correct. .

  3. Methodology for assessing the transport security of the territory for the availability of social services

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    El’vina Stepanovna Kuratova

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available The formation of a rational transport network and the development of vehicles should be marked by the achievement of socio-territorial justice, which is understood as a guarantee of transport accessibility of social services, increase and economy of man’s free time, reduction in the degree of uncertainty of economic activity in the part that depends on transport factors. According to the author, the priorities of the assessment of transport security include the duration of the trip from the settlements to the centers of social services and year-round transportation. Each type of social services has normative values of transport accessibility, corresponding to the needs of a particular region, and they are the basis for strategic planning in the services sector. For instance, the standard time for provision of emergency medical aid is 40 minutes. The level of transport discrimination is defined as the proportion of the population living outside the standard time. The author proposes a formula for determining the weighted average costs of time that a transport user needs for reaching a certain destination (e.g., hospital, school, etc. from any other departure point. Transport security is assessed on the example of the Komi Republic; the calculation includes all its settlements, considers the distance to the regional centers, condition of roads, obstacles to year-round road communications, transport vehicles, including animal-drawn transport, and going on foot, the speed of movement and other factors. The results of the developed differentiation methodology can be used for interbudgetary control and distribution of resources of the Fund of financial support of municipal formations according to the rate of transport increase in the cost of public services through the coefficients of transport security

  4. Use of methodological tools for assessing the quality of studies in periodontology and implant dentistry: a systematic review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Faggion, Clovis M; Huda, Fahd; Wasiak, Jason

    2014-06-01

    To evaluate the methodological approaches used to assess the quality of studies included in systematic reviews (SRs) in periodontology and implant dentistry. Two electronic databases (PubMed and Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews) were searched independently to identify SRs examining interventions published through 2 September 2013. The reference lists of included SRs and records of 10 specialty dental journals were searched manually. Methodological approaches were assessed using seven criteria based on the Cochrane Handbook for Systematic Reviews of Interventions. Temporal trends in methodological quality were also explored. Of the 159 SRs with meta-analyses included in the analysis, 44 (28%) reported the use of domain-based tools, 15 (9%) reported the use of checklists and 7 (4%) reported the use of scales. Forty-two (26%) SRs reported use of more than one tool. Criteria were met heterogeneously; authors of 15 (9%) publications incorporated the quality of evidence of primary studies into SRs, whereas 69% of SRs reported methodological approaches in the Materials/Methods section. Reporting of four criteria was significantly better in recent (2010-2013) than in previous publications. The analysis identified several methodological limitations of approaches used to assess evidence in studies included in SRs in periodontology and implant dentistry. © 2014 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  5. The Merapi 2010 eruption: An interdisciplinary impact assessment methodology for studying pyroclastic density current dynamics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jenkins, S.; Komorowski, J.-C.; Baxter, P. J.; Spence, R.; Picquout, A.; Lavigne, F.; Surono

    2013-07-01

    The large explosive eruption of Merapi volcano, Indonesia, in 2010 presented a key, and rare, opportunity to study the impacts of a major explosive eruption in a densely populated area. Pyroclastic density currents (PDCs) produced throughout the 2010 eruption were unusually destructive, causing near complete devastation across a 22 km2 swath of the densely populated southern flanks and casualties to the end of their runout at 15.5 km from the volcano. The majority (> 120) of the more than 200 fatalities occurred more than 12 km from the volcano, where many people were caught in PDCs as they were evacuating. The 2010 eruption (VEI 4) exhibited a range of PDC behaviour in a complex multi-stage event that marked a change in eruption behaviour at Merapi, being the first eruption of this magnitude and style since 1872. This shift in style may mark a change in regime, and so understanding the potential impact of such large explosive eruptions is essential for future risk-assessment at Merapi. We describe a new impact assessment methodology that allowed us to collect important empirical geological, damage and casualty information and reconstruct impact dynamics associated with the PDCs. In contrast to previous PDC impact studies, we combined remote, field, laboratory and GIS assessments and were able to enter the affected areas safely and before their disturbance by rains or human activity. By integrating the results of our geological, damage and medical studies, we could reconstruct the spatial and temporal dynamics of the PDCs and their main hazard characteristics. Our interdisciplinary methods and preliminary findings are discussed here. In the areas damaged by PDCs, we used empirical damage data and calculations of material and structural resistance to lateral force to estimate approximate dynamic pressures. Dynamic pressures associated with the 5 November paroxysm exceeded 15 kPa more than 6 km from source and rapidly attenuated over a distance of less than 1 km at

  6. Methodology for assessing quantities of water and proppant injection, and water production associated with development of continuous petroleum accumulations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haines, Seth S.

    2015-07-13

    The quantities of water and hydraulic fracturing proppant required for producing petroleum (oil, gas, and natural gas liquids) from continuous accumulations, and the quantities of water extracted during petroleum production, can be quantitatively assessed using a probabilistic approach. The water and proppant assessment methodology builds on the U.S. Geological Survey methodology for quantitative assessment of undiscovered technically recoverable petroleum resources in continuous accumulations. The U.S. Geological Survey assessment methodology for continuous petroleum accumulations includes fundamental concepts such as geologically defined assessment units, and probabilistic input values including well-drainage area, sweet- and non-sweet-spot areas, and success ratio within the untested area of each assessment unit. In addition to petroleum-related information, required inputs for the water and proppant assessment methodology include probabilistic estimates of per-well water usage for drilling, cementing, and hydraulic-fracture stimulation; the ratio of proppant to water for hydraulic fracturing; the percentage of hydraulic fracturing water that returns to the surface as flowback; and the ratio of produced water to petroleum over the productive life of each well. Water and proppant assessments combine information from recent or current petroleum assessments with water- and proppant-related input values for the assessment unit being studied, using Monte Carlo simulation, to yield probabilistic estimates of the volume of water for drilling, cementing, and hydraulic fracture stimulation; the quantity of proppant for hydraulic fracture stimulation; and the volumes of water produced as flowback shortly after well completion, and produced over the life of the well.

  7. Scrum Methodology in Higher Education: Innovation in Teaching, Learning and Assessment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jurado-Navas, Antonio; Munoz-Luna, Rosa

    2017-01-01

    The present paper aims to detail the experience developed in a classroom of English Studies from the Spanish University of Málaga, where an alternative project-based learning methodology has been implemented. Such methodology is inspired by scrum sessions widely extended in technological companies where staff members work in teams and are assigned…

  8. Diagnosing Conceptions about the Epistemology of Science: Contributions of a Quantitative Assessment Methodology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vázquez-Alonso, Ángel; Manassero-Mas, María-Antonia; García-Carmona, Antonio; Montesano de Talavera, Marisa

    2016-01-01

    This study applies a new quantitative methodological approach to diagnose epistemology conceptions in a large sample. The analyses use seven multiple-rating items on the epistemology of science drawn from the item pool Views on Science-Technology-Society (VOSTS). The bases of the new methodological diagnostic approach are the empirical…

  9. A Methodology for Equitable Performance Assessment and Presentation of Wave Energy Converters Based on Sea Trials

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kofoed, Jens Peter; Pecher, Arthur; Margheritini, Lucia

    2013-01-01

    This paper provides a methodology for the analysis and presentation of data obtained from sea trials of wave energy converters (WEC). The equitable aspect of this methodology lies in its wide application, as any WEC at any scale or stage of development can be considered as long as the tests are p...

  10. Assessing Campus Climates for Lesbian, Gay, Bisexual and Transgender (LGBT) Students: Methodological and Political Issues

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, Robert D.; Gortmaker, Valerie J.

    2009-01-01

    Methodological and political issues arise during the designing, conducting, and reporting of campus-climate studies for LGBT students. These issues interact; making a decision about a methodological issue (e.g., sample size) has an impact on a political issue (e.g., how well the findings will be received). Ten key questions that must be addressed…

  11. Application of the Coastal Hazard Wheel methodology for coastal multi-hazard assessment and management in the state of Djibouti

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Appelquist, Lars Rosendahl; Balstrøm, Thomas

    2014-01-01

    coastal classification system that incorporates the main static and dynamic parameters determining the characteristics of a coastal environment. The methodology provides information on the hazards of ecosystem disruption, gradual inundation, salt water intrusion, erosion and flooding and can be used...... to support management decisions at local, regional and national level, in areas with limited access to geophysical data. The assessment for Djibouti applies a geographic information system (GIS) to develop a range of national hazard maps along with relevant hazard statistics and is showcasing the procedure......This paper presents the application of a new methodology for coastal multi-hazard assessment and management in a changing global climate on the state of Djibouti. The methodology termed the Coastal Hazard Wheel (CHW) is developed for worldwide application and is based on a specially designed...

  12. Conscious worst case definition for risk assessment, part II: a methodological case study for pesticide risk assessment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sørensen, Peter B; Giralt, Francesc; Rallo, Robert; Espinosa, Gabriela; Münier, Bernd; Gyldenkaerne, Steen; Thomsen, Marianne

    2010-08-15

    This paper illustrates, by a case study, how to apply the conceptual Worst-Case Definition (WCD) model, developed in the methodological paper in the current journal, by Sørensen et al. (2010-this issue). The case is about eco-toxicological risk assessment of pesticides under Danish conditions. Cumulative aspects are included on a conceptual basis as elements of the worst-case conditions. This defines factors that govern the risk assessment, including location in time and space of risk "hotspots". Two pillars of concern drive the conceptual modelling: (1) What to protect (denoted Protected Units (PUs)) and (2) the reason for increased risk level (denoted Causes of Risks (CRs)). Both PUs and CRs are analysed using hierarchical procedures that facilitate a complete listing of concrete factors governing increased risk for adverse effect due to agricultural usage of pesticide. The factors governing pesticide risk are combined in a context that combines the protection of relevant groupings of organisms with the factors for increased risk level for each of these. Identification of the most important relations between defined types of PUs and CRs is illustrated using expert knowledge. Existing databases are used to form spatial distributed risk indicators as estimators for a selection of important relations between PUs and CRs. This paper illustrates how the WCD model can break down the complex issue of uncertainty into fractions that are more open for evaluations. Finally, it shows application of risk indicators in a multi-criterion analysis using respectively self organizing mapping and partial order technique in a comparative analysis that highlights critical aspects of uncertainty, due to the ambiguity between single risk indicator rankings. Copyright 2009 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  13. Inflammatory eye disease: Pre-treatment assessment of patients prior to commencing immunosuppressive and biologic therapy: Recommendations from an expert committee.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wakefield, Denis; McCluskey, Peter; Wildner, Gerhild; Thurau, Stephan; Carr, Gregory; Chee, Soon-Phaik; Forrester, John; Dick, Andrew; Hudson, Bernard; Lightman, Susan; Smith, Justine; Tugal-Tutkun, Ilknur

    2017-03-01

    To outline recommendations from an expert committee on the assessment and investigation of patients with severe inflammatory eye disease commencing immunosuppressive and/or biologic therapy. The approach to assessment is based on the clinical experience of an expert committee and a review of the literature with regard to corticosteroids, immunosuppressive drug and biologic therapy and other adjunct therapy in the management of patients with severe sight-threatening inflammatory eye disease. We recommend a careful assessment and consultative approach by ophthalmologists or physicians experienced in the use of immunosuppressive agents for all patients commencing immunosuppressive and/or biologic therapy for sight threatening inflammatory eye disease with the aim of preventing infection, cardiovascular, metabolic and bone disease and reducing iatrogenic side effects. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  14. Screening methodology for dose assessment to seawater organisms in baltic sea

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Krajewski, P.; Suplinska, M. [Central Laboratory for Radiological Protection, Dept. of Radiation Hygiene, Warsaw (Poland)

    2004-07-01

    Determination of radionuclides in Baltic Sea environment in the frame of MORS programme gives opportunity to evaluate doses for aquatic organisms from the Southern Baltic Sea. The available environmental data from the last few years included concentrations of {sup 137}Cs (bomb-tests-fallout and Chernobyl origin), {sup 226}Ra (natural radionuclide) and {sup 239,240}Pu (bomb-tests-fallout) in biota, bottom sediment and water. The doses assessment of {sup 137}Cs, {sup 226}Ra and {sup 239,240}Pu for aquatic animals was performed, based on the screening methodology elaborated by U.S. Department of Energy. Baltic Sea fish (cod, sprat, herring, plaice) and crustaceans (Sanduria entomon and Mytilus edulis) were taken in to consideration and the annual doses from {sup 137}Cs, {sup 226}Ra and {sup 239}Pu to organisms were calculated at average concentrations of these radionuclides observed in water, concentration of radionuclides determined in bottom sediments from two sub-areas (Gdansk Basin and Bornholm Basin) and average concentrations of radionuclides in animal tissues. The total maximal annual doses for seawater organisms do not exceed a one percent of recommended dose limits however, the dominate contribution to the total dose depends on analysed radionuclide. For {sup 137}Cs a maximum contribution to the total dose gives external dose from bottom sediment (about 0.5 mGy y{sup -1}). Only about 1% of the total {sup 137}Cs dose is derived from internal dose however animal-water ratio obtained from measurements is much lower (in a range 30-300 L kg{sup -1}) comparing with recommended by DOE Standard value (22000 L kg{sup -1}). For {sup 226}Ra internal doses for fish and Mytilus are similar (0.2 mGy y{sup -1}, 0.6 mGy y{sup -1} respectively) and they are comparable with external doses from sediment (0.3 mGy y{sup -1}) whereas internal dose for Sanduria is about 10 times higher (7 mGy y{sup -1}). A measured animal- water ratios (20 - 500 L kg{sup -1}) differs remarkably

  15. The Health Technology Assessment-disease management instrument reliably measured methodologic quality of health technology assessments of disease management

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Steuten, Lotte Maria Gertruda; Vrijhoef, H.J.M.; van Merode, G.G.; Severens, J.L.; Spreeuwenberg, C.

    2004-01-01

    Objective: Systematic reviews aim to summarize the evidence in a particular topic area, giving attention to the identified methodologic quality of published research. Because research in a specific area may be susceptible to specific biases, it is assumed that the methodologic quality of Health

  16. What Constitutes Adoption of the Web: A Methodological Problem in Assessing Adoption of the World Wide Web for Electronic Commerce.

    Science.gov (United States)

    White, Marilyn Domas; Abels, Eileen G.; Gordon-Murnane, Laura

    1998-01-01

    Reports on methodological developments in a project to assess the adoption of the Web by publishers of business information for electronic commerce. Describes the approach used on a sample of 20 business publishers to identify five clusters of publishers ranging from traditionalist to innovator. Distinguishes between adopters and nonadopters of…

  17. Harmonising bioenergy resource potentials-Methodological lessons from review of state of the art bioenergy potential assessments

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Batidzirai, B.; Smeets, E.M.W.; Faaij, A.P.C.

    2012-01-01

    Published estimates of the potential of bioenergy vary widely, mainly due to the heterogeneity of methodologies, assumptions and datasets employed. These discrepancies are confusing for policy and it is thus important to have scientific clarity on the basis of the assessment outcomes. Such clear

  18. Application of the Coastal Hazard Wheel methodology for coastal multi-hazard assessment and management in the state of Djibouti

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lars Rosendahl Appelquist

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents the application of a new methodology for coastal multi-hazard assessment and management in a changing global climate on the state of Djibouti. The methodology termed the Coastal Hazard Wheel (CHW is developed for worldwide application and is based on a specially designed coastal classification system that incorporates the main static and dynamic parameters determining the characteristics of a coastal environment. The methodology provides information on the hazards of ecosystem disruption, gradual inundation, salt water intrusion, erosion and flooding and can be used to support management decisions at local, regional and national level, in areas with limited access to geophysical data. The assessment for Djibouti applies a geographic information system (GIS to develop a range of national hazard maps along with relevant hazard statistics and is showcasing the procedure for applying the CHW methodology for national hazard assessments. The assessment shows that the coastline of Djibouti is characterized by extensive stretches with high or very high hazards of ecosystem disruption, mainly related to coral reefs and mangrove forests, while large sections along the coastlines of especially northern and southern Djibouti have high hazard levels for gradual inundation. The hazard of salt water intrusion is moderate along most of Djibouti’s coastline, although groundwater availability is considered to be very sensitive to human ground water extraction. High or very high erosion hazards are associated with Djibouti’s sedimentary plains, estuaries and river mouths, while very high flooding hazards are associated with the dry river mouths.

  19. Indicator development methodology for volunteer tourism in host communities: creating a low-cost, locally applicable, rapid assessment tool

    Science.gov (United States)

    Christopher A. Lupoli; Wayde C. Morse; Conner Bailey; John Schelhas

    2015-01-01

    Two prominent critiques of volunteer tourism are that it is a top-down imposed form of development treating host communities as passive recipients of international aid, and that the impacts of volunteer tourism in host communities are not systematically evaluated. To address this we identified a pre-existing participatory methodology for assessing community...

  20. Proposed Methodology for Assessing Cost of Synergies between Offshore Renewable Energy and Other Sea Uses

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Margheritini, Lucia; Hanssen, Jan Erik; O´Sullivan, Keith

    2015-01-01

    This paper aims at presenting an innovative methodology for identifying the possible “cost saving synergies” between wave energy and other sea uses. Three case studies will be presented to illustrate the methodology: those all include a hybrid platform of wave and wind (STC with torous WEC, Wave...... Dragon and wind turbine, W2Power) and another (non-energy) sea use. The methodology described in the present study has the value of presenting synergies under an economic prospective. Synergies can be found both in structural, installation and maintenance costs. The CAPEX and OPEX for the energy...

  1. Integrating quantitative and qualitative methodologies for the assessment of health care systems: emergency medicine in post-conflict Serbia

    OpenAIRE

    Dierberg, Kerry; Šćepanović, Milena; Mitrović, Mihajlo; Vuksanović, Miloš; Milić, Ljiljana; Nelson, Brett Dee; VanRooyen, Michael J.

    2005-01-01

    Abstract Background Due to the complexity of health system reform in the post-conflict, post-disaster, and development settings, attempts to restructure health services are fraught with pitfalls that are often unanticipated because of inadequate preliminary assessments. Our proposed Integrated Multimodal Assessment – combining quantitative and qualitative methodologies – may provide a more robust mechanism for identifying programmatic priorities and critical barriers for appropriate and susta...

  2. A Globally Consistent Methodology for an Exposure Model for Natural Catastrophe Risk Assessment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gunasekera, Rashmin; Ishizawa, Oscar; Pandey, Bishwa; Saito, Keiko

    2013-04-01

    There is a high demand for the development of a globally consistent and robust exposure data model employing a top down approach, to be used in national level catastrophic risk profiling for the public sector liability. To this effect, there are currently several initiatives such as UN-ISDR Global Assessment Report (GAR) and Global Exposure Database for Global Earthquake Model (GED4GEM). However, the consistency and granularity differs from region to region, a problem that is overcome in this proposed approach using national datasets for example in Latin America and the Caribbean Region (LCR). The methodology proposed in this paper aim to produce a global open exposure dataset based upon population, country specific building type distribution and other global/economic indicators such as World Bank indices that are suitable for natural catastrophe risk modelling purposes. The output would be a GIS raster grid at approximately 1 km spatial resolution which would highlight urbaness (building typology distribution, occupancy and use) for each cell at sub national level and compatible with other global initiatives and datasets. It would make use of datasets on population, census, demographic, building data and land use/land cover which are largely available in the public domain. The resultant exposure dataset could be used in conjunction with hazard and vulnerability components to create views of risk for multiple hazards that include earthquake, flood and windstorms. The model we hope would also assist in steps towards future initiatives for open, interchangeable and compatible databases for catastrophe risk modelling. The findings, interpretations, and conclusions expressed in this paper are entirely those of the authors. They do not necessarily represent the views of the International Bank for Reconstruction and Development/World Bank and its affiliated organizations, or those of the Executive Directors of the World Bank or the governments they represent.

  3. Toward a methodology for conducting social impact assessments using quality of social life indicators

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Olsen, M.E.; Merwin, D.J.

    1976-07-01

    The methodology proposed essentially argues that mankind is inexorably dependent on the natural environment, and that collective social life is always constrained and shaped by the basic ecological factors of natural resources, population characteristics, material and social technology, and the economic order which satisfies peoples' sustenance needs. To this ecological perspective two further assumptions are added: (1) collective social activities are generally aimed at the attainment of goals that reflect the values and interests of the participants, so that social impact assessment must reflect both the ecological conditions prevailing in a community and the values, interests, and goals of the community members; and (2) a community can be viewed as a problem-solving social system, in which (a) challenges such as new environmental or technological conditions initially disrupt existing social processes and patterns of social ordering, which (b) creates temporary problem conditions and activities, which in turn (c) generate collective responses to cope with these problems, which finally (d) act back (as either positive or negative feedback) on the initial disruptive conditions. The inputs to a general social impact model are (a) such disruptive innovations or alterations as growing resource scarcities (e.g., oil or water depletion), governmental policy decisions (e.g., emphasis on solar energy, limiting economic growth), or technological development projects (e.g., nuclear energy centers, water reservoirs); and (b) values and interests of the people in the affected area. Whatever the precise nature of the outside disruption, it can be expected to have direct and relatively immediate impacts on the basic ecological factors of the local population and economy. (MCW)

  4. Assessing ecological responses of wolves to wind power plants in Portugal: methodological constrains and conservation implications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Alvaras, Francisco; Rio-Maior, Helena; Roque, Sara; Nakamura, Monia; Cadete, Duarte; Pinto, Sara; Petrucci-Fonseca, Francisco

    2011-07-01

    Full text: Wind-power development has substantially increased in the last decade in Portugal and associated structures mostly overlap with wolf range, which raises major conservation concerns as a potential source of disturbance to this endangered carnivore. However, a comprehensive evaluation is greatly hampered by difficulties in studying wolf ecology and current lack of knowledge on the impacts of wind energy development on non-flying animals, especially large mammals. A research program was initiated in 2006, to: i) establish a methodological protocol for assessing impacts and monitoring wolf ecological responses to wind farms; ii) evaluate potential effects of wind farms on wolf space use and reproduction; iii) apply efficient mitigation and compensation measures. Field methods are based on howling and sign surveys, scat quantification through abundance indices and GPS telemetry. Preliminary results demonstrate that: i) road network built for wind-power development lead to a considerable increase in traffic, especially during construction of wind farms; ii) wolves continue to use areas with wind farms; iii) wolf presence tends to decrease with the cumulative number of turbines; iv) spatial responses of wolves to wind farms appear to depend on the number and proximity of turbines to important pack home sites and prey availability; v) wolves abandon or do not regularly use breeding sites located in the proximity of wind turbines; vi) wolves select breeding places at a lower altitude after wind farm construction, as a response to related disturbance in mountain ridges. Wind farms induce important changes in wolf space use, selection of and fidelity to reproduction sites and reproductive success. These behavioural and spatial responses may constrain connectivity within and between pack territories and increase reproductive instability, especially in already highly humanized landscapes as Portugal. Based on these findings, several preventive mitigation measures

  5. An assessment methodology for determining pesticides adsorption on granulated activated carbon

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Barthélemy J.-P.

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available In many countries, water suppliers add granular activated carbon reactor in the drinking water treatment notably in order to remove pesticides residues. In Europe, their concentrations must lie below the values imposed by the EU directives (98/83/EC. Acouple of years ago, some mini-column tests were developed to improve the use of the activated carbon reactor in relation with lab experiments. Modelling, which was elaborated to predict the lifetime of reactors, did not bring validated results. Nevertheless, this kind of experiment allows us to assess the adsorption performances of an activated carbon for different pesticides. Because of the lack of comparable available results, we have eveloped a standardized methodology based on the experiment in mini-column of granular activated carbon. The main experimental conditions are activated carbon: Filtrasorb 400 (Chemviron Carbon; water: mineral and organic reconstituted water (humic acid concentration: 0,5 mg/l; influent concentration 500 g . l -1 ; activated carbon weight: 200 mg; EBCT (Empty Bed Contact Time: 0.16 min.; linear speed: 0.15 m . s -1 . In these conditions, it appears that diuron is highly adsorbed in comparison with other active substances like chloridazon, atrazine or MCPA. From the ratio of effluent volume for the breakthrough point with respect to diuron, it is suggested that products of which the difference factor ratio is – (a below 0.40: may be reckoned as weakly adsorbed (MCPA; (b from 0.41 to 0.80: may be reckoned as moderately adsorbed (chloridazon and atrazine; (c above 0.80: as highly adsorbed on granular activated carbon. Active substances that are weakly adsorbed and have to be removed from drinking water, may highly reduce the lifetime of an activated carbon bed. This kind of information is particularly useful for water suppliers and for regulatory authorities.

  6. An assessment of The Capacity Drops at The Bottleneck Segments: A review on the existing methodologies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sugiarto Sugiarto

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available The term of capacity is very useful to quantify the ability of transport facilities in terms of carrying traffic. The capacity of the road is an essential ingredient in the planning, design, and operation of roadways. It is desirable for traffic analyst to be able to predict the time and places where congestion will occur and the volumes to be expected. Most of urbanized areas have been experiencing of traffic congestion problems particularly at urban arterial systems. High traffic demand and limited supply of roadways are always the main factors produced traffic congestion. However, there are other sources of local and temporal congestion, such as uncontrolled access point, median opening and on-street parking activities, which are caused a reduction of roadway capacity during peak operations. Those locations could result in reduction of travel speed and road, as known as hidden bottlenecks. This is bottleneck which is without any changes in geometric of the segments. The Indonesian Highway Capacity Manual (IHCM, 1997 is used to assess urban arterial systems till current days. IHCM provides a static method for examining the capacityand does not systematically take into account of bottleneck activities. However, bottleneck activities create interruption smooth traffic flow along arterial streets, which in turns stimulate related problems, such as, excessive air pollution, additional energy consumption and driver’s frustration due to traffic jammed. This condition could happen simultaneously; mostly repetitive and predictable in same peak hour demands. Therefore, this paper carefully summarize on the existing methodologies considering required data, handled data processing and expected output of each proposed of analysis. We further notice that dynamic approach could be more appropriated for analyzing temporal congestion segments (median opening, on street parking, etc.. Method of oblique cumulative plot seems to be more applicable in terms of

  7. Assessment of Statistical Methodologies and Pitfalls of Dissertations Carried Out at National Cancer Institute, Cairo University

    Science.gov (United States)

    Allam, Rasha M; Noaman, Maissa K; Moneer, Manar M; Elattar, Inas A

    2017-01-01

    Purpose: To identify statistical errors and pitfalls in dissertations performed as part of the requirements for the Medical Doctorate (MD) degree at the National Cancer Institute (NCI), Cairo University (CU) to improve the quality of medical research. Methods: A critical assessment of 62 MD dissertations conducted in 3 departments at NCI, CU, between 2009 and 2013 was carried out regarding statistical methodology and presentation of the results. To detect differences in study characteristics over time, grouping was into two periods; 2009-2010 and 2011-2013. Results: Statistical methods were appropriate in only 13 studies (24.5%). The most common statistical tests applied were chi-square, log-rank, and Mann-Whitney tests. Four studies estimated sample size and/or power. Only 37.1% and 38.7% of dissertation results supported aims and answered the research questions, respectively. Most of results were misinterpreted (82.3%) with misuse of statistical terminology (77.4%). Tabular and graphical data display was independently informative in only 36 dissertations (58.1%) with accurate titles and labels in only 17 (27.4%). Statistical tests fulfilled the assumptions only in 29 studies; with evident misuse in 33. Ten dissertations reported non-significance regarding their primary outcome measure; the median power of the test was 35.5% (range: 6-60%). There was no significant change in the characteristics between the time periods. Conclusion: MD dissertations at NCI have many epidemiological and statistical defects that may compromise the external validity of the results. It is recommended to involve a biostatistician from the very start to improve study design, sample size calculation, end points estimation and measures. Creative Commons Attribution License

  8. Ethyl carbamate: analytical methodology, occurrence, formation, biological activity and risk assessment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zimmerli, B; Schlatter, J

    1991-01-01

    Ethyl carbamate (EC) is a genotoxic compound in vitro and in vivo, it binds covalently to DNA and is an animal carcinogen. Today, EC is mainly found as a natural trace constituent in different alcoholic beverages and in fermented food items. Data on analytical methodology and the levels of EC in different food items are summarized and the daily burden of humans is estimated. Under normal dietary habits excluding alcoholic beverages, the unavoidable daily intake is 10-20 ng/kg b.w. On the basis of the evaluation of all toxicity data and its mode of action a conventional risk assessment of EC indicates that this level represents a negligible lifetime cancer risk (less than 0.0001%). Individual habits may greatly enhance the risk. Regular drinking of table wine (500 ml/day) would increase the risk up to 5 times, regular drinking of stone-fruit distillates (20-40 ml/day) would raise the calculated hypothetical tumor risk to near 0.01%. Human exposure to carcinogenic compounds should be as low as reasonably achievable. In order to take reliable measures to reduce EC levels in beverages and foods, it is crucial to know the mode of its formation. For its natural formation the presence of ethanol is absolutely required. In stone-fruit distillates hydrogen cyanide together with photochemically active substances are crucial to form EC. The main part of EC is formed after the distillation involving photochemical reactions. In wine (and probably bread) significant EC formation seems to depend on heat treatment. While in distillates hydrogen cyanide is the most important single precursor, in wine different carbamyl compounds, mainly urea, seem to be involved in EC formation. Despite this apparent difference a common EC formation pathway is discussed for all alcoholic beverages by assuming cyanic-/isocyanic acid as an important ultimate reactant with ethanol. Some ideas are presented as to the possible course of future work.

  9. Ethical assessment of research protocols: the experience of the Research Ethics Committee of the Hospital Israelita Albert Einstein (HIAE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sonia Maria Oliveira de Barros

    2005-03-01

    Full Text Available This is a review article on the origin of the ethical analysis ofresearch protocols, the Brazilian and International legislation,including the Research Ethics Committee of Hospital IsraelitaAlbert Einstein. Since 1997, when the Committee was validatedits role has been recognized as that of a consultant and educator,participating on local and national scientific events andcollaborating with researchers in order to improve their projectsand learn to recognize ethical dilemmas in their protocols.

  10. San Joaquin, California, High-Speed Rail Grade Crossing Data Acquisition Characteristics, Methodology, and Risk Assessment

    Science.gov (United States)

    2006-11-01

    This report discusses data acquisition and analysis for grade crossing risk analysis at the proposed San Joaquin High-Speed Rail Corridor in San Joaquin, California, and documents the data acquisition and analysis methodologies used to collect and an...

  11. Assessment of ISLOCA risk-methodology and application to a combustion engineering plant

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kelly, D.L.; Auflick, J.L.; Haney, L.N. [EG and G Idaho, Inc., Idaho Falls, ID (United States)

    1992-04-01

    Inter-system loss-of-coolant accidents (ISLOCAs) have been identified as important contributors to offsite risk for some nuclear power plants. A methodology has been developed for identifying and evaluating plant-specific hardware designs, human factors issues, and accident consequence factors relevant to the estimation of ISOLOCA core damage frequency and risk. This report presents a detailed of description of the application of this analysis methodology to a Combustion Engineering plant.

  12. A framework for assessing the adequacy and effectiveness of software development methodologies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arthur, James D.; Nance, Richard E.

    1990-01-01

    Tools, techniques, environments, and methodologies dominate the software engineering literature, but relatively little research in the evaluation of methodologies is evident. This work reports an initial attempt to develop a procedural approach to evaluating software development methodologies. Prominent in this approach are: (1) an explication of the role of a methodology in the software development process; (2) the development of a procedure based on linkages among objectives, principles, and attributes; and (3) the establishment of a basis for reduction of the subjective nature of the evaluation through the introduction of properties. An application of the evaluation procedure to two Navy methodologies has provided consistent results that demonstrate the utility and versatility of the evaluation procedure. Current research efforts focus on the continued refinement of the evaluation procedure through the identification and integration of product quality indicators reflective of attribute presence, and the validation of metrics supporting the measure of those indicators. The consequent refinement of the evaluation procedure offers promise of a flexible approach that admits to change as the field of knowledge matures. In conclusion, the procedural approach presented in this paper represents a promising path toward the end goal of objectively evaluating software engineering methodologies.

  13. Toxicity assessment of ionic liquids with Vibrio fischeri: an alternative fully automated methodology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Costa, Susana P F; Pinto, Paula C A G; Lapa, Rui A S; Saraiva, M Lúcia M F S

    2015-03-02

    A fully automated Vibrio fischeri methodology based on sequential injection analysis (SIA) has been developed. The methodology was based on the aspiration of 75 μL of bacteria and 50 μL of inhibitor followed by measurement of the luminescence of bacteria. The assays were conducted for contact times of 5, 15, and 30 min, by means of three mixing chambers that ensured adequate mixing conditions. The optimized methodology provided a precise control of the reaction conditions which is an asset for the analysis of a large number of samples. The developed methodology was applied to the evaluation of the impact of a set of ionic liquids (ILs) on V. fischeri and the results were compared with those provided by a conventional assay kit (Biotox(®)). The collected data evidenced the influence of different cation head groups and anion moieties on the toxicity of ILs. Generally, aromatic cations and fluorine-containing anions displayed higher impact on V. fischeri, evidenced by lower EC50. The proposed methodology was validated through statistical analysis which demonstrated a strong positive correlation (P>0.98) between assays. It is expected that the automated methodology can be tested for more classes of compounds and used as alternative to microplate based V. fischeri assay kits. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  14. Committee Opinion Summary No. 638: First-Trimester Risk Assessment for Early-Onset Preeclampsia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-09-01

    Hypertensive disorders with adverse sequelae (including preterm birth, maternal morbidity and mortality, and long-term risk of maternal cardiovascular disease) complicate 5-10% of pregnancies. Early identification of pregnant women at risk of developing early-onset preeclampsia would theoretically allow referral for more intensive surveillance or application of preventive therapies to reduce the risk of severe disease. In practice, however, the effectiveness of such triage would be hindered by the low positive predictive value for early-onset preeclampsia reported in the literature. In spite of the modest predictive value of first-trimester preeclampsia risk assessment and the lack of data demonstrating improved clinical outcomes, commercial tests are being marketed for the prediction of preeclampsia in the first trimester. Taking a detailed medical history to evaluate for risk factors is currently the best and only recommended screening approach for preeclampsia; it should remain the method of screening for preeclampsia until studies show that aspirin or other interventions reduce the incidence of preeclampsia for women at high risk based on first-trimester predictive tests.

  15. Towards an Assessment Methodology to Support Decision Making for Sustainable Electronic Waste Management Systems: Automatic Sorting Technology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ilaria Barletta

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available There is a lack of structured methodologies to support stakeholders in accessing the sustainability aspects for e-waste management. Moreover, the increasing volume of electronic waste (e-waste and the availability of automated e-waste treatment solutions demand frequent reconfigurations of facilities for efficient e-waste management. To fill this gap and guide such ongoing developments, this paper proposes a novel methodological framework to enable the assessing, visualizing and comparing of sustainability impacts (economic, environmental and social resulting from changes applied to a facility for e-waste treatment. The methodology encompasses several methods, such as discrete event simulation, life cycle assessment and stakeholder mapping. A newly-developed demonstrator for sorting e-waste is presented to illustrate the application of the framework. Not only did the methodology generate useful information for decision making, but it has also helped identify requirements for further assessing the broader impacts on the social landscape in which e-waste management systems operate. These results differ from those of previous studies, which have lacked a holistic approach to addressing sustainability. Such an approach is important to truly measure the efficacy of sustainable e-waste management. Potential future applications of the framework are envisioned in production systems handling other waste streams, besides electronics.

  16. Analysis of Wind Turbine Simulation Models: Assessment of Simplified versus Complete Methodologies: Preprint

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Honrubia-Escribano, A.; Jimenez-Buendia, F.; Molina-Garcia, A.; Fuentes-Moreno, J. A.; Muljadi, Eduard; Gomez-Lazaro, E.

    2015-09-14

    This paper presents the current status of simplified wind turbine models used for power system stability analysis. This work is based on the ongoing work being developed in IEC 61400-27. This international standard, for which a technical committee was convened in October 2009, is focused on defining generic (also known as simplified) simulation models for both wind turbines and wind power plants. The results of the paper provide an improved understanding of the usability of generic models to conduct power system simulations.

  17. Methodology for Speech Assessment in the Scandcleft Project-An International Randomized Clinical Trial on Palatal Surgery

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Willadsen, Elisabeth

    2009-01-01

    -sum and the overall rating of VPC was 78%. Conclusions: Pooling data of speakers of different languages in the same trial and comparing speech outcome across trials seems possible if the assessment of speech concerns consonants and is confined to speech units that are phonetically similar across languages. Agreed......Objective: To present the methodology for speech assessment in the Scandcleft project and discuss issues from a pilot study. Design: Description of methodology and blinded test for speech assessment. Speech samples and instructions for data collection and analysis for comparisons of speech outcomes...... across five included languages were developed and tested. Participants and Materials: Randomly selected video recordings of 10 5-year-old children from each language (n = 50) were included in the project. Speech material consisted of test consonants in single words, connected speech, and syllable chains...

  18. Integrating quantitative and qualitative methodologies for the assessment of health care systems: emergency medicine in post-conflict Serbia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nelson, Brett D; Dierberg, Kerry; Sćepanović, Milena; Mitrović, Mihajlo; Vuksanović, Milos; Milić, Ljiljana; VanRooyen, Michael J

    2005-02-17

    Due to the complexity of health system reform in the post-conflict, post-disaster, and development settings, attempts to restructure health services are fraught with pitfalls that are often unanticipated because of inadequate preliminary assessments. Our proposed Integrated Multimodal Assessment - combining quantitative and qualitative methodologies - may provide a more robust mechanism for identifying programmatic priorities and critical barriers for appropriate and sustainable health system interventions. The purpose of this study is to describe this novel multimodal assessment using emergency medicine in post-conflict Serbia as a model. Integrated quantitative and qualitative methodologies--system characterization and observation, focus group discussions, free-response questionnaires, and by-person factor analysis--were used to identify needs, problems, and potential barriers to the development of emergency medicine in Serbia. Participants included emergency and pre-hospital personnel from all emergency medical institutions in Belgrade. Demographic data indicate a loosely ordered network of part-time emergency departments supported by 24-hour pre-hospital services and an academic emergency center. Focus groups and questionnaires reveal significant impediments to delivery of care and suggest development priorities. By-person factor analysis subsequently divides respondents into distinctive attitudinal types, compares participant opinions, and identifies programmatic priorities. By combining quantitative and qualitative methodologies, our Integrated Multimodal Assessment identified critical needs and barriers to emergency medicine development in Serbia and may serve as a model for future health system assessments in post-conflict, post-disaster, and development settings.

  19. A Proposed Methodology to Assess the Accuracy of 3D Scanners and Casts and Monitor Tooth Wear Progression in Patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahmed, Khaled E; Whitters, John; Ju, Xiangyang; Pierce, S Gareth; MacLeod, Charles N; Murray, Colin A

    2016-01-01

    The aim of this study was to detail and assess the capability of a novel methodology to 3D-quantify tooth wear progression in a patient over a period of 12 months. A calibrated stainless steel model was used to identify the accuracy of the scanning system by assessing the accuracy and precision of the contact scanner and the dimensional accuracy and stability of casts fabricated from three different types of impression materials. Thereafter, the overall accuracy of the 3D scanning system (scanner and casts) was ascertained. Clinically, polyether impressions were made of the patient's dentition at the initial examination and at the 12-month review, then poured in type IV dental stone to assess the tooth wear. The anterior teeth on the resultant casts were scanned, and images were analyzed using 3D matching software to detect dimensional variations between the patient's impressions. The accuracy of the 3D scanning system was established to be 33 μm. 3D clinical analysis demonstrated localized wear on the incisal and palatal surfaces of the patient's maxillary central incisors. The identified wear extended to a depth of 500 μm with a distribution of 4% to 7% of affected tooth surfaces. The newly developed 3D scanning methodology was found to be capable of assessing and accounting for the various factors affecting tooth wear scanning. Initial clinical evaluation of the methodology demonstrates successful monitoring of tooth wear progression. However, further clinical assessment is needed.

  20. Is Your Ethics Committee Efficient? Using “IRB Metrics” as a Self-Assessment Tool for Continuous Improvement at the Faculty of Tropical Medicine, Mahidol University, Thailand

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adams, Pornpimon; Kaewkungwal, Jaranit; Limphattharacharoen, Chanthima; Prakobtham, Sukanya; Pengsaa, Krisana; Khusmith, Srisin

    2014-01-01

    Tensions between researchers and ethics committees have been reported in several institutions. Some reports suggest researchers lack confidence in the quality of institutional review board (IRB) reviews, and that emphasis on strict procedural compliance and ethical issues raised by the IRB might unintentionally lead to delays in correspondence between researchers and ethics committees, and/or even encourage prevarication/equivocation, if researchers perceive committee concerns and criticisms unjust. This study systematically analyzed the efficiency of different IRB functions, and the relationship between efficiency and perceived quality of the decision-making process. The major purposes of this study were thus (1) to use the IRB Metrics developed by the Faculty of Tropical Medicine, Mahidol University, Thailand (FTM-EC) to assess the operational efficiency and perceived effectiveness of its ethics committees, and (2) to determine ethical issues that may cause the duration of approval process to be above the target limit of 60 days. Based on a literature review of definitions and methods used and proposed for use, in assessing aspects of IRB quality, an “IRB Metrics” was developed to assess IRB processes using a structure-process-outcome measurement model. To observe trends in the indicators evaluated, data related to all protocols submitted to the two panels of the FTM-EC (clinical and non-clinical), between January 2010–September 2013, were extracted and analyzed. Quantitative information based on IRB Metrics structure-process-outcome illuminates different areas for internal-process improvement. Ethical issues raised with researchers by the IRB, which were associated with the duration of the approval process in protocol review, could be considered root causes of tensions between the parties. The assessment of IRB structure-process-outcome thus provides a valuable opportunity to strengthen relationships and reduce conflicts between IRBs and researchers, with

  1. Italy; Detailed Assessment of Compliance with the Committee for Payment and Settlement Systems (CPSS) Core Principles for Systemically Important Payment Systems

    OpenAIRE

    International Monetary Fund

    2004-01-01

    This paper presents findings of the Detailed Assessment of Italy’s Compliance with the Committee for Payment and Settlement Systems (CPSS) Core Principles for Systemically Important Payment Systems. At present, the Italian banking system is subject to significant challenges resulting from slowing economic growth, and low and declining interest rates, which have resulted in pressures on margins and a need to diversify sources of income. Banca d’Italia RTGS System for Large-Value Payments (BIRE...

  2. Methodological quality and implications for practice of systematic Cochrane reviews in pediatric oral health: a critical assessment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smaïl-Faugeron, Violaine; Fron-Chabouis, Hélène; Courson, Frédéric

    2014-04-09

    To ensure evidence-based decision-making in pediatric oral health, Cochrane systematic reviews that address topics pertinent to this field are necessary. We aimed to identify all systematic reviews of paediatric dentistry and oral health by the Cochrane Oral Health Group (COHG), summarize their characteristics and assess their methodological quality. Our second objective was to assess implications for practice in the review conclusions and provide an overview of clinical implications about the usefulness of paediatric oral health interventions in practice. We conducted a methodological survey including all paediatric dentistry reviews from the COHG. We extracted data on characteristics of included reviews, then assessed the methodological quality using a validated 11-item quality assessment tool (AMSTAR). Finally, we coded each review to indicate whether its authors concluded that an intervention should be implemented in practice, was not supported or was refuted by the evidence, or should be used only in research (inconclusive evidence). We selected 37 reviews; most concerned the prevention of caries. The methodological quality was high, except for the assessment of reporting bias. In 7 reviews (19%), the research showed that benefits outweighed harms; in 1, the experimental intervention was found ineffective; and in 29 (78%), evidence was insufficient to assess benefits and harms. In the 7 reviews, topical fluoride treatments (with toothpaste, gel or varnish) were found effective for permanent and deciduous teeth in children and adolescents, and sealants for occlusal tooth surfaces of permanent molars. Cochrane reviews of paediatric dentistry were of high quality. They provided strong evidence that topical fluoride treatments and sealants are effective for children and adolescents and thus should be implemented in practice. However, a substantial number of reviews yielded inconclusive evidence.

  3. Landslide hazard assessment : LIFE+IMAGINE project methodology and Liguria region use case

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spizzichino, Daniele; Campo, Valentina; Congi, Maria Pia; Cipolloni, Carlo; Delmonaco, Giuseppe; Guerrieri, Luca; Iadanza, Carla; Leoni, Gabriele; Trigila, Alessandro

    2015-04-01

    Scope of the work is to present a methodology developed for analysis of potential impacts in areas prone to landslide hazard in the framework of the EC project LIFE+IMAGINE. The project aims to implement a web services-based infrastructure addressed to environmental analysis, that integrates, in its own architecture, specifications and results from INSPIRE, SEIS and GMES. Existing web services has been customized to provide functionalities for supporting environmental integrated management. The implemented infrastructure has been applied to landslide risk scenarios, developed in selected pilot areas, aiming at: i) application of standard procedures to implement a landslide risk analysis; ii) definition of a procedure for assessment of potential environmental impacts, based on a set of indicators to estimate the different exposed elements with their specific vulnerability in the pilot area. The landslide pilot and related scenario are focused at providing a simplified Landslide Risk Assessment (LRA) through: 1) a landslide inventory derived from available historical and recent databases and maps; 2) landslide susceptibility and hazard maps; 3) assessment of exposure and vulnerability on selected typologies of elements at risk; 4) implementation of a landslide risk scenario for different sets of exposed elements 5) development of a use case; 6) definition of guidelines, best practices and production of thematic maps. The LRA has been implemented in Liguria region, Italy, in two different catchment areas located in the Cinque Terre National Park, characterized by a high landslide susceptibility and low resilience. The landslide risk impact analysis has been calibrated taking into account the socio-economic damage caused by landslides triggered by the October 2011 meteorological event. During this event, over 600 landslides were triggered in the selected pilot area. Most of landslides affected the diffuse system of anthropogenic terraces and caused the direct

  4. Assessment of an Adaptive Load Forecasting Methodology in a Smart Grid Demonstration Project

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ricardo Vazquez

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents the implementation of an adaptive load forecasting methodology in two different power networks from a smart grid demonstration project deployed in the region of Madrid, Spain. The paper contains an exhaustive comparative study of different short-term load forecast methodologies, addressing the methods and variables that are more relevant to be applied for the smart grid deployment. The evaluation followed in this paper suggests that the performance of the different methods depends on the conditions of the site in which the smart grid is implemented. It is shown that some non-linear methods, such as support vector machine with a radial basis function kernel and extremely randomized forest offer good performance using only 24 lagged load hourly values, which could be useful when the amount of data available is limited due to communication problems in the smart grid monitoring system. However, it has to be highlighted that, in general, the behavior of different short-term load forecast methodologies is not stable when they are applied to different power networks and that when there is a considerable variability throughout the whole testing period, some methods offer good performance in some situations, but they fail in others. In this paper, an adaptive load forecasting methodology is proposed to address this issue improving the forecasting performance through iterative optimization: in each specific situation, the best short-term load forecast methodology is chosen, resulting in minimum prediction errors.

  5. Avoiding and identifying errors in health technology assessment models: qualitative study and methodological review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chilcott, J; Tappenden, P; Rawdin, A; Johnson, M; Kaltenthaler, E; Paisley, S; Papaioannou, D; Shippam, A

    2010-05-01

    Health policy decisions must be relevant, evidence-based and transparent. Decision-analytic modelling supports this process but its role is reliant on its credibility. Errors in mathematical decision models or simulation exercises are unavoidable but little attention has been paid to processes in model development. Numerous error avoidance/identification strategies could be adopted but it is difficult to evaluate the merits of strategies for improving the credibility of models without first developing an understanding of error types and causes. The study aims to describe the current comprehension of errors in the HTA modelling community and generate a taxonomy of model errors. Four primary objectives are to: (1) describe the current understanding of errors in HTA modelling; (2) understand current processes applied by the technology assessment community for avoiding errors in development, debugging and critically appraising models for errors; (3) use HTA modellers' perceptions of model errors with the wider non-HTA literature to develop a taxonomy of model errors; and (4) explore potential methods and procedures to reduce the occurrence of errors in models. It also describes the model development process as perceived by practitioners working within the HTA community. A methodological review was undertaken using an iterative search methodology. Exploratory searches informed the scope of interviews; later searches focused on issues arising from the interviews. Searches were undertaken in February 2008 and January 2009. In-depth qualitative interviews were performed with 12 HTA modellers from academic and commercial modelling sectors. All qualitative data were analysed using the Framework approach. Descriptive and explanatory accounts were used to interrogate the data within and across themes and subthemes: organisation, roles and communication; the model development process; definition of error; types of model error; strategies for avoiding errors; strategies for

  6. Pan-Canadian assessment of pandemic immunization data collection: study methodology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sikora Christopher A

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The collection of individual-level pandemic (H1N1 2009 influenza immunization data was considered important to facilitate optimal vaccine delivery and accurate assessment of vaccine coverage. These data are also critical for research aimed at evaluating the new vaccine's safety and effectiveness. Systems used to collect immunization data include manual approaches in which data are collected and retained on paper, electronic systems in which data are captured on computer at the point of vaccination and hybrid systems which are comprised of both computerized and manual data collection components. This study's objective was to compare the efficiencies and perceptions of data collection methods employed during Canada's pandemic (H1N1 2009 influenza vaccination campaign. Methods/Design A pan-Canadian observational study was conducted in a convenience sample of public health clinics and healthcare institutions during the H1N1 vaccination campaign in the fall of 2009. The study design consisted of three stages: Stage 1 involved passive observation of the site's layout, processes and client flow; Stage 2 entailed timing site staff on 20 clients through five core immunization tasks: i client registration, ii medical history collection, iii medical history review, iv vaccine administration record keeping and v preparation of proof of vaccine administration for the client; in Stage 3, site staff completed a questionnaire regarding perceived usability of the site's data collection approach. Before the national study began, a pilot study was conducted in three seasonal influenza vaccination sites in Ontario, to both test that the proposed methodology was logistically feasible and to determine inter-rater reliability in the measurements of the research staff. Comparative analyses will be conducted across the range of data collection methods with respect to time required to collect immunization data, number and type of individual-level data

  7. Assessment of the methodology for estimating ridge density in fingerprints and its forensic application.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gutiérrez-Redomero, Esperanza; Rivaldería, Noemí; Alonso-Rodríguez, Concepción; Sánchez-Andrés, Ángeles

    2014-05-01

    In recent times, some studies have explored the forensic application of dermatoglyphic traits such as the epidermal ridge breadth or ridge density (RD) toward the inference of sex and population from fingerprints of unknown origin, as it has been demonstrated that there exist significant differences of fingerprints between sexes and between populations. Part of the population differences found between these studies could be of methodological nature, due both to the lack of standardisation in the position of the counting area, as well as to the differences in the method used for obtaining the fingerprint. Therefore, the aim of this study was to check whether there are differences between the RD of fingerprints depending on where the counting area is placed and how the fingerprints are obtained. Fingerprints of each finger were obtained from 102 adult Spanish subjects (50 females and 52 males), using two methods (plain and rolled). The ridge density of each fingerprint was assessed in five different areas of the dactylogram: two closer to the core area (one on the radial and the other on the ulnar side), two closer to the outermost area of each of the sides (radial and ulnar), and another one in the proximal region of the fingertip. Regardless of the method used and of the position of the counting area, thumbs and forefingers show a higher RD than middle, ring, and little fingers in both sexes, and females present a higher RD than males in all areas and fingers. In both males and females, RD values on the core region are higher than those on the outer region, irrespective of the technique of fingerprinting used (rolled or plain). Regardless of the sex and location of the count area (core or outer), the rolled fingerprints exhibit RD greater than that of the plain ones in both radial and proximal areas, whereas the trend is inverted in the ulnar area, where rolled fingerprints demonstrate RD lesser than that of the plain ones. Therefore, in order for the results of

  8. Analysis of methodologies for assessing the employability of Sport graduates in Portugal

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dina Miragaia

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this article is to analyze the methodologies used to monitor and evaluate employability of Portuguese graduated sport students. The consultation of national and international literature was carried to understand the significance of employability concept and its implications for the methodological design used in evaluation reports of employability. Questionnaires applied by official organizations were consulted and the coherence between the dimensions/variables uncovered and the concept of employability was examined. Problems of validity, reliability, discrimination and comparability between studies were identified, which suggests that it is required find new ways to evaluate employability. One possible way consists in the use of the methodology of triangulation (data, researchers that integrates inter-institutional research.

  9. How to assess solid waste management in armed conflicts? A new methodology applied to the Gaza Strip, Palestine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caniato, Marco; Vaccari, Mentore

    2014-09-01

    We have developed a new methodology for assessing solid waste management in a situation of armed conflict. This methodology is composed of six phases with specific activities, and suggested methods and tools. The collection, haulage, and disposal of waste in low- and middle-income countries is so complicated and expensive task for municipalities, owing to several challenges involved, that some waste is left in illegal dumps. Armed conflicts bring further constraints, such as instability, the sudden increase in violence, and difficulty in supplying equipment and spare parts: planning is very difficult and several projects aimed at improving the situation have failed. The methodology was validated in the Gaza Strip, where the geopolitical situation heavily affects natural resources. We collected information in a holistic way, crosschecked, and discussed it with local experts, practitioners, and authorities. We estimated that in 2011 only 1300 tonne day(-1) were transported to the three disposal sites, out of a production exceeding 1700. Recycling was very limited, while the composting capacity was 3.5 tonnes day(-1), but increasing. We carefully assessed system elements and their interaction. We identified the challenges, and developed possible solutions to increase system effectiveness and robustness. The case study demonstrated that our methodology is flexible and adaptable to the context, thus it could be applied in other areas to improve the humanitarian response in similar situations. © The Author(s) 2014.

  10. A global view on ARAMIS, a risk assessment methodology for industries in the framework of the SEVESO II directive.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salvi, Olivier; Debray, Bruno

    2006-03-31

    The ARAMIS methodology was developed in an European project co-funded in the fifth Framework Programme of the European Commission with the objective to answer the specific requirements of the SEVESO II directive. It offers an alternative to purely deterministic and probabilistic approaches to risk assessment of process plants. It also answers the needs of the various stakeholders interested by the results of the risk assessment for land use or emergency planning, enforcement or, more generally, public decision-making. The methodology is divided into the following major steps: identification of major accident hazards (MIMAH), identification of the safety barriers and assessment of their performances, evaluation of safety management efficiency to barrier reliability, identification of reference accident scenarios (MIRAS), assessment and mapping of the risk severity of reference scenarios and of the vulnerability of the plant surroundings. The methodology was tested during five case studies, which provided useful information about the applicability of the method and, by identifying the most sensitive parts of it opened way to new research activity for an improved industrial safety.

  11. [The methodological assessment and qualitative evaluation of psychometric performance tests based on the example of modern tests that assess reading and spelling skills].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Galuschka, Katharina; Rothe, Josefine; Schulte-Körne, Gerd

    2015-09-01

    This article looks at a means of objectively evaluating the quality of psychometric tests. This approach enables users to evaluate psychometric tests based on their methodological characteristics, in order to decide which instrument should be used. Reading and spelling assessment tools serve as examples. The paper also provides a review of German psychometric tests for the assessment of reading and spelling skills. This method facilitates the identification of psychometric tests.of high methodological quality which can be used for the assessment of reading and spelling skills. Reading performance should ideally be assessed with the following instruments: ELFE 1-6, LGVT 6-12, LESEN 6-7, LESEN 8-9, or WLLP-R. The tests to be used for the evaluation of spelling skills are DERET 1-2+, DERET 3-4+, WRT 1+, WRT 2+, WRT 3+, WRT 4+ or HSP 1-10.

  12. Acceleration-based methodology to assess the blast mitigation performance of explosive ordnance disposal helmets

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dionne, J. P.; Levine, J.; Makris, A.

    2017-07-01

    To design the next generation of blast mitigation helmets that offer increasing levels of protection against explosive devices, manufacturers must be able to rely on appropriate test methodologies and human surrogates that will differentiate the performance level of various helmet solutions and ensure user safety. Ideally, such test methodologies and associated injury thresholds should be based on widely accepted injury criteria relevant within the context of blast. Unfortunately, even though significant research has taken place over the last decade in the area of blast neurotrauma, there currently exists no agreement in terms of injury mechanisms for blast-induced traumatic brain injury. In absence of such widely accepted test methods and injury criteria, the current study presents a specific blast test methodology focusing on explosive ordnance disposal protective equipment, involving the readily available Hybrid III mannequin, initially developed for the automotive industry. The unlikely applicability of the associated brain injury criteria (based on both linear and rotational head acceleration) is discussed in the context of blast. Test results encompassing a large number of blast configurations and personal protective equipment are presented, emphasizing the possibility to develop useful correlations between blast parameters, such as the scaled distance, and mannequin engineering measurements (head acceleration). Suggestions are put forward for a practical standardized blast testing methodology taking into account limitations in the applicability of acceleration-based injury criteria as well as the inherent variability in blast testing results.

  13. A methodology for assessing the effectiveness of serious games and for inferring player learning outcomes.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Serrano-Laguna, Angel; Manero, Borja; Freire, Manuel; Fernandez-Manjon, Baltasar

    2017-01-01

    Although serious games are proven educational tools in many educational domains, they lack reliable, automated and repeatable methodologies to measure their effectiveness: what do players know after playing a serious game? Did they learn with it? Literature research shows that the vast majority

  14. A methodology to assess the effectiveness of serious games and infer player learning outcomes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Serrano-Laguna, Angel; Manero, Borja; Freire, Manuel; Fernandez-Manjon, Baltasar

    2017-01-01

    Although serious games are proven educational tools in many educational domains, they lack reliable, automated and repeatable methodologies to measure their effectiveness: what do players know after playing a serious game? Did they learn with it? Literature research shows that the vast majority

  15. Simultaneous saccharification and ethanol fermentation of oxalic acid pretreated corncob assessed with response surface methodology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jae-Won Lee; Rita C.L.B. Rodrigues; Thomas W. Jeffries

    2009-01-01

    Response surface methodology was used to evaluate optimal time, temperature and oxalic acid concentration for simultaneous saccharification and fermentation (SSF) of corncob particles by Pichia stipitis CBS 6054. Fifteen different conditions for pretreatment were examined in a 23 full factorial design with six axial points. Temperatures ranged from 132 to 180º...

  16. Identifying approaches for assessing methodological and reporting quality of systematic reviews

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pussegoda, Kusala; Turner, Lucy; Garritty, Chantelle

    2017-01-01

    BACKGROUND: The methodological quality and completeness of reporting of the systematic reviews (SRs) is fundamental to optimal implementation of evidence-based health care and the reduction of research waste. Methods exist to appraise SRs yet little is known about how they are used in SRs or wher...

  17. Students' Involvement in Continuous Assessment Methodologies: A Case Study for a Distributed Information Systems Course

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cano, M.-D.

    2011-01-01

    The creation of the new European Higher Education Area (EHEA), with the corresponding changes in the structure and content of university degrees, offers a great opportunity to review learning methodologies. This paper investigates the effect on students of moving from a traditional learning process, based on lectures and laboratory work, to an…

  18. Assessing the impact of healthcare research: A systematic review of methodological frameworks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cruz Rivera, Samantha; Kyte, Derek G; Aiyegbusi, Olalekan Lee; Keeley, Thomas J; Calvert, Melanie J

    2017-08-01

    Increasingly, researchers need to demonstrate the impact of their research to their sponsors, funders, and fellow academics. However, the most appropriate way of measuring the impact of healthcare research is subject to debate. We aimed to identify the existing methodological frameworks used to measure healthcare research impact and to summarise the common themes and metrics in an impact matrix. Two independent investigators systematically searched the Medical Literature Analysis and Retrieval System Online (MEDLINE), the Excerpta Medica Database (EMBASE), the Cumulative Index to Nursing and Allied Health Literature (CINAHL+), the Health Management Information Consortium, and the Journal of Research Evaluation from inception until May 2017 for publications that presented a methodological framework for research impact. We then summarised the common concepts and themes across methodological frameworks and identified the metrics used to evaluate differing forms of impact. Twenty-four unique methodological frameworks were identified, addressing 5 broad categories of impact: (1) 'primary research-related impact', (2) 'influence on policy making', (3) 'health and health systems impact', (4) 'health-related and societal impact', and (5) 'broader economic impact'. These categories were subdivided into 16 common impact subgroups. Authors of the included publications proposed 80 different metrics aimed at measuring impact in these areas. The main limitation of the study was the potential exclusion of relevant articles, as a consequence of the poor indexing of the databases searched. The measurement of research impact is an essential exercise to help direct the allocation of limited research resources, to maximise research benefit, and to help minimise research waste. This review provides a collective summary of existing methodological frameworks for research impact, which funders may use to inform the measurement of research impact and researchers may use to inform study

  19. Assessing the impact of healthcare research: A systematic review of methodological frameworks.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Samantha Cruz Rivera

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available Increasingly, researchers need to demonstrate the impact of their research to their sponsors, funders, and fellow academics. However, the most appropriate way of measuring the impact of healthcare research is subject to debate. We aimed to identify the existing methodological frameworks used to measure healthcare research impact and to summarise the common themes and metrics in an impact matrix.Two independent investigators systematically searched the Medical Literature Analysis and Retrieval System Online (MEDLINE, the Excerpta Medica Database (EMBASE, the Cumulative Index to Nursing and Allied Health Literature (CINAHL+, the Health Management Information Consortium, and the Journal of Research Evaluation from inception until May 2017 for publications that presented a methodological framework for research impact. We then summarised the common concepts and themes across methodological frameworks and identified the metrics used to evaluate differing forms of impact. Twenty-four unique methodological frameworks were identified, addressing 5 broad categories of impact: (1 'primary research-related impact', (2 'influence on policy making', (3 'health and health systems impact', (4 'health-related and societal impact', and (5 'broader economic impact'. These categories were subdivided into 16 common impact subgroups. Authors of the included publications proposed 80 different metrics aimed at measuring impact in these areas. The main limitation of the study was the potential exclusion of relevant articles, as a consequence of the poor indexing of the databases searched.The measurement of research impact is an essential exercise to help direct the allocation of limited research resources, to maximise research benefit, and to help minimise research waste. This review provides a collective summary of existing methodological frameworks for research impact, which funders may use to inform the measurement of research impact and researchers may use to inform

  20. Assessing the impact of healthcare research: A systematic review of methodological frameworks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keeley, Thomas J.; Calvert, Melanie J.

    2017-01-01

    Background Increasingly, researchers need to demonstrate the impact of their research to their sponsors, funders, and fellow academics. However, the most appropriate way of measuring the impact of healthcare research is subject to debate. We aimed to identify the existing methodological frameworks used to measure healthcare research impact and to summarise the common themes and metrics in an impact matrix. Methods and findings Two independent investigators systematically searched the Medical Literature Analysis and Retrieval System Online (MEDLINE), the Excerpta Medica Database (EMBASE), the Cumulative Index to Nursing and Allied Health Literature (CINAHL+), the Health Management Information Consortium, and the Journal of Research Evaluation from inception until May 2017 for publications that presented a methodological framework for research impact. We then summarised the common concepts and themes across methodological frameworks and identified the metrics used to evaluate differing forms of impact. Twenty-four unique methodological frameworks were identified, addressing 5 broad categories of impact: (1) ‘primary research-related impact’, (2) ‘influence on policy making’, (3) ‘health and health systems impact’, (4) ‘health-related and societal impact’, and (5) ‘broader economic impact’. These categories were subdivided into 16 common impact subgroups. Authors of the included publications proposed 80 different metrics aimed at measuring impact in these areas. The main limitation of the study was the potential exclusion of relevant articles, as a consequence of the poor indexing of the databases searched. Conclusions The measurement of research impact is an essential exercise to help direct the allocation of limited research resources, to maximise research benefit, and to help minimise research waste. This review provides a collective summary of existing methodological frameworks for research impact, which funders may use to inform the

  1. ASGE Technology Committee systematic review and meta-analysis assessing the ASGE PIVI thresholds for adopting real-time endoscopic assessment of the histology of diminutive colorectal polyps.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abu Dayyeh, Barham K; Thosani, Nirav; Konda, Vani; Wallace, Michael B; Rex, Douglas K; Chauhan, Shailendra S; Hwang, Joo Ha; Komanduri, Sri; Manfredi, Michael; Maple, John T; Murad, Faris M; Siddiqui, Uzma D; Banerjee, Subhas

    2015-03-01

    In vivo real-time assessment of the histology of diminutive (≤5 mm) colorectal polyps detected at colonoscopy can be achieved by means of an "optical biopsy" by using currently available endoscopic technologies. This systematic review and meta-analysis was performed by the American Society for Gastrointestinal Endoscopy (ASGE) Technology Committee to specifically assess whether acceptable performance thresholds outlined by an ASGE Preservation and Incorporation of Valuable endoscopic Innovations (PIVI) document for clinical adoption of these technologies have been met. We conducted direct meta-analyses calculating the pooled negative predictive value (NPV) for narrow-band imaging (NBI), i-SCAN, and Fujinon Intelligent Color Enhancement (FICE)-assisted optical biopsy for predicting adenomatous polyp histology of small/diminutive colorectal polyps. We also calculated the pooled percentage agreement with histopathology when assigning postpolypectomy surveillance intervals based on combining real-time optical biopsy of colorectal polyps 5 mm or smaller with histopathologic assessment of polyps larger than 5 mm. Random-effects meta-analysis models were used. Statistical heterogeneity was evaluated by means of I(2) statistics. Our meta-analyses indicate that optical biopsy with NBI, exceeds the NPV threshold for adenomatous polyp histology, supporting a "diagnose-and-leave" strategy for diminutive predicted nonneoplastic polyps in the rectosigmoid colon. The pooled NPV of NBI for adenomatous polyp histology by using the random-effects model was 91% (95% confidence interval [CI], 88-94). This finding was associated with a high degree of heterogeneity (I(2) = 89%). Subgroup analysis indicated that the pooled NPV was greater than 90% for academic medical centers (91.8%; 95% CI, 89-94), for experts (93%; 95% CI, 91-96), and when the optical biopsy assessment was made with high confidence (93%; 95% CI, 90-96). Our meta-analyses also indicate that the agreement in

  2. Methodological criteria for the assessment of moderators in systematic reviews of randomised controlled trials: a consensus study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carnes Dawn

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Current methodological guidelines provide advice about the assessment of sub-group analysis within RCTs, but do not specify explicit criteria for assessment. Our objective was to provide researchers with a set of criteria that will facilitate the grading of evidence for moderators, in systematic reviews. Method We developed a set of criteria from methodological manuscripts (n = 18 using snowballing technique, and electronic database searches. Criteria were reviewed by an international Delphi panel (n = 21, comprising authors who have published methodological papers in this area, and researchers who have been active in the study of sub-group analysis in RCTs. We used the Research ANd Development/University of California Los Angeles appropriateness method to assess consensus on the quantitative data. Free responses were coded for consensus and disagreement. In a subsequent round additional criteria were extracted from the Cochrane Reviewers' Handbook, and the process was repeated. Results The recommendations are that meta-analysts report both confirmatory and exploratory findings for sub-groups analysis. Confirmatory findings must only come from studies in which a specific theory/evidence based a-priori statement is made. Exploratory findings may be used to inform future/subsequent trials. However, for inclusion in the meta-analysis of moderators, the following additional criteria should be applied to each study: Baseline factors should be measured prior to randomisation, measurement of baseline factors should be of adequate reliability and validity, and a specific test of the interaction between baseline factors and interventions must be presented. Conclusions There is consensus from a group of 21 international experts that methodological criteria to assess moderators within systematic reviews of RCTs is both timely and necessary. The consensus from the experts resulted in five criteria divided into two groups when

  3. GIS methodology and case study regarding assessment of the solar potential at territorial level: PV or thermal?

    OpenAIRE

    Loïc Quiquerez; Jérôme Faessler; Bernard Marie Lachal; Floriane Mermoud; Pierre Hollmuller

    2015-01-01

    This paper presents a GIS-based methodology for assessing solar photovoltaic (PV) and solar thermal potentials in urban environment. The consideration of spatial and temporal dimensions of energy resource and demand allows, for two different territories of the Geneva region, to determine the suitable building roof areas for solar installations, the solar irradiance on these areas and, finally, the electrical and/or thermal energy potentials related to the demand. Results show that the choice ...

  4. On-The-Job Training: Development and Assessment of a Methodology for Generating Task Proficiency Evaluation Instruments

    Science.gov (United States)

    1986-09-01

    Assessment of a Methodology for Generating Task Proficiency Evaluation Instruments 12. PERSONAL AUTHOR(S) Warm, R.; Roth, J.T. Fitz artick! J.A. ,. 13a...procedures, and their support and ideas throughout the project; Ms. Lisa I. Thocher for her assistance in the data collection and analysis; and the Project...performance are identified. This detailed information allows the evaluator and the trainee to see what types of errors were made (in terms of

  5. The Water Footprint of the Wine Industry: Implementation of an Assessment Methodology and Application to a Case Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Emanuele Bonamente

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available An original methodology for the Water Footprint Assessment (WFA of a Product for the wine-making industry sector is presented, with a particular focus on the evaluation procedure of the grey water. Results obtained with the proposed methodology are also presented for an Italian case study. The product was analyzed using a life-cycle approach, with the aim of studying the water volumes of each phase according to the newly-released ISO 14046 international standard. The functional unit chosen in this study is the common 0.75 liter wine bottle. An in-house software (V.I.V.A. was implemented with the goal of accounting for all the contributions in a cradle-to-grave approach. At this stage, however, minor water volumes associated with some foreground and background processes are not assessed. The evaluation procedure was applied to a case study and green, blue, and grey water volumes were computed. Primary data were collected for a red wine produced by an Umbrian wine-making company. Results are in accordance with global average water footprint values from literature, showing a total WF of 632.2 L/bottle, with the major contribution (98.3% given by green water, and minor contributions (1.2% and 0.5% given by grey and blue water, respectively. A particular effort was dedicated to the definition of an improved methodology for the assessment of the virtual water volume required to dilute the load of pollutants on the environment below some reference level (Grey WF. The improved methodology was elaborated to assure the completeness of the water footprint assessment and to overcome some limitations of the reference approach. As a result, the overall WF can increase up to 3% in the most conservative hypotheses.

  6. U.S. Department of Energy worker health risk evaluation methodology for assessing risks associated with environmental restoration and waste management

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Blaylock, B.P.; Legg, J.; Travis, C.C. [Oak Ridge National Lab., TN (United States). Center for Risk Management; Simek, M.A.; Sutherland, J. [Univ. of Tennessee, Knoxville, TN (United States); Scofield, P.A. [Office of Environmental Compliance and Documentation (United States)

    1995-06-01

    This document describes a worker health risk evaluation methodology for assessing risks associated with Environmental Restoration (ER) and Waste Management (WM). The methodology is appropriate for estimating worker risks across the Department of Energy (DOE) Complex at both programmatic and site-specific levels. This document supports the worker health risk methodology used to perform the human health risk assessment portion of the DOE Programmatic Environmental Impact Statement (PEIS) although it has applications beyond the PEIS, such as installation-wide worker risk assessments, screening-level assessments, and site-specific assessments.

  7. Development of a Quantitative Methodology to Assess the Impacts of Urban Transport Interventions and Related Noise on Well-Being

    Science.gov (United States)

    Braubach, Matthias; Tobollik, Myriam; Mudu, Pierpaolo; Hiscock, Rosemary; Chapizanis, Dimitris; Sarigiannis, Denis A.; Keuken, Menno; Perez, Laura; Martuzzi, Marco

    2015-01-01

    Well-being impact assessments of urban interventions are a difficult challenge, as there is no agreed methodology and scarce evidence on the relationship between environmental conditions and well-being. The European Union (EU) project “Urban Reduction of Greenhouse Gas Emissions in China and Europe” (URGENCHE) explored a methodological approach to assess traffic noise-related well-being impacts of transport interventions in three European cities (Basel, Rotterdam and Thessaloniki) linking modeled traffic noise reduction effects with survey data indicating noise-well-being associations. Local noise models showed a reduction of high traffic noise levels in all cities as a result of different urban interventions. Survey data indicated that perception of high noise levels was associated with lower probability of well-being. Connecting the local noise exposure profiles with the noise-well-being associations suggests that the urban transport interventions may have a marginal but positive effect on population well-being. This paper also provides insight into the methodological challenges of well-being assessments and highlights the range of limitations arising from the current lack of reliable evidence on environmental conditions and well-being. Due to these limitations, the results should be interpreted with caution. PMID:26016437

  8. A theoretical-experimental methodology for assessing the sensitivity of biomedical spectral imaging platforms, assays, and analysis methods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leavesley, Silas J; Sweat, Brenner; Abbott, Caitlyn; Favreau, Peter; Rich, Thomas C

    2018-01-01

    Spectral imaging technologies have been used for many years by the remote sensing community. More recently, these approaches have been applied to biomedical problems, where they have shown great promise. However, biomedical spectral imaging has been complicated by the high variance of biological data and the reduced ability to construct test scenarios with fixed ground truths. Hence, it has been difficult to objectively assess and compare biomedical spectral imaging assays and technologies. Here, we present a standardized methodology that allows assessment of the performance of biomedical spectral imaging equipment, assays, and analysis algorithms. This methodology incorporates real experimental data and a theoretical sensitivity analysis, preserving the variability present in biomedical image data. We demonstrate that this approach can be applied in several ways: to compare the effectiveness of spectral analysis algorithms, to compare the response of different imaging platforms, and to assess the level of target signature required to achieve a desired performance. Results indicate that it is possible to compare even very different hardware platforms using this methodology. Future applications could include a range of optimization tasks, such as maximizing detection sensitivity or acquisition speed, providing high utility for investigators ranging from design engineers to biomedical scientists. © 2017 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  9. Development of a Quantitative Methodology to Assess the Impacts of Urban Transport Interventions and Related Noise on Well-Being

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Matthias Braubach

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Well-being impact assessments of urban interventions are a difficult challenge, as there is no agreed methodology and scarce evidence on the relationship between environmental conditions and well-being. The European Union (EU project “Urban Reduction of Greenhouse Gas Emissions in China and Europe” (URGENCHE explored a methodological approach to assess traffic noise-related well-being impacts of transport interventions in three European cities (Basel, Rotterdam and Thessaloniki linking modeled traffic noise reduction effects with survey data indicating noise-well-being associations. Local noise models showed a reduction of high traffic noise levels in all cities as a result of different urban interventions. Survey data indicated that perception of high noise levels was associated with lower probability of well-being. Connecting the local noise exposure profiles with the noise-well-being associations suggests that the urban transport interventions may have a marginal but positive effect on population well-being. This paper also provides insight into the methodological challenges of well-being assessments and highlights the range of limitations arising from the current lack of reliable evidence on environmental conditions and well-being. Due to these limitations, the results should be interpreted with caution.

  10. Elimination Method of Multi-Criteria Decision Analysis (MCDA: A Simple Methodological Approach for Assessing Agricultural Sustainability

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Byomkesh Talukder

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available In the present world context, there is a need to assess the sustainability of agricultural systems. Various methods have been proposed to assess agricultural sustainability. Like in many other fields, Multi-Criteria Decision Analysis (MCDA has recently been used as a methodological approach for the assessment of agricultural sustainability. In this paper, an attempt is made to apply Elimination, a MCDA method, to an agricultural sustainability assessment, and to investigate its benefits and drawbacks. This article starts by explaining the importance of agricultural sustainability. Common MCDA types are discussed, with a description of the state-of-the-art method for incorporating multi-criteria and reference values for agricultural sustainability assessment. Then, a generic description of the Elimination Method is provided, and its modeling approach is applied to a case study in coastal Bangladesh. An assessment of the results is provided, and the issues that need consideration before applying Elimination to agricultural sustainability, are examined. Whilst having some limitations, the case study shows that it is applicable for agricultural sustainability assessments and for ranking the sustainability of agricultural systems. The assessment is quick compared to other assessment methods and is shown to be helpful for agricultural sustainability assessment. It is a relatively simple and straightforward analytical tool that could be widely and easily applied. However, it is suggested that appropriate care must be taken to ensure the successful use of the Elimination Method during the assessment process.

  11. E-Assessment Data Compatibility Resolution Methodology with Bidirectional Data Transformation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malik, Kaleem Razzaq; Ahmad, Tauqir

    2017-01-01

    Electronic Assessment (E-Assessment) also known as computer aided assessment for the purposes involving diagnostic, formative or summative examining using data analysis. Digital assessments come commonly from social, academic, and adaptive learning in machine readable forms to deliver the machine scoring function. To achieve real-time and smart…

  12. Methodology assessment and recommendations for the Mars science laboratory launch safety analysis.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sturgis, Beverly Rainwater; Metzinger, Kurt Evan; Powers, Dana Auburn; Atcitty, Christopher B.; Robinson, David B; Hewson, John C.; Bixler, Nathan E.; Dodson, Brian W.; Potter, Donald L.; Kelly, John E.; MacLean, Heather J.; Bergeron, Kenneth Donald (Sala & Associates); Bessette, Gregory Carl; Lipinski, Ronald J.

    2006-09-01

    thousands of possible event sequences and to build up a statistical representation of the releases for each accident case. A code to carry out this process will have to be developed or adapted from previous MMRTG missions. Finally, Level C translates the release (or ''source term'') information from Level B into public risk by applying models for atmospheric transport and the health consequences of exposure to the released plutonium dioxide. A number of candidate codes for this level of analysis are available. This report surveys the range of available codes and tools for each of these levels and makes recommendations for which choices are best for the MSL mission. It also identities areas where improvements to the codes are needed. In some cases a second tier of codes may be identified to provide supporting or clarifying insight about particular issues. The main focus of the methodology assessment is to identify a suite of computational tools that can produce a high quality SAR that can be successfully reviewed by external bodies (such as the Interagency Nuclear Safety Review Panel) on the schedule established by NASA and DOE.

  13. A new methodology for assessment of pectus excavatum correction after bar removal in Nuss procedure: Preliminary study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gomes-Fonseca, João; Vilaça, João L; Henriques-Coelho, Tiago; Direito-Santos, Bruno; Pinho, António C M; Fonseca, Jaime C; Correia-Pinto, Jorge

    2017-07-01

    The objective is to present a new methodology to assess quantitatively the impact of bar removal on the anterior chest wall, among patients with pectus excavatum who have undergone the Nuss procedure, and present a preliminary study using this methodology. We propose to acquire, for each patient, the surface of the anterior chest wall using a three-dimensional laser scanner at subsequent time points (short term: before and after surgery; long term: follow-up visit, 6months, and 12months after surgery). After surfaces postprocessing, the changes are assessed by overlapping and measuring the distances between surfaces. In this preliminary study, three time points were acquired and two assessments were performed: before vs after bar removal (early) and before vs 2-8weeks after bar removal (interim). In 21 patients, the signed distances and volumes between surfaces were computed and the data analysis was performed. This methodology revealed useful for monitoring changes in the anterior chest wall. On average, the mean, maximum, and volume variations, in the early assessment, were -0.1±0.1cm, -0.6±0.2cm, and 47.8±22.2cm 3 , respectively; and, in the interim assessment, were -0.5±0.2cm, -1.3±0.4cm, and 122.1±47.3cm 3 , respectively (pmethodology is novel, objective and safe, helping on follow-up of pectus excavatum patients. Moreover, the preliminary study suggests that the time the bar was in situ may be the main determinant of the anterior chest wall retraction following bar removal. Further studies should continue to corroborate and reinforce the preliminary findings, by increasing the sample size and performing long-term assessments. III. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  14. Application of EDA methodology for assessment of the rotating machines insulation system condition

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ilić Denis

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The insulation system of rotating machines of high importance has always been the object of thorough screening with certified test methods that are getting constantly improved. Low-power machines and 'less important' machines like high voltage motors, are rarely subjected to detailed electrical tests because of low resources allocated for their maintenance. The introduction of the EDA methodology in practice creates the conditions for reliable and complete diagnostics of stator windings of big machines, as well as the fast, easy and inexpensive screening for low-power machines (i.e. HV motors. The aim of the paper is to present the EDA methodology and its possibilities, including the solutions within the hardware and software.

  15. Assessment of ISLOCA risk: Methodology and application to a Westinghouse four-loop ice condenser plant

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kelly, D.L.; Auflick, J.L.; Haney, L.N. [EG and G Idaho, Inc., Idaho Falls, ID (United States)

    1992-04-01

    Inter-system loss-of-coolant accidents (ISLOCAs) have been identified as important contributors to offsite risk for some nuclear power plants. A methodology has been developed for identifying and evaluating plant-specific hardware designs, human factors issues, and accident consequence factors relevant to the estimation of ISLOCA core damage frequency and risk. This report presents a detailed description of the application of this analysis methodology to a Westinghouse four-loop ice condenser plant. This document also includes appendices A through I which provide: System descriptions; ISLOCA event trees; human reliability analysis; thermal hydraulic analysis; core uncovery timing calculations; calculation of system rupture probability; ISLOCA consequences analysis; uncertainty analysis; and component failure analysis.

  16. Social Life Cycle Assessment of a Concentrated Solar Power Plant in Spain: A Methodological Proposal

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Corona, Blanca; Bozhilova-Kisheva, Kossara Petrova; Olsen, Stig Irving

    2017-01-01

    -LCA by suggesting a new classification and characterization model that builds upon previous methodological developments. The structure of the social analysis has been adapted to maintain coherence with that of standard LCA. The application of this methodology is demonstrated using a case study—the analysis of power...... a social performance indicator that builds on performance reference points, an activity variable, and a numeric scale with positive and negative values. The social performance indicator obtained (+0.42 over a range of –2 to +2) shows that the deployment of the solar power plant increases the social welfare...... of Spain, especially in the impact categories of socioeconomic sustainability and fairness of relationships, whose results were 1.38 and 0.29, respectively....

  17. Risk assessment methodology applied to counter IED research & development portfolio prioritization

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shevitz, Daniel W [Los Alamos National Laboratory; O' Brien, David A [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Zerkle, David K [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Key, Brian P [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Chavez, Gregory M [Los Alamos National Laboratory

    2009-01-01

    In an effort to protect the United States from the ever increasing threat of domestic terrorism, the Department of Homeland Security, Science and Technology Directorate (DHS S&T), has significantly increased research activities to counter the terrorist use of explosives. More over, DHS S&T has established a robust Counter-Improvised Explosive Device (C-IED) Program to Deter, Predict, Detect, Defeat, and Mitigate this imminent threat to the Homeland. The DHS S&T portfolio is complicated and changing. In order to provide the ''best answer'' for the available resources, DHS S&T would like some ''risk based'' process for making funding decisions. There is a definite need for a methodology to compare very different types of technologies on a common basis. A methodology was developed that allows users to evaluate a new ''quad chart'' and rank it, compared to all other quad charts across S&T divisions. It couples a logic model with an evidential reasoning model using an Excel spreadsheet containing weights of the subjective merits of different technologies. The methodology produces an Excel spreadsheet containing the aggregate rankings of the different technologies. It uses Extensible Logic Modeling (ELM) for logic models combined with LANL software called INFTree for evidential reasoning.

  18. An integrated impact assessment and weighting methodology: evaluation of the environmental consequences of computer display technology substitution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Xiaoying; Schoenung, Julie M

    2007-04-01

    Computer display technology is currently in a state of transition, as the traditional technology of cathode ray tubes is being replaced by liquid crystal display flat-panel technology. Technology substitution and process innovation require the evaluation of the trade-offs among environmental impact, cost, and engineering performance attributes. General impact assessment methodologies, decision analysis and management tools, and optimization methods commonly used in engineering cannot efficiently address the issues needed for such evaluation. The conventional Life Cycle Assessment (LCA) process often generates results that can be subject to multiple interpretations, although the advantages of the LCA concept and framework obtain wide recognition. In the present work, the LCA concept is integrated with Quality Function Deployment (QFD), a popular industrial quality management tool, which is used as the framework for the development of our integrated model. The problem of weighting is addressed by using pairwise comparison of stakeholder preferences. Thus, this paper presents a new integrated analytical approach, Integrated Industrial Ecology Function Deployment (I2-EFD), to assess the environmental behavior of alternative technologies in correlation with their performance and economic characteristics. Computer display technology is used as the case study to further develop our methodology through the modification and integration of various quality management tools (e.g., process mapping, prioritization matrix) and statistical methods (e.g., multi-attribute analysis, cluster analysis). Life cycle thinking provides the foundation for our methodology, as we utilize a published LCA report, which stopped at the characterization step, as our starting point. Further, we evaluate the validity and feasibility of our methodology by considering uncertainty and conducting sensitivity analysis.

  19. A Common Methodology for Risk Assessment and Mapping of Climate Change Related Hazards—Implications for Climate Change Adaptation Policies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Papathoma-Köhle

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available The Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC, 2014, suggests that an important increase in frequency and magnitude of hazardous processes related to climate change is to be expected at the global scale. Consequently, it is necessary to improve the level of preparedness and the level of public awareness, to fill institutional gaps, and to improve territorial planning in order to reduce the potentially disastrous impact of natural hazards related to climate change. This paper mainly presents a new framework for risk assessment and mapping which enables countries with limited data sources to assess their risk to climate change related hazards at the local level, in order to reduce potential costs, to develop risk reduction strategies, to harmonize their preparedness efforts with neighboring countries and to deal with trans-boundary risk. The methodology is based on the European Commission’s “Risk Assessment and Mapping Guidelines for Disaster Management” (2010 and considers local restrictions, such as a lack of documentation of historic disastrous events, spatial and other relevant data, offering alternative options for risk assessment, and the production of risk maps. The methodology is based on event tree analysis. It was developed within the European project SEERISK and adapted for a number of climate change-related hazards including floods, heat waves, wildfires, and storms. Additionally, the framework offers the possibility for risk assessment under different future scenarios. The implications for climate change adaptation policy are discussed.

  20. Assessment of Proliferation Resistance of Closed Nuclear Fuel Cycle System with Sodium Cooled Fast Reactors Using INPRO Evaluation Methodology

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Young In; Hahn, Do Hee; Won, Byung Chool; Lee, Dong Uk

    2007-11-15

    Using the INPRO methodology, the proliferation resistance of an innovative nuclear energy system(INS) defined as a closed nuclear fuel cycle system consisting of KALIMER and pyroprocessing, has been assessed. Considering a very early development stage of the INS concept, the PR assessment is carried out based on intrinsic features, if required information and data are not available. The PR assessment of KALIMER and JSFR using the INPRO methodology affirmed that an adequate proliferation resistance has been achieved in both INSs CNFC-SFR, considering the assessor's progress and maturity of design development. KALIMER and JSFR are developed or being developed conforming to the targets and criteria defined for developing Gen IV nuclear reactor system. Based on these assessment results, proliferation resistance and physical protection(PR and PP) of KALIMER and JSFR are evaluated from the viewpoint of requirements for future nuclear fuel cycle system. The envisioned INSs CNFC-SFR rely on active plutonium management based on a closed fuel cycle, in which a fissile material is recycled in an integrated fuel cycle facility within proper safeguards. There is no isolated plutonium in the closed fuel cycle. The material remains continuously in a sequence of highly radioactive matrices within inaccessible facilities. The proliferation resistance assessment should be an ongoing analysis that keeps up with the progress and maturity of the design of Gen IV SFR.

  1. Integrating quantitative and qualitative methodologies for the assessment of health care systems: emergency medicine in post-conflict Serbia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    VanRooyen Michael J

    2005-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Due to the complexity of health system reform in the post-conflict, post-disaster, and development settings, attempts to restructure health services are fraught with pitfalls that are often unanticipated because of inadequate preliminary assessments. Our proposed Integrated Multimodal Assessment – combining quantitative and qualitative methodologies – may provide a more robust mechanism for identifying programmatic priorities and critical barriers for appropriate and sustainable health system interventions. The purpose of this study is to describe this novel multimodal assessment using emergency medicine in post-conflict Serbia as a model. Methods Integrated quantitative and qualitative methodologies – system characterization and observation, focus group discussions, free-response questionnaires, and by-person factor analysis – were used to identify needs, problems, and potential barriers to the development of emergency medicine in Serbia. Participants included emergency and pre-hospital personnel from all emergency medical institutions in Belgrade. Results Demographic data indicate a loosely ordered network of part-time emergency departments supported by 24-hour pre-hospital services and an academic emergency center. Focus groups and questionnaires reveal significant impediments to delivery of care and suggest development priorities. By-person factor analysis subsequently divides respondents into distinctive attitudinal types, compares participant opinions, and identifies programmatic priorities. Conclusions By combining quantitative and qualitative methodologies, our Integrated Multimodal Assessment identified critical needs and barriers to emergency medicine development in Serbia and may serve as a model for future health system assessments in post-conflict, post-disaster, and development settings.

  2. THE OPTICAL PLANKTON COUNTER AND LASER OPTICAL PLANKTON COUNTERS AS TOOLS IN FUTURE ASSESSMENT METHODOLOGY

    Science.gov (United States)

    A goal of MED's Great Lakes research is to provide improved means of monitoring and assessment. This presentation will highlight the capabilities of newer technologies and their potential for assessing zooplankton in the Great Lakes.

  3. Methodology for probability of failure assessment of offshore pipelines; Metodologia qualitativa de avaliacao da probabilidade de falha de dutos rigidos submarinos estaticos

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pezzi Filho, Mario [PETROBRAS, Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil)

    2005-07-01

    In this study it is presented a methodology for assessing the likelihood of failure for every failure mechanism defined for carbon steel static offshore pipelines. This methodology is aimed to comply with the Integrity Management policy established by the Company. Decision trees are used for the development of the methodology and the evaluation of the extent and the significance of these failure mechanisms. Decision trees enable also the visualization of the logical structure of algorithms which eventually will be used in risk assessment software. The benefits of the proposed methodology are presented and it is recommended that it be tested on static offshore pipelines installed in different assets for validation. (author)

  4. A decision-support methodology for assessing the sustainability of natural risk management strategies in urban areas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Edjossan-Sossou, A. M.; Deck, O.; Heib, M. Al; Verdel, T.

    2014-12-01

    This paper attempts to provide a decision support framework that can help risk managers in urban areas to improve their decision-making processes related to sustainable management. Currently, risk management strategies should no longer be selected based primarily on economic and technical insight. Managers must address the sustainability of risk management by assessing the impacts of their decisions on the sustainable development of a given territory. These assessments require tools that allow ex ante comparisons of the effectiveness and the likely economic, social and ecological impacts of the alternative management strategies. Therefore, this paper reports a methodological and operational framework, which aims to incorporate sustainability principles in a particular decision by taking all the dimensions that affect sustainability into account. This paper is divided into two main parts: one on the theoretical aspects of the proposed methodology and the other on its application to a flood risks management case in a municipality located in Meurthe-et-Moselle county (France). The results of the case study have shown how the methodology can be suitable for determining the most sustainable decision.

  5. Value-Based Assessment of New Medical Technologies: Towards a Robust Methodological Framework for the Application of Multiple Criteria Decision Analysis in the Context of Health Technology Assessment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Angelis, Aris; Kanavos, Panos

    2016-05-01

    In recent years, multiple criteria decision analysis (MCDA) has emerged as a likely alternative to address shortcomings in health technology assessment (HTA) by offering a more holistic perspective to value assessment and acting as an alternative priority setting tool. In this paper, we argue that MCDA needs to subscribe to robust methodological processes related to the selection of objectives, criteria and attributes in order to be meaningful in the context of healthcare decision making and fulfil its role in value-based assessment (VBA). We propose a methodological process, based on multi-attribute value theory (MAVT) methods comprising five distinct phases, outline the stages involved in each phase and discuss their relevance in the HTA process. Importantly, criteria and attributes need to satisfy a set of desired properties, otherwise the outcome of the analysis can produce spurious results and misleading recommendations. Assuming the methodological process we propose is adhered to, the application of MCDA presents three very distinct advantages to decision makers in the context of HTA and VBA: first, it acts as an instrument for eliciting preferences on the performance of alternative options across a wider set of explicit criteria, leading to a more complete assessment of value; second, it allows the elicitation of preferences across the criteria themselves to reflect differences in their relative importance; and, third, the entire process of preference elicitation can be informed by direct stakeholder engagement, and can therefore reflect their own preferences. All features are fully transparent and facilitate decision making.

  6. Methodology for Developing a Probabilistic Risk Assessment Model of Spacecraft Rendezvous and Dockings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farnham, Steven J., II; Garza, Joel, Jr.; Castillo, Theresa M.; Lutomski, Michael

    2011-01-01

    In 2007 NASA was preparing to send two new visiting vehicles carrying logistics and propellant to the International Space Station (ISS). These new vehicles were the European Space Agency s (ESA) Automated Transfer Vehicle (ATV), the Jules Verne, and the Japanese Aerospace and Explorations Agency s (JAXA) H-II Transfer Vehicle (HTV). The ISS Program wanted to quantify the increased risk to the ISS from these visiting vehicles. At the time, only the Shuttle, the Soyuz, and the Progress vehicles rendezvoused and docked to the ISS. The increased risk to the ISS was from an increase in vehicle traffic, thereby, increasing the potential catastrophic collision during the rendezvous and the docking or berthing of the spacecraft to the ISS. A universal method of evaluating the risk of rendezvous and docking or berthing was created by the ISS s Risk Team to accommodate the increasing number of rendezvous and docking or berthing operations due to the increasing number of different spacecraft, as well as the future arrival of commercial spacecraft. Before the first docking attempt of ESA's ATV and JAXA's HTV to the ISS, a probabilistic risk model was developed to quantitatively calculate the risk of collision of each spacecraft with the ISS. The 5 rendezvous and docking risk models (Soyuz, Progress, Shuttle, ATV, and HTV) have been used to build and refine the modeling methodology for rendezvous and docking of spacecrafts. This risk modeling methodology will be NASA s basis for evaluating the addition of future ISS visiting spacecrafts hazards, including SpaceX s Dragon, Orbital Science s Cygnus, and NASA s own Orion spacecraft. This paper will describe the methodology used for developing a visiting vehicle risk model.

  7. Rapid assessment methodology in NORM measurements from building materials of Uzbekistan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Safarov, A A; Safarov, A N; Azimov, A N; Darby, I G

    2017-04-01

    Utilizing low cost NaI(Tl) scintillation detector systems we present methodology for the rapid screening of building material samples and the determination of their Radium Equivalent Activity (Raeq). Materials from Uzbekistan as a representative developing country have been measured and a correction coefficient for Radium activity is deduced. The use of the correction coefficient offers the possibility to decrease analysis times thus enabling the express measurement of a large quantity of samples. The reduction in time, cost and the use of inexpensive equipment can democratize the practice of screening NORM in building materials in the international community. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Assessing organizational culture in complex sociotechnical systems. Methodological evidence from studies in nuclear power plant maintenance organizations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Reiman, T.

    2007-03-15

    Failures in industrial organizations dealing with hazardous technologies can have widespread consequences for the safety of the workers and the general population. Psychology can have a major role in contributing to the safe and reliable operation of these technologies. Most current models of safety management in complex sociotechnical systems such as nuclear power plant maintenance are either non-contextual or based on an overly-rational image of an organization. Thus, they fail to grasp either the actual requirements of the work or the socially-constructed nature of the work in question. The general aim of the present study is to develop and test a methodology for contextual assessment of organizational culture in complex sociotechnical systems. This is done by demonstrating the findings that the application of the emerging methodology produces in the domain of maintenance of a nuclear power plant (NPP). The concepts of organizational culture and organizational core task (OCT) are operationalized and tested in the case studies

  9. Measures assessing spirituality as more than religiosity: a methodological review of nursing and health-related literature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sessanna, Loralee; Finnell, Deborah S; Underhill, Meghan; Chang, Yu-Ping; Peng, Hsi-Ling

    2011-08-01

    This paper is a report of a methodological review conducted to analyse, evaluate and synthesize the rigour of measures found in nursing and health-related literature used to assess and evaluate patient spirituality as more than religiosity. Holistic healthcare practitioners recognize important distinctions exist about what constitutes spiritual care needs and preferences and what constitutes religious care needs and preferences in patient care practice. Databases searched, limited to the years 1982 and 2009, included AMED, Alt Health Watch, CINAHL Plus with Full Text, EBSCO Host, EBSCO Host Religion and Philosophy, ERIC, Google Scholar, HAPI, HUBNET, IngentaConnect, Mental Measurements Yearbook Online, Ovid MEDLINE, Social Work Abstracts and Hill and Hood's Measures of Religiosity text. A methodological review was carried out. Measures assessing spirituality as more than religiosity were critically reviewed including quality appraisal, relevant data extraction and a narrative synthesis of findings. Ten measures fitting inclusion criteria were included in the review. Despite agreement among nursing and health-related disciplines that spirituality and religiosity are distinct and diverse concepts, the concept of spirituality was often used interchangeably with the concept religion to assess and evaluate patient spirituality. The term spiritual or spirituality was used in a preponderance of items to assess or evaluate spirituality. Measures differentiating spirituality from religiosity are grossly lacking in nursing and health-related literature. © 2011 Blackwell Publishing Ltd.

  10. Methodologies of health impact assessment as part of an integrated approach to reduce effects of air pollution

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Aunan, K.; Seip, H.M.

    1995-12-01

    Quantification of average frequencies of health effects on a population level is an essential part of an integrated assessment of pollution effects. Epidemiological studies seem to provide the best basis for such estimates. This paper gives an introduction to a methodology for health impact assessment and also the results from selected parts of a case study in Hungary. This case study is aimed at testing and improving the methodology for integrated assessment and focuses on energy production and consumption and implications for air pollution. Using monitoring data from Budapest, the paper gives estimates of excess frequencies of respiratory illness, mortality and other health end-points. For a number of health end-points, particles probably may serve as a good indicator component. Stochastic simulation is used to illustrate the uncertainties imbedded in the exposure-response function applied. The paper uses the ``bottom up approach`` to find cost-effective abatement strategies against pollution damages, where specific abatement measures such as emission standards for vehicles are explored in detail. It is concluded that in spite of large uncertainties in every step of the analysis, an integrated assessment of costs and benefits of different abatement measures is valuable as it clarifies the main objectives of an abatement policy and explicitly describes the adverse impacts of different activities and their relative importance. 46 refs., 11 figs., 2 tabs.

  11. Methodological Quality Assessment of Meta-Analyses and Systematic Reviews of Probiotics in Inflammatory Bowel Disease and Pouchitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dong, Jinpei; Teng, Guigen; Wei, Tiantong; Gao, Wen; Wang, Huahong

    2016-01-01

    Probiotics are widely used for the induction and maintenance of remission in inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) and pouchitis. There are a large number of meta-analyses (MAs)/ systematic reviews (SRs) on this subject, the methodological quality of which has not been evaluated. This study aimed to evaluate the methodological quality of and summarize the evidence obtained from MAs/SRs of probiotic treatments for IBD and pouchitis patients. The PubMed, EMBASE, Cochrane Library and China National Knowledge Infrastructure (CNKI) databases were searched to identify Chinese and English language MAs/SRs of the use of probiotics for IBD and pouchitis. The Assessment of Multiple Systematic Reviews (AMSTAR) scale was used to assess the methodological quality of the studies. A total of 36 MAs/SRs were evaluated. The AMSTAR scores of the included studies ranged from 1 to 10, and the average score was 5.81. According to the Canadian Agency for Drugs and Technologies in Health, 4 articles were classified as high quality, 24 articles were classified as moderate quality, and 8 articles were classified as low quality. Most of the MAs/SRs suggested that probiotics had potential benefits for patients with ulcerative colitis (UC), but failed to show effectiveness in the induction and maintenance of remission in Crohn's disease (CD). The probiotic preparation VSL#3 may play a beneficial role in pouchitis. The overall methodological quality of the current MAs/SRs in the field of probiotics for IBD and pouchitis was found to be low to moderate. More MAs/SRs of high quality are required to support using probiotics to treat IBD and pouchitis.

  12. Nondestructive Semistatic Testing Methodology for Assessing Fish Textural Characteristics via Closed-Form Mathematical Expressions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. Dimogianopoulos

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents a novel methodology based on semistatic nondestructive testing of fish for the analytical computation of its textural characteristics via closed-form mathematical expressions. The novelty is that, unlike alternatives, explicit values for both stiffness and viscoelastic textural attributes may be computed, even if fish of different size/weight are tested. Furtherm