WorldWideScience

Sample records for assessing screening practices

  1. The 'grey' assessment practice of IA screening

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bidstrup, Morten

    2016-01-01

    Research focusing on the practices surrounding screening in Impact Assessment (IA) is limited. Yet, it has been found that development proposals sometimes are adjusted through an informal dialog with IA practitioners prior to or during screening. Such practice is often referred to as ‘grey IA’ in...... Denmark. This article explores the prevalence, influence and applied rationale of grey IA. Through a questionnaire, data was collected from 121 IA practitioners working within the fields of environmental impact assessment and strategic environmental assessment. It was found that grey IA is a common...... practice, which influences the outcomes of formal screening procedures through consideration of impacts on neighbours and spatial zones of protection. Grey IA is to some extent motivated by the opportunity to save the resources required for full-scale IA, but an additional ‘green’ rationale also exists...

  2. SCREENING, ASSESSMENT, AND REFERRAL PRACTICES IN ADULT CORRECTIONAL SETTINGS : A National Perspective

    OpenAIRE

    Taxman, Faye S.; Cropsey, Karen L.; Young, Douglas W.; WEXLER, HARRY

    2007-01-01

    The use of screening and assessment tools to gauge substance abuse disorders and the risk for recidivism are two widely recommended practices. A national survey of adult prisons, jails, and community correctional agencies was conducted to examine the practices used to place offenders in appropriate treatment services. Study findings indicate that 58.2% of the surveyed respondents report the use of a standardized substance abuse-screening tool, and that 34.2% use an actuarial risk tool. The pr...

  3. Best Practices for Mental Health in Child Welfare: Screening, Assessment, and Treatment Guidelines

    Science.gov (United States)

    Romanelli, Lisa Hunter; Landsverk, John; Levitt, Jessica Mass; Leslie, Laurel K.; Hurley, Maia M.; Bellonci, Christopher; Gries, Leonard T.; Pecora, Peter J.; Jensen, Peter S.

    2009-01-01

    The Best Practices for Mental Health in Child Welfare Consensus Conference focused on developing guidelines in five key areas (screening and assessment, psychosocial interventions, psychopharmacologic treatment, parent engagement, and youth empowerment) related to children's mental health. This paper provides an overview of issues related to the…

  4. Screen Practice in Curating

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Toft, Tanya Søndergaard

    2014-01-01

    During the past one and a half decade, a curatorial orientation towards "screen practice" has expanded the moving image and digital art into the public domain, exploring alternative artistic uses of the screen. The emergence of urban LED screens in the late 1990s provided a new venue that allowed...... for digital art to expand into public space. It also offered a political point of departure, inviting for confrontation with the Spectacle and with the politics and ideology of the screen as a mass communication medium that instrumentalized spectator positions. In this article I propose that screen...... practice in curating has emerged from a critical discourse in response to a particular "screen topos", which has relied on a Foucauldian, apparatus-theoretical mechanism of the screen as a broadcasting medium of mass entertainment. This topos, I argue, has transferred the dispositif of the screen apparatus...

  5. SYARIAH COMPLIANT SCREENING PRACTICES

    OpenAIRE

    Mondher bellalah; Asma Abdul Rehman; Omar Masood

    2013-01-01

    This study focuses on the shariaa compliant screening methods that are practiced by prominent Islamic finance users in terms of qualitative and quantitative screening. This research uses the comparative analysis to recognize the similarities and differences of methods among 15 users. Analysis reveals that there is a need to set the universal standards not only for the investors but also to discourage the misunderstanding between investors and scholars. After analysis of qualitative and quanti...

  6. Assessment of subject doses in mammography and its implication in the screening practice

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The aim of this paper is to evaluate the equivalent dose to breasts and effective dose from typical mammographic procedure. To calculate the contribution to effective dose from scattered radiation was used an MIRD-type whole body phantom of adult female. In this study, transformed the original MIRD female breast model to simulate the compressed breast. To determine the size of breast, mammographic procedure data were collected from the Korea Cancer Center Hospital in Seoul. These values were applied to the geometrical modeling of compressed breast. Mammographic units chosen for modeling are GE Senographe 600T and LORAD M-IV. Dose assessment was conducted for breast material of gland, homogeneous 50:50 mixture of adipose and glandular tissue, and sole adipose. Patient doses were calculated using the general-purposed Monte Carlo code, MCNPX. The X-ray spectra provided by the SPEC 78 data library were used. The difference in breast dose due to the different breast material compositions and different units was small. The equivalent doses to the breast were decreased aat other ages to became 2.25 mSv for patients undergoing craniocaudal in their 20's and the lowest dose is 0.68 mSv undergoing craniocaudal in their 60's. Similar trend was observed in the mediolateral projections. The contribution of other organ doses to effective does is found negligible so that the effective doses were approximately one-tenth the breast dose. The result of assessment of subject doses in mammography may provide reference of screening practice and groundwork for the national health in radiology

  7. Colorectal cancer risk assessment and screening recommendation: a community survey of healthcare providers' practice from a patient perspective

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Courtney Ryan J

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Family history is a common risk factor for colorectal cancer (CRC, yet it is often underused to guide risk assessment and the provision of risk-appropriate CRC screening recommendation. The aim of this study was to identify from a patient perspective health care providers' current practice relating to: (i assessment of family history of CRC; (ii notification of "increased risk" to patients at "moderately/potentially high" familial risk; and (iii recommendation that patients undertake CRC screening. Methods 1592 persons aged 56-88 years randomly selected from the Hunter Community Study (HCS, New South Wales, Australia were mailed a questionnaire. 1117 participants (70% returned a questionnaire. Results Thirty eight percent of respondents reported ever being asked about their family history of CRC. Ever discussing family history of CRC with a health care provider was significantly more likely to occur for persons with a higher level of education, who had ever received screening advice and with a lower physical component summary score. Fifty one percent of persons at "moderately/potentially high risk" were notified of their "increased risk" of developing CRC. Thirty one percent of persons across each level of risk had ever received CRC screening advice from a health care provider. Screening advice provision was significantly more likely to occur for persons who had ever discussed their family history of CRC with a health care provider and who were at "moderately/potentially high risk". Conclusions Effective interventions that integrate both the assessment and notification of familial risk of CRC to the wider population are needed. Systematic and cost-effective mechanisms that facilitate family history collection, risk assessment and provision of screening advice within the primary health care setting are required.

  8. Assessment of screening practices for gestational hyperglycaemia in public health facilities: a descriptive study in Bangalore, India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Giridhara R. Babu

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Background. Screening and timely treatment of gestational hyperglycaemia (GH is proved to be beneficial and improves maternal and foetal health outcomes. To understand screening practices, we explored the knowledge and perceptions of doctors working in public health facilities in Bangalore, India. We also studied participation factors by examining whether undergoing glucose estimation tests affects morning sickness in pregnant women. Design and Methods. We aimed to understand the screening practices and knowledge of doctors. A semi-structured questionnaire was self-administered by the 50 participant doctors, selected from the sampling frame comprising of all the doctors working in public health facilities. We included 105 pregnant women for baseline assessment, in whom a well-structured questionnaire was used. Results. We reported that gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM screening was done in nearly all the health centres (96%. However, only 12% of the doctors could provide all components of GDM diagnosis and management correctly and 46% would diagnose by using a random blood glucose test. A majority (92% of the doctors had poor knowledge (68% about the cut-off values of glucose tests. More than 80% of pregnant women experienced some discomfort mostly due to rapid ingestion glucose in short span of time. Conclusions. Our study established that screening for GH is done in most public health facilities. Nonetheless, knowledge of doctors on the glucose tests and their interpretation needs improvement. Re-orientation trainings of the doctors can improve their knowledge and thereby can efficiently screen for GH. Further, adequate planning prior to the tests can aid successful completion of them.

  9. An assessment of the utility of unselected coagulation screening in general hospital practice.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    McHugh, Johnny

    2011-03-01

    Coagulation screening using prothrombin time (PT) and activated partial thromboplastin time (APTT) is widely used. We performed an audit of coagulation screening in an Irish teaching hospital. We analysed PT and\\/or APTT results received during normal working hours during a 1-week period in our hospital. Abnormal results due to anticoagulants were excluded from further study. In samples with PT longer than 15.5 s and\\/or APTT longer than 42 s, we proceeded to 1: 1 mixing studies if the PT was prolonged and 1: 1 mixing studies, factor XII assay and lupus screen if the APTT was prolonged. We also obtained referral source for all samples and clinical details for abnormal samples. Six hundred and seventy-one coagulation requests were received during the study period. Three hundred and eighteen of 671 (47.4%) coagulation requests were for monitoring of anticoagulation. Three hundred and fifty-three of 671 (52.6%) requests were for coagulation screening rather than anticoagulant monitoring. In the coagulation screens received, PT was prolonged in 19 of 353 (5.4%). PT was longer than 20 s in four of 353 cases (1.1%). APTT was prolonged in 19 of 353 (5.4%). APTT was longer than 50 s in four of 353 (1.1%). No patients with abnormal PT or APTT had any bleeding sequelae during the study period. Unregulated coagulation screening has a low yield of abnormal results; the majority of these abnormal results show mild prolongation of PT or APTT with no evidence that they are associated with an increased bleeding risk.

  10. Assessing screening practices among health care workers at a tertiary-care hospital in Sao Paulo, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana Claudia Gonçalves-Silva

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: To ascertain the extent to which screening procedures (with and without evidence of effectiveness are practiced among health care workers at a tertiary-care hospital in Sao Paulo, Brazil. METHODS: From February 2001 to September 2003, a cross-sectional study involving physicians, nurses and nursing assistants (aged 40 to 69 years was carried out at a tertiary-care hospital in the city of Sao Paulo, Brazil. Subjects were interviewed using a questionnaire that addresses 17 procedures with grades of recommendation of A, B, C, D or E, in accordance with the 1996 United States Preventive Services Task Force guidelines for routine screening. RESULTS: Of the 333 health care workers included, 228 (68.5% were female. The mean age was 48.8 (SD 6.6 years. Most subjects had undergone screening for hypertension (blood pressure measurement and lipid abnormalities (cholesterol testing. Screening for breast and cervical cancer was common among females. Resting electrocardiography, serum glucose testing, urine tests, chest X-rays and serum prostate-specific antigen testing were also quite common. However, only 6 (1.8% of the subjects had undergone screening for colorectal cancer (fecal occult blood test or sigmoidoscopy. CONCLUSIONS: A sizeable proportion of health care workers underwent screening procedures that are not recommended or for which there was insufficient evidence of a benefit. Conversely, certain recommended procedures were performed on a small proportion of such workers. These results indicate that the Brazilian National Ministry of Health must develop nationwide evidence-based screening recommendations and disseminate such recommendations among health care professionals in Brazil.

  11. Screening Practices for Adolescent Dating Violence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, Larry K.; Puster, Kristie L.; Vazquez, Elizabeth A.; Hunter, Heather L.; Lescano, Celia M.

    2007-01-01

    This study sought to determine the screening practices of child and adolescent psychiatrists regarding adolescent dating violence (DV). A questionnaire regarding screening practices for DV and other risk behaviors was administered to 817 child and adolescent psychiatrists via the Internet and mail. Twenty-one percent of clinicians screened for DV…

  12. Environmental impact assessment screening tool

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    An environmental assessment and impact planning software, SCREENER, was tested at a pilot project at the Cameco site (Port Hope). SCREENER was used to screen the impacts of a new construction project in accordance with the process and reporting requirements laid out in the Canadian Environmental Assessment Act. The software test concentrated on the activities that are directly involved with the structure construction and site preparation activities. In addition, a two and one half day training course was given to three AECB staff using the test case as a hands on example. The conclusion of this project is that an automated tool such as SCREENER (or Calyx, the new generation of environmental assessment tools from ESSA Software Ltd.), will help the AECB to standardize the approach to environmental assessment, assist in project planning, and save resources in the screening process. The new approach could allow to allocate AECB limited resources to the detailed assessments required for maximum impact activities

  13. Knowledge of Breast Cancer and Screening Practices

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vahabi, Mandana

    2005-01-01

    Objective: To assess young women's breast health knowledge and explore its relation to the use of screening mammography. Methods: A convenience sample of 180 women aged 25-45 residing in Toronto, Canada, with no history of breast cancer and mammography received an information brochure and four questionnaires which assessed their knowledge of…

  14. Rheumatic heart disease echocardiographic screening: approaching practical and affordable solutions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nascimento, Bruno R; Nunes, Maria Carmo P; Lopes, Eduardo L V; Rezende, Vitória M L R; Landay, Taylor; Ribeiro, Antonio L P; Sable, Craig; Beaton, Andrea Z

    2016-05-01

    Rheumatic heart disease (RHD) affects at least 32.9 million people worldwide and ranks as a leading cause of death and disability in low-income and middle-income countries (LMICs). Echocardiographic screening has been demonstrated to be a powerful tool for early RHD detection, and holds potential for global RHD control. However, national screening programmes have not emerged. Major barriers to implementation include the lack of human and financial resources in LMICs. Here, we focus on recent research advances that could make echocardiographic screening more practical and affordable, including handheld echocardiography devices, simplified screening protocols and task shifting of echocardiographic screening to non-experts. Additionally, we highlight some important remaining questions before echocardiographic screening can be widely recommended, including demonstration of cost-effectiveness, assessment of the impact of screening on children and communities, and determining the importance of latent RHD. While a single strategy for echocardiographic screening in all high-prevalence areas is unlikely, we believe recent advancements are bringing the public health community closer to developing sustainable programmes for echocardiographic screening. PMID:26891757

  15. Practice Bulletin No. 163 Summary: Screening for Fetal Aneuploidy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-05-01

    Prenatal genetic screening is designed to assess whether a patient is at increased risk of having a fetus affected by a genetic disorder. In contrast, prenatal genetic diagnostic testing is intended to determine, with as much certainty as possible, whether a specific genetic disorder or condition is present in the fetus. The purpose of prenatal screening for aneuploidy is to provide an assessment of the woman's risk of carrying a fetus with one of the more common fetal aneuploidies. This is in contrast to prenatal diagnostic testing for genetic disorders, in which the fetal chromosomes are evaluated for the presence or absence of abnormalities in chromosome number, deletions, and duplications, or the fetal DNA is evaluated for specific genetic disorders. The wide variety of screening test options, each offering varying levels of information and accuracy, has resulted in the need for complex counseling by the health care provider and complex decision making by the patient. No one screening test is superior to other screening tests in all test characteristics. Each test has relative advantages and disadvantages. It is important that obstetrician-gynecologists and other obstetric care providers be prepared to discuss not only the risk of aneuploidy but also the benefits, risks, and limitations of available screening tests. Screening for aneuploidy should be an informed patient choice, with an underlying foundation of shared decision making that fits the patient's clinical circumstances, values, interests, and goals.The purpose of this Practice Bulletin is to provide current information regarding the available screening test options for fetal aneuploidy and to review their benefits, accuracy, and limitations. For information regarding prenatal diagnostic testing for genetic disorders, refer to Practice Bulletin No. 162, Prenatal Diagnostic Testing for Genetic Disorders. PMID:27101120

  16. Practice Bulletin No. 163: Screening for Fetal Aneuploidy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-05-01

    Prenatal genetic screening is designed to assess whether a patient is at increased risk of having a fetus affected by a genetic disorder. In contrast, prenatal genetic diagnostic testing is intended to determine, with as much certainty as possible, whether a specific genetic disorder or condition is present in the fetus. The purpose of prenatal screening for aneuploidy is to provide an assessment of the woman's risk of carrying a fetus with one of the more common fetal aneuploidies. This is in contrast to prenatal diagnostic testing for genetic disorders, in which the fetal chromosomes are evaluated for the presence or absence of abnormalities in chromosome number, deletions, and duplications, or the fetal DNA is evaluated for specific genetic disorders. The wide variety of screening test options, each offering varying levels of information and accuracy, has resulted in the need for complex counseling by the health care provider and complex decision making by the patient. No one screening test is superior to other screening tests in all test characteristics. Each test has relative advantages and disadvantages. It is important that obstetrician-gynecologists and other obstetric care providers be prepared to discuss not only the risk of aneuploidy but also the benefits, risks, and limitations of available screening tests. Screening for aneuploidy should be an informed patient choice, with an underlying foundation of shared decision making that fits the patient's clinical circumstances, values, interests, and goals.The purpose of this Practice Bulletin is to provide current information regarding the available screening test options for fetal aneuploidy and to review their benefits, accuracy, and limitations. For information regarding prenatal diagnostic testing for genetic disorders, refer to Practice Bulletin No. 162, Prenatal Diagnostic Testing for Genetic Disorders. PMID:26938574

  17. Assessment of a cancer screening program.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rabeneck, Linda; Lansdorp-Vogelaar, Iris

    2015-12-01

    Several Asian countries are implementing nationwide cancer screening programs. Assessment of the effectiveness of these programs is critical to their success as this is the only way to ensure that the benefits of screening outweigh the harms. In this paper we focus on colorectal cancer (CRC) screening to illustrate the principles of screening program assessment. The International Agency for Research on Cancer (IARC) has defined organized screening, distinguishing it from opportunistic screening. The key advantage of organized screening is that it provides greater protection against the possible harms of screening. Since screening is a process, not simply a test, the effectiveness of a program depends on the quality of each step in the cancer screening process. The evaluation of long-term screening program outcomes (CRC incidence and mortality) will not be observable for many years, given the time it takes to plan, pilot and implement a program. However, early performance indicators of the impact of screening should be monitored to give an early indication whether the program is on track. The European Union (EU) has recommended a minimum dataset to be collected and reported regularly by a screening program. Using information from these data tables, early performance indicators can be generated (e.g., participation rate, proportion of screen-detected cancers that are early-stage). Subsequently, modeling the natural history of the disease can be very helpful to estimate long-term outcomes, making use of these directly measured early performance indicators. Modeling can also be used to estimate the cost-effectiveness of a screening program and the potential impact of changes in policy, as illustrated by its recent use in the Netherlands to change the definition of a positive fecal immunochemical test (FIT) for the CRC screening program. Programs should consider modeling as an important component of screening program evaluation. PMID:26651258

  18. Hemoccult II Screening for Bowel Cancer: Will Family Practice Patients Accept It?

    OpenAIRE

    Sangster, J. F.; Gerace, T. M.; Bass, M. J.

    1986-01-01

    Acceptability to patients of Hemoccult II® screening for bowel cancer will be a major determinant of whether such screening programs can be successfully implemented. In order to evaluate the screening test's acceptability to patients, compliance rates were assessed in 17 family practices in London, Ontario. Patients' reactions to the test were assessed by both a retrospective questionnaire and a similar prospective questionnaire. Respondents indicated the test's unpleasantness, dietary prepar...

  19. Construction of an Occupational Therapy Screenings Assessment for elderly medical patients

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Holsbæk, Jonas

    there for demands a validated Occupational Therapy Screening Assessment, that fast and easy can tell if more Occupational Therapy is needed. Aim: The aim of the study is to develop a Screening Assessment which can be used in the Occupational Therapist practice screening Hospitalized Elderly medical...

  20. Screening for diabetes in unconventional locations : resource implications and economics of screening in optometry practices.

    OpenAIRE

    Howse, J.H.; Jones, S; HUNGIN A.P.S.

    2011-01-01

    Objectives: Unconventional locations outwith general medical practice may prove opportunities for screening. The aim was to determine the resource implications and economics of a screening service using random capillary blood glucose (rCBG) tests to detect raised blood glucose levels in the 'at risk' population attending high street optometry practices. Method: A screening service was implemented in optometry practices in North East England: the cost of the service and the implicati...

  1. Screening for diabetes in optometry practices : acceptability to users.

    OpenAIRE

    Howse, J.H.; Jones, S; HUNGIN A.P.S.

    2011-01-01

    Purpose:  Diabetes is a leading cause of blindness in the working age population. While optometrists have an established role in screening people with known diabetes for eye disease, their role in screening for diabetes has not been evaluated. For diabetes screening in optometry practices to be successful it must be acceptable to both optometrists and to the public. The purpose of this study was to determine acceptability to people attending optometry practices of using random capillary blood...

  2. 'Organised' cervical screening 45 years on: How consistent are organised screening practices?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williams, Jane H; Carter, Stacy M; Rychetnik, Lucie

    2014-11-01

    Organised screening programmes have been remarkably successful in reducing incidence and mortality from cervical cancer, while opportunistic screening varies in its effectiveness. Experts recommend that cervical screening or HPV testing be carried out only in the context of an organised programme. We sought to answer the following study questions: What does it mean for a cervical screening programme to be organised? Is there a place for opportunistic screening (in an organised programme)? We reviewed 154 peer-reviewed papers on organised and opportunistic approaches to cervical screening published between 1970 and 2014 to understand how the term 'organised' is used, formally and in practice. We found that despite broad recognition of a prescriptive definition of organisation, in practice the meaning of organisation is much less clear. Our review revealed descriptions of organised programmes that differ significantly from prescribed norms and from each other, and a variety of ways that opportunistic and organised programmes intersect. We describe the breadth of the variation in cervical cancer screening programmes and examine the relationships and overlaps between organised and opportunistic screening. Implications emerging from the review include the need to better understand the breadth of organisation in practice, the drivers and impacts of opportunistic screening and the impact of opportunistic screening on population programme outcomes. Appreciation of the complexity of cervical screening programmes will benefit both screeners and women as programmes are changed to reflect a partially vaccinated population, new evidence and new technologies. PMID:25282406

  3. Practical Privacy Assessment

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Peen, Søren; Jansen, Thejs Willem; Jensen, Christian D.

    2008-01-01

    This chapter proposes a privacy assessment model called the Operational Privacy Assessment Model that includes organizational, operational and technical factors for the protection of personal data stored in an IT system. The factors can be evaluated in a simple scale so that not only the resulting...... graphical depiction can be easily created for an IT system, but graphical comparisons across multiple IT systems are also possible. Examples of factors presented in a Kiviat graph are also presented. This assessment tool may be used to standardize privacy assessment criteria, making it less painful for the...... management to assess privacy risks on their systems....

  4. Environmental scan of anal cancer screening practices: worldwide survey results

    OpenAIRE

    Patel, Jigisha; Salit, Irving E.; Berry, Michael J.; de Pokomandy, Alexandra; Nathan, Mayura; Fishman, Fred; Palefsky, Joel; Tinmouth, Jill

    2014-01-01

    Anal squamous cell carcinoma is rare in the general population but certain populations, such as persons with HIV, are at increased risk. High-risk populations can be screened for anal cancer using strategies similar to those used for cervical cancer. However, little is known about the use of such screening practices across jurisdictions. Data were collected using an online survey. Health care professionals currently providing anal cancer screening services were invited to complete the survey ...

  5. Screening for type 2 diabetes in general practice

    OpenAIRE

    Janssen, P. G. H.

    2008-01-01

    The presented studies were conducted within the framework of the international ADDITION study (Anglo-Danish-Dutch Study of Intensive Treatment in People with Screen-Detected Diabetes in Primary Care), a randomised controlled trial in 3,057 screen-detected type 2 diabetic patients. The aim of ADDITION is to evaluate whether screening for type 2 diabetes in general practice is feasible and subsequent intensified, multifactorial treatment beneficial. Intensified treatment consisted of pharmacolo...

  6. The organization of cervical screening in general practice

    OpenAIRE

    Havelock, Christine; Edwards, Robert; Cuzick, Jack; Chamberlain, Jocelyn

    1988-01-01

    Well organized cervical screening in general practice can have considerable clinical and financial rewards. Yet in a randomized survey of general practitioners in the United Kingdom only 43% operated a system for cervical screening which allows previously untested women to be identified and invited for testing.

  7. Critical role and screening practices of European business incubators

    OpenAIRE

    Aerts, Kris; Matthyssens, P; Vandenbempt, K

    2005-01-01

    Business incubators guide starting enterprises through their growth process and as such constitute a strong instrument to promote innovation and entrepreneurship. In this article we sketch the European business incubator landscape. Then we describe screening practices by European business incubators in 2003 and compare these results with the American incubators in the eighties. In the last phase a cautious link between screening practices and performance, measured in terms of tenant failure, ...

  8. Practical Privacy Assessment

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Peen, Søren; Jansen, Thejs Willem; Jensen, Christian D.

    2008-01-01

    This chapter proposes a privacy assessment model called the Operational Privacy Assessment Model that includes organizational, operational and technical factors for the protection of personal data stored in an IT system. The factors can be evaluated in a simple scale so that not only the resulting...

  9. English Teachers Classroom Assessment Practices

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saefurrohman; Balinas, Elvira S.

    2016-01-01

    The new language assessment policies in the Philippines and in Indonesia have impact on English teachers' assessment practices. Classroom assessment; as mandated in the current curriculum of both countries swifts from sources of information to the inseparable process of teaching and learning. This study describes Filipino and Indonesian high…

  10. A practice-centered intervention to increase screening for domestic violence in primary care practices

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Palla Shana L

    2006-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Interventions to change practice patterns among health care professionals have had mixed success. We tested the effectiveness of a practice centered intervention to increase screening for domestic violence in primary care practices. Methods A multifaceted intervention was conducted among primary care practice in North Carolina. All practices designated two individuals to serve as domestic violence resources persons, underwent initial training on screening for domestic violence, and participated in 3 lunch and learn sessions. Within this framework, practices selected the screening instrument, patient educational material, and content best suited for their environment. Effectiveness was evaluated using a pre/post cross-sectional telephone survey of a random selection of female patients from each practice. Results Seventeen practices were recruited and fifteen completed the study. Baseline screening for domestic violence was 16% with a range of 2% to 49%. An absolute increase in screening of 10% was achieved (range of increase 0 to 22%. After controlling for clustering by practice and other patient characteristics, female patients were 79% more likely to have been screened after the intervention (OR 1.79, 95% CI 1.43–2.23. Conclusion An intervention that allowed practices to tailor certain aspects to fit their needs increased screening for domestic violence. Further studies testing this technique using other outcomes are needed.

  11. Environmental scan of anal cancer screening practices: worldwide survey results

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anal squamous cell carcinoma is rare in the general population but certain populations, such as persons with HIV, are at increased risk. High-risk populations can be screened for anal cancer using strategies similar to those used for cervical cancer. However, little is known about the use of such screening practices across jurisdictions. Data were collected using an online survey. Health care professionals currently providing anal cancer screening services were invited to complete the survey via email and/or fax. Information was collected on populations screened, services and treatments offered, and personnel. Over 300 invitations were sent; 82 providers from 80 clinics around the world completed the survey. Fourteen clinics have each examined more than 1000 patients. Over a third of clinics do not restrict access to screening; in the rest, eligibility is most commonly based on HIV status and abnormal anal cytology results. Fifty-three percent of clinics require abnormal anal cytology prior to performing high-resolution anoscopy (HRA) in asymptomatic patients. Almost all clinics offer both anal cytology and HRA. Internal high-grade anal intraepithelial neoplasia (AIN) is most often treated with infrared coagulation (61%), whereas external high-grade AIN is most commonly treated with imiquimod (49%). Most procedures are performed by physicians, followed by nurse practitioners. Our study is the first description of global anal cancer screening practices. Our findings may be used to inform practice and health policy in jurisdictions considering anal cancer screening

  12. Environmental scan of anal cancer screening practices: worldwide survey results.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patel, Jigisha; Salit, Irving E; Berry, Michael J; de Pokomandy, Alexandra; Nathan, Mayura; Fishman, Fred; Palefsky, Joel; Tinmouth, Jill

    2014-08-01

    Anal squamous cell carcinoma is rare in the general population but certain populations, such as persons with HIV, are at increased risk. High-risk populations can be screened for anal cancer using strategies similar to those used for cervical cancer. However, little is known about the use of such screening practices across jurisdictions. Data were collected using an online survey. Health care professionals currently providing anal cancer screening services were invited to complete the survey via email and/or fax. Information was collected on populations screened, services and treatments offered, and personnel. Over 300 invitations were sent; 82 providers from 80 clinics around the world completed the survey. Fourteen clinics have each examined more than 1000 patients. Over a third of clinics do not restrict access to screening; in the rest, eligibility is most commonly based on HIV status and abnormal anal cytology results. Fifty-three percent of clinics require abnormal anal cytology prior to performing high-resolution anoscopy (HRA) in asymptomatic patients. Almost all clinics offer both anal cytology and HRA. Internal high-grade anal intraepithelial neoplasia (AIN) is most often treated with infrared coagulation (61%), whereas external high-grade AIN is most commonly treated with imiquimod (49%). Most procedures are performed by physicians, followed by nurse practitioners. Our study is the first description of global anal cancer screening practices. Our findings may be used to inform practice and health policy in jurisdictions considering anal cancer screening. PMID:24740973

  13. Assessing Screening Policies for Childhood Obesity

    OpenAIRE

    Wein, Lawrence M.; YANG, Yan; Goldhaber-Fiebert, Jeremy D.

    2012-01-01

    To address growing concerns over childhood obesity, the United States Preventive Services Task Force (USPSTF) recently recommended that children undergo obesity screening beginning at age 6 [1]. An Expert Committee recommends starting at age 2 [2]. Analysis is needed to assess these recommendations and investigate whether there are better alternatives. We model the age- and sex-specific population-wide distribution of body mass index (BMI) through age 18 using National Longitudinal Survey of ...

  14. Screening for Chlamydia is acceptable and feasible during Cervical Screening in General Practice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hassan, S J; Dunphy, E; Navin, E; Marron, L; Fitzsimmons, C; Loy, A; O'Shea, B

    2016-01-01

    The incidence of Chlamydia trachomatis (CT) & Neisseria gonorrhoeae (NG) are rising in Ireland. Both are often undiagnosed and may cause infertility amongst other complications. CT/NG screening is not routinely offered during cervical cancer screening. This study aimed to ascertain the feasibility and acceptability of screening for CT/NG at time of smear and to measure the diagnostic yield. Screening was offered to women aged 25-40 years attending four participating general practices as part of Cervical Check. A retrospective review of the three months preceding the study period, indicated that out of 138 smears, CT/NG testing was performed in 10 (7%) of cases. 236 (93%) patients consented to screening for CT/NG. The detection rate for Chlamydia was 6 (2.4%), with no positive results for NG. Feedback from patients was positive. Interestingly, 42 (18%) of participants who completed the questionnaire believed STI screening was already part of the routine smear. PMID:26904785

  15. Knowledge, Attitudes and Practices Regarding Cervical Cancer and Screening among Haitian Health Care Workers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leilah Zahedi

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available It is estimated that Haiti has the highest incidence of cervical cancer in the Western Hemisphere. There are currently no sustainable and affordable cervical cancer screening programs in Haiti. The current status of screening services and knowledge of health care professionals was assessed through a Knowledge, Attitudes, and Practices survey on cervical cancer screening and prevention. It was distributed to Project Medishare for Haiti health care workers (n = 27 in the Central Plateau. The majority (22/27 of participants stated pre-cancerous cells could be detected through screening, however, only four had ever performed a pap smear. All of the participants felt a screening program should be started in their area. Our data establishes that knowledge is fairly lacking among healthcare workers and there is an opportunity to train them in simple, cost effective “screen-and-treat” programs that could have a great impact on the overall health of the population.

  16. Knowledge, attitudes and practices regarding cervical cancer and screening among Haitian health care workers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zahedi, Leilah; Sizemore, Emma; Malcolm, Stuart; Grossniklaus, Emily; Nwosu, Oguchi

    2014-11-01

    It is estimated that Haiti has the highest incidence of cervical cancer in the Western Hemisphere. There are currently no sustainable and affordable cervical cancer screening programs in Haiti. The current status of screening services and knowledge of health care professionals was assessed through a Knowledge, Attitudes, and Practices survey on cervical cancer screening and prevention. It was distributed to Project Medishare for Haiti health care workers (n = 27) in the Central Plateau. The majority (22/27) of participants stated pre-cancerous cells could be detected through screening, however, only four had ever performed a pap smear. All of the participants felt a screening program should be started in their area. Our data establishes that knowledge is fairly lacking among healthcare workers and there is an opportunity to train them in simple, cost effective "screen-and-treat" programs that could have a great impact on the overall health of the population. PMID:25390794

  17. A UK guide to intake fish-screening regulations, policy and best practice with particular reference to hydroelectric power schemes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A review of fish screening regulations in England, Wales, Scotland, and Northern Ireland is presented, and a summary of findings on screening legislation is given. The views of hydroelectric scheme developers, owners and operators are considered, and recommendations including the development of a risk assessment procedure are discussed. Fish screening technology, bypasses and other escape routes, and common fault in screen design and operation are examined, and guidance to Best Practice is given. (UK)

  18. A UK guide to intake fish-screening regulations, policy and best practice with particular reference to hydroelectric power schemes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Turnpenny, A.W.H.; Struthers, G.; Hanson, P.

    1998-07-01

    A review of fish screening regulations in England, Wales, Scotland, and Northern Ireland is presented, and a summary of findings on screening legislation is given. The views of hydroelectric scheme developers, owners and operators are considered, and recommendations including the development of a risk assessment procedure are discussed. Fish screening technology, bypasses and other escape routes, and common fault in screen design and operation are examined, and guidance to Best Practice is given. (UK)

  19. Reader practice in mammography screen reporting in Australia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Full text: Reader variability is a problem in mammography image reporting and compromises the efficacy of screening programmes. The purpose of this exploratory study was to survey reader practice in reporting screening mammograms in Australia to identify aspects of practice that warrant further investigation. Mammography reporting practice and influences on concentration and attention were investigated by using an original questionnaire distributed to screen readers in Australia. A response rate of 71% (83 out of 117) was achieved. Demographic data indicated that the majority of readers were over 46 years of age (73%), have been reporting on screening mammograms for over 10 years (61%), take less than 1 min to report upon a screening mammogram examination (66%), report up to 200 examinations in a single session (83%) and take up to 2 h to report one session (61%). A majority report on more than 5000 examinations annually (66%); 93% of participants regard their search strategy as systematic, 87% agreed that their concentration can vary throughout a session, 64% agreed that the relatively low number of positives can lead to lapses in concentration and attention and almost all (94%) participants agreed that methods to maximise concentration should be explored. Participants identified a range of influences on concentration within their working environment including volume of images reported in one session, image types and aspects of the physical environment. This study has provided important evidence of the need to investigate adverse influences on concentration during mammography screen reporting

  20. Species for the screening assessment. Columbia River Comprehensive Impact Assessment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Becker, J.M.; Brandt, C.A.; Dauble, D.D.; Maughan, A.D.; O`Neil, T.K.

    1996-03-01

    Because of past nuclear production operations along the Columbia River, there is intense public and tribal interest in assessing any residual Hanford Site related contamination along the river from the Hanford Reach to the Pacific Ocean. The Columbia River Comprehensive Impact Assessment was proposed to address these concerns. The assessment of the Columbia River is being conducted in phases. The initial phase is a screening assessment of the risk, which addresses current environmental conditions for a range of potential uses. One component of the screening assessment estimates the risk from contaminants in the Columbia River to the environment. The objective of the ecological risk assessment is to determine whether contaminants from the Columbia River pose a significant threat to selected receptor species that exist in the river and riparian communities of the study area. This report (1) identifies the receptor species selected for the screening assessment of ecological risk and (2) describes the selection process. The species selection process consisted of two tiers. In Tier 1, a master species list was developed that included many plant and animal species known to occur in the aquatic and riparian systems of the Columbia River between Priest Rapids Dam and the Columbia River estuary. This master list was reduced to 368 species that occur in the study area (Priest Rapids Dam to McNary Dam). In Tier 2, the 181 Tier 1 species were qualitatively ranked based on a scoring of their potential exposure and sensitivity to contaminants using a conceptual exposure model for the study area.

  1. Species for the screening assessment. Columbia River Comprehensive Impact Assessment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Because of past nuclear production operations along the Columbia River, there is intense public and tribal interest in assessing any residual Hanford Site related contamination along the river from the Hanford Reach to the Pacific Ocean. The Columbia River Comprehensive Impact Assessment was proposed to address these concerns. The assessment of the Columbia River is being conducted in phases. The initial phase is a screening assessment of the risk, which addresses current environmental conditions for a range of potential uses. One component of the screening assessment estimates the risk from contaminants in the Columbia River to the environment. The objective of the ecological risk assessment is to determine whether contaminants from the Columbia River pose a significant threat to selected receptor species that exist in the river and riparian communities of the study area. This report (1) identifies the receptor species selected for the screening assessment of ecological risk and (2) describes the selection process. The species selection process consisted of two tiers. In Tier 1, a master species list was developed that included many plant and animal species known to occur in the aquatic and riparian systems of the Columbia River between Priest Rapids Dam and the Columbia River estuary. This master list was reduced to 368 species that occur in the study area (Priest Rapids Dam to McNary Dam). In Tier 2, the 181 Tier 1 species were qualitatively ranked based on a scoring of their potential exposure and sensitivity to contaminants using a conceptual exposure model for the study area

  2. Environmental background assessment: basic principles and practice

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Background assessment is crucial in setting remediation and management goals, in identifying contamination trends and in providing screening tools for the selection of contaminants of concern. Legal requirements and guideline documents place great emphasis onto the establishment of background levels. This contribution discusses background estimates for metals and organics in relation to bioavailability and to its potential impact onto living systems. Methods for defining background in Environmental Risk Assessment are provided by the US EPA and by the Dutch Added Risk Approach. Cited case studies, taken from projects carried out in Italy and abroad, show that practical approaches vary significantly. A standardised database of soil, sediment and water background levels for different contaminants, as well as a more comprehensive guideline of background assessment, are urgently needed

  3. Practical approaches to risk assessment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brooke-Taylor, S

    2001-06-01

    The importance of using risk assessment in developing food regulations is growing with the globalization of our food supply. The World Trade Organization has entrenched the principles of science-based risk assessment in the Agreement on Sanitary and Phytosanitary Measures. The relevant international organization for food standards, the Codex Alimentarius Commission, recognises risk analysis, and its component parts risk assessment, risk management and risk communication, as the basis for scientific decision-making. Risk assessment comprises two activities: hazard evaluation; and exposure estimation. A hazard may be chemical, microbiological or nutritional in origin. The practical application of risk assessment in Australia is illustrated in this presentation by four examples involving: (1) food additives, (2) microbiological safety of imported raw milk cheeses, (3) genetically modified foods and (4) imported food inspection. PMID:11594473

  4. Practical Approaches to Risk Assessment

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2001-01-01

    The importance of using risk assessment in developing foodregulations is growing with the globalization of our food supply. The World Trade Organization has entrenched the principles of science-based risk assessment in the Agreement on Sanitary and Phytosanitary Measures. The relevant international organization for food standards, the Codex Alimentarius Commission, recognises risk analysis, and its component parts risk assessment, risk management and risk communication, as the basis for scientific decision-making. Risk assessment comprises two activities: hazard evaluation; and exposure estimation. A hazard may be chemical, microbiological or nutritional in origin. The practical application of risk assessment in Australia is illustrated in this presentation by four examples involving: (1) food additives, (2) microbiological safety of imported raw milk cheeses, (3) genetically modified foods and (4) imported food inspection.

  5. Practical Approaches to Risk Assessment

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    SIMONBROOKE-TAYLOR

    2001-01-01

    The importance of using risk assessment in developing food regulations is growing with the globalization of our food supple,The World Trade Oranization has entrenched the principles of science-based risk assessment in the Agreement on Sanitary and Phytosanitary Measures.The relevant international organization for food standards,the Codex Alimentarius Commission,recognises risk analysis,and its component parts risk assessment,risk management and risk communication as the basis for scientific decision-making,Risk assessment comprises two activities:hazard evaluation;and exposure estimation.A hazard may be chemical,microbiological or nutritional in origin,The practical application of risk assessment in Australia is illustrated in this presentation y four examples involving:(1) food additives,(2) microiological safety of imported raw milk cheeses,(3) genetically modified foods and (4) imported food inspection.

  6. Efficacy of an educational material on second primary cancer screening practice for cancer survivors: a randomized controlled trial.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dong Wook Shin

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Cancer surivors have limited knowledge about second primary cancer (SPC screening and suboptimal rates of completion of screening practices for SPC. Our objective was to test the efficacy of an educational material on the knowledge, attitudes, and screening practices for SPC among cancer survivors. METHODS: Randomized, controlled trial among 326 cancer survivors from 6 oncology care outpatient clinics in Korea. Patients were randomized to an intervention or an attention control group. The intervention was a photo-novel, culturally tailored to increase knowledge about SPC screening. Knowledge and attitudes regarding SPC screening were assessed two weeks after the intervention, and screening practices were assessed after one year. RESULTS: At two weeks post-intervention, the average knowledge score was significantly higher in the intervention compared to the control group (0.81 vs. 0.75, P<0.01, with no significant difference in their attitude scores (2.64 vs. 2.57, P = 0.18. After 1 year of follow-up, the completion rate of all appropriate cancer screening was 47.2% in both intervention and control groups. CONCLUSION: While the educational material was effective for increasing knowledge of SPC screening, it did not promote cancer screening practice among cancer survivors. More effective interventions are needed to increase SPC screening rates in this population. TRIAL REGISTRATION: ClinicalTrial.gov NCT00948337.

  7. Gestational diabetes mellitus in Europe: prevalence, current screening practice and barriers to screening.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Buckley, B S

    2011-12-12

    Background:  Gestational diabetes mellitus is a potentially serious condition that affects many pregnancies and its prevalence is increasing. Evidence suggests early detection and treatment improves outcomes, but this is hampered by continued disagreement and inconsistency regarding many aspects of its diagnosis. Methods:  The Vitamin D and Lifestyle Intervention for Gestational Diabetes Mellitus Prevention (DALI) research programme aims to promote pan-European standards in the detection and diagnosis of gestational diabetes and to develop effective preventive interventions. To provide an overview of the context within which the programme will be conducted and its findings interpreted, systematic searching and narrative synthesis have been used to identify and review the best available European evidence relating to the prevalence of gestational diabetes, current screening practices and barriers to screening. Results:  Prevalence is most often reported as 2-6% of pregnancies. Prevalence may be lower towards the Northern Atlantic seaboard of Europe and higher in the Southern Mediterranean seaboard. Screening practice and policy is inconsistent across Europe, hampered by lack of consensus on testing methods, diagnostic glycaemic thresholds and the value of routine screening. Poor clinician awareness of gestational diabetes, its diagnosis and local clinical guidelines further undermine detection of gestational diabetes. Conclusions:  Europe-wide agreement on screening approaches and diagnostic standards for gestational diabetes could lead to better detection and treatment, improved outcomes for women and children and a strengthened evidence base. There is an urgent need for well-designed research that can inform decisions on best practice in gestational diabetes mellitus screening and diagnosis. © 2011 The Authors. Diabetic Medicine© 2011 Diabetes UK.

  8. Feasibility of implementing routine nutritional screening for older adults in Australian general practices: a mixed-methods study

    OpenAIRE

    Hamirudin, Aliza Haslinda; Charlton, Karen; Walton, Karen; Bonney, Andrew; Potter, Jan; Milosavljevic, Marianna; Hodgkins, Adam; Albert, George; Ghosh, Abhijeet; Dalley, Andrew

    2014-01-01

    Background Nutrition screening in older adults is not routinely performed in Australian primary care settings. Low awareness of the extent of malnutrition in this patient group, lack of training and time constraints are major barriers that practice staff face. This study aimed to demonstrate the feasibility of including a validated nutrition screening tool and accompanying nutrition resource kit for use with older patients attending general practice. Secondary aims were to assess nutrition-re...

  9. Knowledge, attitudes, and practices regarding cervical cancer and screening among Ethiopian health care workers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kress CM

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Catherine M Kress,1 Lisa Sharling,2 Ashli A Owen-Smith,3 Dawit Desalegn,4 Henry M Blumberg,2 Jennifer Goedken1 1Department of Gynecology and Obstetrics, 2Division of Infectious Diseases, Department of Medicine, 3Department of Behavioral Sciences and Health Education, Rollins School of Public Health, Emory University, Atlanta, GA, USA; 4Department of Gynecology and Obstetrics, Addis Ababa University School of Medicine, Addis Ababa, Ethiopia Background: Though cervical cancer incidence has dramatically decreased in resource rich regions due to the implementation of universal screening programs, it remains one of the most common cancers affecting women worldwide and has one of the highest mortality rates. The vast majority of cervical cancer-related deaths are among women that have never been screened. Prior to implementation of a screening program in Addis Ababa University-affiliated hospitals in Ethiopia, a survey was conducted to assess knowledge of cervical cancer etiology, risk factors, and screening, as well as attitudes and practices regarding cervical cancer screening among women’s health care providers.Methods: Between February and March 2012 an anonymous, self-administered survey to assess knowledge, attitudes, and practices related to cervical cancer and its prevention was distributed to 334 health care providers at three government hospitals in Addis Ababa, Ethiopia and three Family Guidance Association clinics in Awassa, Adama, and Bahir Dar. Data were analyzed using SPSS software and chi-square test was used to test differences in knowledge, attitudes, and practices across provider type.Results: Overall knowledge surrounding cervical cancer was high, although awareness of etiology and risk factors was low among nurses and midwives. Providers had no experience performing cervical cancer screening on a routine basis with <40% having performed any type of cervical cancer screening. Reported barriers to performing screening were lack of

  10. Assessment: Examining Practice in Entrepreneurship Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pittaway, Luke; Edwards, Corina

    2012-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this paper is to develop knowledge about the nature of student assessment practice in entrepreneurship education. Design/methodology/approach: This paper introduces general assessment practice issues and highlights key considerations. It explains prior research on assessment practice in entrepreneurship education and argues…

  11. Patients’ perceptions of oral cancer screening in dental practice: a cross-sectional study

    OpenAIRE

    Awojobi Oluwatunmise; Scott Suzanne E; Newton Tim

    2012-01-01

    Abstract Background Oral cancer is increasing in incidence in the UK and indeed worldwide. Delay in diagnosis is common; up to half of patients are diagnosed with advanced lesions. Thus it is essential to develop methods to aid early detection. This study aimed to assess dental patients’ experiences and awareness of oral cancer and screening within general dental practice. Methods A cross-sectional questionnaire survey of 184 English-speaking adults, with no previous history of oral cancer wa...

  12. A randomised controlled trial and cost effectiveness study of systematic screening (targeted and total population screening versus routine practice for the detection of atrial fibrillation in the over 65s: (SAFE [ISRCTN19633732

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Raftery James

    2004-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Atrial fibrillation (AF has been recognised as an important independent risk factor for thromboembolic disease, particularly stroke for which it provides a five-fold increase in risk. This study aimed to determine the baseline prevalence and the incidence of AF based on a variety of screening strategies and in doing so to evaluate the incremental cost-effectiveness of different screening strategies, including targeted or whole population screening, compared with routine clinical practice, for detection of AF in people aged 65 and over. The value of clinical assessment and echocardiography as additional methods of risk stratification for thromboembolic disease in patients with AF were also evaluated. Methods The study design was a multi-centre randomised controlled trial with a study population of patients aged 65 and over from 50 General Practices in the West Midlands. These purposefully selected general practices were randomly allocated to 25 intervention practices and 25 control practices. GPs and practice nurses within the intervention practices received education on the importance of AF detection and ECG interpretation. Patients in the intervention practices were randomly allocated to systematic (n = 5000 or opportunistic screening (n = 5000. Prospective identification of pre-existing risk factors for AF within the screened population enabled comparison between high risk targeted screening and total population screening. AF detection rates in systematically screened and opportunistically screened populations in the intervention practices were compared to AF detection rate in 5,000 patients in the control practices.

  13. Mental Health Screening and Assessment of Detained Youth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soulier, Matthew; McBride, Anne

    2016-01-01

    The effective rehabilitation of detained youth begins with optimal screening of their mental health needs as they enter the juvenile delinquency system. The Massachusetts Youth Screening Instrument-Version 2 is the most used and empirically proven tool to screen juveniles. Juvenile facilities should consider the use of screening instruments like the Massachusetts Youth Screening Instrument-Version 2 as close to intake as feasible. Mental health professionals working in these systems of care will then need adequate resources to assess the mental health needs according to a biopsychosocial model of these youth. PMID:26593116

  14. Validation and practical implementation of a multidisciplinary cancer distress screening questionnaire

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Background: In order to identify cancer patients with psychosocial needs during radiotherapy, a routine screening questionnaire is widely recommended in the literature. Several tools focusing mainly on psychological issues have been developed during the past decade. However, problems with their implementation into clinical routine have been repeatedly reported, due to a lack of practicability for clinicians and nurses. This study reports the compilation of a multidisciplinary screening questionnaire and an analysis of the effectiveness of its implementation into clinical routine at the Department of Radiotherapy, Medical University of Vienna. Materials and methods: The screening questionnaire is based on a compilation of several subscales from established and validated assessment tools. It focuses on comprehensive information with high a clinical relevance for all professions. In a pilot study, patients' acceptance was assessed qualitatively. Analysis of missing screening data in consecutively admitted patients reflects the effectiveness of implementation and representativity of the data. A validation analysis of the psychological subscales was performed using external criteria and its internal consistency was tested with Cronbachs' α. Results: Qualitative patient acceptance of the screening questionnaire is good. The overall response rate in the screening procedure was 75 %. Missing patient screening data sets arose randomly - mainly due to organizational problems - and did not result in systematic errors. The psychological subscales identify highly distressed patients with a sensitivity of 89 and 78 %, and an internal consistency of 0.843 and 0.617. Conclusion: The multidisciplinary screening questionnaire compiled in this study has a high patient acceptance, provides reliable and representative data and identifies highly distressed patients with excellent sensitivity. Although requiring additional personnel resources, it can be implemented successfully in

  15. Validation and practical implementation of a multidisciplinary cancer distress screening questionnaire

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kirchheiner, K.; Czajka, A.; Komarek, E.; Hohenberg, G.; Poetter, R. [Medical University of Vienna (Austria). Dept. of Radiation Oncology; Ponocny-Seliger, E. [Sigmund Freud Private University, Vienna (Austria). Dept. of Psychology; Doerr, W. [Medical University of Vienna (Austria). Dept. of Radiation Oncology; Medical University of Vienna (Austria). Christian Doppler Laboratory for Medical Radiation Research for Radiation Oncology

    2013-07-15

    Background: In order to identify cancer patients with psychosocial needs during radiotherapy, a routine screening questionnaire is widely recommended in the literature. Several tools focusing mainly on psychological issues have been developed during the past decade. However, problems with their implementation into clinical routine have been repeatedly reported, due to a lack of practicability for clinicians and nurses. This study reports the compilation of a multidisciplinary screening questionnaire and an analysis of the effectiveness of its implementation into clinical routine at the Department of Radiotherapy, Medical University of Vienna. Materials and methods: The screening questionnaire is based on a compilation of several subscales from established and validated assessment tools. It focuses on comprehensive information with high a clinical relevance for all professions. In a pilot study, patients' acceptance was assessed qualitatively. Analysis of missing screening data in consecutively admitted patients reflects the effectiveness of implementation and representativity of the data. A validation analysis of the psychological subscales was performed using external criteria and its internal consistency was tested with Cronbachs' {alpha}. Results: Qualitative patient acceptance of the screening questionnaire is good. The overall response rate in the screening procedure was 75 %. Missing patient screening data sets arose randomly - mainly due to organizational problems - and did not result in systematic errors. The psychological subscales identify highly distressed patients with a sensitivity of 89 and 78 %, and an internal consistency of 0.843 and 0.617. Conclusion: The multidisciplinary screening questionnaire compiled in this study has a high patient acceptance, provides reliable and representative data and identifies highly distressed patients with excellent sensitivity. Although requiring additional personnel resources, it can be implemented

  16. Knowledge, attitudes and practice toward cervical cancer screening among Sikkimese nursing staff in India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hafizur Rahman

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Objectives: To assess baseline knowledge of cancer cervix, screening and practice of Pap smear screening among Sikkimese staff nurses in India. Materials and Methods: Between April 2012 and February 2013, a predesigned, pretested, self -administered multiple responses questionnaire survey was conducted among staff nurses′ working in various hospitals of Sikkim. Questionnaire contained information about their demographics, knowledge of cervical cancer, its risk factors, screening methods, attitudes toward cervical cancer screening and practice of Pap smear amongst themselves. Results: Overall, 90.4% nurses responded that they were aware of cancer cervix. Three quarter of the staff nurses were not aware of commonest site being cancer cervix in women. Of the 320 participants, who had heard of cancer cervix, 253 (79.1% were aware of cancer cervix screening. Pap smear screening should start at 21 years or 3 years after sexual debut was known to only one-third of the nursing staff. Age was found to be a significant predictor of awareness of Pap smear screening among nursing staff. Awareness was significantly more prevalent among older staff (P < 0.007. Married nursing staffs were significantly more likely to be aware of screening methods, and nursing staff of Christian and Buddhist religion were 1.25 times and 2.03 times more likely to aware of screening methods than Hindu religion respectively. Only 16.6% nurses, who were aware of a Pap smear (11.9% of the total sample, had ever undergone a Pap smear test. Most common reason offered for not undergoing Pap smear test were, they felt they were not at risk (41%, uncomfortable pelvic examination (25% and fear of a bad result (16.6%. Conclusion: Knowledge of cancer cervix, screening and practice of Pap smear was low among Sikkimese nursing staff in India. There is an urgent need for re-orientation course for working nurses and integration of cervical cancer prevention issues in the nurses′ existing

  17. The Washington Metropolitan Pediatric Vision Screening Quality Control Assessment

    OpenAIRE

    Couser, Natario L.; Janine Smith-Marshall

    2011-01-01

    Objective. To ascertain if parents are familiar with current recommendations on pediatric vision screening and to assess their knowledge of the roles that pediatricians, ophthalmologists and optometrists have in this screening process. Methods. A survey was targeted at parents to determine what the general public understands regarding vision screening. Results. The survey was conducted from January–May 2010. One hundred fifty six persons responded. Over one-third did not know the difference b...

  18. [Selective screening for hypercholesterolemia. Results from a screening model in general practice].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Agner, E; Christensen, T E; Mahnfeldt, M S; Baastrup, A; Jacobsen, K; Jensen, S E

    1990-11-01

    At present, it appears to be probable that both dietary changes and medicinal treatment can reduce the risk of development of coronary disease in middle-aged men with moderately to severely raised blood cholesterol values. Internationally, the limits for cholesterol intervention are considerably lower than in Denmark. Extensive cholesterol screening is, however, very expensive and the identified persons with high cholesterol values will frequently be found in sex and age groups where the beneficial effect of intervention is probably limited. A model for selective cholesterol screening in high risk groups in general practice is described here. In 20 general practices, all of the men aged 45-59 years belonging to the practice were invited to examination of cholesterol and blood pressure. Plasma cholesterol was measured by means of a Reflotron (results are available within three minutes) and the blood pressure and tobacco consumption were registered. After this, the patient's own general practitioner calculated with each of the persons the risk for development of myocardial infarction within the next ten years and intervention could be commenced immediately. 41% of those invited came for examination. Out of these, 29% had cholesterol values greater than or equal to 7.0 mmol/l (Danish limiting value), 44% greater than or equal to 6.5 mmol/l (limiting value in the remainder of Western Europe), and 5% greater than or equal to 9.0 mmol/l (severe hypercholesterolaemia) while only 18% had completely normal cholesterol less than 5.2 mmol/l. In every practice, two patients on an average were found with severe hypercholesterolaemia greater than or equal to 9.0 mmol/l. 28% of the participants had at least two of the three risk factors investigated. (ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS) PMID:2238223

  19. Assessment of diabetes screening by general practitioners in France: the EPIDIA Study. : diabetes screening in France

    OpenAIRE

    Cogneau, Joël; Balkau, Beverley; WEILL, Alain; Liard, François; Simon, Dominique

    2006-01-01

    AIM: To audit Type 2 diabetes screening in general practice in France and to determine the frequency of undiagnosed diabetes in patients at high risk, after systematic screening and diagnosis. METHODS: For this study, 288 general practitioners volunteered to include all consecutive non-diabetic patients aged < 65 years who had at least two risk factors for diabetes, whatever the reason for consultation. If a plasma glucose had not been recorded in the previous 12 months, a fasting plasma gluc...

  20. Screening for colorectal cancer: possible improvements by risk assessment evaluation?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nielsen, Hans J; Jakobsen, Karen V; Christensen, Ib J; Brünner, Nils

    2011-11-01

    Emerging results indicate that screening improves survival of patients with colorectal cancer. Therefore, screening programs are already implemented or are being considered for implementation in Asia, Europe and North America. At present, a great variety of screening methods are available including colono- and sigmoidoscopy, CT- and MR-colonography, capsule endoscopy, DNA and occult blood in feces, and so on. The pros and cons of the various tests, including economic issues, are debated. Although a plethora of evaluated and validated tests even with high specificities and reasonable sensitivities are available, an international consensus on screening procedures is still not established. The rather limited compliance in present screening procedures is a significant drawback. Furthermore, some of the procedures are costly and, therefore, selection methods for these procedures are needed. Current research into improvements of screening for colorectal cancer includes blood-based biological markers, such as proteins, DNA and RNA in combination with various demographically and clinically parameters into a "risk assessment evaluation" (RAE) test. It is assumed that such a test may lead to higher acceptance among the screening populations, and thereby improve the compliances. Furthermore, the involvement of the media, including social media, may add even more individuals to the screening programs. Implementation of validated RAE and progressively improved screening methods may reform the cost/benefit of screening procedures for colorectal cancer. Therefore, results of present research, validating RAE tests, are awaited with interest. PMID:21854094

  1. Knowledge, attitude, and practice of cervical cancer screening among Greek students: a short report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bakogianni, Giannoula D; Goutsou, Spiridoula C; Liti, Maria V; Rizopoulou, Sophia I; Nikolakopoulos, Konstantinos M; Nikolakopoulou, Nikoleta M

    2012-01-01

    Cervical cancer is a major cause of death in the developing world. The Papanicolaou (Pap) smear is a screening test that detects abnormal cells before they advance to cancer. The objective of this study was to assess the knowledge, attitude, and practice of cervical cancer screening among Greek students. A sample of 472 female students participated in the present study. Interviews were performed using a structured questionnaire. Of the participants, 94.07% were aware of the Pap test and 67.34% reported that the Pap test should be done yearly. The majority of them were informed about cervical cancer screening test by their parents. Of the participants, 44.82% had received Pap testing at least once in their life, whereas 36.2% had a Pap test yearly. The reported mean time of the respondents' first Pap test was 13.3±10.6 months after their first sexual intercourse. The reasons given by the participants for being noncompliant were lack of appreciation of the importance of the screening, embarrassment, fear, and high cost. Of the participants, 9.23% declared that those who had been administered the human papillomavirus vaccine do not need a Pap test. The results highlight the need for additional education and health promotion regarding cervical cancer screening. PMID:23183733

  2. Assessment Practices in Undergraduate Accounting Programs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lusher, Anna L.

    2010-01-01

    This study examined accounting program assessment plans at 102 colleges and universities in the United States. The research focused on identifying assessment practices in undergraduate accounting programs by examining the skills and competencies assessed and determining the methods of assessment used. The study also investigated what course and/or…

  3. Gestational diabetes mellitus in Europe: prevalence, current screening practice and barriers to screening

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Buckley, B S; Harreiter, J; Damm, P;

    2012-01-01

    Background: Gestational diabetes mellitus is a potentially serious condition that affects many pregnancies and its prevalence is increasing. Evidence suggests early detection and treatment improves outcomes, but this is hampered by continued disagreement and inconsistency regarding many aspects of...... its diagnosis. Methods: The Vitamin D and Lifestyle Intervention for Gestational Diabetes Mellitus Prevention (DALI) research programme aims to promote pan-European standards in the detection and diagnosis of gestational diabetes and to develop effective preventive interventions. To provide an...... overview of the context within which the programme will be conducted and its findings interpreted, systematic searching and narrative synthesis have been used to identify and review the best available European evidence relating to the prevalence of gestational diabetes, current screening practices and...

  4. Knowledge, attitude and practice for breast cancer risk factors and screening modalities in staff nurses of Ayub teaching hospital Abbottabad

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Background: Breast cancer is the commonest cancer modality in female worldwide. Avoiding the risk factors can reduce its incidence and adhering to screening and early detection can reduce its mortality. A sufficient knowledge regarding the risk factors and screening modalities is therefore essential. We assessed the knowledge level about these parameters in our staff nurses. Methods: A self-administered questionnaire survey was performed. Knowledge regarding the risk factors and screening modalities were categorised into good, fair, poor and very poor categories. Results: Knowledge regarding most of the factors was found to be fair. A few things were termed as good knowledge like role of breast-feeding in protecting against breast cancer. Practice regarding the screening modalities was not satisfactory. Only a few nurses had good knowledge of the risk factors and screening modalities. Practice of the Screening modalities was also poor. Conclusion: There is a need to improve the nursing curriculum, training at the workplace and motivate them for screening practices. They should be encouraged to talk to their patients and their female attendants about prevention and early detection of breast cancer. (author)

  5. Screening assessment and requirements for a comprehensive assessment: Volume 1, Draft. Columbia River comprehensive impact assessment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1997-04-01

    To evaluate the impact to the Columbia River from the Hanford Site-derived contaminants, the U.S. Department of Energy, U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, and Washington State Department of Ecology initiated a study referred to as the Columbia River Comprehensive Impact Assessment (CRCIA). To address concerns about the scope and direction of CRCIA as well as enhance regulator, tribal, stockholder, and public involvement, the CRCIA Management Team was formed in August 1995. The Team agreed to conduct CRCIA using a phased approach. The initial phase, includes two components: 1) a screening assessment to evaluate the potential impact to the river, resulting from current levels of Hanford-derived contaminants in order to support decisions on Interim Remedial Measures, and 2) a definition of the essential work remaining to provide an acceptable comprehensive river impact assessment. The screening assessment is described in Part I of this report. The essential work remaining is Part II of this report. The objective of the screening assessment is to identify areas where the greatest potential exists for adverse effects on humans or the environment. Part I of this report discusses the scope, technical approach, and results of the screening assessment. Part II defines a new paradigm for predecisional participation by those affected by Hanford cleanup decisions.

  6. Screening assessment and requirements for a comprehensive assessment: Volume 1, Draft. Columbia River comprehensive impact assessment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    To evaluate the impact to the Columbia River from the Hanford Site-derived contaminants, the U.S. Department of Energy, U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, and Washington State Department of Ecology initiated a study referred to as the Columbia River Comprehensive Impact Assessment (CRCIA). To address concerns about the scope and direction of CRCIA as well as enhance regulator, tribal, stockholder, and public involvement, the CRCIA Management Team was formed in August 1995. The Team agreed to conduct CRCIA using a phased approach. The initial phase, includes two components: 1) a screening assessment to evaluate the potential impact to the river, resulting from current levels of Hanford-derived contaminants in order to support decisions on Interim Remedial Measures, and 2) a definition of the essential work remaining to provide an acceptable comprehensive river impact assessment. The screening assessment is described in Part I of this report. The essential work remaining is Part II of this report. The objective of the screening assessment is to identify areas where the greatest potential exists for adverse effects on humans or the environment. Part I of this report discusses the scope, technical approach, and results of the screening assessment. Part II defines a new paradigm for predecisional participation by those affected by Hanford cleanup decisions

  7. Promoting chlamydia screening with posters and leaflets in general practice - a qualitative study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ford-Young William

    2009-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background General practice staff are reluctant to discuss sexual health opportunistically in all consultations. Health promotion materials may help alleviate this barrier. Chlamydia screening promotion posters and leaflets, produced by the English National Chlamydia Screening Programme (NCSP, have been available to general practices, through local chlamydia screening offices, since its launch. In this study we explored the attitudes of general practice staff to these screening promotional materials, how they used them, and explored other promotional strategies to encourage chlamydia screening. Methods Twenty-five general practices with a range of screening rates, were purposively selected from six NCSP areas in England. In focus groups doctors, nurses, administrative staff and receptionists were encouraged to discuss candidly their experiences about their use and opinions of posters, leaflets and advertising to promote chlamydia screening. Researchers observed whether posters and leaflets were on display in reception and/or waiting areas. Data were collected and analysed concurrently using a stepwise framework analytical approach. Results Although two-thirds of screening practices reported that they displayed posters and leaflets, they were not prominently displayed in most practices. Only a minority of practices reported actively using screening promotional materials on an ongoing basis. Most staff in all practices were not following up the advertising in posters and leaflets by routinely offering opportunistic screening to their target population. Some staff in many practices thought posters and leaflets would cause offence or embarrassment to their patients. Distribution of chlamydia leaflets by receptionists was thought to be inappropriate by some practices, as they thought patients would be offended when being offered a leaflet in a public area. Practice staff suggested the development of pocket-sized leaflets. Conclusion The NCSP

  8. Portfolio assessment: practice teachers' early experience.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spence, William; El-Ansari, Walid

    2004-07-01

    Experience was recognised to be a vital source of learning as long ago as 1762 [Emile, Everyman, London, 1993] and reflection on practice experience may be one way forward in addressing nursing's anxieties concerning the practice theory gap. However, despite the acceptance that subjectivity in the process seems inevitable and potentially important, little is understood of the practitioner's experience of practice assessment. Two questionnaires sought the views of specialist community nursing practitioner (SCNP) programme (United Kingdom Central Council for Nursing, Midwifery and Health Visiting (UKCC) 2001) practice teachers (PTs) on the introduction of the portfolio approach to practice assessment. These were distributed to 62 and 76 PTs and the response rates were 32% and 50%, respectively. Responses of those PTs from the three specialisms participating in the piloting of the portfolio approach were compared with those using an existing approach. An action research method was adopted which attempted to use established theory to explain the challenges presented by the introduction of this approach and ultimately to raise the PT group's awareness of assessment issues. Both qualitative and quantitative data were collected and the findings support the use of the portfolio approach to practice assessment. The PT experience of portfolio use was found to be a largely positive one. PTs reported the utility of the portfolio in prompting student self-evaluation of learning. Concerns were expressed by PTs around the quality of portfolio evidence although many felt that it had promoted students' reflection on practice. Inter-PT reliability in practice assessment was identified as a topic for PT continuing professional development. Many sources of evidence, including patient feedback, were used by PTs in their assessment of students although PTs using the portfolio approach used less first-hand experience of students' practice in their assessments of competence, relying more

  9. Clinician Attitudes, Screening Practices, and Interventions to Reduce Firearm-Related Injury.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roszko, Paul J D; Ameli, Jonathan; Carter, Patrick M; Cunningham, Rebecca M; Ranney, Megan L

    2016-01-01

    Firearm injury is a leading cause of injury-related morbidity and mortality in the United States. We sought to systematically identify and summarize existing literature on clinical firearm injury prevention screening and interventions. We conducted a systematic search of PubMed, Web of Science, Cumulative Index of Nursing and Allied Health Literature (CINAHL), PsycInfo, and ClinicalTrials.gov for English-language original research (published 1992-2014) on clinical screening methods, patient-level firearm interventions, or patient/provider attitudes on the same. Unrelated studies were excluded through title, abstract, and full-text review, and the remaining articles underwent data abstraction and quality scoring. Of a total of 3,260 unique titles identified, 72 were included in the final review. Fifty-three articles examined clinician attitudes/practice patterns; prior training, experience, and expectations correlated with clinicians' regularity of firearm screening. Twelve articles assessed patient interventions, of which 6 were randomized controlled trials. Seven articles described patient attitudes; all were of low methodological quality. According to these articles, providers rarely screen or counsel their patients-even high-risk patients-about firearm safety. Health-care-based interventions may increase rates of safe storage of firearms for pediatric patients, suicidal patients, and other high-risk groups. Some studies show that training clinicians can increase rates of effective firearm safety screening and counseling. Patients and families are, for the most part, accepting of such screening and counseling. However, the current literature is, by and large, not high quality. Rigorous, large-scale, adequately funded studies are needed. PMID:26905894

  10. BREAST CANCER SCREENING KNOWLEDGE AND PRACTICE AMONG WOMEN IN SOUTHEAST OF IRAN

    OpenAIRE

    Z Heidari; H. R Mahmoudzadeh-Sagheb; N. Sakhavar

    2008-01-01

    "nBreast cancer is the most common cancer occurring among women. The mortality rate of breast cancer can be reduced by regular breast cancer screening program. This study was carried out to identify the knowledge and practice of women about breast cancer screening in Zahedan, southeast of Iran. In this cross- sectional study, 384 women were selected as an improbability sample of women referring to Qouds maternity hospital. Knowledge and practice of them about breast cancer screening were...

  11. Equity and practice issues in colorectal cancer screening

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buchman, Sandy; Rozmovits, Linda; Glazier, Richard H.

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Objective To investigate overall colorectal cancer (CRC) screening rates, patterns in the use of types of CRC screening, and sociodemographic characteristics associated with CRC screening; and to gain insight into physicians’ perceptions about and use of fecal occult blood testing [FOBT] and colonoscopy for patients at average risk of CRC. Design Mixed-methods study using cross-sectional administrative data on patient sociodemographic characteristics and semistructured telephone interviews with physicians. Setting Toronto, Ont. Participants Patients aged 50 to 74 years and physicians in family health teams in the Toronto Central Local Health Integration Network. Main outcome measures Rates of CRC screening by type; sociodemographic characteristics associated with CRC screening; thematic analysis using constant comparative method for semistructured interviews. Main findings Ontario administrative data on CRC screening showed lower overall screening rates among those who were younger, male patients, those who had lower income, and recent immigrants. Colonoscopy rates were especially low among those with lower income and those who were recent immigrants. Semistructured interviews revealed that physician opinions about CRC screening for average-risk patients were divided: one group of physicians accepted the evidence and recommendations for FOBT and the other group of physicians strongly supported colonoscopy for these patients, believing that the FOBT was an inferior screening method. Physicians identified specialist recommendations and patient expectations as factors that influenced their decisions regarding CRC screening type. Conclusion There was considerable variation in CRC screening by sociodemographic characteristics. A key theme that emerged from the interviews was that physicians were divided in their preference for FOBT or colonoscopy; factors that influenced physician preference included the health care system, recommendations by other

  12. Pre-participation screening for athletes and the role of advanced practice providers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pickham, David; Chan, Garrett; Carey, Mary

    2015-01-01

    Pre-participation screening of athletes for underlying cardiovascular disease is recommended by the AHA/ACC. However, vigorous debate continues as to whether the ECG should be used as part of a broad-based screening program. The AHA/ACC "do not support national mandatory screening ECGs of athletes, because the logistics, manpower, financial and resource considerations make such a program inapplicable to US". In an effort to address these impediments and to increase access for communities, we explore the use of advanced practice providers (Nurse Practitioners and Physician Assistants) in providing pre-participation screening to athletes with ECG interpretation. In the current healthcare environment with limited primary care resources, advanced practice providers are an important new element in improving access to care. Pre-participation screening with ECG interpretation is currently within an advanced practice provider's scope of practice. Emerging data shows that advanced practice providers perform care that is within acceptable patient care standards, safely, and cost effectively, compared to physician counterparts. To further improve pre-participation screening, a national education and certification program on 12-lead ECG interpretation is needed. Standardized screening tools and mass screening protocols that include screening ECGs for targeted athlete populations who are at high risk for SCD are needed. These recommendations are aimed at addressing some of the barriers raised by the AHA/ACC group to pre-participation screening with ECG. PMID:25791248

  13. Assisted living nursing practice: admission assessment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mitty, Ethel; Flores, Sandi

    2007-01-01

    Admission assessment, generally conducted by a registered nurse, is autonomous, without opportunity for dialogue with colleagues and other health care professionals and bounded by the nurse's knowledge and skills, state regulations, facility practices, and marketing. The fact that some states permit admission and retention of nursing home level-of-care residents and provision of end-of-life care means that the assessment has to be able to predict the resident's likely trajectory of well-being as well as chronic illness exacerbation. The nurse must have a clear perspective on staff competencies and judge whether additional education or training will be necessary. This article reviews assessment standards of practice as put forth by the American Assisted Living Nurses Association as part of its application for recognition of assisted living nursing as specialty nursing practice by the American Nurses Association. The role of the Licensed Practical Nurse/Licensed Vocational Nurse in resident assessment is also discussed. PMID:17292794

  14. Risk Assessment in Finland: Theory and Practice

    OpenAIRE

    Anttonen, Hannu; Pääkkönen, Rauno

    2010-01-01

    The Finnish risk assessment practice is based on the Occupational Safety and Health (OSH) Act aiming to improve working conditions in order maintain the employees' work ability, and to prevent occupational accidents and diseases. In practice there are hundreds of risk assessment methods in use. A simple method is used in small and medium sized enterprises and more complex risk evaluation methods in larger work places. Does the risk management function in the work places in Finland? According ...

  15. A Survey of Psychological Assessment Feedback Practices

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Steven R.; Wiggins, Chauntel M.; Gorske, Tad T.

    2007-01-01

    There have been no previous studies on how often psychologists conduct feedback and whether they view this practice as a useful component of assessment. To explore psychologists' feedback practices and their perception of the effects of feedback on their clients, the authors examined survey data from 719 psychologist members of the International…

  16. Screening for type 2 diabetes in general practice

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Janssen, P.G.H.

    2008-01-01

    The presented studies were conducted within the framework of the international ADDITION study (Anglo-Danish-Dutch Study of Intensive Treatment in People with Screen-Detected Diabetes in Primary Care), a randomised controlled trial in 3,057 screen-detected type 2 diabetic patients. The aim of ADDITIO

  17. Do Social Network Characteristics Predict Mammography Screening Practices?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Allen, Jennifer D.; Stoddard, Anne M.; Sorensen, Glorian

    2008-01-01

    Background: Many breast cancer outreach programs assume that dissemination of information through social networks and provision of social support will promote screening. The authors prospectively examined the relationship between social network characteristics and adherence to screening guidelines. Method: Employed women age 40 years and older…

  18. Cognitive screening in persons with chronic diseases in primary care: challenges and recommendations for practice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Athilingam, Ponrathi; Visovsky, Constance; Elliott, Amanda F; Rogal, Philip J

    2015-09-01

    An integrative literature review was performed to identify the challenges in current cognitive screening. The aim of the review was to serve as an evaluative resource to guide clinicians in the selection of the best available cognitive screening measures for early assessment of mild cognitive impairment (MCI) in people with chronic diseases. The review classified the available cognitive screening measures according to purpose, time to administer, and cognitive domains assessed as: 1) simple/ brief cognitive screening measures, 2) disease specific screening measures, 3) domain specific screening measures, 4) self-administered screening measures, and 5) technology-based screening measures. There is no single optimal cognitive measure for all patient populations and settings. Although disease specific cognitive screening measures are optimal, there is a lack of validated screening measures for many chronic diseases. Technology-based screening measure is a promising avenue for increasing the accessibility of cognitive screening. Future work should focus on translating available screening measures to mobile technology format to enhance the utility in busy primary care settings. Early cognitive screening in persons with chronic disease should enhance appropriate referrals for detailed neurocognitive examination and cognitive interventions to preserve and or minimize cognitive decline. PMID:25794511

  19. Breast cancer screening; cost-effective in practice?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The main aim of national breast screening is a reduction in breast cancer mortality. The data on the reduction in breast cancer mortality from three (of the five) Swedish trials in particular gave rise to the expectation that the Dutch programme of 2-yearly screening for women aged 50-70 would produce a 16% reduction in the total population. In all likelihood, many of the years of life gained as a result of screening are enjoyed in good health. According to its critics the actual benefit that can be achieved from the national breast cancer screening programmes is overstated. Considerable benefits have recently been demonstrated in England and Wales. However, the fall was so considerable in such a relatively short space of time that screening (started in 1987) was thought to only have played a small part. As far as the Dutch screening programme is concerned it is still too early to reach any conclusions about a possible reduction in mortality. The first short-term results of the screening are favourable and as good as (or better than) expectations. In Swedish regions where mammographic screening was introduced, a 19% reduction in breast cancer mortality can be estimated at population level, and recently a 20% reduction was presented in the UK. In countries where women are expected to make appointments for screening themselves, the attendance figures are significantly lower and the quality of the process as a whole is sometimes poorer. The benefits of breast cancer screening need to be carefully balanced against the burden to women and to the health care system. Mass breast screening requires many resources and will be a costly service. Cost-effectiveness of a breast cancer screening programme can be estimated using a computer model. Published cost-effectiveness ratios may differ tremendously, but are often the result of different types of calculation, time periods considered, including or excluding downstream cost. The approach of simulation and estimation is here

  20. Implications of Overdiagnosis: Impact on Screening Mammography Practices

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morris, Elizabeth; Feig, Stephen A.; Drexler, Madeline

    2015-01-01

    Abstract This review article explores the issue of overdiagnosis in screening mammography. Overdiagnosis is the screen detection of a breast cancer, histologically confirmed, that might not otherwise become clinically apparent during the lifetime of the patient. While screening mammography is an imperfect tool, it remains the best tool we have to diagnose breast cancer early, before a patient is symptomatic and at a time when chances of survival and options for treatment are most favorable. In 2015, an estimated 231,840 new cases of breast cancer (excluding ductal carcinoma in situ) will be diagnosed in the United States, and some 40,290 women will die. Despite these data, screening mammography for women ages 40–69 has contributed to a substantial reduction in breast cancer mortality, and organized screening programs have led to a shift from late-stage diagnosis to early-stage detection. Current estimates of overdiagnosis in screening mammography vary widely, from 0% to upwards of 30% of diagnosed cancers. This range reflects the fact that measuring overdiagnosis is not a straightforward calculation, but usually one based on different sets of assumptions and often biased by methodological flaws. The recent development of tomosynthesis, which creates high-resolution, three-dimensional images, has increased breast cancer detection while reducing false recalls. Because the greatest harm of overdiagnosis is overtreatment, the key goal should not be less diagnosis but better treatment decision tools. (Population Health Management 2015;18:S3–S11) PMID:26414384

  1. Knowledge, attitudes and practices toward breast cancer screening in a rural South African community

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dorah U. Ramathuba

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Objectives: The study assessed the knowledge, attitudes and breast cancer screening practices amongst women aged 30–65 years residing in a rural South African community.Method: A quantitative, descriptive cross-sectional design was used and a systematic sampling technique was employed to select 150 participants. The questionnaire was pretested for validity and consistency. Ethical considerations were adhered to in protecting the rights of participants. Thereafter, data were collected and analysed descriptively using the Predictive Analytics Software program.Results: Findings revealed that the level of knowledge about breast cancer of women in Makwarani Community was relatively low. The attitude toward breast cancer was negative whereas the majority of women had never performed breast cancer diagnostic methods.Conclusion: Health education on breast cancer screening practices is lacking and the knowledge deficit can contribute negatively to early detection of breast cancer and compound late detection. Based on the findings, community-based intervention was recommended in order to bridge the knowledge gap

  2. Environmental noise and infrasound assessment : best practices

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sound levels near wind turbine generators were characterized in this study, which encompassed sound production and propagation. A review of sound level assessment criteria for wind turbines was included. A best practice guide emphasized the importance of good public relations and community involvement. Best practices also take into consideration planning and approval requirements. It was recommended that proponents of wind projects should communicate honestly with the public and dispel rumours; avoid arbitrary setback distances and assess these on a project by project basis; provide a technical assessment based on solid engineering practices; base the evaluation on measured ambient sound levels; base the evaluation on accurate sound power levels from manufacturers; base the evaluation on an accepted acoustic propagation model; and, choose proper criteria for urban or rural settings. figs

  3. Knowledge, attitudes and practices on cervical cancer screening among the medical workers of Mulago Hospital, Uganda

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Weiderpass Elisabete

    2006-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Cervical cancer is the commonest cancer of women in Uganda. Over 80% of women diagnosed in Mulago national referral and teaching hospital, the biggest hospital in Uganda, have advanced disease. Pap smear screening, on opportunistic rather than systematic basis, is offered free in the gynaecological outpatients clinic and the postnatal/family planning clinics. Medical students in the third and final clerkships are expected to learn the techniques of screening. Objectives of this study were to describe knowledge on cervical cancer, attitudes and practices towards cervical cancer screening among the medical workers of Mulago hospital. Methods In a descriptive cross-sectional study, a weighted sample of 310 medical workers including nurses, doctors and final year medical students were interviewed using a self-administered questionnaire. We measured knowledge about cervical cancer: (risk factors, eligibility for screening and screening techniques, attitudes towards cervical cancer screening and practices regarding screening. Results Response rate was 92% (285. Of these, 93% considered cancer of the cervix a public health problem and knowledge about Pap smear was 83% among respondents. Less than 40% knew risk factors for cervical cancer, eligibility for and screening interval. Of the female respondents, 65% didn't feel susceptible to cervical cancer and 81% had never been screened. Of the male respondents, only 26% had partners who had ever been screened. Only 14% of the final year medical students felt skilled enough to use a vaginal speculum and 87% had never performed a pap smear. Conclusion Despite knowledge of the gravity of cervical cancer and prevention by screening using a Pap smear, attitudes and practices towards screening were negative. The medical workers who should be responsible for opportunistic screening of women they care for are not keen on getting screened themselves. There is need to explain/understand the cause

  4. Practice and regulations of radiological chest screening in Denmark

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mass chest screening by means of photofluorography was initiated in Denmark in the first years after World War II. The number of persons examined yearly increased continually to a maximum of 900.000 (a fourth of the whole population) in 1972. At this time efforts were made to reduce mass chest screening to small specific risk groups in the population, resulting in a gradual reduction until 1983 when mass chest screening was totally abolished. The technical provisions for photofluorographic X-ray equipment and for X-ray rooms as well as the provisions for the inspection of the installations are stated. Finally results of surveys regarding exposure measurements on photofluorografic equipment are shown and a maximum permissible level of the exposure measured at the entrance plane of the equipment is recommended. (author)

  5. 76 FR 49473 - Petition to Maximize Practical Utility of List 1 Chemicals Screened Through EPA's Endocrine...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-08-10

    ... AGENCY Petition to Maximize Practical Utility of List 1 Chemicals Screened Through EPA's Endocrine... decisions on data received in response to the test orders issued under the Endocrine Disruptor Screening... may otherwise be involved in the testing of chemical substances for potential endocrine...

  6. Spouse/Partner Violence Education as a Predictor of Screening Practices among Physicians.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sitterding, Heather A.; Adera, Tilahun; Shields-Fobbs, Erima

    2003-01-01

    A survey of 321 family physicians and 170 obstetricians/gynecologists identified their screening practices and where they acquired spouse/partner violence education (medical school, residency, continuing education, other). All who had violence education were more likely to screen every patient. Lectures during residency were significant predictors…

  7. Cancer screening in a middle-aged general population: factors associated with practices and attitudes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Perneger Thomas V

    2009-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The aim of this study was to identify factors associated with cancer screening practices and with general attitudes toward cancer screening in a general population. Methods Mailed survey of 30–60 year old residents of Geneva, Switzerland, that included questions about screening for five cancers (breast, cervix uteri, prostate, colon, skin in the past 3 years, attitudes toward screening, health care use, preventive behaviours and socio-demographic characteristics. Cancer screening practice was dichotomised as having done at least one screening test in the past 3 years versus none. Results The survey response rate was 49.3% (2301/4670. More women than men had had at least one cancer screening test in the past 3 years (83.2% vs 34.5%, p Conclusion Attitudes play an important role in cancer screening practices among middle-aged adults in the general population, independent of demographic variables (age and sex that determine in part screening recommendations. Negative attitudes were the most frequent among men and the most socio-economically disadvantaged. The moderate participation rate raises the possibility of selection bias.

  8. Binding-site assessment by virtual fragment screening.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Niu Huang

    Full Text Available The accurate prediction of protein druggability (propensity to bind high-affinity drug-like small molecules would greatly benefit the fields of chemical genomics and drug discovery. We have developed a novel approach to quantitatively assess protein druggability by computationally screening a fragment-like compound library. In analogy to NMR-based fragment screening, we dock approximately 11,000 fragments against a given binding site and compute a computational hit rate based on the fraction of molecules that exceed an empirically chosen score cutoff. We perform a large-scale evaluation of the approach on four datasets, totaling 152 binding sites. We demonstrate that computed hit rates correlate with hit rates measured experimentally in a previously published NMR-based screening method. Secondly, we show that the in silico fragment screening method can be used to distinguish known druggable and non-druggable targets, including both enzymes and protein-protein interaction sites. Finally, we explore the sensitivity of the results to different receptor conformations, including flexible protein-protein interaction sites. Besides its original aim to assess druggability of different protein targets, this method could be used to identifying druggable conformations of flexible binding site for lead discovery, and suggesting strategies for growing or joining initial fragment hits to obtain more potent inhibitors.

  9. COMPETENCE ASSESSMENT: BEST PRACTICES IN EUROPEAN COUNTRIES

    OpenAIRE

    VELCIU Magdalena; Liliana GRECU; Lungu, Eliza-Olivia

    2014-01-01

    In the current changing environment of work, the process of competence assessment is increasingly relevant as workers gain knowledge and practical skills through fulfilling different and new working tasks and through self-education. In this context, innovative tools for competence assessment and validation are very useful for encouraging movement of individuals between jobs and from unemployment or inactivity to employment and for increasing the capacity of companies to respond and adapt to c...

  10. Regulations and practices for systematic radiological screening within countries of the European community

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The presentation of the situation concerning the various types of mass radiological screening within the countries of the European community is a brief description of the following: - the status of public regulations, - recommendations issued by medical authorities in various countries, - the actual practices of the medical profession, whether governed or not by the aforementioned regulations and official recommendations. Regulations, recommendations and/or systematic mass radiological screening practices concern mainly three diseases: - tuberculosis, - cancer of the breast, - congenital dislocation of the hip

  11. Addressing the challenge of assessing physician-level screening performance: mammography as an example.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elizabeth S Burnside

    Full Text Available Motivated by the challenges in assessing physician-level cancer screening performance and the negative impact of misclassification, we propose a method (using mammography as an example that enables confident assertion of adequate or inadequate performance or alternatively recognizes when more data is required.Using established metrics for mammography screening performance-cancer detection rate (CDR and recall rate (RR-and observed benchmarks from the Breast Cancer Surveillance Consortium (BCSC, we calculate the minimum volume required to be 95% confident that a physician is performing at or above benchmark thresholds. We graphically display the minimum observed CDR and RR values required to confidently assert adequate performance over a range of interpretive volumes. We use a prospectively collected database of consecutive mammograms from a clinical screening program outside the BCSC to illustrate how this method classifies individual physician performance as volume accrues.Our analysis reveals that an annual interpretive volume of 2770 screening mammograms, above the United States' (US mandatory (480 and average (1777 annual volumes but below England's mandatory (5000 annual volume is necessary to confidently assert that a physician performed adequately. In our analyzed US practice, a single year of data uniformly allowed confident assertion of adequate performance in terms of RR but not CDR, which required aggregation of data across more than one year.For individual physician quality assessment in cancer screening programs that target low incidence populations, considering imprecision in observed performance metrics due to small numbers of patients with cancer is important.

  12. Newborn Hearing Screening: An Analysis of Current Practices

    Science.gov (United States)

    Houston, K. Todd; Bradham, Tamala S.; Munoz, Karen F.; Guignard, Gayla Hutsell

    2011-01-01

    State coordinators of early hearing detection and intervention (EHDI) programs completed a strengths, weaknesses, opportunities, and threats, or SWOT, analysis that consisted of 12 evaluative areas of EHDI programs. For the newborn hearing screening area, a total of 293 items were listed by 49 EHDI coordinators, and themes were identified within…

  13. The CanPain SCI Clinical Practice Guidelines for Rehabilitation Management of Neuropathic Pain after Spinal Cord: screening and diagnosis recommendations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mehta, S; Guy, S D; Bryce, T N;

    2016-01-01

    in Canada. METHODS: The CanPainSCI Working Group reviewed evidence to address clinical questions regarding screening and diagnosis of neuropathic pain after SCI. A consensus process was followed to achieve agreement on recommendations and clinical considerations. RESULTS: Twelve recommendations......, based on expert consensus, were developed for the screening and diagnosis of neuropathic pain after SCI. The recommendations address methods for assessment, documentation tools, team member accountability, frequency of screening and considerations for diagnostic investigation. Important clinical...... considerations accompany each recommendation. CONCLUSIONS: The expert Working Group developed recommendations for the screening and diagnosis of neuropathic pain after SCI that should be used to inform practice....

  14. Screening Level Risk Assessment for the New Waste Calcining Facility

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    M. L. Abbott; K. N. Keck; R. E. Schindler; R. L. VanHorn; N. L. Hampton; M. B. Heiser

    1999-05-01

    This screening level risk assessment evaluates potential adverse human health and ecological impacts resulting from continued operations of the calciner at the New Waste Calcining Facility (NWCF) at the Idaho Nuclear Technology and Engineering Center (INTEC), Idaho National Engineering and Environmental Laboratory (INEEL). The assessment was conducted in accordance with the Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) report, Guidance for Performing Screening Level Risk Analyses at Combustion Facilities Burning Hazardous Waste. This screening guidance is intended to give a conservative estimate of the potential risks to determine whether a more refined assessment is warranted. The NWCF uses a fluidized-bed combustor to solidify (calcine) liquid radioactive mixed waste from the INTEC Tank Farm facility. Calciner off volatilized metal species, trace organic compounds, and low-levels of radionuclides. Conservative stack emission rates were calculated based on maximum waste solution feed samples, conservative assumptions for off gas partitioning of metals and organics, stack gas sampling for mercury, and conservative measurements of contaminant removal (decontamination factors) in the off gas treatment system. Stack emissions were modeled using the ISC3 air dispersion model to predict maximum particulate and vapor air concentrations and ground deposition rates. Results demonstrate that NWCF emissions calculated from best-available process knowledge would result in maximum onsite and offsite health and ecological impacts that are less then EPA-established criteria for operation of a combustion facility.

  15. Practical considerations in voltage stability assessment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kundur, P.; Gao, B. [Powertech Labs. Inc., Surrey, BC (Canada)

    1994-12-31

    This paper deals with some of the most important practical issues related to voltage stability assessment of large practical systems. A brief discussion of the practical aspects of voltage stability problem and prevention of voltage instability is given first, followed by descriptions of different analytical techniques and tools for voltage stability analysis. Presentations of analytical tools is focused on the VSTAB program which incorporates the modal analysis, continuation power flow, and shortest distance to instability techniques, Finally, an example case study of a practical large system is presented. The case study illustrates how modal analysis is used to determine the most effective load shedding scheme for preventing voltage instability. (author) 15 refs., 2 figs., 2 tabs.

  16. Screening for Peripheral Artery Disease and Cardiovascular Disease Risk Assessment with Ankle Brachial Index in Adults

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Force Recommendations Screening for Peripheral Artery Disease and Cardiovascular Disease Risk Assessment with Ankle Brachial Index in Adults The ... Recommendation | 1 Screening for Peripheral Artery Disease and Cardiovascular Disease Risk Assessment with Ankle Brachial Index in Adults Potential ...

  17. Health Care Workers' Beliefs and Practices Around Pap Screening for Adolescents Seeking Contraception.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gabzdyl, Elizabeth; Engstrom, Janet L; McFarlin, Barbara L

    2015-01-01

    Adolescents often avoid seeing a health care provider to obtain contraception because they do not want to undergo a pelvic exam and Pap screening for fear of stress, pain or embarrassment. The purpose of this quality improvement project was to study health care workers, attitudes and beliefs about Pap screening and to educate them on the latest evidence-based guidelines, with the hope of ultimately decreasing unnecessary screening. Results showed a modest reduction in the frequency of Pap screening; however, many adolescents continued to undergo unnecessary Pap screening. The reluctance of health care workers to change their practice demonstrates the need for better methods of translating evidence-based guidelines into practice. PMID:26058904

  18. Practical Education through Risk Assessment Case Studies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tokai, Akihiro

    Although, the staff for assessing environmental risk of chemicals is required in individual units of industrial sectors, there are very few systemic academic curriculums on risk assessment of chemicals in Japanese institutions of higher education. In order to meet such a social needs, Osaka University opened a limited-period program of environmental risk management for both students and working people in 2005. The author describes the contribution of his experience in offering a course on environmental risk assessment of chemicals as a part of the program. The course afforded students a kind of practical training for risk assessment. This paper also involves what to do for strengthening the education activity of risk assessment.

  19. Associations between rule-based parenting practices and child screen viewing: A cross-sectional study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kesten, Joanna M.; Sebire, Simon J.; Turner, Katrina M.; Stewart-Brown, Sarah; Bentley, Georgina; Jago, Russell

    2015-01-01

    Background Child screen viewing (SV) is positively associated with poor health indicators. Interventions addressing rule-based parenting practices may offer an effective means of limiting SV. This study examined associations between rule-based parenting practices (limit and collaborative rule setting) and SV in 6–8-year old children. Methods An online survey of 735 mothers in 2011 assessed: time that children spent engaged in SV activities; and the use of limit and collaborative rule setting. Logistic regression was used to examine the extent to which limit and collaborative rule setting were associated with SV behaviours. Results ‘Always’ setting limits was associated with more TV viewing, computer, smartphone and game-console use and a positive association was found between ‘always’ setting limits for game-console use and multi-SV (in girls). Associations were stronger in mothers of girls compared to mothers of boys. ‘Sometimes’ setting limits was associated with more TV viewing. There was no association between ‘sometimes’ setting limits and computer, game-console or smartphone use. There was a negative association between collaborative rule setting and game-console use in boys. Conclusions Limit setting is associated with greater SV. Collaborative rule setting may be effective for managing boys' game-console use. More research is needed to understand rule-based parenting practices. PMID:26844054

  20. Compensatory mitigation and screening rules in environmental impact assessment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Concerns about the effectiveness of environmental impact assessment (EIA) have prompted proposals to improve its performance by limiting the discretion of decision-makers in screening. To investigate whether such proposals are likely to generate the desired results, we conducted an evaluation of the screening process under the Australian government's EIA regime from its introduction on 16 July 2000 to 30 June 2013 (study period). Almost 1 in 5 ‘particular manner’ decisions—a type of screening decision under the regime—were found to be unlawful. The extent of non-compliance is explained on the basis of convenience. The department was required to assess a large number of projects under tight timeframes and with limited resources, while being pressured by proponents to allow their projects to bypass EIA. These pressures resulted in the development of an informal custom whereby the formal compensatory mitigation restrictions were frequently ignored. The results highlight the relative significance of formal and informal institutions in EIA. Formal EIA rules typically provide a mere outline of the process. The informal institutions adopted by administrators often have a greater influence on how the process operates and what it achieves. - Highlights: • Concerns about the effectiveness of environmental impact assessment (EIA) have prompted proposals to improve its performance by limiting the discretion of decision-makers in screening. • To investigate whether such proposals are likely to generate the desired results, we conducted an evaluation of the Australian government's screening process, looking at the extent of compliance with a formal prohibition on the consideration of compensatory mitigation. • Almost 1 in 5 ‘particular manner’ decisions – a type of screening decision under the regime – were found to be unlawful (with a 95% confidence interval of between 1:4 and 1:7) because of a failure to abide by the compensatory mitigation

  1. The relationship between real life breast screening and an annual self assessment scheme

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scott, Hazel J.; Evans, Andrew; Gale, Alastair G.; Murphy, Alison; Reed, Jacquie

    2009-02-01

    Incidence of cancer in the UK NHS Breast Screening Programme (NHSBSP) is relatively low (approximately 7% per 1,000 cases screened). As such, feedback from cancers missed or interval cancers can be a relatively lengthy process (whereby a woman will not present for corroborating imaging for a further three years). Therefore in order to monitor their radiological skill, all breast screening radiologists and technologists read a self-assessed, standard set of challenging mammographic images bi-yearly. This scheme, 'PERFORMS' (Personal Performance in Mammographic Screening) has been running since near the inception of the NHSBSP in 1991. Although PERFORMS has functioned as an educational tool for film-readers on the UKBSP for decades, its relation to real life screening in past years has proven to be somewhat equivocal (Cowley & Gale, 1999). The present study investigated the relationship between performance measures in real life and their equivalent on the PERFORMS self assessment scheme namely: Miss Rate (FN), Cases Arbitrated and Returned to Routine screening and Incorrect recall (FP), Specificity (TN) and Cancer Detection (TP). Over 40 individuals from one NHS region in the UK submitted their real life data for comparison with PERFORMS results from the same time frame. Data from this initial study were taken from the year 2005-2006 and compared with the relevant PERFORMS set of cases. Results indicated a significant positive correlation between PERFORMS performance measures and performance measures for real life. These results are discussed in the light of the legitimacy of self-assessment comparative to film-reading skill (during real life clinical practice).

  2. Improving asthma severity and control screening in a primary care pediatric practice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sudhanthar, Sathyanarayan; Thakur, Kripa; Sigal, Yakov; Turner, Jane; Gold, Jonathan

    2016-01-01

    Asthma is the most commonly encountered chronic disease in children. Periodic assessment of asthma severity and control is an integral part of asthma management, but patients with uncontrolled asthma don't always schedule routine asthma care visits. The aim of this project was to improve asthma control and severity screening in a primary care setting by using a validated tool for all visits for patients with a diagnosis of asthma aged 4-21 years. Our QI team developed a protocol to administer the Asthma Control Test (TM), a validated questionnaire to assess asthma control. The stakeholders involved were the physicians, nursing staff, and the Health Information Team (HIT). All patients who had a prior diagnosis of asthma or with an asthma medication in their chart, who presented for any clinical visit including asthma were administered ACT. The staff scored the ACT and included the form in the encounter sheet so that the physicians can review the scores, address the asthma control, severity, and document in the chart. The number of patients whose asthma control was assessed improved from 10% per year to 85% after the three PDSA cycles. Administration of the tool did not impact the flow of the patients in a busy primary care practice. Screening asthma severity and control for patients diagnosed with asthma with a validated questionnaire when presenting for any chief complaint including asthma will help the provider address the severity and control of asthma symptoms in a timely manner and would potentially help prevent unwanted emergency department or urgent care usage. PMID:27408718

  3. Parents' of Deaf Children Evaluative Accounts of the Process and Practice of Universal Newborn Hearing Screening

    Science.gov (United States)

    Young, Alys; Tattersall, Helen

    2005-01-01

    This article presents results from a narrative interview study of 45 parents/caregivers whose infants were correctly identified as deaf through Phase 1 of the Newborn Hearing Screening Programme in England. It concerns the period from the first screening event to the point of referral for audiological assessment. It focuses on the meanings parents…

  4. Current directions in screening-level ecological risk assessments

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Carlsen, T M; Efroymson, R A

    2000-12-11

    Ecological risk assessment (ERA) is a tool used by many regulatory agencies to evaluate the impact to ecological receptors from changes in environmental conditions. Widespread use of ERAs began with the United States Environmental Protection Agency's Superfund program to assess the ecological impact from hazardous chemicals released to the environment. Many state hazardous chemical regulatory agencies have adopted the use of ERAs, and several state regulatory agencies are evaluating the use of ERAs to assess ecological impacts from releases of petroleum and gas-related products. Typical ERAs are toxicologically-based, use conservative assumptions with respect to ecological receptor exposure duration and frequency, often require complex modeling of transport and exposure and are very labor intensive. In an effort to streamline the ERA process, efforts are currently underway to develop default soil screening levels, to identify ecological screening criteria for excluding sites from formal risk assessment, and to create risk-based corrective action worksheets. This should help reduce the time spent on ERAs, at least for some sites. Work is also underway to incorporate bioavailability and spatial considerations into ERAs. By evaluating the spatial nature of contaminant releases with respect to the spatial context of the ecosystem under consideration, more realistic ERAs with respect to the actual impact to ecological receptors at the population, community or ecosystem scale should be possible. In addition, by considering the spatial context, it should be possible to develop mitigation and monitoring efforts to more appropriately address such sites within the context of an ecological framework.

  5. Assessing the Suitability of Various Physiological Traits to Screen Wheat Genotypes for Salt Tolerance

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Salah E. El-Hendawy; Yuncai Hu; Urs Schmidhalter

    2007-01-01

    Success of improving the salt tolerance of genotypes requires effective and reliable screening traits in breeding programs.The objective was to assess the suitability of various physiological traits to screen wheat genotypes for salt tolerance.Thirteen wheat genotypes from Egypt, Germany, Australia and India were grown in soil with two salinity levels (control and 150 mmol/L NaCl) in a greenhouse. The physiological traits (ion contents in leaves and stems, i.e. Na+, Cl-, K+, Ca2+), the ratios of K+/Na+ and Ca+/Na+ in the leaves and stems, net photosynthesis rate, stomatal conductance, transpiration rate,chlorophyll content (SPAD value), and leaf water relations, were measured at different growth stages. The physiological traits except for Na+ and Cl- in stems and the leaf transpiration rate at 150 mmol/L NaCl showed a significant genotypic variation, indicating that the traits that have a significant genotypic variation may be possibly used as screening criteria.According to the analysis of linear regression of the scores of the physiological traits against those of grain yield, however,the physiological traits of Ca2+ and Ca2+/Na+ at 45 d and final harvest with the greatest genotypic variation were ranked at the top. From a practical and economic point of view, SPAD value should be considered to be used as screening criteria and/or there is a need to develop a quick and practical approach to determine Ca2+ in plant tissues.

  6. Best practices: implementation of a glucose screening program based on diffusion of innovation theory methods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nicol, Ginger E; Morrato, Elaine H; Johnson, Mark C; Campagna, Elizabeth; Yingling, Michael D; Pham, Victor; Newcomer, John W

    2011-01-01

    There is public health interest in the identification and treatment of modifiable cardiometabolic risk factors among patients treated with antipsychotic medications. However, best-practice screening recommendations endorsed by multiple medical organizations have not translated into real-world clinical practice. Quality improvement strategies may help to address the gap between policy and implementation. This column describes the successful implementation of a best-practice glucose screening program in a large network of community mental health centers that was based on Six Sigma and diffusion of innovation theory. PMID:21209293

  7. Quality assessment in prospective nuchal translucency screening for Down syndrome

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wøjdemann, K R; Christiansen, M; Sundberg, K;

    2001-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: To develop and apply a quality control system in a Down syndrome screening study using nuchal translucency as an interventional marker. METHODS: In a prospective Down syndrome screening study fetal nuchal translucency thickness was measured in 9236 of the 10 045 examined pregnancies....... For quality assessment two models were introduced: firstly, image-scoring evaluation of the nuchal translucency thickness measurements and secondly, establishment of the distributions of nuchal translucency multiples of the median over time and the influence of intervention. RESULTS: The observer...... variability in the image-scoring evaluation was high with a kappa value of 0.48 in the overall validation. A revised model showed better interobserver agreement with a kappa value of 0.58; however, comparing the individual criteria the differences were still unsatisfactory, i.e. we found highly significant...

  8. Assessment and pedagogical practices of teachers.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juan Quevedo Toro

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available The evaluation should become a dynamic process of school life in any educational institution with the primary purpose to understand and assess their practical and academic, social and pedagogical relations, educational discourse, actions and decisions conducive to transform reality and praxis pedagogical. In this sense, the Pedagogical Project Bread teacher training has allowed reconceptualize and evaluative and educational recontextualise light of qualitative practices, integrated, personal and social, exceeding the quantitative conception, before qualifying and only rote knowledge . The project constitutes the optimal space for future teachers articulate evaluative theory and practice related to pedagogy and his knowledge of this discipline. He then conceives of evaluation as the opportunity to learn to understand and understanding to transform our educational and institutional realities.

  9. Optical imaging: a newer screening tool in oncological practice

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Full text: The decrease in the incidence and the mortality of cancer has ushered in a palpable excitement in the oncology community. The recent and significant advances in the care of cancer patients is consequent to the developments in the fields of imaging, molecular diagnostics and n'folecularly targeted therapies. Targeted and Activable Optical imaging is a rapidly expanding discipline of molecular imaging designed to detect very small clusters of cancer cells at its earliest stage. This modality has higher sensitivity and is destined to open new vistas in cancer screening and intra-operative guidance of resection of very small volume disease. Use of contrast is optional. Optical imaging can differentiate tumors from healthy tissue on the principle based on absorption of hemoglobin, found in higher abundance in vascular tumors. The only shortcoming being its non-use for whole body scanning and use in only areas accessible to direct imaging. The optical probes are innovative marvels for being activable and targetable have greater sensitivity and portability. They find their use in topical and intravenous use for screening of colon, bladder and tumors of tracheo-bronchial tree

  10. Reliability of a Simple Physical Therapist Screening Tool to Assess Errors during Resistance Exercises for Musculoskeletal Pain

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Kenneth Jay; Sundstrup, E.; Andersen, L. L.

    2014-01-01

    The main objective was to investigate the intra- and intertester reliability of a simple screening tool assessing errors in exercise execution by visual observation. 38 participants with no previous resistance exercise experience practiced for two weeks four typical upper limb exercises using ela...

  11. Assessment of beryllium Faraday screens of the JET ICRF antennas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The JET ICRF antennas, equipped with beryllium (Be) Faraday screens (FS), can be operated in such a way that the RF specific effects on the plasma boundary, by the impurity influx originating at the screens, are reduced to a negligible level. In dipole phasing, k parallel = 7 m-1, the influx is for all purposes negligible. In monopole phasing (kparallel = 0 m-1) the beryllium influx does not exceed ΦFSBe = 1 x 1019 atoms·MW-1·s-1 and the corresponding δZeff/PRF is -1. The observed dependences of ΦFSBe (in monopole phasing) on plasma density, antenna voltage, antenna phasing, and the angle between FS elements and the magnetic field in the boundary, B-vector(a) = B-vectorθ(a) + B-vectorT(a), confirm that the release mechanism is sputtering by ions accelerated in the RF enhanced Bohm-Debye sheaths forming at the front face of the FS. When the angle between FS and B-vector(a) is approx. 22 deg. C, the fraction of the RF power radiated by the antenna, dissipated at the screen, can reach 40%. At high antenna voltage, arcing across the FS can occur. With dipole phasing the heating efficiency is not degraded, even with the large angle, and all the power coupled by the antenna is absorbed at the resonance position near the plasma centre. The open screen design did not introduce any disadvantages. The experience from JET operation at powers of up to 22 MW shows that, if the necessary conditions are met, i.e. if RF rectification is minimized, antennas are phased as dipoles and material with low sputtering coefficients at energies of 0.5-1 keV is used, then the influx from the FS is, for all practical purposes, eliminated. (author). 19 refs, 6 figs

  12. Practical Assessment of Dysphagia in Stroke Patients

    OpenAIRE

    Lee, Kyoung Moo; Kim, Hyo Jong

    2015-01-01

    Objective To develop a quantitative and organ-specific practical test for the diagnosis and treatment of dysphagia based on assessment of stroke patients. Methods An initial test composed of 24 items was designed to evaluate the function of the organs involved in swallowing. The grading system of the initial test was based on the analysis of 50 normal adults. The initial test was performed in 52 stroke patients with clinical symptoms of dysphagia. Aspiration was measured via a videofluoroscop...

  13. Current practice in tailings ponds risk assessment

    OpenAIRE

    Pytel, Witold

    2010-01-01

    Current practice for risk assessment posed by surface tailings/waste storage facilities is presented. This involves current legislation and regulations applied in EU countries and over the world and the basics concerned with tailings impoundments design as well. It was proved that a current activity at the existing tailings impoundment structures is presently confined rather to field measurements, monitoring and surveillance understood as a basic source for a “real time risk assessment”.

  14. Organizing your practice for screening and secondary prevention among adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Knierim, Kyle E; Fernald, Douglas H; Staton, Elizabeth W; Nease, Donald E

    2014-06-01

    Prevention plays an important role in achieving the triple aim of decreasing per capita health care costs, improving the health of populations, and bettering the patient experience. Primary care is uniquely positioned to provide preventive services. External forces are aligning to support the transition of primary care from traditional models focused on disease-specific, acute episodes of care to new ways of organizing that are more patient centered, team based, and quality driven. By aligning leadership, building change capacity, and selectively choosing relevant processes to change, those practicing primary care can successfully organize their practice environment to deliver preventive services. PMID:24830604

  15. Assessment of Uncertainty-Based Screening Volumes for NASA Robotic LEO and GEO Conjunction Risk Assessment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Narvet, Steven W.; Frigm, Ryan C.; Hejduk, Matthew D.

    2011-01-01

    Conjunction Assessment operations require screening assets against the space object catalog by placing a pre-determined spatial volume around each asset and predicting when another object will violate that volume. The selection of the screening volume used for each spacecraft is a trade-off between observing all conjunction events that may pose a potential risk to the primary spacecraft and the ability to analyze those predicted events. If the screening volumes are larger, then more conjunctions can be observed and therefore the probability of a missed detection of a high risk conjunction event is small; however, the amount of data which needs to be analyzed increases. This paper characterizes the sensitivity of screening volume size to capturing typical orbit uncertainties and the expected number of conjunction events observed. These sensitivities are quantified in the form of a trade space that allows for selection of appropriate screen-ing volumes to fit the desired concept of operations, system limitations, and tolerable analyst workloads. This analysis will specifically highlight the screening volume determination and selection process for use in the NASA Conjunction Assessment Risk Analysis process but will also provide a general framework for other Owner / Operators faced with similar decisions.

  16. Risk assessment in Finland: theory and practice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anttonen, Hannu; Pääkkönen, Rauno

    2010-09-01

    The Finnish risk assessment practice is based on the Occupational Safety and Health (OSH) Act aiming to improve working conditions in order maintain the employees' work ability, and to prevent occupational accidents and diseases. In practice there are hundreds of risk assessment methods in use. A simple method is used in small and medium sized enterprises and more complex risk evaluation methods in larger work places. Does the risk management function in the work places in Finland? According to our experience something more is needed. That is, understanding of common and company related benefits of risk management. The wider conclusion is that commitment for risk assessment in Finland is high enough. However, in those enterprises where OSH management was at an acceptable level or above it, there were also more varied and more successfully accomplished actions to remove or reduce the risks than in enterprises, where OSH management was in lower level. In risk assessment it is important to process active technical prevention and exact communication, increase work place attraction and increase job satisfaction and motivation. Investments in OSH are also good business. Low absenteeism due to illness or accidents increases directly the production results by improved quality and quantity of the product. In general Finnish studies have consistently shown that the return of an invested euro is three to seven-old. In national level, according to our calculations the savings could be even 20% of our gross national product. PMID:22953157

  17. COMPETENCE ASSESSMENT: BEST PRACTICES IN EUROPEAN COUNTRIES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Magdalena VELCIU

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available In the current changing environment of work, the process of competence assessment is increasingly relevant as workers gain knowledge and practical skills through fulfilling different and new working tasks and through self-education. In this context, innovative tools for competence assessment and validation are very useful for encouraging movement of individuals between jobs and from unemployment or inactivity to employment and for increasing the capacity of companies to respond and adapt to changing and challenging environments. This article presents an overview of best practices for competence assessment and validation in order to identify and select methods that have been effective in various European countries including Romania. The article concludes with a set of „learned lessons” and short recommendations in order to improve the framework of competence assessment in Romanian context. Our findings are useful for the new human resources management that aims toward efficiently usage of the workforce, inside companies and in a global labour market, encouraging flexibility and adaptability.

  18. BREAST CANCER SCREENING KNOWLEDGE AND PRACTICE AMONG WOMEN IN SOUTHEAST OF IRAN

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Z Heidari

    2008-08-01

    Full Text Available "nBreast cancer is the most common cancer occurring among women. The mortality rate of breast cancer can be reduced by regular breast cancer screening program. This study was carried out to identify the knowledge and practice of women about breast cancer screening in Zahedan, southeast of Iran. In this cross- sectional study, 384 women were selected as an improbability sample of women referring to Qouds maternity hospital. Knowledge and practice of them about breast cancer screening were investigated through face-to-face interview based on a purposed questionnaire, and data were analyzed using descriptive and analytical statistics. Only 8.3% of women were aware of breast cancer screening methods. About breast self-examination 21.6%, and about mammography 3.4% had good knowledge. Overall knowledge of breast cancer screening was insufficient in 67.4%. There was statistically significant relationship between knowledge of breast cancer screening and level of education, history of individual breast disease, and history of breast cancer in their families (P < 0.001. There was statistically significant and inverse relationship between knowledge of how to examine the breasts and knowledge about mammography with age (P < 0.001. Practices of women in Zahedan about Breast cancer screening were very low. Only 4.5% of women performed breast self examination (BSE, on a regular basis, 4.1% had ever had a clinical breast examination (CBE, and %1.3 had a mammography throughout their life. Our findings suggest that knowledge and practice about breast cancer screening was relatively in a weak level and it needs to be improved.

  19. Screening older patients for obstructive airways disease in a semi-rural practice

    OpenAIRE

    Dickinson, J.; Meaker, M; Searle, M.; Ratcliffe, G

    1999-01-01

    BACKGROUND—Obstructive airways disease in older patients is reported to be not only common, but frequently overlooked and untreated by general practitioners. This study examines the value of screening elderly patients in a large semi-rural general practice for potentially treatable asthma and chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD).
METHODS—A random sample of 353 patients aged 60-75 years attended a nurse run screening clinic for pulmonary function testing, serial pe...

  20. Practical determination of sensitometric properties of medical film-screen combinations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The aim of the study is to to compare different sensitometric techniques for medical film-screen systems and to chose the optimal one for practical use in a clinical environment and to compare the sensitometric properties of different film-screen combinations practically used for chest radiography. The measurement have been performed using TUR D800-3 radiographic installation with twelve-pulse generator and DRX 124/30/60 oDw tube. The following screens and cassettes have been investigated: VARIMEX (Poland) with PERLUX screens (Germany); DuPomt cassette with QFD screens; Kodak X-Omatic LW cassette with Lanex Regular screens. They have been combined with 4 types of films: Sterling Cronex4 (blue); Agfa CP-BU New (blue); Agfa CP-G Plus (ortho) and Kodak TMG-RA (ortho). All cassettes have been examined for light tightness and screen-film contact and all film types have been checked for the compatibility with the safe lights in the darkroom. To simulate a patient for a chest radiography standard LucAl chest phantom has been designed. The measurements show that: 1) Sensitivity of Kodak cassette with green emitting rare-earth Kodak Lanex Regular screens combined with ortho Kodak film is highest; 2) From two emitting screens - PERLUX and QFD. both combined with blue sensitive films, QFD is 3.6 times more sensitive. 3) Films Agfa CP-BU New and Cronex 4 are of the same sensitivity class but the first has higher contrast. 4) The use of ortho-chromatic films in combination with PERLUX or QGD blue emitting screens results in a considerable loss of sensitivity

  1. Screening and brief intervention targeting risky drinkers in Danish general practice - a pragmatic controlled trial

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Beich, A.; Gannik, D.; Saelan, H.;

    2007-01-01

    AIMS: Recommendations for routine alcohol screening and brief counselling intervention in primary health care rest on results from intervention efficacy studies. By conducting a pragmatic controlled trial (PCT), we aimed at evaluating the effectiveness of the WHO recommendations for screening and...... brief intervention (SBI) in general practice. METHODS: A randomized PCT (brief counselling intervention vs no intervention) involving 39 Danish general practitioners (GPs). Systematic screening of 6897 adults led to inclusion of 906 risky drinkers, and research follow-up on 537 of these after 12...

  2. Knowledge, attitudes and practice of breast cancer screening among female health workers in a Nigerian urban city

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Omuemu Vivian O

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Late presentation has been observed as the hallmark of breast cancer in Nigerian women and an earlier onset has been reported in this population. This study was designed to assess the awareness of female health workers about risk factors and screening methods for early detection of breast cancer. Methods A cross-sectional descriptive study was carried out among female health workers in the two major government health institutions in Benin City, Edo State capital in Nigeria. Data analysis was by SPSS version 10 and test of significance was done with differences considered significant at p Results Three hundred and ninety-three (393 female health workers out of five hundred and five eligible subjects completed and returned the questionnaires, giving a response rate of 77.8%. One hundred and two (26% were Doctors, two hundred and fifty-four (64.6% Nurses, and thirty-seven (9.4% were Radiographers, Laboratory Scientists and Pharmacists. A high proportion of our respondents had very poor knowledge about risk factors for breast cancer (55%. The awareness of mammography as a diagnostic method was very high (80.7%, but an extremely low knowledge of mammography as a screening method was found. Mammography practice of only 3.1% was found among those above 40 years of age who qualify for routine annual screening. Relatively low knowledge (45.5% about Breast Self Examination (BSE as a screening method was found. Conclusion These female health workers who are expected to act as role models and educate the public had poor knowledge of risk factors for breast cancer and practice of breast cancer screening. There is very urgent need for regular update courses for health workers concerning breast cancer education including screening methods.

  3. Hearing-screening record-keeping practices at primary healthcare clinics in Gauteng

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karin Joubert

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Objectives: As little is known about hearing screening practices at primary healthcare (PHC clinics in South Africa, the study aimed to describe hearing-screening and record-keeping practices of nurses during typical immunisation sessions at PHC clinics in Gauteng, South Africa.Methods: Data were obtained through observations (N2=80 and questionnaires (N1=20 which were then cross-checked with retrospective information collected from the Road-to-Health Charts and City of Johannesburg Child Health Services Blue Cards of children observed during typical immunisation sessions.Results: A key finding of this study was that PHC nurses who participated in this study do not adhere to the hearing-screening record-keeping practices as outlined by the national Department of Health.Conclusions: Poor record-keeping practices hinder the efficacy of hearing-screening programmes. Accurate record keeping is important in order to document outcomes which can be used to evaluate service delivery and the efficacy of hearing-screening programmes.

  4. Recruitment methods in Alzheimer's disease research: general practice versus population based screening by mail

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Halvorsen Dag S

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background In Alzheimer's disease (AD research patients are usually recruited from clinical practice, memory clinics or nursing homes. Lack of standardised inclusion and diagnostic criteria is a major concern in current AD studies. The aim of the study was to explore whether patient characteristics differ between study samples recruited from general practice and from a population based screening by mail within the same geographic areas in rural Northern Norway. Methods An interventional study in nine municipalities with 70000 inhabitants was designed. Patients were recruited from general practice or by population based screening of cognitive function by mail. We sent a questionnaire to 11807 individuals ≥ 65 years of age of whom 3767 responded. Among these, 438 individuals whose answers raised a suspicion of cognitive impairment were invited to an extended cognitive and clinical examination. Descriptive statistics, chi-square, independent sample t-test and analyses of covariance adjusted for possible confounders were used. Results The final study samples included 100 patients recruited by screening and 87 from general practice. Screening through mail recruited younger and more self-reliant male patients with a higher MMSE sum score, whereas older women with more severe cognitive impairment were recruited from general practice. Adjustment for age did not alter the statistically significant differences of cognitive function, self-reliance and gender distribution between patients recruited by screening and from general practice. Conclusions Different recruitment procedures of individuals with cognitive impairment provided study samples with different demographic characteristics. Initial cognitive screening by mail, preceding extended cognitive testing and clinical examination may be a suitable recruitment strategy in studies of early stage AD. Clinical Registration ClinicalTrial.gov Identifier: NCT00443014

  5. Rapid Assessment of Contrast Sensitivity with Mobile Touch-screens

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mulligan, Jeffrey B.

    2013-01-01

    The availability of low-cost high-quality touch-screen displays in modern mobile devices has created opportunities for new approaches to routine visual measurements. Here we describe a novel method in which subjects use a finger swipe to indicate the transition from visible to invisible on a grating which is swept in both contrast and frequency. Because a single image can be swiped in about a second, it is practical to use a series of images to zoom in on particular ranges of contrast or frequency, both to increase the accuracy of the measurements and to obtain an estimate of the reliability of the subject. Sensitivities to chromatic and spatio-temporal modulations are easily measured using the same method. We will demonstrate a prototype for Apple Computer's iPad-iPod-iPhone family of devices, implemented using an open-source scripting environment known as QuIP (QUick Image Processing,

  6. Human scenarios for the screening assessment. Columbia River Comprehensive Impact Assessment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Napier, B.A.; Harper, B.L.; Lane, N.K.; Strenge, D.L.; Spivey, R.B.

    1996-03-01

    Because of past nuclear production operations along the Columbia River, there is intense public and tribal interest in assessing any residual Hanford Site related contamination along the river from the Hanford Reach to the Pacific Ocean. The Columbia River Impact Assessment (CRCIA) was proposed to address these concerns. The assessment of the Columbia River is being conducted in phases. The initial phase is a screening assessment of risk, which addresses current environmental conditions for a range of potential uses. One component of the screening assessment estimates the risk from contaminants in the Columbia River to humans. Because humans affected by the Columbia river are involved in a wide range of activities, various scenarios have been developed on which to base the risk assessments. The scenarios illustrate the range of activities possible by members of the public coming in contact with the Columbia River so that the impact of contaminants in the river on human health can be assessed. Each scenario illustrates particular activity patterns by a specific group. Risk will be assessed at the screening level for each scenario. This report defines the scenarios and the exposure factors that will be the basis for estimating the potential range of risk to human health from Hanford-derived radioactive as well as non-radioactive contaminants associated with the Columbia River.

  7. Human scenarios for the screening assessment. Columbia River Comprehensive Impact Assessment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Because of past nuclear production operations along the Columbia River, there is intense public and tribal interest in assessing any residual Hanford Site related contamination along the river from the Hanford Reach to the Pacific Ocean. The Columbia River Impact Assessment (CRCIA) was proposed to address these concerns. The assessment of the Columbia River is being conducted in phases. The initial phase is a screening assessment of risk, which addresses current environmental conditions for a range of potential uses. One component of the screening assessment estimates the risk from contaminants in the Columbia River to humans. Because humans affected by the Columbia river are involved in a wide range of activities, various scenarios have been developed on which to base the risk assessments. The scenarios illustrate the range of activities possible by members of the public coming in contact with the Columbia River so that the impact of contaminants in the river on human health can be assessed. Each scenario illustrates particular activity patterns by a specific group. Risk will be assessed at the screening level for each scenario. This report defines the scenarios and the exposure factors that will be the basis for estimating the potential range of risk to human health from Hanford-derived radioactive as well as non-radioactive contaminants associated with the Columbia River

  8. Best practices in identifying, reporting and screening operating experience at nuclear power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    IAEA Safety Standards Series No. SF-1 entitled Fundamental Safety Principles: Safety Fundamentals states the need for operating organizations to establish a programme for the collection and analysis of operating experience in nuclear power plants. Such a programme ensures that operating experience is analysed, events important to safety are reviewed in depth, lessons learned are disseminated to the staff of the organization and to relevant national and international organizations, and corrective actions are effectively implemented. This publication has been developed to provide advice and assistance to nuclear installations, and related institutions including contractors and support organizations to strengthen and enhance their own feedback process through the implementation of best practices in identifying, reporting and screening processes and to assess the effectiveness of the above areas. To support a proactive safety management approach the nuclear installations are enhancing the operating experience feedback (OEF) processes. For this purpose, the nuclear industry is striving to collect more information on occurrences that are useful to address the early signs of declining performance and improve operational safety performance. In this environment a strong reporting culture that motivates people to identify and report issues is an important attribute. As a consequence, the number and diversity of issues identified increases, and there is a need to set thresholds of screening for further treatment. Thus, the establishment of an effective identification, reporting and screening process is very beneficial to streamline the efforts, and ensure that major incidents and latent weaknesses are being addressed and that operating experience is treated according to its significance. This leads to improved safety and production. This publication was written to complement the publication IAEA Services Series No. 10 - PROSPER Guidelines - Guidelines for Peer Review and for

  9. Screening of hepatitis B and C among people visiting general practice clinics in rural district of Sindh, Pakistan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Background: Hepatitis B (HB), Hepatitis C (HC) and their risk factors are amongst the major health problems in developing countries including Pakistan. This study aimed to screen for HB and HC among people who visited General Practice clinics and also to identify the differences of screening positive cases by age and sex. Methods: This was a retrospective study conducted in Tando Muhammad Khan city, one of the rural districts of Sindh. All together we reviewed 5989 laboratory reports of people for hepatitis B and C on consecutive basis from two laboratories. A pre-designed and structured perform was used to collect the required information. Chi-squared test and univariate analysis was calculated to assess the difference in HB and HC proportion by age groups and sex. Results: One-fourth of reports were positive for at least one entity whereas 8% and 17% of reviewed reports of adults (>18 years and above) were screened positive for HB and HC respectively. Positive screened tests were higher among older age group compared to young age group (HB: older age group=56.6% vs. younger age group=43.4%; OR=1.07) and (HC: older age group=58.3% vs. younger age group=41.7%; OR=1.08). In the same way, positive screened tests were higher among men compared to women (HB: men=67.0% vs. women=33.0%; OR=1.2) and (HC: men=62.0% vs. women=38.0%; OR=1.3). Conclusion: A large proportion of people were screened positive for HB and HC in this study. Prevention and screening are suggested at larger scale for urgent planning and implementation of intervention strategies in this regard. Further research is also recommended to explore this important health issue at large scale. (author)

  10. Assessment of stereoscopic optic disc images using an autostereoscopic screen – experimental study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vaideanu Daniella

    2008-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Stereoscopic assessment of the optic disc morphology is an important part of the care of patients with glaucoma. The aim of this study was to assess stereoviewing of stereoscopic optic disc images using an example of the new technology of autostereoscopic screens compared to the liquid shutter goggles. Methods Independent assessment of glaucomatous disc characteristics and measurement of optic disc and cup parameters whilst using either an autostereoscopic screen or liquid crystal shutter goggles synchronized with a view switching display. The main outcome measures were inter-modality agreements between the two used modalities as evaluated by the weighted kappa test and Bland Altman plots. Results Inter-modality agreement for measuring optic disc parameters was good [Average kappa coefficient for vertical Cup/Disc ratio was 0.78 (95% CI 0.62–0.91 and 0.81 (95% CI 0.6–0.92 for observer 1 and 2 respectively]. Agreement between modalities for assessing optic disc characteristics for glaucoma on a five-point scale was very good with a kappa value of 0.97. Conclusion This study compared two different methods of stereo viewing. The results of assessment of the different optic disc and cup parameters were comparable using an example of the newly developing autostereoscopic display technologies as compared to the shutter goggles system used. The Inter-modality agreement was high. This new technology carries potential clinical usability benefits in different areas of ophthalmic practice.

  11. Using the community health assessment to screen for continued driving.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morris, John N; Howard, Elizabeth P; Fries, Brant E; Berkowitz, Randi; Goldman, Beryl; David, Daniel

    2014-02-01

    This project used the interRAI based, community health assessment (CHA) to develop a model for identifying current elder drivers whose driving behavior should be reviewed. The assessments were completed by independent housing sites in COLLAGE, a non-profit, national senior housing consortium. Secondary analysis of data drawn from older adults in COLLAGE sites in the United States was conducted using a baseline assessment with 8042 subjects and an annual follow-up assessment with 3840 subjects. Logistic regression was used to develop a Driving Review Index (DRI) based on the most useful items from among the many measures available in the CHA assessment. Thirteen items were identified by the logistic regression to predict drivers whose driving behavior was questioned by others. In particular, three variables reference compromised decision-making abilities: general daily decisions, a recent decline in ability to make daily decisions, and ability to manage medications. Two additional measures assess cognitive status: short-term memory problem and a diagnosis of non-Alzheimers dementia. Functional measures reflect restrictions and general frailty, including receiving help in transportation, use of a locomotion appliance, having an unsteady gait, fatigue, and not going out on most days. The final three clinical measures reflect compromised vision, little interest or pleasure in things normally enjoyed, and diarrhea. The DRI focuses the review process on drivers with multiple cognitive and functional problems, including a significant segment of potentially troubled drivers who had not yet been publicly identified by others. There is a need for simple and quickly identified screening tools to identify those older adults whose driving should be reviewed. The DRI, based on the interRAI CHA, fills this void. Assessment at the individual level needs to be part of the backdrop of science as society seeks to target policy to identify high risk drivers instead of simply age

  12. Traits of patients who screen positive for dementia and refuse diagnostic assessment

    OpenAIRE

    Fowler, Nicole R.; Frame, Amie; Perkins, Anthony J; Gao, Sujuan; Watson, Dennis P; Monahan, Patrick; Boustani, Malaz A.

    2015-01-01

    Background As part of the debate about screening for dementia, it is critical to understand why patients agree or disagree to diagnostic assessment after a positive screening test. We used the Perceptions Regarding Investigational Screening for Memory in Primary Care (PRISM-PC) questionnaire to measure the characteristics of patients who screened positive for dementia but refused further diagnostic assessment. Methods Survey of patients ≥65 years old without a diagnosis of dementia attending ...

  13. Cardiotocography (CTG as the screening method of fetal condition assessment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. Zulčić-Nakić

    2007-02-01

    Full Text Available A basic function of fetal monitoring is an analysis of fetal cardiac action. Cardiotocography (CTG cannot provide all necessary information for assessment of the fetal condition as it is not sufficiently reliable and gives a large number of false positive results that increase the number of cesarean sections. An objective of this work was to establish CTG reliability as a method for assessment of intrapartal fetal condition. Based on CTG parameters (baseline fetal heart rate, fetal heart rate variability, oscillations and decelerations 100 pathological CTG records, collected at Obstetrics and Gynecology Department of the Tuzla University Clinic Hospital from 01.12.2004 to 05.08.2005 were identified. Using binomial distribution they were classified as non-pathological (indicating absence of asphyxia and pathological (indicating possible presence of asphyxia. After the delivery the condition of newborns was assessed according to the Apgar score. Based on comparison between certain pathological parametres of CTG records and newborns’ conditions at birth the results indicated high positive predictive values whereas sensitivity and accuracy were low. Apgar score 1. from 7 upwards was given to 96 (96% newborns whereas Apgar score 2 from 7 upwards was given to all the newborns with previous pathological CTG records. Results have confirmed that CTG can be used only as a screening method for assessment of intrapartal fetal condition.

  14. Validation of screening tools to assess appetite among geriatric patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hanisah, R; Suzana, S; Lee, F S

    2012-07-01

    Poor appetite is one of the main contributing factors of poor nutritional status among elderly individuals. Recognizing the importance of assessment of appetite, a cross sectional study was conducted to determine the validity of appetite screening tools namely, the Council on Nutrition Appetite questionnaire (CNAQ) and the simplified nutritional appetite questionnaire (SNAQ) against the appetite, hunger and sensory perception questionnaire (AHSPQ), measures of nutritional status and food intake among geriatric patients at the main general hospital in Malaysia. Nutritional status was assessed using the subjective global assessment (SGA) while food intake was measured using the dietary history questionnaire (DHQ). Anthropometric parameters included weight, height, body mass index (BMI), calf circumference (CC) and mid upper arm circumference (MUAC). A total of 145 subjects aged 60 to 86 years (68.3 ± 5.8 years) with 31.7% men and 68.3% women were recruited from outpatients (35 subjects) and inpatients (110 subjects) of Kuala Lumpur Hospital of Malaysia. As assessed by SGA, most subjects were classified as mild to moderately malnourished (50.4%), followed by normal (38.6%) and severely malnourished (11.0%). A total of 79.3% and 57.2% subjects were classified as having poor appetite according to CNAQ and SNAQ, respectively. CNAQ (80.9%) had a higher sensitivity than SNAQ (69.7%) when validated against nutritional status as assessed using SGA. However, the specificity of SNAQ (62.5%) was higher than CNAQ (23.2%). Positive predictive value for CNAQ and SNAQ were 62.6% and 74.7%, respectively. Cronbach's alpha for CNAQ and SNAQ were 0.546 and 0.578, respectively. History of weight loss over the past one year (Adjusted odds ratio 2.49) (p risk factors for poor appetite among subjects. In conclusion, malnutrition and poor appetite were prevalent among the geriatric outpatients and inpatients. SNAQ was more reliable and valid as an appetite screening tool among this special

  15. Colorectal cancer screening practices of primary care providers: results of a national survey in Malaysia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Norwati, Daud; Harmy, Mohamed Yusoff; Norhayati, Mohd Noor; Amry, Abdul Rahim

    2014-01-01

    The incidence of colorectal cancer has been increasing in many Asian countries including Malaysia during the past few decades. A physician recommendation has been shown to be a major factor that motivates patients to undergo screening. The present study objectives were to describe the practice of colorectal cancer screening by primary care providers in Malaysia and to determine the barriers for not following recommendations. In this cross sectional study involving 132 primary care providers from 44 Primary Care clinics in West Malaysia, self-administered questionnaires which consisted of demographic data, qualification, background on the primary care clinic, practices on colorectal cancer screening and barriers to colorectal cancer screening were distributed. A total of 116 primary care providers responded making a response rate of 87.9%. About 21% recommended faecal occult blood test (FOBT) in more than 50% of their patients who were eligible. The most common barrier was "unavailability of the test". The two most common patient factors are "patient in a hurry" and "poor patient awareness". This study indicates that colorectal cancer preventive activities among primary care providers are still poor in Malaysia. This may be related to the low availability of the test in the primary care setting and poor awareness and understanding of the importance of colorectal cancer screening among patients. More awareness programmes are required for the public. In addition, primary care providers should be kept abreast with the latest recommendations and policy makers need to improve colorectal cancer screening services in health clinics. PMID:24761922

  16. Diabetes educators: assessment of evolving practice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barlow, Susan; Crean, John; Heizler, Alissa; Mulcahy, Kathy; Springer, Jane

    2005-01-01

    A survey evaluating the professional characteristics and practice patterns of diabetes educators was distributed across the United States. The specific survey aims were to assess whether (1) there continues to be a growing trend among US health professionals who consider themselves diabetes educators to obtain certification as certified diabetes educators (CDEs), (2) duties/services associated with diabetes self-management training (DSMT) and medical/medication management differ between diabetes educators who are CDEs versus those who are non-CDEs, and (3) educator practice patterns differ across the major geographic regions of the United States. Of the 507 diabetes educators completing the survey, 83% identified themselves as CDEs. Diabetes educators responding to similar surveys done in 1992 and 1999, 51% and 63%, respectively, identified themselves as CDEs. In this survey, a similar percentage of CDEs and non-CDEs employed DSMT practices of relatively low complexity (eg, general diabetes education) whereas a significantly higher percentage (P educators has continued, (2) certification is associated with a greater likelihood of delivering complex DSMT services and medical/medication management, and (3) this pattern is consistent across the nation as a whole. PMID:15919637

  17. Safer Sexual Practices and HIV Screening Behavior among Rural California American Indians

    OpenAIRE

    Hodge, Felicia S.; Sinha, Karabi

    2010-01-01

    This paper reports on safer sexual practices and HIV screening behavior among rural California American Indians. Thirteen Indian health clinic registries formed the random household survey sampling frame (N=457). Measures included socio-demographics, safer sexual practices, HIV testing, high-risk behaviors, perception of wellness, general health status, neglect, physical and sexual abuse history. Statistical tests included chi-square and Fisher’s exact tests, as well as multiple logistic regr...

  18. Knowledge, practice, and barriers toward cervical cancer screening in Elmina, Southern Ghana

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ebu NI

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Nancy Innocentia Ebu,1 Sylvia C Mupepi,2 Mate Peter Siakwa,1 Carolyn M Sampselle3 1University of Cape Coast, School of Nursing, Cape Coast, Ghana; 2Kirkhof College of Nursing, Grand Valley State University, Grand Rapids, MI, USA; 3School of Nursing, University of Michigan, Ann Arbor, MI, USA Aims: The aims of this study were: 1 to assess the level of knowledge of women about Pap smear tests, 2 to determine the practices of women regarding Pap smear tests, and 3 to determine the barriers to Pap smear tests in Elmina, Ghana. Methods: A cross-sectional study was conducted with 392 randomly selected sexually active females aged 10–74 years using structured interview questions. The Institutional Review Board of the University of Cape Coast gave ethical approval for the study and informed consent was obtained from participants. Data were analyzed with SPSS software (v19.0 using frequencies, chi-square test, and exploratory factor analysis. Results: The results revealed that 68.4% had never heard about cervical cancer, 93.6% had no knowledge on the risk factors, nine (2.3% reported multiple sexual partners and being sexually active as risk factors, and 92% did not know about the prevention and treatment of cervical cancer. The majority (97.7% had never heard of the Pap smear test. Only three (0.8% women out of 392 had had a Pap smear test. Reasons for seeking a Pap smear test included referral, fear of cervical cancer, and radio campaigns. A significant association was found between institutional and personal barriers and having a Pap smear test. Conclusion: Comprehensive education on cervical cancer screening and removal of access barriers are critical in reducing risk associated with the disease and promoting women's health. Keywords: women, cervical screening, awareness, factors, community, developing countries

  19. Screening for Infectious Diseases among Newly Arrived Migrants in EU/EEA Countries—Varying Practices but Consensus on the Utility of Screening

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tommi Kärki

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Screening is one possible tool for monitoring infectious diseases among migrants. However, there is limited information on screening programmes targeted for newly arrived migrants in EU/EEA countries. Our aim was to investigate the implementation, practices and usefulness of these programmes. We conducted a survey among country experts from EU/EEA countries and Switzerland, asking whether their countries had implemented screening programmes. We also estimated the association between the implementation of these programmes and the rate of asylum-seekers in the population. Of the countries, 16 (59% had implemented screening programmes and 15 (56% had national guidelines. The rate of asylum-seekers was associated with implementation of screening programmes (p = 0.014. Screening was performed most often for tuberculosis; most commonly on holding level, and was targeted to specific migrant groups in over half of the countries performing screening. Twenty-five of all the country experts (96% considered screening among migrants useful, and 24 (92% would welcome EU level guidelines for screening. The implementation of screening programmes varied, and the practices were different among countries. Our survey suggests, that establishing EU level guidelines for screening would be useful, although they would have to take into account differences between individual countries.

  20. Data for the screening assessment. Volume 2: Appendices, Columbia River Comprehensive Impact Assessment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Columbia River is a critical resource for residents of the Pacific Northwest. This resource drew the Manhattan Project's planners to the site now called Hanford to produce nuclear weapon materials. Production of those materials has left behind a legacy of chemical and radioactive contamination and materials that have, are, and will continue to pose a threat to the Columbia river for the foreseeable future. To evaluate the impact to the river from this Hanford-derived contamination, the US Department of Energy, US Environmental Protection Agency, and State of Washington Department of Ecology (the Tri-Party agencies) initiated a study referred to as the Columbia River Comprehensive Impact Assessment (CRCIA). To address concerns about the scope and direction of CRCIA as well as enhance regulator, stakeholder, tribal, and public involvement, the CRCIA Management Team was formed in August 1995. A major CRCIA Team decision was to organize CRCIA into phases, with additional phases to be identified as warranted after completion of the initial phase. The initial phase is comprised of two parts: (1) a screening assessment to evaluate the current impact to the river resulting from Hanford-derived contamination and (2) identification of requirements considered necessary by the CRCIA Management Team for a comprehensive assessment of impact to the river. The purpose of the screening assessment is to support cleanup decisions. The scope of the screening assessment is to evaluate the current risk to humans and the environment resulting from Hanford-derived contaminants. The screening assessment has the primary components of: identifying contaminants to be assessed; identifying a variety of exposure scenarios to evaluate human contaminant exposure; identifying a variety of other species to evaluate ecological contaminant exposure; and assessing risks posed by exposure of humans and other species to the contaminants. This volume compiles the data from this study

  1. Developmental Surveillance and Screening Practices by Pediatric Primary Care Providers: Implications for Early Intervention Professionals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Porter, Sallie; Qureshi, Rubab; Caldwell, Barbara Ann; Echevarria, Mercedes; Dubbs, William B.; Sullivan, Margaret W.

    2016-01-01

    This study used a survey approach to investigate current developmental surveillance and developmental screening practices by pediatric primary care providers in a diverse New Jersey county. A total of 217 providers were contacted with a final sample size of 57 pediatric primary care respondents from 13 different municipalities. Most providers…

  2. Obsolescence Risk Assessment Process Best Practice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Romero Rojo, F. J.; Roy, R.; Kelly, S.

    2012-05-01

    A component becomes obsolete when it is no longer available from the original manufacturer to the original specification. In long-lifecycle projects, obsolescence has become a major problem as it prevents the maintenance of the system. This is the reason why obsolescence management is now an essential part of the product support activities in sectors such as defence, aerospace, nuclear and railway; where systems need to be supported for several decades. The obsolescence risk assessment for the bill of materials (BoM) is a paramount activity in order to manage obsolescence proactively and cost-effectively. This is the reason why it was necessary to undertake a benchmarking study to develop best practice in this process. A total of 22 obsolescence experts from 13 different organisations/projects from across UK and USA have participated in this study. Their current processes and experience have been taken into account in the development of the best practice process for obsolescence risk assessment. The key factors that have to be analysed in the risk assessment process for each component in the BoM are: number of manufacturers, years to end of life, stock available, consumption rate and operational impact criticality. For the very high risk components, a more detailed analysis is required to inform the decisions regarding the most suitable mitigation strategies. On the contrary, for the low risk components, a fully proactive approach is neither appropriate nor cost effective. Therefore, it is advised for these components that obsolescence issues are dealt with reactively. This process has been validated using case studies with several experts from industry and is currently being implemented by the UK Ministry of Defence as technical guidance within the JSP 886 Volume 7 Part 8.13 standards.

  3. Obsolescence Risk Assessment Process Best Practice

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A component becomes obsolete when it is no longer available from the original manufacturer to the original specification. In long-lifecycle projects, obsolescence has become a major problem as it prevents the maintenance of the system. This is the reason why obsolescence management is now an essential part of the product support activities in sectors such as defence, aerospace, nuclear and railway; where systems need to be supported for several decades. The obsolescence risk assessment for the bill of materials (BoM) is a paramount activity in order to manage obsolescence proactively and cost-effectively. This is the reason why it was necessary to undertake a benchmarking study to develop best practice in this process. A total of 22 obsolescence experts from 13 different organisations/projects from across UK and USA have participated in this study. Their current processes and experience have been taken into account in the development of the best practice process for obsolescence risk assessment. The key factors that have to be analysed in the risk assessment process for each component in the BoM are: number of manufacturers, years to end of life, stock available, consumption rate and operational impact criticality. For the very high risk components, a more detailed analysis is required to inform the decisions regarding the most suitable mitigation strategies. On the contrary, for the low risk components, a fully proactive approach is neither appropriate nor cost effective. Therefore, it is advised for these components that obsolescence issues are dealt with reactively. This process has been validated using case studies with several experts from industry and is currently being implemented by the UK Ministry of Defence as technical guidance within the JSP 886 Volume 7 Part 8.13 standards.

  4. Workplace Educators' Interpretations of Their Assessment Practices: A View through a Critical Practice Lens

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trede, Franziska; Smith, Megan

    2014-01-01

    In this paper, we examine workplace educators' interpretations of their assessment practices. We draw on a critical practice lens to conceptualise assessment practice as a social, relational and situated practice that becomes critical through critique and emancipation. We conducted semi-structured interviews followed by roundtable discussions…

  5. Genetic cancer risk assessment in practice

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The advent of genetic testing has made a dramatic impact on the management of individuals with inherited susceptibility to cancer and their relatives. Genetic counsel ing, with or without testing, is warranted when clues to familial cancer are recognized. Today, genetic testing for classic cancer genetic syndromes is now the standard of care, and has been complemented by genetic testing for other situations commonly encountered in clinical practice. Genetic testing for colorectal cancer, breast cancer, kidney cancer, thyroid cancer, melanoma, and pancreatic cancer raise important issues about the parameters for testing. Genetic cancer risk assessment can lead to measurable reductions in morbidity and mortality through strategies that rely on surveillance, chemo prevention, and risk-reducing surgery

  6. Awareness, Attitude and Practices of Premarital Human Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV Screening among Leaders of Two Predominant Religions in North Central Nigeria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joseph Gbenga S.

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available INTRODUCTION: HIV premarital screening is one of the practices that is prevalent and compulsory in religious communities of many African countries and is a major health issue that constitutes basic threat to fundamental human right when made mandatory. AIM: This study is therefore tailored towards assessing the awareness, attitude and practice of HIV premarital screening among religious leaders in Ilorin metropolis of Nigeria. METHOD: This study was a descriptive cross sectional survey carried out in 2008. A total of 375 religious leaders were used. Multistage sampling technique involving five stages sampling procedures was used to select participants. The research instrument was structured interviewer administered questionnaire. Results obtained from the questionnaire were analysed using EPI-INFO computer software and data were presented in form of tables, cross tabulation and test of statistical significance. RESULTS: Result showed that the awareness of religious leaders on HIV/AIDS, premarital HIV screening and Voluntary Confidential Counselling and Testing (VCCT was high. Most of the premarital HIV screening was initiated by the religious leaders. Also, majority of leaders made premarital HIV screening compulsory which is against the right of the members. More than half of the respondents said they will conduct marriage without premarital HIV screening and more than half also said that they will conduct marriage if one of the partners is tested positive. Religion was found to influence respondents’ attitude in making premarital HIV screening mandatory, rejection among respondents members on premarital HIV screening and conduction of marriage without premarital HIV screening. CONCLUSION: In as much as premarital HIV screening is good; members should be convinced to do this screening and not to be coerced by these religious leaders, thus, stepping on one of their human right. [TAF Prev Med Bull 2013; 12(2.000: 129-134

  7. Training School Psychologists in Neuropsychological Assessment: Current Practices and Trends.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hynd, George W.; And Others

    1980-01-01

    Results of a survey of directors of school psychology programs support the notion that training in neuropsychological screening and assessment techniques is appropriate in the preparation of specialists in the area of school psychology. (Author)

  8. ECRHS Screening Questionnaire Scoring: A Methodological Suggestion for Asthma Assessment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Biino, G.; Rezzani, C.; Grassi, M.; Marinoni, A.

    2001-01-01

    Investigated the unidimensionality of the European Community Respiratory Health Survey (ECRHS) screening questionnaire and determined and validated a scoring of asthma-like symptoms seriousness. Data from 6,946 adults at 3 Italian screening centers found a single dimension underlying the screening questionnaire. A scoring of asthma-like symptoms…

  9. Primary healthcare practitioners' screening practices and attitudes towards women survivors of child abuse.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Adeline; Coles, Jan; Lee, Stuart; Kulkarni, Jayashri

    2012-09-01

    Background Child abuse survivors have an increased risk of developing various mental illnesses in adulthood, which may lead survivors to access primary healthcare services, in particular primary care mental health services. Aim To determine the frequency with which different primary care mental health practitioners encounter child abuse survivors in their practice and differences in their views about routine screening, level of importance, confidence and comfort in screening and supporting survivors, a cross-sectional study was conducted with 186 practitioners. Method The sample consisted of general practitioners (13.9%), psychologists (67.9%) and other professions such as psychiatrists, social workers, counsellors, psychotherapists, mental health nurses and other specific mental health practitioners (18.2%). Results Over 91% of practitioners reported that child abuse was a healthcare issue and was a problem for women in their practice. However, only 51.4% believed that women should be routinely screened for child abuse experiences. Significant differences among practitioner groups were found in aspects of screening and responding to survivors. General practitioners were significantly less likely to screen routinely and reported lower levels of confidence and comfort in conducting screening of survivors when compared with psychologists and other practitioners. The majority of practitioners saw it as psychologists' role to routinely screen; however, 57-82% of practitioners within each group reported that they would benefit from further training in areas relating to asking about and supporting survivors. Conclusion Findings highlighted further education as a potential area of need to enhance the knowledge and capacity of different practitioner groups in responding to women survivors of child abuse. PMID:23997824

  10. Prevailing clinical practices regarding screening for retinopathy of prematurity among pediatricians in India: A pilot survey

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Saurabh Dileep Patwardhan

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Aims: To evaluate the prevailing practices for proper screening and referral scheme among Indian pediatricians for retinopathy of prematurity (ROP. Materials and Methods: Pediatricians registered with Indian Academy of Pediatrics from six states of India were selected randomly and were telephonically interviewed in accordance with a preformed questionnaire which comprised of questions regarding demographic factors, number of premature children seen per month, awareness and referral scheme to ophthalmologist; responses thus obtained were analyzed. Results: Hundred percent knowledge about ROP and need for screening in premature babies was observed among the respondents. However, only 135 (58% pediatricians always referred for ROP screening, 19 (8% referred only sometimes and 80 (34% did not refer at all. Consistent referral protocols taking into account all plausible risk factors for ROP were followed by only 25% of those who always referred. Major deterrent in ROP screening was perceived as non-availability of trained ophthalmologists. Conclusions: Only 14.5% of total pediatricians contacted were following international recommendations for ROP referral. Screening for ROP remains dismal as observed in this pilot survey as a consequence of non-availability of trained ophthalmologists as well as inconsistent screening guidelines.

  11. Development and Validation of the Assessment of Health Literacy in Breast and Cervical Cancer Screening

    OpenAIRE

    Han, Hae-Ra; Huh, Boyun; Kim, Miyong T.; Kim, Jiyun; Nguyen, Tam

    2014-01-01

    For many people limited health literacy is a major barrier to effective preventive health behavior such as cancer screening, yet a comprehensive health literacy measure that is specific to breast and cervical cancer screening is not readily available. The purpose of this paper is to describe the development and testing of a new instrument to measure health literacy in the context of breast and cervical cancer screening, the Assessment of Health Literacy in Cancer Screening (AHL-C). The AHL-C ...

  12. Malnutrition-Sarcopenia Syndrome: Is This the Future of Nutrition Screening and Assessment for Older Adults?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maurits F. J. Vandewoude

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Malnutrition is common across varying patient populations, particularly older adults, and sarcopenia prevalence increases with advancing age. Both malnutrition and sarcopenia are associated with substantial adverse outcomes affecting both the patient and the healthcare system, including increased morbidity, mortality, rehospitalization rates, and healthcare costs. Healthcare practitioners may assess patients for either malnutrition or sarcopenia; however, many patients clinically present with both conditions, resulting in the syndrome, Malnutrition-Sarcopenia Syndrome, which is the clinical presentation of both malnutrition and accelerated age-associated loss of lean body mass, strength, and/or functionality. Clinicians are urged to screen, assess, and treat these conditions currently so as to adequately address the full spectrum of patients’ nutritional issues. By examining aspects of both conditions, clinicians can more fully assess their patients’ clinical and nutritional status and can tailor targeted therapies to meet their needs and improve outcomes. This proposed syndrome embodies the inherent association of malnutrition and sarcopenia, highlighting their combined impact on clinical outcomes. The objective of this review paper is to characterize Malnutrition-Sarcopenia Syndrome to advance clinical practice, by providing clinicians with the necessary background information to integrate nutritional assessment along with loss of muscle mass and functionality in their everyday clinical practice.

  13. Data for the screening assessment: Volume 2, Appendix A, diskette 2 of 3. Columbia River comprehensive impact assessment: data values

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This report is from Appendix A - diskette 2 of 3 titled Data Values: Biota from a-l, File Name: biovalal.csv. The report is part of the Data for the Screening Assessment Columbia River Comprehensive Impact Assessment

  14. Knowledge, attitudes, and practices for cervical cancer screening among the Bhutanese refugee community in Omaha, Nebraska.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haworth, Rebecca J; Margalit, Ruth; Ross, Christine; Nepal, Tikka; Soliman, Amr S

    2014-10-01

    Cervical cancer is the second most common cause of cancer mortality among women with the vast majority of patients in developing countries. Bhutanese refugees in the United States are from South Central Asia, the 4th leading region of the world for cervical cancer incidence. Over the past few years, Bhutanese refugees have increased significantly in Nebraska. This study evaluates current knowledge of cervical cancer and screening practices among the Bhutanese refugee women in Omaha, Nebraska. The study aimed to investigate cervical cancer and screening knowledge and perceptions about the susceptibility and severity of cervical cancer and perceived benefits and barriers to screening. Self-administered questionnaires and focus groups based on the Health Belief Model were conducted among 42 healthy women from the Bhutanese refugee community in Omaha. The study revealed a significant lack of knowledge in this community regarding cervical cancer and screening practices, with only 22.2 % reporting ever hearing of a Pap test and 13.9 % reporting ever having one. Only 33.3 % of women were in agreement with their own perceived susceptibility to cervical cancer. Women who reported ever hearing about the Pap test tended to believe more strongly about curability of the disease if discovered early than women who never heard about the test (71.4 vs. 45.0 %, for the two groups. respectively). Refugee populations in the United States are in need for tailored cancer education programs especially when being resettled from countries with high risk for cancer. PMID:25060231

  15. 49 CFR 1549.111 - Security threat assessments for personnel of certified cargo screening facilities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 9 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Security threat assessments for personnel of... SECURITY CERTIFIED CARGO SCREENING PROGRAM Operations § 1549.111 Security threat assessments for personnel... cargo screening facility, an indirect air carrier under 49 CFR part 1548 for transport on a...

  16. Assessment and Screening of the Risk Factors in Metabolic Syndrome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jaspinder Kaur

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Metabolic syndrome (MetS is chronic inflammatory epidemic state contributing to total and cardiovascular mortality. The current study planned to assess and screen risk factors for MetS and its components. A cross-sectional study conducted to assess age, gender, social status, employment, education, family history, physical activity, dietary habits, alcohol, sleep, body mass index and stress as determinants of MetS. The results were analyzed by Chi Square test with statistical significance of p value <0.05. The frequency of MetS was 17.38% as per modified National Cholesterol Education Program–Adult Treatment Panel III criteria. Females (57.38%, age >50 years (86.90%; p < 0.05, middle socioeconomic status (70.50%, illiteracy (39.35%, and unemployment (81.97%; p < 0.05 were found contributing though to different extents. Subjects with a sedentary lifestyle (72.14%, positive family history (42.63%, omnivore diet (47.55%, stress (78.69%; p < 0.05, insomnia (29.51% and increased BMI (83.62%; p < 0.001 had shown predisposition to MetS. However, the protective role of alcohol (38.28%, an active lifestyle (36.21%, vegetarian diet (62.07% and adequate sleep (73.11% was observed. A significant hypertension (98.37%; p < 0.001, dyslipidemia (77.05%; p < 0.001, dysglycemia (75.41%; p < 0.001 and obesity (59.02%; p < 0.001 was reported in MetS. Common concerns of female gender, increasing age and BMI, sedentary lifestyle, stress and positive family history should be considered for early identification and appropriate intervention to fight the growing MetS epidemic.

  17. Down syndrome screening information in midwifery practices in the Netherlands: Strategies to integrate biomedical information.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosman, Sophia

    2016-03-01

    The aim of this qualitative study was to analyse counselling with regard to prenatal screening in midwifery consultations in the Netherlands where a national prenatal screening programme has only existed since 2007, after years of social and political debates. The methodology is based on in situ observations of 25 counselling consultations in four midwifery practices in two main cities in the Netherlands. The results of this study show that, since midwives are obliged to offer information on Down syndrome screening to all pregnant women (2007), they have to deal with the communication of medical screening information using biostatistical concepts to explain risks, calculations, probabilities and chromosomal anomalies. In order to avoid the risk of medicalization of their consultation, midwives develop strategies that allow them to integrate this new biomedical discourse while maintaining their low medicalized approach of midwife-led care. One of their main strategies is to switch from 'alarming' biomedical messages to 'reassuring words' in order to manage the anxiety induced by the information and to keep the control over their low medicalized consultation. They also tend to distance themselves from the obligation to talk about screening. The way midwives handle these counselling consultations allows them to respect their obligation to propose information, and to remain faithful to their struggle to protect the natural process of pregnancy as well as their professional autonomy. PMID:25504473

  18. The Knowledge and Practice of Breast Cancer Screening Among Women in Kerman, Iran

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Narges Khanjani

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Breast cancer is the most common cancer in women, and if diagnosed on time, the chance of treatment will increase. There is limited information about the knowledge and practice of Iranian women about early detection of breast cancer and in this study we aimed to investigate it in Kerman. Methods: This was a cross-sectional study done on 120 women; from 6 randomly selected maternal and childcare centers spread around Kerman, women were questioned about the primary signs of breast cancer and the screening methods. Results: The results show that 70% of women thought that with on time detection, breast cancer can be successfully treated, but 47% had no idea about any screening method. The most common breast cancer sign mentioned by women was a painless lump. Breast self examination as the easiest and cheapest screening method was never done in 51% of women. The most common reason for not performing screening tests in the participants, was not knowing anything about it. Conclusion: Although breast cancer when diagnosed on time is treatable, the knowledge and attitude of Iranian women about breast cancer screening and the signs of breast cancer are very low. Educational programs to increase women's knowledge about breast cancer should be foreseen and performed

  19. Prevailing clinical practices regarding screening for retinopathy of prematurity among pediatricians in India: A pilot survey

    OpenAIRE

    Saurabh Dileep Patwardhan; Rajvardhan Azad; Varun Gogia; Parijat Chandra; Shikha Gupta

    2011-01-01

    Aims: To evaluate the prevailing practices for proper screening and referral scheme among Indian pediatricians for retinopathy of prematurity (ROP). Materials and Methods: Pediatricians registered with Indian Academy of Pediatrics from six states of India were selected randomly and were telephonically interviewed in accordance with a preformed questionnaire which comprised of questions regarding demographic factors, number of premature children seen per month, awareness and referral scheme to...

  20. Knowledge, Attitudes, and Practices for Cervical Cancer Screening Among the Bhutanese Refugee Community in Omaha, Nebraska

    OpenAIRE

    Haworth, Rebecca J.; Margalit, Ruth; Ross, Christine; Nepal, Tikka; Soliman, Amr S.

    2014-01-01

    Cervical cancer is the second most common cause of cancer mortality among women with the vast majority of patients in developing countries. Bhutanese refugees in the United States are from South Central Asia, the 4th leading region of the world for cervical cancer incidence. Over the past few years, Bhutanese refugees have increased significantly in Nebraska. This study evaluates current knowledge of cervical cancer and screening practices among the Bhutanese refugee women in Omaha, Nebraska....

  1. Knowledge, attitude and practice of cervical cancer screening in women visiting a tertiary care hospital of Delhi

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M Singh

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Cervical cancer being a major cause of morbidity and mortality in women in developing countries, its awareness is essential. Aim: The aim of this study is to assess the knowledge, attitude and practices of women regarding the basic screening test for detection of cancer cervix. Settings and Design: Population based cross-sectional study. Materials and Methods: Cross-sectional prospective study was conducted. Information from consenting participants (450 was collected using structured questionnaire. Answers were described in terms of knowledge, attitude and practice and their respective adequacy with respect to Papanicolaou (Pap test, the most common test used for early detection of cervical cancer. Adequacy was compared between the categories of socio demographic and clinical variables. Statistical Analysis: The data collected was analyzed using statistical package (SPSS version 18.0. Adequacy was compared between the categories of the control variables by χ2 test with a 5% significance level. Results: Knowledge, attitude and practices regarding Pap test were adequate in 32.7%, 18.2% and 7.3% of women respectively. Major impediment to adequate practice was lack of request by physician. Knowledge, attitudes and practices were found to increase significantly with increasing age and education. Conclusion: Effective information, education and communication strategies are required to improve the level of awareness of public. Health-care professional should be proactive in imparting knowledge at every opportunity.

  2. Life cycle assessment part 2: current impact assessment practice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pennington, D W; Potting, J; Finnveden, G; Lindeijer, E; Jolliet, O; Rydberg, T; Rebitzer, G

    2004-07-01

    Providing our society with goods and services contributes to a wide range of environmental impacts. Waste generation, emissions and the consumption of resources occur at many stages in a product's life cycle-from raw material extraction, energy acquisition, production and manufacturing, use, reuse, recycling, through to ultimate disposal. These all contribute to impacts such as climate change, stratospheric ozone depletion, photooxidant formation (smog), eutrophication, acidification, toxicological stress on human health and ecosystems, the depletion of resources and noise-among others. The need exists to address these product-related contributions more holistically and in an integrated manner, providing complimentary insights to those of regulatory/process-oriented methodologies. A previous article (Part 1, Rebitzer et al., 2004) outlined how to define and model a product's life cycle in current practice, as well as the methods and tools that are available for compiling the associated waste, emissions and resource consumption data into a life cycle inventory. This article highlights how practitioners and researchers from many domains have come together to provide indicators for the different impacts attributable to products in the life cycle impact assessment (LCIA) phase of life cycle assessment (LCA). PMID:15051247

  3. Shared decision making for prostate cancer screening: the results of a combined analysis of two practice-based randomized controlled trials

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sheridan Stacey L

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Professional societies recommend shared decision making (SDM for prostate cancer screening, however, most efforts have promoted informed rather than shared decision making. The objective of this study is to 1 examine the effects of a prostate cancer screening intervention to promote SDM and 2 determine whether framing prostate information in the context of other clearly beneficial men’s health services affects decisions. Methods We conducted two separate randomized controlled trials of the same prostate cancer intervention (with or without additional information on more clearly beneficial men’s health services. For each trial, we enrolled a convenience sample of 2 internal medicine practices, and their interested physicians and male patients with no prior history of prostate cancer (for a total of 4 practices, 28 physicians, and 128 men across trials. Within each practice site, we randomized men to either 1 a video-based decision aid and researcher-led coaching session or 2 a highway safety video. Physicians at each site received a 1-hour educational session on prostate cancer and SDM. To assess intervention effects, we measured key components of SDM, intent to be screened, and actual screening. After finding that results did not vary by trial, we combined data across sites, adjusting for the random effects of both practice and physician. Results Compared to an attention control, our prostate cancer screening intervention increased men’s perceptions that screening is a decision (absolute difference +41%; 95% CI 25 to 57% and men’s knowledge about prostate cancer screening (absolute difference +34%; 95% CI 19% to 50%, but had no effect on men’s self-reported participation in shared decisions or their participation at their preferred level. Overall, the intervention decreased screening intent (absolute difference −34%; 95% CI −50% to −18% and actual screening rates (absolute difference −22%; 95% CI −38 to

  4. Assessment of Quality Management Practices Within the Healthcare Industry

    OpenAIRE

    Miller, William J.; Sumner, Andrew T.; Richard H. Deane

    2009-01-01

    Problem Statement: Considerable effort has been devoted over the years by many organizations to adopt quality management practices, but few studies have assessed critical factors that affect quality practices in healthcare organizations. The problem addressed in this study was to assess the critical factors influencing the quality management practices in a single important industry (i.e., healthcare). Approach: A survey instrument was adapted from business quality literature and was sent to a...

  5. Theory and Practice of the Stereo—View on the CRT Screen

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    夏运钧

    1996-01-01

    Of the various kinds of research on the Virtual Reality and GIS,stereo-view is one of the key technologies.The following two aspects are covered in this paper,(1) Physiological fundamental of the natural binocular stereo-vision,theory of 3D color TV and the stereo-view on the CRT screen are presented,especially the theory of widely adopted Time-Division System is introduced.(2)The preliminary practice for using the stereo-view technology on the screen to the terrain visual simulation is described,and the paper shows how to use 3DS to construct a movable real stereo terrain perspective by taking DTM data as the first hand information for the purpose of terrain visual simulation.

  6. Health impact assessment in the United States: Has practice followed standards?

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schuchter, Joseph, E-mail: jws@berkeley.edu [University of California, Berkeley, School of Public Health, Department of Environmental Health Sciences, 50 University Hall, Berkeley, CA 94720-7360 (United States); Bhatia, Rajiv [University of California, Berkeley, Institute of Urban and Regional Development (United States); Corburn, Jason [University of California, Berkeley, College of Environmental Design, Department of City and Regional Planning (United States); Seto, Edmund [University of Washington, School of Public Health, Department of Environmental and Occupational Health (United States)

    2014-07-01

    As an emerging practice, Health Impact Assessment is heterogeneous in purpose, form, and scope and applied in a wide range of decision contexts. This heterogeneity challenges efforts to evaluate the quality and impact of practice. We examined whether information in completed HIA reports reflected objectively-evaluable criteria proposed by the North American HIA Practice Standards Working Group in 2009. From publically-available reports of HIAs conducted in the U.S. and published from 2009 to 2011, we excluded those that were components of, or comment letters on, Environmental Impact Assessments (5) or were demonstration projects or student exercises (8). For the remaining 23 reports, we used practice standards as a template to abstract data on the steps of HIA, including details on the rationale, authorship, funding, decision and decision-makers, participation, pathways and methods, quality of evidence, and recommendations. Most reports described screening, scoping, and assessment processes, but there was substantial variation in the extent of these processes and the degree of stakeholder participation. Community stakeholders participated in screening or scoping in just two-thirds of the HIAs (16). On average, these HIAs analyzed 5.5 determinants related to 10.6 health impacts. Most HIA reports did not include evaluation or monitoring plans. This study identifies issues for field development and improvement. The standards might be adapted to better account for variability in resources, produce fit-for-purpose HIAs, and facilitate innovation guided by the principles. - Highlights: • Our study examined reported HIAs in the U.S. against published practice standards. • Most HIAs used some screening, scoping and assessment elements from the standards. • The extent of these processes and stakeholder participation varied widely. • The average HIA considered multiple health determinants and impacts. • Evaluation or monitoring plans were generally not included in

  7. Health impact assessment in the United States: Has practice followed standards?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    As an emerging practice, Health Impact Assessment is heterogeneous in purpose, form, and scope and applied in a wide range of decision contexts. This heterogeneity challenges efforts to evaluate the quality and impact of practice. We examined whether information in completed HIA reports reflected objectively-evaluable criteria proposed by the North American HIA Practice Standards Working Group in 2009. From publically-available reports of HIAs conducted in the U.S. and published from 2009 to 2011, we excluded those that were components of, or comment letters on, Environmental Impact Assessments (5) or were demonstration projects or student exercises (8). For the remaining 23 reports, we used practice standards as a template to abstract data on the steps of HIA, including details on the rationale, authorship, funding, decision and decision-makers, participation, pathways and methods, quality of evidence, and recommendations. Most reports described screening, scoping, and assessment processes, but there was substantial variation in the extent of these processes and the degree of stakeholder participation. Community stakeholders participated in screening or scoping in just two-thirds of the HIAs (16). On average, these HIAs analyzed 5.5 determinants related to 10.6 health impacts. Most HIA reports did not include evaluation or monitoring plans. This study identifies issues for field development and improvement. The standards might be adapted to better account for variability in resources, produce fit-for-purpose HIAs, and facilitate innovation guided by the principles. - Highlights: • Our study examined reported HIAs in the U.S. against published practice standards. • Most HIAs used some screening, scoping and assessment elements from the standards. • The extent of these processes and stakeholder participation varied widely. • The average HIA considered multiple health determinants and impacts. • Evaluation or monitoring plans were generally not included in

  8. Qualitative Assessment of Local Distribution of Screen for Life Mass Media Materials in Appalachia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Robin C. Vanderpool, MPH, CHES

    2006-03-01

    Full Text Available Introduction Screen for Life: National Colorectal Cancer Action Campaign is a multimedia campaign that informs men and women aged 50 and older about the importance of colorectal cancer screening. The Appalachia Cancer Network undertook a qualitative research study to help determine whether Screen for Life materials are being used and distributed by organizations serving Appalachian residents and to help assess key informants’ perceived acceptability of the materials. Methods Semistructured telephone interviews were conducted with 13 state and local informants in three Appalachian states to assess the diversity of community organizations that received the materials, the level of material use, and receptivity to Screen for Life. Results Regional cancer control programs were more active in promoting Screen for Life at local levels than state health departments. Although state health departments are the primary route for distributing Screen for Life materials, they did not report the breadth of activities noted by regional cancer control programs. Several local interview respondents were unfamiliar with Screen for Life, and respondents who were familiar with Screen for Life used the materials in a general, unplanned way. Although some respondents were unfamiliar with the campaign materials, they were interested in Screen for Life. No formal evaluations on the effectiveness of the materials were reported. Conclusion More guidance on how to implement the Screen for Life campaign as a targeted health communication media campaign would be helpful.

  9. Risk-Based Immunization Policies and Tuberculosis Screening Practices for Animal Care and Research Workers in the United States: Survey Results and Recommendations

    OpenAIRE

    Weigler, Benjamin J; Cooper, Donna R; Hankenson, F Claire

    2012-01-01

    A national survey was conducted to assess immunization practices and tuberculosis screening methods for animal care and research workers in biomedical settings throughout the United States. Veterinarians (n = 953) were surveyed via a web-based mechanism; completed surveys (n = 308) were analyzed. Results showed that occupational health and safety programs were well-developed, enrolling veterinary, husbandry, and research staff at rates exceeding 90% and involving multiple modalities of health...

  10. Procedures for establishing defensible programmes for assessing practice performance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lew, Stephen R; Page, Gordon G; Schuwirth, Lambert W T; Baron-Maldonado, Margarita; Lescop, Joelle M J; Paget, Neil S; J Southgate, Lesley; Wade, Winifred B

    2002-10-01

    The assessment of the performance of doctors in practice is becoming more widely accepted. While there are many potential purposes for such assessments, sometimes the consequences of the assessments will be 'high stakes'. In these circumstances, any of the many elements of the assessment programme may potentially be challenged. These assessment programmes therefore need to be robust, fair and defensible, taken from the perspectives of consumer, assessee and assessor. In order to inform the design of defensible programmes for assessing practice performance, a group of education researchers at the 10th Cambridge Conference adopted a project management approach to designing practice performance assessment programmes. This paper describes issues to consider in the articulation of the purposes and outcomes of the assessment, planning the programme, the administrative processes involved, including communication and preparation of assessees. Examples of key questions to be answered are provided, but further work is needed to test validity. PMID:12390461

  11. Developing a web-based dietary sodium screening tool for personalized assessment and feedback

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arcand, JoAnne; Abdulaziz, Kasim; Bennett, Carol; L’Abbé, Mary R.; Manuel, Douglas G.

    2016-01-01

    Dietary sodium reduction is commonly used in the treatment of hypertension, heart and liver failure, and chronic kidney disease. Sodium reduction is also an important public health problem since most of the Canadian population consumes sodium in excess of their daily requirements. Lack of awareness about the amount of sodium consumed and the sources of sodium in diet is common, and undoubtedly a major contributor to excess sodium consumption. There are few known tools available to screen and provide personalized information about sodium in the diet. Therefore, we developed a web-based sodium intake screening tool called the Salt Calculator (www.projectbiglife.ca), which is publicly available for individuals to assess the amount and sources of sodium in their diet. The Calculator contains 23 questions focusing on restaurant foods, packaged foods, and added salt. Questions were developed using sodium consumption data from the Canadian Community Health Survey cycle 2.2 and up-to-date information on sodium levels in packaged and restaurant food databases from the University of Toronto. The Calculator translates existing knowledge about dietary sodium into a tool that can be accessed by the public as well as integrated into clinical practice to address the high levels of sodium presently in the Canadian diet. PMID:24552393

  12. Study protocol for a three-armed randomized controlled trial to assess whether house screening can reduce exposure to malaria vectors and reduce malaria transmission in The Gambia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Milligan Paul J

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Mosquito-proofing homes was one of the principal methods of environmental management in the early 1900s. House screening provides protection against malaria by reducing exposure to malaria parasites and has the added benefit of protecting everyone sleeping in the house, avoiding issues of inequity within the household. The aim of this study is to determine whether house screening protects people against malaria in Africa. It is hoped that this study will mark the beginning of a series of trials assessing a range of environmental interventions for malaria control in Africa. Design A 3-armed randomised-controlled trial will be conducted in and around Farafenni town in The Gambia, West Africa, to assess whether screening windows, doors and closing eaves or installing netting ceilings in local houses can substantially reduce malaria transmission and anaemia compared to homes with no screening. Eligible houses will be sorted and stratified by location and the number of children in each house, then randomly allocated to the interventions in blocks of 5 houses (2 with full screening, 2 with screened ceilings and 1 control house without screening. Risk of malaria transmission will be assessed in each house by routine collections of mosquitoes using light traps and an anaemia prevalence study in children at the end of the main transmission period. Discussion Practical issues concerning intervention implementation, as well as the potential benefits and risks of the study, are discussed. Trial Registration ISRCTN51184253 – Screening-homes to prevent malaria

  13. Bootcamp EMMA MOOC Assessment for learning in practice

    OpenAIRE

    Firssova, Olga; Brouns, Francis

    2016-01-01

    Formative assessment or assessment for learning is a relevant theme for teachers and educationalists. Formative assessment is a valuable tool for supporting the learning process. It is applied during learning and offers you more and better opportunities to guide your students. Formative assessment allows for more individual and/or personalised guidance. In this MOOC Assessment for learning in practice we will provide you with theory and guidelines for knowledge construction on the topic of fo...

  14. Psychiatric Assessment and Screening for the Elderly in Primary Care: Design, Implementation, and Preliminary Results

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Robert C. Abrams

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction. We describe the design and implementation of a psychiatric collaborative care model in a university-based geriatric primary care practice. Initial results of screening for anxiety and depression are reported. Methods and Materials. Screens for anxiety and depression were administered to practice patients. A mental health team, consisting of a psychiatrist, mental health nurse practitioner, and social worker, identified patients who on review of screening and chart data warranted evaluation or treatment. Referrals for mental health interventions were directed to members of the mental health team, primary care physicians at the practice, or community providers. Results. Subjects (N=1505 comprised 38.2% of the 3940 unique patients seen at the practice during the 4-year study period. 37.1% (N=555 screened positive for depression, 26.9% (N=405 for anxiety, and 322 (21.4% screened positive for both. Any positive score was associated with age (P<0.033, female gender (P<0.006, and a nonsignificant trend toward living alone (P<0.095. 8.87% had suicidal thoughts. Conclusions. Screening captured the most affectively symptomatic patients, including those with suicidal ideation, for intervention. The partnering of mental health professionals and primary care physicians offers a workable model for addressing the scarcity of expertise in geriatric psychiatry.

  15. Practical Ways To Assess Elementary Music Students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lange, Diane M.

    1999-01-01

    Identifies the difference between measurement and evaluation and considers how to use a variety of assessment tools (seating charts, rating scales, age-appropriate tests, and portfolios and grade books) to the best advantage. Reveals the benefits of assessment both in general and to music teachers. (CMK)

  16. LIFE CYCLE ASSESSMENT: PRINCIPLES AND PRACTICE

    Science.gov (United States)

    The following document provides an introductory overview of Life Cycle Assessment (LCA) and describes the general uses and major components of LCA. This document is an update and merger of two previous EPA documents on LCA ("Life Cycle Assessment: Inventory Guidelines and Princip...

  17. Learning Progressions that Support Formative Assessment Practices

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alonzo, Alicia C.

    2011-01-01

    Black, Wilson, and Yao (this issue) lay out a comprehensive vision for the way that learning progressions (or other "road maps") might be used to inform and coordinate formative and summative purposes of assessment. As Black, Wilson, and others have been arguing for over a decade, the effective use of formative assessment has great potential to…

  18. Formative Assessment: Policy, Perspectives and Practice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clark, Ian

    2011-01-01

    Proponents of formative assessment (FA) assert that students develop a deeper understanding of their learning when the essential components of formative feedback and cultural responsiveness are effectively incorporated as central features of the formative assessment process. Even with growing international agreement among the research community…

  19. A human reliability assessment screening method for the NRU upgrade project

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The National Research Universal (NRU) reactor is a 130MW, low pressure, heavy water cooled and moderated research reactor. The reactor is used for research, both in support of Canada's CANDU development program, and for a wide variety of other research applications. In addition, NRU plays an important part in the production of medical isotopes, e.g., generating 80% of worldwide supplies of Molybdenum-99. NRU is owned and operated by Atomic Energy of Canada Ltd. (AECL), and is currently undergoing upgrading as part of AECL's continuing commitment to operate their facilities in a safe manner. As part of these upgrades both deterministic and probabilistic safety assessments are being carried out. It was recognized that the assignment of Human Error Probabilities (HEPs) is an important part of the Probabilistic Safety Assessment (PSA) studies, particularly for a facility whose design predates modern ergonomic practices, and which will undergo a series of backfitted modifications whilst continuing to operate. A simple Human Reliability Assessment (HRA) screening method, looking at both pre- and post-accident errors, was used in the initial safety studies. However, following review of this method within AECL and externally by the regulator, it was judged that benefits could be gained for future error reduction by including additional features, as later described in this document. The HRA development project consisted of several stages; needs analysis, literature review, development of method (including testing and evaluation), and implementation. This paper discusses each of these stages in further detail. (author)

  20. Quality Assessment of Colonoscopy Reporting: Results from a Statewide Cancer Screening Program

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jun Li

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper aimed to assess quality of colonoscopy reports and determine if physicians in practice were already documenting recommended quality indicators, prior to the publication of a standardized Colonoscopy Reporting and Data System (CO-RADS in 2007. We examined 110 colonoscopy reports from 2005-2006 through Maryland Colorectal Cancer Screening Program. We evaluated 25 key data elements recommended by CO-RADS, including procedure indications, risk/comorbidity assessments, procedure technical descriptions, colonoscopy findings, specimen retrieval/pathology. Among 110 reports, 73% documented the bowel preparation quality and 82% documented specific cecal landmarks. For the 177 individual polyps identified, information on size and morphology was documented for 87% and 53%, respectively. Colonoscopy reporting varied considerately in the pre-CO-RADS period. The absence of key data elements may impact the ability to make recommendations for recall intervals. This paper provides baseline data to assess if CO-RADS has an impact on reporting and how best to improve the quality of reporting.

  1. Large-screen display technology assessment for military applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blaha, Richard J.

    1990-08-01

    Full-color, large screen display systems can enhance military applications that require group presentation, coordinated decisions, or interaction between decision makers. The technology already plays an important role in operations centers, simulation facilities, conference rooms, and training centers. Some applications display situational, status, or briefing information, while others portray instructional material for procedural training or depict realistic panoramic scenes that are used in simulators. While each specific application requires unique values of luminance, resolution, response time, reliability, and the video interface, suitable performance can be achieved with available commercial large screen displays. Advances in the technology of large screen displays are driven by the commercial applications because the military applications do not provide the significant market share enjoyed by high definition television (HDTV), entertainment, advertisement, training, and industrial applications. This paper reviews the status of full-color, large screen display technologies and includes the performance and cost metrics of available systems. For this discussion, performance data is based upon either measurements made by our personnel or extractions from vendors' data sheets.

  2. Exploring Elementary Teachers' Implementation of Formative Assessment Practices for Reading

    Science.gov (United States)

    Richardson, Irving

    2010-01-01

    The purpose of the study was to determine whether or not elementary classroom teachers' exploration of an integrated theoretical model of formative assessment would change participants' understandings of formative assessment and whether or not participants would apply this newly-acquired knowledge to their classroom assessment practices. After…

  3. Student-Focused Assessment Criteria: Thinking through Best Practice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Worth, Nancy

    2014-01-01

    Using results from a survey and focus groups with staff and students, I evaluate best practice for student-focused assessment criteria, including the value of specific assessment criteria, where and when students engage with criteria, the use of exemplars, how assessment criteria connect to feedback and the importance of bringing students more…

  4. Application of four bacterial screening procedures to assess changes in the toxicity of chemicals in mixtures

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dutka, B.J.; Kwan, K.K.

    1982-10-01

    Four microbiological acute toxicity screening test methods with Microtox, Spirillum volutans, Pseudomonas fluorescens and Aeromonas hydrophila were compared using solutions of mixed toxic chemicals. Each toxicity screening test appeared to have its own sensitivity pattern and it would appear unwise to try to assess the presence of toxicants in waters or effluents by a single species test. The battery approach, encompassing two or three genera and involving two to four species, is recommended to assess the potential presence of toxicants more thoroughly.

  5. Assessing Fiscal Sustainability in Theory and Practice

    OpenAIRE

    Nigel Andrew Chalk; Richard Hemming

    2000-01-01

    The main purpose of this paper is to provide an overview of approaches to assessing fiscal sustainability. It summarizes the general analytical background, focusing on the present value budget constraint, which is the benchmark against which solvency is determined, tests of sustainability (including sustainability indicators), and sustainability and uncertainty. The paper then looks at the way in which fiscal sustainability has been assessed in different types of IMF work. Finally the link be...

  6. Practical session assessments in human anatomy: Weightings and performance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McDonald, Aaron C; Chan, Siew-Pang; Schuijers, Johannes A

    2016-07-01

    Assessment weighting within a given module can be a motivating factor for students when deciding on their commitment level and time given to study a specific topic. In this study, an analysis of assessment performances of second year anatomy students was performed over four years to determine if (1) students performed better when a higher weighting was given to a set of practical session assessments and (2) whether an improved performance in the practical session assessments had a carry-over effect on other assessment tasks within that anatomy module and/or other anatomy modules that follow. Results showed that increasing the weighting of practical session assessments improved the average mark in that assessment and also improved the percentage of students passing that assessment. Further, it significantly improved performance in the written end-semester examination within the same module and had a carry-over effect on the anatomy module taught in the next teaching period, as students performed better in subsequent practical session assessments as well as subsequent end-semester examinations. It was concluded that the weighting of assessments had significant influences on a student's performance in that, and subsequent, assessments. It is postulated that practical session assessments, designed to develop deep learning skills in anatomy, improved efficacy in student performance in assessments undertaken in that and subsequent anatomy modules when the weighting of these assessments was greater. These deep learning skills were also transferable to other methods of assessing anatomy. Anat Sci Educ 9: 330-336. © 2015 American Association of Anatomists. PMID:26580309

  7. Grounding Locations Assessment of Practical Power System

    OpenAIRE

    Kousay Abdul Sattar; Ahmed M.A. Haidar; Nadheer A. Shalash

    2012-01-01

    Grounding Points (GPs) are installed in electrical power system to drive protective devices and accomplish the person nel safety. The general grounding problem is to find the optimal locations of these points so that the security and reli ability of power system can be improved. This paper presents a practical approach to find the optimal location of GPs based on the ratios of zero sequence reactance with positive sequence reactance (X0/X1), zero sequence resistance with positive sequence rea...

  8. Developing a typology of African Americans with limited literacy based on preventive health practice orientation: implications for colorectal cancer screening strategies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gordon, Thomas F; Bass, Sarah Bauerle; Ruzek, Sheryl B; Wolak, Caitlin; Rovito, Michael J; Ruggieri, Dominique G; Ward, Stephanie; Paranjape, Anuradha; Greener, Judith

    2014-01-01

    Preventive health messages are often tailored to reach broad sociodemographic groups. However, within groups, there may be considerable variation in perceptions of preventive health practices, such as colorectal cancer screening. Segmentation analysis provides a tool for crafting messages that are tailored more closely to the mental models of targeted individuals or subgroups. This study used cluster analysis, a psychosocial marketing segmentation technique, to develop a typology of colorectal cancer screening orientation among 102 African American clinic patients between the ages of 50 and 74 years with limited literacy. Patients were from a general internal medicine clinic in a large urban teaching hospital, a subpopulation known to have high rates of colorectal cancer and low rates of screening. Preventive screening orientation variables included the patients' responses to questions involving personal attitudes and preferences toward preventive screening and general prevention practices. A k-means cluster analysis yielded three clusters of patients on the basis of their screening orientation: ready screeners (50.0%), cautious screeners (30.4%), and fearful avoiders (19.6%). The resulting typology clearly defines important subgroups on the basis of their preventive health practice perceptions. The authors propose that the development of a validated typology of patients on the basis of their preventive health perceptions could be applicable to a variety of health concerns. Such a typology would serve to standardize how populations are characterized and would provide a more accurate view of their preventive health-related attitudes, values, concerns, preferences, and behaviors. Used with standardized assessment tools, it would provide an empirical basis for tailoring health messages and improving medical communication. PMID:24673248

  9. Investigating the Dynamics of Formative Assessment: Relationships between Teacher Knowledge, Assessment Practice and Learning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herman, Joan; Osmundson, Ellen; Dai, Yunyun; Ringstaff, Cathy; Timms, Michael

    2015-01-01

    This exploratory study of elementary school science examines questions central to policy, practice and research on formative assessment: What is the quality of teachers' content-pedagogical and assessment knowledge? What is the relationship between teacher knowledge and assessment practice? What is the relationship between teacher knowledge,…

  10. Improving asthma severity and control screening in a primary care pediatric practice

    OpenAIRE

    Sudhanthar, Sathyanarayan; Thakur, Kripa; Sigal, Yakov; Turner, Jane; Gold, Jonathan

    2016-01-01

    Asthma is the most commonly encountered chronic disease in children. Periodic assessment of asthma severity and control is an integral part of asthma management, but patients with uncontrolled asthma don't always schedule routine asthma care visits. The aim of this project was to improve asthma control and severity screening in a primary care setting by using a validated tool for all visits for patients with a diagnosis of asthma aged 4-21 years. Our QI team developed a protocol to administer...

  11. Misunderstood and Neglected? Diagnostic and Formative Assessment Practices of Lecturers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kemp, Sandra; Scaife, Jon

    2012-01-01

    Diagnostic and formative assessment practices have been widely endorsed in the educational research literature. This article reports the findings of a small-scale study which investigated the extent to which these practices have been embraced in classroom teaching. The interview data from six lecturers and six students at a polytechnic in…

  12. Intergrating injury screening with measurement and monitoring: a conceptual approach using a patient global assessment of the body and limbs scale

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. Gabel

    2006-02-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: To  develop a conceptual model for patients withmusculoskeletal injuries that relates Injury Screening to Measurement and Monitoring (ISMAM. Screening scores would predict quantifiable outcomes on a proposed Global Assessment of Body And Limbs (GABAL composite scale.  The scale would define status as a percentage of pre-injury capacity using quantitative and qualitative self report outcome measures combined with work and life status data. Background: Screening questionnaires use psychosocial yellow flags and activity limitation to identify potential chronic patients. Outcome measures provide clinical evidence by establishing patient status and assessing intervening change.  Independently developed,definitive statistical links between these established concepts are yet to be determined. Description: The ISMAM components are integrated using a graph of time versus score on the GABAL-scale with initial screening predicting recovery time to a designated pre-injury percentage level.  Actual status would be assessed through initial then subsequent sequential measurements with GABAL-scale scores enabling trendline analysis to  verify if the rate of actual recovery coincides with that predicted by screening. Observations: Face and content validity are apparent because validated screening tools are available and the requiredcomponents for the GABAL-scale would be existing validated outcome measures and quantifiable data.Conclusions: This model should provide a practical method of integrating screening and global measurement thatfacilitates communication across agencies and professions.  A clinical research trial to validate the ISMAM concepthas been initiated.

  13. The RT-18: a new screening tool to assess young adult risk-taking behavior

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    de Haan L

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available Lydia de Haan1, Esther Kuipers1, Yvanca Kuerten1, Margriet van Laar2, Berend Olivier1, Joris Cornelis Verster11Division of Pharmacology, Utrecht Institute for Pharmaceutical Sciences, Utrecht University; 2Trimbos Institute, Netherlands Institute of Mental Health and Addiction, Utrecht, The NetherlandsAbstract: Risk-taking behavior is a major determinant of health and plays a central role in various diseases. Therefore, a brief questionnaire was developed to assess risk taking among young adults with known different levels of risk-taking behavior (social drinkers and recreational drug users. In Study 1, N = 522 university students completed the RT-18 risk taking questionnaire. N = 100 students were retested after 2 to 4 weeks and performed the Cambridge Gambling Task (CGT. Mean RT-18 score was 7.69 and Cronbach's alpha was 0.886. The test-retest reliability was r = 0.94. Significant correlation was found between the RT-18 score and CGT scores of risk taking, bet proportion, and risk adjustment. In Study 2, N = 7834 young adult social drinkers, and recreational drug users, mean RT-18 score was 9.34 and Cronbach's alpha was 0.80. Factor analysis showed that the RT-18 comprises two factors assessing level of risk-taking behavior and risk assessment. Men scored significantly higher than women on the RT-18. Recreational drug users had significantly higher scores when compared to social drinkers. In Study 3 of N = 1000 students, construct validity was confirmed by showing that the RT-18 outcome correlates significantly with scores on the Stimulating-Instrumental Risk Inventory. In conclusion, the RT-18 is a valid and reliable screening tool to differentiate levels of risk-taking behavior. This short scale is quick and practical to administer, imposing minimal demands on participants. The RT-18 is able to differentiate risk taking and risk assessment which can help target appropriate intervention strategies.Keywords: risk taking, impulsivity, sensation

  14. Assessing the relative accuracies of two screening tests in the presence of verification bias.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, X H; Higgs, R E

    Epidemiological studies of dementia often use two-stage designs because of the relatively low prevalence of the disease and the high cost of ascertaining a diagnosis. The first stage of a two-stage design assesses a large sample with a screening instrument. Then, the subjects are grouped according to their performance on the screening instrument, such as poor, intermediate and good performers. The second stage involves a more extensive diagnostic procedure, such as a clinical assessment, for a particular subset of the study sample selected from each of these groups. However, not all selected subjects have the clinical diagnosis because some subjects may refuse and others are unable to be clinically assessed. Thus, some subjects screened do not have a clinical diagnosis. Furthermore, whether a subject has a clinical diagnosis depends not only on the screening test result but also on other factors, and the sampling fractions for the diagnosis are unknown and have to be estimated. One of the goals in these studies is to assess the relative accuracies of two screening tests. Any analysis using only verified cases may result in verification bias. In this paper, we propose the use of two bootstrap methods to construct confidence intervals for the difference in the accuracies of two screening tests in the presence of verification bias. We illustrate the application of the proposed methods to a simulated data set from a real two-stage study of dementia that has motivated this research. PMID:10844728

  15. Closing the Gap between Policy and Practice in Screening for Perinatal Depression: A Policy Analysis and Call for Action.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Miao; Sampson, McClain

    2016-10-01

    Although perinatal depression (PND) is one of the most common maternal morbidities, it is frequently undetected. Screening for early detection and intervention has the potential to prevent depressive symptoms from worsening. In the United States, five states have enacted legislation in relation to screening for PND, but a gap remains between policy and practice in providing continuum of care for mothers who may be suffering from depressive symptoms. From the perspective of policy formation, the reasons for this gap include a discrepancy between policy and practice goals, lack of regulations on capability building among perinatal care providers, and few pathways for establishing collaborations between medical providers and mental health professionals. The authors recommend involving social workers in the process to promote a better continuum of care after screening through comprehensive policy that explicitly states goals to effectively screen women in the perinatal period. PMID:27254263

  16. Assessing the utility and limitations of high throughput virtual screening

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paul Daniel Phillips

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Due to low cost, speed, and unmatched ability to explore large numbers of compounds, high throughput virtual screening and molecular docking engines have become widely utilized by computational scientists. It is generally accepted that docking engines, such as AutoDock, produce reliable qualitative results for ligand-macromolecular receptor binding, and molecular docking results are commonly reported in literature in the absence of complementary wet lab experimental data. In this investigation, three variants of the sixteen amino acid peptide, α-conotoxin MII, were docked to a homology model of the a3β2-nicotinic acetylcholine receptor. DockoMatic version 2.0 was used to perform a virtual screen of each peptide ligand to the receptor for ten docking trials consisting of 100 AutoDock cycles per trial. The results were analyzed for both variation in the calculated binding energy obtained from AutoDock, and the orientation of bound peptide within the receptor. The results show that, while no clear correlation exists between consistent ligand binding pose and the calculated binding energy, AutoDock is able to determine a consistent positioning of bound peptide in the majority of trials when at least ten trials were evaluated.

  17. Producing reflective practice capability: a textual analysis of practice learning and assessment portfolios

    OpenAIRE

    Volante, Margaret

    2013-01-01

    Within portfolios used by nurse education programmes of higher education for practice learning and assessment, reflective narrative accounts are considered evidence of practice learning outcomes. Evaluation research of portfolios used in nurse education programmes is for the most part based on student perceptions which show students are conflicted on the inclusion of reflective accounts in the portfolio. This paper examines how structural influences of the practice learning milieu shape the ...

  18. Assessment Practices and Training Needs of Early Childhood Professionals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Banerjee, Rashida; Luckner, John L.

    2013-01-01

    Assessment plays a critical role in the planning and delivery of quality services for young children and their families. The purpose of this study was to identify the current assessment practices and training needs of early childhood professionals. A large sample of early childhood professionals responded to a comprehensive survey. The most…

  19. Urban Ecosystem Health Assessment: Perspectives and Chinese Practice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lixiao Zhang

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available The concept of ecosystem health is a way to assess the holistic operations and development potential of urban ecosystems. Accelerated by the practical need for integrated ecosystem management, assessment of urban ecosystem health has been greatly developed and extensively applied in urban planning and management. Development is aimed at comprehensively evaluating the performance of urban ecosystems, identifying the limiting factors, and providing suggestions for urban regulation. The time has come for reviewing and establishing an instructional framework for urban ecosystem health assessment to shed light on certain essential issues of urban ecosystem health. Based on literature reviews and series of practice, a holistic framework of urban ecosystem health assessment is proposed. The framework covers the essential elements of urban ecosystem health and integrates three dimensions: theoretical foundation, assessment method, and practical application. Concrete assessment methods are also established, focusing on both external performance and internal metabolic processes. The practice of urban ecosystem health assessment in China is illustrated to briefly demonstrate the application of the established framework and methods. Some prospects are discussed for urban ecosystem health assessment and its application in urban planning and management.

  20. Violence Risk Assessment Practices in Denmark: A Multidisciplinary National Survey

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nielsen Louise Hjort

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available With a quadrupling of forensic psychiatric patients in Denmark over the past 20 years, focus on violence risk assessment practices across the country has increased. However, information is lacking regarding Danish risk assessment practice across professional disciplines and clinical settings; little is known about how violence risk assessments are conducted, which instruments are used for what purposes, and how mental health professionals rate their utility and costs. As part of a global survey exploring the application of violence risk assessment across 44 countries, the current study investigated Danish practice across several professional disciplines and settings in which forensic and high-risk mental health patients are assessed and treated. In total, 125 mental health professionals across the country completed the survey. The five instruments that respondents reported most commonly using for risk assessment, risk management planning and risk monitoring were Broset, HCR-20, the START, the PCL-R, and the PCL:SV. Whereas the HCR-20 was rated highest in usefulness for risk assessment, the START was rated most useful for risk management and risk monitoring. No significant differences in utility were observed across professional groups. Unstructured clinical judgments were reported to be faster but more expensive to conduct than using a risk assessment instrument. Implications for clinical practice are discussed.

  1. Assessing Pre-Service Teachers' Quality Teaching Practices

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Weiyun; Hendricks, Kristin; Archibald, Kelsi

    2011-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to design and validate the Assessing Quality Teaching Rubrics (AQTR) that assesses the pre-service teachers' quality teaching practices in a live lesson or a videotaped lesson. Twenty-one lessons taught by 13 Physical Education Teacher Education (PETE) students were videotaped. The videotaped lessons were evaluated…

  2. Academic Advising Assessment Practices: Results of a National Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Powers, Keith L.; Carlstrom, Aaron H.

    2014-01-01

    Best practices of academic advising assessment involve identification of student learning outcomes, the development and use of multiple measures of student learning, and sound professional judgment to understand the information gathered and to improve student learning. However, the assessment results often come from minimal, narrow, and…

  3. Standards to support learning and assessment in practice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Houghton, Trish

    2016-01-27

    This is the first article in a series of 11 that will offer guidance to new and existing mentors and practice teachers to enable them to develop in their role and help them to gather a portfolio of evidence that meets the Nursing and Midwifery Council's Standards to Support Learning and Assessment in Practice (SSLAP). This article provides background to the development of the standards and outlines the SSLAP, including the four main stages of the framework, the eight domains and outcomes, and the five principles required for the roles of mentor, sign-off mentor and practice teacher. The requirements for maintaining the mentor and practice teacher roles are explored. PMID:26967885

  4. Optimizing stormwater treatment practices a handbook of assessment and maintenance

    CERN Document Server

    Erickson, Andrew J; Gulliver, John S

    2013-01-01

    Optimizing Stormwater Treatment Practices: A Handbook of Assessment and Maintenance provides the information necessary for developing and operating an effective maintenance program for stormwater treatment. The book offers instructions on how to measure the level of performance of stormwater treatment practices directly and bases proposed maintenance schedules on actual performance and historical maintenance efforts and costs. The inspection methods, which are proven in the field and have been implemented successfully, are necessary as regulatory agencies are demanding evaluations of the performance of stormwater treatment practices. The authors have developed a three-tiered approach that offers readers a standard protocol for how to determine the effectiveness of stormwater treatment practices currently in place. This book also: Provides a standard protocol for how to determine the effectiveness of stormwater treatment practices Assists readers with identifying which assessment techniques to use for stormwa...

  5. Assessing competency in Evidence Based Practice: strengths and limitations of current tools in practice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ilic Dragan

    2009-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Evidence Based Practice (EBP involves making clinical decisions informed by the most relevant and valid evidence available. Competence can broadly be defined as a concept that incorporates a variety of domains including knowledge, skills and attitudes. Adopting an evidence-based approach to practice requires differing competencies across various domains including literature searching, critical appraisal and communication. This paper examines the current tools available to assess EBP competence and compares their applicability to existing assessment techniques used in medicine, nursing and health sciences. Discussion Only two validated assessment tools have been developed to specifically assess all aspects of EBP competence. Of the two tools (Berlin and Fresno tools, only the Fresno tool comprehensively assesses EBP competency across all relevant domains. However, both tools focus on assessing EBP competency in medical students; therefore neither can be used for assessing EBP competency across different health disciplines. The Objective Structured Clinical Exam (OSCE has been demonstrated as a reliable and versatile tool to assess clinical competencies, practical and communication skills. The OSCE has scope as an alternate method for assessing EBP competency, since it combines assessment of cognitive skills including knowledge, reasoning and communication. However, further research is needed to develop the OSCE as a viable method for assessing EBP competency. Summary Demonstrating EBP competence is a complex task – therefore no single assessment method can adequately provide all of the necessary data to assess complete EBP competence. There is a need for further research to explore how EBP competence is best assessed; be it in written formats, such as the Fresno tool, or another format, such as the OSCE. Future tools must also incorporate measures of assessing how EBP competence affects clinician behaviour and attitudes as

  6. Evidence-Based Assessment in Case Management to Improve Abnormal Cancer Screen Follow-Up

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vourlekis, Betsy; Ell, Kathleen; Padgett, Deborah

    2005-01-01

    The authors describe an evidence-based assessment protocol for intensive case management to improve screening diagnostic follow-up developed through a research project in breast and cervical cancer early detection funded by the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. Three components of an evidence-based approach to assessment are presented…

  7. DEA best practice assesses relative efficiency, profitability

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The US Federal Energy Regulatory Commission (FERC), in its Order 636 of Apr. 8, 1992, stated, ''All natural gas suppliers, including pipelines, will compete for gas purchases on an equal footing.'' This FERC order changed the economic environment in the natural gas pipeline industry. Now, gas pipeline companies must know their market position, since rate of return regulation is no longer relevant. They must be managed more than before as companies have been in less-regulated parts of the oil and gas business. How they adapt to the new environment, therefore, can be instructive to companies throughout the energy industry. In this article, DEA best-practice methods measure relative efficiency and profitability potential. This measurement reflects fundamental economic relationships. The operational efficiency model analyzed is as follows: Y1 = f(x1, x2), where Y1 is gross profits, x1 is total assets (capital employed), and x2 is total employees (labor employed). Y1 is a comprehensive indicator of a pipeline's output, whereas x1 represents the pipeline's total capital employed, and x2 represents the pipeline's total labor employed. This model reflects principles long studied in economics

  8. Assessment of Emergency Preparedness Modules in Introductory Pharmacy Practice Experiences

    Science.gov (United States)

    von Waldner, Trina; McEwen, Deanna W.; White, Catherine A.

    2016-01-01

    Objective. To determine the impact of emergency preparedness simulations in mass triage and mass dispensing on student pharmacist performance and perceived competency when assuming pharmacist roles in disaster situations. Design. Second-year student pharmacists (144) completed two 3-hour simulations focusing on mass triage and mass dispensing. The mass triage simulation consisted of virtual and live victims to be triaged and assigned a transport order. In the mass dispensing simulation, students assumed patient and pharmacist roles in a point-of-dispensing exercise for influenza. Assessment. For the mass triage simulation, students were challenged most by determining which patients could wait for emergency care but did well assessing those who required immediate or minimal care (83% and 64% correct, respectively). During the mass dispensing simulation, students performed screening and dispensing functions with accuracy rates of 88% and 90%, respectively. Conclusion. Student pharmacists performed well in screening and dispensing functions, but struggled with mass casualty triage during emergency preparedness simulations. PMID:27073276

  9. Assessment of Emergency Preparedness Modules in Introductory Pharmacy Practice Experiences.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hannings, Ashley N; von Waldner, Trina; McEwen, Deanna W; White, Catherine A

    2016-03-25

    Objective. To determine the impact of emergency preparedness simulations in mass triage and mass dispensing on student pharmacist performance and perceived competency when assuming pharmacist roles in disaster situations. Design. Second-year student pharmacists (144) completed two 3-hour simulations focusing on mass triage and mass dispensing. The mass triage simulation consisted of virtual and live victims to be triaged and assigned a transport order. In the mass dispensing simulation, students assumed patient and pharmacist roles in a point-of-dispensing exercise for influenza. Assessment. For the mass triage simulation, students were challenged most by determining which patients could wait for emergency care but did well assessing those who required immediate or minimal care (83% and 64% correct, respectively). During the mass dispensing simulation, students performed screening and dispensing functions with accuracy rates of 88% and 90%, respectively. Conclusion. Student pharmacists performed well in screening and dispensing functions, but struggled with mass casualty triage during emergency preparedness simulations. PMID:27073276

  10. A Practical Approach to Screening Potential Environmental Hotspots of Different Impact Categories in Supply Chains

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jun Nakatani

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Identification of environmental hotspots becomes a pressing issue for companies pursuing sustainable supply chain management. In particular, excessive dependence on water resources outside the country may put the supply chain at unanticipated risk of water shortage. This article presents a practical approach to screening potential environmental hotspots of different impact categories that occur in the supply chain using environmental input-output analysis. First, the amounts of domestic and foreign potential impacts of global warming, terrestrial acidification, and water resource consumption, induced through supply chains were calculated for 403 sectors of Japanese products. Thereafter, with a focus on potential impacts induced through the import of raw materials, a framework for screening foreign potential hotspots was presented. The results showed that the sectoral potential impacts of water resource consumption had high rates of foreign impacts at deeper tiers of the supply chains for some sectors, which indicated that there exist hidden water hotspots outside the country. In the case study of fiber yarns, impacts on water resource consumption induced as a result of the import of crops, as well as that induced in silviculture as a result of the import of wood chips, were found to be the foreign potential hotspots.

  11. Prenatal screening and prenatal diagnosis: contemporary practices in light of the past.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iltis, Ana S

    2016-06-01

    The 20th century eugenics movement in the USA and contemporary practices involving prenatal screening (PNS), prenatal diagnosis (PND), abortion and preimplantation genetic diagnosis (PGD) share important morally relevant similarities. I summarise some features of the 20th century eugenics movement; describe the contemporary standard of care in the USA regarding PNS, PND, abortion and PGD; and demonstrate that the 'old eugenics' the contemporary standard of care share the underlying view that social resources should be invested to prevent the birth of people with certain characteristics. This comparison makes evident the difficulty of crafting moral arguments that treat some uses of PNS, PND, abortion and PGD as licit and others as illicit. PMID:27161556

  12. Screening for developmental dysplasia of the hip: current practices in Ireland.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    O'Grady, M J

    2012-01-31

    OBJECTIVE: To ascertain the current approach to screen for developmental dysplasia of the hip in the Republic of Ireland. METHODS: Two-pronged prospective and retrospective study. (1) Postal questionnaire to consultant paediatricians responsible for the routine neonatal care of infants in the Irish Republic in June 2006. (2) Retrospective database review to identify infants undergoing radiological follow-up and their outcome. RESULTS: All maternity units surveyed responded. Most units (84%) were dependent on radiographs at 4-6 months for imaging hips, only two units primarily used ultrasound (10.5%). We estimate that neonatal hip examination is performed by an experienced examiner in less than 30% of routine newborn examinations. On retrospective analysis, 94% of radiographs performed were normal. CONCLUSIONS: The most effective interventions, selective ultrasound and examination by an experienced clinician are not widely practiced. There is a need for the development of national guidelines based on available resources.

  13. Development of a Health Screening Package Under the Universal Health Coverage: The Role of Health Technology Assessment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Teerawattananon, Yot; Kingkaew, Pritaporn; Koopitakkajorn, Tanunya; Youngkong, Sitaporn; Tritasavit, Nattha; Srisuwan, Patsri; Tantivess, Sripen

    2016-02-01

    This study reports the systematic development of a population-based health screening package for all Thai people under the universal health coverage (UHC). To determine major disease areas and health problems for which health screening could mitigate health burden, a consultation process was conducted in a systematic, participatory, and evidence-based manner that involved 41 stakeholders in a half-day workshop. Twelve diseases/health problems were identified during the discussion. Subsequently, health technology assessments, including systematic review and meta-analysis of health benefits as well as economic evaluations and budget impact analyses of corresponding population-based screening interventions, were completed. The results led to advice against elements of current clinical practice, such as annual chest X-rays and particular blood tests (e.g. kidney function test), and indicated that the introduction of certain new population-based health screening programs, such as for chronic hepatitis B, would provide substantial health and economic benefits to the Thais. The final results were presented to a wide group of stakeholders, including decision-makers at the Ministry of Public Health and the public health insurance schemes, to verify and validate the findings and policy recommendations. The package has been endorsed by the Thai UHC Benefit Package Committee for implementation in fiscal year 2016. PMID:26774008

  14. Assessment of the Medmont C100 test for colour vision screening of male Saudi Arabians

    OpenAIRE

    Abdullah Z. Alotaibi; Emmanuel A. Ikpotokin; O. Matthew Oriowo

    2011-01-01

    Purpose: To assess the Medmont C100 test as a colour vision screening tool. Methods: One hundred and seventeen young male adults were screened with the Medmont C100, Ishihara plates, and the screening mode of the Oculus Anomaloscope tests. All subjects were tested under constant room illumination, namely that of a day light fluorescent lamp at 200 lux. Inclusion criteria were visual acuities (VA) of 20/20 or better with or without correction and absence of known ocular pathologies.Aided and u...

  15. Screening and Assessment of Distress, Anxiety, and Depression in Cancer Patients

    OpenAIRE

    Thalén-Lindström, Annika

    2014-01-01

    Aims and Methods The overall aim was to evaluate methods of screening and assessment of distress, anxiety, and depression in cancer patients. Further, to evaluate effects of a psychosocial intervention and to explore changes of distress, anxiety, depression, and HRQoL during six months. Study I included 495 consecutive patients screened with the Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale (HADS) at their first visit to an Oncology Department. Half of the patients with >7 on any of HADS subscales...

  16. Incorporating genomics into breast and prostate cancer screening: assessing the implications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chowdhury, Susmita; Dent, Tom; Pashayan, Nora; Hall, Alison; Lyratzopoulos, Georgios; Hallowell, Nina; Hall, Per; Pharoah, Paul; Burton, Hilary

    2013-06-01

    Individual risk prediction and stratification based on polygenic profiling may be useful in disease prevention. Risk-stratified population screening based on multiple factors including a polygenic risk profile has the potential to be more efficient than age-stratified screening. In this article, we summarize the implications of personalized screening for breast and prostate cancers. We report the opinions of multidisciplinary international experts who have explored the scientific, ethical, and logistical aspects of stratified screening. We have identified (i) the need to recognize the benefits and harms of personalized screening as compared with existing screening methods, (ii) that the use of genetic data highlights complex ethical issues including discrimination against high-risk individuals by insurers and employers and patient autonomy in relation to genetic testing of minors, (iii) the need for transparency and clear communication about risk scores, about harms and benefits, and about reasons for inclusion and exclusion from the risk-based screening process, and (iv) the need to develop new professional competences and to assess cost-effectiveness and acceptability of stratified screening programs before implementation. We conclude that health professionals and stakeholders need to consider the implications of incorporating genetic information in intervention strategies for health-care planning in the future. PMID:23412607

  17. Cardiotocography (CTG) as the screening method of fetal condition assessment

    OpenAIRE

    V. Zulčić-Nakić; A. Latifagić; I. Šerak; D. Kapidžić; Dž. Ljuca; Z. Fatušić; M. Kapidžić

    2007-01-01

    A basic function of fetal monitoring is an analysis of fetal cardiac action. Cardiotocography (CTG) cannot provide all necessary information for assessment of the fetal condition as it is not sufficiently reliable and gives a large number of false positive results that increase the number of cesarean sections. An objective of this work was to establish CTG reliability as a method for assessment of intrapartal fetal condition. Based on CTG parameters (baseline fetal heart rate, fetal heart ra...

  18. [How to assess and reduce social inequalities in cancer screening programmes].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Binefa, Gemma; García, Montse; Peiró, Rosana; Molina-Barceló, Ana; Ibáñez, Raquel

    2016-01-01

    This field note presents the conclusions and recommendations made at the meeting 'How to reduce social inequalities in cancer screening programmes?' held at the XXVI School of Public Health of Mahon (Menorca, Spain). Participants developed recommendations based on experiences of population-based screening programmes (breast and colorectal) and opportunistic screening (cervical). The conclusions and recommendations focused on four main areas (information systems, evaluation and quality, research, and interventions): the inclusion of social variables at an individual level in health information systems; the establishment of minimum standards for gathering information regarding inequalities in access to preventive services; the performance of actions in vulnerable populations; and the promotion of the exchange of experiences and best practices through the Cancer Screening Programmes Network and working groups of the scientific societies. PMID:26920750

  19. Simulation-based assessment in anesthesiology: requirements for practical implementation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boulet, John R; Murray, David J

    2010-04-01

    Simulations have taken a central role in the education and assessment of medical students, residents, and practicing physicians. The introduction of simulation-based assessments in anesthesiology, especially those used to establish various competencies, has demanded fairly rigorous studies concerning the psychometric properties of the scores. Most important, major efforts have been directed at identifying, and addressing, potential threats to the validity of simulation-based assessment scores. As a result, organizations that wish to incorporate simulation-based assessments into their evaluation practices can access information regarding effective test development practices, the selection of appropriate metrics, the minimization of measurement errors, and test score validation processes. The purpose of this article is to provide a broad overview of the use of simulation for measuring physician skills and competencies. For simulations used in anesthesiology, studies that describe advances in scenario development, the development of scoring rubrics, and the validation of assessment results are synthesized. Based on the summary of relevant research, psychometric requirements for practical implementation of simulation-based assessments in anesthesiology are forwarded. As technology expands, and simulation-based education and evaluation takes on a larger role in patient safety initiatives, the groundbreaking work conducted to date can serve as a model for those individuals and organizations that are responsible for developing, scoring, or validating simulation-based education and assessment programs in anesthesiology. PMID:20234313

  20. Assessment of an Interactive Computer-Based Patient Prenatal Genetic Screening and Testing Education Tool

    Science.gov (United States)

    Griffith, Jennifer M.; Sorenson, James R.; Bowling, J. Michael; Jennings-Grant, Tracey

    2005-01-01

    The Enhancing Patient Prenatal Education study tested the feasibility and educational impact of an interactive program for patient prenatal genetic screening and testing education. Patients at two private practices and one public health clinic participated (N = 207). The program collected knowledge and measures of anxiety before and after use of…

  1. Carrier screening for Beta-thalassaemia: a review of international practice

    OpenAIRE

    Cousens, Nicole E; Gaff, Clara L.; Metcalfe, Sylvia A; Delatycki, Martin B

    2010-01-01

    β-thalassaemia is one of the most common single-gene inherited conditions in the world, and thalassaemia carrier screening is the most widely performed genetic screening test, occurring in many different countries. β-thalassaemia carrier screening programmes provide a unique opportunity to compare the delivery of carrier screening programmes carried out in different cultural, religious and social contexts. This review compares the key characteristics of β-thalassaemia carrier screening progra...

  2. Assessment Training: A Precondition for Teachers' Competencies and Use of Classroom Assessment Practices

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koloi-Keaikitse, Setlhomo

    2016-01-01

    Student assessment, particularly at classroom level, remains an integral part of teaching and learning and is a driving force for the implementation of educational policies and practices in many countries. Nevertheless, problems associated with teachers' classroom assessment practices continue to exist in schools and research shows that teachers…

  3. Guidance Manual for Conducting Screening Level Ecological Risk Assessments at the INEL

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    R. L. VanHorn; N. L. Hampton; R. C. Morris

    1995-06-01

    This document presents reference material for conducting screening level ecological risk assessments (SLERAs)for the waste area groups (WAGs) at the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory. Included in this document are discussions of the objectives of and processes for conducting SLERAs. The Environmental Protection Agency ecological risk assessment framework is closely followed. Guidance for site characterization, stressor characterization, ecological effects, pathways of contaminant migration, the conceptual site model, assessment endpoints, measurement endpoints, analysis guidance, and risk characterization are included.

  4. Assessment of electromechanical properties of screen printed polymer nanopastes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Janeczek, Kamil, E-mail: kamil.janeczek@itr.org.pl [Tele and Radio Research Institute, 11 Ratuszowa Street, 03-450 Warsaw (Poland); Kozioł, Grażyna [Tele and Radio Research Institute, 11 Ratuszowa Street, 03-450 Warsaw (Poland); Jakubowska, Małgorzata [Institute of Electronic Materials Technology, 133 Wolczynska Street, 01-919 Warsaw (Poland); Warsaw University of Technology, Institute of Metrology and Biomedical Engineering, 8 Sankt Andrzej Bobola Street, 02-525 Warsaw (Poland); Araźna, Aneta [Tele and Radio Research Institute, 11 Ratuszowa Street, 03-450 Warsaw (Poland); Młożniak, Anna [Institute of Electronic Materials Technology, 133 Wolczynska Street, 01-919 Warsaw (Poland); Futera, Konrad [Tele and Radio Research Institute, 11 Ratuszowa Street, 03-450 Warsaw (Poland)

    2013-05-01

    Highlights: ► Carbon nanotubes and graphite nanofibers exhibited a tendency to agglomeration. ► Layer thickness appeared to be used nanopaste- and substrate-dependent. ► EL-P3040/GNF exhibited higher sheet resistance than EL-P3040 and EL-P3040/CNT. ► Multilayer printing caused the layers to be less durable to cyclic bending. -- Abstract: Printed electronics has provided different printing techniques as environmentally friendly and cost-effective manufacturing methods of electronic components. The printed items can be produced on low cost, different types of flexible substrates, even when their surface is corrugated. This opens a new application range of printed electronics and makes them competitive with traditionally manufactured electronics. However, it is necessary to investigate new materials to continue the rapid progress in printed electronics. In our study, the electromechanical properties of polymer nanopastes consisted of carbon nanotubes and graphite platelet nanofibers mixed with a conductive polymer poly(3,4-ethylenedioxythiophene):poly(styrenesulfonate) (PEDOT:PSS) were investigated. Their microstructure and the layer morphology were observed using a scanning electron microscope and an optical microscope. The thickness and average roughness of the layers printed on the foil and paper were determined with a contact profilometer. The mechanical durability of the screen printed layers was verified in a cyclic bending test. The highest mechanical durability was exhibited by the polymer pastes containing carbon nanotubes.

  5. Assessment of electromechanical properties of screen printed polymer nanopastes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Highlights: ► Carbon nanotubes and graphite nanofibers exhibited a tendency to agglomeration. ► Layer thickness appeared to be used nanopaste- and substrate-dependent. ► EL-P3040/GNF exhibited higher sheet resistance than EL-P3040 and EL-P3040/CNT. ► Multilayer printing caused the layers to be less durable to cyclic bending. -- Abstract: Printed electronics has provided different printing techniques as environmentally friendly and cost-effective manufacturing methods of electronic components. The printed items can be produced on low cost, different types of flexible substrates, even when their surface is corrugated. This opens a new application range of printed electronics and makes them competitive with traditionally manufactured electronics. However, it is necessary to investigate new materials to continue the rapid progress in printed electronics. In our study, the electromechanical properties of polymer nanopastes consisted of carbon nanotubes and graphite platelet nanofibers mixed with a conductive polymer poly(3,4-ethylenedioxythiophene):poly(styrenesulfonate) (PEDOT:PSS) were investigated. Their microstructure and the layer morphology were observed using a scanning electron microscope and an optical microscope. The thickness and average roughness of the layers printed on the foil and paper were determined with a contact profilometer. The mechanical durability of the screen printed layers was verified in a cyclic bending test. The highest mechanical durability was exhibited by the polymer pastes containing carbon nanotubes

  6. Screening and Initial Binding Assessment of Fumonisin B1 Aptamers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria C. DeRosa

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available Fumonisins are mycotoxins produced by Fusarium verticillioides and F. proliferatum, fungi that are ubiquitous in corn (maize. Insect damage and some other environmental conditions result in the accumulation of fumonisins in corn-based products worldwide. Current methods of fumonisin detection rely on the use of immunoaffinity columns and high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC. The use of aptamers offers a good alternative to the use of antibodies in fumonisin cleanup and detection due to lower costs and improved stability. Aptamers are single-stranded oligonucleotides that are selected using Systematic Evolution of Ligands by EXponential enrichment (SELEX for their ability to bind to targets with high affinity and specificity. Sequences obtained after 18 rounds of SELEX were screened for their ability to bind to fumonisin B1. Six unique sequences were obtained, each showing improved binding to fumonisin B1 compared to controls. Sequence FB1 39 binds to fumonisin with a dissociation constant of 100 ± 30 nM and shows potential for use in fumonisin biosensors and solid phase extraction columns.

  7. State of affairs of tuberculosis in prison facilities: a systematic review of screening practices and recommendations for best TB control.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Natalie V S Vinkeles Melchers

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Prisoners are at high risk of developing tuberculosis (TB, causing morbidity and mortality. Prison facilities encounter many challenges in TB screening procedures and TB control. This review explores screening practices for detection of TB and describes limitations of TB control in prison facilities worldwide. METHODS: A systematic search of online databases (e.g., PubMed and Embase and conference abstracts was carried out. Research papers describing screening and diagnostic practices among prisoners were included. A total of 52 articles met the inclusion criteria. A meta-analysis of TB prevalence in prison facilities by screening and diagnostic tools was performed. RESULTS: The most common screening tool was symptom questionnaires (63·5%, mostly reporting presence of cough. Microscopy of sputum with Ziehl-Neelsen staining and solid culture were the most frequently combined diagnostic methods (21·2%. Chest X-ray and tuberculin skin tests were used by 73·1% and 50%, respectively, as either a screening and/or diagnostic tool. Median TB prevalence among prisoners of all included studies was 1,913 cases of TB per 100,000 prisoners (interquartile range [IQR]: 332-3,517. The overall annual median TB incidence was 7·0 cases per 1000 person-years (IQR: 2·7-30·0. Major limitations for successful TB control were inaccuracy of diagnostic algorithms and the lack of adequate laboratory facilities reported by 61·5% of studies. The most frequent recommendation for improving TB control and case detection was to increase screening frequency (73·1%. DISCUSSION: TB screening algorithms differ by income area and should be adapted to local contexts. In order to control TB, prison facilities must improve laboratory capacity and frequent use of effective screening and diagnostic tools. Sustainable political will and funding are critical to achieve this.

  8. Assessment of Quality Management Practices Within the Healthcare Industry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    William J. Miller

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Problem Statement: Considerable effort has been devoted over the years by many organizations to adopt quality management practices, but few studies have assessed critical factors that affect quality practices in healthcare organizations. The problem addressed in this study was to assess the critical factors influencing the quality management practices in a single important industry (i.e., healthcare. Approach: A survey instrument was adapted from business quality literature and was sent to all hospitals in a large US Southeastern state. Valid responses were received from 147 of 189 hospitals yielding a 75.6% response rate. Factor analysis using principal component analysis with an orthogonal rotation was performed to assess 58 survey items designed to measure ten dimensions of hospital quality management practices. Results: Eight factors were shown to have a statistically significant effect on quality management practices and were classified into two groups: (1 four strategic factors (role of management leadership, role of the physician, customer focus, training resources investment and (2 four operational factors (role of quality department, quality data/reporting, process management/training and employee relations. The results of this study showed that a valid and reliable instrument was developed and used to assess quality management practices in hospitals throughout a large US state. Conclusion: The implications of this study provided an understanding that management of quality required both a focus on longer-term strategic leadership, as well as day-to-day operational management. It was recommended that healthcare researchers and practitioners focus on the critical factors identified and employ this survey instrument to manage and better understand the nature of hospital quality management practices across wider geographical regions and over longer time periods. Furthermore, this study extended the scope of existing quality management

  9. Assessment of radiation protection practices among radiographers in Lagos, Nigeria

    OpenAIRE

    Cletus Uche Eze; Livinus Chibuzo Abonyi; Jerome Njoku; Nicholas Kayode Irurhe; Oluwabola Olowu

    2013-01-01

    Background: Use of ionising radiation in diagnostic radiography could lead to hazards such as somatic and genetic damages. Compliance to safe work and radiation protection practices could mitigate such risks. The aim of the study was to assess the knowledge and radiation protection practices among radiographers in Lagos, Nigeria. Materials and Methods: The study was a prospective cross sectional survey. Convenience sampling technique was used to select four x-ray diagnostic centres in four te...

  10. Assessing the offspring of workaholic parents: the Children of Workaholics Screening Test.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robinson, B E; Carroll, J J

    1999-06-01

    This study reports initial stages in the development of a self-report instrument that measures offsprings' mental disposition toward their parents' work habits. In an initial sitting, a battery of tests was administered to 207 young adults to assess the reliability and validity of the Children of Workaholics Screening Test. After a 2-wk. interval, the test was administered again. Test-retest reliability, split-half reliability, and concurrent validity are reported. The findings provide strong support for the utility of the Children of Workaholics Screening Test for assessing the offspring of workaholic parents. PMID:10485093

  11. Screening method to assess the risk of explosive spalling on fire exposed concrete

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sørensen, Lars Schiøtt

    2003-01-01

    At the Technical University of Denmark (BYG.DTU)a new test set-up is under development to screen various concretes to assess their risk of explosive spalling. The test exposes a standard cylinder to compressive ring stresses together with rapid heating of the cylinder end.......At the Technical University of Denmark (BYG.DTU)a new test set-up is under development to screen various concretes to assess their risk of explosive spalling. The test exposes a standard cylinder to compressive ring stresses together with rapid heating of the cylinder end....

  12. A programme of studies including assessment of diagnostic accuracy of school hearing screening tests and a cost-effectiveness model of school entry hearing screening programmes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fortnum, Heather; Ukoumunne, Obioha C; Hyde, Chris; Taylor, Rod S; Ozolins, Mara; Errington, Sam; Zhelev, Zhivko; Pritchard, Clive; Benton, Claire; Moody, Joanne; Cocking, Laura; Watson, Julian; Roberts, Sarah

    2016-01-01

    BACKGROUND Identification of permanent hearing impairment at the earliest possible age is crucial to maximise the development of speech and language. Universal newborn hearing screening identifies the majority of the 1 in 1000 children born with a hearing impairment, but later onset can occur at any time and there is no optimum time for further screening. A universal but non-standardised school entry screening (SES) programme is in place in many parts of the UK but its value is questioned. OBJECTIVES To evaluate the diagnostic accuracy of hearing screening tests and the cost-effectiveness of the SES programme in the UK. DESIGN Systematic review, case-control diagnostic accuracy study, comparison of routinely collected data for services with and without a SES programme, parental questionnaires, observation of practical implementation and cost-effectiveness modelling. SETTING Second- and third-tier audiology services; community. PARTICIPANTS Children aged 4-6 years and their parents. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES Diagnostic accuracy of two hearing screening devices, referral rate and source, yield, age at referral and cost per quality-adjusted life-year. RESULTS The review of diagnostic accuracy studies concluded that research to date demonstrates marked variability in the design, methodological quality and results. The pure-tone screen (PTS) (Amplivox, Eynsham, UK) and HearCheck (HC) screener (Siemens, Frimley, UK) devices had high sensitivity (PTS ≥ 89%, HC ≥ 83%) and specificity (PTS ≥ 78%, HC ≥ 83%) for identifying hearing impairment. The rate of referral for hearing problems was 36% lower with SES (Nottingham) relative to no SES (Cambridge) [rate ratio 0.64, 95% confidence interval (CI) 0.59 to 0.69; p < 0.001]. The yield of confirmed cases did not differ between areas with and without SES (rate ratio 0.82, 95% CI 0.63 to 1.06; p = 0.12). The mean age of referral did not differ between areas with and without SES for all referrals but children

  13. Assessment Of Basic Practical Skills In An Undergraduate Medical Curriculum

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sambandam Elango

    2007-06-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Health educators and accrediting bodieshave defined objectives and competencies that medicalstudents need to acquire to become a safe doctor. Thereis no report in Malaysia, about the ability of medicalstudents to perform some of the basic surgical skillsbefore entering the houseman ship. The aim of thisstudy is to determine whether the teaching/ learningmethods of practical skills in our undergraduate programhave been effective in imparting the desired level ofcompetencies in these skills.Methods: A list of basic practical skills that studentsshould be competent has been identified. These skillsare taught in a structured way and assessed as part of thecomposite end- of- semester examination. Practicalskills stations form part of an Objective structuredpractical examination (OSPE.Results: The results of 244 students who participated inthree ends of semester examinations were analyzed. Themean score for the practical skills stations were higherthan the mean OSPE (of all 18 stations and overallscore (of the written, practical and clinicalexamination. However the failure rate in the practicalskills stations is higher in most of the stations (7 out of8 stations compared to overall failure rates.Conclusions: In spite of the formal skills training manystudents failed to demonstrate the desired level ofcompetencies in these stations. Assessment of practicalskills as part of overall composite examination may notbe effective in ensuring that all students have achievedthe required level of competency. Practical skills shouldbe assessed through dedicated formative assessments tomake sure that all the students acquire the requiredcompetencies.

  14. The assessment of learning in engineering education practice and policy

    CERN Document Server

    Heywood, John

    2016-01-01

    Explores how we judge engineering education in order to effectively redesign courses and programs that will prepare new engineers for various professional and academic careers This book considers the functions of assessment and its measurement in engineering education. Chapters two through three discuss efforts toward alternative curriculum in engineering and advanced level exams for university entry in engineering science. Chapter four reviews investigations of what engineers do at work and their implications assessment. Chapter five records the development of competency based assessment and considers its implications for the engineering curriculum. Chapter six discusses the impact of the accrediting authorities on assessment, outcomes based assessment, taxonomies and assessment in mastery and personalized systems of instruction. Chapters seven through eight consider student variability (e.g. intellectual development, emotional intelligence) and reflective practice. Questio s are raised about the assessment...

  15. Comparative effectiveness of visual/tactile and simplified screening examinations in caries risk assessment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Disney, J A; Abernathy, J R; Graves, R C; Mauriello, S M; Bohannan, H M; Zack, D D

    1992-12-01

    Central to the development of a model for identifying children at high risk to caries is a clinical evaluation to assess dental status and other conditions potentially useful in caries prediction. Traditionally, this evaluation has been based on a relatively lengthy visual/tactile examination conducted by a dentist. Replacing the dentist examination with a dental auxiliary conducted screening evaluation could lead to reduced time and costs. The 4-yr University of North Carolina Caries Risk Assessment Study involved approximately 5000 schoolchildren initially in Grades 1 and 5 living near Aiken, South Carolina, and Portland, Maine. The effectiveness of caries prediction models using visual/tactile examination data were compared with the same models using simplified screening evaluation data. Results showed sensitivity ranged from 0.57 to 0.61 for the visual/tactile and screening models by site and grade cohort. Specificity for the models ranged from 0.80 to 0.83. None of these differences in sensitivity and specificity between visual/tactile (dentist) and screening (hygienist) models was statistically significant. Findings show that for the prediction of children at high risk to dental caries the clinical evaluation may be conducted with no reduction of precision by using dental hygienist performed screening evaluations rather than dentist conducted visual/tactile examinations. While no cost data were collected, these results imply that costs to future prediction programs could be reduced by using screening evaluations. PMID:1464226

  16. Environmental impact assessment in practice: A gender critique

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The author evaluates the extent to which environmental impact assessment (EIA) as conceptualized by EIA systems is a gendered process. Through a discourse analysis of in-depth interviews with bureaucrats, technocrats, and activists involved with the Sardar Sarovar dam project in India, the author examines the practice of EIA in a Third World country. She uses a theoretical framework, informed by a theory of gender, to evaluate the interviews. In practice, EIA is marked by gender biases that ignore the gender-specific nature of impacts. Such biases distort the impact assessment process, making environmental sustainability difficult, if not impossible, to achieve

  17. Improving Breast Cancer Outcomes among Women in China: Practices, Knowledge, and Attitudes Related to Breast Cancer Screening

    OpenAIRE

    Scott Chung; Yi-Lan Liu; Tsu-Yin Wu

    2012-01-01

    Background. Breast cancer is a major public health issue and the most commonly diagnosed cancer for women worldwide. Despite lower incidence rates than those living in Western countries, breast cancer incidence among Chinese women has increased dramatically in the past 20 years. Nevertheless, there is a paucity of studies reporting the attitudes toward and practices of breast cancer screening among Chinese women. Methods. This cross-sectional study examined the practices, knowledge, and attit...

  18. Children's nurses' post-operative pain assessment practices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Panjganj, Donya; Bevan, Ann

    2016-06-01

    Pain assessment is crucial to achieving optimal pain management in children. Pain that is insufficiently controlled can have extensive short- and long-term repercussions. Many studies continue to report that children experience unnecessary post-operative pain when they are in hospital. The purpose of this literature review was to explore post-operative pain assessment practices used by children's nurses. A literature search of databases was undertaken and inclusion criteria identified. Four themes emerged: pain assessment tools; behavioural cues; documentation; and communication between child, parent/carer and nurse. The findings showed that pain assessment tools were inadequately used, that children's behavioural cues were misinterpreted, and that there was inconsistency in the documentation of pain scores and in communication about pain scores between children, parent/carer and nurse. Addressing the key issues identified from the articles reviewed can help improve nursing practice and care. PMID:27266751

  19. Trialling computer touch-screen technology to assess psychological distress in patients with gynaecological cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Georgia Halkett

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available BackgroundCancer impacts on the psychological well-being of many cancer patients. Appropriate tools can be used to assist health professionals in identifying patient needs and psychological distress. Recent research suggests that touchscreen technology can be used to administer surveys. The aim of this study was to evaluate the use of a touchscreen system in comparison to written questionnaires in a large tertiary hospital in Western Australia (WA.Method Patients who were scheduled to commence treatment for gynaecological cancer participated in this study. Patients were assigned to complete either a written questionnaire or the same survey using the touchscreen technology. Both methods of survey contained the same scales. All participants were asked to complete a follow-up patient satisfaction survey. Semi-structured interviews were conducted with health professionals to elicit views about the implementation of the technology and the available referral pathways. Data was analysed using descriptive statistics and content analysis. ResultsThirty patients completed the touchscreen questionnaires and an equal number completed the survey on paper. Participants who used the touchscreens were not significantly more satisfied than other participants. Four themes were noted in the interviews with health professionals: usability of technology, patients’ acceptance of technology, advantages of psychological screening and the value of the instruments included.ConclusionAlthough previous studies report that computerised assessments are a feasible option for assessing cancer patients’ needs, the data collected in this study demonstrates that the technology was not reliable with significant practical problems. The technology did not serve these patients better than pen and paper.

  20. Data for the screening assessment: Volume 2, Appendix A, diskette 1 of 3. Columbia River comprehensive impact assessment: data values

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This report is from Appendix A - diskette 1 of 3 titled Data Values: Cobalt-60 Particles, File Name: co60val.csv; Data Values: Drive Point Groundwater, File Name: dpval.csv; Data Values: N-Springs Punch Point Water, File Name: nsprval.csv; Data Values: pore water, File Name: poreval.csv. The report is part of the Screening Assessment Columbia River Comprehensive Impact Assessment

  1. Assessing screening criteria for the radiocarbon dating of bone mineral

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fernandes, Ricardo, E-mail: ldv1452@gmail.com [Leibniz Labor for Isotopic and Radiometric Dating, Max-Eyth-Str. 11-13, 24118 Kiel (Germany); Graduate School Human Development in Landscapes, Christian Albrecht University, Kiel (Germany); Huels, Matthias [Leibniz Labor for Isotopic and Radiometric Dating, Max-Eyth-Str. 11-13, 24118 Kiel (Germany); Nadeau, Marie-Josee; Grootes, Pieter M. [Leibniz Labor for Isotopic and Radiometric Dating, Max-Eyth-Str. 11-13, 24118 Kiel (Germany); Graduate School Human Development in Landscapes, Christian Albrecht University, Kiel (Germany); Garbe-Schoenberg, C.-Dieter [Institute of Geosciences, Marine Climate Research and ICPMS Lab, Kiel University, Ludewig-Meyn-Str. 10, D-24118 Kiel (Germany); Graduate School Human Development in Landscapes, Christian Albrecht University, Kiel (Germany); Hollund, Hege I. [Institute for Geo- and Bioarchaeology, The VU University, De Boelelaan 1085, 1081 HV Amsterdam (Netherlands); Lotnyk, Andriy [Faculty of Engineering, Institute for Material Science, Synthesis and Real Structure, Kiel University, Kaiserstr. 2, D-24143 Kiel (Germany); Leibniz Institute of Surface Modification (IOM), Permoserstr. 15, D-04318 Leipzig (Germany); Kienle, Lorenz [Faculty of Engineering, Institute for Material Science, Synthesis and Real Structure, Kiel University, Kaiserstr. 2, D-24143 Kiel (Germany); Graduate School Human Development in Landscapes, Christian Albrecht University, Kiel (Germany)

    2013-01-15

    Radiocarbon dating of bone mineral (carbonate in the apatite lattice) has been the target of sporadic research for the last 40 years. Results obtained by different decontamination protocols have, however, failed to provide a consistent agreement with reference ages. In particular, quality criteria to assess bone mineral radiocarbon dating reliability are still lacking. Systematic research was undertaken to identify optimal preservation criteria for bone mineral in archeological bones. Six human long bones, originating from a single site, were radiocarbon-dated both for collagen and apatite, with the level of agreement between the dates providing an indication of exogenous carbon contamination. Several techniques (Histology, FTIR, TEM, LA-ICP-MS) were employed to determine the preservation status of each sample. Research results highlight the importance of a micro-scale approach in establishing bone preservation, in particular the use of trace element concentration profiles demonstrated its potential use as a viable sample selection criterion for bone carbonate radiocarbon dating.

  2. Assessing screening criteria for the radiocarbon dating of bone mineral

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Radiocarbon dating of bone mineral (carbonate in the apatite lattice) has been the target of sporadic research for the last 40 years. Results obtained by different decontamination protocols have, however, failed to provide a consistent agreement with reference ages. In particular, quality criteria to assess bone mineral radiocarbon dating reliability are still lacking. Systematic research was undertaken to identify optimal preservation criteria for bone mineral in archeological bones. Six human long bones, originating from a single site, were radiocarbon-dated both for collagen and apatite, with the level of agreement between the dates providing an indication of exogenous carbon contamination. Several techniques (Histology, FTIR, TEM, LA-ICP-MS) were employed to determine the preservation status of each sample. Research results highlight the importance of a micro-scale approach in establishing bone preservation, in particular the use of trace element concentration profiles demonstrated its potential use as a viable sample selection criterion for bone carbonate radiocarbon dating.

  3. Insecticide Exposures on Commercial Aircraft: A Literature Review and Screening Level Assessment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Maddalena, Randy I.; McKone, Thomas E.

    2008-10-01

    The objective of this project was to provide initial estimates of the relationship between insecticide use on passenger aircraft and exposure levels present in the cabin environment. The work was initially divided into three tasks including 1) a review of insecticide application practices in commercial aircraft, 2) exploratory measurements of insecticide concentrations in treated aircraft and 3) screening level exposure modeling. Task 1 gathered information that is needed to assess the time-concentration history of insecticides in the airline cabin. The literature review focused on application practices, information about the cabin environment and existing measurements of exposure concentrations following treatment. Information from the airlines was not available for estimating insecticide application rates in the U.S. domestic fleet or for understanding how frequently equipment rotate into domestic routes following insecticide treatment. However, the World Health Organization (WHO) recommends several methods for treating aircraft with insecticide. Although there is evidence that these WHO guidelines may not always be followed, and that practices vary by airline, destination, and/or applicator company, the guidelines in combination with information related to other indoor environments provides a plausible basis for estimating insecticide loading rates on aircraft. The review also found that while measurements of exposure concentrations following simulated aerosol applications are available, measurements following residual treatment of aircraft or applications in domestic aircraft are lacking. Task 2 focused on developing an approach to monitor exposure concentrations in aircraft using a combination of active and passive sampling methods. An existing active sampling approach was intended to provide data immediately following treatment while a passive sampler was developed to provide wider coverage of the fleet over longer sampling periods. The passive sampler, based

  4. Knowledge, practice, and barriers toward cervical cancer screening in Elmina, Southern Ghana

    OpenAIRE

    Ebu NI; Mupepi SC; Siakwa MP; Sampselle CM

    2014-01-01

    Nancy Innocentia Ebu,1 Sylvia C Mupepi,2 Mate Peter Siakwa,1 Carolyn M Sampselle3 1University of Cape Coast, School of Nursing, Cape Coast, Ghana; 2Kirkhof College of Nursing, Grand Valley State University, Grand Rapids, MI, USA; 3School of Nursing, University of Michigan, Ann Arbor, MI, USA Aims: The aims of this study were: 1) to assess the level of knowledge of women about Pap smear tests, 2) to determine the practices of women regarding Pap smear tests, and 3) to determine the barriers t...

  5. A DPSIR model for ecological security assessment through indicator screening: a case study at Dianchi Lake in China.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhen Wang

    Full Text Available Given the important role of lake ecosystems in social and economic development, and the current severe environmental degradation in China, a systematic diagnosis of the ecological security of lakes is essential for sustainable development. A Driving-force, Pressure, Status, Impact, and Risk (DPSIR model, combined with data screening for lake ecological security assessment was developed to overcome the disadvantages of data selection in existing assessment methods. Correlation and principal component analysis were used to select independent and representative data. The DPSIR model was then applied to evaluate the ecological security of Dianchi Lake in China during 1988-2007 using an ecological security index. The results revealed a V-shaped trend. The application of the DPSIR model with data screening provided useful information regarding the status of the lake's ecosystem, while ensuring information efficiency and eliminating multicollinearity. The modeling approach described here is practical and operationally efficient, and provides an attractive alternative approach to assess the ecological security of lakes.

  6. Normal Personality Assessment in Clinical Practice: The NEO Personality Inventory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Costa, Paul T.; McCrae, Robert R.

    1992-01-01

    The NEO Personality Inventory (NEO-PI) is described as a measure of five factors of personality and its use in clinical assessment and treatment practice is reviewed. Data from 17 adult men and women show links between NEO-PI scales and other measures of psychopathology. (SLD)

  7. Assessing Preschool Teachers' Practices to Promote Self-Regulated Learning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adagideli, Fahretdin Hasan; Saraç, Seda; Ader, Engin

    2015-01-01

    Recent research reveals that in preschool years, through pedagogical interventions, preschool teachers can and should promote self-regulated learning. The main aim of this study is to develop a self-report instrument to assess preschool teachers' practices to promote self-regulated learning. A pool of 50 items was recruited through literature…

  8. HIV and Hepatitis C Virus Screening Practices in a Geographically Diverse Sample of American Community Health Centers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mayer, Kenneth H; Crawford, Phil; Dant, Lydia; Gillespie, Suzanne; Singal, Robbie; Vandermeer, Meredith; Muench, John; Long, Tim; Quach, Thu; Chaudhry, Amina; Crane, Heidi M; Lembo, Daniela; Mills, Robert; McBurnie, Mary Ann

    2016-06-01

    Because of the advent of highly effective treatments, routine screening for HIV and hepatitis C virus (HCV) has been recommended for many Americans. This study explored the perceived barriers surrounding routine HIV and HCV screening in a diverse sample of community health centers (CHCs). The Community Health Applied Research Network (CHARN) is a collaboration of CHCs, with a shared clinical database. In July, 2013, 195 CHARN providers working in 12 CHCs completed a survey of their attitudes and beliefs about HIV and HCV testing. Summary statistics were generated to describe the prevalence of HIV and HCV and associated demographics by CHCs. HIV and HCV prevalence ranged from 0.1% to 5.7% for HIV and from 0.1% to 3.7% for HCV in the different CHCs. About 15% of the providers cared for at least 50 individuals with HIV and the same was true for HCV. Two-thirds saw less than 10 patients with HIV and less than half saw less than 10 patients with HCV. Less than two-thirds followed USPHS guidelines to screen all patients for HIV between the ages of 13 and 64, and only 44.4% followed the guidance to screen all baby boomers for HCV. Providers with less HIV experience tended to be more concerned about routine screening practices. More experienced providers were more likely to perceive lack of time being an impediment to routine screening. Many US CHC providers do not routinely screen their patients for HIV and HCV. Although additional education about the rationale for routine screening may be indicated, incentives to compensate providers for the additional time they anticipate spending in counseling may also facilitate increased screening rates. PMID:27286294

  9. Screening Tool Predicts Future Underimmunization Among a Pediatric Practice in Tennessee.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williams, Sarah E; Morgan, Ashley; Opel, Douglas; Edwards, Kathryn; Weinberg, Stuart; Rothman, Russell

    2016-06-01

    The Parent Attitudes about Childhood Vaccines (PACV) survey for identifying vaccine-hesitant parents was recently validated in Washington State but did not include all recommended childhood vaccines. The current study compares vaccination rates for all recommended childhood vaccines and PACV scores at one pediatric practice in Tennessee. Children were enrolled at the 2-week well visit, and vaccination rates were assessed at 19 months of age. Outcomes at 19 months of age included mean percentage of days underimmunized and up-to-date status (yes/no) compared with PACV scores. The impact of provider on immunization status was assessed. Complete vaccination data were available for 158 children of 183 enrolled (86%). Higher PACV scores were associated with more days underimmunized (P < .001) and being overdue for vaccine doses at 19 months of age (P < .001). No difference was seen between providers and up-to-date status. Our study supports the predictive validity of the PACV for underimmunization. PMID:26581360

  10. Participation: Theoretical Aspects and Assessment in Early Intervention Practice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kazmin A.M.

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available The article discusses the theoretical and practical aspects of participation as one of the assessment criteria of the support effectiveness for early aged children and preschool aged children with disabilities and for their families. The definition of participation and its measuring recommendations in the International Classification of Functioning, Disability and Health is compared with studies of participation of early aged and preschool aged children, with a variability of currently used assessment tools of participation. The summary gives the generalized description of the existing methods of participation assessment and lists the tendencies of further developments and researches in this field.

  11. Interprofessional collaborative practice incorporating training for alcohol and drug use screening for healthcare providers in rural areas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Puskar, Kathy; Mitchell, Ann M; Albrecht, Susan A; Frank, Linda R; Kane, Irene; Hagle, Holly; Lindsay, Dawn; Lee, Heeyoung; Fioravanti, Marie; Talcott, Kimberly S

    2016-07-01

    Interprofessional collaborative practice expands resources in rural and underserved communities. This article explores the impact of an online education programme on the perceptions of healthcare providers about interprofessional care within alcohol and drug use screening for rural residents. Nurses, behavioural health counsellors, and public health professionals participated in an evidence-based practice (screening, brief intervention, and referral to treatment-SBIRT) model that targets individuals who use alcohol and other drugs in a risky manner. SBIRT is recommended by the United States Preventive Services Task Force as a universal, evidence-based screening tool. Online modules, case simulation practice, and interprofessional dialogues are used to deliver practice-based learning experiences. A quasi-experimental method with pre-tests and post-tests was utilised. Results indicate increased perceptions of professional competence, need for cooperation, actual cooperation, and role values pre-to-post training. Implications suggest that online interprofessional education is useful but the added component of professional dialogues regarding patient cases offers promise in promoting collaborative practice. PMID:27295396

  12. A comprehensive geriatric assessment screening questionnaire (CGA-GOLD) for older people undergoing treatment for cancer

    OpenAIRE

    Whittle, AK; Kalsi, Tania; Babic-Illman, G; Wang, Yanzhong; Fields, Paul; Ross, Paul; Maisey, Nick; Hughes, Simon; Kwan, WH; Harari, Danielle

    2016-01-01

    Oncology services do not routinely assess broader needs of older people with cancer. This study evaluates a comprehensive geriatric assessment and comorbidity screening questionnaire (CGA-GOLD) covering evidence-based domains and quality of life (EORTC-QLQ-C30). Patients aged 65+ attending oncology services were recruited into (1) Observational cohort (completed CGA-GOLD, received standard oncology care), (2) Intervention cohort (responses categorised ‘low-risk’, ‘high-risk’, ‘possible need’ ...

  13. [Formalized dietary advice in hypercholesterolemia. Results in 110 men diagnosed by selective screening in general practice].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Agner, E; Christensen, T E; Jacobsen, K; Baastrup, A; Mahnfeldt, M S; Jensen, S E

    1990-11-01

    In connection with a screening investigation for high blood cholesterol in middle-aged men in general practice in the Municipality of Copenhagen, all participants with cholesterol values greater than or equal to 7.5 mmol/l were given brief advice by their own general practitioner and were invited to come for fasting blood lipid tests approximately ten days later. In cases with continued cholesterol greater than or equal to 6.8 mmol/l, the participants together with wives or partners were invited to formalized dietary advice in small groups. Already before the formalized dietary advice, an average decrease in serum cholesterol of 10% was observed. This was attributed to biological variation, absence of fasting, the degree of error between the measuring methods and also a genuine decrease on the basis of the brief dietary advice by the general practitioner. On control after dietary advice, a further decrease in cholesterol of 15% was observed while low density lipoprotein cholesterol fell by 20% and triglycerides by 23%. These decreases must be considered to result mainly from the dietary advice. It is concluded that a single but professional session of dietary advice in small groups and with involvement of the wives or partners is an effective method of treatment in hypercholesterolaemia. If the decrease in cholesterol obtained can be maintained, the literature suggests that the risk of development of ischaemic heart disease during the subsequent 5-7 years is reduced by 20-30%. PMID:2238224

  14. Assessment of the psychological distress difficulties in patients with cancer using the national comprehensive cancer network rapid screening measure

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Hamid Saeedi Saedi; Mona Koochak Pour; Emad Sabahi; Soodabeh Shahidsales

    2012-01-01

    Objective: Clinical guidelines like National Comprehensive Cancer Network Disease recommend routine psychological distress screening as a common problem among patients with cancer. The purpose of this study was to assess the prevalence of clinically significant emotional distress related to demographic and clinical association by standard distress thermometer (DT) within the patients lived in different regions of Gilan state, Iran. Methods: Participants (n = 256) completed the DT, rapid screening measure for distress and identified the presence or absence of 34 problems using the standardized checklist. Results: More than 59 percent of participants had more than 4 cut-off score for distress. The scores varied significantly in case of reported emotional source of distress, physical, physiological and total number of concerns (P < 0.001).DT scores more than four were more likely to report 22 of 32 problems on the problem list. In case of the practical and family problems, the main problems were related to child care and dealing with children, respectively. Moreover worrisome and nervousness were considered the prominent emotional problems in the list. Conclusion: Our result promise that distress thermometer measurement tool compare favorably with longer measures used to screening of distress in cancerous patients. Accompaniment of a psychologist expert in lethal or chronic disease consultation with the therapeutic team and training the rest of members of the team might be able to decrease the emotional distress problems of the cancerous patients.

  15. Self-Assessment in Librarianship: Current Practices and Future Possibilities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ania Dymarz

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available The authors of this qualitative study set out to investigate self-assessment practices within the library profession. The researchers conducted semi-structured interviews with a purposeful sample of nine librarians coming from a range of library settings and possessing a diversity of library experience. Interviews were then transcribed and coded in NVIVO to identify emergent themes. This paper details some of the results of that study, highlighting motivations, limitations, and strategies with regard to self-assessment. The findings present a summary of a range of approaches to the practice of assessment as reported by the interviewees. One area of possible growth for our profession, as highlighted by the findings, is in the development of peer networks as a support for the individual practice of self-assessment. While the results of this small case study cannot be generalized, the authors hope these preliminary findings can open up the conversation around self-assessment both for individual librarians and for those librarians and managers working to shape their workplace culture.

  16. Theory versus practice in Strategic Environmental Assessment (SEA)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Could the theory of Strategic Environmental Assessment (SEA) be ahead of its time and decoupled from its practice? This paper evolved in search for this leading research question. Over the years the discourse on SEA experienced a gradual shift from the technocratic and rationalist thinking that supported its origin to more strategic approaches and integrated concepts, suggested since the mid 1990's. In this paper we share the results of our analysis of international thinking and practical experience with SEA. Results reveal that SEA practice changes very slowly when compared to advanced thinking supporting the noted shift. Current SEA practice shows to be still predominantly rooted in the logic of projects' environmental impact assessment (EIA). It is strongly bound to legal and regulatory requirements, and the motivation for its application persists being the delivery of environmental (or final) reports to meet legal obligations. Even though advanced SEA theoretical thinking claim its potential to help decisions to look forward, change mind-sets and the rationale of decision-making to meet sustainability challenges and enhance societal values, we note a weak relationship between the theoretical development of SEA and its practice. Why is this happening? Which factors explain this apparent inertia, resistance to change, in the SEA practice? Results appear to demonstrate the influence of assumptions, understandings, concepts, and beliefs in the use of SEA, which in turn suggest the political sensitivity of the instrument. - Highlights: • Theoretical thinking in SEA is ahead of its time. • SEA international practice reveals inertia to move out of project’ EIA comfort zone. • World current SEA practice show similar understandings of 30 years ago. • 100 world reports and survey of practitioners supported world review. • SEA great challenge is to change paradigms into new scientific complexity theories

  17. Measures for assessing practice change in medical practitioners

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Green Sally

    2006-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background There are increasing numbers of randomised trials and systematic reviews examining the efficacy of interventions designed to bring about a change in clinical practice. The findings of this research are being used to guide strategies to increase the uptake of evidence into clinical practice. Knowledge of the outcomes measured by these trials is vital not only for the interpretation and application of the work done to date, but also to inform future research in this expanding area of endeavour and to assist in collation of results in systematic reviews and meta-analyses. Methods The objective of this review was to identify methods used to measure change in the clinical practices of health professionals following an intervention aimed at increasing the uptake of evidence into practice. All published trials included in a recent, comprehensive Health Technology Assessment of interventions to implement clinical practice guidelines and change clinical practice (n = 228 formed the sample for this study. Using a standardised data extraction form, one reviewer (SH, extracted the relevant information from the methods and/or results sections of the trials. Results Measures of a change of health practitioner behaviour were the most common, with 88.8% of trials using these as outcome measures. Measures that assessed change at a patient level, either actual measures of change or surrogate measures of change, were used in 28.8% and 36.7% of studies (respectively. Health practitioners' knowledge and attitudes were assessed in 22.8% of the studies and changes at an organisational level were assessed in 17.6%. Conclusion Most trials of interventions aimed at changing clinical practice measured the effect of the intervention at the level of the practitioner, i.e. did the practitioner change what they do, or has their knowledge of and/or attitude toward that practice changed? Less than one-third of the trials measured, whether or not any change

  18. Screening for Intimate Partner Violence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paterno, Mary T; Draughon, Jessica E

    2016-05-01

    Intimate partner violence (IPV) is a serious concern for women that is associated with significant adverse health effects. Routine screening for IPV is recommended, but there are many barriers to screening that have been identified by providers, including discomfort, lack of training, and not knowing how to respond to a positive screen. This article reviews IPV screening and appropriate techniques for responding to a positive screen. IPV screening best practices include using a systematic protocol, developing a screening script, using a validated screening tool, and considerations for privacy and mandatory reporting. Responding to a positive screen should include acknowledging the experience, asking if the woman desires help, offering support and referrals, encouraging safety planning, and completing additional assessments to determine level of danger and to identify any comorbidities. Using these techniques along with therapeutic communication may increase IPV identification and create an environment in which women feel empowered to get help. PMID:26990666

  19. Practice-Based Evidence of Evidence-Based Practice: Professional Practice Portfolios for the Assessment of Work-Based Learning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, Elizabeth

    2013-01-01

    This article proposes that professional education programmes can help promote the development of professional judgment by the use of a well-designed professional practice portfolio as an assessment tool. An explanation of the portfolio process is followed by evidence from a four-year action research study, demonstrating how compiling a…

  20. Improving Breast Cancer Outcomes among Women in China: Practices, Knowledge, and Attitudes Related to Breast Cancer Screening

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tsu-Yin Wu

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. Breast cancer is a major public health issue and the most commonly diagnosed cancer for women worldwide. Despite lower incidence rates than those living in Western countries, breast cancer incidence among Chinese women has increased dramatically in the past 20 years. Nevertheless, there is a paucity of studies reporting the attitudes toward and practices of breast cancer screening among Chinese women. Methods. This cross-sectional study examined the practices, knowledge, and attitudes toward breast cancer screening (BCS on a convenience sample of 400 Chinese women. Results. Among study participants, 75% of the women never had a mammogram and the top three barriers reported were low priority, feeling OK, and lack of awareness/knowledge toward breast cancer screening. The results from the logistic regression model showed increased self-efficacy; having performed monthly self-exams, and having had clinical breast exams in the past two years were significant correlates while demographic variables were not correlated with screening behaviors. Conclusion. The findings provide a foundation to better understand beliefs and practices of Chinese women toward BCS and highlight the critical need for general public, health professionals, and the health care system to work collaboratively toward improving the quality of breast cancer care in this population.

  1. Decision-making in healthcare: a practical application of partial least square path modelling to coverage of newborn screening programmes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fischer Katharina E

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Decision-making in healthcare is complex. Research on coverage decision-making has focused on comparative studies for several countries, statistical analyses for single decision-makers, the decision outcome and appraisal criteria. Accounting for decision processes extends the complexity, as they are multidimensional and process elements need to be regarded as latent constructs (composites that are not observed directly. The objective of this study was to present a practical application of partial least square path modelling (PLS-PM to evaluate how it offers a method for empirical analysis of decision-making in healthcare. Methods Empirical approaches that applied PLS-PM to decision-making in healthcare were identified through a systematic literature search. PLS-PM was used as an estimation technique for a structural equation model that specified hypotheses between the components of decision processes and the reasonableness of decision-making in terms of medical, economic and other ethical criteria. The model was estimated for a sample of 55 coverage decisions on the extension of newborn screening programmes in Europe. Results were evaluated by standard reliability and validity measures for PLS-PM. Results After modification by dropping two indicators that showed poor measures in the measurement models’ quality assessment and were not meaningful for newborn screening, the structural equation model estimation produced plausible results. The presence of three influences was supported: the links between both stakeholder participation or transparency and the reasonableness of decision-making; and the effect of transparency on the degree of scientific rigour of assessment. Reliable and valid measurement models were obtained to describe the composites of ‘transparency’, ‘participation’, ‘scientific rigour’ and ‘reasonableness’. Conclusions The structural equation model was among the first applications of PLS-PM to

  2. Assessment of general education teachers' Tier 1 classroom practices: contemporary science, practice, and policy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reddy, Linda A; Fabiano, Gregory A; Jimerson, Shane R

    2013-12-01

    Progress monitoring is a type of formative assessment. Most work on progress monitoring in elementary school settings has been focused on students. However, teachers also can benefit from frequent evaluations. Research addressing teacher progress monitoring is critically important given the recent national focus on teacher evaluation and effectiveness. This special topic section of School Psychology Quarterly is the first to showcase the current research on measuring Tier 1 instructional and behavioral management practices used by prekindergarten and elementary school teachers in general education settings. The three studies included in the special section describe the development and validation efforts of several teacher observational and self-report measures of instruction and/or behavioral management. These studies provide evidence for the utility of such assessments for documenting the use of classroom practices, and these assessment results may be leveraged in innovative coaching models to promote best practice. These articles also offer insight and ideas for the next generation of teacher practice assessment for the field. Finally, the special topic is capped by a commentary synthesizing the current work and offers "big ideas" for future measurement development, policy, and professional development initiatives. PMID:24341924

  3. Usefulness of the Spanish version of the mood disorder questionnaire for screening bipolar disorder in routine clinical practice in outpatients with major depression

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Montes José

    2008-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background According to some studies, almost 40% of depressive patients – half of them previously undetected – are diagnosed of bipolar II disorder when systematically assessed for hypomania. Thus, instruments for bipolar disorder screening are needed. The Mood Disorder Questionnaire (MDQ is a self-reported questionnaire validated in Spanish in stable patients with a previously known diagnosis. The purpose of this study is to evaluate in the daily clinical practice the usefulness of the Spanish version of the MDQ in depressive patients. Methods Patients (n = 87 meeting DSM-IV-TR criteria for a major depressive episode, not previously known as bipolar were included. The affective module of the Structured Clinical Interview (SCID was used as gold standard. Results MDQ screened 24.1% of depressive patients as bipolar, vs. 12.6% according to SCID. For a cut-off point score of 7 positive answers, sensitivity was 72.7% (95% CI = 63.3 – 82.1 and specificity 82.9% (95% CI = 74.9–90.9. Likelihood ratio of positive and negative tests were 4,252 y 0,329 respectively. Limitations The small sample size reduced the power of the study to 62%. Conclusion Sensitivity and specificity of the MDQ were high for screening bipolar disorder in patients with major depression, and similar to the figures obtained in stable patients. This study confirms that MDQ is a useful instrument in the daily clinical assessment of depressive patients.

  4. Benchmarking Methods and Data Sets for Ligand Enrichment Assessment in Virtual Screening

    OpenAIRE

    Xia, Jie; Tilahun, Ermias Lemma; Reid, Terry-Elinor; Zhang, Liangren; Wang, Xiang Simon

    2014-01-01

    Retrospective small-scale virtual screening (VS) based on benchmarking data sets has been widely used to estimate ligand enrichments of VS approaches in the prospective (i.e. real-world) efforts. However, the intrinsic differences of benchmarking sets to the real screening chemical libraries can cause biased assessment. Herein, we summarize the history of benchmarking methods as well as data sets and highlight three main types of biases found in benchmarking sets, i.e. “analogue bias”, “artif...

  5. Use of ecotoxicological screening action levels in ecological risk assessment at Los Alamos National Laboratory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Regulatory drivers found in several environmental statutes require that ecological risk assessment and Natural Resource Damage Assessment be performed to assess potential environmental impact from contaminated sites and from proposed remedial alternatives. At Los Alamos National Laboratory, the initial phase of the ecological risk assessment process required preliminary evaluation of contaminated sites to determine whether potential for ecological impact exists. The preliminary evaluations were made using Ecotoxicological Screening Action Levels (ESALS) calculated as a function of reference toxicity dose, body weight, food/water/air intake, and fraction of soil intake with food. Reference toxicity doses were derived from the Environmental Protection Agency Integrated Risk Information System (IRIS) and Health Effects Assessment Summary Tables (HEAST) toxicology databases. Other parameters required for ESAL calculations were derived from physiological, metabolic, and behavioral data available in the literature. The Los Alamos ESALs were derived for guilds of animals with similar behavioral patterns, which were identified from natural resource survey data collected at Los Alamos. Subsequent to development of Ecotoxicological Screening Action Levels, Hazard Quotients, which are ratios of soil concentrations to Ecotoxicological Screening Action Levels, were calculated for potential contaminants of concern. The Hazard Quotients were used to identify which potential contaminants of concern should be evaluated further for ecological impact. There is potential for ecological impact when the Hazard Quotient is equal to or greater than one

  6. Teaching and Assessing Professionalism in Medical Learners and Practicing Physicians

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paul S. Mueller

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Professionalism is a core competency of physicians. Clinical knowledge and skills (and their maintenance and improvement, good communication skills, and sound understanding of ethics constitute the foundation of professionalism. Rising from this foundation are behaviors and attributes of professionalism: accountability, altruism, excellence, and humanism, the capstone of which is professionalism. Patients, medical societies, and accrediting organizations expect physicians to be professional. Furthermore, professionalism is associated with better clinical outcomes. Hence, medical learners and practicing physicians should be taught and assessed for professionalism. A number of methods can be used to teach professionalism (e.g. didactic lectures, web-based modules, role modeling, reflection, interactive methods, etc.. Because of the nature of professionalism, no single tool for assessing it among medical learners and practicing physicians exists. Instead, multiple assessment tools must be used (e.g. multi-source feedback using 360-degree reviews, patient feedback, critical incident reports, etc.. Data should be gathered continuously throughout an individual’s career. For the individual learner or practicing physician, data generated by these tools can be used to create a “professionalism portfolio,” the totality of which represents a picture of the individual’s professionalism. This portfolio in turn can be used for formative and summative feedback. Data from professionalism assessments can also be used for developing professionalism curricula and generating research hypotheses. Health care leaders should support teaching and assessing professionalism at all levels of learning and practice and promote learning environments and institutional cultures that are consistent with professionalism precepts.

  7. Contacts to general practice and antidepressant treatment initiation after screening for anxiety and depression in patients with heart disease

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, Karen Kjær; Vestergaard, Claus Høstrup; Schougaard, Liv Marit Valen;

    2016-01-01

    Introduction Anxiety and depression are found in 20-30% of all persons with heart disease, and depression is known to impact mortality. This paper aimed to describe the effect of systematic screening of this population in terms of use of general practice, psychological therapy and antidepressant...... treatment. Methods A population-based cohort study was conducted in 2011-2013 comprising 1,658 people with heart disease treated at a Danish regional hospital. Collected data were based on Danish national registers and patient questionnaires. Results Patients with heart disease and anxiety or depressive...... symptoms had more general practitioner (GP) contact rates than patients without anxiety or depressive symptoms both before and after the screening. Furthermore, patients with depressive symptoms increased their GP contact rate significantly in the first month after the screening, while this was not the...

  8. Progress report on Safe VISITOR: approaching a practical instrument for terahertz security screening

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heinz, Erik; Born, Detlef; Zieger, Gabriel; May, Torsten; Krause, Torsten; Krüger, Andre; Schulz, Marco; Anders, Solveig; Zakosarenko, Viatcheslav; Meyer, Hans-Georg; Starkloff, Michael; Rößler, Mario; Thorwirth, Guenter; Krause, Ulf

    2010-04-01

    As reported before,1, 2 Safe VISITOR (Safe VISible, Infrared and Terahertz Object recognition) is a German project to build a passive security camera which visualizes sub-mm wavelengths using cooled bolometer arrays. This camera could be used for a variety of application scenarios, such as airport screenings or to protect military camps. In all cases, a practical instrument requires ease of use, in particular a flexible installation and a straightforward usage by the security personnel. Here we present a new generation of Safe VISITOR designed to meet these requirements. The main condition for an effective operation is a high frame rate of the imager. Safe VISITOR is able to record videos up to 10 Hz, using a small array of superconducting bolometers in combination with an opto-mechanical scanner. The required cooling of the detector array is provided by a commercial pulse tube cooler with a second, self-contained cooling stage. The cooling cycle is completely automated; after 10 hours of initial cooling from room temperature the system can operate quasi-continuously. For imaging, a 50 cm diameter optics is used which is able to provide an object resolution of approximately 1.5 cm at 8 m distance. For a flexible installation, the object distance can be tuned manually between 7 and 10 m. Additionally, video streams from two commercial cameras are fused with the sub-mm stream: a CCD for visible light and a microbolometer for far infrared (14 μm). This combines the ability of identification of the person under test with the unprecedented temperature resolution at infrared and the almost perfect transmission at sub-mm. To assist a security official, all image data are displayed in various graphic renditions by a unified system software.

  9. A practical approach to radiological evaluation of CT lung cancer screening examinations

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Xie, Xueqian; Heuvelmans, Marjolein A.; van Ooijen, Peter M. A.; Oudkerk, Matthijs; Vliegenthart, Rozemarijn

    2013-01-01

    Lung cancer is the most common cause of cancer-related death in the world. The Dutch-Belgian Randomized Lung Cancer Screening Trial (Dutch acronym: NELSON) was launched to investigate whether screening for lung cancer by low-dose multidetector computed tomography (CT) in high-risk patients will lead

  10. Breast Cancer Screening among Older Hispanic Women: Knowledge, Attitudes, and Practices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saint-Germain, Michelle A.; Longman, Alice J.

    1993-01-01

    Data from 409 Hispanic-American and 138 Anglo older women in Tucson identified few differences in their use of breast cancer screening and low levels of risk knowledge. Both groups fell well below recommended frequency of screening. Clinical examination and self-examination were used more than mammography. (SK)

  11. Assessment of Total Quality Management Practices in a Public Organization

    OpenAIRE

    Özçakar, Necdet

    2010-01-01

    Total quality management has been very popular within the business world in last decades. Various researches showed that employees' assessments about total quality management practices have a great importance on the success of total quality management implemention. However the implemention of total quality management in public organizations is quite different than its implemention in private sector because of different natures of each sector. The aim of this research is to analyze the assessm...

  12. Age appropriate screening for cancer: Evidence-based practice in the United States of America

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T S Pandey

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Cancer screening is a well established and integral part of routine care in the Western world including United States. Men and women are recommended to get age-specific screening for common cancers like breast, cervical, prostate, and colon. The goal of screening is primary and secondary prevention. Cancer prevention and early detection of cancers has been shown to improve survival rates and decrease mortality by prompt appropriate treatment. This article serves to outline the current guidelines in the United States for cancer screening and the evidence for them as well as discusses the possibility of a similar model of care in India as well as barriers to such a screening program for cancer. The evidence was mostly obtained from systematic reviews done by the United States Preventive Services Task Force guidelines and other peer institutions like American Cancer Society and Agency for Healthcare Research and Quality.

  13. Clinical practice recommendations for quality of life assessment in patients with gynecological cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leppert, Wojciech; Gottwald, Leszek; Forycka, Maria

    2015-12-01

    Quality of life (QoL) is a multidimensional concept regarding self-assessment of patients' situation. Quality of life has not been clearly defined up to date, although it is clear that it is a subjective self-assessment that to a significant extent is determined by individual needs, beliefs, values, attitudes, which are changing with time. Health-related QoL comprises basic dimensions such as patients' performance status, physical, emotional, and social functioning, symptoms of the disease and adverse effects of treatment, spiritual (God and existential) and other dimensions. In women, the ovary, cervical, corpus uterus, vagina and vulva cancers deteriorate QoL by disease progression and consequences of treatment, also in cancer survivors. Common symptoms include the genito-urinary system, the lower gastrointestinal tract and peripheral neuropathies induced by chemotherapy. In young women, QoL is impaired by infertility, sexual problems and menopause symptoms. An overview of QoL questionnaires used in oncology with special regard to patients with gynecological tumors was conducted. A screening tool for psychological state assessment of oncology patients (distress thermometer), the Edmonton Symptom Assessment System (ESAS) and modular approach of QoL assessment recommended by the EORTC (European Organization for the Research and Treatment of Cancer) were presented. Practical guidelines were proposed to assess appropriately QoL in patients with gynecological cancers who stay at in-patient gynecology units and those treated at home and in an ambulatory care setting. PMID:26848300

  14. Using Portfolios to Assess Learning in Chemistry: One School's Story of Evolving Assessment Practice

    OpenAIRE

    Weaver, Starlin Dawn

    1997-01-01

    Using Portfolios to Assess Learning in Chemistry: One School's Story of Evolving Assessment Practice by Starlin Dawn Weaver Committee Chairperson: Thomas G. Teates Department of Teaching and Learning Abstract The purpose of this study was to investigate the process of implementing an alternative form of assessment in chemistry classrooms. The current reform of science education involves the implementation of varied forms of instruction; it stands to re...

  15. Teachers Assessment Practices and Students Perceptions of the Classroom Assessment Environment

    OpenAIRE

    Hussain Alkharusi

    2010-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine the relationship between teachers' assessment practices and students’ perceptions of the classroom assessment environment. A total of 1,636 students and 83 science teachers in the ninth grade participated in the study. Results from hierarchical linear modeling techniques showed that students’ perceptions of the assessment environment were shaped by student characteristics such as self-efficacy, class contextual features such as aggregate perceived asse...

  16. Reflective practice: assessment of assignments in English for Specific Purposes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Galina Kavaliauskiené

    2007-10-01

    Full Text Available The construct alternative assessment has been widely used in higher education. It is often defined as any type of assessment of learners who provide a response to an assignment. The key features of alternative assessment are active participation of learners in self-evaluation of their performance, and the development of reflective thinking through reflective thinking (Schön, 1983. The success of alternative assessment in language teaching is predetermined by student’s performance and demonstrates learner’s language proficiency in contemporary communicative classrooms. This paper aims at researching the influence of students’ evaluations of various assignments for their linguistic development in English for Specific Purposes (ESP. The study uses learners’ assessment of different assignments and learners’ in-course and post-course written reflections on benefits to language mastery. Learners’ assignments included were contributions to portfolios (dossiers, such as essays and summaries, oral presentations, short impromptu talks, creative tasks, tests, and self-assessment notes (reflections on activities in learning ESP. Findings were obtained for two streams of the project participants. Results showed that self-assessment was beneficial for learners’ linguistic development. The context of learners’ reflections reveals that the attitudes to various assignments are affected by success or failure in students’ performance. Reflective practice might help teachers develop ways of dealing with previously identified difficulties and improve the quality of teaching.

  17. Applying ethological and health indicators to practical animal welfare assessment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wemelsfelder, F; Mullan, S

    2014-04-01

    There is a growing effort worldwide to develop objective indicators for animal welfare assessment, which provide information on an animal's quality of life, are scientifically trustworthy, and can readily be used in practice by professionals. Animals are sentient beings capable of positive and negative emotion, and so these indicators should be sensitive not only to their physical health, but also to their experience of the conditions in which they live. This paper provides an outline of ethological research aimed at developing practical welfare assessment protocols. The first section focuses on the development and validation of welfare indicators generally, in terms of their relevance to animal well-being, their interobserver reliability, and the confidence with which the prevalence of described features can be estimated. Challenges in this work include accounting for the ways in which welfare measures may fluctuate over time, and identifying measures suited to monitoring positive welfare states. The second section focuses more specifically on qualitative welfare indicators, which assess the 'whole animal' and describe the expressive qualities of its demeanour (e.g. anxious, content). Such indicators must be validated in the same way as other health and behaviour indicators, with the added challenge of finding appropriate methods of measurement. The potential contribution of qualitative indicators, however, is to disclose an emotional richness in animals that helps to interpret information provided by other indicators, thus enhancing the validity of welfare assessment protocols. In conclusion, the paper emphasises the importance of integrating such different perspectives, showing that new knowledge of animals and new ways of relating to animals are both needed for the successful development of practical welfare assessment tools. PMID:25000783

  18. An Investigation of the Factors Affecting Performance of Environmental Impact Assessment Practices (EIA in Pakistan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shahbaz Hussain

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Environmental Impact Assessment is used to detect changes that a proposed project may have on environment. The intent of present study is to investigate impact of institutional capacity and legal framework on performance of Environmental Impact Assessment practices in Pakistan such as screening, scoping and mitigation, environmental management plan and reporting. Sample of 200 EIA professionals have been selected by using random sampling approach from all provinces of Pakistan. Data has been collected through structured questionnaire and analysed by using AMOS 19 (Analysis of Moment Structures software. Results of path analysis indicated that institutional capacity and legal framework have significant direct impact on performance of all EIA practices in Pakistan. Model fit statistics such as GFI, RMR, NFI, IFI, TLI, RFI, CFI indicate the fitness of research model in this context. It has been suggested that there must be relevant and sufficient human resources that can uplift institutional capacity and legal framework must be well implemented because it will lead to enhanced performance of EIA practices in Pakistan.

  19. Radiological mass screening within the Member States of the European Community. Regulations, practices, effectiveness. Proceedings of a seminar

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Under the Euratom Treaty it is the task of the Commission of the European Community to ensure the health protection of workers and the general public against the dangers of ionizing radiation. Dose limits and the principals of radiation protection were first laid down in a Council Directive of 1959, and have since been repeatedly adapted. The specific problems of radiation protection of persons undergoing medical examination or treatment are the subject of a separate Council Directive of 3 September 1984. This directive specifies that 'all medical exposures must be medically justified and kept as low as reasonably achievable'. The concept of justification is particularly critical in the case of mass-screening activities. For some diseases with low prevalence the radiological detriment to the population resulting from radiological mass-screening procedures might be greater than the individual benefit of the diagnosis. In addition the costs of public health care are rising in all Member States of the European Community and the effectiveness of public health care programmes like mass-screening must be carefully examined. A technical workshop on practices and regulations in the field of radiological mass-screening within the Member States (Luxembourg, 4-5 December 1984) and a seminar on the same subject (Luxembourg, 3-4 December 1985) were therefore organized by the Commission of the European Communities in cooperation with the Commissariat a l'energie Atomique, CEA, and the Centre d'etude sur l'evaluation de la protection dans le domaine nucleaire, CEPN (France). The workshop provided up-to-date information on effectiveness and cost of radiological mass-screening programmes in the Member States. The seminar provided the representatives of the national authorities responsible for radiation protection, public health and occupational medicine with an opportunity to discuss mass-screening practices with experts. This publication contains the papers presented at the

  20. Risk assessment adjusted for gestational age in maternal serum screening for Down's syndrome.

    OpenAIRE

    Gardosi, J.; Mongelli, M.

    1993-01-01

    OBJECTIVE--To investigate the relation between errors in calculation of gestational age and assessment of risk of Down's syndrome and to analyse the implications for screening programmes. DESIGN--Retrospective analysis of dating of gestational age by menstrual history v ultrasound scan. Computer program with maternal age and concentrations of alpha fetoprotein and free beta human chorionic gonadotrophin to calculate risk for a range of expected dates of delivery. Computer simulated prospectiv...

  1. Pain and stress assessment after retinopathy of prematurity screening examination: Indirect ophthalmoscopy versus digital retinal imaging

    OpenAIRE

    Moral-Pumarega M; Caserío-Carbonero Sonia; De-La-Cruz-Bértolo Javier; Tejada-Palacios Pilar; Lora-Pablos David; Pallás-Alonso Carmen R

    2012-01-01

    Abstract Background Increasingly, neonatal clinics seek to minimize painful experiences and stress for premature infants. Fundoscopy performed with a binocular indirect ophthalmoscope is the reference examination technique for screening of retinopathy of prematurity (ROP), and it is associated with pain and stress. Wide-field digital retinal imaging is a recent technique that should be evaluated for minimizing infant pain and stress. Methods The purpose of the study was to assess and compare ...

  2. A human pluripotent stem cell platform for assessing developmental neural toxicity screening

    OpenAIRE

    Hou, Zhonggang; Zhang, Jue; Schwartz, Michael P.; Stewart, Ron; Page, C David; Murphy, William L.; Thomson, James A

    2013-01-01

    A lack of affordable and effective testing and screening procedures mean surprisingly little is known about the health hazards of many of the tens of thousands of chemicals in use in the world today. The recent rise in the number of children affected by neurological disorders such as autism has stirred valuable debate about the role chemicals play in our daily life, highlighting the need for improved methods of assessing chemicals for developmental neural toxicity. Current methods of testing ...

  3. Assessment of the Knowledge and Attitudes of Saudi Mothers towards Newborn Screening

    OpenAIRE

    Ayman Al-Sulaiman; Kondkar, Altaf A.; Saeedi, Mohammad Y.; Amal Saadallah; Ali Al-Odaib; Khaled K. Abu-Amero

    2015-01-01

    Objective. To assess the attitude and knowledge of the Saudi mothers toward newborn screening (NBS) program. Methods. A total of 425 Saudi women (only mothers who have at least one pregnancy) participated in the study from different regions in Saudi Arabia and completed the structured questionnaire which sought their views on the NBS services. Results. A majority of the participating women (91.1%) supported the NBS program and felt it was very important and useful. However, knowledge of NBS w...

  4. COPD management: role of symptom assessment in routine clinical practice

    Science.gov (United States)

    van der Molen, Thys; Miravitlles, Marc; Kocks, Janwillem WH

    2013-01-01

    Patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) present with a variety of symptoms that significantly impair health-related quality of life. Despite this, COPD treatment and its management are mainly based on lung function assessments. There is increasing evidence that conventional lung function measures alone do not correlate well with COPD symptoms and their associated impact on patients’ everyday lives. Instead, symptoms should be assessed routinely, preferably by using patient-centered questionnaires that provide a more accurate guide to the actual burden of COPD. Numerous questionnaires have been developed in an attempt to find a simple and reliable tool to use in everyday clinical practice. In this paper, we review three such patient-reported questionnaires recommended by the latest Global Initiative for Chronic Obstructive Lung Disease guidelines, ie, the modified Medical Research Council questionnaire, the clinical COPD questionnaire, and the COPD Assessment Test, as well as other symptom-specific questionnaires that are currently being developed. PMID:24143085

  5. Initial development of a practical safety audit tool to assess fleet safety management practices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mitchell, Rebecca; Friswell, Rena; Mooren, Lori

    2012-07-01

    Work-related vehicle crashes are a common cause of occupational injury. Yet, there are few studies that investigate management practices used for light vehicle fleets (i.e. vehicles less than 4.5 tonnes). One of the impediments to obtaining and sharing information on effective fleet safety management is the lack of an evidence-based, standardised measurement tool. This article describes the initial development of an audit tool to assess fleet safety management practices in light vehicle fleets. The audit tool was developed by triangulating information from a review of the literature on fleet safety management practices and from semi-structured interviews with 15 fleet managers and 21 fleet drivers. A preliminary useability assessment was conducted with 5 organisations. The audit tool assesses the management of fleet safety against five core categories: (1) management, systems and processes; (2) monitoring and assessment; (3) employee recruitment, training and education; (4) vehicle technology, selection and maintenance; and (5) vehicle journeys. Each of these core categories has between 1 and 3 sub-categories. Organisations are rated at one of 4 levels on each sub-category. The fleet safety management audit tool is designed to identify the extent to which fleet safety is managed in an organisation against best practice. It is intended that the audit tool be used to conduct audits within an organisation to provide an indicator of progress in managing fleet safety and to consistently benchmark performance against other organisations. Application of the tool by fleet safety researchers is now needed to inform its further development and refinement and to permit psychometric evaluation. PMID:22342958

  6. Do pressure ulcer risk assessment scales improve clinical practice?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jan Kottner

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available Jan Kottner1, Katrin Balzer21Department of Nursing Science, Charité-Universitätsmedizin Berlin, Germany; 2Nursing Research Group, Institute for Social Medicine, Universitätsklinikum Schleswig-Holstein, Lübeck, GermanyAbstract: Standardized assessment instruments are deemed important for estimating pressure ulcer risk. Today, more than 40 so-called pressure ulcer risk assessment scales are available but still there is an ongoing debate about their usefulness. From a measurement point of view pressure ulcer (PU risk assessment scales have serious limitations. Empirical evidence supporting the validity of PU risk assessment scale scores is weak and obtained scores contain varying amounts of measurement error. The concept of pressure ulcer risk is strongly related to the general health status and severity of illness. A clinical impact due do the application of these scales could also not be demonstrated. It is questionable whether completion of standardized pressure ulcer risk scales in clinical practice is really needed.Keywords: Braden pressure ulcer, prevention, risk assessment, nursing assessment, predictive value, clinical effectiveness, review

  7. Targeted Provision of Oral Iron: The Evolution of a Practical Screening Option 1 2 3

    OpenAIRE

    Crowley, Caitlin R.; Noel W. Solomons; Schümann, Klaus

    2012-01-01

    Universal oral iron supplementation, undertaken according to 1998 WHO guidelines, produced adverse consequences among some children in malaria-endemic areas. Prompted by the Pemba trial, which revealed excessive hospitalizations and deaths, WHO advised that iron supplementation in such regions be accompanied by previous screening for iron deficiency. This agenda, however, poses issues of cost, benefit, acceptability, technical feasibility, and reliability of such screening. The cost of equipm...

  8. Examining My Assessment Literacy Instruction Practices with Teacher Candidates

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mary Rice

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available In this self-study, the author examines her teacher education practices in preparing teacher candidates to assess the literacy of English learners (ELs. According to Lee (2007, disciplinary literary is essential to supporting students in becoming active in democratic pursuits. Conceptualizing literacy in this broader way for teacher candidates and then promoting the exclusive use of tools like fluency exercises and comprehension inventories for their classroom practice seems like a mixed message. The author identified three concepts from the course materials that she determined were important for teacher candidates to consider in assessing literacy development in ELs. These were (a notions of ELs preexisting literacy in their native languages, in particularly in content area subject matter for curriculum-making, (b fundamental understandings about second language acquisition, and (c knowledge of measurement practices as an avenue for advocacy. These three ideas framed the literature reviewed for this study and positioned the author to use narrative accounts of her teaching as data which yielded findings.

  9. Assessment of radiation protection practices among radiographers in Lagos, Nigeria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cletus Uche Eze

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Use of ionising radiation in diagnostic radiography could lead to hazards such as somatic and genetic damages. Compliance to safe work and radiation protection practices could mitigate such risks. The aim of the study was to assess the knowledge and radiation protection practices among radiographers in Lagos, Nigeria. Materials and Methods: The study was a prospective cross sectional survey. Convenience sampling technique was used to select four x-ray diagnostic centres in four tertiary hospitals in Lagos metropolis. Data were analysed with Epi- info software, version 3.5.1. Results: Average score on assessment of knowledge was 73%. Most modern radiation protection instruments were lacking in all the centres studied. Application of shielding devices such as gonad shield for protection was neglected mostly in government hospitals. Most x-ray machines were quite old and evidence of quality assurance tests performed on such machines were lacking. Conclusion: Radiographers within Lagos metropolis showed an excellent knowledge of radiation protection within the study period. Adherence to radiation protection practices among radiographers in Lagos metropolis during the period studied was, however, poor. Radiographers in Lagos, Nigeria should embrace current trends in radiation protection and make more concerted efforts to apply their knowledge in protecting themselves and patients from harmful effects of ionising radiation.

  10. Community-Based Diabetes Screening and Risk Assessment in Rural West Virginia

    OpenAIRE

    Ranjita Misra; Cindy Fitch; David Roberts; Dana Wright

    2016-01-01

    This project utilized a cross-sectional study design to assess diabetes risk among 540 individuals from 12 counties using trained extension agents and community organizations in West Virginia. Individuals were screened for diabetes using (1) the validated 7-item diabetes risk assessment survey and (2) hemoglobin A1c tests. Demographic and lifestyle behaviors were also collected. The average age, body mass index, and A1c were 51.2 ± 16.4, 31.1 ± 7.5, and 5.8 ± 0.74, respectively. The majority ...

  11. Lung cancer screening. What have we learnt for the practice so far?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lung cancer is the most frequent cause of tumor-associated death and only has a good prognosis if detected at a very early tumor stage. For the first time the American National Lung Screening Trial (NLST) could prove that low-dose computed tomography (CT) screening is able to reduce lung cancer mortality by 20 %. To date, however, three much smaller and therefore statistically underpowered European trials could not confirm the positive results of the NLST. The results of the largest European trial NELSON are expected within the next 2 years. In addition, there are a number of open or not yet satisfactorily answered questions, such as the definition of the appropriate screening population, the management of nodules detected by screening, the effects of over-diagnosis and the risk of cumulative radiation exposure. The success of the NLST prompted several predominantly American professional societies to issue a positive recommendation about the implementation of lung cancer screening in a population at risk. However, potentially conflicting results of European studies and a number of not yet optimized issues justify caution and call for a pooled analysis of European studies in order to provide statistically sound results and to ensure a high efficiency of screening with respect to the radiation applied, mental and physical patient burden and, last but not least, the financial efforts. (orig.)

  12. Assessing methods for measurement of clinical outcomes and quality of care in primary care practices

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Green Michael E

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Purpose To evaluate the appropriateness of potential data sources for the population of performance indicators for primary care (PC practices. Methods This project was a cross sectional study of 7 multidisciplinary primary care teams in Ontario, Canada. Practices were recruited and 5-7 physicians per practice agreed to participate in the study. Patients of participating physicians (20-30 were recruited sequentially as they presented to attend a visit. Data collection included patient, provider and practice surveys, chart abstraction and linkage to administrative data sets. Matched pairs analysis was used to examine the differences in the observed results for each indicator obtained using multiple data sources. Results Seven teams, 41 physicians, 94 associated staff and 998 patients were recruited. The survey response rate was 81% for patients, 93% for physicians and 83% for associated staff. Chart audits were successfully completed on all but 1 patient and linkage to administrative data was successful for all subjects. There were significant differences noted between the data collection methods for many measures. No single method of data collection was best for all outcomes. For most measures of technical quality of care chart audit was the most accurate method of data collection. Patient surveys were more accurate for immunizations, chronic disease advice/information dispensed, some general health promotion items and possibly for medication use. Administrative data appears useful for indicators including chronic disease diagnosis and osteoporosis/ breast screening. Conclusions Multiple data collection methods are required for a comprehensive assessment of performance in primary care practices. The choice of which methods are best for any one particular study or quality improvement initiative requires careful consideration of the biases that each method might introduce into the results. In this study, both patients and providers were

  13. Assessment of Acute Pain in Nursing Practice in Latvia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Iveta Strode

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available Background: International Association for the Study of Pain defines pain as annoying sensations and emotions associated with actual or potential tissue damage or is described as such damage. Pains always are considered to be subjective sensations with multidimensional nature composed from physical, emotional and cognitive components. One of the main tasks in pain syndrome effective therapy is the option to perform objective assessment of pain intensity and quality utilizing principle of continuity. Independent surveys on pain management in postoperative period are performed in different countries of the world. Studies analyze effectiveness of both - medical and non-medical measurements in order to reduce pain syndrome. Very few investigations of chronic and acute pain influence on recovery process, progress and outcome of illness, assessment of pain intensity and quality are performed in Latvia. In the case of acute pain chronification, pain perception and management can be changed; pains become inadequately long lasting and may combine with psychogenic pains. According to the data obtained by the World Health Organization, fifty percent patients after injuries or operations have severe and insufferable pains despite the development of acute pain treatment and care. Insufficiently controlled postoperative pains become a risk factor for development of various abnormalities. Aim of the study: To study the usage of postoperative period pain intensity and quality assessment scales in the clinical practice of nursing, as well as availability of these methodsMaterial and methods: Survey utilizes quantitative research method. As an investigation tool was chosen questionnaire. Survey was carried out in the surgical profile wards in Riga and regional clinics of Latvia. Questionnaire embraced 309 nurses, working in the surgical profile.Results: Assessment of acute pains should be considered as the fifth vital sign providing more successful achievement of

  14. Assessment of required resources for implementation of national breast cancer screening program in Serbia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Majstorović Nemanja

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction. High values of standardized mortality and morbidity rates of standardized cancer mortality in Serbia, especially colorectal, cervical and breast cancer led to creation of national programs for their early detection and engagement of the international support for their implementation. Objective. Assessment of required resources (time, personnel, financial to implement the National program for screening of breast cancer in the Republic of Serbia. Methods. Three possible scenarios have been prepared (optimistic, realistic and pessimistic based on the expected coverage by screening of women aged 45 to 69 years, and time, personnel and financial feasibility estimates were made for a two-year screening cycle. Results. Time aspect of feasibility even under conditions of “relaxation” of the assumption on the number of working days during the year did not question feasibility of any of the scenarios. Personnel feasibility is only possible in the pessimistic scenario, while the financial feasibility only makes sense in optimistic scenario as the least unfavorable solution due to economies of scale. Conclusion. Establishment of the initial base of skilled radiologists and radiology technicians and the system for their continuous medical education as well as allocation of specific MoH budget line for screening program expenditures, along with donated mammographs and good organization and coordination, may provide unobstructed implementation of the National program for early detection of breast cancer in the Republic of Serbia.

  15. Fast contingency screening for online transient stability monitoring and assessment of the KEPCO system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, B.; Kwon, S.H.; Lee, J. [Korea Univ. (Korea). Dept. of Electrical Engineering; Nam, H.K. [Chonnam Univ. (Korea). Dept. of Electrical Engineering; Choo, J.B.; Jeon, D.H. [Korea Electric Power Research Inst. (Korea)

    2003-07-01

    A fast contingency screening algorithm using SIME for the transient stability monitoring of the KEPCO system is implemented. This method evaluates the first-swing stability of a large number of contingencies in a short time with reliable accuracy. The salient features of the proposed screening algorithm are as follows. First, a critical cluster of generators is identified by a new index in the early stage of the time domain simulation. Thus, the computational time required for finding the equivalent one machine infinite bus system can be reduced significantly. Second, clustering critical machines can perform even in very stable cases. This allows us to avoid the extra calculation of the time trajectory that is needed in the SIME for classifying the stable cases. Third, the screening capability is improved using the power-angle trajectory and subdividing the contingency classification. The test results on the KEPCO system show that the proposed method can be adopted as a contingency screening function and the transient stability assessment for the transient stability monitoring of the KEPCO system. (author)

  16. Assessment of the Medmont C100 test for colour vision screening of male Saudi Arabians

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abdullah Z. Alotaibi

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: To assess the Medmont C100 test as a colour vision screening tool. Methods: One hundred and seventeen young male adults were screened with the Medmont C100, Ishihara plates, and the screening mode of the Oculus Anomaloscope tests. All subjects were tested under constant room illumination, namely that of a day light fluorescent lamp at 200 lux. Inclusion criteria were visual acuities (VA of 20/20 or better with or without correction and absence of known ocular pathologies.Aided and unaided visual acuities were measured with the Snellen VA chart. Results: Five out of the117 subjects, were found to have red-green colour vision deficiency (CVD with Ishihara and anomaloscope tests indicating a 4.7% CVD prevalence, while the Medmont C100 test yielded 33 cases of red-green deficiency indicating CVD prevalence of 28%.  With the Ishihara test, all five subjects were identified as deutans, while the anomaloscope revealed three as deutans and two as protans, and the Medmont C100 test identified all 33 cases as protans. Conclusion:  The Medmont C100 test yielded significantly higher prevalence of protan CVD compared with the Ishihara platesand Anomaloscope tests. These findings suggest that caution should be taken when using Medmont C100 test for colour vision screening as it tends togive more false positive results with bias for protans.  (S Afr Optom 2011 70(1 14-20

  17. Assessment of regulatory effectiveness. Peer discussions on regulatory practices

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This report arises from the seventh series of peer discussions on regulatory practices entitled 'Assessment of Regulatory Effectiveness'. The term 'regulatory effectiveness' covers the quality of the work and level of performance of a regulatory body. In this sense, regulatory effectiveness applies to regulatory body activities aimed at preventing safety degradation and ensuring that an acceptable level of safety is being maintained by the regulated operating organizations. In addition, regulatory effectiveness encompasses the promotion of safety improvements, the timely and cost effective performance of regulatory functions in a manner which ensures the confidence of the operating organizations, the general public and the government, and striving for continuous improvements to performance. Senior regulators from 22 Member States participated in two peer group discussions during March and May 1999. The discussions were focused on the elements of an effective regulatory body, possible indicators of regulatory effectiveness and its assessment. This report presents the outcome of these meetings and recommendations of good practices identified by senior regulators, which do not necessarily reflect those of the governments of the nominating Member States, the organizations they belong to, or the International Atomic Energy Agency. In order to protect people and the environment from hazards associated with nuclear facilities, the main objective of a nuclear regulatory body is to ensure that a high level of safety in the nuclear activities under its jurisdiction is achieved, maintained and within the control of operating organizations. Even if it is possible to directly judge objective safety levels at nuclear facilities, such safety levels would not provide an exclusive indicator of regulatory effectiveness. The way the regulatory body ensures the safety of workers and the public and the way it discharges its responsibilities also determine its effectiveness. Hence the

  18. Headspace screening: A novel approach for fast quality assessment of the essential oil from culinary sage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cvetkovikj, Ivana; Stefkov, Gjoshe; Acevska, Jelena; Karapandzova, Marija; Dimitrovska, Aneta; Kulevanova, Svetlana

    2016-07-01

    Quality assessment of essential oil (EO) from culinary sage (Salvia officinalis L., Lamiaceae) is limited by the long pharmacopoeial procedure. The aim of this study was to employ headspace (HS) sampling in the quality assessment of sage EO. Different populations (30) of culinary sage were assessed using GC/FID/MS analysis of the hydrodistilled EO (pharmacopoeial method) and HS sampling directly from leaves. Compound profiles from both procedures were evaluated according to ISO 9909 and GDC standards for sage EO quality, revealing compliance for only 10 populations. Factors to convert HS values, for the target ISO and GDC components, into theoretical EO values were calculated. Statistical analysis revealed a significant relationship between HS and EO values for seven target components. Consequently, HS sampling could be used as a complementary extraction technique for rapid screening in quality assessment of sage EOs. PMID:26920277

  19. Brent Spar abandonment - Best Practicable Environmental Option (BPEO) assessment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Possible methods of abandoning or re-using the Brent Spar storage and tanker offloading facility following its decommissioning in 1991 are discussed. The report assesses six of the thirteen possible methods, including horizontal dismantling and onshore disposal, vertical dismantling and onshore disposal, in-field disposal, deep water disposal, refurbishment and re-use, and continued maintenance, in order to determine the Best Practicable Environmental Option (BPEO). The BPEO covers technical feasibility risks to health and safety of the work force, environmental impacts, public acceptability and costs. (UK)

  20. Terrestrial avoidance behaviour tests as screening tool to assess soil contamination

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    To assess soil quality and risk assessment, bioassays can be useful tools to gauge the potential toxicity of contaminants focusing on their bioavailable fraction. A rapid and sublethal avoidance behaviour test was used as a screening tool with the earthworm Eisenia andrei and the isopod Porcellionides pruinosus, where organisms were exposed during 48 h to several chemicals (lindane, dimethoate and copper sulphate, for isopods and carbendazim, benomyl, dimethoate and copper sulphate for earthworms). Both species were also exposed to soils from an abandoned mine. For all bioassays a statistical approach was used to derive EC50 values. Isopods and earthworms were able to perceive the presence of toxic compounds and escaping from contaminated to clean soil. Furthermore the behaviour parameter was equally or more sensitive then other sublethal parameters (e.g. reproduction or growth), expressing the advantages of Avoidance Behaviour Tests as screening tools in ERA. - Avoidance Behaviour Tests with earthworms and isopods can be used as screening tools in the evaluation of soil contamination

  1. Automated assessment of bilateral breast volume asymmetry as a breast cancer biomarker during mammographic screening

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williams, Alex C.; Hitt, Austin; Voisin, Sophie; Tourassi, Georgia

    2013-03-01

    The biological concept of bilateral symmetry as a marker of developmental stability and good health is well established. Although most individuals deviate slightly from perfect symmetry, humans are essentially considered bilaterally symmetrical. Consequently, increased fluctuating asymmetry of paired structures could be an indicator of disease. There are several published studies linking bilateral breast size asymmetry with increased breast cancer risk. These studies were based on radiologists' manual measurements of breast size from mammographic images. We aim to develop a computerized technique to assess fluctuating breast volume asymmetry in screening mammograms and investigate whether it correlates with the presence of breast cancer. Using a large database of screening mammograms with known ground truth we applied automated breast region segmentation and automated breast size measurements in CC and MLO views using three well established methods. All three methods confirmed that indeed patients with breast cancer have statistically significantly higher fluctuating asymmetry of their breast volumes. However, statistically significant difference between patients with cancer and benign lesions was observed only for the MLO views. The study suggests that automated assessment of global bilateral asymmetry could serve as a breast cancer risk biomarker for women undergoing mammographic screening. Such biomarker could be used to alert radiologists or computer-assisted detection (CAD) systems to exercise increased vigilance if higher than normal cancer risk is suspected.

  2. Assessments of cognitive abilities in a mouse model of Parkinson's disease with a touch screen test.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kwak, Chuljung; Lim, Chae-Seok; Kaang, Bong-Kiun

    2016-03-15

    Patients with Parkinson's disease (PD) experience both motor output deficits and cognitive disabilities. Various PD rodent models have been developed to investigate the genetic and brain circuit-related causes of PD and have contributed to the basic and clinical research and to therapeutic strategies for this disease. Most studies using PD rodent models have focused on the motor output deficits, rather than cognitive disabilities due to the lack of appropriate testing tools that do not require significant motor abilities. In this study, we assessed the cognitive disabilities of PD model mice using a touch screen test that required only little motor ability. We found that the PD model mice, which had motor deficits caused by unilateral striatal dopaminergic degeneration, successfully underwent operant conditioning with a touch screen test. Additionally, we found that the PD model mice demonstrated impaired location discrimination, but intact attention and reversal learning in the cognitive tests. Therefore, the touch screen test is useful for assessing hidden cognitive disabilities in disease model animals with decreased motor function. PMID:26698399

  3. Terrestrial avoidance behaviour tests as screening tool to assess soil contamination

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Loureiro, Susana [Department of Biology, University of Aveiro, 3810-193 Aveiro (Portugal)]. E-mail: sloureiro@bio.ua.pt; Soares, Amadeu M.V.M. [Department of Biology, University of Aveiro, 3810-193 Aveiro (Portugal); Nogueira, Antonio J.A. [Department of Biology, University of Aveiro, 3810-193 Aveiro (Portugal)

    2005-11-15

    To assess soil quality and risk assessment, bioassays can be useful tools to gauge the potential toxicity of contaminants focusing on their bioavailable fraction. A rapid and sublethal avoidance behaviour test was used as a screening tool with the earthworm Eisenia andrei and the isopod Porcellionides pruinosus, where organisms were exposed during 48 h to several chemicals (lindane, dimethoate and copper sulphate, for isopods and carbendazim, benomyl, dimethoate and copper sulphate for earthworms). Both species were also exposed to soils from an abandoned mine. For all bioassays a statistical approach was used to derive EC{sub 50} values. Isopods and earthworms were able to perceive the presence of toxic compounds and escaping from contaminated to clean soil. Furthermore the behaviour parameter was equally or more sensitive then other sublethal parameters (e.g. reproduction or growth), expressing the advantages of Avoidance Behaviour Tests as screening tools in ERA. - Avoidance Behaviour Tests with earthworms and isopods can be used as screening tools in the evaluation of soil contamination.

  4. Microchip screening platform for single cell assessment of NK cell cytotoxicity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karolin eGuldevall

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Here we report a screening platform for assessment of the cytotoxic potential of individual natural killer (NK cells within larger populations. Human primary NK cells were distributed across a silicon-glass microchip containing 32 400 individual microwells loaded with target cells. Through fluorescence screening and automated image analysis the numbers of NK and live or dead target cells in each well could be assessed at different time points after initial mixing. Cytotoxicity was also studied by time-lapse live-cell imaging in microwells quantifying the killing potential of individual NK cells. Although most resting NK cells (≈75% were non-cytotoxic against the leukemia cell line K562, some NK cells were able to kill several (≥3 target cells within the 12 hours long experiment. In addition, the screening approach was adapted to increase the chance to find and evaluate serial killing NK cells. Even if the cytotoxic potential varied between donors it was evident that a small fraction of highly cytotoxic NK cells were responsible for a substantial portion of the killing. We demonstrate multiple assays where our platform can be used to enumerate and characterize cytotoxic cells, such as NK or T cells. This approach could find use in clinical applications, e.g. in the selection of donors for stem cell transplantation or generation of highly specific and cytotoxic cells for adoptive immunotherapy.

  5. Diabetic Retinopathy Screening and Monitoring of Early Stage Disease in Australian General Practice: Tackling Preventable Blindness within a Chronic Care Model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lisa Crossland

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction. Diabetic retinopathy (DR is the leading cause of preventable blindness in Australia. Up to 50% of people with proliferative DR who do not receive timely treatment will become legally blind within five years. Innovative and accessible screening, involving a variety of primary care providers, will become increasingly important if patients with diabetes are to receive optimal eye care. Method. An open controlled trial design was used. Five intervention practices in urban, regional, and rural Australia partnered with ophthalmologists via telehealth undertook DR screening and monitoring of type 2 diabetes patients and were compared with control practices undertaking usual care 2011–2014. Results. Recorded screening rates were 100% across intervention practices, compared with 22–53% in control practices. 31/577 (5% of patients in the control practices were diagnosed with mild-moderate DR, of whom 9 (29% had appropriate follow-up recorded. This was compared with 39/447 (9% of patients in the intervention group, of whom 37 (95% had appropriate follow-up recorded. Discussion and Conclusion. General practice-based DR screening via Annual Cycle of Care arrangements is effective across differing practice locations. It offers improved recording of screening outcomes for Australians with type 2 diabetes and better follow-up of those with screen abnormalities.

  6. Knowledge, attitudes and practice of breast cancer screening among female health workers in a Nigerian urban city

    OpenAIRE

    Omuemu Vivian O; Akhigbe Adenike O

    2009-01-01

    Abstract Background Late presentation has been observed as the hallmark of breast cancer in Nigerian women and an earlier onset has been reported in this population. This study was designed to assess the awareness of female health workers about risk factors and screening methods for early detection of breast cancer. Methods A cross-sectional descriptive study was carried out among female health workers in the two major government health institutions in Benin City, Edo State capital in Nigeria...

  7. Reliability of clinician scoring of the functional movement screen to assess movement patterns.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stobierski, Lisa M; Fayson, Shirleeah D; Minthorn, Lindsay M; Valovich McLeod, Tamara C; Welch, Cailee E

    2015-05-01

    Clinical Scenario: Injuries are inevitable in the physically active population. As a part of preventive medicine, health care professionals often seek clinical tools that can be used in real time to identify factors that may predispose individuals to these injuries. The Functional Movement Screen (FMS), a clinical tool consisting of 7 individual tasks, has been reported as useful in identifying individuals in various populations that may be susceptible to musculoskeletal injuries. If factors that may predispose physically active individuals to injury could be identified before participation, clinicians may be able to develop a training plan based on FMS scores, which could potentially decrease the likelihood of injury and overall time missed from physical activities. However, in order for a screening tool to be used clinically, it must demonstrate acceptable reliability. Focused Clinical Question: Are clinicians reliable at scoring the FMS, in real time, to assess movement patterns of physically active individuals? PMID:25054658

  8. Assessment of the Knowledge and Attitudes of Saudi Mothers towards Newborn Screening

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ayman Al-Sulaiman

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective. To assess the attitude and knowledge of the Saudi mothers toward newborn screening (NBS program. Methods. A total of 425 Saudi women (only mothers who have at least one pregnancy participated in the study from different regions in Saudi Arabia and completed the structured questionnaire which sought their views on the NBS services. Results. A majority of the participating women (91.1% supported the NBS program and felt it was very important and useful. However, knowledge of NBS was found to be very limited and only 34.6% knew that NBS was a test to detect genetic disorders. A lack of communication and counseling to NBS clients by health authorities offering screening is implied. Conclusion. In general, there is a positive attitude towards the NBS program among Saudi women. However, they have several concerns to improve the availability of medication and formulas, genetic counseling, medical interventions, communication, education materials, and awareness.

  9. Screening for type 2 diabetes is feasible, acceptable, but associated with increased short-term anxiety: A randomised controlled trial in British general practice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Prevost A Toby

    2008-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background To assess the feasibility and uptake of a diabetes screening programme; to examine the effects of invitation to diabetes screening on anxiety, self-rated health and illness perceptions. Methods Randomised controlled trial in two general practices in Cambridgeshire. Individuals aged 40–69 without known diabetes were identified as being at high risk of having undiagnosed type 2 diabetes using patient records and a validated risk score (n = 1,280. 355 individuals were randomised in a 2 to 1 ratio into non-invited (n = 238 and invited (n = 116 groups. A stepwise screening programme confirmed the presence or absence of diabetes. Six weeks after the last contact (either test or invitation, a questionnaire was sent to all participants, including non-attenders and those who were not originally invited. Outcome measures included attendance, anxiety (short-form Spielberger State Anxiety Inventory-STAI, self-rated health and diabetes illness perceptions. Results 95 people (82% of those invited attended for the initial capillary blood test. Six individuals were diagnosed with diabetes. Invited participants were more anxious than those not invited (37.6 vs. 34.1 STAI, p-value = 0.015, and those diagnosed with diabetes were considerably more anxious than those classified free of diabetes (46.7 vs. 37.0 STAI, p-value = 0.031. Non-attenders had a higher mean treatment control sub-scale (3.87 vs. 3.56, p-value = 0.016 and a lower mean emotional representation sub-scale (1.81 vs. 2.68, p-value = 0.001 than attenders. No differences in the other five illness perception sub-scales or self-rated health were found. Conclusion Screening for type 2 diabetes in primary care is feasible but may be associated with higher levels of short-term anxiety among invited compared with non-invited participants. Trial registration ISRCTN99175498

  10. Mapping HPV Vaccination and Cervical Cancer Screening Practice in the Pacific Region-Strengthening National and Regional Cervical Cancer Prevention

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Obel, J; McKenzie, J; Buenconsejo-Lum, L E;

    2015-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To provide background information for strengthening cervical cancer prevention in the Pacific by mapping current human papillomavirus (HPV) vaccination and cervical cancer screening practices, as well as intent and barriers to the introduction and maintenance of national HPV vaccination...... insufficient, with only two of 21 countries and territories having achieved coverage of cervical cancer screening above 40%. Ten of 21 countries and territories had included HPV vaccination in their immunization schedule, but only two countries reported coverage of HPV vaccination above 60% among the targeted...... population. Key barriers to the introduction and continuation of HPV vaccination were reported to be: (i) Lack of sustainable financing for HPV vaccine programs; (ii) Lack of visible government endorsement; (iii) Critical public perception of the value and safety of the HPV vaccine; and (iv) Lack of clear...

  11. Toward a simple risk assessment screening tool for HCV infection in Egypt.

    Science.gov (United States)

    El-Ghitany, Engy M; Farghaly, Azza G; Abdel Wahab, Moataza M; Farag, Shehata; Abd El-Wahab, Ekram W

    2016-10-01

    Asymptomatic patients with HCV infection identified through screening program could benefit not only from treatment but also from other interventions such as counseling to maintain health and avoid risk behaviors. This might prevent the spread of infection and result in significant public health benefits. However, mass screening would quickly deplete resources. This work aims to develop a brief HCV risk assessment questionnaire that inquires initially about a wide range of risk factors found to be potentially associated with HCV infection in order to identify the few most significant questions that could be quickly used to facilitate cost-effective HCV case-finding in the general population in Egypt. An exhaustive literature search was done to include all reported HCV risk factors that were pooled in a 65 item questionnaire. After an initial pilot study, a case-control study was performed that included 1,024 cases and 1,046 controls. In a multivariable model, a list of independent risk factors were found to be significant predictors for being HCV seropositive among two age strata (45 years) for each gender. A simplified model that assigned values of the odds ratio as a weight for each factor present predicted HCV infection with high diagnostic accuracy. Attaining the defined cut-off value of the total risk score enhances the effectiveness of screening. HCV risk factors in the Egyptian population vary by age and gender. An accurate prediction screening tool can be used to identify those at high risk who may benefit most from HCV serologic testing. These results are to be further validated in a large scale cross-sectional study to assess the wider use of this tool. J. Med. Virol. 88:1767-1775, 2016. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. PMID:26970264

  12. Pain and stress assessment after retinopathy of prematurity screening examination: Indirect ophthalmoscopy versus digital retinal imaging

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Moral-Pumarega M

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Increasingly, neonatal clinics seek to minimize painful experiences and stress for premature infants. Fundoscopy performed with a binocular indirect ophthalmoscope is the reference examination technique for screening of retinopathy of prematurity (ROP, and it is associated with pain and stress. Wide-field digital retinal imaging is a recent technique that should be evaluated for minimizing infant pain and stress. Methods The purpose of the study was to assess and compare the impact of using a binocular indirect ophthalmoscope (BIO, or wide-field digital retinal imaging (WFDRI on pain and stress in infants undergoing ROP screening examination. This was a comparative evaluation study of two screening procedures. Ophthalmologic examinations (N = 70 were performed on 24 infants with both BIO and WFDRI. Pain assessments were performed with two specific neonatal scales (Crying, requires oxygen, increased vital signs, expression and sleeplessness, CRIES and, Premature infant pain profile, PIPP just prior to the examination, and 30 seconds, 1 hour, and 24 hours later after ending the examination. Results Changes over time were significantly different between BIO and WFDRI with both scales (PIPP score, p = .007, and CRIES score, p = .001. Median PIPP score (interquartile interval at baseline was 4 (3–5. At 30 seconds the score was 8 (6–9 for BIO and 6 (5–7 for WFDRI, respectively. The increase in PIPP score between baseline and 30 seconds was significantly lower with WFDRI (p = .006. The median increase in CRIES score from baseline to 30 seconds was 1 point lower for WFDRI than for BIO (p  Conclusions A transient short-term pain and stress response occurs with both BIO and WFDRI. Infants examined for screening of ROP with digital retinal imaging present less pain and stress at 30 seconds following completion of the exam when compared with binocular indirect ophthalmoscopy.

  13. Assessment of Breast Cancer Risk and Belief in Breast Cancer Screening Among the Primary Healthcare Nurses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    İz, Fatma Başalan; Tümer, Adile

    2016-09-01

    Breast cancer is the most frequently diagnosed cancer in women. Early detection of breast cancer is known to increase survival rates significantly after diagnosis. This research was carried out to determine the level of breast cancer risk among primary healthcare nurses and their belief in breast cancer screening. In this descriptive research, the data were collected in face-to-face interviews with the participants. The researchers contacted all primary healthcare nurses currently working in the province. The data collection tools included a questionnaire form on sociodemographic characteristics, breast cancer risk assessment form, and Champion's Health Belief Model Scale (CHBMS) for breast cancer screening. In data analysis, descriptive statistics, t test, and analysis of variance (ANOVA) were used. The mean age of nurses was 35 ± 3.6. The mean score for the breast cancer risk assessment form was calculated as 82.9 ± 18.7. The subscale scores for the CHBMS for breast cancer screening were as follows: susceptibility 7.3 ± 1.8, seriousness 19.5 ± 4.1, benefits of breast self-exam 15.5 ± 2.6, barriers to breast self-exam 15.1 ± 2.8, self-efficacy 40.3 ± 7.0, and motivation 19.5 ± 4.1. The risk of breast cancer was found to be low in the study group. The analysis of the subscale scores for the CHBMS for breast cancer screening revealed that nurses had a below-average susceptibility perception, a somewhat lower perception of seriousness, an above-average mean score for perceived benefits, a moderate barrier perception, a relatively high perceived self-efficacy, and motivation above average. PMID:26758047

  14. Factors related to the practice of breast self examination (BSE) and Pap smear screening among Malaysian women workers in selected electronics factories

    OpenAIRE

    Shamsuddin K; Rashidah S; Chee HL; Intan O

    2003-01-01

    Abstract Background The Malaysian Ministry of Health promotes breast self-examination (BSE) for all women, and Pap smear screening every three years for all sexually active women ages 20 years and above. The objectives of this paper were to examine the practice of these two screening tests among women production workers in electronics factories, and to identify factors related to practice. Methods This was a cross-sectional survey of women production workers from ten electronics factories. Da...

  15. Rapid assessment of injection practices in Cambodia, 2002

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Goldstein Susan

    2005-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Injection overuse and unsafe injection practices facilitate transmission of bloodborne pathogens such as hepatitis B virus (HBV, hepatitis C virus (HCV, and human immunodeficiency virus (HIV. Anecdotal reports of unsafe and unnecessary therapeutic injections and the high prevalence of HBV (8.0%, HCV (6.5%, and HIV (2.6% infection in Cambodia have raised concern over injection safety. To estimate the magnitude and patterns of such practices, a rapid assessment of injection practices was conducted. Methods We surveyed a random sample of the general population in Takeo Province and convenience samples of prescribers and injection providers in Takeo Province and Phnom Penh city regarding injection-related knowledge, attitudes, and practices. Injection providers were observed administering injections. Data were collected using standardized methods adapted from the World Health Organization safe injection assessment guidelines. Results Among the general population sample (n = 500, the overall injection rate was 5.9 injections per person-year, with 40% of participants reporting receipt of ≥ 1 injection during the previous 6 months. Therapeutic injections, intravenous infusions, and immunizations accounted for 74%, 16% and 10% of injections, respectively. The majority (>85% of injections were received in the private sector. All participants who recalled their last injection reported the injection was administered with a newly opened disposable syringe and needle. Prescribers (n = 60 reported that 47% of the total prescriptions they wrote included a therapeutic injection or infusion. Among injection providers (n = 60, 58% recapped the syringe after use and 13% did not dispose of the used needle and syringe appropriately. Over half (53% of the providers reported a needlestick injury during the previous 12 months. Ninety percent of prescribers and injection providers were aware HBV, HCV, and HIV were transmitted through unsafe

  16. Screening Risk Assessment for Possible Radionuclides in the Amchitka Marine Environment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NNSA/NV

    2002-10-31

    As part of its environmental stewardship program the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) is reevaluating three sites where underground nuclear tests were conducted in the deep subsurface of Amchitka Island, Alaska. The tests (i.e., Long Shot, Milrow, and Cannikin) were conducted in 1965, 1969, and 1971, respectively. Extensive investigations were conducted on these tests and their effect on the environment. Evaluations at the time of testing indicated limited release of radionuclides and absence of risk related to the testing; however, these are being reevaluated under the current DOE environmental stewardship program. A screening risk assessment of potential radionuclide release into the marine environment is an important part of this reevaluation. The risk assessment is one of three interrelated activities: a groundwater model and this screening risk assessment, both of which guide the decisions in the third activity, the site closure plan. Thus, the overall objective of the work is to understand, and subsequently manage, any risk to humans and the environment through a closure and long-term stewardship plan. The objective of this screening risk assessment is to predict whether possible releases of radionuclides at the ocean floor would represent potential risks to Native Alaskans by consumption of marine subsistence species. In addition, risks were predicted for consumers of commercial catches of marine organisms. These risks were calculated beginning with estimates of possible radionuclide release at the seafloor (from a groundwater modeling study), into the seawater, through possible uptake by marine organisms, and finally possible consumption by humans. The risk assessment model has 11 elements, progressing from potential release at the seafloor through water and food chains to human intake. Data for each of these elements were systematically found and synthesized from many sources, and represent the best available knowledge. Whenever precise data were lacking

  17. Transport phenomena through porous screens and openings: from theory to greenhouse practice.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Miguel, A.A.F.

    1998-01-01

    The study of transport phenomena in multi-zone enclosures with permeable boundaries is fundamental for indoor climate control management. In this study, aspects concerning the air exchange through porous screens and openings, and heat transfer between the enclosure surface and inside air, were analy

  18. Screening for diabetes: what do the results of the ADDITION trial mean for clinical practice?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lauritzen, Torsten; Borch-Johnsen, Knut; Davies, Melanie J;

    2013-01-01

    Artiklen opsummerer de nuværende resultater fra ADDITION studiet. Forfatterne konkluderer at ADDITION studiet har skabt yderligere evidens til støtte for tidlig opsporing og behandling af patienter med uerkendt diabetes. Frem for at fokusere på populationsbaseret screening opfordre forfatterne pr...

  19. Impact of traditional Samoan lifestyle (fa’Samoa) on cancer screening practices

    OpenAIRE

    Puaina, Seumaninoa; Aga, Daniel F.; Pouesi, Daniel; Hubbell, F. Allan

    2008-01-01

    The lack of emphasis on disease prevention in the fa’aSamoa, the Samoan way of life, may contribute to low cancer screening rates. However, other aspects of the culture, such as the respect of matai (chiefs) and faifeau (pastors) could be incorporated into cancer prevention programs aimed at improving cancer control among Samoans.

  20. Screening, combining and tracking features, events and processes in WIPP performance assessments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In October 1996, the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) will request the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) to certify compliance with the radioactive waste disposal standards found in 40 CFR Part 191 for the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP). Demonstrating compliance with these regulations requires an assessment of the long-term performance of the disposal system. Scenario development is one starting point of this assessment, and generates inquiry about the present state and future evolution of the disposal system. Scenario development consists of three main tasks: (1) identifying and classifying features, events and processes (FEPs), (2) screening FEPs according to well-defined criteria, and (3) forming scenarios (combinations of FEPs) in the context of regulatory performance criteria. This paper illustrates the application of this methodology for the Compliance Certification Application (CCA) for the WIPP, and shows how decisions taken at this stage of the performance assessment (PA) are tracked through the modeling process

  1. Assessment of the contents related to screening on Portuguese language websites providing information on breast and prostate cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniel Ferreira

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this study was to assess the quality of the contents related to screening in a sample of websites providing information on breast and prostate cancer in the Portuguese language. The first 200 results of each cancer-specific Google search were considered. The accuracy of the screening contents was defined in accordance with the state of the art, and its readability was assessed. Most websites mentioned mammography as a method for breast cancer screening (80%, although only 28% referred to it as the only recommended method. Almost all websites mentioned PSA evaluation as a possible screening test, but correct information regarding its effectiveness was given in less than 10%. For both breast and prostate cancer screening contents, the potential for overdiagnosis and false positive results was seldom addressed, and the median readability index was approximately 70. There is ample margin for improving the quality of websites providing information on breast and prostate cancer in Portuguese.

  2. Streptococcal diseases of group B, its screening efficiency and role in neonatal and gynecological practice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Linda Luguze

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Beta-haemolytic streptococcus of group B (BGS is one of the main reasons for perinatal morbidity and mortality in developed countries. It is one of the key initiators of early sepsis and meningitis in new-born period. BGS is the cause of neonatal death for 1 new-born per 10 000. Prospectively maternity histories and new-born development histories of the Riga Maternity House in the period from 01.07.2013 to 31.12.2013 were analyzed. All in all 712 randomly selected records were examined, children born from 37th to 42nd week of pregnancy (median 39th week of pregnancy, with a birth weight of 2100 to 4880 grams, of which 373 were girls and 339 boys. The study included both neonates, whose mothers during pregnancy were screened for streptococcus of group B, and those, whose mothers were not screened, or the result was not known at the time of birth. The data were processed and statistically analyzed using programs MS Excel and SPSS Statistics 20. Results of SPSS Statistics 20 were compared using the chi-squared test. Out of 712 pregnant women viewed, who should have been screened according to national procedure, it was done and the result at the time of birth was known for 502 pregnant women (71%. Of 502 pregnant women who were screened, a positive result, which means that a woman was a BGS carrier, was confirmed in 87 cases (17%. Intrauterine infection of new-born, whose mothers were screened positive, was found in 15 cases (17%, and new-born, whose mothers were screened negative and ndash; in 24 cases or 6%. The only sepsis risk factor found in a study group was anhydrous childbirth period that is longer than 18 hours. The number of carriers of Group B streptococcus in Latvia coincides with the average number in the world. Although the number of antenatally unobserved pregnant women in Latvia is only around 2%, Group B streptococcus screening coverage of pregnant women is limited. Even when adequate prophylactic antibiotic therapy is received, it

  3. Texas Renewable Energy Evaluation Software (TREES): A screening tool for economic assessment of renewable energy options

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Screening software has been developed to assess the economic feasibility of renewable energy alternatives for applications in Texas. The renewable options include solar water heating and PV and wind for electric power generation. A range of hot water applications, from swimming pool heating to process heat are permitted, and PV and wind energy may be considered for either stand-alone or grid-connected use. The user inputs data such as application type, location, size of load, system cost, competing fuel cost, and discount rate. For the solar water heating options the software outputs the optimum collector area, life cycle savings compared to a conventional system, and a cost effectiveness index to assess economic feasibility. For the PV and wind options the software outputs life cycle savings, the average unit cost of delivered electricity, and a cost effectiveness index to assess economic feasibility. The software is designed as a screening tool, rather than design tool, and is developed for use with a spreadsheet program

  4. New screening approach for risk assessment of pesticides in ambient air

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yusà, Vicent; Coscollà, Clara; Millet, Maurice

    2014-10-01

    We present a novel screening approach for inhalation risk assessment of currently used pesticides (CUPs) in ambient air, based on the measurements of pesticide levels in the inhalable fraction of the particulate matter (PM10). Total concentrations in ambient air (gas + particle phases) were estimated using a theoretical model of distribution of semi-volatile organic compounds between the gas and the particulate phase based on the octanol-air partition (Koa) of each pesticide. The proposed approach was used in a pilot study conducted in a rural station in Valencia (Spain) from April through to October 2010. Twenty out of 82 analysed pesticides were detected in average concentrations ranging from 1.63 to 117.01 pg m-3. For adults, children and infants the estimated chronic inhalation risk, expressed as Hazard Quotient (HQ) was pesticides. Likewise, the cumulative exposure for detected organophosphorus, pyrethroids and carbamates pesticides, was estimated using as metrics the Hazard Index (HI), which was less than 1 for the three families of pesticides assessed. The cancer risk estimated for the detected pesticides classified as Likely or Possible carcinogens was less than 1.15E-7 for infants. In our opinion, the screening approach proposed could be used in the monitoring and risk assessment of pesticides in ambient air.

  5. Knowledge and practice of breast self examination and Pap smear screening among a group of electronics women workers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chee, H L; Rashidah, S; Shamsuddin, K; Zainiyah, S Y

    2003-08-01

    A total of 486 Malaysian women electronics workers participated in a study of reproductive health knowledge and cancer screening. The practice of Breast Self Examination (BSE) was found to be related to educational attainment; while ever having had a Pap smear was found to be related to being older than 30 years old, being ever married, living with family or relatives, and not staying in hostels. Knowledge on reproductive health was found to be higher for older women, married women, living with family or relatives, not staying in hostels, ever having done BSE and ever having had a Pap smear. PMID:14750370

  6. Society of Anesthesia and Sleep Medicine Guidelines on Preoperative Screening and Assessment of Adult Patients With Obstructive Sleep Apnea

    Science.gov (United States)

    Memtsoudis, Stavros G.; Ramachandran, Satya Krishna; Nagappa, Mahesh; Opperer, Mathias; Cozowicz, Crispiana; Patrawala, Sara; Lam, David; Kumar, Anjana; Joshi, Girish P.; Fleetham, John; Ayas, Najib; Collop, Nancy; Doufas, Anthony G.; Eikermann, Matthias; Englesakis, Marina; Gali, Bhargavi; Gay, Peter; Hernandez, Adrian V.; Kaw, Roop; Kezirian, Eric J.; Malhotra, Atul; Mokhlesi, Babak; Parthasarathy, Sairam; Stierer, Tracey; Wappler, Frank; Hillman, David R.; Auckley, Dennis

    2016-01-01

    The purpose of the Society of Anesthesia and Sleep Medicine guideline on preoperative screening and assessment of adult patients with obstructive sleep apnea (OSA) is to present recommendations based on the available clinical evidence on the topic where possible. As very few well-performed randomized studies in this field of perioperative care are available, most of the recommendations were developed by experts in the field through consensus processes involving utilization of evidence grading to indicate the level of evidence upon which recommendations were based. This guideline may not be appropriate for all clinical situations and all patients. The decision whether to follow these recommendations must be made by a responsible physician on an individual basis. Protocols should be developed by individual institutions taking into account the patients’ conditions, extent of interventions and available resources. This practice guideline is not intended to define standards of care or represent absolute requirements for patient care. The adherence to these guidelines cannot in any way guarantee successful outcomes and is rather meant to help individuals and institutions formulate plans to better deal with the challenges posed by perioperative patients with OSA. These recommendations reflect the current state of knowledge and its interpretation by a group of experts in the field at the time of publication. While these guidelines will be periodically updated, new information that becomes available between updates should be taken into account. Deviations in practice from guidelines may be justifiable and such deviations should not be interpreted as a basis for claims of negligence. PMID:27442772

  7. Society of Anesthesia and Sleep Medicine Guidelines on Preoperative Screening and Assessment of Adult Patients With Obstructive Sleep Apnea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chung, Frances; Memtsoudis, Stavros G; Ramachandran, Satya Krishna; Nagappa, Mahesh; Opperer, Mathias; Cozowicz, Crispiana; Patrawala, Sara; Lam, David; Kumar, Anjana; Joshi, Girish P; Fleetham, John; Ayas, Najib; Collop, Nancy; Doufas, Anthony G; Eikermann, Matthias; Englesakis, Marina; Gali, Bhargavi; Gay, Peter; Hernandez, Adrian V; Kaw, Roop; Kezirian, Eric J; Malhotra, Atul; Mokhlesi, Babak; Parthasarathy, Sairam; Stierer, Tracey; Wappler, Frank; Hillman, David R; Auckley, Dennis

    2016-08-01

    The purpose of the Society of Anesthesia and Sleep Medicine guideline on preoperative screening and assessment of adult patients with obstructive sleep apnea (OSA) is to present recommendations based on the available clinical evidence on the topic where possible. As very few well-performed randomized studies in this field of perioperative care are available, most of the recommendations were developed by experts in the field through consensus processes involving utilization of evidence grading to indicate the level of evidence upon which recommendations were based. This guideline may not be appropriate for all clinical situations and all patients. The decision whether to follow these recommendations must be made by a responsible physician on an individual basis. Protocols should be developed by individual institutions taking into account the patients' conditions, extent of interventions and available resources. This practice guideline is not intended to define standards of care or represent absolute requirements for patient care. The adherence to these guidelines cannot in any way guarantee successful outcomes and is rather meant to help individuals and institutions formulate plans to better deal with the challenges posed by perioperative patients with OSA. These recommendations reflect the current state of knowledge and its interpretation by a group of experts in the field at the time of publication. While these guidelines will be periodically updated, new information that becomes available between updates should be taken into account. Deviations in practice from guidelines may be justifiable and such deviations should not be interpreted as a basis for claims of negligence. PMID:27442772

  8. Validation of the Rowland universal dementia assessment scale for multicultural screening in Danish memory clinics

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, T Rune; Andersen, Birgitte Bo; Gottrup, Hanne; Lützhøft, Jan; Høgh, Peter; Waldemar, Gunhild

    Background/Aims: The Rowland Universal Dementia Assessment Scale (RUDAS) is a brief cognitive screening test that was developed to detect dementia in multicultural populations. The RUDAS has not previously been validated in multicultural populations outside of Australia. The aim of this study was...... to evaluate the diagnostic accuracy of the RUDAS in a multicultural sample of patients referred to Danish memory clinics. Methods: Data were collected from 137 consecutive patients (34 with an immigrant background) in three Danish memory clinics. All patients were given the RUDAS as a supplement to...

  9. Reliability of a Simple Physical Therapist Screening Tool to Assess Errors during Resistance Exercises for Musculoskeletal Pain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kenneth Jay

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The main objective was to investigate the intra- and intertester reliability of a simple screening tool assessing errors in exercise execution by visual observation. 38 participants with no previous resistance exercise experience practiced for two weeks four typical upper limb exercises using elastic tubing. At 2-week follow-up, the participants were invited for a test-retest assessment on errors in technical execution. The assessment was based on ordinal deviation of joint position from neutral of the shoulder, elbow, and wrist in a single plane by visual observation. Moderate intratester reliability weighted kappa (wΚ score ranging from 0.50 (0.21–0.71 to 0.57 (0.24–0.82 for observer 1 and a fair to moderate intratester reliability wΚ score ranging from 0.27 (0.09–0.43 to 0.52 (0.15–0.86 for observer 2 across the four exercises was observed. For intertester reliability moderate to substantial mean wΚ scores were found between the two observers, slightly improving from round one to round two ranging from 0.40 (0.20–0.59 to 0.68 (0.45–0.91 in round one to 0.52 (0.20–0.80 to 0.69 (0.39–0.86 in round two. The exercise error assessment demonstrated fair to substantial intratester and intertester reliability, which is congruent with previously published studies. Hence the simplicity of defining a neutral joint position for each of the involved joints in the exercise and categorizing the deviation in “some deviation” and “substantial deviation” to either side in a single plane is a viable and inexpensive solution when assessing for errors during exercise.

  10. SCREENING FOR POSTSTROKE COGNITIVE IMPAIRMENT VIA MINI MENTAL STATE EXAMINATION AND MONTREAL COGNITIVE ASSESSMENT SCALE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mirena Valkova

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Objective: The aim of our study is to examine cognitive performance after mild stroke via Mini Mental State Examination (MMSE and Montreal cognitive assessment scale (MoCA and to compare the results.Material and methods: We examined 54 patients with mild stroke (aged 52 to 72 (mean 63.17, SD 5.96; 34 males and 20 females and 54 controls, adjusted by age, sex and education level. All subjects were tested via MMSE (Bulgarian version and MoCa (Bulgarian version. Data was collected in the single step model at the 90th day after stroke incident for patients and at the day of obtaining informed consent for controls. Results: Patients have poorer performance on both MMSE and MoCa than controls. MoCa has comparatively good discriminative validity and sensitivity.Conclusions: Although MMSE is one of the classical screening tools for cognitive impairment widely used in Bulgaria, other screening tools should not be ignored. On the basis of our results, MoCa is also a good screening instrument, especially for poststroke cognitive impairment.

  11. Occupational exposure assessment: Practices in Malaysian nuclear agency

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Malaysian Nuclear Agency (Nuclear Malaysia) is the leading agency in introducing and promoting the application of nuclear science technology in Malaysia. The agency provides major nuclear facilities purposely for research and commercialisation such as reactor, irradiation plants and radioisotope production laboratory. When dealing with ionizing radiation, there is an obligatory requirement to monitor and assess the radiation exposure to the workers. The personal dose of radiation workers were monitored monthly by assessing their Thermoluminescence Dosimeter (TLD) dose reading. This paper will discuss the current practice in managing, assessing, record keeping and reporting of the occupational exposure in Nuclear Malaysia including the Health Physic Group roles and challenges. The statistics on occupational radiation exposure of monitored workers working in different fields in Nuclear Malaysia from 2011 - 2013 will also be presented. The results show that the null hypothesis (H0) was accepted which the means of every populations are all equal or not differ significantly. This hypothesis states that the dose exposure received by the radiation workers in Nuclear Malaysia is similar and there were no significant changes from 2011 to 2013. The radiation monitoring programme correlate with the requirement of our national law, the Atomic Energy Licensing Act 1984 (Act 304)

  12. Occupational exposure assessment: Practices in Malaysian nuclear agency

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sarowi, S. Muhd; Ramli, S. A.; Kontol, K. Mohamad; Rahman, N. A. H. Abd.

    2016-01-01

    Malaysian Nuclear Agency (Nuclear Malaysia) is the leading agency in introducing and promoting the application of nuclear science technology in Malaysia. The agency provides major nuclear facilities purposely for research and commercialisation such as reactor, irradiation plants and radioisotope production laboratory. When dealing with ionizing radiation, there is an obligatory requirement to monitor and assess the radiation exposure to the workers. The personal dose of radiation workers were monitored monthly by assessing their Thermoluminescence Dosimeter (TLD) dose reading. This paper will discuss the current practice in managing, assessing, record keeping and reporting of the occupational exposure in Nuclear Malaysia including the Health Physic Group roles and challenges. The statistics on occupational radiation exposure of monitored workers working in different fields in Nuclear Malaysia from 2011 - 2013 will also be presented. The results show that the null hypothesis (H₀) was accepted which the means of every populations are all equal or not differ significantly. This hypothesis states that the dose exposure received by the radiation workers in Nuclear Malaysia is similar and there were no significant changes from 2011 to 2013. The radiation monitoring programme correlate with the requirement of our national law, the Atomic Energy Licensing Act 1984 (Act 304).

  13. Occupational exposure assessment: Practices in Malaysian nuclear agency

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sarowi, S. Muhd, E-mail: suzie@nuclearmalaysia.gov.my; Ramli, S. A.; Kontol, K. Mohamad [Radiation Safety & Health Division, Malaysian Nuclear Agency, 43000 Kajang, Selangor (Malaysia); Rahman, N. A. H. Abd. [Faculty of Science & Mathematics, Sultan Idris of Education Universit, 35900, Tanjong Malim, Perak Darul Ridzuan (Malaysia)

    2016-01-22

    Malaysian Nuclear Agency (Nuclear Malaysia) is the leading agency in introducing and promoting the application of nuclear science technology in Malaysia. The agency provides major nuclear facilities purposely for research and commercialisation such as reactor, irradiation plants and radioisotope production laboratory. When dealing with ionizing radiation, there is an obligatory requirement to monitor and assess the radiation exposure to the workers. The personal dose of radiation workers were monitored monthly by assessing their Thermoluminescence Dosimeter (TLD) dose reading. This paper will discuss the current practice in managing, assessing, record keeping and reporting of the occupational exposure in Nuclear Malaysia including the Health Physic Group roles and challenges. The statistics on occupational radiation exposure of monitored workers working in different fields in Nuclear Malaysia from 2011 - 2013 will also be presented. The results show that the null hypothesis (H{sub 0}) was accepted which the means of every populations are all equal or not differ significantly. This hypothesis states that the dose exposure received by the radiation workers in Nuclear Malaysia is similar and there were no significant changes from 2011 to 2013. The radiation monitoring programme correlate with the requirement of our national law, the Atomic Energy Licensing Act 1984 (Act 304)

  14. Protection goals in environmental risk assessment: a practical approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garcia-Alonso, Monica; Raybould, Alan

    2014-12-01

    Policy protection goals are set up in most countries to minimise harm to the environment, humans and animals caused by human activities. Decisions on whether to approve new agricultural products, like pesticides or genetically modified (GM) crops, take into account these policy protection goals. To support decision-making, applications for approval of commercial uses of GM crops usually comprise an environmental risk assessment (ERA). These risk assessments are analytical tools, based on science, that follow a conceptual model that includes a problem formulation step where policy protection goals are considered. However, in most countries, risk assessors face major problems in that policy protection goals set in the legislation are stated in very broad terms and are too ambiguous to be directly applicable in ERAs. This means that risk assessors often have to interpret policy protection goals without clear guidance on what effects would be considered harmful. In this paper we propose a practical approach that may help risk assessors to translate policy protection goals into unambiguous (i.e., operational) protection goals and to establish relevant assessment endpoints and risk hypotheses that can be used in ERAs. Examples are provided to show how this approach can be applied to two areas of environmental concern relevant to the ERAs of GM crops. PMID:24154954

  15. Offer of rapid testing and alternative biological samples as practical tools to implement HIV screening programs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parisi, Maria Rita; Soldini, Laura; Di Perri, Giovanni; Tiberi, Simon; Lazzarin, Adriano; Lillo, Flavia B

    2009-10-01

    Implementation of HIV testing has the objective to increase screening, identify and counsel persons with infection, link them to clinical services and reduce transmission. Rapid tests and/or alternative biological samples (like oral fluid) give the option for a better general consent in approaching screening, immediate referral of HIV positives to medical treatment and partner notification. We tested the performance characteristics of an oral fluid-based rapid HIV test (Rapidtest HIV lateral flow-Healthchem diag. LLC) in comparison with routinely utilized methods in a selected population of known positive (N = 121) or negative (N = 754) subjects. The sensitivity of the rapid test was 99.1% (one false negative sample) and the specificity 98.8%. Five negatives showed a faint reactivity, 3 of these were reactive also in the reference test, one with a p24 only reaction in Western blot. If these 3 samples were excluded from the analysis the specificity increases to 99.2%. Results from our study confirm that, although a continuous improvement of the test performance is still needed to minimize false negative and positive results, rapid test and alternative biological samples may contribute to HIV prevention strategies by reaching a larger population particularly when and where regular screening procedures are difficult to obtain. PMID:20128446

  16. Mass Casualty Chemical Incident Operational Framework, Assessment and Best Practices

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Greenwalt, R. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States); Hibbard, W. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States)

    2016-08-09

    Emergency response agencies in most US communities are organized, sized, and equipped to manage those emergencies normally expected. Hospitals in particular do not typically have significant excess capacity to handle massive numbers of casualties, as hospital space is an expensive luxury if not needed. Unfortunately this means that in the event of a mass casualty chemical incident the emergency response system will be overwhelmed. This document provides a self-assessment means for emergency managers to examine their response system and identify shortfalls. It also includes lessons from a detailed analysis of five communities: Baltimore, Boise, Houston, Nassau County, and New Orleans. These lessons provide a list of potential critical decisions to allow for pre-planning and a library of best practices that may be helpful in reducing casualties in the event of an incident.

  17. Mass Casualty Chemical Incident Operational Framework, Assessment and Best Practices

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Greenwalt, R. J. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States); Hibbard, W. J. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States)

    2016-05-04

    Emergency response agencies in most US communities are organized, sized, and equipped to manage those emergencies normally expected. Hospitals in particular do not typically have significant excess capacity to handle massive numbers of casualties, as hospital space is an expensive luxury if not needed. Unfortunately this means that in the event of a mass casualty chemical incident the emergency response system will be overwhelmed. This document provides a self-assessment means for emergency managers to examine their response system and identify shortfalls. It also includes lessons from a detailed analysis of five communities: Baltimore, Boise, Houston, Nassau County, and New Orleans. These lessons provide a list of potential critical decisions to allow for pre-planning and a library of best practices that may be helpful in reducing casualties in the event of an incident.

  18. Needs assessment for business strategies of anesthesiology groups' practices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scurlock, Corey; Dexter, Franklin; Reich, David L; Galati, Maria

    2011-07-01

    Progress has been made in understanding strategic decision making influencing anesthesia groups' operating room business practices. However, there has been little analysis of the remaining gaps in our knowledge. We performed a needs assessment to identify unsolved problems in anesthesia business strategy based on Porter's Five Forces Analysis. The methodology was a narrative literature review. We found little previous investigation for 2 of the 5 forces (threat of new entrants and bargaining power of suppliers), modest understanding for 1 force (threat of substitute products or services), and substantial understanding for 2 forces (bargaining power of customers and jockeying for position among current competitors). Additional research in strategic decisions influencing anesthesia groups should focus on the threat of new entrants, bargaining power of suppliers, and the threat of substitute products or services. PMID:21490085

  19. Number of genera as a potential screening tool for assessing quality of bryophyte communities in Ohio wetlands

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schumacher, William; Stapanian, Martin A.; Andreas, Barbara; Gara, Brian

    2016-01-01

    Bryophytes (mosses, liverworts, and hornworts) have numerous advantages as indicators of environmental quality. A quality assessment index for bryophyte species assemblages (BQAI) was developed for the State of Ohio, USA. Reliable identification of bryophytes to species often requires considerable training, practice, and time. In contrast, reliable identification to genera for most bryophytes in Ohio requires much less training. We identified 110 bryophyte species (14 liverworts and 96 mosses) belonging to 69 genera (13 liverwort and 56 moss) in 45 wetlands (27 emergent, 13 forested, and 5 shrub) in Ohio. As expected, there were more genera and higher BQAI scores in forested than in emergent wetlands. Number of genera was highly correlated (r ≥ 0.9) with BQAI in emergent and forested wetlands and for the combined set of wetlands. Number of genera and BQAI responded almost identically to an index of wetland disturbance. The results suggest that number of genera has potential as a screening tool for assessing bryophyte community quality in wetlands in some regions.

  20. Effects of screening for psychological distress on patient outcomes in cancer : A systematic review

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Meijer, Anna; Roseman, Michelle; Delisle, Vanessa C.; Milette, Katherine; Levis, Brooke; Syamchandra, Achyuth; Stefanek, Michael E.; Stewart, Donna E.; de Jonge, Peter; Coyne, James C.; Thombs, Brett D.

    2013-01-01

    Objective: Several practice guidelines recommend routine screening for psychological distress in cancer care. The objective was to evaluate the effect of screening cancer patients for psychological distress by assessing the (1) effectiveness of interventions to reduce distress among patients identif

  1. Psychophysiological assessment of stress and screening of health risk in peacekeeping operations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nikolova, Rouja; Aleksiev, Lyubomir; Vukov, Mircho

    2007-01-01

    Medical surveillance for military personnel participating in peacekeeping missions (PKMs) is required to define the effect of stress on health status. The aim of this study was to determine the effect of stress on the autonomic cardiovascular control and health risk of 72 Bulgarian peacekeepers participating in a PKM in Kosovo. The assessment of psychophysiological stress and determination of stress characteristics were implemented with analysis of heart rate variability and personal interviews. As a response to the cumulative exposure to the effect of stress on cognitive function, we observed reductions in parasympathetic function and baroreceptor modulation of heart rhythm. The alteration in cardiovascular control was registered as decreases in short-term variability and spectral powers of cardiointervals in the respiratory sinus arrhythmia and Traube-Hering-Mayer bands. The advantage of psychophysiological stress assessment and screening of health risk in PKMs is that results indicate the mechanisms of the effects of stress on cognitive function and health status. PMID:17274265

  2. Associations between rule-based parenting practices and child screen viewing: A cross-sectional study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joanna M. Kesten

    2015-01-01

    Conclusions: Limit setting is associated with greater SV. Collaborative rule setting may be effective for managing boys' game-console use. More research is needed to understand rule-based parenting practices.

  3. Assessment of patient organ dose in CT virtual colonoscopy for bowel cancer screening

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Justification and optimisation form the basic elements for the radiological protection of individuals for medical exposures. Justification includes the assessment of patient organ doses from which radiation risks are deduced. Medical radiation exposures are justified only in the case of a sufficient net benefit. For screening examinations, such as CT virtual colonoscopy, this implies that patient organ doses should be relatively low to minimise the radiation detriment. Image quality should be sufficient to maximise the potential diagnostic benefits. The Medical Exposures Directive places special attention on medical exposures as part of health screening programmes and examinations involving high individual doses to the patient, both of which apply to CT virtual colonoscopy. Technical factors were recorded for a series of patients having virtual colonoscopy on a CT scanner. In addition, the dose-length product was assessed. Patient organ doses were deduced using a CT dose calculation program. The typical effective dose was 7.5 mSv for male patients and 10.2 mSv for female patients. The effective dose is higher for female patients, as some gender-specific organs are irradiated during virtual colonoscopy. Each patient has two series of scans resulting in doses of 15 mSv for male patients and 20 mSv for female patients. (authors)

  4. Preventive-comprehensive assessment (PCA): a new screening method for subclinical cognitive problems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cucinotta, D; Reggiani, A; Galletti, L; Rasciti, L; De Notariis, S

    2004-01-01

    Physicians often need to be able to assess cognition in a simple way, particularly for screening of subclinical processes in aged people. This paper describes a new, quick test battery called preventive-comprehensive assessment (PCA). It consists of six various testing items (repetition of three words, back-spelling of the word "sport", problem searching ina complex picture, recall of the three words, three progressive colored matrices, clock drawing test), evaluating language, recent memory, executive function, judgment and thinking capacities. The total scores. compared to the normal performance of different age groups, allow us to distinguish between normal and pathological status. If abnormal results are recorded, we need to perform further and deeper neuropsychological investigations, in order to obtain the possibly exact diagnosis. The PCA battery is sensitive and reliable; it can be used in itself, or as a part of a more complex battery of an intense comprehensive evaluation (ICE), carried out in population screening aimed at promoting healthy and active aging. PMID:15207403

  5. Evidence-Based Assessment of Child Obsessive Compulsive Disorder: Recommendations for Clinical Practice and Treatment Research

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lewin, Adam B.; Piacentini, John

    2010-01-01

    Obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD) presents heterogeneously and can be difficult to assess in youth. This review focuses on research-supported assessment approaches for OCD in childhood. Content areas include pre-visit screening, diagnostic establishment, differential diagnosis, assessment of comorbid psychiatric conditions, tracking symptom…

  6. C ERVICAL CANCER SCREENING: KNOWLEDGE, ATTITUDE AND PRACTICES IN A PRIMARY HEALTH CENTRE S IN RURAL INDIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dhivya

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND & OBJECTIVES: Cervical cancer is the most common preventable cancer noted in Indian women , having a major impact on their lives. Approximately , 70% of people reside in villages in India. Hence, the objectives of this study were to find the knowledge of women regarding cervical cancer, to determine attitude and practices towards screening. METHODS : A cross - sectional study was conducted in Primary Health Centre , Periapodu, Tamil Nadu, India between January 2015 and May 2015 where 1670 participants between the ages of 21 - 65 years were randomly chosen by selecting every 3 rd woman attending the PHC for any reason. After exclusion, 1200 participants were included in the study. RESULTS : Mean age of the study population was 45.3 years. An awa reness of 75.42% was noted for cervical cancer, 43.25% for Human Papillomavirus and 32.42% that it was vaccine preventable, the major source of information being Healthcare Providers (70%. Despite 50.58% thinking that they were at risk of cervical cancer, only 31% had undergone a pap smear. However, 69.96% of the unscreened population were ready to undergo screening. Independent predictors for doing Pap test included age >35, higher parity, literacy and adequate knowledge of cervical cancer screening ( P <0. 05. CONCLUSION: This study shows a low level of knowledge, attitude and practice on cervical cancer among women in rural India. Increasing women’s awareness would be a first step in the long chain of conditions to attain a lower incidence and mortality

  7. Walking the sustainability assessment talk — Progressing the practice of environmental impact assessment (EIA)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Internationally there is a growing demand for environmental impact assessment (EIA) to move away from its traditional focus towards delivering more sustainable outcomes. South Africa is an example of a country where the EIA system seems to have embraced the concept of sustainability. In this paper we test the existing objectives for EIA in South Africa against sustainability principles and then critique the effectiveness of EIA practice in delivering these objectives. The outcome of the research suggests that notwithstanding a strong and explicit sustainability mandate through policy and legislation, the effectiveness of EIA practice falls far short of what is mandated. This shows that further legislative reform is not required to improve effectiveness but rather a focus on changing the behaviour of individual professionals. We conclude by inviting further debate on what exactly practitioners can do to give effect to sustainability in EIA practice.

  8. Two Practical and Cost Effective Methods for Urinary Schistosomiasis Screening in Yemeni Schoolchildren

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ba'amer Abobakar Ahmed

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available "nBackground: The study was conducted to estimate and compare the validity and performance of two screening methods for uri­nary schistosomiasis: the interview - reporting blood in urine- and detecting microhematuria by reagent strip."nMethods:  In year 2003, 515 schoolchildren from five schools in Abyan and Taiz governorates in Yemen, were in-terviewed by healtworker for hematuria, and then urine samples were collected and tested for microhematuria by urine strip and for the presence and count of Schistosoma hematobium by filtration method. Validity and performance indicators were esti­mated and compared for the two methods using the filtration method as the reference- standard- test."nResults: The mean age of the schoolchildren was 10.7±2.5 years. Boys represented 65% of the sample. The prevalence of the infection as determined by filtration, interview and reagent strip methods was 21.4%, 22.15, and 30.9%, respectively. Sen­sitivity, specificity, PPV, NPV of the urine strip was higher than the same indicators for the interview method. Com­bining the results of both screening methods increased all validity and performance indicators. A statically significant (P< 0.001 association was found between urine strip positivity level and infection intensity."nConclusion: The urine strip had higher validity and performance indicators than the interview method. For its low -cost, sim­ple and rapid application, we recommend using it for screening infected schoolchildren in areas endemic with S. hemato­bium in combination with the interview method to enhance its performance.  

  9. Non-invasive assessment of liver fibrosis in chronic liver diseases: Implementation in clinical practice and decisional algorithms

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Giada Sebastiani

    2009-01-01

    Chronic hepatitis B and C together with alcoholic and non-alcoholic fatty liver diseases represent the major causes of progressive liver disease that can eventually evolve into cirrhosis and its end-stage complications, including decompensation, bleeding and liver cancer. Formation and accumulation of fibrosis in the liver is the common pathway that leads to an evolutive liver disease. Precise definition of liver fibrosis stage is essential for management of the patient in clinical practice since the presence of bridging fibrosis represents a strong indication for antiviral therapy for chronic viral hepatitis, while cirrhosis requires a specific follow-up including screening for esophageal varices and hepatocellular carcinoma. Liver biopsy has always represented the standard of reference for assessment of hepatic fibrosis but it has some limitations being invasive, costly and prone to sampling errors. Recently, blood markers and instrumental methods have been proposed for the non-invasive assessment of liver fibrosis. However, there are still some doubts as to their implementation in clinical practice and a real consensus on how and when to use them is not still available. This is due to an unsatisfactory accuracy for some of them, and to an incomplete validation for others. Some studies suggest that performance of non-invasive methods for liver fibrosis assessment may increase when they re combined. Combination algorithms of non-invasive methods for assessing liver fibrosis may represent a rational and reliable approach to implement noninvasive assessment of liver fibrosis in clinical practice and to reduce rather than abolish liver biopsies.

  10. Screening for microalbuminuria in patients with type 2 diabetes is incomplete in general practice

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Knudsen, Soren Tang; Mosbech, Thomas Hammershaimb; Hansen, Birtha;

    2012-01-01

    ,057 patients with type 2 diabetes were randomly selected from 64 general practitioners (GPs) from different geographical areas of Denmark. Clinical and laboratory data on the individual patients were collected through the GPs' electronic medical patient records; particular emphasis was given to annual.......0% had overt proteinuria. In contrast, 97.6% of patients had had a minimum of one plasma-creatinine measurement within the past year. CONCLUSION: In Danish primary care, screening for microalbuminuria in type 2 diabetes is insufficiently implemented, whereas renal function is evaluated in almost all...

  11. Comparison between the abuse assessment screen and the revised conflict tactics scales for measuring physical violence during pregnancy

    OpenAIRE

    Reichenheim, M; C. Moraes

    2004-01-01

    Study objective: Because of the promise of its ability to quickly identify cases of violence against women during pregnancy, the abuse assessment screen (AAS) should be the focus of numerous psychometric evaluations. This paper assesses its measurement accuracy compared with the revised conflict tactics scales (CTS2) used as standard.

  12. Screening Accuracy for Risk of Autism Spectrum Disorder Using the Brief Infant-Toddler Social and Emotional Assessment (BITSEA)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gardner, Lauren M.; Murphy, Laura; Campbell, Jonathan M.; Tylavsky, Frances; Palmer, Frederick B.; Graff, J. Carolyn

    2013-01-01

    Early identification of autism spectrum disorders (ASDs) is facilitated by the use of standardized screening scales that assess the social emotional behaviors associated with ASD. Authors examined accuracy of Brief Infant-Toddler Social and Emotional Assessment (BITSEA) subscales in detecting Modified Checklist for Autism in Toddlers (M-CHAT) risk…

  13. 49 CFR 1544.228 - Access to cargo and cargo screening: Security threat assessments for cargo personnel in the...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... threat assessments for cargo personnel in the United States. 1544.228 Section 1544.228 Transportation... COMMERCIAL OPERATORS Operations § 1544.228 Access to cargo and cargo screening: Security threat assessments... paragraph (b) of this section— (1) Each individual must successfully complete a security threat...

  14. Environmental screening tools for assessment of infrastructure plans based on biodiversity preservation and global warming (PEIT, Spain)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Most Strategic Environmental Assessment (SEA) research has been concerned with SEA as a procedure, and there have been relatively few developments and tests of analytical methodologies. The first stage of the SEA is the 'screening', which is the process whereby a decision is taken on whether or not SEA is required for a particular programme or plan. The effectiveness of screening and SEA procedures will depend on how well the assessment fits into the planning from the early stages of the decision-making process. However, it is difficult to prepare the environmental screening for an infrastructure plan involving a whole country. To be useful, such methodologies must be fast and simple. We have developed two screening tools which would make it possible to estimate promptly the overall impact an infrastructure plan might have on biodiversity and global warming for a whole country, in order to generate planning alternatives, and to determine whether or not SEA is required for a particular infrastructure plan.

  15. ‘If they’d written more. . .’ - On students’ perceptions of assessment and assessment practices

    OpenAIRE

    Gyllander Torkildsen, Lisbeth; Erickson, Gudrun

    2016-01-01

    The focus of the current study is students’ perceptions of assessment and assessment practices. Assessment is understood as practices closely connected to the planning, enactment and evaluation of teaching and learning activities. The data derive from focus group interviews and dialogical meetings with students at a Swedish comprehensive school. Theories of assessment and validity are used as a framework to interpret and contextualise the data. An empirically developed interconnecting data an...

  16. Preliminary Screening Assessment of the Potential Impact of the Phosphate Fertilizer Industry on Wildlife

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The activities of the phosphate industry may lead to enhanced levels of naturally occurring radioactivity in terrestrial and freshwater ecosystems. We here perform a preliminary environmental risk assessment (ERA) of the activities of the phosphate industry (phosphate ore mining, phosphate fertilizer factories, phosphate export platforms). We evaluated the environmental impact of 5 phosphate fertilizer plants (located in Belgium, Spain, Syria, Egypt, Brazil) and one phosphate-mine and phosphate-export platforms in the harbour(both located in Syria). These sites were selected because of the enhanced concentrations of naturally occurring radionuclides in the surrounding environments. The ERICA non-human biota assessment tool was used to predict radiation dose rates to the reference organisms and associated risks. Reference organisms were those assigned as default by the ERICA Tool. Potential impact is expressed as a risk quotient (RQ) based on a radiation screening value of 10 μGy h-1. If RQ ≤ 1, the environment is unlikely at risk and further radiological assessment is deemed not to be required. For all the cases assessed, RQ exceeded 1 for at least one of the reference organisms. 226Ra or 210Po were generally the highest contributors to the dose. The aquatic ecosystems in the vicinity of the phosphate fertilizer plants in Tessenderlo (Belgium), Huelva (Spain), Goias (Brazil) and the terrestrial environment around the phosphate mine in Palmyra (Syria) are the ecosystems predicted most at risk. (authors)

  17. Preliminary Screening Assessment of the Potential Impact of the Phosphate Fertilizer Industry on Wildlife

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vandenhove, Hildegarde; Sweeck, Lieve; Vives i Batlle, Jordi [SCK.CEN, Belgian Nuclear Research Centre, Boeretang 200, B-2400 Mol (Belgium)

    2014-07-01

    The activities of the phosphate industry may lead to enhanced levels of naturally occurring radioactivity in terrestrial and freshwater ecosystems. We here perform a preliminary environmental risk assessment (ERA) of the activities of the phosphate industry (phosphate ore mining, phosphate fertilizer factories, phosphate export platforms). We evaluated the environmental impact of 5 phosphate fertilizer plants (located in Belgium, Spain, Syria, Egypt, Brazil) and one phosphate-mine and phosphate-export platforms in the harbour(both located in Syria). These sites were selected because of the enhanced concentrations of naturally occurring radionuclides in the surrounding environments. The ERICA non-human biota assessment tool was used to predict radiation dose rates to the reference organisms and associated risks. Reference organisms were those assigned as default by the ERICA Tool. Potential impact is expressed as a risk quotient (RQ) based on a radiation screening value of 10 μGy h{sup -1}. If RQ ≤ 1, the environment is unlikely at risk and further radiological assessment is deemed not to be required. For all the cases assessed, RQ exceeded 1 for at least one of the reference organisms. {sup 226}Ra or {sup 210}Po were generally the highest contributors to the dose. The aquatic ecosystems in the vicinity of the phosphate fertilizer plants in Tessenderlo (Belgium), Huelva (Spain), Goias (Brazil) and the terrestrial environment around the phosphate mine in Palmyra (Syria) are the ecosystems predicted most at risk. (authors)

  18. Increasing chlamydia screening tests in general practice: A modi fied Zelen prospective cluster randomised controlled trial evaluating a complex intervention based on the theory of planned behaviour

    OpenAIRE

    McNulty, C A M; Hogan, A.; Ricketts, E.; Wallace, L.; Oliver, I; Campbell, R.; Kalwij, S.; O'Connell, E; Charlett, A.

    2014-01-01

    Objective: To determine if a structured complex intervention increases opportunistic chlamydia screening testing of patients aged 15-24 years attending English general practitioner (GP) practices. Methods: A prospective, Cluster Randomised Controlled Trial with a modified Zelen design involving 160 practices in South West England in 2010. The intervention was based on the Theory of Planned Behaviour (TPB). It comprised of practice-based education with up to two additional contacts to incre...

  19. Assessing Technologies for Information-Seeking on Prostate Cancer Screening by Low-Income Men

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Susan W. McRoy

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: This paper presents a multipart investigation of the benefits and challenges in deploying automated question-answering as an alternative to web-based searching to provide information about prostate cancer screening for low-income men age 40 years and older. Methods: The study comprised: 1 a survey assessing current use of the Internet, mobile phones and texting; 2 a controlled observational study of both web-based searching and automated question-answering for information about prostate cancer; and 3 a formative field study in which subjects interacted with a health department nurse using text messages. Results: Survey results suggest the target population has greater access to, and familiarity with, cell phones and text messaging compared to the Internet and web-based searching. Participants were significantly more confident using a cell phone and preferred to get health information through text messaging. Participants in the controlled observational study accepted the text messaging system, with most indicating it answered their questions, was easy to use and was a favorable tool for information-seeking. The field study also demonstrated potential for automated question-answering and text messaging to help the target population access health information. Conclusions: A two-way text messaging system has great potential to promote health communication and health information distribution. Participant interest in this system was high and did not seem to be specific to prostate cancer screening, suggesting that information about other topics, such as high blood pressure screening, could be provided similarly. We believe more investigations should be focused on this area, especially on benefits for the low-income community.

  20. The balance sheet of benefits and harms of breast cancer population-based screening in Europe: outcome research, practice and future challenges.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Broeders, Mireille; Paci, Eugenio

    2015-11-01

    Breast cancer screening programs are still object of harsh debate. In 2012, the Independent UK Panel reviewed the benefits and harms of mammography screening based on randomized trials and the EUROSCREEN Working Group reviewed European observational outcome studies. The conclusion was that screening programs should continue, while acknowledging that harms, such as the occurrence of false-positive results and overdiagnosis, can have a negative impact on a woman's life. Information on the balance sheet of the benefits and harms of breast cancer screening should help women and their physicians to make an informed choice. The future challenge for breast screening programs is to assess the feasibility, acceptability, effectiveness and impact of risk-based screening in order to maximize benefit-to-harm ratios. PMID:26619214

  1. The development and standardization of Self-assessment for Hearing Screening of the Elderly

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kim G

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Gibbeum Kim,1 Wondo Na,1 Gungu Kim,1 Woojae Han,2 Jinsook Kim2 1Department of Speech Pathology and Audiology, Hallym University Graduate School, Chuncheon, Republic of Korea; 2Division of Speech Pathology and Audiology, Research Institute of Audiology and Speech Pathology, College of Natural Sciences, Hallym Universtiy, Chuncheon, Republic of Korea Purpose: The present study aimed to develop and standardize a screening tool for elderly people who wish to check for themselves their level of hearing loss. Methods: The Self-assessment for Hearing Screening of the Elderly (SHSE consisted of 20 questions based on the characteristics of presbycusis using a five-point scale: seven questions covered general issues related to sensorineural hearing loss, seven covered hearing difficulty under distracting listening conditions, two covered hearing difficulty with fast-rated speech, and four covered the working memory function during communication. To standardize SHSE, 83 elderly participants took part in the study: 25 with normal hearing, and 22, 23, and 13 with mild, moderate, and moderate-to-severe sensorineural hearing loss, respectively, according to their hearing sensitivity. All were retested 3 weeks later using the same questionnaire to confirm its reliability. In addition, validity was assessed using various hearing tests such as a sentence test with background noise, a time-compressed speech test, and a digit span test. Results: SHSE and its subcategories showed good internal consistency. SHSE and its subcategories demonstrated high test–retest reliability. A high correlation was observed between the total scores and pure-tone thresholds, which indicated gradually increased SHSE scores of 42.24%, 55.27%, 66.61%, and 78.15% for normal hearing, mild, moderate, and moderate-to-severe groups, respectively. With regard to construct validity, SHSE showed a high negative correlation with speech perception scores in noise and a moderate negative

  2. The effect of practical experience on perceptions of assessment authenticity, study approach and learning outcome

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gulikers, J.T.M.; Kester, L.; Kirschner, P.A.; Bastiaens, Th.J.

    2008-01-01

    Does authentic assessment or the perception of it affect how students study and learn? Does practical experience affect how assessment authenticity is perceived? And does practical experience influence how an authentic assessment affects student learning? Mixed methods design yielded insight into th

  3. A Comparative Study on the Practice of Continuous Assessment between Addis Ababa and Unity Universities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zeleke, Aytaged Sisay

    2013-01-01

    This paper aims to explore the practice of continuous assessment at Unity University College and Addis Ababa University. It has also investigated constraints instructors say they have been facing in implementing continuous assessment. Students' attitudes about the practice of this assessment mode towards their course achievements were…

  4. What Are We Missing? Spanish Lecturers' Perceptions of Their Assessment Practices

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quesada-Serra, V.; Rodríguez-Gómez, G.; Ibarra-Sáiz, M. S.

    2016-01-01

    Many studies have explored alternative assessment practices that focus on students and their learning. In this paper, we present a survey study that analyses lecturers' perceptions of their assessment practices. Special attention is paid to assessment tasks developed to monitor student learning and those designed to promote active student…

  5. An examination of silver nanoparticles in socks using screening-level life cycle assessment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Screening-level life cycle assessment (LCA) can provide a quick tool to identify the life cycle hot spots and focus research efforts to help to minimize the burdens of a technology while maximizing its benefits. The use of nanoscale silver in consumer products has exploded in popularity. Although its use is considered beneficial because of antimicrobial effects, some attention must be given to the potential environmental impacts it could impart on the life cycle of these nanoproducts as production demands escalate. This work examines the environmental impact of including silver nanoparticles in commercially available socks using screening-level LCA. Initial results suggest washing during the use phase contributes substantially more than the manufacturing phase to the product life cycle impacts. Comparison of nanoparticles prepared by either chemical reduction, liquid flame spray (LFS), or plasma arc demonstrate how the type of manufacturing process used for the nanoscale silver can change the resulting life cycle impact of the sock product. The magnitude of this impact will depend on the type of process used to manufacture the nanoscale silver, with LFS having the most impact because of the need for large quantities of hydrogen and oxygen. Although the increased impacts for a single nanoproduct may be relatively small, the added environmental load can actually be a significant quantity when considered at the regional or global production level.

  6. Non-animal photosafety screening for complex cosmetic ingredients with photochemical and photobiochemical assessment tools.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nishida, Hayato; Hirota, Morihiko; Seto, Yoshiki; Suzuki, Gen; Kato, Masashi; Kitagaki, Masato; Sugiyama, Mariko; Kouzuki, Hirokazu; Onoue, Satomi

    2015-08-01

    Previously, a non-animal screening approach was proposed for evaluating photosafety of cosmetic ingredients by means of in vitro photochemical and photobiochemical assays; however, complex cosmetic ingredients, such as plant extracts and polymers, could not be evaluated because their molecular weight is often poorly defined and so their molar concentration cannot be calculated. The aim of the present investigation was to establish a photosafety screen for complex cosmetic ingredients by using appropriately modified in vitro photosafety assays. Twenty plant extracts were selected as model materials on the basis of photosafety information, and their phototoxic potentials were assessed by means of ultraviolet (UV)/visible light (VIS) spectral analysis, reactive oxygen species (ROS)/micellar ROS (mROS) assays, and 3T3 neutral red uptake phototoxicity testing (3T3 NRU PT). The maximum UV/VIS absorption value was employed as a judgment factor for evaluating photoexcitability of samples, and the value of 1.0 was adopted as a tentative criterion for photosafety identification. The ROS/mROS assays were conducted at 50 μg/mL, and no false negative prediction was obtained. Furthermore, the ROS/mROS assays at 50 μg/mL had a similar predictive capacity to the ROS/mROS assays in the previous study. A systematic tiered approach for simple and rapid non-animal photosafety evaluation of complex cosmetic ingredients can be constructed using these modified in vitro photochemical assays. PMID:26048216

  7. Standard Practice for Laboratory Screening of Metallic Containment Materials for Use With Liquids in Solar Heating and Cooling Systems

    CERN Document Server

    American Society for Testing and Materials. Philadelphia

    1980-01-01

    1.1 This practice covers several laboratory test procedures for evaluating corrosion performance of metallic containment materials under conditions similar to those that may occur in solar heating and cooling systems. All test results relate to the performance of the metallic containment material only as a part of a metal/fluid pair. Performance in these laboratory test procedures, taken by itself, does not necessarily constitute an adequate basis for acceptance or rejection of a particular metal/fluid pair in solar heating and cooling systems, either in general or in a particular design. This practice is not intended to preclude the use of other screening tests, particularly when those tests are designed to more closely simulate field service conditions. 1.2 This practice describes apparatus and procedures for several tests, any one or more of which may be used to evaluate the deterioration of the metallic containment material in a metal/fluid pair. The procedures are designed to permit simulation, heating...

  8. Knowledge, attitudes, beliefs, behaviour and breast cancer screening practices in Ghana, West Africa

    OpenAIRE

    Opoku, Samuel Yaw; Benwell, Martin; Yarney, Joel

    2012-01-01

    Background Late presentation has been observed as the hallmark of breast cancer in Ghanaian women where over 60% of patients report with either stage 3 or 4 of the disease. This cross-sectional study aimed at exploring breast cancer related knowledge and practices in order to develop an appropriate socio-economic and cultural specific model to improve breast cancer care in Ghana. Methods The study which was conducted in Accra and Sunyani in Ghana used both quantitative and qualitative methods...

  9. An assessment of digital stereo-taxis in the National Health Service Breast Screening Programme

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A woman may be invited back for further assessment if an abnormality is found on her mammogram. A stereotactic attachment is used to determine where to place the biopsy device. Digital equipment has the advantage of providing images almost instantaneously and utilising software to determine the location of the sampling device. These devices should make the procedure quicker and hence less traumatic for the women. However, digital devices have poorer spatial and contrast resolution, which could adversely affect the accuracy of sampling device placement. Although the dose received during a normal screening mammogram is well known, the dose for the stereo procedure is unknown, partly because only a small part of the breast is directly irradiated. However, the lady may undergo multiple exposures. For a prospective survey of doses and technique arm of the study a pro-forma was completed for 134 women. The dose women received during a stereotactic procedure was estimated. (authors)

  10. Assessment of Cancer-Related Fatigue: Role of the Oncology Nurse in Translating NCCN Assessment Guidelines into Practice

    OpenAIRE

    Piper, Barbara F.; Borneman, Tami; Sun, Virginia Chih-Yi; Koczywas, Marianna; Uman, Gwen; Ferrell, Betty; James, Raysenia L.

    2008-01-01

    Despite the availability of the National Comprehensive Cancer Network’s (NCCN) evidence-based practice guidelines for the assessment and management of Cancer-Related Fatigue (CRF), assessment of CRF still is not routinely performed at many institutions and oncology practice settings. Numerous patient-, provider-, and system-related barriers exist that hinder the translation of these guidelines into practice by oncology nurses and other health care providers. Oncology nurses can play vital rol...

  11. Chronic fatigue syndrome. A practical guide to assessment and management.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharpe, M; Chalder, T; Palmer, I; Wessely, S

    1997-05-01

    Chronic fatigue and chronic fatigue syndrome (CFS) have become increasingly recognized as a common clinical problem, yet one that physicians often find difficult to manage. In this review we suggest a practical, pragmatic, evidence-based approach to the assessment and initial management of the patient whose presentation suggests this diagnosis. The basic principles are simple and for each aspect of management we point out both potential pitfalls and strategies to overcome them. The first, and most important task is to develop mutual trust and collaboration. The second is to complete an adequate assessment, the aim of which is either to make a diagnosis of CFS or to identify an alternative cause for the patient's symptoms. The history is most important and should include a detailed account of the symptoms, the associated disability, the choice of coping strategies, and importantly, the patient's own understanding of his/her illness. The assessment of possible comorbid psychiatric disorders such as depression or anxiety is mandatory. When the physician is satisfied that no alternative physical or psychiatric disorder can be found to explain symptoms, we suggest that a firm and positive diagnosis of CFS be made. The treatment of CFS requires that the patient is given a positive explanation of the cause of his symptoms, emphasizing the distinction among factors that may have predisposed them to develop the illness (lifestyle, work stress, personality), triggered the illness (viral infection, life events) and perpetuated the illness (cerebral dysfunction, sleep disorder, depression, inconsistent activity, and misunderstanding of the illness and fear of making it worse). Interventions are then aimed to overcoming these illness-perpetuating factors. The role of antidepressants remains uncertain but may be tried on a pragmatic basis. Other medications should be avoided. The only treatment strategies of proven efficacy are cognitive behavioral ones. The most important

  12. Assessment of speech in neurological disorders: Development of a Swahili screening test

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nick Miller

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Assessments for acquired motor-speech disorders that look at movements of the articulators would appear at first glance to be universal. This may be true for the most basic non-speech aspects of movement. We argue that assessments for speech motor control must be attuned to language-specific variables to be fully valid. We describe the rationale for, and development of a motor-speech-disorder screening test for Swahili speakers which includes impairment measures as well as measures of intelligibility and speech-voice naturalness. We further describe its initial validation in terms of content validity, feasibility of administration and scoring without requirements for lengthy training and technical expertise and application to groups of people with and without Parkinson’s disease in Tanzania. Results indicate that the protocol is ready to use in so far as it is acceptable to users (clinicians, patients, is feasible to use, shows good interrater reliability, and is capable of differentiating performance in healthy speakers and those whose speech is disordered. We highlight needs for further development, including issues around training, development of local norms for healthy speakers and for speakers with a variety of neurological disturbances, and extension of the tool to cover culturally valid assessment of impact of communication disorders.

  13. The development and standardization of Self-assessment for Hearing Screening of the Elderly

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Gibbeum; Na, Wondo; Kim, Gungu; Han, Woojae; Kim, Jinsook

    2016-01-01

    Purpose The present study aimed to develop and standardize a screening tool for elderly people who wish to check for themselves their level of hearing loss. Methods The Self-assessment for Hearing Screening of the Elderly (SHSE) consisted of 20 questions based on the characteristics of presbycusis using a five-point scale: seven questions covered general issues related to sensorineural hearing loss, seven covered hearing difficulty under distracting listening conditions, two covered hearing difficulty with fast-rated speech, and four covered the working memory function during communication. To standardize SHSE, 83 elderly participants took part in the study: 25 with normal hearing, and 22, 23, and 13 with mild, moderate, and moderate-to-severe sensorineural hearing loss, respectively, according to their hearing sensitivity. All were retested 3 weeks later using the same questionnaire to confirm its reliability. In addition, validity was assessed using various hearing tests such as a sentence test with background noise, a time-compressed speech test, and a digit span test. Results SHSE and its subcategories showed good internal consistency. SHSE and its subcategories demonstrated high test–retest reliability. A high correlation was observed between the total scores and pure-tone thresholds, which indicated gradually increased SHSE scores of 42.24%, 55.27%, 66.61%, and 78.15% for normal hearing, mild, moderate, and moderate-to-severe groups, respectively. With regard to construct validity, SHSE showed a high negative correlation with speech perception scores in noise and a moderate negative correlation with scores of time-compressed speech perception. However, there was no statistical correlation between digit span results and either the SHSE total or its subcategories. A confirmatory factor analysis supported three factors in SHSE. Conclusion We found that the developed SHSE had valuable internal consistency, test–retest reliability, and convergent and construct

  14. A method of assessment of teaching practices and trainers by their trainees

    OpenAIRE

    Charlewood, John E.; Airlie, Ian

    1986-01-01

    A method of assessment is described which can be used by trainees at the end of their vocational training in general practice. The assessment allows trainees to make ratings and comments on their teaching practices that can be returned confidentially to their trainers. The results of this assessment suggest that trainees in the Northumbria vocational training scheme are reasonably satisfied with their trainers and training practices.

  15. Microbial water pollution: a screening tool for initial catchment-scale assessment and source apportionment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kay, D; Anthony, S; Crowther, J; Chambers, B J; Nicholson, F A; Chadwick, D; Stapleton, C M; Wyer, M D

    2010-11-01

    The European Union Water Framework Directive requires that Management Plans are developed for individual River Basin Districts. From the point of view of faecal indicator organisms (FIOs), there is a critical need for screening tools that can provide a rapid assessment of the likely FIO concentrations and fluxes within catchments under base- and high-flow conditions, and of the balance ('source apportionment') between agriculture- and sewage-derived sources. Accordingly, the present paper reports on: (1) the development of preliminary generic models, using water quality and land cover data from previous UK catchment studies for assessing FIO concentrations, fluxes and source apportionment within catchments during the summer bathing season; (2) the calibration of national land use data, against data previously used in the models; and (3) provisional FIO concentration and source-apportionment assessments for England and Wales. The models clearly highlighted the crucial importance of high-flow conditions for the flux of FIOs within catchments. At high flow, improved grassland (and associated livestock) was the key FIO source; FIO loadings derived from catchments with high proportions of improved grassland were shown to be as high as from urbanized catchments; and in many rural catchments, especially in NW and SW England and Wales, which are important areas of lowland livestock (especially dairy) farming, ≥ 40% of FIOs was assessed to be derived from agricultural sources. In contrast, under base-flow conditions, when there was little or no runoff from agricultural land, urban (i.e. sewerage-related) sources were assessed to dominate, and even in rural areas the majority of FIOs were attributed to urban sources. The results of the study demonstrate the potential of this type of approach, particularly in light of climate change and the likelihood of more high-flow events, in underpinning informed policy development and prioritization of investment. PMID:19717181

  16. Functional Movement Screening Performance of Brazilian Jiu-Jitsu Athletes From Brazil: Differences Considering Practice Time and Combat Style.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Del Vecchio, Fabrício Boscolo; Gondim, Denis Foster; Arruda, Antonio Carlos Pereira

    2016-08-01

    Boscolo Del Vecchio, F, Foster, D, and Arruda, A. Functional movement screening performance of Brazilian jiu-jitsu athletes from Brazil: differences considering practice time and combat style. J Strength Cond Res 30(8): 2341-2347, 2016-Brazilian jiu-jitsu (BJJ) is a grappling combat sport that athletes, lying (guard fighter) or kneeling (pass fighter) on the mat, attempt to force their opponents to submit. Brazilian jiu-jitsu practices may result in muscular imbalances, which increase the risk of injury. Instead, the Functional Movement Screen (FMS) is an evaluation routine that could be related to injury incidence and seeks to detect muscular imbalance and movement dysfunction. Thus, the aim of the study was to investigate the injury profile and the FMS score and their relationship, with consideration for the BJJ fight style. Sports injuries were recorded in the last 12 months of 33 BJJ athletes, and the statistical analyses were applied to a routine evaluation FMS and a score of 14 points or less was considered low performance in FMS. We used a logistic regression; the effect size (ES) was calculated, and 5% was assumed as the statistical significance level. Pass fighters showed a higher percentage of injuries on the thorax (24.24%) than did guard fighters (6.67%, p = 0.01). Upper limbs were the most injured part of the body (χ = 36.7; p injuries that occurred in training sessions (χ = 14.53; p injuries in the upper limbs and a quarter had injuries in the lower limbs in the last year. A poor FMS score was observed, and lower scores in the FMS were associated with a higher risk of injury in BJJ athletes. PMID:26808855

  17. Should pre-implantation genetic screening be implemented to routine clinical practice?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Orvieto, Raoul; Shuly, Yulia; Brengauz, Masha; Feldman, Baruch

    2016-06-01

    The utilization of trophectoderm biopsy combined with comprehensive chromosome screening (CCS) tests for embryonic aneuploidy was recently suggested to improve IVF outcome, however, not without criticisms. Since mosaicism has been reported in as high as 90% of blastocyst-stage embryos, we aimed to evaluate the accuracy of trophectoderm multiple biopsies using next-generation sequencing (NGS). Eight top quality blastocysts underwent three trophectoderm biopsies each, followed by NGS. In four blastocysts, the rest of the embryo, which included the inner cell mass, was also analyzed. Five of the 24 (20.8%) trophectoderm biopsies revealed inconclusive results, while 4 (16.6%) demonstrated embryonic mosaicism. Overall, 10 (35.7%) of the 28 (24 trophectoderms and 4 inner cell masses) biopsies revealed mosaicism or inconclusive results. Our preliminary observations contribute to the ongoing discussion on the unrestricted clinical adoption of PGS, suggesting, that until proper evaluation of its effectiveness and cost-effectiveness will be provided, PGS should be offered only under study conditions, and with appropriate informed consents. PMID:26872945

  18. Practices and regulations of radiological mass screening in the United Kingdom

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The only radiological mass screening undertaken in the UK was the mass miniature radiography service for detection of tuberculosis by chest x-ray. Mass miniature radiographic (MMR) units were set up when tuberculosis was a common illness. However, by 1969 the detection rate of tuberculosis was so low that it was no longer cost-effective as a preventive health measure. In the last decade there has also been an increased awareness that people should only be exposed to radiation for medical purposes if it is judged to be clinically desirable. For some years, therefore, the Department's policy has been to discourage self-referral to these units and to advise people to consult their doctor should they be concerned about symptoms. Health authorities have been made aware of the need to continue to review the level of provision of MMR services and to integrate these facilities with hospital radiological departments as far as possible. To secure further information on the costs and benefits of radiological procedures, the Department is financially supporting research by the Royal College of Radiologists' Working Party on the Effective use of Diagnostic Radiology. Research is taking place in a number of areas and the work done on the use of preoperative chest x-ray in hospital is particularly germane

  19. SUPPORTING TEACHERS IN IMPLEMENTING FORMATIVE ASSESSMENT PRACTICES IN EARTH SYSTEMS SCIENCE

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harris, C. J.; Penuel, W. R.; Haydel Debarger, A.; Blank, J. G.

    2009-12-01

    An important purpose of formative assessment is to elicit student thinking to use in instruction to help all students learn and inform next steps in teaching. However, formative assessment practices are difficult to implement and thus present a formidable challenge for many science teachers. A critical need in geoscience education is a framework for providing teachers with real-time assessment tools as well as professional development to learn how to use formative assessment to improve instruction. Here, we describe a comprehensive support system, developed for our NSF-funded Contingent Pedagogies project, for addressing the challenge of helping teachers to use formative assessment to enhance student learning in middle school Earth Systems science. Our support system is designed to improve student understanding about the geosphere by integrating classroom network technology, interactive formative assessments, and contingent curricular activities to guide teachers from formative assessment to instructional decision-making and improved student learning. To accomplish this, we are using a new classroom network technology, Group Scribbles, in the context of an innovative middle-grades Earth Science curriculum called Investigating Earth Systems (IES). Group Scribbles, developed at SRI International, is a collaborative software tool that allows individual students to compose “scribbles” (i.e., drawings and notes), on “post-it” notes in a private workspace (a notebook computer) in response to a public task. They can post these notes anonymously to a shared, public workspace (a teacher-controlled large screen monitor) that becomes the centerpiece of group and class discussion. To help teachers implement formative assessment practices, we have introduced a key resource, called a teaching routine, to help teachers take advantage of Group Scribbles for more interactive assessments. Routine refers to a sequence of repeatable interactions that, over time, become

  20. Assessment method for analyzing and developing human resource management practices in the nuclear power industry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Implementation of HRM practices is often devolved from the HRM unit to front line managers and supervisors. However, the implementation of these practices by line managers and supervisors may vary significantly. They may, for example, be unaware of how to implement HRM practices or sceptical towards the effectiveness of the intended practices. Based on the literature, interviews and workshops in the nuclear power industry, a self-assessment method of HRM practices for intra-organizational use was developed. The assessment method was piloted in four nuclear power organizations. The assessment method seems to be a good tool for generating fruitful discussion on HRM practices, finding areas of HRM practices that need to be developed, and triggering peer-to-peer knowledge sharing and learning on HRM practices.

  1. Assessment method for analyzing and developing human resource management practices in the nuclear power industry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Maeki, Eerikki [Aalto Univ. (Finland). Dept. of Industrial Engineering and Management; Pahkin, Krista; Lindstroem, S.; Kurki, Anna-Leena [Finnish Institue of Occupational Health, Helsinki (Finland). Centre of Expertise for the Development of Work and Organizations

    2015-04-15

    Implementation of HRM practices is often devolved from the HRM unit to front line managers and supervisors. However, the implementation of these practices by line managers and supervisors may vary significantly. They may, for example, be unaware of how to implement HRM practices or sceptical towards the effectiveness of the intended practices. Based on the literature, interviews and workshops in the nuclear power industry, a self-assessment method of HRM practices for intra-organizational use was developed. The assessment method was piloted in four nuclear power organizations. The assessment method seems to be a good tool for generating fruitful discussion on HRM practices, finding areas of HRM practices that need to be developed, and triggering peer-to-peer knowledge sharing and learning on HRM practices.

  2. Assessment method for analyzing and developing human resource management practices in nuclear power industry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Implementation of HRM practices is often devolved from the HRM unit to front line managers and supervisors. However, the implementation of these practices by line managers and supervisors may vary significantly. They may, for example, be unaware of how to implement HRM practices or skeptical towards the effectiveness of the intended practices. Based on the literature, interviews and workshops in the nuclear power industry, a self-assessment method of HRM practices for intra-organizational use was developed. The assessment method was piloted in four nuclear power organizations. The assessment method seems to be a good tool for generating fruitful discussion on HRM practices, finding areas of HRM practices that need to be developed, and triggering peer-to-peer knowledge sharing and learning on HRM practices. (authors)

  3. Climate Change Vulnerability Assessments: Four Case Studies of Water Utility Practices (2011 Final)

    Science.gov (United States)

    EPA is releasing the final report titled, Climate Change Vulnerability Assessments: Four Case Studies of Water Utility Practices. This report was prepared by the National Center for Environmental Assessment's Global Climate Research Staff in the Office of Research and Developmen...

  4. Rural male health workers in Western Jamaica: Knowledge, attitudes and practices toward prostate cancer screening

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paul Andrew Bourne

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Statistics have shown that since 1988, a significant percentage of males are unwilling to seek medical care. The question is if they had the knowledge, worked in the health system and were educated, would this be any different? Aim: The current study aims to fill this void in the literature by examining the perception of rural male health workers (from the Western Region about prostate examination, and why they are reluctant to inquire about the probability of having, or the likelihood of not having prostate cancer. Materials and Methods: The study utilized primary cross-sectional data that was collected during February and March 2008 from 170 males (ages 29 years and older, health-care workers who were employed in particular rural health institutions in Jamaica (i.e. Western Regional Health Authority. SPSS was used to analyze the data. Results: When the respondents were asked “Have you ever heard about the screening procedure for prostate?” 71.2% indicated yes, but only 27.1% had got their prostate checked by a health practitioner. When respondents were asked to state what influenced their choice of not doing a digital rectal examination, 20.6% indicated comfort level; 9.4% stated the gender of the health practitioner, 5.3% mentioned fear and others did not respond. Of those who had the examination 2 years ago, 96.5% did not state the choice of method. Conclusion: The current study is limited in terms of its generalizability to rural males or rural males in Western Jamaica, but it does provide an insight into the difficulty of men in breaking away from culture.

  5. Screening for Infectious Diseases among Newly Arrived Migrants: Experiences and Practices in Non-EU Countries of the Mediterranean Basin and Black Sea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Napoli, Christian; Dente, Maria Grazia; Kärki, Tommi; Riccardo, Flavia; Rossi, Pasqualino; Declich, Silvia

    2015-12-01

    Changing migration dynamics in the Mediterranean Sea and differences in infectious diseases (ID) burden between the countries of origin have raised questions whether public health actions are needed to avoid the transmission of ID. Screening newly arrived migrants for ID is one health monitoring option, offering opportunities for prevention, early detection and treatment. The authors conducted a survey among country experts in non-European Union countries of the Mediterranean and Black Sea, in order to explore current ID screening practices and policies for newly arrived migrants. The association between the existence of guidelines and the proportion of refugees in the population was also estimated. Eighteen country experts responded (90%) out of the 20 invited. Eleven countries (61%) implemented screening programmes and six (38%) had national guidelines. Screening was performed most often for tuberculosis at the holding level. A higher proportion of refugees in the population was associated with the existence of guidelines for screening (p = 0.05). Fourteen experts (88%) considered screening among migrants useful. The results show that screening for ID in newly arrived migrants is relevant for non-EU countries of the Mediterranean and Black Sea. Common guidelines could be promoted focusing on both individual and public health benefits of screening programmes. PMID:26670237

  6. Assessment of human resources management practices in Lebanese hospitals

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jamal Diana

    2009-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Sound human resources (HR management practices are essential for retaining effective professionals in hospitals. Given the recruitment and retention reality of health workers in the twenty-first century, the role of HR managers in hospitals and those who combine the role of HR managers with other responsibilities should not be underestimated. The objective of this study is to assess the perception of HR managers about the challenges they face and the current strategies being adopted. The study also aims at assessing enabling factors including role, education, experience and HR training. Methods A cross-sectional survey design of HR managers (and those who combine their role as HR manager with other duties in Lebanese hospitals was utilized. The survey included a combination of open- and close-ended questions. Questions included educational background, work experience, and demographics, in addition to questions about perceived challenges and key strategies being used. Quantitative data analysis included uni-variate analysis, whereas thematic analysis was used for open-ended questions. Results A total of 96 respondents from 61 hospitals responded. Respondents had varying levels of expertise in the realm of HR management. Thematic analysis revealed that challenges varied across respondents and participating hospitals. The most frequently reported challenge was poor employee retention (56.7%, lack of qualified personnel (35.1%, and lack of a system for performance evaluation (28.9%. Some of the strategies used to mitigate the above challenges included offering continuing education and training for employees (19.6%, improving salaries (14.4%, and developing retention strategies (10.3%. Mismatch between reported challenges and strategies were observed. Conclusion To enable hospitals to deliver good quality, safe healthcare, improving HR management is critical. There is a need for a cadre of competent HR managers who can fully

  7. Predictive Validity of the Washington State Juvenile Court Pre-Screen Assessment in the Netherlands : The Development of a New Scoring System

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van der Put, Claudia E.; Stams, Geert Jan J. M.; Dekovic, Maja; van der Laan, Peter H.

    2014-01-01

    This study examined the predictive validity of the Washington State Juvenile Pre-Screen Assessment (WSJCA pre-screen) in the Netherlands. Previous research conducted in the United States showed the predictive validity of the WSJCA pre-screen to be modest, as is the case with the predictive validity

  8. A critical evaluation of assessment practices in music literacy programmes for young adults / Jacomine Pretorius

    OpenAIRE

    Pretorius, Jacomine

    2007-01-01

    The topic of assessment has attracted wide-spread attention in the discipline of music education in recent decades. However, most research centres on school-based assessment, and then mainly on the assessment of practical music subjects. Current assessment practices in music literacy programmes (such as 'paper-and-pencil' and standardized tests) counteract what is arguably the most important goal of music education, namely the development of musicianship. Therefore, in this stu...

  9. A Model for Assessing Reflective Practices in Pharmacy Education.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsingos, Cherie; Bosnic-Anticevich, Sinthia; Lonie, John M; Smith, Lorraine

    2015-10-25

    OBJECTIVE. To research the literature and examine assessment strategies used in health education that measure reflection levels and to identify assessment strategies for use in pharmacy education. METHODS. A simple systematic review using a 5-step approach was employed to locate peer-reviewed articles addressing assessment strategies in health education from the last 20 years. RESULTS. The literature search identified assessment strategies and rubrics used in health education for assessing levels of reflection. There is a significant gap in the literature regarding reflective rubric use in pharmacy education. CONCLUSION. Two assessment strategies to assess levels of reflection, including a reflective rubric tailored for pharmacy education, are proposed. PMID:26690718

  10. Navy Radon Assessment and Mitigation Program: Work/quality assurance project plan screening phase

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In 1987, the military services of the United States were tasked to take appropriate action to establish an indoor radon assessment and mitigation program. As a result, the Naval Facilities Engineering Command (NAVFACENGCOM) was assigned the responsibility of identifying potential hazards to personnel from exposure to naturally occurring radon gas and prioritizing corrective actions and to coordinating these actions with the major claimants. NAVRAMP is based upon current US Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) guidelines. The program has been separated into four phases. The screening phase will concentrate on evaluating radon levels, based on statistical samples, in those buildings that have been determined to be at most at risk to elevated levels of radon, such as base housing, schools, day-care centers, hospitals, brigs, Base Officer Quarters, and Base Enlisted Quarters. During the assessment phase, every building that contains personnel for over 4 h/day will be evaluated. Mitigation work will be accomplished by Navy or Navy-contracted personnel. HAZWRAP services during the mitigation phase will consist of determining the extent of reduction in radon levels after the mitigation effort. 7 refs., 11 figs

  11. Landscape Diversity as a Screening Tool to Assess Agroecosystems Sustainability; Preliminary Study in Central Italy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Francesco Visicchio

    2007-06-01

    Full Text Available Modernization of agricultural activities has strongly modified agricultural landscapes. Intensive agriculture, with the increased use of inorganic fertiliser and density of livestock, affects water quality discharging nutrients such as nitrogen and phosphorus in water bodies. Nutrients in rivers, subsequently, are excellent indicators to assess sustainability/ land-use intensity in agroecosystems. Landscape, however, is a dynamic system and is the product of interaction amongst the natural environment and human activities, including farming which is a main driving force. At present not much has been investigated on the predictive role of landscape on land-use intensity. Aim of this study is to determine if, in Italian agroecosystem, landscape complexity can be related to land-use intensity. Indexes of landscape complexity (i.e. edge density, number of patches, Shannon’s diversity index, Interspersion-Juxtaposition index derived by processing Corine Land Cover data (level IV, 1:25.000 of Lazio Region, were related with landuse intensity (values of compounds of nitrogen and phosphorus and other parameters found in rivers monitored in accordance to European Directives on Waste Water. Results demonstrate that some landscape indexes were related to some environment parameters. Consequently landscape complexity, with further investigation, could be an efficient screening tool, at large scale, to assess water quality and ultimately agroecosystems sustainability in the absence of monitoring stations.

  12. Development of an electrical conductivity screening test for mine waste assessments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rezaee, Mohammad; Warner, Richard C; Honaker, Rick Q

    2016-10-01

    An environmental concern at mining operations is the potential leaching of trace elements from overburden and byproduct streams of processing plants. To provide a timely assessment of this concern, electrical conductivity of the leachate emanating from the plant waste streams can be measured as an indicator of the trace element content levels using the USGS Field Leach Test (FLT). However, the research reported in this publication revealed the need to modify the FLT procedure to improve the precision of the test results. The primary issue involved the importance of leachant volume-to-particle surface area ratio in the assessment of the leaching potential for a given source. To determine the key factors impacting leachability of a given material, a statistically-designed parametric study was performed. The experimental program evaluated the effects of particle surface area, the leachant volume-to-surface area ratio, and the amount of oxidant used to expedite the leaching rate during the test. The results revealed that the significant parameters are leachant volume-to-solid surface area ratio and the amount of oxidant. The findings were used to recommend a modification to the conductivity screening test. PMID:27351901

  13. Quantitative health impact assessment: current practice and future directions

    OpenAIRE

    Veerman, Lennert; Barendregt, Jan; Mackenbach, Johan

    2005-01-01

    textabstractSTUDY OBJECTIVE: To assess what methods are used in quantitative health impact assessment (HIA), and to identify areas for future research and development. DESIGN: HIA reports were assessed for (1) methods used to quantify effects of policy on determinants of health (exposure impact assessment) and (2) methods used to quantify health outcomes resulting from changes in exposure to determinants (outcome assessment). MAIN RESULTS: Of 98 prospective HIA studies, 17 reported quantitati...

  14. Improving Formative Assessment Practice with Educational Information Technology

    OpenAIRE

    Terry Vendlinski; David Niemi; Jia Wang; Sara Monempour

    2006-01-01

    This paper describes a web-based assessment design tool, the ADDS, that provides teachers both a structure and the resources required to develop and use quality assessments. The tool is applicable across subject domains. The heart of the ADDS is an assessment design workspace that allows teachers to decide the attributes of an assessment, as well as the context and type of responses the students will generate, as part of their assessment design process. While the tool is very flexible and all...

  15. Screening methodology for dose assessment to seawater organisms in baltic sea

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Determination of radionuclides in Baltic Sea environment in the frame of MORS programme gives opportunity to evaluate doses for aquatic organisms from the Southern Baltic Sea. The available environmental data from the last few years included concentrations of 137Cs (bomb-tests-fallout and Chernobyl origin), 226Ra (natural radionuclide) and 239,240Pu (bomb-tests-fallout) in biota, bottom sediment and water. The doses assessment of 137Cs, 226Ra and 239,240Pu for aquatic animals was performed, based on the screening methodology elaborated by U.S. Department of Energy. Baltic Sea fish (cod, sprat, herring, plaice) and crustaceans (Sanduria entomon and Mytilus edulis) were taken in to consideration and the annual doses from 137Cs, 226Ra and 239Pu to organisms were calculated at average concentrations of these radionuclides observed in water, concentration of radionuclides determined in bottom sediments from two sub-areas (Gdansk Basin and Bornholm Basin) and average concentrations of radionuclides in animal tissues. The total maximal annual doses for seawater organisms do not exceed a one percent of recommended dose limits however, the dominate contribution to the total dose depends on analysed radionuclide. For 137Cs a maximum contribution to the total dose gives external dose from bottom sediment (about 0.5 mGy y-1). Only about 1% of the total 137Cs dose is derived from internal dose however animal-water ratio obtained from measurements is much lower (in a range 30-300 L kg-1) comparing with recommended by DOE Standard value (22000 L kg-1). For 226Ra internal doses for fish and Mytilus are similar (0.2 mGy y-1, 0.6 mGy y-1 respectively) and they are comparable with external doses from sediment (0.3 mGy y-1) whereas internal dose for Sanduria is about 10 times higher (7 mGy y-1). A measured animal- water ratios (20 - 500 L kg-1) differs remarkably from default DOE Standard value (3200 L kg-1). For plutonium 239Pu the maximum contribution to the total dose gives

  16. The screening and scoping of Environmental Impact Assessment and Strategic Environmental Assessment of Carbon Capture and Storage in the Netherlands

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Environmental Impact Assessment (EIA) and Strategic Environmental Assessment (SEA) are procedural tools which have as goal to assess and evaluate possible environmental effects of, respectively, a proposed project or policy plan. The goal of this article is to explore possible bottlenecks in applying both the EIA and SEA procedures on Carbon Capture and Storage (CCS) activities in the Netherlands, as experience is currently minimal or lacking. In this study we focus mainly on the institutional and procedural aspects of the screening and scoping phases of both procedures. This is achieved by reviewing EIA and SEA procedures for analogue projects for the three distinctive process steps of a CCS project, namely the power plant with capture, the transport and finally the underground storage of the CO2. Additionally, EIA and SEA or similar procedures on CCS in other countries are reviewed and the legal framework for the Dutch EIA and SEA is studied. This article shows a concise overview of the EIA and SEA procedure in the Netherlands and the relation between both procedures. Based on our findings we have constructed a conceptual taxonomy for the scope of both procedures for CCS in the Netherlands. This taxonomy conceptualizes the possible integration of assessing the environmental impacts for tiered levels of decision making. This integration might be needed for first CCS projects as decisions on the strategic (spatial planning) level are currently absent for CCS in the Netherlands. Perpendicular to such integration is the integration of linked activities in the CCS chain and their alternatives, into one procedure. We argue that it would be beneficial to combine the separate EIA procedures for CCS activities into one procedure or at least provide close linkage between them. This issue should be carefully considered by regulators, competent authorities and project initiators in an early stage to avoid delaying legal procedures in the future. For the same reason also

  17. Exploring teachers' informal formative assessment practices and students' understanding in the context of scientific inquiry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Araceli Ruiz-Primo, Maria; Furtak, Erin Marie

    2007-01-01

    This study explores teachers' informal formative assessment practices in three middle school science classrooms. We present a model for examining these practices based on three components of formative assessment (eliciting, recognizing, and using information) and the three domains linked to scientific inquiry (epistemic frameworks, conceptual structures, and social processes). We describe the informal assessment practices as ESRU cycles - the teacher Elicits a question; the Student responds; the teacher Recognizes the student's response; and then Uses the information collected to support student learning. By tracking the strategies teachers used in terms of ESRU cycles, we were able to capture differences in assessment practices across the three teachers during the implementation of four investigations of a physical science unit on buoyancy. Furthermore, based on information collected in a three-question embedded assessment administered to assess students' learning, we linked students' level of performance to the teachers' informal assessment practices. We found that the teacher who more frequently used complete ESRU cycles had students with higher performance on the embedded assessment as compared with the other two teachers. We conclude that the ESRU model is a useful way of capturing differences in teachers' informal assessment practices. Furthermore, the study suggests that effective informal formative assessment practices may be associated with student learning in scientific inquiry classrooms.

  18. A scientific assessment of the effectiveness of riparian management practices

    Science.gov (United States)

    The CEAP Riparian Team reviewed the influence of riparian management practices (RMP) on vegetation, soils and ecosystem services. We developed a conceptual model that links management practices to riparian vegetation and soil attributes and then links these attributes to ecosystem services such as w...

  19. Assessment of patient's knowledge, attitude and practice regarding hypertension

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Manasa Bollampally

    2016-08-01

    Conclusions: Our study signifies that patients require support and guidance for practicing better disease management. Clinical activities such as patient counselling, Home Medication Review, Pharmaceutical care program help to increase the patients practice in disease management. [Int J Res Med Sci 2016; 4(8.000: 3299-3304

  20. A systematic review of prerequisites for implementing assessment for learning in classroom practice

    OpenAIRE

    Heitink, M.C.; Kleij, van der, Fabienne M.; Veldkamp, B.P.; Schildkamp, K.; Kippers, W.B.

    2016-01-01

    Although many researchers acknowledge that Assessment for Learning can significantly enhance student learning, the factors facilitating or hindering its implementation in daily classroom practice are unclear. A systematic literature review was conducted to reveal prerequisites needed for Assessment for Learning implementation. Results identified prerequisites regarding the teacher, student, assessment and context. For example, teachers must be able to interpret assessment information on the s...

  1. The Lived Experience of Formative Assessment Practice in a British University

    Science.gov (United States)

    Asghar, Mandy

    2012-01-01

    Higher education institutional assessment policy is dominated by summative assessment regulation, with little emphasis on the role of formative assessment to improve student learning. Yet the challenge for academics is to integrate more formative assessment practice into what many see as already overloaded curricula. It is questionable whether…

  2. Which part of a short, global risk assessment, the Risk Instrument for Screening in the Community, predicts adverse healthcare outcomes?

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    O’Caoimh, Rónán

    2015-01-01

    The Risk Instrument for Screening in the Community (RISC) is a short, global risk assessment to identify community-dwelling older adults’ one-year risk of institutionalisation, hospitalisation, and death. We investigated the contribution that the three components of the RISC (\

  3. A screening model based on the solution of the transport equation for the preliminary assessment of a near surface repository

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This paper presents a screening model based on the solution of the transport equation in order to determine the radionuclides of importance for the safety assessment of a repository identifying those who have maximum impact on man taking into consideration the main hydrodynamic parameters and a water pathway. (author)

  4. An assessment of the information-seeking abilities and needs of practicing speech-language pathologists

    OpenAIRE

    Nail-Chiwetalu, Barbara; Bernstein Ratner, Nan

    2007-01-01

    Objectives: This study assessed the information-seeking practices and needs of speech-language pathologists (SLPs). Improved understanding of these needs can inform librarians and educators to better prepare students in principles and methods of evidence-based practice (EBP) and, through continuing education (CE), promote the integration of EBP into clinical practice of SLPs.

  5. A Quantitative Study Exploring Grading and Assessment Practices in the Middle School Environment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wiles, Greg

    2013-01-01

    Educators are committed to providing students the best possible education by using the practices and tools they know (Zmuda, Kuklis, & Kline, 2004). Unfortunately, the status quo for grading and assessment practices is faulty, outdated, and ineffective. Current practices have unwittingly hindered student progress and motivation (O'Connor,…

  6. Ocena funkcjonalna zawodników uprawiających futbol amerykański z wykorzystaniem testu Functional Movement Screen = Functional evaluation of competitors practicing American football with using Functional Movement Screen test

    OpenAIRE

    Kochański, Bartosz; Falkowska, Ewelina; Kałużna, Anna; Kałużny, Krystian; Wołowiec, Łukasz; Hagner-Derengowska, Magdalena; Zukow, Walery

    2015-01-01

    Kochański Bartosz, Falkowska Ewelina, Kałużna Anna, Kałużny Krystian, Wołowiec Łukasz, Hagner-Derengowska Magdalena, Zukow Walery. Ocena funkcjonalna zawodników uprawiających futbol amerykański z wykorzystaniem testu Functional Movement Screen = Functional evaluation of competitors practicing American football with using Functional Movement Screen test. Journal of Education, Health and Sport. 2015;5(10):170-179. ISSN 2391-8306. DOI http://dx.doi.org/10.5281/zenodo.32588 http://ojs....

  7. The Literacy Practices for Assessment in the Vocational Curriculum--The Case of Hospitality

    Science.gov (United States)

    Edwards, Richard; Minty, Sarah; Miller, Kate

    2013-01-01

    This article explores two case studies of the literacy practices of assessment in the vocational curriculum. Previous studies have identified learning in the vocational curriculum as being assessment-driven and that subjects often associated with limited levels of literacy actually require multiple literacy practices from students. Drawing upon…

  8. Structural Decoupling between the VET and the Employment Systems: Challenges Manifested in Assessment of Practical Training

    Science.gov (United States)

    Umarik, Meril; Loogma, Krista; Hinno, Krista

    2010-01-01

    This article aims to analyse how structural decoupling, which is an especially relevant problem for school-based vocational education and training (VET) systems, reveals itself in the assessment of practical training. Niklas Luhmann's social system theory has been applied to the analysis of assessment practices as a communication act between the…

  9. Assessment and Intervention Practices for Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD): A National Survey of School Psychologists

    Science.gov (United States)

    Borick, Timothy J.

    2011-01-01

    This study examined school psychologists' assessment and intervention practices regarding ADHD. Five hundred school psychologists who practiced in a school setting and were regular members of the National Association of School Psychologists were randomly selected to complete and return a questionnaire titled Assessment and Intervention Practices…

  10. Assessment Practices at Spanish Universities: From a Learning to a Competencies Approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ion, Georgeta; Cano, Elena

    2011-01-01

    This research examines the practices used in assessing students' competencies in the European Higher Education Area. The main objective is to describe the current situation in the Spanish universities, concentrating upon the following questions: what are the most common assessment practices used by academics; how do university academics evaluate…

  11. Identifying intimate partner violence: comparing the Chinese abuse assessment screen with the Chinese revised conflict tactics scales

    OpenAIRE

    Tiwari, A.; Fong, DYT; Chan, KL; Leung, WC; Parker, B.; Ho, PC

    2007-01-01

    Objective To assess the measurement accuracy and the utility of the Chinese Abuse Assessment Screen (AAS). Design A cross-sectional study. Setting An antenatal clinic of a public hospital and a community centre in Hong Kong. Sample A total of 257 Chinese women consisting of 100 pregnant women and 157 nonpregnant women. Method The Chinese AAS was administered first, followed by the Chinese Revised Conflict Tactics Scales (CTS2). This was performed in the same sitting, and each participant was ...

  12. Adrenal suppression: A practical guide to the screening and management of this under-recognized complication of inhaled corticosteroid therapy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ahmet Alexandra

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Inhaled corticosteroids (ICSs are the most effective anti-inflammatory agents available for the treatment of asthma and represent the mainstay of therapy for most patients with the disease. Although these medications are considered safe at low-to-moderate doses, safety concerns with prolonged use of high ICS doses remain; among these concerns is the risk of adrenal suppression (AS. AS is a condition characterized by the inability to produce adequate amounts of the glucocorticoid, cortisol, which is critical during periods of physiological stress. It is a proven, yet under-recognized, complication of most forms of glucocorticoid therapy that can persist for up to 1 year after cessation of corticosteroid treatment. If left unnoticed, AS can lead to significant morbidity and even mortality. More than 60 recent cases of AS have been described in the literature and almost all cases have involved children being treated with ≥500 μg/day of fluticasone. The risk for AS can be minimized through increased awareness and early recognition of at-risk patients, regular patient follow-up to ensure that the lowest effective ICS doses are being utilized to control asthma symptoms, and by choosing an ICS medication with minimal adrenal effects. Screening for AS should be considered in any child with symptoms of AS, children using high ICS doses, or those with a history of prolonged oral corticosteroid use. Cases of AS should be managed in consultation with a pediatric endocrinologist whenever possible. In patients with proven AS, stress steroid dosing during times of illness or surgery is needed to simulate the protective endogenous elevations in cortisol levels that occur with physiological stress. This article provides an overview of current literature on AS as well as practical recommendations for the prevention, screening and management of this serious complication of ICS therapy.

  13. Assessment centre and its use in the corporate practice

    OpenAIRE

    Špatenková, Jana

    2010-01-01

    The goal of this master thesis is to summarise the theoretical knowledge and subsequently analyse the so-called Assessment Centre, a modern methodology used for recruitment of employees out of a larger pool of applicants. A unified approach to the recruitment process has been developed based on the results of this analysis The analysis includes a detailed insight into the preparation and the course of the Assessment Centre, a competency assessment of the committee members, assessment of the j...

  14. A Practical Rationale for Classroom Assessment: The SWOT Approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    McLaurin, Sidney E.; Bell, Beulah; Smith, Curtis

    2009-01-01

    The classroom assessment process can have encouraging results when it begins with "early assessment" that addresses student learning, as well as the social and emotional needs of student(s) in the classroom. This paper presents a SWOT (Strengths, Weaknesses, Opportunities, and Threats) analysis for classroom assessment. It will review literature…

  15. The 'BlueScreen HC' assay as a decision making test in the genotoxicity assessment of flavour and fragrance materials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Etter, Sylvain; Birrell, Louise; Cahill, Paul; Scott, Heather; Billinton, Nick; Walmsley, Richard M; Smith, Benjamin

    2015-10-01

    The genotoxicity of a library of 70 flavour and fragrance substances having a high proportion of in vivo and/or carcinogenicity test data has been assessed using the GADD45a-GLuc 'BlueScreen HC' genotoxicity assay, with and without exogenous metabolic activation. There are only limited genotoxicity and carcinogenicity study data for compounds in this applicability domain, but this study allowed the following conclusions: (i) The BlueScreen HC results are highly predictive of positive results from regulator-required in vitro genotoxicity assays for the test set of materials; the moderate negative predictivity of BlueScreen HC from the in vitro test set of material is mainly due to the high rate of false positive in regulatory in vitro mammalian tests. (ii) BlueScreen HC negative results are predictive of negative in vivo results and provide a specific prediction of in vivo genotoxicity assay results. (iii) In this applicability domain, which comprises a large proportion of relatively low molecular weight molecules, a 1mM testing limit maintains the sensitivity of the assay, and increases specificity. (iv) The predictive capacity and specificity to in vivo genotoxins and carcinogens, coupled to a microplate format with low compound requirement supports further investigation of the BlueScreen HC assay as a useful tool in prioritizing the assessment of new F&F materials and in filling data gaps on materials with no or limited regulatory test data for genotoxicity. PMID:26003925

  16. Assessment of range planting as a conservation practice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Natural Resource Conservation Service (NRCS) Range Planting - Conservation Practice Standards provide guidelines for making decisions about seedbed preparation, planting methods, plant materials selection, seeding rate, seeding depth, timing of seeding, post-planting management, and weed-control. ...

  17. Meta-analysis of screening and case finding tools for depression in cancer: Evidence based recommendations for clinical practice on behalf of the Depression in Cancer Care consensus group

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mitchell, A. J.; Meader, N.; Davies, E.;

    2012-01-01

    Background: To examine the validity of screening and case-finding tools used in the identification of depression as defined by an ICD10/DSM-IV criterion standard. Methods: We identified 63 studies involving 19 tools (in 33 publications) designed to help clinicians identify depression in cancer se...... unassisted clinical recognition. In clinical practice, all tools should form part of an integrated approach involving further follow-up, clinical assessment and evidence based therapy. (C) 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved....

  18. Assessing the Effectiveness of Functional Genetic Screens for the Identification of Bioactive Metabolites

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Staffan Kjelleberg

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available A common limitation for the identification of novel activities from functional (meta genomic screens is the low number of active clones detected relative to the number of clones screened. Here we demonstrate that constructing libraries with strains known to produce bioactives can greatly enhance the screening efficiency, by increasing the “hit-rate” and unmasking multiple activities from the same bacterial source.

  19. Incorporating genomics into breast and prostate cancer screening: assessing the implications

    OpenAIRE

    Chowdhury, Susmita; Dent, Tom; Pashayan, Nora; Hall, Alison; Lyratzopoulos, Georgios; Hallowell, Nina; Hall, Per; Pharoah, Paul; Burton, Hilary

    2013-01-01

    Individual risk prediction and stratification based on polygenic profiling may be useful in disease prevention. Risk-stratified population screening based on multiple factors including a polygenic risk profile has the potential to be more efficient than age-stratified screening. In this article, we summarize the implications of personalized screening for breast and prostate cancers. We report the opinions of multidisciplinary international experts who have explored the scientific, ethical, an...

  20. Screening for Emotional Distress in Cancer Patients: A Systematic Review of Assessment Instruments

    OpenAIRE

    Vodermaier, Andrea; Linden, Wolfgang; Siu, Christopher

    2009-01-01

    Screening for emotional distress is becoming increasingly common in cancer care. This systematic review examines the psychometric properties of the existing tools used to screen patients for emotional distress, with the goal of encouraging screening programs to use standardized tools that have strong psychometrics. Systematic searches of MEDLINE and PsycINFO databases for English-language studies in cancer patients were performed using a uniform set of key words (eg, depression, anxiety, scre...

  1. A state-of-practice survey of policy, plan, and program assessment in Canadian provinces

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Since the introduction of the 1999 Canadian Cabinet Directive on the environmental assessment of policies, plans, and programs (PPPs), higher-order environmental assessment has been receiving increased attention in Canada. However, while practices and systems are advancing at the federal level, there has been very little attention given to recent developments in PPP assessment at the provincial level. This paper presents the results of a Canada-wide survey of PPP assessment principles and practices in 10 Canadian provincial EA jurisdictions. The findings indicate that there exists considerable variability in the provisions for and practice of PPP assessment amongst Canadian provinces, with only Saskatchewan, Ontario, and Quebec identifying recent practice experience. Included amongst the main barriers to effective implementation at the provincial level are the lack of legislative requirements for strategic EA, and the limited understanding of the nature and benefits of higher-order impact assessment

  2. Bridging the gap between theory and practice in integrated assessment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    There is growing support for the use of integrated assessments (IAs)/sustainability impact assessments (SIAs), at different government levels and geographic scales of policy-making and planning, both nationally and internationally. However, delivering good quality IAs/SIAs, in the near future, could be challenging. This paper mainly focuses upon one area of concern, differences between research and other technical contributions intended to strengthen assessment methodologies and the types of assessment methods considered usable by practitioners. To help in addressing this concern, the development of a common assessment framework is proposed, which is based on a shared, practitioner-researcher-stakeholder understanding of what constitutes a satisfactory integrated/sustainability impact assessment. The paper outlines a possible structure for this framework, which contains three interconnected elements-the planning context in which the assessment is to be carried out; the process by which the assessment is to be undertaken and its findings used; and the methods, technical and consultative, by which impacts are to be assessed. It concludes with suggested 'next steps', addressed to researchers, practitioners and other stakeholders, by which the assessment framework might be tested and improved, and its subsequent use supported

  3. Screening level dose assessment of aquatic biota downstream of the Marcoule nuclear complex in southern France

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aquatic biota in the Rhone River downstream of the Marcoule nuclear complex in France are exposed to natural sources of radiation and to radioactivity released from the Marcoule complex. A simple conservative screening level model was used to estimate the range of concentrations in aquatic media of both artificial and natural radionuclides and the consequent absorbed dose rates for aquatic organisms. Five categories of aquatic organisms were studied, namely, submerged aquatic plants (phanerogam), non-bottom-feeding fish, bottom-feeding fish, mollusca, and fish-eating birds. The analysis was based on the radionuclide concentrations reported in four consecutive annual radioecological monitoring reports published by French agencies with nuclear regulatory responsibilities. The results of this assessment were used to determine, qualitatively, the magnitude of any potential health impacts on each of the five categories of aquatic organisms studied. The range of dose rate estimates ranged over three orders of magnitude, with maximum dose rates estimated to be in the order of 1 to 10 microGy h-1. These maximum dose rates are a factor 40 or more below the international guideline intended to ensure the protection of aquatic populations, and a factor ten or more below the level which may trigger the need for a more detailed evaluation of potential ecological consequences to the exposed populations

  4. Screening for feeding disorders. Creating critical values using the behavioural pediatrics feeding assessment scale.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dovey, Terence M; Jordan, Caroline; Aldridge, Victoria K; Martin, Clarissa I

    2013-10-01

    The aim of the current study was to discriminate between clinical and non-clinical samples on the Behavioural Pediatrics Feeding Assessment Scale (BPFAS). The objective was to present a cut-off value, that was derived statistically, which could be used to screen for feeding disorders. A sample of five hundred and seventy-three families with a target child ranging in age from 20 to 85 months took part in the current study. Sixty-four children had a known diagnosis of a feeding disorder and were embedded into a typically developing sample of families that had not sought professional intervention. All families completed the BPFAS in order to provide a known database to measure discriminative statistics. The Receiver Operating Characteristic (ROC) analysis indicated that the cut off value for the BPFAS was a Child Frequency score of 61 and a Child Problem score of six. This offered an 87% accuracy rate at these values. The current study offered definitive evidence that the BPFAS was accurate (both sensitive and specific) to determine differences between clinical and non-clinical samples in the United Kingdom. It is therefore advocated that BPFAS should be adopted in future studies exploring the impact of feeding disorders and problems in both clinical and research settings. PMID:23742944

  5. Making judgements about students making work : lecturers’ assessment practices in art and design.

    OpenAIRE

    Orr, Susan; Bloxham, Sue

    2013-01-01

    This research study explores the assessment practices in two higher education art and design departments. The key aim of this research was to explore art and design studio assessment practices as lived by and experienced by art and design lecturers. This work draws on two bodies of pre existing research. Firstly this study adopted innovative methodological approaches that have been employed to good effect to explore assessment in text based subjects (think aloud) and moderation mark agreement...

  6. Talking about the elephant in the room: Improving fundamental assessment practices

    OpenAIRE

    Betty Gill

    2015-01-01

    This paper reports on an institution-wide strategy to improve first year assessment practices. Assessment is central to the student experience and to informing their developing conceptions of themselves as students. Despite this central importance, much national and international literature raises questions about the fitness-for-purpose of assessment practices in higher education. The reported strategy was developed in response to analysis of student feedback, which suggested, like the litera...

  7. Printed and tablet e-paper newspaper from an environmental perspective - A screening life cycle assessment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Viable alternatives to conventional newspapers, such as electronic papers, e-papers or e-readers, are intended to have many of the qualities of paper, such as reading using reflective light, high resolution, 180 deg. viewing angle. It has been suggested that the environmental impact of e-paper can be lower than for printed and internet-based newspapers. However, in order to find the facts of the matter, a thorough life cycle perspective covering raw material acquisition, production, use and disposal should preferably be used to study the environmental performance of the different products. A screening life cycle assessment was performed to describe the potential environmental impacts of two product systems; printed on paper and tablet e-paper newspapers. Results show that the most significant phase of the life cycle for both product systems was the production of substrate or platform. Accordingly, key aspects that may affect the resulting environmental performance of newspaper product systems were for the printed newspaper number of readers per copy and number of pages per issue and for the tablet e-paper newspaper lifetime and multi-use of the device. The printed newspaper in general had a higher energy use, higher emissions of gases contributing to climate change and several other impact categories than the tablet e-paper newspaper. It was concluded that tablet e-paper has the potential to decrease the environmental impact of newspaper consumption. However, further studies regarding the environmental impact of production and waste management of electronic devices and internet use, as well as more comprehensive assessment of toxicological impacts are needed. As the data on the electronic devices becomes more comprehensive this may prove to be a major limitation of electronic newspaper systems. Developers are suggested to strive towards minimisation of toxic and rare substances in production.

  8. Assessment and d/Deaf and Hard of Hearing Multilingual Learners: Considerations and Promising Practices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pizzo, Lianna; Chilvers, Amanda

    2016-01-01

    The authors address considerations and promising practices relating to assessment of d/Deaf and Hard of Hearing Multilingual Learners. DMLs' unique culture(s), language(s), and learning needs must be considered when assessments of this population are being planned, conducted, and interpreted. The authors address theory and research on (a) general considerations for the overarching assessment process, (b) specific assessment approaches used to assess DMLs, and (c) assessment of language proficiency for diverse language learners. In addition, basic recommendations for the assessment of DMLs are made, including increased availability of assessments in various languages, use of multiple sources of individual and family data, assessment of all languages, and incorporation of a strong assessment component (that includes nondiscrimination practices) into teacher preparation programs. PMID:27156918

  9. Assessment Beliefs and Practices of Language Teachers in Primary Education

    OpenAIRE

    Kağan Büyükkarcı

    2014-01-01

    The use of assessment, the process of collecting information on student achievement and performance, has long been advocated so that learning cycles can properly be planned; instruction can be adjusted during the course of learning, and programs can be developed to enhance student learning. Shifting to a more pedagogical conception, the assessment moves from source of information to an inseparable part of teaching and learning. Theory and research propose that especially formative assessment...

  10. Implementation of a risk assessment tool based on a probabilistic safety assessment developed for radiotherapy practices

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The present work describes the implementation process and main results of the risk assessment to the radiotherapy practices with Linear Accelerators (Linac), with cobalt 60, and with brachytherapy. These evaluations were made throughout the risk assessment tool for radiotherapy practices SEVRRA (risk evaluation system for radiotherapy), developed at the Mexican National Commission in Nuclear Safety and Safeguards derived from the outcome obtained with the Probabilistic Safety Analysis developed at the Ibero-American Regulators Forum for these radiotherapy facilities. The methodology used is supported by risk matrices method, a mathematical tool that estimates the risk to the patient, radiation workers and public from mechanical failures, mis calibration of the devices, human mistakes, and so. The initiating events are defined as those undesirable events that, together with other failures, can produce a delivery of an over-dose or an under-dose of the medical prescribed dose, to the planned target volume, or a significant dose to non prescribed human organs. Initiating events frequency and reducer of its frequency (actions intended to avoid the accident) are estimated as well as robustness of barriers to those actions, such as mechanical switches, which detect and prevent the accident from occurring. The spectrum of the consequences is parameterized, and the actions performed to reduce the consequences are identified. Based on this analysis, a software tool was developed in order to simplify the evaluations to radiotherapy installations and it has been applied as a first step forward to some Mexican installations, as part of a national implementation process, the final goal is evaluation of all Mexican facilities in the near future. The main target and benefits of the SEVRRA implementation are presented in this paper. (Author)

  11. Implementation of functional assessment scales in geriatric practice

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Poulsen, Ingrid; Hesselbo, Bjørn; Pietersen, Inge; Schroll, Marianne

    2005-01-01

    A study was undertaken to evaluate the feasibility of functional assessment scales regarding completion rate and ability to document functional changes in geriatric rehabilitation patients.......A study was undertaken to evaluate the feasibility of functional assessment scales regarding completion rate and ability to document functional changes in geriatric rehabilitation patients....

  12. Examining Progress across Time with Practical Assessments in Ensemble Settings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crochet, Lorrie S.; Green, Susan K.

    2012-01-01

    This article provides the rationale for effective music assessment that tracks individual progress across time and offers examples to illustrate assessment of a range of music-learning goals. Gauging progress across time helps students become more mastery-oriented, while showing more effort and positive attitudes. As instruction and assessment…

  13. Quality Assessment of Internationalised Studies: Theory and Practice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Juknyte-Petreikiene, Inga

    2013-01-01

    The article reviews forms of higher education internationalisation at an institutional level. The relevance of theoretical background of internationalised study quality assessment is highlighted and definitions of internationalised studies quality are presented. Existing methods of assessment of higher education internationalisation are criticised…

  14. Assessing Practical Laboratory Skills in Undergraduate Molecular Biology Courses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hunt, Lynne; Koenders, Annette; Gynnild, Vidar

    2012-01-01

    This study explored a new strategy of assessing laboratory skills in a molecular biology course to improve: student effort in preparation for and participation in laboratory work; valid evaluation of learning outcomes; and students' employment prospects through provision of evidence of their skills. Previously, assessment was based on written…

  15. Connected Classroom Technology Facilitates Multiple Components of Formative Assessment Practice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shirley, Melissa L.; Irving, Karen E.

    2015-01-01

    Formative assessment has been demonstrated to result in increased student achievement across a variety of educational contexts. When using formative assessment strategies, teachers engage students in instructional tasks that allow the teacher to uncover levels of student understanding so that the teacher may change instruction accordingly. Tools…

  16. Improving Formative Assessment Practice with Educational Information Technology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Terry Vendlinski

    2006-12-01

    Full Text Available This paper describes a web-based assessment design tool, the ADDS, that provides teachers both a structure and the resources required to develop and use quality assessments. The tool is applicable across subject domains. The heart of the ADDS is an assessment design workspace that allows teachers to decide the attributes of an assessment, as well as the context and type of responses the students will generate, as part of their assessment design process. While the tool is very flexible and allows the above steps to be done in any order (or skipped entirely, our goal was to streamline and scaffold the process for teachers by organizing all the materials for them in one place and to provide resources they could use or reuse to create assessments for their students. The tool allows teachers to deliver the assessments to their students either online or on paper. Initial results from our first teacher study suggest that teachers who used the tool developed assessments that were more cognitively demanding of students and addressed the "big ideas" rather than disassociated facts of a domain.

  17. Construct Validity in Formative Assessment: Purpose and Practices

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rix, Samantha

    2012-01-01

    This paper examines the utilization of construct validity in formative assessment for classroom-based purposes. Construct validity pertains to the notion that interpretations are made by educators who analyze test scores during formative assessment. The purpose of this paper is to note the challenges that educators face when interpreting these…

  18. Population Based Screening for Prostate Cancer: assessment of diagnostic tools and cancers detected

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    J.B.W. Rietbergen (John)

    1998-01-01

    textabstractOver the past decade, considerable debate has occurred over the question whether or not to screen asymptomatic men for prostate cancer. It is unknown whether early detection and treatment of the disease will decrease the disease specific mortality. On theoretical grounds screening may pr

  19. "Reality" Revisited: Self-Assessment of Terministic Screens through a Political Autobiography Assignment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hunter, Karla M.

    2016-01-01

    Courses: Argumentation, Public Speaking, Political Communication. Objectives: After completing this unit activity, students should be able to (1) demonstrate comprehension of Burke's (1941) concept of terministic screens; (2) apply the concept of terministic screens to write a brief political autobiography of themselves that analyzes the history…

  20. The Transient and the Timeless: Surviving a Lifetime of Policy and Practice in Assessment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kimbell, Richard

    2010-01-01

    In this article, the author discusses the challenge of the "transient" and the "timeless" problems of educational assessment and describes how to survive a lifetime of policy and practice in assessment. He first presents a personal retrospective from 1960s to 2000. Then he talks about assessment in transition and conflicting philosophies. Next, he…

  1. Assessment in Music Education: Relationships between Classroom Practice and Professional Publication Topics

    Science.gov (United States)

    McQuarrie, Sarah H.; Sherwin, Ronald G.

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the relationship between actual current assessment practices of elementary music teachers and the assessment topics as published in the literature aimed at those teachers. Specifically, this study sought to: 1) identify the current assessment techniques utilized by elementary music teachers; 2) identify…

  2. Instruction and Assessment for Struggling Writers Evidence-Based Practices

    Science.gov (United States)

    Troia, Gary A., Ed.

    2009-01-01

    This book focuses on how to provide effective instruction to K-12 students who find writing challenging, including English language learners and those with learning disabilities or language impairments. Prominent experts illuminate the nature of writing difficulties and offer practical suggestions for building students' skills at the word,…

  3. Assessing SRI fund performance research : best practices in empirical analysis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Chegut, Andrea; Schenk, H.; Scholtens, B.

    2011-01-01

    We review the socially responsible investment (SRI) mutual fund performance literature to provide best practices in SRI performance attribution analysis. Based on meta-ethnography and content analysis, five themes in this literature require specific attention: data quality, social responsibility ver

  4. Assessment as Action Research: Bridging Academic Scholarship and Everyday Practice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malenfant, Kara J.; Hinchliffe, Lisa Janicke; Gilchrist, Debra

    2016-01-01

    This introductory essay to this special issue demonstrates that action research has a vital role in evidence-informed practice in academic libraries. This special issue of "College and Research Libraries" ("C&RL") proudly features a selection of action research studies by participants of the Association of College and…

  5. Science Teachers' Elicitation Practices: Insights for Formative Assessment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ateh, Comfort M.

    2015-01-01

    In evaluating teachers' instructional decisions during instruction, it is clear that the nature of their elicitation is crucial for student learning. When instructional decisions are informed by information about students' conceptual understanding, significant learning is possible. This article examined the elicitation practices of two high school…

  6. Cervical screening: do gynecologists themselves practice what they preach? a study based in tertiary care hospitals of Lahore

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    To determine the frequency of self-compliance to cervical screening guidance among the sexually active female gynecologists in tertiary care hospitals. To identify the possible barriers to effective screening in those who do not undergo cervical screening. Study Design: Cross sectional study. Place and Duration of Study: This study was conducted in the Obstetrics and Gynecology department of various tertiary care hospitals of Lahore from 1st Jun 2012 to 30th Nov 2012. Patients and Methods: Total 157 female gynecologists, serving in various positions in tertiary care hospitals of Lahore were interviewed by using a structured self reporting performa. The performa was designed to find out the number of gynecologists undergoing pap screening, and in those who fail to undergo screening the single most important barrier presumed to be preventing them from undergoing screening was also evaluated. Results: In this study, only 3.1% of the subject population was found to be undergoing pap-screening, which reflects the national level of screening in urban areas, in sharp contrast to the studies being conducted in developed countries, with screening coverage rates of more than 80%. Conclusion: The prevalence of pap screening in the subject population is disappointingly low and drastic steps are needed to bring about a change in attitude of the subject population which cannot be brought about without changing the current culture of self-negligence and least prioritization for self, in the feminine part of our society. (author)

  7. Assessment of effectiveness and cost-effectiveness of HPV testing in primary screening for cervical

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Willich, Stefan N.

    2007-09-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: The introduction of a screening programme for cervical carcinoma in Germany has led to a significant reduction in incidence of the disease. To date, however, diagnosis in Germany has been based solely on cervical cytology, which has been criticised because of a low sensitivity and consequently high rate of false negative results. Because an infection with the human papillomavirus (HPV previously was found to be a necessary aetiological factor in the development of cervical cancer, there has been some discussion that HPV testing should be included in cervical cancer screening. Objectives: How do HPV tests compare to cytological tests in terms of sensitivity and specificity, and what are the effects of screening for cervical carcinoma in Germany? Is there health economic evidence that may foster an inclusion of HPV testing into national screening programms? Methods: A systematic literature review was performed, including studies that compared the HPV test to cervical cytology in terms of sensitivity and specificity in the diagnosis of CIN 2+ (CIN=Cervical Intraepithelial Neoplasia. In addition, a systematic review of the relevant health economic literature was performed to analyze cost-effectiveness in the German setting. Results: A total of 24 studies fulfilled the inclusion criteria. One study consisted of three substudies. Hence, results of 26 comparisons of HPV and cytology are reported. In 25 of these, the HPV test was more sensitive than cytology, whereas cytology had better specificity in 21 studies. The combination of HPV test and cytology increased sensitivity. Variability in results was considerably larger for cytology than for HPV testing. Results of the economic meta-analysis suggest that in health care settings with already established PAP screening programms, cost-effectiveness strongly depends on screening intervals. In analyses comparing HPV screening to conventional PAP screening with two-yearly intervals, only 25

  8. Progression from impaired fasting glucose and impaired glucose tolerance to diabetes in a high-risk screening programme in general practice: the ADDITION Study, Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rasmussen, Signe Sætre; Glümer, Charlotte; Sandbæk, Annelli;

    2007-01-01

    AIMS/HYPOTHESIS: To estimate the 1-year progression rates from both IFG and IGT to diabetes in individuals identified in a pragmatic diabetes screening programme in general practice (the ADDITION Study, Denmark [Anglo-Danish-Dutch Study of Intensive Treatment in People with Screen-Detected Diabetes......-examination after 1 year. Glucose tolerance classification was based on the 1999 WHO definition. At follow-up, diabetes was based on one diabetic glucose value of fasting blood glucose or 2-h blood glucose. RESULTS: At baseline, 308 persons had IFG and 503 had IGT. The incidence of diabetes was 17.6 and 18.8 per...

  9. Causality assessment: A brief insight into practices in pharmaceutical industry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R Purushotham Naidu

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Healthcare industry is flooded with multitude of drugs, and the list is increasing day by day. Consumption of medications has enormously increased due to life style changes, having safer drugs is the need of the hour. Regulators and other authorities to have a check have put in stringent regulations and pharmacovigilance system in place. Eventhough there has been increase in adverse drug reactions (ADR reporting in the last decade, causality assessment has been the greater challenge for academicians and even industry. Causality is crucial for risk benefit assessment, particularly when it involves post marketing safety signals. Pharmaceutical companies have put in efforts to have a standardized approach for causality assessment. This article will provide some insight into the approaches for causality assessment from a pharma industry perspective.

  10. Do pressure ulcer risk assessment scales improve clinical practice?

    OpenAIRE

    Jan Kottner; Katrin Balzer

    2010-01-01

    Jan Kottner1, Katrin Balzer21Department of Nursing Science, Charité-Universitätsmedizin Berlin, Germany; 2Nursing Research Group, Institute for Social Medicine, Universitätsklinikum Schleswig-Holstein, Lübeck, GermanyAbstract: Standardized assessment instruments are deemed important for estimating pressure ulcer risk. Today, more than 40 so-called pressure ulcer risk assessment scales are available but still there is an ongoing debate about their usefulne...

  11. Genetic Assessment of Breast Cancer Risk in Primary Care Practice

    OpenAIRE

    Burke, Wylie; Culver, Julie; Pinsky, Linda; Hall, Sarah; Reynolds, Susan E; Yasui, Yutaka; Press, Nancy

    2009-01-01

    Family history is increasingly important in primary care as a means to detect candidates for genetic testing or tailored prevention programs. We evaluated primary care physicians’ skills in assessing family history for breast cancer risk, using unannounced standardized patient visits to 86 general internists and family medicine practitioners in King County, WA. Transcripts of clinical encounters were coded to determine ascertainment of family history, risk assessment, and clinical follow-up. ...

  12. Influencing and facilitating conditions for developing reflective assessment practice

    OpenAIRE

    Rønsen, Anne Kristin

    2013-01-01

    By following a professional development project focusing on enhancing assessment competence amongst teachers, the current study examines how teachers use reflective writing and systematic discussions as tools for developing competence in assessment. More specifically, the article aims at identifying conditions that influence and facilitate reflection over time. The study is a small-scale qualitative study from a Norwegian context, and the analysis draws on nine teachers’ written and oral refl...

  13. Inhibitor screening and selectivity assessment against multiple cellular protein kinases by capillary electrophoresis with laser-induced fluorescence detection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Qianqian; Zhang, Xuepei; Zhang, Hanzhi; Kang, Jingwu

    2013-07-01

    A method that can be used for screening protein kinase inhibitors (PKIs) and simultaneously assessing their selectivity is described. The method is based on simultaneously assaying multiple cellular protein kinases by performing capillary electrophoresis (CE) separation and measuring the peak areas of the phosphorylated substrate peptides. The powerful separation capability of CE combined with the highly sensitive and selective laser-induced fluorescence (LIF) detector enables the direct screening of PKIs against cell lysates, which are used as an inexpensive source of enzymes. Four cell lines, three specific substrate peptides labeled with 5-carboxyfluorescein (5-FAM), two relative specific PKIs (TBB and H-89) and one non-specific PKI (staurosporine) were utilized to prove the methodology. With this method, the inhibitory activity of the tested compounds against multiple protein kinases was identified in parallel by comparing the peak areas of the phosphorylated substrates with those obtained in the absence of any inhibitors. The reduced peak area of the phosphorylated substrate definitively represents a positive screening result. Simultaneously, assaying the inhibition of one inhibitor against mutiple cellular protein kinases enables the assessment of its selectivity. Compared to the conventional, single-target screening format, the cell lysate-based multi-target method is more informative, more straightforward and more cost effective. PMID:24164033

  14. Connected Classroom Technology Facilitates Multiple Components of Formative Assessment Practice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shirley, Melissa L.; Irving, Karen E.

    2015-02-01

    Formative assessment has been demonstrated to result in increased student achievement across a variety of educational contexts. When using formative assessment strategies, teachers engage students in instructional tasks that allow the teacher to uncover levels of student understanding so that the teacher may change instruction accordingly. Tools that support the implementation of formative assessment strategies are therefore likely to enhance student achievement. Connected classroom technologies (CCTs) include a family of devices that show promise in facilitating formative assessment. By promoting the use of interactive student tasks and providing both teachers and students with rapid and accurate data on student learning, CCT can provide teachers with necessary evidence for making instructional decisions about subsequent lessons. In this study, the experiences of four middle and high school science teachers in their first year of implementing the TI-Navigator™ system, a specific type of CCT, are used to characterize the ways in which CCT supports the goals of effective formative assessment. We present excerpts of participant interviews to demonstrate the alignment of CCT with several main phases of the formative assessment process. CCT was found to support implementation of a variety of instructional tasks that generate evidence of student learning for the teacher. The rapid aggregation and display of student learning evidence provided teachers with robust data on which to base subsequent instructional decisions.

  15. CONCEPTIONS AND PRACTICES OF ASSESSMENT: A CASE OF TEACHERS REPRESENTING IMPROVEMENT CONCEPTION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Astuti Azis

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Despite numerous quantitative studies on teachers’ conceptions and practices of assessment, little research exists regarding the unique assessment environment of Indonesia. This study uses both quantitative and qualitative data to examine how Indonesian junior high school teachers understand assessment and how their conceptions of assessment relate to their assessment practices. This mixed methods study adopted a participant selection model in which quantitative data was analysed to select participants for the qualitative phase. Participants of this study believed that the purpose of assessment was to improve teaching and learning and also to demonstrate the accountability of students and school. They tended to disagree with the view that assessment is irrelevant. Further analysis of the data revealed that teachers’ conceptions of assessment were conflicted. They were keen to use assessment practices to improve their classroom teaching, but felt that the state-wide examination policy requirements constrained their efforts. This suggests that government, policy makers, and curriculum developers must work to build a strong synergy among themselves in order to share consistent goals with teachers. If cultural expectations of school assessment and government policy were aligned, Indonesian teachers may be better able to resolve conflict between their beliefs and assessment practices.

  16. Ultrasound as an Adjunct to Mammography for Breast Cancer Screening: A Health Technology Assessment

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-01-01

    Background Screening with mammography can detect breast cancer early, before clinical symptoms appear. Some cancers, however, are not captured with mammography screening alone. Ultrasound has been suggested as a safe adjunct screening tool that can detect breast cancers missed on mammography. We investigated the benefits, harms, cost-effectiveness, and cost burden of ultrasound as an adjunct to mammography compared with mammography alone for screening women at average risk and at high risk for breast cancer. Methods We searched Ovid MEDLINE, Ovid Embase, EBM Reviews, and the NHS Economic Evaluation Database, from January 1998 to June 2015, for evidence of effectiveness, harms, diagnostic accuracy, and cost-effectiveness. Only studies evaluating the use of ultrasound as an adjunct to mammography in the specified populations were included. We also conducted a cost analysis to estimate the costs in Ontario over the next 5 years to fund ultrasound as an adjunct to mammography in breast cancer screening for high-risk women who are contraindicated for MRI, the current standard of care to supplement mammography. Results No studies in average-risk women met the inclusion criteria of the clinical review. We included 5 prospective, paired cohort studies in high-risk women, 4 of which were relevant to the Ontario context. Adjunct ultrasound identified between 2.3 and 5.9 additional breast cancers per 1,000 screens. The average pooled sensitivity of mammography and ultrasound was 53%, a statistically significant increase relative to mammography alone (absolute increase 13%; P mammography screening alone. The GRADE for this body of evidence was low. Additional annual costs of using breast ultrasound as an adjunct to mammography for high-risk women in Ontario contraindicated for MRI would range from $15,500 to $30,250 in the next 5 years. Conclusions We found no evidence that evaluated the comparative effectiveness or diagnostic accuracy of screening breast ultrasound as an

  17. Alienation and plagiarism: coping with otherness in our assessment practice

    OpenAIRE

    Hayes, N

    2003-01-01

    The dramatic increase in the number of overseas students studying in the UK and other western countries has required academics to re-evaluate many aspects of their own, and their institutions practice. This paper considers differing cultural attitudes and perceptions among overseas students towards plagiarism, and the implications this may have for postgraduate education in the UK. Based on focus groups, questionnaires and informal discussions, we report the views and perceptions of plagiaris...

  18. Construction of Knowledge, Attitude and Practice Questionnaire for Assessing Plagiarism

    OpenAIRE

    M Mirfakhraei; Cheraghi, Z; A Doosti Irani; Cheraghi, P; J Poorolajal

    2012-01-01

    Background This study was conducted to develop a questionnaire in order to evaluate knowledge, attitude and practice (KAP) of the faculty members and students toward plagiarism. Methods: A KAP study was conducted from June to October 2011 enrolling 390 volunteers anonymously (response rate 96%). The questionnaire included the following four parts: (a) general characteristics like gender, academic degree and education level; (b) nine questions regarding knowledge (Min=0, Max=9); (c) nine quest...

  19. Talking about the elephant in the room: Improving fundamental assessment practices

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Betty Gill

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available This paper reports on an institution-wide strategy to improve first year assessment practices. Assessment is central to the student experience and to informing their developing conceptions of themselves as students. Despite this central importance, much national and international literature raises questions about the fitness-for-purpose of assessment practices in higher education. The reported strategy was developed in response to analysis of student feedback, which suggested, like the literature, substantial opportunity for improvement. Student feedback on their assessment experience was validated by an audit of first session assessment and used to inform the strategy. A significant improvement in quantitative and qualitative measures of student satisfaction across routine data sources is provided to demonstrate impact. This supports a conclusion that the first year student experience can be impacted by the systemic application of a small number of fundamental good practice assessment strategies which are outlined.

  20. An investigation of assessment and feedback practices in fully asynchronous online undergraduate mathematics courses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trenholm, Sven; Alcock, Lara; Robinson, Carol

    2015-11-01

    Research suggests it is difficult to learn mathematics in the fully asynchronous online (FAO) instructional modality, yet little is known about associated teaching and assessment practices. In this study, we investigate FAO mathematics assessment and feedback practices in particular consideration of both claims and findings that these practices have a powerful influence on learning. A survey questionnaire was constructed and completed by 70 FAO undergraduate mathematics instructors, mostly from the USA, who were each asked to detail their assessment and feedback practices in a single FAO mathematics course. Alongside these questions, participants also answered the 16-item version of the Approaches to Teaching Inventory. In addition, a novel feedback framework was also created and used to examine how feedback practices may be related to participants' approaches to teaching. Results show that assessment and feedback practices are varied and complex: in particular, we found there was not a simple emphasis on summative assessment instruments, nor a concomitant expectation these would always be invigilated. Though richer assessment feedback appears to be emphasized, evidence suggests this feedback may not be primarily directed at advancing student learning. Moreover, we found evidence of a reliance on computer--human interactions (e.g. via computer-assisted assessment systems) and further evidence of a decline in human interactions, suggesting a dynamic that is both consistent with current online learning theory and claims FAO mathematics courses are becoming commodified. Several avenues for further research are suggested.

  1. Screening Assessment of Potential Human-Health Risk from Future Natural-Gas Drilling Near Project Rulison in Western Colorado

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Project Rulison underground nuclear test was conducted in 1969 at a depth of 8,400 ft in the Williams Fork Formation of the Piceance Basin, west-central Colorado (Figure 1). The U.S. Department of Energy Office of Legacy Management (LM) is the steward of the site. Their management is guided by data collected from past site investigations and current monitoring, and by the results of calculations of expected behavior of contaminants remaining in the deep subsurface. The purpose of this screening risk assessment is to evaluate possible health risks from current and future exposure to Rulison contaminants so the information can be factored into LM's stewardship decisions. For example, these risk assessment results can inform decisions regarding institutional controls at the site and appropriate monitoring of nearby natural-gas extraction activities. Specifically, the screening risk analysis can provide guidance for setting appropriate action levels for contaminant monitoring to ensure protection of human health.

  2. Screening Assessment of Potential Human-Health Risk from Future Natural-Gas Drilling Near Project Rulison in Western Colorado

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Daniels Jeffrey I.,Chapman Jenny B.

    2012-01-01

    The Project Rulison underground nuclear test was conducted in 1969 at a depth of 8,400 ft in the Williams Fork Formation of the Piceance Basin, west-central Colorado (Figure 1). The U.S. Department of Energy Office of Legacy Management (LM) is the steward of the site. Their management is guided by data collected from past site investigations and current monitoring, and by the results of calculations of expected behavior of contaminants remaining in the deep subsurface. The purpose of this screening risk assessment is to evaluate possible health risks from current and future exposure to Rulison contaminants so the information can be factored into LM's stewardship decisions. For example, these risk assessment results can inform decisions regarding institutional controls at the site and appropriate monitoring of nearby natural-gas extraction activities. Specifically, the screening risk analysis can provide guidance for setting appropriate action levels for contaminant monitoring to ensure protection of human health.

  3. Can we import quality tools? a feasibility study of European practice assessment in a country with less organised general practice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pestiaux Dominique

    2009-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Quality is on the agenda of European general practice (GP. European researchers have, in collaboration, developed tools to assess quality of GPs. In this feasibility study, we tested the European Practice Assessment (EPA in a one-off project in Belgium, where general practice has a low level of GP organisation. Methods A framework for feasibility analysis included describing the recruiting of participants, a brief telephone study survey among non-responders, organisational and logistic problems. Using field notes and focus groups, we studied the participants' opinions. Results In this study, only 36 of 1000 invited practices agreed to participate. Co-ordination, administrative work, practice visits and organisational problems required several days per practice. The researchers further encountered technical problems, for instance when entering the data and uploading to the web-based server. In subsequent qualitative analysis using two focus groups, most participant GPs expressed a positive feeling after the EPA procedure. In the short period of follow-up, only a few GPs reported improvements after the visit. The participant GPs suggested that follow-up and coaching would probably facilitate the implementation of changes. Conclusion This feasibility study shows that prior interest in EPA is low in the GP community. We encountered a number of logistic and organisational problems. It proved attractive to participants, but it can be augmented by coaching of participants in more than a one-off project to identify and achieve targets for quality improvement. In the absence of commitment of the government, a network of universities and one scientific organisation will offer EPA as a service to training practices.

  4. Economic assessment of preeclampsia : Screening, diagnosis, treatment options, and long term outcomes - A systematic review

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zakiyah, Neily; Van Asselt, Antoinette D.; Baker, Philip N.; Postma, Maarten J.

    2015-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: Provide a comprehensive overview of the existing evidence on the health economics of screening, diagnosis, and treatment options in preeclampsia. METHODS: A systematic literature search was undertaken using three electronic databases (MEDLINE, Embase, Cochrane) to identify all English la

  5. A statistical classifier for assessing the level of stress from the analysis of interaction patterns in a touch screen

    OpenAIRE

    Carneiro, Davide Rua; Novais, Paulo; Gomes, Marco; P.M Oliveira; Neves, José

    2013-01-01

    This paper describes an approach for assessing the level of stress of users of mobile devices with tactile screens by analysing their touch patterns. Two features are extracted from touches: duration and intensity. These features allow to analyse the intensity curve of each touch.We use decision trees (J48) and support vector machines (SMO) to train a stress detection classifier using additional data collected in previous experiments. This data includes the amount of movement, ...

  6. Society of Anesthesia and Sleep Medicine Guidelines on Preoperative Screening and Assessment of Adult Patients With Obstructive Sleep Apnea.

    OpenAIRE

    Chung, F; Memtsoudis, SG; Ramachandran, SK; Nagappa, M; Opperer, M; Cozowicz, C; Patrawala, S; Lam, D.; Kumar, A; Joshi, GP; Fleetham, J; Ayas, N; Collop, N; Doufas, AG; Eikermann, M

    2016-01-01

    The purpose of the Society of Anesthesia and Sleep Medicine guideline on preoperative screening and assessment of adult patients with obstructive sleep apnea (OSA) is to present recommendations based on the available clinical evidence on the topic where possible. As very few well-performed randomized studies in this field of perioperative care are available, most of the recommendations were developed by experts in the field through consensus processes involving utilization of evidence grading...

  7. A study on bacteria-targeted screening and in vitro safety assessment of natural products

    OpenAIRE

    Kreander, Kari

    2006-01-01

    More and more drugs are becoming useless as a result of increasing numbers of drug resistant pathogen bacteria strains. The urge to find new active drugs, pure or modified, has become a critical task to overcome the limitations that older, still in use, drugs have faced. Drug companies and research facilities are screening different sources with different techniques to fill this need. For a successful screening process, optimized high-quality methods are needed. In this study, erythromyc...

  8. Screening methods for assessing damage to natural resources following the Exxon Valdez oil spill

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Evaluating the extent of the damage to natural resources after a major oil spill, such as the Exxon Valdez spill in Prince William Sound, Alaska, requires the analysis of thousands of samples of sediment and biota. Therefore, the use of rapid, low-cost analytical methods-generally known as screening methods-to estimate concentrations of petroleum-related aromatic compounds in samples is vitally important to the production of timely information in an emergency response. These screening procedures can rapidly process large numbers of samples to yield semiquantitative estimates of contaminant and allow ranking of samples by degree of contamination. Thus, the most contaminated samples can be located rapidly by screening, and detailed analyses; for example, gas chromatography/ mass spectrometry, (GC/MS) can be focused on selected samples to confirm the presence of contaminants. Screening methods were developed for sediments, bile, and tissue. Petroleum-related aromatics are screened for in sediments using size-exclusion HPLC. Aromatic metabolites are screened for in bile and tissue of fish by reversed-phase HPLC with fluorescence detection

  9. Choosing Assessment Instruments for Bulimia Practice and Outcome Research

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sandberg, Katie; Erford, Bradley T.

    2013-01-01

    Six commonly used instruments for assessment of eating disorders were analyzed. Effect size results from Erford et al.'s (2013) meta-analysis for the treatment of bulimia nervosa were used to compare each scale's ability to measure treatment outcomes for bulimia nervosa. Effect size comparisons indicated higher overall effect sizes using…

  10. Assessing Young Children in Inclusive Settings: The Blended Practices Approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grisham-Brown, Jennifer; Pretti-Frontczak, Kristie

    2011-01-01

    To ensure the best possible outcomes for young children with and without disabilities, early childhood educators must enter the classroom ready to conduct all types of early childhood assessment--including determining if children need additional services, planning and monitoring instruction, and determining program effectiveness. They'll get the…

  11. Cultural Shifts, Multimodal Representations, and Assessment Practices: A Case Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Curwood, Jen Scott

    2012-01-01

    Multimodal texts involve the presence, absence, and co-occurrence of alphabetic text with visual, audio, tactile, gestural, and spatial representations. This article explores how teachers' evaluation of students' multimodal work can be understood in terms of cognition and culture. When teachers apply a paradigm of assessment rooted in print-based…

  12. Teacher Inquiry into Formative Assessment Practices in Remedial Reading Classrooms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brookhart, Susan M.; Moss, Connie M.; Long, Beverly A.

    2010-01-01

    Six remedial reading teachers in a large, rural school district participated in a form of professional development called Teaching as Intentional Learning, based on an inquiry process. Their topic of inquiry was formative assessment. Professional development comprised both direct instruction and inquiry learning in teachers' own classrooms. This…

  13. Design Thinking: A Fresh Approach for Transformative Assessment Practice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benson, Joy; Dresdow, Sally

    2014-01-01

    Management and professional business education is central to developing human talent that can help organizations be competitive in today's complex business environment. So the question for management educators is how do we know that graduates have the talent that business needs? Learning outcome assessment has been the process used by…

  14. Transfer Credit Assessment: A Survey of Institutional Practices

    Science.gov (United States)

    British Columbia Council on Admissions and Transfer, 2015

    2015-01-01

    Assessing credits that transfer students bring to an institution may require a significant amount of institutional resources. The increased mobility of students among post-secondary institutions in British Columbia (BC), and the need to ensure efficient admission processes for both the student and the institution, makes transfer credit assessment…

  15. Structural Equation Modeling Reporting Practices for Language Assessment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ockey, Gary J.; Choi, Ikkyu

    2015-01-01

    Studies that use structural equation modeling (SEM) techniques are increasingly encountered in the language assessment literature. This popularity has created the need for a set of guidelines that can indicate what should be included in a research report and make it possible for research consumers to judge the appropriateness of the…

  16. Validation of nutritional risk index method against patient-generated subjective global assessment in screening malnutrition in colorectal cancer patients

    Science.gov (United States)

    Faramarzi, Elnaz; Mohammad-Zadeh, Mohammad; Nasirimotlagh, Behnam

    2013-01-01

    Objective To validate malnutrition screening tool of nutrition risk index (NRI) against patient-generated subjective global assessment (PG-SGA) as a gold standard tool in colorectal cancer patients before radiotherapy. Methods Nutritional status of 52 volunteer colorectal cancer patients with a mean age of 54.1±16.8 years who referred to radiotherapy center were assessed by PG-SGA (gold standard method) and NRI. Serum albumin levels of patients were determined by colorimetric method. A contingency table was used to determine the sensitivity, specificity, and predictive value of the NRI in screening patients at risk of malnutrition, in comparison with the PG-SGA in patients before radiotherapy. Results The findings of PG-SGA and NRI showed that 52% and 45% of patients in our study were moderately or severely malnourished respectively. The NRI had a sensitivity of 66% and a specificity of 60% against PG-SGA. The positive predictive value was 64% and the negative predicative value was 62%. The agreement between NRI and PG-SGA was statistically insignificant (kappa =0.267; P>0.05). Conclusions The findings of present study showed that the prevalence of malnutrition was high in patients with colorectal cancer. Moreover, NRI method had low sensitivity and specificity in assessing nutritional status of patients with cancer. It seems that the combination of anthropometric, laboratory parameters and a subjective scoring system may be helpful tools in screening of malnutrition in cancer patients. PMID:24255578

  17. Practice and Assessment of Constructing Translation Net Platform

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LUAN Ying

    2013-01-01

    The article aims at system description and effect evaluation to a set of web self learning system ,which is researched and developed towards translational characteristics of learning pattern, therefore, it tests and verifies the feasibility and effectiveness of translational self learning combining with the internet. This system introduces a large number of conductive learning designs, pro-moting students to learn translational theories and practices in an effective and correct way by using Net Tools and E-books. Be-cause such kinds of learning pattern is ground-making, we examine learning effects from different aspects cautiously. Finally, we perfect the evaluation of the whole system.

  18. Assessment of knowledge and practice of menstrual hygiene among high school girls in Western Ethiopia

    OpenAIRE

    Upashe, Shivaleela P.; Tekelab, Tesfalidet; Mekonnen, Jalane

    2015-01-01

    Background The issue of menstrual hygiene is inadequately acknowledged and has not received proper attention. Use of sanitary pads and washing the genital area are essential practices to keep the menstrual hygiene. Unhygienic menstrual practices can affect the health of the girls and there is an increased vulnerability to reproductive tract infections and pelvic inflammatory diseases and other complications. Therefore, the objective of this study was to assess the knowledge and practice of me...

  19. Genome-wide screens for effective siRNAs through assessing the size of siRNA effects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhang Xiaohua

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background RNA interference (RNAi has been seen as a revolution in functional genomics and system biology. Genome-wide RNAi research relies on the development of RNAi high-throughput screening (HTS assays. One of the most fundamental challenges in RNAi HTS is to glean biological significance from mounds of data, which relies on the development of effective analytic methods for selecting effective small interfering RNAs (siRNAs. Findings Based on a recently proposed parameter, strictly standardized mean difference (SSMD, I propose an analytic method for genome-wide screens of effective siRNAs through assessing and testing the size of siRNA effects. Central to this method is the capability of SSMD in quantifying siRNA effects. This method has relied on normal approximation, which works only in the primary screens but not in the confirmatory screens. In this paper, I explore the non-central t-distribution property of SSMD estimates and use this property to extend the SSMD-based method so that it works effectively in either primary or confirmatory screens as well as in any HTS screens with or without replicates. The SSMD-based method maintains a balanced control of false positives and false negatives. Conclusion The central interest in genome-wide RNAi research is the selection of effective siRNAs which relies on the development of analytic methods to measure the size of siRNA effects. The new analytic method for hit selection provided in this paper offers a good analytic tool for selecting effective siRNAs, better than current analytic methods, and thus may have broad utility in genome-wide RNAi research.

  20. Assessment of practice using the National Health Service Knowledge and Skills Framework

    OpenAIRE

    Mclean, C.; Monger, E.; Lally, I.

    2005-01-01

    Current difficulties in the assessment of practice of qualified nurses undertaking courses in critical care nursing are outlined and discussed. The evaluation and development of previously identified core competencies for intensive care nurses is discussed.The use of the National Health Service Knowledge and Skills Framework as a framework for the assessment of practice of nurses undertaking courses in intensive care nursing within one higher education Institution is presented and examined. T...

  1. Inter-assessor reliability of practice based biomechanical assessment of the foot and ankle

    OpenAIRE

    Jarvis Hannah L; Nester Christopher J; Jones Richard K; Williams Anita; Bowden Peter D

    2012-01-01

    Abstract Background There is no consensus on which protocols should be used to assess foot and lower limb biomechanics in clinical practice. The reliability of many assessments has been questioned by previous research. The aim of this investigation was to (i) identify (through consensus) what biomechanical examinations are used in clinical practice and (ii) evaluate the inter-assessor reliability of some of these examinations. Methods Part1: Using a modified Delphi technique 12 podiatrists de...

  2. Defining competencies for the practice of telepsychiatry through an assessment of resident learning needs

    OpenAIRE

    Crawford, Allison; Sunderji, Nadiya; López, Jenna; Soklaridis, Sophie

    2016-01-01

    Background A foundational assessment of learning needs is missing from previous reports of telepsychiatry curricula. We used an in-depth needs assessment to identify specific skills required for the practice of effective telepsychiatry, and provide an evidence base to guide the development of telepsychiatry curricula in postgraduate psychiatry training. Many of these skills set telepsychiatry apart from practice in traditional face-to-face clinical settings, or result from adaptations to clin...

  3. A comparison of formative assessment practices in primary mathematics classroom in Guangzhou, Hong Kong and Melbourne

    OpenAIRE

    Lau, Ching-heung; 劉清香

    2014-01-01

    This study compares formative assessment practices in primary mathematics classrooms in Guangzhou, Hong Kong and Melbourne. Nine schools (three in each research location) were studied to examine the similarities in and differences between formative assessment practices for mathematics, and to identity underlying factors that may account for these similarities and differences. Videotaped classroom observations and face-to-face semi-structured teacher interview were the main data collection met...

  4. Formative assessment practices in Bhutanese secondary schools and its impact on Quality of Education

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Utha, Karma

    Using case study approach, the dissertation provides the notions and practices of formative assessment in Bhutanese Secondary Schools. It includes the teachers’ understanding of the practice of student-centered teaching and learning, which is regarded as a precondition for effective formative...

  5. Documenting organisational development in general practice using a group-based assessment method: the Maturity Matrix.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Eriksson, T.; Siersma, V.D.; Logstrup, L.; Buch, M.S.; Elwyn, G.; Edwards, A.

    2010-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: The Maturity Matrix (MM) comprises a formative evaluation instrument for primary care practices to self-assess their degree of organisational development in a group setting, guided by an external facilitator. The practice teams discuss organisational development, score their own performan

  6. Consonance and Dissonance between Turkish Prospective Teachers' Values and Practices: Conceptions about Teaching, Learning, and Assessment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eren, Altay

    2010-01-01

    This study aimed to examine the consonance and dissonance between prospective teachers' values and practices in terms of their conceptions about teaching/learning and conceptions about assessment, as well as to explore the patterns of those consonance and dissonance between prospective teachers' values and practices. The sample consisted of 304…

  7. Practice parameter for the assessment and management of youth involved with the child welfare system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Terry; Fouras, George; Brown, Rachel

    2015-06-01

    This Practice Parameter presents principles for the mental health assessment and management of youth involved with the child welfare system. Important definitions, background, history, epidemiology, mental health care use, and functional outcomes are described. Practical guidance regarding child welfare-related considerations for evaluation and management are discussed. PMID:26004666

  8. Assessing Multidimensional Students' Perceptions of Twenty-First-Century Learning Practices

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chai, Ching Sing; Deng, Feng; Tsai, Pei-Shan; Koh, Joyce Hwee; Tsai, Chin-Chung

    2015-01-01

    This study attempts to design a survey to assess students' perceptions of twenty-first-century learning practices in their classrooms and the resulting knowledge creation self-efficacy among the students. In addition, it also explores the relationships among the various dimensions of twenty-first-century learning practices. Four hundred and…

  9. Eliciting and Assessing Reflective Practice: A Case Study in Web 2.0 Technologies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parkes, Kelly A.; Kajder, Sara

    2010-01-01

    This paper focuses on the role of multimodal technologies in facilitating reflective processes and the subsequent assessment of reflectivity for students in pre-professional programs. Reflective practice has been established as a critical tool for developing identity in and on practice. This paper will focus firstly on reviewing salient literature…

  10. Eliciting, Identifying, Interpreting, and Responding to Students' Ideas: Teacher Candidates' Growth in Formative Assessment Practices

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gotwals, Amelia Wenk; Birmingham, Daniel

    2016-01-01

    With the goal of helping teacher candidates become well-started beginners, it is important that methods courses in teacher education programs focus on high-leverage practices. Using responsive teaching practices, specifically eliciting, identifying, interpreting, and responding to students' science ideas (i.e., formative assessment), can be used…

  11. Examination of Engineering Design in Curriculum Content and Assessment Practices of Secondary Technology Education

    OpenAIRE

    Kelley, Todd R.

    2008-01-01

    This descriptive study examined the current status of technology education teacher practices with respect to engineering design. Participants were drawn from the current International Technology Education Association (ITEA) high school teacher membership database. A survey instrument gathered data about the extent to which engineering design concepts are incorporated into the curriculum content, and assessment practices employed by secondary technology educators. Moreover, the survey identifi...

  12. Evaluation of sexual history-based screening of anatomic sites for chlamydia trachomatis and neisseria gonorrhoeae infection in men having sex with men in routine practice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jansen Casper L

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Sexually transmitted infection (STI screening programmes are implemented in many countries to decrease burden of STI and to improve sexual health. Screening for Chlamydia trachomatis and Neisseria gonorrhoeae has a prominent role in these protocols. Most of the screening programmes concerning men having sex with men (MSM are based on opportunistic urethral testing. In The Netherlands, a history-based approach is used. The aim of this study is to evaluate the protocol of screening anatomic sites for C. trachomatis and N. gonorrhoeae infection based on sexual history in MSM in routine practice in The Netherlands. Methods All MSM visiting the clinic for STI in The Hague are routinely asked about their sexual practice during consulting. As per protocol, tests for urogenital, oropharyngeal and anorectal infection are obtained based on reported site(s of sexual contact. All consultations are entered into a database as part of the national STI monitoring system. Data of an 18 months period were retrieved from this database and analysed. Results A total of 1455 consultations in MSM were registered during the study period. The prevalence of C. trachomatis and N. gonorrhoeae per anatomic site was: urethral infection 4.0% respectively and 2.8%, oropharynx 1.5% and 4.2%, and anorectum 8.2% and 6.0%. The majority of chlamydia cases (72% involved a single anatomic site, which was especially manifest for anorectal infections (79%, while 42% of gonorrhoea cases were single site. Twenty-six percent of MSM with anorectal chlamydia and 17% with anorectal gonorrhoea reported symptoms of proctitis; none of the oropharyngeal infections were symptomatic. Most cases of anorectal infection (83% and oropharyngeal infection (100% would have remained undiagnosed with a symptom-based protocol. Conclusions The current strategy of sexual-history based screening of multiple anatomic sites for chlamydia and gonorrhoea in MSM is a useful and valid guideline

  13. Developmental Screening in Community Health Care Centers and Pediatric Practices: An Evaluation of the Baby Steps Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shannon, Patrick; Anderson, Patti Rawding

    2008-01-01

    The Baby Steps Program (Easter Seals of New Hampshire, 2003) is a child-find program that introduces developmental specialists into health care settings to conduct developmental screenings with children during well-child visits. This article presents the Baby Steps Program model, summaries of screening and referral data, and the results of 3 focus…

  14. Technical and Practical Information on the Surface Resistance Measurement Bench Using the Shielded Pair Method Application to the LHC Beam Screen

    CERN Document Server

    Tan, J

    2000-01-01

    The shielded pair resonator technique is used to measure the surface resistance of the copper coated LHC beam screen both at room temperature and at cryogenic temperature with a strong magnetic field up to several Teslas, like in the LHC superconducting magnets. From its concept, the RF-based measurements principle appears to be straight forward, but it turns out in practice to be very sensitive to a large number of parameters which are being described in the present report. Some practical hints are proposed to overcome these technical hitches and optimize the geometry as well. An estimate of the thermal load of the LHC beam screen is given, standing in the range 200-250 mW/m for two circulating beams.

  15. Video Screen Capture Basics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dunbar, Laura

    2014-01-01

    This article is an introduction to video screen capture. Basic information of two software programs, QuickTime for Mac and BlueBerry Flashback Express for PC, are also discussed. Practical applications for video screen capture are given.

  16. SAFETY CULTURE ASSESSMENT – OPTIMIZATION OF EXISTING PRACTICE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mirela Valenta Grebenšek

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Improving aviation safety has always been a priority for the aviation industry. While in recent decades the reliability of machinery and computers dramatically improved the reliability of the people and the organizational aspect of safety did not change much. Many of air accident investigations have shown that one of the causal factors, which increase the probability and severity of accidents, is exactly poor safety culture. The purpose of this paper is to present the concept of safety culture assessment and the overview and review of different methods of measuring the safety culture in aviation. This research provides the suggestion that by use of different methods of assessment (evaluation of the results, more credible insight into the level of safety culture in the organization can be obtained. It also provides an understanding of how measurement systems in order to guide future performance can be used proactively.

  17. A Screening Tool for Assessing Alcohol Use Risk among Medically Vulnerable Youth

    Science.gov (United States)

    Levy, Sharon; Dedeoglu, Fatma; Gaffin, Jonathan M.; Garvey, Katharine C.; Harstad, Elizabeth; MacGinnitie, Andrew; Rufo, Paul A.; Huang, Qian; Ziemnik, Rosemary E.; Wisk, Lauren E.; Weitzman, Elissa R.

    2016-01-01

    Background In an effort to reduce barriers to screening for alcohol use in pediatric primary care, the National Institute on Alcoholism and Alcohol Abuse (NIAAA) developed a two-question Youth Alcohol Screening Tool derived from population-based survey data. It is unknown whether this screening tool, designed for use with general populations, accurately identifies risk among youth with chronic medical conditions (YCMC). This growing population, which comprises nearly one in four youth in the US, faces a unique constellation of drinking-related risks. Method To validate the NIAAA Youth Alcohol Screening Tool in a population of YCMC, we performed a cross-sectional validation study with a sample of 388 youth ages 9–18 years presenting for routine subspecialty care at a large children’s hospital for type 1 diabetes, persistent asthma, cystic fibrosis, inflammatory bowel disease, or juvenile idiopathic arthritis. Participants self-administered the NIAAA Youth Alcohol Screening Tool and the Diagnostic Interview Schedule for Children as a criterion standard measure of alcohol use disorders (AUD). Receiver operating curve analysis was used to determine cut points for identifying youth at moderate and highest risk for an AUD. Results Nearly one third of participants (n = 118; 30.4%) reported alcohol use in the past year; 86.4% (106) of past year drinkers did not endorse any AUD criteria, 6.8% (n = 8) of drinkers endorsed a single criterion, and 6.8% of drinkers met criteria for an AUD. Using the NIAAA tool, optimal cut points found to identify youth at moderate and highest risk for an AUD were ≥ 6 and ≥12 drinking days in the past year, respectively. Conclusions The NIAAA Youth Alcohol Screening Tool is highly efficient for detecting alcohol use and discriminating disordered use among YCMC. This brief screen appears feasible for use in specialty care to ascertain alcohol-related risk that may impact adversely on health status and disease management. PMID:27227975

  18. A Screening Tool for Assessing Alcohol Use Risk among Medically Vulnerable Youth.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sharon Levy

    Full Text Available In an effort to reduce barriers to screening for alcohol use in pediatric primary care, the National Institute on Alcoholism and Alcohol Abuse (NIAAA developed a two-question Youth Alcohol Screening Tool derived from population-based survey data. It is unknown whether this screening tool, designed for use with general populations, accurately identifies risk among youth with chronic medical conditions (YCMC. This growing population, which comprises nearly one in four youth in the US, faces a unique constellation of drinking-related risks.To validate the NIAAA Youth Alcohol Screening Tool in a population of YCMC, we performed a cross-sectional validation study with a sample of 388 youth ages 9-18 years presenting for routine subspecialty care at a large children's hospital for type 1 diabetes, persistent asthma, cystic fibrosis, inflammatory bowel disease, or juvenile idiopathic arthritis. Participants self-administered the NIAAA Youth Alcohol Screening Tool and the Diagnostic Interview Schedule for Children as a criterion standard measure of alcohol use disorders (AUD. Receiver operating curve analysis was used to determine cut points for identifying youth at moderate and highest risk for an AUD.Nearly one third of participants (n = 118; 30.4% reported alcohol use in the past year; 86.4% (106 of past year drinkers did not endorse any AUD criteria, 6.8% (n = 8 of drinkers endorsed a single criterion, and 6.8% of drinkers met criteria for an AUD. Using the NIAAA tool, optimal cut points found to identify youth at moderate and highest risk for an AUD were ≥ 6 and ≥12 drinking days in the past year, respectively.The NIAAA Youth Alcohol Screening Tool is highly efficient for detecting alcohol use and discriminating disordered use among YCMC. This brief screen appears feasible for use in specialty care to ascertain alcohol-related risk that may impact adversely on health status and disease management.

  19. Risk assessment to guide cervical screening strategies in a large Chinese population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Fang-Hui; Hu, Shang-Ying; Zhang, Qian; Zhang, Xun; Pan, Qin-Jing; Zhang, Wen-Hua; Gage, Julia C; Wentzensen, Nicolas; Castle, Philip E; Qiao, You-Lin; Katki, Hormuzd A; Schiffman, Mark

    2016-06-01

    Three different cervical screening methods [cytology, human papillomavirus(HPV) testing and visual inspection with acetic acid(VIA)] are being considered in China for the national cervical screening program. Comparing risks of CIN3 and cervical cancer (CIN3+) for different results can inform test choice and management guidelines. We evaluated the immediate risk of CIN3+ for different screening results generated from individual and combined tests. We compared tests using a novel statistic designed for this purpose called Mean Risk Stratification (MRS), in a pooled analysis of 17 cross sectional population-based studies of 30,371Chinese women screened with all 3 methods and diagnosed by colposcopically-directed biopsies. The 3 tests combined powerfully distinguished CIN3+ risk; triple-negative screening conferred a risk of 0.01%, while HPV-positive HSIL+ that was VIA-positive yielded a risk of 57.8%. Among the three screening tests, HPV status most strongly stratified CIN3+ risk. Among HPV-positive women, cytology was the more useful second test. In HPV-negative women, the immediate risks of CIN3+ ranged from 0.01% (negative cytology), 0.00% (ASC-US), 1.1% (LSIL), to 6.6 (HSIL+). In HPV-positive women, the CIN3+ risks were 0.9% (negative cytology), 3.6% (ASC-US), 6.3% (LSIL) and 38.5% (HSIL+). VIA results did not meaningful stratify CIN3+ risk among HPV-negative women with negative or ASC-US cytology; however, positive VIA substantially elevated CIN3+ risk for all other, more positive combinations of HPV and cytology compared with a negative VIA. Because all 3 screening tests had independent value in defining risk of CIN3+, different combinations can be optimized as pragmatic strategies in different resource settings. PMID:26800481

  20. Applying Standard Competency Assessment in Vocational Teaching Practices

    OpenAIRE

    Mimi Mohaffyza Mohamad; Nabilah Abu Bakar; Nor Lisa Sulaiman; Kahirol Mohd Salleh; Lai Che Sern

    2015-01-01

    Teaching in vocational education is focused on knowledge and skills. Psychomotor is an aspect that emphasized in teaching competency in vocational education. Teaching based on psychomotor is a way to provide students with the hands on skills. Teachers are the main character in the teaching session. Therefore, this paper explained the differences among teachers in teaching based Standard Competency Assessment with their expertise in particular field. Research used survey design involved 301 te...