WorldWideScience

Sample records for assessment case studies

  1. Travel Efficiency Assessment Method: Three Case Studies

    Science.gov (United States)

    This slide presentation summarizes three case studies EPA conducted in partnership with Boston, Kansas City, and Tucson, to assess the potential benefits of employing travel efficiency strategies in these areas.

  2. Case Study Report about Gender Impact Assessment

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Faber, Stine Thidemann; Agustin, Lise Rolandsen

    2013-01-01

    The aim of this national case study report is to take a closer look at the use of Gender Impact Assessments in Denmark in order to describe the Danish implementation of this specific Gender Mainstreaming method. By way of analyzing two selected cases (two law proposals put forward by The Danish...

  3. Formative peer assessment in a CSCL environment: A case study.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Prins, Frans; Sluijsmans, Dominique; Kirschner, Paul A.; Strijbos, Jan Willem

    2007-01-01

    In this case study our aim was to gain more insight in the possibilities of qualitative formative peer assessment in a computer supported collaborative learning (CSCL) environment. An approach was chosen in which peer assessment was operationalized in assessment assignments and assessment tools that

  4. A case study by life cycle assessment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Shuyun

    2017-05-01

    This article aims to assess the potential environmental impact of an electrical grinder during its life cycle. The Life Cycle Inventory Analysis was conducted based on the Simplified Life Cycle Assessment (SLCA) Drivers that calculated from the Valuation of Social Cost and Simplified Life Cycle Assessment Model (VSSM). The detailed results for LCI can be found under Appendix II. The Life Cycle Impact Assessment was performed based on Eco-indicator 99 method. The analysis results indicated that the major contributor to the environmental impact as it accounts for over 60% overall SLCA output. In which, 60% of the emission resulted from the logistic required for the maintenance activities. This was measured by conducting the hotspot analysis. After performing sensitivity analysis, it is evidenced that changing fuel type results in significant decrease environmental footprint. The environmental benefit can also be seen from the negative output values of the recycling activities. By conducting Life Cycle Assessment analysis, the potential environmental impact of the electrical grinder was investigated.

  5. BNSF San Bernardino case study : positive train control risk assessment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-09-01

    The Federal Railroad Administration funded the BNSF San Bernardino Case Study to verify its Generalized Train Movement : Simulator (GTMS) risk assessment capabilities on a planned implementation of the I-ETMS PTC system. The analysis explicitly : sim...

  6. Assessment of physical facilities and users' satisfaction: a case study ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Assessment of physical facilities and users' satisfaction: a case study. ... This study is an assessment of the new physical facilities and users' satisfaction in University of Jos Main Library. Survey research method was adopted ... Also 368 (44.12%), respondents were very satisfied with the available type of computer systems.

  7. Giving Them What They Want and Assessing Impact: Case Studies ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Giving Them What They Want and Assessing Impact: Case Studies of Public Library Services in the Western Cape, South Africa. ... the impact of library services as part of an advocacy strategy and to secure recognition of the validity of claims by public and community libraries for partnership in national development efforts.

  8. The Active Assessment of Educability: A Case Study. Brief Report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ulicny, Gary R.; And Others

    1985-01-01

    The case study examines the implicit uneducability diagnosis for an individual who had not shown progress in over two years of training in eating skills. Following programing by a special training team, the S made variable but substantial progress. Results suggest that negative educability assessment based on performance in standard educational…

  9. Planning Intervention Using Dynamic Assessments: A Case Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hasson, Natalie; Dodd, Barbara

    2014-01-01

    Dynamic assessments (DA) of language have been shown to be a useful addition to the battery of tests used to diagnose language impairments in children, and to evaluate their skills. The current article explores the value of the information gained from a DA in planning intervention for a child with language impairment. A single case study was used…

  10. Human Health Risk Assessment: A case study application of principles in dose response assessment

    Science.gov (United States)

    This case study application workshop will build on fundamental concepts and techniques in risk assessment presented and archived at previous TRAC meeting workshops. Practical examples from publicly available, peer reviewed risk assessments will be used as teaching aids. Course ...

  11. Assessment of global phase uncertainty in case-control studies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    van Houwelingen Hans C

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background In haplotype-based candidate gene studies a problem is that the genotype data are unphased, which results in haplotype ambiguity. The measure 1 quantifies haplotype predictability from genotype data. It is computed for each individual haplotype, and for a measure of global relative efficiency a minimum value is suggested. Alternatively, we developed methods directly based on the information content of haplotype frequency estimates to obtain global relative efficiency measures: and based on A- and D-optimality, respectively. All three methods are designed for single populations; they can be applied in cases only, controls only or the whole data. Therefore they are not necessarily optimal for haplotype testing in case-control studies. Results A new global relative efficiency measure was derived to maximize power of a simple test statistic that compares haplotype frequencies in cases and controls. Application to real data showed that our proposed method gave a clear and summarizing measure for the case-control study conducted. Additionally this measure might be used for selection of individuals, who have the highest potential for improving power by resolving phase ambiguity. Conclusion Instead of using relative efficiency measure for cases only, controls only or their combined data, we link uncertainty measure to case-control studies directly. Hence, our global efficiency measure might be useful to assess whether data are informative or have enough power for estimation of a specific haplotype risk.

  12. Development Impact Assessment (DIA) Case Study. South Africa

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cox, Sadie [National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Nawaz, Kathleen [National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Sandor, Debra [National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), Golden, CO (United States)

    2015-05-19

    This case study reviews South Africa’s experience in considering the impacts of climate change action on development goals, focusing on the South African energy sector and development impact assessments (DIAs) that have and could be used to influence energy policy or inform the selection of energy activities. It includes a review of assessments—conducted by government ministries, technical partners, and academic institutes and non-governmental organizations (NGOs)—that consider employment, health, and water implications of possible energy sector actions, as well as multi-criteria impact assessments.

  13. Ethics and Computer-Assisted Assessment: Three Case Studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jacob, Susan; Brantley, John C.

    1989-01-01

    Three ethical-legal case incidents involving computer-assisted psychodiagnostic assessment in the schools are presented. Each case is analyzed in terms of applicable laws, ethical codes, and standards for professional practice. (Author)

  14. Questionnaire-based assessment of executive functioning: Case studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kronenberger, William G; Castellanos, Irina; Pisoni, David B

    2018-01-01

    Delays in the development of executive functioning skills are frequently observed in pediatric neuropsychology populations and can have a broad and significant impact on quality of life. As a result, assessment of executive functioning is often relevant for the development of formulations and recommendations in pediatric neuropsychology clinical work. Questionnaire-based measures of executive functioning behaviors in everyday life have unique advantages and complement traditional neuropsychological measures of executive functioning. Two case studies of children with spina bifida are presented to illustrate the clinical use of a new questionnaire measure of executive and learning-related functioning, the Learning, Executive, and Attention Functioning Scale (LEAF). The LEAF emphasizes clinical utility in assessment by incorporating four characteristics: brevity in administration, breadth of additional relevant content, efficiency of scoring and interpretation, and ease of availability for use. LEAF results were consistent with another executive functioning checklist in documenting everyday behavior problems related to working memory, planning, and organization while offering additional breadth of assessment of domains such as attention, processing speed, and novel problem-solving. These case study results demonstrate the clinical utility of questionnaire-based measurement of executive functioning in pediatric neuropsychology and provide a new measure for accomplishing this goal.

  15. Assessing fluvial flood risk in urban environments: a case study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Longo Elisa

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Nowadays, floods are among the most impactful calamities regarding costs. Looking at the natural hazards damage data collected in the International Disaster Database (EM-DAT, it is observable a significant increase over the past four decades of both frequency of floods and associated costs. Similarly, dramatic trends are also found by analyzing other types of flood losses, such as the number of people affected by floods, homeless, injured or killed.To deal with the aforementioned rise of flood risk, more and more efforts are being made to promote integrated flood risk management, for example, the Flood Directive 2007/60/EC. The main goals of this research are the estimation of flood damages using the KULTURisk methodology and the comparing of the projected costs with the observed one. The case study is the 2002 flood in Eilenburg. According to KULTURisk methodology, two major classes of data are considered to evaluate flood risk damage: hydraulic data as regards Hazard and economic information to assess Exposure and Vulnerability This study shows the possibility to extend the lesson learned with the Eilenburg case study in other similar contexts.

  16. Assessing organisational governance maturity: A retail industry case study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hendrik Marius Wessels

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available For any business to operate effectively, a governance framework that operates at the relevant maturity level is required. An organisational governance maturity framework is a tool that leadership can use to determine governance maturity. This study aims to determine whether the organisational governance maturity framework (developed by Wilkinson can be applied to the selected retail industry organisation to assess the maturity of the organisation’s governance, limited to the ‘leadership’ attribute. Firstly, a high-level literature review on ethical leadership, ethical decision-making, ethical foundation and culture (‘tone at the top’, and organisational governance and maturity was conducted. Secondly, a Johannesburg Stock Exchange (JSE listed South African-based company was selected for the empirical part of the study using a single case study research design. The empirical results confirmed that the organisational governance maturity framework can be used to determine the maturity level of organisational governance for the selected attribute of ‘leadership’

  17. Assessment of Students' Mathematical Competency, a case Study in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The assessment of students mathematical competency in. Dire-Dawa University indicates that the majority of the students have been joining the university with poor mathematical background. Regarding their attitude, many students are not happy to study mathematics and do not believe in the uses of mathematics. On the.

  18. Agricultural soils potentially contaminated: risk assessment procedure case studies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eleonora Beccaloni

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available At the moment, the health-environmental risk analysis is used to decision-making targets in the contaminated sites management; this procedure allows to assess the quantitative health risk related to the pollutants presence in environmental compartments, as soil and waters. As regards potentially contaminated agricultural soils, the ingestion of food from vegetable and/or animal source, produced inside the contaminated area, is the most suitable way to assess the health risk. As an official procedure to this assessment is not available, the National Institute for Health (Istituto Superiore di Sanità, ISS has worked out an operating procedure, organized into several phases, depending on the available specific-site know-how. In this document, agricultural soils potentially contaminated in two sites have been studied; the sites are the following: Brescia Caffaro and Torviscosa.

  19. Learning to assess in the academic workplace: Case study in the ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Learning to assess in the academic workplace: Case study in the Natural Sciences. ... This case study highlights how relationships between colleagues, opportunities for conversations about assessment practice, and the alignment of assessment practices with the kinds of capital valued in each context are important ...

  20. Environmental impact assessment as a complement of life cycle assessment. Case study: Upgrading of biogas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morero, Betzabet; Rodriguez, María B; Campanella, Enrique A

    2015-08-01

    This work presents a comparison between an environmental impact assessment (EIA) and a life cycle assessment (LCA) using a case study: upgrading of biogas. The upgrading of biogas is studied using three solvents: water, physical solvent and amine. The EIA follows the requirements of the legislation of Santa Fe Province (Argentina), and the LCA follows ISO 14040. The LCA results showed that water produces a minor impact in most of the considered categories whereas the high impact in the process with amines is the result of its high energy consumptions. The positive results obtained in the EIA (mainly associated with the cultural and socioeconomic components) make the project feasible and all the negative impacts can be mitigated by preventive and remedial measures. From the strengths and weaknesses of each tool, it is inferred that the EIA is a procedure that can complement the LCA. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. Value Assessment of Distribution Network Reconfiguration: A Danish Case Study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vaskantiras, Georgios; You, Shi

    2016-01-01

    Distribution network reconfiguration is a mechanism that can improve the distribution system performance from multiple perspectives. In the context of smart grid wherein the degrees of automation and intelligence are high, the potential value of network reconfiguration can be significant....... This paper presents a case study-based analysis to explore the potential value of reconfiguration in detail. The study is performed using a 10kV distribution grid of Denmark, while reconfiguration is applied to minimize the energy losses under both normal and post-fault conditions. The results show...... that although the reconfiguration is performed to achieve a single objective, the overall network performance is improved. In addition, the value achieved by reconfiguration can be very sensitive to the reconfiguration frequency and the associated cost....

  2. Structural Safety Assessment of Existing Multiarch Tunnel: A Case Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jinxing Lai

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Structural health assessment is one of the key activities in maintaining the performance of a tunnel during its service life. Due to the development of modern detection technology, comprehensive structural health assessment system is being established for operating tunnels. To evaluate the actual operational state of Shitigou tunnel, overall detection of the liner crack, tunnel seepage, and liner void was conducted by employing the modern detection technology, such as crack width monitoring technology, concrete strength monitoring technology, and electromagnetic wave nondestructive monitoring technology. Through the statistical analysis of the detection results, the distribution characteristic, development law, and damage grade of structural defects were obtained. Tunnel liner cracks are mainly located on the middle wall; serious water leakage is encountered on the side wall, middle wall, and vault; the strength of foundation and liner structure of left tunnel does not meet the design requirement; the liner voids are mostly located at the tunnel entrance section, especially, on the tunnel vault; and the proportion of influence factors of structural defects should be considered. The research results presented for this study can serve as references for effective design and health assessment of existing multiarch tunnel projects.

  3. Assessing Learner Autonomy and EFL Vocabulary Acquisition: A Case Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Teng Feng

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available The importance of autonomy learning is widely acknowledged in teaching English as a Foreign Language (EFL in Asian contexts. The present study attempted to report low proficiency level students’ autonomous vocabulary learning. The first part of the present study focused on exploring how learners perceived and experienced their autonomous vocabulary learning, with a questionnaire and group discussion applied to collect data. During the second part of the study, the data were discussed collaboratively by six teachers to identify the different approaches utilized by learners. Priorities included setting weekly goals, self-planning and self-monitoring the process of learning vocabulary. Results also revealed that a weak ‘top-down’ approach in implementing learner autonomy is inadequate. Teachers need to provide scaffolding skills tailored to learners’ context-specific needs, for which a strong ‘bottom-up’ approach is more appropriate in supporting autonomous learning. In this case, classroom time should be allocated to demonstrate the strategies and teachers should work collaboratively to develop resources and materials for learners’ autonomous vocabulary learning. The present study also addressed the need for establishing an effective intervention for supporting learner autonomy. Keywords: learner autonomy, vocabulary learning, self-plan, self-monitor

  4. How to scientifically assess a restoration project: a case study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alvarez de Buergo, M.; Fort, R.; Freire, D. M.; Lopez-Arce, P.; Vazquez-Calvo, C.

    2012-04-01

    Commonly, it is said that there is lack of communication among scientists, conservators, restorers, project managers and architects. But sometimes this communication flows, and we can find enormous benefits from and for all the participating agents. This is the case we present in this work, in which technical agents in charge of the restoration of a building, asked for some scientific advice to perform the restoration of a heritage building. The results were successful and fantastic for both of them, in terms of one part asking for consultation and the other answering to the demands and resolving real problems. This is the case of a marvellous Renaissance building (Medinaceli Dukes palace, 15th-16th centuries) in the central area of Spain (Cogolludo, Guadalajara). Focused on the restoration project, we were asked for consultancy on how to solve matters like the assessment of the already fixed in project cleaning method for the stone façades, the efficacy and durability methods for some conservation products to be applied, the presence or not of a patina on the stone; the viability of using some restoration mortars, and the origin of some efflorescences that came out just after placed in the building a restoration rendering mortar. Responses to these matters were answered by performing tests both in the lab and on site in the building. The efficiency and effects on stone of the blasting cleaning method was assessed by first analysing the nature and thickness of the surface deposits to be removed (SEM-EDS analyses); secondly, roughness and colour measurements were performed, and thirdly, SEM-EDS analyses were carried out again to determine whether the cleaning method was able to remove part of the surface deposits, completely, or even part of the stone substrate. Some conservation products were tested on stone specimens, both their efficacy and their durability, concluding that it was better not to apply any of them. A patina was found on the stone façade under SEM

  5. Conscious worst case definition for risk assessment, part II: a methodological case study for pesticide risk assessment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sørensen, Peter B; Giralt, Francesc; Rallo, Robert; Espinosa, Gabriela; Münier, Bernd; Gyldenkaerne, Steen; Thomsen, Marianne

    2010-08-15

    This paper illustrates, by a case study, how to apply the conceptual Worst-Case Definition (WCD) model, developed in the methodological paper in the current journal, by Sørensen et al. (2010-this issue). The case is about eco-toxicological risk assessment of pesticides under Danish conditions. Cumulative aspects are included on a conceptual basis as elements of the worst-case conditions. This defines factors that govern the risk assessment, including location in time and space of risk "hotspots". Two pillars of concern drive the conceptual modelling: (1) What to protect (denoted Protected Units (PUs)) and (2) the reason for increased risk level (denoted Causes of Risks (CRs)). Both PUs and CRs are analysed using hierarchical procedures that facilitate a complete listing of concrete factors governing increased risk for adverse effect due to agricultural usage of pesticide. The factors governing pesticide risk are combined in a context that combines the protection of relevant groupings of organisms with the factors for increased risk level for each of these. Identification of the most important relations between defined types of PUs and CRs is illustrated using expert knowledge. Existing databases are used to form spatial distributed risk indicators as estimators for a selection of important relations between PUs and CRs. This paper illustrates how the WCD model can break down the complex issue of uncertainty into fractions that are more open for evaluations. Finally, it shows application of risk indicators in a multi-criterion analysis using respectively self organizing mapping and partial order technique in a comparative analysis that highlights critical aspects of uncertainty, due to the ambiguity between single risk indicator rankings. Copyright 2009 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  6. BASINs and WEPP Climate Assessment Tools (CAT): Case Study Guide to Potential Applications (Final Report)

    Science.gov (United States)

    EPA announced the release of the final report, BASINs and WEPP Climate Assessment Tools (CAT): Case Study Guide to Potential Applications. This report supports application of two recently developed water modeling tools, the Better Assessment Science Integrating point & ...

  7. Climate Change Vulnerability Assessments: Four Case Studies of Water Utility Practices (2011 Final)

    Science.gov (United States)

    EPA has released the final report titled, Climate Change Vulnerability Assessments: Four Case Studies of Water Utility Practices. This report was prepared by the National Center for Environmental Assessment's Global Climate Research Staff in the Office of Research and D...

  8. Assessment of Shopping Malls Accessibility: Case Study of Krakow

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pashkevich, A.; Puławska, S.

    2016-07-01

    The main aim of presented study was to analyze and to assess accessibility of shopping malls as traffic generators in the city of Krakow (Poland) as well as to compare calculated results in the perspective of the whole amount of shopping centers. The scope of research work includes the calculation of two kinds of accessibility measures: distance measures based on the straight line (Euclidean distance) and real distances and potential accessibility measures also based on the same distances and, additionally, weighted by characteristics of shopping malls and transport districts. The data from the OpenStreetMap project was used to get information concerning transport network and two kinds of above-mentioned distances. At the end of article a possible usage of obtained results and the further development of topic are described. (Author)

  9. COMPETITIVENESS ASSESSMENT OF THE REWARD POLICY: A CASE STUDY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ponomarchuk M. A.

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Competitive wage policy is considered as the main tool for solving the problem of attracting, retaining and promoting qualified personnel, which is relevant for domestic organizations. The article defines the main stages and purposes of evaluation of the competitiveness of the wage policy. The authors studied the use of an estimation of the wage policy competitiveness by the Russian organizations and identified practical need for and methods of assessing the competitiveness of the wage policy. Objective and subjective factors influencing the direction of the wage policy are identified, as well as the trends in wages under the influence of the crisis conditions. The main indicators of mobility and personnel turnover, the average wage in the Irkutsk region are considered. The description of the external conditions of functioning of the organizations in the Irkutsk region is presented.

  10. Incorporating Formative Assessment in Iranian EFL Writing: A Case Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Naghdipour, Bakhtiar

    2017-01-01

    Undergraduate students' experience of assessment in universities is usually of summative assessment which provides only limited information to help students improve their performance. By contrast, formative assessment is informative and forward-looking, possessing the leverage to inform students of their day-to-day progress and inform teachers of…

  11. Rescuing Data from International Scientific Assessments: A Case Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Downs, R. R.; Chen, R. S.; Xing, X.

    2016-12-01

    International scientific assessments such as the Millennium Ecosystem Assessment (MA) and the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC) assessments represent significant efforts by the global scientific community to review, synthesize, and communicate diverse scientific knowledge, data, and information to support societal decision making on pressing problems such as resource management and climate change. To support the transparency, integrity, and usability of these assessments, it is vital that the underlying data used in these assessments be made openly available and usable by diverse stakeholders. Unfortunately, due to the many geographically dispersed contributors to assessments of this kind, as well as the severe time pressures and limited resources when assessments are conducted, appropriate management and preservation of these data are not always a priority. This can lead to the need to "rescue" key data to ensure their long-term preservation, integrity, accessibility, and appropriate reuse, especially in subsequent assessments. We describe here efforts over two decades to rescue selected data from the MA and IPCC assessments, to work with assessment authors and other contributors to validate and document assessment data, and to develop appropriate levels of data stewardship in light of potential user needs and constrained resources. The IPCC efforts are supported by the IPCC Data Distribution Center (DDC), which is operated collaboratively by the Center for Environmental Data Analysis in the United Kingdom, the World Data Center-Climate in Germany, and the NASA Socioeconomic Data and Applications Center (SEDAC) in the U.S. With the sixth IPCC assessment cycle now starting, a key challenge is to help the assessment community improve data management during the assessment process to reduce the risks of data loss, inadequate documentation, incomplete provenance, unnecessary data restrictions, and other problems.

  12. Case study applications of the BASINS climate assessment tool (CAT)

    Science.gov (United States)

    This EPA report will illustrate the application of different climate assessment capabilities within EPA’s BASINS modeling system for assessing a range of potential questions about the effects of climate change on streamflow and water quality in different watershed settings and us...

  13. Mixture risk assessment: a case study of Monsanto experiences.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nair, R S; Dudek, B R; Grothe, D R; Johannsen, F R; Lamb, I C; Martens, M A; Sherman, J H; Stevens, M W

    1996-01-01

    Monsanto employs several pragmatic approaches for evaluating the toxicity of mixtures. These approaches are similar to those recommended by many national and international agencies. When conducting hazard and risk assessments, priority is always given to using data collected directly on the mixture of concern. To provide an example of the first tier of evaluation, actual data on acute respiratory irritation studies on mixtures were evaluated to determine whether the principle of additivity was applicable to the mixture evaluated. If actual data on the mixture are unavailable, extrapolation across similar mixtures is considered. Because many formulations are quite similar in composition, the toxicity data from one mixture can be extended to a closely related mixture in a scientifically justifiable manner. An example of a family of products where such extrapolations have been made is presented to exemplify this second approach. Lastly, if data on similar mixtures are unavailable, data on component fractions are used to predict the toxicity of the mixture. In this third approach, process knowledge and scientific judgement are used to determine how the known toxicological properties of the individual fractions affect toxicity of the mixture. Three examples of plant effluents where toxicological data on fractions were used to predict the toxicity of the mixture are discussed. The results of the analysis are used to discuss the predictive value of each of the above mentioned toxicological approaches for evaluating chemical mixtures.

  14. District health information system assessment: a case study in iran.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raeisi, Ahmad Reza; Saghaeiannejad, Sakineh; Karimi, Saeed; Ehteshami, Asghar; Kasaei, Mahtab

    2013-03-01

    Health care managers and personnel should be aware and literate of health information system in order to increase the efficiency and effectiveness in their organization. Since accurate, appropriate, precise, timely, valid information and interpretation of information is required and is the basis for policy planning and decision making in various levels of the organization. This study was conducted to assess the district health information system evolution in Iran according to WHO framework. This research is an applied, descriptive cross sectional study, in which a total of twelve urban and eight rural facilities, and the district health center at Falavarjan region were surveyed by using a questionnaire with 334 items. Content and constructive validity and reliability of the questionnaire were confirmed with correlation coefficient of 0.99. Obtained data were analyzed with SPSS 16 software and descriptive statistics were used to examine measures of WHO compliance. The analysis of data revealed that the mean score of compliance of district health information system framework was 35.75 percent. The maximum score of compliance with district health information system belonged to the data collection process (70 percent). The minimum score of compliance with district health information system belonged to information based decision making process with a score of 10 percent. District Health Information System Criteria in Isfahan province do not completely comply with WHO framework. Consequently, it seems that health system managers engaged with underlying policy and decision making processes at district health level should try to restructure and decentralize district health information system and develop training management programs for their managers.

  15. Spatial traffic noise pollution assessment - A case study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Monazzam, Mohammad Reza; Karimi, Elham; Abbaspour, Majid; Nassiri, Parvin; Taghavi, Lobat

    2015-01-01

    Spatial assessment of traffic noise pollution intensity will provide urban planners with approximate estimation of citizens exposure to impermissible sound levels. They could identify critical noise pollution areas wherein noise barriers should be embedded. The present study aims at using the Geographic Information System (GIS) to assess spatial changes in traffic noise pollution in Tehran, the capital of Iran, and the largest city in the Middle East. For this purpose, while measuring equivalent sound levels at different time periods of a day and different days of a week in District 14 of Tehran, wherein there are highways and busy streets, the geographic coordination of the measurement points was recorded at the stations. The obtained results indicated that the equivalent sound level did not show a statistically significant difference between weekdays, and morning, afternoon and evening hours as well as time intervals of 10 min, 15 min and 30 min. Then, 91 stations were selected in the target area and equivalent sound level was measured for each station on 3 occasions of the morning (7:00-9:00 a.m.), afternoon (12.00-3:00 p.m.) and evening (5:00-8:00 p.m.) on Saturdays to Wednesdays. As the results suggest, the maximum equivalent sound level (Leq) was reported from Basij Highway, which is a very important connecting thoroughfare in the district, and was equal to 84.2 dB(A), while the minimum equivalent sound level (Leq), measured in the Fajr Hospital, was equal to 59.9 dB(A). The average equivalent sound level was higher than the national standard limit at all stations. The use of sound walls in Highways Basij and Mahallati as well as widening the Streets 17th Shahrivar, Pirouzi and Khavaran, benchmarked on a map, were recommended as the most effective mitigation measures. Additionally, the research findings confirm the outstanding applicability of the Geographic Information System in handling noise pollution data towards depicting noise pollution intensity caused

  16. Program Level Assessment: A Case Study for a University Clothing and Textile Major

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yun, Zee-Sun; Frazier, Barbara J.

    2016-01-01

    This paper presents a framework for program assessment and a case study in assessment for a university clothing and textile program in family and consumer sciences. Assessment activities and the process implemented by the Textile and Apparel Studies (TAS) major at Western Michigan University are explained. The process adopts the International…

  17. Cultural Shifts, Multimodal Representations, and Assessment Practices: A Case Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Curwood, Jen Scott

    2012-01-01

    Multimodal texts involve the presence, absence, and co-occurrence of alphabetic text with visual, audio, tactile, gestural, and spatial representations. This article explores how teachers' evaluation of students' multimodal work can be understood in terms of cognition and culture. When teachers apply a paradigm of assessment rooted in print-based…

  18. Institutional Assessment of Student Information Literacy Ability: A Case Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chan, Christopher

    2016-01-01

    With increasing interest in the assessment of learning outcomes in higher education, stakeholders are demanding concrete evidence of student learning. This applies no less to information literacy outcomes, which have been adopted by many colleges and universities around the world. This article describes the experience of a university library in…

  19. Assessment of Electrical Safety Beliefs and Practices: A Case Study

    OpenAIRE

    Boubaker, S.; Mekni, S.; Jerbi, H.

    2017-01-01

    In this paper, the electrical safety beliefs and practices in Hail region, Saudi Arabia, have been assessed. Based on legislative recommendations and rules applied in Saudi Arabia, on official statistics regarding the electricity-caused accidents and on the analysis of more than 200 photos captured in Hail (related to electrical safety), a questionnaire composed of 36 questions (10 for the respondents information, 16 for the home safety culture and 10 for the electrical devices purchasing cul...

  20. Nationwide Desert Highway Assessment: A Case Study in China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mao, Xuesong; Wang, Fuchun; Wang, Binggang

    2011-01-01

    The natural environment affects the construction of desert highways. Conversely, highway construction affects the natural environment and puts the ecological environment at a disadvantage. To satisfy the variety and hierarchy of desert highway construction and discover the spatio-temporal distribution of the natural environment and its effect on highway construction engineering, an assessment of the natural regional divisions of desert highways in China is carried out for the first time. Based on the general principles and method for the natural region division, the principles, method and index system for desert highway assessment is put forward by combining the desert highway construction features and the azonal differentiation law. The index system combines the dominant indicator and four auxiliary indicators. The dominant indicator is defined by the desert’s comprehensive state index and the auxiliary indicators include the sand dune height, the blown sand strength, the vegetation coverage ratio and the annual average temperature difference. First the region is divided according to the dominant indicator. Then the region boundaries are amended according to the four auxiliary indicators. Finally the natural region division map for desert highway assessment is presented. The Chinese desert highways can be divided into three sections: the east medium effect region, the middle medium-severe effect region, and the west slight-medium effect region. The natural region division map effectively paves the way for the route planning, design, construction, maintenance and ongoing management of desert highways, and further helps environmental protection. PMID:21845155

  1. Nationwide Desert Highway Assessment: A Case Study in China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Binggang Wang

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available The natural environment affects the construction of desert highways. Conversely, highway construction affects the natural environment and puts the ecological environment at a disadvantage. To satisfy the variety and hierarchy of desert highway construction and discover the spatio-temporal distribution of the natural environment and its effect on highway construction engineering, an assessment of the natural regional divisions of desert highways in China is carried out for the first time. Based on the general principles and method for the natural region division, the principles, method and index system for desert highway assessment is put forward by combining the desert highway construction features and the azonal differentiation law. The index system combines the dominant indicator and four auxiliary indicators. The dominant indicator is defined by the desert’s comprehensive state index and the auxiliary indicators include the sand dune height, the blown sand strength, the vegetation coverage ratio and the annual average temperature difference. First the region is divided according to the dominant indicator. Then the region boundaries are amended according to the four auxiliary indicators. Finally the natural region division map for desert highway assessment is presented. The Chinese desert highways can be divided into three sections: the east medium effect region, the middle medium-severe effect region, and the west slight-medium effect region. The natural region division map effectively paves the way for the route planning, design, construction, maintenance and ongoing management of desert highways, and further helps environmental protection.

  2. Nationwide desert highway assessment: a case study in China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mao, Xuesong; Wang, Fuchun; Wang, Binggang

    2011-07-01

    The natural environment affects the construction of desert highways. Conversely, highway construction affects the natural environment and puts the ecological environment at a disadvantage. To satisfy the variety and hierarchy of desert highway construction and discover the spatio-temporal distribution of the natural environment and its effect on highway construction engineering, an assessment of the natural regional divisions of desert highways in China is carried out for the first time. Based on the general principles and method for the natural region division, the principles, method and index system for desert highway assessment is put forward by combining the desert highway construction features and the azonal differentiation law. The index system combines the dominant indicator and four auxiliary indicators. The dominant indicator is defined by the desert's comprehensive state index and the auxiliary indicators include the sand dune height, the blown sand strength, the vegetation coverage ratio and the annual average temperature difference. First the region is divided according to the dominant indicator. Then the region boundaries are amended according to the four auxiliary indicators. Finally the natural region division map for desert highway assessment is presented. The Chinese desert highways can be divided into three sections: the east medium effect region, the middle medium-severe effect region, and the west slight-medium effect region. The natural region division map effectively paves the way for the route planning, design, construction, maintenance and ongoing management of desert highways, and further helps environmental protection.

  3. Site-Specific ecological risk assessment. Case-study 2

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, John

    The decision supporting and integrating assessment tool, TRIAD, is used site-specific on PAH- and heavy metal contaminated sites in Denmark. The various aspects of the TRIAD approach are used on a set of chemistry-, ecotoxicology- and ecology related data collected among others in the EU project...... “Development of a decision support system for sustainable management of contaminated land by linking bioavailability, ecological risk and ground water pollution of organic pollutants”or in short “LIBERATION”. The presentation includes examples on how to scale and integrate the results from various scientific...... disciplines....

  4. Assessment of Electrical Safety Beliefs and Practices: A Case Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Boubaker

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, the electrical safety beliefs and practices in Hail region, Saudi Arabia, have been assessed. Based on legislative recommendations and rules applied in Saudi Arabia, on official statistics regarding the electricity-caused accidents and on the analysis of more than 200 photos captured in Hail (related to electrical safety, a questionnaire composed of 36 questions (10 for the respondents information, 16 for the home safety culture and 10 for the electrical devices purchasing culture has been devised and distributed to residents. 228 responses have been collected and analyzed. Using a scale similar to the one adopted for a university student GPA calculation, the electrical safety level (ESL in Hail region has been found to be 0.76 (in a scale of 4 points which is a very low score and indicates a poor electrical safety culture. Several recommendations involving different competent authorities have been proposed. Future work will concern the assessment of safety in industrial companies in Hail region.

  5. Health care technology assessment and adoption: a case study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Veluchamy, S; Alder, H C

    1989-05-01

    Today's progressive hospital and health care system managers look to new ways to retain or augment their market share and to position themselves in their service areas. Since diffusion of new technologies into health care is market driven, informed decisions on the adoption of certain emerging patient care technologies can place a health care organization in a favorable financial position. There is a compelling need for hospital management and the governing board to collaborate with their medical staff on the development of an acceptable process to quickly identify and implement appropriate new technologies into the patient care environment. This joint effort is vital to ensure the integration of sound clinical values and objectives with planned institutional business strategies. Mount Carmel Health, a multifaceted health care corporation in central Ohio, has met the challenge of managing patient needs, physician interests, and limited hospital resources by forming a unique entity within the organization for the effective assessment and adoption of the latest medical technology. The division, which is called the Advanced Treatment and Bionics Institute (ATBI), is charged with assessing the latest clinical technologies and managing a hospital's adoption of the most appropriate ones. It serves to organize and streamline the identification, acquisition, adoption, and implementation of innovative treatment technologies at Mount Carmel hospitals.

  6. Understanding Classroom Assessment in Dilemmatic Spaces: Case Studies of Singaporean Music Teachers' Conceptions of Classroom Assessment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leong, Wei Shin

    2014-01-01

    With the articulation of new "Holistic and Balanced Assessment" initiatives in Singaporean schools, a new standard of conceptualising and enacting classroom assessment is expected of Singaporean teachers. This paper draws on findings from a study of the diversity of classroom assessment "concourse", representing the variations…

  7. Assessing Learner Autonomy and EFL Vocabulary Acquisition: A Case Study

    OpenAIRE

    Teng Feng

    2015-01-01

    The importance of autonomy learning is widely acknowledged in teaching English as a Foreign Language (EFL) in Asian contexts. The present study attempted to report low proficiency level students’ autonomous vocabulary learning. The first part of the present study focused on exploring how learners perceived and experienced their autonomous vocabulary learning, with a questionnaire and group discussion applied to collect data. During the second part of the study, the data were discussed collabo...

  8. 75 FR 51806 - Climate Change Vulnerability Assessment: Four Case Studies of Water Utility Practices

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-08-23

    ...-0701] Climate Change Vulnerability Assessment: Four Case Studies of Water Utility Practices AGENCY...-day public comment period for the draft document titled, ``Climate Change Vulnerability Assessment... utilities to assess their vulnerability to future climate change. The report is intended to illustrate the...

  9. A Case Study of Post-Sabbatical Assessment Measures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, Michael T.; Kang, Bai

    1998-01-01

    Describes a study that reviewed the sabbatical program at the University of Alabama. Indicates that while faculty believed they were better teachers and scholars as a result of taking sabbatical leave, the objective data do not support these perceptions. (JDI)

  10. Assessing alternative industrial fortification portfolios: a Bangladesh case study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fiedler, John L; Lividini, Keith; Guyondet, Christophe; Bermudez, Odilia I

    2015-03-01

    Approximately 1.2 million disability-adjusted life years (DALYs) are lost annually in Bangladesh due to deficiencies of vitamin A, iron, and zinc. To provide evidence on the coverage, costs, and cost-effectiveness of alternative fortification interventions to inform nutrition policy-making in Bangladesh. Combining the 2005 Bangladesh Household Income and Expenditure Survey with a Bangladesh food composition table, apparent intakes of energy, vitamin A, iron, and zinc, and the coverage and apparent consumption levels of fortifiable vegetable oil and wheat flour are estimated. Assuming that fortification levels are those established in official regulations, the costs and cost-effectiveness of the two vehicles are assessed independently and as a two-vehicle portfolio. Vegetable oil has a coverage rate of 76% and is estimated to reduce the prevalence of inadequate vitamin A intake from 83% to 64%. The coverage of wheat flour is high (65%), but the small quantities consumed result in small reductions in the prevalence of inadequate intakes: 1.5 percentage points for iron, less than 1 for zinc, and 2 for vitamin A, while reducing average Estimated Average Requirement (EAR) gaps by 8%, 9%, and 15%, respectively. The most cost-effective 10-micronutrient wheat flour formulation costs US $1.91 million annually, saving 129,212 DALYs at a unit cost of US $14.75. Fortifying vegetable oil would cost US $1.27 million annually, saving 406,877 DALYs at an average cost of US $3.25. Sensitivity analyses explore various permutations of the wheat flour formulation. Divisional variations in coverage, cost, and impact are examined. Vegetable oil fortification is the most cost-effective of the three portfolios analyzed, but all three are very cost-effective options for Bangladesh.

  11. Geothermal reservoir assessment case study: Northern Dixie Valley, Nevada

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Denton, J.M.; Bell, E.J.; Jodry, R.L.

    1980-11-01

    Two 1500 foot temperature gradient holes and two deep exploratory wells were drilled and tested. Hydrologic-hydrochemical, shallow temperature survey, structural-tectonic, petrologic alteration, and solid-sample geochemistry studies were completed. Eighteen miles of high resolution reflection seismic data were gathered over the area. The study indicates that a geothermal regime with temperatures greater than 400/sup 0/F may exist at a depth of approximately 7500' to 10,000' over an area more than ten miles in length.

  12. Multi-disciplinary competence assessment: a case study in consensus and culture.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Landry, L Y

    1999-09-01

    The case of May Redwing, an American Indian woman assessed for competence is examined in detail. The case highlights the interconnections between the cultures of medicine and law and notes the importance of criteria of competence assessment, but also underscores the necessity of attention to the patient's cultural background in a multi-disciplinary competence assessment team process. Three interrelated areas of inquiry are explored: (1) Can we expect a morally and politically justifiable assessment of competence from a multi-disciplinary approach? (2) What pitfalls threaten a multi-disciplinary approach? and (3) How are the patient's cultural background and values relevant to a proper assessment of competence? These questions are investigated in the context of analyzing and evaluating a particularly difficult case. Although focused on a specific case, the study is instructive and cautionary for any group undertaking the challenges of multi-disciplinary competence assessment.

  13. Water quality assessments: A case study of plankton and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Aspects of physico-chemical characteristics, plankton and macro invertebrates of Porto-Novo and Gulf of Guinea were studied in September 2012 with a view to determine the quality of water using plankton indices. Standard methods were used to determine the physico-chemical parameters. The mean water quality ...

  14. A Case Study: Follow-Up Assessment of Facilitated Communication.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simon, Elliott W.; And Others

    1996-01-01

    This study of an adolescent with multiple disabilities, including moderate mental retardation, who was reported to engage in validated facilitated communication (FC) found he did not engage in validated FC; performance was equivalent whether food or nonfood reinforcers were used; and the Picture Exchange Communication System was a valid and…

  15. Case Study : Visual Analytics in Software Product Assessments

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Telea, Alexandru; Voinea, Lucian; Lanza, M; Storey, M; Muller, H

    2009-01-01

    We present how a combination of static source code analysis, repository analysis, and visualization techniques has been used to effectively get and communicate insight in the development and project management problems of a large industrial code base. This study is an example of how visual analytics

  16. Genesis Solar Wind Collector Cleaning Assessment: 60366 Sample Case Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goreva, Y. S.; Gonzalez, C. P.; Kuhlman, K. R.; Burnett, D. S.; Woolum, D.; Jurewicz, A. J.; Allton, J. H.; Rodriguez, M. C.; Burkett, P. J.

    2014-01-01

    In order to recognize, localize, characterize and remove particle and thin film surface contamination, a small subset of Genesis mission collector fragments are being subjected to extensive study via various techniques [1-5]. Here we present preliminary results for sample 60336, a Czochralski silicon (Si-CZ) based wafer from the bulk array (B/C).

  17. Assessment of veterinary services in central Ethiopia: A case study ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This study was conducted to identify actors, their roles, competences and main constraints of veterinary service delivery system in Ada' a district of the Oromia Regional State, Ethiopia. Questionnaire, focus group discussions, key informant interviews and desk review were conducted to gather primary and secondary data.

  18. Case Study: Testing with Case Studies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herreid, Clyde Freeman

    2015-01-01

    This column provides original articles on innovations in case study teaching, assessment of the method, as well as case studies with teaching notes. This month's issue discusses using case studies to test for knowledge or lessons learned.

  19. An approach for integrating toxicogenomic data in risk assessment: The dibutyl phthalate case study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Euling, Susan Y., E-mail: euling.susan@epa.gov [National Center for Environmental Assessment, Office of Research and Development, U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, Washington, DC (United States); Thompson, Chad M. [ToxStrategies, Inc., 23501 Cinco Ranch Blvd., Suite G265, Katy, TX 77494 (United States); Chiu, Weihsueh A. [National Center for Environmental Assessment, Office of Research and Development, U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, Washington, DC (United States); Benson, Robert [U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, Region 8, Mail code 8P-W, 1595 Wynkoop Street, Denver, CO 80202 (United States)

    2013-09-15

    An approach for evaluating and integrating genomic data in chemical risk assessment was developed based on the lessons learned from performing a case study for the chemical dibutyl phthalate. A case study prototype approach was first developed in accordance with EPA guidance and recommendations of the scientific community. Dibutyl phthalate (DBP) was selected for the case study exercise. The scoping phase of the dibutyl phthalate case study was conducted by considering the available DBP genomic data, taken together with the entire data set, for whether they could inform various risk assessment aspects, such as toxicodynamics, toxicokinetics, and dose–response. A description of weighing the available dibutyl phthalate data set for utility in risk assessment provides an example for considering genomic data for future chemical assessments. As a result of conducting the scoping process, two questions—Do the DBP toxicogenomic data inform 1) the mechanisms or modes of action?, and 2) the interspecies differences in toxicodynamics?—were selected to focus the case study exercise. Principles of the general approach include considering the genomics data in conjunction with all other data to determine their ability to inform the various qualitative and/or quantitative aspects of risk assessment, and evaluating the relationship between the available genomic and toxicity outcome data with respect to study comparability and phenotypic anchoring. Based on experience from the DBP case study, recommendations and a general approach for integrating genomic data in chemical assessment were developed to advance the broader effort to utilize 21st century data in risk assessment. - Highlights: • Performed DBP case study for integrating genomic data in risk assessment • Present approach for considering genomic data in chemical risk assessment • Present recommendations for use of genomic data in chemical risk assessment.

  20. Assessing climate change impacts on wheat production (a case study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. Valizadeh

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Climate change is one of the major challenges facing humanity in the future and effect of climate change has been detrimental to agricultural industry. The aim of this study was to simulate the effects of climate change on the maturity period, leaf area index (LAI, biomass and grain yield of wheat under future climate change for the Sistan and Baluchestan region in Iran. For this purpose, two general circulation models HadCM3 and IPCM4 under three scenarios A1B, B1 and A2 in three time periods 2020, 2050 and 2080 were used. LARS-WG model was used for simulating climatic parameters for each period and CERES-Wheat model was used to simulate wheat growth. The results of model evaluation showed that LARS-WG had appropriate prediction for climatic parameters and simulation of stochastic growing season in future climate change conditions for the studied region. Wheat growing season period in all scenarios of climate change was reduced compared to the current situation. Possible reasons were the increase in temperature rate and the accelerated growth stages of wheat. This reduction in B1 scenario was less than A1B and A2 scenarios. Maximum wheat LAI in all scenarios, except scenario A1B in 2050, is decreased compared to the current situation. Yield and biological yield of wheat in both general circulation models under all scenarios and all times were reduced in comparison with current conditions and the lowest reduction was related to B1 scenario. In general, the results showed that wheat production in the future will be affected by climate change and will decrease in the studied region. To reduce these risks, the impact of climate change mitigation strategies and management systems for crop adaptation to climate change conditions should be considered.

  1. THE IMPLEMENTATION OF SELF-ASSESSMENT IN WRITING CLASS: A CASE STUDY AT STBA LIA JAKARTA

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Theresia Tuti Purwanti

    2015-01-01

    .... It is conducted to help students grow to be independent learners. With regard to this point, this case study is aimed at investigating the implementation of the self-assessment as a learning tool in writing class...

  2. Root Cause Assessment for a Manufacturing Industry: A Case Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. Kalantri

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available Root-cause identification for quality related problems are key issues for manufacturing processes. It has been a very challenging engineering problem particularly in a multistage manufacturing, where maximum number of processes and activities are performed. However, it may also be implemented with ease in each and every individual set up and activities in any manufacturing process. Kaizen is aimed towards reduction in different types of losses i.e. Failure Loss/ Breakdown Loss, Minor stoppage, idling loss, Setup and adjustment loss etc. So as to improve quality and productivity.In this report, root-cause identification methodology has been adopted to eliminate the rejection of product manufactured by the enterprise and improving the life of product. Brainstorming and other Root Cause Assesmenttools have been used to find out the reasons of tube failure and vibration in tubular strander. Solutions of these problems have also given in this report. Kaizen activities have reduced the time consumed in daily activities of cleaning, lubricating, inspection etc. A detailed study has illustrated the effectiveness of the proposed methodology.

  3. A clinical case study of the use of ecological momentary assessment in obsessive compulsive disorder

    OpenAIRE

    PJ Matt eTilley; Clare Samantha Rees

    2014-01-01

    Accurate assessment of obsessions and compulsions is a crucial step in treatment planning for Obsessive-Compulsive Disorder (OCD). In this clinical case study, we sought to determine if the use of Ecological Momentary Assessment (EMA) could provide additional symptom information beyond that captured during standard assessment of OCD. We studied three adults diagnosed with OCD and compared the number and types of obsessions and compulsions captured using the Yale-Brown Obsessive-Compulsive Sca...

  4. Formality and Informality in the Summative Assessment of Motor Vehicle Apprentices: A Case Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Colley, Helen; Jarvis, Janis

    2007-01-01

    This article explores the interaction of formal and informal attributes of competence-based assessment. Specifically, it presents evidence from a small qualitative case study of summative assessment practices for competence-based qualifications within apprenticeships in the motor industry in England. The data are analysed through applying an…

  5. Designing and Developing a Programme-Focused Assessment Strategy: A Case Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brunton, James; Brown, Mark; Costello, Eamon; Walsh, Elaine

    2016-01-01

    This case study describes the process that the Humanities Programme Team, in Dublin City University's Open Education Unit, has undertaken with regard to developing a systematic, programme-focused assessment strategy. It charts the development of an Assessment Matrix that facilitated the enhancement of programme coherence in the context of a…

  6. BASINS and WEPP Climate Assessment Tools (CAT): Case Study Guide to Potential Applications (External Review Draft)

    Science.gov (United States)

    This draft report supports application of two recently developed water modeling tools, the BASINS and WEPP climate assessment tools. The report presents a series of short case studies designed to illustrate the capabilities of these tools for conducting scenario based assessments...

  7. A method for tsunami risk assessment : A case study for Kamakura, Japan

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Okumura, N.; Jonkman, S.N.; Esteban, M; Hofland, B.; Shibayama, T

    2017-01-01

    This paper presents a methodology for tsunami risk assessment, which was applied to a case study in Kamakura, Japan. This methodology was developed in order to evaluate the effectiveness of a risk-reducing system against such hazards, also aiming to demonstrate that a risk assessment is possible for

  8. EMBEDding the CEFR in Academic Writing Assessment : A case study in training and standardization

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Haines, Kevin; Lowie, Wander; Jansma, Petra; Schmidt, Nicole

    2013-01-01

    The CEFR is increasingly being used as the framework of choice for the assessment of language proficiency at universities across Europe. However, to attain consistent assessment, familiarization and standardization are essential. In this paper we report a case study of embedding a standardization

  9. Changes and Possibilities: A Case Study of Nova Scotia Classroom Assessment Policies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van Zoost, Steven

    2011-01-01

    Although numerous writers have identified a different set of skills needed for employment in New Times, little analytic attention has been paid to how educational assessment policies contribute to envisioning such future citizens. This case study illustrates how Nova Scotia classroom assessment policy for Grades 7-9 English classes envisions young…

  10. LOCAL AREA NETWORK MANAGEMENT (Case Study at Assessment and Development Information Technology Units Brawijaya University Malang)

    OpenAIRE

    Hadiwijaya, Mohammad Firman

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to know the management local area network at Assessment and Development Information Technology units, furthermore this study focusing on network management functions that applied by Assessment and Development Information Technology Units. This study will explain about the implementation of network management functions in the local area network management. The research method employ in this research is by using descriptive qualitative method by study case approach...

  11. A case study of a Hungarian EFL teacher’s assessment practices with her young learners

    OpenAIRE

    Gabriella Hild

    2017-01-01

    The case study aims to provide insights into how a Hungarian EFL teacher used tests, assessed her young learners and gave feedback to them in the classroom. This qualitative, exploratory study was a follow-up to a large-scale project. In this single-case study, data were collected from an EFL teacher and five of her seventh graders on what tasks she used to assess them and how. The participants were interviewed. For the purpose of triangulation, the students were also audio- and video-recorde...

  12. PARALLEL MODELS OF ASSESSMENT: INFANT MENTAL HEALTH AND THERAPEUTIC ASSESSMENT MODELS INTERSECT THROUGH EARLY CHILDHOOD CASE STUDIES.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gart, Natalie; Zamora, Irina; Williams, Marian E

    2016-07-01

    Therapeutic Assessment (TA; S.E. Finn & M.E. Tonsager, 1997; J.D. Smith, 2010) is a collaborative, semistructured model that encourages self-discovery and meaning-making through the use of assessment as an intervention approach. This model shares core strategies with infant mental health assessment, including close collaboration with parents and caregivers, active participation of the family, a focus on developing new family stories and increasing parents' understanding of their child, and reducing isolation and increasing hope through the assessment process. The intersection of these two theoretical approaches is explored, using case studies of three infants/young children and their families to illustrate the application of TA to infant mental health. The case of an 18-month-old girl whose parents fear that she has bipolar disorder illustrates the core principles of the TA model, highlighting the use of assessment intervention sessions and the clinical approach to preparing assessment feedback. The second case follows an infant with a rare genetic syndrome from ages 2 to 24 months, focusing on the assessor-parent relationship and the importance of a developmental perspective. Finally, assessment of a 3-year-old boy illustrates the development and use of a fable as a tool to provide feedback to a young child about assessment findings and recommendations. © 2016 Michigan Association for Infant Mental Health.

  13. Understanding Authentic Assessment in a Secondary Agricultural Mechanics Laboratory: An Instrumental Case Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. Joey Blackburn

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available The instrumental case study reported here adds to the literature on authentic assessment by illuminating how one secondary agricultural education instructor employed authentic assessment in the agricultural mechanics laboratory. The study was underpinned by the constructivist notion of authentic learning and assessment, or allowing students to perform what they can do. Multiple sources of data regarding assessment practices were collected from an exemplary secondary agricultural mechanics instructor who demonstrated model authentic assessment behavior by (1 setting high and fair expectations for students, (2 establishing a progressive hierarchy of skills for students to master, (3 providing continuous feedback so that students had knowledge of their progress, and (4 being committed deeply to students’ success. The four themes resonated with previous literature and provided the foundation for a pragmatic model of authentic assessment in the secondary agricultural mechanics laboratory. Future research should focus on refining the model of authentic assessment in agricultural mechanics for a larger audience, as case studies are limited in their ability to generalize. Additionally, research should be conducted to determine how authentic assessment impacts student performance on Oklahoma Agricultural Power and Technology competency examinations.

  14. Assessing and Treating Social Skills Deficits: A Case Study for the Scientist-Practitioner.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elliott, Stephen N.; And Others

    1989-01-01

    Examines various empirically proven assessment and intervention methods that can be used to remediate children's social skills problems and illustrates the utilization of these methods in a case study. Claims that combining manipulation of antecedent/consequent events with modeling or coaching procedures constituted effective multimethod approach…

  15. Measuring Primary Students' Graph Interpretation Skills via a Performance Assessment: A Case Study in Instrument Development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peterman, Karen; Cranston, Kayla A.; Pryor, Marie; Kermish-Allen, Ruth

    2015-01-01

    This case study was conducted within the context of a place-based education project that was implemented with primary school students in the USA. The authors and participating teachers created a performance assessment of standards-aligned tasks to examine 6-10-year-old students' graph interpretation skills as part of an exploratory research…

  16. Case Study 3: Species vulnerability assessment for the Middle Rio Grande, New Mexico

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deborah M. Finch; Megan Friggens; Karen Bagne

    2011-01-01

    This case study describes a method for scoring terrestrial species that have potential to be vulnerable to climate change. The assessment tool seeks to synthesize complex information related to projected climate changes into a predictive tool for species conservation. The tool was designed to aid managers in prioritizing species management actions in response to...

  17. Assessment and Treatment of Tic Behavior: A Review and Case Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pray, Bruce, Jr.; And Others

    1986-01-01

    A discussion of the classification, differential diagnosis, etiology, assessment, and treatment of tic disorders is presented. A case study is included in which a school psychologist utilized behavioral consultation to assist a 9-year-old girl's parent and teacher in implementing a habit reversal program. (Author/LMO)

  18. Chair Report Consultancy Meeting on Nuclear Security Assessment Methodologies (NUSAM) Transport Case Study Working Group

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shull, Doug [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States)

    2015-08-19

    The purpose of the consultancy assignment was to (i) apply the NUSAM assessment methods to hypothetical transport security table top exercise (TTX) analyses and (ii) document its results to working materials of NUSAM case study on transport. A number of working group observations, using the results of TTX methodologies, are noted in the report.

  19. Exposure assessment for a nested case-control study of lung cancer among European asphalt workers.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Agostini, M.; Ferro, G.; Olsson, A.; Burstyn, I.; de Vocht, F.; Hansen, J.; Funch Lassen, C.; Johansen, C.; Kjaerheim, K.; Langard, S.; Stucker, I.; Ahrens, W.; Behrens, T.; Lindbohm, M-J.; Heikkila, P.; Heederik, D.; Portengen, L.; Shaham, J.; Boffetta, P.; Kromhout, H.

    2010-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: Development of a method for retrospective assessment of exposure to bitumen fume, bitumen condensate, organic vapour, polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons, and co-exposures to known or suspected lung carcinogens for a nested case-control study of lung cancer mortality among European asphalt

  20. Introducing a design exigency to promote student learning through assessment: A case study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grealish, Laurie A; Shaw, Julie M

    2017-12-05

    Assessment technologies are often used to classify student and newly qualified nurse performance as 'pass' or 'fail', with little attention to how these decisions are achieved. Examining the design exigencies of classification technologies, such as performance assessment technologies, provides opportunities to explore flexibility and change in the process of using those technologies. Evaluate an established assessment technology for nursing performance as a classification system. A case study analysis that is focused on the assessment approach and a priori design exigencies of performance assessment technology, in this case the Australian Nursing Standards Assessment Tool 2016. Nurse assessors are required to draw upon their expertise to judge performance, but that judgement is described as a source of bias, creating confusion. The definition of satisfactory performance is 'ready to enter practice'. To pass, the performance on each criterion must be at least satisfactory, indicating to the student that no further improvement is required. The Australian Nursing Standards Assessment Tool 2016 does not have a third 'other' category, which is usually found in classification systems. Introducing a 'not yet competent' category and creating a two-part, mixed methods assessment process can improve the Australian Nursing Standards Assessment Tool 2016 assessment technology. Using a standards approach in the first part, judgement is valued and can generate learning opportunities across a program. Using a measurement approach in the second part, student performance can be 'not yet competent' but still meet criteria for year level performance and a graded pass. Subjecting the Australian Nursing Standards Assessment Tool 2016 assessment technology to analysis as a classification system provides opportunities for innovation in design. This design innovation has the potential to support students who move between programs and clinicians who assess students from different

  1. A case-control study assessing depression in patients with periodontitis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shiyamali Sundararajan

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Chronic periodontitis is an inflammatory disease of the supporting structures of the tooth. One of the important non-oral risk factors for periodontitis is psychosocial stress and depression. Depression affects oral health by affecting the immune system through its effects on hypothalamic pituitary axis system. Periodontal inflammatory surface area (PISA is a system used to assess inflammatory burden in the periodontal tissue. Aim: The aim of this study is to assess the relationship between PISA and depression. Settings and Design: The design of the study is case-control study. Materials and Methods: The study design is a case-control study with forty patients each in case and control groups. The periodontal inflammatory level was assessed by PISA system and the levels of depression was assessed by using Beck's Depression Inventory (BDI. Statistical Analysis: Student's t-test was used to compare PISA and BDI scores. The BDI score (mean ± standard deviation [SD] for controls was 12.75 ± 6.82 compared to 22.73 ± 4.40 for the cases. The comparison (t = 7.78 was statistically significant at P < 0.0001. The PISA score (mean ± SD for controls was 210.47 ± 76.80 compared to the PISA score of 1069.50 ± 204.21 for cases which was statistically significant (t = 24.90; P < 0.0001. Results: Significantly higher BDI scores were observed in patients with chronic periodontitis than healthy controls. Conclusion: This study clearly reveals a significant association between the severity of depression and inflammatory burden.

  2. Assessment and pedagogy: a case study of two oral hygiene lecturers in South Africa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vergotine, G

    2012-08-01

    There is evidence that most South African oral hygiene lecturers lack appropriate qualifications in the field of education. Their teaching skills are based mainly on clinical and practical experience, and this may impact on their understanding of the educational foundations of teaching, learning and assessment. To explore oral hygiene lecturers' knowledge and use of pedagogy and assessment and its alignment. A qualitative descriptive study design was used and case studies of two oral hygiene lecturers, each with qualifications in Education, were analyzed according to three themes: curriculum, pedagogy and assessment. The results showed that both participants had a good understanding of formative assessment (FA) and summative assessment (SA). They made use of FA but in neither case was the application ideal. Both used a range of teaching and assessment strategies but felt accountable to external demands of meeting outcomes. They linked their understanding of pedagogy and assessment to assist in the development of their courses and reported that this alignment had improved the quality of their programmes. This alignment by oral hygiene lecturers can influence curricular and pedagogic strategies. The professional educational development of lecturers in oral hygiene could be influential in improving the profession within the country.

  3. Methods for assessing the physical demands of manual lifting: a review and case study from warehousing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Waters, T R; Putz-Anderson, V; Baron, S

    1998-12-01

    Assessment of the physical demands of potentially hazardous manual material handling (MMH) activities is fundamental to the prevention of disabilities from occupationally related low back pain, a problem costing the nation billions of dollars annually. Although there is a variety of ergonomic assessment methods available for assessing MMH activities, there is a lack of practical information to assist users in choosing the most appropriate assessment methods of a particular job. This article reviews currently available assessment methods and presents case study results of a physically demanding repetitive manual lifting job in two grocery warehouses. The case study will provide a framework for a comparison of the methods and a discussion of relevant application issues designed to assist users in selecting appropriate methods for assessing MMH jobs. Based on the results of the study, it is concluded that all of the ergonomic methods were in agreement that the job of grocery selector has a high level of risk for low back pain. Differences between the methods were noted, however, that should be considered when choosing a specific method for a specific application.

  4. A Case Study of Teacher Personal Practice Assessment Theories and Complexities of Implementing Formative Assessment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Box, Cathy; Skoog, Gerald; Dabbs, Jennifer M.

    2015-01-01

    The value and effectiveness of formative assessment in the classroom has gained an increasing amount of attention during the past decade, especially since the publication of seminal work by Black and Wiliam titled "Assessment and Classroom Learning." Since that time, there has been a renewed interest in describing and evaluating teacher…

  5. Assessing personality change in psychotherapy with the SWAP-200: a case study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lingiardi, Vittorio; Shedler, Jonathan; Gazzillo, Francesco

    2006-02-01

    Many studies document the efficacy of psychotherapy for acute syndromes such as depression, but less is known about personality change in patients treated for personality pathology. The Shedler-Westen Assessment Procedure (SWAP-200; Westen & Shedler, 1999a, 1999b) is an assessment tool that measures a broad spectrum of personality constructs and is designed to bridge the gap between the clinical and empirical traditions in personality assessment. In this article, we demonstrate the use of the SWAP-200 as a measure of change in a case study of a patient diagnosed with borderline personality disorder. We collected assessment data at the start of treatment and after 2 years of psychotherapy. The findings illustrate the personality processes targeted in intensive psychotherapy for borderline personality.

  6. Case Study: Writing a Journal Case Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prud'homme-Genereux, Annie

    2016-01-01

    This column provides original articles on innovations in case study teaching, assessment of the method, as well as case studies with teaching notes. This month's issue describes incorporating a journal article into the classroom by first converting it into a case study.

  7. Comparison of exposure assessment methods for occupational carcinogens in a multi-centre lung cancer case-control study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Peters, Susan; Vermeulen, Roel; Cassidy, Adrian; 't Mannetje, Andrea; van Tongeren, Martie; Boffetta, Paolo; Straif, Kurt; Kromhout, Hans

    Objectives Retrospective exposure assessment remains a problematic aspect of population-based case-control studies. Different methods have been developed, including case-by-case expert assessment and job-exposure matrices (JEM). The present analyses compare exposure prevalence and risk estimates

  8. Human factors and ergonomics assessment of food pantry work: A case study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Higgins, Nicholas A; Talone, Andrew B; Fraulini, Nicholas W; Smither, Janan A

    2017-01-01

    Research assessing work processes in food pantries has been limited to the client's experience and aspects of food donations [3-5]. Research on food pantries has yet to focus on understanding and evaluating worker-environment interaction. The present case study examined the interaction between workers and their work environment while performing common tasks in a food pantry. Data were collected through naturalistic observations and structured interviews. A task analysis was performed on the data. Several potential issues in the pantry were identified including with the workspace layout, environmental conditions, and signage. Human factors and ergonomics principles were then utilized to provide insights and recommendations (e.g., use of numbered rather than color-coded signage). Recommendations were provided to the case study food pantry for enhancing safety and productivity. Further research is needed to assess the generalizability of our findings to other food pantries.

  9. Ecological assessment of Mediterranean reservoirs: Alqueva reservoir as a case study (Alentejo, Southern Portugal)

    OpenAIRE

    MORAIS, Manuela; Novais, Maria Helena; Nunes, Susana; Rosado, Joana; Penha, Alexandra; Zavattieri, Amely; Potes, Miguel; Salgado, Rui

    2015-01-01

    Ecological assessment of Mediterranean reservoirs: Alqueva reservoir as a case study (Alentejo, Southern Portugal) Manuela Morais, Maria Helena Novais, Susana Nunes, Joana Rosado, Alexandra Penha, Amely Zavattieri, Miguel Potes & Rui Salgado Abstract The Mediterranean region, with almost 7% of the world population, has less than 3% of the world freshwater resources, and these are irregularly distributed, 72% in the northern countries (Spain; France; Monaco, Italy, Greece, Malta, Slov...

  10. Retrospective exposure assessment and quality control in an international multi-centre case-control study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tinnerberg, H; Heikkilä, P; Huici-Montagud, A

    2003-01-01

    of the assessors, as Cohen's kappa and as overall proportion of the agreements. The reassessment of the exposures changed the exposure statuses significantly, when compared with the original cohort. Harmonization of the exposure criteria increased the conformity of the assessments. The prevalence of exposure......The paper presents the exposure assessment method and quality control procedure used in an international, multi-centre case-control study within a joint Nordic and Italian cohort. This study was conducted to evaluate whether occupational exposure to carcinogens influenced the predictivity of high...... frequency of chromosomal aberrations (CA) in peripheral lymphocytes for increased cancer risk. Occupational hygienists assessed exposures in each participating country: Denmark, Finland, Italy, Norway and Sweden. The exposure status to a carcinogen or a clastogen was coded in the cohort according...

  11. Written reflection and drawing as assessment: A case study of a Navajo elementary science classroom

    Science.gov (United States)

    Becker, Madeline

    The purpose of the study was to assess if science learning could be determined by using written reflection and drawings in a science classroom of 5 th-grade Navajo students. The significance of this study was the understanding of the culture, assessments and learning of Navajo students. I studied a classroom on the Navajo reservation wherein 26 members of the class took part in science instruction complemented by using writing and drawing which were used as their assessments. The perceptions of the 8 students who were interviewed represent the case. In the study I profiled the 8 participants. Their culture, language, and views on assessment and learning were documented by their words. Their responses described their learning experiences. Assessments were seen as frustrating and limiting expression of what was known and damaging when not contributed to learning. Students explained that drawing enabled them to remember along with provoking vocabulary development. Student cultural knowledge was documented as valuable background experience contributing to learning within the classroom. Students viewed science as needing to be useful in their culture. Finally, they were also very candid that their teachers must first get to know them for meaningful learning to begin. Learning for students was reinforced through writing and drawing the lesson's activities. Further concept development was assisted utilizing metacognition and creative problem solving techniques of elaboration and fluency applied to the writing and drawings. Based on the findings of this study, recommendations were made for use of holistic means of assessing Navajo children in science where preferred learning styles along with cultural background need to be included in assessment protocols. Using new and better assessment techniques can directly impact how students document their learning as well as reveal how they acquire new knowledge.

  12. Measuring Primary Students' Graph Interpretation Skills Via a Performance Assessment: A case study in instrument development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peterman, Karen; Cranston, Kayla A.; Pryor, Marie; Kermish-Allen, Ruth

    2015-11-01

    This case study was conducted within the context of a place-based education project that was implemented with primary school students in the USA. The authors and participating teachers created a performance assessment of standards-aligned tasks to examine 6-10-year-old students' graph interpretation skills as part of an exploratory research project. Fifty-five students participated in a performance assessment interview at the beginning and end of a place-based investigation. Two forms of the assessment were created and counterbalanced within class at pre and post. In situ scoring was conducted such that responses were scored as correct versus incorrect during the assessment's administration. Criterion validity analysis demonstrated an age-level progression in student scores. Tests of discriminant validity showed that the instrument detected variability in interpretation skills across each of three graph types (line, bar, dot plot). Convergent validity was established by correlating in situ scores with those from the Graph Interpretation Scoring Rubric. Students' proficiency with interpreting different types of graphs matched expectations based on age and the standards-based progression of graphs across primary school grades. The assessment tasks were also effective at detecting pre-post gains in students' interpretation of line graphs and dot plots after the place-based project. The results of the case study are discussed in relation to the common challenges associated with performance assessment. Implications are presented in relation to the need for authentic and performance-based instructional and assessment tasks to respond to the Common Core State Standards and the Next Generation Science Standards.

  13. Case study for model validation : assessing a model for thermal decomposition of polyurethane foam.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dowding, Kevin J.; Leslie, Ian H. (New Mexico State University, Las Cruces, NM); Hobbs, Michael L.; Rutherford, Brian Milne; Hills, Richard Guy (New Mexico State University, Las Cruces, NM); Pilch, Martin M.

    2004-10-01

    A case study is reported to document the details of a validation process to assess the accuracy of a mathematical model to represent experiments involving thermal decomposition of polyurethane foam. The focus of the report is to work through a validation process. The process addresses the following activities. The intended application of mathematical model is discussed to better understand the pertinent parameter space. The parameter space of the validation experiments is mapped to the application parameter space. The mathematical models, computer code to solve the models and its (code) verification are presented. Experimental data from two activities are used to validate mathematical models. The first experiment assesses the chemistry model alone and the second experiment assesses the model of coupled chemistry, conduction, and enclosure radiation. The model results of both experimental activities are summarized and uncertainty of the model to represent each experimental activity is estimated. The comparison between the experiment data and model results is quantified with various metrics. After addressing these activities, an assessment of the process for the case study is given. Weaknesses in the process are discussed and lessons learned are summarized.

  14. Using evaluability assessment to assess local community development health programmes: a Scottish case-study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Melissa Belford

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Evaluation of the potential effectiveness of a programme’s objectives (health or otherwise is important in demonstrating how programmes work. However, evaluations are expensive and can focus on unrealistic outcomes not grounded in strong theory, especially where there is pressure to show effectiveness. The aim of this research was to demonstrate that the evaluability assessment (a cost-effective pre-evaluation tool that primarily gives quick, constructive feedback can be used to help develop programme and outcome objectives to improve programmes while they run and to assist in producing more effective evaluations. This was done using the example of a community development programme aiming to improve health and reduce health inequalities in its target population. Methods The setting was Glasgow, Scotland, UK and focused on the Health Issues in the Community programme. Data were collected from documents and nine individual stakeholder interviews. Thematic analysis and a realist approach were used to analyse both datasets and, in conjunction with a workshop with stakeholders, produce a logic model of the programme theory and related evaluation options to explore further. Results Five main themes emerged from the analysis: History; Framework; Structure and Delivery of the Course; Theory of Action; and Barriers to Delivery and Successful Outcomes. These themes aided in drafting the logic model which revealed they key programme activities (e.g. facilitating group learning and 23 potential outcomes. The majority of these outcomes (16 were deemed to be short-term outcomes (more easily measured within the timeframe of an individual being involved in the programme e.g. increased self-esteem or awareness of individual/community health. The remaining 6 outcomes were deemed longer-term and included outcomes such as increased social capital and individual mental health and wellbeing. Conclusions We have shown that the evaluability

  15. Evaluation of bioaugmentation using multiple life cycle assessment approaches: A case study of constructed wetland.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Xinyue; Yang, Jixian; Zhang, Xuedong; Wang, Li; Ma, Fang

    2017-11-01

    Bioaugmentation is a promising technology to enhance the removal of specific pollutants; however, environmental impacts of implementing bioaugmentation have not been considered in most studies. Appropriate methodology is required for the evaluation from both in-depth and comprehensive perspectives, which leads to this study initiating the application of life cycle assessment (LCA) of bioaugmentation. Two LCA methods (CML and e-Balance) were applied to a bioaugmentation case with the aim of illustrating how to evaluate the environmental impacts of bioaugmentation from different perspectives based on the selection of different LCA methods. The results of the case study demonstrated that the LCA methods with different methodology emphasis produced different outcomes, which could lead to differentiated optimization strategies depending on the associated perspectives. Furthermore, three important aspects are discussed, including coverage of impact categories, the selection of characterization modeling for specific pollutants, and the requirement of including economic indicators for future investigation. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. Magnetic field exposure assessment in a case-control study of childhood leukemia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kleinerman, R A; Linet, M S; Hatch, E E; Wacholder, S; Tarone, R E; Severson, R K; Kaune, W T; Friedman, D R; Haines, C M; Muirhead, C R; Boice, J D; Robison, L L

    1997-09-01

    Epidemiologic evaluation of the relation between magnetic field exposures and cancer depends critically on study design, particularly the methods used for exposure assessment. We incorporated a complex magnetic field exposure assessment protocol into a large incident case-control study of childhood leukemia. We measured residential magnetic fields using a standard protocol in current and former homes of 638 cases and 620 controls and determined wire codes for 414 case-control pairs. We chose a time-weighted average of magnetic field measurements in each eligible home, weighted by the time the subject lived in each home as the main exposure metric for each subject. We found that 24-hour bedroom magnetic field measurements adequately characterize children's residential exposure and that measuring other rooms contributes only slightly to the estimate of average residential exposure to magnetic fields. Front door measured fields provide useful exposure information when interior measurements are missing. If feasible, measuring multiple homes in which the subject has resided is preferable to measuring a single home. A similar distribution of wire codes for controls agreeing or refusing to participate in our study implies that risk estimates derived from wire code data will not be influenced by response bias.

  17. Miscanthus as energy crop: Environmental assessment of a miscanthus biomass production case study in France

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Morandi, Fabiana; Perrin, A.; Østergård, Hanne

    2016-01-01

    assessment of different logistic (harvesting) strategies for miscanthus production in the Bourgogne region is presented. Emergy assessment is a particular methodology suited to quantify the resource use of a process and to estimate the percentage of renewability of products or services. The case study...... the environmental cost of the whole process, the percentage of renewability (%R) and the Unit Emergy Values (UEV) that represent the resource use efficiency of the final products for each phase are calculated. Since miscanthus is reproduced by rhizomes, in addition to the system for growing and distributing...... miscanthus biomass, the system for producing miscanthus rhizomes is also analysed and a UEV for miscanthus rhizomes of 1.19E+05 seJ/J was obtained. Moreover, due the absence of other emergy assessments for miscanthus biomass for comparison, a sensitivity analysis has been made by considering different...

  18. Business performance assessment and the EFQM Excellence Model 2010 (case study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mária Antošová

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The application of the latest management methods becomes today, during the ongoing European integration processes, a requisite for the success of the business within the environment of international markets. In this paper, the authors pay attention to the expansion of the organizational knowledge base with an application of a new management method. They are dealing with assessment of the organization performance, the issue of its effectiveness and the increasing economic efficiency, on an example of a selected mining company as a case study. In order to detect weaknesses in the company reviewed and to offer suggestions for improvement, which may move the company towards prosperity, the authors carried out the performance assessment by using the EFQM Excellence Model 2010. The aim of this paper is to introduce the business performance assessment model in terms of the European standards that will allow the use of latest management methods in the environment of both the Slovak and European companies.

  19. Comprehensive Environmental Assessment Applied to Multiwalled Carbon Nanotube Flame-Retardant Coatings in Upholstery Textiles: A Case Study Presenting Priority Research Gaps for Future Risk Assessments (Final Report)

    Science.gov (United States)

    In September 2013, EPA announced the availability of the final report, Comprehensive Environmental Assessment Applied to Multiwalled Carbon Nanotube Flame-Retardant Coatings in Upholstery Textiles: A Case Study Presenting Priority Research Gaps for Future Risk Assessments...

  20. Fracture Mechanics in Design and Assessment of Existing Structures: Two Case Studies

    OpenAIRE

    Noury, Pourya

    2014-01-01

    In the present thesis, the application of fracture mechanics in design and assessment of steel structures has been studied.The first case study concerns a ring-flange connection used in wind turbine towers. The flange is rolled from straight steel profile into a complete ring. Subsequently, at the ends of the ring are welded by way of electron beam welding. This weld providing the integrity of the ring-flange was designed against fracture. To avoid potential failure by fracture and/or fatigue...

  1. Assessing the Costs and Benefits of Resilience Investments: Tennessee Valley Authority Case Study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Allen, Melissa R. [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Wilbanks, Thomas J. [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Preston, Benjamin L. [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Kao, Shih-Chieh [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Bradbury, James [U.S. Department of Energy (DOE), Office of Energy Policy and Systems Analysis (EPSA), Washington, DC (United States)

    2017-01-01

    This report describes a general approach for assessing climate change vulnerabilities of an electricity system and evaluating the costs and benefits of certain investments that would increase system resilience. It uses Tennessee Valley Authority (TVA) as a case study, concentrating on the Cumberland River basin area on the northern side of the TVA region. The study focuses in particular on evaluating risks associated with extreme heat wave and drought conditions that could be expected to affect the region by mid-century. Extreme climate event scenarios were developed using a combination of dynamically downscaled output from the Community Earth System Model and historical heat wave and drought conditions in 1993 and 2007, respectively.

  2. Overview of EPA's Approach to Developing Prospective Case Studies Technical Workshop: Case Studies to Assess Potential Impacts of Hydraulic Fracturing on Drinking Water Resources

    Science.gov (United States)

    One component of the United States Environmental Protection Agency's (EPA) study of the potential impacts of hydraulic fracturing on drinking water resources is prospective case studies, which are being conducted to more fully understand and assess if and how site specific hydrau...

  3. Probabilistic risk assessment of emerging materials: case study of titanium dioxide nanoparticles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsang, Michael P; Hristozov, Danail; Zabeo, Alex; Koivisto, Antti Joonas; Jensen, Alexander Christian Østerskov; Jensen, Keld Alstrup; Pang, Chengfang; Marcomini, Antonio; Sonnemann, Guido

    2017-05-01

    The development and use of emerging technologies such as nanomaterials can provide both benefits and risks to society. Emerging materials may promise to bring many technological advantages but may not be well characterized in terms of their production volumes, magnitude of emissions, behaviour in the environment and effects on living organisms. This uncertainty can present challenges to scientists developing these materials and persons responsible for defining and measuring their adverse impacts. Human health risk assessment is a method of identifying the intrinsic hazard of and quantifying the dose-response relationship and exposure to a chemical, to finally determine the estimation of risk. Commonly applied deterministic approaches may not sufficiently estimate and communicate the likelihood of risks from emerging technologies whose uncertainty is large. Probabilistic approaches allow for parameters in the risk assessment process to be defined by distributions instead of single deterministic values whose uncertainty could undermine the value of the assessment. A probabilistic approach was applied to the dose-response and exposure assessment of a case study involving the production of nanoparticles of titanium dioxide in seven different exposure scenarios. Only one exposure scenario showed a statistically significant level of risk. In the latter case, this involved dumping high volumes of nano-TiO2 powders into an open vessel with no personal protection equipment. The probabilistic approach not only provided the likelihood of but also the major contributing factors to the estimated risk (e.g. emission potential).

  4. A case-control study assessing bone mineral density in severe haemophilia A in the UK.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wells, A J; McLaughlin, P; Simmonds, J V; Prouse, P J; Prelevic, G; Gill, S; Chowdary, P

    2015-01-01

    It has been shown that bone mineral density (BMD) may be lower in patients with haemophilia (PWH). A comparison to control subjects is required to thoroughly assess current BMD in PWH in the UK. The objective of this study was to test the hypothesis that BMD is lower in PWH than in controls, and in patients with more severely affected joints or lower activity levels. In this case-control study, 37 patients with severe haemophilia A were recruited from two haemophilia centres in the UK. A group of 37 age, gender and ethnicity-matched control participants were recruited. All participants had a bone density scan, a musculoskeletal assessment, a blood test for vitamin D and completed a functional activity questionnaire. Of the case group, 5% had osteoporosis and 24% had BMD lower than expected for age. No control participants had osteoporosis, 3% had osteopenia and 14% had BMD lower than expected for age. Ninety one per cent of case participants and 92% of control participants had reduced 25(OH)D levels. Case participants had significantly lower BMD than control participants, and case participants with more severely affected joints, lower activity levels, HIV, history of hepatitis C or lower BMI had significantly lower BMD. Patients with severe haemophilia have a higher risk of low BMD than men without haemophilia. Patients with more severely affected joints and lower activity levels have lower BMD. It remains unclear whether patients with low BMD reached adequate peak bone mass. Low vitamin D may be present in the majority of PWH. © 2014 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  5. Assessment of municipal environmental protection expenditure: Case study in the Czech Republic

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jana Soukopová

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Local authorities need simple economic tools and methodology how to evaluate public expenditure efficiency. There are a lot of ways for measuring efficiency of public expenditure however methods or economic tools which get actual information about efficiency of current public spending are rare. The paper presents new methodology for evaluating current municipal environmental protection expenditures based on a weighted assessment of multiple economic, social and environmental criteria. This methodology has issued from OECD methodology however it is a more complex tool and addresses the three pillars of sustainable development and following interdisciplinary approaches of Environmental Mainstreaming. The paper presents also case study, where is investigated environmental protection expenditure evaluation in the city of Brno, the second largest city in the Czech Republic. The results of this case study show the correct state of expenditure efficiency in the city of Brno and indicate possible improvements applicable for new investment to environmental protection and sustainable development.

  6. Environmental Assessment of a Waste Incineration Tax. Case Study and Evaluation of a Framework for Strategic Environmental Assessment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bjoerklund, Anna; Johansson, Jessica [Swedish Defence Research Agency, Stockholm (Sweden); Nilsson, Maans [Stockholm Environment Inst., Stockholm (Sweden); Eldh, Peter; Finnveden, Goeran [Royal Inst. of Technology, Stockholm (Sweden). Dept. of Industrial Ecology

    2003-12-01

    A framework for Strategic Environmental Assessment (SEA) is tested in a case study on a proposed waste incineration tax. Also included is testing of developed methods for valuation and site-dependent life cycle impact assessment. The results indicate that although a suggested waste incineration tax of 400 SEK/ton is likely to lead to environmental improvements, these are small compared to the potential improvements as shown in more visionary scenarios. In order to go in this direction a waste incineration tax based on the content of fossil carbon in the waste would be useful. The framework for SEA includes several different pathways. These have different advantages and disadvantages and provide different types of information. It is therefore suggested that they largely complement each other and that the choice of methods should be done in relation to the function of the SEA and the questions asked.

  7. Evaluating the impact of equity focused health impact assessment on health service planning: three case studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harris-Roxas, Ben; Haigh, Fiona; Travaglia, Joanne; Kemp, Lynn

    2014-09-05

    Health impact assessment has been identified internationally as a mechanism to ensure potential health impacts and health equity impacts of proposals are considered before implementation. This paper looks at the impact of three equity focused health impact assessments (EFHIAs) of health service plans on subsequent decision-making and implementation, and then utilises these findings to test and refine an existing conceptual framework for evaluating the impact and effectiveness of health impact assessments for use in relation to EFHIAs. Case study analysis of three EFHIAs conducted on health sector plans in New South Wales, Australia. Data was drawn from 14 semi-structured interviews and the analysis of seven related documents (draft plans and EFHIA reports). The case studies showed that the EFHIAs all had some impact on the decision-making about the plans and their implementation, most clearly in relation to participants' understandings of equity and in the development of options for modifying service plans to ensure this was addressed. The timing of the EFHIA and individual responses to the EFHIA process and its recommendations were identified as critical factors influencing the impact of the EFHIAs. Several modifications to the conceptual framework are identified, principally adding factors to recognise the role individuals play in influencing the impact and effectiveness of EFHIAs. EFHIA has the potential to improve the consideration of health equity in health service planning processes, though a number of contextual and individual factors affect this. Current approaches can be strengthened by taking into account personal and organisational responses to the EFHIA process.

  8. IAC Energy Assessment of Spanish Fork Plant: Office of Industrial Technologies (OIT) Aluminum BestPractices Assessment Case Study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    U.S. Department of Energy

    2001-08-06

    This case study is the latest in a series on industrial firms who are implementing energy efficient technologies and system improvements into their manufacturing processes. The case studies document the activities, savings, and lessons learned on these projects.

  9. Trainee primary-school teachers’ perceptions on CLIL instruction and assessment in universities: A case study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    María Victoria Guadamillas Gómez

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available CLIL is an important approach in training future Primary School Teachers since bilingual programs developed at schools in Spain require not only professionals with proficientSecond Language (L2 levels, but also future teachers who are versed in the main methodological principles for CLIL. Firstly, this case study reviews the legislation for bilingual programs in Spain. Secondly, it describes teacher training through a CLIL course within the Faculty of Education at the University of Castilla-La Mancha, focussing on the methodology and evaluation procedures followed in the course. Thirdly, this paperrefersto the method performed to evaluate students’ perceptions ofthe CLIL training and assessment process. Finally, it shows the results from the study and some conclusionsrelated to the assessment and instruction process for the implementation of the CLIL approach in Primary School Teaching Undergraduate Programs.

  10. Comparison of exposure assessment methods for occupational carcinogens in a multi-centre lung cancer case-control study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peters, Susan; Vermeulen, Roel; Cassidy, Adrian; Mannetje, Andrea 't; van Tongeren, Martie; Boffetta, Paolo; Straif, Kurt; Kromhout, Hans

    2011-02-01

    Retrospective exposure assessment remains a problematic aspect of population-based case-control studies. Different methods have been developed, including case-by-case expert assessment and job-exposure matrices (JEM). The present analyses compare exposure prevalence and risk estimates derived by different exposure assessment methods. In the context of a case-control study conducted in seven European countries, exposure was estimated for asbestos, diesel motor emissions (DME) and crystalline silica, using three different assessment methods. First, experts assigned exposures to all reported jobs on a case-by-case basis. Second, a population-specific JEM (PSJEM) was developed using the expert assessments of controls only, and re-applied to all study subjects. Third, an independent general population JEM (GPJEM) was created by occupational exposure experts not involved in the original study, and applied to study subjects. Results from these methods were compared. There was poor to fair agreement in assigned exposure between expert assessment and the GPJEM (kappas: asbestos 0.17; DME 0.48; silica 0.38). Exposure prevalence was significantly heterogeneous (psilica diminished. It has been previously advocated that the expert assessment approach to assign exposures based on detailed questionnaire responses provides more accurate exposure estimates than JEM-based results. However, current results demonstrated little, if any, advantage of case-by-case assessment when compared to a JEM approach.

  11. Assessing the financial potential for modularization: A case study in a global OEM

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Løkkegaard, Martin; Mortensen, Niels Henrik

    2017-01-01

    Assessing the financial potential of implementing a strategy, based on sharing of key modules and interfaces across a portfolio is difficult. However, this is a critical input when deciding strategic direction in industrial organizations. Through a case study, this paper gives an example of how...... to map and evaluate the architectures in a portfolio to identify the financial potential for implanting a platform-based modularization strategy. The approach has been applied in a global world-leading OEM with 50.000+ product variants and a turnover of USD 3,5b (2015). The results show a potential...

  12. Economic assessment of managing processionary moth in pine forests: a case-study in Portugal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gatto, Paola; Zocca, Alessia; Battisti, Andrea; Barrento, Maria João; Branco, Manuela; Paiva, Maria Rosa

    2009-02-01

    This paper assesses the private and social profitability of current strategies for managing processionary moth (Thaumetopoea pityocampa) in Portuguese pine forests, looking at economic and environmental costs and benefits. Costs include the expenses for forest treatment and the social costs of threats to human health (dermatitis amongst others); benefits are assessed in terms of both revenue and social benefits such as carbon fixation and recreation. The evaluation was done using Cost Benefit Analysis (CBA) as an analytical framework. While this tool is currently applied to forest and environmental assessment and specific applications to pest management strategies are to be found in agricultural economics, rather few attempts have been made in the field of forest pest management. In order to assess and compare with--without options, a case-study was analysed for the Setúbal Peninsula, south of Lisbon, an area where extensive stands of maritime pine (Pinus pinaster) grow. The exercise has shown that CBA can be a valuable tool for assessing the economic and social profitability of pest management. The results demonstrate that the loss of revenues in the no-management option is not sufficient to make pest management profitable for private forest owners in the short-term. Conversely, a social profit is gained as pest management minimizes health risks for humans and avoids possible recreational losses.

  13. Quantifying uncertainty in health impact assessment: a case-study example on indoor housing ventilation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mesa-Frias, Marco; Chalabi, Zaid; Foss, Anna M

    2014-01-01

    Quantitative health impact assessment (HIA) is increasingly being used to assess the health impacts attributable to an environmental policy or intervention. As a consequence, there is a need to assess uncertainties in the assessments because of the uncertainty in the HIA models. In this paper, a framework is developed to quantify the uncertainty in the health impacts of environmental interventions and is applied to evaluate the impacts of poor housing ventilation. The paper describes the development of the framework through three steps: (i) selecting the relevant exposure metric and quantifying the evidence of potential health effects of the exposure; (ii) estimating the size of the population affected by the exposure and selecting the associated outcome measure; (iii) quantifying the health impact and its uncertainty. The framework introduces a novel application for the propagation of uncertainty in HIA, based on fuzzy set theory. Fuzzy sets are used to propagate parametric uncertainty in a non-probabilistic space and are applied to calculate the uncertainty in the morbidity burdens associated with three indoor ventilation exposure scenarios: poor, fair and adequate. The case-study example demonstrates how the framework can be used in practice, to quantify the uncertainty in health impact assessment where there is insufficient information to carry out a probabilistic uncertainty analysis. © 2013.

  14. Virtual reality for assessment of patients suffering chronic pain: a case study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Llobera, Joan; González-Franco, Mar; Perez-Marcos, Daniel; Valls-Solé, Josep; Slater, Mel; Sanchez-Vives, Maria V

    2013-03-01

    The study of body representation and ownership has been a very active research area in recent years. Synchronous multisensory stimulation has been used for the induction of the illusion of ownership over virtual body parts and even full bodies, and it has provided experimental paradigms for the understanding of the brain processing of body representation. However, the illusion of ownership of a virtual body has rarely been used for patient evaluation and diagnosis. Here we propose a method that exploits ownership of a virtual body in combination with a simple brain computer interface (BCI) and basic physiological measures to complement neurological assessment. A male patient presenting a fixed posture dystonia featuring a permanently closed left fist participated in this case study. The patient saw a virtual body that substituted his own after donning a head-mounted display and thereby entering the virtual reality. The left virtual hand had the same posture as his corresponding real hand. After inducing virtual hand ownership by correlated visuo-tactile stimulation and dynamic reflections in a virtual mirror, the virtual hand would open either automatically or through a cognitive task assessed through a BCI that required him to focus attention on the virtual hand. The results reveal that body ownership induced changes on electromyography and BCI performance in the patient that were different from those in five healthy controls. Overall, the case study shows that the induction of virtual body ownership combined with simple electrophysiological measures could be useful for the diagnosis of patients with neurological conditions.

  15. A case study of a Hungarian EFL teacher’s assessment practices with her young learners

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gabriella Hild

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available The case study aims to provide insights into how a Hungarian EFL teacher used tests, assessed her young learners and gave feedback to them in the classroom. This qualitative, exploratory study was a follow-up to a large-scale project. In this single-case study, data were collected from an EFL teacher and five of her seventh graders on what tasks she used to assess them and how. The participants were interviewed. For the purpose of triangulation, the students were also audio- and video-recorded while doing four speaking tasks, and two classes were observed. The results revealed that for the teacher with decades of teaching experience there was room for improvement in her knowledge of age-appropriate teaching methodology and that some of her beliefs and practices reflected a lack of understanding how children develop. She had difficulty diagnosing her students’ strengths and weaknesses. The learners were rarely provided with feedback on their performance and language development; therefore, they did not see how much they had progressed. Low achievers had a hard time catching up with their peers; and they lagged further behind. The teacher seemed to be more interested in what her students did not know rather than focusing on what they could do.

  16. The use of rapid review methods in health technology assessments: 3 case studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaltenthaler, Eva; Cooper, Katy; Pandor, Abdullah; Martyn-St James, Marrissa; Chatters, Robin; Wong, Ruth

    2016-08-26

    Rapid reviews are of increasing importance within health technology assessment due to time and resource constraints. There are many rapid review methods available although there is little guidance as to the most suitable methods. We present three case studies employing differing methods to suit the evidence base for each review and outline some issues to consider when selecting an appropriate method. Three recently completed systematic review short reports produced for the UK National Institute for Health Research were examined. Different approaches to rapid review methods were used in the three reports which were undertaken to inform the commissioning of services within the NHS and to inform future trial design. We describe the methods used, the reasoning behind the choice of methods and explore the strengths and weaknesses of each method. Rapid review methods were chosen to meet the needs of the review and each review had distinctly different challenges such as heterogeneity in terms of populations, interventions, comparators and outcome measures (PICO) and/or large numbers of relevant trials. All reviews included at least 10 randomised controlled trials (RCTs), each with numerous included outcomes. For the first case study (sexual health interventions), very diverse studies in terms of PICO were included. P-values and summary information only were presented due to substantial heterogeneity between studies and outcomes measured. For the second case study (premature ejaculation treatments), there were over 100 RCTs but also several existing systematic reviews. Data for meta-analyses were extracted directly from existing systematic reviews with new RCT data added where available. For the final case study (cannabis cessation therapies), studies included a wide range of interventions and considerable variation in study populations and outcomes. A brief summary of the key findings for each study was presented and narrative synthesis used to summarise results for each

  17. Scenario-neutral Food Security Risk Assessment: A livestock Heat Stress Case Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Broman, D.; Rajagopalan, B.; Hopson, T. M.

    2015-12-01

    Food security risk assessments can provide decision-makers with actionable information to identify critical system limitations, and alternatives to mitigate the impacts of future conditions. The majority of current risk assessments have been scenario-led and results are limited by the scenarios - selected future states of the world's climate system and socioeconomic factors. A generic scenario-neutral framework for food security risk assessments is presented here that uses plausible states of the world without initially assigning likelihoods. Measures of system vulnerabilities are identified and system risk is assessed for these states. This framework has benefited greatly by research in the water and natural resource fields to adapt their planning to provide better risk assessments. To illustrate the utility of this framework we develop a case study using livestock heat stress risk within the pastoral system of West Africa. Heat stress can have a major impact not only on livestock owners, but on the greater food production system, decreasing livestock growth, milk production, and reproduction, and in severe cases, death. A heat stress index calculated from daily weather is used as a vulnerability measure and is computed from historic daily weather data at several locations in the study region. To generate plausible states, a stochastic weather generator is developed to generate synthetic weather sequences at each location, consistent with the seasonal climate. A spatial model of monthly and seasonal heat stress provide projections of current and future livestock heat stress measures across the study region, and can incorporate in seasonal climate and other external covariates. These models, when linked with empirical thresholds of heat stress risk for specific breeds offer decision-makers with actionable information for use in near-term warning systems as well as for future planning. Future assessment can indicate under which states livestock are at greatest risk

  18. Spatial variation in lake benthic macroinvertebrate ecological assessment: a synthesis of European case studies

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sandin, Leif Leonard; Solimini, Angelo G.

    2012-01-01

    local invertebrate assemblages. In this issue we provide a contribution towards the understanding of basic sources of spatial variation of invertebrate assemblages in different European lake habitat types and their relationship with major human pressures. All papers have an obvious applied objective...... Baltic, Atlantic, and Mediterranean). The goal of the papers was to assess the main environmental factors and how they affected benthic macroinvertebrate variation at different ecological scales and thus better our basic understanding of how changes in these environmental variables can be tracked using......This paper summarizes eight case studies that were analysed as part of the research theme ``lake benthic macroinvertebrates'' forming part of the EU-funded WISER project ``Water bodies in Europe: Integrative Systems to assess Ecological status and Recovery''. The relationships between lake benthic...

  19. The benefit of assessment-based language and reading instruction: perspectives from a case study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Corcoran Nielsen, Diane; Luetke-Stahlman, Barbara

    2002-01-01

    We present a case study of the language and literacy development of a deaf child, Marcy, from preschool through sixth grade. The purpose of the project was to examine the connection between language and reading and to provide insight into the relationships between them. To compile the case study, we analyzed data from nine years of follow-up, including listening, speech articulation, semantic, syntactic, reading, and writing information drawn from a number of informal and formal assessments. Annual evaluation of language and literacy skills was used to select educational placements, as well as instructional methods, strategies, and materials. Given that Marcy began school at 4 years of age, mute and without expressive language of any form (oral or sign), it may at first appear remarkable that she read narrative and expository text as did her hearing peers by sixth grade, because a substantial body of research shows that most deaf students read at the fourth-grade level by high school graduation (review by Paul, 1998). However, those responsible for Marcy's education prevented reading failure by carefully planning, instituting, and monitoring elements of language and literacy instruction. We present Marcy's progress and instruction by grade level and discuss it within the framework of phases/stages of reading development. We hope that the resulting case study may serve as an example of the language-reading connection, an awareness important not only for the literacy instruction of deaf and language-challenged children but for hearing students as well.

  20. STUDYING OF SAFETY CLIMATE ASSESSMENT: A CASE STUDY AT STEEL INDUSTRY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hassan DARVISH

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Evolution of safety climate used as a practical means has determined and assessed potential problems relevant to safety issues in an organization and can be used in individuals’ performance and work efficiency and decreasing rate of incidents ;as well as; guidance to provide safety organization policy and comparison of safety performance in different organizations. The study wants to determine and prepare safety climate profile and application of its results in improving safety situation. In this study, applied tools presented by Loughborough University are used to evaluate safety climate in one of steel industries and data is collected through questionnaire, group discussions or purposeful interviews and observations, and safety climate score was obtained in 17 scopes. Calculating the score of each safety climate domain and preparing the profile indicated there is the average rate (4.89 2 in the safety climate of the industry.

  1. A Case Study in Support of Multiple Post Mortem Assessments (Invited Paper

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jill Pable

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Creative projects in various fields are often subjected to afterthe- fact 'post-mortem' assessments to better understand their successes and failures. Names for these include project retrospectives or post occupancy evaluations (POEs depending on their field of origin. This case study from the architecture field will show the utility of engaging in multiple rounds of post-mortem activities in order to assess the solution from multiple stakeholder perspectives and in doing so, more fully recognize its strengths and weaknesses. The design of a homeless shelter bedroom was subjected to two POE analyses: a 'demand side' focused study that analyzed user accommodation, and a 'supply side' study that addressed issues including budget and funding. The two POEs yielded both corroborative and contrasting findings that sometimes worked at cross purposes. Three evaluation tactics emerged that could be extended to other fields' post mortem assessment activities: 1 conduct two or more POEs; 2 vary the POE criteria so that one is deep and focused 'demand side' user analysis and the other is 'supply side' operational and installation issues; and 3 conduct the POEs over a broad time period.

  2. Ecological assessments of surface water bodies at the river basin level: a case study from England.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Collins, Alexandra; Voulvoulis, Nikolaos

    2014-12-01

    Ecological assessments of surface water bodies are essential in order to evaluate the level of degradation in freshwater ecosystems and to address the subsequent decline in services they provide. These assessments cover multiple aspects of the aquatic environment, particularly biological elements due to their ability to respond to all pressures within an ecosystem. Such assessments can enable the identification of the multiple pressures which threaten water bodies, facilitating sustainable decisions regarding their management to be identified. Here, the design requirements of the networks which facilitate ecological assessments are presented. A river basin district in England is used as a case study to investigate the number of elements monitored, the number of failing elements and the relationship between failing elements. Findings demonstrate the value of ensuring that monitoring networks are risk based and appropriately designed to meet their objectives. This therefore requires that monitoring is not only for the communicating of compliance but also for use iteratively so that the design of monitoring networks and ultimately management can be continually improved.

  3. Cumulative risk assessment lessons learned: a review of case studies and issue papers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gallagher, Sarah S; Rice, Glenn E; Scarano, Louis J; Teuschler, Linda K; Bollweg, George; Martin, Lawrence

    2015-02-01

    Cumulative risk assessments (CRAs) examine potential risks posed by exposure to multiple and sometimes disparate environmental stressors. CRAs are more resource intensive than single chemical assessments, and pose additional challenges and sources of uncertainty. CRAs may examine the impact of several factors on risk, including exposure magnitude and timing, chemical mixture composition, as well as physical, biological, or psychosocial stressors. CRAs are meant to increase the relevance of risk assessments, providing decision makers with information based on real world exposure scenarios that improve the characterization of actual risks and hazards. The U.S. Environmental Protection Agency has evaluated a number of CRAs, performed by or commissioned for the Agency, to seek insight into CRA concepts, methods, and lessons learned. In this article, ten case studies and five issue papers on key CRA topics are examined and a set of lessons learned are identified for CRA implementation. The lessons address the iterative nature of CRAs, importance of considering vulnerability, need for stakeholder engagement, value of a tiered approach, new methods to assess multiroute exposures to chemical mixtures, and the impact of geographical scale on approach and purpose. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Assessing the effects of noise abatement measures on health risks: A case study in Istanbul

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ongel, Aybike, E-mail: aybike.ongel@eng.bahcesehir.edu.tr [Bahcesehir University, Department of Civil Engineering, Istanbul 34353 (Turkey); Sezgin, Fatih, E-mail: fatih.sezgin@ibb.gov.tr [Istanbul Metropolitan Municipality, Environmental Protection Agency, Istanbul 34169 (Turkey)

    2016-01-15

    In recent decades, noise pollution caused by industrialization and increased motorization has become a major concern around the world because of its adverse effects on human well-being. Therefore, transportation agencies have been implementing noise abatement measures in order to reduce road traffic noise. However, limited attention is given to noise in environmental assessment of road transportation systems. This paper presents a framework for a health impact assessment model for road transportation noise emissions. The model allows noise impacts to be addressed with the health effects of air pollutant and greenhouse gas emissions from road transportation. The health damages assessed in the model include annoyance, sleep disturbance, and cardiovascular disease in terms of acute myocardial infarction. The model was applied in a case study in Istanbul in order to evaluate the change in health risks from the implementation of noise abatement strategies. The noise abatement strategies evaluated include altering pavement surfaces in order to absorb noise and introducing speed limits. It was shown that significant improvements in health risks can be achieved using open graded pavement surfaces and introducing speed limits on highways. - Highlights: • Transportation noise has a significant effect on health. • Noise should be included in the environmental assessment of transportation systems. • Traffic noise abatement measures include noise reducing pavements and speed limits. • Noise abatement measures help reduce the health risks of transportation noise. • Speed limit reduction on uncongested roads is an effective way to reduce health risks.

  5. Assessing patterns of genetic admixture between sheep breeds: Case study in Algeria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harkat, Sahraoui; Laoun, Abbes; Belabdi, Ibrahim; Benali, Rédha; Outayeb, Djouhar; Payet-Duprat, Nathalie; Blanquet, Véronique; Lafri, Mohamed; Da Silva, Anne

    2017-08-01

    In developing countries, cross-breeding between local breeds and indigene or exotic breeds represents one of the main threats to the livestock diversity, leading to genetic dilution and loss of unique allelic combination underlying essential local adaptive traits. In this study, two Algerian sheep breeds, known to be highly admixed, were considered as a case study, to demonstrate how combination of different methodologies coupled with the use of specific softwares can be efficient to assess the spatial structuration of a hybrid zone, even in a case of extreme admixture. A fine sampling covering distribution areas of both breeds was implemented in order to study the admixture area and adjacent zones from a phenotypic (i.e., 19 quantitative traits were considered) and a genetic point of view (i.e., 21 microsatellites markers were used). Both approaches gave concordant patterns, highlighting areas with sheep most differentiated (or less admixed) for each breed. In detail, the region of Biskra appeared as the most preserved for the Ouled-Djellal breed and the northwest of Laghouat was identified as the most preserved area for the Rembi breed. The approach proposed in the study offers a low-cost solution to identify the most representative flocks of a breed, allowing the implementation of efficient conservation plans.

  6. Health technology assessment and ill-structured problems: a case study concerning the drug mebeverine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moret-Hartman, Margriet; van der Wilt, Gert Jan; Grin, John

    2007-01-01

    The practical significance of health technology assessment (HTA) in policy decisions or clinical practice has been challenged. Possibly, problem definitions underlying HTA do not concur sufficiently with the problem definitions held by policy makers or clinicians. We performed an in-depth case study on mebeverine, a drug prescribed to patients with irritable bowel syndrome, to explore this hypothesis. The theoretical framework was provided by the theory of argumentative policy analysis. We analyzed documents and held semistructured interviews to collect data. We reconstructed interpretative frames to analyze actors' argumentation. The funding and usage problems relating to mebeverine were ill-structured. Actors disagreed on the information needed and the norms at stake. As a result, the problem definition shifted, and the resulting problem definitions failed to correspond with the problems perceived by the target populations. To ensure that future studies on healthcare problems are useful, it is imperative that policy makers take the problem definitions of potential users into account.

  7. Introducing Twitter as an assessed component of the undergraduate nursing curriculum: case study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, Ray; Kelsey, Janet; Nelmes, Pam; Chinn, Nick; Chinn, Teresa; Proctor-Childs, Tracey

    2016-07-01

    To ask: (i) is it feasible to include Twitter as an assessed element of the first-year nursing curriculum; (ii) how should it be introduced and assessed; and (iii) do students think it worthwhile and learn anything from its use? Nursing students need to use social media professionally, avoiding pitfalls but using learning opportunities. This case study (2014-2015) comprised: (i) pilot introduction of Digital Professionalism (including Twitter) with second- and third-year students; (ii) introduction and assessment with a first cohort of 450 first-year students. Based on feedback, methods were revised for; (iii) a second cohort of 97. Students received a face-to-face lecture, two webinars, used chat rooms and were asked to create course Twitter accounts and were assessed on their use. Few second and third year students started optional Twitter use whereas nearly all first years used it. Most students (70·1% first, 88·0% second cohort) thought inclusion of Twitter was worthwhile. Changes from first to second cohort included better peer-peer support, more contextualization and more emphasis on nursing communities. More second cohort students learned from Twitter (44·4% vs. 70·8%) and used Twitter recently (43·3% vs. 81·6%). Students gained wider perspectives on nursing, better understanding of social media, 'being student nurses' and topics like health promotion. Students mostly followed not only online nursing communities but also patient organizations. Including Twitter as an assessed element for first-year nursing students was feasible, students think it worthwhile and other nursing schools should consider introducing it in the broader context of Digital Professionalism. © 2016 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  8. A Simplified Approach to Risk Assessment Based on System Dynamics: An Industrial Case Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garbolino, Emmanuel; Chery, Jean-Pierre; Guarnieri, Franck

    2016-01-01

    Seveso plants are complex sociotechnical systems, which makes it appropriate to support any risk assessment with a model of the system. However, more often than not, this step is only partially addressed, simplified, or avoided in safety reports. At the same time, investigations have shown that the complexity of industrial systems is frequently a factor in accidents, due to interactions between their technical, human, and organizational dimensions. In order to handle both this complexity and changes in the system over time, this article proposes an original and simplified qualitative risk evaluation method based on the system dynamics theory developed by Forrester in the early 1960s. The methodology supports the development of a dynamic risk assessment framework dedicated to industrial activities. It consists of 10 complementary steps grouped into two main activities: system dynamics modeling of the sociotechnical system and risk analysis. This system dynamics risk analysis is applied to a case study of a chemical plant and provides a way to assess the technological and organizational components of safety. © 2016 Society for Risk Analysis.

  9. Sustainability assessment, rating systems and historical buildings Case study: Rehabilitated construction in a university site

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sadrykia Somayeh

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper explores the relationship between the indicators and different factors that “rating systems for green projects” concentrates on, and principles and factors considered in the rehabilitation of historical buildings. In recent years, different methods and systems concerned and improved for assessing environmental sustainability. LEED (Leadership in Energy and Environmental Design and BREEAM (Building Research Establishment (BRE Environmental Assessment Method are two most commonly used rating systems, established in U.S and UK. These systems comprise some categories and different factors to achieve environmentally responsible design. Firstly, this study focuses on the list of rating systems indicators and criteria. Secondly this paper investigates a historical rehabilitated building in the site of Tabriz Art University, as a case study and has tried to compile its green design elements. Finally, this work intends to compare mentioned elements with indicators and factors of building rating systems. Findings of the study revealed that “Materials and Resources”, “indoor environmental quality” and also “Sustainable Sites” ,the most significant indicator of rating systems, had major and important role in the rehabilitation of the building. Beyond this materials’ life cycle was considerable in construction.

  10. CASE STUDY

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    BY TOXOPLASMOSIS. CASE STUDY. Christine Katusiime1, MB ChB, PGDPPM. Ponsiano Ocama2, MB ChB, MMed. Andrew Kambugu1, MB ChB, MMed. 1Makerere University, College of Health Sciences, Infectious Diseases Institute, Kampala, Uganda. 2Makerere University, College of Health Sciences, Department of ...

  11. CASE STUDY

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2011-06-02

    AIDS Control Programme, Sri Lanka. CASE STUDY. A 49-year-old male security supervisor was admitted to hospital with recurrent chest infections. He was found to be HIV positive with a CD4 count of 60 cells/µl, and was.

  12. A methodological framework for coastal development assessment: A case study of Fujian Province, China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tian, Haiyan; Lindenmayer, David B; Wong, Gabriel T W; Mao, Zhu; Huang, Yi; Xue, Xiongzhi

    2018-02-15

    Decision-makers often have to make trade-offs between economic growth and environmental conservation when developing and managing coastal environments. Coastal development and management need to be subject to rigorous assessments to determine if they are sustainable over time. We propose a methodological framework - the Coastal Development Index (CDI) for the assessment of the changes in sustainability of coastal development over time. CDI is a modified version of the Ocean Health Index (OHI) but with two new indicators - ecological and environmental indicators (EEI), and social and economic indicators (SEI), both of which comprise three sub-indicators (coastal protection, clean waters and species protection for EEI, and food provision, coastal livelihoods and economies and tourism and recreation for SEI). The six sub-indicators represent key aspects of coastal development and the level of exploitation of natural resources that have previously been missing in other conceptual frameworks. We demonstrate the value of CDI with a detailed case study of Fujian Province in China, 2000-2013. The scores of CDI decreased from 1.01 in 2000 to 0.42 in 2013 suggesting that the Fujian coastal zone has experienced unsustainable development in that time. Meanwhile, the scores of EEI decreased from 22.1 to 20.4 while the scores of SEI increased from 21.9 to 48.1 suggesting that environmental values have been eroded by economic growth. Analysis of the scores of sub-indicators reveals a need to integrate economic growth and social development with environmental conservation on Fujian coastal management. Our case study highlights the potential value of the CDI for improving the ecological sustainability of coastal zone management and development practices. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  13. Case studies of geophysical imaging for road foundation design on soft soils and embankment risk assessment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Whiteley, Robert J.; Kelly, Richard B.; Stewart, Simon B.

    2015-12-01

    Population growth along the coast of eastern Australia has increased demand for new and upgraded transport infrastructure within intervening coastal floodplains and steeper hinterland areas. This has created additional challenges for road foundation design. The floodplain areas in this region are underlain by considerable thicknesses of recently deposited alluvial and clayey marine sediments. If characterisation of these deposits is inadequate they can increase road construction costs and affect long-term road stability and serviceability. Case studies from a major coastal highway upgrade demonstrate how combining surface wave seismic and electrical geophysical imaging with conventional geotechnical testing enhances characterisation of these very soft and soft soils. The geophysical results also provide initial foundation design parameters such as void ratio and pre-consolidation pressure. A further significant risk issue for roads is potential embankment instability. This can occur during new road construction or when upgrades of existing embankments are required. Assessing the causes of instability of existing steeper embankments with drilling and probing is often difficult and costly due to access and safety problems. In these situations combinations of electrical, ground penetrating radar and P-wave seismic imaging technologies can rapidly provide information on the likely conditions below both the roadway and embankment. Case studies show the application of these technologies on two unstable road embankments. It is concluded that the application of both geophysical imaging and geotechnical testing is a cost-effective enhancement for site characterisation of soft soils and for risk assessment of potentially unstable embankments. This approach overcomes many of the current limitations of conventional methods of site investigation that provide point location data only. The incorporation of geophysics into a well crafted site investigation allows concentration on

  14. Comparative environmental assessment of wood transport models: a case study of a Swedish pulp mill.

    Science.gov (United States)

    González-García, Sara; Berg, Staffan; Feijoo, Gumersindo; Moreira, Ma Teresa

    2009-05-15

    Wood transportation from forest landing to forest-based industries uses large amounts of energy. In the case of Sweden, where forest operations are highly and efficiently mechanized, this stage consumes more fossil fuels than other elements of the wood supply chain (such as silviculture and logging operations). This paper intends to compare the environmental burdens associated to different wood transport models considering a Swedish pulp mill as a case study by using Life Cycle Assessment (LCA) as an analytical tool. Five scenarios (the current one and four alternative reliable scenarios) were proposed and analysed taking into account two variables. On the one hand, the influence of imported pulpwood share from Baltic countries and on the other hand, the use of rail transportation for wood transport. In particular, the following impact categories were assessed: Eutrophication, Global Warming, Photochemical Oxidant Formation, Acidification and Fossil fuel extraction. The environmental results indicate that transport alternatives including electric and diesel trains, as well as the reduction in Baltic wood imports should present better environmental performance than the current scenario in terms of all the impact categories under study. Remarkable differences were identified with regard to energy requirements. This divergence is related to different long-distance transport strategies (lorry, boat and/or train) as well as the relative import of wood selected. The combination of lorry and train in wood transportation from Southern Sweden plus the reduction of wood imports from 25% to 15% seems to be more favourable from an environmental perspective. The results obtained allow forecasting the importance of the wood transport strategy in the wood supply chain in LCA of forest products and the influence of energy requirements in the results.

  15. A novel risk assessment method for landfill slope failure: Case study application for Bhalswa Dumpsite, India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jahanfar, Ali; Amirmojahedi, Mohsen; Gharabaghi, Bahram; Dubey, Brajesh; McBean, Edward; Kumar, Dinesh

    2017-03-01

    Rapid population growth of major urban centres in many developing countries has created massive landfills with extraordinary heights and steep side-slopes, which are frequently surrounded by illegal low-income residential settlements developed too close to landfills. These extraordinary landfills are facing high risks of catastrophic failure with potentially large numbers of fatalities. This study presents a novel method for risk assessment of landfill slope failure, using probabilistic analysis of potential failure scenarios and associated fatalities. The conceptual framework of the method includes selecting appropriate statistical distributions for the municipal solid waste (MSW) material shear strength and rheological properties for potential failure scenario analysis. The MSW material properties for a given scenario is then used to analyse the probability of slope failure and the resulting run-out length to calculate the potential risk of fatalities. In comparison with existing methods, which are solely based on the probability of slope failure, this method provides a more accurate estimate of the risk of fatalities associated with a given landfill slope failure. The application of the new risk assessment method is demonstrated with a case study for a landfill located within a heavily populated area of New Delhi, India.

  16. Assessment of Hydrologic Response to Variable Precipitation Forcing: Russian River Case Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cifelli, R.; Hsu, C.; Johnson, L. E.

    2014-12-01

    NOAA Hydrometeorology Testbed (HMT) activities in California have involved deployment of advanced sensor networks to better track atmospheric river (AR) dynamics and inland penetration of high water vapor air masses. Numerical weather prediction models and decision support tools have been developed to provide forecasters a better basis for forecasting heavy precipitation and consequent flooding. The HMT also involves a joint project with California Department of Water Resources (CA-DWR) and the Scripps Institute for Oceanography (SIO) as part of CA-DWR's Enhanced Flood Response and Emergency Preparedness (EFREP) program. The HMT activities have included development and calibration of a distributed hydrologic model, the NWS Office of Hydrologic Development's (OHD) Research Distributed Hydrologic Model (RDHM), to prototype the distributed approach for flood and other water resources applications. HMT has applied RDHM to the Russian-Napa watersheds for research assessment of gap-filling weather radars for precipitation and hydrologic forecasting and for establishing a prototype to inform both the NWS Monterey Forecast Office and the California Nevada River Forecast Center (CNRFC) of RDHM capabilities. In this presentation, a variety of precipitation forcings generated with and without gap filling radar and rain gauge data are used as input to RDHM to assess the hydrologic response for selected case study events. Both the precipitation forcing and hydrologic model are run at different spatial and temporal resolution in order to examine the sensitivity of runoff to the precipitation inputs. Based on the timing of the events and the variations of spatial and temporal resolution, the parameters which dominate the hydrologic response are identified. The assessment is implemented at two USGS stations (Ukiah near Russian River and Austin Creek near Cazadero) that are minimally influenced by managed flows and objective evaluation can thus be derived. The results are assessed

  17. No short-cut in assessing trial quality: a case study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hirji Karim F

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Assessing the quality of included trials is a central part of a systematic review. Many check-list type of instruments for doing this exist. Using a trial of antibiotic treatment for acute otitis media, Burke et al., BMJ, 1991, as the case study, this paper illustrates some limitations of the check-list approach to trial quality assessment. Results The general verdict from the check list type evaluations in nine relevant systematic reviews was that Burke et al. (1991 is a good quality trial. All relevant meta-analyses extensively used its data to formulate therapeutic evidence. My comprehensive evaluation, on the other hand, brought to the surface a series of serious problems in the design, conduct, analysis and report of this trial that were missed by the earlier evaluations. Conclusion A check-list or instrument based approach, if used as a short-cut, may at times rate deeply flawed trials as good quality trials. Check lists are crucial but they need to be augmented with an in-depth review, and where possible, a scrutiny of the protocol, trial records, and original data. The extent and severity of the problems I uncovered for this particular trial warrant an independent audit before it is included in a systematic review.

  18. Spatial Multi-Criteria Decision Support System and Strategic Environmental Assessment: A Case Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Francesca Torrieri

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available This contribution focuses on the Strategic Environmental Assessment (SEA as an important tool to ensure sustainable development and reach a high level of environmental protection. More specifically, this paper provides an evaluation method based on the integration of Geographic Information System (GIS and Multi-criteria Analysis—named Integrated Spatial Multi-criteria Decision Support System (ISMDSS—to support the preparation of environmental assessment reports and the construction of scenarios for the adoption of urban plans, as an innovative tool that integrates objectives and multidimensional (economic, environmental, and social components, as well as different approaches and models for the construction of a long-term shared vision. In particular, considerations are made by presenting a thought-provoking case study on the SEA of the urban plan of the municipality of Marzano di Nola, located in the province of Avellino in the Campania region. The experiment carried out showed the potentiality of the ISMDSS to evaluate the impacts of different scenarios with the aim of developing a sustainable urban municipal plan. The spatial dimension is useful in understanding the dynamics that characterize each environmental topic in a specific area, by considering not only the components of the natural and developed environment, but also the interactions with social and economic components.

  19. Multiple case study in seven European countries regarding culture-sensitive classroom quality assessment

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Slot, P.L.; Cadima, Joana; Salminen, Jenni; Pastori, Giulia; Lerkkanen, Marja-Kristiina

    This report presents the findings of a multiple case study, conducted in seven European countries to examine common and culturally differing aspects of curriculum, pedagogy, and quality of Early Childhood Education and Care (ECEC) provisions in Europe. This multiple case study involved intensive

  20. An environmental assessment of food supply chains: a case study on dessert apples.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, Andy

    2002-10-01

    The contemporary food system provides consumers with convenience, extensive choice, and the year-round availability of fresh produce. In this paper these achievements are recognized within the context of the associated environmental impacts. While many analyses have considered the energy and material efficiency of various options for food production and packaging, very few studies have investigated the environmental impacts of the transport components of food supply chains. This is surprising, given that the global sourcing of food produce, centralized distribution systems, and shopping by car have become prevalent in recent decades and have contributed to an increase in the distance between producer and consumer or "food miles." In a case study the transport energy consumption is calculated for all possible ways in which dessert apples can be supplied to the UK consumer. The aim is to assess the environmental performance of the predominant fresh produce supply chains and to investigate claims that localized systems are more environmentally efficient. The main criteria used to compare the environmental efficiency in alternative food supply chains are the transport-related fossil-fuel energy consumption and associated carbon dioxide emissions. Analysis of the empirical data shows that transportation is now responsible for a considerable fraction of the total energy consumption in the life cycle of fresh apples, and in most cases exceeds the energy consumed in commercial apple cultivation. By developing local production and marketing systems for fresh products, transport demand can be reduced and many of the environmental impacts associated with existing supply chains can be avoided. The results of the study are then discussed in relation to the wider issues of transport policy, international trade, food security, and product-related environmental information for consumers.

  1. Environmental hot spot analysis in agricultural life-cycle assessments – three case studies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gerhard Piringer

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Present-day agricultural technology is facing the challenge of limiting the environmental impacts of agricultural production – such as greenhouse gas emissions and demand for additional land – while meeting growing demands for agricultural products. Using the well-established method of life-cycle assessment (LCA, potential environmental impacts of agricultural production chains can be quantified and analyzed. This study presents three case studies of how the method can pinpoint environmental hot spots at different levels of agricultural production systems. The first case study centers on the tractor as the key source of transportation and traction in modern agriculture. A common Austrian tractor model was investigated over its life-cycle, using primary data from a manufacturer and measured load profiles for field work. In all but one of the impact categories studied, potential impacts were dominated by the operation phase of the tractor’s life-cycle (mainly due to diesel fuel consumption, with 84.4-99.6% of total impacts. The production phase (raw materials and final assembly caused between 0.4% and 12.1% of impacts, while disposal of the tractor was below 1.9% in all impact categories. The second case study shifts the focus to an entire production chain for a common biogas feedstock, maize silage. System boundaries incorporate the effect of auxiliary materials such as fertilizer and pesticides manufacturing and application. The operation of machinery in the silage production chain was found to be critical to its environmental impact. For the climate change indicator GWP100 (global warming potential, 100-year reference period, emissions from tractor operation accounted for 15 g CO2-eq per kg silage (64% of total GWP100, followed by field emissions during fertilizer (biogas digestate application with 6 g CO2-eq per kg silage (24% of total GWP100. At a larger system scale that includes a silage-fed biogas plant with electricity generated by

  2. A new approach to assessing the water footprint of wine: an Italian case study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lamastra, Lucrezia; Suciu, Nicoleta Alina; Novelli, Elisa; Trevisan, Marco

    2014-08-15

    Agriculture is the largest freshwater consumer, accounting for 70% of the world's water withdrawal. Water footprints (WFs) are being increasingly used to indicate the impacts of water use by production systems. A new methodology to assess WF of wine was developed in the framework of the V.I.V.A. project (Valutazione Impatto Viticoltura sull'Ambiente), launched by the Italian Ministry for the Environment in 2011 to improve the Italian wine sector's sustainability. The new methodology has been developed that enables different vines from the same winery to be compared. This was achieved by calculating the gray water footprint, following Tier III approach proposed by Hoekstra et al. (2011). The impact of water use during the life cycle of grape-wine production was assessed for six different wines from the same winery in Sicily, Italy using both the newly developed methodology (V.I.V.A.) and the classical methodology proposed by the Water Footprint Network (WFN). In all cases green water was the largest contributor to WF, but the new methodology also detected differences between vines of the same winery. Furthermore, V.I.V.A. methodology assesses water body contamination by pesticides application whereas the WFN methodology considers just fertilization. This fact ended highlights the highest WF of vineyard 4 calculated by V.I.V.A. if compared with the WF calculated with WFN methodology. Comparing the WF of wine produced with grapes from the six different wines, the factors most greatly influencing the results obtained in this study were: distance from the water body, fertilization rate, amount and eco-toxicological behavior of the active ingredients used. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  3. Assessing Regional Sustainability Using a Model of Coordinated Development Index: A Case Study of Mainland China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Qing Yang

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available From a holistic view, this paper addresses a perspective of coordinated development of economy, society, and environment for regional sustainability assessment. Firstly, a comprehensive indicator system for co-evaluating the level of economic, social, and environmental subsystems is presented based on a holistic understanding of regional sustainability. Then, a coordinated development index model focusing on the level of coordination among the subsystems as well as their comprehensive development level is established. Furthermore, an empirical study of all the provinces and municipalities is conducted by collecting the panel data from 2004 to 2010. The result shows that: (1 the coordinated developments of the most developed and the most underdeveloped regions stay stable while the regions with medium development level possess more fluctuant trends during the study years; (2 regional disparities are indicated according to the grading of CDI (the coordinated development index, which are further analyzed to be related to the local economic development patterns; (3 the conditions and causes of economic, social, and environmental development in real situations under different grades of CDI are discussed through detailed case studies of typical regions, which indicate specific suggestions of sustainable development for regions in the same pattern.

  4. Validating the domains of an inter-organizational business-IT alignment assessment instrument: A case study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Santana Tapia, R.G.; van Eck, Pascal; Daneva, Maia

    CIOs can judge the effectiveness of their business-IT alignment activities by assessing maturity of processes in domains relevant to alignment. Currently, assessment instruments that support this are being developed. This paper reports on a case study aimed at validating four process domains we

  5. Climate change impact and adaptation research requires integrated assessment and farming systems analysis: a case study in the Netherlands

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Reidsma, P.; Wolf, J.; Kanellopoulos, A.; Schaap, B.F.; Mandryk, M.; Verhagen, J.; Ittersum, van M.K.

    2015-01-01

    Rather than on crop modelling only, climate change impact assessments in agriculture need to be based on integrated assessment and farming systems analysis, and account for adaptation at different levels. With a case study for Flevoland, the Netherlands, we illustrate that (1) crop models cannot

  6. Early-stage sustainability assessment to assist with material selection : a case study for biobased printer panels

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Broeren, M. L M; Molenveld, K.; van den Oever, M. J A; Patel, M. K.; Worrell, E.; Shen, L.

    2016-01-01

    This paper aims to incorporate sustainability assessment into the material selection processes during early-stage product (re)design, when time and data availability for such assessments are usually limited. A material selection framework is presented and illustrated step-by-step with a case study

  7. What University Students Think about Assessment: A Case Study from Italy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pastore, Serafina; Pentassuglia, Monica

    2015-01-01

    Nowadays, assessment is widely recognized as a key element in higher education systems. Current studies are moving towards the revision of traditional modalities of testing, the individuation of alternative forms of assessment, and, above all, the analysis of conceptions that teachers and students have about assessment. The present research is…

  8. Improvement of agricultural life cycle assessment studies through spatial differentiation and new impact categories: case study on greenhouse tomato production.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Antón, Assumpció; Torrellas, Marta; Núñez, Montserrat; Sevigné, Eva; Amores, Maria José; Muñoz, Pere; Montero, Juan I

    2014-08-19

    This paper presents the inclusion of new, relevant impact categories for agriculture life cycle assessments. We performed a specific case study with a focus on the applicability of spatially explicit characterization factors. The main goals were to provide a detailed evaluation of these new impact category methods, compare the results with commonly used methods (ReCiPe and USEtox) and demonstrate how these new methods can help improve environmental assessment in agriculture. As an overall conclusion, the newly developed impact categories helped fill the most important gaps related to land use, water consumption, pesticide toxicity, and nontoxic emissions linked to fertilizer use. We also found that including biodiversity damage due to land use and the effect of water consumption on wetlands represented a scientific advance toward more realistic environmental assessment of agricultural practices. Likewise, the dynamic crop model for assessing human toxicity from pesticide residue in food can lead to better practice in pesticide application. In further life cycle assessment (LCA) method developments, common end point units and normalization units should be agreed upon to make it possible to compare different impacts and methods. In addition, the application of site-specific characterization factors allowed us to be more accurate regarding inventory data and to identify precisely where background flows acquire high relevance.

  9. A CASE STUDY OF FORMATIVE ASSESSMENT IN A CHINESE HIGH SCHOOL

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ying Tang

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract: Nowadays in China, high school assessment is based solely on academic examination scores, which take the place of well-rounded assessments that should be given to students. The present assessment ignores the differences among individuals and goes against a people-oriented spirit; thus, it is not scientific. This one-sided assessment has caused many negative effects on students and society, and it is not beneficial to students’ well-being. The author performed a study on a formative assessment method using a Portfolio for keeping a record of English learning while growing up to change the present situation of students being tired of study due to low scores. The assessment allows students to understand that their low scores are not because they lack a gift for learning languages, but because they themselves think they lack the ability to learn a foreign language, which leads to their unwillingness to learn English (Ames 1992; Vispoel & Austin 1995. The research examines 122 year-11 senior middle school students’ views of the formative assessment method and their improvement in examination scores through the assessment over a period of one to two years. Qualitative and quantitative data were gathered via a questionnaire and interviews. All the data show and prove that the students who have been assessed using formative assessment enjoy going to school and have made more progress than those assessed using summative assessment. This assessment has been warmly welcomed by students, whether they are at a higher or a lower English level.

  10. Study and assessment of segregated biowaste composting: The case study of Attica municipalities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malamis, D; Bourka, A; Stamatopoulou, Ε; Moustakas, K; Skiadi, O; Loizidou, M

    2017-12-01

    This work aims to assess the operation of the first large scale segregated biowaste composting scheme in Greece to divert Household Food Waste (HFW) from landfill and produce a material which can be recovered and used as compost. The source separation and collection of HFW was deployed in selected areas in Attica Region serving about 3700 households. Sorted HFW is collected & transported to the Mechanical and Biological Treatment (MBT) plant in Attica Region that has been designed to produce Compost Like Output (CLO) from mixed MSW. The MBT facility has been adjusted in order to receive and treat aerobically HFW mixed with shredded green waste in a dedicated composting tunnel. The composting process was monitored against temperature, moisture and oxygen content indicating that the biological conditions are sufficiently developed. The product quality was examined and assessed against the quality specifications of EU End of Waste Criteria for biowaste subjected to composting aiming to specify whether the HFW that has undergone recovery ceases to be waste and can be classified as compost. More specifically, the heavy metals concentrations (Cr, Cu, Ni, Cd, Pb, Zn and Hg) are within the set limits and much lower compared to the CLO material that currently is being produced at the MBT plant. In regard to the hygienic requirements of the product it has been found that the process conditions result in a pathogen free material (i.e. E. Coli and Salmonella) which does not favor the growth of viable weeds and plant propagules, while it acquires sufficient organic matter content for soil fertilization. Noticeable physical impurities (mainly fractions of glass) have been detected exceeding the quality control threshold limit of 0.5% w/w (plastics, metals and glass). The latter is related to the missorted materials and to the limited pre-treatment configurations prior to composting. The above findings indicate that effective source separation of biowaste is prerequisite for

  11. Economic Assessment of Overtopping BReakwater for Energy Conversion (OBREC: A Case Study in Western Australia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pasquale Contestabile

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available This paper constructs an optimal configuration assessment, in terms of the financial returns, of the Overtopping BReakwater for wave Energy Conversion (OBREC. This technology represents a hybrid wave energy harvester, totally embedded in traditional rubble mound breakwaters. Nine case studies along the southern coast of Western Australia have been analysed. The technique provides tips on how to estimate the quality of the investments, for benchmarking with different turbine strategy layouts and overlapping with the costs of traditional rubble mound breakwaters. Analyses of the offshore and nearshore wave climate have been studied by a high resolution coastal propagation model, forced with wave data from the European Centre for Medium-Range Weather Forecasts (ECMWF. Inshore wave conditions have been used to quantify the exploitable resources. It has been demonstrated that the optimal investment strategy is nonlinearly dependent on potential electricity production due to outer technical constraints. The work emphasizes the importance of integrating energy production predictions in an economic decision framework for prioritizing adaptation investments.

  12. The use of biomonitoring data in exposure and human health risk assessment: benzene case study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Angerer, Juergen; Boogaard, Peter J.; Hughes, Michael F.; O’Lone, Raegan B.; Robison, Steven H.; Robert Schnatter, A.

    2013-01-01

    A framework of “Common Criteria” (i.e. a series of questions) has been developed to inform the use and evaluation of biomonitoring data in the context of human exposure and risk assessment. The data-rich chemical benzene was selected for use in a case study to assess whether refinement of the Common Criteria framework was necessary, and to gain additional perspective on approaches for integrating biomonitoring data into a risk-based context. The available data for benzene satisfied most of the Common Criteria and allowed for a risk-based evaluation of the benzene biomonitoring data. In general, biomarker (blood benzene, urinary benzene and urinary S-phenylmercapturic acid) central tendency (i.e. mean, median and geometric mean) concentrations for non-smokers are at or below the predicted blood or urine concentrations that would correspond to exposure at the US Environmental Protection Agency reference concentration (30 µg/m3), but greater than blood or urine concentrations relating to the air concentration at the 1 × 10−5 excess cancer risk (2.9 µg/m3). Smokers clearly have higher levels of benzene exposure, and biomarker levels of benzene for non-smokers are generally consistent with ambient air monitoring results. While some biomarkers of benzene are specific indicators of exposure, the interpretation of benzene biomonitoring levels in a health-risk context are complicated by issues associated with short half-lives and gaps in knowledge regarding the relationship between the biomarkers and subsequent toxic effects. PMID:23346981

  13. Multivariate statistical process control in product quality review assessment - A case study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kharbach, M; Cherrah, Y; Vander Heyden, Y; Bouklouze, A

    2017-11-01

    According to the Food and Drug Administration and the European Good Manufacturing Practices (GMP) guidelines, Annual Product Review (APR) is a mandatory requirement in GMP. It consists of evaluating a large collection of qualitative or quantitative data in order to verify the consistency of an existing process. According to the Code of Federal Regulation Part 11 (21 CFR 211.180), all finished products should be reviewed annually for the quality standards to determine the need of any change in specification or manufacturing of drug products. Conventional Statistical Process Control (SPC) evaluates the pharmaceutical production process by examining only the effect of a single factor at the time using a Shewhart's chart. It neglects to take into account the interaction between the variables. In order to overcome this issue, Multivariate Statistical Process Control (MSPC) can be used. Our case study concerns an APR assessment, where 164 historical batches containing six active ingredients, manufactured in Morocco, were collected during one year. Each batch has been checked by assaying the six active ingredients by High Performance Liquid Chromatography according to European Pharmacopoeia monographs. The data matrix was evaluated both by SPC and MSPC. The SPC indicated that all batches are under control, while the MSPC, based on Principal Component Analysis (PCA), for the data being either autoscaled or robust scaled, showed four and seven batches, respectively, out of the Hotelling T 2 95% ellipse. Also, an improvement of the capability of the process is observed without the most extreme batches. The MSPC can be used for monitoring subtle changes in the manufacturing process during an APR assessment. Copyright © 2017 Académie Nationale de Pharmacie. Published by Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  14. From Seismic Scenarios to Earthquake Risk Assessment: A Case Study for Iquique, Chile.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aguirre, P.; Fortuno, C.; Martin, J. C. D. L. L.; Vasquez, J.

    2015-12-01

    Iquique is a strategic city and economic center in northern Chile, and is located in a large seismic gap where a megathrust earthquake and tsunami is expected. Although it was hit by a Mw 8.2 earthquake on April 1st 2014, which caused moderate damage, geophysical evidence still suggests that there is potential for a larger event, so a thorough risk assessment is key to understand the physical, social, and economic effects of such potential event, and devise appropriate mitigation plans. Hence, Iquique has been selected as a prime study case for the implementation of a risk assessment platform in Chile. Our study integrates research on three main elements of risk calculations: hazard evaluation, exposure model, and physical vulnerabilities. To characterize the hazard field, a set of synthetic seismic scenarios have been developed based on plate interlocking and the residual slip potential that results from subtracting the slip occurred during the April 1st 2014 rupture fault mechanism, obtained using InSAR+GPS inversion. Additional scenarios were developed based of the fault rupture model of the Maule 2010 Mw 8.8 earthquake and on the local plate locking models in northern Chile. These rupture models define a collection of possible realizations of earthquake geometries parameterized in terms of critical variables like slip magnitude, rise time, mean propagation velocity, directivity, and other, which are propagated to obtain a hazard map for Iquique (e.g. PGA, PGV, PDG). Furthermore, a large body of public and local data was used to construct a detailed exposure model for Iquique, including aggregated building count, demographics, essential facilities, and lifelines. This model together with the PGA maps for the April 1st 2014 earthquake are used to calibrate HAZUS outputs against observed damage, and adjust the fragility curves of physical systems according to more detailed analyses of typical Chilean building types and their structural properties, plus historical

  15. Sustainability assessment of farming in perspective of diminishing global emerge flows – A case study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Markussen, Mads Ville; Østergård, Hanne

    Central to the emergy world-view is the realization of a pulsing world with the modern civilization being characterised as a mega pulse fuelled by fossil fuels. However, this basic assumption is often neglected when emergy flows are used to assess sustainability. For instance, when emergy...... of a system to sustain its integrity in a changing socio-ecological environment. We believe that an important objective is to identify and assess systems that can show a prosperous way down from the mega pulse. The case in our work is a dedicated organic stockless UK farming system with distribution...

  16. Extrinsic Motivation for Large-Scale Assessments: A Case Study of a Student Achievement Program at One Urban High School

    Science.gov (United States)

    Emmett, Joshua; McGee, Dean

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of this case study was to discover the critical attributes of a student achievement program, known as "Think Gold," implemented at one urban comprehensive high school as part of the improvement process. Student achievement on state assessments improved during the period under study. The study draws upon perspectives on…

  17. Employing Computer Assisted Assessment (CAA to facilitate formative assessment in the State Secondary School: a case study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Effimia Karagianni

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available Based on theories of assessment as well as on the pedagogical and administrative advantages Computer Assisted Assessment (CAA has to offer in foreign language learning, the study presented in this paper examines how computers can facilitate the formative assessment of EFL learners and enhance their feeling of responsibility towards monitoring their progress. The subjects of the study were twenty five 14-year-old students attending the third class of a State Gymnasium in Greece. The instruments utilized were questionnaires on motivation and learning styles, three quizzes designed with the software Hot Potatoes, a self–assessment questionnaire and an evaluation questionnaire showing the subjects’ attitudes towards the experience of using computers for assessing purposes. After reviewing formative assessment, CAA and how these two can be combined, the paper focuses on the description of the three class quizzes used in the study. Ιnformation from the questionnaires filled in by students combined with the results of the quizzes, shows how computers can be used to provide continuous ongoing measurement of students’ progress needed for formative assessment. The results are also used to show how students and teachers can benefit from formative CAA and the extent to which such kind of assessment could be applicable in the Greek state school reality.

  18. Multiple case study in seven European countries regarding culture-sensitive classroom quality assessment

    OpenAIRE

    Slot, P.L.; Cadima, Joana; Salminen, Jenni; Pastori, Giulia; Lerkkanen, Marja-Kristiina

    2016-01-01

    This report presents the findings of a multiple case study, conducted in seven European countries to examine common and culturally differing aspects of curriculum, pedagogy, and quality of Early Childhood Education and Care (ECEC) provisions in Europe. This multiple case study involved intensive data collection on structural characteristics, process quality, implemented curricula and pedagogical approaches in four ECEC centers in each of the seven countries that were considered examples of ‘g...

  19. A case study on the structural assessment of fire damaged building

    Science.gov (United States)

    Osman, M. H.; Sarbini, N. N.; Ibrahim, I. S.; Ma, C. K.; Ismail, M.; Mohd, M. F.

    2017-11-01

    This paper presents a case study on the structural assessment of building damaged by fire and discussed on the site investigations and test results prior to determine the existing condition of the building. The building was on fire for about one hour before it was extinguished. In order to ascertain the integrity of the building, a visual inspection was conducted for all elements (truss, beam, column and wall), followed by non-destructive, load and material tests. The load test was conducted to determine the ability of truss to resist service load, while the material test to determine the residual strength of the material. At the end of the investigation, a structural analysis was carried out to determine the new factor of safety by considering the residual strength. The highlighted was on the truss element due to steel behaviour that is hardly been predicted. Meanwhile, reinforced concrete elements (beam, column and wall) were found externally affected and caused its strength to be considered as sufficient for further used of building. The new factor of safety is equal to 2, considered as the minimum calculated value for the truss member. Therefore, this fire damaged building was found safe and can be used for further application.

  20. Environmental Performance of Electricity Generation Based on Resources: A Life Cycle Assessment Case Study in Turkey

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zerrin Günkaya

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this paper was to determine how to change the environmental performance of electricity generation depending on the resources and their shares, in order to support decision-makers. Additionally, this paper presents an application of life cycle assessment (LCA methodology to determine the environmental burdens of electricity generation in Turkey. Electricity generation data in Turkey for the years 2012 and 2023 were used as a case study. The functional unit for electricity generation was 1 kWh. The LCA calculations were carried out using CML-IA (v3.00 data and the results were interpreted with respect to Monte Carlo simulation analysis (with the Monte Carlo function built in SimaPro 8.0.1 software. The results demonstrated that the fossil fuel consumption not only contributes to global warming, but it also has effects on the elemental basis of abiotic depletion due to raw material consumption for plant infrastructure. Additionally, it was observed that the increasing proportion of wind power in the electricity mix would also increase certain life cycle impacts (such as the elemental basis of abiotic depletion, human ecotoxicity, and terrestrial ecotoxicity in Turkey’s geography compared to increasing the share of other renewable energy sources, such as hydropower, geothermal, as well as solar.

  1. The assessment of colour perception, naming and knowledge: a new test device with a case study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pagani, Rossella; Bosco, Giovanna; Dalla Valle, Elisabetta; Capitani, Erminio; Laiacona, Marcella

    2012-08-01

    Besides ocular diseases, also cerebral damage may cause colour vision deficits; cerebral lesions may be associated with a variety of clinical conditions that impair colour processing. This study presents procedures and normative data for a rapid, comprehensive seven-test battery aimed at assessing colour perception, colour naming and object colour knowledge. The norms, obtained from 96 healthy Italian participants, allow normality/pathology judgements on the basis of one-sided tolerance limits, after adjusting the score of each test for the demographic variables of the proband subjects. We also report, as an example, use of the battery in a stroke patient; this patient was chosen because her lesion affected the left temporal-occipital cortex, an area sometimes associated with a deficit of colour processing. The patient resulted normal on colour perception and colour name retrieval, but defective on object colour knowledge probed using the stimulus name. For the sound definition of the functional locus of cognitive impairment at the single case level, a multi-faceted set of tasks is necessary.

  2. Assessment of the Methodological Rigor of Case Studies in the Field of Management Accounting Published in Journals in Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kelly Cristina Mucio Marques

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available This study aims to assess the methodological rigor of case studies in management accounting published in Brazilian journals. The study is descriptive. The data were collected using documentary research and content analysis, and 180 papers published from 2008 to 2012 in accounting journals rated as A2, B1, and B2 that were classified as case studies were selected. Based on the literature, we established a set of 15 criteria that we expected to be identified (either explicitly or implicitly in the case studies to classify those case studies as appropriate from the standpoint of methodological rigor. These criteria were partially met by the papers analyzed. The aspects less aligned with those proposed in the literature were the following: little emphasis on justifying the need to understand phenomena in context; lack of explanation of the reason for choosing the case study strategy; the predominant use of questions that do not enable deeper analysis; many studies based on only one source of evidence; little use of data and information triangulation; little emphasis on the data collection method; a high number of cases in which confusion between case study as a research strategy and as data collection method were detected; a low number of papers reporting the method of data analysis; few reports on a study's contributions; and a minority highlighting the issues requiring further research. In conclusion, the method used to apply case studies to management accounting must be improved because few studies showed rigorous application of the procedures that this strategy requires.

  3. Casing study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Roche, P.

    2000-12-01

    An unorthodox method of casing drilling used by Tesco Corporation at a gas well in Wyoming to drill deeper using casings as drillpipe is discussed. The process involves either rotating the casing as drill string or using a downhole mud motor to rotate the bit. In this instance, the surface hole and the production hole were casing-drilled to a record 8,312 feet by rotating the casing. The 8 1/2-inch surface hole was drilled with 7-inch casing to 1,200 feet using a Tesco underreamer and a polycrystalline pilot bit; drilling and cementing was completed in 12 1/2 hours. The 6 1/4-inch production hole was drilled with 4 1/2-inch casing and the bottomhole assembly was retrieved after 191 hours rotating. This case was the first in which the entire well was casing-drilled from surface to TD. Penetration rate compared favorably with conventional methods: 12 1/2 hours for casing-drilling to 18.9 hours for conventional drilling, despite the fact that the casing-drilling technology is still in its infancy. It is suggested that casing-drilling has the potential to eliminate the need for the drillpipe entirely. If these expectations were to be realised, casing-drilling could be one of the most radical drilling changes in the history of the oil and gas industry. 1 photo.

  4. Assessment the performance of classification methods in water quality studies, A case study in Karaj River.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sakizadeh, Mohamad

    2015-09-01

    To show the performance of classification methods in water quality studies, linear discriminant, and Naïve Bayesian classification methods were applied at nine sampling stations with respect to four parameters including COD, nitrite, nitrate, and total coliforms (selected from ten water quality variables) in Karaj River, Iran. To fulfill the goals of this study, the sampling stations were first separated into two groups using cluster analysis. Rural wastewater was the main source of pollution in the first group, whereas the quality of water in the second group has been degraded mainly by organic and agricultural pollution. In order to have an independent group against which the performance of other classification methods is considered, three cross-validation methods including twofold, leave-one-out, and holdout methods were utilized to retain an independent test set. The results of cross-validation for the linear discriminant analysis show that, except for the leave-one-out method with 11.1 % misclassification error, the overall performance has been the same as that of the training data set. Therefore, it has outperformed compared with that of Naïve Bayesian classification method. However, even though in situations where the correlation coefficient among the parameters is low, the latest method can offer the same performance as that of linear discriminant analysis as well. A sensitivity analysis was implemented using ten water quality variables (pH, COD, EC, TDA, turbidity, nitrate, nitrite, sulfate, TC, and FC) to find the most important variables in the classification of Karaj River showing that turbidity, next to COD, pH, nitrate, and sulfate, have had the most contribution in this field.

  5. Thermal Assessment of Low-Cost Rural Housing—A Case Study in the Ecuadorian Andes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Isabel Miño-Rodríguez

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this research is to assess the indoor thermal performance of rural dwellings in the Ecuadorian highlands through both experimental and numerical analysis. A three-step methodology was applied to conduct the research: (a field data collection, (b building thermal model development and calibration, and (c comparison analysis and assessment of traditional improvement strategies. Qualitative and quantitative data were collected from two representative rural dwellings under typical usage conditions. The first is a traditional construction, medium-exposed thermal mass dwelling (Case A. The second is a local common, uninsulated, lightweight construction (Case B. The thermal model was calibrated by comparing hourly temperature values of the observed and the predicted indoor air temperature. A high correlation level (R2 was achieved between the observed and predicted data; 0.89 in Case A and 0.94 in Case B. The results show that the roof, floor, and the airtightness are the critical building parameters affecting the indoor thermal environment. Likewise, the indoor air temperature is increased up to 4 °C through the implementation of traditional strategies. However, despite the rise in indoor air temperature, acceptable thermal comfort ranges were only reached for 25% of the total hours.

  6. Teachers’ Beliefs about Young EFL Learners’ Self-assessment: a Case Study of Macedonia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    /Anžela Nikolovska

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available The paper explores Macedonian primary EFL teachers’ attitudes, beliefs and practices regarding self-assessment of young learners (10-12 year-olds. The study surveyed primary EFL teachers (n=30 who teach English to 5th and 6th graders. The results indicated that vocabulary, grammar and reading were more often the focus of self-assessment tasks than the other areas of language learning. This, along with the finding that the receptive language skills were more frequently self-assessed than the productive skills has been attributed to the impact of the external exam. The most frequently used self-assessment techniques were can-do statements and check-lists. The perceived benefits and challenges of self-assessment have been found to be compatible with the findings of other studies. In spite of their positive attitudes towards learner self-assessment, the teachers expressed awareness of certain problems underlying its implementation as well as uncertainty about how to train learners to self-assess. In line with the conclusions, recommendations have been made regarding the need for greater emphasis on self-assessment of the neglected language areas (speaking and writing, the necessity of using a variety of self-assessment formats and the need for learner training in self-assessment from an early age.

  7. Training Needs Assessment in the Botswana Public Service: A Case Study of Five State Sector Ministries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Balisi, Shadreck

    2014-01-01

    Using qualitative methods, this study analysed the process of training needs assessment in the Botswana public service, with special focus on five state sector ministries. It is evident from the research findings that there is little and an unsystematic approach to the needs assessment prior to training. The research further revealed that the…

  8. Synchronous Computer-Mediated Dynamic Assessment: A Case Study of L2 Spanish Past Narration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Darhower, Mark Anthony

    2014-01-01

    In this study, dynamic assessment is employed to help understand the developmental processes of two university Spanish learners as they produce a series of past narrations in a synchronous computer mediated environment. The assessments were conducted in six weekly one-hour chat sessions about various scenes of a Spanish language film. The analysis…

  9. Assessing Long-Term Effects of Inquiry-Based Learning: A Case Study from College Mathematics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kogan, Marina; Laursen, Sandra L.

    2014-01-01

    As student-centered approaches to teaching and learning are more widely applied, researchers must assess the outcomes of these interventions across a range of courses and institutions. As an example of such assessment, this study examined the impact of inquiry-based learning (IBL) in college mathematics on undergraduates' subsequent grades…

  10. Assessment of Health Needs in Children with Congenital Upper Limb Differences in Nicaragua: Community Case Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria F. Canizares

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Congenital anomalies are prevalent in Nicaragua, and disability is estimated to be 10% in the general population. We studied children with congenital upper limb differences, as they are vulnerable to disability. This case study documents a collaborative effort between American and Nicaraguan orthopedic surgeons to determine unmet health needs of children with congenital upper limb differences at Hospital Manuel de Jesus Rivera (“La Mascota” Hospital in Nicaragua, with the goal of developing programs that successfully address these needs within the context of the priorities of the community. Participants were recruited during one of the biannual pediatric hand specialty clinics held by a partnership of pediatric hand surgeons and occupational therapists under the auspices of Health Volunteers Overseas (La Brigada de las Manos, or “La Brigada” and Nicaraguan orthopedic surgeons. Structured interviews were performed with 34 parents or caregivers of patients with the diagnosis of a congenital upper limb difference. Parents were asked to rank the social, economic, environmental, and biological factors that determine health according to priority. Using the Hanlon Method for prioritizing health problems, in consultation with local providers and the program director of La Brigada, five needs were identified: (1 improvements in access to specialized care from hand surgeons and (2 rehabilitation specialists; (3 improvements in upper extremity function; (4 access to transportation; and (5 improvement in physical activity and sports participation. Based on the results of this needs assessment, we learned that some of the needs were already part of the ongoing work of the partnership, but in addition, more needs became evident; for that reason, local health care providers and members of La Brigada identified potential solutions to these needs and are currently working to translate these in future interventions.

  11. Life Cycle Assessment of mechanical biological pre-treatment of Municipal Solid Waste: a case study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beylot, Antoine; Vaxelaire, Stéphane; Zdanevitch, Isabelle; Auvinet, Nicolas; Villeneuve, Jacques

    2015-05-01

    The environmental performance of mechanical biological pre-treatment (MBT) of Municipal Solid Waste is quantified using Life Cycle Assessment (LCA), considering one of the 57 French plants currently in operation as a case study. The inventory is mostly based on plant-specific data, extrapolated from on-site measurements regarding mechanical and biological operations (including anaerobic digestion and composting of digestate). The combined treatment of 46,929 tonnes of residual Municipal Solid Waste and 12,158 tonnes of source-sorted biowaste (as treated in 2010 at the plant) generates 24,550 tonnes CO2-eq as an impact on climate change, 69,943kg SO2-eq on terrestrial acidification and 19,929kg NMVOC-eq on photochemical oxidant formation, in a life-cycle perspective. On the contrary MBT induces environmental benefits in terms of fossil resource depletion, human toxicity (carcinogenic) and ecotoxicity. The results firstly highlight the relatively large contribution of some pollutants, such as CH4, emitted at the plant and yet sometimes neglected in the LCA of waste MBT. Moreover this study identifies 4 plant-specific operation conditions which drive the environmental impact potentials induced by MBT: the conditions of degradation of the fermentable fraction, the collection of gaseous flows emitted from biological operations, the abatement of collected pollutants and NOx emissions from biogas combustion. Finally the results underline the relatively large influence of the operations downstream the plant (in particular residuals incineration) on the environmental performance of waste MBT. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Program Outcomes Assessment in Higher Education Hospitality Management Programs: A Qualitative Comparative Case Study of Learning Cultures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hughes, John George

    2010-01-01

    The purpose of this qualitative, comparative case study was to determine the extent to which learning and improvement cultures were perceived to be linked to the traditional and non-traditional accreditation and Program Outcomes Assessment paradigms in use in two university hospitality programs. The findings of this study revealed that the…

  13. Indicator-based assessment of marine biological diversity – lessons from 10 case studies across the European Seas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Laura Uusitalo

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available The Marine Strategy Framework Directive requires the environmental status of European marine waters to be assessed using biodiversity as one out of 11 descriptors, but the complexity of marine biodiversity and its large span across latitudinal and salinity gradients have been a challenge to the scientific community aiming to produce approaches for integrating information from a broad range of indicators. The Nested Environmental status Assessment Tool (NEAT, developed for the integrated assessment of the status of marine waters, was applied to ten marine ecosystems to test its applicability and compare biodiversity assessments across the four European regional seas. We evaluate the assessment results as well as the assessment designs of the ten cases, and how the assessment design, particularly the choices made regarding the area and indicator selection, affected the results. The results show that only 2 out of the 10 case study areas show more than 50 % probability of being in good status in respect of biodiversity. No strong pattern among the ecosystem components across the case study areas could be detected, but marine mammals, birds, and benthic vegetation indicators tended to indicate poor status while zooplankton indicators indicated good status when included into the assessment. The analysis shows that the assessment design, including the selection of indicators, their target values, geographical resolution and habitats to be assessed, has potentially a high impact on the result, and the assessment structure needs to be understood in order to make an informed assessment. Moreover, recommendations are provided for the best practice of using NEAT for marine status assessments.

  14. Assessing the benefits of OHER (Office of Health and Environmental Research) research: Three case studies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nesse, R.J.; Callaway, J.M.; Englin, J.E.; Klan, M.S.; Nicholls, A.K.; Serot, D.E.

    1987-09-01

    This research was undertaken to estimate the societal benefits and costs of selected past research performed for the Office of Health and Environmental Research (OHER) of the US Department of Energy (DOE). Three case studies of representative OHER and DOE research were performed. One of these, the acid rain case study, includes research conducted elsewhere in DOE. The other two cases were the OHER marine research program and the development of high-purity germanium that is used in radiation detectors. The acid rain case study looked at the research benefits and costs of furnace sorbent injection and duct injection, technologies that might reduce acid deposition precursors. Both appear to show benefits in excess of costs. We examined in detail one of the OHER marine research program's accomplishments - the increase in environmental information used by the Outer Continental Shelf leasing program to manage bidding for off-shore oil drilling. The results of an econometric model show that environmental information of the type supported by OHER is unequivocally linked to government and industry leasing decisions. The germanium case study indicated that the benefits of germanium radiation detectors were significant.

  15. Integrative fuzzy hierarchical model for river health assessment: A case study of Yong River in Ningbo City, China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Y. W.; Yang, Z. F.

    2009-04-01

    Due to the increasingly serious ecological degradation of river systems, the river health research has attracted more and more attention of the researchers and decision-makers. This paper aims to integrate the fuzzy assessment method with analytic hierarchy process to establish the integrative fuzzy hierarchical assessment model, thus combing qualitative analysis and quantitative assessment and overcoming the disadvantages of subjectivity of the previous evaluation methods. The results show that the proposed assessment method is able to reveal how the river system is disturbed by human activities. Finally, the integrative fuzzy hierarchical method is validated and applied to the case study of Yong River in Ningbo City, China.

  16. Assessment of approximate likelihood ratios from continuous distributions: a case study of digital camera identification.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nordgaard, Anders; Höglund, Tobias

    2011-03-01

    A reported likelihood ratio for the value of evidence is very often a point estimate based on various types of reference data. When presented in court, such frequentist likelihood ratio gets a higher scientific value if it is accompanied by an error bound. This becomes particularly important when the magnitude of the likelihood ratio is modest and thus is giving less support for the forwarded proposition. Here, we investigate methods for error bound estimation for the specific case of digital camera identification. The underlying probability distributions are continuous and previously proposed models for those are used, but the derived methodology is otherwise general. Both asymptotic and resampling distributions are applied in combination with different types of point estimators. The results show that resampling is preferable for assessment based on asymptotic distributions. Further, assessment of parametric estimators is superior to evaluation of kernel estimators when background data are limited. © 2011 American Academy of Forensic Sciences.

  17. Development of Integrated Assessment System for Underground Power Cable Performance: A Case Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Turan, Faiz Mohd; Johan, Kartina; Soliha Sahimi, Nur; Nor, Nik Hisyamudin Muhd

    2017-08-01

    The basic operation of any electrical machines that is catered to serve needs of civilization involves electrical power which is the main source to trigger the internal mechanism in the machines then transfer the power to other form of energy such as mechanical, light, sound and etc. The supplies of electrical does not happen just by providing the source itself, it has load carrying agent which in many cases, user would refer to it as cable. Specifically, it is the power cable which its ampacity depends significantly on the operation temperature and load stress on it. Apart from having to focus on providing improvement on improving efficiency on the source itself, power cable plays and important role because without it, current ranging from low to high could not be transmitted and hence a failure of the power system generally. Studies have conducted to discuss whether which factor contributes relatively more to the causes of power cable failure or breakdown. Such factors can be narrowed down to the three major causes which are over temperature, over voltage and stress caused by over current. Over current is one of the factor which is depends on the usage of the power system itself. The higher the usage of the power system, higher the chances of over current to take place. This will then produce load stress on the cable which eventually destroy the insulator of the cable and slowly reach the core of the cable. It is believed that an assessment method should be implemented in order to predict the performance and failure rate of the power cable and use this prediction as reference rather than just letting power failure to happen anytime unpredictable which cause huge inconvenience to users and industries. Not only do a method should be implemented, it should be as easy to be used and understood by large range of users and integrated by a graphical user interface to be used. Therefore, this research will further narrow down on the approaches to do so and the location

  18. Environmental risk assessment for the serotonin re-uptake inhibitor fluoxetine: Case study using the European risk assessment framework.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oakes, Ken D; Coors, Anja; Escher, Beate I; Fenner, Kathrin; Garric, Jeanne; Gust, Marion; Knacker, Thomas; Küster, Anette; Kussatz, Carola; Metcalfe, Chris D; Monteiro, Sara; Moon, Thomas W; Mennigen, Jan A; Parrott, Joanne; Péry, Alexandre R R; Ramil, Maria; Roennefahrt, Ines; Tarazona, José V; Sánchez-Argüello, Paloma; Ternes, Thomas A; Trudeau, Vance L; Boucard, Tatiana; Van Der Kraak, Glen J; Servos, Mark R

    2010-07-01

    The serotonin re-uptake inhibitor fluoxetine was selected for an environmental risk assessment, using the most recent European guideline (EMEA 2006) within the European Union (EU)-funded Environmental Risk Assessment of Pharmaceuticals (ERAPharm) project due to its environmental persistence, acute toxicity to nontarget organisms, and unique pharmacokinetics associated with a readily ionizable compound. As a widely prescribed psychotropic drug, fluoxetine is frequently detected in surface waters adjacent to urban areas because municipal wastewater effluents are the primary route of entry to aquatic environments. In Phase I of the assessment, the initial predicted environmental concentration of fluoxetine in surface water (initial PEC(SW)) reached or exceeded the action limit of 10 ng/L, when using both a default market penetration factor and prescription data for Sweden, Germany, and the United Kingdom. Consequently, a Phase II risk assessment was conducted in which green algae were identified as the most sensitive species with a NOEC of terrestrial compartment due to a lack of data on effects of fluoxetine on soil organisms. The need for a separate risk assessment for the main metabolite of fluoxetine, norfluoxetine, was not conducted because of a lack of fate and effect studies. Based on published data, fluoxetine and norfluoxetine appeared to have a low to moderate bioaccumulation potential, which should be confirmed in formal studies according to OECD guidelines. Exposure assessments for fluoxetine according to the current framework rely heavily on K(OC) and K(OW) values. This approach is problematic, because fluoxetine is predominantly a cationic substance at environmental pH values. Consequently, the fate of fluoxetine (and other ionic substances) cannot be predicted using partition coefficients established for nonionic compounds. Further, published estimates for partition coefficients of fluoxetine vary, resulting in considerable uncertainties in both the

  19. Archaeology, historical site risk assessment and monitoring by UAV: approaches and case studies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pecci, Antonio; Masini, Nicola

    2016-04-01

    , Ychma and Inca. A test site has been selected to assess the capability of SAR satellite data for the identification of earthen archaeological features. UAV surveys have been performed to provide a very detail DEM enabling us to analyze and interpret the radar signal backscattering behaviour of archaeological microrelief and structures. In all the three applications UAV proved to be an effective, user-friendly, less time consuming, flexible tool for a number of applications and aims ranging from from the site detection to the risk evaluation of archaeological interest areas. References Lasaponara R., Masini N. 2012. Remote Sensing in Archaeology: From Visual Data Interpretation to Digital Data Manipulation, In: Lasaponara R., Masini N. (Eds) 2012, Satellite Remote Sensing: a new tool for Archaeology, Springer, Verlag Berlin Heidelberg, ISBN 978-90-481-8800-0, pp. 3-16, doi : 10.1007/978-90-481-8801-7_1. Lasaponara R., Masini N. 2013, Satellite Synthetic Aperture Radar in Archaeology and Cultural Landscape: An Overview. Archaeological Prospection, 20, 71-78, doi: 10.1002/arp.1452 Lasaponara R., Leucci G., Masini N., Persico R., Scardozzi G. 2016a. Towards an operative use of remote sensing for exploring the past using satellite data: The case study of Hierapolis (Turkey), Remote sensing of Environment, 174 (2016) : 148-164, doi:10.1016/j.rse.2015.12.016 Lasaponara R., Masini N., Pecci A., Perciante F., Pozzi Escot D., Rizzo E., Scavone M., Sileo M. 2016b, Qualitative evaluation of COSMO SkyMed in the detection of earthen archaeological remains: the case of Pachamacac (Peru)", Journal of Cultural heritage, 2016, in press. Leucci G., Masini N., Rizzo E., Capozzoli L., De Martino G. et al., Integrated Archaeogeophysical Approach for the Study of a Medieval Monastic Settlement in Basilicata, Open Archaeology 2015; 1: 236-246, doi: 10.1515/opar-2015-0014. F. Neitzel, J. Klonowski, Mobile 3d mapping with a low-cost UAV system, Int. Arch. Photogramm. Remote Sens. Spatial Inf

  20. LIFE CYCLE ASSESSMENT FOR OIL PALM BASED PLYWOOD: A GATE-TO-GATE CASE STUDY

    OpenAIRE

    M. Shamim Ahmad; Vijaya Subramaniam; Halimah Mohammad; Anis Mokhtar; B. S. Ismail

    2014-01-01

    Life Cycle Assessment (LCA) is an important tool for identifying potential environmental impacts associated with the production of palm based plywood. This study is to make available the life cycle inventory for gate-to-gate data so that the environmental impact posed by oil palm based plywood production can be assessed. Conducting an LCA on the palm based plywood that are derived from the wastes of the oil palm industry is a first step towards performing green environmental product. Therefor...

  1. Climate change impact and adaptation research requires integrated assessment and farming systems analysis: a case study in the Netherlands

    OpenAIRE

    Reidsma, P.; Wolf, J.; Kanellopoulos, A.; Schaap, B.F.; Mandryk, M.; Verhagen, J.; Ittersum, van, M.K.

    2015-01-01

    Rather than on crop modelling only, climate change impact assessments in agriculture need to be based on integrated assessment and farming systems analysis, and account for adaptation at different levels. With a case study for Flevoland, the Netherlands, we illustrate that (1) crop models cannot account for all relevant climate change impacts and adaptation options, and (2) changes in technology, policy and prices have had and are likely to have larger impacts on farms than climate change. Wh...

  2. Assessing the operational life of flexible printed boards intended for continuous flexing applications : a case study.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Beck, David Franklin

    2011-01-01

    Through the vehicle of a case study, this paper describes in detail how the guidance found in the suite of IPC (Association Connecting Electronics Industries) publications can be applied to develop a high level of design assurance that flexible printed boards intended for continuous flexing applications will satisfy specified lifetime requirements.

  3. Assessing feasibility of IT-enabled networked value consellations: A case study in the electricity sector

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Derzsi, Z.; Gordijn, J.; Kok, J.K.; Akkermans, J.M.; Tan, Y.H.; Krogstie, J.; Opdahl, A.L.; Sindre, G.

    2007-01-01

    Innovative networked value constellations, such as Cisco or Dell, are often enabled by Information Technology (IT). The same holds for the Distributed Electricity Balancing Service (DBS), which we present in this case study. To explore feasibility of such constellations while designing them, we need

  4. Longitudinal Ambient Sensor Monitoring for Functional Health Assessments: A Case Study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Robben, S.; Pol, M.; Kröse, B.

    2014-01-01

    Ambient monitoring systems offer great possibilities for health trend analysis in addition to anomaly detection. Health trend analysis helps care professionals to evaluate someones functional health and direct or evaluate the choice of interventions. This paper presents one case study of a person

  5. A Qualitative Case Study of Strategies for Choosing and Evaluating Alternative Assessments in Online Higher Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Streff, Robert James

    2016-01-01

    Studies have shown that not all students are assessed effectively using standard testing formats. However, it is unclear what alternative methodology would be useful to determine whether students have acquired the skills necessary for today's global market. This research study's purpose was to understand the processes instructors use when choosing…

  6. Multi-tool accessibility assessment of government department websites:a case-study with JKGAD.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ismail, Abid; Kuppusamy, K S; Nengroo, Ab Shakoor

    2017-08-02

    Nature of being accessible to all categories of users is one of the primary factors for enabling the wider reach of the resources published through World Wide Web. The accessibility of websites has been analyzed through W3C guidelines with the help of various tools. This paper presents a multi-tool accessibility assessment of government department websites belonging to the Indian state of Jammu and Kashmir. A comparative analysis of six accessibility tools is also presented with 14 different parameters. The accessibility analysis tools used in this study for analysis are aChecker, Cynthia Says, Tenon, wave, Mauve, and Hera. These tools provide us the results of selected websites accessibility status on Web Content Accessibility Guidelines (WCAG) 1.0 and 2.0. It was found that there are variations in accessibility analysis results when using different accessibility metrics to measure the accessibility of websites. In addition to this, we have identified the guidelines which have frequently been violated. It was observed that there is a need for incorporating the accessibility component features among the selected websites. This paper presents a set of suggestions to improve the accessibility status of these sites so that the information and services provided by these sites shall reach a wider spectrum of audience without any barrier. Implications for rehabilitation The following points indicates that this case study of JKGAD websites comes under Rehabilitation focused on Visually Impaired users. Due to the universal nature of web, it should be accessible to all according to WCAG guidelines framed by World Wide Web Consortium. In this paper we have identified multiple accessibility barriers for persons with visual impairment while browsing the Jammu and Kashmir Government websites. Multi-tool analysis has been done to pin-point the potential barriers for persons with visually Impaired. Usability analysis has been performed to check whether these websites are suitable

  7. Deficit analysis: service capacity assessment and planning in developing countries - case study in the Philippines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Louis, Garric E; Magpili, Luna M; Pinto, Cesar A

    2007-12-01

    Current demand analysis methods do not formally cover the case of chronic deficits in quantity or quality of water and sanitation services. These services include drinking water supply (DWS), wastewater and sewage treatment (WST), and municipal solid waste management (MSW). Formal analysis of this case would, at minimum, define the deficit state and evaluate appropriate options for reducing it. This paper proposes for a formal analytical model for municipal sanitation systems (MSS) that operate with deficits in at least one of the constituent services of DWS, WST, or MSW. The model introduces definitions and notation for describing the deficit state for conducting demand analysis on municipal sanitation systems. This model of demand analysis for systems with chronic deficits will hereinafter be referred to as deficit analysis. A case study for Bacoor, Philippines is presented as an example.

  8. Application of the BRAFO tiered approach for benefit-risk assessment to case studies on dietary interventions

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Verhagen, H.; Andersen, R.; Antoine, J.-M.; Finglas, P.; Hoekstra, J.; Kardinaal, A.; Nordmann, H.; Pekcan, G.; Pentieva, K.; Sanders, T.A.; Berg, H. van den; Kranen, H. van; Chiodini, A.

    2012-01-01

    The respective examples, described in this paper, illustrate how the BRAFO-tiered approach, on benefit-risk assessment, can be tested on a wide range of case studies. Various results were provided, ranging from a quick stop as the result of non-genuine benefit-risk questions to continuation through

  9. Multi-hazard risk assessment using GIS in urban areas: a case study for the city of Turrialba, Costa Rica

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Westen, Cees J.; Montoya, L.; Boerboom, Luc; Badilla Coto, Elena

    In the framework of the UNESCO sponsored project on “Capacity Building for Natural Disaster Reduction‿ a case study was carried out on multi-hazard risk assessment of the city of Turrialba, located in the central part of Costa Rica. The city with a population of 33,000 people is located in an area,

  10. Examining Gender Differences in Written Assessment Tasks in Biology: A Case Study of Evolutionary Explanations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Federer, Meghan Rector; Nehm, Ross H; Pearl, Dennis K

    2016-01-01

    Understanding sources of performance bias in science assessment provides important insights into whether science curricula and/or assessments are valid representations of student abilities. Research investigating assessment bias due to factors such as instrument structure, participant characteristics, and item types are well documented across a variety of disciplines. However, the relationships among these factors are unclear for tasks evaluating understanding through performance on scientific practices, such as explanation. Using item-response theory (Rasch analysis), we evaluated differences in performance by gender on a constructed-response (CR) assessment about natural selection (ACORNS). Three isomorphic item strands of the instrument were administered to a sample of undergraduate biology majors and nonmajors (Group 1: n = 662 [female = 51.6%]; G2: n = 184 [female = 55.9%]; G3: n = 642 [female = 55.1%]). Overall, our results identify relationships between item features and performance by gender; however, the effect is small in the majority of cases, suggesting that males and females tend to incorporate similar concepts into their CR explanations. These results highlight the importance of examining gender effects on performance in written assessment tasks in biology. © 2016 M. R. Federer et al. CBE—Life Sciences Education © 2016 The American Society for Cell Biology. This article is distributed by The American Society for Cell Biology under license from the author(s). It is available to the public under an Attribution–Noncommercial–Share Alike 3.0 Unported Creative Commons License (http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-sa/3.0).

  11. The case study approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-01-01

    The case study approach allows in-depth, multi-faceted explorations of complex issues in their real-life settings. The value of the case study approach is well recognised in the fields of business, law and policy, but somewhat less so in health services research. Based on our experiences of conducting several health-related case studies, we reflect on the different types of case study design, the specific research questions this approach can help answer, the data sources that tend to be used, and the particular advantages and disadvantages of employing this methodological approach. The paper concludes with key pointers to aid those designing and appraising proposals for conducting case study research, and a checklist to help readers assess the quality of case study reports. PMID:21707982

  12. Climate change vulnerability assessments as catalysts for social learning: four case studies in south-eastern Australia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Preston, Benjamin L [ORNL

    2012-01-01

    Technical assessments of vulnerability and/or risk are increasingly being undertaken to assess the impacts of climate change. Underlying this is the belief that they will bring clarity to questions regarding the scale of institutional investments required, plausible adaptation policies and measures, and the timing of their implementation. Despite the perceived importance of technical assessments in 'evidence-based' decision environments, assessments cannot be undertaken independent of values and politics, nor are they capable of eliminating the uncertainty that clouds decision-making on climate adaptation As such, assessments can trigger as many questions as they answer, leaving practitioners and stakeholders to question their value. This paper explores the value of vulnerability/risk assessments in climate change adaptation planning processes as a catalyst for learning in four case studies in Southeastern Australia. Data were collected using qualitative interviews with stakeholders involved in the assessments and analysed using a social learning framework. This analysis revealed that detailed and tangible strategies or actions often do not emerge directly from technical assessments. However, it also revealed that the assessments became important platforms for social learning. In providing these platforms, assessments present opportunities to question initial assumptions, explore multiple framings of an issue, generate new information, and galvanise support for collective actions. This study highlights the need for more explicit recognition and understanding of the important role social learning plays in climate change vulnerability assessments and adaptation planning more broadly.

  13. Knowledge mobilization in the context of health technology assessment: an exploratory case study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fournier Monique F

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Finding measures to enhance the dissemination and implementation of their recommendations has become part of most health technology assessment (HTA bodies' preoccupations. The Quebec government HTA organization in Canada observed that some of its projects relied on innovative practices in knowledge production and dissemination. A research was commissioned in order to identify what characterized these practices and to establish whether they could be systematized. Methods An exploratory case study was conducted during summer and fall 2010 in the HTA agency in order to determine what made the specificity of its context, and to conceptualize an approach to knowledge production and dissemination that was adapted to the mandate and nature of this form of HTA organization. Six projects were selected. For each, the HTA report and complementary documents were analyzed, and semi-structured interviews were carried out. A narrative literature review of the most recent literature reviews of the principal knowledge into practice frameworks (2005-2010 and of articles describing such frameworks (2000-2010 was undertaken. Results and discussion Our observations highlighted an inherent difficulty as regards applying the dominant knowledge translation models to HTA and clinical guidance practices. For the latter, the whole process starts with an evaluation question asked in a problematic situation for which an actionable answer is expected. The objective is to produce the evidence necessary to respond to the decision-maker's request. The practices we have analyzed revealed an approach to knowledge production and dissemination, which was multidimensional, organic, multidirectional, dynamic, and dependent on interactions with stakeholders. Thus, HTA could be considered as a knowledge mobilization process per se. Conclusions HTA's purpose is to solve a problem by mobilizing the types of evidence required and the concerned actors, in order to

  14. Anthropometric assessment of crane cabins and recommendations for design: A case study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zunjic, Aleksandar; Brkic, Vesna Spasojevic; Klarin, Milivoj; Brkic, Aleksandar; Krstic, Dragan

    2015-01-01

    Work of crane operators is very difficult and demanding. Therefore, it is very important that the cabin of a crane be designed on the basis of relevant anthropometric data. However, it is very difficult to find a research that considers anthropometric convenience of crane cabins. From the theoretical viewpoint, it is important to perceive and to classify effects of the anthropometric incompatibility of crane cabins. Globally, the objective is to consider the anthropometric convenience of existing crane cabins, and possibilities for improvements of their design from the ergonomic point of view. In this regard, it is significant to detect constraints that impede or hinder the work of the crane operators, which could be overcome with certain anthropometric solutions. The main objective is to examine whether and to what extent is justifiable to use anthropometric data that are obtained on the basis of general (national) population, during designing the crane cabins. For the assessment of existing crane cabins and the work of operators, four methods were used: observation of the work of the operators and design solutions of the cabins, the checklist approach, interviewing of operators and the experimental research based on obtaining the data on the population of crane operators. Results of the analysis based on the method of observation, analysis based on the application of the checklist, as well as interviewing of the operators indicate that certain construction constraints of the components in the cabins are the main reasons of reduced visibility and improper working postures of operators. All this has caused the emergence of continuous musculoskeletal loading of the crane operators. The results of the anthropometric research that were obtained on the population of crane operators in this case study suggest that there is a statistically significant difference, when compared data of this population of workers with anthropometric data from the general population

  15. Preferences for Deep-Surface Learning: A Vocational Education Case Study Using a Multimedia Assessment Activity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hamm, Simon; Robertson, Ian

    2010-01-01

    This research tests the proposition that the integration of a multimedia assessment activity into a Diploma of Events Management program promotes a deep learning approach. Firstly, learners' preferences for deep or surface learning were evaluated using the revised two-factor Study Process Questionnaire. Secondly, after completion of an assessment…

  16. Initiating Self-Assessment Strategies in Novice Physiotherapy Students: A Method Case Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Young, Catherine

    2013-01-01

    Student self- and peer-assessment strategies ideally are instigated early in programmes for health professionals. This study presents an innovative method of stimulating critical evaluation of clinical skills learned in the practical class setting for first year physiotherapy students. Twice in the semester (beginning and end) students assessed…

  17. Effect of Continuous Assessment on Learning Outcomes on Two Chemical Engineering Courses: Case Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tuunila, R.; Pulkkinen, M.

    2015-01-01

    In this paper, the effect of continuous assessment on the learning outcomes of two chemical engineering courses is studied over a several-year period. Average grades and passing percentages of courses after the final examination are reported and also student feedback on the courses is collected. The results indicate significantly better learning…

  18. Individualizing Elementary General Music Instruction: Case Studies of Assessment and Differentiation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salvador, Karen

    2011-01-01

    Elementary general music teachers typically teach hundreds of students every week. Each child has individual learning needs due to a variety of factors, such as prior experiences with music, music aptitude, learning style, and personality. The purpose of this qualitative study was to explore ways that experienced teachers used assessments to…

  19. Assessing the benefits of design for recycling for plastics inelectronics: A case study of computer enclosures

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Masanet, Eric; Horvath, Arpad

    2007-12-31

    With the emergence of extended producer responsibilityregulations for electronic devices, it is becoming increasingly importantfor electronics manufacturers to apply design for recycling (DFR) methodsin the design of plastic enclosures. This paper presents an analyticalframework for quantifying the environmental and economic benefits of DFRfor plastic computer enclosures during the design process, usingstraightforward metrics that can be aligned with corporate environmentaland financial performance goals. The analytical framework is demonstratedvia a case study of a generic desktop computer enclosure design, which isrecycled using a typical US "take-back" system for plastics from wasteelectronics. The case study illustrates how the analytical framework canbe used by the enclosure designer to quantify the environmental andeconomic benefits of two important DFR strategies: choosing high-valueresins and minimizing enclosure disassembly time. Uncertainty analysis isperformed to quantify the uncertainty surrounding economic conditions inthe future when the enclosure is ultimately recycled.

  20. An Embedded Multiple-Case Study on OSS Design Quality Assessment across Domains

    OpenAIRE

    Ampatzoglou, Apostolos; Gkortzis, Antonios; Charalampidou, Sofia; Avgeriou, Paris

    2013-01-01

    Context: Investing on Open Source Software (OSS) as a “code reuser”, involves certain risks, such as the difficulty in understanding the level of OSS design quality Aim: We investigate the levels of design quality of OSS projects, across different application domains. Method: We conducted a case study, which is the most fitting research method for observing a phenomenon in its real context, which is active for a long period of time, and for which variables cannot be controlled. Results: We pr...

  1. Assessing the potential for conservation tillage: a case study in the Maple Creek Watershed

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cosper, H.R.; Erickson, M.W.; Hoover, H.

    1983-01-01

    A case study of the selected areas shows about 95 percent of the soils are suitable for all forms of conservation tillage. Critical erosion areas are lands of 12 to 13 percent slope. These lands comprise one-fourth of the land but contribute over half the total sediment. Preharvest costs are shown for four tillage methods. Labor, energy and other inputs for reduced, no-till and conventional tillage are compared for nonirrigated corn production.

  2. Addressing cumulative effects through strategic environmental assessment: a case study of small hydro development in Newfoundland, Canada

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bonnell, S. [Newfoundland (Canada); Storey, K. [Memorial University of Newfoundland, St. John' s (Canada). Department of Geography

    2000-12-01

    Environmental assessment (EA) is widely used as a means of incorporating environmental considerations into decision-making, primarily at the project level. The scope of EA has been expanded considerably in recent years to include earlier stages of the decision-making process, namely, policies, plans and programmes. Strategic environmental assessment (SEA) facilitates a planning approach to addressing the overall, cumulative effects of the projects that occur as a result of these decisions. This paper demonstrates the potential benefits of SEA in the assessment and management of cumulative effects, using a case study of recent hydroelectric development planning in Newfoundland, Canada. It goes on to illustrate how SEA could be used to address potential cumulative effects at the various stages of such a decision-making process. Through the case study, the paper also explores a number of issues in the implementation of such a planning approach. (author)

  3. Qualitative Assessment of User Acceptance within Action Design Research and Action Research: Two Case Studies

    OpenAIRE

    Edison Loza-Aguirre; Alex Buitrago-Hurtado

    2014-01-01

    Nowadays, there are several models to evaluate technological acceptance of software developed through Action Design Research and Action Research. These models rely on quantitative techniques to study user behavioural intentions and thus predict the use of a technology. This paper presents our experiences in using qualitative methods to assess such acceptance in the development of specialized tools for Strategic Scanning. Our study suggests that qualitative methods can be an alternative to eva...

  4. Assessing cancer hazards of bitumen emissions - a case study for complex petroleum substances.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kriech, Anthony J; Schreiner, Ceinwen A; Osborn, Linda V; Riley, Anthony J

    2017-11-02

    When assessing cancer hazard and risk associated with a complex petroleum substance, like bitumen emissions, there are often conflicting results related to human, animal and mechanistic studies. Validation of the complex composition to assure that it matches real-world exposures and control of confounders are pivotal factors in study design to allow the necessary read-across during assessments. Several key studies on bitumen emissions in two-year dermal cancer assays reported variable outcomes ranging from high cancer incidence to no cancer incidence. Here, we synthesize findings from published studies to explain the differences and discuss critical factors in cancer hazard evaluation for complex petroleum substances. Using these critical factors, we reviewed relevant human genetic toxicity, mammalian toxicity and mechanistic studies with bitumen to understand the divergence in results. We assess the most reliable and scientifically supported information on the potential carcinogenic hazards of bitumen emissions and comment on quality and completeness of data. Human hazard data are typically considered highest priority because they eliminate the need for interspecies extrapolation and reduce the range of high -to low-dose extrapolation during the risk assessment process. Finally, two well-conducted comprehensive animal studies are discussed that have well-defined test material, exposure concentration and composition representative of worker exposure, evidence of systemic uptake, no confounding exposures and provide consistency across all elements within both studies. Studies that allow effective read-across from human, animal and mechanistic components, control for confounders and are well-validated analytically against workplace exposures, provide the strongest evidence base for evaluating cancer hazard.

  5. Framework for energy policy and technology assessment in developing countries: a case study of Peru

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mubayi, V.; Palmedo, P.F.; Doernberg, A.B.

    1979-12-01

    The potential of various energy sources and technology options in meeting national economic and social development goals in developing countries is assessed. The resource options that are of interest are the development of indigenous resources. In general, two categories of options can be considered: those which correspond to the accelerated implementation of existing elements of the energy system and those which correspond to the introduction of a new technology, such as solar electricity. The various resource and technology options that must be analyzed with respect to a number of criteria or payoff functions are: total demand and fuel mix; reduction of oil consumption; national social goals; total energy costs; and environmental quality. First, a view is constructed of the energy implications of current national economic development plans. A consistent description of the future energy system of the country, under the assumption of current trends and policies is constructed for certain reference years in the future. The values of the payoff functions selected are then calculated for that reference case. The major resource and technology options are identified and the rates at which they can be implemented are determined. Finally, the impact on the various payoff functions of the implementation of each option is calculated. The basic element of the framework is the Reference Energy System, discussed in Secton 3. The energy policy analysis for Peru is used as a reference case. 11 references, 10 figures, 2 tables.

  6. Environmental impact assessment of biofuel production on contaminated land - Swedish case studies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Andersson-Skoeld, Yvonne; Suer, Pascal (Swedish Geotechnical Institute, Linkoeping (Sweden)); Blom, Sonja (FB Engineering AB, Goeteborg (Sweden)); Bardos, Paul (r3 Environmental Technology Ltd, Reading (United Kingdom)); Track, Thomas; Polland, Marcel (DECHEMA e. V., Frankfurt am Main (Germany))

    2009-07-01

    This report studies the (possible) cultivation of short rotation wood (Salix Vinimalis) on two contaminated sites from an environmental perspective, through a life cycle analysis (LCA) and carbon footprint, with an outlook towards an overarching method for a qualitative or semi-quantitative analysis based on a life cycle framework. Two areas were selected as case studies: a small site where short rotation crop (Salix Vinimalis) cultivation is in progress and a large site where biofuel production is hypothetical. For the selection of suitable sites, the following aspects were considered: Site location and size, so that biofuel cultivation might be economically viable without a remediation bonus, Topography and soil conditions, so that machinery could be used for cultivation, Time, so that the site was not in urgent need of remediation due to environmental or human health risks, or acute exploitation requirements, Contamination degree, which should not be plant-toxic, Contamination depth, Assessment of optimum crop and its use. For doubtful areas, it is especially important to analyse what the most viable option for the contaminated site is, and what bio-product could be used. For a more comprehensive analysis, which also incorporates local economic and social aspects, the decision support matrix, inter alia, described in the main report of the project Rejuvenate, is recommended. The calculation of emissions for the LCA and the carbon footprint used a German software tool for LCA of soil remediation. The software includes equipment emission data published in 1995. The module 'landfarming' has been used in this study to calculate emissions from herbicide application, fertilisation, ploughing and deep-ploughing, Salix harvest, harrowing etc. Since production of herbicide and Salix Vinimalis shoots were not included in the software, they were not included in the study. The conclusions for the two sites were very similar, in spite of the large differences

  7. Flood Disaster Risk Assessment of Rural Housings — A Case Study of Kouqian Town in China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Qi Zhang

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Floods are a devastating kind of natural disaster. About half of the population in China lives in rural areas. Therefore, it is necessary to assess the flood disaster risk of rural housings. The results are valuable for guiding the rescue and relief goods layout. In this study, we take the severe flood disaster that happened at Kouqian Town in Jilin, China in 2010 as an example to build an risk assessment system for flood disaster on rural housings. Based on the theory of natural disaster risk formation and “3S” technology (remote sensing, geography information systems and global positioning systems, taking the rural housing as the bearing body, we assess the flood disaster risk from three aspects: hazard, exposure and vulnerability. The hazard presented as the flood submerging range and depth. The exposure presented as the values of the housing and the property in it. The vulnerability presented as the relationship between the losses caused by flood and flood depth. We validate the model by the field survey after the flood disaster. The risk assessment results highly coincide with the field survey losses. This model can be used to assess the risk of other flood events in this area.

  8. Flood disaster risk assessment of rural housings--a case study of Kouqian Town in China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Qi; Zhang, Jiquan; Jiang, Liupeng; Liu, Xingpeng; Tong, Zhijun

    2014-04-03

    Floods are a devastating kind of natural disaster. About half of the population in China lives in rural areas. Therefore, it is necessary to assess the flood disaster risk of rural housings. The results are valuable for guiding the rescue and relief goods layout. In this study, we take the severe flood disaster that happened at Kouqian Town in Jilin, China in 2010 as an example to build an risk assessment system for flood disaster on rural housings. Based on the theory of natural disaster risk formation and "3S" technology (remote sensing, geography information systems and global positioning systems), taking the rural housing as the bearing body, we assess the flood disaster risk from three aspects: hazard, exposure and vulnerability. The hazard presented as the flood submerging range and depth. The exposure presented as the values of the housing and the property in it. The vulnerability presented as the relationship between the losses caused by flood and flood depth. We validate the model by the field survey after the flood disaster. The risk assessment results highly coincide with the field survey losses. This model can be used to assess the risk of other flood events in this area.

  9. Flood Disaster Risk Assessment of Rural Housings — A Case Study of Kouqian Town in China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Qi; Zhang, Jiquan; Jiang, Liupeng; Liu, Xingpeng; Tong, Zhijun

    2014-01-01

    Floods are a devastating kind of natural disaster. About half of the population in China lives in rural areas. Therefore, it is necessary to assess the flood disaster risk of rural housings. The results are valuable for guiding the rescue and relief goods layout. In this study, we take the severe flood disaster that happened at Kouqian Town in Jilin, China in 2010 as an example to build an risk assessment system for flood disaster on rural housings. Based on the theory of natural disaster risk formation and “3S” technology (remote sensing, geography information systems and global positioning systems), taking the rural housing as the bearing body, we assess the flood disaster risk from three aspects: hazard, exposure and vulnerability. The hazard presented as the flood submerging range and depth. The exposure presented as the values of the housing and the property in it. The vulnerability presented as the relationship between the losses caused by flood and flood depth. We validate the model by the field survey after the flood disaster. The risk assessment results highly coincide with the field survey losses. This model can be used to assess the risk of other flood events in this area. PMID:24705363

  10. Vulnerability and impact assessment of extreme climatic event: A case study of southern Punjab, Pakistan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aslam, Abdul Qayyum; Ahmad, Sajid R; Ahmad, Iftikhar; Hussain, Yawar; Hussain, Muhammad Sameem

    2017-02-15

    Understanding of frequency, severity, damages and adaptation costs of climate extremes is crucial to manage their aftermath. Evaluation of PRECIS RCM modelled data under IPCC scenarios in Southern Punjab reveals that monthly mean temperature is 30°C under A2 scenario, 2.4°C higher than A1B which is 27.6°C in defined time lapses. Monthly mean precipitation under A2 scenario ranges from 12 to 15mm and for A1B scenario it ranges from 15 to 19mm. Frequency modelling of floods and droughts via poisson distribution shows increasing trend in upcoming decades posing serious impacts on agriculture and livestock, food security, water resources, public health and economic status. Cumulative loss projected for frequent floods without adaptation will be in the range of USD 66.8-79.3 billion in time lapse of 40years from 2010 base case. Drought damage function @ 18% for A2 scenario and @ 13.5% for A1B scenario was calculated; drought losses on agriculture and livestock sectors were modelled. Cumulative loss projected for frequent droughts without adaptation under A2 scenario will be in the range of USD 7.5-8.5 billion while under A1B scenario it will be in the range of USD 3.5-4.2 billion for time lapse of 60years from base case 1998-2002. Severity analysis of extreme events shows that situation get worse if adaptations are not only included in the policy but also in the integrated development framework with required allocation of funds. This evaluation also highlights the result of cost benefit analysis, benefits of the adaptation options (mean & worst case) for floods and droughts in Southern Punjab. Additionally the research highlights the role of integrated extreme events impact assessment methodology in performing the vulnerability assessments and to support the adaptation decisions. This paper is an effort to highlight importance of bottom up approaches to deal with climate change. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  11. Earthquake Damage Assessment Using Objective Image Segmentation: A Case Study of 2010 Haiti Earthquake

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oommen, Thomas; Rebbapragada, Umaa; Cerminaro, Daniel

    2012-01-01

    In this study, we perform a case study on imagery from the Haiti earthquake that evaluates a novel object-based approach for characterizing earthquake induced surface effects of liquefaction against a traditional pixel based change technique. Our technique, which combines object-oriented change detection with discriminant/categorical functions, shows the power of distinguishing earthquake-induced surface effects from changes in buildings using the object properties concavity, convexity, orthogonality and rectangularity. Our results suggest that object-based analysis holds promise in automatically extracting earthquake-induced damages from high-resolution aerial/satellite imagery.

  12. Developing a South African pedestrian environment assessment tool: Tshwane case study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jane Olwoch

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available Pedestrians, comprising approximately 60% of the population, are among the most vulnerable road users in South Africa. The roadside environment may be an important factor influencing the nature and frequency of pedestrian fatalities. While there are audit tools for assessing the pedestrian environment in other countries, no such tool exists for South Africa. This study evaluated existing audit tools in relation to South African issues and conditions and developed a South African Pedestrian Environment Assessment Tool (PEAT. PEAT was tested at five sites in the Tshwane Metropolitan Area in Gauteng to assess its applicability. PEAT was simple to use and provided valuable information, however, appropriate measures need to be taken to address fieldworker security, especially for night-time assessments when several roadside factors, such as lighting, should be evaluated. Although it was not the focus of our study, based on our results, we suggest that the lack of pavements, pedestrian crossings and pedestrian lighting are factors that, potentially, could increase pedestrian vulnerability.

  13. A life cycle assessment of distributed energy production from organic waste: Two case studies in Europe.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Evangelisti, Sara; Clift, Roland; Tagliaferri, Carla; Lettieri, Paola

    2017-06-01

    By means of the life cycle assessment methodology, the purpose of this study is to assess the environmental impact when biomethane from organic waste produced at residential level is used to supply energy to a group of dwellings in the distributed generation paradigm. Three different Combined Heat and Power systems, such as fuel cells, Stirling engine and micro gas turbine, installed at household level are assessed in two different settings: one in Northern Europe (UK) and one in Southern Europe (Italy). Different operating strategies are investigated for each technology. Moreover, marginal electricity production technologies are analysed to assess their influence on the results. This study has demonstrated that the type of bio-methane fed micro-CHP technology employed has a significantly different environmental impact: fuel cells are the most environmentally friendly solution in every category analysed; Stirling engines, although can supply heat to the largest number of dwellings are the least environmentally friendly technology. However, key factors investigated in the model presented in this paper influence the decision making on the type of technology adopted and the operating strategy to be implemented. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. A Clinical Case Study of the use of Ecological Momentary Assessment in Obsessive Compulsive Disorder

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    PJ Matt eTilley

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Accurate assessment of obsessions and compulsions is a crucial step in treatment planning for Obsessive-Compulsive Disorder (OCD. In this pilot study, we sought to determine if the use of Ecological Momentary Assessment (EMA could provide additional symptom information beyond that captured during standard assessment of OCD. We studied three adults diagnosed with OCD and compared the number and types of obsessions and compulsions captured using the Yale-Brown Obsessive-compulsive Scale (Y-BOCS compared to EMA. Following completion of the Y-BOCS interview, participants then recorded their OCD symptoms into a digital voice recorder across a twelve-hour period in reply to randomly sent mobile phone SMS prompts. The EMA approach yielded a lower number of symptoms of obsessions and compulsions than the Y-BOCS but produced additional types of obsessions and compulsions not identified by the Y-BOCS. We conclude that the EMA-OCD procedure may represent a worthy addition to the suite of assessment tools used when working with clients who have OCD. Further research with larger samples is required to strengthen this conclusion.

  15. Health, safety and environmental unit performance assessment model under uncertainty (case study: steel industry).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shamaii, Azin; Omidvari, Manouchehr; Lotfi, Farhad Hosseinzadeh

    2017-01-01

    Performance assessment is a critical objective of management systems. As a result of the non-deterministic and qualitative nature of performance indicators, assessments are likely to be influenced by evaluators' personal judgments. Furthermore, in developing countries, performance assessments by the Health, Safety and Environment (HSE) department are based solely on the number of accidents. A questionnaire is used to conduct the study in one of the largest steel production companies in Iran. With respect to health, safety, and environment, the results revealed that control of disease, fire hazards, and air pollution are of paramount importance, with coefficients of 0.057, 0.062, and 0.054, respectively. Furthermore, health and environment indicators were found to be the most common causes of poor performance. Finally, it was shown that HSE management systems can affect the majority of performance safety indicators in the short run, whereas health and environment indicators require longer periods of time. The objective of this study is to present an HSE-MS unit performance assessment model in steel industries. Moreover, we seek to answer the following question: what are the factors that affect HSE unit system in the steel industry? Also, for each factor, the extent of impact on the performance of the HSE management system in the organization is determined.

  16. Assessing the Role of Motivation on Teacher Performance: Case Study in Indonesia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dr. Irwandy

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this study was to assess the role of motivation on teacher performance in Indonesia. This study in an assessment of this aim used deductive approach where a qualitative survey was conducted among students at Universitas Negeri Medan (UNIMED, Indonesia who are assumed to be future teachers. The survey was intended to get their responses on what they feel are the best factors that could motivate them as future teachers among a list of ten motivational factors. In the light of this the study sets to identify the most ranked factors among the ten motivational factors. The analysis from the empirical findings showed that Good Salary was the most ranked factor for both sub groups that made up the sample survey. However, a study from previous researches used in this study showed that different results could be obtained from different groups of already working employees. This study therefore can be seen as an introduction to a more detailed study to be carried by future researchers in the field of teachers’ motivation.

  17. Assessment of the importance of acidic fogwater and cloudwater in affecting terrestrial vegetation: Some important case studies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Irving, P.M.; Eagar, C. (National Acid Precipitation Assessment Program, Washington, DC (USA). Office of the Director of Research; Forest Service, Broomall, PA (USA). Northeastern Forest Experiment Station)

    1989-01-01

    The purpose of this paper is to present some examples of terrestrial effects of concern as case studies to demonstrate the methodology to be used for answering questions of the NAPAP Integrated Assessment. The two examples presented, one each for forestry and crops, represent what is probably the worst case'' for possible acidic rain effects on crops and forests. Both examples revolve around hypotheses centering on stress from acidic fogwater or cloudwater. Because it is likely that additional information will become available prior to the publication of the Integrated Assessment, it should be understood that the analyses and interpretations presented on the following pages are subject to change when NAPAP publishes its final Assessment in 1990. 76 refs., 3 tabs.

  18. Using the methods of ecological momentary assessment in substance dependence research--smoking cessation as a case study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferguson, Stuart G; Shiffman, Saul

    2011-01-01

    Ecological momentary assessment (EMA) is the name applied to any of a range of research methodologies that aim to assess participants in near real time as they go about their regular day-to-day activities. Such methods have particular utility for studying drug use and drug dependence. Using the area of nicotine dependence as a case study, this review highlights how EMA can be used to build upon the findings from more traditional research methods to enhance our understanding of drug use. Particular attention is given to the role that advances in technology have played in the adoption of EMA in drug dependence research.

  19. The F-16 Multinational Staged Improvement Program: A Case Study of Risk Assessment and Risk Management

    Science.gov (United States)

    1993-01-01

    N-3618-AF, 1993. SK I. Mayer, The Development of the Advanced Medium Range Air-to-Air Missile: A Case Study of Risk and Reward in Weapon System...Advanced medium range air-to-air missile, a critical element in the Block 40 upgrade. APG-68 The fire-control radar used in a series of variations in...F-16 SPO. YPA F-16 directorate of acquisition planning, dosed during MSIP. YPC F-16 directorate of configuration management. YPD F-16 directorate of

  20. FAULT TREE ANALYSIS FEATURES IN INDUSTRIAL SYSTEMS SAFETY ASSESSMENT: A CASE STUDY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roland Iosif MORARU

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available Fault tree analysis is useful both in designing new products/services or in dealing with identified problems in existing ones. In the quality planning process, the analysis can be used to optimize process features and goals and to design for critical factors and human error. As part of safety process improvement, as it is emphasized in the present paper, it can be used to help identify root causes of undesired events such as occupational injuries and illnesses. A case study of application in industrial safety systems illustrates the aim, principle and structure of the technique, allowing better prevention measures selection and implementation.

  1. Non-invasive assessment of thromboembolism in rotary blood pumps: case study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gawlikowski, Maciej; Kustosz, Roman; Głowacki, Maciej; Pydziński, Paweł; Kubacki, Krzysztof; Zakliczyński, Michał; Copik, Izabela; Pacholewicz, Jerzy

    2017-08-01

    Thromboembolic complications are one of the major problems in mechanical heart support of patients suffering from critical heart failure. The goal of the study was to present and discuss methodology of non-invasive assessment of embolization in rotary blood pumps. The study was carried out based on power consumption trend analysis as well as spectral analysis of acoustic signal produced by the pump during its operation. It has been demonstrated that the trend of power rising and presence of 3rd harmonic in acoustic spectrum corresponds to the clinical symptoms of pump embolization.

  2. Assessing the health impact of transnational corporations: a case study on McDonald's Australia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anaf, Julia; Baum, Frances E; Fisher, Matt; Harris, Elizabeth; Friel, Sharon

    2017-02-06

    The practices of transnational corporations affect population health through production methods, shaping social determinants of health, or influencing the regulatory structures governing their activities. There has been limited research on community exposures to TNC policies and practices. Our pilot research used McDonald's Australia to test methods for assessing the health impacts of one TNC within Australia. We adapted existing Health Impact Assessment methods to assess McDonald's activities. Data identifying potential impacts were sourced through document analysis, including McDonald's corporate literature; media analysis and semi-structured interviews. We commissioned a spatial and socioeconomic analysis of McDonald's restaurants in Australia through Geographic Information System technology. The data was mapped against a corporate health impact assessment framework which included McDonald's Australia's political and business practices; products and marketing; workforce, social, environmental and economic conditions; and consumers' health related behaviours. We identified both positive and detrimental aspects of McDonald's Australian operations across the scope of the CHIA framework. We found that McDonald's outlets were slightly more likely to be located in areas of lower socioeconomic status. McDonald's workplace conditions were found to be more favourable than those in many other countries which reflects compliance with Australian employment regulations. The breadth of findings revealed the need for governments to strengthen regulatory mechanisms that are conducive to health; the opportunity for McDonald's to augment their corporate social responsibility initiatives and bolster reputational endorsement; and civil society actors to inform their advocacy towards health and equity outcomes from TNC operations. Our study indicates that undertaking a corporate health impact assessment is possible, with the different methods revealing sufficient information to

  3. Health Risk Assessment of Harmful Chemicals: Case Study in a Petrochemical Industry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Motovagheh

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Background and aims In the most chemical process industries, workers are exposed to various chemicals and working with these chemicals without considering safety and health considerations can lead to different harmful symptoms. For deciding about control measures and reducing risk to acceptable level , it is necessary to assess the health risk of exposing to harmful chemicals by aid of specific risk assessment techniques in the process industries. The purpose of this study was to assess the health risks arising from the exposures to chemicals in a petrochemical industry.  methods A simple and applied method was used for health risk assessment of chemicals in a petrochemical industry. Firstly job tasks and work process were determined and then different chemicals in each tasks identified and risk ranking was calculated in each job task by aid of hazard and exposure rate.   Results The result showed that workers are exposed to 10 chemicals including Methyl ethyl ketone, Epichlorohydrin, Sulfuric acid, Phenol, Chlorobenzene, Toluene, Isopropanol, Methylene chloride, Chlorideric Acid and Acetone during their work in plant. From these chemicals, the highest risk level was for Epichlorohydrin in the jobs of tank and utility operations and maintenance workers. The next high risk level was for Epichlorohydrin in technical inspecting and Methyl ethyl ketone in Tank and utility operations operator.     Conclusion Hazard information and monitoring data of chemical agents in the chemical industries can be used for assessing health risks from exposures to chemicals and ranking jobs by their risk level. These data can be used for resource allocation for control measures and reducing risk level to acceptable level.    

  4. A case study for assessment of microbial community dynamics in genetically modified Bt cotton crop fields.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kapur, Manisha; Bhatia, Ranjana; Pandey, Gunjan; Pandey, Janmejay; Paul, Debarati; Jain, Rakesh K

    2010-08-01

    Bt cotton was the first genetically modified crop approved for use in India. However, only a few studies have been conducted to assess the feasibility of its commercial application. Bt cotton is genetically modified to express a proteinaceous endotoxin (Cry) encoded by cry gene of Bacillus thuringiensis that has specific insecticidal activity against bollworms. Therefore, the amount of pesticides used for growing Bt cotton is postulated to be considerably low as compared to their non-Bt counterparts. Alternatively, it is also speculated that application of a genetically modified crop may alter the bio-geochemical balance of the agriculture field(s). Microbial community composition and dynamics is an important descriptor for assessment of such alterations. In the present study, we have assessed the culturable and non-culturable microbial diversities in Bt cotton and non-Bt cotton soils to determine the ecological consequences of application of Bt cotton. The analyses of microbial community structures indicated that cropping of Bt cotton did not adversely affect the diversity of the microbial communities.

  5. Seismic hazard assessment of the cultural heritage sites: A case study in Cappadocia (Turkey)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seyrek, Evren; Orhan, Ahmet; Dinçer, İsmail

    2014-05-01

    Turkey is one of the most seismically active regions in the world. Major earthquakes with the potential of threatening life and property occur frequently here. In the last decade, over 50,000 residents lost their lives, commonly as a result of building failures in seismic events. The Cappadocia region is one of the most important touristic sites in Turkey. At the same time, the region has been included to the Word Heritage List by UNESCO at 1985 due to its natural, historical and cultural values. The region is undesirably affected by several environmental conditions, which are subjected in many previous studies. But, there are limited studies about the seismic evaluation of the region. Some of the important historical and cultural heritage sites are: Goreme Open Air Museum, Uchisar Castle, Ortahisar Castle, Derinkuyu Underground City and Ihlara Valley. According to seismic hazard zonation map published by the Ministry of Reconstruction and Settlement these heritage sites fall in Zone III, Zone IV and Zone V. This map show peak ground acceleration or 10 percent probability of exceedance in 50 years for bedrock. In this connection, seismic hazard assessment of these heritage sites has to be evaluated. In this study, seismic hazard calculations are performed both deterministic and probabilistic approaches with local site conditions. A catalog of historical and instrumental earthquakes is prepared and used in this study. The seismic sources have been identified for seismic hazard assessment based on geological, seismological and geophysical information. Peak Ground Acceleration (PGA) at bed rock level is calculated for different seismic sources using available attenuation relationship formula applicable to Turkey. The result of the present study reveals that the seismic hazard at these sites is closely matching with the Seismic Zonation map published by the Ministry of Reconstruction and Settlement. Keywords: Seismic Hazard Assessment, Probabilistic Approach

  6. When product diversification influences life cycle impact assessment: A case study of canned anchovy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laso, Jara; Margallo, María; Fullana, Pére; Bala, Alba; Gazulla, Cristina; Irabien, Ángel; Aldaco, Rubén

    2017-03-01

    The anchovy canning industry is one of the most important economic resources of the Cantabria region in Spain. However, environmental, economic and social problems over the past years have forced companies to apply marketing strategies, develop product diversification, create new products and introduce them in new "green markets". Launching Cantabrian canned anchovies into more sustainable markets requires measuring the environmental performance using Product Category Rules (PCRs) and Environmental Product Declarations (EPDs). EPDs and PCRS include the environmental profile of a range of similar products, such as all of the available canned anchovy products. The great variety of anchovy canned products depends on three process variables: the origin of the anchovy (Cantabria, Argentina and Chile or Peru), the type of oil (refined olive oil, extra virgin olive oil and sunflower oil) and the packaging (aluminum, tinplate, glass and plastic). This work aims to assess the environmental impact from cradle to grave of canned anchovies in oil using the life cycle assessment methodology (LCA). Moreover, the paper evaluates the influence of the above-mentioned three product variables in the LCA results. The results show that out of all of the alternatives, Chilean and Peruvian anchovies have the highest environmental burdens due to the transportation by ship. The production of anchovies in sunflower oil is a less environmentally friendly oil process due to the low yield per hectare of sunflower cultivation. Finally, the use of aluminum as the packaging material has the largest environmental impact out of almost all of the impact categories. Moreover, because the LCA results can be significantly affected by the allocation procedure, a sensitivity analysis comparing system expansion, mass and economic allocation is performed. In this case, the system expansion approach presents the highest environmental impacts followed by the mass allocation. Copyright © 2017 The Authors

  7. Taste function assessed by electrogustometry in burning mouth syndrome: a case-control study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Braud, A; Descroix, V; Ungeheuer, M-N; Rougeot, C; Boucher, Y

    2017-04-01

    Idiopathic burning mouth syndrome (iBMS) is characterized by oral persistent pain without any clinical or biological abnormality. The aim of this study was to evaluate taste function in iBMS subjects and healthy controls. Electrogustometric thresholds (EGMt) were recorded in 21 iBMS patients and 21 paired-matched controls at nine loci of the tongue assessing fungiform and foliate gustatory papillae function. Comparison of EGMt was performed using the nonparametric Wilcoxon signed-rank test. A correlation between EGMt and self-perceived pain intensity assessed using a visual analogic scale (VAS) was analyzed with the Spearman coefficient. The level of significance was fixed at P taste sensitivity in iBMS patients within fungiform and foliate taste bud fields and support potent gustatory/nociceptive interaction in iBMS. © 2016 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  8. Preliminary assessments of CO2 storage in carbonate formations: a case study from Malaysia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raza, Arshad; Gholami, Raoof; Rezaee, Reza; Bing, Chua Han; Nagarajan, Ramasamy; Hamid, Mohamed Ali

    2017-06-01

    The preliminary assessment of depleted reservoirs prior to the injection of CO2 is an essential step to ensure the safety and success of storage projects. Several studies have provided a preliminary assessment of depleted reservoirs as a sequestration practice. However, the screening criteria used in these studies were not able to consider all of the aspects of a storage site. The aim of this paper is to provide a reservoir-scale evaluation approach for long-term storage practice in an offshore carbonate field located in Malaysia. Recently developed screening criteria that cover the key aspects of storage sites, such as capacity, injectivity, trapping mechanisms, and containment, are taken into consideration for the purpose of this study. The results obtained suggest that the reservoir has good potential to be a storage place for CO2, although the compaction behavior and aquifer supports of the reservoir might cause some difficulties. It is, therefore, recommended that a series of experimental and numerical studies on different aspects of storage sites be performed to ensure that injectivity is not a problem when it comes to the implementation stage.

  9. Improving biodiversity assessment of anuran amphibians using DNA barcoding of tadpoles. Case studies from Southeast Asia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grosjean, Stéphane; Ohler, Annemarie; Chuaynkern, Yodchaiy; Cruaud, Corinne; Hassanin, Alexandre

    2015-05-01

    Amphibian populations are dramatically declining, while their inventory is far from being achieved. Tadpoles are usually overlooked from biodiversity survey, whereas their consideration will optimize species counts and knowledge of their ecological and developmental requirements is essential in conservation planning. Two mitochondrial markers, 16S (397 new sequences obtained) and COI (343 new sequences obtained), are used to test DNA barcoding on a set of larval and adult Asian amphibians represented by 83 recognized species from 65 sites. The advantages and drawbacks of each marker are assessed, COI barcoding being advocated for global DNA barcoding, whereas 16S suits for taxonomically or geographically restricted DNA barcoding. About half of the collected tadpoles were badly identified or incompletely named in the field. All tadpole sequences (except one case of probable introgressive hybridization) were correctly assigned to their respective species. Finally six clusters of tadpole sequences without conspecific adults were revealed, stressing the importance of collecting and taking into account tadpoles in biodiversity survey and conservation planning. Copyright © 2015 Académie des sciences. Published by Elsevier SAS. All rights reserved.

  10. Ecological carrying capacity assessment of diving site: A case study of Mabul Island, Malaysia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Li-Ye; Chung, Shan-Shan; Qiu, Jian-Wen

    2016-12-01

    Despite considered a non-consumptive use of the marine environment, diving-related activities can cause damages to coral reefs. It is imminent to assess the maximum numbers of divers that can be accommodated by a diving site before it is subject to irreversible deterioration. This study aimed to assess the ecological carrying capacity of a diving site in Mabul Island, Malaysia. Photo-quadrat line transect method was used in the benthic survey. The ecological carrying capacity was assessed based on the relationship between the number of divers and the proportion of diver damaged hard corals in Mabul Island. The results indicated that the proportion of diver damaged hard corals occurred exponentially with increasing use. The ecological carrying capacity of Mabul Island is 15,600-16,800 divers per diving site per year at current levels of diver education and training with a quarterly threshold of 3900-4200 per site. Our calculation shows that management intervention (e.g. limiting diving) is justified at 8-14% of hard coral damage. In addition, the use of coral reef dominated diving sites should be managed according to their sensitivity to diver damage and the depth of the reefs. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Assessing ecological water quality with macroinvertebrates and fish: a case study from a small Mediterranean river.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheimonopoulou, Maria Th; Bobori, Dimitra C; Theocharopoulos, Ioannis; Lazaridou, Maria

    2011-02-01

    Biological elements, such as benthic macroinvertebrates and fish, have been used in assessing the ecological quality of rivers according to the requirements of the Water Framework Directive. However, the concurrent use of multiple organism groups provides a broader perspective for such evaluations, since each biological element may respond differently to certain environmental variables. In the present study, we assessed the ecological quality of a Greek river (RM4 type), during autumn 2003 and spring 2004 at 10 sites, with benthic macroinvertebrates and fish. Hydromorphological and physicochemical parameters, habitat structure, and riparian vegetation were also considered. Pollution sensitive macroinvertebrate taxa were more abundant at headwaters, which had good/excellent water quality according to the Hellenic Evaluation System (HES). The main river reaches possessed moderate water quality, while downstream sites were mainly characterised as having bad or poor water quality, dominated by pollution-tolerant macroinvertebrate taxa. Macroinvertebrates related strongly to local stressors as chemical degradation (ordination analysis CCA) and riparian quality impairment (bivariate analysis) while fish did not. Fish were absent from the severely impacted lower river reaches. Furthermore, external pathological signs were observed in fish caught at certain sites. A combined use of both macroinvertebrates and fish in biomonitoring programs is proposed for providing a safer assessment of local and regional habitat impairment.

  12. A method to assess soil erosion from smallholder farmers' fields: a case study from Malawi.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mohamoud, Yusuf M

    2013-09-01

    Soil erosion by water is a major threat to sustainable food production systems in Africa. This study presents a qualitative soil erosion assessment method that links the number of broken ridges (NBRS) observed on a smallholder farmer's field after a rain event to factors of soil erosion (e.g., rainfall intensity, slope steepness, crop canopy height, and conservation practice) and to soil loss data measured from a runoff plot and receiving small streams. The assessment method consists of a rapid survey of smallholder farmers combined with field monitoring. Results show an indirect relationship between NBRS and factors of soil erosion. Results also show a direct relationship between NBRS and suspended sediment concentrations measured from an experimental runoff plot and receiving streams that drain the sub-watersheds where farmers' fields are located. Given the limited human and financial resources available to soil erosion research in developing countries, monitoring NBRS is a simple, cost-effective, and reliable erosion assessment method for regions where smallholder farmers practice contour ridging.

  13. Constructing Ecological Networks Based on Habitat Quality Assessment: A Case Study of Changzhou, China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gao, Yu; Ma, Lei; Liu, Jiaxun; Zhuang, Zhuzhou; Huang, Qiuhao; Li, Manchun

    2017-04-01

    Fragmentation and reduced continuity of habitat patches threaten the environment and biodiversity. Recently, ecological networks are increasingly attracting the attention of researchers as they provide fundamental frameworks for environmental protection. This study suggests a set of procedures to construct an ecological network. First, we proposed a method to construct a landscape resistance surface based on the assessment of habitat quality. Second, to analyze the effect of the resistance surface on corridor simulations, we used three methods to construct resistance surfaces: (1) the method proposed in this paper, (2) the entropy coefficient method, and (3) the expert scoring method. Then, we integrated habitat patches and resistance surfaces to identify potential corridors using graph theory. These procedures were tested in Changzhou, China. Comparing the outputs of using different resistance surfaces demonstrated that: (1) different landscape resistance surfaces contribute to how corridors are identified, but only slightly affect the assessment of the importance of habitat patches and potential corridors; (2) the resistance surface, which is constructed based on habitat quality, is more applicable to corridor simulations; and (3) the assessment of the importance of habitat patches is fundamental for ecological network optimization in the conservation of critical habitat patches and corridors.

  14. Application of the Bulgarian emergency response system in case of nuclear accident in environmental assessment study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Syrakov, Dimiter; Veleva, Blagorodka; Georgievs, Emilia; Prodanova, Maria; Slavov, Kiril; Kolarova, Maria

    2014-05-01

    The development of the Bulgarian Emergency Response System (BERS) for short term forecast in case of accidental radioactive releases to the atmosphere has been started in the mid 1990's [1]. BERS comprises of two main parts - operational and accidental, for two regions 'Europe' and 'Northern Hemisphere'. The operational part runs automatically since 2001 using the 72 hours meteorological forecast from DWD Global model, resolution in space of 1.5o and in time - 12 hours. For specified Nuclear power plants (NPPs), 3 days trajectories are calculated and presented on NIMH's specialized Web-site (http://info.meteo.bg/ews/). The accidental part is applied when radioactive releases are reported or in case of emergency exercises. BERS is based on numerical weather forecast information and long-range dispersion model accounting for the transport, dispersion, and radioactive transformations of pollutants. The core of the accidental part of the system is the Eulerian 3D dispersion model EMAP calculating concentration and deposition fields [2]. The system is upgraded with a 'dose calculation module' for estimation of the prognostic dose fields of 31 important radioactive gaseous and aerosol pollutants. The prognostic doses significant for the early stage of a nuclear accident are calculated as follows: the effective doses from external irradiation (air submersion + ground shinning); effective dose from inhalation; summarized effective dose and absorbed thyroid dose [3]. The output is given as 12, 24, 36, 48, 60 and 72 hours prognostic dose fields according the updated meteorology. The BERS was upgraded to simulate the dispersion of nuclear materials from Fukushima NPP [4], and results were presented in NIMH web-site. In addition BERS took part in the respective ENSEMBLE exercises to model 131I and 137Cs in Fukushima source term. In case of governmental request for expertise BERS was applied for environmental impact assessment of hypothetical accidental transboundary

  15. Index for Assessing Water Trophic Status in Semi-Enclosed Cuban Bays. Case Study: Cienfuegos Bay

    CERN Document Server

    Seisdedo, Mabel; Arencibia, Gustavo

    2013-01-01

    This paper aims at contributing to the coastal environmental management by developing a new trophic status index of the water (TSIW). The index is tailored to semi-enclosed bays with estuarine characteristic like the Cienfuegos bay in Cuba. We also propose pressure indicators related to exporting and assimilation capacities as a tool to assess the vulnerability of the system to eutrophication. The TSIW is based on response indicators to eutrophication processes showing correspondence with the predefined pressure indicators and previous reports on water quality. Thus, the proposed trophic status index is a reliable scientific tool to measure the current stage of the water quality and to establish a baseline for further studies.

  16. Reliability assessment platform for the power semiconductor devices - Study case on 3-phase grid-connected inverter application

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vernica, Ionut; Ma, Ke; Blaabjerg, Frede

    2017-01-01

    Because of the high cost of failure, the reliability performance of power semiconductor devices is becoming a more and more important and stringent factor in many energy conversion applications. Thus, the need for appropriate reliability analysis of the power electronics emerges. Due to its conve...... experimental setup is proposed and designed. The link between the stress emulator setup and the reliability tool software is highlighted. Finally, the reliability assessment platform is demonstrated on a 3-phase grid-connected inverter application study case....

  17. Life cycle assessment case study: Tertiary treatment process options for wastewater reuse.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carré, Erwan; Beigbeder, Joana; Jauzein, Vincent; Junqua, Guillaume; Lopez-Ferber, Miguel

    2017-11-01

    Tertiary treatment process (including filtration and/or disinfection) is necessary to obtain a water quality suited for high-quality reuse from wastewater treatment. Industrial pilots representing small real-size treatment units were set up downstream of a conventional secondary treatment of a wastewater treatment plant in the South of France and their performance followed for 2 y. Life cycle assessment (LCA) methodology is used to compare the environmental impacts of different treatment processes. Five tertiary treatment trains were studied: 1) sand filtration (SF) + storage followed by ultraviolet (UV) dynamic reactor disinfection (SF-UVD), 2) sand filtration + UV batch reactor disinfection (SF-UVB), 3) ultrafiltration (UF), 4) ultrafiltration and UV batch reactor disinfection (UF-UVB), and 5) microfiltration (MF) and storage followed by dynamic UV disinfection (MF-UVD). The chosen functional unit is "To supply 1 m3 of water with a quality in compliance with the highest standard of the French reuse regulations." The combination of SF with UV disinfection or the use of UF alone was found to be equivalent in terms of environmental impact for most of the midpoint indicators chosen. Combination of UF with UV disinfection was significantly more impacting because the electricity consumption was nearly doubled. This study was conducted on an industrial pilot; it may thus be representative of industrial facilities implemented to treat higher water flows. Integr Environ Assess Manag 2017;13:1113-1121. © 2017 SETAC. © 2017 SETAC.

  18. Comparative life cycle assessment of biowaste to resource management systems - A Danish case study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thomsen, Marianne; Seghetta, Michele; Mikkelsen, Mette Hjorth

    2017-01-01

    from combustion (Reference Scenario) to biogas and fertilizer production (Alternative Scenario). The goals defined in the Danish National resource action plan for waste management, i.e. 33% reduction of organic fraction household waste dry weight, is taken as a case study. A comparative life cycle...... of 8%. Moving up the waste hierarchy results in a net greenhouse gas emission reduction of 100 kg CO2eq. per ton of dry weight biowaste treated, corresponding to a 10% of reduction in CO2 emission. The latter accompanied by a net reduction in depletion of fossil resources of 11% and a reduction...... in the impacts on Freshwater and Marine Eutrophication of 4.8 t P eq. and 3.6 t N eq., respectively. As such, the modelled increased circular bioresource management indicates significant improvement of the efficiency in use of resources in biowaste. However, trade-offs occur due to the presence...

  19. AN EMPIRICAL ASSESSMENT OF THE WALKING ENVIRONMENT IN A MEGACITY: CASE STUDY OF VALIASR STREET, TEHRAN

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bahareh Motamed

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available High air pollution, car dependency, and increasing statistics of obesity and cardiovascular diseases are growing issues in the mega city of Tehran, the capital city of Iran. Therefore, investigating the quality of walkability as an effective solution for these issues in Valiasr Street, the longest street of Middle East and one of the key vena of Tehran, becomes significant. Research shows that despite the attempts of executed projects, the majority of implemented actions in this street were not in accordance with services of its pedestrian facilities. Even in some cases, they may threaten the walking environment. This paper discusses not only the physical features of Valiasr Street but it also considers the consequences of policies and municipal decisions in light of walkability criteria. Using walkability indexes from various scholars, this study seeks to investigate the level of walkability in Valiasr Street through field observation and mapping by trained observers/ auditors.

  20. Assessment of Supply Chain Energy Efficiency Potentials: A U.S. Case Study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Masanet, Eric; Kramer, Klaas Jan; Homan, Gregory; Brown, Richard; Worrell, Ernst

    2009-01-01

    This paper summarizes a modeling framework that characterizes the key underlying technologies and processes that contribute to the supply chain energy use and greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions of a variety of goods and services purchased by U.S. consumers. The framework couples an input-output supply chain modeling approach with"bottom-up" fuel end use models for individual IO sectors. This fuel end use modeling detail allows energy and policy analysts to better understand the underlying technologies and processes contributing to the supply chain energy and GHG"footprints" of goods and services. To illustrate the policy-relevance of thisapproach, a case study was conducted to estimate achievable household GHG footprint reductions associated with the adoption of best practice energy-efficient supply chain technologies.

  1. Assessment of solar electrification in Cuba. A case study based on GIS for rural development

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pinedo, Irene; Dominguez, Javier [CIEMAT, Madrid (Spain). Energy Dept.; Rodriguez, Maria [Solar Energy Research Center (CIES), Santiago de Cuba (Cuba)

    2008-07-01

    A quarter of total world population, mainly in developing countries, are lacking of electricity. Due to social, economic and geographical differences, detail studies are needed in order to find the appropriate technology for each case. The rural electrification analysis of Guama municipality is based on the use of Geographical Information System (GIS) to define the best way of electrification using levelized electric cost (LEC) criterion to meet a particular demand. Applying SOLARGIS methodology, conventional and renewable energy technologies are compared in every non-electrified community. The analysis considers the social and geographical particularities of the area and shows a very high potential of remote sites to be electrified by means of photovoltaic systems. (orig.)

  2. Assessment of the WHO Stunting Framework using Ethiopia as a case study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wirth, James P; Rohner, Fabian; Petry, Nicolai; Onyango, Adelheid W; Matji, Joan; Bailes, Adam; de Onis, Mercedes; Woodruff, Bradley A

    2017-04-01

    Poor linear growth in children Ethiopia as a case study. We found consistent associations between poor linear growth and indicators of birth size, recent illness (e.g. diarrhoea and fever), maternal height and education. Other factors listed as causes in the framework such as inflammation, exposure to mycotoxins and inadequate feeding during and after illness have not been examined in Ethiopia, and the existing literature suggests that these are clear data gaps. Some factors associated with poor linear growth in Ethiopia are missing in the framework, such as household characteristics (e.g. exposure to indoor smoke). Examination of the factors included in the WHO framework in a country setting helps identifying data gaps helping to target further data collection and research efforts. © 2016 John Wiley & Sons Ltd. © 2016 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  3. Assessment of river water quality under urban influence: a case study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ram, Shobharam; Joshi, Himanshu

    2012-01-01

    In this study, the water quality status of river Solani in India was assessed under the influence of urbanization. Physico-chemical and biological analysis of water reflected maximum adverse impact during summer low flow season. Variation in river flows during monsoon, post monsoon and low flow seasons was found to substantially affect the river water quality regime. Whereas the monsoon season displayed addition of suspended impurities and provided dilution in the dissolved components, the summer low flow season revealed an anaerobic condition in the river as the entire river flow comprised of only drain effluents. All the drains were observed to carry contaminated water with impurities from various point and non-point sources emanating from diverse human activities. The present study indicated that the drain waste water deserves a prior treatment in order to protect the Solani river water from pollution.

  4. Nuclear Safety Culture Assessment for a Newcomer Country: Case Study of Jordan

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Khasawneh, Khalid; Park, Yun Woon [KAIST, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2016-05-15

    For countries initiating or considering to start their nuclear power programs; developing a successful safety culture is of a great challenge, owing to lack of experience and the sensitive nature of the nuclear industry in general. The Jordanian case was chosen since Jordan is in the early stages of its nuclear program and the establishment of an effective safety culture is crucial to guarantee the safe operation of its future nuclear facilities. It also should be noted that Fukushima accident has adversely affected the progress of the Jordanian nuclear program driven by the negative public opinion. The government shifts the policies toward enhancing the nuclear safety by enforcing the communication between the engaged parties and openness and transparency with public. In the wake of Fukushima accident the Jordanian government reassured the appropriate siting criteria and siting review, the leadership and the organizations commitment to nuclear safety by adopting advanced reactor technology, the consideration of modern operator accident mitigation strategies and the increased and close cooperation with IAEA and adherence to evolving international safety standards. The progress in the Jordanian nuclear power project in order to satisfy the IAEA requirements was quantified and ranked. A good progress was shown in some aspects, for example in the multicultural and multi-national elements and the establishment of an independent and effective regulatory body. However, some elements, concerning the understanding of the safety culture, management system of the regulatory body and the cultural assessment was not satisfied and an urgent need to focus on and enhance those aspects are required by the Jordanian government. Some elements, for example the leadership, communication and competence, have partial fulfillment of the IAEA requirements. However enhancing those aspects is required in the short and the mid-term in order to guarantee a well-established nuclear power

  5. Assessing species habitat using Google Street View: a case study of cliff-nesting vultures.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pedro P Olea

    Full Text Available The assessment of a species' habitat is a crucial issue in ecology and conservation. While the collection of habitat data has been boosted by the availability of remote sensing technologies, certain habitat types have yet to be collected through costly, on-ground surveys, limiting study over large areas. Cliffs are ecosystems that provide habitat for a rich biodiversity, especially raptors. Because of their principally vertical structure, however, cliffs are not easy to study by remote sensing technologies, posing a challenge for many researches and managers working with cliff-related biodiversity. We explore the feasibility of Google Street View, a freely available on-line tool, to remotely identify and assess the nesting habitat of two cliff-nesting vultures (the griffon vulture and the globally endangered Egyptian vulture in northwestern Spain. Two main usefulness of Google Street View to ecologists and conservation biologists were evaluated: i remotely identifying a species' potential habitat and ii extracting fine-scale habitat information. Google Street View imagery covered 49% (1,907 km of the roads of our study area (7,000 km². The potential visibility covered by on-ground surveys was significantly greater (mean: 97.4% than that of Google Street View (48.1%. However, incorporating Google Street View to the vulture's habitat survey would save, on average, 36% in time and 49.5% in funds with respect to the on-ground survey only. The ability of Google Street View to identify cliffs (overall accuracy = 100% outperformed the classification maps derived from digital elevation models (DEMs (62-95%. Nonetheless, high-performance DEM maps may be useful to compensate Google Street View coverage limitations. Through Google Street View we could examine 66% of the vultures' nesting-cliffs existing in the study area (n = 148: 64% from griffon vultures and 65% from Egyptian vultures. It also allowed us the extraction of fine-scale features of

  6. Assessing species habitat using Google Street View: a case study of cliff-nesting vultures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olea, Pedro P; Mateo-Tomás, Patricia

    2013-01-01

    The assessment of a species' habitat is a crucial issue in ecology and conservation. While the collection of habitat data has been boosted by the availability of remote sensing technologies, certain habitat types have yet to be collected through costly, on-ground surveys, limiting study over large areas. Cliffs are ecosystems that provide habitat for a rich biodiversity, especially raptors. Because of their principally vertical structure, however, cliffs are not easy to study by remote sensing technologies, posing a challenge for many researches and managers working with cliff-related biodiversity. We explore the feasibility of Google Street View, a freely available on-line tool, to remotely identify and assess the nesting habitat of two cliff-nesting vultures (the griffon vulture and the globally endangered Egyptian vulture) in northwestern Spain. Two main usefulness of Google Street View to ecologists and conservation biologists were evaluated: i) remotely identifying a species' potential habitat and ii) extracting fine-scale habitat information. Google Street View imagery covered 49% (1,907 km) of the roads of our study area (7,000 km²). The potential visibility covered by on-ground surveys was significantly greater (mean: 97.4%) than that of Google Street View (48.1%). However, incorporating Google Street View to the vulture's habitat survey would save, on average, 36% in time and 49.5% in funds with respect to the on-ground survey only. The ability of Google Street View to identify cliffs (overall accuracy = 100%) outperformed the classification maps derived from digital elevation models (DEMs) (62-95%). Nonetheless, high-performance DEM maps may be useful to compensate Google Street View coverage limitations. Through Google Street View we could examine 66% of the vultures' nesting-cliffs existing in the study area (n = 148): 64% from griffon vultures and 65% from Egyptian vultures. It also allowed us the extraction of fine-scale features of cliffs

  7. Assessing Aridity, Hydrological Drought, and Recovery Using GRACE and GLDAS: a Case Study in Iraq

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moradkhani, H.; Almamalachy, Y. S.; Yan, H.; Ahmadalipour, A.; Irannezhad, M.

    2016-12-01

    Iraq has suffered from several drought events during the period of 2003-2012, which imposed substantial impacts on natural environment and socioeconomic sectors, e.g. lower discharge of Tigris and Euphrates, groundwater depletion and increase in its salinity, population migration, and agricultural degradation. To investigate the aridity and climatology of Iraq, Global Land Data Assimilation System (GLDAS) monthly datasets of precipitation, temperature, and evapotranspiration at 0.25 degree spatial resolution are used. The Gravity Recovery and Climate Experiment (GRACE) satellite-derived monthly Terrestrial Water Storage (TWS) deficit is used as the hydrological drought indicator. The data is available globally at 1 degree spatial resolution. This study aims to monitor hydrological drought and assess drought recovery time for the period of August 2002 until December 2015. Two approaches are implemented to derive the GRACE-based TWS deficit. The first approach estimates the TWS deficit based on the difference from its own climatology, while the second approach directly calculates the deficit from TWS anomaly. Severity of drought events are calculated by integrating monthly water deficit over the drought period. The results indicate that both methods are capable of capturing the severe drought events in Iraq, while the second approach quantifies higher deficit and severity. In addition, two methods are employed to assess drought recovery time based on the estimated deficit. Both methods indicate similar drought recovery times, varying from less than a month to 9 months. The results demonstrate that the GRACE TWS is a reliable indicator for drought assessment over Iraq, and provides useful information to decision makers for developing drought adaptation and mitigation strategies over data-sparse regions.

  8. Environmental life cycle assessment of seafood production: A case study of trawler catches in Tunisia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abdou, Khaled; Gascuel, Didier; Aubin, Joël; Romdhane, Mohamed Salah; Ben Rais Lasram, Frida; Le Loc'h, François

    2018-01-01

    The Gulf of Gabes is one of the most productive fishery areas in the southern Mediterranean Sea. It is archetypal of an ecosystem in which the effects of fisheries are most pronounced. Demersal trawling is the main fishing activity in the Gulf of Gabes. Life Cycle Assessment (LCA) was applied to assess the environmental performance landing 1t of seafood with wooden demersal trawlers in the Gulf of Gabes. Impact categories included in the study were abiotic depletion potential (ADP), acidification potential (AP), eutrophication potential (EP), global warming potential (GWP), ozone depletion potential (ODP), photochemical oxidant formation potential (POFP), human toxicity potential (HTP), marine eco-toxicity potential (METP), terrestrial eco-toxicity potential (TETP), land occupation potential (LOP), and total cumulative energy demand (TCED). Demersal trawlers were classified based on their impact intensity. Results showed that 70% of the vessels had relatively low impacts. Impact intensity was proportional to the amount of fuel consumed to land 1t of seafood. Ships that fished less had the highest impacts per ton, due to lower fishing effort and catch per unit effort. This is likely to typify vessels that target highly valuable species such as shrimp. Onboard vessel activities contributed most to different environmental impacts (AP, EP, GWP and POFP), related to the high energy use of this fishery. Several impacts (ADP, ODP, METP, LOP and TCED) were associated mainly with fuel and lubricating oil production. Therefore, improvements must focus on minimizing fuel consumption. LCA is a valuable tool for assessing how to increase environmental sustainability of demersal trawling and it can help stakeholders identify the main operational issues that require improvement. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  9. Multifunctionality assessment in forest planning at landscape level. The study case of Matese Mountain Community (Italy.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Umberto Di Salvatore

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Normal 0 14 false false false MicrosoftInternetExplorer4 The main objective is to improve a method that aims at evaluating forest multifunctionality from a technical and practical point of view. A methodological approach - based on the index of forest multifunctionality level - is proposed to assess the “fulfilment capability” of a function providing an estimate of performance level of each function in a given forest. This method is aimed at supporting technicians requested to define most suitable management guidelines and silvicultural practices in the framework of a Forest Landscape Management Plan (FLMP. The study area is the Matese district in southern Apennines (Italy, where a landscape planning experimentation was implemented. The approach includes the qualitative and quantitative characterization of selected populations, stratified by forest category by a sampling set of forest inventory plots. A 0.5 ha area around the sample plot was described by filling a form including the following information: site condition, tree species composition, stand origin and structure, silvicultural system, health condition, microhabitats presence. In each sample plot, both the multifunctionality assessment and the estimate of the effect of alternative management options on ecosystem goods and services, were carried out. The introduction of the term “fulfilment capability” and the modification of the concept of priority level - by which the ranking of functions within a plot is evaluated - is an improvement of current analysis method. This enhanced approach allows to detect the current status of forest plot and its potential framed within the whole forest. Assessing functional features of forests with this approach reduces the inherent subjectivity and allows to get useful information on forest multifunctionality to support forest planners in defining management guidelines consistent with current status and potential evolutive pattern.

  10. SOCIAL PARTICIPATION IN THE ENVIRONMENTAL FLOW ASSESSMENT: THE SÃO FRANCISCO RIVER CASE STUDY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yvonilde Dantas Pinto Medeiros

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available Traditionally, water resource management has been developed using an essentially technical approach. Currently, public opinion on water resource management is formed as a result of growing environmental concerns and social conflicts arising from poorly planned actions. Environmental problems are complex and have multiple dimensions, including social and economic. Therefore, the inclusion of a human dimension in integrated assessment methodologies is required for the introduction of new elements to the water management planning process. Environmental water allocation (EWA is understood as the quantity, quality and distribution of water required for the maintenance of the functions and processes of aquatic ecosystems on which people depend. Within the various holistic assessment methodologies, the Building Block Methodology (BBM was found to be the most suitable, in the Brazilian context, for maintaining and restoring essential elements of the natural flow regime. This article describes the process of social participation in the environmental flow assessment (EFA for the Sao Francisco River, and compares it with some of the lessons learned from EFA in other parts of the world. The process involved multiple stakeholders who have conflicting interests. BBM was used to guide the field interviews, to incorporate the empirical observations by the local population and to guide the methodological procedures of the multidisciplinary team. The results of the study indicate the effectiveness of this holistic approach in organizing the elements to be evaluated. It also facilitated important contributions to the establishment of a dialogue between the actors to achieve a better understanding of the multiple aspects involved in the decisions associated with the EWA.

  11. Assessment of vitamin K2 levels in osteoporotic patients: a case control study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Noori, Akram; Lashkari, Mahin; Oveisi, Sonia; Khair Khah, Mohamad Reza; Zargar, Ali

    2014-07-14

    The aim of this study was to measure the level of Vitamin K2 (Vit K2) in osteoporotic patients and individuals with normal bone density as controls. This case-control study was done in Outpatient Department of Rheumatology at Qazvin Boo-ali Sina Hospital in 2013. Participants were 50 patients with osteoporotic densitometry measured by DEXA (T score? -2.5) who were matched with 48 persons in control group with normal bone density (T score> -1). The level of Vit K2 in samples was measured using enzyme linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA). Data were analyzed by Mann-Whitney U test and Chi-square test. The level of Vit K2 in patients with osteoporosis was not significantly different from the control group (Median: 75.95 vs. 71.35 nmol/L, respectively; P-value: 0.709). The authors determined cut-offs 75 percentile of vitamin K2 in all participants that was 85 nmol/L and percentages of persons in two groups were similar. Although Vit K2 level in patients with osteoporosis was not significantly different from the control group, further studies are necessary to confirm the association of osteoporosis and Vit K2.

  12. Comparison of the Results of Three Observational Methods of Assessment of Musculoskeletal Disorders: A Case Study in the Steel Industry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sajad Salimi

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Background and Objectives: Posture analysis methods are used for risk assessment of work activities in the incidence of musculoskeletal disorders. It is expected that the level of assessed risk for a certain job will be the same with different methods. This study aimed to investigate the correlation among three methods of RULA, QEC, and REBA. Methods: This descriptive cross-sectional study was performed on workers of 28 job groups in a steel complex. To evaluate the body position and postural stresses imposed on the workers, after taking pictures of different tasks, images were analyzed using RULA, QEC, and REBA methods and the risk levels were determined. Results: The correlation coefficient between RULA method and QEC and REBA methods was, respectively, 0.63 and 0.69, and it was calculated to be 0.56 between QEC and REBA methods, which was significant in all cases (p<0.01. Kappa agreement coefficient between RULA method and QEC and REBA methods was, respectively, 0.71 and 0.65, and it was calculated to be 0.36 between QEC and REBA methods, which was significant in all cases (p<0.01. Conclusion: The results of the present study provides a better understanding of different observational assessment methods of musculoskeletal disorders. These results could be beneficial, especially for ergonomic specialists in choosing assessment methods before adopting beneficial intervention measures.

  13. Environmental impact assessment of radioactive materials during sea transportation: Case study of plutonium released in the ocean

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Niel, J.Ch.

    1996-12-31

    The objectives of the environmental impact assessments of radioactive materials are at first given. The NSPI (Nuclear Safety Protection Institut) is jointly involved in these assessments. Currently, the NSPI is studying the case of plutonium release. The summary of this study is given. Indeed, to perform this assessment, the marine environment has to be modelled on a large scale and the exposure path to be calculated. Hypothesis has been made on the release phenomena as well. The proposed model, the origin of contamination, the hypothesis for the calculation and the exposure pathway are then explained. All the sea products are supposed to be eaten within the European countries. Cumulated collective doses for European countries after 50 years should be 160 man Sv in the western part of the Channel and 4.47 man Sv in the north eastern part of the atlantic ocean. (O.M.). 2 refs.

  14. Herbicide risk assessment for non-target aquatic plants: sulfosulfuron--a case study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davies, Joanna; Honegger, Joy L; Tencalla, Francesca G; Meregalli, Giovanna; Brain, Philip; Newman, Jonathan R; Pitchford, Hannah F

    2003-02-01

    Herbicides entering the aquatic environment by spray drift, run-off and leaching to field drains may cause adverse effects on non-target aquatic vegetation. The potential for such effects has typically been evaluated from tests with floating, monocotyledonous Lemna sp. However, concern has been expressed as to whether this species could be used to indicate potential effects on other vegetation types, particularly rooted, submerged, emergent or dicotyledonous species. In 1997, the Centre for Aquatic Plant Management undertook development of new tests based on the additional species, Glyceria maxima (Hartm) Holmb, Lagarosiphon major (Ridl) Moss and Myriophyllum spicatum L. The resulting methodology was used to assess the effects of the sulfonylurea herbicide, sulfosulfuron on these species. Data presented here demonstrate that exposure to initial sulfosulfuron concentrations of 3.33 microg litre(-1) for up to 21 days was tolerated by these species and that adverse effects were observed only when plants were exposed to initial concentrations of 3.33 and 10 microg litre(-1) for 70 days. As the occurrence of such high initial concentrations for long periods is unlikely in the aquatic environment, sulfosulfuron is not expected to have adverse effects on the growth of these species. This study has also demonstrated that G maxima, L major and M spicatum grown in small outdoor tanks can be used successfully to assess the effects of crop-protection products on non-target aquatic flora.

  15. Chernobyl case study increases confidence level in radionuclide transport assessments in the geosphere

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bugai, D.; Skalskyy, A. [Inst. of Geological Sciences (IGS), Kiev (Ukraine); Dewiere, L. [Inst. for Radioprotection and Nuclear Safety (IRSN), Fontenay aux Roses (France); Kashparov, V.; Levchuk, S. [Ukrainian Inst. of Agricultural Radiology (UIAR), Chabany, Kiev Region (Ukraine); Barthes, V. [Atomic Energy Commission, DRT - DTN Section of Application of Tracers (SAT), Grenoble (France)

    2002-07-01

    Results are presented from the ongoing international study (i.e., Chernobyl pilot site project) on characterization and modeling of fallout nuclear fuel particles dissolution behavior and subsequent radionuclide transport from the near-surface waste disposal site in Chernobyl zone to the geo-environment. The reported experimental work includes: - characterization of radionuclide physico-chemical speciation inside the waste site (trench); - evaluation of infiltration recharge regime through the trench body; and determination of waste soil matrix sorption parameters. In order to describe radionuclide releases from the waste, the multi-component source term model accounting for several types of fuel particles (UO{sub 2}, UO{sub 2+X}, and U-Zr-O matrix) was developed. Application of the source-term model to the Pilot Site data has given satisfactory and encouraging results. The modeling approach has proved to be capable of rather accurately reproducing independent field characterization and monitoring data relevant to {sup 90}Sr speciation inside the trench and radionuclide releases from the trench to the aquifer. The developed parameter database and modeling approach are of general value for radiological assessments of Chernobyl contaminated areas, and for possible similar accidental situations in future. Thus, acquired knowledge and data serve to increase the confidence level in radionuclide transport assessments from nuclear fuel source term to soils and geo-sphere. (orig.)

  16. Environmental assessment of recycled printing and writing paper: a case study in China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hong, Jinglan; Li, Xiangzhi

    2012-02-01

    A life cycle assessment was conducted using IMPACT2002+ to estimate the environmental impact of producing printing and writing paper, which is entirely made with wastepaper. To confirm and add credibility to the study, uncertainty analysis was conducted using Taylor series expansion. Printing and writing paper produced from wood pulp was assessed for comparison. Compared with the wood pulp contained scenario, printing and writing paper made from wastepaper represented environmental benefit on non-carcinogens, respiratory inorganics, global warming, and non-renewable energy categories. In both scenarios, the technologies significantly contribute to the potential impacts of non-carcinogens, respiratory inorganics, terrestrial ecotoxicity, global warming, and non-renewable energy. The influence of the technologies on the way other categories affect the environment was negligible. Improved efficiency in electricity consumption, decreased transport distance from raw material buyers to suppliers, and change in the end-life treatment of solid waste from landfill to incineration are the key factors in reducing the overall environmental impact. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. GIS-based preliminary wind-hydrogen energy assessment: A case study for Pakistan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hussain Siyal, Shahid; Hopper, Miles; Lefvert, Adrian; Mentis, Dimitris; Korkovelos, Alexandros; Lopez De Briñas Gorosabel, Oier; Varela González, Cristina; Howells, Mark

    2017-04-01

    While the world is making progress on incorporating renewables in the electricity grid, the transport sector is still widely locked into using gasoline and diesel fuels. Simultaneously, wind energy is encountering resistance due to its intermittent nature. Wind to hydrogen energy conversion poses a solution to this problem, using wind powered electrolysis to produce hydrogen which can fuel the transport sector. In this report a preliminary assessment for wind to hydrogen energy conversion potential of Pakistan was made considering two different turbines; Vestas V82 and V112. Using available wind speed data, processed in ArcGIS, the hydrogen potential was calculated. Finally, the economic feasibility and potential environmental savings were assessed. From the results it was concluded that Pakistan has a good potential for wind to hydrogen conversion, with 63,807 and 80,232 ktons of hydrogen per year from the V82 and V112 turbines. This corresponds to 2,105 and 2,647 TWh of energy per year respectively. Only using 2% of that potential could give emissions savings of up to 11.43 and 14.37 MtCO2-eq, which would give good reason for more in-depth studies to evaluate the feasibility of a project in Pakistan.

  18. Assessment of skewed exposure in case-control studies with pooling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Whitcomb, Brian W; Perkins, Neil J; Zhang, Zhiwei; Ye, Aijun; Lyles, Robert H

    2012-09-28

    Pooling-based strategies that combine samples from multiple participants for laboratory assays have been proposed for epidemiologic investigations of biomarkers to address issues including cost, efficiency, detection, and when minimal sample volume is available. A modification of the standard logistic regression model has been previously described to allow use with pooled data; however, this model makes assumptions regarding exposure distribution and logit-linearity of risk (i.e., constant odds ratio) that can be violated in practice. We were motivated by a nested case-control study of miscarriage and inflammatory factors with highly skewed distributions to develop a more flexible model for analysis of pooled data. Using characteristics of the gamma distribution and the relation between models of binary outcome conditional on exposure and of exposure conditional on outcome, we use a modified logistic regression to accommodate nonlinearity because of unequal shape parameters in gamma distributed exposure for cases and controls. Using simulations, we compare our approach with existing methods for logistic regression for pooled data considering: (1) constant and dose-dependent effects; (2) gamma and log-normal distributed exposure; (3) effect size; and (4) the proportions of biospecimens pooled. We show that our approach allows estimation of odds ratios that vary with exposure level, yet has minimal loss of efficiency compared with existing approaches when exposure effects are dose-invariant. Our model performed similarly to a maximum likelihood estimation approach in terms of bias and efficiency, and provides an easily implemented approach for estimation with pooled biomarker data when effects may not be constant across exposure. Copyright © 2012 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  19. Combining Learning and Assessment in Assessment-Based Gaming Environments: A Case Study from a New York City School

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zapata-Rivera, Diego; VanWinkle, Waverely; Doyle, Bryan; Buteux, Alyssa; Bauer, Malcolm

    2009-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this paper is to propose and demonstrate an evidence-based scenario design framework for assessment-based computer games. Design/methodology/approach: The evidence-based scenario design framework is presented and demonstrated by using BELLA, a new assessment-based gaming environment aimed at supporting student learning of…

  20. GROUNDWATER QUALITY ASSESSMENT FOR DRINKING PURPOSES USING GIS MODELLING (CASE STUDY: CITY OF TABRIZ

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Jeihouni

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Tabriz is the largest industrial city in North West of Iran and it is developing rapidly. A large proportion of water requirements for this city are supplied from dams. In this research, groundwater quality assessed through sampling 70 wells in Tabriz and its rural areas. The purposes of this study are: (1 specifying spatial distribution of groundwater quality parameters such as Chloride, Electrical Conductivity (EC, pH, hardness and sulphate (2 mapping groundwater quality for drinking purpose by employing Analytic Hierarchy Process (AHP method in the study area using GIS and Geosatistics. We utilized an interpolation technique of ordinary kriging for generating thematic map of each parameter. The final map indicates that the groundwater quality esaeicni from North to South and from West to East of the study area. The areas located in Center, South and South West of the study area have the optimum quality for drinking purposes which are the best locations to drill wells for supplying water demands of Tabriz city. In critical conditions, the groundwater quality map as a result of this research can be taken into account by East Azerbaijan Regional Water Company as decision support system to drill new wells or selecting existing wells to supply drinking water to Tabriz city.

  1. Rock Strength Anisotropy in High Stress Conditions: A Case Study for Application to Shaft Stability Assessments

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Watson Julian Matthew

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Although rock strength anisotropy is a well-known phenomenon in rock mechanics, its impact on geotechnical design is often ignored or underestimated. This paper explores the concept of anisotropy in a high stress environment using an improved unified constitutive model (IUCM, which can account for more complex failure mechanisms. The IUCM is used to better understand the typical responses of anisotropic rocks to underground mining. This study applies the IUCM to a proposed rock shaft located in high stress/anisotropic conditions. Results suggest that the effect of rock strength anisotropy must be taken into consideration when assessing the rock mass response to mining in high stress and anisotropic rock conditions.

  2. Climate change impact assessment of extreme precipitation on urban flash floods – case study, Aarhus, Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Madsen, Henrik; Sunyer Pinya, Maria Antonia; Rosbjerg, Dan

    Climate change is expected to cause more intense extreme rainfall events, which will have a severe impact on the risk of flash floods in urban areas. An assessment study was performed for the city of Aarhus, Denmark, analysing different methods of statistical downscaling of climate model...... considered. Urban flooding in Aarhus was simulated with a model that dynamically couples a hydraulic model of the drainage system and a 2D overland flow model. Scenarios representing current and future climate including uncertainties in the climate projections were analysed using synthetic design storms...... projections for estimation of changes in extreme rainfall characteristics. Climate model projections from 20 regional climate models (RCM) from the ENSEMBLES data archive were used in the analysis. Two different estimation methods were applied, using, respectively, a direct estimation of the changes...

  3. Vegetation assessment in a pipeline influence area: the case study of PETROBRAS ammonia pipeline

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Basbaum, Marcos A.; Porciano, Patricia P.; Bonafini, Fabio L. [SEEBLA - Servicos de Engenharia Emilio Baumgart Ltda., Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil)], e-mail: mbasbaum.seebla@petrobras.com.br, e-mail: patriciapp.seebla@petrobras.com.br, e-mail: bonafini.seebla@petrobras.com.br; Guimaraes, Ricardo Z.P.; Torggler, Bianca F.; Fernandes, Renato; Vieira, Elisa D.R. [PETROBRAS S.A., Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil)], e-mail: rzaluar@petrobras.com.br, e-mail: torggler@petrobras.com.br, e-mail: renatofer@petrobras.com.br, e-mail: elisav@petrobras.com.br

    2009-12-19

    This ammonia pipeline is about 30 km long and links the Fertilizer Plant (FAFEN-BA) to the Urea Marine Terminal (TMU) at the Port of Aratu in Candeias (Bahia State, Brazil). In this study, we characterize the remnants of vegetation and quantify the Permanent Preservation Areas. Furthermore, we propose areas and techniques for their recovery and / or management. The methodology was based on the Rapid Ecological Assessment, which combines selection of areas through remote sensing image analysis, with rapid field campaigns in the selected points. This methodology, successfully applied in PETROBRAS refineries, is first applied in a pipeline influence area. During these campaigns, the main aspects of vegetation, such as phyto physiognomy and ecological succession stages, were registered in field data sheets prepared for this purpose. The most representative remnants of vegetation that could be quantified were Atlantic Forest fragments, as well as those in the Permanent Preservation Areas. (author)

  4. Validating the Octave Allegro Information Systems Risk Assessment Methodology: A Case Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keating, Corland G.

    2014-01-01

    An information system (IS) risk assessment is an important part of any successful security management strategy. Risk assessments help organizations to identify mission-critical IS assets and prioritize risk mitigation efforts. Many risk assessment methodologies, however, are complex and can only be completed successfully by highly qualified and…

  5. Assessment of two-way relationship between periodontal disease and gestational diabetes mellitus: A case-control study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kalra, Monika; Tangade, Pradeep; Punia, Himanshu; Gupta, Vipul; Sharma, Hunny; Jain, Ankita

    2016-01-01

    Gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM) is glucose intolerance which begins during pregnancy. Few studies have examined the association between periodontal disease and GDM. The aim of this study was to assess the association between periodontal disease and GDM. The study population comprised ninety patients, out of which thirty were cases and sixty were controls. All cases underwent a laboratory screening test for GDM between 24 and 30 weeks of gestation based on the recommendation of the obstetricians and gynecologists. To assess the periodontal status, a full-mouth periodontal examination assessing the probing depth, periodontal depth, bleeding on probing, clinical attachment level, and gingival recession was performed on all study participants by a single trained examiner. Tests for associations were performed using Chi-square statistics and multivariate logistic regression analysis. None of the periodontitis conditions was found to be a significant predictor of GDM. In GDM patients, 70% of females were having periodontal disease whereas non-GDM patients 77% of patient had periodontal disease. The present study did not show any positive association between periodontal disease and GDM.

  6. A Case Study of Dynamic Response Analysis and Safety Assessment for a Suspended Monorail System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yulong Bao

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available A suspended monorail transit system is a category of urban rail transit, which is effective in alleviating traffic pressure and injury prevention. Meanwhile, with the advantages of low cost and short construction time, suspended monorail transit systems show vast potential for future development. However, the suspended monorail has not been systematically studied in China, and there is a lack of relevant knowledge and analytical methods. To ensure the health and reliability of a suspended monorail transit system, the driving safety of vehicles and structure dynamic behaviors when vehicles are running on the bridge should be analyzed and evaluated. Based on the method of vehicle-bridge coupling vibration theory, the finite element method (FEM software ANSYS and multi-body dynamics software SIMPACK are adopted respectively to establish the finite element model for bridge and the multi-body vehicle. A co-simulation method is employed to investigate the vehicle-bridge coupling vibration for the transit system. The traffic operation factors, including train formation, track irregularity and tire stiffness, are incorporated into the models separately to analyze the bridge and vehicle responses. The results show that the coupling of dynamic effects of the suspended monorail system between vehicle and bridge are significant in the case studied, and it is strongly suggested to take necessary measures for vibration suppression. The simulation of track irregularity is a critical factor for its vibration safety, and the track irregularity of A-level road roughness negatively influences the system vibration safety.

  7. A Case Study of Dynamic Response Analysis and Safety Assessment for a Suspended Monorail System.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bao, Yulong; Li, Yongle; Ding, Jiajie

    2016-11-10

    A suspended monorail transit system is a category of urban rail transit, which is effective in alleviating traffic pressure and injury prevention. Meanwhile, with the advantages of low cost and short construction time, suspended monorail transit systems show vast potential for future development. However, the suspended monorail has not been systematically studied in China, and there is a lack of relevant knowledge and analytical methods. To ensure the health and reliability of a suspended monorail transit system, the driving safety of vehicles and structure dynamic behaviors when vehicles are running on the bridge should be analyzed and evaluated. Based on the method of vehicle-bridge coupling vibration theory, the finite element method (FEM) software ANSYS and multi-body dynamics software SIMPACK are adopted respectively to establish the finite element model for bridge and the multi-body vehicle. A co-simulation method is employed to investigate the vehicle-bridge coupling vibration for the transit system. The traffic operation factors, including train formation, track irregularity and tire stiffness, are incorporated into the models separately to analyze the bridge and vehicle responses. The results show that the coupling of dynamic effects of the suspended monorail system between vehicle and bridge are significant in the case studied, and it is strongly suggested to take necessary measures for vibration suppression. The simulation of track irregularity is a critical factor for its vibration safety, and the track irregularity of A-level road roughness negatively influences the system vibration safety.

  8. Assessment of risk factors in laryngeal cancer in India: a case-control study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kapil, Umesh; Singh, Preeti; Bahadur, Sudhir; Dwivedi, Sada Nand; Singh, Rajvir; Shukla, Nk

    2005-01-01

    Cancer of the larynx is fourteenth most common cancer in the world. Limited data are available from India on associations with risk factors and hence the present hospital based matched case-control study was conducted. Three hundred and five laryngeal cancer patients and an equal number of healthy controls matched for their age within 2 years, sex and place of residence constituted the study population. A pre-tested, semi-structured questionnaire was administered to each individual to elicit information on their socio-demographic profile, food habits and risk factors and dietary consumption patterns. Univariate logistic regression analysis and multivariate forward stepwise conditional logistic analysis were performed. In the univariate analysis a lower consumption of roots and tubers green leaf vegetable other vegetables and fruits, and higher consumption of milk, eggs, meat, tea, alcohol , smoking, consumption of betel leaf with tobacco as well as a preference for spicy and fried foods emerged as significant positive variables. After adjusting for education, years of use of alcohol, smoking, chewing of betel leaf with tobacco in the model, low green leafy vegetables and preference for spicy foods were found to be positively related to the risk of laryngeal cancer. There was a significant difference in the dietary consumption patterns of laryngeal cancer patients and controls, indicating a role for nutritional factors in the etiology of laryngeal cancer in the Indian population.

  9. Dynamic IRT for the frescoes assessment: the study case of Danza Macabra in Clusone (Italy)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ludwig, Nicola; Rosina, Elisabetta

    2005-03-01

    IRT technique applications for the detection of the plasters defects in historic buildings are widely documented by scientific literature. Previous studies demonstrated the advantages of tomographic techniques to obtain quantitative results by IRT. With a quantitative approach, the dynamic measures of IRT, versus time and maximum value of thermal contrast, allows to locate the delamination and calculate its volume inside the thickness of the plaster. Nevertheless, effects are not prominent if compared with the ones caused by the interaction between surface and irradiation. Moreover these effects are lower than the noise due to the approximation of the spectral coefficient value. Authors already showed that the multispectral evaluation of the reflectance coefficients, in the range of visible and near IR, contributes to a proper evaluation of the thermograms shot on surfaces affected by chromatic alterations. In the study case, the evolution of the surface temperature in time allows to quantify the effects of spectral absorption (absorbance) in the thermograms. By comparing the thermograms to the maps of damages and intervention, it has been possible to correlate the materials and its state of conservation to the evolution of the thermal profile corresponding to each analyzed area.

  10. The added value of water footprint assessment for national water policy: a case study for Morocco.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joep F Schyns

    Full Text Available A Water Footprint Assessment is carried out for Morocco, mapping the water footprint of different activities at river basin and monthly scale, distinguishing between surface- and groundwater. The paper aims to demonstrate the added value of detailed analysis of the human water footprint within a country and thorough assessment of the virtual water flows leaving and entering a country for formulating national water policy. Green, blue and grey water footprint estimates and virtual water flows are mainly derived from a previous grid-based (5 × 5 arc minute global study for the period 1996-2005. These estimates are placed in the context of monthly natural runoff and waste assimilation capacity per river basin derived from Moroccan data sources. The study finds that: (i evaporation from storage reservoirs is the second largest form of blue water consumption in Morocco, after irrigated crop production; (ii Morocco's water and land resources are mainly used to produce relatively low-value (in US$/m3 and US$/ha crops such as cereals, olives and almonds; (iii most of the virtual water export from Morocco relates to the export of products with a relatively low economic water productivity (in US$/m3; (iv blue water scarcity on a monthly scale is severe in all river basins and pressure on groundwater resources by abstractions and nitrate pollution is considerable in most basins; (v the estimated potential water savings by partial relocation of crops to basins where they consume less water and by reducing water footprints of crops down to benchmark levels are significant compared to demand reducing and supply increasing measures considered in Morocco's national water strategy.

  11. Personal Metabolism (PM) coupled with Life Cycle Assessment (LCA) model: Danish Case Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kalbar, Pradip P; Birkved, Morten; Kabins, Simon; Nygaard, Simon Elsborg

    2016-05-01

    Sustainable and informed resource consumption is the key to make everyday living sustainable for entire populations. An intelligent and strategic way of addressing the challenges related with sustainable development of the everyday living of consumers is to identify consumption-determined hotspots in terms of environmental and health burdens, as well as resource consumptions. Analyzing consumer life styles in terms of consumption patterns in order to identify hotspots is hence the focus of this study. This is achieved by taking into account the entire value chain of the commodities consumed in the context of environmental and human health burdens, as well as resource consumptions. A systematic commodity consumption, commodity disposal, and life style survey of 1281 persons living in urbanized Danish areas was conducted. The findings of the survey showed new impact dimensions in terms of Personal Metabolism (PM) patterns of residents living in urbanized areas of Denmark. Extending the PM analysis with Life Cycle Assessment (LCA) provided a clear picture of the per capita environmental and human health burdens, as well as resource consumptions, and the exact origin hereof. A generic PM-LCA Model for all the 1281 persons was set-up in Gabi 6. The assessment results obtained applying the model on all 1281 personal consumption scenarios yielded the 1281 Personal Impact Profiles (PIPs). Consumption of food and energy (electricity and thermal energy) proved to be the primary impact sources of PM, followed by transport. The PIPs further revealed that behavioral factors (e.g. different diets, use of cars, household size) affect the profiles. Hence, behavioral changes are one means out of many that humanity will most likely have to rely on during the sustainable development process. The results of this study will help the Danish and other comparable populations to identify and prioritize the steps towards reducing their environmental, human health, and resource consumption

  12. Health, Safety and Environment (HSE assessment of neighborhoods: A case study in Tehran Municipality

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Narmin Hassanzadeh- Rangi

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Urbanization is growing rapidly in recent centuries. This phenomenon can cause many changes in various aspects of human life including the economy, education and public health This study was conducted to assess the Health, Safety and Environment (HSE problems in Tehran neighborhoods. A new instrument was developed based on the results of a literature review and formulated during a pilot study. Through cluster sampling, 10 neighborhoods were selected based from 374 neighborhoods of Tehran. Six observers completed observational items during the field studies. Secondary data were used to obtain non-observation characteristics. Standard descriptive statistics were used to compare the HSE characteristics in sampled neighborhoods. Furthermore, control chart was used to as a decision rule to identify specific variation among sampled neighborhoods. Niavaran neighborhood had the best HSE status (52.80%±25.03 whereas Khak Sefid neighborhood had the worst one (20.09%±27.51. Standard deviations of HSE characteristics were high in different parts of a neighborhood. Statistical analysis indicated that significant differences in HSE characteristics exist among sampled neighborhoods. HSE status was in warning situation in both rich and poor neighborhoods. Community-based interventions were suggested as health promotion programs to involve and empower people in neighborhoods.

  13. Longitudinal assessment of carotid atherosclerosis after Radiation Therapy using Computed Tomography: A case control Study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Anzidei, Michele [Rome Univ. ' ' La Sapienza' ' (Italy). Dept. of Radiology; Suri, Jasjit S.; Piga, Mario [AtheroPoint TM LLC, Roseville, CA (United States). Monitoring and Diagnostic Div.; Global Biomedical Technologies, Inc., CA (United States). Point of Care Devices; Idaho Univ., Moscow, ID (United States). Electrical Engineering Dept.; Saba, Luca [Azienda Ospedaliero Universitaria (A.O.U.), Cagliari (Italy). Dept. of Radiology; Sanfilippo, Roberto; Montisci, Roberto [Azienda Ospedaliero Universitaria (A.O.U.), Cagliari (Italy). Dept. of Vascular Surgery; Laddeo, Giancarlo [New York Univ. Langone Medical Center, New York, NY (United States). Dept. of Radiology; Argiolas, Giovanni Maria [Azienda Ospedaliera Brotzu, Cagliari (Italy). Dept. of Radiology; Raz, Eytan [Rome Univ. ' ' La Sapienza' ' (Italy). Dept. of Radiology; New York Univ. Langone Medical Center, New York, NY (United States). Dept. of Radiology

    2016-01-15

    To study the carotid artery plaque composition and its volume changes in a group of patients at baseline and 2 years after head and neck radiation therapy treatment (HNXRT). In this retrospective study, 62 patients (41 males; mean age 63 years; range 52-81) who underwent HNXRT and 40 patients (24 males; mean age 65) who underwent surgical resection of neoplasm and did not undergo HNXRT were assessed, with 2-year follow-up. The carotid artery plaque volumes, as well as the volume of the sub-components (fatty-mixed-calcified), were semiautomatically quantified. Mann-Whitney and Wilcoxon tests were used to test the hypothesis. In the HNXRT group, there was a statistically significant increase in the total volume of the carotid artery plaques (from 533 to 746 mm{sup 3}; p = 0.001), in the fatty plaques (103 vs. 202 mm{sup 3}; p = 0.001) and mixed plaque component volume (328 vs. 419 mm{sup 3}; p = 0.034). A statistically significant variation (from 21.8 % to 27.6 %) in the percentage of the fatty tissue was found. of this preliminary study suggest that HNXRT promotes increased carotid artery plaque volume, particularly the fatty plaque component. (orig.)

  14. Air quality improvement estimation and assessment using contingent valuation method, a case study in Beijing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, X J; Zhang, W; Li, Y; Yang, K Z; Bai, M

    2006-09-01

    The aim of the paper is to estimate and assess residents' willingness to pay to improve air quality in the urban area of Beijing using the Contingent Valuation Method (CVM). The mean willingness to pay (WTP) for a 50% reduction of harmful substances in the air was 143 CNY per household per year, and the total WTP of the residents in the study area was 336 million CNY per year. As a proportion of household annual income, the mean WTP amounted to 0.7%. Four socio-economic variables were found to have significant impacts on residents' willingness to pay. The analysis results illustrated that WTP increases with income and education level, and decreases with household population and age. The willingness was larger for residents in the urban districts than those in the suburban districts. It was found that most of the protest bids lay on interviewees' incomplete perception of the values of environmental amenity. The influence of household income on people's willingness to pay illustrated in this study reflects a causal force of Beijing's transition to market economy that households created to have disposable income are more likely to care about environmental quality. The results of this study strike an optimistic note on the possibility of measuring the total economic value of environmental quality improvement by using the CVM in China. Suggestions on implication of the CVM for both academics and policy makers are provided in the paper.

  15. MAPPING AND MODELLING FRACTURES USING GROUND PENETRATING RADAR FOR ORNAMENTAL STONE ASSESSMENT AND RECOVERY OPTIMIZATION: TWO CASE STUDIES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohamed Elkarmoty

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Rock mass is typically characterized by inherent fractures that cause natural blocks of rocks. Unplanned cutting of stone deposits in quarries may lead to over-producing waste (rock debris or extracting unfit (fractured stone blocks. This paper presents two case studies through the use of low and high frequency Ground Penetrating Radar (GPR antennas to detect fractures in two benches of a quarry. In the first case study, a high frequency GPR antenna was used aiming to: (i compare the GPR results with a map of the out-cropping fracture intensity in the bench surface, developed using the data of the GPR survey marks and interpolated by the Ordinary Kriging technique, and (ii present how sub-vertical fractures can be numerically modelled in three dimensions from the GPR results. The second case study was focused on using a low frequency antenna to detect large aperture size of fracture surfaces as deep as possible in order to evaluate a deposit stratum before quarrying. This could be done through studying the reflections from a 3D cross-sectional GPR model and a 3D transparent GPR model. In the discussion section, an exploitation planning approach, based on modelling fractures as 3D surfaces, is theoretically and graphically proposed to optimize the stone production recovery. The two case studies showed that GPR is a successful tool for the assessment of ornamental stone deposits and a promising tool for recovery optimization.

  16. Integrated Approaches to Testing and Assessment: OECD Activities on the Development and Use of Adverse Outcome Pathways and Case Studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sakuratani, Yuki; Horie, Masashi; Leinala, Eeva

    2018-01-09

    The Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development (OECD) works with member countries and other stakeholders to improve and harmonize chemical assessment methods. In 2012, the OECD Adverse Outcome Pathways (AOPs) Development Programme started. The Programme has published six AOPs thus far and more than 60 AOPs are under various stages of development under the Programme. This article reviews recent OECD activities on the use of AOPs in developing Integrated Approaches to Testing and Assessments (IATAs). The guidance document for the use of AOPs in developing IATA, published in 2016, provides a framework for developing and using IATA and describes how IATA can be based on an AOP. The guidance document on the reporting of defined approaches to be used within IATA, also published in 2016, provides a set of principles for reporting defined approaches to testing and assessment to facilitate their evaluation. In the guidance documents, the AOP concept plays an important role for building IATA approaches in a science-based and transparent way. In 2015, the IATA Case Studies Project was launched to increase experience with the use of IATA and novel hazard methodologies by developing case studies, which constitute examples of predictions that are fit-for-regulatory use. This activity highlights the importance of international collaboration for harmonizing and improving chemical safety assessment methods. © 2018 Nordic Association for the Publication of BCPT (former Nordic Pharmacological Society).

  17. Assessment of Safety Condition in One of the Teaching Hospitals in Kermanshah (2015: A Case Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Masod Ghanbari Kakavand

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Background & Aims of the Study: Many working conditions-related stress factors that can produce injuries and illnesses are important in hospital environments. So, the health and safety of nurses and patients from workplace-induced injuries and illnesses is important. In this study, we have assessed the safety condition of one of the teaching hospitals in Kermanshah (2015. Materials and Methods: This descriptive and cross-sectional study was conducted in one of the teaching hospital of Kermanshah University of medical sciences. For this aim a checklist was prepared based on the Occupational Safety and Health Administration's standards and Part 3 of the manual of National Building Regulations. These checklists comprised (The final checklist had 239 questions of 9 dimensions various sections of safety including; fire safety, building safety, electrical safety, emergency exit routes safety, heating and cooling equipment safety, operating room and laundry room and salty home safety. Eventually, using SPSS 16 and descriptive statistics, data were analyzed. Results: According to the results of this study, 66.6% of the units had poor safety and 33.4% of them were moderately safe. As well as, only ICU and CCU unit, heating and cooling equipment and operational room showed moderate compliance with safety requirements and other sections were poorly complied. Conclusion: The results of this study showed that safety conditions of hospital were not at favorable level. These poor safety statues can jeopardize patients and hospital personnel. Thus some interventions such as improvement of working conditions, compliance with safety acts and implementation of health, safety and environmental management system would be necessary.

  18. Integrative Indicator for Assessing the Alert Levels of Algal Bloom in Lakes: Lake Taihu as a Case Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Qinqin; Hu, Weiping; Zhai, Shuhua

    2016-01-01

    Algal blooms have recently become one of the most serious environmental problems in eutrophic freshwater ecosystems worldwide. Although many observation and simulation approaches have been applied to predict algal blooms, few studies have addressed the alert levels of algal blooms using integrative indicators in a large lake with multiple service function and significant horizontal heterogeneity. This study developed an integrative indicator assessment system (IIAS) to rank the alert level of algal blooms. In the IIAS, algal biomass, area percentage, distance from drinking water intake points, distance from scenic zones and duration of algal bloom were used as indicators to calculate a comprehensive alert level, which was classified into five grades (Vigilance, Low, Moderate, High, and Severe). Lake Taihu was taken as a case study to assess the comprehensive alert level of algal blooms in 2007 and 2010. The comprehensive alert level showed obvious spatial-temporal patterns, with an acceptable accuracy in Lake Taihu. The comprehensive alert levels were relatively higher in typical phytoplankton subzones than typical hydrophytes subzones and are more sensitive to weight factor in the northern and western subzones where high biomass usually occurs. Case study showed a very good application of the proposed comprehensive alert level assessment methodology, which can be adjusted to predict the degree of hazard of algal blooms in multi-service function large lakes to help the government and decision makers to act to prevent the disaster from algal bloom spreading.

  19. Lead Exposure Assessment among Pregnant Women, Newborns, and Children: Case Study from Karachi, Pakistan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fatmi, Zafar; Sahito, Ambreen; Ikegami, Akihiko; Mizuno, Atsuko; Cui, Xiaoyi; Mise, Nathan; Takagi, Mai; Kobayashi, Yayoi; Kayama, Fujio

    2017-04-13

    Lead (Pb) in petrol has been banned in developed countries. Despite the control of Pb in petrol since 2001, high levels were reported in the blood of pregnant women and children in Pakistan. However, the identification of sources of Pb has been elusive due to its pervasiveness. In this study, we assessed the lead intake of pregnant women and one- to three-year-old children from food, water, house dust, respirable dust, and soil. In addition, we completed the fingerprinting of the Pb isotopic ratios (LIR) of petrol and secondary sources (food, house-dust, respirable dust, soil, surma (eye cosmetics)) of exposure within the blood of pregnant women, newborns, and children. Eight families, with high (~50 μg/dL), medium (~20 μg/dL), and low blood levels (~10 μg/dL), were selected from 60 families. The main sources of exposure to lead for children were food and house-dust, and those for pregnant women were soil, respirable dust, and food. LIR was determined by inductively coupled plasma quadrupole mass spectrometry (ICP-QMS) with a two sigma uncertainty of ±0.03%. The LIR of mothers and newborns was similar. In contrast, surma , and to a larger extent petrol, exhibited a negligible contribution to both the child's and mother's blood Pb. Household wet-mopping could be effective in reducing Pb exposure. This intake assessment could be replicated for other developing countries to identify sources of lead and the burden of lead exposure in the population.

  20. Life Cycle Assessment of Two Vineyards after the Application of Precision Viticulture Techniques: A Case Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Athanasios T. Balafoutis

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available Precision viticulture is the application of site-specific techniques to vineyard production to improve grape quality and yield and minimize the negative effects on the environment. While there are various studies on the inherent spatial and temporal variability of vineyards, the assessment of the environmental impact of variable rate applications has attracted limited attention. In this study, two vineyards planted with different grapevine cultivars (Sauvignon Blanc and Syrah were examined for four consecutive growing seasons (2013–2016. The first year, the two vineyards were only studied in terms of soil properties and crop characteristics, which resulted in the delineation of two distinct management zones for each field. For the following three years, variable rate nutrient application was applied to each management zone based on leaf canopy reflectance, where variable rate irrigation was based on soil moisture sensors, meteorological data, evapotranspiration calculation, and leaf canopy reflectance. Life cycle assessment was carried out to identify the effect of variable rate applications on vineyard agro-ecosystems. The results of variable rate nutrients and water application in the selected management zones as an average value of three growing seasons were compared to the conventional practice. It was found that the reduction of product carbon footprint (PCF of grapes in Sauvignon Blanc between the two periods was 25% in total. Fertilizer production and distribution (direct and application (indirect was the most important sector of greenhouse gas (GHG emissions reduction, accounting for 17.2%, and the within-farm energy use was the second ranked sector with 8.8% (crop residue management increase GHG emissions by 1.1%, while 0.1% GHG reduction is obtained by pesticide use. For the Syrah vineyard, where the production was less intensive, precision viticulture led to a PCF reduction of 28.3% compared to conventional production. Fertilizers

  1. ACADEMICS ASSESSMENT OF STUDENTS WEB 2.0 ACTIVITIES. CASE STUDY OF THE ECONOMIC PROFILE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lacurezanu Ramona

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available The evaluation is the way through which the universities demonstrate their own value, but also that of their graduates. Our present paper suggests a debate regarding the evaluation of students in economics in a web 2.0 world. More precisely, we are trying to offer an answer to the question: Do the students of economics have the necessary computer science abilities to learn and to be evaluated in a 2.0 web environment? The paper starts off with the presentation of fundamental principles of assessment and teaching done with Web 2.0 means and methods. The exemplifications are added to this structure as they had been presented in the specialized works of this domain. The paper then goes on to present the results of our prospective study. Through this prospective study we wanted to identify the attributes based on which we could create the next phases of our research into elaborating the behavior of the students as it is observed during the process of evaluation. This evaluation takes place in a world that is bombarded with synchronic and a-synchronic means of communication called according to acronyms such as web 2.0, 3.0 and maybe even 4.0. It is in this context that we consider that the main purpose of the present paper is to determine the state of being prepared/ unprepared characterizing the student in the use (acceptance of the evaluation and assessment of certain softs for socialization. In order to achieve our purpose, we have carried out a survey based on which we were intending to obtain the students’ level of perception regarding the evaluation system they are subjected to through web 2.0 means as well as their reaction to the web type of evaluation. The result we obtained demonstrated that the students are willing to participate at a declarative level, but they are not actually willing to be evaluated through web 2.0 means when it comes to practice. The end of the study is where we identified the need for a better means of informing and

  2. Groundwater vulnerability assessment using fuzzy logic: a case study in the Zayandehrood aquifers, Iran.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rezaei, Farshad; Safavi, Hamid R; Ahmadi, Azadeh

    2013-01-01

    Groundwater is an important source of water, especially in arid and semi-arid regions where surface water is scarce. Groundwater pollution in these regions is consequently a major concern, especially as pollution control and removal in these resources are not only expensive but at times impossible. It is, therefore, essential to prevent their contamination in the first place by properly identifying vulnerable zones. One method most commonly used for evaluating groundwater pollution is the DRASTIC method, in which the Boolean logic is used to rank and classify the parameters involved. Problems arise, however, in the application of the Boolean logic. In this paper, the fuzzy logic has been used to avoid the problems. For this purpose, three critical cases of minimum, maximum, and mean values have been considered for the net recharge parameter. The process has been performed on the Zayandehrood river basin aquifers. The fuzzy-DRASTIC vulnerability map thus obtained indicates that the western areas of the basin generally have the maximum pollution potential followed by the areas located in the east. The central parts of the study area are found to have a low pollution potential. Finally, two sensitivity analyses are performed to show the significance of each value of the net recharge parameter in the calculation of vulnerability index.

  3. Assessing Land Suitability for Rainwater Harvesting Using Geospatial Techniques: A Case Study of Njoro Catchment, Kenya

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C. W. Maina

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Water demand increases as population increases leading to overexploitation of water resource. Consequently, there is need for improved water resources management complemented with rain water harvesting within the catchments. This study sought to assess land suitability for surface runoff harvesting using geospatial techniques. Land use/land cover maps of the area were derived from Landsat image. Land use and soils data were used in generating curve number map of the catchment. Lineaments greatly affect the storage depending on whether runoff is for surface storage or ground water recharge purposes. As a result, ArcGIS was used in delineating the lineaments from Digital Elevation Model (DEM of the catchment. Further, using weighted overlay the catchment was grouped into categories of restricted, not suitable, moderately suitable, suitable, or highly suitable. The study found that forest, agriculture, and built-up areas occupied about 39.42%, 36.32%, and 1.35% of catchment area, respectively. A large part of catchment was found to have curve number range of 82–89. About 50% of the catchment was found to fall within suitable and highly suitable categories. This implied that a great potential exists for rain water harvesting within the catchment.

  4. [Assessment of strategies of science and technology management: a case study].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pereira, J C; Saes, S G

    1995-08-01

    The Health Department of the State of S. Paulo has implemented a management strategy on research and development (R&D) for its research institutes which comprises three different items: 1) project registration, 2) support and 3) promotion of R&D activities. The present study explores the ability of this R&D management system to provide information and evaluates the performance of the third item which has been responsible for the assignment of research grants to professionals whose projects are selected through a peer review. The assessment of the grant's distribution was conducted by comparing the mean scientific production recorded in literature data bases for grant holders and equal an number of controls matched by institute of origin. The ability of the system to produce information was studied by the application of Cluster Analysis. The results show that grant holders have a scientific production significantly higher than their controls. Concerning information production, it is shown that proper raw data processing may render suggestions for decision making and that the institutes may be grouped in clusters of those that adopt similar management strategies.

  5. Long-term follow-up on total reconstruction of the temporomandibular joint - functional, psychosocial and radiological assessments in a case-series study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Kristian; Dahl, Martin; Nørholt, Sven Erik

    Long-term follow-up on total reconstruction of the temporomandibular joint - functional, psychosocial and radiological assessments in a case-series study......Long-term follow-up on total reconstruction of the temporomandibular joint - functional, psychosocial and radiological assessments in a case-series study...

  6. Integrated design and sustainable assessment of innovative biomass supply chains: A case-study on miscanthus in France

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Perrin, Aurelie; Wohlfahrt, Julie; Morandi, Fabiana

    2017-01-01

    economically optimized across the whole supply chain (from field to plant gate) by considering potential feedstock production (from a high-resolution map), costs, logistical constraints and product prices. Then sustainability assessment was conducted by combining recognized methodologies: economic analysis......Cost-efficient, environmental-friendly and socially sustainable biomass supply chains are urgently needed to achieve the 2020 targets of the Strategic Energy Technologies-Plan of the European Union. This paper investigated technical, social, economic, and environmental barriers to the development......, multi-regional input-output analysis, emergy assessment, and life-cycle assessment. The analysis of the case study scenarios found that expanding biomass supply from 6,000 to 30,000tons of dry matter per year did not impact the profitability, which remained around 20€perton of biomass procured...

  7. Assessing health care needs and clinical outcome with Urological case complexity : A study using INTERMED

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Herms, AMRD; Pinggera, GM; De Jonge, P; Strasser, H; Sollner, W

    2003-01-01

    Urinary tract symptoms and, particularly, urinary incontinence are often chronic and complex conditions that cause diagnosis, treatment, and management problems. In many cases, psychosocial factors contribute to the development of a chronic condition. The authors investigated whether INTERMED, an

  8. Using Dust Assessment Technology to Leverage Mine Site Manager-Worker Communication and Health Behavior: A Longitudinal Case Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haas, Emily J; Cecala, Andrew B; Hoebbel, Cassandra L

    2016-01-06

    Research continues to investigate barriers to managing occupational health and safety behaviors among the workforce. Recent literature argues that (1) there is a lack of consistent, multilevel communication and application of health and safety practices, and (2) social scientific methods are absent when determining how to manage injury prevention in the workplace. In response, the current study developed and tested a multilevel intervention case study at two industrial mineral mines to help managers and workers communicate about and reduce respirable silica dust exposures at their mine sites. A dust assessment technology, the Helmet-CAM, was used to identify and encourage communication about potential problem areas and tasks on site that contributed to elevated exposures. The intervention involved pre- and post-assessment field visits, four weeks apart that included multiple forms of data collection from workers and managers. Results revealed that mine management can utilize dust assessment technology as a risk communication tool to prompt and communicate about healthier behaviors with their workforce. Additionally, when workers were debriefed with the Helmet-CAM data through the device software, the dust exposure data can help improve the knowledge and awareness of workers, empowering them to change subtle behaviors that could reduce future elevated exposures to respirable silica dust. This case study demonstrates that incorporating social scientific methods into the application of health and safety management strategies, such as behavioral modification and technology integration, can leverage managers' communication practices with workers, subsequently improving health and safety behaviors.

  9. Non-invasive assessment of equine muscular function: A case study ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Assessment of muscle function after an injury or during recovery is of great importance in the veterinary field. Accelerometry, bioimpedance analysis and mechanomyography/acoustic myography have been used to assess human muscular problems, but have not been applied to the veterinary clinic. We report the clinical ...

  10. Cloud-Based Environmental Impact Assessment Expert System – A Case Study of Fiji

    OpenAIRE

    Sam Goundar

    2013-01-01

    Environmental impact assessments [EIA] involve identifying, measuring, and assessing impacts. This complex process deals with considerable amount of information and requires processing and analysis of quantitative data, qualitative information as well as expert human judgements. Often, available information is incomplete, subjective, and inconsistent. This challenge of collecting, processing, analyzing, and reporting EIA information can be met by computer systems. A Cloud-based Environmental ...

  11. An aquatic multiscale assessment and planning framework approach—forest plan revision case study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kerry Overton; Ann D. Carlson; Cynthia. Tait

    2010-01-01

    The Aquatic Multiscale Assessment and Planning Framework is a Web-based decision-support tool developed to assist aquatic practitioners in managing fisheries and watershed information. This tool, or framework, was designed to assist resource assessments and planning efforts from the broad scale to the fine scale, to document procedures, and to link directly to relevant...

  12. Alignment of World Language Standards and Assessments: A Multiple Case Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaplan, Carolyn Shemwell

    2016-01-01

    Previous research has examined world language classroom-based assessment practices as well as the impact of the Standards for Foreign Language Learning in the 21st Century (National Standards in Foreign Language Education Project, 1999) on practice. However, the extent to which K-12 teachers' assessment practices reflect national and state…

  13. Developing an Information Literacy Assessment Rubric: A Case Study of Collaboration, Process, and Outcomes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gola, Christina H.; Ke, Irene; Creelman, Kerry M.; Vaillancourt, Shawn P.

    2014-01-01

    A team of four librarians at the University of Houston (UH) Libraries partnered with the UH Office of Institutional Effectiveness and its Director of Assessment and Accreditation Services for General Education to conduct a campus-wide, exploratory assessment of undergraduate information literacy skills. The project evaluated a selection of…

  14. Exploring Students' Emotional Responses and Participation in an Online Peer Assessment Activity: A Case Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheng, Kun-Hung; Hou, Huei-Tse; Wu, Sheng-Yi

    2014-01-01

    In the social interactions among individuals of learning communities, including those individuals engaged in peer assessment activities, emotion may be a key factor in learning. However, research regarding the emotional response of learners in online peer assessment activities is relatively scarce. Detecting learners' emotion when they make…

  15. Non-invasive assessment of equine muscular function: A case study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K.H. Riis

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available Assessment of muscle function after an injury or during recovery is of great importance in the veterinary field. Accelerometry, bioimpedance analysis and mechanomyography/acoustic myography have been used to assess human muscular problems, but have not been applied to the veterinary clinic. We report the clinical use of these techniques in a 12-year-old Danish Warmblood horse presenting with recurring and shifting lameness. Acoustic myography, assessing both the amplitude and frequency of active muscles, was employed to locate the specific area of muscle injury, the right hip, which exhibited minimal fibre recruitment giving rise to considerable weakness. This specific region was assessed by accelerometry which revealed a normal step interval for the injured leg when compared with the contralateral, but a weaker acceleration and strike force. Finally, an assessment of muscle resistance (R and reactance (Xc using bioimpedance confirmed a regional loss of muscle mass and a loss of cellular integrity compared with the contralateral limb.

  16. Assessment of groundwater potentiality using geophysical techniques in Wadi Allaqi basin, Eastern Desert, Egypt - Case study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Helaly, Ahmad Sobhy

    2017-12-01

    Electrical resistivity surveying has been carried out for the determination of the thickness and resistivity of layered media in Wadi Allaqi, Eastern Desert, Egypt. That is widely used geophysical tool for the purpose of assessing the groundwater potential and siting the best locations for boreholes in the unconfined Nubian Sandstone aquifers within the study area. This has been done using thirteen 1D Vertical Electrical Sounding (VES) surveys. 1D-VES surveys provide only layered model structures for the subsurface and do not provide comprehensive information for interpreting the structure and extent of subsurface hydro-geological features. The integration of two-dimensional (2D) geophysical techniques for groundwater prospecting has been done to provide a more detailed identification for the subsurface hydro-geological features from which potential sites for successful borehole locations are recognized. In addition, five magnetic profiles were measured for basement depth determination, expected geological structures and thickness of sedimentary succession that could include some basins suitable for groundwater accumulation as groundwater aquifers.

  17. Analysis of criteria weights for the assessment of corporate sustainability: a case study in sugar manufacturing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Panitas Sureeyatanapas

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available The assessment of sustainability performance has become a topic widely discussed by business practitioners. The complexity of this issue is highlighted by the incorporation of a large number of criteria. Several methods under the context of Multiple Criteria Decision Analysis (MCDA have been employed to facilitate the aggregation of various criteria and to provide a guideline for decision making. As most MCDA methods assume that each criterion plays a role equal to its weight, this paper investigates the weight of each criterion in evaluation of corporate sustainability by focusing on the sugar industry in order to respond to the lack of MCDA and sustainability studies in this sector. The weighting is analysed by means of the relative importance based upon interviews and the direct rating technique. Statistical analysis is also conducted. The results from this empirical research indicate priorities of sustainability criteria and demonstrate the diversity of concerns within the industry when deciding on sustainability policies and strategies. This encourages practitioners to incorporate uncertain weights of sustainability criteria into decision making. Possible reasons for variations or changes in weights have been also discussed, and this enables practitioners to perform a sensitivity analysis in a more realistic way.

  18. Assessment of water quality: a case study of the Seybouse River (North East of Algeria)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guettaf, M.; Maoui, A.; Ihdene, Z.

    2017-03-01

    The assessment of water quality has been carried out to determine the concentrations of different ions present in the surface waters. The Seybouse River constitutes a dump of industrial and domestic rejections which contribute to the degradation of water quality. A total of 48 surface water samples were collected from different stations. The first objective of this study is the use of water quality index (WQI) to evaluate the state of the water in this river. The second aim is to calculate the parameters of the quality of water destined for irrigation such as sodium adsorption ratio , sodium percentage, and residual sodium carbonate. A high mineralization and high concentration of major chemical elements and nutrients indicate inevitably a high value of WQI index. The mean value of electrical conductivity is about 945.25 µs/cm in the station 2 (Bouhamdane) and exceeds 1,400 µs/cm in station 12 of Nador. The concentration of sulfates is above 250 mg/l in the stations 8 (Zimba) and 11 (Helia). A concentration of orthophosphate over 2 mg/l was observed in the station 11. The comparison of the obtained and the WHO standards indicates a before using it use in agricultural purposes.

  19. Model for Environmental Assessment of Industrial Production Systems: A Case Study in a Plastic Manufacturing Firm

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Francine Comunello

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available The environmental issue has been discussed sharply in the organizational environment, as consumers, and society in general, have been increasingly concerned about the environment. In this sense, the companies, especially the factories, seek to minimize the environmental impact caused by its production processes through actions that combine the organization's economic interests with environmental concerns. Thus, this article aims to analyze how environmental management of the productive sector is being carried out at Industria Beta Chapecó/SC. Therefore, we developed a qualitative and descriptive research in order to apply the Model for Environmental Assessment of Industrial Production Systems (MAASPI in the production of Industria Beta sector. The results showed the main environmental interventions caused by the production process of the organization, particularly the interventions for the consumption of electricity, plant location and chip storage. As main proposals to minimize negative environmental impacts, we have the installation of translucent tiles in the production environment, a study on energy efficiency, construction of water and soil testing, construction of waste storage terminals and implementation of the pre-selection of the raw material. The realization of the suggested adjustments enables Industria Beta to foresee the legal environmental requirements, to aim for enviromental certifications and seals and to strengthen its image as environment-friendly with collaborators and society in general.

  20. Life cycle assessment of the use of alternative fuels in cement kilns: A case study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Georgiopoulou, Martha; Lyberatos, Gerasimos

    2017-07-14

    The benefits of using alternative fuels (AFs) in the cement industry include reduction of the use of non-renewable fossil fuels and lower emissions of greenhouse gases, since fossil fuels are replaced with materials that would otherwise be degraded or incinerated with corresponding emissions and final residues. Furthermore, the use of alternative fuels maximizes the recovery of energy. Seven different scenaria were developed for the production of 1 ton of clinker in a rotary cement kiln. Each of these scenaria includes the use of alternative fuels such as RDF (Refuse derived fuel), TDF (Tire derived fuel) and BS (Biological sludge) or a mixture of them, in partial replacement of conventional fuels such as coal and pet coke. The purpose of this study is to evaluate the environmental impacts of the use of alternative fuels in relation to conventional fuels in the kiln operation. The Life Cycle Assessment (LCA) methodology is used to quantify the potential environmental impacts in each scenario. The interpretation of the results provides the conclusion that the most environmentally friendly prospect is the scenario based on RDF while the less preferable scenario is the scenario based on BS. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. Application of rock mass classification systems to rock slope stability assessment: A case study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hassan Basahel

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available The stability of rock slopes is considered crucial to public safety in highways passing through rock cuts, as well as to personnel and equipment safety in open pit mines. Slope instability and failures occur due to many factors such as adverse slope geometries, geological discontinuities, weak or weathered slope materials as well as severe weather conditions. External loads like heavy precipitation and seismicity could play a significant role in slope failure. In this paper, several rock mass classification systems developed for rock slope stability assessment are evaluated against known rock slope conditions in a region of Saudi Arabia, where slopes located in rugged terrains with complex geometry serve as highway road cuts. Selected empirical methods have been applied to 22 rock cuts that are selected based on their failure mechanisms and slope materials. The stability conditions are identified, and the results of each rock slope classification system are compared. The paper also highlights the limitations of the empirical classification methods used in the study and proposes future research directions.

  2. Assessing mouse alternatives to access to computer: a case study of a user with cerebral palsy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pousada, Thais; Pareira, Javier; Groba, Betania; Nieto, Laura; Pazos, Alejandro

    2014-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to describe the process of assessment of three assistive devices to meet the needs of a woman with cerebral palsy (CP) in order to provide her with computer access and use. The user has quadriplegic CP, with anarthria, using a syllabic keyboard. Devices were evaluated through a three-step approach: (a) use of a questionnaire to preselect potential assistive technologies, (b) use of an eTAO tool to determine the effectiveness of each devised, and (c) a conducting semi-structured interview to obtain qualitative data. Touch screen, joystick, and trackball were the preselected devices. The best device that met the user's needs and priorities was joystick. The finding was corroborated by both the eTAO tool and the semi-structured interview. Computers are a basic form of social participation. It is important to consider the special needs and priorities of users and to try different devices when undertaking a device-selection process. Environmental and personal factors have to be considered, as well. This leads to a need to evaluate new tools in order to provide the appropriate support. The eTAO could be a suitable instrument for this purpose. Additional research is also needed to understand how to better match devices with different user populations and how to comprehensively evaluate emerging technologies relative to users with disabilities.

  3. Use of genomic data in risk assessment case study: II. Evaluation of the dibutyl phthalate toxicogenomic data set

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Euling, Susan Y., E-mail: euling.susan@epa.gov [National Center for Environmental Assessment, U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, Washington, DC (United States); White, Lori D. [National Center for Environmental Assessment, U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, Research Triangle Park, NC (United States); Kim, Andrea S. [National Center for Environmental Assessment, U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, Washington, DC (United States); Sen, Banalata [National Center for Environmental Assessment, U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, Research Triangle Park, NC (United States); Wilson, Vickie S. [National Health and Environmental Effects Research Laboratory, U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, Research Triangle Park, NC (United States); Keshava, Channa; Keshava, Nagalakshmi [National Center for Environmental Assessment, U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, Washington, DC (United States); Hester, Susan [National Health and Environmental Effects Research Laboratory, U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, Research Triangle Park, NC (United States); Ovacik, Meric A.; Ierapetritou, Marianthi G.; Androulakis, Ioannis P. [National Center for Environmental Research Science to Achieve Results (STAR) Bioinformatics Center, Environmental Bioinformatics and Computational Toxicology Center (ebCTC), Rutgers University and University of Medicine and Dentistry of New Jersey, Piscataway, NJ (United States); Gaido, Kevin W. [Center for Veterinary Medicine, U.S. Food and Drug Administration, Rockville, MD 20855 (United States)

    2013-09-15

    An evaluation of the toxicogenomic data set for dibutyl phthalate (DBP) and male reproductive developmental effects was performed as part of a larger case study to test an approach for incorporating genomic data in risk assessment. The DBP toxicogenomic data set is composed of nine in vivo studies from the published literature that exposed rats to DBP during gestation and evaluated gene expression changes in testes or Wolffian ducts of male fetuses. The exercise focused on qualitative evaluation, based on a lack of available dose–response data, of the DBP toxicogenomic data set to postulate modes and mechanisms of action for the male reproductive developmental outcomes, which occur in the lower dose range. A weight-of-evidence evaluation was performed on the eight DBP toxicogenomic studies of the rat testis at the gene and pathway levels. The results showed relatively strong evidence of DBP-induced downregulation of genes in the steroidogenesis pathway and lipid/sterol/cholesterol transport pathway as well as effects on immediate early gene/growth/differentiation, transcription, peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor signaling and apoptosis pathways in the testis. Since two established modes of action (MOAs), reduced fetal testicular testosterone production and Insl3 gene expression, explain some but not all of the testis effects observed in rats after in utero DBP exposure, other MOAs are likely to be operative. A reanalysis of one DBP microarray study identified additional pathways within cell signaling, metabolism, hormone, disease, and cell adhesion biological processes. These putative new pathways may be associated with DBP effects on the testes that are currently unexplained. This case study on DBP identified data gaps and research needs for the use of toxicogenomic data in risk assessment. Furthermore, this study demonstrated an approach for evaluating toxicogenomic data in human health risk assessment that could be applied to future chemicals

  4. Assessment of water quality of some swimming pools: a case study in Alexandria, Egypt.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abd El-Salam, Magda Magdy

    2012-12-01

    In spite of the importance and popularity of swimming pools in summer, they have been identified as posing some public health risks to users due to either chemical or microbiological contamination. This study was carried out aiming at assessing the quality of water for some Alexandria's swimming pools in order to determine its compliance with the Egyptian standards no. 418/1995. Five swimming pools were selected randomly from different districts. Physical and chemical parameters, as well as biological examination of a total of 30 samples, were carried out using standard analytical methods. Water samples were collected from the studied swimming pools monthly over 6 months and pool water monitoring was carried out during afternoon of the weekends when the pools were most heavily used. The results indicated overall poor compliance with the standards. Compliance of the pool water to the microbial parameters, residual chlorine, pH, and turbidity were 56.7% (17 samples), 20% (6 samples), 46.7% (14 samples), and 46.7% (14 samples), respectively. Statistical analysis showed significant association between water contamination with microbial indicators and physical-chemical aspects such as residual chlorine, temperature, turbidity, and load of swimmers. Furthermore, Cryptosporidium oocysts and Giardia lamblia cysts has been found in 10% of samples. It was concluded that there is a need to improve disinfection and cleaning procedures, with consideration given to safety, and size of the pool in relation to bathing load. There is also a need to monitor swimming pool water quality continuously, and to increase bather hygienic practices and awareness of the risks as well as training of governmental inspectors.

  5. Risk assessment of people trapped in earthquake based on km grid: a case study of the 2014 Ludian earthquake

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wei, Ben-Yong; Nie, Gao-Zhong; Su, Gui-Wu; Sun, Lei

    2017-04-01

    China is one of the most earthquake prone countries in the world. The priority during earthquake emergency response is saving lives and minimizing casualties. Rapid judgment of the trapped location is the important basis for government to reasonable arrange the emergency rescue forces and resources after the earthquake. Through analyzing the key factors resulting in people trapped, we constructed an assessment model of personal trapped (PTED)in collapsed buildings caused by earthquake disaster. Then taking the 2014 Ludian Earthquake as a case, this study evaluated the distribution of trapped personal during this earthquake using the assessment model based on km grid data. Results showed that, there are two prerequisites for people might be trapped by the collapse of buildings in earthquake: earthquake caused buildings collapse and there are people in building when building collapsing; the PTED model could be suitable to assess the trapped people in collapsed buildings caused by earthquake. The distribution of people trapped by the collapse of buildings in the Ludian earthquake assessed by the model is basically the same as that obtained by the actual survey. Assessment of people trapped in earthquake based on km grid can meet the requirements of search-and-rescue zone identification and rescue forces allocation in the early stage of the earthquake emergency. In future, as the basic data become more complete, assessment of people trapped in earthquake based on km grid should provide more accurate and valid suggestions for earthquake emergency search and rescue.

  6. Integrating Global Open Geo-Information for Major Disaster Assessment: A Case Study of the Myanmar Flood

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Suju Li

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Major disasters typically impact large areas, cause considerable damages, and result in significant human and economic losses. The timely and accurate estimation of impacts and damages is essential to better understand disaster conditions and to support emergency response operations. Geo-information drawn from various sources at multi spatial-temporal scales can be used for disaster assessments through a synthesis of hazard, exposure, and post disaster information based on pertinent approaches. Along with the increased availability of open sourced data and cooperation initiatives, more global scale geo-information, including global land cover datasets, has been produced and can be integrated with other information for disaster dynamic damage assessment (e.g., impact estimation immediately after a disaster occurs, physical damage assessment during the emergency response stage, and comprehensive assessment following an emergency response. Residential areas and arable lands affected by the flood disaster occurring from July to August 2015 in Myanmar were assessed based on satellite images, GlobeLand30 data, and other global open sourced information as a study case. The results show that integrating global open geo-information could serve as a practical and efficient means of assessing damage resulting from major disasters worldwide, especially at the early emergency response stage.

  7. Integrated Earthquake Risk Assessment in the Kathmandu Valley - A Case Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schaper, Julia; Anhorn, Johannes; Khazai, Bijan; Nüsser, Marcus

    2013-04-01

    Rapid urban growth is a process which can be observed in cities worldwide. Managing these growing urban areas has become a major challenge for both governing bodies and citizens. Situated not only in a highly earthquake and landslide-prone area, but comprising also the cultural and political capital of Nepal, the fast expanding Kathmandu Valley in the Himalayan region is of particular interest. Vulnerability assessment has been an important tool for spatial planning in this already densely populated area. The magnitude 8.4 earthquake of Bihar in 1934 cost 8600 Nepalis their lives, destroyed 20% of the Kathmandu building stock and heavily damaged another 40%. Since then, Kathmandu has grown into a hub with over a million inhabitants. Rapid infrastructure and population growth aggravate the vulnerability conditions, particularly in the core area of Metropolitan Kathmandu. We propose an integrative framework for vulnerability and risk in Kathmandu Valley. In order to move towards a more systemic and integrated approach, we focus on interactions between natural hazards, physically engineered systems and society. High resolution satellite images are used to identify structural vulnerability of the building stock within the study area. Using object-based image analysis, the spatial dynamics of urban growth are assessed and validated using field data. Complementing this is the analysis of socio-economic attributes gained from databases and field surveys. An indicator-based vulnerability and resilience index will be operationalized using multi-attribute value theory and statistical methods such as principal component analysis. The results allow for a socio-economic comparison of places and their relative potential for harm and loss. The objective in this task is to better understand the interactions between nature and society, engineered systems and built environments through the development of an interdisciplinary framework on systemic seismic risk and vulnerability. Data

  8. Integrated assessment of urban vulnerability and resilience. Case study: Targu Ocna town, Romania

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grozavu, Adrian; Bănică, Alexandru

    2015-04-01

    Vulnerability assessment frequently emphasizes the internal fragility of a system in relation to a given hazard, when compared to similar systems or to a reference standard. This internal fragility, either biophysical or structural, may affect the ability to predict, to prepare for and cope with or to recover from the manifestation of a risk phenomenon. Thus, the vulnerability is highly related to resilience and adaptability. There is no single methodology for vulnerability and resilience analysis, their assessment can only be made by identifying and integrating indicators which are compatible with the analysis level and the geographic, economic and social features of a certain area. An integrated model of evaluating vulnerability and resilience capacity is being proposed in this paper for Targu Ocna, a small mining settlement in the Eastern Carpathians of Romania, that became in the last years a tourist town and acts within the surrounding territory as a dynamic local pole. Methodologically, the following steps and operations were considered: identifying potential hazards, identifying elements at risk, identifying proper indicators and integrating them in order to evaluate the general vulnerability and resilience. The inventory of elements at risk (the number of people potentially affected, residential or other functionalities buildings, roads and other infrastructure elements etc.) was made based on General Urban Plan, topographic maps (scale 1:5000), ortophotos from 2003 and 2008 and field mapping and researches. Further on, several vulnerability indicators were identified and included within the analytical approach: dependency ratio, income, quality of the habitat and technical urban facilities, environment quality showing differentiated sensitivity. Issues such as preparedness and preventive measures (priority areas within the risk prevention plans), coping ability (networks' geometry and connectivity, emergency utilities and services accessibility) and the

  9. Assessment of Urban Plantation Climate-Regulating Function based on Remote Sensing Data (Case Study Moscow)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sandlerskiy, Robert

    2010-05-01

    A variety of active surfaces in combination with various building levels forms a specific urban mode of atmospheric turbulence. The spatial combination of green plantings, asphalt and building defines a temperature and wind mode, and creates various air circulation systems. Influence of spatial structure and buildings height on a wind mode of urban territories is full enough studied in town-planning. Assessment of the input to formation of urban climate of surfaces with various heat capacity and, vegetation is not developed. This assessment can be based on the multispectral remote sensing data which contain information on energetic surface condition. Multispectral data development make possible a calculation of the basic energetic characteristics of surfaces: input and absorption of solar energy, energy consumption on evapotranspiration, thermal scattering and accumulation, a heat flux and temperature of surface. This technique gives a possibility to estimate a thermal mode of surface at various spatial scales. In world practice urban landscapes condition estimation based on remote data (Urban Remote Sensing) is underdeveloped, and focused, mainly, on temperature and heat flux estimation. For energetic characteristics estimation for Moscow territory we use Landsat 5 TM and 7 ETM + remote sensing data for three terms in the vegetational season: May (26/05/2003), July (21/07/2003), August (17/08/2007), with the spatial resolution 30х30 m for 6 channels in a short-wave range and 60х60 m - for the thermal channel. Mean values of calculated temperatures have been compared to daily temperatures on a municipal meteorological station. The calculated energetic characteristics have been analyzed to estimate independent factors which determine their spatial variation. Basing on the estimated factors we classify surface, and allocate surface types with a various temperature and energetic mode. Next we calculate mean values of energetic characteristics to each type. Type

  10. Human health risk assessment due to global warming--a case study of the Gulf countries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Husain, Tahir; Chaudhary, Junaid Rafi

    2008-12-01

    Accelerated global warming is predicted by the Intergovernmental Panel on Climatic Change (IPCC) due to increasing anthropogenic greenhouse gas emissions. The climate changes are anticipated to have a long-term impact on human health, marine and terrestrial ecosystems, water resources and vegetation. Due to rising sea levels, low lying coastal regions will be flooded, farmlands will be threatened and scarcity of fresh water resources will be aggravated. This will in turn cause increased human suffering in different parts of the world. Spread of disease vectors will contribute towards high mortality, along with the heat related deaths. Arid and hot climatic regions will face devastating effects risking survival of the fragile plant species, wild animals, and other desert ecosystems. The paper presents future changes in temperature, precipitation and humidity and their direct and indirect potential impacts on human health in the coastal regions of the Gulf countries including Yemen, Oman, United Arab Emirates, Qatar, and Bahrain. The analysis is based on the long-term changes in the values of temperature, precipitation and humidity as predicted by the global climatic simulation models under different scenarios of GHG emission levels. Monthly data on temperature, precipitation, and humidity were retrieved from IPCC databases for longitude 41.25 degrees E to 61.875 degrees E and latitude 9.278 degrees N to 27.833 degrees N. Using an average of 1970 to 2000 values as baseline, the changes in the humidity, temperature and precipitation were predicted for the period 2020 to 2050 and 2070 to 2099. Based on epidemiological studies on various diseases associated with the change in temperature, humidity and precipitation in arid and hot regions, empirical models were developed to assess human health risk in the Gulf region to predict elevated levels of diseases and mortality rates under different emission scenarios as developed by the IPCC.The preliminary assessment indicates

  11. Best Practices of International Student Assessment: the Arcadia University International MBA Case Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sandra Hordis

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Assessment is always challenging. Whether we are administrators of programs, teaching faculty, staff, graduate or undergraduate students, and the practice of assessment evokes fears of judgment, fears of public failure, and most significantly, fears of change. Because of this, we often assess with a hesitant hand, gingerly prodding the successes and challenges at all levels of our institutions, hoping that—in this moment, at least—we are achieving the goals which we claim that we’re achieving and are doing so with integrity and a clear understanding of student needs.

  12. Using Blackboard to Deliver Library Research Skills Assessment: A Case Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maura A Smale

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available Like other college and university departments, academic libraries are increasingly expected to assess their services and facilities. This article describes an initial step in the development of a comprehensive assessment program for library instruction in the Brooklyn College Library. A pre- and post-quiz were developed based on the curriculum for a required library session in an introductory English composition course. The quizzes were designed to establish a baseline for student knowledge of information literacy as well as measure the effect of library instruction on student learning. We also sought to evaluate the suitability of the Blackboard learning management system for assessment of library instruction. Our discussion of the benefits and limitations of this pilot project will be useful to instruction librarians considering using Blackboard to implement multiple choice quizzes as a means of assessing information literacy and library instruction.

  13. Global guidance on environmental life cycle impact assessment indicators: Progress and case study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Frischknecht, Rolf; Fantke, Peter; Tschümperlin, Laura

    2016-01-01

    Purpose The life cycle impact assessment (LCIA) guidance flagship project of the United Nations Environment Programme (UNEP)/Society of Environmental Toxicology and Chemistry (SETAC) Life Cycle Initiative aims at providing global guidance and building scientific consensus on environmental LCIA...

  14. Health technology assessment and ill-structured problems: a case study concerning the drug mebeverine.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Moret-Hartman, M.; Wilt, G.J. van der; Grin, J.

    2007-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: The practical significance of health technology assessment (HTA) in policy decisions or clinical practice has been challenged. Possibly, problem definitions underlying HTA do not concur sufficiently with the problem definitions held by policy makers or clinicians. We performed an

  15. Landscape assessment method at a European level; a case study of polder landscapes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Klijn, J.A.; Bethe, F.; Wijermans, M.; Ypma, K.W.

    1999-01-01

    International and national policies relating to landscape values rely on an adequate assessment method. The SWOT method (strength, weakness, opportunities and threats) proposed here combines geographical data, valuation procedures, insight into trendsin land use, and identification of threats and

  16. Adaptive assessment and management of riverine ecosystems: the Crocodile/Elands River case study

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Roux, DJ

    1999-10-01

    Full Text Available to assess the collected data relative to a reference state, homogeneous river segments were identified. Each segment was classified in terms of its relative ecological integrity, based on three biological indicators (fish, benthic invertebrates, riparian...

  17. Assessing the health impact of transnational corporations: a case study on McDonalds Australia

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Julia Anaf; Frances E Baum; Matt Fisher; Elizabeth Harris; Sharon Friel

    2017-01-01

    .... There has been limited research on community exposures to TNC policies and practices. Our pilot research used McDonald's Australia to test methods for assessing the health impacts of one TNC within Australia...

  18. HOTEL SERVICES QUALITY ASSESSMENT USING SERVQUAL METHOD. CASE STUDY: ATHÉNÉE PALACE HOTEL

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Anca Madar

    2014-01-01

      With more intense competition in the global market without quality and without special skills in its obtaining, assessment and continuous improvement, companies can not meet the increasing demands of consumers...

  19. Flood hazard and flood risk assessment using a time series of satellite images: a case study in Namibia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Skakun, Sergii; Kussul, Nataliia; Shelestov, Andrii; Kussul, Olga

    2014-08-01

    In this article, the use of time series of satellite imagery to flood hazard mapping and flood risk assessment is presented. Flooded areas are extracted from satellite images for the flood-prone territory, and a maximum flood extent image for each flood event is produced. These maps are further fused to determine relative frequency of inundation (RFI). The study shows that RFI values and relative water depth exhibit the same probabilistic distribution, which is confirmed by Kolmogorov-Smirnov test. The produced RFI map can be used as a flood hazard map, especially in cases when flood modeling is complicated by lack of available data and high uncertainties. The derived RFI map is further used for flood risk assessment. Efficiency of the presented approach is demonstrated for the Katima Mulilo region (Namibia). A time series of Landsat-5/7 satellite images acquired from 1989 to 2012 is processed to derive RFI map using the presented approach. The following direct damage categories are considered in the study for flood risk assessment: dwelling units, roads, health facilities, and schools. The produced flood risk map shows that the risk is distributed uniformly all over the region. The cities and villages with the highest risk are identified. The proposed approach has minimum data requirements, and RFI maps can be generated rapidly to assist rescuers and decisionmakers in case of emergencies. On the other hand, limitations include: strong dependence on the available data sets, and limitations in simulations with extrapolated water depth values. © 2013 Society for Risk Analysis.

  20. Value Assessment of Artificial Wetland Derived from Mining Subsided Lake: A Case Study of Jiuli Lake Wetland in Xuzhou

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Laijian Wang

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Mining subsided lakes are major obstacles for ecological restoration and resource reuse in mining regions. Transforming mining subsided lakes into artificial wetlands is an ecological restoration approach that has been attempted in China in recent years, but a value assessment of the approach still needs systematic research. This paper considers Jiuli Lake wetland, an artificial wetland derived from restoration of a mining subsided lake in plain area, as a case study. A value assessment model for the artificial wetland was established based on cost–benefit analysis by means of field monitoring, social surveys, GIS geostatistics, raster calculation methods, etc. Empirical analysis and calculations were performed on the case study region. The following conclusions were drawn: (1 after ecological restoration, ecosystem services of Jiuli Lake wetland which has become a national level wetland park yield positive values; (2 the improved environment of the Jiuli Lake wetland has a spillover effect on the price of surrounding land, resulting in land price appreciation; (3 using GIS geostatistics and raster calculation methods, the impact range, strength, and value of the spillover effect can be explicitly measured; (4 through the establishment of a value assessment model of the artificial wetland, incomes of the ecological restoration was found to be sufficient to cover the implementation costs, which provides a research foundation for economic feasibility of ecological restoration of mining subsided lakes.

  1. Quality Assessment of a Blended Studies Course in the Context of Open Learning Ideas: A Case Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Allan, Audrone; Lukoseviciute-Noreikiene, Ilona

    2008-01-01

    This paper analyses problems of course evaluation in the frame work of open learning. It introduces the process of quality assessment of one specific blended learning course. The centre of research is an individual student. From his perspective, an attempt is being made to look at the course as an opening to new study possibilities. In addition,…

  2. A case study of behavioral assessment and treatment of insect phobia.

    OpenAIRE

    Jones, K. M.; Friman, P C

    1999-01-01

    We assessed the academic performance of a 14-year-old boy with insect phobia in the context of feared stimuli. The dependent measure was math calculation rate across three conditions that varied therapist statements about the presence of crickets and the actual presence of live crickets. Subsequent treatment consisted of graduated exposure and contingent rewards for math problem completion. Assessment results indicated that the boy's performance was consistently low in the presence of live cr...

  3. A Multicriteria GIS-Based Assessment to Optimize Biomass Facility Sites with Parallel Environment—A Case Study in Spain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jin Su Jeong

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Optimizing a biomass facility site is a critical concern that is currently receiving an increased attention because of geographically spread biomass feedstock. This research presents a multicriteria GIS assessment with Weighted Linear Combination (WLC (most suitable areas and a sensitivity analysis (implementation strategies applied to various disciplines using suitable criteria to optimize a biomass facility location in the context of renewable energies respecting the environment. The analyses of results with twelve criteria show the most suitable areas (9.25% and constraints in a case study in Extremadura (Spain, where forest and agriculture are typical for land uses. Thus, the sensitivity analysis demonstrates the insight of the most influential criteria for supporting energy planning decisions. Therefore, this assessment could be used in studies to verify suitable biomass plants sites with corresponding geographical and spatial circumstances and available spatial data necessary in various governmental and industrial sectors.

  4. High Resolution Tsunami Vulnerability Assessment for Coastal Utilities; Case Studies in the Sea of Marmara

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yalciner, A. C.; Aytore, B.; Cankaya, C.; Guler, H. G.; Suzen, L.; Zaytsev, A.; Arikawa, T.; Takashi, T.

    2014-12-01

    Resilience of coastal utilities against earthquakes and tsunamis have major importance for efficient and proper rescue and recovery operations soon after disasters. Istanbul as a mega city have long coastline and strongly interact with Marmara sea with its dense coastal utilization. Yenikapi region and Haydarpasa port are two of major coastal utilities. Haydarpasa port has critical components such as the main transportation hub at Asian side of megacity Istanbul, cargo and container stock areas, ro-ro handling operations and passenger terminals. Yenikapi area serves different coastal activities and marine passenger transportation in the Marmara sea. High resolution GIS database of the Istanbul Metropolitan Municipality (IMM) is analyzed and detaled bathymetry and topography database is developed considering vulnerability of the near shore structures and buildings. Two different tsunami numerical models i) NAMIDANCE code (2-Dimensional, depth averaged shallow water model with dispersion hybrid model) and ii) STOC-CADMAS System (Quasi 3-Dimensional in large domains and 3-Dimensional in small domains hybrid model) are used in nested domain in simulations. In this study the accurate vulnerability assessments of these coastal utilities are performed by utilizing high performance computing technology with high resolution bathymetry and topography data for Haydarpasa and Yenikapi regions based on accurate GIS data. The results of computed 2D and 3D numerical models and also the achievements by high performance Computing systems are evaluated. As the result, the computed tsunami parameters inside the coastal utilities are compared and discussed to clarify the benefits of using high resolution data and using the 2D and 3D numerical models.

  5. Assessment of Ultracamd Performance in AN Arid Environment - Case Study in Libya

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gneeniss, A. S.; Mills, J. P.; Miller, P. E.

    2011-09-01

    Large format digital aerial cameras are now in widespread commercial operation. Despite the advantages of the new cameras over their traditional film counterparts, systematic image errors have been observed in all existing large format digital cameras. Organizations such as the USGS and EuroSDR have therefore focused efforts on calibration, validation and certification of digital camera systems. However, to-date, few studies have assessed the effects of extreme temperature and humidity variations on these camera systems, and the potential for self-calibration in this respect. This research addresses these issues through investigation of the UltraCamD, with test data acquired over a range of climatic zones in Libya. This presentation will report the preliminary results of self-calibration using a bundle block adjustment for an UltraCamD system, based upon aerial data acquired for two test sites during a single field campaign. The datasets were flown at two different flying heights and incorporate differing block geometries. A SOCET SET (v5.4.1) digital photogrammetric workstation was used to triangulate the imagery with investigation of different tie point densities. Following this, a self-calibrating bundle block adjustment was performed using the BLUH software provided by the University of Hannover. Initial testing investigated the influence of tie point density and different coordinate systems and datums on the bundle adjustment results. Further testing was then performed within BLUH in order to determine the optimal set of additional parameters, compensating for systematic image errors and impact upon object space coordinates of independent check points and ground control points.

  6. CONTRIBUTION OF STAKEHOLDER ENGAGEMENT TO THE IMPACT OF A HEALTH TECHNOLOGY ASSESSMENT: AN IRISH CASE STUDY.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ryan, Máirín; Moran, Patrick S; Harrington, Patricia; Murphy, Linda; O'Neill, Michelle; Whelan, Marty; Teljeur, Conor

    2017-01-01

    The aim of this study was to illustrate the contribution of stakeholder engagement to the impact of health technology assessment (HTA) using an Irish HTA of a national public access defibrillation (PAD) program. In response to draft legislation that proposed a PAD program, the Minister for Health requested that Health Information and Quality Authority undertake an HTA to inform the design and implementation of a national PAD program and the necessary underpinning legislation. The draft legislation outlined a program requiring widespread installation and maintenance of automatic external defibrillators in specified premises. Stakeholder engagement to optimize the impact of the HTA included one-to-one interviews with politicians, engagement with an Expert Advisory Group, public and targeted consultation, and positive media management. The HTA quantified the clinical benefits of the proposed PAD program as modest, identified that substantial costs would fall on small/medium businesses at a time of economic recession, and that none of the programs modeled were cost-effective. The Senator who proposed the Bill actively publicized the HTA process and its findings and encouraged participation in the public consultation. Participation of key stakeholders was important for the quality and acceptability of the HTA findings and advice. Media management promoted public engagement and understanding. The Bill did not progress. The HTA informed the decision not to progress with legislation for a national PAD program. Engagement was tailored to ensure that key stakeholders including politicians and the public were informed of the HTA process, the findings, and the advice, thereby maximizing acceptance. Appropriate stakeholder engagement optimizes the impact of HTA.

  7. An Embedded Multiple-Case Study on OSS Design Quality Assessment across Domains

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ampatzoglou, Apostolos; Gkortzis, Antonios; Charalampidou, Sofia; Avgeriou, Paris

    2013-01-01

    Context: Investing on Open Source Software (OSS) as a “code reuser”, involves certain risks, such as the difficulty in understanding the level of OSS design quality Aim: We investigate the levels of design quality of OSS projects, across different application domains. Method: We conducted a case

  8. Gambling in the Iranian-American Community and an Assessment of Motives: A Case Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parhami, Iman; Siani, Aaron; Campos, Michael D.; Rosenthal, Richard J.; Fong, Timothy W.

    2012-01-01

    Nearly half a million United States residents identify themselves as being of Iranian origin, and many in this population are of high socioeconomic status. Although games of chance have been a notable part of Iranian culture for thousands of years, there is almost no research exploring gambling in this population. The objective of this case study…

  9. Quantifying pathogen risks associated with potable reuse: A risk assessment case study for Cryptosporidium.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amoueyan, Erfaneh; Ahmad, Sajjad; Eisenberg, Joseph N S; Pecson, Brian; Gerrity, Daniel

    2017-08-01

    This study evaluated the reliability and equivalency of three different potable reuse paradigms: (1) surface water augmentation via de facto reuse with conventional wastewater treatment; (2) surface water augmentation via planned indirect potable reuse (IPR) with ultrafiltration, pre-ozone, biological activated carbon (BAC), and post-ozone; and (3) direct potable reuse (DPR) with ultrafiltration, ozone, BAC, and UV disinfection. A quantitative microbial risk assessment (QMRA) was performed to (1) quantify the risk of infection from Cryptosporidium oocysts; (2) compare the risks associated with different potable reuse systems under optimal and sub-optimal conditions; and (3) identify critical model/operational parameters based on sensitivity analyses. The annual risks of infection associated with the de facto and planned IPR systems were generally consistent with those of conventional drinking water systems [mean of (9.4 ± 0.3) × 10-5 to (4.5 ± 0.1) × 10-4], while DPR was clearly superior [mean of (6.1 ± 67) × 10-9 during sub-optimal operation]. Because the advanced treatment train in the planned IPR system was highly effective in reducing Cryptosporidium concentrations, the associated risks were generally dominated by the pathogen loading already present in the surface water. As a result, risks generally decreased with higher recycled water contributions (RWCs). Advanced treatment failures were generally inconsequential either due to the robustness of the advanced treatment train (i.e., DPR) or resiliency provided by the environmental buffer (i.e., planned IPR). Storage time in the environmental buffer was important for the de facto reuse system, and the model indicated a critical storage time of approximately 105 days. Storage times shorter than the critical value resulted in significant increases in risk. The conclusions from this study can be used to inform regulatory decision making and aid in the development of design or operational criteria

  10. Assessing potential spatial accessibility of health services in rural China: a case study of Donghai County.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Ruishan; Dong, Suocheng; Zhao, Yonghong; Hu, Hao; Li, Zehong

    2013-05-20

    There is a great health services disparity between urban and rural areas in China. The percentage of people who are unable to access health services due to long travel times increases. This paper takes Donghai County as the study unit to analyse areas with physician shortages and characteristics of the potential spatial accessibility of health services. We analyse how the unequal health services resources distribution and the New Cooperative Medical Scheme affect the potential spatial accessibility of health services in Donghai County. We also give some advice on how to alleviate the unequal spatial accessibility of health services in areas that are more remote and isolated. The shortest traffic times of from hospitals to villages are calculated with an O-D matrix of GIS extension model. This paper applies an enhanced two-step floating catchment area (E2SFCA) method to study the spatial accessibility of health services and to determine areas with physician shortages in Donghai County. The sensitivity of the E2SFCA for assessing variation in the spatial accessibility of health services is checked using different impedance coefficient valuesa. Geostatistical Analyst model and spatial analyst method is used to analyse the spatial pattern and the edge effect of potential spatial accessibility of health services. The results show that 69% of villages have access to lower potential spatial accessibility of health services than the average for Donghai County, and 79% of the village scores are lower than the average for Jiangsu Province. The potential spatial accessibility of health services diminishes greatly from the centre of the county to outlying areas. Using a smaller impedance coefficient leads to greater disparity among the villages. The spatial accessibility of health services is greater along highway in the county. Most of villages are in underserved health services areas. An unequal distribution of health service resources and the reimbursement policies of the

  11. A Feasibility Assessment of Photovoltaic Power Systems in Ireland; a Case Study for the Dublin Region

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fionnuala Murphy

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available Photovoltaic (PV power generation is one of the cleanest sources for producing renewable energy; however uptake on the Irish renewable energy market to date has been low. There is a lack of support for solar PV systems in Ireland; there is currently no solar PV energy feed-in-tariff as there are for other renewable energy systems in Ireland. Despite the current lack of support, the Government has indicated that support for the uptake of solar PV installations will be provided through the provision of a feed-in tariff in the future. The aim of this study was to determine the feasibility of installing PV systems under Irish climatic conditions at a location based in Dublin, Ireland, from a technical, environmental and economic point of view. This was achieved by carrying out a life cycle assessment of potential environmental impacts, and analysis of energy and economic payback times relating to the proposed PV system. Four possible renewable feed-in-tariffs (based on existing feed-in-tariffs for other renewable energy systems were considered to determine the effect of such tariffs on the overall economics of the proposed PV system. Results show that life cycle GHG emissions are 69 g CO2-eq per kWh generated by the system, significantly lower than the current electricity grid mix emissions of 469 g CO2-eq per kWh. It will take 5.23 years of operation of the solar plant to generate the same amount of energy (in terms of primary energy equivalent that was used to produce the system itself. The economic payback time varies from 19.3 and 34.4 years depending on the rate of renewable energy feed-in-tariff applied. The costs for the production of PV electricity in this study are higher than is usual in countries where the solar PV market is more developed, e.g., Germany, due to constraints with building integration and lack of experienced PV installers. As more PV is deployed, the Irish PV installer base will increase and ‘learning by doing’ effects

  12. The Water Footprint of the Wine Industry: Implementation of an Assessment Methodology and Application to a Case Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Emanuele Bonamente

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available An original methodology for the Water Footprint Assessment (WFA of a Product for the wine-making industry sector is presented, with a particular focus on the evaluation procedure of the grey water. Results obtained with the proposed methodology are also presented for an Italian case study. The product was analyzed using a life-cycle approach, with the aim of studying the water volumes of each phase according to the newly-released ISO 14046 international standard. The functional unit chosen in this study is the common 0.75 liter wine bottle. An in-house software (V.I.V.A. was implemented with the goal of accounting for all the contributions in a cradle-to-grave approach. At this stage, however, minor water volumes associated with some foreground and background processes are not assessed. The evaluation procedure was applied to a case study and green, blue, and grey water volumes were computed. Primary data were collected for a red wine produced by an Umbrian wine-making company. Results are in accordance with global average water footprint values from literature, showing a total WF of 632.2 L/bottle, with the major contribution (98.3% given by green water, and minor contributions (1.2% and 0.5% given by grey and blue water, respectively. A particular effort was dedicated to the definition of an improved methodology for the assessment of the virtual water volume required to dilute the load of pollutants on the environment below some reference level (Grey WF. The improved methodology was elaborated to assure the completeness of the water footprint assessment and to overcome some limitations of the reference approach. As a result, the overall WF can increase up to 3% in the most conservative hypotheses.

  13. Comparison between major repair and replacement options for a bridge deck life cycle assessment: A case study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abu Dabous Saleh

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Material production, manufacturing, transportation, usage, and end of lifeprocessing are usually the main contributors defining the life cycle assessment (LCA. Bridge infrastructure is important to the economy and the society. Over their life cycle, highway bridges experience several stressors that can significantly affect their structural performance and therefore require rehabilitation. This paper discusses the life cycle analysis of bridge rehabilitation decisions and demonstrates the analysis with a case study of a bridge located in Ontario, Canada. The LCA of the bridge deck is analyzed for two rehabilitation strategies: major repair and replacement. The study focuses on evaluating the different life cycle phases of the bridge deck by assessing their carbon dioxide emission, energy consumption and cost. Also, the paper presents the impact of the different elements within each phase to identify the most contributing elements. The LCA of the bridge deck is analyzed and estimated with the aid of CES EduPack 2016 software that includes a database of more than 4000 different materials and more than 200 manufacturing processes. Analysis of the case study shows that material phase causes significant life cycle impact. The study concluded that the deck replacement yields higher environmental impact and life cycle cost compared to repairing and strengthening the deck.

  14. Integrating nutritional benefits and impacts in a life cycle assessment framework: A US dairy consumption case study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ernstoff, Alexi; Fulgoni III, Victor; Heller, Martin

    2014-01-01

    Although essential to understand the overall health impact of a food or diet, nutrition is not usually considered in food-related life cycle assessments (LCAs). As a case study to demonstrate comparing environmental and nutritional health impacts we investigate United States dairy consumption...... health suggest that low-fat milk leads to nutritional benefits up to one additional daily serving in the American diet. We demonstrate the importance of considering the whole-diet and nutritional trade-offs. The estimated health impacts of various dietary scenarios may be of comparable magnitude...

  15. Assessing storm surge hazard and impact of sea level rise in the Lesser Antilles case study of Martinique

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Y. Krien

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available In the Lesser Antilles, coastal inundations from hurricane-induced storm surges pose a great threat to lives, properties and ecosystems. Assessing current and future storm surge hazards with sufficient spatial resolution is of primary interest to help coastal planners and decision makers develop mitigation and adaptation measures. Here, we use wave–current numerical models and statistical methods to investigate worst case scenarios and 100-year surge levels for the case study of Martinique under present climate or considering a potential sea level rise. Results confirm that the wave setup plays a major role in the Lesser Antilles, where the narrow island shelf impedes the piling-up of large amounts of wind-driven water on the shoreline during extreme events. The radiation stress gradients thus contribute significantly to the total surge – up to 100 % in some cases. The nonlinear interactions of sea level rise (SLR with bathymetry and topography are generally found to be relatively small in Martinique but can reach several tens of centimeters in low-lying areas where the inundation extent is strongly enhanced compared to present conditions. These findings further emphasize the importance of waves for developing operational storm surge warning systems in the Lesser Antilles and encourage caution when using static methods to assess the impact of sea level rise on storm surge hazard.

  16. Environmental impact of biomass based polygeneration - A case study through life cycle assessment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jana, Kuntal; De, Sudipta

    2017-03-01

    Multi-generation or polygeneration is considered to be a potential sustainable energy solution. To assess environmental sustainability of multi-generation, life cycle assessment (LCA) is a useful tool. In this paper, environmental impact of polygeneration using an agro waste (rice straw) is assessed by LCA. Then it is compared with stand alone conventional plants with same utility outputs. Power, ethanol, heating and cooling are utility outputs of the polygeneration plant. System boundary for this polygeneration is defined for surplus biomass only. Exergy based allocation method is used for this analysis. Results of LCA are shown through both mid-point and end-point indicators. Results indicate that polygeneration with surplus rice straw is more environment-friendly than conventional stand-alone generation of same utilities. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Environmental Sustainability Assessment of Integrated Food and Bioenergy Production with Case Studies from Ghana

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kamp, Andreas

    and compared with other food and energy systems using Environmental Sustainability Assessment (ESA). This thesis investigates a range of integrated food and residuebased bioenergy production systems and provide methodological developments that are relevant for the assessment of such systems. The methodological......The use of agricultural residues for the production of bioenergy offers tantalising prospects of reduced pollution and greater food sovereignty. Integrated food and bioenergy systems seek to optimise the joint production of food and energy. Integrated food and bioenergy systems may be evaluated...... that they provide several outputs. Environmental impact assessment of residue‐based bioenergy, therefore, involves the identification of relevant impacts occurring prior to the conversion of residues into bioenergy. Dividing the environmental burden of food production between food and crop residues to maintain...

  18. Online Assessment, Measurement and Evaluation Case Studies from Higher Education, K-12 and Corporate

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Reviewed by Dr. Adnan BOYACI

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available With the revolution occurred in communication technologies at the beginning of 1990’s, network technologies have emerged as the challenging parameters accelerating improvements of instructional technologies. Online classrooms and management of them appeared as a new domain which necessitates a new paradigm different from the classical ones. User and instructor friendly learning context and management systems (LCMS have brought new approaches, techniques and tools for the assessment and measurement processes. These approaches, techniques and tools embedded in LCMS have redefined not only the way teachers teach but also students learn. WebCT, Blackboard and eCollege and many others as the online instructional environments have provided new opportunities to construct a coherent instructional system which has never been used as a unique environment any before. Assessment and measurement have been redefined within this framework. The successes of assessment and measurement methodologies or system inevitably depend on conceptualization and then implementation to different educational settings.

  19. Assessment of an iPad Loan Program in an Academic Medical Library: A Case Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shurtz, Suzanne; Sewell, Robin; Halling, T Derek; McKay, Becky; Pepper, Catherine

    2015-01-01

    An academic medical library expanded its iPad loan service to multiple campus libraries and conducted an assessment of the service. iPads loaded with medical and educational apps were loaned for two-week checkouts from five library campus locations. Device circulation statistics were tracked and users were invited to complete an online survey about their experience. Data were gathered and analyzed for 11 months. The assessment informed the library on how best to adapt the service, including what resources to add to the iPads, and the decision to move devices to campuses with more frequent usage.

  20. High Resolution Tsunami Modeling and Assessment of Harbor Resilience; Case Study in Istanbul

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cevdet Yalciner, Ahmet; Aytore, Betul; Gokhan Guler, Hasan; Kanoglu, Utku; Duzgun, Sebnem; Zaytsev, Andrey; Arikawa, Taro; Tomita, Takashi; Ozer Sozdinler, Ceren; Necmioglu, Ocal; Meral Ozel, Nurcan

    2014-05-01

    Ports and harbors are the major vulnerable coastal structures under tsunami attack. Resilient harbors against tsunami impacts are essential for proper, efficient and successful rescue operations and reduction of the loss of life and property by tsunami disasters. There are several critical coastal structures as such in the Marmara Sea. Haydarpasa and Yenikapi ports are located in the Marmara Sea coast of Istanbul. These two ports are selected as the sites of numerical experiments to test their resilience under tsunami impact. Cargo, container and ro-ro handlings, and short/long distance passenger transfers are the common services in both ports. Haydarpasa port has two breakwaters with the length of three kilometers in total. Yenikapi port has one kilometer long breakwater. The accurate resilience analysis needs high resolution tsunami modeling and careful assessment of the site. Therefore, building data with accurate coordinates of their foot prints and elevations are obtained. The high resolution bathymetry and topography database with less than 5m grid size is developed for modeling. The metadata of the several types of structures and infrastructure of the ports and environs are processed. Different resistances for the structures/buildings/infrastructures are controlled by assigning different friction coefficients in a friction matrix. Two different tsunami conditions - high expected and moderate expected - are selected for numerical modeling. The hybrid tsunami simulation and visualization codes NAMI DANCE, STOC-CADMAS System are utilized to solve all necessary tsunami parameters and obtain the spatial and temporal distributions of flow depth, current velocity, inundation distance and maximum water level in the study domain. Finally, the computed critical values of tsunami parameters are evaluated and structural performance of the port components are discussed in regard to a better resilience. ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS: Support by EU 603839 ASTARTE Project, UDAP-Ç-12

  1. Undisclosed chemicals--implications for risk assessment: a case study from the mining industry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, Khareen; Oates, Christopher; Plant, Jane; Voulvoulis, Nikolaos

    2014-07-01

    Many of the chemicals used in industry can be hazardous to human health and the environment, and some formulations can have undisclosed ingredients and hazards, increasing the uncertainty of the risks posed by their use. The need for a better understanding of the extent of undisclosed information in chemicals arose from collecting data on the hazards and exposures of chemicals used in typical mining operations (copper, platinum and coal). Four main categories of undisclosed chemicals were defined (incomplete disclosure; chemicals with unspecific identities; relative quantities of ingredients not stated; and trade secret ingredients) by reviewing material safety data sheet (MSDS) omissions in previous studies. A significant number of chemicals (20% of 957 different chemicals) across the three sites had a range of undisclosed information, with majority of the chemicals (39%) having unspecific identities. The majority of undisclosed information was found in commercially available motor oils followed by cleaning products and mechanical maintenance products, as opposed to reagents critical to the main mining processes. All three types of chemicals had trade secrets, unspecific chemical identities and incomplete disclosures. These types of undisclosed information pose a hindrance to a full understanding of the hazards, which is made worse when combined with additional MSDS omissions such as acute toxicity endpoints (LD50) and/or acute aquatic toxicity endpoints (LC50), as well as inadequate hazard classifications of ingredients. The communication of the hazard information in the MSDSs varied according to the chemical type, the manufacturer and the regulations governing the MSDSs. Undisclosed information can undermine occupational health protection, compromise the safety of workers in industry, hinder risk assessment procedures and cause uncertainty about future health. It comes down to the duty of care that industries have towards their employees. With a wide range of

  2. Linking Data Choices and Context Specificity in Life Cycle Assessment of Waste Treatment Technologies: A Landfill Case Study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Henriksen, Trine; Astrup, Thomas Fruergaard; Damgaard, Anders

    2017-01-01

    To generate meaningful results, life cycle assessments (LCAs) require accurate technology data that are consistent with the goal and scope of the analysis. While literature data are available for many products and processes, finding representative data for highly site-specific technologies...... as a function of the specificity of the study, and to illustrate the necessity of iteratively refining the goal and scope of the study as data are developed. A landfill case study was performed where 52 discrete landfill data sets were built and grouped to represent different technology options and geographical...... sites, potential impacts were calculated, and minimum/maximum (min-max) intervals were generated for each group. The results showed decreasing min-max intervals with increasing specificity of the scope of study, which indicates that compatibility between the scope of study and LCI model is critical...

  3. Environmental impact assessment of an industrial accident using ISC - AERMOD view. A case study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Balanescu, M.; Hritac, M.; Melinte, I. [Metallurgical Research Inst., Bucharest (Romania); Nicolae, A. [Polytechnic Univ., Bucharest (Romania)

    2004-07-01

    Romanian iron and steel industry use, handle, store or undertake important amounts of raw materials, fuels, energy, gases, waste waters and different type of wastes. In iron and steel plants are processed raw materials under high temperature and pressure using big amounts of fuels and energy. This activity has a significant environmental impact, therefore important amounts of pollutant gases, waste waters and wastes produced by them. In some working cases (abnormal or even normal cases, but in favourable environmental conditions) this activity may be a risk source for the people, environment and property. In this paper is analysed the impact on environment and peoples, caused by a major accident at an blast furnace shaft from ISPAT SIDEX Galati (the mainly iron and steel works in southeast Europe). (orig.)

  4. Socioeconomic impact assessment in ex ante evaluations: a case study on the rural development programs of the European Union.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vidueira, Pablo; Díaz-Puente, José M; Rivera, María

    2014-08-01

    Ex ante impact assessment has become a fundamental tool for effective program management, and thus, a compulsory task when establishing a new program in the European Union (EU). This article aims to analyze benefits from ex ante impact assessment, methodologies followed, and difficulties encountered. This is done through the case study on the rural development programs (RDPs) in the EU. Results regarding methodologies are then contrasted with the international context in order to provide solid insights to evaluators and program managing authorities facing ex ante impact assessment. All European RDPs from the period 2007 through 2013 (a total of 88) and their corresponding available ex ante evaluations (a total of 70) were analyzed focusing on the socioeconomic impact assessment. Only 46.6% of the regions provide quantified impact estimations on socioeconomic impacts in spite of it being a compulsory task demanded by the European Commission (EC). Recommended methods by the EC are mostly used, but there is a lack of mixed method approaches since qualitative methods are used in substitution of quantitative ones. Two main difficulties argued were the complexity of program impacts and the lack of needed program information. Qualitative approaches on their own have been found as not suitable for ex ante impact assessment, while quantitative approaches-such as microsimulation models-provide a good approximation to actual impacts. However, time and budgetary constraints make that quantitative and mixed methods should be mainly applied on the most relevant impacts for the program success. © The Author(s) 2014.

  5. Assessing stocks in data-poor African fisheries: a case study on the ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The lack of reliable stock assessment for numerous exploited stocks in West Africa often results from poor-quality data, high multi-specificity of captures, and the ... These were estimation of abundance indices using delta generalised linear models; a biomass production model using a pseudo-equilibrium method and ...

  6. Productivity assessments in small ruminant improvement programmes : a case study of the West African dwarf goat

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bosman, H.G.

    1995-01-01

    Livestock production in the tropics is characterised by a high degree of variability in terms of composition, setting and aims. A good understanding of these characteristics is a prerequisite for the planning of a successful improvement programme. A frequently used criterion to assess the

  7. The EFSA quantitative approach to pest risk assessment – methodological aspects and case studies

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gilioli, G.; Schrader, G.; Grégoire, J.C.; MacLeod, A.; Mosbach-Schulz, O.; Rafoss, T.; Rossi, V.; Urek, G.; Werf, van der W.

    2017-01-01

    A new method for pest risk assessment and the identification and evaluation of risk-reducing options is currently under development by the European Food Safety Authority (EFSA) Plant Health Panel. The draft method has been tested on pests of concern to the European Union (EU). The method is

  8. Creativity-Based Assessment and Neural Understandings: A Discussion and Case Study Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Penaluna, Andrew; Coates, Jackie; Penaluna, Kathryn

    2010-01-01

    Purpose: Enabling entrepreneurial creativity is a key aim of UK Government; however, there is a dearth of constructively aligned models of teaching and assessment. This paper aims to introduce design-based pedagogies and to highlight cognitive approaches that develop innovative mindsets; it seeks to indicate their propensity for adoption in…

  9. Assessment of Activity Priorities and Design Preferences of Elderly Residents in Public Housing: A Case Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nasar, Jack L.; Farokhpay, Mitra

    1985-01-01

    Presents a technique for assessing elderly residents' priorities and desired environmental characteristics for in-unit activities. Considered three components in design priority for activities: time spent, unit adequacy, and importance. Residents' high priority activites were sleeping, watching television, preparing food, resting, and eating. (NRB)

  10. Ecological impact assessment in data-poor systems: a case study on metapopulation persistence

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Etienne, R.S.; Vos, C.C.; Jansen, M.J.W.

    2003-01-01

    Legislation on the protection of biodiversity (e.g., European Union Habitat and Bird Directives) increasingly requires ecological impact assessment of human activities. However, knowledge and understanding of relevant ecological processes and species responses to different types of impact are often

  11. Ecological impact assessment in data-poor systems : A case study on metapopulation persistence

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Etienne, RS; Jansen, MJW

    2003-01-01

    Legislation on the protection of biodiversity (e.g., European Union Habitat and Bird Directives) increasingly requires ecological impact assessment of human activities. However, knowledge and understanding of relevant ecological processes and species responses to different types of impact are often

  12. Child Protection Assessment in Humanitarian Emergencies: Case Studies from Georgia, Gaza, Haiti and Yemen

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ager, Alastair; Blake, Courtney; Stark, Lindsay; Daniel, Tsufit

    2011-01-01

    Objectives: The paper reviews the experiences of conducting child protection assessments across four humanitarian emergencies where violence and insecurity, directly or indirectly, posed a major threat to children. We seek to identify common themes emerging from these experiences and propose ways to guide the planning and implementation of…

  13. An Integrated Approach Towards Assessing the Value of Water: A Case Study on the Zambezi Basin

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hoekstra, Arjen Ysbert; Savenije, H.H.G.; Chapagain, Ashok

    2001-01-01

    The aim of this paper is to develop a methodology for assessing the value of water in the different stages in the water cycle. It is hypothesised that if a cubic metre of water provides some benefit in some spot at a certain moment, this cubic metre of water has a certain value not only at that

  14. Assessment of land degradation using NASA GIMMS: a case study in Kenya

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dent, D.L.; Bai, Z.G.

    2008-01-01

    Direct assessment of land degradation globally is constrained by limited spatial data~– soil data in particular (see also Chapter 7). As a proxy, biomass has been adopted as an integrated measure of productivity; its deviance from the norm may indicate land degradation or improvement. Biomass can be

  15. Expanding and Personalising Feedback in Online Assessment: A Case Study in a School of Pharmacy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ellis, Steven; Barber, Jill

    2016-01-01

    In the Manchester Pharmacy School, we first adopted summative on-line examinations in 2005. Since then, we have increased the range of question types to include short answers, short essays and questions incorporating chemical structures and we achieve time savings of up to 90% in the marking process. Online assessments allow two novel forms of…

  16. Environment, health and risk assessment: a case study of the use of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Administrator

    The question of whether vegetable, fruits and food crops cultivated in polluted soils are safe for human ... production due to lack of resources to acquire fertilizers for getting meaningful harvest (Ano, 1991, 1994). ... health and risk assessment of using abandoned waste dump site for food crop production by determining the.

  17. Participatory impact assessment of agricultural practices using the land use functions framework: case study from India

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Purushothaman, S.; Patil, S.; Francis, I.; König, H.; Reidsma, P.; Hegde, S.

    2013-01-01

    What do different stakeholders think of the changing trends in agricultural practices and related policies? We answer this and related questions with respect to Karnataka, an Indian state showing signs of agrarian distress. Using the participatory impact assessment (PIA) method involving farmers,

  18. The Added Value of Water Footprint Assessment for National Water Policy: A Case Study for Morocco

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schyns, Joseph Franciscus; Hoekstra, Arjen Ysbert

    2014-01-01

    A Water Footprint Assessment is carried out for Morocco, mapping the water footprint of different activities at river basin and monthly scale, distinguishing between surface- and groundwater. The paper aims to demonstrate the added value of detailed analysis of the human water footprint within a

  19. An Evaluative Assessment of Two CrossRoads Alternative Schools Program Sites in Georgia (Case Study).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karlin, Shary L.; Harnish, Dorothy

    This report describes an exploratory evaluative assessment of the first year of 2 alternative public schools for 117 chronically disruptive, committed, and/or non-attending students (grades 6-12) in Georgia. The CrossRoads program is intended to provide students with the social services, individualized instruction, and/or transitions to other…

  20. Using photographic image analysis to assess ground cover: a case study of forest road cutbanks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kevin C. Bold; Frederica Wood; Pamela J. Edwards; Karl W.J. Williard; Jon E. Schoonover

    2010-01-01

    Road prisms, including cutbanks, road surfaces, and fillslopes, can be important contributors of sediment to streams in forested watersheds. Following road construction, cutbanks and fillslopes are often seeded, mulched, and sometimes fertilized to limit erosion and sedimentation. Assessing the success of vegetation establishment on cutbanks and fillslopes is a common...

  1. Assessment of BSBA Students' Conversancy in Current Business Issues: A Case Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hogan, Eileen A.; Maskulka, Therese A.; Kaminski, Kathleen A.

    2014-01-01

    In 2008, the faculty of the College of Business at Kutztown University developed a set of five learning goals for its BSBA program. In fall, 2011, the college's Assurance of Learning Committee began to pursue the assessment of the last of these goals: "BSBA graduates will be conversant in current business issues, including ethics, social…

  2. Assessing low quality water use policy framework: Case study from Ghana

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Amponsah, Owusu; Vigre, Håkan; Wilde Schou, Torben

    2015-01-01

    We bought to understand the factors that have undermined the effective implementation of the low quality water reuse provision in Ghana's Irrigation Policy. Two Strategic Environmental Assessment tools (i.e. compatibility matrix and sustainability test) were used for the policy analyses. The anal...

  3. Diagnostic Assessment and Treatment of Reading Difficulties: A Case Study of Dyslexia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oviedo, Paula Outon; Gonzalez, Rebeca Abal

    2013-01-01

    Dyslexia is a specific learning disability in reading and writing, which requires adequate early intervention to prevent future school failure. We describe the diagnostic assessment of a 7-year-old boy labelled "dyslexic", the evaluation of his family, social, medical, developmental, and academic status as a preliminary for the design…

  4. Adoption of Technological Innovations: A Case Study of the ASSESS Website

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brooks, Sarah; Brown, Shane; Davis, Denny; LeBeau, Jennifer

    2014-01-01

    In engineering education, assessment instruments are often developed to evaluate programs and projects. Unfortunately, these innovations are not always adopted by intended audiences. Rogers' Diffusion of Innovations (DI) Theory provides a framework to analyze characteristics of an innovation that will affect adoption. The Appraisal System for…

  5. Practical Functional Approach to Quality Assessment in Subtitling: "Pocahontas II--Case Study"

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hussain, Alaa Eddin; Khuddro, Ahmad

    2016-01-01

    The present research work deals with subtitling errors encountered by simulators and proof-readers. The resultant work is of significant contribution to problem decision makings in the field of quality assessment of audiovisual translation (AVT). The outcome of this paper is the result of accumulated working experience in this domain. The relevant…

  6. Assessing the cost of an invasive forest pathogen; A case study with oak wilt

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robert G. Haight; Frances R. Homans; Tetsuya Horie; Shefali V. Mehta; David J. Smith; Robert C. Venette

    2011-01-01

    Economic assessment of damage caused by invasive alien species provides useful information to consider when determining whether management programs should be established, modified, or discontinued. We estimate the baseline economic damage from an invasive alien pathogen, Ceratocystis fagacearum, a fungus that causes oak wilt, which is a significant...

  7. Assessing the Communication Skills of Carers Working with Multiple Learning Disabilities: A Case Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koski, Katja; Launonen, Kaisa

    2012-01-01

    Background: Speech and language therapists (SLTs) working with adults who have multiple learning disabilities and complex communication needs often deliver their care via indirect therapy where SLTs train carers to communicate with their clients. Yet, very little is known about how SLTs assess the carers' communication skills prior to the training…

  8. Building Dams in Jordan, Assessing Teachers in England: A Case Study in Edu-Business

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mahony, Pat; Hextall, Ian; Menter, Ian

    2004-01-01

    This paper describes, in the context of one highly circumscribed element of English educational policy, namely, "Threshold assessment," the ways in which the boundaries between the public and the private have become increasingly porous and blurred. In this context, some consequences and implications of private sector involvement in…

  9. Web-Based System for Adaptable Rubrics: Case Study on CAD Assessment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Company, Pedro; Contero, Manuel; Otey, Jeffrey; Camba, Jorge D.; Agost, María-Jesús; Pérez-López, David

    2017-01-01

    This paper describes the implementation and testing of our concept of adaptable rubrics, defined as analytical rubrics that arrange assessment criteria at multiple levels that can be expanded on demand. Because of its adaptable nature, these rubrics cannot be implemented in paper formats, neither are they supported by current Learning Management…

  10. The Learning Assessed through a University Final Examination in Chemistry: A Case Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mathias, Haydn S.

    1979-01-01

    A university chemistry comprehensive final examination was analyzed to determine the extent to which it reflected the subject matter of the corresponding degree program. Although the various courses seemed adequately represented, the sampling of topics within a course tended to be low. The appropriateness of this form of assessment is discussed.…

  11. Assessing buyer-supplier relationship management: a multiple case-study in the Dutch construction industry

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bemelmans, Jeroen; Voordijk, Johannes T.; Vos, B.; Buter, J.I.H.

    2012-01-01

    The objective of this paper is to shed light on obstacles to, and opportunities for, increasing the effectiveness of construction firms in managing buyer-supplier relationships. More specifically, the focus is on assessing the maturity level of buyer-supplier relationship management by construction

  12. Assessing buyer-supplier relationship management : A multiple case-study in the Dutch construction industry

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bemelmans, J.; Voordijk, H.; Vos, G.C.J.M.; Buter, J.

    2012-01-01

    The objective of this paper is to shed light on obstacles to, and opportunities for, increasing the effectiveness of construction firms in managing buyer-supplier relationships. More specifically, the focus is on assessing the maturity level of buyer-supplier relationship management by construction

  13. Comparison of Risk Assessment Using HAZOP and ETBA Techniques: Case Study of a Gasoline Refinery Unit in Iran

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shirazeh Arghami

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Background: Prevention of accidents—a crucial requirement in oil industries—involves hazard recognition, risk assessment, and corrective actions. The purpose of this study was to compare the ETBA and HAZOP techniques for risk assessment in a gasoline refinery unit. Methods: In this case study, data were collected using process flow diagram, walking–talking through method, piping and instrumentation diagram, and direct observations. Worksheets for both techniques were filled on the basis of the risk assessment matrix MIL-STD-882E. Results: The HAZOP method identified 44 deviations attributable to 118 causes. In addition, 11.37% of the identified hazards were associated with unacceptable risk, and 36.36%, with unfavorable risk. The ETBA method detected 10 groups of energy (24 subgroups; 33 hazards were detected, 10.62% of which were associated with unacceptable risk. Conclusion: HAZOP proved to be the more powerful technique for the prediction and identification of hazards. However, ETBA detected certain hazards that were not identifiable using HAZOP. Therefore, a combination of these two methods is desirable for the assessment of hazard risk in process industries.

  14. A Novel Approach for Assessing the Performance of Sustainable Urbanization Based on Structural Equation Modeling: A China Case Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Liudan Jiao

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available The rapid urbanization process has brought problems to China, such as traffic congestion, air pollution, water pollution and resources scarcity. Sustainable urbanization is commonly appreciated as an effective way to promote the sustainable development. The proper understanding of the sustainable urbanization performance is critical to provide governments with support in making urban development strategies and policies for guiding the sustainable development. This paper utilizes the method of Structural equation modeling (SEM to establish an assessment model for measuring sustainable urbanization performance. Four unobserved endogenous variables, economic variable, social variable, environment variable and resource variable, and 21 observed endogenous variables comprise the SEM model. A case study of the 31 provinces in China demonstrates the validity of the SEM model and the analysis results indicated that the assessment model could help make more effective policies and strategies for improving urban sustainability by recognizing the statue of sustainable urbanization.

  15. A case study of metacognition development through self-assessment table utilization : A study in basketball skill class at university

    OpenAIRE

    一安, 晋太郎; 唐杉, 敬; イチヤス, シンタロウ; カラスギ, タカシ; Ichiyasu, Shintaro; Karasugi, Takashi

    2015-01-01

    In this study, we verify the validity of acquiring understanding monitoring strategy for the higher education students. We follow and develop the existing effective teaching methods, the meta-cognitivetraining skills, in physical education to verify the effectiveness of the understanding monitoring strategy for the students. At the beginning of a physical education class, we create a self-assessment table, set a learning target, and confirm the contents of the class. At the end of the class, ...

  16. Ergonomic assessment for the task of repairing computers in a manufacturing company: A case study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maldonado-Macías, Aidé; Realyvásquez, Arturo; Hernández, Juan Luis; García-Alcaraz, Jorge

    2015-01-01

    Manufacturing industry workers who repair computers may be exposed to ergonomic risk factors. This project analyzes the tasks involved in the computer repair process to (1) find the risk level for musculoskeletal disorders (MSDs) and (2) propose ergonomic interventions to address any ergonomic issues. Work procedures and main body postures were video recorded and analyzed using task analysis, the Rapid Entire Body Assessment (REBA) postural method, and biomechanical analysis. High risk for MSDs was found on every subtask using REBA. Although biomechanical analysis found an acceptable mass center displacement during tasks, a hazardous level of compression on the lower back during computer's transportation was detected. This assessment found ergonomic risks mainly in the trunk, arm/forearm, and legs; the neck and hand/wrist were also compromised. Opportunities for ergonomic analyses and interventions in the design and execution of computer repair tasks are discussed.

  17. Case Study of Remaining Service Life Assessment of a Cooling Water Intake Concrete Structure in Indonesia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Sigit Darmawan

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper deals with the assessment of remaining service life of a cooling water intake concrete structure (CWICS subjected to corrosion due to chloride attacks. Field and laboratory tests were performed to determine the current existing condition of the structure. Both destructive and nondestructive tests were employed to obtain the parameter needed for the assessment. Based on the current condition and test results, structural analysis was carried out and the remaining safety factor of CWICS was determined. From the analysis, it was found that most concrete elements of CWICS had safety factor greater than unity and might fulfil its intended service life up to the year 2033. However, fewer elements require immediate strengthening to extend their service life.

  18. Suburban landscape assessment applied to urban planning. Case study in Barcelona Metropolitan Region

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David Serrano Giné

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Urban fringes set complex landscapes, in transition from rural to natural and urban, with fuzzy boundaries in mutual interdependence. The European Landscape Convention gives notorious importance to everyday landscapes, including those of suburban character. Few landscape evaluation researches are done in suburban areas, which is surprising considering its importance and abundance. This paper shows a methodology, yield on geographical information systems (GIS, for landscape assessment of suburban areas, useful in urban planning. Its main interest lies in a double assessment, which considers both landscape quality and landscape fragility, applied systematically. The procedure is applied in Muntanyes d’Ordal in the metropolitan area of Barcelona (Spain, an area with pronounced regional strengths and contrasted landscape values. Results are of important applicability and indicate a predominance of mean values, both for landscape quality and landscape fragility.

  19. Sexually transmitted disease syndromic case management through public sector facilities: development and assessment study in Punjab Pakistan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khan, Muhammad Amir; Javed, Wajiha; Ahmed, Maqsood; Walley, John; Munir, Muhammad Arif

    2014-01-01

    Sexually transmitted infections (STIs) are a priority health problem. We proposed a prospective study in two districts of Punjab, using an intervention package, which included guidelines and protocols on syndrome-based management of STIs, adapted in light of technical guidelines from the National AIDS Control Program and the World Health Organization. The aim of this study was to assess the operational effectiveness of STI case management guidelines and to assess factors that determine the adherence to guidelines for management of STIs at public health facilities in Pakistan. A prospective study lasting 18 months (January 2008 to June 2009), which reviewed early implementation experiences of updated case management guidelines for delivery of syndrome-based STI/reproductive tract infection care, through public-sector health care facilities. The project was implemented in two districts of Punjab, Sargodha and Jhang. A Cox regression model with stratification was done. The prevalence of STI was 26 per 100,000 patients. In women, the reported symptoms were 80% vaginal discharge and 12% abdominal pain. Forty-four percent of men had a genital ulcer and 29% of men had genital discharge. Age of participants ranged from 13 to 60 years. The study comprised 28.6% men and 71.4% women. The majority of the population attending these clinics was from rural areas (70%). The variables independently associated with adherence to guidelines were availability of male paramedic, age of patient, and type of diagnosis made. There was an important interaction (effect modification) present between the area of health facility and patient sex. Screening, diagnosis, and treatment costs for many STIs are expensive and thus an easier, low-cost, syndrome-based public health strategy is the adoption of the proposed STI syndrome case management guidelines. Copyright © 2014 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  20. Incorporating natural hazard assessments into municipal master-plans; case-studies from Israel

    Science.gov (United States)

    Katz, Oded

    2010-05-01

    The active Dead Sea Rift (DSR) runs along the length of Israel, making the entire state susceptible to earthquake-related hazards. Current building codes generally acknowledge seismic hazards and direct engineers towards earthquake-resistant structures. However, hazard mapping on a scale fit for municipal/governmental planning is subject to local initiative and is currently not mandatory as seems necessary. In the following, a few cases of seismic-hazard evaluation made by the Geological Survey of Israel are presented, emphasizing the reasons for their initiation and the way results were incorporated (or not). The first case is a seismic hazard qualitative micro-zonation invited by the municipality of Jerusalem as part of a new master plan. This work resulted in maps (1:50,000; GIS format) identifying areas prone to (1) amplification of seismic shaking due to site characteristics (outcrops of soft rocks or steep topography) and (2) sites with earthquake induced landslide (EILS) hazard. Results were validated using reports from the 1927, M=6.2 earthquake that originated along the DSR about 30km east of Jerusalem. Although the hazard maps were accepted by municipal authorities, practical use by geotechnical engineers working within the frame of the new master-plan was not significant. The main reason for that is apparently a difference of opinion between the city-engineers responsible for implementing the new master-plan and the geologists responsible of the hazard evaluation. The second case involves evaluation of EILS hazard for two towns located further north along the DSR, Zefat and Tiberias. Both were heavily damaged more than once by strong earthquakes in past centuries. Work was carried out as part of a governmental seismic-hazard reduction program. The results include maps (1:10,000 scales) of sites with high EILS hazard identified within city limits. Maps (in GIS format) were sent to city engineers with reports explaining the methods and results. As far as

  1. Environmental sustainability of biobased products: new assessment methods and case studies

    OpenAIRE

    Freitas de Alvarenga, Rodrigo

    2013-01-01

    Certain environmental issues, as climate change and the depletion of fossil fuels, gave support to the renaissance of a biobased economy, where products are to be produced mainly from biomass (so-called biobased products). However, biobased products do not automatically mean environmentally sustainable products. In this sense, a proper evaluation of the environmental impacts of biobased products has to be done, through environmental assessment methodologies that consider the life-cycle perspe...

  2. Hydrologic modeling for water resource assessment in a developing country: the Rwanda case study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Steve McNulty; Erika Cohen Mack; Ge Sun; Peter Caldwell

    2016-01-01

    Accurate water resources assessment using hydrologic models can be a challenge anywhere, but particularly for developing countries with limited financial and technical resources. Developing countries could most benefit from the water resource planning capabilities that hydrologic models can provide, but these countries are least likely to have the data needed to run ...

  3. Flood risk assessment. Case of study: Motozintla de Mendoza, Chiapas, Mexico

    OpenAIRE

    David A. Novelo-Casanova; Frances Rodríguez-Vangort

    2016-01-01

    Due to its geographical location, the community of Motozintla de Mendoza (Motozintla) in the State of Chiapas, Mexico, is continuously exposed to the impact of natural hazards. In this work, we assessed the flood risk of Motozintla considering the structural, socioeconomic, organizational, and global (structural, socioeconomic, and organizational) vulnerabilities. In addition, we also measured the local risk perception. Spatial maps were generated to determine the most vulnerable and risk are...

  4. Integrated System Dynamics Modelling for water scarcity assessment: case study of the Kairouan region.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sušnik, Janez; Vamvakeridou-Lyroudia, Lydia S; Savić, Dragan A; Kapelan, Zoran

    2012-12-01

    A System Dynamics Model (SDM) assessing water scarcity and potential impacts of socio-economic policies in a complex hydrological system is developed. The model, simulating water resources deriving from numerous catchment sources and demand from four sectors (domestic, industrial, agricultural, external pumping), contains multiple feedback loops and sub-models. The SDM is applied to the Merguellil catchment, Tunisia; the first time such an integrated model has been developed for the water scarce Kairouan region. The application represents an early step in filling a critical research gap. The focus of this paper is to a) assess the applicability of SDM for assessment of the evolution of a water-scarce catchment and b) to analyse the current and future behaviour of the catchment to evaluate water scarcity, focusing on understanding trends to inform policy. Baseline results indicate aquifer over-exploitation, agreeing with observed trends. If current policy and social behaviour continue, serious aquifer depletion is possible in the not too distant future, with implications for the economy and environment. This is unlikely to occur because policies preventing depletion will be implemented. Sensitivity tests were carried out to show which parameters most impacted aquifer behaviour. Results show non-linear model behaviour. Some tests showed negligible change in behaviour. Others showed unrealistic exponential changes in demand, revenue and aquifer water volume. Policy-realistic parameters giving the greatest positive impact on model behaviour were those controlling per-capita domestic water demand and the pumped volume to coastal cities. All potentially beneficial policy options should be considered, giving the best opportunity for preservation of Kairouan aquifer water quantity/quality, ecologically important habitats and the agricultural socio-economic driver of regional development. SDM is a useful tool for assessing the potential impacts of possible policy measures

  5. Assessment of Lean Construction Principles: A Case Study at Semarang Medical Centre Hospital Project

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Matias Roy Adi Wijaya

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available The lean construction frameworks have been developed for years to enhance the poor performance of Indonesian project delivery system which influenced by the waste of non-value adding activities. Never the less most of the developments were limited on working process and lack in people empowerment. Toyota Way which integrate working process optimization and people empowerment, was developed as a lean construction frame works. This paper aimed to assess the implementation of Toyota Way principles in project delivery system by observing project’s delivery current state (status quo. The assessment began by conducting a questionnaire survey about Toyota Way implementation which then validated by interview with involved stakeholders and field observation. The assessment showed that project’s stakeholders were still unfamiliar with Toyota Way concept. Although some Toyota Way guidelines have been used in projects completion process such as visual management and training program, it found that those guidelines had not fully implemented. The project delivery system was lack of process focus and concerns more on relationship inter-parties. It also found thatToyota Way implementation will constrained by the difficulties to change the status quo of project delivery. Moreover, it seems that construction projects need practical guidelines to simplify the Toyota Way implementation in project delivery system such as project flow evaluation and system of reflection.

  6. Flood monitoring and damage assessment using water indices: A case study of Pakistan flood-2012

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Akhtar Ali Memon

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available This paper uses Normalized Difference Water Index (NDWI of McFeeters (1996, Water Index (WI introduced by Rogers and Kearney (2004, referred to as Red and Short Wave Infra-Red (RSWIR and WI suggested as the best by Ji et al. (2009, referred to as Green and Short Wave Infra-Red (GSWIR for delineating and mapping of surface water using MODIS (Terra near real time images during 2012 floods in Pakistan. The results from above indices have been compared with Landsat ETM+ classified images aiming to assess the accuracy of the indices. Accuracy assessment has been performed using spatial statistical techniques and found NDWI, RSWIR and GSWIR with kappa coefficient (κ of 46.66%, 70.80% and 60.61% respectively. It has been observed using statistical analysis and visual interpretation (expert knowledge gained by past experience that the NDWI and GSWIR have tendencies to underestimate and overestimate respectively the inundated area. Keeping in view the above facts, RSWIR has proved to be the best of the three indices. In addition, assessment of the damages has been carried out considering accumulated flood extent obtained from RSWIR. The information derived proved to be essential and valuable for disaster management plan and rehabilitation.

  7. Off-site toxic consequence assessment: a simplified modeling procedure and case study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guarnaccia, Joe; Hoppe, Tom

    2008-11-15

    An assessment of off-site exposure from spills/releases of toxic chemicals can be conducted by compiling site-specific operational, geographic, demographic, and meteorological data and by using screening-level public-domain modeling tools (e.g., RMP Comp, ALOHA and DEGADIS). In general, the analysis is confined to the following: event-based simulations (allow for the use of known, constant, atmospheric conditions), known receptor distances (on the order of miles or less), short time scale for the distances considered (order of 10's of minutes or less), gently sloping rough terrain, dense and neutrally buoyant gas dispersion, known chemical inventory and infrastructure (used to define source-term), and known toxic endpoint (defines significance). While screening-level models are relatively simple to use, care must be taken to ensure that the results are meaningful. This approach allows one to assess risk from catastrophic release (e.g., via terrorism), or plausible release scenarios (related to standard operating procedures and industry standards). In addition, given receptor distance and toxic endpoint, the model can be used to predict the critical spill volume to realize significant off-site risk. This information can then be used to assess site storage and operation parameters and to determine the most economical and effective risk reduction measures to be applied.

  8. Children's diets, pesticide uptake, and implications for risk assessment: An Israeli case study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Freeman, Shirra; Kaufman-Shriqui, Vered; Berman, Tamar; Varsano, Rina; Shahar, Danit R; Manor, Orly

    2016-01-01

    The presence of pesticides in the Israeli food supply is well documented but little is known about the risks posed by children's diets for potential exposures. We investigated potential exposures to food-borne pesticides in a sample of 301 urban Israeli children (2008-10). Data from a food frequency questionnaire, 24 hour food recall, and Israel's national pesticide monitoring program were used to estimate uptake factors for 26 compounds in 27 fruits and vegetables. A pilot risk assessment was performed and the findings were compared with the Israel Ministry of Health's 2012 pesticide risk assessment for the general population. The surveyed children had higher potential exposures than the general population for over one third of the compounds, and uptake factors exceeded the Acceptable Daily Intake in ten compounds. Methamidophos, exceeded the ADI at the 25th percentile and fenamiphos, iprodione, and oxydemethon methyl, exceeded the ADI at the 50 percentile. ADIs for several compounds were exceeded even though the residues detected were below the statutory limit. Improved monitoring, enforcement, and revision of the Maximum Residue Limit for certain food/pesticide pairs are indicated as is the need to incorporate data on children's actual food consumption in national risk assessments. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Risk assessment of fungal spoilage: A case study of Aspergillus niger on yogurt.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gougouli, Maria; Koutsoumanis, Konstantinos P

    2017-08-01

    A quantitative risk assessment model of yogurt spoilage by Aspergillus niger was developed based on a stochastic modeling approach for mycelium growth by taking into account the important sources of variability such as time-temperature conditions during the different stages of chill chain and individual spore behavior. Input parameters were fitted to the appropriate distributions and A. niger colony's diameter at each stage of the chill chain was estimated using Monte Carlo simulation. By combining the output of the growth model with the fungus prevalence, that can be estimated by the industry using challenge tests, the risk of spoilage translated to number of yogurt cups in which a visible mycelium of A. niger is being formed at the time of consumption was assessed. The risk assessment output showed that for a batch of 100,000 cups in which the percentage of contaminated cups with A. niger was 1% the predicted numbers (median (5(th), 95(th) percentiles)) of the cups with a visible mycelium at consumption time were 8 (5, 14). For higher percentages of 3, 5 and 10 the predicted numbers (median (5(th), 95(th) percentiles)) of the spoiled cups at consumption time were estimated to be 24 (16, 35), 39 (29, 52) and 80 (64, 94), respectively. The developed model can lead to a more effective risk-based quality management of yogurt and support the decision making in yogurt production. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Building America Case Study: Assessment of a Hybrid Retrofit Gas Water Heater

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    2017-06-19

    This project completed a modeling evaluation of a hybrid gas water heater that combines a reduced capacity tankless unit with a downsized storage tank. This product would meet a significant market need by providing a higher efficiency gas water heater solution for retrofit applications while maintaining compatibility with the half-inch gas lines and standard B vents found in most homes. The TRNSYS simulation tool was used to model a base case 0.60 EF atmospheric gas storage water, a 0.82 EF non-condensing gas tankless water heater, an existing (high capacity) hybrid unit on the market, and an alternative hybrid unit with lower storage volume and reduced gas input requirements. Simulations were completed under a 'peak day' sizing scenario with 183 gpd hot water loads in a Minnesota winter climate case. Full-year simulations were then completed in three climates (ranging from Phoenix to Minneapolis) for three hot water load scenarios (36, 57, and 96 gpd). Model projections indicate that the alternative hybrid offers an average 4.5% efficiency improvement relative to the 0.60 EF gas storage unit across all scenarios modeled. The alternative hybrid water heater evaluated does show promise, but the current low cost of natural gas across much of the country and the relatively small incremental efficiency improvement poses challenges in initially building a market demand for the product.

  11. Assessing adherence in the CAPRISA 004 tenofovir gel HIV prevention trial: results of a nested case-control study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    MacQueen, Kathleen M; Weaver, Mark A; van Loggerenberg, Francois; Succop, Stacey; Majola, Nelisle; Taylor, Doug; Karim, Quarraisha Abdool; Karim, Salim Abdool

    2014-05-01

    Adherence undeniably impacts product effectiveness in microbicide trials, but the connection has proven challenging to quantify using routinely collected behavioral data. We explored this relationship using a nested case-control study in the CAPRISA 004 Tenofovir (TFV) gel HIV prevention trial. Detailed 3-month recall data on sex events, condom and gel use were collected from 72 incident cases and 205 uninfected controls. We then assessed how the relationship between self-reported adherence and HIV acquisition differed between the TFV and placebo gel groups, an interaction effect that should exist if effectiveness increases with adherence. The CAPRISA 004 trial determined that randomization to TFV gel was associated with a significant reduction in risk of HIV acquisition. In our nested case-control study, however, we did not observe a meaningful decrease in the relative odds of infection-TFV versus placebo-as self-reported adherence increased. To the contrary, exploratory sub-group analysis of the case-control data identified greater evidence for a protective effect of TFV gel among participants reporting less than 80 % adherence to the protocol-defined regimen (odds ratio (OR) 0.30; 95 % CI 0.11-0.78) than among those reporting ≥ 80 % adherence (Odds Ratio 0.81; 95 % CI 0.34-1.92). The small number of cases may have inhibited our ability to detect the hypothesized interaction between adherence and effectiveness. Nonetheless, our results re-emphasize the challenges faced by investigators when adherence may be miss-measured, miss-reported, or confounded with the risk of HIV.

  12. A Support Analysis Framework for mass movement damage assessment: applications to case studies in Calabria (Italy)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Petrucci, O.; Gullã, G.

    2009-03-01

    The analysis of data describing damage caused by mass movements in Calabria (Italy) allowed the organisation of the Support Analysis Framework (SAF), a spreadsheet that converts damage descriptions into numerical indices expressing direct, indirect, and intangible damage. The SAF assesses damage indices of past mass movements and the potential outcomes of dormant phenomena re-activations. It is based on the effects on damaged elements and is independent of both physical and geometric phenomenon characteristics. SAF sections that assess direct damage encompass several lines, each describing an element characterised by a value fixed on a relative arbitrary scale. The levels of loss are classified as: L4: complete; L3: high; L2: medium; or L1: low. For a generic line l, the SAF multiplies the value of a damaged element by its level of loss, obtaining dl, the contribution of the line to the damage. Indirect damage is appraised by two sections accounting for: (a) actions aiming to overcome emergency situations and (b) actions aiming to restore pre-movement conditions. The level of loss depends on the number of people involved (a) or the cost of actions (b). For intangible damage, the level of loss depends on the number of people involved. We examined three phenomena, assessing damage using the SAF and SAFL, customised versions of SAF based on the elements actually present in the analysed municipalities that consider the values of elements in the community framework. We show that in less populated, inland, and affluent municipalities, the impact of mass movements is greater than in coastal areas. The SAF can be useful to sort groups of phenomena according to their probable future damage, supplying results significant either for insurance companies or for local authorities involved in both disaster management and planning of defensive measures.

  13. LIDAR Data Acquisition and Processing for assessing critical fuel parameters: the case study of Bosco dell

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guariglia, A.; Zampino, A.; Lasaponara, R.; Lanorte, A.

    2009-04-01

    In the last decades, the abandonment of rural areas has caused an increasing accumulation of fuels (the organic matter available for ignition and combustion) which is considered very critical for the whole Mediterranean Basin because fire ignition and propagation depend strongly on the availability and structure of wild land fuels. Detailed information on fuel properties (e.g. fuel load, spatial arrangement, structure, status etc.) and fuel distribution are essential for supporting (i) fuel management, (ii) fire behaviour prediction (iii) real-time fire suppression tactics and (iv) logistics decisions. Airborne full-waveform laser scanning (ALS) is a potential tool for accurately and effectively assessing critical fuel parameters (including canopy bulk density, canopy height, canopy fuel weight, and canopy base height) over forest areas. The LIDAR is an active high resolution technology capable to provide accurate three dimensional forest structure measurements. The aim of this paper is to develop the use of lidar (LIght Detection and Ranging) remote sensing for accurately and effectively assessing fuel critical parameters in a natural protected area (Bosco dell'Incoronata) located in the Apulia Region (Southern Italy). Lidar data acquisition was carried out on April 2008 for both Bosco dell'Incoronata and surrounding areas. An integrated approach was used to identify and characterize critical fuel parameters using a combination of lidar height bins and ortophotos. Estimates of fuel properties were compared with in-situ data collected at the same time (more or less) as the LIDAR data acquisition. Specific goals of our analysis include: (1) developing lidar derived products and the methodology to use them for assessing critical fuel parameters, and (2) producing spatially explicit digital fuel maps. The obtained results pointed out that LIDAR-based fuel properties and prediction models can be fruitfully used for mapping critical fuel parameters (including canopy

  14. Risk assessment of major hazards and its application in urban planning: a case study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Yafei; Liu, Mao

    2012-03-01

    With the rapid development of industry in China, the number of establishments that are proposed or under construction is increasing year by year, and many are industries that handle flammable, explosive, toxic, harmful, and dangerous substances. Accidents such as fire, explosion, and toxic diffusion inevitably happen. Accidents resulting from these major hazards in cities cause a large number of casualties and property losses. It is increasingly important to analyze the risk of major hazards in cities realistically and to suitably plan and utilize the surrounding land based on the risk analysis results, thereby reducing the hazards. A theoretical system for risk assessment of major hazards in cities is proposed in this article, and the major hazard risk for the entire city is analyzed quantitatively. Risks of various major accidents are considered together, superposition effect is analyzed, individual risk contours of the entire city are drawn out, and the level of risk in the city is assessed using "as low as reasonably practicable" guidelines. After the entire city's individual risk distribution is obtained, risk zones are divided according to corresponding individual risk value of HSE, and land-use planning suggestions are proposed. Finally, a city in China is used as an example to illustrate the risk assessment process of the city's major hazard and its application in urban land-use planning. The proposed method has a certain theoretical and practical significance in establishing and improving risk analysis of major hazard and urban land-use planning. On the one hand, major urban public risk is avoided; further, the land is utilized in the best possible way in order to obtain the maximum benefit from its use. © 2011 Society for Risk Analysis.

  15. A Support Analysis Framework for mass movement damage assessment: applications to case studies in Calabria (Italy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    O. Petrucci

    2009-03-01

    Full Text Available The analysis of data describing damage caused by mass movements in Calabria (Italy allowed the organisation of the Support Analysis Framework (SAF, a spreadsheet that converts damage descriptions into numerical indices expressing direct, indirect, and intangible damage.

    The SAF assesses damage indices of past mass movements and the potential outcomes of dormant phenomena re-activations. It is based on the effects on damaged elements and is independent of both physical and geometric phenomenon characteristics.

    SAF sections that assess direct damage encompass several lines, each describing an element characterised by a value fixed on a relative arbitrary scale. The levels of loss are classified as: L4: complete; L3: high; L2: medium; or L1: low. For a generic line l, the SAF multiplies the value of a damaged element by its level of loss, obtaining dl, the contribution of the line to the damage.

    Indirect damage is appraised by two sections accounting for: (a actions aiming to overcome emergency situations and (b actions aiming to restore pre-movement conditions. The level of loss depends on the number of people involved (a or the cost of actions (b.

    For intangible damage, the level of loss depends on the number of people involved.

    We examined three phenomena, assessing damage using the SAF and SAFL, customised versions of SAF based on the elements actually present in the analysed municipalities that consider the values of elements in the community framework. We show that in less populated, inland, and affluent municipalities, the impact of mass movements is greater than in coastal areas.

    The SAF can be useful to sort groups of phenomena according to their probable future damage, supplying results significant either for insurance companies or for local authorities involved in both disaster management and planning of defensive measures.

  16. Personal Metabolism (PM) coupled with Life Cycle Assessment (LCA) model: Danish Case Study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kalbar, Pradip; Birkved, Morten; Kabins, Simon

    2016-01-01

    Metabolism (PM) patterns of residents living in urbanized areas of Denmark. Extending the PM analysis with Life Cycle Assessment (LCA) provided a clear picture of the per capita environmental and human health burdens, as well as resource consumptions, and the exact origin hereof. A generic PM-LCA Model...... in the context of environmental and human health burdens,as well as resource consumptions. A systematic commodity consumption, commodity disposal, and life style survey of 1281 persons living in urbanized Danish areas was conducted. The findings of the survey showed new impact dimensions in terms of Personal...

  17. A First Case Study of a Life Cycle-Based Alternatives Assessment (LCAA)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fantke, Peter; Huang, L.; Overcash, Michael

    2017-01-01

    Chemical alternatives assessment (AA) is an emerging screening-level method to replace hazardous chemicals with safer alternatives. Current AA frameworks, however, suffer from gaps in addressing exposure and life cycle impacts, which can leave trade-offs unidentified. Exposure needs to cover...... DEHP by DIHP as vinyl flooring plasticizer shifts from cancer to non-cancer disease burden and shows that plasticizers contribute between 55 and 85% to total toxicity burden from flooring. Comparing toxicity-related outcomes with outcomes from other life cycle impacts emphasizes the relevance...

  18. Probabilistic Impact Assessment of Domestic Rainwater Harvesting in Urban Slums: West Africa Case Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cowden, J. R.; Watkins, D. W.; Mihelcic, J. R.; Fry, L. M.

    2007-12-01

    Urban populations now exceed rural populations worldwide, creating unique challenges in providing basic services, especially in developing countries where informal or illegal settlements grow in peri-urban areas. West Africa is an acute example of the problems created by rapid urban growth, with high levels of urban poverty and low water and sanitation access rates. Although considerable effort has been made in providing improved water access and urban services to slum communities, research indicates that clean water access rates are not keeping up with urbanization rates in several areas of the world and that rapidly growing slum communities are beginning to overwhelm many prior water improvements projects. In the face of these challenges, domestic rainwater harvesting is proposed as a technologically appropriate and economically viable option for enhancing water supplies to urban slum households. However, assessing the reliability, potential health impacts, and overall cost-effectiveness of these systems on a regional level is difficult for several reasons. First, long daily rainfall records are not readily available in much of the developing world, including many regions of sub-Saharan Africa. Second, significant uncertainties exist in the relevant cost, water use, and health data. Third, to estimate the potential future impacts at the regional scale, various global change scenarios should be investigated. Finally, in addition to these technical challenges, there is also a need to develop relatively simple and transparent assessment methods for informing policy makers. A procedure is presented for assessment of domestic rainwater harvesting systems using a combination of scenario, sensitivity, and trade-off analyses. Using data from West Africa, simple stochastic weather models are developed to generate rainfall sequences for the region, which are then used to estimate the reliability of providing a range of per capita water supplies. Next, a procedure is

  19. Hydrogen pipelines for wind energy storage. Technical and economic assessment in case studies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Montignac, Florent [CEA, LITEN, Grenoble (France). Dept. des Technologies Biomasse et Hydrogene; Avril, Sophie [CEA, DEN, Gif-sur-Yvette (France); Batisse, Remi; Melscoet, Sandrine [GDF-SUEZ-DRI-CRIGEN, Saint-Denis (France); Lim Thiebot, Samantha; Weinberger, Benno [INERIS, Verneuil-en-Halatte (France); Hoguet, Jean-Christophe [HELION, Aix-en-Provence (France)

    2010-07-01

    Renewable energies provide electrical power intermittently depending on climate conditions. In consequence, the energy productions are not always consistent with the period of higher energy demand or can provide excess power in comparison with the absorption capability of the electrical network. As an example, it was typically the case in Spain the 2nd of November 2008 when the operator of the electrical network gave the order to stop more than 37% of wind production to maintain the grid stability. This paper focuses on the interest of storing electricity from wind using hydrogen pipelines. The geographical area considered is the Brittany region in France, which is known for its wind potential and also which faces some problems in maintaining the provision of electricity to the population. (orig.)

  20. Building America Case Study: Assessment of a Hybrid Retrofit Gas Water Heater

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    M. Hoeschele, E. Weitzel, C. Backman

    2017-06-01

    This project completed a modeling evaluation of a hybrid gas water heater that combines a reduced capacity tankless unit with a downsized storage tank. This product would meet a significant market need by providing a higher efficiency gas water heater solution for retrofit applications while maintaining compatibility with the half-inch gas lines and standard B vents found in most homes. The TRNSYS simulation tool was used to model a base case 0.60 EF atmospheric gas storage water, a 0.82 EF non-condensing gas tankless water heater, an existing (high capacity) hybrid unit on the market, and an alternative hybrid unit with lower storage volume and reduced gas input requirements.

  1. ERCB directive 038 noise impact assessment - noise monitoring follow-up approach and case study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chui, Jonathan [Institute of Noise Control Engineering (United States)], Email: jccwmdj@gmail.com, email: jonathan.chui@auc.ab.ca; South, Don RET [Energy Resources Conservation Board (Canada)], Email: Don.South@ercb.ca; Hann, Henk de [Golder Associates Ltd. (Canada)], Email: Henk_deHaan@golder.com; Molina, Carolina [Cenovus FCCL Ltd (Canada)], Email: Carolina.Molina@cenovus.com

    2011-07-01

    In any noise impact assessment, Directive 038 of the Alberta Energy Resource Conservation Board (ERCB) recommends the use of a noise model to predict noise emission from industrial buildings, but such a model can present discrepancies relative to actual noise emissions, and these can accumulate over the different building phases of a project. This paper focuses on steam-assisted gravity drainage in Alberta, and is intended to show the advantages of taking noise measurements in-between construction phases for better continuity and fewer uncertainties in theoretical noise predictions. Short term and long term measurements, especially of low frequency noise, were taken at different locations in and around the plant and then compared with theoretical predictions, based on manufacturer specifications and in accordance with Directive 038. Differences were observed, due mainly to erroneous model assumptions. Actual noise measurements are thus a useful means to ensure continuity in a multiple-phase noise impact assessment as well as to correct discrepancies in a noise model accurately, thus reducing prediction errors for present and future projects.

  2. Case Study: Optimality Theory and the Assessment and Treatment of Phonological Disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barlow, Jessica A

    2001-10-01

    Recently, the development of the constraint-based framework of optimality theory has been adopted and applied to the assessment and treatment of children with phonological disorders. This paper provides a demonstration of the application of optimality theory to the assessment and treatment of a single child with a phonological disorder. First, a tutorial of the theory is provided. Then, several prototypical error patterns evident in the child's productions are analyzed within the framework. These errors are accounted for by assuming that constraints against marked structure are ranked over constraints that require faithfulness to input forms within the child's grammar. Following that, a demonstration of how optimality theory accounts for different types of variation in the child's productions is provided. These different types of variation are revealing of the true nature of certain error patterns, particularly an apparent pattern of cluster reduction. Finally, the results of the analysis lead to suggestions for treatment that focus on the demotion of markedness constraints below faithfulness constraints.

  3. Practical Functional Approach to Quality Assessment in Subtitling: Pocahontas II – Case Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alaa Eddin Hussain

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available The present research work deals with subtitling errors encountered by simulators and proof-readers. The resultant work is of significant contribution to problem decision makings in the field of quality assessment of audiovisual translation (AVT. The outcome of this paper is the result of accumulated working experience in this domain. The relevant errors are related to syntax, spelling, style, length of sentences, lack of clarity, and gender-related issues. These errors though made by one subtitler who has translated the animation feature film Pocahontas II released in 2012, are still typical and therefore a thorough investigation has been done and a set of linguistic rules has been suggested as a guideline for the audiovisual industry. These rules are to be added to the technical and software requirements sent by subtitling companies (such as the number of characters per line, the font, the reading speed per minute, and punctuation. This set of rules helps monitor the quality of the subtitled target text (TT.     Keywords: audiovisual translation, subtitling, quality assessment, practical functional approach, Arabic-English simulation

  4. Assessing flow regime alterations in a temporary river – the River Celone case study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    De Girolamo Anna Maria

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, we present an approach to evaluate the hydrological alterations of a temporary river. In these rivers, it is expected that anthropogenic pressures largely modify low-flow components of the flow regime with consequences for aquatic habitat and diversity in invertebrate species. First, by using a simple hydrological index (IARI river segments of the Celone stream (southern Italy whose hydrological regime is significantly influenced by anthropogenic activities have been identified. Hydrological alteration has been further classified through the analysis of two metrics: the degree (Mf and the predictability of dry flow conditions (Sd6. Measured streamflow data were used to calculate the metrics in present conditions (impacted. Given the lack of data from pristine conditions, simulated streamflow time series were used to calculate the metrics in reference conditions. The Soil and Water Assessment Tool (SWAT model was used to estimate daily natural streamflow. Hydrological alterations associated with water abstractions, point discharges and the presence of a reservoir were assessed by comparing the metrics (Mf, Sd6 before and after the impacts. The results show that the hydrological regime of the river segment located in the upper part of the basin is slightly altered, while the regime of the river segment downstream of the reservoir is heavily altered. This approach is intended for use with ecological metrics in defining the water quality status and in planning streamflow management activities.

  5. THE LIFE CYCLE ASSESSMENT - A CASE STUDY OF TRANSPORTING VOLVO CARS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gloria P. Gerilla

    2000-01-01

    Full Text Available The increase in the number of vehicles in our society is detrimental to the environment because of increased fuel usage and pollutant emissions. This paper analyze the environmental effects of transporting cars from its manufacturer to its end user. The method used is the life cycle assessment (LCA. Life cycle assessment is a method for analyzing and evaluating environmental performance of products, processes or services throughout its entire life cycle. The paper also shows the effect of changing the fuel type used in transporting the vehicles. It can be seen that from the pollutant emissions in the transport chain, carbon dioxide and nitrogen oxides are the leading pollutants, which affect the air quality in the environment. The truck is shown to be a heavy polluter in terms of its emission factors and there is not much difference between a European and an Asian country. With the use of the natural gas as an alternative fuel, emission levels can be reduced to as much as 19 % for CO2 and 16 % for NOx emissions while costs are higher in the first few years because of conversion costs, it can be said that it is worth the risk. The truck can be an environmentally adapted vehicle if its engine is converted to an alternative fuel engine like the compressed natural gas. The LCA methodology is holistic because it gives a systems analysis of the product

  6. Assessing Earthquake Early Warning Using Sparse Networks in Developing Countries: Case Study of the Kyrgyz Republic

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stefano Parolai

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available The first real-time digital strong-motion network in Central Asia has been installed in the Kyrgyz Republic since 2014. Although this network consists of only 19 strong-motion stations, they are located in near-optimal locations for earthquake early warning and rapid response purposes. In fact, it is expected that this network, which utilizes the GFZ-Sentry software, allowing decentralized event assessment calculations, not only will provide useful strong motion data useful for improving future seismic hazard and risk assessment, but will serve as the backbone for regional and on-site earthquake early warning operations. Based on the location of these stations, and travel-time estimates for P- and S-waves, we have determined potential lead times for several major urban areas in Kyrgyzstan (i.e., Bishkek, Osh, and Karakol and Kazakhstan (Almaty, where we find the implementation of an efficient earthquake early warning system would provide lead times outside the blind zone ranging from several seconds up to several tens of seconds. This was confirmed by the simulation of the possible shaking (and intensity that would arise considering a series of scenarios based on historical and expected events, and how they affect the major urban centers. Such lead times would allow the instigation of automatic mitigation procedures, while the system as a whole would support prompt and efficient actions to be undertaken over large areas.

  7. Earthquake Probability Assessment for the Active Faults in Central Taiwan: A Case Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yi-Rui Lee

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Frequent high seismic activities occur in Taiwan due to fast plate motions. According to the historical records the most destructive earthquakes in Taiwan were caused mainly by inland active faults. The Central Geological Survey (CGS of Taiwan has published active fault maps in Taiwan since 1998. There are 33 active faults noted in the 2012 active fault map. After the Chi-Chi earthquake, CGS launched a series of projects to investigate the details to better understand each active fault in Taiwan. This article collected this data to develop active fault parameters and referred to certain experiences from Japan and the United States to establish a methodology for earthquake probability assessment via active faults. We consider the active faults in Central Taiwan as a good example to present the earthquake probability assessment process and results. The appropriate “probability model” was used to estimate the conditional probability where M ≥ 6.5 and M ≥ 7.0 earthquakes. Our result shows that the highest earthquake probability for M ≥ 6.5 earthquake occurring in 30, 50, and 100 years in Central Taiwan is the Tachia-Changhua fault system. Conversely, the lowest earthquake probability is the Chelungpu fault. The goal of our research is to calculate the earthquake probability of the 33 active faults in Taiwan. The active fault parameters are important information that can be applied in the following seismic hazard analysis and seismic simulation.

  8. The importance of benthos in weight of evidence sediment assessments--a case study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McPherson, Cathy; Chapman, Peter M; Debruyn, Adrian M H; Cooper, Leah

    2008-05-15

    Sediment quality in a Texas reservoir subject to point and non-point sources of contaminants was assessed using the Sediment Quality Triad weight of evidence approach. Fifteen stations were sampled plus a reference station which, unfortunately, comprised a different habitat type than the other 15 stations. Accordingly, standard comparisons between reference and exposed stations were inappropriate. Interpretation of potential relationships between benthic community structure and sediment-associated contaminants was also confounded by differences in habitat-related characteristics (e.g., water depth and total organic carbon) within the reservoir. Multivariate analyses of the benthic community identified two station groupings separated primarily by habitat-related differences rather than contaminant-related toxicity. Laboratory toxicity tests and chemical analyses, including measures of bioavailability, did not differ consistently between the two community-based station groupings, indicating that toxicity resulting from chemical contamination was not the primary factor in observed community structure in the reservoir, although alterations to the benthos due to chemical contamination could not be ruled out in the absence of an appropriate reference comparison. Appropriately giving highest weight to resident benthic community structure, followed by the results of laboratory toxicity tests, then chemical analyses, provided the best possible assessment of chemical pollution in the absence of a suitable reference comparison. The alternative approach of relying on only sediment toxicity and chemistry data, without considering the full weight of evidence, would have provided misleading information.

  9. Hydrochemical assessment of water quality for irrigation: a case study of the Medjerda River in Tunisia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Etteieb, Selma; Cherif, Semia; Tarhouni, Jamila

    2017-03-01

    In order to characterize, classify and evaluate the suitability of Medjerda River water for irrigation, a hydrochemical assessment was conducted. It accounts for 80 % of the total Tunisian surface water. In this paper, hydrographical methods and PHREEQC geochemical program were used to characterize water quality of Medjerda River, whereas its suitability for irrigation was determined in accordance with its electrical conductivity (EC), sodium adsorption ratio (SAR) and sodium concentrations. It was established that the water samples were undersaturated with calcite, dolomite, aragonite, anhydrite, gypsum and halite except in one water sample which is supersaturated with carbonate minerals. The quality assessment of Medjerda River for irrigation purposes showed that some points belonged to the excellent-to-good and good-to-permissible irrigation water categories, while the remaining ones were classified as doubtful to unsuitable for irrigation making the river water use limited to plants with high salt tolerance. Moreover, based on FAO guidelines, almost all water samples may cause immediate salinity to gradual increasing problem but no soil infiltration problems except for two sampling points. However, immediate development or possible increasing of severe toxicity problems may be caused by the continuous use of this water for irrigation due to troublesome concentrations of chloride and sodium.

  10. Long-Term Assessment of an Innovative Mangrove Rehabilitation Project: Case Study on Carey Island, Malaysia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shervin Motamedi

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Wave energy and storm surges threaten coastal ecology and nearshore infrastructures. Although coastal structures are conventionally constructed to dampen the wave energy, they introduce tremendous damage to the ecology of the coast. To minimize environmental impact, ecofriendly coastal protection schemes should be introduced. In this paper, we discuss an example of an innovative mangrove rehabilitation attempt to restore the endangered mangroves on Carey Island, Malaysia. A submerged detached breakwater system was constructed to dampen the energy of wave and trap the sediments behind the structure. Further, a large number of mangrove seedlings were planted using different techniques. Further, we assess the possibility of success for a future mangrove rehabilitation project at the site in the context of sedimentology, bathymetry, and hydrogeochemistry. The assessment showed an increase in the amount of silt and clay, and the seabed was noticeably elevated. The nutrient concentration, the pH value, and the salinity index demonstrate that the site is conducive in establishing mangrove seedlings. As a result, we conclude that the site is now ready for attempts to rehabilitate the lost mangrove forest.

  11. Assessing earthquake early warning using sparse networks in developing countries: Case study of the Kyrgyz Republic

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parolai, Stefano; Boxberger, Tobias; Pilz, Marco; Fleming, Kevin; Haas, Michael; Pittore, Massimiliano; Petrovic, Bojana; Moldobekov, Bolot; Zubovich, Alexander; Lauterjung, Joern

    2017-09-01

    The first real-time digital strong-motion network in Central Asia has been installed in the Kyrgyz Republic since 2014. Although this network consists of only 19 strong-motion stations, they are located in near-optimal locations for earthquake early warning and rapid response purposes. In fact, it is expected that this network, which utilizes the GFZ-Sentry software, allowing decentralized event assessment calculations, not only will provide useful strong motion data useful for improving future seismic hazard and risk assessment, but will serve as the backbone for regional and on-site earthquake early warning operations. Based on the location of these stations, and travel-time estimates for P- and S-waves, we have determined potential lead times for several major urban areas in Kyrgyzstan (i.e., Bishkek, Osh, and Karakol) and Kazakhstan (Almaty), where we find the implementation of an efficient earthquake early warning system would provide lead times outside the blind zone ranging from several seconds up to several tens of seconds. This was confirmed by the simulation of the possible shaking (and intensity) that would arise considering a series of scenarios based on historical and expected events, and how they affect the major urban centres. Such lead times would allow the instigation of automatic mitigation procedures, while the system as a whole would support prompt and efficient actions to be undertaken over large areas.

  12. Landscape change analysis and assessment (case studies in Slovakia and Bulgaria)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feranec, Jan; Kopecka, Monika; Vatseva, Rumiana; Stoimenov, Anton; Otahel, Jan; Betak, Juraj; Husar, Karol

    2009-03-01

    Landscape change assessment was conducted in selected areas of Slovakia and Bulgaria in 1990-2000 using CORINE land cover (CLC) data layer analysis. Assessment of causes that led to these changes was undertaken, with an emphasis on those that determined the extensification of agriculture. The LC data were obtained under the CLC90 and I&CLC2000 projects, jointly managed by the European Environment Agency in Copenhagen, Denmark and the Joint Research Centre of the European Commission in Ispra, Italy. The CLC1990-2000-changes data layer was generated by overlaying the CLC90 and CLC2000 data layers for change in areas of a minimum 5 ha. The analysed causes of changes (driving forces) were then classified. Land cover (LC) changes characterizing urbanization processes occurred only in the Trnava and Tatras areas. Intensification of agriculture was also higher in these two areas. LC changes characterizing the extensification of agriculture were dominant in Plovdiv and Trnava. Deforestation and forestation were identified in all areas (Trnava, Tatras, Plovdiv, and Burgas). The basic reasons of these changes were related to the transformation of national economies from being centrally planned to market controlled, following the fall of socialism and before the countries joined the European Union.

  13. Quality assessment of SPR sensor chips; case study on L1 chips.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olaru, Andreea; Gheorghiu, Mihaela; David, Sorin; Polonschii, Cristina; Gheorghiu, Eugen

    2013-07-15

    Surface quality of the Surface Plasmon Resonance (SPR) chips is a major limiting issue in most SPR analyses, even more for supported lipid membranes experiments, where both the organization of the lipid matrix and the subsequent incorporation of the target molecule depend on the surface quality. A novel quantitative method to characterize the quality of SPR sensors chips is described for L1 chips subject to formation of lipid films, injection of membrane disrupting compounds, followed by appropriate regeneration procedures. The method consists in analysis of the SPR reflectivity curves for several standard solutions (e.g. PBS, HEPES or deionized water). This analysis reveals the decline of sensor surface as a function of the number of experimental cycles (consisting in biosensing assay and regeneration step) and enables active control of surface regeneration for enhanced reproducibility. We demonstrate that quantitative evaluation of the changes in reflectivity curves (shape of the SPR dip) and of the slope of the calibration curve provides a rapid and effective procedure for surface quality assessment. Whereas the method was tested on L1 SPR sensors chips, we stress on its amenability to assess the quality of other types of SPR chips, as well. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  14. Climate change impact and adaptation research requires integrated assessment and farming systems analysis: a case study in the Netherlands

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reidsma, Pytrik; Wolf, Joost; Kanellopoulos, Argyris; Schaap, Ben F.; Mandryk, Maryia; Verhagen, Jan; van Ittersum, Martin K.

    2015-04-01

    Rather than on crop modelling only, climate change impact assessments in agriculture need to be based on integrated assessment and farming systems analysis, and account for adaptation at different levels. With a case study for Flevoland, the Netherlands, we illustrate that (1) crop models cannot account for all relevant climate change impacts and adaptation options, and (2) changes in technology, policy and prices have had and are likely to have larger impacts on farms than climate change. While crop modelling indicates positive impacts of climate change on yields of major crops in 2050, a semi-quantitative and participatory method assessing impacts of extreme events shows that there are nevertheless several climate risks. A range of adaptation measures are, however, available to reduce possible negative effects at crop level. In addition, at farm level farmers can change cropping patterns, and adjust inputs and outputs. Also farm structural change will influence impacts and adaptation. While the 5th IPCC report is more negative regarding impacts of climate change on agriculture compared to the previous report, also for temperate regions, our results show that when putting climate change in context of other drivers, and when explicitly accounting for adaptation at crop and farm level, impacts may be less negative in some regions and opportunities are revealed. These results refer to a temperate region, but an integrated assessment may also change perspectives on climate change for other parts of the world.

  15. Determining return-to-sport status with a multi-component assessment strategy: a case study in rugby.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, Scott R; Brughelli, Matt

    2014-08-01

    The effectiveness of rehabilitation programmes are often distorted by the athlete's desire to return and can result in injury recurrence. Athletic assessments allow for objective and reliable measurements to track rehabilitation progress. This case study used a multi-component assessment strategy to assess a rugby player's lower-extremity strength and symmetry as a primary determinate of their return-to-sport status. A professional rugby league player was assessed for lower-extremity isokinetic strength and sprint kinetics pre- and 10-weeks post-rehabilitation programme following two consecutive knee injuries involving surgical intervention. Pre-testing analysis showed clinical and functional strength deficits in the injured leg as high as 34% compared to the non-injured leg. Pre- to post-testing showed: increases in peak torque (49%) and decreased asymmetries by 50%; unilateral horizontal force increased (injured: 50%, non-injured: 19%) during sprinting; force production asymmetries decreased up to 18%. The rugby player showed clinical and functional strength deficiencies return to normal ranges following a rehabilitation programme. A return-to-sport decision was made by the athlete's supporting health team based on the sizeable asymmetry decreases and return-to-normative ranges for knee and hip strength and sprint kinetics. The athlete returned to the 2013 National Rugby League season without any major injuries. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. Inventory Data on Commercial Broiler Chicken Production System using Life Cycle Assessment Approach: A Case Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suffian, S. A.; Sidek, A. A.; Yusof, H. M.; Al-Hazza, M. H. F.

    2018-01-01

    An inventory analysis of the life cycle of broiler chicken production from cradle-to-gate perspective was carried out with the aim to identify possible input and output parameters involved in the system. To do so, broiler chicken production in Myra Chicken Farm and Services was investigated in detail. Result shows the inventory data on feed consumption, transportation, physical performance parameter and other utilities that affect the product which is broilers. Broilers production in fact shows escalation year by year because of high demand from consumer. A cradle-to-gate assessment was conducted based on ISO 14040/14044 guidelines. Inventory data was gathered from farmers and available literature. Improving all the input and output system will increase the level of productivity and the cost of the production. Thus, at the end of the research, it will able to make industry player to understand and take into consideration the solutions in order to promote a green broiler chicken production.

  17. Assessing the Communication Quality of CSR Reports. A Case Study on Four Spanish Food Companies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amparo Baviera-Puig

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Sustainability reports are tools for disseminating information to stakeholders and the public, serving the organizations in the dual purpose of communicating CSR and being accountable. The production of these reports has recently become more prevalent in the food industry, despite the fact this practice has received heavy criticism on two fronts: The quality of the tool for communication, and the extent of accountability. In addition to these criticisms, organizations must overcome the additional challenge of publishing sustainability reports that successfully meet the demands of a multi-stakeholder audience. In light of the importance of this practice, this paper presents a method to assess the communication and accountability characteristics of Spanish food companies’ sustainability reports. This method is based on the method Analytic Network Process (ANP and adopts a multi-stakeholder approach. This research, therefore, provides a reference model for improving sustainability reports, with the aim of successfully meeting their communication objectives and the demands of all stakeholders.

  18. Assessment and management of SCC in a liquid pipeline: case study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cazenave, Pablo; Tandon, Samarth; Gao, Ming; Krishnamurthy, Ravi [Blade Energy Partners, Houston, Texas (United States); Peverelli, Romina (PIMS of London, London (United Kingdom)); Moreno Ochoa, Carlos (Pemex Refinacion, Cd de Mexico, (Mexico)); Diaz Solis, Esau (Pemex Refinacion, Cd de Mexico, (Mexico))

    2010-07-01

    A 30-inch crude oil pipeline system was built between Nuevo Teapa to Venta de Carpjo from 1978 to 1980. It is owned by Pemex; its total length is 570 km, and it has strategic importance in Mexico's refining capability. In this oil pipeline, various degrees of external and internal corrosion have been found, and recent incidents occurred as a result of stress corrosion cracking (SCC). This paper presents an approach for managing high pH SCC in such a pipeline: it includes a comprehensive verification excavation plan, a strict in-ditch NDT investigation protocol, statistical models to determine the probability of detection and identification, sizing tolerance analyses, and an assessment methodology that is backed up by the material testing program. All the results provided by the application of the approach lead to the development of integrity management strategies. An integrity management plan is established and refined before the next inspection.

  19. SUSTAINABILITY ASSESSMENT IN URBAN PLANNING. A CHALLENGE FOR A METHODOLOGICAL CONSTRUCTION: MONTREAL AS CASE STUDY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    María de Lourdes Flores Lucero

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available In this paper we describe the methodological process for the qualitative evaluation of the concept of sustainability and its application in the island of Montreal. At the same time we present our theoretical approach and the main results issued of the assessment. We take as analytical tools the Montreal Urban Plan of 2004 and the Strategic Plan for Sustainable Development 2005. We conclude with two main points, first, that the theoretical and pragmatic aspects of urban sustainability in Montreal have been treated in an organic, complex, dynamic and flexible way, allowing social participation and the inclusion of the values of all stakeholders, which are both key elements to follow the path towards sustainability; and secondly, that the approach to an object with such features requires the construction of complex, organic and methodological processes.

  20. Assessing Sustainability in Environmental Management: A Case Study in Malaysia Industry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Turan, Faiz Mohd; Johan, Kartina; Lanang, Wan Nurul Syahirah Wan; Asmanizam, Asmadianatasha

    2017-08-01

    The scarcity in measuring the sustainability accomplishment has been restrained most of the companies in Malaysian industry. Currently, there are variety types of the measurement tools of the sustainability assessment that have been implemented. However, there are still not achieving the inclusive elements required by the worldwide claim. In fact, the contribution to the sustainability performance are only highlighted on the nature, financial along with society components. In addition, some of the companies are conducting their sustainability implementation individually. By means, this process approaching type is needed to be integrated into a systematic system approach. This paper is focussing on investigating the present sustainability tools in the environmental management system for Malaysian industry prior to the quantification of the sustainability parameters. Hence, the parameters of the sustainability have been evaluated then in order to accomplish this project. By reviewing on the methodology of this research it comprises of three phases where it starts with the analyzation of the parameters in environmental management system according to the Malaysian context of industry. Moving on to the next step is the quantification of the criterion and finally the normalisation process will be done to determine the results of this research either it is succeeded or vice versa. As a result, this research has come to the conclusion where the level of the sustainability compliance does not achieve the standard level of the targeted objectives though it has already surpassed the average level of the sustainability performance. In future, the understanding towards the sustainability assessment is acquired to be aligned unitedly in order to integrated the process approach into the systematic approach. Apart, this research will be able to help to provide a measurable framework yet finally bestowing the Malaysian industry with a continuous improvement roadmap in achieving

  1. The Tale of Three Campuses: A Case Study in Outdoor Campus Assessment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eckert, Erica L.

    2013-01-01

    In a study for APPA's Center for Facilities Research (CFaR), Cain and Reynolds (2006a; 2006b) linked the quality of campus facilities and the attractiveness of campus to college choice among their study's participants but also noted that facilities may not always be the primary motivation. Further, the physical campus environment can impact…

  2. The application of the triple bottom line approach to sustainability assessment: The case study of the UK automotive supply chain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Susana Azevedo

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: The objective of this paper is to assess the level of sustainability of the UK automotive supply chain considering simultaneously the three dimensions of sustainability (economic, social and environmental representing the Triple Bottom Line (TBL approach. Design/methodology/approach: The assessment of the automotive SC’ sustainability is based on the framework proposed by Salvado, Azevedo, Matias and Ferreira (2011 and uses the Simple Additive Weighting (SAW method to aggregate economic, environmental and social indicators into a unique index. A case study on the UK automotive industry is used and the data do perform this study is collected from the sustainability reports of the UK’ automotive companies. Findings and Originality/value: The proposed framework represents an important benchmarking tool, offering managers the possibility for assessing the sustainability behaviour of its supply chain and compare it with other supply chains. Once identified the dimension of sustainability where the company or the supply chain is worst performer managers can work closer to their supply chain’ partners in order to improve the performance of those dimension of sustainability. Research limitations/implications: One limitation of the suggested approach is related to the ambiguity of the sustainability’ indicators selection and the definition of weights for each sustainability dimension. Practical implications: The assessment of the SC sustainability by using the suggested framework to compute a SC sustainability index offers managers an opportunity for assessing the level of sustainability of each individual company and the corresponding SC in a very easy way. It also represents an opportunity for improving company performance. In this way managers can use the information on the sustainability index to help adjust their company's behaviour and improve their economic, social and environmental performance. Originality/value: The proposed

  3. Rapid forest carbon assessments of oceanic islands: a case study of the Hawaiian archipelago

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gregory P. Asner

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Spatially explicit forest carbon (C monitoring aids conservation and climate change mitigation efforts, yet few approaches have been developed specifically for the highly heterogeneous landscapes of oceanic island chains that continue to undergo rapid and extensive forest C change. We developed an approach for rapid mapping of aboveground C density (ACD; units = Mg or metric tons C ha−1 on islands at a spatial resolution of 30 m (0.09 ha using a combination of cost-effective airborne LiDAR data and full-coverage satellite data. We used the approach to map forest ACD across the main Hawaiian Islands, comparing C stocks within and among islands, in protected and unprotected areas, and among forests dominated by native and invasive species. Results Total forest aboveground C stock of the Hawaiian Islands was 36 Tg, and ACD distributions were extremely heterogeneous both within and across islands. Remotely sensed ACD was validated against U.S. Forest Service FIA plot inventory data (R2 = 0.67; RMSE = 30.4 Mg C ha−1. Geospatial analyses indicated the critical importance of forest type and canopy cover as predictors of mapped ACD patterns. Protection status was a strong determinant of forest C stock and density, but we found complex environmentally mediated responses of forest ACD to alien plant invasion. Conclusions A combination of one-time airborne LiDAR data acquisition and satellite monitoring provides effective forest C mapping in the highly heterogeneous landscapes of the Hawaiian Islands. Our statistical approach yielded key insights into the drivers of ACD variation, and also makes possible future assessments of C storage change, derived on a repeat basis from free satellite data, without the need for additional LiDAR data. Changes in C stocks and densities of oceanic islands can thus be continually assessed in the face of rapid environmental changes such as biological invasions, drought, fire and land use

  4. Rapid forest carbon assessments of oceanic islands: a case study of the Hawaiian archipelago.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Asner, Gregory P; Sousan, Sinan; Knapp, David E; Selmants, Paul C; Martin, Roberta E; Hughes, R Flint; Giardina, Christian P

    2016-12-01

    Spatially explicit forest carbon (C) monitoring aids conservation and climate change mitigation efforts, yet few approaches have been developed specifically for the highly heterogeneous landscapes of oceanic island chains that continue to undergo rapid and extensive forest C change. We developed an approach for rapid mapping of aboveground C density (ACD; units = Mg or metric tons C ha-1) on islands at a spatial resolution of 30 m (0.09 ha) using a combination of cost-effective airborne LiDAR data and full-coverage satellite data. We used the approach to map forest ACD across the main Hawaiian Islands, comparing C stocks within and among islands, in protected and unprotected areas, and among forests dominated by native and invasive species. Total forest aboveground C stock of the Hawaiian Islands was 36 Tg, and ACD distributions were extremely heterogeneous both within and across islands. Remotely sensed ACD was validated against U.S. Forest Service FIA plot inventory data (R2 = 0.67; RMSE = 30.4 Mg C ha-1). Geospatial analyses indicated the critical importance of forest type and canopy cover as predictors of mapped ACD patterns. Protection status was a strong determinant of forest C stock and density, but we found complex environmentally mediated responses of forest ACD to alien plant invasion. A combination of one-time airborne LiDAR data acquisition and satellite monitoring provides effective forest C mapping in the highly heterogeneous landscapes of the Hawaiian Islands. Our statistical approach yielded key insights into the drivers of ACD variation, and also makes possible future assessments of C storage change, derived on a repeat basis from free satellite data, without the need for additional LiDAR data. Changes in C stocks and densities of oceanic islands can thus be continually assessed in the face of rapid environmental changes such as biological invasions, drought, fire and land use. Such forest monitoring information can be used to promote

  5. Assessing Urban Streets Network Vulnerability against Earthquake Using GIS - Case Study: 6TH Zone of Tehran

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rastegar, A.

    2017-09-01

    Great earthquakes cause huge damages to human life. Street networks vulnerability makes the rescue operation to encounter serious difficulties especially at the first 72 hours after the incident. Today, physical expansion and high density of great cities, due to narrow access roads, large distance from medical care centers and location at areas with high seismic risk, will lead to a perilous and unpredictable situation in case of the earthquake. Zone # 6 of Tehran, with 229,980 population (3.6% of city population) and 20 km2 area (3.2% of city area), is one of the main municipal zones of Tehran (Iran center of statistics, 2006). Major land-uses, like ministries, embassies, universities, general hospitals and medical centers, big financial firms and so on, manifest the high importance of this region on local and national scale. In this paper, by employing indexes such as access to medical centers, street inclusion, building and population density, land-use, PGA and building quality, vulnerability degree of street networks in zone #6 against the earthquake is calculated through overlaying maps and data in combination with IHWP method and GIS. This article concludes that buildings alongside the streets with high population and building density, low building quality, far to rescue centers and high level of inclusion represent high rate of vulnerability, compared with other buildings. Also, by moving on from north to south of the zone, the vulnerability increases. Likewise, highways and streets with substantial width and low building and population density hold little values of vulnerability.

  6. Potential of Satellite SAR Interferometry for Assessment of Risk of Landslides - case study of Angren, Uzbekistan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lazecký, Milan; Bláha, Pavel; Dobeš, Pavel

    2013-04-01

    Angren region (Uzbekistan) is rich for mineral resources. Coal mining activities on the surface have caused largescale (over 100 m3) landslides - some of them seriously endanger an important highway connecting Tashkent with an agricultural area of Fergana - or encroach into a water reservoir. Slow creeping movements of the slope deformations are hard to detect by regular watch of the national landslide service. An application of satellite SAR interferometry in this region proved its potential to detect and monitor slope deformation processes - slight movements were detected well, field inspection has confirmed the detection. A project involving this technique together with other remote sensing technologies (i.e. laser scanning) has been proposed and accepted within the framework of NATO: Science for Peace and Security programme in the end of 2012. In the scope of the project, relevant Uzbek institutions should achieve an appropriate knowledge and skills for independent research using these modern remote sensing technologies for landslide risk mapping and assessment. Early results of the project related to landslides in Angren are presented on the connected poster. Keywords: InSAR, landslides, risk, Uzbekistan, mining.

  7. Linking Ecological and Perceptual Assessments for Environmental Management: a Coral Reef Case Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elizabeth A. Dinsdale

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available Integrating information from a range of community members in environmental management provides a more complete assessment of the problem and a diversification of management options, but is difficult to achieve. To investigate the relationship between different environmental interpretations, I compared three distinct measures of anchor damage on coral reefs: ecological measures, perceptual meanings, and subjective health judgments. The ecological measures identified an increase in the number of overturned corals and a reduction in coral cover, the perceptual meanings identified a loss of visual quality, and the health judgments identified a reduction in the health of the coral reef sites associated with high levels of anchoring. Combining the perceptual meanings and health judgments identified that the judgment of environmental health was a key feature that both scientific and lay participants used to describe the environment. Some participants in the survey were familiar with the coral reef environment, and others were not. However, they provided consistent judgment of a healthy coral reef, suggesting that these judgments were not linked to present-day experiences. By combining subjective judgments and ecological measures, the point at which the environment is deemed to lose visual quality was identified; for these coral reefs, if the level of damage rose above 10.3% and the cover of branching corals dropped below 17.1%, the reefs were described as unhealthy. Therefore, by combining the information, a management agency can involve the community in identifying when remedial action is required or when management policies are effectively maintaining a healthy ecosystem.

  8. Flood risk assessment. Case of study: Motozintla de Mendoza, Chiapas, Mexico

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David A. Novelo-Casanova

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Due to its geographical location, the community of Motozintla de Mendoza (Motozintla in the State of Chiapas, Mexico, is continuously exposed to the impact of natural hazards. In this work, we assessed the flood risk of Motozintla considering the structural, socioeconomic, organizational, and global (structural, socioeconomic, and organizational vulnerabilities. In addition, we also measured the local risk perception. Spatial maps were generated to determine the most vulnerable and risk areas of this community. Our results indicate that the population has a high level of risk to flooding mainly because (1 the majority of the local houses has high structural vulnerability; (2 a high percentage of the families has a daily income less than the official Mexican minimum wage and lacks of basic public services as well as of proper social security services; (3 most of the community does not know any existing Civil Protection Plan; and (4 the community organization for disaster mitigation and response is practically non-existent. For these reasons, we believe that it is necessary for local authorities to establish in the short-term, preparedness, mitigation and response plans as well as land-use measures to reduce the risk to floods in Motozintla.

  9. Assessment of Reservoir Water Quality Using Multivariate Statistical Techniques: A Case Study of Qiandao Lake, China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Qing Gu

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Qiandao Lake (Xin’an Jiang reservoir plays a significant role in drinking water supply for eastern China, and it is an attractive tourist destination. Three multivariate statistical methods were comprehensively applied to assess the spatial and temporal variations in water quality as well as potential pollution sources in Qiandao Lake. Data sets of nine parameters from 12 monitoring sites during 2010–2013 were obtained for analysis. Cluster analysis (CA was applied to classify the 12 sampling sites into three groups (Groups A, B and C and the 12 monitoring months into two clusters (April-July, and the remaining months. Discriminant analysis (DA identified Secchi disc depth, dissolved oxygen, permanganate index and total phosphorus as the significant variables for distinguishing variations of different years, with 79.9% correct assignments. Dissolved oxygen, pH and chlorophyll-a were determined to discriminate between the two sampling periods classified by CA, with 87.8% correct assignments. For spatial variation, DA identified Secchi disc depth and ammonia nitrogen as the significant discriminating parameters, with 81.6% correct assignments. Principal component analysis (PCA identified organic pollution, nutrient pollution, domestic sewage, and agricultural and surface runoff as the primary pollution sources, explaining 84.58%, 81.61% and 78.68% of the total variance in Groups A, B and C, respectively. These results demonstrate the effectiveness of integrated use of CA, DA and PCA for reservoir water quality evaluation and could assist managers in improving water resources management.

  10. Audit of IT Governance Based on COBIT 5 Assessments: A Case Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Johanes Fernandes Andry

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Training Center in Jakarta offers a certification program for the individuals and companies who wish to search for or complement international scale IT certifications. The certification program consists of training certification exam preparation and certification exams. The purpose of this research is to get an overview of the performance of information technology governance in order to determine the extent of the capabilities of information technology governance in the Training Center which is currently running, with a few aspects to consider such as effectiveness, efficiency, functional unit of information technology within an organization. Implementing IT governance, however, is a challenge to organizations. To ensure IT alignment with business goals use standard COBIT. COBIT 5 Framework is a service for auditing IS/IT are the most commonly used to audit information systems in a rapid, accurate, and interactive. The result of this audit training center is business and IT management are aware of the impact of not managing performance and capacity. Performance needs are generally met based on assessments of individual systems and the knowledge of support and project teams. In this paper the method to be used is COBIT 5 is focused on the domain of DSS (Deliver, Service, and Support.

  11. Case study of microarthropod communities to assess soil quality in different managed vineyards

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gagnarli, E.; Goggioli, D.; Tarchi, F.; Guidi, S.; Nannelli, R.; Vignozzi, N.; Valboa, G.; Lottero, M. R.; Corino, L.; Simoni, S.

    2015-07-01

    Land use influences the abundance and diversity of soil arthropods. The evaluation of the impact of different management strategies on soil quality is increasingly sought, and the determination of community structures of edaphic fauna can represent an efficient tool. In the area of Langhe (Piedmont, Italy), eight vineyards characterized for physical and chemical properties (soil texture, soil pH, total organic carbon, total nitrogen, calcium carbonate) were selected. We evaluated the effect of two types of crop management, organic and integrated pest management (IPM), on abundance and biodiversity of microarthropods living at the soil surface. Soil sampling was carried out in winter 2011 and spring 2012. All specimens were counted and determined up to the order level. The biodiversity analysis was performed using ecological indexes (taxa richness, dominance, Shannon-Wiener, Buzas and Gibson's evenness, Margalef, equitability, Berger-Parker), and the biological soil quality was assessed with the BSQ-ar index. The mesofauna abundance was affected by both the type of management and sampling time. On the whole, a higher abundance was in organic vineyards (N = 1981) than in IPM ones (N = 1062). The analysis performed by ecological indexes showed quite a high level of biodiversity in this environment, particularly in May 2012. Furthermore, the BSQ-ar values registered were similar to those obtained in preserved soils.

  12. Vegetation recovery patterns assessment at landslides caused by catastrophic earthquake: a case study in central Taiwan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chou, Wen-Chieh; Lin, Wen-Tzu; Lin, Chao-Yuan

    2009-05-01

    The catastrophic earthquake, 7.3 on the Richter scale, occurred on September 21, 1999 in Central Taiwan. Much of standing vegetation on slopes was eliminated and massive, scattered landslides were induced at the Jou-Jou Mountain area of the Wu-Chi basin in Nantou County. We evaluated three methods for assessing landslide hazard and vegetation recovery conditions. (1) Self-organizing map (SOM) neural network coupled with fuzzy technique was used to quickly extract the landslide. (2) The NDVI-based vegetation recovery index derived from multi-temporal SPOT satellite images was used to evaluate vegetation recovery rate in the denudation sites. (3) The spatial distribution index (SDI) based on land-cover topographic location was employed to analyze vegetation recovery patterns, including the invading, surviving and mixed patterns at the Jou-Jou Mountain area. On September 27, 1999, there were 849.20 ha of landslide area extracted using the self-organizing map and fuzzy technique combined model. After six years of natural vegetation succession, the landslide has gradually restored, and vegetation recovery rate reached up to 86%. On-site observation shows that many native pioneer plants have invaded onto the denudation sites even if disturbed by several typhoons. Two native surviving plants, Arundo formosana Hack and Pinus taiwanensis Hayata, play a vital role in natural vegetation succession in this area, especially for the sites on ridgeline and steep slopes.

  13. Vulnerability Index Assessment Using Neural Networks (viann): a Case Study of Nicosia, Cyprus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dindar, H.; Dimililer, K.; Özdağ, Ö. C.; Atalar, C.; Akgün, M.; Özyankı, A.

    2017-11-01

    Many scholars have used microtremor applications to evaluate the vulnerability index. In order to reach fast and reliable results, microtremor measurement is preferred as it is a cost-effective method. In this paper, the vulnerability index will be reviewed by utilization of microtremor measurement results in Nicosia city. 100 measurement stations have been used to collect microtremor data and the data were analysed by using Nakamura's method. The value of vulnerability index (Kg) has been evaluated by using the fundamental frequency and amplification factor. The results obtained by the artificial neural network (ANN) will be compared with microtremor measurements. Vulnerability Index Assessment using Neural Networks (VIANN) is a backpropagation neural network, which uses the original input microtremor Horizontal Vertical Spectrum Ratio (HVSR) spectrum set. A 3-layer back propagation neural network which contains 4096 input, 28 hidden and 3 output neurons are used in this suggested system. The output neurons are classified according to acceleration sensitivity zone, velocity zones, or displacement zones. The sites are classified by their vulnerability index values using binary coding: [1 0 0] for the acceleration sensitive zone, [0 1 0] for the velocity sensitive zone, and [0 0 1] for the displacement sensitive zone.

  14. Life cycle assessment of energy from waste via anaerobic digestion: a UK case study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Evangelisti, Sara; Lettieri, Paola; Borello, Domenico; Clift, Roland

    2014-01-01

    Particularly in the UK, there is potential for use of large-scale anaerobic digestion (AD) plants to treat food waste, possibly along with other organic wastes, to produce biogas. This paper presents the results of a life cycle assessment to compare the environmental impacts of AD with energy and organic fertiliser production against two alternative approaches: incineration with energy production by CHP and landfill with electricity production. In particular the paper investigates the dependency of the results on some specific assumptions and key process parameters. The input Life Cycle Inventory data are specific to the Greater London area, UK. Anaerobic digestion emerges as the best treatment option in terms of total CO2 and total SO2 saved, when energy and organic fertiliser substitute non-renewable electricity, heat and inorganic fertiliser. For photochemical ozone and nutrient enrichment potentials, AD is the second option while incineration is shown to be the most environmentally friendly solution. The robustness of the model is investigated with a sensitivity analysis. The most critical assumption concerns the quantity and quality of the energy substituted by the biogas production. Two key issues affect the development and deployment of future anaerobic digestion plants: maximising the electricity produced by the CHP unit fuelled by biogas and to defining the future energy scenario in which the plant will be embedded. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. VULNERABILITY INDEX ASSESSMENT USING NEURAL NETWORKS (VIANN: A CASE STUDY OF NICOSIA, CYPRUS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H. Dindar

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available Many scholars have used microtremor applications to evaluate the vulnerability index. In order to reach fast and reliable results, microtremor measurement is preferred as it is a cost-effective method. In this paper, the vulnerability index will be reviewed by utilization of microtremor measurement results in Nicosia city. 100 measurement stations have been used to collect microtremor data and the data were analysed by using Nakamura’s method. The value of vulnerability index (Kg has been evaluated by using the fundamental frequency and amplification factor. The results obtained by the artificial neural network (ANN will be compared with microtremor measurements. Vulnerability Index Assessment using Neural Networks (VIANN is a backpropagation neural network, which uses the original input microtremor Horizontal Vertical Spectrum Ratio (HVSR spectrum set. A 3-layer back propagation neural network which contains 4096 input, 28 hidden and 3 output neurons are used in this suggested system. The output neurons are classified according to acceleration sensitivity zone, velocity zones, or displacement zones. The sites are classified by their vulnerability index values using binary coding: [1 0 0] for the acceleration sensitive zone, [0 1 0] for the velocity sensitive zone, and [0 0 1] for the displacement sensitive zone.

  16. Assessing effects of structural zeros on models of canine cancer incidence: a case study of the Swiss Canine Cancer Registry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gianluca Boo

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Epidemiological research of canine cancers could inform comparative studies of environmental determinants for a number of human cancers. However, such an approach is currently limited because canine cancer data sources are still few in number and often incomplete. Incompleteness is typically due to under-ascertainment of canine cancers. A main reason for this is because dog owners commonly do not seek veterinary care for this diagnosis. Deeper knowledge on under-ascertainment is critical for modelling canine cancer incidence, as an indication of zero incidence might originate from the sole absence of diagnostic examinations within a given sample unit. In the present case study, we investigated effects of such structural zeros on models of canine cancer incidence. In doing so, we contrasted two scenarios for modelling incidence data retrieved from the Swiss Canine Cancer Registry. The first scenario was based on the complete enumeration of incidence data for all Swiss municipal units. The second scenario was based on a filtered sample that systematically discarded structural zeros in those municipal units where no diagnostic examination had been performed. By means of cross-validation, we assessed and contrasted statistical performance and predictive power of the two modelling scenarios. This analytical step allowed us to demonstrate that structural zeros impact on the generalisability of the model of canine cancer incidence, thus challenging future comparative studies of canine and human cancers. The results of this case study show that increased awareness about the effects of structural zeros is critical to epidemiological research.

  17. Environmental impact assessment of disposal of liquid waste through marine outfall - A case study

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Zingde, M.D.

    Physical, chemical and biological characteristics of wastewaters and nature of anthropogenic pollutants entering coastal waters are discussed. Site spcific information and field data acquisition through planned studies for selection of location...

  18. Assessing the value of collaboration in tourism networks: A case study of Elkhart County, Indiana

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zach, Florian; Racherla, Pradeep

    2011-01-01

    This study explores the determinants of perceived value derived from interorganizational collaborations in a tourism destination. The authors propose a theoretical model of perceived value drawing upon the rich stream of literature related to strategic collaborations and interorganizational...

  19. Science, law, and Hudson River power plants: a case study in environmental impact assessment

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Barnthouse, L. W; Barnthouse, Lawrence W

    1988-01-01

    Scientists spent more than 15 years studying the physical and chemical characteristics and biological productivity of the estuary and documenting the abundance, distribution, and life histories of the major fish species...

  20. Assessment of risk factors for development of active pulmonary tuberculosis in northern part of Ethiopia: a matched case control study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berhe, Gebretsadik; Enquselassie, Fikre; Aseffa, Abraham

    2013-10-01

    Understanding the role of various determinants of tuberculosis (TB) is particularly important in countries like Ethiopia where TB is endemic and the resources available to public health intervention are limited However, little information is available on risk factors of TB to be able to effectively and efficiently control TB. To identify and determine the potential host and environmental-related risk factors for development of active pulmonary tuberculosis (PTB) in the Tigray region of Ethiopia. A matched case-control study was conducted from April-August 2011. Cases were defined as all newly diagnosed of PTB patients aged 15 years and above, who were registered by directly observed treatment short-course (DOTS) program health centers found in the randomly selected 16 districts in the region. Controls were age matched with no previous history of TB and chronic cough. For each case, two controls were recruited. Trained nurses collected data using structured and pre-tested questionnaire. Predictors of caseness were identified using conditional logistic regression method. Odds ratio were calculated with 95% confidence intervals to assess the strength of association. Data was collected from 463 cases and 860 controls. The mean age of the cases and controls were 37 +/- 14.9 and 39 +/- 14.5 years, respectively. In the multivariable analysis significant risk factors for active PTB were illiteracy (OR = 1.90, 95% CI: 1.24, 2.93), household food shortage (OR = 2.38, 95% CI: 1.52, 3.73), HIV seropositivity (OR = 2.7, 95% CI: 1.42, 5.13), and past alcohol consumption (OR = 2.44, 95% CI: 1.08, 5.50). Marriage (OR = 95% CI: 0.37, 0.89) was identified as protective factor. Consumption of raw milk, history of imprisonment, having a separate kitchen, history of asthma and history of TB contact were significant risk factors on crude analysis but their significance was not maintained in multivariable analysis. Our study results indicated that household food shortage, HIV sero

  1. The KULTURisk Regional Risk Assessment methodology for water-related natural hazards - Part 2: Application to the Zurich case study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ronco, P.; Bullo, M.; Torresan, S.; Critto, A.; Olschewski, R.; Zappa, M.; Marcomini, A.

    2014-07-01

    The main objective of the paper is the application of the KULTURisk Regional Risk Assessment (KR-RRA) methodology, presented in the companion paper (Part 1, Ronco et al., 2014), to the Sihl River valley, in Switzerland. Through a tuning process of the methodology to the site-specific context and features, flood related risks have been assessed for different receptors lying on the Sihl River valley including the city of Zurich, which represents a typical case of river flooding in urban area. After characterizing the peculiarities of the specific case study, risk maps have been developed under a 300 years return period scenario (selected as baseline) for six identified relevant targets, exposed to flood risk in the Sihl valley, namely: people, economic activities (including buildings, infrastructures and agriculture), natural and semi-natural systems and cultural heritage. Finally, the total risk index map, which allows to identify and rank areas and hotspots at risk by means of Multi Criteria Decision Analysis tools, has been produced to visualize the spatial pattern of flood risk within the area of study. By means of a tailored participative approach, the total risk maps supplement the consideration of technical experts with the (essential) point of view of the relevant stakeholders for the appraisal of the specific scores and weights related to the receptor-relative risks. The total risk maps obtained for the Sihl River case study are associated with the lower classes of risk. In general, higher relative risks are concentrated in the deeply urbanized area within and around the Zurich city centre and areas that rely just behind to the Sihl River course. Here, forecasted injuries and potential fatalities are mainly due to high population density and high presence of old (vulnerable) people; inundated buildings are mainly classified as continuous and discontinuous urban fabric; flooded roads, pathways and railways, the majority of them referring to the Zurich main

  2. Assessing the Cost of an Invasive Forest Pathogen: A Case Study with Oak Wilt

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haight, Robert G.; Homans, Frances R.; Horie, Tetsuya; Mehta, Shefali V.; Smith, David J.; Venette, Robert C.

    2011-03-01

    Economic assessment of damage caused by invasive alien species provides useful information to consider when determining whether management programs should be established, modified, or discontinued. We estimate the baseline economic damage from an invasive alien pathogen, Ceratocystis fagacearum, a fungus that causes oak wilt, which is a significant disease of oaks ( Quercus spp.) in the central United States. We focus on Anoka County, Minnesota, a 1,156 km2 mostly urban county in the Minneapolis-Saint Paul metropolitan region. We develop a landscape-level model of oak wilt spread that accounts for underground and overland pathogen transmission. We predict the economic damage of tree mortality from oak wilt spread in the absence of management during the period 2007-2016. Our metric of economic damage is removal cost, which is one component of the total economic loss from tree mortality. We estimate that Anoka County has 5.92 million oak trees and 885 active oak wilt pockets covering 5.47 km2 in 2007. The likelihood that landowners remove infected oaks varies by land use and ranges from 86% on developed land to 57% on forest land. Over the next decade, depending on the rates of oak wilt pocket establishment and expansion, 76-266 thousand trees will be infected with discounted removal cost of 18-60 million. Although our predictions of removal costs are substantial, they are lower bounds on the total economic loss from tree mortality because we do not estimate economic losses from reduced services and increased hazards. Our predictions suggest that there are significant economic benefits, in terms of damage reduction, from preventing new pocket establishment or slowing the radial growth of existing pockets.

  3. Risk assessment and driving factors for artificial topography on element heterogeneity: Case study at Jiangsu, China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hong, Hualong; Dai, Minyue; Lu, Haoliang; Liu, Jingchun; Zhang, Jie; Yan, Chongling

    2018-02-01

    The rapid expansion of construction related to coastal development evokes great concern about environmental risks. Recent attention has been focused mainly on factors related to the effects of waterlogging, but there is urgent need to address the potential hazard caused by artificial topography: derived changes in the elemental composition of the sediments. To reveal possible mechanisms and to assess the environmental risks of artificial topography on transition of elemental composition in the sediment at adjoining zones, a nest-random effects-combined investigation was carried out around a semi-open seawall. The results implied great changes induced by artificial topography. Not only did artificial topography alter the sediment elemental composition at sites under the effect of artificial topography, but also caused a coupling pattern transition of elements S and Cd. The biogeochemical processes associated with S were also important, as suggested by cluster analysis. The geo-accumulation index shows that artificial topography triggered the accumulation of C, N, S, Cu, Fe, Mn, Zn, Ni, Cr, Pb, As and Cd, and increased the pollution risk of C, N, S, Cu, As and Cd. Enrichment factors reveal that artificial topography is a new type of human-activity-derived Cu contamination. The heavy metal Cu was notably promoted on both the geo-accumulation index and the enrichment factor under the influence of artificial topography. Further analysis showed that the Cu content in the sediment could be fitted using equations for Al and organic carbon, which represented clay mineral sedimentation and organic matter accumulation, respectively. Copper could be a reliable indicator of environmental degradation caused by artificial topography. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Phylodynamic inference and model assessment with approximate bayesian computation: influenza as a case study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Oliver Ratmann

    Full Text Available A key priority in infectious disease research is to understand the ecological and evolutionary drivers of viral diseases from data on disease incidence as well as viral genetic and antigenic variation. We propose using a simulation-based, Bayesian method known as Approximate Bayesian Computation (ABC to fit and assess phylodynamic models that simulate pathogen evolution and ecology against summaries of these data. We illustrate the versatility of the method by analyzing two spatial models describing the phylodynamics of interpandemic human influenza virus subtype A(H3N2. The first model captures antigenic drift phenomenologically with continuously waning immunity, and the second epochal evolution model describes the replacement of major, relatively long-lived antigenic clusters. Combining features of long-term surveillance data from The Netherlands with features of influenza A (H3N2 hemagglutinin gene sequences sampled in northern Europe, key phylodynamic parameters can be estimated with ABC. Goodness-of-fit analyses reveal that the irregularity in interannual incidence and H3N2's ladder-like hemagglutinin phylogeny are quantitatively only reproduced under the epochal evolution model within a spatial context. However, the concomitant incidence dynamics result in a very large reproductive number and are not consistent with empirical estimates of H3N2's population level attack rate. These results demonstrate that the interactions between the evolutionary and ecological processes impose multiple quantitative constraints on the phylodynamic trajectories of influenza A(H3N2, so that sequence and surveillance data can be used synergistically. ABC, one of several data synthesis approaches, can easily interface a broad class of phylodynamic models with various types of data but requires careful calibration of the summaries and tolerance parameters.

  5. Assessing the cost of an invasive forest pathogen: a case study with oak wilt.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haight, Robert G; Homans, Frances R; Horie, Tetsuya; Mehta, Shefali V; Smith, David J; Venette, Robert C

    2011-03-01

    Economic assessment of damage caused by invasive alien species provides useful information to consider when determining whether management programs should be established, modified, or discontinued. We estimate the baseline economic damage from an invasive alien pathogen, Ceratocystis fagacearum, a fungus that causes oak wilt, which is a significant disease of oaks (Quercus spp.) in the central United States. We focus on Anoka County, Minnesota, a 1,156 km(2) mostly urban county in the Minneapolis-Saint Paul metropolitan region. We develop a landscape-level model of oak wilt spread that accounts for underground and overland pathogen transmission. We predict the economic damage of tree mortality from oak wilt spread in the absence of management during the period 2007-2016. Our metric of economic damage is removal cost, which is one component of the total economic loss from tree mortality. We estimate that Anoka County has 5.92 million oak trees and 885 active oak wilt pockets covering 5.47 km(2) in 2007. The likelihood that landowners remove infected oaks varies by land use and ranges from 86% on developed land to 57% on forest land. Over the next decade, depending on the rates of oak wilt pocket establishment and expansion, 76-266 thousand trees will be infected with discounted removal cost of $18-60 million. Although our predictions of removal costs are substantial, they are lower bounds on the total economic loss from tree mortality because we do not estimate economic losses from reduced services and increased hazards. Our predictions suggest that there are significant economic benefits, in terms of damage reduction, from preventing new pocket establishment or slowing the radial growth of existing pockets.

  6. Assessing greenhouse gasses emitted from on-farm irrigation pumps: Case studies from Egypt

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Inas Kamal El-Din El-Gafy

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Increasing greenhouse gas emission has become a worldwide concern as it is considered a major driver of global warming and climate change. Clear picture of greenhouse gasses emissions due to utilizing energy for on-farm irrigation pumps is a key guide for decision makers to identify strategies for greenhouse gasses emission reduction that consequently impact on the national and international level. The current study determined the carbon emitted from three common categories of diesel and electric on-farm irrigation pumps in Egypt. A set of environmental, economic, and social evaluating indicators were applied to carry out a comparative analysis among the pump categories in three study areas at El-Behera Governorate. The study showed that pumping 1 m3 of water for irrigating the cropping pattern at the study areas produces an average of 690 ton CO2. The study illustrated that electrical pumps are more environmentally, economically, and socially advantageous than diesel pumps.

  7. Application of life cycle assessment for hospital solid waste management: A case study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ali, Mustafa; Wang, Wenping; Chaudhry, Nawaz

    2016-10-01

    This study was meant to determine environmental aspects of hospital waste management scenarios using a life cycle analysis approach. The survey for this study was conducted at the largest hospital in a major city of Pakistan. The hospital was thoroughly analyzed from November 2014 to January 2015 to quantify its wastes by category. The functional unit of the study was selected as 1 tonne of disposable solid hospital waste. System boundaries included transportation of hospital solid waste and its treatment and disposal by landfilling, incineration, composting, and material recycling methods. These methods were evaluated based on their greenhouse gas emissions. Landfilling and incineration turned out to be the worst final disposal alternatives, whereas composting and material recovery displayed savings in emissions. An integrated system (composting, incineration, and material recycling) was found as the best solution among the evaluated scenarios. This study can be used by policymakers for the formulation of an integrated hospital waste management plan. This study deals with environmental aspects of hospital waste management scenarios. It is an increasing area of concern in many developing and resource-constrained countries of the world. The life cycle analysis (LCA) approach is a useful tool for estimation of greenhouse gas emissions from different waste management activities. There is a shortage of information in existing literature regarding LCA of hospital wastes. To the best knowledge of the authors this work is the first attempt at quantifying the environmental footprint of hospital waste in Pakistan.

  8. Comparative life cycle assessment of biodiesel from algae and jatropha: a case study of India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ajayebi, Atta; Gnansounou, Edgard; Kenthorai Raman, Jegannathan

    2013-12-01

    Algae and jatropha, two types of promising and unconventional biomass, are investigated in this study for large-scale production of biodiesel. The aim is to evaluate the potential advantages and the magnitude of closeness of life cycle balances between these two biodiesel pathways compared to fossil diesel, by taking into account possible uncertainties. The geographical location of this study is India with a prospect of utilizing available wastelands in southern regions. The results indicate that the environmental performance of algal biodiesel is comparable to that of jatropha biodiesel. Both show significant GHG emission and fossil energy depletion reductions which are in the range of 36-40 and 10-25% respectively compared to fossil diesel in the studied geographic context. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Assessment of Students' Satisfaction: A Case Study of Dire Dawa University, Ethiopia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Daniel, Dawit; Liben, Getachew; Adugna, Ashenafi

    2017-01-01

    Universities in the modern world are expected to seek and cultivate new knowledge, provide the right kind of leadership and strive to promote equality and social justice. The general objective of the study is to investigate the satisfaction level of undergraduate level students enrolled in regular program of Dire-Dawa University and there by…

  10. Assessment on air quality pattern: a case study in Putrajaya, Malaysia

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Nowadays, air quality problem has become a major issue in Malaysia for the past two decades, This study aims to determine the pattern of the air quality status, investigate the significant pollutant, relationship between air pollutants and API and evaluate the pattern of air pollution. Data from Putrajaya monitoring station ...

  11. Relating Change Patterns to Anthropogenic Processes to Assess Sustainability: A Case Study in Amazonia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Libia Patricia Peralta Agudelo

    2006-01-01

    This work focuses on identifying deforestation patterns and relating these to social processes in an extractive reserve of Acre (western Amazonia). Using multitemporal satellite imagery deforestation is observed as a series of distinctive patches against the background of forest cover. The study of patterns emphasizes the important relationships existing between...

  12. GIS-BASED RISK ASSESSMENT OF PESTICIDE DRIFT CASE STUDY: FRESNO COUNTY, CALIFORNIA

    Science.gov (United States)

    The report describes the potential risk of herbicide drift and accidentally damaging neighboring crops or surrounding native vegetation. This study is the first to use the California Pesticide Use Reporting database within a mapping framework (known as a Geographic Information S...

  13. Assessing Opinions in Community Leadership Networks to Address Health Inequalities: A Case Study from Project IMPACT

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCauley, M. P.; Ramanadhan, S.; Viswanath, K.

    2015-01-01

    This study demonstrates a novel approach that those engaged in promoting social change in health can use to analyze community power, mobilize it and enhance community capacity to reduce health inequalities. We used community reconnaissance methods to select and interview 33 participants from six leadership sectors in "Milltown", the New…

  14. Water footprint assessment in North Eastern region of Romania: A case study for Iasi County, Romania

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ene, S.A.; Hoekstra, Arjen Ysbert; Mekonnen, Mesfin; Teodosiu, C.

    2012-01-01

    Many factors affect the water consumption pattern such as growing world population, climate changes, industrial and agricultural practices, etc. The present study provides for the first time a year-to-year analysis of water use for agricultural production, domestic water supply and industrial

  15. A Study of E-Readiness Assessment: The Case of Three Universities in Nigeria

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eweni, Samuel O.

    2012-01-01

    This study investigated the readiness of three higher educational institutions in Nigeria in their attempt to introduce and maintain technology-driven services to students, faculty, and support staff. The prerequisites for participation in the digital, networked economy include the affordable ICT, reliable electric supply, reliable and up-to-date…

  16. Spatial assessment on ambient air quality status: a case study in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The finding shows that carbon monoxide (CO) had a strong correlation with nitrogen dioxide (NO2) (r = 0.76, p < 0.001), while Air Pollutant Index (API) had ... This study shows that active collaboration among all relevant environmental departments and agencies should be implemented for the effective management of air ...

  17. Assessment of the Research Learning Needs of University of Saskatchewan Librarians: A Case Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schrader, Alvin M.; Shiri, Ali; Williamson, Vicki

    2012-01-01

    As academic librarians with faculty status increasingly embrace research engagement as a core value and requirement, one of the little-studied questions is the extent to which they possess the requisite knowledge and skills to conduct high-quality research and scholarship and what further learning needs they might have within the organizational…

  18. Library Collection Assessment: A Case Study of Two Universities in the Region of Punjab, India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Har Singh

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Collection development is one of the important activities in academic libraries. The purpose of this study is to investigate the perception and the needs of users’ from library collections of print and electronic resources, including users’ awareness of library collection development policy and procedure. The study highlighted various library resources used by the respondents and their degrees of satisfaction. The scope of the study was limited to two universities in the region of Punjab, India, i.e., Panjab University, Chandigarh and Punjabi University, Patiala. The respondents were postgraduate students from all disciplines of these two universities. A stratified random sampling technique was used. The data was collected through a questionnaire and personal discussions with the respondents about their opinions in collection development of university libraries. The major findings of the study are: the majority of the respondents are not aware of library collection development policy and procedures. Hence, it is recommended that libraries should involve users in collection development, seeking users’ feedback and suggestions and evaluating collections on a regular basis.

  19. Assessing the costs of land degradation: a case study for the Puentes catchment, South East Spain

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hein, L.G.

    2007-01-01

    Whereas many studies point out the economic benefits of controlling land degradation through sustainable land management (SLM) approaches, there is often a lack of local adoption of SLM techniques. Analysis of the local impacts and costs of land degradation is critical for understanding farmers'

  20. The Matthew Effect and widely prescribed pharmaceuticals lacking environmental monitoring: case study of an exposure-assessment vulnerability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Daughton, Christian G

    2014-01-01

    Assessing ambient exposure to chemical stressors often begins with time-consuming and costly monitoring studies to establish environmental occurrence. Both human and ecological toxicology are currently challenged by the unknowns surrounding low-dose exposure/effects, compounded by the reality that exposure undoubtedly involves mixtures of multiple stressors whose identities and levels can vary over time. Long absent from the assessment process, however, is whether the full scope of the identities of the stressors is sufficiently known. The Matthew Effect (a psychosocial phenomenon sometimes informally called the "bandwagon effect" or "iceberg effect," among others) may adversely bias or corrupt the exposure assessment process. The Matthew Effect is evidenced by decisions that base the selection of stressors to target in environmental monitoring surveys on whether they have been identified in prior studies, rather than considering the possibility that additional, but previously unreported, stressors might also play important roles in an exposure scenario. The possibility that the Matthew Effect might influence the scope of environmental stressor research is explored for the first time in a comprehensive case study that examines the preponderance of "absence of data" (in contrast to positive data and "data of absence") for the environmental occurrence of a very large class of potential chemical stressors associated with ubiquitous consumer use - active pharmaceutical ingredients (APIs). Comprehensive examination of the published data for an array of several hundred of the most frequently used drugs for whether their APIs are environmental contaminants provides a prototype example to catalyze discussion among the many disciplines involved with assessing risk. The findings could help guide the selection of those APIs that might merit targeting for environmental monitoring (based on the absence of data for environmental occurrence) as well as the prescribing of those

  1. Qualitative and Quantitative Assessment of Wastewater of Pistachio Processing Terminals (Case Study: Kerman city

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    F Khademi

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Wastewaters resulting from seasonal processing such as pistachio processing industry are one of the most important factors of environmental pollution. High concentration of pollutants are the qualitative characteristics of wastewaters that due high consumption of water and energy resources as well as high levels production of waste have a good potential to realization of projects to reduce the environmental impacts and optimizing the consumption of energy resources.The aim of this study was to determine the wastewater̛ s quality and quantity of pistachio processing terminals. Methods: this study is cross-sectional study that has been implemented from mid –September until late October (pistachio harvest season in each of the years 2012-2013-2014 in Kerman.Firstely according to field study, the characteristics and location of 20 pistachio processing terminals were determined by a GPS device. Then 8 pistachio processing terminals were selected in around of wastewater collection system. Composite sampling method with total of 72 samples was done in each year during pistachio operation. Samples were conducted from pistachio processing wastewater screen filter outlet. In each of samples BOD5, COD, TSS, pH and Total phenolic were determined. Sampling and tests were done according to water and wastewater standard methods book (20th edition. Concentration of Phenolic compounds was measured by folin ciocaltive method. The Data was analyzed by SPSS software. Results: the average of total produced wastewater in pistachio processing terminals in this study was 85.9m3/d. The average BOD5, COD, TSS, Total phenolic and PH were 6106, 21570, 682, 4154 (mg/L and 5.5 respectively. Conclusion: The obtained results from raw wastewater of pistachio processing terminals showed they have high BOD and COD. This is caused by presentation of priority pollutants (phenolic compounds which have high potential in pollution and toxicity for discharging any

  2. Assessment of trend and seasonality in road accident data: an Iranian case study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Razzaghi, Alireza; Bahrampour, Abbas; Baneshi, Mohammad Reza; Zolala, Farzaneh

    2013-06-01

    Road traffic accidents and their related deaths have become a major concern, particularly in developing countries. Iran has adopted a series of policies and interventions to control the high number of accidents occurring over the past few years. In this study we used a time series model to understand the trend of accidents, and ascertain the viability of applying ARIMA models on data from Taybad city. This study is a cross-sectional study. We used data from accidents occurring in Taybad between 2007 and 2011. We obtained the data from the Ministry of Health (MOH) and used the time series method with a time lag of one month. After plotting the trend, non-stationary data in mean and variance were removed using Box-Cox transformation and a differencing method respectively. The ACF and PACF plots were used to control the stationary situation. The traffic accidents in our study had an increasing trend over the five years of study. Based on ACF and PACF plots gained after applying Box-Cox transformation and differencing, data did not fit to a time series model. Therefore, neither ARIMA model nor seasonality were observed. Traffic accidents in Taybad have an upward trend. In addition, we expected either the AR model, MA model or ARIMA model to have a seasonal trend, yet this was not observed in this analysis. Several reasons may have contributed to this situation, such as uncertainty of the quality of data, weather changes, and behavioural factors that are not taken into account by time series analysis.

  3. Assessment of Trend and Seasonality in Road Accident Data: An Iranian Case Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Farzaneh Zolala

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available Road traffic accidents and their related deaths have become a major concern, particularly in developing countries. Iran has adopted a series of policies and interventions to control the high number of accidents occurring over the past few years. In this study we used a time series model to understand the trend of accidents, and ascertain the viability of applying ARIMA models on data from Taybad city. Methods This study is a cross-sectional study. We used data from accidents occurring in Taybad between 2007 and 2011. We obtained the data from the Ministry of Health (MOH and used the time series method with a time lag of one month. After plotting the trend, non stationary data in mean and variance were removed using Box-Cox transformation and a differencing method respectively. The ACF and PACF plots were used to control the stationary situation. Results The traffic accidents in our study had an increasing trend over the five years of study. Based on ACF and PACF plots gained after applying Box-Cox transformation and differencing, data did not fit to a time series model. Therefore, neither ARIMA model nor seasonality were observed. Conclusion Traffic accidents in Taybad have an upward trend. In addition, we expected either the AR model, MA model or ARIMA model to have a seasonal trend, yet this was not observed in this analysis. Several reasons may have contributed to this situation, such as uncertainty of the quality of data, weather changes, and behavioural factors that are not taken into account by time series analysis.

  4. Case Study Teaching

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herreid, Clyde Freeman

    2011-01-01

    This chapter describes the history of case study teaching, types of cases, and experimental data supporting their effectiveness. It also describes a model for comparing the efficacy of the various case study methods. (Contains 1 figure.)

  5. Assessment of sediment accumulation and capacity of reservoir by analytical approach--a case study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baskaran, T; Nagan, S; Rajkumar, A Samuel

    2011-01-01

    Sedimentation in reservoirs is a major problem in all countries. A study on sediment accumulation in a reservoir is necessary for effective reservoir planning and watershed management systems. In this study, the volume of sediment deposition in the Vaigai reservoir is calculated based on the analytical approach. The historical water inflow for the years 1959 to 1999 (41 years) are used to calculate the water inflow for future years. The volume of sediment accumulation in the reservoir is predicted using the calculated water inflows. Based on the volume of sediment accumulation, the capacity of reservoir and the percentage of loss in capacity were also calculated. The result obtained from the analytical method is compared with the actual capacity of reservoir and found that the calculated values match well with the actual results.

  6. Karst collapse susceptibility assessment: A case study on the Amalfi Coast (Southern Italy)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Santo, Antonio; Budetta, Paolo; Forte, Giovanni; Marino, Ermanno; Pignalosa, Antonio

    2017-05-01

    This paper presents a study to evaluate the collapse susceptibility of a karst cave located along a slope on the Amalfi coast (southern Italy) and the presumable geomorphological evolution of the whole slope as a result of cave roof collapse. In the study area, several natural karst caves with volumes varying between 1000 and > 10,000 m3 were inventoried and the most likely genetic processes were identified. Some of them proved to be remnants of already collapsed caves, while others were in precarious stability conditions. The caves are usually located upslope or very close to the main populated resorts. A detailed geological, geomorphological and geostructural study was performed on a very wide, deep cave (called the "Saraceno" cave), on which the resort town of Conca de' Marini has been built. The study was carried out through a multidisciplinary approach, which included classical field geological observations, sometimes requiring the support of rock-climbing geologists, experts in photogrammetric surveys and terrestrial laser scanning techniques (TLS). TLS surveys allowed the reconstruction of an accurate geometric and geostructural model of the cave and its relationship with the upslope Conca de' Marini resort. Furthermore, it allowed the thickness of the cave overburden to be determined in detail; ground surfaces most susceptible to collapse were also identified. In the event of possible widespread collapse, several buildings and transportation infrastructures could be involved. As the cave is located on a very steep slope, a debris avalanche could be triggered in the event of a catastrophic failure, and the landslide debris, characterized by a presumably high magnitude and velocity, could involve a wide slope area down to the coast. The failure evolution could be very similar to that which took place in Amalfi in the late 19th century.

  7. Performance Assessment of Maintenance Practices in Government Office Buildings: Case Study of Parcel E, Putrajaya

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    Awg Husaini A.I.

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Building maintenance practices must be taken into consideration by building facility managers or building owners. They involve daily operations to ensure that end users can work or live comfortably and safely. Through effective maintenance practices, the functions of the existing building facilities can be maintained and meet the needs of the building users. Maintenance practices must be effective in aspects such as planning, organization and supervision in order to maintain the building at a satisfactory level of performance all the time. A study was conducted on a Federal government office building in Parcel E, Putrajaya to determine the maintenance aspects of the management of the facility. To achieve the objectives of this study a questionnaire survey was used to obtain the required data. The outcomes indicate that the aspects of building maintenance practice and the effectiveness of the maintenance management in government office buildings can influence the satisfaction of the end user. However, some aspects of the current building maintenance practices seem to need improvements in order to enhance the building maintenance management. The recommendations of this study will help in the effective management of the facility and maintenance management practices.

  8. Spatiotemporal air pollution exposure assessment for a Canadian population-based lung cancer case-control study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hystad, Perry; Demers, Paul A; Johnson, Kenneth C; Brook, Jeff; van Donkelaar, Aaron; Lamsal, Lok; Martin, Randall; Brauer, Michael

    2012-04-04

    Few epidemiological studies of air pollution have used residential histories to develop long-term retrospective exposure estimates for multiple ambient air pollutants and vehicle and industrial emissions. We present such an exposure assessment for a Canadian population-based lung cancer case-control study of 8353 individuals using self-reported residential histories from 1975 to 1994. We also examine the implications of disregarding and/or improperly accounting for residential mobility in long-term exposure assessments. National spatial surfaces of ambient air pollution were compiled from recent satellite-based estimates (for PM2.5 and NO2) and a chemical transport model (for O3). The surfaces were adjusted with historical annual air pollution monitoring data, using either spatiotemporal interpolation or linear regression. Model evaluation was conducted using an independent ten percent subset of monitoring data per year. Proximity to major roads, incorporating a temporal weighting factor based on Canadian mobile-source emission estimates, was used to estimate exposure to vehicle emissions. A comprehensive inventory of geocoded industries was used to estimate proximity to major and minor industrial emissions. Calibration of the national PM2.5 surface using annual spatiotemporal interpolation predicted historical PM2.5 measurement data best (R2 = 0.51), while linear regression incorporating the national surfaces, a time-trend and population density best predicted historical concentrations of NO2 (R2 = 0.38) and O3 (R2 = 0.56). Applying the models to study participants residential histories between 1975 and 1994 resulted in mean PM2.5, NO2 and O3 exposures of 11.3 μg/m3 (SD = 2.6), 17.7 ppb (4.1), and 26.4 ppb (3.4) respectively. On average, individuals lived within 300 m of a highway for 2.9 years (15% of exposure-years) and within 3 km of a major industrial emitter for 6.4 years (32% of exposure-years). Approximately 50% of individuals were classified into a

  9. Assessment of serum enzymatic antioxidant levels in patients with recurrent aphthous stomatitis: a case control study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gupta, Ishita; Shetti, Arvind; Keluskar, Vaishali; Bagewadi, Anjana

    2014-01-01

    Background and Aim. Recurrent aphthous stomatitis (RAS) is a common oral mucosal disorder characterized by recurrent, painful oral aphthae. Despite extensive research, the exact etiology of RAS remains elusive. Recently oxidant-antioxidant imbalance of the body has been implicated in the pathogenesis of recurrent aphthous stomatitis. Thus, the aim of the study was to evaluate the enzymatic antioxidant levels in patients with recurrent aphthous stomatitis. Materials and Methods. The serum levels of superoxide dismutase (SOD), glutathione peroxidase (GPx), and catalase (CAT) were measured in 30 patients with recurrent aphthous stomatitis and compared to the control group, which included 30 healthy subjects. Student's t-test was performed for statistical evaluation. Results. The mean levels of superoxide dismutase (130.2 ± 15.94 U/mL) and glutathione peroxidase (3527.93 ± 488.32 U/L) were found to be significantly lower in study group as compared to control group (211.9 ± 20.93 U/mL, 8860.93 ± 1105.31 U/L, resp.) (P = 0.000) while level of catalase in study group was significantly higher when compared to control group (10981.00 ± 1018.07 U/mL versus 9764.00 ± 1621.19 U/mL) (P = 0.000). Conclusion. Enzymatic antioxidant system is impaired in recurrent aphthous stomatitis patients and seems to play a crucial role in its pathogenesis.

  10. Assessment of Serum Enzymatic Antioxidant Levels in Patients with Recurrent Aphthous Stomatitis: A Case Control Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ishita Gupta

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Background and Aim. Recurrent aphthous stomatitis (RAS is a common oral mucosal disorder characterized by recurrent, painful oral aphthae. Despite extensive research, the exact etiology of RAS remains elusive. Recently oxidant-antioxidant imbalance of the body has been implicated in the pathogenesis of recurrent aphthous stomatitis. Thus, the aim of the study was to evaluate the enzymatic antioxidant levels in patients with recurrent aphthous stomatitis. Materials and Methods. The serum levels of superoxide dismutase (SOD, glutathione peroxidase (GPx, and catalase (CAT were measured in 30 patients with recurrent aphthous stomatitis and compared to the control group, which included 30 healthy subjects. Student’s t-test was performed for statistical evaluation. Results. The mean levels of superoxide dismutase (130.2 ± 15.94 U/mL and glutathione peroxidase (3527.93 ± 488.32 U/L were found to be significantly lower in study group as compared to control group (211.9 ± 20.93 U/mL, 8860.93 ± 1105.31 U/L, resp. (P=0.000 while level of catalase in study group was significantly higher when compared to control group (10981.00 ± 1018.07 U/mL versus 9764.00 ± 1621.19 U/mL (P=0.000. Conclusion. Enzymatic antioxidant system is impaired in recurrent aphthous stomatitis patients and seems to play a crucial role in its pathogenesis.

  11. An alert system for triggering different levels of coastal management urgency: Tunisia case study using rapid environmental assessment data.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Price, A R G; Jaoui, K; Pearson, M P; Jeudy de Grissac, A

    2014-03-15

    Rapid environmental assessment (REA) involves scoring abundances of ecosystems/species groups and magnitude of pressures, concurrently, using the same logarithmic (0-6) assessment scale. We demonstrate the utility of REA data for an alert system identifying different levels of coastal management concern. Thresholds set for abundances/magnitudes, when crossed, trigger proposed responses. Kerkennah, Tunisia, our case study, has significant natural assets (e.g. exceptional seagrass and invertebrate abundances), subjected to varying levels of disturbance and management concern. Using REA thresholds set, fishing, green algae/eutrophication and oil occurred at 'low' levels (scores 0-1): management not (currently) necessary. Construction and wood litter prevailed at 'moderate' levels (scores 2-4): management alerted for (further) monitoring. Solid waste densities were 'high' (scores 5-6): management alerted for action; quantities of rubbish were substantial (20-200 items m⁻¹ beach) but not unprecedented. REA is considered a robust methodology and complementary to other rapid assessment techniques, environmental frameworks and indicators of ecosystem condition. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Meeting Indigenous peoples' objectives in environmental flow assessments: Case studies from an Australian multi-jurisdictional water sharing initiative

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jackson, Sue; Pollino, Carmel; Maclean, Kirsten; Bark, Rosalind; Moggridge, Bradley

    2015-03-01

    The multi-dimensional relationships that Indigenous peoples have with water are only recently gaining recognition in water policy and management activities. Although Australian water policy stipulates that the native title interests of Indigenous peoples and their social, cultural and spiritual objectives be included in water plans, improved rates of Indigenous access to water have been slow to eventuate, particularly in those regions where the water resource is fully developed or allocated. Experimentation in techniques and approaches to both identify and determine Indigenous water requirements will be needed if environmental assessment processes and water sharing plans are to explicitly account for Indigenous water values. Drawing on two multidisciplinary case studies conducted in Australia's Murray-Darling Basin, we engage Indigenous communities to (i) understand their values and explore the application of methods to derive water requirements to meet those values; (ii) assess the impact of alternative water planning scenarios designed to address over-allocation to irrigation; and (iii) define additional volumes of water and potential works needed to meet identified Indigenous requirements. We provide a framework where Indigenous values can be identified and certain water needs quantified and advance a methodology to integrate Indigenous social, cultural and environmental objectives into environmental flow assessments.

  13. Life Cycle Assessment of Producing Electricity in Thailand: A Case Study of Natural Gas Power Plant

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Usapein Parnuwat

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Environmental impacts from natural gas power plant in Thailand was investigated in this study. The objective was to identify the hotspot of environmental impact from electricity production and the allocation of emissions from power plant was studied. All stressors to environment were collected for annual natural gas power plant operation. The allocation of environmental load between electricity and steam was done by WRI/WBCSD method. Based on the annual power plant operation, the highest of environmental impact was fuel combustion, followed by natural gas extraction, and chemical reagent. After allocation, the result found that 1 kWh of electricity generated 0.425 kgCO2eq and 1 ton of steam generated 225 kgCO2eq. When compared based on 1GJ of energy product, the result showed that the environmental impact of electricity is higher than steam product. To improve the environmental performance, it should be focused on the fuel combustion, for example, increasing the efficiency of gas turbine, and using low sulphur content of natural gas. This result can be used as guideline for stakeholder who engage with the environmental impact from power plant; furthermore, it can be useful for policy maker to understand the allocation method between electricity and steam products.

  14. Assessment of harmful algal species using different approaches: the case study of the Sardinian coasts

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    C.T. Satta

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available The presence and distribution of harmful algal species were investigated along the coasts of Sardinia in the summer of 2012. Fourteen potentially noxious taxa were identified at 74 beaches. The majority of the recovered taxa were potentially toxic and/or high biomass producers. Alexandrium taylorii, Gymnodinium instriatum, and Ostreopsis cf. ovata were the most frequent and abundant taxa, although Barrufeta bravensis reached the highest density (4.4 × 106 cells L−1. Barrufeta bravensis, A. taylorii, and G. instriatum were responsible for intense water discoloration at two of the beaches sampled. Polymerase chain reaction (PCR analyses supported the identification of several taxa and decisively identified B. bravensis. PCR assays increased the information available on the species distributions. The locations studied were heterogeneous in their prevailing environmental conditions and their morphodynamic profiles. Statistical analyses indicated that the distributions of harmful algal species correlated with gravel and medium-fine sand substrata. These data provide substantial knowledge on the distributions of harmful algal species on beaches, which have been poorly studied on a global scale. The apparent relationship between noxious species and grain size suggests that vegetative cells may be recruited from cyst beds in beach sediments.

  15. Economic Evaluation and Overall Assessment of Water Harvesting Ponds based on Scorecard System: A Case Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dabral, P. P.; Kumar, Santosh; Kiku, Karmchand

    2017-12-01

    In the present study, an attempt has been made to carry out an economic analysis of three (03) water harvesting ponds situated in the district of Lakhimpur (Assam), India. Economic analysis was carried out using three important economic criteria, namely Benefit Cost Ratio (BCR), Net Present Worth (NPW) and the Internal Rate of Returns (IRR). Ponds of the study area were compared with adopting score card system. All the water harvesting ponds were found economically viable as the BCR was more than unity at 12% discount rate. Net present worth was the highest for the water harvesting pond of Radhapukheri Fish Seed Farm, Department of Fisheries, Govt. of Assam, Narayanpur and the least for water harvesting pond of St. Xavier's School, Harmoti. The IRR was found to be the highest (60%) for water harvesting ponds of St. Xavier's School, Harmoti followed by water harvesting pond of a farmer of Narayanpur (48%) and water harvesting pond of Radhapukheri Fish Seed Farm (19.2%).Water harvesting pond of Radhapukheri Fish Seed Farm, Narayanpur scored the highest score (84 marks) followed by water harvesting pond of a farmer of Narayanpur (80 marks) and St. Xavier's school, Harmoti (61 marks).

  16. Computerized assessment of syntactic complexity in Alzheimer's disease: a case study of Iris Murdoch's writing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pakhomov, Serguei; Chacon, Dustin; Wicklund, Mark; Gundel, Jeanette

    2011-03-01

    Currently, the majority of investigations of linguistic manifestations of neurodegenerative disorders such as Alzheimer's disease are conducted based on manual linguistic analysis. Grammatical complexity is one of the language use characteristics sensitive to the effects of Alzheimer's disease and is difficult to operationalize and measure using manual approaches. In the current study, we demonstrate the application of computational linguistic methods to automate the analysis of grammatical complexity. We implemented the Computerized Linguistic Analysis System (CLAS) based on the Stanford syntactic parser (Klein and Manning, Pattern Recognition, 38(9), 1407-1419, 2005) for longitudinal analysis of changes in syntactic complexity in language affected by neurodegenerative disorders. We manually validated CLAS scoring and used it to analyze writings of Iris Murdoch, a renowned Irish author diagnosed with Alzheimer's disease. We found clear patterns of decline in grammatical complexity consistent with previous analyses of Murdoch's writing conducted by Garrard, Maloney, Hodges, and Patterson (Brain, 128(250-260, 2005). CLAS is a fully automated system that may be used to derive objective and reproducible measures of syntactic complexity in language production and can be particularly useful in longitudinal studies with large volumes of language samples.

  17. Introducing a water quality index for assessing water for irrigation purposes: A case study of the Ghezel Ozan River.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Misaghi, Farhad; Delgosha, Fatemeh; Razzaghmanesh, Mostafa; Myers, Baden

    2017-07-01

    Rivers are one of the main water resources for agricultural, drinking, environmental and industrial use. Water quality indices can and have been used to identify threats to water quality along a stream and contribute to better water resources management. There are many water quality indices for the assessment and use of surface water for drinking purposes. However, there is no well-established index for the assessment and direct use of river water for irrigation purposes. The aim of this study was to adopt the framework of the National Sanitation Foundation Water Quality Index (NSFWQI) and, with adjustments, apply it in a way which will conform to irrigation water quality requirements. To accomplish this, the NSFWQI parameters for drinking water use were amended to include water quality parameters suitable for irrigation. For each selected parameter, an individual weighting chart was generated according to the FAO 29 guideline. The NSFWQI formula was then used to calculate a final index value, and for each parameter an acceptable range in this value was determined. The new index was then applied to the Ghezel Ozan River in Iran as a case study. A forty five year record of water quality data (1966 to 2010) was collected from four hydrometery stations along the river. Water quality parameters including Na + , Cl - , pH, HCO - 3, EC, SAR and TDS were employed for water quality analysis using the adjusted NSFWQI formula. The results of this case study showed variation in water quality from the upstream to downstream ends of the river. Consistent monitoring of the river water quality and the establishment of a long term management plan were recommended for the protection of this valuable water resource. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  18. ASSESSING VOLTAGE QUALITY IN A TYPICAL LV NETWORK A Case Study of Ado- Ekiti

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Olajiga B.O

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available The power outage in Ado Ekiti is disturbing and has produced a negative effect on the life and economy of the people. This study presents investigation of power supply challenges in Ado-Ekiti Low Voltage Distribution network with the specific focus on the development of an algorithm for its improved performance.. In this work voltage quality problems and the causes of LV network faults interruptions and outages were investigated and analyzed using quantitative statistical method. Load flow of the LV network was carried out using impedance modeling with the aid of MATLABSIMULINK. Results obtained from the analysis were applied to develop algorithm for improved performance of the LV network while measures for improved LV performance were formulated from the developed algorithm. The analysis indicated that the voltage drop on the LV network is within the range 0.87p.u-0.94p.u. Voltage deviation is completely outside the permissible range of 6.

  19. A case study of species assessment in invasion biology: the Village Weaverbird Ploceus cucullatus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lahti, D. C.

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available Application of recent insights gained in invasion biology to particular species may aid in addressing a central problem of the field, that of prediction of the dynamics of future introduction and invasion. The Village Weaverbird (Ploceus cucullatus is concluded to be a potential invader of concern in several regions, especially the Mediterranean, Caribbean, and southeastern United States. This conclusion is supported by the introduction and invasion history of the species, factors concluded in recent reviews and quantitative studies to correlate with introduction success or invasiveness in birds, the species' agricultural pest status in its current range, and a published rating system. A proactive stance is recommended since control efforts have met with little success, but certain characteristics of the Village Weaver may provide opportunities for management.

  20. Assessing volcanic risk in regions with low frequency eruptions: the Laacher See case study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Riede, Felix; Blong, Russell

    2017-04-01

    Approximately 13,000 years ago, the Laacher See volcano located in present-day western Germany (East Eifel volcanic field, Rhenish Shield) erupted cataclysmically and, to-date, for the last time. In addition to the near-vent destruction wrought by pyroclastic flows and massive tephra deposition, a swath of airfall ash covered Europe from the Alps to the Baltic. Mofettes in the caldera lake as well as tomography studies clearly reveal the presence of a still-active hot spot in the Eifel suggestive of the possibility of renewed activity. Previous studies have focused on the near-vent situation and on unraveling the eruption sequence. Archive legacy data harvested from a variety of disciplinary and often obscure sources (palynology, pedology, archaeology, geological grey literature) now provide new insights into the medial, distal and ultra-distal distribution of Laacher See fallout. This tephra-fall distribution and its utility as a chronostratigraphic marker at archaeological sites allow a detailed reconstruction of contemporaneous human impacts. At the same time, tephra samples collected from sites across northern Europe also reveal the causal contributions of different hazard phenomena (dental abrasion, vegetation impacts, health hazards). Given the high density of key infrastructure installations and of population in the region, risk calculations using the recently proposed Volcanic Risk Coefficient (VRC) place the Laacher See volcano on par with many more active and routinely monitored volcanoes (e.g. Teide, Ischia) - despite the Laacher See's long repose period. Indeed, the lack of prior exposure of Western European populations, coupled with the large number of countries likely to be affected by any future eruption would further aggravate any given impact. The data extant now could be used to construct robust Realistic Disaster Scenarios, and to improve outreach efforts aimed at raising awareness of this major volcano in the heart of Europe.

  1. A Tool for the Sustainability Assessment of Farms: Selection, Adaptation and Use of Indicators for an Italian Case Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anna Gaviglio

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Indicator-based tools are widely used for the assessment of farm sustainability, but analysts still face methodological and conceptual issues, including data availability, the complexity of the concept of sustainability and the heterogeneity of agricultural systems. This study contributes to this debate through the illustration of a procedure for farm sustainability assessment focussed on the case study of the South Milan Agricultural Park, Italy. The application is based on a set of environmental, social and economic indicators retrieved from the literature review. The framework is based on three main steps: (i Data collection mainly through interviews with farmers and institutions; (ii data elaboration through an aggregative structure; and (iii score analysis. The latter step includes a descriptive analysis that allows a comparison among farms or groups of farms and a principal components analysis that helps to confirm the dimensions in which indicators were previously included (components. Results derived from the sampled farms show that the framework can provide easy-to-read results useful at different levels. The study highlighted the procedures for the framework construction that is compatible with the region’s context and objectives, using an analytical approach that aims at the use of balanced features of availability and reliability of data.

  2. Energy assessment of peri-urban horticulture and its uncertainty: Case study for Bogota, Colombia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bojaca, C.R. [Centro de Investigaciones y Asesorias Agroindustriales, Facultad de Ciencias Naturales, Universidad de Bogota Jorge Tadeo Lozano, P.O. Box: 140196, Chia (Colombia); Schrevens, E. [Department of Biosystems, Faculty of Applied Bioscience Engineering, Katholieke Universiteit Leuven, Geo-Institute, Celestijnenlaan 200 E, 3001 Heverlee (Belgium)

    2010-05-15

    Scarce information is available about the energy use pattern of horticultural commodities in general and more specifically for peri-urban horticulture. Peri-urban horticulture in the outskirts of Bogota is an important source of vegetables for Colombia's capital city. Based on detailed follow-ups and periodic field measurements an output-input energy balance was performed with the main objective to study the energy use efficiency of those systems. An uncertainty analysis on the input factors and on the energy equivalents was then applied. Over a measurement period of 18-month, the energy use for coriander, lettuce, radish and spinach was investigated, respectively 12.1, 18.8, 6.6 and 10.7 GJ ha{sup -1} were consumed in these cropping systems. Negative balances were observed for all species exception made for spinach where an output:input ratio of 1.16 was found. The two-way uncertainty analysis showed the highest uncertainty for N-based fertilization while no significant effect was observed for seeds in direct sowing crops. Sustainability of peri-urban horticulture around Bogota is compromised not only because of the city expansion but also due to its inefficient energy use. Technical improvements are required to ensure the environmental subsistence of this important sector for the metropolitan area of the city. (author)

  3. Geoelectrical investigation for the assessment of groundwater conditions: a case study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Nakhaei

    2005-06-01

    Full Text Available An electrical resistivity survey involving Vertical Electrical Soundings (VES was carried out in the Shooro Basin in Southeast Iran in order to study groundwater conditions such as depth, thickness and aquifer boundaries. Vertical electrical soundings by Schlumberger array were conducted in this area. The resistivity Schlumberger soundings which have a maximum current electrode spacing (AB ranging from 200 m to 600 m were carried out at 207 positions in 19 profiles. Interpretation of these soundings indicates the presence of an alluvial aquifer. This aquifer is divided into eastern and western parts by the Shooro River, which comprises a variable thickness and resistivity of deposits. The average permeability coefficient and resistivity in the western part, especially southwest is higher than the eastern part of the aquifer. Therefore, it seems that Shooro River follows a fault zone in the region. The high resistivity of west part is due to the water quality and the existence of alluvial fan with coarse grain materials. Low aquifer resistivities in the east are associated with finer materials and also brackish water infiltration from the adjacent basin mainly in the central part of the aquifer. Furthermore, zones with high yield potential have been determined in this research based on the resistivity data.

  4. Thermal map assessment under climate and land use changes; a case study for Uzundere Basin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yıldız, Nalan Demircioglu; Avdan, Ugur; Yılmaz, Sevgi; Matzarakis, Andreas

    2018-01-01

    Satellite images are commonly used for defining thermal urban environment and heat islands in urban areas. The objective of this study was to analyze and evaluate thermal environment of Uzundere-Erzurum using satellite images provided by the Landsat Thematic Mapper (TM) sensor on board Landsat 5 satellite. In respect to land use and urban surface features, spatial characterization of thermal urban environment was defined. In order to define the link between surface emissivity, land surface temperatures (LST), and urban surface characteristics more effectively, the CORINE Land Cover (CLC) database for Uzundere was also used. Based on the Landsat satellite images, different land cover categories are defined, and the alterations of heat islands are identified according to these categories. The minimum and maximum surface temperatures were obtained from open spaces, non-vegetated bare rocky areas (- 1.8 and 29.1 °C, respectively). The surface temperature in the water areas was much better (7.5 and 21.9 °C) and followed by green areas surface temperature (- 0.9 and 28 °C). Surface temperatures should be considered energy-focused planning.

  5. Urban traffic safety assessment: A case study of six Indian cities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dinesh Mohan

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available This study reports the results of fatal road traffic fatal crash data from six mid-sized cities in India: Agra, Amritsar, Bhopal, Ludhiana, Vadodara, and Vishakhapatnam. Relative to total road fatalities, the percentage of vulnerable road user deaths in all six cities range between 84% and 93%, car occupant fatalities between 2% and 4%, and TST occupants less than 5%. The largest proportion of fatalities for all road user categories (especially vulnerable road users is associated with collisions with buses and trucks, followed by collisions with cars; however, the proportion of pedestrian fatalities associated with MTW collisions ranges from 8% to 25% of the total. The data indicate that the 0–14 age group is underrepresented in proportion to its share of the population, including children riding motorcycles. Occupant fatality rates per 100,000 vehicles for MTW and TST occupants are 2–3 and 3–5 times higher, respectively, than for cars. However, estimates of association with fatal crashes show that MTWs and cars pose a similar risk to society, with TSTs representing a slightly smaller risk. Confirming some of these results will require data with a higher level of detail.

  6. Rapid assessment procedures in environmental sanitation research: a case study from the northern border of Mexico.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cifuentes, Enrique; Alamo, Urinda; Kendall, Tamil; Brunkard, Joan; Scrimshaw, Susan

    2006-01-01

    There is a need to enhance the quality and sustainability of environmental health programs in Mexico. What socio-cultural factors influenced the adoption or rejection of Clean Water in Homes programs in this population? We applied rapid appraisal procedures (RAP) to evaluate these community-based programs. Qualitative study conducted in communities along Mexico's northern border. We conducted informal dialogues, semi-structured interviews, field notes and observations. Home visits used a checklist to observe: sources of water, handwashing, as well as human waste and garbage disposal patterns. Data analysis was conducted using ATLAS.ti, which facilitated comparison and illustration of discrepancies, the elaboration of emerging issues and relationships between them. Community members perceived that the Clean Water program was a top-down intervention. Water is perceived as a political issue and a matter of corruption. Inequity also limits solidarity activities involved in environmental sanitation. Migration to the United States of America (US) contributes to community fragmentation, which in turn dilutes communal efforts to improve water and sanitation infrastructure. While targeting women as program "recipients", the Clean Water program did not take gendered spheres of decision-making into account. Community members and authorities discussed the main results in "assemblies", particularly addressing the needs of excluded groups. The oversight of not exploring community members' needs and priorities prior to program implementation resulted in interventions that did not address the structural (economic, infrastructure) and socio-cultural barriers faced by community members to undertake the health-promoting behaviour change, and provoked resentment.

  7. A case study of the resolution of paediatric dysphagia following brainstem injury: clinical and instrumental assessment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morgan, Angela; Ward, Elizabeth; Murdoch, Bruce

    2004-02-01

    The coexistance of a swallowing impairment can severely impact upon the medical condition and recovery of a child with traumatic brain injury [ref.: Journal of Head Trauma Rehabilitation 9 (1) (1994) 43]. Limited data exist on the progression or outcome of dysphagia in the paediatric population with brainstem injury. The present prospective study documents the resolution of dysphagia in a 14-year-old female post-brainstem injury using clinical, radiological and endoscopic evaluations of swallowing. The subject presented with a pattern of severe oral-motor and oropharyngeal swallowing impairment post-injury that resolved rapidly for the initial 12 weeks, slowed to gradual progress for weeks 12-20, and then plateaued at 20 weeks post-injury. Whilst a clinically functional swallow was present at 10 months post-injury, radiological examination revealed a number of residual physiological impairments, reduced swallowing efficiency, and reduced independence for feeding, indicating a potential increased risk for aspiration. The data highlight the need for early and continued evaluation and intensive treatment programs, to focus on the underlying physiological swallowing impairment post-brainstem injury, and to help offset any potential deleterious effects of aspiration that may affect patient recovery, such as pneumonia.

  8. Groundwater quality assessment using geoelectrical and geochemical approaches: case study of Abi area, southeastern Nigeria

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ebong, Ebong D.; Akpan, Anthony E.; Emeka, Chimezie N.; Urang, Job G.

    2017-09-01

    The electrical resistivity technique which involved the Schlumberger depth sounding method and geochemical analyses of water samples collected from boreholes was used to investigate the suitability of groundwater aquifers in Abi for drinking and irrigation purposes. Fifty randomly located electrical resistivity data were collected, modeled, and interpreted after calibration with lithologic logs. Ten borehole water samples were collected and analysed to determine anion, cation concentrations and some physical and chemical parameters, such as water colour, temperature, total dissolved solids, and electrical conductivity. The results show that the lithostratigraphy of the study area is composed of sands, sandstones (fractured, consolidated and loosed), siltstones, shales (compacted and fractured) of the Asu River Group, Eze-Aku Formation which comprises the aquifer units, and the Nkporo Shale Formation. The aquifer conduits are known to be rich in silicate minerals, and the groundwater samples in some locations show a significant amount of Ca2+, Mg2+, and Na+. These cations balanced the consumption of H+ during the hydrolytic alteration of silicate minerals. The geochemical analysis of groundwater samples revealed dominant calcium-magnesium-carbonate-bicarbonate water facies. Irrigation water quality parameters, such as sodium absorption ratio, percentage of sodium, and permeability index, were calculated based on the physico-chemical analyses. The groundwater quality was observed to be influenced by the interaction of some geologic processes but was classified to be good to excellent, indicating its suitability for domestic and irrigation purposes.

  9. Sustainability evaluation of pasteurized milk production with a life cycle assessment approach: An Iranian case study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rafiee, Shahin; Khoshnevisan, Benyamin; Mohammadi, Issa; Aghbashlo, Mortaza; Mousazadeh, Hossein; Clark, Sean

    2016-08-15

    Agro-food systems play a significant role in the economies of all nations due to energy use and the resulting environmental consequences. The sustainability of these systems is determined by a multitude of interacting economic, social and environmental factors. Dairy production presents a relevant example of the sustainability trade-offs that occur within such systems. On the one hand, dairy production constitutes an important part of the human diet, but it is also responsible for significant emissions of potent greenhouse gases and other pollutants. In this study, the environmental aspects of pasteurized milk production in Iran were investigated using a life-cycle approach. Three sub-systems, namely feed production, dairy farm and dairy factory, were taken into account to determine how and where Iranian pasteurized milk production might be made more environmentally friendly and energy efficient. The results clearly demonstrate that the feed production stage was the hot spot in pasteurized milk production in terms of energy consumption, environmental burdens and economic costs. The largest share of the total production costs belonged to animal feeds (43%), which were part of the feed production stage. The largest consumers of energy in the production of raw milk were alfalfa (30.3%), concentrate (24%), straw (17.8%) and maize (10.9%) for cows, followed by diesel fuel (6.6%) and electricity (5.6%). The global warming potential for the production of 1000kg of raw milk at the dairy-farm gate was estimated at 457kg CO2,eq. Thus, more than 69% of the total impact at the milk-processing gate resulted from the previous two sub-systems (feed production and dairy farm), with the feed-production stage accounting for the largest fractions of the environmental burdens. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  10. Genesis Solar Wind Collector Cleaning Assessment: Update on 60336 Sample Case Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goreva, Y. S.; Allums, K. K.; Gonzalez, C. P.; Jurewicz, A. J.; Burnett, D. S.; Allton, J. H.; Kuhlman, K. R.; Woolum, D.

    2015-01-01

    To maximize the scientific return of Genesis Solar Wind return mission it is necessary to characterize and remove a crash-derived particle and thin film surface contamination. A small subset of Genesis mission collector fragments are being subjected to extensive study via various techniques. Here we present an update on the sample 60336, a Czochralski silicon (Si-CZ) based wafer from the bulk array (B/C). This sample has undergone multiple cleaning steps (see the table below): UPW spin wash, aggressive chemical cleanings (including aqua regia, hot xylene and RCA1), as well as optical and chemical (EDS, ToF-SIMS) imaging. Contamination appeared on the surface of 60336 after the initial 2007 UPW cleaning. Aqua regia and hot xylene treatment (8/13/2013) did little to remove contaminants. The sample was UPW cleaned for the third time and imaged (9/16/13). The UPW removed the dark stains that were visible on the sample. However, some features, like "the Flounder" (a large, 100 micron feature in Fig. 1b) appeared largely intact, resisting all previous cleaning efforts. These features were likely from mobilized adhesive, derived from the Post-It notes used to stabilize samples for transport from Utah after the hard landing. To remove this contamination, an RCA step 1 organic cleaning (RCA1) was employed. Although we are still uncertain on the nature of the Flounder and why it is resistant to UPW and aqua regia/hot xylene treatment, we have found RCA1 to be suitable for its removal. It is likely that the glue from sticky pads used during collector recovery may have been a source for resistant organic contamination [9]; however [8] shows that UPW reaction with crash-derived organic contamination does not make particle removal more difficult.

  11. The assessment of water use and reuse through reported data: A US case study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wiener, Maria J; Jafvert, Chad T; Nies, Loring F

    2016-01-01

    Increasing demands for freshwater make it necessary to find innovative ways to extend the life of our water resources, and to manage them in a sustainable way. Indirect water reuse plays a role in meeting freshwater demands but there is limited documentation of it. There is a need to analyze its current status for water resources planning and conservation, and for understanding how it potentially impacts human health. However, the fact that data are archived in discrete uncoordinated databases by different state and federal entities, limits the capacity to complete holistic analysis of critical resources at large watershed scales. Humans alter the water cycle for food production, manufacturing, energy production, provision of potable water and recreation. Ecosystems services are affected at watershed scales but there are also global scale impacts from greenhouse gas emissions enabled by access to cooling, processing and irrigation water. To better document these issues and to demonstrate the utility of such an analysis, we studied the Wabash River Watershed located in the U.S. Midwest. Data for water extraction, use, discharge, and river flow were collected, curated and reorganized in order to characterize the water use and reuse within the basin. Indirect water reuse was estimated by comparing treated wastewater discharges with stream flows at selected points within the watershed. Results show that during the low flow months of July-October, wastewater discharges into the Wabash River basin contributed 82 to 121% of the stream flow, demonstrating that the level of water use and unplanned reuse is significant. These results suggest that intentional water reuse for consumptive purposes such as landscape or agricultural irrigation could have substantial ecological impacts by diminishing stream flow during vulnerable low flow periods. Copyright © 2015. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  12. Ecological risk assessment of trace elements in sediment: A case study from Limpopo, South Africa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dahms, S; Baker, N J; Greenfield, R

    2017-01-01

    This study aimed to determine the ecological risk posed by metals, in sediments from the Nyl River system in Limpopo, South Africa. Metals were extracted from sediment samples by aqua regia microwave digestion and were analysed using standard ICP-OES techniques. The ecological risk indices applied to the data included Contamination Factor, Pollution Load Index, Geo-accumulation Index and Enrichment Factor. The results showed that the levels of Ni at STW and NYL in the HF period exceeded the Canadian Sediment Quality Guidelines by a factor of 1.36 and 1.83 respectively whereas NYL and MDD had 2.57 and 1.32 times the allowed limit of Ni in the LF period. During the HF period, the GC site exceeded the allowed limit of Zn by a factor of 1.04 and NYL had 1.21 times the allowed Zn in the LF period. The levels of metals are generally low near the origin of the river and increase moving downstream. The levels of metals in the Nyl River floodplain, a Ramsar accredited wetland, were high with CF scores ranging between 0.905 and 5.82, Igeo values with a range of -0.541 to 2.441 and EF scores ranging from 0.959 to 6.171. and posed a greater risk than the other sites. This indicated that the wetland is performing its ecological function by trapping and removing toxins from the water body. The Pollution Load Index determined that the Golf Course (PLI=4.586) and STW (PLI=2.617) sites were polluted only in the low flow period whereas the Nyl River floodplain (HF PLI=79.845; LF PLI=30378.768) and Moorddrift Dam (HF PLI=1.903; LF PLI=9.256) sites were polluted in high flow and low flow periods. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  13. Extremes of weight gain and weight loss with detailed assessments of energy balance: Illustrative case studies and clinical recommendations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Falck, Ryan S; Shook, Robin P; Hand, Gregory A; Lavie, Carl J; Blair, Steven N

    2015-04-01

    Extreme weight changes, or changes in weight greater than 10 kg within a 2-year period, can be caused by numerous factors that are much different than typical weight fluctuations. This paper uses two interesting cases of extreme weight change (a female who experienced extreme weight gain and a male who experienced extreme weight loss) from participants in the Energy Balance Study to illustrate the physiological and psychosocial variables associated with the weight change over a 15-month period, including rigorous assessments of energy intake, physical activity (PA) and energy expenditure, and body composition. In addition, we provide a brief review of the literature regarding the relationship between energy balance (EB) and weight change, as well as insight into proper weight management strategies. The case studies presented here are then placed in the context of the literature regarding EB and weight change. This report further supports previous research on the importance of regular doses of PA for weight maintenance, and that even higher volumes of PA are necessary for weight loss. Practitioners should emphasize the importance of PA to their patients and take steps to monitor their patients' involvement in PA.

  14. Sustainability evaluation of pasteurized milk production with a life cycle assessment approach: An Iranian case study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rafiee, Shahin, E-mail: shahinrafiee@ut.ac.ir [Department of Agricultural Machinery Engineering, Faculty of Agricultural, Engineering and Technology, University of Tehran, Karaj (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Khoshnevisan, Benyamin, E-mail: b_khoshnevisan@ut.ac.ir [Department of Agricultural Machinery Engineering, Faculty of Agricultural, Engineering and Technology, University of Tehran, Karaj (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Environmental Specialist Research Team (ESRTeam), Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Mohammadi, Issa; Aghbashlo, Mortaza; Musazadeh, Hossein [Department of Agricultural Machinery Engineering, Faculty of Agricultural, Engineering and Technology, University of Tehran, Karaj (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Clark, Sean [Agriculture and Natural Resources Program, Berea College, Berea, KY (United States)

    2016-08-15

    Agro-food systems play a significant role in the economies of all nations due to energy use and the resulting environmental consequences. The sustainability of these systems is determined by a multitude of interacting economic, social and environmental factors. Dairy production presents a relevant example of the sustainability trade-offs that occur within such systems. On the one hand, dairy production constitutes an important part of the human diet, but it is also responsible for significant emissions of potent greenhouse gases and other pollutants. In this study, the environmental aspects of pasteurized milk production in Iran were investigated using a life-cycle approach. Three sub-systems, namely feed production, dairy farm and dairy factory, were taken into account to determine how and where Iranian pasteurized milk production might be made more environmentally friendly and energy efficient. The results clearly demonstrate that the feed production stage was the hot spot in pasteurized milk production in terms of energy consumption, environmental burdens and economic costs. The largest share of the total production costs belonged to animal feeds (43%), which were part of the feed production stage. The largest consumers of energy in the production of raw milk were alfalfa (30.3%), concentrate (24%), straw (17.8%) and maize (10.9%) for cows, followed by diesel fuel (6.6%) and electricity (5.6%). The global warming potential for the production of 1000 kg of raw milk at the dairy-farm gate was estimated at 457 kg CO{sub 2,eq}. Thus, more than 69% of the total impact at the milk-processing gate resulted from the previous two sub-systems (feed production and dairy farm), with the feed-production stage accounting for the largest fractions of the environmental burdens. - Highlights: • Environmental aspects of milk production in Iran were investigated using LCA. • Feed production, dairy farm and dairy factory were taken into account. • Feed production stage was

  15. Integrating strategic environmental assessment with industry planning: a case study of the Pasquai-Porcupine forest management plan, Saskatchewan, Canada.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Noble, Bram F

    2004-03-01

    Strategic environmental assessment (SEA) is gaining widespread recognition as a tool for integrating environmental considerations in policy, plan, and program development and decision-making. Notwithstanding the potential of SEA to improve higher-order decision processes, there has been very little attention given to integrating SEA with industry planning practices. As a result, the benefits of SEA have yet to be fully realized among industrial proponents. That said, SEA practice is ongoing, albeit informally and often under a different label, and is proving to be a valuable tool for industry planning and decision-making. Based on a case study of the Pasquai-Porcupine forest management plan in Saskatchewan, Canada, this paper illustrates how an integrated approach to SEA can contribute to industry environmental decision-making and can enhance the quality and deliverability of industry plans.

  16. Conceptual modeling for identification of worst case conditions in environmental risk assessment of nanomaterials using nZVI and C60 as case studies

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Grieger, Khara Deanne; Hansen, Steffen Foss; Sørensen, Peter B.

    2011-01-01

    studies which use engineered nanoparticles, namely nZVI in soil and groundwater remediation and C60 in an engine oil lubricant. Results generated from this analysis may ultimately help prioritize research areas for environmental risk assessments of nZVI and C60 in these applications as well as demonstrate...... response mechanisms such as reactive oxygen species (ROS) production and cell membrane damage or disruption, iv) surface properties of nZVI and C60, and v) acute exposure tolerance of organisms. Additional estimates of worst-case conditions for C60 also include the physical location of C60...... of nZVI and C60 and ecotoxicological response end-points and response mechanisms including ROS production and cell membrane damage, full nanomaterial characterization taking into account detailed information on nanomaterial surface properties, and investigations of dose–response relationships...

  17. Project management case studies

    CERN Document Server

    Kerzner, Harold R

    2013-01-01

    A new edition of the most popular book of project management case studies, expanded to include more than 100 cases plus a ""super case"" on the Iridium Project Case studies are an important part of project management education and training. This Fourth Edition of Harold Kerzner''s Project Management Case Studies features a number of new cases covering value measurement in project management. Also included is the well-received ""super case,"" which covers all aspects of project management and may be used as a capstone for a course. This new edition:Contains 100-plus case studies drawn from re

  18. Sustainability assessment and comparison of waste management systems: The Cities of Sofia and Niš case studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Milutinović, Biljana; Stefanović, Gordana; Kyoseva, Vanya; Yordanova, Dilyana; Dombalov, Ivan

    2016-09-01

    Sustainability assessment of a waste management system is a very complex problem for numerous reasons. Firstly, it is a problem of environmental assessment, economic viability and social acceptability, and also a choice of the most practical waste treatment technique, taking into account all the specific areas in which a waste management system is implemented. For these reasons, among others, it is very important to benchmark, cooperate and exchange experiences in areas with similar characteristics. In this study, a comparison of waste management scenarios in the Cities of Niš and Sofia was performed. Based on the amount and composition of municipal solid waste, and taking into account local specifics (economic conditions, social acceptance, etc.), different scenarios were developed: landfilling without energy recovery, landfilling with energy recovery, mechanical-biological treatment, anaerobic digestion with biogas utilization and incineration with energy recovery. Scenario ranking was done using multi-criteria analysis and 12 indicators were chosen as the criteria. The obtained results show that the most sustainable scenario in both case studies is the mechanical-biological treatment (recycling, composting and Refuse Derived Fuel production). Having in mind that this scenario is the current waste management system in Sofia, these results can help decision-makers in the City of Niš in choosing a successful and sustainable waste management system. © The Author(s) 2016.

  19. Quantification of urban metabolism through coupling with the life cycle assessment framework: concept development and case study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goldstein, Benjamin; Birkved, Morten; Quitzau, Maj-Britt; Hauschild, Michael

    2013-09-01

    Cities now consume resources and produce waste in amounts that are incommensurate with the populations they contain. Quantifying and benchmarking the environmental impacts of cities is essential if urbanization of the world’s growing population is to occur sustainably. Urban metabolism (UM) is a promising assessment form in that it provides the annual sum material and energy inputs, and the resultant emissions of the emergent infrastructural needs of a city’s sociotechnical subsystems. By fusing UM and life cycle assessment (UM-LCA) this study advances the ability to quantify environmental impacts of cities by modeling pressures embedded in the flows upstream (entering) and downstream (leaving) of the actual urban systems studied, and by introducing an advanced suite of indicators. Applied to five global cities, the developed UM-LCA model provided enhanced quantification of mass and energy flows through cities over earlier UM methods. The hybrid model approach also enabled the dominant sources of a city’s different environmental footprints to be identified, making UM-LCA a novel and potentially powerful tool for policy makers in developing and monitoring urban development policies. Combining outputs with socioeconomic data hinted at how these forces influenced the footprints of the case cities, with wealthier ones more associated with personal consumption related impacts and poorer ones more affected by local burdens from archaic infrastructure.

  20. Transnational Comparison of Sustainability Assessment Programs for Viticulture and a Case-Study on Programs’ Engagement Processes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Irina Santiago-Brown

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available This article documents and compares the most prominent sustainability assessment programs for individual organisations in viticulture worldwide. Certification and engagement processes for membership uptake; benefits; motives; inhibiting factors; and desirable reporting system features of viticultural sustainability programs, are all considered. Case-study results are derived from nine sustainability programs; 14 focus groups with 83 CEOs, Chief Viticulturists or Winemakers from wine grape production organizations from five countries (Australia, Chile, New Zealand, South Africa and the United States; 12 semi-structured interviews with managers either currently or formerly in charge of the sustainability programs; researcher observations; and analysis of documents. Programs were categorized by their distinct program assessment methods: process-based, best practice-based, indicator-based and criterion-based. We found that programs have been created to increase growers’ sustainability, mainly through the direct and indirect education they receive and promote, and the economic benefit to their business caused by overall improvement of their operations. The main finding from this study is that the success of each of these programs is largely due to the people driving the programs (program managers, innovative growers and/or early adopters and the way these people communicate and engage with their stakeholders and peers.