WorldWideScience

Sample records for assessing screening practices

  1. A practical approach to nutritional screening and assessment in cirrhosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tandon, Puneeta; Raman, Maitreyi; Mourtzakis, Marina; Merli, Manuela

    2017-03-01

    Malnutrition is one of the most common complications of cirrhosis, associated with an increased risk of morbidity and mortality. As a potentially modifiable condition, it is of particular importance to identify malnourished patients so that nutritional therapy can be instituted. Nutrition screening and assessment are infrequently performed in patients with cirrhosis. The reasons for this are multifactorial, including the absence of a validated "rapid" screening tool, multiple definitions of what constitutes malnutrition, and challenges with interpreting body composition and laboratory results in the setting of volume overload and liver dysfunction. This article summarizes the clinically relevant evidence and presents key issues, tools, and clinical options that are applicable to patients with cirrhosis. The definition, etiology, and clinically relevant outcomes associated with malnutrition are reviewed. Rapid nutritional screening is differentiated from more detailed nutritional assessment. Nutritional assessment in special populations, including women and the obese, and the role of inflammation are discussed. Multicenter studies using a common nutritional screening/assessment strategy are the next steps to fast-track adoption and implementation of nutrition-related evaluations into routine clinical practice. (Hepatology 2017;65:1044-1057). © 2016 by the American Association for the Study of Liver Diseases.

  2. Best Practices for Mental Health in Child Welfare: Screening, Assessment, and Treatment Guidelines

    Science.gov (United States)

    Romanelli, Lisa Hunter; Landsverk, John; Levitt, Jessica Mass; Leslie, Laurel K.; Hurley, Maia M.; Bellonci, Christopher; Gries, Leonard T.; Pecora, Peter J.; Jensen, Peter S.

    2009-01-01

    The Best Practices for Mental Health in Child Welfare Consensus Conference focused on developing guidelines in five key areas (screening and assessment, psychosocial interventions, psychopharmacologic treatment, parent engagement, and youth empowerment) related to children's mental health. This paper provides an overview of issues related to the…

  3. The Older Men's Health Program and Screening Inventory: a tool for assessing health practices and beliefs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Loeb, Susan J

    2003-01-01

    Men experience greater health risks, poorer health, and shorter life expectancy than women.(1) However, a systematic literature review revealed no measure to assess the health practices and beliefs of elderly men. In response, the Older Men's Health Program and Screening Inventory (OMHPSI) was developed. Nursing practice experience and a review of literature informed instrument development. Subsequent to an expert panel survey and pilot-testing, the OMHPSI was completed by 135 community-dwelling older men and found to be an informative baseline assessment tool congruent with the Healthy People 2010 goal of increasing elders' participation in organized health promotion activities.(2) Furthermore, several statistically significant correlations were found between items on the OMHPSI and demographic variables. Of particular note, the younger participants in this study experienced more barriers to health-promoting behaviors (P healthy lifestyles (P older counterparts.

  4. A National Survey of Mental Health Screening and Assessment Practices in Juvenile Correctional Facilities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Swank, Jacqueline M.; Gagnon, Joseph C.

    2017-01-01

    Background: Mental health screening and assessment is crucial within juvenile correctional facilities (JC). However, limited information is available about the current screening and assessment procedures specifically within JC. Objective: The purpose of the current study was to obtain information about the mental health screening and assessment…

  5. Screen Practice in Curating

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Toft, Tanya Søndergaard

    2014-01-01

    for digital art to expand into public space. It also offered a political point of departure, inviting for confrontation with the Spectacle and with the politics and ideology of the screen as a mass communication medium that instrumentalized spectator positions. In this article I propose that screen practice...

  6. An In-Depth Survey of the Screening and Assessment Practices of Highly Regarded Adolescent Substance Abuse Treatment Programs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gans, Jeremy; Falco, Mathea; Schackman, Bruce R.; Winters, Ken C.

    2010-01-01

    Aims: To examine the quality of screening and assessment practices at some of the most highly regarded adolescent substance use treatment programs in the United States. Methods: Between March and September 2005, telephone surveys were administered to directors of highly regarded programs. Several different publications and databases were then used…

  7. [Routine screening for CMV during pregnancy: practices assessment in Île-de-France].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seror, J; Bordes, P; Luton, D

    2013-10-01

    Congenital infection with cytomegalovirus (CMV) is the leading cause of materno-fetal viral infection in industrialized countries. It covers up to 1% of neonates with risk of sequelae. The recommendations of the National agency for accreditation and evaluation in health from 2004 does not support routine screening for CMV during pregnancy. Some maternity hospitals still practice this screening and the purpose of this work is to present an overview of this practice in Île-de-France. We present a descriptive cross-sectional survey among 99 maternity hospitals of Île-de-France between July 30, 2011 to January 15, 2012. Data were collected using a questionnaire in most cases during a telephone interview. Ninety-one questionnaires were collected. The primary endpoint was the achievement or otherwise of this screening. Of the 91 maternity hospitals surveyed, 13 (14.3%) still were conducting this screening in 2012. This practice was a minority and unrelated to the status (public/private), obstetric-pediatric type or activity. According to recent literature data, this diagnosis should be proposed only in case clinical or ultrasound signs. Screening could be included as part of research protocol for a better understanding of this pathology. It is not recommended in France and pending the development of an effective vaccine, informing pregnant women about preventive measures appear to be the most effective measure. This will involve a wide dissemination of recommendations to general practitioners in first line in support of women in early pregnancy. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  8. A pan-Canadian practice guideline and algorithm: screening, assessment, and supportive care of adults with cancer-related fatigue.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Howell, D; Keller-Olaman, S; Oliver, T K; Hack, T F; Broadfield, L; Biggs, K; Chung, J; Gravelle, D; Green, E; Hamel, M; Harth, T; Johnston, P; McLeod, D; Swinton, N; Syme, A; Olson, K

    2013-06-01

    The purpose of the present systematic review was to develop a practice guideline to inform health care providers about screening, assessment, and effective management of cancer-related fatigue (crf) in adults. The internationally endorsed adapte methodology was used to develop a practice guideline for pan-Canadian use. A systematic search of the literature identified a broad range of evidence: clinical practice guidelines, systematic reviews, and other guidance documents on the screening, assessment, and management of crf. The search included medline, embase, cinahl, the Cochrane Library, and other guideline and data sources to December 2009. Two clinical practice guidelines were identified for adaptation. Seven guidance documents and four systematic reviews also provided supplementary evidence to inform guideline recommendations. Health professionals across Canada provided expert feedback on the adapted recommendations in the practice guideline and algorithm through a participatory external review process. Practice guidelines can facilitate the adoption of evidence-based assessment and interventions for adult cancer patients experiencing fatigue. Development of an algorithm to guide decision-making in practice may also foster the uptake of a guideline into routine care.

  9. Assessment of screening practices for gestational hyperglycaemia in public health facilities: a descriptive study in bangalore, India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Babu, Giridhara R; Tejaswi, B; Kalavathi, M; Vatsala, G M; Murthy, G V S; Kinra, Sanjay; Neelon, Sara E Benjamin

    2015-02-20

    Screening and timely treatment of gestational hyperglycaemia (GH) is proved to be beneficial and improves maternal and foetal health outcomes. To understand screening practices, we explored the knowledge and perceptions of doctors working in public health facilities in Bangalore, India. We also studied participation factors by examining whether undergoing glucose estimation tests affects morning sickness in pregnant women. We aimed to understand the screening practices and knowledge of doctors. A semi-structured questionnaire was self-administered by the 50 participant doctors, selected from the sampling frame comprising of all the doctors working in public health facilities. We included 105 pregnant women for baseline assessment, in whom a well-structured questionnaire was used. We reported that gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM) screening was done in nearly all the health centres (96%). However, only 12% of the doctors could provide all components of GDM diagnosis and management correctly and 46% would diagnose by using a random blood glucose test. A majority (92%) of the doctors had poor knowledge (68%) about the cut-off values of glucose tests. More than 80% of pregnant women experienced some discomfort mostly due to rapid ingestion glucose in short span of time. Our study established that screening for GH is done in most public health facilities. Nonetheless, knowledge of doctors on the glucose tests and their interpretation needs improvement. Re-orientation trainings of the doctors can improve their knowledge and thereby can efficiently screen for GH. Further, adequate planning prior to the tests can aid successful completion of them. Significance for public healthRising burden of hyperglycaemia in pregnancy is a cause for concern and is associated with short and long term deleterious consequences for mother and offspring. Hence, there is an urgent need to explore the screening practices for gestational hyperglycaemia (GH). The current study considers

  10. Developmental screening in family practice

    OpenAIRE

    Portelli, Sarah

    1991-01-01

    Paediatric screening is an important area of medical practice because, in the words of Dr Mary Sheridan, ''There is general agreement that the younger the age at which children with physical, mental, emotional or social disabilities are discovered and fully assessed, the more hopeful is the prognosis for amelioration or complete rehabilitation. " Family Doctors have many paediatric consultations, and they know the parents and therefore the family and social background, so they are in a good p...

  11. Assessment of screening practices for gestational hyperglycaemia in public health facilities: a descriptive study in Bangalore, India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Giridhara R. Babu

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Background. Screening and timely treatment of gestational hyperglycaemia (GH is proved to be beneficial and improves maternal and foetal health outcomes. To understand screening practices, we explored the knowledge and perceptions of doctors working in public health facilities in Bangalore, India. We also studied participation factors by examining whether undergoing glucose estimation tests affects morning sickness in pregnant women. Design and Methods. We aimed to understand the screening practices and knowledge of doctors. A semi-structured questionnaire was self-administered by the 50 participant doctors, selected from the sampling frame comprising of all the doctors working in public health facilities. We included 105 pregnant women for baseline assessment, in whom a well-structured questionnaire was used. Results. We reported that gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM screening was done in nearly all the health centres (96%. However, only 12% of the doctors could provide all components of GDM diagnosis and management correctly and 46% would diagnose by using a random blood glucose test. A majority (92% of the doctors had poor knowledge (68% about the cut-off values of glucose tests. More than 80% of pregnant women experienced some discomfort mostly due to rapid ingestion glucose in short span of time. Conclusions. Our study established that screening for GH is done in most public health facilities. Nonetheless, knowledge of doctors on the glucose tests and their interpretation needs improvement. Re-orientation trainings of the doctors can improve their knowledge and thereby can efficiently screen for GH. Further, adequate planning prior to the tests can aid successful completion of them.

  12. Psychosocial Screening and Assessment Practice within Cardiac Rehabilitation: A Survey of Cardiac Rehabilitation Coordinators in Australia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jackson, Alun C; Le Grande, Michael R; Higgins, Rosemary O; Rogerson, Michelle; Murphy, Barbara M

    2017-01-01

    Many cardiac rehabilitation (CR) guidelines and position statements recommend screening for psychosocial risk factors, although there is wide variation in the recommended factors and recommended screening tools. Little is known about screening in CR in Australia. Cardiac rehabilitation coordinators at the 314 CR programs operating across Australia, drawn from the 2014 Australian Directory of Cardiac Rehabilitation Services were invited to participate in an online survey. Of 165 complete responses, 157 (95%) CR coordinators indicated that they screened at entry with 132 (80%) screening on exit. At CR entry, programs screened for - depression (83%), anxiety (75%), stress (75%), and sleep disturbance (57%). The use of standardised instruments by those screening at entry varied from 89% for depression to only 9% for sleep disturbance. Organisational, resource and personal barriers inhibited the routine screening for many psychosocial factors. Surveys such as this are useful for monitoring the rate of adoption of guideline recommendations and identifying barriers to implementation. Findings can also inform discussions about what should be included in minimum data sets for CR programs, and the identification of brief screening tools that have been validated not just in the general population but in cardiac patients. Copyright © 2016 Australian and New Zealand Society of Cardiac and Thoracic Surgeons (ANZSCTS) and the Cardiac Society of Australia and New Zealand (CSANZ). Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  13. Geriatric assessment in general practice using a screening instrument: is it worth the effort? Results of a South Tyrol Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Piccoliori, Giuliano; Gerolimon, Elena; Abholz, Heinz-Harald

    2008-11-01

    geriatric assessment is a well-established instrument to improve the care of the elderly, but little is known about it in general practice although patients often are known for years. we used STEP-assessment, an instrument developed by European General Practitioners (GPs), which identifies only problems that can be improved; 37 questions had to be answered by the patient and 4 tests had to be done by the GP. Additionally in the study, GP and patient had to indicate separately which of the problems were seen as relevant and what both accepted to do for improvement. A year later, participating GPs were asked by a not-announced questionnaire to report on improvements and reasons for failure. of the 220 eligible GPs, 45 enrolled a random sample of 894 patients (average age 77 years). In all 7.8 out of 32 possible problems per patient were found. Of those, 1.4 problems were not known to the GP. More than two-thirds of the 'new problems' are perceived as relevant by GP, patient or by both. GPs assessed medical problems and patients assessed social/psychological problems as more relevant. The length and quality of the relationship with the patient was reflected in the number of new problems, with fewer new problems in those well-known. A year later, GPs had offered treatment for 47% of the newly diagnosed problems, with a success-rate of 81%. geriatric screening can detect unidentified problems in general practice. Once detected and dealt with, a high proportion of the undetected problems showed improvement. GPs focussed more on medical, while patients more on psychosocial issues. To increase the outcome of screening, it is necessary to discuss the relevance assessed by the patient.

  14. An assessment of the utility of unselected coagulation screening in general hospital practice.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    McHugh, Johnny

    2011-03-01

    Coagulation screening using prothrombin time (PT) and activated partial thromboplastin time (APTT) is widely used. We performed an audit of coagulation screening in an Irish teaching hospital. We analysed PT and\\/or APTT results received during normal working hours during a 1-week period in our hospital. Abnormal results due to anticoagulants were excluded from further study. In samples with PT longer than 15.5 s and\\/or APTT longer than 42 s, we proceeded to 1: 1 mixing studies if the PT was prolonged and 1: 1 mixing studies, factor XII assay and lupus screen if the APTT was prolonged. We also obtained referral source for all samples and clinical details for abnormal samples. Six hundred and seventy-one coagulation requests were received during the study period. Three hundred and eighteen of 671 (47.4%) coagulation requests were for monitoring of anticoagulation. Three hundred and fifty-three of 671 (52.6%) requests were for coagulation screening rather than anticoagulant monitoring. In the coagulation screens received, PT was prolonged in 19 of 353 (5.4%). PT was longer than 20 s in four of 353 cases (1.1%). APTT was prolonged in 19 of 353 (5.4%). APTT was longer than 50 s in four of 353 (1.1%). No patients with abnormal PT or APTT had any bleeding sequelae during the study period. Unregulated coagulation screening has a low yield of abnormal results; the majority of these abnormal results show mild prolongation of PT or APTT with no evidence that they are associated with an increased bleeding risk.

  15. Linking Child Welfare and Mental Health Using Trauma-Informed Screening and Assessment Practices

    Science.gov (United States)

    Conradi, Lisa; Wherry, Jeffrey; Kisiel, Cassandra

    2011-01-01

    An abundance of research suggests that children in the child welfare system (CWS) have experienced numerous traumatic events and are exhibiting traumatic stress symptoms. Therefore, it is critical that the CWS work closely with the mental health system to ensure that these children receive the appropriate trauma screening, trauma-focused…

  16. [Nutritional Screening and Assessment in Hospitalized Patients].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Seong Eun

    2015-06-01

    Nutritional screening and assessment in patients with malnutrition is the critical first step for nutritional care. Although nutritional assessment is a rigorous process that includes obtaining diet and medical history, current clinical status, physical examination, anthropometric data, laboratory data, and often functional and economic information, it is a very effective and worthy practice in terms of reducing various complications, morbidity, mortality and total medical costs. Systematic approaches with appropriate tools for nutritional screening and assessment are needed based on the clinical situations in each institute.

  17. Knowledge of breast cancer screening methods and the practice of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Mammography still remains the best method for breast cancer screening. Objective: To assess the knowledge of female nursing students in a tertiary health institution on the screening methods for breast cancer as well as their practice of breast self-examination. Design: A descriptive cross-sectional study. Setting: School of ...

  18. Stress and practical assessments

    OpenAIRE

    Clarke, Neil D.; Gardiner, Nick

    2010-01-01

    This paper explores the role of stress in practical assessments, which have long been used in an academic Sports Science and Sports Therapy setting. Practical exams have the potential to assess many aspects of both theory and practice. They are especially important for assessing a student’s competence in performance of a particular skill. In addition, practical exams are designed to recreate the stresses of a clinical environment (Rushforth, 2006). The practical exams for Sports Therapy also ...

  19. Teachers' Classroom Assessment Practices

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frey, Bruce B.; Schmitt, Vicki L.

    2010-01-01

    This study examined classroom assessment practices of 3rd- through 12th-grade teachers in a Midwestern state. In addition to determining the frequency with which specific assessment item formats were utilized, the level of use of selected "best practice" approaches to assessment was considered ("performance-based assessment,…

  20. Assessing the efficacy of cancer screening

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gemma Jacklyn

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Background: Population-based cancer screening has been established for several types of cancer in Australia and internationally. Screening may perform differently in practice from randomised controlled trials, which makes evaluating programs complex. Materials and methods: We discuss how to assess the evidence of benefits and harms of cancer screening, including the main biases that can mislead clinicians and policy makers (such as volunteer, lead-time, length-time and overdiagnosis bias. We also discuss ways in which communication of risks can inform or mislead the community. Results: The evaluation of cancer screening programs should involve balancing the benefits and harms. When considering the overall worth of an intervention and allocation of scarce health resources, decisions should focus on the net benefits and be informed by systematic reviews. Communication of screening outcomes can be misleading. Many messages highlight the benefits while downplaying the harms, and often use relative risks and 5-year survival to persuade people to screen rather than support informed choice. Lessons learned: An evidence based approach is essential when evaluating and communicating the benefits and harms of cancer screening, to minimise misleading biases and the reliance on intuition.

  1. Screening for foot problems in children: is this practice justifiable?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Evans Angela

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Podiatry screening of children is a common practice, which occurs largely without adequate data to support the need for such activity. Such programs may be either formalised, or more ad hoc in nature, depending upon the use of guidelines or existing models. Although often not used, the well-established criteria for assessing the merits of screening programs can greatly increase the understanding as to whether such practices are actually worthwhile. This review examines the purpose of community health screening in the Australian context, as occurs for tuberculosis, breast, cervical and prostate cancers, and then examines podiatry screening practices for children with reference to the criteria of the World Health Organisation (WHO. Topically, the issue of paediatric foot posture forms the focus of this review, as it presents with great frequency to a range of clinicians. Comparison is made with developmental dysplasia of the hip, in which instance the WHO criteria are well met. Considering that the burden of the condition being screened for must be demonstrable, and that early identification must be found to be beneficial, in order to justify a screening program, there is no sound support for either continuing or establishing podiatry screenings for children.

  2. Cervical cancer knowledge and screening practices among women ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background: Cervical cancer remains a major public health challenge in developing countries including Nigeria and contributes signi cantly as a major cause of death among women of reproductive age. This study was conducted to assess knowledge and cervical cancer screening practices among women of reproductive ...

  3. Nutritional assessment and screening for malnutrition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benoist, S; Brouquet, A

    2015-08-01

    Malnutrition can be detected in up to 50% of patients with gastrointestinal cancer. Although malnutrition reflects the severity of cancer, it is important to underline that anticancer treatments including surgery likely increase the severity of malnutrition. Additionally, malnutrition is associated with an increased risk of perioperative morbidity and mortality. Nutritional assessment should be a part of pre-treatment work up of gastrointestinal cancer patients because nutritional support has been shown to limit the negative impact of malnutrition on perioperative outcome. The objective of these practice guidelines is to address the following questions regarding nutritional screening in gastrointestinal cancer patients: who should benefit from nutritional assessment, when nutritional assessment should be proposed, how nutritional assessment should be carried out and why nutritional assessment is indicated. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  4. Vision Screening for Children 36 to <72 Months: Recommended Practices

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cotter, Susan A.; Cyert, Lynn A.; Miller, Joseph M.; Quinn, Graham E.

    2015-01-01

    ABSTRACT Purpose This article provides recommendations for screening children aged 36 to younger than 72 months for eye and visual system disorders. The recommendations were developed by the National Expert Panel to the National Center for Children’s Vision and Eye Health, sponsored by Prevent Blindness, and funded by the Maternal and Child Health Bureau of the Health Resources and Services Administration, United States Department of Health and Human Services. The recommendations describe both best and acceptable practice standards. Targeted vision disorders for screening are primarily amblyopia, strabismus, significant refractive error, and associated risk factors. The recommended screening tests are intended for use by lay screeners, nurses, and other personnel who screen children in educational, community, public health, or primary health care settings. Characteristics of children who should be examined by an optometrist or ophthalmologist rather than undergo vision screening are also described. Results There are two current best practice vision screening methods for children aged 36 to younger than 72 months: (1) monocular visual acuity testing using single HOTV letters or LEA Symbols surrounded by crowding bars at a 5-ft (1.5 m) test distance, with the child responding by either matching or naming, or (2) instrument-based testing using the Retinomax autorefractor or the SureSight Vision Screener with the Vision in Preschoolers Study data software installed (version 2.24 or 2.25 set to minus cylinder form). Using the Plusoptix Photoscreener is acceptable practice, as is adding stereoacuity testing using the PASS (Preschool Assessment of Stereopsis with a Smile) stereotest as a supplemental procedure to visual acuity testing or autorefraction. Conclusions The National Expert Panel recommends that children aged 36 to younger than 72 months be screened annually (best practice) or at least once (accepted minimum standard) using one of the best practice approaches

  5. Metabolic bone disease screening practices among U.S. neonatologists.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kelly, Andrea; Kovatch, Kevin J; Garber, Samuel J

    2014-10-01

    Preterm, low-birth-weight neonates are predisposed to metabolic bone disease (MBD). This survey aimed to assess screening, diagnostic, and treatment practices in U.S. level IIIB/IIIC neonatal intensive care units (NICUs). A 29-question anonymous online survey was e-mailed to American Academy of Pediatrics Perinatal Section members. 338 neonatologists, representing 246 IIIB/IIIC NICUs, responded. 86% reported MBD screening. Screening was primarily based on gestational age (71%), with thresholds diagnosis was based on elevated alkaline phosphatase, most commonly >500 U/L (58.6%). 52% used X-ray for diagnosis. Treatment included human milk fortification (83%), vitamin D (67%), calcium (65%), and phosphorus (65%) supplementation. Our survey confirms widespread awareness of MBD but highlights lack of consensus regarding definition, screening, and treatment. Further research is needed to develop and optimize strategies to prevent, recognize, and manage MBD. © The Author(s) 2014.

  6. Improving population-based cervical cancer screening in general practice : effects of a national strategy

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hermens, R P; Hak, E; Hulscher, M E; Mulder, J; Tacken, M A; Braspenning, J C; Grol, R P

    OBJECTIVE: To assess the effects of a Dutch national prevention programme, aimed at general practitioners (GPs), on the adherence to organizational guidelines for effective cervical cancer screening in general practice. To identify the characteristics of general practices determining success.

  7. Pediatricians' weight assessment and obesity management practices

    OpenAIRE

    Galvan Kate; Walker-Gallego Edward; Fernandez Susan; Golnari Golnaz; Donohue Michael; Huang Jeannie S; Briones Christina; Tamai Jennifer; Becerra Karen

    2009-01-01

    Abstract Background Clinician adherence to obesity screening guidelines from United States health agencies remains suboptimal. This study explored how personal and career demographics influence pediatricians' weight assessment and management practices. Methods A web-based survey was distributed to U.S. pediatricians. Respondents were asked to identify the weight status of photographed children and about their weight assessment and management practices. Associations between career and personal...

  8. Prostate Cancer Screening, Detection and Treatment Practices ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    PSA) were used at similar rates for screening in all locations. Screening is primarily focused in men over age 50 and those with symptoms. Routine screening was the primary reason for screening use in SA, while symptoms were the primary ...

  9. Prostate Cancer Screening, Detection and Treatment Practices ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Routine screening was the primary reason for screening use in SA, while symptoms were the primary reason for screening use in EW. Financial and cultural barriers to screening were more commonly reported in EW than SA. Similar detection approaches were used in all regions, with free PSA and PSA velocity being more ...

  10. Performance Benchmarks for Screening Breast MR Imaging in Community Practice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Janie M; Ichikawa, Laura; Valencia, Elizabeth; Miglioretti, Diana L; Wernli, Karen; Buist, Diana S M; Kerlikowske, Karla; Henderson, Louise M; Sprague, Brian L; Onega, Tracy; Rauscher, Garth H; Lehman, Constance D

    2017-10-01

    Purpose To compare screening magnetic resonance (MR) imaging performance in the Breast Cancer Surveillance Consortium (BCSC) with Breast Imaging Reporting and Data System (BI-RADS) benchmarks. Materials and Methods This study was approved by the institutional review board and compliant with HIPAA and included BCSC screening MR examinations collected between 2005 and 2013 from 5343 women (8387 MR examinations) linked to regional Surveillance, Epidemiology, and End Results program registries, state tumor registries, and pathologic information databases that identified breast cancer cases and tumor characteristics. Clinical, demographic, and imaging characteristics were assessed. Performance measures were calculated according to BI-RADS fifth edition and included cancer detection rate (CDR), positive predictive value of biopsy recommendation (PPV2), sensitivity, and specificity. Results The median patient age was 52 years; 52% of MR examinations were performed in women with a first-degree family history of breast cancer, 46% in women with a personal history of breast cancer, and 15% in women with both risk factors. Screening MR imaging depicted 146 cancers, and 35 interval cancers were identified (181 total-54 in situ, 125 invasive, and two status unknown). The CDR was 17 per 1000 screening examinations (95% confidence interval [CI]: 15, 20 per 1000 screening examinations; BI-RADS benchmark, 20-30 per 1000 screening examinations). PPV2 was 19% (95% CI: 16%, 22%; benchmark, 15%). Sensitivity was 81% (95% CI: 75%, 86%; benchmark, >80%), and specificity was 83% (95% CI: 82%, 84%; benchmark, 85%-90%). The median tumor size of invasive cancers was 10 mm; 88% were node negative. Conclusion The interpretative performance of screening MR imaging in the BCSC meets most BI-RADS benchmarks and approaches benchmark levels for remaining measures. Clinical practice performance data can inform ongoing benchmark development and help identify areas for quality improvement. (©) RSNA

  11. Knowledge, attitude and practice of cervical cancer screening (pap ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Objective: To determine the knowledge and practice of cervical cancer screening among practicing female nurses with a view to sensitizing them as a first step towards increasing screening uptake in the community. Method: A self administered questionnaire survey of all the female nurses working in Nnamdi Azikiwe ...

  12. Knowledge, attitude and practice of cervical cancer screening (Pap ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    “ABSTRACT. Objective: To determine the knowledge and practice of cervical cancer screening among practicing female nurses with a view to sensitizing them as a first step towards increasing screening uptake in the community. Method: A self administered questionnaire survey of all the female nurses working in Nnamdi ...

  13. Knowledge, attitude and practice of cervical cancer screening

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    'i§?i"ABsTRAcT. Objective: To determine the knowledge and practice of cervical cancer screening among practicing female nurses with a view to sensitizing them as a first step towards increasing screening uptake in the community. Method: A self administered questionnaire survey of all the female nurses working in ...

  14. Poor symptomatic tuberculosis screening practices in a quarter of health centres in Amhara Region, Ethiopia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gebregergs, G B; Alemneh, M; Koye, D N; Kassie, Y; Assefa, M; Ayalew, W; Temesgen, C; Klinkenberg, E; Tadesse, T

    2014-12-21

    In 2011, Ethiopia introduced a strategy of symptomatic tuberculosis (TB) screening for patients attending out-patient services to increase identification of presumptive TB. To assess implementation and factors affecting symptomatic TB screening at out-patient departments in health centres in the Amhara Region, Ethiopia. Using a cross-sectional study design, 86 randomly selected public health centres providing DOTS were included in the study. Data were captured by reviewing TB registers and interviewing key informants at out-patient services. Of 86 health centres, 24 (28%) had poor symptomatic TB screening practices, defined as screening therapy was negatively associated. In all health centres combined, 1.6% of out-patient department attendees were identified as having presumptive TB. A quarter of health centres had poor symptomatic TB screening practices in the out-patient services in this study. Strengthening multidisciplinary teams and expanding partner support are recommended to improve TB screening practices at out-patient services in Ethiopia.

  15. Knowledge, attitudes and practice toward cervical cancer screening among Sikkimese nursing staff in India

    OpenAIRE

    Rahman, Hafizur; Kar, Sumit

    2015-01-01

    Objectives: To assess baseline knowledge of cancer cervix, screening and practice of Pap smear screening among Sikkimese staff nurses in India. Materials and Methods: Between April 2012 and February 2013, a predesigned, pretested, self -administered multiple responses questionnaire survey was conducted among staff nurses′ working in various hospitals of Sikkim. Questionnaire contained information about their demographics, knowledge of cervical cancer, its risk factors, screening methods, atti...

  16. Evaluating developmental screening in clinical practice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peter Dawson

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To demonstrate a method of evaluating accuracy of developmental screening modeled on the evidence-based medical literature. Method: A retrospective review was performed on 418 children screened with the Denver II by a trained technician. Two models for analyzing screening data were examined, using predictive values and likelihood ratios (LR+ and LR−. Results: The technician, working at 20% time, screened 44% of eligible children. There were 129/418 (31% children with Suspect Denver II results, 115/418 who were referred, 81/115 (70% who were evaluated by Early Intervention, and 64/81 (79% who qualified for services. The uncorrected positive predictive value for the Denver II alone (44% was insufficient to meet the preset standard of 60%, but the LR+ of 4.16 indicated a significant contribution of test information to improving predictive value. Combining test results with information from the parent–technician conference to achieve a referral decision resulted in an uncorrected predictive value of 56%, which rose with correction for children referred but not evaluated to 72% (LR+ 10.33. Negative predictive values and likelihood ratios of a negative test and a non-referral decision achieved recommended levels. Parents who expressed concern were significantly more likely to complete recommended evaluation than those who did not (82% vs 58%, p < .01. Results were in the same range as in published studies with other screening tests but showed three areas for improvement: screening more children, more carefully supervising some referral decisions, and getting more children to evaluation. Conclusion: Levels of predictive accuracy above 60% can be obtained by combining different types of information about development to make decisions about referral for more complete evaluation. Systematic study of such combinations could lead to improved predictive accuracy of screening programs and support attempts to close the gap between referral

  17. Pediatricians' weight assessment and obesity management practices

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Galvan Kate

    2009-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Clinician adherence to obesity screening guidelines from United States health agencies remains suboptimal. This study explored how personal and career demographics influence pediatricians' weight assessment and management practices. Methods A web-based survey was distributed to U.S. pediatricians. Respondents were asked to identify the weight status of photographed children and about their weight assessment and management practices. Associations between career and personal demographic variables and pediatricians' weight perceptions, weight assessment and management practices were evaluated using univariate and multivariate modeling. Results 3,633 pediatric medical providers correctly identified the weight status of children at a median rate of 58%. The majority of pediatric clinicians were white, female, and of normal weight status with more than 10 years clinical experience. Experienced pediatric medical providers were less likely than younger colleagues to correctly identify the weight status of pictured children and were also less likely to know and use BMI criteria for assessing weight status. General pediatricians were more likely than subspecialty practitioners to provide diverse interventions for weight management. Non-white and Hispanic general practitioners were more likely than counterparts to consider cultural approaches to weight management. Conclusion Pediatricians' perceptions of children's weight and their weight assessment and management practices are influenced by career and personal characteristics. Objective criteria and clinical guidelines should be uniformly applied by pediatricians to screen for and manage pediatric obesity.

  18. Screening for type 2 diabetes in general practice

    OpenAIRE

    Janssen, P.G.H.

    2008-01-01

    The presented studies were conducted within the framework of the international ADDITION study (Anglo-Danish-Dutch Study of Intensive Treatment in People with Screen-Detected Diabetes in Primary Care), a randomised controlled trial in 3,057 screen-detected type 2 diabetic patients. The aim of ADDITION is to evaluate whether screening for type 2 diabetes in general practice is feasible and subsequent intensified, multifactorial treatment beneficial. Intensified treatment consisted of pharmacolo...

  19. Screening for major depression in private practice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bernstein, Ira H; Wendt, Burdette; Nasr, Suhayl J; Rush, A John

    2009-03-01

    Several studies have compared the 16-item self-report version of the Quick Inventory of Depressive Symptomatology (QIDS-SR16) with other depression scales, but none has used a sample of patients from a single, large, private psychiatric practice. This study compared ratings from 175 outpatients on the QIDS-SR16, the 17-item Carroll Depression Rating Scale (CDRS-SR17, a self-report modification of the Hamilton Rating Scale for Depression), and the thirteen depression items from the Symptom Check List-90 (SCL-D13). The Mini version of the Structured Clinical Interview for DSM-IV (MiniSCID) served as a "gold standard" for assessing depression. Basic item and scale statistics were obtained using classical test theory. Dimensionalities were obtained using factor analysis. Test information functions obtained from the Samejima item response theory model provided additional reliability-like results. This model was also used to compare patients classified as depressed versus nondepressed on the basis of the MiniSCID. Additional validity information was assessed comparing: (a) ANOVA effect sizes, (b) receiver operating characteristic curves, (c) univariate logistic regression, (d) the MANOVA, and (e) multivariate logistic regression. The QIDS-SR16 was found to be related most strongly to the MiniSCID diagnoses. The SCL-D13, however, was the most reliable of the three scales (alpha=0.91). It was the most sensitive to differences in depression for all but the most depressed patients, for whom the CDRS-SR17 was the most sensitive. The QIDS-SR16 was the most valid based on four different analyses (effect size/ANOVA, univariate logistic regression/ROC analysis, MANOVA, and multivariate logistic regression), although only slightly more so. The QIDS-SR16 was found to be unidimensional; its items cover only the nine diagnostic symptom domains used to characterize a DSM-IV-TR major depressive episode. All three measures performed satisfactorily, but there are clearly defined

  20. Practical Privacy Assessment

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Peen, Søren; Jansen, Thejs Willem; Jensen, Christian D.

    2008-01-01

    This chapter proposes a privacy assessment model called the Operational Privacy Assessment Model that includes organizational, operational and technical factors for the protection of personal data stored in an IT system. The factors can be evaluated in a simple scale so that not only the resulting...... graphical depiction can be easily created for an IT system, but graphical comparisons across multiple IT systems are also possible. Examples of factors presented in a Kiviat graph are also presented. This assessment tool may be used to standardize privacy assessment criteria, making it less painful...... for the management to assess privacy risks on their systems....

  1. Breast and Cervical Cancers Awareness and Screening Practices ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Only 4/11(36.4%) of those who knew something about cervical cancer mentioned vaginal examination for cervical cancer screening and only one (0.1%) respondent mentioned Pap smear. The poor level of awareness and screening practices for breast and cervical cancers among women in these rural communities ...

  2. Crystallization screening: the influence of history on current practice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luft, Joseph R; Newman, Janet; Snell, Edward H

    2014-07-01

    While crystallization historically predates crystallography, it is a critical step for the crystallographic process. The rich history of crystallization and how that history influences current practices is described. The tremendous impact of crystallization screens on the field is discussed.

  3. ASSESSMENT MANAGEMENT PRACTICES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marysther García

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this article is to evaluate some management practices as tools for organizational learning. The methodological strategy used was descriptive, documentary and field research unit taking as a firm of auditors of Carabobo state. This allowed to determine as current management practices appear within this type of organization and how they affect their survival over time, indicating that strategies that make the managerial model alone do not ensure the success of the organization but is necessary for them to be creative and dynamic to adjust to new realities, for which they need to be aware of the need for continuous learning.

  4. English Teachers Classroom Assessment Practices

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saefurrohman; Balinas, Elvira S.

    2016-01-01

    The new language assessment policies in the Philippines and in Indonesia have impact on English teachers' assessment practices. Classroom assessment; as mandated in the current curriculum of both countries swifts from sources of information to the inseparable process of teaching and learning. This study describes Filipino and Indonesian high…

  5. A Screening Method for Assessing Cumulative Impacts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joan Denton

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available The California Environmental Protection Agency (Cal/EPA Environmental Justice Action Plan calls for guidelines for evaluating “cumulative impacts.” As a first step toward such guidelines, a screening methodology for assessing cumulative impacts in communities was developed. The method, presented here, is based on the working definition of cumulative impacts adopted by Cal/EPA [1]: “Cumulative impacts means exposures, public health or environmental effects from the combined emissions and discharges in a geographic area, including environmental pollution from all sources, whether single or multi-media, routinely, accidentally, or otherwise released. Impacts will take into account sensitive populations and socio-economic factors, where applicable and to the extent data are available.” The screening methodology is built on this definition as well as current scientific understanding of environmental pollution and its adverse impacts on health, including the influence of both intrinsic, biological factors and non-intrinsic socioeconomic factors in mediating the effects of pollutant exposures. It addresses disparities in the distribution of pollution and health outcomes. The methodology provides a science-based tool to screen places for relative cumulative impacts, incorporating both the pollution burden on a community- including exposures to pollutants, their public health and environmental effects- and community characteristics, specifically sensitivity and socioeconomic factors. The screening methodology provides relative rankings to distinguish more highly impacted communities from less impacted ones. It may also help identify which factors are the greatest contributors to a community’s cumulative impact. It is not designed to provide quantitative estimates of community-level health impacts. A pilot screening analysis is presented here to illustrate the application of this methodology. Once guidelines are adopted, the methodology can

  6. A screening method for assessing cumulative impacts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alexeeff, George V; Faust, John B; August, Laura Meehan; Milanes, Carmen; Randles, Karen; Zeise, Lauren; Denton, Joan

    2012-02-01

    The California Environmental Protection Agency (Cal/EPA) Environmental Justice Action Plan calls for guidelines for evaluating "cumulative impacts." As a first step toward such guidelines, a screening methodology for assessing cumulative impacts in communities was developed. The method, presented here, is based on the working definition of cumulative impacts adopted by Cal/EPA: "Cumulative impacts means exposures, public health or environmental effects from the combined emissions and discharges in a geographic area, including environmental pollution from all sources, whether single or multi-media, routinely, accidentally, or otherwise released. Impacts will take into account sensitive populations and socio-economic factors, where applicable and to the extent data are available." The screening methodology is built on this definition as well as current scientific understanding of environmental pollution and its adverse impacts on health, including the influence of both intrinsic, biological factors and non-intrinsic socioeconomic factors in mediating the effects of pollutant exposures. It addresses disparities in the distribution of pollution and health outcomes. The methodology provides a science-based tool to screen places for relative cumulative impacts, incorporating both the pollution burden on a community- including exposures to pollutants, their public health and environmental effects- and community characteristics, specifically sensitivity and socioeconomic factors. The screening methodology provides relative rankings to distinguish more highly impacted communities from less impacted ones. It may also help identify which factors are the greatest contributors to a community's cumulative impact. It is not designed to provide quantitative estimates of community-level health impacts. A pilot screening analysis is presented here to illustrate the application of this methodology. Once guidelines are adopted, the methodology can serve as a screening tool to help Cal

  7. Standardized assessment of infrared thermographic fever screening system performance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghassemi, Pejhman; Pfefer, Joshua; Casamento, Jon; Wang, Quanzeng

    2017-03-01

    Thermal modalities represent the only currently viable mass fever screening approach for outbreaks of infectious disease pandemics such as Ebola and SARS. Non-contact infrared thermometers (NCITs) and infrared thermographs (IRTs) have been previously used for mass fever screening in transportation hubs such as airports to reduce the spread of disease. While NCITs remain a more popular choice for fever screening in the field and at fixed locations, there has been increasing evidence in the literature that IRTs can provide greater accuracy in estimating core body temperature if appropriate measurement practices are applied - including the use of technically suitable thermographs. Therefore, the purpose of this study was to develop a battery of evaluation test methods for standardized, objective and quantitative assessment of thermograph performance characteristics critical to assessing suitability for clinical use. These factors include stability, drift, uniformity, minimum resolvable temperature difference, and accuracy. Two commercial IRT models were characterized. An external temperature reference source with high temperature accuracy was utilized as part of the screening thermograph. Results showed that both IRTs are relatively accurate and stable (<1% error of reading with stability of +/-0.05°C). Overall, results of this study may facilitate development of standardized consensus test methods to enable consistent and accurate use of IRTs for fever screening.

  8. A historical and practical review of first trimester aneuploidy screening.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Russo, Melissa L; Blakemore, Karin J

    2014-06-01

    There have been tremendous advancements over the past three decades in prenatal screening for aneuploidy and we have changed our practice from screening by maternal age alone to 'combined' first trimester screening and circulating cell-free fetal DNA. We currently use the nuchal translucency and biochemical markers of free β-hCG and PAPP-A to determine the risk of fetal aneuploidy. The primary goal is to identify higher risk women for fetal aneuploidy early in pregnancy and give them the option to pursue invasive testing in a timely manner if desired. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Perceptual Quality Assessment of Screen Content Images.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Huan; Fang, Yuming; Lin, Weisi

    2015-11-01

    Research on screen content images (SCIs) becomes important as they are increasingly used in multi-device communication applications. In this paper, we present a study on perceptual quality assessment of distorted SCIs subjectively and objectively. We construct a large-scale screen image quality assessment database (SIQAD) consisting of 20 source and 980 distorted SCIs. In order to get the subjective quality scores and investigate, which part (text or picture) contributes more to the overall visual quality, the single stimulus methodology with 11 point numerical scale is employed to obtain three kinds of subjective scores corresponding to the entire, textual, and pictorial regions, respectively. According to the analysis of subjective data, we propose a weighting strategy to account for the correlation among these three kinds of subjective scores. Furthermore, we design an objective metric to measure the visual quality of distorted SCIs by considering the visual difference of textual and pictorial regions. The experimental results demonstrate that the proposed SCI perceptual quality assessment scheme, consisting of the objective metric and the weighting strategy, can achieve better performance than 11 state-of-the-art IQA methods. To the best of our knowledge, the SIQAD is the first large-scale database published for quality evaluation of SCIs, and this research is the first attempt to explore the perceptual quality assessment of distorted SCIs.

  10. Mental health screening of adolescents in pediatric practice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Husky, Mathilde M; Miller, Kathleen; McGuire, Leslie; Flynn, Laurie; Olfson, Mark

    2011-04-01

    This study examines routine computerized mental health screening for adolescents scheduled for a routine physical examination in a group pediatric practice. Medical records of adolescents aged 13 to 17 who were offered screening (n = 483) were reviewed. Approximately 44.7% (95% confidence interval (CI) 40.3-49.2) were screened, and 13.9% (95% CI 9.3-18.5) were identified as being at risk. Screening was associated with significantly increased odds of receiving either pediatric mental health care or a referral for specialty mental health care (adjusted odds ratio (AOR): 2.6 95% CI 1.2-5.6). Among patients who received either mental health intervention, those who were screened were significantly more likely to be referred to specialty care (AOR: 15.9 95% CI 2.5-100.4), though they were less likely to receive pediatric mental health care (AOR: 0.10 95% CI 0.02-0.54). The findings support the feasibility of routine mental health screening in pediatric practice. Screening is acceptable to many parents and adolescents, and it is associated with referral for specialized mental health care rather than care from the pediatrician.

  11. Knowledge, Attitudes and Practices Regarding Cervical Cancer and Screening among Haitian Health Care Workers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leilah Zahedi

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available It is estimated that Haiti has the highest incidence of cervical cancer in the Western Hemisphere. There are currently no sustainable and affordable cervical cancer screening programs in Haiti. The current status of screening services and knowledge of health care professionals was assessed through a Knowledge, Attitudes, and Practices survey on cervical cancer screening and prevention. It was distributed to Project Medishare for Haiti health care workers (n = 27 in the Central Plateau. The majority (22/27 of participants stated pre-cancerous cells could be detected through screening, however, only four had ever performed a pap smear. All of the participants felt a screening program should be started in their area. Our data establishes that knowledge is fairly lacking among healthcare workers and there is an opportunity to train them in simple, cost effective “screen-and-treat” programs that could have a great impact on the overall health of the population.

  12. Knowledge, attitudes and practices regarding cervical cancer and screening among Haitian health care workers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zahedi, Leilah; Sizemore, Emma; Malcolm, Stuart; Grossniklaus, Emily; Nwosu, Oguchi

    2014-11-10

    It is estimated that Haiti has the highest incidence of cervical cancer in the Western Hemisphere. There are currently no sustainable and affordable cervical cancer screening programs in Haiti. The current status of screening services and knowledge of health care professionals was assessed through a Knowledge, Attitudes, and Practices survey on cervical cancer screening and prevention. It was distributed to Project Medishare for Haiti health care workers (n = 27) in the Central Plateau. The majority (22/27) of participants stated pre-cancerous cells could be detected through screening, however, only four had ever performed a pap smear. All of the participants felt a screening program should be started in their area. Our data establishes that knowledge is fairly lacking among healthcare workers and there is an opportunity to train them in simple, cost effective "screen-and-treat" programs that could have a great impact on the overall health of the population.

  13. Species for the screening assessment. Columbia River Comprehensive Impact Assessment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Becker, J.M.; Brandt, C.A.; Dauble, D.D.; Maughan, A.D.; O`Neil, T.K.

    1996-03-01

    Because of past nuclear production operations along the Columbia River, there is intense public and tribal interest in assessing any residual Hanford Site related contamination along the river from the Hanford Reach to the Pacific Ocean. The Columbia River Comprehensive Impact Assessment was proposed to address these concerns. The assessment of the Columbia River is being conducted in phases. The initial phase is a screening assessment of the risk, which addresses current environmental conditions for a range of potential uses. One component of the screening assessment estimates the risk from contaminants in the Columbia River to the environment. The objective of the ecological risk assessment is to determine whether contaminants from the Columbia River pose a significant threat to selected receptor species that exist in the river and riparian communities of the study area. This report (1) identifies the receptor species selected for the screening assessment of ecological risk and (2) describes the selection process. The species selection process consisted of two tiers. In Tier 1, a master species list was developed that included many plant and animal species known to occur in the aquatic and riparian systems of the Columbia River between Priest Rapids Dam and the Columbia River estuary. This master list was reduced to 368 species that occur in the study area (Priest Rapids Dam to McNary Dam). In Tier 2, the 181 Tier 1 species were qualitatively ranked based on a scoring of their potential exposure and sensitivity to contaminants using a conceptual exposure model for the study area.

  14. Screening for gastric cancer in Asia: current evidence and practice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leung, Wai K; Wu, Ming-shiang; Kakugawa, Yasuo; Kim, Jae J; Yeoh, Khay-guan; Goh, Khean Lee; Wu, Kai-chun; Wu, Deng-chyang; Sollano, Jose; Kachintorn, Udom; Gotoda, Takuji; Lin, Jaw-town; You, Wei-cheng; Ng, Enders K W; Sung, Joseph J Y

    2008-03-01

    Gastric cancer is the second most common cause of death from cancer in Asia. Although surgery is the standard treatment for this disease, early detection and treatment is the only way to reduce mortality. This Review summarises the epidemiology of gastric cancer, and the evidence for, and current practices of, screening in Asia. Few Asian countries have implemented a national screening programme for gastric cancer; most have adopted opportunistic screening of high-risk individuals only. Although screening by endoscopy seems to be the most accurate method for detection of gastric cancer, the availability of endoscopic instruments and expertise for mass screening remains questionable--even in developed countries such as Japan. Therefore, barium studies or serum-pepsinogen testing are sometimes used as the initial screening tool in some countries, and patients with abnormal results are screened by endoscopy. Despite the strong link between infection with Helicobacter pylori and gastric cancer, more data are needed to define the role of its eradication in the prevention of gastric cancer in Asia. At present, there is a paucity of quality data from Asia to lend support for screening for gastric cancer.

  15. Knowledge, attitude and practice of cervical cancer screening among market women in Zaria, Nigeria

    OpenAIRE

    Saad Aliyu Ahmed; Kabiru Sabitu; Suleiman Hadejia Idris; Rukaiya Ahmed

    2013-01-01

    Background: Cervical cancer is the most common genital cancer and one of the leading causes of death among female population. Fortunately, this cancer is preventable by screening for premalignant lesions but this is rarely provided and hardly utilised. We assessed the knowledge, attitude and utilisation of cervical cancer screening among market women in Sabon Gari, Zaria. Materials and Methods: This was a cross-sectional study to evaluate the knowledge, attitude and practice of cervical cance...

  16. A UK guide to intake fish-screening regulations, policy and best practice with particular reference to hydroelectric power schemes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Turnpenny, A.W.H.; Struthers, G.; Hanson, P.

    1998-07-01

    A review of fish screening regulations in England, Wales, Scotland, and Northern Ireland is presented, and a summary of findings on screening legislation is given. The views of hydroelectric scheme developers, owners and operators are considered, and recommendations including the development of a risk assessment procedure are discussed. Fish screening technology, bypasses and other escape routes, and common fault in screen design and operation are examined, and guidance to Best Practice is given. (UK)

  17. Prostate cancer screening practices in a large, integrated health system: 2007-2014.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Misra-Hebert, Anita D; Hu, Bo; Klein, Eric A; Stephenson, Andrew; Taksler, Glen B; Kattan, Michael W; Rothberg, Michael B

    2017-08-01

    To assess prostate cancer screening practices in primary care since the initial United States Preventive Services Task Force (USPSTF) recommendation against prostate-specific antigen (PSA) testing for older men, and to assess primary provider variation associated with prostate cancer screening. Our study population included 160 211 men aged ≥40 years with at least one visit to a primary care clinic in any of the study years in a large, integrated health system. We conducted a retrospective cohort study using electronic medical record data from January 2007 to December 2014. Yearly rates of screening PSA testing by primary care providers (PCPs), rates of re-screening, and rates of prostate biopsies were assessed. Annual PSA-screening testing declined from 2007 to 2014 in all age groups, as did biennial and quadrennial screening. Yearly rates declined for men aged ≥70 years, from 22.8% to 8.9%; ages 50-69 years, from 39.2% to 20%; and ages 40-49 years, from 11% to 4.6%. Overall rates were lower for African-American (A-A) men vs non-A-A men; for men with a family history of prostate cancer, rates were similar or slightly higher than for those without a family history. PCP variation associated with ordering of PSA testing did not substantially change after the USPSTF recommendations. While the number of men screened and rates of follow-up prostate cancer screening declined in 2011-2014 compared to 2007-2010, similar re-screening rates were noted for men aged 45-75 years with initial PSA levels of 75 years with initial PSA levels of screened in both cohorts, follow-up screening rates were similar. Rates of prostate biopsy declined for men aged ≥70 years in 2014 compared to 2007. For men who had PSA screening, rates of first prostate biopsy increased in later years for A-A men and men with a family history of prostate cancer. Prostate cancer screening declined from 2007 to 2014 even in higher-risk groups and follow-up screening rates were not related to previous

  18. Integration of geriatric mental health screening into a primary care practice: a patient satisfaction survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Samuels, S; Abrams, R; Shengelia, R; Reid, M C; Goralewicz, R; Breckman, R; Anderson, M A; Snow, C E; Woods, E C; Stern, A; Eimicke, J P; Adelman, R D

    2015-05-01

    Colocation of mental health screening, assessment, and treatment in primary care reduces stigma, improves access, and increases coordination of care between mental health and primary care providers. However, little information exists regarding older adults' attitudes about screening for mental health problems in primary care. The objective of this study was to evaluate older primary care patients' acceptance of and satisfaction with screening for depression and anxiety. The study was conducted at an urban, academically affiliated primary care practice serving older adults. Study patients (N = 107) were screened for depression/anxiety and underwent a post-screening survey/interview to assess their reactions to the screening experience. Most patients (88.6%) found the length of the screening to be "just right." A majority found the screening questions somewhat or very acceptable (73.4%) and not at all difficult (81.9%). Most participants did not find the questions stressful (84.9%) or intrusive (91.5%); and a majority were not at all embarrassed (93.4%), upset (93.4%), or uncomfortable (88.8%) during the screening process. When asked about frequency of screening, most patients (72.4%) desired screening for depression/anxiety yearly or more. Of the 79 patients who had spoken with their physicians about mental health during the visit, 89.8% reported that it was easy or very easy to talk with their physicians about depression/anxiety. Multivariate results showed that patients with higher anxiety had a lower positive reaction to the screen when controlling for gender, age, and patient-physician communication. These results demonstrate strong patient support for depression and anxiety screening in primary care. Copyright © 2014 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  19. Knowledge and Practice of Breast Cancer Screening Among ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background: Breast cancer is the most common cancer among African women. Most researchers have attributed the late presentation to poor knowledge of breast cancer symptoms. Objective: This study was designed to evaluate the relationship between knowledge and practice of breast cancer screening in two groups of ...

  20. Knowledge, Attitude and Practice of Cervical Smear as a Screening ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Context: Carcinoma of the cervix is a preventable disease but it remains the most common genital cancer in African women. Objective: To determine the knowledge, attitude and practice of cervical smear as screening procedure for cervical cancer by female health workers in Ilorin, Nigeria. Study Design, Setting and ...

  1. Screening for diabetes mellitus in a Nigerian family practice population

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Alcohol intake, obesity, positive parental history and age over 44 years were the identified risk factors. Peripheral neuropathy, proteinuria and high blood pressure were the identified complications. It is recommended that routine screening of people at high risk of diabetes mellitus in family practice be commenced.

  2. Practices, Beliefs, and Perceived Barriers to Adolescent Human Immunodeficiency Virus Screening in the Emergency Department.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mehta, Avani S; Goyal, Monika K; Dowshen, Nadia; Mistry, Rakesh D

    2015-09-01

    Limited data exist regarding knowledge of and compliance to the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention's universal adolescent human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) screening recommendations. Our objective was to assess current guideline knowledge, practice, and perceived barriers to emergency department (ED)-based adolescent HIV screening. We administered an anonymous Web-based cross-sectional survey from May 1, 2012, to June 30, 2012, to 1073 physicians from the American Academy of Pediatrics Section on Emergency Medicine LISTSERV. Survey participants were included if they (1) practiced as attending-level physicians, (2) practiced primarily in pediatric emergency medicine or general emergency medicine, and (3) provided clinical care for patients younger than the age of 21 years. The survey examined respondent demographics, knowledge, attitudes, beliefs, practices, and barriers to ED-based HIV screening. Standard descriptive statistics and comparative analyses were performed. A total of 220 responses were obtained; 29 responses were excluded and 191 responses were included in the study. Most of the participants were from urban, free-standing children's hospitals and had an annual ED volume of more than 61,000 patient visits. Respondent knowledge of the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention guidelines was low; less than 40% of the respondents identified correct consent requirements. Only 15.4% of the respondents reported screening for HIV more than 10 times for the prior 6 months. Most frequently cited barriers included concerns for privacy (67.4%), follow-up (67%), and cost-effectiveness (65.4%). Human immunodeficiency virus screening facilitators included availability of health educators (83%), established follow-up (74.7%), and rapid HIV tests (65.2%). Emergency department clinicians exhibit poor knowledge of adolescent HIV screening recommendations. Current universal screening practices remain low; barriers to screening are numerous. Future efforts should

  3. Associations between rule-based parenting practices and child screen viewing : a cross-sectional study

    OpenAIRE

    Kesten, Joanna M.; Sebire, Simon J.; Turner, Katrina M; Stewart-Brown, Sarah L.; Bentley, Georgina F.; Jago, Russell

    2015-01-01

    Background:\\ud Child screen viewing (SV) is positively associated with poor health indicators. Interventions addressing rule-based parenting practices may offer an effective means of limiting SV. This study examined associations between rule-based parenting practices (limit and collaborative rule setting) and SV in 6-8-years old children.\\ud \\ud Methods:\\ud An online survey of 735 mothers in 2011 assessed: time that children spent engaged in SV activities; and the use of limit and collaborati...

  4. Cancer Screening Practice among Iranian Middle-aged Women

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Behnaz Enjezab

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Background & aim: Breast, cervical, and colorectal cancers are the leading causes of mortality among women, the incidence rate of which has an upward trend with advancing age. Although cost-effective, easy, and available screening programs can help control these types of cancer in their early stages, it seems that cancer screening programs have not been implemented effectively. In this study, we investigated the rate of cancer screening practice in middle-aged women and explained the influential factors. Methods: This cross-sectional study with a sequential mixed method approach was conducted on 483 middle-age women selected through cluster random sampling in Yazd, Iran. Data were obtained by a research made questionnaire and analyzed with descriptive statistics and performing Pearson product-moment correlation, Student’s t-test, and One-way ANOVA tests, using SPSS version 16. In the second phase of the study, qualitative, semi-structured interviews were performed and data were analyzed through content analysis. Results: The majority of the subjects had never been screened for cancer through mammogram (87.7%, Pap test (64.2%, or fecal occult blood test (FOBT (89.8%. Educational level, employment status, perceived adequacy of income, perceived health status, and the number of children were significantly associated with breast and colon cancer screening practice. Qualitative data showed that lack of knowledge, the cost of screening exams, lack of financial independence, negligence of spouse, fear of cancer, embarrassment, and belief in destiny were the main reasons for non-adherence to cancer screening tests. In addition, knowledge and observing cancer in acquaintances and relatives were the main motivators of cancer screening. Conclusion: Middle-aged housewives, as well as women with low educational level and income were the most vulnerable groups, who did not adhere to cancer screening. Planning and management of cancer preventive programs and

  5. Variability in Institutional Screening Practices Related to Collegiate Student-Athlete Mental Health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kroshus, Emily

    2016-05-01

    Universal screening for mental health concerns, as part of the preparticipation examination in collegiate sports medicine settings, can be an important and feasible strategy for facilitating early detection of mental health disorders. To assess whether sports medicine departments at National Collegiate Athletic Association (NCAA) member colleges have policies related to identifying student-athlete mental health problems, the nature of preparticipation examination screening related to mental health, and whether other departmental or institutional screening initiatives are in place. I also aimed to characterize the variability in screening by institutional characteristics. Cross-sectional study. College sports medicine departments. Team physicians and head athletic trainers at NCAA member colleges (n = 365, 30.3% response rate). Electronic survey of departmental mental health screening activities. A total of 39% of respondents indicated that their institution had a written plan related to identifying student-athletes with mental health concerns. Fewer than half reported that their sports medicine department administers a written or verbal screening instrument for symptoms of disordered eating (44.5%), depression (32.3%), or anxiety (30.7%). The strongest predictors of mental health screening were the presence of a written plan related to identifying student-athlete mental health concerns and the employment of a clinical psychologist. Additionally, Division I institutions and institutions with a greater ratio of athletic trainers to student-athletes tended to engage in more screening. The substantial among-institutions variability in mental health screening suggests that opportunities exist to make these practices more widespread. To address this variability, recent NCAA mental health best-practice guidelines suggested that institutions should screen for a range of mental health disorders and risk behaviors. However, at some institutions, staffing deficits may need to

  6. Variability in Institutional Screening Practices Related to Collegiate Student-Athlete Mental Health

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kroshus, Emily

    2016-01-01

    Context:  Universal screening for mental health concerns, as part of the preparticipation examination in collegiate sports medicine settings, can be an important and feasible strategy for facilitating early detection of mental health disorders. Objective:  To assess whether sports medicine departments at National Collegiate Athletic Association (NCAA) member colleges have policies related to identifying student-athlete mental health problems, the nature of preparticipation examination screening related to mental health, and whether other departmental or institutional screening initiatives are in place. I also aimed to characterize the variability in screening by institutional characteristics. Design:  Cross-sectional study. Setting:  College sports medicine departments. Patients or Other Participants:  Team physicians and head athletic trainers at NCAA member colleges (n = 365, 30.3% response rate). Main Outcome Measure(s):  Electronic survey of departmental mental health screening activities. Results:  A total of 39% of respondents indicated that their institution had a written plan related to identifying student-athletes with mental health concerns. Fewer than half reported that their sports medicine department administers a written or verbal screening instrument for symptoms of disordered eating (44.5%), depression (32.3%), or anxiety (30.7%). The strongest predictors of mental health screening were the presence of a written plan related to identifying student-athlete mental health concerns and the employment of a clinical psychologist. Additionally, Division I institutions and institutions with a greater ratio of athletic trainers to student-athletes tended to engage in more screening. Conclusions:  The substantial among-institutions variability in mental health screening suggests that opportunities exist to make these practices more widespread. To address this variability, recent NCAA mental health best-practice guidelines suggested that

  7. Construction of an Occupational Therapy Screenings Assessment for elderly medical patients

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Holsbæk, Jonas

    there for demands a validated Occupational Therapy Screening Assessment, that fast and easy can tell if more Occupational Therapy is needed. Aim: The aim of the study is to develop a Screening Assessment which can be used in the Occupational Therapist practice screening Hospitalized Elderly medical inpatients......Background: Occupational Therapist working with Elderly Medical inpatients at hospitals in Denmark, are under pressure due to an increasing patients, demands for validated interventions and best practice and economically effectually solutions at the same time. Occupational Therapists in Denmark...... by means of the Content Validity Index (CVI) – Questionaire. Result: The result was a Screening Assessment and a Manual, which was built up using ICF and the ADL-Taxonomy as References. The Screening Instrument should be a support for the working Occupational Therapist in their Clinical Reasoning. CVI...

  8. Efficacy of an educational material on second primary cancer screening practice for cancer survivors: a randomized controlled trial.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dong Wook Shin

    Full Text Available Cancer surivors have limited knowledge about second primary cancer (SPC screening and suboptimal rates of completion of screening practices for SPC. Our objective was to test the efficacy of an educational material on the knowledge, attitudes, and screening practices for SPC among cancer survivors.Randomized, controlled trial among 326 cancer survivors from 6 oncology care outpatient clinics in Korea. Patients were randomized to an intervention or an attention control group. The intervention was a photo-novel, culturally tailored to increase knowledge about SPC screening. Knowledge and attitudes regarding SPC screening were assessed two weeks after the intervention, and screening practices were assessed after one year.At two weeks post-intervention, the average knowledge score was significantly higher in the intervention compared to the control group (0.81 vs. 0.75, P<0.01, with no significant difference in their attitude scores (2.64 vs. 2.57, P = 0.18. After 1 year of follow-up, the completion rate of all appropriate cancer screening was 47.2% in both intervention and control groups.While the educational material was effective for increasing knowledge of SPC screening, it did not promote cancer screening practice among cancer survivors. More effective interventions are needed to increase SPC screening rates in this population.ClinicalTrial.gov NCT00948337.

  9. Gestational diabetes mellitus in Europe: prevalence, current screening practice and barriers to screening.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Buckley, B S

    2011-12-12

    Background:  Gestational diabetes mellitus is a potentially serious condition that affects many pregnancies and its prevalence is increasing. Evidence suggests early detection and treatment improves outcomes, but this is hampered by continued disagreement and inconsistency regarding many aspects of its diagnosis. Methods:  The Vitamin D and Lifestyle Intervention for Gestational Diabetes Mellitus Prevention (DALI) research programme aims to promote pan-European standards in the detection and diagnosis of gestational diabetes and to develop effective preventive interventions. To provide an overview of the context within which the programme will be conducted and its findings interpreted, systematic searching and narrative synthesis have been used to identify and review the best available European evidence relating to the prevalence of gestational diabetes, current screening practices and barriers to screening. Results:  Prevalence is most often reported as 2-6% of pregnancies. Prevalence may be lower towards the Northern Atlantic seaboard of Europe and higher in the Southern Mediterranean seaboard. Screening practice and policy is inconsistent across Europe, hampered by lack of consensus on testing methods, diagnostic glycaemic thresholds and the value of routine screening. Poor clinician awareness of gestational diabetes, its diagnosis and local clinical guidelines further undermine detection of gestational diabetes. Conclusions:  Europe-wide agreement on screening approaches and diagnostic standards for gestational diabetes could lead to better detection and treatment, improved outcomes for women and children and a strengthened evidence base. There is an urgent need for well-designed research that can inform decisions on best practice in gestational diabetes mellitus screening and diagnosis. © 2011 The Authors. Diabetic Medicine© 2011 Diabetes UK.

  10. Estimating the harms and benefits of prostate cancer screening as used in common practice versus recommended good practice: A microsimulation screening analysis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    S. Carlsson (Sigrid); T.M. de Carvalho Delgado Marques (Tiago); M.J. Roobol-Bouts (Monique); J. Hugosson (Jonas); A. Auvinen (Anssi); M. Kwiatkowski (Maciej); A. Villers (Arnoud); M. Zappa (Marco); V. Nelen (Vera); A. Páez (Alvaro); J.A. Eastham (James); H. Lilja (Hans); H.J. de Koning (Harry); A.J. Vickers (Andrew); E.A.M. Heijnsdijk (Eveline)

    2016-01-01

    textabstractBACKGROUND: Prostate-specific antigen (PSA) screening and concomitant treatment can be implemented in several ways. The authors investigated how the net benefit of PSA screening varies between common practice versus “good practice.”. METHODS: Microsimulation screening analysis (MISCAN)

  11. Knowledge, attitude and practice of cervical cancer screening ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background: Cervical cancer is the most common genital cancer and one of the leading causes of death among female population. Fortunately, this cancer is preventable by screening for premalignant lesions but this is rarely provided and hardly utilised. We assessed the knowledge, attitude and utilisation of cervical ...

  12. PRENATAL SCREENING: CURRENT PRACTICE, NEW DEVELOPMENTS, ETHICAL CHALLENGES

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Jong, Antina; Maya, Idit; van Lith, Jan M. M.

    2015-01-01

    Prenatal screening pathways, as nowadays offered in most Western countries consist of similar tests. First, a risk-assessment test for major aneuploides is offered to pregnant women. In case of an increased risk, invasive diagnostic tests, entailing a miscarriage risk, are offered. For decades, only

  13. Cardiovascular screening practices in collegiate student-athletes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Charboneau, Megan L; Mencias, Tara; Hoch, Anne Z

    2014-07-01

    To evaluate screening practices and preparticipation evaluation (PPE) forms used to identify, or raise suspicion of, cardiovascular abnormalities in collegiate student-athletes. Phone and e-mail survey. National Collegiate Athletic Association (NCAA) Division I universities. All 347 NCAA Division I universities were invited to participate in 2010-2011; 257 universities (74%) elected to participate. Information about the preparticipation screening process was obtained from team physicians and/or certified athletic trainers. PPE forms were evaluated for the inclusion of the 12 specific American Heart Association (AHA) recommendations for cardiovascular screening of competitive athletes from the 2007 AHA Council on Nutrition, Physical Activity, and Metabolism consensus panel endorsed by the American College of Cardiology Foundation. All 257 participating universities (100%) required preparticipation screening for freshman and transfer athletes, and 83 universities (32%) required an annual PPE for returning athletes. The PPE was performed on campus at 85% of the universities, whereas 15% of universities allowed the PPE to be completed by the athlete's choice of physician before he or she arrived on campus. Eleven universities (4%) used the recently updated American College of Sports Medicine 4th edition PPE. Sixteen universities (6%) used the American College of Sports Medicine 3rd edition PPE. The remaining 260 universities (90%) did not use either of these forms. Of the 257 Division I universities, only 21 universities (8%) met the AHA recommendations by including all 12 cardiovascular screening items on their PPE forms. The majority (92%) of NCAA Division I universities do not use PPE forms that meet the AHA recommendations for cardiovascular screening; therefore, they may not be effectively screening collegiate student-athletes for cardiovascular abnormalities that could lead to sudden cardiac death. Copyright © 2014 American Academy of Physical Medicine and

  14. Assessment Practices of Child Clinicians.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cook, Jonathan R; Hausman, Estee M; Jensen-Doss, Amanda; Hawley, Kristin M

    2017-03-01

    Assessment is an integral component of treatment. However, prior surveys indicate clinicians may not use standardized assessment strategies. We surveyed 1,510 clinicians and used multivariate analysis of variance to explore group differences in specific measure use. Clinicians used unstandardized measures more frequently than standardized measures, although psychologists used standardized measures more frequently than nonpsychologists. We also used latent profile analysis to classify clinicians based on their overall approach to assessment and examined associations between clinician-level variables and assessment class or profile membership. A four-profile model best fit the data. The largest profile consisted of clinicians who primarily used unstandardized assessments (76.7%), followed by broad-spectrum assessors who regularly use both standardized and unstandardized assessment (11.9%), and two smaller profiles of minimal (6.0%) and selective assessors (5.5%). Compared with broad-spectrum assessors, unstandardized and minimal assessors were less likely to report having adequate standardized measures training. Implications for clinical practice and training are discussed.

  15. [Assessment of screening in women cancers and in 75 years older in Loire department].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Swalduz, Aurélie; Guibert, Cyril; Trone, Jane-Chloé; Guichard, Jean-Baptiste; Rivoirard, Romain; Pacaut, Cécile; Méry, Benoîte; Guy, Jean-Baptiste; Eddekkaoui, Houda; Fournel, Pierre; de Laroche, Guy; Merrouche, Yacine; Magné, Nicolas

    2014-09-01

    In France, there is an important interregional disparity concerning participation to cancer screening programs. The aim of this study was to assess oncologic screening practices in Loire, a French rural department, in women and in the elderly (over age 74 years). For this, two surveys were conducted. The first one was regarding screening for breast, cervical and colorectal cancer in women over age 18 years living in Loire. The second survey was regarding onco-geriatric screening through two questionnaires : one for the elderly and the other for general practitioner (GP) of the department, evaluating screening for breast, colorectal, prostate, cervical and lung cancer. One hundred sixty six women were included in the first investigation mean age of 47.6 years. Ninety three point six per cent were screening for breast cancer, 19% received Human Papilloma virus vaccine, 83.1% were screening by Papanicolau smear for cervical cancer and finally, 51.7% were screening for colorectal cancer, among the one entering screening program criteria. In the second survey, 44 patients and 28 GP were included. Thirty-eight point six per cent of patients over 74 years continue screening. Only 11.4% were reluctant to screening and in 80% because of anxiety du to the results. Among GP, 50 % continued screening on two major criteria : life expectancy and performans status. The present study shows heterogeneity of screening in this department both rural and working class and gives us a societo-medical photography.

  16. Obstetrician and gynecologists' population-based screening practices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jelin, Angie C; Anderson, Britta; Wilkins-Haug, Louise; Schulkin, Jay

    2016-03-01

    The ability to obtain genetic information can now be accomplished in far greater detail, and more quickly than in the past. It is important to understand obstetrician-gynecologists' (ob-gyns) screening practices as these changes occur. Cross-sectional survey was performed by mailing paper surveys to Fellows of the American College of Obstetricians and Gynecologists and a subset of Fellows who belong to the Collaborative Ambulatory Research Network (CARN). Response rates were 57% for the CARN network. Almost all responders (92%) offer population-based genetic screening in the prenatal period and almost all (93%) conduct counseling prior to the provision of genetic testing. Almost all (92%) counsel patients when the result is positive, with 46% being the primary counselor and 55% calling the patient themselves. When results are negative, 73% counsel with 58% indicating they are the primary counselor and 17% call patients themselves. A total of 72% have received continuing medical education (CME) on genetics within 5 years, with 79% receiving CME at conferences and 21% receiving CME online. Ob-gyns have a large role in providing patients new genetic screening technologies. This role requires a significant knowledge base, some of which can be obtained by online modules; however, our study suggests online education is underutilized as a means for CME on genetic screening among ob-gyns.

  17. Geriatric screening in first opinion practice - results from 45 dogs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davies, M

    2012-09-01

    To evaluate and report the results of screening geriatric dogs in a first opinion practice. A prospective health screen of dogs over nine-years-old involving history taking, physical examination and urinalysis. At least one previously unrecognised problem was identified in 80% of 45 dogs and 353 findings (mean 7·8 per dog) were recorded. Owners often failed to recognise and report serious signs of age-related disease. However, they most often reported increased sleeping (31%), loss of hearing (29%) or sight (20%), stiffness or lameness (22%) and "slowing down" (20%). Increased lens opacity (64%), increased thirst (58%), pain (24%), increased frequency of urination (24%), signs of osteoarthritis (24%) and dental disease (22%) were most frequently identified at the time of consultation. Potentially, life-threatening findings included respiratory distress, palpable abdominal masses and metastatic lung disease. Screening resulted in 29 further diagnostic procedures, including 10 dental procedures, seven medical treatments, two surgical procedures and euthanasia of two dogs. Screening elderly dogs identified unrecognised and unreported health risk factors resulting in lifestyle modification and ongoing monitoring, as well as signs of age-related diseases resulting in diagnostic investigations, early diagnoses and surgical and medical interventions to improve quality of life. © 2012 British Small Animal Veterinary Association.

  18. Knowledge, Attitude and Practices Among Nurses Towards Newborn Hearing Screening in India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rohit Ravi

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Background and objectives: Multidisciplinary team approach can act as the major facilitator for the successful implementation of newborn hearing screening. Nurses can act as a good educator for the parents due to their close association. Therefore, the need was felt to explore the knowledge, attitudes and existing practices towards newborn hearing screening. Method: Cross-sectional study was carried out using the convenient sampling in a tertiary hospital to assess knowledge, attitude and practices. Results: The familiarity about newborn hearing screening was relatively low, also there was lack of surety regarding the ideal time for receiving additional testing for the newborns not passing the screening. More than 90% were positive about screening all newborns for hearing loss at the same time 40% felt that it leads to excessive anxiety and concerns. Conclusion: The role played by nurses include educating parents, explaining parents about impact of hearing loss, follow-up and facilitator for screening process as team member. Nurses showed positive attitude while at the same time emphasized need to have additional information.

  19. Comparative assessment of knowledge, attitude and practice of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This study was carried out to assess the level of knowledge, attitude and practice regarding cervical cancer and its screening among female clinical nursing students in Southern Nigeria. Methodology: Comparative cross-sectional study was undertaken over a period of 7months (April to November 2013). There were 100 ...

  20. Practicality of intraoperative teamwork assessments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Phitayakorn, Roy; Minehart, Rebecca; Pian-Smith, May C M; Hemingway, Maureen W; Milosh-Zinkus, Tanya; Oriol-Morway, Danika; Petrusa, Emil

    2014-07-01

    High-quality teamwork among operating room (OR) professionals is a key to efficient and safe practice. Quantification of teamwork facilitates feedback, assessment, and improvement. Several valid and reliable instruments are available for assessing separate OR disciplines and teams. We sought to determine the most feasible approach for routine documentation of teamwork in in-situ OR simulations. We compared rater agreement, hypothetical training costs, and feasibility ratings from five clinicians and two nonclinicians with instruments for assessment of separate OR groups and teams. Five teams of anesthesia or surgery residents and OR nurses (RN) or surgical technicians were videotaped in simulations of an epigastric hernia repair where the patient develops malignant hyperthermia. Two anesthesiologists, one OR clinical RN specialist, one educational psychologist, one simulation specialist, and one general surgeon discussed and then independently completed Anesthesiologists' Non-Technical Skills, Non-Technical Skills for Surgeons, Scrub Practitioners' List of Intraoperative Non-Technical Skills, and Observational Teamwork Assessment for Surgery forms to rate nontechnical performance of anesthesiologists, surgeons, nurses, technicians, and the whole team. Intraclass correlations of agreement ranged from 0.17-0.85. Clinicians' agreements were not different from nonclinicians'. Published rater training was 4 h for Anesthesiologists' Non-Technical Skills and Scrub Practitioners' List of Intraoperative Non-Technical Skills, 2.5 h for Non-Technical Skills for Surgeons, and 15.5 h for Observational Teamwork Assessment for Surgery. Estimated costs to train one rater to use all instruments ranged from $442 for a simulation specialist to $6006 for a general surgeon. Additional training is needed to achieve higher levels of agreement; however, costs may be prohibitive. The most cost-effective model for real-time OR teamwork assessment may be to use a simulation technician

  1. Frailty Screening and Interventions: Considerations for Clinical Practice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walston, Jeremy; Buta, Brian; Xue, Qian-Li

    2018-02-01

    Frailty is recognized as a cornerstone of geriatric medicine. It increases the risk of geriatric syndromes and adverse health outcomes in older and vulnerable populations. Although multiple screening instruments have been developed and validated to improve feasibility in clinical practice, frequent lack of agreement between frailty instruments has slowed broad implementation of these tools. Despite this, interventions to improve frailty-related health outcomes developed to date include exercise, nutrition, multicomponent interventions, and individually tailored geriatric care models. Possible strategies to prevent frailty include lifestyle or behavioral interventions, proper nutrition, and increased activity levels and social engagement. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  2. Syphilis screening practices in blood transfusion facilities in Ghana

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sarkodie, Francis; Hassall, Oliver; Owusu-Dabo, Ellis

    2016-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: The primary objective of this study was to compare laboratory practices for screening blood donors for syphilis at blood transfusion facilities in Ghana with the recommendations of the World Health Organization and the National Blood Service, Ghana (NBSG). The prevalence of syphilis...... of 58 (48%) transfusion facilities tested donors for syphilis, with an estimated 3.7% seroprevalence (95% confidence interval 3.6-3.8%). A total of 62782 out of 91386 (68.7%) donations were tested with assays that are not recommended. The estimated syphilis seroprevalence in voluntary donations was 2...... blood donations for syphilis. These data show a considerable mismatch between recommendations and practice, with serious consequences for blood safety and public health....

  3. Prenatal screening: current practice, new developments, ethical challenges.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Jong, Antina; Maya, Idit; van Lith, Jan M M

    2015-01-01

    Prenatal screening pathways, as nowadays offered in most Western countries consist of similar tests. First, a risk-assessment test for major aneuploides is offered to pregnant women. In case of an increased risk, invasive diagnostic tests, entailing a miscarriage risk, are offered. For decades, only conventional karyotyping was used for final diagnosis. Moreover, several foetal ultrasound scans are offered to detect major congenital anomalies, but the same scans also provide relevant information for optimal support of the pregnancy and the delivery. Recent developments in prenatal screening include the application of microarrays that allow for identifying a much broader range of abnomalities than karyotyping, and non-invasive prenatal testing (NIPT) that enables reducing the number of invasive tests for aneuploidies considerably. In the future, broad NIPT may become possible and affordable. This article will briefly address the ethical issues raised by these technological developments. First, a safe NIPT may lead to routinisation and as such challenge the central issue of informed consent and the aim of prenatal screening: to offer opportunity for autonomous reproductive choice. Widening the scope of prenatal screening also raises the question to what extent 'reproductive autonomy' is meant to expand. Finally, if the same test is used for two different aims, namely detection of foetal anomalies and pregnancy-related problems, non-directive counselling can no longer be taken as a standard. Our broad outline of the ethical issues is meant as an introduction into the more detailed ethical discussions about prenatal screening in the other articles of this special issue. © 2014 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  4. European Educational Systems and Assessment Practice

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Evans, Robert Harry; Cross, David; Grangeat, Michel

    2018-01-01

    . Such associations are useful both for understanding different existing assessment conditions as well as for providing possible pathways for change. Next, the chapter takes a closer look at teacher practices in these educational systems in order to identify the actual assessment practices of teachers in each country......Abstract This chapter surveys the status of educational systems and assessment practices across eight European countries that are part of the ASSIST-ME project. First, variations in country educational systems are examined to identify possible connections between systems and educational practices....... With these understandings of the systems and current uses of assessment, it is possible to identify affordances and challenges for improving assessment practices....

  5. HIV screening practices for living organ donors, New York State, 2010: need for standard policies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kwan, Candice K; Al-Samarrai, Teeb; Smith, Lou C; Sabharwal, Charulata J; Valente, Kim A; Torian, Lucia V; McMurdo, Lisa M; Shepard, Colin W; Brooks, John T; Kuehnert, Matthew J

    2012-10-01

    Our survey of kidney and liver transplant centers in New York State found a wide variation among transplant centers in evaluation and screening for HIV risk and infection among prospective living donors. Survey results underscore the need to standardize practices. A recent transmission of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) from a living donor to a kidney recipient revealed a possible limitation in existing screening protocols for HIV infection in living donors. We surveyed kidney and liver transplant centers (N = 18) in New York State to assess HIV screening protocols for living donors. Although most transplant centers evaluated HIV risk behaviors in living donors, evaluation practices varied widely, as did the extent of HIV testing and prevention counseling. All centers screened living donors for serologic evidence of HIV infection, either during initial evaluation or ≥1 month before surgery; however, only 50% of transplant centers repeated HIV testing within 14 days before surgery for all donors or donors with specific risk behaviors. Forty-four percent of transplant centers used HIV nucleic acid testing (NAT) to screen either all donors or donors with recognized risk behaviors, and 55% never performed HIV NAT. Results suggest the need to standardize evaluation of HIV risk behaviors and prevention counseling in New York State to prevent acquisition of HIV by prospective living organ donors, and to conduct HIV antibody testing and NAT as close to the time of donation as possible to prevent HIV transmission to recipients.

  6. Validation and practical implementation of a multidisciplinary cancer distress screening questionnaire

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kirchheiner, K.; Czajka, A.; Komarek, E.; Hohenberg, G.; Poetter, R. [Medical University of Vienna (Austria). Dept. of Radiation Oncology; Ponocny-Seliger, E. [Sigmund Freud Private University, Vienna (Austria). Dept. of Psychology; Doerr, W. [Medical University of Vienna (Austria). Dept. of Radiation Oncology; Medical University of Vienna (Austria). Christian Doppler Laboratory for Medical Radiation Research for Radiation Oncology

    2013-07-15

    Background: In order to identify cancer patients with psychosocial needs during radiotherapy, a routine screening questionnaire is widely recommended in the literature. Several tools focusing mainly on psychological issues have been developed during the past decade. However, problems with their implementation into clinical routine have been repeatedly reported, due to a lack of practicability for clinicians and nurses. This study reports the compilation of a multidisciplinary screening questionnaire and an analysis of the effectiveness of its implementation into clinical routine at the Department of Radiotherapy, Medical University of Vienna. Materials and methods: The screening questionnaire is based on a compilation of several subscales from established and validated assessment tools. It focuses on comprehensive information with high a clinical relevance for all professions. In a pilot study, patients' acceptance was assessed qualitatively. Analysis of missing screening data in consecutively admitted patients reflects the effectiveness of implementation and representativity of the data. A validation analysis of the psychological subscales was performed using external criteria and its internal consistency was tested with Cronbachs' {alpha}. Results: Qualitative patient acceptance of the screening questionnaire is good. The overall response rate in the screening procedure was 75 %. Missing patient screening data sets arose randomly - mainly due to organizational problems - and did not result in systematic errors. The psychological subscales identify highly distressed patients with a sensitivity of 89 and 78 %, and an internal consistency of 0.843 and 0.617. Conclusion: The multidisciplinary screening questionnaire compiled in this study has a high patient acceptance, provides reliable and representative data and identifies highly distressed patients with excellent sensitivity. Although requiring additional personnel resources, it can be implemented

  7. Using urbanization profiles to assess screening performance

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Boon, ME; Kok, LP

    The large Dutch data sets acquired as a result of population-based cervical smear screening programs can be further exploited to obtain an urbanization-weighted score to gain insight into the quality of the performance of the individual cytology laboratories. Based on the first four digits of the

  8. Are patients with psoriasis being screened for cardiovascular risk factors? A study of screening practices and awareness among primary care physicians and cardiologists.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parsi, Kory K; Brezinski, Elizabeth A; Lin, Tzu-Chun; Li, Chin-Shang; Armstrong, April W

    2012-09-01

    Increasing literature suggests that patients with psoriasis who have severe disease appear to have increased frequency of cardiovascular (CV) diseases. The National Psoriasis Foundation recommends screening for CV risk factors as early as 20 years of age. The extent to which these screening guidelines are implemented in practice is unclear. We sought to assess CV risk factor screening practices in patients with psoriasis and to assess primary care physician (PCP) and cardiologist awareness of worse CV outcomes in patients with psoriasis. We distributed 1200 questionnaires to PCPs and cardiologists between October 1, 2010, and April 15, 2011. A representative national sample of physicians was obtained by random selection from professional medical societies. A total of 251 PCPs and cardiologists responded to the questionnaire. Among these physicians, 108 (43%) screened for hypertension, 27 (11%) screened for dyslipidemia, 75 (30%) screened for obesity, and 67 (27%) screened for diabetes. Physicians who cared for a greater number of patients with psoriasis were significantly more likely to screen for CV risk factors (hypertension P = .0041, dyslipidemia P = .0143, and diabetes P = .0065). Compared with PCPs, cardiologists were 3.5 times more likely to screen for dyslipidemia (95% confidence interval 1.32-9.29, P = .012). A total of 113 (45%) physicians were aware that psoriasis was associated with worse CV outcomes. The questionnaire response rate was modest. Most PCPs and cardiologists did not routinely screen patients with psoriasis for CV risk factors. Educating physicians regarding potentially increased CV risk in psoriasis and adopting a multidisciplinary approach in the care of patients with psoriasis will likely lead to improved patient outcomes. Copyright © 2011 American Academy of Dermatology, Inc. Published by Mosby, Inc. All rights reserved.

  9. Reframing assessment research: through a practice perspective

    OpenAIRE

    Boud, David; Dawson, Phillip; Bearman, Margaret; Bennett, Sue; Joughin, Gordon; Molloy, Elizabeth

    2016-01-01

    Assessment as a field of investigation has been influenced by a limited number of perspectives. These have focused assessment research in particular ways that have emphasised measurement, or student learning or institutional policies. The aim of this paper is to view the phenomenon of assessment from a practice perspective drawing upon ideas from practice theory. Such a view places assessment practices as central. This perspective is illustrated using data from an empirical study of assessmen...

  10. Comparative Assessment of Knowledge, Attitude and Practice of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    TNHJOURNALPH

    5.20. 0.193. 0.273. Table 4: Practice of Cervical Cancer Screening. Variable. Practice of. CxCancer. Screening. Yes. No. Reasons for. Non -performance. OfCxCancer. Screening. Fear of having a. Positive test. Result. Cost of service. Lack of money. Because of. Shyness. Not Aware of the. Screening centre. None availability.

  11. Palliative Care Providers' Practices Surrounding Psychological Distress Screening and Treatment: A National Survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kozlov, Elissa; Eghan, Claude; Moran, Sheila; Herr, Keela; Reid, M Carrington

    2017-01-01

    To investigate how inpatient palliative care teams nationwide currently screen for and treat psychological distress. A web-based survey was sent to inpatient palliative care providers of all disciplines nationwide asking about their practice patterns regarding psychological assessment and treatment. Descriptive statistics were used to characterize the sample and responses, and analysis of variance was conducted to determine whether certain disciplines were more likely to utilize specific treatment modalities. A total of N = 236 respondents were included in the final analyses. Providers reported that they encounter psychological distress regularly in their practice and that they screen for distress using multiple methods. When psychological distress is detected, providers reported referring patients to an average of 3 different providers (standard deviation = 1.46), most frequently a social worker (69.6%) or chaplain (65.3%) on the palliative care team. A total of 84.6% of physicians and 54.5% of nurse practitioners reported that they prescribe anxiolytics or selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors to patients experiencing psychological distress. This study revealed significant variability and redundancy in how palliative care teams currently manage psychological distress. The lack of consistency potentially stems from the variability in the composition of palliative care teams across care settings and the lack of scientific evidence for best practices in psychological care in palliative care. Future research is needed to establish best practices in the screening and treatment of psychological distress for patients receiving palliative care.

  12. Knowledge, attitudes and practices toward breast cancer screening in a rural South African community.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramathuba, Dorah U; Ratshirumbi, Confidence T; Mashamba, Tshilidzi M

    2015-02-27

    The study assessed the knowledge, attitudes and breast cancer screening practices amongst women aged 30-65 years residing in a rural South African community. A quantitative, descriptive cross-sectional design was used and a systematic sampling technique was employed to select 150 participants. The questionnaire was pretested for validity and consistency. Ethical considerations were adhered to in protecting the rights of participants. Thereafter, data were collected and analysed descriptively using the Predictive Analytics Software program. Findings revealed that the level of knowledge about breast cancer of women in Makwarani Community was relatively low. The attitude toward breast cancer was negative whereas the majority of women had never performed breast cancer diagnostic methods. Health education on breast cancer screening practices is lacking and the knowledge deficit can contribute negatively to early detection of breast cancer and compound late detection. Based on the findings, community-based intervention was recommended in order to bridge the knowledge gap.

  13. Nutritional screening for improving professional practice for patient outcomes in hospital and primary care settings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Omidvari, Amir-Houshang; Vali, Yasaman; Murray, Susan M; Wonderling, David; Rashidian, Arash

    2013-06-06

    Given the prevalence of under-nutrition and reports of inadequate nutritional management of patients in hospitals and the community, nutritional screening may play a role in reducing the risks of malnutrition. Screening programmes can invoke costs to health systems and patients. It is therefore important to assess the effectiveness of nutritional screening programmes. To examine the effectiveness of nutritional screening in improving quality of care (professional practice) and patient outcomes compared with usual care. We searched the following databases: CENTRAL (The Cochrane Library), MEDLINE, EMBASE and CINAHL up to June 2012 to find relevant studies. Randomised controlled studies, controlled clinical trials, controlled before-after studies and interrupted time series studies assessing the effectiveness of nutritional screening were eligible for inclusion in the review. We considered process outcomes (for example patient identification, referral to dietitian) and patient outcomes (for example mortality, change in body mass index (BMI)). Participants were adult patients aged 16 years or over. We included studies conducted in different settings, including hospitals, out-patient clinics, primary care or long term care settings. We independently assessed the risk of bias and extracted data from the included studies. Meta-analysis was considered but was not conducted due to the discrepancies between the studies. The studies were heterogeneous in their design, setting, intervention and outcomes. We analysed the data using a narrative synthesis approach. After conducting initial searches and screening the titles and abstracts of the identified literature, 77 full text papers were retrieved and read. Ultimately three studies were included. Two controlled before-after studies were conducted in hospital settings (one in the UK and one in the Netherlands) and one cluster randomised controlled trial was conducted in a primary care setting (in the USA).The study conducted in

  14. Estimating the harms and benefits of prostate cancer screening as used in common practice versus recommended good practice: A microsimulation screening analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carlsson, Sigrid V; de Carvalho, Tiago M; Roobol, Monique J; Hugosson, Jonas; Auvinen, Anssi; Kwiatkowski, Maciej; Villers, Arnauld; Zappa, Marco; Nelen, Vera; Páez, Alvaro; Eastham, James A; Lilja, Hans; de Koning, Harry J; Vickers, Andrew J; Heijnsdijk, Eveline A M

    2016-11-15

    Prostate-specific antigen (PSA) screening and concomitant treatment can be implemented in several ways. The authors investigated how the net benefit of PSA screening varies between common practice versus "good practice." Microsimulation screening analysis (MISCAN) was used to evaluate the effect on quality-adjusted life-years (QALYs) if 4 recommendations were followed: limited screening in older men, selective biopsy in men with elevated PSA, active surveillance for low-risk tumors, and treatment preferentially delivered at high-volume centers. Outcomes were compared with a base model in which annual screening started at ages 55 to 69 years and were simulated using data from the European Randomized Study of Screening for Prostate Cancer. In terms of QALYs gained compared with no screening, for 1000 screened men who were followed over their lifetime, recommended good practice led to 73 life-years (LYs) and 74 QALYs gained compared with 73 LYs and 56 QALYs for the base model. In contrast, common practice led to 78 LYs gained but only 19 QALYs gained, for a greater than 75% relative reduction in QALYs gained from unadjusted LYs gained. The poor outcomes for common practice were influenced predominantly by the use of aggressive treatment for men with low-risk disease, and PSA testing in older men also strongly reduced potential QALY gains. Commonly used PSA screening and treatment practices are associated with little net benefit. Following a few straightforward clinical recommendations, particularly greater use of active surveillance for low-risk disease and reducing screening in older men, would lead to an almost 4-fold increase in the net benefit of prostate cancer screening. Cancer 2016;122:3386-3393. © 2016 American Cancer Society. © 2016 American Cancer Society.

  15. Characteristics of improved formative assessment practice

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Andersson, Catarina; Palm, Torulf

    2017-01-01

    An earlier study showed that the changes in teachers’ classroom practice, after participation in a professional development program in formative assessment, significantly improved student achievement in mathematics...

  16. Nutritional Risk Screening 2002, Short Nutritional Assessment Questionnaire, Malnutrition Screening Tool, and Malnutrition Universal Screening Tool Are Good Predictors of Nutrition Risk in an Emergency Service.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rabito, Estela Iraci; Marcadenti, Aline; da Silva Fink, Jaqueline; Figueira, Luciane; Silva, Flávia Moraes

    2017-08-01

    There is an international consensus that nutrition screening be performed at the hospital; however, there is no "best tool" for screening of malnutrition risk in hospitalized patients. To evaluate (1) the accuracy of the MUST (Malnutrition Universal Screening Tool), MST (Malnutrition Screening Tool), and SNAQ (Short Nutritional Assessment Questionnaire) in comparison with the NRS-2002 (Nutritional Risk Screening 2002) to identify patients at risk of malnutrition and (2) the ability of these nutrition screening tools to predict morbidity and mortality. A specific questionnaire was administered to complete the 4 screening tools. Outcomes measures included length of hospital stay, transfer to the intensive care unit, presence of infection, and incidence of death. A total of 752 patients were included. The nutrition risk was 29.3%, 37.1%, 33.6%, and 31.3% according to the NRS-2002, MUST, MST, and SNAQ, respectively. All screening tools showed satisfactory performance to identify patients at nutrition risk (area under the receiver operating characteristic curve between 0.765-0.808). Patients at nutrition risk showed higher risk of very long length of hospital stay as compared with those not at nutrition risk, independent of the tool applied (relative risk, 1.35-1.78). Increased risk of mortality (2.34 times) was detected by the MUST. The MUST, MST, and SNAQ share similar accuracy to the NRS-2002 in identifying risk of malnutrition, and all instruments were positively associated with very long hospital stay. In clinical practice, the 4 tools could be applied, and the choice for one of them should be made per the particularities of the service.

  17. [Cancer screening practices of general practitioners working in the Fez Prefecture health center].

    Science.gov (United States)

    El Fakir, Samira; Abda, Naima; Najdi, Adil; Bendahou, Karima; Obtel, Majdouline; Berraho, Mohamed; Nejjari, Chakib

    2013-01-01

    General practitioners can play a key role in prevention and early detection of cancer. The aim of this study was to assess their current clinical practices concerning risk factors such as smoking, alcohol, diet and cancer screening. A self-administered questionnaire was sent to GPs working at the Fez Prefecture health centre (Morocco).Questions concerned primary prevention (smoking, alcohol, diet, sun exposure) and cancer screening (breast, uterine cervix, colon-rectum, prostate, skin cancers). The participation rate was 75.8%. The average age of GPs was 45.6 ± 6.8 years and 53.8% were female. Monitoring training on cancer prevention was reported by 25.6% of GPs. We noted a great diversity for screening, even for cancers with a consensus concerning the role of screening, such as breast, and uterine cervix cancers. Many physicians reported ordering prostate- specific antigen tests (70.2%) but only 6.7% ordered faecal occult blood tests. This study emphasizes the need to improve the general practitioners' knowledge on cancer screening.

  18. Prevalence of Screening-Detected Eating Disorders in Chinese Females and Exploratory Associations with Dietary Practices

    Science.gov (United States)

    Watson, Hunna J.; Hamer, Robert M.; Thornton, Laura M.; Peat, Christine M.; Kleiman, Susan C.; Du, Shufa; Wang, Huijin; Bulik, Cynthia M.

    2014-01-01

    Objective China is undergoing dramatic Westernization, hence may be able to provide unique insights into the role of sociocultural factors in disease. The purpose of this exploratory study was two-fold: to describe the prevalence of screening-detected eating disorders and disordered eating in China at the first occasion of assessment in the large-scale China Health and Nutrition Survey (CHNS) and to explore the associations between dietary practices and disordered eating. Regarding the first objective, participants are provincially representative and in subsequent waves will be followed longitudinally. Method CHNS participants were recruited using multistage, cluster random sampling, beginning in 1989. In this study, participants comprised 259 female adolescents (12–17 years) and 979 women (18–35 years) who participated in the CHNS 2009 survey, which is the first CHNS survey to assess disordered eating. Dietary practice-disordered eating associations were investigated with logistic regression adjusting for age, body mass index, and urbanization. Results Of the participants, 6.3% (95% CI: 4.8, 8.2) of adults and 7.8% (95% CI: 5.0, 12.0) of adolescents had a screening-detected eating disorder. Dietary practices had non-significant associations with disordered eating at the general population level, except for protein consumption among women. There was evidence that skipping meals and a high-fat diet may confer risk. Discussion Screening-detected eating disorders in China are lower in prevalence than in developed countries. Dietary practices had fairly limited associations with disordered eating at the general population level; protein consumption, skipping meals, and a high-fat diet are candidate dietary practice exposures for disordered eating. PMID:25407415

  19. [Screening for chronic obstructive pulmonary disease by electronic mini-spirometry in general practice].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vorilhon, P; Deat, J; Gérard, A; Laine, E; Laporte, C; Ruivard, M; Vaillant Roussel, H

    2014-05-01

    Screening for COPD is currently considered to be insufficient. Electronic mini-spirometers allow screening for COPD in general practice. To assess the prevalence of COPD in a population of at-risk patients in general practice (GP) and to identify the high-risk factors for the disease. A cross-sectional study was performed in a GP setting. Patients aged between 40 and 75years with a history of smoking, occupational exposure to toxic substances or chronic respiratory symptoms were offered airflow assessments by electronic mini-spirometry. For any value of FEV1/FEV6 less than 70 %, screening for COPD was considered as positive. Of the 778 patients seen during routine consultations, 273 (35.1 %) fulfilled the inclusion criteria. The test was positive in 128 of the eligible patients (46.9 %). The prevalence of proven COPD (ratio<70 %) was 13.9 % (38 patients). The high-risk factors were age over 60years (P=0.03), body mass index over 28 (P=0.04), smoking history of more than 30pack-years (P<0.0001), presence of clinical signs (P<0.0001) and industrial exposure to toxic substances (P=0.03). Targeted screening of patients with risk factors for COPD can be performed in a GP setting. An electronic mini-spirometer is a reliable and inexpensive screening tool. Copyright © 2013 SPLF. Published by Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  20. Medical Residents’ and Practicing Physicians’ e-Cigarette Knowledge and Patient Screening Activities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karen W. Geletko

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: The purpose of this study was to compare medical residents and practicing physicians in primary care specialties regarding their knowledge and beliefs about electronic cigarettes (e-cigarettes. We wanted to ascertain whether years removed from medical school had an effect on screening practices, recommendations given to patients, and the types of informational sources utilized. Methods: A statewide sample of Florida primary care medical residents (n = 61 and practicing physicians (n = 53 completed either an online or paper survey, measuring patient screening and physician recommendations, beliefs, and knowledge related to e-cigarettes. χ 2 tests of association and linear and logistic regression models were used to assess the differences within- and between-participant groups. Results: Practicing physicians were more likely than medical residents to believe e-cigarettes lower cancer risk in patients who use them as an alternative to cigarettes ( P = .0003. Medical residents were more likely to receive information about e-cigarettes from colleagues ( P = .0001. No statistically significant differences were observed related to e-cigarette knowledge or patient recommendations. Conclusions: Practicing primary care physicians are accepting both the benefits and costs associated with e-cigarettes, while medical residents in primary care are more reticent. Targeted education concerning the potential health risks and benefits associated with the use of e-cigarettes needs to be included in the current medical education curriculum and medical provider training to improve provider confidence in discussing issues surrounding the use of this product.

  1. Changes in viral hepatitis B screening practices over time in West African HIV clinics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coffie, P A; Patassi, A; Doumbia, A; Bado, G; Messou, E; Minga, A; Allah-Kouadio, E; Zannou, D M; Seydi, M; Kakou, A R; Dabis, F; Wandeler, G

    2017-10-01

    We aimed to describe changes in hepatitis B screening practices over a 3-year period among HIV-infected patients in West Africa. A medical chart review was conducted in urban HIV treatment centers in Ivory Coast (3 sites), Benin, Burkina Faso, Senegal, and Togo (1 site each). Among patients who started antiretroviral treatment between 2010 and 2012, 100 per year were randomly selected from each clinic. Demographic, clinical, and laboratory data was collected using a standardized questionnaire. We assessed changes in the proportion of patients screened over time and identified predictors of screening in a multivariable logistic regression. A total of 2097 patients were included (median age: 37 years, 65.4% of women). Overall, 313 (14.9%) patients had been screened for hepatitis B, with an increase from 10.6% in 2010 to 18.9% in 2012 (P<0.001) and substantial differences across countries. In multivariable analysis, being aged over 45 years (adjusted odds ratio: 1.34 [1.01-1.77]) and having an income-generating activity (adjusted odds ratio: 1.82 [1.09-3.03]) were associated with screening for hepatitis B infection. Overall, 62 HIV-infected patients (19.8%, 95% confidence interval: 15.5-24.7) were HBsAg-positive and 82.3% of them received a tenofovir-containing drug regimen. Hepatitis B screening among HIV-infected patients was low between 2010 and 2012. The increasing availability of HBsAg rapid tests and tenofovir in first-line antiretroviral regimen should improve the rates of hepatitis B screening. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  2. Assessment and treatment of malnutrition in Dutch geriatric practice: consensus through a modified Delphi study.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Asselt, D.Z.B. van; Bokhorst-de van der Schueren, M.A. van; Cammen, T.J.M. van der; Disselhorst, L.G.; Janse, A.; Lonterman-Monasch, S.; Maas, H.A.; Popescu, M.E.; Schölzel-Dorenbos, C.J.M.; Sipers, W.M.; Veldhoven, C.M. van; Wijnen, H.H.M; Olde Rikkert, M.

    2012-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: scientific evidence regarding the optimal management of malnutrition in geriatric patients is scarce. Our aim was to develop a consensus statement for geriatric hospital practice concerning six elements: (i) definition of malnutrition, (ii) screening and assessment, (iii) treatment and

  3. Screening assessment and requirements for a comprehensive assessment: Volume 1, Draft. Columbia River comprehensive impact assessment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1997-04-01

    To evaluate the impact to the Columbia River from the Hanford Site-derived contaminants, the U.S. Department of Energy, U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, and Washington State Department of Ecology initiated a study referred to as the Columbia River Comprehensive Impact Assessment (CRCIA). To address concerns about the scope and direction of CRCIA as well as enhance regulator, tribal, stockholder, and public involvement, the CRCIA Management Team was formed in August 1995. The Team agreed to conduct CRCIA using a phased approach. The initial phase, includes two components: 1) a screening assessment to evaluate the potential impact to the river, resulting from current levels of Hanford-derived contaminants in order to support decisions on Interim Remedial Measures, and 2) a definition of the essential work remaining to provide an acceptable comprehensive river impact assessment. The screening assessment is described in Part I of this report. The essential work remaining is Part II of this report. The objective of the screening assessment is to identify areas where the greatest potential exists for adverse effects on humans or the environment. Part I of this report discusses the scope, technical approach, and results of the screening assessment. Part II defines a new paradigm for predecisional participation by those affected by Hanford cleanup decisions.

  4. Screening-Level Ecological Risk Assessment Methods, Revision 3

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mirenda, Richard J. [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States)

    2012-08-16

    This document provides guidance for screening-level assessments of potential adverse impacts to ecological resources from release of environmental contaminants at the Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL or the Laboratory). The methods presented are based on two objectives, namely: to provide a basis for reaching consensus with regulators, managers, and other interested parties on how to conduct screening-level ecological risk investigations at the Laboratory; and to provide guidance for ecological risk assessors under the Environmental Programs (EP) Directorate. This guidance promotes consistency, rigor, and defensibility in ecological screening investigations and in reporting those investigation results. The purpose of the screening assessment is to provide information to the risk managers so informed riskmanagement decisions can be made. This document provides examples of recommendations and possible risk-management strategies.

  5. Phytochemical screening and antimicrobial assessment of Abutilon ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Three medicinal plants - Abutilon mauritianum, Bacopa monnifera and Datura stramonium were assessed for phytochemical components and antimicrobial activity. The results revealed that all the three plant extracts contained saponins, tannins and alkaloids. Only Datura stramonium contained glycosides. The plants exert ...

  6. Factors associated with serum cholesterol level in a pediatric practice. Cholesterol screening in a pediatric practice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Donker, G A; Goff, D C; Ragan, J D; Killinger, R P; Harrist, R B; Labarthe, D R

    1993-01-01

    The associations between age, sex, height, Quetelet index, blood pressure, and serum cholesterol level were examined among 1406 routinely screened children, aged 4 to 19 years, in a pediatric practice. After adjustment for sex and age, height and Quetelet index were associated with serum cholesterol levels. Quetelet index was shown by multiple linear regression to be positively related to cholesterol levels (b = 0.780, P Quetelet index was marginal. Clustering of elevated serum cholesterol level, Quetelet index, and systolic blood pressure was observed. Familial aggregation of cholesterol levels was demonstrated using analysis of variance for 742 children from 342 families included in the regression analysis (F341,400 = 1.56, P Quetelet index, and familial aggregation accounted for 10.6% of the variance in serum cholesterol levels. Siblings of children with high cholesterol levels are a high-yield group in cholesterol screening.

  7. Promoting chlamydia screening with posters and leaflets in general practice - a qualitative study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ford-Young William

    2009-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background General practice staff are reluctant to discuss sexual health opportunistically in all consultations. Health promotion materials may help alleviate this barrier. Chlamydia screening promotion posters and leaflets, produced by the English National Chlamydia Screening Programme (NCSP, have been available to general practices, through local chlamydia screening offices, since its launch. In this study we explored the attitudes of general practice staff to these screening promotional materials, how they used them, and explored other promotional strategies to encourage chlamydia screening. Methods Twenty-five general practices with a range of screening rates, were purposively selected from six NCSP areas in England. In focus groups doctors, nurses, administrative staff and receptionists were encouraged to discuss candidly their experiences about their use and opinions of posters, leaflets and advertising to promote chlamydia screening. Researchers observed whether posters and leaflets were on display in reception and/or waiting areas. Data were collected and analysed concurrently using a stepwise framework analytical approach. Results Although two-thirds of screening practices reported that they displayed posters and leaflets, they were not prominently displayed in most practices. Only a minority of practices reported actively using screening promotional materials on an ongoing basis. Most staff in all practices were not following up the advertising in posters and leaflets by routinely offering opportunistic screening to their target population. Some staff in many practices thought posters and leaflets would cause offence or embarrassment to their patients. Distribution of chlamydia leaflets by receptionists was thought to be inappropriate by some practices, as they thought patients would be offended when being offered a leaflet in a public area. Practice staff suggested the development of pocket-sized leaflets. Conclusion The NCSP

  8. Promoting chlamydia screening with posters and leaflets in general practice - a qualitative study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Freeman, Elaine; Howell-Jones, Rebecca; Oliver, Isabel; Randall, Sarah; Ford-Young, William; Beckwith, Philippa; McNulty, Cliodna

    2009-01-01

    Background General practice staff are reluctant to discuss sexual health opportunistically in all consultations. Health promotion materials may help alleviate this barrier. Chlamydia screening promotion posters and leaflets, produced by the English National Chlamydia Screening Programme (NCSP), have been available to general practices, through local chlamydia screening offices, since its launch. In this study we explored the attitudes of general practice staff to these screening promotional materials, how they used them, and explored other promotional strategies to encourage chlamydia screening. Methods Twenty-five general practices with a range of screening rates, were purposively selected from six NCSP areas in England. In focus groups doctors, nurses, administrative staff and receptionists were encouraged to discuss candidly their experiences about their use and opinions of posters, leaflets and advertising to promote chlamydia screening. Researchers observed whether posters and leaflets were on display in reception and/or waiting areas. Data were collected and analysed concurrently using a stepwise framework analytical approach. Results Although two-thirds of screening practices reported that they displayed posters and leaflets, they were not prominently displayed in most practices. Only a minority of practices reported actively using screening promotional materials on an ongoing basis. Most staff in all practices were not following up the advertising in posters and leaflets by routinely offering opportunistic screening to their target population. Some staff in many practices thought posters and leaflets would cause offence or embarrassment to their patients. Distribution of chlamydia leaflets by receptionists was thought to be inappropriate by some practices, as they thought patients would be offended when being offered a leaflet in a public area. Practice staff suggested the development of pocket-sized leaflets. Conclusion The NCSP should consider developing

  9. Promoting chlamydia screening with posters and leaflets in general practice--a qualitative study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Freeman, Elaine; Howell-Jones, Rebecca; Oliver, Isabel; Randall, Sarah; Ford-Young, William; Beckwith, Philippa; McNulty, Cliodna

    2009-10-12

    General practice staff are reluctant to discuss sexual health opportunistically in all consultations. Health promotion materials may help alleviate this barrier. Chlamydia screening promotion posters and leaflets, produced by the English National Chlamydia Screening Programme (NCSP), have been available to general practices, through local chlamydia screening offices, since its launch. In this study we explored the attitudes of general practice staff to these screening promotional materials, how they used them, and explored other promotional strategies to encourage chlamydia screening. Twenty-five general practices with a range of screening rates, were purposively selected from six NCSP areas in England. In focus groups doctors, nurses, administrative staff and receptionists were encouraged to discuss candidly their experiences about their use and opinions of posters, leaflets and advertising to promote chlamydia screening. Researchers observed whether posters and leaflets were on display in reception and/or waiting areas. Data were collected and analysed concurrently using a stepwise framework analytical approach. Although two-thirds of screening practices reported that they displayed posters and leaflets, they were not prominently displayed in most practices. Only a minority of practices reported actively using screening promotional materials on an ongoing basis. Most staff in all practices were not following up the advertising in posters and leaflets by routinely offering opportunistic screening to their target population. Some staff in many practices thought posters and leaflets would cause offence or embarrassment to their patients. Distribution of chlamydia leaflets by receptionists was thought to be inappropriate by some practices, as they thought patients would be offended when being offered a leaflet in a public area. Practice staff suggested the development of pocket-sized leaflets. The NCSP should consider developing a range of more discrete but eye

  10. Screening for cancer: when to stop?: A practical guide and review of the evidence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soung, Michael C

    2015-03-01

    Deciding when to stop cancer screening in older adults is a complex challenge that involves multiple factors: individual health status and life expectancy; risks and benefits of screening, which vary with age and comorbidity; and individual preferences and values. This article examines current cancer screening practices and reviews the risks and benefits of cancer screening for colorectal, breast, lung, prostate, and cervical cancer, particularly in older individuals and those with multiple comorbidities. Tools for estimating life expectancy are reviewed, and a practical framework is presented to guide discussions on when the harms of screening likely outweigh the benefits. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  11. Interactive neural-network-assisted screening. An economic assessment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Radensky, P W; Mango, L J

    1998-01-01

    To apply clinical effectiveness estimates of interactive, neural network-assisted (INNA) screening to economic cervical cancer screening models to assess the economic impact of using this technology. Estimates of the sensitivity of INNA screening were drawn from a recently completed comprehensive synthesis of the INNA literature and applied to the Computer Model for Designing CANcer ConTROL Programs-based Cervical Cancer Screen economic model. The economic analysis was conducted from a modified payer perspective using costs borne by payers combined with patient deductibles and copayments. Costs of treating cervical cancer were updated to 1997 values using the medical care component of the Consumer Price Index. The model was run for a cohort of women starting at age 20 and screened on a triennial schedule through age 75. In the primary analysis (sensitivity of unassisted manual examination assumed to be 85%), the ratios found in this investigation varied from approximately $35,000 to $80,000 per life year saved, with the preponderance of ratios sensitive to estimates of sensitivity of unassisted manual screening but not to estimates of treatment costs. This investigation applied accuracy data on INNA rescreening to a model of the cost-effectiveness of cervical cancer screening. The results support the use of INNA rescreening as an appropriate expenditure of resources to identify missed cases of cervical epithelial abnormalities and potential cervical cancer.

  12. Clinician Attitudes, Screening Practices, and Interventions to Reduce Firearm-Related Injury.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roszko, Paul J D; Ameli, Jonathan; Carter, Patrick M; Cunningham, Rebecca M; Ranney, Megan L

    2016-01-01

    Firearm injury is a leading cause of injury-related morbidity and mortality in the United States. We sought to systematically identify and summarize existing literature on clinical firearm injury prevention screening and interventions. We conducted a systematic search of PubMed, Web of Science, Cumulative Index of Nursing and Allied Health Literature (CINAHL), PsycInfo, and ClinicalTrials.gov for English-language original research (published 1992-2014) on clinical screening methods, patient-level firearm interventions, or patient/provider attitudes on the same. Unrelated studies were excluded through title, abstract, and full-text review, and the remaining articles underwent data abstraction and quality scoring. Of a total of 3,260 unique titles identified, 72 were included in the final review. Fifty-three articles examined clinician attitudes/practice patterns; prior training, experience, and expectations correlated with clinicians' regularity of firearm screening. Twelve articles assessed patient interventions, of which 6 were randomized controlled trials. Seven articles described patient attitudes; all were of low methodological quality. According to these articles, providers rarely screen or counsel their patients-even high-risk patients-about firearm safety. Health-care-based interventions may increase rates of safe storage of firearms for pediatric patients, suicidal patients, and other high-risk groups. Some studies show that training clinicians can increase rates of effective firearm safety screening and counseling. Patients and families are, for the most part, accepting of such screening and counseling. However, the current literature is, by and large, not high quality. Rigorous, large-scale, adequately funded studies are needed. © The Author 2016. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Johns Hopkins Bloomberg School of Public Health. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  13. BREAST CANCER SCREENING KNOWLEDGE AND PRACTICE AMONG WOMEN IN SOUTHEAST OF IRAN

    OpenAIRE

    Heidari, Z; H. R Mahmoudzadeh-Sagheb; N Sakhavar

    2008-01-01

    "nBreast cancer is the most common cancer occurring among women. The mortality rate of breast cancer can be reduced by regular breast cancer screening program. This study was carried out to identify the knowledge and practice of women about breast cancer screening in Zahedan, southeast of Iran. In this cross- sectional study, 384 women were selected as an improbability sample of women referring to Qouds maternity hospital. Knowledge and practice of them about breast cancer screening were...

  14. [Cervical cancer screening in Switzerland - current practice and future challenges].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Untiet, Sarah; Schmidt, Nicole; Low, Nicola; Petignat, Patrick

    2013-04-01

    At the beginning of the 20th Century, cervical cancer was the leading cause of death from cancer in women. A marked decline in cervical cancer has been observed since the 1960s, in parallel with the introduction of the Papanicolau (Pap) test as a cytological screening method. Today, Pap smear screening is still the most widely used tool for cervical cancer prevention. Testing for human papillomavirus (HPV) in cervical specimens or a combination of Pap and HPV testing are also now available. In this article we compare current guidelines for cervical cancer screening in Switzerland with those in other European countries. In view of the opportunities offered by HPV testing and, since 2008, HPV vaccination, current guidelines for cervical cancer screening should be updated. Both the choice of screening tests and general organization of cervical cancer screening should be reviewed.

  15. Learning Community Assessment 101--Best Practices

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huerta, Juan Carlos; Hansen, Michele J.

    2013-01-01

    Good assessment is part of all good learning communities, and this article provides a useful set of best practices for learning community assessment planning: (1) articulating agreed-upon learning community program goals; (2) identifying the purpose of assessment (e.g., summative or formative); (3) employing qualitative and quantitative assessment…

  16. Screening for type 2 diabetes in general practice

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Janssen, P.G.H.

    2008-01-01

    The presented studies were conducted within the framework of the international ADDITION study (Anglo-Danish-Dutch Study of Intensive Treatment in People with Screen-Detected Diabetes in Primary Care), a randomised controlled trial in 3,057 screen-detected type 2 diabetic patients. The aim of

  17. Original article Prostate Screening Practices Among Male Staff of the ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2010-11-03

    Nov 3, 2010 ... 301.500 new cases of prostate cancer were diagnosed in 25 member countries in the. EU4. In Nigeria ..... conducted in New Zealand, 52% knew that the cancer society recommended screening31. ..... for informed consent in cervical cytology screening; we need unbiased information and a culture change.

  18. Knowledge, Attitude And Practice Of Screening For Cervical Cancer ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This low participation in screening for cervical cancer was attributed to several reasons including ignorance of the existence of such a test, lack of awareness of centers where such services are obtainable, ignorance of the importance of screening and the risk factors to the development of cervical cancer. Conclusion: There ...

  19. Assisted living nursing practice: admission assessment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mitty, Ethel; Flores, Sandi

    2007-01-01

    Admission assessment, generally conducted by a registered nurse, is autonomous, without opportunity for dialogue with colleagues and other health care professionals and bounded by the nurse's knowledge and skills, state regulations, facility practices, and marketing. The fact that some states permit admission and retention of nursing home level-of-care residents and provision of end-of-life care means that the assessment has to be able to predict the resident's likely trajectory of well-being as well as chronic illness exacerbation. The nurse must have a clear perspective on staff competencies and judge whether additional education or training will be necessary. This article reviews assessment standards of practice as put forth by the American Assisted Living Nurses Association as part of its application for recognition of assisted living nursing as specialty nursing practice by the American Nurses Association. The role of the Licensed Practical Nurse/Licensed Vocational Nurse in resident assessment is also discussed.

  20. Assessment of radiation protection practices among radiographers ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background: Use of ionising radiation in diagnostic radiography could lead to hazards such as somatic and genetic damages. Compliance to safe work and radiation protection practices could mitigate such risks. The aim of the study was to assess the knowledge and radiation protection practices among radiographers in ...

  1. Assessment of psychological barriers to cervical cancer screening ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    EB

    Assessment of psychological barriers to cervical cancer screening among women in Kumasi, Ghana using a mixed methods approach. *Williams M1, Kuffour G2, Ekuadzi E3, Yeboah M4, ElDuah M1, Tuffour P2. 1. Department of Health Behavior, University of Alabama at Birmingham, USA. 2. Department of Pharmaceutics ...

  2. Screening and assessment of laccase producing fungi isolated from ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Screening and assessment of laccase producing fungi isolated from different environmental samples. ... found to be laccase-positive with Stereum ostrea and Phanerochaete chrysosporium being the best potential cultures. Laccase production on 5 different liquid media was compared using these two white rot fungi.

  3. Assessment of the Diagnostic Potential of Clinotech TB Screen Test ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The Clinotech TB Screen test, a 3rd generation multi-antigen rapid chromatographic immunoassay for detection of IgG antibodies in serum against recombinant protein antigens 38kDa, 16kDa and 6kDa, was assessed for its diagnostic potential for diagnosis of active pulmonary TB in routine TB control programme in Abia ...

  4. Cervical cancer screening in adolescents: an evidence-based internet education program for practice improvement among advanced practice nurses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choma, Kim; McKeever, Amy E

    2015-02-01

    The literature reports great variation in the knowledge levels and application of the recent changes of cervical cancer screening guidelines into clinical practice. Evidence-based screening guidelines for the prevention and early detection of cervical cancer offers healthcare providers the opportunity to improve practice patterns among female adolescents by decreasing psychological distress as well as reducing healthcare costs and morbidities associated with over-screening. The purpose of this pilot intervention study was to determine the effects of a Web-based continuing education unit (CEU) program on advanced practice nurses' (APNs) knowledge of current cervical cancer screening evidence-based recommendations and their application in practice. This paper presents a process improvement project as an example of a way to disseminate updated evidence-based practice guidelines among busy healthcare providers. This Web-based CEU program was developed, piloted, and evaluated specifically for APNs. The program addressed their knowledge level of cervical cancer and its relationship with high-risk human papillomavirus. It also addressed the new cervical cancer screening guidelines and the application of those guidelines into clinical practice. Results of the study indicated that knowledge gaps exist among APNs about cervical cancer screening in adolescents. However, when provided with a CEU educational intervention, APNs' knowledge levels increased and their self-reported clinical practice behaviors changed in accordance with the new cervical cancer screening guidelines. Providing convenient and readily accessible up-to-date electronic content that provides CEU enhances the adoption of clinical practice guidelines, thereby decreasing the potential of the morbidities associated with over-screening for cervical cancer in adolescents and young women. © 2014 Sigma Theta Tau International.

  5. Correlation Between Screening Mammography Interpretive Performance on a Test Set and Performance in Clinical Practice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miglioretti, Diana L; Ichikawa, Laura; Smith, Robert A; Buist, Diana S M; Carney, Patricia A; Geller, Berta; Monsees, Barbara; Onega, Tracy; Rosenberg, Robert; Sickles, Edward A; Yankaskas, Bonnie C; Kerlikowske, Karla

    2017-10-01

    Evidence is inconsistent about whether radiologists' interpretive performance on a screening mammography test set reflects their performance in clinical practice. This study aimed to estimate the correlation between test set and clinical performance and determine if the correlation is influenced by cancer prevalence or lesion difficulty in the test set. This institutional review board-approved study randomized 83 radiologists from six Breast Cancer Surveillance Consortium registries to assess one of four test sets of 109 screening mammograms each; 48 radiologists completed a fifth test set of 110 mammograms 2 years later. Test sets differed in number of cancer cases and difficulty of lesion detection. Test set sensitivity and specificity were estimated using woman-level and breast-level recall with cancer status and expert opinion as gold standards. Clinical performance was estimated using women-level recall with cancer status as the gold standard. Spearman rank correlations between test set and clinical performance with 95% confidence intervals (CI) were estimated. For test sets with fewer cancers (N = 15) that were more difficult to detect, correlations were weak to moderate for sensitivity (woman level = 0.46, 95% CI = 0.16, 0.69; breast level = 0.35, 95% CI = 0.03, 0.61) and weak for specificity (0.24, 95% CI = 0.01, 0.45) relative to expert recall. Correlations for test sets with more cancers (N = 30) were close to 0 and not statistically significant. Correlations between screening performance on a test set and performance in clinical practice are not strong. Test set performance more accurately reflects performance in clinical practice if cancer prevalence is low and lesions are challenging to detect. Copyright © 2017 The Association of University Radiologists. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  6. Implications of Overdiagnosis: Impact on Screening Mammography Practices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morris, Elizabeth; Feig, Stephen A; Drexler, Madeline; Lehman, Constance

    2015-09-01

    This review article explores the issue of overdiagnosis in screening mammography. Overdiagnosis is the screen detection of a breast cancer, histologically confirmed, that might not otherwise become clinically apparent during the lifetime of the patient. While screening mammography is an imperfect tool, it remains the best tool we have to diagnose breast cancer early, before a patient is symptomatic and at a time when chances of survival and options for treatment are most favorable. In 2015, an estimated 231,840 new cases of breast cancer (excluding ductal carcinoma in situ) will be diagnosed in the United States, and some 40,290 women will die. Despite these data, screening mammography for women ages 40-69 has contributed to a substantial reduction in breast cancer mortality, and organized screening programs have led to a shift from late-stage diagnosis to early-stage detection. Current estimates of overdiagnosis in screening mammography vary widely, from 0% to upwards of 30% of diagnosed cancers. This range reflects the fact that measuring overdiagnosis is not a straightforward calculation, but usually one based on different sets of assumptions and often biased by methodological flaws. The recent development of tomosynthesis, which creates high-resolution, three-dimensional images, has increased breast cancer detection while reducing false recalls. Because the greatest harm of overdiagnosis is overtreatment, the key goal should not be less diagnosis but better treatment decision tools. (Population Health Management 2015;18:S3-S11).

  7. Refining lecturers' assessment practices through formal professional ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The Higher Education Quality Committee's emphasis on the assessment of student learning in its criteria for institutional audits (June 2004) signals that institutional arrangements to ensure quality assessment practices are to come under the spotlight. One means to demonstrate institutional commitment to quality in ...

  8. An Assessment of SBIRT Prescreening and Screening Outcomes by Medical Setting and Administration Methodology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jon Agley PhD, MPH

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Background: Screening, brief intervention, and referral to treatment (SBIRT is an efficacious prevention practice. However, little research has assessed differences in prescreening outcomes between inpatient and outpatient primary care or among different prescreening administration methods. This study tested whether administration method (self-administered vs interview and setting (inpatient versus outpatient predicted prescreening outcomes in a large sample of primary care patients. Then, among patients who prescreened positive, it tested whether full screening scores differed by administration method and setting. Methods: Researchers used binomial logistic regression to assess predicted prescreening outcomes and analysis of variance to assess differences in SBIRT screening scores across a total of 14 447 unique patient visits in 10 outpatient sites and 1 centrally located hospital. Results: Controlling for gender, depression, and other substance use, both medical setting and method of prescreening, predicted prescreening results. Among patients who prescreened positive for alcohol, setting also was associated with mean screening scores. However, outcomes were not uniform by substance (eg, alcohol vs other drugs. Conclusion: The results support previous studies on this topic that had utilized cross-study comparison or that were not specific to SBIRT prescreening/screening mechanisms. At the same time, nuanced findings were observed that had not previously been reported and suggest the need for further research in this area.

  9. Binding-site assessment by virtual fragment screening.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Niu Huang

    Full Text Available The accurate prediction of protein druggability (propensity to bind high-affinity drug-like small molecules would greatly benefit the fields of chemical genomics and drug discovery. We have developed a novel approach to quantitatively assess protein druggability by computationally screening a fragment-like compound library. In analogy to NMR-based fragment screening, we dock approximately 11,000 fragments against a given binding site and compute a computational hit rate based on the fraction of molecules that exceed an empirically chosen score cutoff. We perform a large-scale evaluation of the approach on four datasets, totaling 152 binding sites. We demonstrate that computed hit rates correlate with hit rates measured experimentally in a previously published NMR-based screening method. Secondly, we show that the in silico fragment screening method can be used to distinguish known druggable and non-druggable targets, including both enzymes and protein-protein interaction sites. Finally, we explore the sensitivity of the results to different receptor conformations, including flexible protein-protein interaction sites. Besides its original aim to assess druggability of different protein targets, this method could be used to identifying druggable conformations of flexible binding site for lead discovery, and suggesting strategies for growing or joining initial fragment hits to obtain more potent inhibitors.

  10. [Script concordance test for knowledge assessment of lung cancer screening].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Couraud, S; Girard, P; Girard, N; Souquet, P-J; Coiffard, B; Charlin, B; Milleron, B

    2016-05-01

    Annual screening for lung cancer using low-dose CT-scans is associated with decreased mortality. A survey conducted in Rhône-Alpes area in France found that clinicians need education and information on this topic. Script concordance tests (SCT) are a tool for assessing clinical reasoning in situations of uncertainty. They have not previously been used in France in the context of continuing medical education. We created a questionnaire with 5 multiple-choice questions (MCQ) and two SCT scenarios. The questionnaire was sent to all clinicians and residents who are members of French-Speaking Respiratory Society or the French Young Pulmonologist Association. One hundred and ninety answers were analyzed. Seventy percent stated that decreasing mortality was the best criterion for assessing the effectiveness of a cancer screening policy, and 75% that low-dose CT scan was the best test to achieve this in lung cancer screening. Forty-five percent knew the eligibility criteria of the population, and 62% that low-dose CT scan should be performed annually. Participation in tumor boards and certification in oncology were significantly associated with a better score at MCQ and SCT. SCT and MCQ scores were significantly correlated (Spearman's Rho 0.339; P<0.0001). SCT are feasible by electronic survey and seem relevant. Improving knowledge of clinicians on lung cancer screening is still critical. Copyright © 2015 SPLF. Published by Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  11. High-throughput screening: update on practices and success.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fox, Sandra; Farr-Jones, Shauna; Sopchak, Lynne; Boggs, Amy; Nicely, Helen Wang; Khoury, Richard; Biros, Michael

    2006-10-01

    High-throughput screening (HTS) has become an important part of drug discovery at most pharmaceutical and many biotechnology companies worldwide, and use of HTS technologies is expanding into new areas. Target validation, assay development, secondary screening, ADME/Tox, and lead optimization are among the areas in which there is an increasing use of HTS technologies. It is becoming fully integrated within drug discovery, both upstream and downstream, which includes increasing use of cell-based assays and high-content screening (HCS) technologies to achieve more physiologically relevant results and to find higher quality leads. In addition, HTS laboratories are continually evaluating new technologies as they struggle to increase their success rate for finding drug candidates. The material in this article is based on a 900-page HTS industry report involving 54 HTS directors representing 58 HTS laboratories and 34 suppliers.

  12. Knowledge, attitudes and practices toward breast cancer screening in a rural South African community

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dorah U. Ramathuba

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Objectives: The study assessed the knowledge, attitudes and breast cancer screening practices amongst women aged 30–65 years residing in a rural South African community.Method: A quantitative, descriptive cross-sectional design was used and a systematic sampling technique was employed to select 150 participants. The questionnaire was pretested for validity and consistency. Ethical considerations were adhered to in protecting the rights of participants. Thereafter, data were collected and analysed descriptively using the Predictive Analytics Software program.Results: Findings revealed that the level of knowledge about breast cancer of women in Makwarani Community was relatively low. The attitude toward breast cancer was negative whereas the majority of women had never performed breast cancer diagnostic methods.Conclusion: Health education on breast cancer screening practices is lacking and the knowledge deficit can contribute negatively to early detection of breast cancer and compound late detection. Based on the findings, community-based intervention was recommended in order to bridge the knowledge gap

  13. Do general practices adhere to organizational guidelines for effective cervical cancer screening?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hermens, R P; Hak, E; Hulscher, M E; Mulder, J; Braspenning, J C; Grol, R P

    BACKGROUND: Well-organized cervical screening has been shown to be effective in the reduction of both morbidity and mortality from cancer of the uterine cervix. In The Netherlands, the GP plays an important role in the cervical screening. The question is whether the general practices are able to

  14. Cancer screening in a middle-aged general population: factors associated with practices and attitudes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Perneger Thomas V

    2009-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The aim of this study was to identify factors associated with cancer screening practices and with general attitudes toward cancer screening in a general population. Methods Mailed survey of 30–60 year old residents of Geneva, Switzerland, that included questions about screening for five cancers (breast, cervix uteri, prostate, colon, skin in the past 3 years, attitudes toward screening, health care use, preventive behaviours and socio-demographic characteristics. Cancer screening practice was dichotomised as having done at least one screening test in the past 3 years versus none. Results The survey response rate was 49.3% (2301/4670. More women than men had had at least one cancer screening test in the past 3 years (83.2% vs 34.5%, p Conclusion Attitudes play an important role in cancer screening practices among middle-aged adults in the general population, independent of demographic variables (age and sex that determine in part screening recommendations. Negative attitudes were the most frequent among men and the most socio-economically disadvantaged. The moderate participation rate raises the possibility of selection bias.

  15. Health Risk Screening Practices of Pharmacy and Chemist Shops in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Twelve (13.9%) of the respondents had some form of on the job training for screening women who come to buy oral contraceptives. Twenty eight (32.7%) of the respondents did not ask any question from the women who buy oral contraceptives. Those who asked questions did not know the correct responses expected or ...

  16. Prostate Screening Practices Among Male Staff of the University of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Introduction: Prostate cancer is the second most common male cancer and the second leading cause of cancer related death in the world. In Nigeria it is the most common male cancer constituting 11-12% of all male cancers. In most developing countries, prostate cancer screening is not widespread and men's knowledge of ...

  17. Knowledge and practice of cervical cancer screening among female ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Cervical cancer is the commonest genital tract malignancies in the females and its burden is enormous, to the patient and her community. It is largely preventable or curable when detected at the very early stage through effective screening programme. Very poor clients' attendance has been noticed at the services provided ...

  18. Screening for diabetes mellitus in a Nigerian family practice population

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background Diabetes mellitus is a non-communicable disease with a rising prevalence worldwide. Most of the increase in prevalence is projected to be in the developing countries. As it is recognised that the onset of the disease and its complications predate the symptoms, it is expedient that screening procedures are ...

  19. Cervical cancer screening and practice in low resource countries ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Key words: Cervical cancer screening; human papillomavirus, low resource countries; Nigeria; premalignant disease. Introduction. Cervical cancer is the .... It requires transportation from clinic back to the laboratory and multiple patient visits. .... The statistics relating to cervical cancer in Nigeria is worrisome, and if significant ...

  20. Newborn Hearing Screening: An Analysis of Current Practices

    Science.gov (United States)

    Houston, K. Todd; Bradham, Tamala S.; Munoz, Karen F.; Guignard, Gayla Hutsell

    2011-01-01

    State coordinators of early hearing detection and intervention (EHDI) programs completed a strengths, weaknesses, opportunities, and threats, or SWOT, analysis that consisted of 12 evaluative areas of EHDI programs. For the newborn hearing screening area, a total of 293 items were listed by 49 EHDI coordinators, and themes were identified within…

  1. Cervical cytology screening - knowledge, attitudes and practice in a ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    urban settlements with regard to screening for cervical cancer. Method: A community·based questionnaire survey of 165 women living in a defined area of Khayelitsha, a periurban settlement on the outskirts of Cape Town. Results: Two hundred ...

  2. Practical and sensitive screening strategy for detection of influenza virus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Newton, Duane W; Mellen, Cindy F; Baxter, Barbara D; Atmar, Robert L; Menegus, Marilyn A

    2002-11-01

    This study evaluated the performance of Directigen FluA combined with a 3-day flu screening culture for the detection of influenza virus. This abbreviated protocol was a useful and effective tool and resulted in a substantial reduction in time, effort, and money spent, while not compromising sensitivity of influenza virus detection.

  3. knowledge, attitude and practice of cervical cancer screening

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Conclusion: knowledge of cervical cancer screening services among female nurses in Nnewi is high while uptake rate is abysmally poor. There is need to ... malignancyl" of the female genital tract in the developing countries "5 and second ... to 35 years with access to treatment can lead to drastic reduction in cervical cancer ...

  4. Cervical Cancer Screening: A Survey of Current Practice Amongst ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    In the absence of a national screening programme, any hope of minimising death from invasive cervical carcinoma in Nigeria is through increased opportunistic ... Study Design, Setting and Subjects: A self-administered, questionnaire survey of 113 Nigerian gynaecologists who attended the Annual General Meeting and ...

  5. Screening Level Risk Assessment for the New Waste Calcining Facility

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    M. L. Abbott; K. N. Keck; R. E. Schindler; R. L. VanHorn; N. L. Hampton; M. B. Heiser

    1999-05-01

    This screening level risk assessment evaluates potential adverse human health and ecological impacts resulting from continued operations of the calciner at the New Waste Calcining Facility (NWCF) at the Idaho Nuclear Technology and Engineering Center (INTEC), Idaho National Engineering and Environmental Laboratory (INEEL). The assessment was conducted in accordance with the Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) report, Guidance for Performing Screening Level Risk Analyses at Combustion Facilities Burning Hazardous Waste. This screening guidance is intended to give a conservative estimate of the potential risks to determine whether a more refined assessment is warranted. The NWCF uses a fluidized-bed combustor to solidify (calcine) liquid radioactive mixed waste from the INTEC Tank Farm facility. Calciner off volatilized metal species, trace organic compounds, and low-levels of radionuclides. Conservative stack emission rates were calculated based on maximum waste solution feed samples, conservative assumptions for off gas partitioning of metals and organics, stack gas sampling for mercury, and conservative measurements of contaminant removal (decontamination factors) in the off gas treatment system. Stack emissions were modeled using the ISC3 air dispersion model to predict maximum particulate and vapor air concentrations and ground deposition rates. Results demonstrate that NWCF emissions calculated from best-available process knowledge would result in maximum onsite and offsite health and ecological impacts that are less then EPA-established criteria for operation of a combustion facility.

  6. Electronic management of practice assessment data.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stutsky, Brenda

    2014-08-01

    The assessment of a practising physician's performance may be conducted for various reasons, including licensure. In response to a request from the College of Physicians and Surgeons of Manitoba (CPSM), the Division of Continuing Professional Development in the Faculty of Medicine, University of Manitoba, has established a practice-based assessment programme - the Manitoba Practice Assessment Program (MPAP) - as the College needed a method to evaluate the competence and performance of physicians on the conditional register. Using a multifaceted approach and CanMEDS as a guiding framework, a variety of practice-based assessment surveys and tools were developed and piloted. Because of the challenge of collating data, the MPAP team needed a computerised solution to manage the data and assessment process. Over a 2-year period, a customised web-based forms and information management system was designed, developed, tested and implemented. The secure and robust system allows the MPAP team to create assessment surveys and tools in which each item is mapped to Canadian Medical Education Directives for Specialists (CanMEDS) roles and competencies. Reports can be auto-generated, summarising a physician's performance on specific competencies and roles. Overall, the system allows the MPAP team to effectively manage all aspects of the assessment programme. Throughout all stages of design to implementation, a variety of lessons were learned that can be shared with those considering building their own customised web-based system. The key to success is active involvement in all stages of the process! © 2014 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  7. The cost of diagnosing Type 2 diabetes mellitus by clinical opportunistic screening in general practice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pereira Gray, D J; Evans, P H; Wright, C; Langley, P

    2012-07-01

    Type 2 diabetes is associated with serious complications and shortens life. Its prevalence is increasing rapidly worldwide and no cure is available. One logical response is to diagnose the condition as early as possible. Clinical opportunistic screening is one mechanism for making the diagnosis before symptoms are reported. This paper reports the cost of using this technique in UK general practice. In one UK general practice, the electronic medical records were searched to determine the number of blood glucose and oral glucose tolerance tests undertaken for non-pregnant adults without known diabetes over three consecutive years. The laboratory, staff and administrative costs associated with these screening tests were calculated. The records of all patients newly diagnosed with Type 2 diabetes during the same period were reviewed to identify diagnoses made by clinical opportunistic screening. Total costs were divided by the number of diagnoses to determine a cost per diagnosis detected by opportunistic screening. During the study period, 5720 screening tests were conducted for 2763 patients. Over the 3 years, 86 patients were diagnosed with Type 2 diabetes, 54 (63%) via screening (yield 2.0%; number needed to screen 51.2). The screening costs totalled £ 20,372. The average cost per new screen-detected diagnosis was £ 377. Almost two-thirds of new cases of Type 2 diabetes can be detected before symptoms are reported, at reasonable cost by opportunistic screening in general practice, without the use of extra resources. As an affordable alternative to population screening, clinical opportunistic screening merits further consideration. © 2012 The Authors. Diabetic Medicine © 2012 Diabetes UK.

  8. The "high-risk" deep venous thrombosis screening protocol for trauma patients: Is it practical?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dietch, Zachary C; Petroze, Robin T; Thames, Matthew; Willis, Rhett; Sawyer, Robert G; Williams, Michael D

    2015-12-01

    Many centers advocate aggressive lower extremity deep venous thrombosis (DVT) screening using ultrasound (LUS) for patients meeting high-risk criteria. We hypothesized that a high-risk screening protocol is impractical and costly to implement. The University of Virginia's trauma database was queried to identify 6,656 patients admitted between 2009 and 2013. Patient characteristics and outcomes were recorded. Multivariate analyses were performed on patients who underwent LUS to assess the association between patient characteristics and the development of DVT. A predictive model for DVT was applied to the entire population to determine performance and resources required for implementation. Overall, 2,350 (35.3%) of admitted patients underwent LUS. A total of 146 patients (6.2%) developed DVT. Patients who underwent LUS were significantly older (54.5 years vs. 50.4 years, p ISSs) (13.5 vs. 8.6, p < 0.0001), and had longer admissions to the intensive care unit (5.6 days vs. 0.9 days, p < 0.0001). Backward selection multivariable logistic regression identified intensive care unit length of stay, transfusion of blood products, spinal cord injury, and pelvic fracture to be associated with DVT (c statistic, 0.76). The model was applied to the entire population to evaluate probability of DVT (c statistic, 0.87). Predictive performance and costs were determined using a cost per LUS of $228. The most sensitive threshold for screening would detect 53% of DVTs, require screening of 26% of all trauma patients, and cost nearly $600,000 to implement during the study period. Although a predictive model identified high-risk criteria for the development of DVT at our institution, the model demonstrated poor sensitivity and positive predictive value. These results suggest that implementing a high-risk screening protocol in trauma patients would require a costly and burdensome commitment of resources and that high-risk DVT screening protocols may not be practical or cost-effective for

  9. Knowledge and practice of colorectal screening in a suburban group of Iraqi American women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jillson, Irene; Faeq, Zainab; Kabbara, Khaled W; Cousin, Carolyn; Mumford, William; Blancato, Jan

    2015-06-01

    Colorectal cancer (CRC) was the second most common cancer among women in 2008, accounting for 571,000 cases, and 9.4% of all cancer cases afflicting women worldwide. According to the World Health Organization (WHO) and the Iraqi National Cancer Registry (INCR), Iraq has seen a steady rise in CRC rates among its general population over the past several decades. Despite Iraq's increasing national incidence of CRC and the growth of the US' Iraqi immigrant population over the last 10 years, little remains known about the prevalence of CRC among the latter population, their knowledge of CRC and associated risk factors, or their behavioral intent and practices regarding CRC screening. The aims of this study were to (1) examine the knowledge of and adherence to National Cancer Institute screening recommendations for CRC among a population of Iraqi women living in the Washington D.C. Metropolitan Area and (2) test the efficacy of a one-time educational intervention conducted using linguistically and culturally appropriate materials to raise awareness of, and promote future adherence to, CRC screening methods. This descriptive study used a pre/post design with a 12-month follow-up. Following extensive dissemination of information regarding the study in the Iraqi American community in the study location, 50 women were initially recruited, of whom 32 participated in the study. The study's findings revealed that the participants generally had low baseline levels of CRC screening adherence and preventive knowledge that significantly improved after the intervention as demonstrated by pre- and post-assessments of knowledge and behavior. These findings could be used to raise awareness (1) among clinicians regarding the need for early detection and screening of and referral for CRC treatment among Iraqi American women and (2) among Iraqi American women about risk factors for this disease and the importance of early detection and screening. The study also highlights the need for a

  10. Development of a Social Skills Assessment Screening Scale for Psychiatric Rehabilitation Settings: A Pilot Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhola, Poornima; Basavarajappa, Chethan; Guruprasad, Deepti; Hegde, Gayatri; Khanam, Fatema; Thirthalli, Jagadisha; Chaturvedi, Santosh K

    2016-01-01

    Deficits in social skills may present in a range of psychiatric disorders, particularly in the more serious and persistent conditions, and have an influence on functioning across various domains. This pilot study aimed at developing a brief measure, for structured evaluation and screening for social skills deficits, which can be easily integrated into routine clinical practice. The sample consisted of 380 inpatients and their accompanying caregivers, referred to Psychiatric Rehabilitation Services at a tertiary care government psychiatric hospital. The evaluation included an Inpatient intake Proforma and the 20-item Social Skills Assessment Screening Scale (SSASS). Disability was assessed using the Indian Disability Evaluation and Assessment Scale (IDEAS) for a subset of 94 inpatients. The analysis included means and standard deviations, frequency and percentages, Cronbach's alpha to assess internal consistency, t -tests to assess differences in social skills deficits between select subgroups, and correlation between SSASS and IDEAS scores. The results indicated the profile of social skills deficits assessed among the inpatients with varied psychiatric diagnoses. The "psychosis" group exhibited significantly higher deficits than the "mood disorder" group. Results indicated high internal consistency of the SSASS and adequate criterion validity demonstrated by correlations with select IDEAS domains. Modifications were made to the SSASS following the pilot study. The SSASS has potential value as a measure for screening and individualised intervention plans for social skills training in mental health and rehabilitation settings. The implications for future work on the psychometric properties and clinical applications are discussed.

  11. Assessment Practices of Secondary Music Teachers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Russell, Joshua A.; Austin, James R.

    2010-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to survey assessment and grading practices employed by secondary music teachers throughout the southwestern region of the United States. Three main research questions guided the study: (1) What types of school district frameworks and classroom contexts are secondary music teachers operating within? (2) Which specific…

  12. Student Teachers' Perceptions towards Teaching Practice Assessment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chireshe, R.; Chireshe, E.

    2010-01-01

    The study investigated the perceptions of student teachers towards teaching practice assessment. Participants N=180:90 males, 90 females were randomly drawn from three primary school teachers' colleges in Masvingo Educational Region of Zimbabwe. A questionnaire was used to gather data from the respondents. A chi-square test was used to analyse the…

  13. Practical considerations in voltage stability assessment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kundur, P.; Gao, B. [Powertech Labs. Inc., Surrey, BC (Canada)

    1994-12-31

    This paper deals with some of the most important practical issues related to voltage stability assessment of large practical systems. A brief discussion of the practical aspects of voltage stability problem and prevention of voltage instability is given first, followed by descriptions of different analytical techniques and tools for voltage stability analysis. Presentations of analytical tools is focused on the VSTAB program which incorporates the modal analysis, continuation power flow, and shortest distance to instability techniques, Finally, an example case study of a practical large system is presented. The case study illustrates how modal analysis is used to determine the most effective load shedding scheme for preventing voltage instability. (author) 15 refs., 2 figs., 2 tabs.

  14. DR services in Fiji: attitudes, barriers and screening practices

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bridget Kool

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to describe the attitudes and perceptions of primary health care doctors in Fiji regarding the importance of eye care in diabetes mellitus (DM management, to explore current eye care practice, and to investigate awareness and use of relevant clinical practice guidelines. The study builds on earlier research conducted in Fiji that identified a rapid increase of late-stage DR patients presenting for treatment, at a time when surgery was the only option.

  15. Concurrent validity of the stroke drivers screening assessment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Radford, Kathryn A; Lincoln, Nadina B

    2004-02-01

    To determine the concurrent validity of the Stroke Drivers Screening Assessment (SDSA). Comparison of the SDSA with criterion standards. Subjects' homes in the community in the United Kingdom. Ninety-three stroke patients (age range, 22-83y) who were referred for assessment of fitness to drive or who had been driving before their stroke. Participants were assessed a median of 5 months post stroke. Not applicable. Patients were assessed on the SDSA and tests of visuospatial ability (Visual Object and Space Perception [VOSP] Battery), executive abilities (Stroop Neuropsychological Screening Test, Trail-Making Test [TMT], Cognitive Estimates Test [CET]), and visual memory (Recognition Memory Tests [RMT], Verbal Descriptions of Road Signs [VDRS]). The SDSA subtests all correlated significantly with the Stroop test (PSDSA Dot Cancellation (DC) also correlated significantly with the VDRS (PSDSA Square Matrices (SM) test correlated significantly with the VOSP cube analysis (PSDSA Road Sign Recognition (RSR) test also correlated significantly with the VOSP cube analysis (PSDSA seems to measure predominantly attention and executive abilities, which have previously been shown to be important determinants of safety to drive. This may account for the high predictive validity of the SDSA.

  16. Knowledge, Attitude and Practice Regarding Cervical Cancer Screening Among Women Attending a Teaching Hospital, Bharatpur, Chitwan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shrestha, Smita; Dhakal, Prativa

    2017-03-01

    Objective: To find out the knowledge, attitude and practice regarding cervical cancer screening among women. Materials and methods: A descriptive cross-sectional study design was used to collect data from 96 women. Each woman was selected alternately from Gynae Out-Patient Department of Teaching Hospital. Data was collected by using semi-structured interview schedule to find out knowledge and practice and Likert scale to find out the attitude regarding cervical cancer screening. Data was analyzed by using SPSS version 20.0 and interpreted in terms of descriptive and inferential statistics. Results: Out of 96 women, mean age was 38.83 ± 6.57 and 90.6% respondents followed Hinduism. More than three fourth (85.4%) were literate and 59.4% were housewife. Only 9.4% were involved in cervical cancer prevention and screening awareness programme and 2.1% had family history of cervical cancer. As per the findings, only 34.4% and 27.8% had adequate knowledge and practice respectively whereas cent percent women had favorable attitude. Only education level of women was statistically significant with level of knowledge regarding cervical cancer screening (p = 0.041). There was strong negative correlation between knowledge score and practice score regarding cervical cancer screening among women (r = -0.194). Conclusion: Considerable proportions of women have inadequate knowledge and practice regarding cervical cancer screening. Therefore cervical cancer screening health camps and awareness program should be conducted at community level for women to increase the level of knowledge and practice regarding cervical cancer screening.

  17. The relationship between real life breast screening and an annual self assessment scheme

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scott, Hazel J.; Evans, Andrew; Gale, Alastair G.; Murphy, Alison; Reed, Jacquie

    2009-02-01

    Incidence of cancer in the UK NHS Breast Screening Programme (NHSBSP) is relatively low (approximately 7% per 1,000 cases screened). As such, feedback from cancers missed or interval cancers can be a relatively lengthy process (whereby a woman will not present for corroborating imaging for a further three years). Therefore in order to monitor their radiological skill, all breast screening radiologists and technologists read a self-assessed, standard set of challenging mammographic images bi-yearly. This scheme, 'PERFORMS' (Personal Performance in Mammographic Screening) has been running since near the inception of the NHSBSP in 1991. Although PERFORMS has functioned as an educational tool for film-readers on the UKBSP for decades, its relation to real life screening in past years has proven to be somewhat equivocal (Cowley & Gale, 1999). The present study investigated the relationship between performance measures in real life and their equivalent on the PERFORMS self assessment scheme namely: Miss Rate (FN), Cases Arbitrated and Returned to Routine screening and Incorrect recall (FP), Specificity (TN) and Cancer Detection (TP). Over 40 individuals from one NHS region in the UK submitted their real life data for comparison with PERFORMS results from the same time frame. Data from this initial study were taken from the year 2005-2006 and compared with the relevant PERFORMS set of cases. Results indicated a significant positive correlation between PERFORMS performance measures and performance measures for real life. These results are discussed in the light of the legitimacy of self-assessment comparative to film-reading skill (during real life clinical practice).

  18. Survivorship: Screening for Cancer and Treatment Effects, Version 2.2014: Clinical Practice Guidelines in Oncology

    OpenAIRE

    Denlinger, Crystal S.; Ligibel, Jennifer A.; Are, Madhuri; Baker, K. Scott; Demark-Wahnefried, Wendy; Dizon, Don; Friedman, Debra L.; Goldman, Mindy; Jones, Lee; King, Allison; Ku, Grace H.; Kvale, Elizabeth; Langbaum, Terry S.; Leonardi-Warren, Kristin; McCabe, Mary S.

    2014-01-01

    The NCCN Guidelines for Survivorship provide screening, evaluation, and treatment recommendations for common physical and psychosocial consequences of cancer and cancer treatment. This portion of the guidelines describes recommendations regarding screening for the effects of cancer and its treatment. The panel created a sample screening tool, specifically for use in combination with the NCCN Guidelines for Survivorship, to guide providers to topics that require more in-depth assessment. Effec...

  19. Assessment of Uncertainty-Based Screening Volumes for NASA Robotic LEO and GEO Conjunction Risk Assessment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Narvet, Steven W.; Frigm, Ryan C.; Hejduk, Matthew D.

    2011-01-01

    Conjunction Assessment operations require screening assets against the space object catalog by placing a pre-determined spatial volume around each asset and predicting when another object will violate that volume. The selection of the screening volume used for each spacecraft is a trade-off between observing all conjunction events that may pose a potential risk to the primary spacecraft and the ability to analyze those predicted events. If the screening volumes are larger, then more conjunctions can be observed and therefore the probability of a missed detection of a high risk conjunction event is small; however, the amount of data which needs to be analyzed increases. This paper characterizes the sensitivity of screening volume size to capturing typical orbit uncertainties and the expected number of conjunction events observed. These sensitivities are quantified in the form of a trade space that allows for selection of appropriate screen-ing volumes to fit the desired concept of operations, system limitations, and tolerable analyst workloads. This analysis will specifically highlight the screening volume determination and selection process for use in the NASA Conjunction Assessment Risk Analysis process but will also provide a general framework for other Owner / Operators faced with similar decisions.

  20. A practical approach to programmatic assessment design.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Timmerman, A A; Dijkstra, J

    2017-12-01

    Assessment of complex tasks integrating several competencies calls for a programmatic design approach. As single instruments do not provide the information required to reach a robust judgment of integral performance, 73 guidelines for programmatic assessment design were developed. When simultaneously applying these interrelated guidelines, it is challenging to keep a clear overview of all assessment activities. The goal of this study was to provide practical support for applying a programmatic approach to assessment design, not bound to any specific educational paradigm. The guidelines were first applied in a postgraduate medical training setting, and a process analysis was conducted. This resulted in the identification of four steps for programmatic assessment design: evaluation, contextualisation, prioritisation and justification. Firstly, the (re)design process starts with sufficiently detailing the assessment environment and formulating the principal purpose. Key stakeholders with sufficient (assessment) expertise need to be involved in the analysis of strengths and weaknesses and identification of developmental needs. Central governance is essential to balance efforts and stakes with the principal purpose and decide on prioritisation of design decisions and selection of relevant guidelines. Finally, justification of assessment design decisions, quality assurance and external accountability close the loop, to ensure sound underpinning and continuous improvement of the assessment programme.

  1. Cultural Beliefs and Attitudes About Breast Cancer and Screening Practices Among Arabic Women in Australia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kwok, Cannas; Endrawes, Gihane; Lee, Chun Fan

    2016-01-01

    Arabic women have been consistently reported as having remarkably low participation rates in breast cancer screening measures in their home countries and after migration to Western countries. Little is known about the screening behaviors of Arabic women in Australia. This study aimed to report breast cancer screening practices among Arabic women in Australia and to examine the relationship between (1) demographic factors and (2) the Arabic version of the Breast Cancer Screening Beliefs Questionnaire (BCSBQ) score and women's breast screening behaviors. A descriptive cross-sectional method was used. Both English and Arabic versions of the BCSBQ were administered to the 251 Arabic Australian women 18 years or older who participated in the study. The majority of participants (62.9%-92%) had heard of breast awareness, clinical breast examination, and mammography. However, only 7.6% practiced breast awareness monthly, 21.4% had undergone clinical breast examination annually, and 40.3% had biannual mammography. Length of stay in Australia, being retired, and being unemployed were positively associated with the recommended performance of breast awareness and mammography. In terms of BCSBQ scores, women who engaged in the 3 screening practices had significantly higher scores on the attitudes to health check-ups and barriers to mammography subscales. Attitudes toward health check-ups and perceived barriers to mammography were important determinants of breast cancer screening practices among Arabic Australian women. To fully understand barriers discouraging Arabic Australian women from participating in breast cancer screening practices, efforts should be focused on specific subgroup (ie, working group) of Arabic Australian women.

  2. Assessment and pedagogical practices of teachers.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juan Quevedo Toro

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available The evaluation should become a dynamic process of school life in any educational institution with the primary purpose to understand and assess their practical and academic, social and pedagogical relations, educational discourse, actions and decisions conducive to transform reality and praxis pedagogical. In this sense, the Pedagogical Project Bread teacher training has allowed reconceptualize and evaluative and educational recontextualise light of qualitative practices, integrated, personal and social, exceeding the quantitative conception, before qualifying and only rote knowledge . The project constitutes the optimal space for future teachers articulate evaluative theory and practice related to pedagogy and his knowledge of this discipline. He then conceives of evaluation as the opportunity to learn to understand and understanding to transform our educational and institutional realities.

  3. Medical Residents? and Practicing Physicians? e-Cigarette Knowledge and Patient Screening Activities

    OpenAIRE

    Karen W. Geletko; Karen Myers; Naomi Brownstein; Breanna Jameson; Daniel Lopez; Alaine Sharpe; Bellamy, Gail R.

    2016-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this study was to compare medical residents and practicing physicians in primary care specialties regarding their knowledge and beliefs about electronic cigarettes (e-cigarettes). We wanted to ascertain whether years removed from medical school had an effect on screening practices, recommendations given to patients, and the types of informational sources utilized. Methods: A statewide sample of Florida primary care medical residents (n = 61) and practicing physicians (...

  4. Does quality of life assessment in palliative care look like a complex screening program?

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    Catania Gianluca

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Palliative Care (PC is an approach that improves the Quality of Life (QoL. A number of QoL assessment tools have been developed and validated in PC. It is not clear how QoL should be measured in PC practice. A procedure of QoL assessment in clinical practice can be defined as a clinical intervention focused on QoL assessment. This is a typical complex intervention that should be appropriately developed and described in all its components and assessed for its effectiveness. The aim of this study is to define a framework to help researchers to develop and evaluate clinical interventions focused on QoL assessment in PC. Methods A study group of experts in PC and in research methodology was set up to define a framework that would describe the principles of clinical interventions focused on QoL assessment in PC. The study group discussed the WHO Population Screening Principles as a possible useful framework. The new principles had to be developed taking into account the following criteria: 1 specific to PC practice; 2 address a single underlying characteristic; 3 anchored to relevant literature; 4 consistent with the WHO PC definition. With regard to contents and the format of the principles, discussions occurred among the study group members through a cognitive process. Results We reviewed each of the WHO Population Screening Principles and adapted them to QoL assessment, taking into account the defined criteria. As a result, a new framework, the QoL Assessment Principles in Palliative Care was developed. It consisted of 4 sections, for a total of 11 principles. Conclusions The WHO Screening Principles framework was used to outline the eleven essential principles to be considered in developing and/or evaluating clinical interventions focused on QoL assessment in PC. The QoL Assessment Principles in Palliative Care identified could represent a methodological and ethical standard to be considered when developing and evaluating a

  5. Rapid Assessment of Contrast Sensitivity with Mobile Touch-screens

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mulligan, Jeffrey B.

    2013-01-01

    The availability of low-cost high-quality touch-screen displays in modern mobile devices has created opportunities for new approaches to routine visual measurements. Here we describe a novel method in which subjects use a finger swipe to indicate the transition from visible to invisible on a grating which is swept in both contrast and frequency. Because a single image can be swiped in about a second, it is practical to use a series of images to zoom in on particular ranges of contrast or frequency, both to increase the accuracy of the measurements and to obtain an estimate of the reliability of the subject. Sensitivities to chromatic and spatio-temporal modulations are easily measured using the same method. We will demonstrate a prototype for Apple Computer's iPad-iPod-iPhone family of devices, implemented using an open-source scripting environment known as QuIP (QUick Image Processing,

  6. Abuse assessment screen (AAS) questionnaire: the Greek validation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Antoniou, E; Ioannidi-Kapolou, E; Daglas, M; Vivilaki, V; Karamitros, D; Dafermos, G; Iatrakis, V

    2010-01-01

    Domestic violence is a social problem with increasing dimensions worldwide. The various forms of abuse and especially violence during pregnancy have not been sufficiently studied by the Greek scientific community. The aim of this study was to translate, culturally adapt and validate a special research tool that can be used by health professionals as a diagnostic tool for violence during pregnancy. The Abuse Assessment Screen (AAS) questionnaire was chosen as a screening tool. The questionnaire was translated into Greek in accordance with the procedure suggested by the 'Trust Scientific Advisory Committee', followed by the cultural adaptation of the questionnaire to the Greek reality. Specific psychometric tests were used for the validation of the questionnaire in order to assess the questionnaire's reliability and validity, and a factor analysis was also carried out. The internal consistency for all the parties who were questioned (n = 262), as expressed by Cronbach's alpha coefficient for the AAS, was 0.806 which is quite satisfactory and the results of our study suggest that the Greek translation of the AAS has a high correlation index compared to relevant international studies. The AAS questionnaire in the Greek version seems to be a reliable and valid tool for the diagnosis of violence during pregnancy.

  7. Health-care providers' perceptions, attitudes towards and recommendation practice of cervical cancer screening.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hweissa, N Ab; Lim, J N W; Su, T T

    2016-09-01

    In Libya, cervical cancer is ranked third as the most frequent cancer among women with early diagnosis being shown to reduce morbidity and mortality. Health-care providers can influence women's screening behaviours, and their lack of recommendations for screening can be one of the barriers that affect women's participation in screening programmes. This study aims to assess the health-care provider's perception around cervical cancer screening. In-depth, face-to-face interviews were conducted with 16 health-care providers, from both public and private sectors in Az-Zawiya city, Libya, between February and July of 2014. The interviews were recorded and transcribed, then analysed using thematic analysis. Our findings suggest that health-care providers did not provide sufficient information regarding cervical cancer screening for women who attend health-care facilities. The results highlight the role played by health-care professionals in motivating women to attend cervical cancer screening programs, and the need for health education of health-care providers to offer a precious advice regarding the screening. On the other hand, health-care providers highlighted that implementation of reminding system of cervical cancer screening will support them to improve screening attendance. In addition, health-care providers stressed the necessity for educational and awareness campaigns of cervical cancer screening among Libyan women. © 2016 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  8. BREAST CANCER SCREENING KNOWLEDGE AND PRACTICE AMONG WOMEN IN SOUTHEAST OF IRAN

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Z Heidari

    2008-08-01

    Full Text Available "nBreast cancer is the most common cancer occurring among women. The mortality rate of breast cancer can be reduced by regular breast cancer screening program. This study was carried out to identify the knowledge and practice of women about breast cancer screening in Zahedan, southeast of Iran. In this cross- sectional study, 384 women were selected as an improbability sample of women referring to Qouds maternity hospital. Knowledge and practice of them about breast cancer screening were investigated through face-to-face interview based on a purposed questionnaire, and data were analyzed using descriptive and analytical statistics. Only 8.3% of women were aware of breast cancer screening methods. About breast self-examination 21.6%, and about mammography 3.4% had good knowledge. Overall knowledge of breast cancer screening was insufficient in 67.4%. There was statistically significant relationship between knowledge of breast cancer screening and level of education, history of individual breast disease, and history of breast cancer in their families (P < 0.001. There was statistically significant and inverse relationship between knowledge of how to examine the breasts and knowledge about mammography with age (P < 0.001. Practices of women in Zahedan about Breast cancer screening were very low. Only 4.5% of women performed breast self examination (BSE, on a regular basis, 4.1% had ever had a clinical breast examination (CBE, and %1.3 had a mammography throughout their life. Our findings suggest that knowledge and practice about breast cancer screening was relatively in a weak level and it needs to be improved.

  9. Barriers and facilitators to opportunistic chronic kidney disease screening by general practice nurses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sinclair, Peter M; Day, Jenny; Levett-Jones, Tracy; Kable, Ashley

    2017-10-01

    Opportunistic screening in general practice (GP) is a cost-effective and viable approach to the early identification of chronic kidney disease (CKD). This study sought to identify the barriers and facilitators to CKD screening practices of GP nurses working in a regional area of New South Wales, Australia. An eight-item elicitation questionnaire informed by the Theory of Planned Behaviour was administered to a convenience sample of 26 GP nurses. Participants identified that the advantages of CKD screening were its early detection and treatment, the reduction of disease burden, and the opportunity to increase awareness and provide disease prevention education. These positive attitudinal beliefs were offset by negative beliefs about the impost of opportunistic screening on nursing time, particularly when there were other competing clinical priorities. Participants reported that practice doctors were wary of the financial costs associated with additional non-claimable services and believed that unfunded services, regardless of patient benefit, were difficult to justify in a private business environment. Screening was enabled in GP settings with existing screening protocols or initiatives, and when patients presented with known risk factors. Barriers to screening were more frequently described and illustrated a strong focus on financial aspects of GP. Without reimbursement through the Medicare Benefits Scheme, screening was not considered an economical use of nursing time. Other competing and billable clinical services took precedence. The findings of this study can be used to inform the development and evaluation of interventions that target opportunistic CKD screening in the GP setting. © 2016 Asian Pacific Society of Nephrology.

  10. Factors related to poor practice of Pap smear screening among secondary school teachers in Malaysia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abdullah, Fauziah; Aziz, Norlaili Abdul; Su, Tin Tin

    2011-01-01

    The Pap smear test has been regarded as a promising cervical screening tool since 1940s. Yet its importance has been overlooked by beneficiaries in Malaysia. This underlines the need to identify the prevalence of Pap smear practice and influencing factors towards the practice among educated working women. A survey was conducted with 403 female teachers from 40 public secondary schools in Malaysia selected by cluster random sampling. Data were collected from January to March 2010 using a self-administered questionnaire. Multivariate logistic regression was performed to identify the factors related to the Pap smear practice. The rate for participants who ever had Pap test was only 38% and poor practice of was significantly higher among: those with aged less than 35 years; those practicing hormonal contraceptive method; and individuals perceiving barriers to the Pap smear screening test. In contrast, the findings were significantly lower in women with longer duration of teaching service; higher income groups; ever pregnant; having chronic diseases; health insurance coverage; and who had perceived benefit of Pap smear screening. Barriers towards practicing Pap smear exist even among educated career women. Tailor-made health promotion and education on cervical cancer and the benefit of Pap smear screening are essential to change the behavior of the study population.

  11. Effect of educational level on knowledge and use of breast cancer screening practices in Bangladeshi women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rasu, Rafia S; Rianon, Nahid J; Shahidullah, Sheikh M; Faisel, Abu J; Selwyn, Beatrice J

    2011-03-01

    The Breast Health Global Initiative 2007 emphasized education and cultural values for promoting breast cancer screening in developing countries. This cross-sectional study investigated if educational level and cultural beliefs affect breast cancer screening practices in 152 women 40 years or older in Dhaka, Bangladesh. Women with a higher (>12 years) educational level were more likely to know about breast self-examination (BSE; OR(adj), 95%CI = 22, 6.39-76.76), to know about mammograms (6, 2.49-15.70), and to practice BSE (3, 1.27-6.83) compared with those with a lower educational level. Breast cancer screening practices or knowledge was not affected by perceiving barriers to having mammograms.

  12. Knowledge attitudes and practices of cervical cancer screening among urban and rural Nigerian women: a call for education and mass screening.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nwankwo, K C; Aniebue, U U; Aguwa, E N; Anarado, A N; Agunwah, E

    2011-05-01

    The incidence of cervical cancer has declined in developed nations due to routine use of cervical cancer screening services. In developing nations opportunistic screening is the practice, and many women present with late-stage disease. This study was designed to ascertain the knowledge of the women in Nigeria to cervical cancer, their practice of cervical cancer screening and factors hindering the use of available screening services. A cross-sectional study was done with interviewer-administered questionnaire. Only the consenting women attending an annual Christian religious meeting in 2007 in three towns in Enugu, South Eastern Nigeria participated. Only 15.5% of the respondents were aware of availability of cervical cancer screening services. The awareness significantly varied with the level of educational attainment (Pwomen. Effective female education and free mass screening are necessary for any successful cervical cancer screening programme in Nigeria. © 2010 Blackwell Publishing Ltd.

  13. Hearing-screening record-keeping practices at primary healthcare clinics in Gauteng

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karin Joubert

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Objectives: As little is known about hearing screening practices at primary healthcare (PHC clinics in South Africa, the study aimed to describe hearing-screening and record-keeping practices of nurses during typical immunisation sessions at PHC clinics in Gauteng, South Africa.Methods: Data were obtained through observations (N2=80 and questionnaires (N1=20 which were then cross-checked with retrospective information collected from the Road-to-Health Charts and City of Johannesburg Child Health Services Blue Cards of children observed during typical immunisation sessions.Results: A key finding of this study was that PHC nurses who participated in this study do not adhere to the hearing-screening record-keeping practices as outlined by the national Department of Health.Conclusions: Poor record-keeping practices hinder the efficacy of hearing-screening programmes. Accurate record keeping is important in order to document outcomes which can be used to evaluate service delivery and the efficacy of hearing-screening programmes.

  14. Comparisons of Colorado women's cancer screening practices by residence: metropolitan, non-metropolitan, and farm.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kakefuda, I; Stallones, L

    2006-02-01

    Combining farm residents and non-farm rural residents into a single category designated as rural may obscure differences in preventive care utilization, including cancer screening practices in each group, because of distinctive characteristics of farmers. This study compared three cancer screening practices (mammography, breast physical examination, and Pap smears) across three residence groups (metropolitan, non-metropolitan, and farms) of Colorado women and described demographic and socioeconomic characteristics of the groups. Females interviewed in the 1993 Colorado Behavioral Risk Factor Surveillance System (BRFSS) were divided into residence as metropolitan or non-metropolitan. Farm residents were female respondents interviewed as part of the Colorado Farm Family Health and Hazard Survey (CFFHHS) conducted in 1993-1997. Univariate and multivariate analyses were conducted to determine characteristics related to the screening practices. Farm women were more likely to be non-Hispanic white and older, to report their health as very good, and to have medical insurance and at least one source of primary care compared to non-metropolitan women. After controlling for related variables, residence was not associated with the screening practices, with the exception of breast physical examination; farm women were less likely to have a recent examination than metropolitan women (OR = 1.50, 95% CI = 1.07-2.10). When non-metropolitan and farm women were combined, there was no association between residence and having had a physical breast examination. There were important differences between non-metropolitan women and farm women in demographic and socioeconomic characteristics, which influenced screening practices. Further studies are needed to examine farm residents' cancer screening practices separately from other rural residents in order to fully understand the implications of these differences for health status in other geographic areas.

  15. Human scenarios for the screening assessment. Columbia River Comprehensive Impact Assessment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Napier, B.A.; Harper, B.L.; Lane, N.K.; Strenge, D.L.; Spivey, R.B.

    1996-03-01

    Because of past nuclear production operations along the Columbia River, there is intense public and tribal interest in assessing any residual Hanford Site related contamination along the river from the Hanford Reach to the Pacific Ocean. The Columbia River Impact Assessment (CRCIA) was proposed to address these concerns. The assessment of the Columbia River is being conducted in phases. The initial phase is a screening assessment of risk, which addresses current environmental conditions for a range of potential uses. One component of the screening assessment estimates the risk from contaminants in the Columbia River to humans. Because humans affected by the Columbia river are involved in a wide range of activities, various scenarios have been developed on which to base the risk assessments. The scenarios illustrate the range of activities possible by members of the public coming in contact with the Columbia River so that the impact of contaminants in the river on human health can be assessed. Each scenario illustrates particular activity patterns by a specific group. Risk will be assessed at the screening level for each scenario. This report defines the scenarios and the exposure factors that will be the basis for estimating the potential range of risk to human health from Hanford-derived radioactive as well as non-radioactive contaminants associated with the Columbia River.

  16. Cardiotocography (CTG as the screening method of fetal condition assessment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. Zulčić-Nakić

    2007-02-01

    Full Text Available A basic function of fetal monitoring is an analysis of fetal cardiac action. Cardiotocography (CTG cannot provide all necessary information for assessment of the fetal condition as it is not sufficiently reliable and gives a large number of false positive results that increase the number of cesarean sections. An objective of this work was to establish CTG reliability as a method for assessment of intrapartal fetal condition. Based on CTG parameters (baseline fetal heart rate, fetal heart rate variability, oscillations and decelerations 100 pathological CTG records, collected at Obstetrics and Gynecology Department of the Tuzla University Clinic Hospital from 01.12.2004 to 05.08.2005 were identified. Using binomial distribution they were classified as non-pathological (indicating absence of asphyxia and pathological (indicating possible presence of asphyxia. After the delivery the condition of newborns was assessed according to the Apgar score. Based on comparison between certain pathological parametres of CTG records and newborns’ conditions at birth the results indicated high positive predictive values whereas sensitivity and accuracy were low. Apgar score 1. from 7 upwards was given to 96 (96% newborns whereas Apgar score 2 from 7 upwards was given to all the newborns with previous pathological CTG records. Results have confirmed that CTG can be used only as a screening method for assessment of intrapartal fetal condition.

  17. Incremental Sampling Methodology: Applications for Background Screening Assessments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pooler, Penelope S; Goodrum, Philip E; Crumbling, Deana; Stuchal, Leah D; Roberts, Stephen M

    2018-01-01

    This article presents the findings from a numerical simulation study that was conducted to evaluate the performance of alternative statistical analysis methods for background screening assessments when data sets are generated with incremental sampling methods (ISMs). A wide range of background and site conditions are represented in order to test different ISM sampling designs. Both hypothesis tests and upper tolerance limit (UTL) screening methods were implemented following U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (USEPA) guidance for specifying error rates. The simulations show that hypothesis testing using two-sample t-tests can meet standard performance criteria under a wide range of conditions, even with relatively small sample sizes. Key factors that affect the performance include unequal population variances and small absolute differences in population means. UTL methods are generally not recommended due to conceptual limitations in the technique when applied to ISM data sets from single decision units and due to insufficient power given standard statistical sample sizes from ISM. © 2017 Society for Risk Analysis.

  18. Generic Screening Models for Assessing Exposures to the Public and ICRP Reference Animals and Plants

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yankovich, Tamara L.; Proehl, Gerhard; Telleria, Diego [International Atomic Energy Agency, P.O. Box 100, 1400 Vienna (Austria); Berkovskyy, Volodymyr [Ukrainian Radiation Protection Institute (RPI), 53, Melnikova Street, 04050, Kiev (Ukraine)

    2014-07-01

    With the update of the IAEA Fundamental Safety Principles (SF-1) stating the objective to protect people and the environment from harmful effects of ionizing radiation, it has been necessary to update International Basic Safety Standards (BSS) on Radiation Protection and Safety of Radiation Sources and the underlying safety guides and technical documents to provide guidance on how this could be achieved in practice. The current paper provides an update on the status and plans to revise the IAEA Safety Report 'Generic Models for Use in Assessing the Impact of Discharges of Radioactive Substances to the Environment' (SRS 19) that was published in 2001. The models of SRS 19 (2001), which was focused on assessment of exposures to the public, is being expanded into three volumes that provide methodologies for screening assessments for the public, as well as for flora and fauna. The revised SRS 19 guide will ultimately facilitate the application of screening models for different levels of assessment using updated parameter values from database that have been developed as part of the IAEA's EMRAS (Environmental Modelling for Radiation Safety) and EMRAS II international model validation programmes. The scope of the revised SRS 19 covers prospective screening assessment of doses to the representative person and Reference Animals and Plants (RAPs), and will provide simple and robust assessment methods for radiological assessment related to planning and design, applying a graded approach. Tabulated screening coefficients and environmental dilution factors will be included for 825 radionuclides. The screening coefficients are developed assuming equilibrium conditions; they can be used to assess radiological impacts arising from routine discharges of radionuclides to terrestrial and aquatic receptors for planned exposure situations. Volumes 1 and 2 of the revised SRS 19 are at an advanced stage of completion and are focused on 'Screening Assessment of Public

  19. Factors Affecting the Practices of Cervical Cancer Screening among Female Nurses at Public Health Institutions in Mekelle Town, Northern Ethiopia, 2014: A Cross-Sectional Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mihret Gebreegziabher

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective. In Ethiopia, the age-adjusted incidence rate of cervical cancer is high, 35.9 per 100,000 women. Despite this fact, cervical cancer screening coverage in Ethiopia is very low. The objective of this study is to assess the magnitude and factors affecting the practices of cervical cancer screening among female nurse in Mekelle Town, Tigray, Northern Ethiopia, 2014. Methods. This study used a cross-sectional design. Bivariate and multivariate logistic regression was used to evaluate factors associated with cervical cancer screening practice. Results. A total of 225 female nurses participated in the study. The magnitude of cervical cancer screening practice among these nurses was 10.7%, within the past five years of the survey. Attitude and work place of the respondents were significantly associated with a history of cervical cancer screening practices with an adjusted odds ratio (AOR of 3.023, 95% CI (1.134–8.059, and 3.424, 95% CI (1.080–10.853, respectively. Conclusion. The study showed that the magnitude of the cervical screening practice is very low among nurse health professionals. Negative attitude and workplace were identified to be the predictors of decision for cervical cancer test.

  20. Screening and assessment of nutritional status following stroke: results from a national survey of registered dietitians in Canada.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peters, Lauren; O'Connor, Colleen; Giroux, Isabelle; Teasell, Robert; Foley, Norine

    2015-07-26

    The objective of this study was to survey registered dietitians (RDs) at acute care hospitals across Canada to determine whether valid screening and assessment methods (i.e. those with formal evaluation of the psychometric and/or clinimetric properties of the tool) are used to identify protein-energy malnutrition following stroke. One hundred and twenty-five Canadian healthcare institutions admitting high volumes (≥100/year) of acute stroke patients were identified. RDs at these sites who provided services to patients recovering from acute stroke were contacted and invited to participate in an online survey. Ninety-five RDs completed the survey. Sixty dietitians (63%) indicated that patients were screened routinely at their institution, which was conducted primarily by dietitians (n = 64, 67.3%). Ten respondents (10.5%) stated they used a screening tool with previously-established validity, while 32 (33.7%) indicated they used a validated assessment tool. Among dietitians using validated tools, 40% and 64% indicated that they used modified versions of the original screening and assessment tools. The most frequently cited tools used for both screening and assessment purposes were Subjective Global Assessment and Mini Nutritional Assessment. The results of this national survey suggest that screening and assessment of nutritional status following acute stroke is conducted using tools that have not been validated previously. Implications for Rehabilitation Although the use of valid screening and assessment tools is considered part of evidence-based practice, and recommendations for their adoption are included in several national stroke-specific clinical practice guidelines, the results from an online survey suggest that they are not used in clinical practice by RDs in Canada caring for patients following stroke. There are associated risks with the use of screening and assessment tools, which have not been formally validated. The true nutritional status of

  1. Sarcopenia in daily practice: assessment and management.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beaudart, Charlotte; McCloskey, Eugène; Bruyère, Olivier; Cesari, Matteo; Rolland, Yves; Rizzoli, René; Araujo de Carvalho, Islène; Amuthavalli Thiyagarajan, Jotheeswaran; Bautmans, Ivan; Bertière, Marie-Claude; Brandi, Maria Luisa; Al-Daghri, Nasser M; Burlet, Nansa; Cavalier, Etienne; Cerreta, Francesca; Cherubini, Antonio; Fielding, Roger; Gielen, Evelien; Landi, Francesco; Petermans, Jean; Reginster, Jean-Yves; Visser, Marjolein; Kanis, John; Cooper, Cyrus

    2016-10-05

    Sarcopenia is increasingly recognized as a correlate of ageing and is associated with increased likelihood of adverse outcomes including falls, fractures, frailty and mortality. Several tools have been recommended to assess muscle mass, muscle strength and physical performance in clinical trials. Whilst these tools have proven to be accurate and reliable in investigational settings, many are not easily applied to daily practice. This paper is based on literature reviews performed by members of the European Society for Clinical and Economic Aspects of Osteoporosis and Osteoarthritis (ESCEO) working group on frailty and sarcopenia. Face-to-face meetings were afterwards organized for the whole group to make amendments and discuss further recommendations. This paper proposes some user-friendly and inexpensive methods that can be used to assess sarcopenia in real-life settings. Healthcare providers, particularly in primary care, should consider an assessment of sarcopenia in individuals at increased risk; suggested tools for assessing risk include the Red Flag Method, the SARC-F questionnaire, the SMI method or different prediction equations. Management of sarcopenia should primarily be patient centered and involve the combination of both resistance and endurance based activity programmes with or without dietary interventions. Development of a number of pharmacological interventions is also in progress. Assessment of sarcopenia in individuals with risk factors, symptoms and/or conditions exposing them to the risk of disability will become particularly important in the near future.

  2. Assessment of stereoscopic optic disc images using an autostereoscopic screen – experimental study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vaideanu Daniella

    2008-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Stereoscopic assessment of the optic disc morphology is an important part of the care of patients with glaucoma. The aim of this study was to assess stereoviewing of stereoscopic optic disc images using an example of the new technology of autostereoscopic screens compared to the liquid shutter goggles. Methods Independent assessment of glaucomatous disc characteristics and measurement of optic disc and cup parameters whilst using either an autostereoscopic screen or liquid crystal shutter goggles synchronized with a view switching display. The main outcome measures were inter-modality agreements between the two used modalities as evaluated by the weighted kappa test and Bland Altman plots. Results Inter-modality agreement for measuring optic disc parameters was good [Average kappa coefficient for vertical Cup/Disc ratio was 0.78 (95% CI 0.62–0.91 and 0.81 (95% CI 0.6–0.92 for observer 1 and 2 respectively]. Agreement between modalities for assessing optic disc characteristics for glaucoma on a five-point scale was very good with a kappa value of 0.97. Conclusion This study compared two different methods of stereo viewing. The results of assessment of the different optic disc and cup parameters were comparable using an example of the newly developing autostereoscopic display technologies as compared to the shutter goggles system used. The Inter-modality agreement was high. This new technology carries potential clinical usability benefits in different areas of ophthalmic practice.

  3. The evaluation of mental health screening practices within a population of incarcerated women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gallagher, Amanda E; Carbonell, Joyce L; Gottfried, Emily D

    2013-10-01

    Screening for mental illness within prison populations is vital to the safety and well-being of prisoners and to the operation of an institution. Although prisons are currently mandated to screen for mental illness, there are no standardized methods for doing so. Some prisons use specialized mental health screening measures while others simply ask a few face-valid mental health-related questions. The current study examined the validity of the latter method within a population of female prisoners. Quickview questions, selected to serve as mental health screening questions, were compared with the Minnesota Multiphasic Personality Inventory-2, a widely used forensic assessment measure. Results did not provide support for using the Quickview questions as a method for prison mental health screening. Implications and future directions are discussed.

  4. Pesticide Cumulative Risk Assessment: Framework for Screening Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    This document provides guidance on how to screen groups of pesticides for cumulative evaluation using a two-step approach: begin with evaluation of available toxicological information and, if necessary, follow up with a risk-based screening approach.

  5. Another look at Emergency Department HIV screening in practice: no need to revise expectations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Czarnogosrki Maggie

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background A recent study reported a lower than expected specificity and positive predictive value of the rapid oral HIV test in the setting of routine emergency department (ED screening. These results appeared inconsistent with the findings in another urban Emergency Department during the same time period. Objective To compare the specificity and positive predictive vale (PPV of an oral rapid HIV test used in an ED screening program in Washington DC with that performed in the USHER clinical trial. Design Period cross-sectional analysis of rapid oral HIV testing conducted in an ongoing HIV screening program emergency department patients. Setting The George Washington University Emergency Department (Washington DC from 7 February to 1 October 2007. Patients 1,560 adults seen in the ED for non-HIV-related presenting complaints, who participated in the HIV screening program. Intervention Rapid HIV testing with the OraQuick ADVANCE Rapid HIV-1/2 Antibody Test (OraSure Technologies, Bethlehem, Pennsylvania. Patients with reactive rapid test results were offered Western blot testing for confirmation. Measurements Specificity and positive predictive value for the program were determined. Findings were compared to those found in the USHER trial. Results Of 1,560 patients screened for HIV, 13 [0.8%, 95% CI 0.38% to 1.28%] had a reactive HIV screening test, and all were confirmed to be positive by Western Blot. The specificity was 100% (95% CI 99.6%-100%. Limitation Since non-reactive tests were not confirmed, the test sensitivity cannot be determined. Conclusion Review of our data conflict with findings from the USHER study surrounding false positive OraQuick HIV screening. Our data suggest that rapid HIV screening protocols implemented in EDs outside of the clinical trial paradigm perform effectively without an excess of false positive results. Compared with other screening tests, HIV rapid screening should remain an essential component of ED

  6. [Assessment of suicidal behaviour in general practice].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vörös, Viktor; Osváth, Péter; Ruzsics, István; Nagy, Tünde; Kovács, László; Varga, József; Fekete, Sándor; Kovács, Attila

    2006-02-12

    To assess the prevalence of suicidal behavior (wish to die, suicidal thoughts, suicide attempts) and to determine the characteristics of suicide attempters in primary care, including screening for major mental disorders. A Hungarian urban general practitioner's district with 1248 inhabitants was screened for suicidal behavior as well as for major mental disorders. All the patients (n=382) who visited their general practitioner within a two-week period were asked to participate. 277 patients completed the Prime-MD questionnaire, an easy-to-use diagnostic instrument developed for general practitioners to recognize the most common psychiatric disorders, like depressive (major depressive disorder, minor depressive disorder), anxiety (panic disorder, generalized anxiety disorder), somatoform, eating and alcohol related disorders. Detailed data about suicidal thoughts and attempts were also collected by the structured questions of MINI-Plus diagnostic interview. Prevalence of suicide attempts in primary care was 2.9%. 9% of the patients had either suicidal thoughts or suicide attempts in the previous month. Suicidal patients were more ready to use psychotropic drugs, they assessed their health status more poorly, and had more mental symptoms than the control group (non-suicidal patients). 60% of suicidal patients and 11.5% of the investigated population had a current depressive episode. Beside depressive symptoms, anxiety disorders and alcohol problems were also more common among suicidal patients. The rate of previous psychiatric treatments was also higher in suicidal patients, who generally visited their general practitioners less frequently than non-suicidal patients. According to multivariate logistic regression, suicidal patients are more ready to take antidepressants, they tend to have more previous psychiatric treatments and suicidal attempts, and they visit their general practitioners less frequently and have a current depressive episode. Suicidal behavior and

  7. Organizational change: a way to increase colon, breast and cervical cancer screening in primary care practices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arroyave, Ana Maria; Penaranda, Eribeth K; Lewis, Carmen L

    2011-04-01

    Screening tests for colon, cervical and breast cancer remain underutilized despite their proven effectiveness in reducing morbidity and mortality. Stone et al. concluded that cancer screening is most likely to improve when a health organization supports performance through organizational changes (OC) in staffing and clinical procedures. OC interventions include the use of separate clinics devoted to prevention, use of a planned care visit, designation of non-physician staff for specific prevention activities and continuous quality improvement interventions. To identify specific elements of OC interventions that increases the selected cancer screening rates. To determine to which extent practices bought into the interventions. Eleven randomized controlled trials from January 1990 to June 2010 that instituted OC to increase cancer screening completion were included. Qualitative data was analyzed by using a framework to facilitate abstraction of information. For quantitative data, an outcome of measure was determined by the change in the proportion of eligible individuals receiving cancer screening services between intervention and control practices. The health prevention clinic intervention demonstrated a large increase (47%) in the proportion of completed fecal occult blood test; having a non-physician staff demonstrated an increase in mammography (18.4%); and clinical breast examination (13.7%); the planned care visit for prevention intervention increased mammography (8.8%); continuous quality improvement interventions showed mixed results, from an increase in performance of mammography 19%, clinical breast examination (13%); Pap smear (15%) and fecal occult blood test (13%), to none or negative change in the proportion of cancer screening rates. To increase cancer screening completion goals, OC interventions should be implemented tailored to the primary care practice style. Interventions that circumvent the physicians were more effective. We could not conclude

  8. Screening to identify mental health problems in pediatric primary care: considerations for practice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, Jonathan D; Wissow, Lawrence S

    2010-01-01

    Few pediatric primary care providers routinely use mental health screening tools, in part because they may have concerns about whether screening is useful and how it will affect their practice. This study examined the extent to which screening in primary care would increase the identification of mental health problems among a diverse population of children and youth. Prior to the visit, the parents of 767 patients age 5 to 16 completed the Strengths and Difficulties Questionnaire to report their child's mental health symptoms and impairment. Without viewing the screening results, each child's provider (N = 53) completed a questionnaire to report whether the child or youth demonstrated a mental health problem. Compared with providers, the screen identified twice as many patients with moderate symptoms and nearly 28% more patients with high symptoms. Among patients with high symptoms, providers failed to identify a problem among 78% of those who were Latino/Other and 55% of those who were African American compared with 27% of Caucasian patients (p Screening substantially increased the number of children and youth who would be identified as possibly having a mental health problem. Screening may have the most potential to increase the identification of problems among patients who have moderate mental health symptoms and those who are African American or Latino.

  9. Sexual Violence Screening Practices of Student Health Centers Located on Universities in Florida

    Science.gov (United States)

    Halstead, Valerie; Williams, Jessica R.; Gattamorta, Karina; Gonzalez-Guarda, Rosa

    2017-01-01

    Objective: The purpose of this study is to describe current sexual violence screening practices of student health centers located on universities in Florida. Participants: Institutional level data was collected from 33 student health centers from November 2015 through January 2016. The student health centers were located on public or private…

  10. Knowledge of cervical cancer and screening practices of nurses at a ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Objectives: To determine nurses' awareness of cervical cancer and their own screening practices at a hospital in Tanzania. Methods: A descriptive cross sectional study using questionnaires on 137 nurses. Data analysis was made by descriptive statistics and chi square tests. Results: Less than half of the nurses had ...

  11. Chlamydia and Gonorrhea Screening and Expedited Partner Therapy (EPT) Practices of College Student Health Centers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oswalt, Sara B.; Eastman-Mueller, Heather P.

    2017-01-01

    Objective: To examine college student health centers' (SHCs) practices related to sexually transmitted disease (STD) screening and treatment over a 5-year period. Participants: College SHCs that completed the ACHA Pap and STI Survey between 2010 and 2014. Methods: Chi-square tests were conducted with Cramer's V providing a measure of association.…

  12. The Association between Suicide Screening Practices and Attempts Requiring Emergency Care in Juvenile Justice Facilities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gallagher, Catherine A.; Dobrin, Adam

    2005-01-01

    Objective: To provide a national description of suicide screening practices in juvenile residential facilities and to examine their association with whether facilities experience a suicide attempt. Method: Multivariate modeling with data from the 2000 Juvenile Residential Facility Census (n = 3690 facilities). Results: Controlling for facility…

  13. Collaborative Assessment Tool (CAT) - Assessing scientific practices in introductory physics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Irving, Paul

    2017-01-01

    An important learning goal of Projects and Practices in Physics (P3) , the transformed introductory mechanics course at Michigan State University, is the development of scientific practices. The design team, as part of the P3 course construction, made clear attempts to assess learning goals that can often be perceived as being a part of the hidden curriculum or considered difficult to assess (e.g., learning to work productively in a group) by developing a collaborative assessment tool (CAT). The CAT is a formative assessment tool that provides students with a numerical grade for how they participated in their learning group on a weekly basis while also providing feedback in the form of written commentary and suggestions on how they might improve at a particular collaborative practice. In this presentation, we demonstrate the CAT tool from two perspectives: 1) how the CAT tool is used within the P3 context and 2) how the formative feedback has affected changes in student interactions in class. We will present the case studies of 3 students who had differing reactions to the feedback they received. We will explore the role the feedback had in their interactions over a four-week period from an in-class perspective and a reflected perspective through interviews and observations. The analysis will also be presented from a tutor and group perspective, which will highlight the affordances the CAT can have in creating a productive learning group. The research on the CAT shows promise in encouraging growth in students' collaborative skills, but this research is still in its infancy and needs to be expanded to include different contexts.

  14. Barriers to autism screening in family medicine practice: a qualitative study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fenikilé, Tsehaiwork Sunny; Ellerbeck, Kathryn; Filippi, Melissa K; Daley, Christine M

    2015-07-01

    We explored potential barriers to adoption of recommended screening for autism by family physicians at 18- and 24-month well-child visits. The American Academy of Pediatrics recommends early detection and intervention of autism through the use of a standardized autism-specific screening tool on all children at the 18- and 24-month well-child visits. However, not all family physicians screen for autism. Three focus groups and six semi-structured interviews were conducted with 15 family physicians in the Kansas City metropolitan area. Verbatim transcripts were inductively coded; data were analyzed using standard text analysis. Participants had differing views on the increased incidence of autism. Most participants attributed the increase to changes in diagnostic criteria. There was no consensus on the benefit of implementing universal screening for autism during the 18- or 24-month visit. Many preferred to identify potential problems through general developmental assessments and observations. No participants used specific screening tools for autism, and only one participant was aware of such a tool (M-CHAT). Lack of adequate training on child development and screening methods as well as limited availability of community-based resources to manage children with autism was seen as major barriers to routine screening. Suggested solutions included working toward a stronger evidence base, improving physician training and continuing education, and making systemic changes in healthcare. In conclusion, universal screening for autism at the 18- and 24-month visits is not widely accepted, nor is it implemented by family physicians.

  15. A practical approach to radiological evaluation of CT lung cancer screening examinations

    OpenAIRE

    Xie, Xueqian; Heuvelmans, Marjolein A.; van Ooijen, Peter M.A.; Oudkerk, Matthijs; Vliegenthart, Rozemarijn

    2013-01-01

    Abstract Lung cancer is the most common cause of cancer-related death in the world. The Dutch-Belgian Randomized Lung Cancer Screening Trial (Dutch acronym: NELSON) was launched to investigate whether screening for lung cancer by low-dose multidetector computed tomography (CT) in high-risk patients will lead to a decrease in lung cancer mortality. The NELSON lung nodule management is based on nodule volumetry and volume doubling time assessment. Evaluation of CT examinations in lung cancer sc...

  16. Obsolescence Risk Assessment Process Best Practice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Romero Rojo, F. J.; Roy, R.; Kelly, S.

    2012-05-01

    A component becomes obsolete when it is no longer available from the original manufacturer to the original specification. In long-lifecycle projects, obsolescence has become a major problem as it prevents the maintenance of the system. This is the reason why obsolescence management is now an essential part of the product support activities in sectors such as defence, aerospace, nuclear and railway; where systems need to be supported for several decades. The obsolescence risk assessment for the bill of materials (BoM) is a paramount activity in order to manage obsolescence proactively and cost-effectively. This is the reason why it was necessary to undertake a benchmarking study to develop best practice in this process. A total of 22 obsolescence experts from 13 different organisations/projects from across UK and USA have participated in this study. Their current processes and experience have been taken into account in the development of the best practice process for obsolescence risk assessment. The key factors that have to be analysed in the risk assessment process for each component in the BoM are: number of manufacturers, years to end of life, stock available, consumption rate and operational impact criticality. For the very high risk components, a more detailed analysis is required to inform the decisions regarding the most suitable mitigation strategies. On the contrary, for the low risk components, a fully proactive approach is neither appropriate nor cost effective. Therefore, it is advised for these components that obsolescence issues are dealt with reactively. This process has been validated using case studies with several experts from industry and is currently being implemented by the UK Ministry of Defence as technical guidance within the JSP 886 Volume 7 Part 8.13 standards.

  17. Oncological screening for Bilateral Breast Reduction: a survey of practice variations in UK Breast and Plastics surgeons 2009.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hennedige, Anusha A; Kong, Tze Yean; Gandhi, Ashu

    2011-07-01

    Bilateral Breast Reduction (BBR) is a common procedure performed by Breast and Plastic surgeons in the UK. No consensus exists regarding preoperative screening for malignancy or for selective criteria for such screening. Preoperative BBR screening practices among UK Breast and Plastic surgeons are unknown. Ascertain the preoperative and postoperative BBR screening practices of UK Breast and Plastic surgeons. A questionnaire was posted to all 434 Breast and 335 Plastic surgeons in the UK. All results were analysed with relevant statistical methods. 64% of Breast surgeons and 72% of Plastic surgeons responded. 40% of Breast surgeons and 91% of Plastic surgeons perform BBR. Routine radiological screening: 92% Breast 41% Plastic (p Plastic. Routine histology for BBR specimens: 96% Breast 90% Plastic. Selective screening of patients aged 30-40 years old: Breast 38% Plastic 10%. Selective screening of patients aged 40-50: Breast 78%, Plastic 53%. Selective screening of patients with strong family history of breast cancer: Breast 72%, Plastic 91%. Selective screening of patients with previous breast cancer: Breast 77%, Plastic 93%. There are significant differences in practice between UK Breast surgeons and Plastic surgeons in preoperative oncological screening for BBR. The large discrepancy in preoperative radiological screening, reflects a ubiquitous pro-screening ideology among Breast surgeons not prevalent among Plastic surgeons. These results will provoke debate towards the direction of consensus to ultimately reflect best practice. Copyright © 2010. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  18. Breast cancer screening: comparison of radiologists' performance in a self-assessment scheme and in actual breast screening

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cowley, Helen C.; Gale, Alastair G.

    1999-05-01

    The PERFORMS self-assessment scheme is used by the UK Breast Screening Programme as an educational tool. From this scheme a radiologist can gain insight into their own sensitivity, specificity, feature and cancer detection performance. Such data may, however, be questionable if they are not well related to the radiologist's performance in actual breast screening. Consequently, data from the scheme were compared with those from actual breast screening performance. Some correlations were found in performance, this indicates that continued use of the scheme is important to identify any areas of individual difficulty.

  19. Quality assessment in prospective nuchal translucency screening for Down syndrome

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wøjdemann, K R; Christiansen, M; Sundberg, K

    2001-01-01

    in the criteria "position of the fetus" (P = 0.0026) and "magnification of the image" (P = 0.0001). Regarding the distributions of the nuchal translucency multiples of the median, the median stabilized after a short learning phase representing the practical part of the sonographer's certification to nuchal...... evaluation of the distribution of the nuchal translucency multiples of the median seems to be a good method to assess the quality for a center and may also be used to identify individual examiners deviating from the mean performance. The image-scoring methods we introduced cannot be recommended for quality...

  20. Self-assessment: Practice or Representation?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sueli S. Fidalgo

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available Based on a socio-discursive interactional perspective (Bronckart, 1997, this paper presents data analysis of a research which by using a selfassessment instrument, aimed, firstly, at investigating the representations (Silva, 1999 presented by a teacher about assessment matters, and, secondly, at showing that assessment instruments are context-bound. Knowing that, in practice, these instruments are many times designed by one person for a large number of students, I analyzed students’ and teachers’ validation (Habermas, 1985 of tasks proposed by another teacher, and looked at their representation of aspects that compose the learning-teaching of English. Initial results show that no matter how carefully the instrument is designed (by others, it may pose difficulties for some learners, inasmuch as the assessment moment is part and parcel of the teaching-learning process for both teachers and learners, and not a separate aspect to be used in a staccato style. If schools seek instruments which will allow children to reflect upon their own learning, thus becoming more capable of regulating this learning (Perrenoud, 1998, careful look into the design of such instruments will be needed.

  1. Screening methods for assessment of biodegradability of chemicals in seawater--results from a ring test

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nyholm, N.; Kristensen, P. (Water Quality Institute, Horsholm, (Denmark))

    1992-04-01

    An international ring test involving 14 laboratories was organized on behalf of the Commission of the European Economic Communities (EEC) with the purpose of evaluating two proposed screening methods for assessment of biodegradability in seawater: (a) a shake flask die-away test based primarily on analysis of dissolved organic carbon and (b) a closed bottle test based on determination of dissolved oxygen. Both tests are performed with nutrient-enriched natural seawater as the test medium and with no inoculum added other than the natural seawater microflora. The test methods are seawater versions of the modified OECD screening test and the closed bottle test, respectively, adopted by the Organization for Economic Cooperation and Development (OECD) and by the EEC as tests for ready biodegradability.' The following five chemicals were examined: sodium benzoate, aniline, diethylene glycol, pentaerythritol, and 4-nitrophenol. Sodium benzoate and aniline, which are known to be generally readily biodegradable consistently degraded in practically all tests, thus demonstrating the technical feasibility of the methods. Like in previous ring tests with freshwater screening methods variable results were obtained with the other three compounds, which is believed primarily to be due to site-specific differences between the microflora of the different seawater samples used and to some extent also to differences in the applied concentrations of test material. A positive result with the screening methods indicates that the test substance will most likely degrade relatively rapidly in seawater from the site of collection, while a negative test result does not preclude biodegradability under environmental conditions where the concentrations of chemicals are much lower than the concentrations applied for analytical reasons in screening tests.

  2. Practice Adaptive Reserve and Colorectal Cancer Screening Best Practices at Community Health Center Clinics in Seven States

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tu, Shin-Ping; Young, Vicki; Coombs, Letoynia J.; Williams, Rebecca; Kegler, Michelle; Kimura, Amanda; Risendal, Betsy; Friedman, Daniela B.; Glenn, Beth; Pfeiffer, Debbie J.; Fernandez, Maria

    2015-01-01

    Background Enhancing the capability of community health centers to implement best practices may mitigate health disparities. We investigated the association of Practice Adaptive Reserve (PAR) to implementation of Patient Centered Medical Home (PCMH) colorectal cancer (CRC) screening best practices (BPs) at community health center clinics in seven states. Methods A convenience sample of clinic staff participated in a self-administered online survey. We scored eight PCMH CRC screening BPs as a composite ranging from 0–32. The PAR composite score was scaled from 0 to 1 then categorized into three levels. Multilevel analyses examined the relationship between PAR and self-reported implementation of the PCMH BPs. Results Out of 296 respondents, 59% reported 6 or more PCMH BPs at their clinics. The mean PAR score was 0.66 (s.d. 0.18) and PCMH BP mean scores were significantly higher for respondents who reported higher clinic PAR categories. Compared to the lowest PAR level, adjusted PCMH BP means were 25.0 percent higher at the middle PAR level (Difference = 3.2, SE = 1.3, t = 2.44, p = 0.015) and 63.2 percent higher at the highest PAR level (Difference = 8.0, SE = 1.9, t = 4.86, p < 0.0001). Conclusion Higher Adaptive Reserve, as measured by the PAR score, is positively associated with self-reported implementation of PCMH CRC screening BPs by clinic staff. Future research is needed to determine PAR levels most conducive to implementing CRC screening and to develop interventions that enhance PAR in primary care settings. PMID:25524651

  3. Teaching child psychiatric assessment skills: Using pediatric mental health screening tools.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hargrave, T M; Arthur, M E

    2015-01-01

    This article describes the workshop "Teaching Child Psychiatric Assessment Skills: Using Mental Health Screening Instruments," presented at the 35th Forum for Behavioral Sciences in Family Medicine on 20 September 2014. The goals of the presentation were (1) to teach family medicine behavioral health educators to use both general and problem-specific mental health screening tools (MHSTs) in their work with trainees to help satisfy the Accreditation Council for Graduate Medical Education (ACGME) mandate for behavioral and mental health experience during family medicine residency, (2) to reflect on how MHSTs might be integrated into the flow of family medicine teaching practices, and (3) to exemplify how evidence-based methods of adult education might be used in teaching such content. One general MHST, the Pediatric Symptom Checklist-17 and one problem-specific MHST for each of the four commonest pediatric mental health issues: for attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder, the Vanderbilt; for Anxiety, the Screen for Childhood Anxiety-Related Emotional Disorders; for Depression, the Patient Health Questionnaire-9 for teens; and for Aggression, the Retrospective-Modified Overt Aggression Scale, were practiced at least twice in the context of a clinical vignette. All of the selected MHSTs are free in the public domain and available for download from the website: www.CAPPCNY.org. Participants were asked to reflect on their own office practice characteristics and consider how MHSTs might be integrated into their systems of care. This workshop could be replicated by others wishing to teach the use of MHSTs in primary care settings or teaching programs. © The Author(s) 2015.

  4. Adolescent idiopathic scoliosis screening for school, community, and clinical health promotion practice utilizing the PRECEDE-PROCEED model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wyatt Lawrence A

    2005-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Screening for adolescent idiopathic scoliosis (AIS is a commonly performed procedure for school children during the high risk years. The PRECEDE-PROCEDE (PP model is a health promotion planning model that has not been utilized for the clinical diagnosis of AIS. The purpose of this research is to study AIS in the school age population using the PP model and its relevance for community, school, and clinical health promotion. Methods MEDLINE was utilized to locate AIS data. Studies were screened for relevance and applicability under the auspices of the PP model. Where data was unavailable, expert opinion was utilized based on consensus. Results The social assessment of quality of life is limited with few studies approaching the long-term effects of AIS. Epidemiologically, AIS is the most common form of scoliosis and leading orthopedic problem in children. Behavioral/environmental studies focus on discovering etiologic relationships yet this data is confounded because AIS is not a behavioral. Illness and parenting health behaviors can be appreciated. The educational diagnosis is confounded because AIS is an orthopedic disorder and not behavioral. The administration/policy diagnosis is hindered in that scoliosis screening programs are not considered cost-effective. Policies are determined in some schools because 26 states mandate school scoliosis screening. There exists potential error with the Adam's test. The most widely used measure in the PP model, the Health Belief Model, has not been utilized in any AIS research. Conclusion The PP model is a useful tool for a comprehensive study of a particular health concern. This research showed where gaps in AIS research exist suggesting that there may be problems to the implementation of school screening. Until research disparities are filled, implementation of AIS screening by school, community, and clinical health promotion will be compromised. Lack of data and perceived importance by

  5. Implementation of baby boomer hepatitis C screening and linking to care in gastroenterology practices: a multi-center pilot study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Younossi, Zobair M; LaLuna, Louis L; Santoro, John J; Mendes, Flavia; Araya, Victor; Ravendhran, Natarajan; Pedicone, Lisa; Lio, Idania; Nader, Fatema; Hunt, Sharon; Racila, Andrei; Stepanova, Maria

    2016-04-04

    Estimates suggest that only 20 % of HCV-infected patients have been identified and gastroenterology practices in patients previously unscreened for HCV. After obtaining patient informed consent, demographics, clinical and health-related quality of life (HRQOL) data were collected. A blood sample was screened for HCV antibody (HCV AB) using the OraQuick HCV Rapid Antibody Test. HCV AB-positive patients were tested for presence of HCV RNA and, if HCV RNA positive, patients underwent treatment discussions. We screened 2,000 individuals in 5 gastroenterology centers located close to large metropolitan areas on the East Coast (3 Northeast, 1 Mid-Atlantic and 1 Southeast). Of the screened population, 10 individuals (0.5 %) were HCV AB-positive. HCV RNA testing was performed in 90 % (9/10) of HCV AB-positive individuals. Of those, 44.4 % (4/9) were HCV RNA-positive, and all 4 (100 %) were linked to caregiver. Compared to HCV AB negative subjects, HCV AB-positive individuals tended to be black (20.0 vs. 5.2 %, p = 0.09) and reported significantly higher rates of depression: 60.0 vs. 21.5 %, p = 0.009. These individuals also reported a significantly lower HRQOL citing having more fatigue, poorer concentration, and a decreased level of energy (p gastroenterology centers, the linkage to care was very high. The sample of patients used in this study may be biased, so further studies are needed to assess the effectiveness of the CDC screening recommendations. Implementation of the Baby Boomer Screening for HCV requires identifying screening environement with high prevalence of HCV+ individuals as well as an efficient process of linking them to care.

  6. Anal Pap Screening for HIV-infected Men Who Have Sex With Men: Practice Improvement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Welbeck, Monique

    2016-01-01

    HIV-infected men who have sex with men (MSM) have the highest rates of anal dysplasia and anal cancer when compared to HIV-uninfected MSM and when compared to HIV-infected heterosexual men and women. Despite significantly increasing rates of anal dysplasia and anal cancer in HIV-infected MSM, in many settings, no standard protocol is in place to screen for anal dysplasia in this high-risk group. A practice improvement project was conducted at a primary care health center to educate the HIV health care team about anal Pap screening in an effort to increase provider knowledge and rates of anal Pap screening performed as part of primary comprehensive care for HIV-infected MSM. Increased health care provider knowledge of anal Pap screening within this setting resulted in increased anal Pap screening for HIV-infected MSM. Routine screening leads to improved surveillance and treatment of precancerous lesions, decreasing morbidity and mortality in HIV-infected MSM. Copyright © 2016 Association of Nurses in AIDS Care. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  7. Prevailing clinical practices regarding screening for retinopathy of prematurity among pediatricians in India: A pilot survey

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Saurabh Dileep Patwardhan

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Aims: To evaluate the prevailing practices for proper screening and referral scheme among Indian pediatricians for retinopathy of prematurity (ROP. Materials and Methods: Pediatricians registered with Indian Academy of Pediatrics from six states of India were selected randomly and were telephonically interviewed in accordance with a preformed questionnaire which comprised of questions regarding demographic factors, number of premature children seen per month, awareness and referral scheme to ophthalmologist; responses thus obtained were analyzed. Results: Hundred percent knowledge about ROP and need for screening in premature babies was observed among the respondents. However, only 135 (58% pediatricians always referred for ROP screening, 19 (8% referred only sometimes and 80 (34% did not refer at all. Consistent referral protocols taking into account all plausible risk factors for ROP were followed by only 25% of those who always referred. Major deterrent in ROP screening was perceived as non-availability of trained ophthalmologists. Conclusions: Only 14.5% of total pediatricians contacted were following international recommendations for ROP referral. Screening for ROP remains dismal as observed in this pilot survey as a consequence of non-availability of trained ophthalmologists as well as inconsistent screening guidelines.

  8. Breast cancer screening practices of African migrant women in Australia: a descriptive cross-sectional study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ogunsiji, Olayide Oluyemisi; Kwok, Cannas; Fan, Lee Chun

    2017-04-17

    Breast cancer is the most diagnosed cancer among women and a leading cause of mortality and morbidity, globally. Breast cancer mortality can be improved through routine cancer screening, yet migrant populations have lower participation rates. While African migrants are among the fastest growing migrant population in Australia, their breast cancer screening behaviour is under-studied. The aims of this study were to report breast cancer screening status of African migrant women and factors associated with their breast cancer screening behaviour in Australia. A descriptive, cross-sectional approach was utilised for this study. Two hundred and sixty four African migrant women aged 18-69 years and recruited from a number of organisations responded to a self-reported African version of the Breast Cancer Screening Beliefs Questionnaire (BCSBQ). Main research variables are breast cancer screening practices and demographic characteristics and total scores on each of the BCSBQ subscales. Multivariable logistic regression analyses were performed to investigate the impact of the demographic variables on the likelihood of women in the target age range 50-74 years having screening practices as recommended. While most of the participants heard of breast awareness (76.1%) and mammogram (85.2%), only 11.4% practised monthly breast awareness, whereas 65.9% had ever had a mammogram as frequently as recommended. Age and employment were determining factors for participating in mammogram. Significant different scores were found in the "Practical barriers" between women at the target age who had and had not performed breast awareness (80.4 versus 77.5, p-value = 0.002) and mammogram (77.1 versus 70.3, p-value = 0.009) regularly as recommended. Moreover, attitudes towards general health check-ups subscale scores were significantly higher in women who had performed clinical breast examination as frequently as recommended than those who had not. The research reveals that practical

  9. Awareness, Attitude and Practices of Premarital Human Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV Screening among Leaders of Two Predominant Religions in North Central Nigeria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joseph Gbenga S.

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available INTRODUCTION: HIV premarital screening is one of the practices that is prevalent and compulsory in religious communities of many African countries and is a major health issue that constitutes basic threat to fundamental human right when made mandatory. AIM: This study is therefore tailored towards assessing the awareness, attitude and practice of HIV premarital screening among religious leaders in Ilorin metropolis of Nigeria. METHOD: This study was a descriptive cross sectional survey carried out in 2008. A total of 375 religious leaders were used. Multistage sampling technique involving five stages sampling procedures was used to select participants. The research instrument was structured interviewer administered questionnaire. Results obtained from the questionnaire were analysed using EPI-INFO computer software and data were presented in form of tables, cross tabulation and test of statistical significance. RESULTS: Result showed that the awareness of religious leaders on HIV/AIDS, premarital HIV screening and Voluntary Confidential Counselling and Testing (VCCT was high. Most of the premarital HIV screening was initiated by the religious leaders. Also, majority of leaders made premarital HIV screening compulsory which is against the right of the members. More than half of the respondents said they will conduct marriage without premarital HIV screening and more than half also said that they will conduct marriage if one of the partners is tested positive. Religion was found to influence respondents’ attitude in making premarital HIV screening mandatory, rejection among respondents members on premarital HIV screening and conduction of marriage without premarital HIV screening. CONCLUSION: In as much as premarital HIV screening is good; members should be convinced to do this screening and not to be coerced by these religious leaders, thus, stepping on one of their human right. [TAF Prev Med Bull 2013; 12(2.000: 129-134

  10. Increasing Patient / Provider Communications about Colorectal Cancer Screening In Rural Primary Care Practices

    Science.gov (United States)

    Geller, Berta M.; Skelly, Joan M.; Dorwaldt, Anne L.; Howe, Kathleen D.; Dana, Greg S.; Flynn, Brian S.

    2009-01-01

    Background Rural populations as well as less educated people in the U.S. are less likely to receive colorectal cancer (CRC) screening than people living in urban areas and more educated people. Methods We tested a computer tablet, Patient/Provider Communication Assistant (PPCA), which collected data, educated patients, and printed personalized notes to patients and providers encouraging conversation about CRC screening. Mixed model analyses using a pre-post quasi-experimental design compared patient results during the comparison and intervention periods in 5 rural primary care practices on provider discussion about CRC screening, provider recommendation, and patient intention to be screened. Models including age, education and literacy measures as covariates were examined. Results Providers talked with patients about CRC screening in general, and colonoscopy specifically more frequently after the PPCA than with the comparison group (p values =.04 and .01, respectively). Providers recommended CRC screening more often to patients in the intervention group than to the comparison group (p=.02). Patients planned to be screened and specifically with colonoscopy more frequently following the intervention than in the comparison group (p=.003). There were no interactions between group and any of the covariates. Ninety-five percent of the patients regardless of age or education found the PPCA easy to use. Conclusion Results indicated increased provider discussion and recommendation, and patients' intentions to obtain CRC screening, and in particular colonoscopy, for patients exposed to the intervention, regardless of the patients' age or literacy levels. The PPCA is a promising intervention method that is acceptable to rural patients. PMID:18725831

  11. Increasing patient/physician communications about colorectal cancer screening in rural primary care practices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Geller, Berta M; Skelly, Joan M; Dorwaldt, Anne L; Howe, Kathleen D; Dana, Greg S; Flynn, Brian S

    2008-09-01

    Rural populations as well as less educated people in the United States are less likely to receive colorectal cancer (CRC) screening than people living in urban areas and more educated people. We tested a computer tablet, Patient/Provider Communication Assistant (PPCA), which collected data, educated patients, and printed personalized notes to patients and providers encouraging conversation about CRC screening. Mixed model analyses using a prepost quasi-experimental design compared patient results during the comparison and intervention periods in 5 rural primary care practices on provider discussion about CRC screening, provider recommendation, and patient intention to be screened. Models including age, education, and literacy measures as covariates were examined. Providers talked with patients about CRC screening in general, and colonoscopy specifically more frequently after the PPCA than with the comparison group (P values = 0.04 and 0.01, respectively). Providers recommended CRC screening more often to patients in the intervention group than to the comparison group (P = 0.02). Patients planned to be screened, specifically with colonoscopy, more frequently after the intervention than in the comparison group (P = 0.003). There were no interactions between group and any of the covariates. Ninety-five percent of the patients, regardless of age or education, found the PPCA easy to use. Results indicated increased provider discussion and recommendation, and patients' intentions to obtain CRC screening, and in particular colonoscopy, for patients exposed to the intervention, regardless of the patients' age or literacy levels. The PPCA is a promising intervention method that is acceptable to rural patients.

  12. Practice adaptive reserve and colorectal cancer screening best practices at community health center clinics in 7 states.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tu, Shin-Ping; Young, Vicki M; Coombs, Letoynia J; Williams, Rebecca S; Kegler, Michelle C; Kimura, Amanda T; Risendal, Betsy C; Friedman, Daniela B; Glenn, Beth A; Pfeiffer, Debbie J; Fernandez, Maria E

    2015-04-15

    Enhancing the capability of community health centers to implement best practices (BPs) may mitigate health disparities. This study investigated the association of practice adaptive reserve (PAR) with the implementation of patient-centered medical home (PCMH) colorectal cancer (CRC) screening BPs at community health center clinics in 7 states. A convenience sample of clinic staff participated in a self-administered, online survey. Eight PCMH CRC screening BPs were scored as a composite ranging from 0 to 32. The PAR composite score was scaled from 0 to 1 and then categorized into 3 levels. Multilevel analyses examined the relation between PAR and self-reported implementation of PCMH BPs. There were 296 respondents, and 59% reported 6 or more PCMH BPs at their clinics. The mean PAR score was 0.66 (standard deviation, 0.18), and the PCMH BP mean scores were significantly higher for respondents who reported higher clinic PAR categories. In comparison with the lowest PAR level, adjusted PCMH BP means were 25.0% higher at the middle PAR level (difference, 3.2; standard error, 1.3; t = 2.44; P = .015) and 63.2% higher at the highest PAR level (difference, 8.0; standard error, 1.9; t = 4.86; P clinic staff. Future research is needed to determine the PAR levels most conducive to implementing CRC screening and to develop interventions that enhance PAR in primary care settings. © 2014 American Cancer Society.

  13. Screening for osteoporosis in the adult U.S. population: ACPM position statement on preventive practice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lim, Lionel S; Hoeksema, Laura J; Sherin, Kevin

    2009-04-01

    Osteoporosis is a common and costly disease that is associated with high morbidity and mortality. There is a lack of direct evidence supporting the benefits of bone mineral density (BMD) screening on osteoporosis outcomes. However, there is indirect evidence to support screening for osteoporosis given the availability of medications with good antifracture efficacy. This paper addresses the position of the American College of Preventive Medicine (ACPM) on osteoporosis screening. The medical literature was reviewed for studies examining the benefits and harms of osteoporosis screening. An overview is also provided of available modalities for osteoporosis screening, risk-assessment tools, cost effectiveness, benefits and harms of screening, rationale for the study, and recommendations from leading health organizations and ACPM. A review was done of English language articles published prior to September 2008 that were retrieved via search on PubMed, from references from pertinent review or landmark articles, and from websites of leading health organizations. There were no randomized controlled trials (RCTs) of osteoporosis screening on fracture outcomes. However, there was one observational study that demonstrated reduced fracture incidence among recipients of BMD testing. Dual energy x-ray absorptiometry is currently one of the most widely accepted and utilized methods for assessing BMD. Other potential tests for detecting osteoporosis include quantitative ultrasound, quantitative computer tomography, and biochemical markers of bone turnover. Testing via BMD is a cost-effective method for detecting osteoporosis in both men and women. Osteoporosis risk-assessment tools such as the WHO fracture-risk algorithm are useful supplements to BMD assessments as they provide estimates of absolute fracture risks. They can also be used with or without BMD testing to assist healthcare providers and patients in making decisions regarding osteoporosis treatments. All adult patients

  14. ESIM: Edge Similarity for Screen Content Image Quality Assessment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ni, Zhangkai; Ma, Lin; Zeng, Huanqiang; Chen, Jing; Cai, Canhui; Ma, Kai-Kuang

    2017-10-01

    In this paper, an accurate full-reference image quality assessment (IQA) model developed for assessing screen content images (SCIs), called the edge similarity (ESIM), is proposed. It is inspired by the fact that the human visual system (HVS) is highly sensitive to edges that are often encountered in SCIs; therefore, essential edge features are extracted and exploited for conducting IQA for the SCIs. The key novelty of the proposed ESIM lies in the extraction and use of three salient edge features-i.e., edge contrast, edge width, and edge direction. The first two attributes are simultaneously generated from the input SCI based on a parametric edge model, while the last one is derived directly from the input SCI. The extraction of these three features will be performed for the reference SCI and the distorted SCI, individually. The degree of similarity measured for each above-mentioned edge attribute is then computed independently, followed by combining them together using our proposed edge-width pooling strategy to generate the final ESIM score. To conduct the performance evaluation of our proposed ESIM model, a new and the largest SCI database (denoted as SCID) is established in our work and made to the public for download. Our database contains 1800 distorted SCIs that are generated from 40 reference SCIs. For each SCI, nine distortion types are investigated, and five degradation levels are produced for each distortion type. Extensive simulation results have clearly shown that the proposed ESIM model is more consistent with the perception of the HVS on the evaluation of distorted SCIs than the multiple state-of-the-art IQA methods.

  15. Effects of peer health education on perception and practice of screening for cervical cancer among urban residential women in south-east Nigeria: a before and after study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mbachu, Chinyere; Dim, Cyril; Ezeoke, Uche

    2017-06-09

    Effective female education on cervical cancer prevention has been shown to increase awareness and uptake of screening. However, sustaining increase in uptake poses a challenge to control efforts. Peer health education has been used as an effective tool for ensuring sustained behavior change. This study was undertaken to assess the effectiveness of peer health education on perception, willingness to screen and uptake of cervical cancer screening by women. A before and after intervention study was undertaken in 2 urban cities in Enugu state, Nigeria among women of reproductive age attending women's meeting in Anglican churches. Multistage sampling was used to select 300 women. Peer health education was provided once monthly for 3 consecutive sessions over a period of 3 months. Data was collected at baseline and after the intervention using pre-tested questionnaires. Descriptive statistics and tests of significance of observed differences and associations were done at p-value of perception for cervical cancer and perception of benefits of early detection through screening. Practice of screening for cervical cancer increased by 6.8% and the observed difference was statistically significant (p = 0.02). This was significantly associated with marital status, level of education, employment status and parity (p perception of benefits of early detection of cervical cancer through screening. It is also effective for increasing their practice of screening for cervical cancer.

  16. Population-based stepwise screening for unrecognised Type 2 diabetes is ineffective in general practice despite reliable algorithms

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christensen, J.O.; Sandbæk, Annelli; Lauritzen, Torsten

    2004-01-01

    Aims/hypothesis. The yield of screening programmes for Type 2 diabetes in the existing healthcare setting might be lower than anticipated from tests of screening algorithms in data from epidemiological surveys. Our aims were to evaluate the reliability of the algorithms and the effectiveness...... published prevalence estimate. This was due to a large dropout rate among high-risk individuals prior to entry into the programme. Conclusions/interpretation. Population-based mail-distributed stepwise screening for Type 2 diabetes in general practice is ineffective, despite reliable screening algorithms...... of a proposed stepwise screening programme for Type 2 diabetes in general practice. Methods. The screening programme had four steps: (i) mail-distributed self-administered risk-chart; (ii) screening tests: random blood glucose (RBG) and HbA1c; (iii) diagnostic procedure 1 for fasting blood glucose (FBG) (if RBG...

  17. Retail venue based screening mammography: assessment of women's preferences.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gupta, Supriya; Vij, Abhinav; Cafiero, Elizabeth; Bloom, David; Agarwal, Sheela; Donelan, Karen; Kopans, Daniel; Saini, Sanjay

    2012-10-01

    The aim of this study was to explore women's interest and preferences in undergoing screening mammography in a retail health care setting. Self-administered surveys were distributed to 400 mammography patients in May to June 2009. All of the women who were asked were eligible for screening (age >40 years, no abnormal mammographic findings in the recent past). Three hundred eighty-six screening-eligible women filled out and returned the self-administered survey. The average respondent age was 57 years. Three hundred ten of the patients (80.3%) had college or postgraduate educations. Two hundred three (52.6%) reported annual incomes >$60,000. Two hundred forty-one respondents (62.4%) had been undergoing screening mammography for >10 years, while this was the first examination for eight patients (2%). More than half of the patients (n = 215 [55.7%]) affirmed their interest in undergoing annual screening mammography in a private area within a retail shopping facility. Most preferred a pharmacy (77%) over Wal-Mart or a grocery store. Appealing factors about a retail setting were proximity to home (90%), free parking (62%), and operating hours (48.8%). There is interest among women in undergoing screening mammography at retail health care clinics, preferably pharmacies. The provision of services at a convenient location can increase adherence to guidelines for screening mammography. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  18. Impact of quality assurance program: providing practice assessment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saporito, R A; Feldman, C A; Stewart, D C; Echoldt, H; Buchanan, R N

    1994-05-01

    Participation in a self-administered quality assessment (SAQA) program led to changes in New Jersey dentists' perceptions of practice quality. Ninety-four percent indicated they discovered practice deficiencies. This study suggests that using a self-administered quality assessment program, such as the SAQA program, can lead to a better understanding of a practice's strengths and weaknesses.

  19. Down syndrome screening information in midwifery practices in the Netherlands: Strategies to integrate biomedical information.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosman, Sophia

    2016-03-01

    The aim of this qualitative study was to analyse counselling with regard to prenatal screening in midwifery consultations in the Netherlands where a national prenatal screening programme has only existed since 2007, after years of social and political debates. The methodology is based on in situ observations of 25 counselling consultations in four midwifery practices in two main cities in the Netherlands. The results of this study show that, since midwives are obliged to offer information on Down syndrome screening to all pregnant women (2007), they have to deal with the communication of medical screening information using biostatistical concepts to explain risks, calculations, probabilities and chromosomal anomalies. In order to avoid the risk of medicalization of their consultation, midwives develop strategies that allow them to integrate this new biomedical discourse while maintaining their low medicalized approach of midwife-led care. One of their main strategies is to switch from 'alarming' biomedical messages to 'reassuring words' in order to manage the anxiety induced by the information and to keep the control over their low medicalized consultation. They also tend to distance themselves from the obligation to talk about screening. The way midwives handle these counselling consultations allows them to respect their obligation to propose information, and to remain faithful to their struggle to protect the natural process of pregnancy as well as their professional autonomy. © The Author(s) 2014.

  20. Objectively assessing nursing practices: a curricular development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Neill, A; McCall, J M

    1996-04-01

    In preparation for the changing needs of undergraduate nursing students undertaking a Project 2000 degree, it was necessary to rethink the nursing skills programme. After studying the literature a nursing skills laboratory was designed which provided both an institutional and a domestic setting. A progressive programme was developed, to help the students learn nursing practices, which was based on the Objective Structured Clinical Evaluation (OSCE). A small pilot study was set up using second and third-year students from the traditional nursing studies degree. A number of stations were set up comprising various nursing scenarios. The students who were being assessed rotated through these. Other students acted as patients, examiners and some volunteered to be novices being taught by the more senior students. A set of marking criteria was drawn up for each station to enable each student to be assessed objectively. One of the stations was filmed to provide the students with personal feedback. By the end of the session the students had rotated through each of the stations and received the marked criteria as feedback. At the end of the session a focused group interview took place with all the students and the two lecturers involved in setting up the project. Students were positive and felt the process had potential for future development as a means of integration and consolidation of skills prior to clinical experience. The early introduction of filming to the programme was though to be of benefit by reducing stress levels through regular use. Students felt that the role of teaching the 'novice' helped them focus on their knowledge and performance. This process is resource intensive in human and non-human terms but enables small groups of students to learn in a realistic but safe, non-threatening environment and encourages them to take responsibility for their own learning.

  1. Broad target chemical screening approach used as tool for rapid assessment of groundwater quality

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    ter Laak, T.L.; Puijker, L.M.; van Leerdam, J.A.; Raat, K.J.; Kolkman, A.; de Voogt, P.; van Wezel, A.P.

    2012-01-01

    The chemical water quality is often assessed by screening for a limited set of target chemicals. This ‘conventional’ target analysis approach inevitably misses chemicals present in the samples. In this study a ‘broad’ target screening approach for water quality assessment using high resolution and

  2. Comparative Effectiveness of Digital Versus Film-Screen Mammography in Community Practice in the United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kerlikowske, Karla; Hubbard, Rebecca A.; Miglioretti, Diana L.; Geller, Berta M.; Yankaskas, Bonnie C.; Lehman, Constance D.; Taplin, Stephen H.; Sickles, Edward A.

    2013-01-01

    Background Few studies have examined the comparative effectiveness of digital versus film-screen mammography in U.S. community practice. Objective To determine whether the interpretive performance of digital and film-screen mammography differs. Design Prospective cohort study. Setting Mammography facilities in the Breast Cancer Surveillance Consortium. Participants 329 261 women aged 40 to 79 years underwent 869 286 mammograms (231 034 digital; 638 252 film-screen). Measurements Invasive cancer or ductal carcinoma in situ diagnosed within 12 months of a digital or film-screen examination and calculation of mammography sensitivity, specificity, cancer detection rates, and tumor outcomes. Results Overall, cancer detection rates and tumor characteristics were similar for digital and film-screen mammography, but the sensitivity and specificity of each modality varied by age, tumor characteristics, breast density, and menopausal status. Compared with film-screen mammography, the sensitivity of digital mammography was significantly higher for women aged 60 to 69 years (89.9% vs. 83.0%; P = 0.014) and those with estrogen receptor-negative cancer (78.5% vs. 65.8%; P = 0.016); borderline significantly higher for women aged 40 to 49 years (82.4% vs. 75.6%; P = 0.071), those with extremely dense breasts (83.6% vs. 68.1%; P= 0.051), and pre- or perimenopausal women (87.1% vs. 81.7%; P = 0.057); and borderline significantly lower for women aged 50 to 59 years (80.5% vs. 85.1%; P = 0.097). The specificity of digital and film-screen mammography was similar by decade of age, except for women aged 40 to 49 years (88.0% vs. 89.7%; Pfilm-screen mammography is similar in U.S. women aged 50 to 79 years undergoing screening mammography. Women aged 40 to 49 years are more likely to have extremely dense breasts and estrogen receptor-negative tumors; if they are offered mammography screening, they may choose to undergo digital mammography to optimize cancer detection. Primary Funding

  3. Systematic Screening for Behavior in K-12 Settings as Regular School Practice: Practical Considerations and Recommendations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oakes, Wendy Peia; Lane, Kathleen Lynne; Cantwell, Emily D.; Royer, David J.

    2017-01-01

    There is a priority for schools to address students' social and emotional needs as is done for academic learning. Tiered models of prevention provide a framework for teaching social skills and behavioral expectations, as well as academics, with positive, proactive, evidence-based practices. Central to responding to students' needs is accurate…

  4. Effects of a 12-Month Educational Intervention on Clinicians' Attitudes/Practices Regarding the Screening Spiritual History.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koenig, Harold G; Perno, Kathleen; Erkanli, Alaattin; Hamilton, Ted

    2017-06-01

    Patients' spiritual values, beliefs, and preferences are identified in outpatient medical settings by the taking of a screening spiritual history (SSH). We report the impact of an educational/training program on the attitudes/practices of physicians (MDs) and midlevel practitioners (MLPs). A convenience sample of 1082 MDs or MLPs in outpatient practices was approached to participate in a 12-month educational/training program in this single-group experimental study. Of the 1082 professionals, 48% (427 physicians, 93 MLPs) agreed to complete a questionnaire assessing demographics, practice characteristics, religiosity, and attitudes/practices regarding the SSH. Changes in attitudes/practices over time were examined and baseline predictors identified using mixed-effects regression. Of the 520 participants completing questionnaires at baseline, 436 were assessed at 1 month (83.8%) and 432 were assessed at 12 months (83.1%). The belief that MDs should take a SSH did not significantly change over time (B = -0.022, standard error [SE] 0.028, P = 0.426). However, those who took an SSH often/always increased from 16.7% at baseline to 34.8% at 12-month follow-up (B = 0.328, SE 0.030, P SSH taking across time among MDs were older age, female sex, family medicine specialty, prior training, and importance of religion; older age was the only predictor in MLPs. Although attitudes toward taking an SSH were not affected, taking an SSH increased initially and was sustained over time, as did the sense that patients accepted/appreciated this practice. Educational programs of this type may be used to increase SSH taking by outpatient MDs and MLPs.

  5. Terrestrial Eco-Toxicological Tests as Screening Tool to Assess Soil Contamination in Krompachy Area

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ol'ga, Šestinová; Findoráková, Lenka; Hančuľák, Jozef; Fedorová, Erika; Tomislav, Špaldon

    2016-10-01

    In this study, we present screening tool of heavy metal inputs to agricultural and permanent grass vegetation of the soils in Krompachy. This study is devoted to Ecotoxicity tests, Terrestrial Plant Test (modification of OECD 208, Phytotoxkit microbiotest on Sinapis Alba) and chronic tests of Earthworm (Dendrobaena veneta, modification of OECD Guidelines for the testing of chemicals 317, Bioaccumulation in Terrestrial Oligochaetes) as practical and sensitive screening method for assessing the effects of heavy metals in Krompachy soils. The total Cu, Zn, As, Pb and Hg concentrations and eco-toxicological tests of soils from the Krompachy area were determined of 4 sampling sites in 2015. An influence of the sampling sites distance from the copper smeltery on the absolutely concentrations of metals were recorded for copper, lead, zinc, arsenic and mercury. The highest concentrations of these metals were detected on the sampling sites up to 3 km from the copper smeltery. The samples of soil were used to assess of phytotoxic effect. Total mortality was established at earthworms using chronic toxicity test after 7 exposure days. The results of our study confirmed that no mortality was observed in any of the study soils. Based on the phytotoxicity testing, phytotoxic effects of the metals contaminated soils from the samples 3KR (7-9) S.alba seeds was observed.

  6. A quantitative screening-level approach to incorporate chemical exposure and risk into alternative assessment evaluations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arnold, Scott M; Greggs, Bill; Goyak, Katy O; Landenberger, Bryce D; Mason, Ann M; Howard, Brett; Zaleski, Rosemary T

    2017-11-01

    As the general public and retailers ask for disclosure of chemical ingredients in the marketplace, a number of hazard screening tools were developed to evaluate the so-called "greenness" of individual chemical ingredients and/or formulations. The majority of these tools focus only on hazard, often using chemical lists, ignoring the other part of the risk equation: exposure. Using a hazard-only focus can result in regrettable substitutions, changing 1 chemical ingredient for another that turns out to be more hazardous or shifts the toxicity burden to others. To minimize the incidents of regrettable substitutions, BizNGO describes "Common Principles" to frame a process for informed substitution. Two of these 6 principles are: "reduce hazard" and "minimize exposure." A number of frameworks have emerged to evaluate and assess alternatives. One framework developed by leading experts under the auspices of the US National Academy of Sciences recommended that hazard and exposure be specifically addressed in the same step when assessing candidate alternatives. For the alternative assessment community, this article serves as an informational resource for considering exposure in an alternatives assessment using elements of problem formulation; product identity, use, and composition; hazard analysis; exposure analysis; and risk characterization. These conceptual elements build on practices from government, academia, and industry and are exemplified through 2 hypothetical case studies demonstrating the questions asked and decisions faced in new product development. These 2 case studies-inhalation exposure to a generic paint product and environmental exposure to a shampoo rinsed down the drain-demonstrate the criteria, considerations, and methods required to combine exposure models addressing human health and environmental impacts to provide a screening level hazard and exposure (risk) analysis. This article informs practices for these elements within a comparative risk context

  7. Screening food-borne and zoonotic pathogens associated with livestock practices in the Sumapaz region, Cundinamarca, Colombia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arenas, Nelson E; Abril, Diego A; Valencia, Paola; Khandige, Surabhi; Soto, Carlos Yesid; Moreno-Melo, Vilma

    2017-04-01

    Hazardous practices regarding antibiotics misuse, unsanitary milking procedures, and the commercial sales of raw milk and unpasteurized dairy products are currently being practiced by livestock farmers in the Sumapaz region (Colombia). The purpose of this study was to screen for food-borne and zoonotic pathogens associated with local livestock practices. We evaluated 1098 cows from 46 livestock farms in the Sumapaz region that were selected by random. Of the total population of cattle, 962 animals (88%) were tested for bovine TB using a caudal-fold tuberculin test and 546 (50%) for brucellosis by a competitive ELISA. In the population tested, 23 cows were positive for Brucella sp. representing a 4.2% seroprevalence and no cases of bovine tuberculosis were found. In addition, food-borne contamination with Escherichia coli and Staphylococcus aureus was assessed together with antibiotic susceptibility for ten different antibiotics in milk samples from 16 livestock farms. We found that 12 of the farms (75%) were contaminated with these food-borne pathogens. Noteworthy, all of the isolated pathogenic strains were resistant to multiple antibiotics, primarily to oxytetracycline and erythromycin. Our findings suggest that livestock products could be a source of exposure to Brucella and multidrug-resistant E. coli and S. aureus strains as a result of unhygienic livestock practices in the Sumapaz region. Training in good farming practices is the key to improving safety in food production.

  8. Do specific parenting practices and related parental self-efficacy associate with physical activity and screen time among primary schoolchildren? A cross-sectional study in Belgium.

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Lepeleere, Sara; De Bourdeaudhuij, Ilse; Cardon, Greet; Verloigne, Maïté

    2015-09-07

    To assess the association between specific parenting practices and related parental self-efficacy with children's physical activity (PA) and screen time. Parental body mass index (BMI), family socioeconomic status (SES), and child's age and gender were examined as possible influencing factors. Cross-sectional. January 2014, Flanders (Belgium). 207 parents (87.4% mothers) of children aged 6-12 years. Specific parenting practices, related parental self-efficacy, and children's PA and screen time. The majority of investigated parenting practices and related parental self-efficacy were not significantly associated with children's PA or screen time. However, children were more physically active if sports equipment was available at home (pparents did not find it difficult to motivate their child to be physically active (pparents limited their own gaming (pparenting practices and related parental self-efficacy with children's PA or screen time were significant for parents with a normal BMI, for medium-high SES families and for parents of younger children. Furthermore, the association between the parenting relating factors and children's PA and screen time differed for boys and girls. In contrast to what we expected, the findings of the current study show that only a very few specific parenting practices and related parental self-efficacy were associated with children's PA and screen time. It was expected that parental self-efficacy would play a more important role. This can be due to the fact that parental self-efficacy was already high in this group of parents. Therefore, it is possible that parents do not realise how difficult it is to perform certain parenting practices until they are faced with it in an intervention. EC/2012/317. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://group.bmj.com/group/rights-licensing/permissions.

  9. Breast cancer screening practices among first-generation immigrant muslim women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hasnain, Memoona; Menon, Usha; Ferrans, Carol Estwing; Szalacha, Laura

    2014-07-01

    The purpose of this study was to identify beliefs about breast cancer, screening practices, and factors associated with mammography use among first-generation immigrant Muslim women in Chicago, IL. A convenience sample of 207 first-generation immigrant Muslim women (Middle Eastern 51%; South Asian 49%) completed a culturally adapted questionnaire developed from established instruments. The questionnaire was administered in Urdu, Hindi, Arabic, or English, based on participant preference. Internal-consistency reliability was demonstrated for all scales (alpha coefficients ranged from 0.64 to 0.91). Associations between enabling, predisposing, and need variables and the primary outcome of mammography use were explored by fitting logistic regression models. Although 70% of the women reported having had a mammogram at least once, only 52% had had one within the past 2 years. Four factors were significant predictors of ever having had a mammogram: years in the United States, self-efficacy, perceived importance of mammography, and intent to be screened. Five factors were significant predictors of adherence (having had a mammogram in the past 2 years): years in the United States, having a primary care provider, perceived importance of mammography, barriers, and intent to be screened. This article sheds light on current screening practices and identifies theory-based constructs that facilitate and hinder Muslim women's participation in mammography screening. Our findings provide insights for reaching out particularly to new immigrants, developing patient education programs grounded in culturally appropriate approaches to address perceived barriers and building women's self-efficacy, as well as systems-level considerations for ensuring access to primary care providers.

  10. Quality of cholesterol screening and management with respect to the National Cholesterol Education's Third Adult Treatment Panel (ATPIII) guideline in primary care practices in North Carolina.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bertoni, Alain G; Bonds, Denise E; Steffes, Susan; Jackson, Eric; Crago, Lenore; Balasubramanyam, Aarthi; Chen, Haiying; Goff, David C

    2006-10-01

    Adherence to previous national cholesterol guidelines has been low. We assessed whether lipid screening and management was consistent with the National Cholesterol Education's ATPIII in a sample of primary care practices participating in a quality improvement study. Demographic and clinical data were abstracted from charts of 5071 patients aged 21 to 84 years, which were seen between June 1, 2001, and May 31, 2003, at 60 practices. Clinical sites were non-university-based primary care practices from 22 North Carolina counties. A dyslipidemia screening test was defined as a lipid profile performed on persons when not on a lipid-lowering drug. Among patients receiving a lipid profile, the proportion of patients appropriately treated, per ATPIII, was calculated. Practice level variation in screening and management was examined using the 50th (20th and 80th) percentile values across practices. The median practice level dyslipidemia screening rate during the 2 years was 40.1% (25.8%, 53.7%) of their age-eligible patients. The appropriate decision regarding lipid-lowering therapy was documented within 4 months of the lipid profile for 79.3% (69.0%, 86.0%) of practices' patients. Within 4 months, among the drug-ineligible patients, 100% (94%, 100%) were not prescribed drugs; 33.3% (6.3%, 50.0%) of the drug-eligible patients were prescribed lipid-lowering agents. The median dyslipidemia screening rate met the recommendations. There remains a need to improve the management of dyslipidemia; in particular, there was a significant underprescription of lipid-lowering drugs.

  11. Driving simulators for occupational therapy screening, assessment, and intervention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Classen, Sherrilene; Brooks, Johnell

    2014-04-01

    Simulation technology provides safe, objective, and repeatable performance measures pertaining to operational (e.g., avoiding a collision) or tactical (e.g., lane maintenance) driver behaviors. Many occupational therapy researchers and others are using driving simulators to test a variety of applications across diverse populations. A growing body of literature provides support for associations between simulated driving and actual on-road driving. One limitation of simulator technology is the occurrence of simulator sickness, but management strategies exist to curtail or mitigate its onset. Based on the literature review and a consensus process, five consensus statements are presented to support the use of driving simulation technology among occupational therapy practitioners. The evidence suggests that by using driving simulators occupational therapy practitioners may detect underlying impairments in driving performance, identify driving errors in at-risk drivers; differentiate between driving performance of impaired and healthy controls groups; show driving errors with absolute and relative validity compared to on-road studies; and mitigate the onset of simulator sickness. Much progress has been made among occupational therapy researchers and practitioners in the use of driving simulation technology; however, empirical support is needed to further justify the use of driving simulators in clinical practice settings as a valid, reliable, clinical useful, and cost effective tool for driving assessment and intervention.

  12. Classroom Assessment Practices of English Language Instructors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Özdemir-Yilmazer, Meryem; Özkan, Yonca

    2017-01-01

    Assessment of students is an essential part of instruction in both teaching and learning. With the recognition of alternative assessment methods, classroom assessment has gained attention focusing on learning of students. However, high-stakes testing turns classroom assessment into teachers' high stakes decisions, ignoring the development of…

  13. Validity of screening for psychiatric disorders in unaccompanied minor asylum seekers: Use of computer-based assessment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jakobsen, Marianne; Meyer DeMott, Melinda A; Heir, Trond

    2017-01-01

    Self-report screening is an important element of transcultural research. Problems concerning illiteracy, cultural sensitivity, and possible misunderstandings have been handled differently in different settings. The aim of this study was to evaluate the validity of two well-known instruments: the Hopkins Symptoms Check List (HSCL-25), and the Harvard Trauma Questionnaire (HTQ, Part IV), with a sample of 160 unaccompanied asylum-seeking adolescents from Afghanistan and Somalia. Assessments were performed 4 months after arrival in Norway, and the screening instruments were presented to the informants on computers with touch-screen function, using the program MultiCASI. Sound-files in the native languages of the informants appeared simultaneously with the written items and could be repeated by touch. We found that the screening procedures were well received and understood by the informants regardless of reading and writing abilities. Agreement between diagnoses (CIDI) and screening results were similar to other studies. Computer-based assessment in this setting was practical, cost effective, and can be recommended.

  14. Childhood obesity: Can electronic medical records customized with clinical practice guidelines improve screening and diagnosis?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saviñon, Carla; Taylor, Julie Smith; Canty-Mitchell, Janie; Blood-Siegfried, Jane

    2012-08-01

    The purpose of this project was to determine if customization of the electronic medical record (EMR) using evidence-based practice guidelines developed by the National Association of Pediatric Nurse Practitioners and the Expert Panel recommendations for the prevention, screening, and treatment of childhood and adolescent overweight and obesity would improve the rate of screening and diagnosis of obesity in children, 7 to 18 years of age. A retrospective review of encounters before and after implementation of customized EMR was conducted in a community health center. Data collected were compared for documentation of body mass index (BMI), completion of growth charts, scoring of risk questionnaire, and diagnosis of overweight or obesity. There was a clear increase in the frequency of recording BMI, completing BMI growth charts, and scoring questionnaires between written and electronic medical records. The number of children diagnosed with overweight or obesity increased with customized EMR but still remains well below the rates of obesity for this community. Customizing EMR with clinical practice guidelines improved adherence to recommendations for screening and identification of childhood overweight and obesity. Increased recognition and diagnosis will lead to improved interventions and improve outcomes for childhood obesity. ©2012 The Author(s) Journal compilation ©2012 American Academy of Nurse Practitioners.

  15. Methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus screening as a patient safety initiative: using patients' experiences to improve the quality of screening practices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Currie, Kay; Knussen, Christina; Price, Lesley; Reilly, Jacqui

    2014-01-01

    To explore the patient experience and acceptability of methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus screening of inpatient admissions to acute hospital settings. Prevention of healthcare-associated infections such as methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus is a major patient safety concern internationally. Screening of patients for methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus colonisation is becoming a routine aspect of hospital admission; however, evidence of the patient experience and acceptability of methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus screening is limited. A mixed-methods study set in six acute care hospitals in three Scottish regions. Data collection involved postdischarge self-report survey of patients who had been screened (n = 54) and qualitative patient interviews (n = 10). Theoretical constructs derived from the Health Belief Model and Theory of Planned Behaviour used in analysis. Findings indicated that methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus screening was broadly acceptable to patients. The experience of screening did not appear to be problematic; responses demonstrate that screening provided reassurance and generated confidence that health organisations were tackling healthcare-associated infections. Patients were less positive regarding the provision of information, the possibility of refusing a screen and the consequences of a positive test result. Furthermore, there were indications that patients wanted to be told the results of the screen and strong support for screening of hospital staff. Analysis of constructs from our theoretical frameworks provides evidence that attitudes were largely positive; responses indicate a belief in the beneficial impact of methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus screening for patients and the wider community. However, it is important that health professionals continually assess the patient experience of 'routine' aspects of health care such as MRSA screening. The findings from this study suggest that

  16. Mapping HPV Vaccination and Cervical Cancer Screening Practice in the Pacific Region-Strengthening National and Regional Cervical Cancer Prevention

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Obel, J; McKenzie, J; Buenconsejo-Lum, L E

    2015-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To provide background information for strengthening cervical cancer prevention in the Pacific by mapping current human papillomavirus (HPV) vaccination and cervical cancer screening practices, as well as intent and barriers to the introduction and maintenance of national HPV vaccinatio...

  17. Improving Initial Assessment: Guide to Good Practice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Knasel, Eddy; Meed, John; Rossetti, Anna; Read, Hilary

    2006-01-01

    This guide is aimed at anyone in work-based training who is responsible for learners during their first few weeks. Readers will (1) understand the value and purpose of initial assessment in key skills and Skills for Life; (2) become familiar with a range of techniques for the initial assessment; (3) plan an initial assessment system that is…

  18. Student Culture and Classroom Assessment Practices

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giron, Tilia

    2012-01-01

    Constructivism maintains that instruction is more meaningful when it is relevant, social and interactive. Formative assessment has been empirically demonstrated as being an effective form of instruction and assessment for learners (Black & Wiliam, 1998a, 1998b). Since assessment orients instruction and learning, combining student culture with…

  19. United States version of the Stroke Driver Screening Assessment: a pilot study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akinwuntan, Abiodun Emmanuel; Gantt, Diana; Gibson, Gina; Kimmons, Kurt; Ross, Valerie; Rosen, Peter Newman; Wachtel, Jerry

    2013-01-01

    Most stroke survivors who resume driving in the United States do so within the first year. More than 87% of these individuals resume driving without a formal evaluation of their fitness to drive because of the absence of standard practices and generally accepted and valid screening tools. The Stroke Driver Screening Assessment (SDSA) is an established battery for predicting stroke survivors' driving performance but is not currently used in the United States. This pilot study investigated the predictive ability of the US version of the battery in a US-based cohort of stroke survivors. Fifteen first-ever stroke survivors (age, 52±12 years) and 16 healthy adults (age, 40±16 years) were administered the US version of the SDSA in a standardized format. Performance on the SDSA was compared with driving performance in a high-fidelity driving simulator. Stroke and healthy participants' driving performance was predicted with 87% and 88% accuracy, respectively. The US version of the SDSA battery has the potential to be a good predictor of driving performance of mildly impaired stroke survivors. Larger studies are needed to further establish its predictive accuracy.

  20. Psychiatric Assessment and Screening for the Elderly in Primary Care: Design, Implementation, and Preliminary Results

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Robert C. Abrams

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction. We describe the design and implementation of a psychiatric collaborative care model in a university-based geriatric primary care practice. Initial results of screening for anxiety and depression are reported. Methods and Materials. Screens for anxiety and depression were administered to practice patients. A mental health team, consisting of a psychiatrist, mental health nurse practitioner, and social worker, identified patients who on review of screening and chart data warranted evaluation or treatment. Referrals for mental health interventions were directed to members of the mental health team, primary care physicians at the practice, or community providers. Results. Subjects (N=1505 comprised 38.2% of the 3940 unique patients seen at the practice during the 4-year study period. 37.1% (N=555 screened positive for depression, 26.9% (N=405 for anxiety, and 322 (21.4% screened positive for both. Any positive score was associated with age (P<0.033, female gender (P<0.006, and a nonsignificant trend toward living alone (P<0.095. 8.87% had suicidal thoughts. Conclusions. Screening captured the most affectively symptomatic patients, including those with suicidal ideation, for intervention. The partnering of mental health professionals and primary care physicians offers a workable model for addressing the scarcity of expertise in geriatric psychiatry.

  1. The assessment of fitness to drive after a stroke: the Nordic Stroke Driver Screening Assessment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lundberg, Catarina; Caneman, Görel; Samuelsson, Sven-Mårten; Hakamies-Blomqvist, Liisa; Almkvist, Ove

    2003-02-01

    The British Stroke Driver Screening Assessment (SDSA) is a set of four simple cognitive tests to evaluate driving fitness in stroke patients. To evaluate its usefulness in a Scandinavian context, we adapted the tests and assessed a group of 97 stroke patients from Sweden and Norway, using a driving test as the criterion. When results were calculated according to the original method, based on a discriminant function, less than 70% of the participants were correctly classified. To improve the predictive potential, a new discriminant analysis was performed, using the scores of a subsample of 49 patients, and validated on the remaining 48 participants. In total, 78% of the patients were correctly classified, but specificity was superior to sensitivity. We conclude that the Nordic version of the SDSA is a useful instrument, provided that test scores are interpreted in a balanced manner, taking into account the possibility of compensatory traffic behavior.

  2. Assessment of Alzheimer's Patients with the BNI Screen for Higher Cerebral Functions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prigatano, George P.; Smason, Ivan

    1994-01-01

    Assessing higher cerebral functions in patients with known or suspected dementia requires sampling numerous abilities quickly and accurately. This paper reports on the performance of 20 patients with probable dementia of the Alzheimer's type (DAT) on the BNI Screen for Higher Cerebral Functions (BNI Screen). These patients' performances were…

  3. Breast Cancer Knowledge and Screening Practice and Barriers Among Women in Madinah, Saudi Arabia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al-Zalabani, Abdulmohsen H; Alharbi, Khalid D; Fallatah, Nahid I; Alqabshawi, Reem I; Al-Zalabani, Ahmad A; Alghamdi, Suliman M

    2016-06-07

    A breast screening program may help to reduce cancer mortality rates among women. However, the use of the screening program by women in Madinah city is low, and studies examining its practice and barriers of low uptake are sparse. To identify breast cancer knowledge, practice and screening barriers among women attending primary health centers (PHC) in Madinah, Saudi Arabia. A primary health center-based cross-sectional study was performed in Madinah city in 2015. A multistage stratified cluster sample was obtained and included 465 women (15 years and older) from five PHC. Data concerning socio-demographics, knowledge about breast cancer, and practice and barriers of mammography use were collected using a structured questionnaire. The mean age of the studied 465 women was 34.9 ± 12.2 years. Of these women, 27.7 and 38.5 % received mammography and performed breast self-examination, respectively. A high level of poor knowledge about breast cancer was detected in the overall studied women and those who never received a mammography, particularly knowledge related to the risk factors of breast cancer. The most important predictors of the barriers to mammography were incorrect beliefs about mammography and its procedures. A belief that mammography is painful was significantly associated with a 56 % reduction in its use (OR = 0.44; 95 % CI = 0.22-0.88). The high levels of poor knowledge about cancer breast observed in this study reflect the need for greater efforts to increase breast awareness education.

  4. Do socioeconomic factors influence breast cancer screening practices among Arab women in Qatar?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Donnelly, Tam Truong; Al Khater, Al-Hareth; Al Kuwari, Mohamed Ghaith; Al-Bader, Salha Bujassoum; Al-Meer, Nabila; Abdulmalik, Mariam; Singh, Rajvir; Chaudhry, Sofia; Fung, Tak

    2015-01-22

    Breast cancer incidence rates are rising in Qatar. Although the Qatari government provides subsidised healthcare and screening programmes that reduce cost barriers for residents, breast cancer screening (BCS) practices among women remain low. This study explores the influence of socioeconomic status on BCS among Arab women in Qatar. A multicentre, cross-sectional quantitative survey was conducted with 1063 Arab women (87.5% response rate) in Qatar from March 2011 to July 2011. Women who were 35 years or older and had lived in Qatar for at least 10 years were recruited from seven primary healthcare centres and women's health clinics in urban and semiurban regions of Qatar. Associations between socioeconomic factors and BCS practice were estimated using χ(2) tests and multivariate logistic regression analyses. Findings indicate that less than one-third of the participants practised BCS appropriately, whereas less than half of the participants were familiar with recent BCS guidelines. Married women and women with higher education and income levels were significantly more likely to be aware of and to practise BCS than women who had lower education and income levels. Findings indicate low levels of awareness and low participation rates in BCS among Arab women in Qatar. Socioeconomic factors influence these women's participation in BCS activities. The strongest predictors for BCS practice are higher education and higher income levels. Additional research is needed to explore the impact of economic factors on healthcare seeking behaviours in the Middle Eastern countries that have a high national gross domestic product where healthcare services are free or heavily subsidised by the government; promotion of BCS and intervention strategies in these countries should focus on raising awareness about breast cancer, the cost and benefit of early screening for this disease, particularly among low-income women. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to

  5. Cognitive Assessment Practices: A Survey of School Psychologists

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sotelo-Dynega, Marlene; Dixon, Shauna G.

    2014-01-01

    The present article describes an exploratory study regarding the preferred cognitive assessment practices of current school psychologists. Three hundred and twenty-three school psychologists participated in the survey. The results suggest that the majority of school psychologists endorsed that they base their assessment practices on an underlying…

  6. Osteoporosis risk assessment by family practice faculty and residents: a chart review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schrager, S; Kausch, T; Bobula, J A

    1999-12-01

    To assess the frequency of osteoporosis risk assessment of postmenopausal women by family practice faculty and residents. Review of 263 charts of women over 50 from 3 residency clinics. Charts were evaluated for evidence of osteoporosis risk assessments or discussion of prevention strategies during the past 2 years. Overall, 35% of the charts contained documentation of some discussion of osteoporosis. Female physicians discussed osteoporosis more than their male colleagues (p osteoporosis discussions decreased as women aged (p osteoporosis discussions with high risk women was low in this sample. Strategies to improve osteoporosis screening are necessary.

  7. Implications of teacher educators' practices in assessment for ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This study presents findings on teacher educators' practices in assessment and their implications for student learning in Tanzania. Research on classroom assessment has been dichotomizing assessment and teaching-learning processes instead of viewing assessment as an integral part of the teachinglearning process.

  8. Assessment Quality and Practices in Secondary PE in the Netherlands

    Science.gov (United States)

    Borghouts, Lars B.; Slingerland, Menno; Haerens, Leen

    2017-01-01

    Background: Assessment can have various functions, and is an important impetus for student learning. For assessment to be effective, it should be aligned with curriculum goals and of sufficient quality. Although it has been suggested that assessment quality in physical education (PE) is suboptimal, research into actual assessment practices has…

  9. Assessing the Fragile X Syndrome Newborn Screening Landscape.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Riley, Catharine; Wheeler, Anne

    2017-06-01

    Fragile X syndrome (FXS) is the most common known inherited form of intellectual disability. Early identification is an important step in linking FXS individuals with appropriate and timely medical and social services. Newborn screening (NBS) is 1 approach that has been used for other conditions to facilitate early identification. A literature review was conducted to identify issues, barriers, challenges, and approaches to addressing challenges related to NBS for FXS. Search terms included: fragile X syndrome, FMR1, newborn screening, screening, and genetic testing. To supplement the literature review, 9 key informant interviews were conducted. Information gathered through these interviews supplemented what was identified in the literature. Information from both the literature review and supplemental interviews was reviewed by 3 researchers who discussed and came to consensus on thematic areas and categorization of issues. The barriers and challenges related to NBS for FXS identified in the literature and by experts and stakeholders are categorized into 5 thematic areas: public health burden, treatment, timing, screening/testing methodologies, and translating results. Summaries of these issues and barriers are provided, along with potential approaches to addressing them. The issues and barriers described in this article highlight limited areas of knowledge that need be addressed to improve our understanding of FXS and the potential benefit of NBS. The landscape of NBS for FXS could be influenced by a series of research findings over time or a larger breakthrough that demonstrates an effective targeted treatment that has to be implemented early in life. Copyright © 2017 by the American Academy of Pediatrics.

  10. Prevalence of Traditional and Reverse-Algorithm Syphilis Screening in Laboratory Practice: A Survey of Participants in the College of American Pathologists Syphilis Serology Proficiency Testing Program.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rhoads, Daniel D; Genzen, Jonathan R; Bashleben, Christine P; Faix, James D; Ansari, M Qasim

    2017-01-01

    -Syphilis serology screening in laboratory practice is evolving. Traditionally, the syphilis screening algorithm begins with a nontreponemal immunoassay, which is manually performed by a laboratory technologist. In contrast, the reverse algorithm begins with a treponemal immunoassay, which can be automated. The Centers for Disease Control and Prevention has recognized both approaches, but little is known about the current state of laboratory practice, which could impact test utilization and interpretation. -To assess the current state of laboratory practice for syphilis serologic screening. -In August 2015, a voluntary questionnaire was sent to the 2360 laboratories that subscribe to the College of American Pathologists syphilis serology proficiency survey. -Of the laboratories surveyed, 98% (2316 of 2360) returned the questionnaire, and about 83% (1911 of 2316) responded to at least some questions. Twenty-eight percent (378 of 1364) reported revision of their syphilis screening algorithm within the past 2 years, and 9% (170 of 1905) of laboratories anticipated changing their screening algorithm in the coming year. Sixty-three percent (1205 of 1911) reported using the traditional algorithm, 16% (304 of 1911) reported using the reverse algorithm, and 2.5% (47 of 1911) reported using both algorithms, whereas 9% (169 of 1911) reported not performing a reflex confirmation test. Of those performing the reverse algorithm, 74% (282 of 380) implemented a new testing platform when introducing the new algorithm. -The majority of laboratories still perform the traditional algorithm, but a significant minority have implemented the reverse-screening algorithm. Although the nontreponemal immunologic response typically wanes after cure and becomes undetectable, treponemal immunoassays typically remain positive for life, and it is important for laboratorians and clinicians to consider these assay differences when implementing, using, and interpreting serologic syphilis screening

  11. Socio-economic inequalities in breast and cervical cancer screening practices in Europe: influence of the type of screening program

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Palència, Laia; Espelt, Albert; Rodríguez-Sanz, Maica; Puigpinós, Rosa; Pons-Vigués, Mariona; Pasarín, M. Isabel; Spadea, Teresa; Kunst, Anton E.; Borrell, Carme

    2010-01-01

    Methods A cross-sectional study was performed using individual-level data from the WHO World Health Survey (2002) and data regarding the implementation of cancer screening programmes. The study population consisted of women from 22 European countries, aged 25-69 years for cervical cancer screening

  12. Research practices and assessment of research misconduct

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hartgerink, C.H.J.; Wicherts, J.M.

    2016-01-01

    This article discusses the responsible conduct of research, questionable research practices, and research misconduct. Responsible conduct of research is often defined in terms of a set of abstract, normative principles, professional standards, and ethics in doing research. In order to accommodate

  13. Assessing Graduate Teaching Assistants' Beliefs and Practices

    Science.gov (United States)

    Douglas, Jennifer; Powell, Darcey N.; Rouamba, Nathalie H.

    2016-01-01

    Graduate teaching assistants (GTAs) play a crucial role in North American colleges. At a mid-Atlantic, land grant institution, GTAs instruct 34,000 undergraduates per semester. Given this scope, GTAs exert a powerful influence on undergraduate learning, yet little is known about their teaching beliefs in relation to their classroom practices. This…

  14. ASSESSMENT OF FOOD SAFETY PRACTICES AMONG CASSAVA ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Philips Olusola

    processing from four Local Government Areas where there is concentration of cassava production and processing activities in the ... Nigerian Television Authority (NTA) News line on the 16th. September, 2012 reported of a family of five ..... oppose food safety practices and regulations [16]. Efforts geared towards training, re-.

  15. A PRACTICAL ASSESSMENT FOR PSYCHOLOGICAL CAPITAL DEVELOPMENT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Julio César Ponce Gutiérrez

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Psychological Capital has to do with individual psychological resources available to people in an organization which are useful for dealing with adversity. In this work, a practice with an intervention program to develop psychological capital is evaluated. The effect of practice in a sample of students in a Venezuelan public university (N = 15 were studied. Research and theory support the relationship of Psychological Capital components of hope, self-efficacy, optimism and resilience, with positive results in organizations both individually and organizational scope. Hence exploring the feature of malleability in CapPsi and therefore its developed capability it is interesting. There have been proven intervention models to develop CapPsi showing positive results. Practice to develop CapPsi (PCP shown in this paper is based on these initial models. Through an experimental design with pre- and post-test the effects of PCP on CapPsi levels is evaluated. Preliminary results support the hypothesis that through a concentrated training with a short practice, you can develop and improve levels of CapPsi.

  16. A downscaled practical measure of mood lability as a screening tool for bipolar II.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benazzi, Franco; Akiskal, Hagop S

    2005-02-01

    Current data indicate a strong association between Cyclothymic temperament (and its more ultradian counterpart of mood lability) and Bipolar II (BPII). Administration of elaborate measures of temperament are cumbersome in routine practice. Accordingly, the aim of the present analyses was to test if a practical measure of mood lability was unique to BPII, in comparison with major depressive disorder (MDD). Using the Structured Clinical Interview for DSM-IV Axis I Disorders, Clinician Version as modified by us [J. Affect. Disord. 73 (2003) 33; Curr. Opin. Psychiatry 16 (2003) S71], we interviewed 62 consecutive BPII outpatients, as well as their 59 MDD counterparts during a major depressive episode (MDE). Hypomanic symptoms during MDE were systematically assessed: three or more such symptoms defined depressive mixed state (DMX3) on the basis of previous work by us [J. Affect. Disord. 73 (2003) 113]. A downscaled definition of trait mood lability was adapted from Akiskal et al. [Arch. Gen. Psychiatry 52 (1995) 114] and Angst et al. [J. Affect. Disord. 73 (2003) 133], requiring a positive response to one of two queries on whether one is a person with frequent "ups and downs" in mood, and whether such mood swings occur for no reason. The patients selected for inclusion had not received neuroleptics and antidepressants for at least 2 weeks prior to the index episode, they were free of substance and alcohol abuse, and did not meet the DSM-IV criteria for borderline personality disorder (BPD). Associations between mood swings and clinical variables were tested by logistic regression (STATA 7). Mood swings were endorsed by 50.4% of the entire sample: 62.9% of BPII and 37.2% of MDD (p = 0.0047). This practical measure of mood lability was significantly associated with BPII, lower age at onset, high depressive recurrences, atypical features, and DMX3. When controlled for number of major affective episodes, mood swings were still significantly associated with BP

  17. Assessment Gone Wild: Practice What You Teach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lemons, Mary A.

    2014-01-01

    Assessment of learning has become very important for government, universities and accrediting agencies. In this article, two variables are examined, leadership and teamwork, in the context of a survey used by one mid-south university for assessment purposes. This survey demonstrates the problems that arise when the sequential steps of the research…

  18. Teachers' Views of Their Assessment Practice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Atjonen, Päivi

    2014-01-01

    The main aim of this research was to analyse teachers' views of pupil assessment. The theoretical framework was based on existing literature on advances and challenges of pupil assessment in regard to support for learning, fairness, educational partnership, feedback, and favourable methods. The data were gathered by means of a questionnaire…

  19. Suburban Families' Experience With Food Insecurity Screening in Primary Care Practices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Palakshappa, Deepak; Doupnik, Stephanie; Vasan, Aditi; Khan, Saba; Seifu, Leah; Feudtner, Chris; Fiks, Alexander G

    2017-07-01

    Food insecurity (FI) remains a major public health problem. With the rise in suburban poverty, a greater understanding of parents' experiences of FI in suburban settings is needed to effectively screen and address FI in suburban practices. We conducted 23 semistructured interviews with parents of children comfort discussing their unmet food needs; parents experience shame, frustration, and helplessness regarding FI, but discussing FI with their clinician helped alleviate these feelings; parents suggested practices could help them more directly access food resources, which, depending on income, may not be available to them through government programs. Although most parents were comfortable discussing FI, they felt it was important for clinicians to acknowledge their frustrations with FI and facilitate access to a range of food resources. Copyright © 2017 by the American Academy of Pediatrics.

  20. Medical Screen Operations: How Head-Mounted Displays Transform Action and Perception in Surgical Practice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Moritz Queisner

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Based on case studies in minimally invasive surgery, this paper investigates how head-mounted displays (HMDs transform action and perception in the operating theatre. In particular, it discusses the methods and addresses the obstacles that are linked to the attempt to eliminate the divide between vision and visualization by augmenting the surgeon’s field of view with images. First, it analyzes how HMDs change the way images are integrated into the surgical workflow by looking at the modalities of image production, transmission, and reception in HMDs. Second, through an analysis of screen architecture and design, it examines how HMDs affect the locations and situations in which images are used. And third, it discuss the consequences of HMD-based practice as applied to action, perception, and decision-making, with attention to how HMDs challenge the existing techniques and routines of surgical practice and, therefore, necessitate a new type of image and application-based expertise.

  1. Non-compliance to clinical practice guideline for screening of gestational diabetes mellitus in Siriraj Hospital.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruengkhachorn, Irene; Sunsaneevithayakul, Prasert; Boriboonhirunsarn, Dittakarn

    2006-06-01

    To evaluate the rate of non-compliance to Clinical Practice Guideline (CPG) for screening of Gestational Diabetes Mellitus (GDM) and related factors in Siriraj Hospital. Descriptive cross-sectional study. Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology, Faculty of Medicine Siriraj Hospital, Mahidol University. One-hundred-and-fifty-nine pregnant women at risk for GDM and who delivered at Siriraj Hospital were enrolled Data were collected from history and medical records including base line characteristics, clinical risk factors of GDM, and compliance to guideline. Rate of non-compliance and related factors were evaluated The rate of non-compliance to GPG for screening of GDM at Siriraj Hospital was 22% (95%CI 16.3%-29.1%). The rate was highest among women who had AnteNatal Care (ANC) at a private clinic (82.1%), followed by the private cases in the hospital (40%). Those who received ANC at the hospital had the lowest non-compliance rate of 6.6%. The most common neglected risk factor was maternal age > or = 30 years. Significant higher compliance was found among women with 2 or more clinical risk factors compared to those with only 1 risk factor (p = 0.028). The rate of non-compliance to CPG for screening of GDM at Siriraj Hospital was 22%. Highest non-compliance rate was found among the private cases. The most common neglected risk factor was maternal age > or = 30 years.

  2. Study protocol for a three-armed randomized controlled trial to assess whether house screening can reduce exposure to malaria vectors and reduce malaria transmission in The Gambia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Milligan Paul J

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Mosquito-proofing homes was one of the principal methods of environmental management in the early 1900s. House screening provides protection against malaria by reducing exposure to malaria parasites and has the added benefit of protecting everyone sleeping in the house, avoiding issues of inequity within the household. The aim of this study is to determine whether house screening protects people against malaria in Africa. It is hoped that this study will mark the beginning of a series of trials assessing a range of environmental interventions for malaria control in Africa. Design A 3-armed randomised-controlled trial will be conducted in and around Farafenni town in The Gambia, West Africa, to assess whether screening windows, doors and closing eaves or installing netting ceilings in local houses can substantially reduce malaria transmission and anaemia compared to homes with no screening. Eligible houses will be sorted and stratified by location and the number of children in each house, then randomly allocated to the interventions in blocks of 5 houses (2 with full screening, 2 with screened ceilings and 1 control house without screening. Risk of malaria transmission will be assessed in each house by routine collections of mosquitoes using light traps and an anaemia prevalence study in children at the end of the main transmission period. Discussion Practical issues concerning intervention implementation, as well as the potential benefits and risks of the study, are discussed. Trial Registration ISRCTN51184253 – Screening-homes to prevent malaria

  3. Primary care variability in patients at higher risk for colorectal cancer: evaluation of screening and preventive care practices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peabody, John; Saldivar, Juan-Sebastien; Swagel, Eric; Fugaro, Steven; Paculdo, David; Tran, Mary

    2018-01-21

    Sub-optimal colorectal cancer (CRC) evaluations have been attributed to both physician and patient factors. The primary objective of this study was to evaluate physician practice variation in patients with a higher risk of CRC. We wanted to identify the physician characteristics and the types of patients that were associated with missed screening opportunities; we also explored whether screening for CRC served as a proxy for better preventive care practices. A total of 213 board-certified family and internal medicine physicians participated in the study, conducted between September and December 2016. We used Clinical Performance and Value (CPV®) vignettes, simulated patients, to collect data on CRC screening. The CPV patients presented with a typical range of signs and symptoms of potential CRC. The care provided to the simulated patients was scored against explicit evidence-based criteria. The main outcome measure was rate a diagnostic CRC workup was ordered. This data quantified the clinical practice variability for CRC screening in high risk patients and other preventive and screening practices. A total of 81% of participants ordered appropriate CRC workup in patients at risk for CRC, with a majority (71%) selecting diagnostic colonoscopy over FIT/FOBT. Only 6% of physicians ordering CRC workup, however, counseled patients on their higher risk for CRC. The most commonly recognized symptoms prompting testing were unexplained weight loss or inadequate screening history, while the least recognized symptoms of CRC risk were abdominal discomfort found on review of systems. This study shows that primary care physician screening of CRC varies widely. Those physicians who successfully screened for CRC were more likely to complete other prevention and screening practices.

  4. Sleep disorders in children: a national assessment of primary care pediatrician practices and perceptions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Faruqui, Firoza; Khubchandani, Jagdish; Price, James H; Bolyard, Dawn; Reddy, Ramalinga

    2011-09-01

    To assess general pediatricians' screening practices for sleep-related issues and assess their knowledge on common sleep complaints in children, their perceived barriers to screening for sleep issues, and whether they have received training regarding sleep issues. A national random sample (n = 700) of general pediatricians who were members of the American Academy of Pediatrics were sent a valid and reliable questionnaire on sleep problems in youth. A total of 346 pediatricians (49%) responded. The vast majority (96%) indicated that they believed it was their job to counsel patients/guardians regarding sleep hygiene, yet few pediatricians (18%) had ever received formal training on sleep disorders. Those who did not screen for sleep problems spent significantly less time with each patient and perceived significantly more barriers to screening. Pediatricians who had received training about sleep disorders had significantly higher knowledge scores on sleep problems, perceived significantly fewer barriers to screening, and reported significantly higher confidence scores regarding counseling patients/guardians on sleep problems. These findings support the need for formal education on sleep disorders for all pediatricians.

  5. Assessing children's disaster reactions and mental health needs: screening and clinical evaluation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pfefferbaum, Betty; North, Carol S

    2013-03-01

    To present a framework for assessing children's disaster reactions and mental health needs. We reviewed the relevant literature and clinical experience to identify information on assessment approaches in children and to construct an assessment framework based on disaster exposure. Child disaster mental health assessment includes 2 components-screening and clinical evaluation-but these have not been fully explicated or distinguished in the literature. Screening can be used to assess large numbers of children across exposure groups. Clinical evaluation is appropriate for children who are directly exposed to a disaster, for those whose family members and (or) close associates are directly exposed, and for those who are identified through screening as being at risk for psychiatric disturbance. Clinical evaluation includes a full diagnostic assessment (posttraumatic stress disorder and other disorders) with the goals of identifying psychopathology, determining the need for clinical care, and guiding intervention planning and referral. Children with psychiatric conditions should be referred to treatment, while those with psychological distress but without psychiatric illness may benefit from psychosocial interventions. Screening is appropriate to identify children at risk for psychiatric disturbance who will need further evaluation to determine diagnosis. Screening should not be used to dictate treatment decisions. Children who screen positive for psychiatric risk should receive a full clinical evaluation. Children determined to be suffering from psychiatric disorders should receive, or be referred for, formal treatment. Children without psychiatric disorders may benefit from psychosocial interventions.

  6. Subjective Global Nutritional Assessment: A Reliable Screening Tool for Nutritional Assessment in Cerebral Palsy Children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Minocha, Priyanka; Sitaraman, Sadasivan; Choudhary, Anita; Yadav, Rajiv

    2018-01-01

    To determine the prevalence of undernutrition in children with cerebral palsy and to compare subjective and objective methods of nutritional assessment. This was a hospital based analytical observational study in which 180 children of cerebral palsy, aged 1-12 y, attending tertiary level hospital, Jaipur from March, 2012 through March, 2013 were included. Subjective assessment was done by questionnaire (Subjective Global Nutritional Assessment; SGNA) in which questions related to nutrition history and physical examination, signs of fat, muscle wasting and edema was done while objective assessment was done by weight, height and triceps skinfold thickness (TSFT) measurements. In this study prevalence of undernutrition by subjective method (SGNA) was 76.67% while by objective measurement (weight, height, TSFT) was 48.89%, 77.78% 35.18% respectively. There was fair to moderate agreement between the SGNA and objective assessments including weight and height (k = 0.341, p = 0.000; k = 0.337, p = 0.000 respectively) while for TSFT agreement between both methods was poor (k = 0.092, p = 0.190). In the index study, sensitivity, specificity, positive predictive value (PPV), and negative predictive value (NPV) of SGNA was for weight was 95%, 37%, 56%, 90%; for height 84%, 50%, 85%, 47%; for TSFT 81%, 30%, 38%, 75% respectively. The prevalence of undernutrition is high in cerebral palsy children. SGNA can be a reliable tool for assessing nutritional status in children with cerebral palsy and is a simple, comprehensive, noninvasive, and cost-effective tool for screening undernutrition in children of cerebral palsy.

  7. Understanding type 2 diabetes mellitus screening practices among primary care physicians: a qualitative chart-stimulated recall study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hafez, Dina; Nelson, Daniel B; Martin, Evan G; Cohen, Alicia J; Northway, Rebecca; Kullgren, Jeffrey T

    2017-04-04

    Early diagnosis and treatment of prediabetes and type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) can prevent future health problems, yet many individuals with these conditions are undiagnosed. This could be due, in part, to primary care physicians' (PCP) screening practices, about which little is known. The objectives of this study were to identify factors that influence PCPs' decisions to screen patients for T2DM and to characterize their interpretation and communication of screening test results to patients. We conducted semi-structured chart-stimulated recall interviews with 20 University of Michigan Health System (UMHS) primary care physicians. PCPs were asked about their recent decisions to screen or not screen 134 purposively sampled non-diabetic patients who met American Diabetes Association criteria for screening for T2DM. Interviews were audio-recorded, transcribed, and analyzed using qualitative directed content analysis. Data on patient demographic characteristics and comorbidities were abstracted from the electronic health record. The most common reasons PCPs gave for not screening 63 patients for T2DM were knowledge of a previously normal screening test (49%) and a visit for reasons other than a health maintenance examination (48%). The most common reasons PCPs gave for screening 71 patients for T2DM were knowledge of a previously abnormal screening test (49%), and patients' weight (42%) and age (38%). PCPs correctly interpreted 89% of screening test results and communicated 95% of test results to patients. Among 24 patients found to have prediabetes, PCPs usually (58%) recommended weight loss and increased physical activity but never recommended participation in a Diabetes Prevention Program or use of metformin. Previous screening test results, visit types, and patients' weight and age influenced PCPs' decisions to screen for T2DM. When patients were screened, test results were generally correctly interpreted and consistently communicated. Recommendations to patients

  8. Assessing the utility and limitations of high throughput virtual screening

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paul Daniel Phillips

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Due to low cost, speed, and unmatched ability to explore large numbers of compounds, high throughput virtual screening and molecular docking engines have become widely utilized by computational scientists. It is generally accepted that docking engines, such as AutoDock, produce reliable qualitative results for ligand-macromolecular receptor binding, and molecular docking results are commonly reported in literature in the absence of complementary wet lab experimental data. In this investigation, three variants of the sixteen amino acid peptide, α-conotoxin MII, were docked to a homology model of the a3β2-nicotinic acetylcholine receptor. DockoMatic version 2.0 was used to perform a virtual screen of each peptide ligand to the receptor for ten docking trials consisting of 100 AutoDock cycles per trial. The results were analyzed for both variation in the calculated binding energy obtained from AutoDock, and the orientation of bound peptide within the receptor. The results show that, while no clear correlation exists between consistent ligand binding pose and the calculated binding energy, AutoDock is able to determine a consistent positioning of bound peptide in the majority of trials when at least ten trials were evaluated.

  9. Comparison of different stepwise screening strategies for type 2 diabetes: Finding from Danish general practice, Addition-DK

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dalsgaard, Else-Marie; Christensen, Jesper O; Skriver, Mette Vinter

    2010-01-01

    AIM: To examine attendance, number of people with T2DM and costs of three different stepwise screening strategies for T2DM in general practice (GP). METHODS: Diabetes risk questionnaires were mailed to individuals aged 40-69 years from 45 general practices in 2001-2002 and individuals at high risk...

  10. Pain management: screening and assessment of pain as part of a comprehensive case management process.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carter, Jolynne Jo; Watson, Annette C; Sminkey, Patrice V

    2014-01-01

    Pain management, episodic and chronic, is a major issue in health care today, affecting more than 76 million people across care-delivery settings from acute care to rehabilitation, workers' compensation to primary care. As a result, professional case managers occupy an important role within an interdisciplinary care team to address pain as part of a comprehensive case management process, from intake and assessment through care delivery and transitions of care. Pain management, as part of the comprehensive case management process, is applicable across the case management spectrum, including hospitals, accountable care organizations, patient-centered medical homes, physician practices, clinics, occupational health clinics, workers' compensation, and other settings in which case managers work with clients and their support systems. The prevalence of pain across the care continuum, affecting individuals at various stages of an individual's lifecycle, raises the importance of acute and chronic pain assessments as part of the overall case assessment. In addition to screening for pain, case management assessments must look for signs of depression, as well as the potential for abuse/misuse of opioid medications, which is an alarming public health threat. Given their clinical expertise, their roles as advocates, their ability to conduct a comprehensive client/patient assessment, and their expertise in using tools such as motivational interviewing, professional case managers-and particularly those who are board certified-occupy a central role in pain management as part of a patient-centered approach. Case managers must understand the impact of both pain and pain medications on the client's daily functions, from a health and safety perspective. Pain management should be examined through the lens of professional case management, and what a competent case manager can do to advocate for clients who are experiencing pain, whether acute or chronic, while facilitating the sharing

  11. Practical Application of Functional Behavioral Assessment in Schools.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Knoster, Timothy P.

    2000-01-01

    This article highlights the necessary components of a functional behavioral assessment, a decision making framework concerning the selection of assessment and intervention procedures to be used at school, and a description of one practical functional behavioral assessment tool, the Initial Line of Inquiry, that has been employed by school-based…

  12. Assessment, Student Learning and Classroom Practice: A Review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amua-Sekyi, Ekua Tekyiwa

    2016-01-01

    Assessment in its various forms has always been a central part of educational practice. Evidence gleaned from the empirical literature suggests that assessment, especially high stakes external assessment has effect on how teachers teach and consequently, how students learn. Through focus group discussions, this paper draws upon the experiences of…

  13. Supporting Classroom Assessment Practice: Lessons from a Small High School

    Science.gov (United States)

    Allen, David; Ort, Suzanna Wichterle; Schmidt, Joseph

    2009-01-01

    Assessment, particularly formative assessment, is critical to knowing how a student is performing academically and how best to support that student. Teachers, especially new teachers, need ongoing support in developing and using both summative and formative assessments as an integral part of their instructional practice. Written collaboratively by…

  14. Attitudes and practice of cervical cancer screening among female university students from 25 low, middle income and emerging economy countries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pengpid, Supa; Peltzer, Karl

    2014-01-01

    Cervical cancer, the third commonest cancer in women worldwide, can be prevented through early detection by cervical screening (Pap smear). The aim of this study was to investigate the attitudes and practice of cervical cancer screening among female undergraduate university students from 25 low, middle income and emerging economy countries. Using anonymous questionnaires, data were collected from 9,194 female undergraduate university students aged 18-26 years (mean age 20.9, SD=2.0) from 26 universities in 25 countries across Asia, Africa and the Americas. Overall, 11.6% of the female students indicated that they had conducted one or more times a cervical (Pap) smear test; 8.3% among 18-20 year-olds and 15.6% among 21-26 year-old students. There was considerable country variation on having had a cervical (Pap) smear test among 21-26 year-old female university students, ranging from 59.2% in Colombia and 50.9% in Barbados to 0% in India and 1.0% in Tunesia. Logistic regression showed that cervical cancer screening importance or positive attitude were highly associated with the cervical screening practice. Moreover, risky sexual behaviour and tobacco use, two cervical cancer risk factors, were associated with screening. Cervical cancer screening practices were found to be inadequate and efforts should be made to develop programmes that can increase the uptake of cervical cancer screening.

  15. Issues related to adapting assessment practices

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Erna Kinsey

    mathematics education with reference to Vygotsky's theory of social cognition. Focus on Learning Problems in Mathematics, 15:65-86. Workshop A Project 5. 1999. Assessment in OBE. Catholic University of Leuven,. University of the Free State, Vista University.Bloemfontein. 9 June 1999. Workshop B Project 6 2000.

  16. Prior learning assessment and quality assurance practice ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ... Prior Learning) in higher education to assess RPL candidates for admission into programmes of study met with a lot of criticism from faculty academics. Lecturers viewed the possibility of admitting large numbers of under-qualified adult learners, as a threat to the institution's reputation, or an erosion of academic standards.

  17. Enhancing teaching and assessment practices in affective ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The purpose of the study was to find the extent to which social studies tutors in the teacher training colleges (TTC) of Ghana teach in the affective domain and assess the affective objectives of teaching. A sample of thirty-five (35) social studies tutors, purposively selected from twenty-six TTC in all the ten (10) regions of ...

  18. Screening for malnutrition among nursing home residents - a comparative analysis of the mini nutritional assessment, the nutritional risk screening, and the malnutrition universal screening tool.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Diekmann, R; Winning, K; Uter, W; Kaiser, M J; Sieber, C C; Volkert, D; Bauer, J M

    2013-04-01

    The European Society for Clinical Nutrition and Metabolism (ESPEN) has recommended the Mini Nutritional Assessment (MNA®), the Nutritional Risk Screening 2002 (NRS), and the Malnutrition Universal Screening Tool (MUST) for nutritional screening in various settings and age groups. While in recent years all three tools have been applied to nursing home residents, there is still no consensus on the most appropriate screening tool in this specific setting. The present study aims at comparing the MNA, the NRS, and the MUST with regard to applicability, categorization of nutritional status, and predictive value in the nursing home setting. MNA, NRS, and MUST were performed on 200 residents from two municipal nursing homes in Nuremberg, Germany. Follow-up data on infection, hospitalization, and mortality were collected after six and again after twelve months. Among 200 residents (mean age 85.5 ± 7.8 years) the MNA could be completed in 188 (94.0%) and the NRS and MUST in 198 (99.0%) residents. The prevalence of 'malnutrition' according to the MNA was 15.4%. The prevalence of 'risk of malnutrition' (NRS) and 'high risk of malnutrition' (MUST), respectively, was 8.6% for both tools. The individual categorization of nutritional status showed poor agreement between NRS and MUST on the one hand and MNA on the other. For all tools a significant association between nutritional status and mortality was demonstrated during follow-up as classification in 'malnourished', respectively 'high risk of malnutrition' or 'nutritional risk', was significantly associated with increased hazard ratios. However, the MNA showed the best predictive value for survival among well-nourished residents. The evaluation of nutritional status in nursing home residents by MNA, NRS, and MUST shows significant differences. This observation may be of clinical relevance as nutritional intervention is usually based on screening results. As the items of the MNA reflect particularities of the nursing home

  19. Tuberculosis screening in patients with HIV

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bjerrum, Stephanie Mia Katrine; Bonsu, Frank; Hanson-Nortey, Nii Nortey

    2016-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Tuberculosis screening of people living with HIV (PLHIV) can contribute to early tuberculosis diagnosis and improved patient outcomes. Evidence-based guidelines for tuberculosis screening are available, but literature assessing their implementation and the quality of clinical practice...... is scarce. OBJECTIVES: To assess tuberculosis screening practices and the effectiveness of audit and performance feedback to improve quality of tuberculosis screening at HIV care clinics in Ghana. DESIGN: Healthcare providers at 10 large HIV care clinics prospectively registered patient consultations during...

  20. Attitudes, practices, and barriers to adolescent suicide and mental health screening: a survey of pennsylvania primary care providers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Diamond, Guy S; O'Malley, Alana; Wintersteen, Matthew B; Peters, Sherry; Yunghans, Suzanne; Biddle, Virginia; O'Brien, Connell; Schrand, Susan

    2012-01-01

    To determine primary care providers' rates of screening for suicide and mental health problems in adolescents and the factors that promote or discourage this practice. Overall, 671 medical professionals (ie, pediatricians, family physicians, nurse practitioners, physician assistants) completed an electronic survey. The 53 items focused on (1) attitudes, knowledge, and comfort with general psychosocial and suicide screening and (2) current practices and barriers regarding screening and referrals to behavioral health services. Forty percent had a patient attempt suicide in the past year, and 7.7% had 6 or more patients attempt suicide. At a well visit, 67% screened for mental health, and 35.2% screened for suicide risk. Most (61.1%) primary care providers rarely screened for suicide or only when it was indicated. Only 14.2% of primary care providers often used a standardized suicide screening tool. Factors associated with screening were being knowledgeable about suicide risk, being female, working in an urban setting, and having had a suicidal patient. Only 3.0% reported adequate compensation for these practices, and 44% agreed that primary care providers frequently use physical health billing codes for behavioral health services. Nearly 90% said parent involvement was needed if adolescents were to follow through with referrals to mental health services. Only 21% frequently heard back from the behavioral health providers after a referral was made. Policy that promotes mental health education for primary care providers, provides reimbursement for mental health screening, and encourages better service integration could increase suicide screening and save healthcare costs and patients' lives.

  1. Beyond Screen Time: Assessing Recreational Sedentary Behavior among Adolescent Girls

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Katherine W. Bauer

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Most studies of sedentary behavior have focused on television use or screen time. This study aims to examine adolescent girls' participation in a variety of recreational sedentary behaviors (e.g., talking on the phone and hanging around, and their association with physical activity (PA, dietary behaviors, and body mass index. Data were from a sample of 283 adolescent girls. Recreational sedentary behavior, PA, and dietary behaviors were self-reported, and girls' height and weight were measured. Over 95% of girls engaged in at least one recreational sedentary behavior during the recall period. Watching television and hanging around were the most common behaviors. Watching television, using the Internet, and hanging around were associated with less PA; watching television, hanging around, and talking on the phone were associated with less healthful dietary behaviors. No associations were found with body mass index. Interventions may benefit from capitalizing on and intervening upon girls' common recreational sedentary behaviors.

  2. Developing a typology of African Americans with limited literacy based on preventive health practice orientation: implications for colorectal cancer screening strategies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gordon, Thomas F; Bass, Sarah Bauerle; Ruzek, Sheryl B; Wolak, Caitlin; Rovito, Michael J; Ruggieri, Dominique G; Ward, Stephanie; Paranjape, Anuradha; Greener, Judith

    2014-01-01

    Preventive health messages are often tailored to reach broad sociodemographic groups. However, within groups, there may be considerable variation in perceptions of preventive health practices, such as colorectal cancer screening. Segmentation analysis provides a tool for crafting messages that are tailored more closely to the mental models of targeted individuals or subgroups. This study used cluster analysis, a psychosocial marketing segmentation technique, to develop a typology of colorectal cancer screening orientation among 102 African American clinic patients between the ages of 50 and 74 years with limited literacy. Patients were from a general internal medicine clinic in a large urban teaching hospital, a subpopulation known to have high rates of colorectal cancer and low rates of screening. Preventive screening orientation variables included the patients' responses to questions involving personal attitudes and preferences toward preventive screening and general prevention practices. A k-means cluster analysis yielded three clusters of patients on the basis of their screening orientation: ready screeners (50.0%), cautious screeners (30.4%), and fearful avoiders (19.6%). The resulting typology clearly defines important subgroups on the basis of their preventive health practice perceptions. The authors propose that the development of a validated typology of patients on the basis of their preventive health perceptions could be applicable to a variety of health concerns. Such a typology would serve to standardize how populations are characterized and would provide a more accurate view of their preventive health-related attitudes, values, concerns, preferences, and behaviors. Used with standardized assessment tools, it would provide an empirical basis for tailoring health messages and improving medical communication.

  3. Obsolescence Risk Assessment Process Best Practice

    OpenAIRE

    Romero Rojo, Francisco Javier; Roy, Rajkumar; Kelly, S.

    2013-01-01

    A component becomes obsolete when it is no longer available from the original manufacturer to the original specification. In long-lifecycle projects, obsolescence has become a major problem as it prevents the maintenance of the system. This is the reason why obsolescence management is now an essential part of the product support activities in sectors such as defence, aerospace, nuclear and railway; where systems need to be supported for several decades. The obsolescence risk assessment for th...

  4. Systematic screening for distress in oncology practice using the Distress Barometer: the impact on referrals to psychosocial care.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bauwens, Sabien; Baillon, Catherine; Distelmans, Willem; Theuns, Peter

    2014-07-01

    This study evaluates how patterns of psychosocial referral of patients with elevated distress differ in a 'systematic screening for distress' condition versus a 'usual practice' condition in ambulatory oncology practice. The psychosocial referral process in a 2-week usual practice (N=278) condition was compared with a 2-week 'using the Distress Barometer as a screening instrument' (N=304) condition in an outpatient clinic with seven consulting oncologists. Out of all distressed patients in the usual practice condition, only 5.5% of patients detected with distress were actually referred to psychosocial counselling, compared with 69.1% of patients detected with distress in the condition with systematic screening using the Distress Barometer. Only 3.7% of patients detected with distress in the usual practice condition finally accepted this referral, compared with 27.6% of patients detected with distress in the screening condition. Using the Distress Barometer as a self-report screening instrument prior to oncological consultation optimises detection of elevated distress in patients, and this results in a higher number of performed and accepted referrals, but cannot by itself guarantee actual psychosocial referral or acceptance of referral. There is not only a problem of poor detection of distress in cancer patients but also a need for better decision-making and communication between oncologists and patients about this issue. Copyright © 2014 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  5. Assessment of the knowledge, attitude and practices related to the ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Assessment of the knowledge, attitude and practices related to the treatment and prevention of lymphatic filariasis among the adult residents of Bokkos local government area of Plateau state, Nigeria.

  6. Bilingual Language Assessment: Contemporary versus Recommended Practice in American Schools

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arias, Graciela; Friberg, Jennifer

    2017-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this study was to identify current practices of school-based speech-language pathologists (SLPs) in the United States for bilingual language assessment and compare them to American Speech-Language-Hearing Association (ASHA) best practice guidelines and mandates of the Individuals with Disabilities Education Act (IDEA,…

  7. Towards best practice in the actuarial assessment of claims for ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This paper begins to record best practice in the actuarial assessment of claims for maintenance against deceased estates in South Africa. Although this is a small field of actuarial practice, it is in the public interest that generally accepted standards be agreed upon. The paper applies an actuarial quality framework to identify ...

  8. An assessment of radiation protection practices in radiological ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Radiation protection practices are essential in ensuring that the detrimental effects of exposure to ionising radiation are minimised. Equipment quality assurance, personnel training and staff dose monitoring have been highlighted as important practices in medical radiation protection. The study was aimed at assessing ...

  9. Fair and Equitable Assessment Practices for All Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scott, Shelleyann; Webber, Charles F.; Lupart, Judy L.; Aitken, Nola; Scott, Donald E.

    2014-01-01

    This paper focuses on promoting fairness and equity in student assessment practices. The researchers used questionnaires and interviews and the study encompassed a total of 3312 individuals representing a range of stakeholders. The paper is presented in two parts: fairness and discrimination, and challenging policy and practice. Five key…

  10. An Exploratory Assessment of Quality Assurance Practices in Higher ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Quality Assurance Practices of Public Higher Institutions of Learning in Ghana has been assessed with the aim of classifying the level of the practice as Excellent, High, Above Average, Ordinary or Poor. A conceptual framework that combined both quantitative and qualitative techniques in a heuristic approach was adopted.

  11. Prevalence and sociodemographic correlates of routine breast cancer screening practices among migrant-Australian women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lam, Michelle; Kwok, Cannas; Lee, Mi-Joung

    2017-12-13

    To evaluate breast cancer screening (BCS) practice and explore the relationship between sociodemographic factors and breast awareness (BA), clinical breast examination (CBE) and mammography in migrant-Australian women. Secondary analysis was performed on the pooled sample (n=1,744) from five cross-sectional studies of BCS rates among immigrant-Australian women, and the associated sociodemographic factors. Only 19% of women participated in routine BA, 27.4% of women in the target group of >40 year presented for an annual CBE, and 60.6% of women in the target group of 50-74 years received a biennial mammogram. Associated sociodemographic factors differed by modality except for length of Australian residency. In multivariable analysis, age, length of Australian residency, marital status, and employment status accounted for more than 50% of the variance in regular BA and CBE. These findings indicate suboptimal BCS rates persist among migrant-Australian women, and suggest the importance of certain sociodemographic factors in BCS practice. Implications for public health: Further education is required for BA and CBE practice in immigrant-Australian women, especially for those who have resided in Australia less than 12 years without a partner. © 2017 The Authors.

  12. Investigating the Dynamics of Formative Assessment: Relationships between Teacher Knowledge, Assessment Practice and Learning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herman, Joan; Osmundson, Ellen; Dai, Yunyun; Ringstaff, Cathy; Timms, Michael

    2015-01-01

    This exploratory study of elementary school science examines questions central to policy, practice and research on formative assessment: What is the quality of teachers' content-pedagogical and assessment knowledge? What is the relationship between teacher knowledge and assessment practice? What is the relationship between teacher knowledge,…

  13. Beliefs, Practices, and Reflection: Exploring a Science Teacher's Classroom Assessment through the Assessment Triangle Model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lyon, Edward G.

    2011-01-01

    This paper describes the Assessment Practices Framework and how I used it to study a high school Chemistry teacher as she designed, implemented, and learned from a chemistry lab report. The framework consists of exploring three teacher-centered components of classroom assessment (assessment beliefs, practices, and reflection) and analyzing…

  14. The RT-18: a new screening tool to assess young adult risk-taking behavior

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    de Haan L

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available Lydia de Haan1, Esther Kuipers1, Yvanca Kuerten1, Margriet van Laar2, Berend Olivier1, Joris Cornelis Verster11Division of Pharmacology, Utrecht Institute for Pharmaceutical Sciences, Utrecht University; 2Trimbos Institute, Netherlands Institute of Mental Health and Addiction, Utrecht, The NetherlandsAbstract: Risk-taking behavior is a major determinant of health and plays a central role in various diseases. Therefore, a brief questionnaire was developed to assess risk taking among young adults with known different levels of risk-taking behavior (social drinkers and recreational drug users. In Study 1, N = 522 university students completed the RT-18 risk taking questionnaire. N = 100 students were retested after 2 to 4 weeks and performed the Cambridge Gambling Task (CGT. Mean RT-18 score was 7.69 and Cronbach's alpha was 0.886. The test-retest reliability was r = 0.94. Significant correlation was found between the RT-18 score and CGT scores of risk taking, bet proportion, and risk adjustment. In Study 2, N = 7834 young adult social drinkers, and recreational drug users, mean RT-18 score was 9.34 and Cronbach's alpha was 0.80. Factor analysis showed that the RT-18 comprises two factors assessing level of risk-taking behavior and risk assessment. Men scored significantly higher than women on the RT-18. Recreational drug users had significantly higher scores when compared to social drinkers. In Study 3 of N = 1000 students, construct validity was confirmed by showing that the RT-18 outcome correlates significantly with scores on the Stimulating-Instrumental Risk Inventory. In conclusion, the RT-18 is a valid and reliable screening tool to differentiate levels of risk-taking behavior. This short scale is quick and practical to administer, imposing minimal demands on participants. The RT-18 is able to differentiate risk taking and risk assessment which can help target appropriate intervention strategies.Keywords: risk taking, impulsivity, sensation

  15. Life Cycle Assessment - Theory and Practice

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Goldstein, Benjamin; Rasmussen, Freja Nygaard

    2017-01-01

    of the building tends to dominate environmental impacts, though as buildings become increasingly energy efficient, life cycle impacts shift towards other stages. LCA of built environments has been a useful supplement to mass-based urban environmental assessments, highlighting the importance of embodied...... environmental impacts in imported goods and showing interesting trade-offs between dense urban living and the greater purchasing power of wealthy urbanites. LCAs of human settlements also face difficult challenges; the long use stage (often decades) introduces high uncertainty regarding the end-of-life stage...

  16. [Health technology assessment report: Computer-assisted Pap test for cervical cancer screening].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Della Palma, Paolo; Moresco, Luca; Giorgi Rossi, Paolo

    2012-01-01

    -automated computer-assisted); to analyse the computer-assisted Pap test in the Italian context, through a survey of the centres using the technology, collecting data useful for the sensitivity analysis of the economic evaluation; to evaluate the acceptability of the technology in the screening services; to evaluate the organizational and financial impact of the computer-assisted Pap test in different scenarios; to illustrate the ideal organization to implement computer-assisted Pap test in terms of volume of activity, productivity, and human and technological resources. to produce this Report, the following process was adopted: application to the Ministry of health for a grant « Analysis of the impact of professional involvement in evidence generation for the HTA process »; within this project, the sub-project « Cost effectiveness evaluation of the computer-assisted Pap test in the Italian screening programmes » was financed; constitution of the Working Group, which included the project coordinator, the principal investigator, and the health economist; identification of the centres using the computer-assisted Pap test and which had published scientific reports on the subject; identification of the Consulting Committee (stakeholder), which included screening programmes managers, pathologists, economists, health policy-makers, citizen organizations, and manufacturers. Once the evaluation was concluded, a plenary meeting with Working Group and Consulting Committee was held. The working group drafted the final version of this Report, which took into account the comments received. the fully automated computer-assisted Pap test has an important financial and organizational impact on screening programmes. The assessment of this health technology reached the following conclusions: according to the survey results, after some distrust, cytologists accepted the use of the machine and appreciated the reduction in interpretation time and the reliability in identifying the fields of interest

  17. [How to assess and reduce social inequalities in cancer screening programmes].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Binefa, Gemma; García, Montse; Peiró, Rosana; Molina-Barceló, Ana; Ibáñez, Raquel

    2016-01-01

    This field note presents the conclusions and recommendations made at the meeting 'How to reduce social inequalities in cancer screening programmes?' held at the XXVI School of Public Health of Mahon (Menorca, Spain). Participants developed recommendations based on experiences of population-based screening programmes (breast and colorectal) and opportunistic screening (cervical). The conclusions and recommendations focused on four main areas (information systems, evaluation and quality, research, and interventions): the inclusion of social variables at an individual level in health information systems; the establishment of minimum standards for gathering information regarding inequalities in access to preventive services; the performance of actions in vulnerable populations; and the promotion of the exchange of experiences and best practices through the Cancer Screening Programmes Network and working groups of the scientific societies. Copyright © 2016 SESPAS. Published by Elsevier Espana. All rights reserved.

  18. Intergrating injury screening with measurement and monitoring: a conceptual approach using a patient global assessment of the body and limbs scale

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. Gabel

    2006-02-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: To  develop a conceptual model for patients withmusculoskeletal injuries that relates Injury Screening to Measurement and Monitoring (ISMAM. Screening scores would predict quantifiable outcomes on a proposed Global Assessment of Body And Limbs (GABAL composite scale.  The scale would define status as a percentage of pre-injury capacity using quantitative and qualitative self report outcome measures combined with work and life status data. Background: Screening questionnaires use psychosocial yellow flags and activity limitation to identify potential chronic patients. Outcome measures provide clinical evidence by establishing patient status and assessing intervening change.  Independently developed,definitive statistical links between these established concepts are yet to be determined. Description: The ISMAM components are integrated using a graph of time versus score on the GABAL-scale with initial screening predicting recovery time to a designated pre-injury percentage level.  Actual status would be assessed through initial then subsequent sequential measurements with GABAL-scale scores enabling trendline analysis to  verify if the rate of actual recovery coincides with that predicted by screening. Observations: Face and content validity are apparent because validated screening tools are available and the requiredcomponents for the GABAL-scale would be existing validated outcome measures and quantifiable data.Conclusions: This model should provide a practical method of integrating screening and global measurement thatfacilitates communication across agencies and professions.  A clinical research trial to validate the ISMAM concepthas been initiated.

  19. Neuraminidase activity provides a practical read-out for a high throughput influenza antiviral screening assay

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wu Meng

    2008-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The emergence of influenza strains that are resistant to commonly used antivirals has highlighted the need to develop new compounds that target viral gene products or host mechanisms that are essential for effective virus replication. Existing assays to identify potential antiviral compounds often use high throughput screening assays that target specific viral replication steps. To broaden the search for antivirals, cell-based replication assays can be performed, but these are often labor intensive and have limited throughput. Results We have adapted a traditional virus neutralization assay to develop a practical, cell-based, high throughput screening assay. This assay uses viral neuraminidase (NA as a read-out to quantify influenza replication, thereby offering an assay that is both rapid and sensitive. In addition to identification of inhibitors that target either viral or host factors, the assay allows simultaneous evaluation of drug toxicity. Antiviral activity was demonstrated for a number of known influenza inhibitors including amantadine that targets the M2 ion channel, zanamivir that targets NA, ribavirin that targets IMP dehydrogenase, and bis-indolyl maleimide that targets protein kinase A/C. Amantadine-resistant strains were identified by comparing IC50 with that of the wild-type virus. Conclusion Antivirals with specificity for a broad range of targets are easily identified in an accelerated viral inhibition assay that uses NA as a read-out of replication. This assay is suitable for high throughput screening to identify potential antivirals or can be used to identify drug-resistant influenza strains.

  20. Screening practices and attitudes of obstetricians-gynecologists toward new and emerging tobacco products.

    Science.gov (United States)

    England, Lucinda Jane; Anderson, Britta Louise; Tong, Van Thi Ky; Mahoney, Jeanne; Coleman-Cowger, Victoria Hope; Melstrom, Paul; Schulkin, Jay

    2014-12-01

    We examined screening practices and attitudes of obstetricians-gynecologists toward the use of noncombustible tobacco products (chewing tobacco, snuff/snus, electronic cigarettes, and dissolvables) during pregnancy. The authors mailed a survey in 2012 to 1024 members of the American College of Obstetricians and Gynecologists, including Collaborative Ambulatory Research Network (CARN) and non-CARN members. Stratified random selection was used to generate CARN and non-CARN samples. Response rates were 52% and 31% for CARN and non-CARN members, respectively. Of 252 total eligible respondents (those currently providing obstetrics care) 53% reported screening pregnant women at intake for noncombustible tobacco product use all or some of the time, and 40% reported none of the time. Respondents who reported that noncombustible products have adverse health effects during pregnancy, but are safer than cigarettes, ranged from 20.2% (dissolvables) to 29% (electronic cigarettes) and that the health effects are the same as those of cigarettes from 13.5% (electronic cigarettes) to 53.6% (chewing tobacco). Approximately 14% reported that electronic cigarettes have no adverse health effects; health effects for the remaining products. Two-thirds of the respondents wanted to know more about the potential health effects of noncombustible tobacco products; only 5% believed themselves to be fully informed. A large proportion of obstetrician-gynecologists reported never or inconsistently screening their pregnant patients for the use of noncombustible tobacco products. Responses regarding the harms of these products relative to cigarettes were mixed and most respondents wanted more information. Development and dissemination of guidance for providers is needed to improve decision-making regarding noncombustible tobacco products. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  1. Routine antenatal syphilis screening in South west Nigeria- a questionable practice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olubukola, Adesina; Adesina, Oladokun

    2010-06-01

    Untreated maternal syphilis is strongly associated with adverse birth outcomes, especially in women with high titre syphilis. The WHO recommends routine serological screening in pregnancy. Some workers have advised a reappraisal of this practice, having demonstrated low sero-prevalence in their antenatal population. In view of this, the aim of this study was to determine the seroprevalence of syphilis in the antenatal population presenting at a major hospital in south-west Nigeria. This was a cross sectional study of healthy pregnant Nigerian women attending Adeoyo Maternity Hospital in the capital of Oyo State. The case record of every pregnant woman presenting for their first antenatal clinic visit over a 4-month period (September 1st to December 31st 2006) was reviewed. During the study period, two thousand six hundred and seventy-eight women sought antenatal care. Three hundred and sixty-nine women (369; 13.4%) had incomplete records and were excluded from analysis. The records of the 2,318(86.6%) women with adequate records were subsequently reviewed. The mean age of the women was 27.4 years (± 5.34) and the mean gestational age 26.4 weeks (±6.36). The modal parity was 0. Only three patients were found to be reactive for syphilis giving a prevalence of 0.13%. The sero- prevalence value in this study is quite low and may justify the call to discontinue routine antenatal syphilis screening. However, a more rigorous screening program using diagnostic tests with higher sensitivity maybe necessary before jettisoning this traditional aspect of antenatal care.

  2. Pure tone audiometry and impedance screening of school entrant children by nurses: evaluation in a practical setting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holtby, I; Forster, D P; Kumar, U

    1997-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Screening for hearing loss in English children at entry to school (age 5-6 years) is usually by pure tone audiometry sweep undertaken by school nurses. This study aimed to compare the validity and screening rates of pure tone audiometry with impedance screening in these children. METHODS: Two stage pure tone audiometry and impedance methods of screening were compared in 610 school entry children from 19 infant schools in north east England. Both procedures were completed by school nurses. The results of screening were validated against subsequent clinical assessment, including otological examination and actions taken by an independent assessor. RESULTS: Both methods produced broadly similar validation indices after two stages of screening: sensitivity was 74.4% for both methods; specificity was 92.1% and 90.0%; and predicted values of a positive test 43.2% and 37.6% respectively for pure tone audiometry and impedance methods. Single stage screening in both methods produced higher sensitivity but lower specificity and predictive values of a positive test than two stage screening. Screening rates were appreciably higher with impedance methods than with pure tone audiometry. CONCLUSIONS: In choosing the method to be used, it must be borne in mind that the impedance method is technically more efficient but takes longer than pure tone audiometry screening. However, the latter method allows opportunity for other health inquiries in these children. PMID:9519138

  3. A Practical Approach to Screening Potential Environmental Hotspots of Different Impact Categories in Supply Chains

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jun Nakatani

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Identification of environmental hotspots becomes a pressing issue for companies pursuing sustainable supply chain management. In particular, excessive dependence on water resources outside the country may put the supply chain at unanticipated risk of water shortage. This article presents a practical approach to screening potential environmental hotspots of different impact categories that occur in the supply chain using environmental input-output analysis. First, the amounts of domestic and foreign potential impacts of global warming, terrestrial acidification, and water resource consumption, induced through supply chains were calculated for 403 sectors of Japanese products. Thereafter, with a focus on potential impacts induced through the import of raw materials, a framework for screening foreign potential hotspots was presented. The results showed that the sectoral potential impacts of water resource consumption had high rates of foreign impacts at deeper tiers of the supply chains for some sectors, which indicated that there exist hidden water hotspots outside the country. In the case study of fiber yarns, impacts on water resource consumption induced as a result of the import of crops, as well as that induced in silviculture as a result of the import of wood chips, were found to be the foreign potential hotspots.

  4. [Improvement of management of hypertension by implementation of alcohol screening and subsequent interventions in primary practice].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rehm, Jürgen; Gmel, G; Kiefer, F; Kreutz, R; Kugler, J; Müller-Walther, M; Sandow, P; Weisser, B

    2014-11-01

    Hypertension and alcohol use are both part of the five most important risk factors for burden of disease in Western Europe, mainly because of their impact on non-communicable diseases (NCD). Both risk factors are prevalent with high overlap among patients in primary care. Implementation of a screening for alcohol among patients of hypertension in primary care followed by brief intervention for problem alcohol use or formal treatment for people with alcohol dependence could constitute an important step to reach the goals of the Global WHO Action Plan for Prevention and Control of NCD. In addition, such an intervention could improve the management of hypertension. In a working group of experts from clinical practice and research the rationale and potential barriers for this intervention were discussed and steps for implementation in primary care were developed. © Georg Thieme Verlag KG Stuttgart · New York.

  5. Screening for developmental dysplasia of the hip: current practices in Ireland.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    O'Grady, M J

    2012-01-31

    OBJECTIVE: To ascertain the current approach to screen for developmental dysplasia of the hip in the Republic of Ireland. METHODS: Two-pronged prospective and retrospective study. (1) Postal questionnaire to consultant paediatricians responsible for the routine neonatal care of infants in the Irish Republic in June 2006. (2) Retrospective database review to identify infants undergoing radiological follow-up and their outcome. RESULTS: All maternity units surveyed responded. Most units (84%) were dependent on radiographs at 4-6 months for imaging hips, only two units primarily used ultrasound (10.5%). We estimate that neonatal hip examination is performed by an experienced examiner in less than 30% of routine newborn examinations. On retrospective analysis, 94% of radiographs performed were normal. CONCLUSIONS: The most effective interventions, selective ultrasound and examination by an experienced clinician are not widely practiced. There is a need for the development of national guidelines based on available resources.

  6. A robustness screen for the rapid assessment of chemical reactions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Collins, Karl D; Glorius, Frank

    2013-07-01

    In contrast to the rapidity with which scientific information is published, the application of new knowledge often remains slow, and we believe this to be particularly true of newly developed synthetic organic chemistry methodology. Consequently, methods to assess and identify robust chemical reactions are desirable, and would directly facilitate the application of newly reported synthetic methodology to complex synthetic problems. Here, we describe a simple process for assessing the likely scope and limitations of a chemical reaction beyond the idealized reaction conditions initially reported. Using simple methods and common analytical techniques we demonstrate a rapid assessment of an established chemical reaction, and also propose a simplified analysis that may be reported alongside new synthetic methodology.

  7. An evaluation of routine antenatal depression screening and psychosocial assessment in a regional private maternity setting in Australia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kalra, Harish; Reilly, Nicole; Austin, Marie-Paule

    2018-01-30

    There is limited information relating to routine depression screening and psychosocial assessment programs in private maternity settings in Australia. To describe the psychosocial profile of a sample of private maternity patients who participated in a depression screening and psychosocial risk assessment program as part of routine antenatal care, and to explore women's experience of receiving this component of pregnancy care. We conducted a retrospective medical records audit of 455 consecutive women having a routine psychosocial assessment and referral. Assessment was undertaken using the Edinburgh Postnatal Depression Scale (EPDS) and the Antenatal Risk Questionnaire (ANRQ) for psychosocial risk; 101 women completed a feedback survey about their experience of receiving routine psychosocial care. Of the 87.7% of women who completed both EPDS and ANRQ, 4.3% scored 13 or more on the EPDS. On the ANRQ, 25.3% of women endorsed one risk factor, 11.6% two risk factors and 10.5% three or more risk factors. Elevated EPDS scores were associated with major stresses in the last 12 months, high trait anxiety and significant past mental health issue/s. Acceptability of depression screening and psychosocial risk assessment was high. This study highlights the need for, and acceptability of, depression and psychosocial assessment in the private maternity sector. These findings are particularly timely given the provision of new Medicare Benefits Scheme items for obstetricians to undertake psychosocial assessment (both antenatally and postnally) in line with recommended clinical best practice. © 2018 The Royal Australian and New Zealand College of Obstetricians and Gynaecologists.

  8. Assessing severity of delirium by the Delirium Observation Screening Scale

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Scheffer, Alice C.; van Munster, Barbara C.; Schuurmans, Marieke J.; de Rooij, Sophia E.

    2011-01-01

    Objective: Delirium is the most common acute neuropsychiatric disorder in hospitalized elderly. Assessment of the severity of delirium is important for adjusting medication. The minimal dose of medication is preferable to prevent side effects. Only few nurse based severity measures are available.

  9. Assessing severity of delirium by the Delirium Observation Screening Scale

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Scheffer, Alice C.; van Munster, Barbara C.; Schuurmans, Marieke J.; de Rooij, Sophia E.

    Objective: Delirium is the most common acute neuropsychiatric disorder in hospitalized elderly. Assessment of the severity of delirium is important for adjusting medication. The minimal dose of medication is preferable to prevent side effects. Only few nurse based severity measures are available.

  10. Optimizing stormwater treatment practices a handbook of assessment and maintenance

    CERN Document Server

    Erickson, Andrew J; Gulliver, John S

    2013-01-01

    Optimizing Stormwater Treatment Practices: A Handbook of Assessment and Maintenance provides the information necessary for developing and operating an effective maintenance program for stormwater treatment. The book offers instructions on how to measure the level of performance of stormwater treatment practices directly and bases proposed maintenance schedules on actual performance and historical maintenance efforts and costs. The inspection methods, which are proven in the field and have been implemented successfully, are necessary as regulatory agencies are demanding evaluations of the performance of stormwater treatment practices. The authors have developed a three-tiered approach that offers readers a standard protocol for how to determine the effectiveness of stormwater treatment practices currently in place. This book also: Provides a standard protocol for how to determine the effectiveness of stormwater treatment practices Assists readers with identifying which assessment techniques to use for stormwa...

  11. Association of eHealth literacy with colorectal cancer knowledge and screening practice among internet users in Japan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mitsutake, Seigo; Shibata, Ai; Ishii, Kaori; Oka, Koichiro

    2012-11-13

    In rapidly developing Internet-user societies, eHealth literacy has become important in promoting wellness. Although previous studies have observed that poor health literacy is associated with less knowledge and screening practice of colorectal cancer (CRC), little is known about whether eHealth literacy is associated with these variables. The present study examined associations between eHealth literacy, knowledge of CRC, and CRC screening practices. Data were analyzed for 2970 Japanese adults (men, 49.9%; mean age±SD, 39.7±10.9 years) who responded to an Internet-based cross-sectional survey. Knowledge of the definition of CRC, its risk factors and screening practice, previous experience of CRC screening, score on the Japanese version of the eHEALS (J-eHEALS), sociodemographic attributes (sex, age, marital status, educational attainment, and household income level), and frequency of Internet usage were obtained. Sociodemographic attributes and frequency of Internet usage were used as control variables in the multiple regression and logistic regression models. eHealth literacy was positively associated with CRC knowledge (β=.116, Internet users with high eHealth literacy are more likely to have knowledge and previous screening practice related to CRC compared to those with low eHealth literacy.

  12. Biodiversity impact assessment (BIA+) - methodological framework for screening biodiversity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Winter, Lisa; Pflugmacher, Stephan; Berger, Markus; Finkbeiner, Matthias

    2017-11-10

    For the past 20 years, the life cycle assessment (LCA) community has sought to integrate impacts on biodiversity into the LCA framework. However, existing impact assessment methods still fail to do so comprehensively because they quantify only a few impacts related to specific species and regions. This paper proposes a methodological framework that will allow LCA practitioners to assess currently missing impacts on biodiversity on a global scale. Building on existing models that seek to quantify the impacts of human activities on biodiversity, the herein proposed methodological framework consists of 2 components: a habitat factor for 14 major habitat types and the impact on the biodiversity status in those major habitat types. The habitat factor is calculated by means of indicators that characterize each habitat. The biodiversity status depends on parameters from impact categories. The impact functions, relating these different parameters to a given response in the biodiversity status, rely on expert judgments. To ensure the applicability for LCA practitioners, the components of the framework can be regionalized on a country scale for which LCA inventory data is more readily available. The weighting factors for the 14 major habitat types range from 0.63 to 1.82. By means of area weighting of the major habitat types in a country, country-specific weighting factors are calculated. In order to demonstrate the main part of the framework, examples of impact functions are given for the categories "freshwater eutrophication" and "freshwater ecotoxicity" in 1 major habitat type. The results confirm suitability of the methodological framework. The major advantages are the framework's user-friendliness, given that data can be used from LCA databases directly, and the complete inclusion of all levels of biodiversity (genetic, species, and ecosystem). It is applicable for the whole world and a wide range of impact categories. Integr Environ Assess Manag 2017;00:000-000.

  13. Urban ecosystem health assessment: perspectives and Chinese practice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Su, Meirong; Zhang, Yan; Liu, Gengyuan; Xu, Linyu; Zhang, Lixiao; Yang, Zhifeng

    2013-11-06

    The concept of ecosystem health is a way to assess the holistic operations and development potential of urban ecosystems. Accelerated by the practical need for integrated ecosystem management, assessment of urban ecosystem health has been greatly developed and extensively applied in urban planning and management. Development is aimed at comprehensively evaluating the performance of urban ecosystems, identifying the limiting factors, and providing suggestions for urban regulation. The time has come for reviewing and establishing an instructional framework for urban ecosystem health assessment to shed light on certain essential issues of urban ecosystem health. Based on literature reviews and series of practice, a holistic framework of urban ecosystem health assessment is proposed. The framework covers the essential elements of urban ecosystem health and integrates three dimensions: theoretical foundation, assessment method, and practical application. Concrete assessment methods are also established, focusing on both external performance and internal metabolic processes. The practice of urban ecosystem health assessment in China is illustrated to briefly demonstrate the application of the established framework and methods. Some prospects are discussed for urban ecosystem health assessment and its application in urban planning and management.

  14. Assessment of food safety practices among cassava processors in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Food safety assessment is an effective means of discovering knowledge and data gaps that limit effective risk analysis and at the same time providing information to develop public policies on food safety management. The study assessed the cassava food safety practices among cassava processors in selected rural ...

  15. Violence Risk Assessment Practices in Denmark: A Multidisciplinary National Survey

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nielsen Louise Hjort

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available With a quadrupling of forensic psychiatric patients in Denmark over the past 20 years, focus on violence risk assessment practices across the country has increased. However, information is lacking regarding Danish risk assessment practice across professional disciplines and clinical settings; little is known about how violence risk assessments are conducted, which instruments are used for what purposes, and how mental health professionals rate their utility and costs. As part of a global survey exploring the application of violence risk assessment across 44 countries, the current study investigated Danish practice across several professional disciplines and settings in which forensic and high-risk mental health patients are assessed and treated. In total, 125 mental health professionals across the country completed the survey. The five instruments that respondents reported most commonly using for risk assessment, risk management planning and risk monitoring were Broset, HCR-20, the START, the PCL-R, and the PCL:SV. Whereas the HCR-20 was rated highest in usefulness for risk assessment, the START was rated most useful for risk management and risk monitoring. No significant differences in utility were observed across professional groups. Unstructured clinical judgments were reported to be faster but more expensive to conduct than using a risk assessment instrument. Implications for clinical practice are discussed.

  16. An analysis of ESL teacher educators' current assessment practices ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Assessment is not an end in itself but a vehicle for educational improvement, and should be a fundamental and integral part of any curriculum based on student learning outcomes. The purpose of this paper is to analyse and identify any shortcomings in the current assessment practices of English Second Language teacher ...

  17. Assessment Practices and Training Needs of Early Childhood Professionals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Banerjee, Rashida; Luckner, John L.

    2013-01-01

    Assessment plays a critical role in the planning and delivery of quality services for young children and their families. The purpose of this study was to identify the current assessment practices and training needs of early childhood professionals. A large sample of early childhood professionals responded to a comprehensive survey. The most…

  18. Learning Potential Assessment: Theoretical, Methodological and Practical Issues.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hamers, J. H. M., Ed.; Sijtsma, K., Ed.; Ruijssenaars, A. J. J. M., Ed.

    The first part of this volume is concerned with theoretical and conceptual issues concerning learning potential assessment. The second part deals with methodological and measurement issues in learning potential assessment, and the third part is devoted to research projects and practical applications of learning potential tests. The following…

  19. Bilingual School Psychologists' Assessment Practices with English Language Learners

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Bryon, Elisabeth C.; Rogers, Margaret R.

    2010-01-01

    This study explored bilingual school psychologists' assessment practices with students identified as English language learners (ELL). One thousand bilingual National Association of School Psychologist members were recruited nationwide, and 276 participated. Among those conducting language proficiency assessments of ELLs, many (58%) use…

  20. Towards an understanding of assessment practices of primary ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This study attempted to explore the assessment practices of primary school science teachers in Tanzania. The findings of the study revealed that teachers rely heavily on the traditional methods of assessment. Techniques that are commonly used by teachers include tests and quizzes, classroom exercises and homework.

  1. EFL Teachers' Formal Assessment Practices Based on Exam Papers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kiliçkaya, Ferit

    2016-01-01

    This study reports initial findings from a small-scale qualitative study aimed at gaining insights into English language teachers' assessment practices in Turkey by examining the formal exam papers. Based on the technique of content analysis, formal exam papers were analyzed in terms of assessment items, language skills tested as well as the…

  2. Community of assessment practice or interests: The case of EAP writing assessment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Faisal Al-Maamari

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Setting, disseminating and applying assessment standards are part of university academic programmes of study. Nowadays, assessment is increasingly viewed from a social practice perspective, and so doing entails exploring how the quality of assessment is shaped by interaction and co-participation with different communities of practice. Therefore, based on this perspective, the study reported here aimed to examine the assessment policies and practices of laboratory report writing of first year students in credit-bearing, English for Special Purposes programmes at a university in the Sultanate of Oman. Interviews of programme administrators and the instructors plus institutional and programme documents were examined to investigate these assessment policies and practices. The programme administrators were asked about how they planned the written assessment in their programmes, and the instructors were asked about their experiences of these assessments. The data were then analysed thematically using community of practice framework, namely in relation to (1 a shared repertoire of communal resources, (2 mutual engagement, and (3 a sense of joint enterprise. It was found that instead of community of practice, there were (subcommunities of practices wherein interaction, negotiation and communication amongst members and non-members were punctuated by control, power and autonomy, all working with the aim of narrowing the range between the personal goals of the academic and the communal goals of the institution. The overarching conclusion is that in their assessment practices, the two instructional programmes exhibited varying degrees of community of practice based on the above three attributes.

  3. Risk assessment of cattle handling on pasture using work environment screening tool.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Geng, Qiuqing; Field, William E; Salomon, Eva

    2015-01-01

    Working with beef cattle in an open area or while on pasture has been shown to expose workers to a high risk of work-related injury. Prior research on this problem has been conducted using mail surveys, interviews, self-reporting of work practices and injury experiences, and summaries of published injury data, including media reports. Prior research on injury prevention has largely focused on worker education in a specific cultural or geographical setting. A pilot study was conducted to test the cross-cultural usability of the Working Environment Screening Tool in Agriculture (WEST-AG), a modification of the WEST, developed for Swedish industrial applications, to assess risk factors associated with farmers working with cattle being raised largely on pasture as compared with cattle raised in confined feeding operations. Swedish and English language versions of WEST-AG were developed and pilot-tested on a convenient sample of eight Swedish and eight Indiana farms that raise beef cattle primarily on pasture. On-site observations were conducted independently by Swedish and US agricultural safety professionals and documented using photography and a 15-risk-of-injury component on an 11-degree linear scale. Comparisons were made between independent observations documented from the Swedish and Indiana application of the WEST, including collective assessment of photographic record, and the results reported. Key findings included (a) a higher level of observed risks on Indiana farms studied as compared with their Swedish counterparts; (b) high levels of worker exposure to cattle, especially mature breeding bulls, on both sets of farms; (c) a higher frequency of self-reported farm-related injuries than anticipated on both Swedish and Indiana farms; (d) substantially different economic, social, cultural, and regulatory forces that influence small-operation Swedish and Indiana beef producers' decisions regarding adoption of safer work practices, including use of new and safer

  4. Health belief model and practice of breast self-examination and breast cancer screening in Iranian women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hajian-Tilaki, Karimollah; Auladi, Sahar

    2014-07-01

    The objective of this study is to determine the role of different health belief model components in practice of breast cancer screening among Iranian women. A cross-sectional study of 500 women aged 18-65 years was conducted in an urban population under the coverage of a health therapeutic system in Babol, northern Iran in 2012. Demographic data and data regarding practice of breast self-examination (BSE), breast clinical examination (BCE), and mammography were collected by interview, and a standard health belief model questionnaire was used to assess women's attitudes in six different domains based on a Likert scale that ranked from 1 to 5. The average score of each item for each domain was calculated. The Wilcoxon rank test and a multiple logistic regression model were used to estimate the odds ratio of each domain for performing breast cancer screening (BSE, BCE, and mammography). The mean age of the women was 31.2 (9.4) years. Overall, the average scores in domains of perceived benefit, self-efficacy, and health motivation were significantly higher among those who performed BSE and BCE, but not for mammography. For the domains of perception of susceptibility, seriousness, and barriers, no significant differences were observed. Higher scores on the scales of perceived benefits, perceived confidence/self-efficacy, and health motivation showed significant positive association with performing BSE [adjusted OR (95 % confidence interval [CI]) 1.73 (1.11, 2.72), 4.01 (2.39, 6.73), and 2.01 (1.30, 3.08), respectively] and BCE [adjusted OR (95 % CI) 1.65 (1.0, 2.95), 2.33 (1.39, 3.91), and 1.58 (1.0, 2.53), respectively], but not for performing mammography. For perceived susceptibility, perceived seriousness, and barriers, no significant association was observed. Positive attitudes toward perceived benefits, perceived confidence/self-efficacy, and health motivation have a strong association with performing BSE and BCE. The impact of health belief model subscales on

  5. Assessment of the efficacy of a hearing screening program for college students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taylor, Emily J; Emanuel, Diana C

    2013-01-01

    The Towson University (TU) Speech-Language-Hearing Center (SLHC) conducts annual hearing screenings for college students entering education or health-care professions. Hearing is screened in therapy rooms, and students who fail the screening are rescreened in a sound-treated booth. Students who fail the rescreening are referred for a comprehensive audiological assessment, which is offered at no cost to students at the SLHC. The purpose of this study was to examine the efficacy of the hearing screening program, to report trends in hearing screening statistics for the college student population, and to make recommendations regarding ways universities can optimize hearing screening programs. The study included retrospective and prospective portions. Hearing screening records were reviewed from 1999 to 2011. The prospective study involved recruiting students to participate in diagnostic testing following the hearing screening and measuring background noise levels in the therapy rooms. Hearing screening records from 1999 to 2011 were reviewed. In addition, during the three-day fall 2011 hearing screenings, 80 students were selected to participate in diagnostic testing. Data from the retrospective review were used to determine positive predictive value (PPV) between screening and rescreening. Return rates were also examined. For the prospective study, pure tone threshold results were compared to screening results to determine sensitivity, specificity, and PPV. The retrospective file review indicated that the hearing screening in the therapy room had poor PPV compared with the rescreening in the sound booth. Specifically, if a student failed the screening, they had only a 49% chance of failing the rescreening. This may have been due to background noise, as the prospective study found noise levels were higher than allowed by American National Standards Institute (ANSI) standard. Only a third of students referred for diagnostic testing from 1999 to 2010 returned for

  6. Reliability of a Simple Physical Therapist Screening Tool to Assess Errors during Resistance Exercises for Musculoskeletal Pain

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Kenneth Jay; Sundstrup, E.; Andersen, L. L.

    2014-01-01

    The main objective was to investigate the intra- and intertester reliability of a simple screening tool assessing errors in exercise execution by visual observation. 38 participants with no previous resistance exercise experience practiced for two weeks four typical upper limb exercises using...... elastic tubing. At 2-week follow-up, the participants were invited for a test-retest assessment on errors in technical execution. The assessment was based on ordinal deviation of joint position from neutral of the shoulder, elbow, and wrist in a single plane by visual observation. Moderate intratester...... and intertester reliability, which is congruent with previously published studies. Hence the simplicity of defining a neutral joint position for each of the involved joints in the exercise and categorizing the deviation in "some deviation" and "substantial deviation" to either side in a single plane is a viable...

  7. Noninvasive prenatal testing in routine clinical practice--an audit of NIPT and combined first-trimester screening in an unselected Australian population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McLennan, Andrew; Palma-Dias, Ricardo; da Silva Costa, Fabricio; Meagher, Simon; Nisbet, Debbie L; Scott, Fergus

    2016-02-01

    There are limited data regarding noninvasive prenatal testing (NIPT) in low-risk populations, and the ideal aneuploidy screening model for a pregnant population has yet to be established. To assess the implementation of NIPT into clinical practice utilising both first- and second-line screening models. Three private practices specialising in obstetric ultrasound and prenatal diagnosis in Australia offered NIPT as a first-line test, ideally followed by combined first-trimester screening (cFTS), or as a second-line test following cFTS, particularly in those with a calculated risk between 1:50 and 1:1000. NIPT screening was performed in 5267 women and as a first-line screening method in 3359 (63.8%). Trisomies 21 and 13 detection was 100% and 88% for trisomy 18. Of cases with known karyotypes, the positive predictive value (PPV) of the test was highest for trisomy 21 (97.7%) and lowest for monosomy X (25%). Ultrasound detection of fetal structural abnormality resulted in the detection of five additional chromosome abnormalities, two of which had high-risk cFTS results. For all chromosomal abnormalities, NIPT alone detected 93.4%, a contingent model detected 81.8% (P = 0.097), and cFTS alone detected 65.9% (P NIPT achieved 100% T21 detection and had a higher DR of all aneuploidy when used as a first-line test. Given the false-positive rate for all aneuploidies, NIPT is an advanced screening test, rather than a diagnostic test. The benefit of additional cFTS was the detection of fetal structural abnormalities and some unusual chromosomal abnormalities. © 2016 The Royal Australian and New Zealand College of Obstetricians and Gynaecologists.

  8. State of affairs of tuberculosis in prison facilities: a systematic review of screening practices and recommendations for best TB control.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vinkeles Melchers, Natalie V S; van Elsland, Sabine L; Lange, Joep M A; Borgdorff, Martien W; van den Hombergh, Jan

    2013-01-01

    Prisoners are at high risk of developing tuberculosis (TB), causing morbidity and mortality. Prison facilities encounter many challenges in TB screening procedures and TB control. This review explores screening practices for detection of TB and describes limitations of TB control in prison facilities worldwide. A systematic search of online databases (e.g., PubMed and Embase) and conference abstracts was carried out. Research papers describing screening and diagnostic practices among prisoners were included. A total of 52 articles met the inclusion criteria. A meta-analysis of TB prevalence in prison facilities by screening and diagnostic tools was performed. The most common screening tool was symptom questionnaires (63·5%), mostly reporting presence of cough. Microscopy of sputum with Ziehl-Neelsen staining and solid culture were the most frequently combined diagnostic methods (21·2%). Chest X-ray and tuberculin skin tests were used by 73·1% and 50%, respectively, as either a screening and/or diagnostic tool. Median TB prevalence among prisoners of all included studies was 1,913 cases of TB per 100,000 prisoners (interquartile range [IQR]: 332-3,517). The overall annual median TB incidence was 7·0 cases per 1000 person-years (IQR: 2·7-30·0). Major limitations for successful TB control were inaccuracy of diagnostic algorithms and the lack of adequate laboratory facilities reported by 61·5% of studies. The most frequent recommendation for improving TB control and case detection was to increase screening frequency (73·1%). TB screening algorithms differ by income area and should be adapted to local contexts. In order to control TB, prison facilities must improve laboratory capacity and frequent use of effective screening and diagnostic tools. Sustainable political will and funding are critical to achieve this.

  9. Optimisation and assessment of three modern touch screen tablet computers for clinical vision testing.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Humza J Tahir

    Full Text Available Technological advances have led to the development of powerful yet portable tablet computers whose touch-screen resolutions now permit the presentation of targets small enough to test the limits of normal visual acuity. Such devices have become ubiquitous in daily life and are moving into the clinical space. However, in order to produce clinically valid tests, it is important to identify the limits imposed by the screen characteristics, such as resolution, brightness uniformity, contrast linearity and the effect of viewing angle. Previously we have conducted such tests on the iPad 3. Here we extend our investigations to 2 other devices and outline a protocol for calibrating such screens, using standardised methods to measure the gamma function, warm up time, screen uniformity and the effects of viewing angle and screen reflections. We demonstrate that all three devices manifest typical gamma functions for voltage and luminance with warm up times of approximately 15 minutes. However, there were differences in homogeneity and reflectance among the displays. We suggest practical means to optimise quality of display for vision testing including screen calibration.

  10. Guidance Manual for Conducting Screening Level Ecological Risk Assessments at the INEL

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    R. L. VanHorn; N. L. Hampton; R. C. Morris

    1995-06-01

    This document presents reference material for conducting screening level ecological risk assessments (SLERAs)for the waste area groups (WAGs) at the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory. Included in this document are discussions of the objectives of and processes for conducting SLERAs. The Environmental Protection Agency ecological risk assessment framework is closely followed. Guidance for site characterization, stressor characterization, ecological effects, pathways of contaminant migration, the conceptual site model, assessment endpoints, measurement endpoints, analysis guidance, and risk characterization are included.

  11. A statewide collaboration to initiate mental health screening and assess services for detained youths in Indiana.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aalsma, Matthew C; Schwartz, Katherine; Perkins, Anthony J

    2014-10-01

    We describe a statewide effort to implement detention-based mental health screening and assess follow-up services offered to detained youths in Indiana. A total of 25,265 detention stays (15,461 unique youths) occurred between January 1, 2008, and December 31, 2011, across 16 detention centers participating in the Indiana Juvenile Mental Health Screening Project. We collected screening results and reports of detention-based follow-up mental health services and referrals from justice system records. Approximately 21% of youths screened positive for mental health issues requiring follow-up. A positive screen significantly predicted that youths would receive a follow-up mental health service or referral while detained or upon detention center discharge, compared with youths who did not screen positive (61% vs 39%). Logistic regression models indicated that a positive screen was associated with (1) contact with a mental health clinician within 24 hours of detention center intake and (2) a mental health referral upon discharge. White youths were more likely than minorities to receive both follow-up services. Future statewide efforts to improve the mental health of detained youths should incorporate standards for providing appropriate follow-up services in detention centers.

  12. Assessing Colorectal Cancer Screening Behaviors and Knowledge among At-Risk Hispanics in Southern New Mexico.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sanchez, Janeth I; Palacios, Rebecca; Thompson, Beti; Martinez, Vanessa; O'Connell, Mary A

    2013-07-01

    Colorectal cancer (CRC) mortality rates in New Mexico (NM) continue to be higher than national rates. Hispanic CRC mortality rates in NM surpass those of overall Hispanics in the US. This study was designed to characterize and understand factors contributing to low CRC screening rates in this border region. A CRC Knowledge Assessment Survey (KAS) was administered in either English or Spanish to 247 individuals attending community events throughout southern NM. A subset of these individuals completed an online CRC risk assessment survey managed by the National Cancer Institute (NCI). Data analysis tested for significant differences in knowledge, physician-patient CRC interactions, CRC risk level perception, and screening rates across diverse ethnic and age groups. Both CRC knowledge and physician-patient CRC interactions were positively associated with participant screening history. Significant age and ethnic differences for CRC knowledge, physician-patient CRC interactions, and screening history in the NM border sample were also seen. Age-eligible Hispanics (50+) as well as those less than 50 years of age had lower CRC knowledge and were less likely to engage in physician-patient CRC interactions than non-Hispanic Whites (NHWs). The age-eligible Hispanics also reported lower CRC screening rates than their NHW counterparts. Low CRC knowledge and limited physician-patient CRC interactions appear to contribute to low screening rates in this NM population. Expanding education and outreach efforts for this border population are essential to promote early CRC detection and thereby decrease overall CRC mortality rates.

  13. DoloTest in General Practice Study: Sensitivity and Specificity Screening for Depression

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kim Kristiansen

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. Coexistence of pain and depression has significant impact on the patient’s quality of life and treatment outcome. DoloTest is a pain and HRQoL assessment tool developed to provide shared understanding between the clinician and the patient of the condition by a visual profile. Aim. To find the sensitivity and specificity of DoloTest as a screening tool for depression for patients in primary care. Methods. All patients coming to a primary care clinic were asked to fill in a DoloTest and a Major Depression Inventory. Results. 715 (68.5% of 1044 patients entered the study. 34.4% came due to pain. 16.1% met depression criteria, and 26.8% of patients coming due to pain met criteria for depression. 65.6% of the men and 54.2% of the women meeting the criteria for depression came due to pain. Depressed patients had statistically significant higher scores on all DoloTest domains. Selecting the cutoff value for the domain “low spirits” to be “65” (0–100 for depression gave a sensitivity of 78% (70–85% and a specificity of 95% (93–96% for meeting depression criteria. Conclusion. DoloTest can with a high sensitivity and specificity identify persons meeting criteria for depression and is an easy-to-use screening tool to identify patients with the coexistence of pain and depression.

  14. Assessing screening criteria for the radiocarbon dating of bone mineral

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fernandes, Ricardo; Hüls, Matthias; Nadeau, Marie-Josée; Grootes, Pieter M.; Garbe-Schönberg, C.-Dieter; Hollund, Hege I.; Lotnyk, Andriy; Kienle, Lorenz

    2013-01-01

    Radiocarbon dating of bone mineral (carbonate in the apatite lattice) has been the target of sporadic research for the last 40 years. Results obtained by different decontamination protocols have, however, failed to provide a consistent agreement with reference ages. In particular, quality criteria to assess bone mineral radiocarbon dating reliability are still lacking. Systematic research was undertaken to identify optimal preservation criteria for bone mineral in archeological bones. Six human long bones, originating from a single site, were radiocarbon-dated both for collagen and apatite, with the level of agreement between the dates providing an indication of exogenous carbon contamination. Several techniques (Histology, FTIR, TEM, LA-ICP-MS) were employed to determine the preservation status of each sample. Research results highlight the importance of a micro-scale approach in establishing bone preservation, in particular the use of trace element concentration profiles demonstrated its potential use as a viable sample selection criterion for bone carbonate radiocarbon dating.

  15. Screening method to assess the risk of explosive spalling on fire exposed concrete

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sørensen, Lars Schiøtt

    2003-01-01

    At the Technical University of Denmark (BYG.DTU)a new test set-up is under development to screen various concretes to assess their risk of explosive spalling. The test exposes a standard cylinder to compressive ring stresses together with rapid heating of the cylinder end.......At the Technical University of Denmark (BYG.DTU)a new test set-up is under development to screen various concretes to assess their risk of explosive spalling. The test exposes a standard cylinder to compressive ring stresses together with rapid heating of the cylinder end....

  16. Adolescents with diabetes and their parents' perceptions of mental health screening, assessment, and feedback.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perfect, Michelle M; Levine-Donnerstein, Deborah; Swartz, Najah E; Wheeler, Lauren E; Amaya, Gisel M

    2011-05-01

    This study examined adolescents with diabetes and their parents' reactions to mental health screenings, assessments, and feedback. Most parents and adolescents did not report negative affect, but 15- and 16-year olds and referred adolescents showed greater levels of concern with assessment outcomes. Among those referred to mental health services, parents anticipated barriers in costs, insurance, and lack of qualified providers. Adolescents reported scheduling conflicts, time, and confidentiality concerns. Respondents perceived feedback as an important component of the clinical process and findings indicated a need for clinicians to incorporate psychosocial screenings and feedback in healthcare visits for adolescents with diabetes.

  17. Assessment Training: A Precondition for Teachers' Competencies and Use of Classroom Assessment Practices

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koloi-Keaikitse, Setlhomo

    2016-01-01

    Student assessment, particularly at classroom level, remains an integral part of teaching and learning and is a driving force for the implementation of educational policies and practices in many countries. Nevertheless, problems associated with teachers' classroom assessment practices continue to exist in schools and research shows that teachers…

  18. Disparities in the use of screening magnetic resonance imaging of the breast in community practice by race, ethnicity, and socioeconomic status.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haas, Jennifer S; Hill, Deirdre A; Wellman, Robert D; Hubbard, Rebecca A; Lee, Christoph I; Wernli, Karen J; Stout, Natasha K; Tosteson, Anna N A; Henderson, Louise M; Alford-Teaster, Jennifer A; Onega, Tracy L

    2016-02-15

    Uptake of breast magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) coupled with breast cancer risk assessment offers the opportunity to tailor the benefits and harms of screening strategies for women with differing cancer risks. Despite the potential benefits, there is also concern for worsening population-based health disparities. Among 316,172 women aged 35 to 69 years from 5 Breast Cancer Surveillance Consortium registries (2007-2012), the authors examined 617,723 negative screening mammograms and 1047 screening MRIs. They examined the relative risks (RRs) of MRI use by women with a women with a ≥20% lifetime risk. Among women with a women were found to be 62% more likely than nonwhite women to undergo an MRI (95% confidence interval, 1.32-1.98). Of these women, those with an educational level of some college or technical school were 43% more likely and those who had at least a college degree were 132% more likely to receive an MRI compared with those with a high school education or less. Among women with a ≥20% lifetime risk, there was no statistically significant difference noted with regard to the use of screening MRI by race or ethnicity, but high-risk women with a high school education or less were less likely to undergo screening MRI than women who had graduated from college (RR, 0.40; 95% confidence interval, 0.25-0.63). Uptake of screening MRI of the breast into clinical practice has the potential to worsen population-based health disparities. Policies beyond health insurance coverage should ensure that the use of this screening modality reflects evidence-based guidelines. © 2015 American Cancer Society.

  19. Clinical Practice Guideline for Screening and Management of High Blood Pressure in Children and Adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Flynn, Joseph T; Kaelber, David C; Baker-Smith, Carissa M; Blowey, Douglas; Carroll, Aaron E; Daniels, Stephen R; de Ferranti, Sarah D; Dionne, Janis M; Falkner, Bonita; Flinn, Susan K; Gidding, Samuel S; Goodwin, Celeste; Leu, Michael G; Powers, Makia E; Rea, Corinna; Samuels, Joshua; Simasek, Madeline; Thaker, Vidhu V; Urbina, Elaine M

    2017-09-01

    These pediatric hypertension guidelines are an update to the 2004 "Fourth Report on the Diagnosis, Evaluation, and Treatment of High Blood Pressure in Children and Adolescents." Significant changes in these guidelines include (1) the replacement of the term "prehypertension" with the term "elevated blood pressure," (2) new normative pediatric blood pressure (BP) tables based on normal-weight children, (3) a simplified screening table for identifying BPs needing further evaluation, (4) a simplified BP classification in adolescents ≥13 years of age that aligns with the forthcoming American Heart Association and American College of Cardiology adult BP guidelines, (5) a more limited recommendation to perform screening BP measurements only at preventive care visits, (6) streamlined recommendations on the initial evaluation and management of abnormal BPs, (7) an expanded role for ambulatory BP monitoring in the diagnosis and management of pediatric hypertension, and (8) revised recommendations on when to perform echocardiography in the evaluation of newly diagnosed hypertensive pediatric patients (generally only before medication initiation), along with a revised definition of left ventricular hypertrophy. These guidelines include 30 Key Action Statements and 27 additional recommendations derived from a comprehensive review of almost 15 000 published articles between January 2004 and July 2016. Each Key Action Statement includes level of evidence, benefit-harm relationship, and strength of recommendation. This clinical practice guideline, endorsed by the American Heart Association, is intended to foster a patient- and family-centered approach to care, reduce unnecessary and costly medical interventions, improve patient diagnoses and outcomes, support implementation, and provide direction for future research. Copyright © 2017 by the American Academy of Pediatrics.

  20. Improving Breast Cancer Outcomes among Women in China: Practices, Knowledge, and Attitudes Related to Breast Cancer Screening

    OpenAIRE

    Tsu-Yin Wu; Yi-Lan Liu; Scott Chung

    2012-01-01

    Background. Breast cancer is a major public health issue and the most commonly diagnosed cancer for women worldwide. Despite lower incidence rates than those living in Western countries, breast cancer incidence among Chinese women has increased dramatically in the past 20 years. Nevertheless, there is a paucity of studies reporting the attitudes toward and practices of breast cancer screening among Chinese women. Methods. This cross-sectional study examined the practices, knowledge, and attit...

  1. Application of a screening method in assessing occupational safety and health of computer workstations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Niskanen, Toivo; Lehtelä, Jouni; Länsikallio, Riina

    2014-01-01

    Employers and workers need concrete guidance to plan and implement changes in the ergonomics of computer workstations. The Näppärä method is a screening tool for identifying problems requiring further assessment and corrective actions. The aim of this study was to assess the work of occupational safety and health (OSH) government inspectors who used Näppärä as part of their OSH enforcement inspections (430 assessments) related to computer work. The modifications in workstation ergonomics involved mainly adjustments to the screen, mouse, keyboard, forearm supports, and chair. One output of the assessment is an index indicating the percentage of compliance items. This method can be considered as exposure assessment and ergonomics intervention used as a benchmark for the level of ergonomics. Future research can examine whether the effectiveness of participatory ergonomics interventions should be investigated with Näppärä.

  2. Universal molecular screening does not effectively detect Lynch syndrome in clinical practice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brennan, Beatrice; Hemmings, Christine T; Clark, Ian; Yip, Desmond; Fadia, Mitali; Taupin, Douglas R

    2017-04-01

    Lynch syndrome (LS) due to an inherited damaging mutation in mismatch repair (MMR) genes comprises 3% of all incident colorectal cancer (CRC). Molecular testing using immunohistochemistry (IHC) for MMR proteins is a recommended screening tool to identify LS in incident CRC. This study assessed outcomes of population-based routine molecular screening for diagnosis of LS in a regional center. We conducted a prospective, consecutive case series study of universal IHC testing on cases of resected CRC from September 2004-December 2013. Referred cases with abnormal IHC results that attended a familial cancer clinic were assessed according to modified Bethesda criteria (until 2009) or molecular criteria (from 2009). 1612 individuals underwent resection for CRC in the study period and had MMR testing by IHC. Of these, 274 cases (16.9%) exhibited loss of expression of MMR genes. The mean age at CRC diagnosis was 68.1 years (± standard deviation 12.7) and the mean age of those with an IHC abnormality was 71.6 (± 11.8). A total of 82 (29.9%) patients with an abnormal result were seen in a subspecialty familial cancer clinic. Patients aged under 50 (p = 0.009) and those with loss of MSH6 staining (p = 0.027) were more likely to be referred and to attend. After germ-line sequencing, 0.6% (10 of 82) were identified as having a clinically significant abnormality. A further eight probands with pathogenic germ-line mutations were identified from other referrals to the service over the same time period. While technically accurate, the yield of 'universal' IHC in detecting new Lynch probands is limited by real-world factors that reduce referrals and genetic testing. We propose an alternative approach for universal, incident case detection of Lynch syndrome with 'one-stop' MMR testing and sequencing.

  3. Translating Theory Into Practice: Implementing a Program of Assessment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hauer, Karen E; O'Sullivan, Patricia S; Fitzhenry, Kristen; Boscardin, Christy

    2018-03-01

    A program of assessment addresses challenges in learner assessment using a centrally planned, coordinated approach that emphasizes assessment for learning. This report describes the steps taken to implement a program of assessment framework within a medical school. A literature review on best practices in assessment highlighted six principles that guided implementation of the program of assessment in 2016-2017: (1) a centrally coordinated plan for assessment aligns with and supports a curricular vision; (2) multiple assessment tools used longitudinally generate multiple data points; (3) learners require ready access to information-rich feedback to promote reflection and informed self-assessment; (4) mentoring is essential to facilitate effective data use for reflection and learning planning; (5) the program of assessment fosters self-regulated learning behaviors; and (6) expert groups make summative decisions about grades and readiness for advancement. Implementation incorporated stakeholder engagement, use of multiple assessment tools, design of a coaching program, and creation of a learner performance dashboard. The assessment team monitors adherence to principles defining the program of assessment and gathers and responds to regular feedback from key stakeholders, including faculty, staff, and students. Next steps include systematically collecting evidence for validity of individual assessments and the program overall. Iterative review of student performance data informs curricular improvements. The program of assessment also highlights technology needs that will be addressed with information technology experts. The outcome ultimately will entail showing evidence of validity that the program produces physicians who engage in lifelong learning and provide high-quality patient care.

  4. [Suicide risk assessment tools for adults in general medical practice].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peyron, Pierre-Antoine; David, Michel

    2015-06-01

    It is estimated that almost half of suicide victims have consulted a general practitioner during the month preceding their act. The implementation of a suicide risk assessment tool validated in primary care is therefore needed in general medical practice. To review the suicide risk assessment tools for adults, to discuss their validity, and to suggest a pertinent tool which could be used in primary care. Research into scientific databases (keywords: psychiatric status rating scales; tools; questionnaires; risk assessment; suicide; attempted suicide; suicidal ideation; primary care; family practice; general practice) and into French and English language primary care journals. Review of publications and recommendations from health promotion and suicide prevention organizations, and from general practice and psychiatry learned societies. Two categories of suicide risk assessment tools have been found. On one hand, questionnaires aim at predicting suicidal behaviours (or their recurrence) using a risk score. They are interesting in research but of limited value in clinical practice because of their low specificity and individual predictive power. On the other hand, semi-directive interviews unable clinicians to explore the three dimensions of suicidality (levels of risk, urgency and danger), thus knowing to what extent the patient is suicidal and to adopt the appropriate preventive care strategy. Their use in clinical routine is highly recommended. The Grille d'estimation de la dangerosité d'un passage à l'acte suicidaire is the only interview to have been validated in primary care so far. It could be a pertinent tool in general practice. Preventing suicide in primary care requires the assessment of suicide risk using a semi-directive interview. We suggest a qualitative study to be carried out in general practice on the Grille d'estimation de la dangerosité d'un passage à l'acte suicidaire. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  5. Comparison of a novel, simple nutrition screening tool for adult oncology inpatients and the Malnutrition Screening Tool (MST) against the Patient-Generated Subjective Global Assessment (PG-SGA).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shaw, Clare; Fleuret, Catherine; Pickard, Jennifer M; Mohammed, Kabir; Black, Gayle; Wedlake, Linda

    2015-01-01

    Oncology inpatients are at high risk of malnutrition. Identification of at risk patients by nutrition screening requires a practical and easy to use tool. In this study, we have compared a simple, novel nutrition screening tool designed for an oncology inpatient setting and the Malnutrition Screening Tool (MST) against the Patient-Generated Subjective Global Assessment (PG-SGA). This was an observational study to compare assessment of nutritional status by PG-SGA with nutrition screening using the Royal Marsden Nutrition Screening Tool (RMNST) and the MST. Patients were recruited from a single tertiary cancer centre. One hundred and twenty-six oncology inpatients underwent a full nutritional assessment and nutrition screening. The PG-SGA tool identified 90 (71%) patients as malnourished or at risk and 36 (29%) patients as well-nourished. The RMNST had a sensitivity of 93% and a specificity of 53%, and the MST had a sensitivity of 66% and a specificity of 83 %. Predictive value (ROC AUC) of both screening tools was excellent at 0.84 and 0.83 for RMNST and MST, respectively. This study identified a high prevalence of malnutrition in the population with 71% of patients being identified as malnourished or at risk of malnutrition. The RMNST had an excellent sensitivity for identifying patients who were malnourished or at risk of malnutrition in the inpatient setting although it had a poor specificity. The MST had a poorer sensitivity of 66 %. We would recommend that the RMNST is trialled in other oncology inpatient settings and also in the outpatient setting.

  6. PBT assessment and prioritization by PBT Index and consensus modeling: comparison of screening results from structural models.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gramatica, Paola; Cassani, Stefano; Sangion, Alessandro

    2015-04-01

    The limited availability of comprehensive data for Persistence, Bioaccumulation and Toxicity (PBT) of chemicals is a serious hindrance to the assignment of compounds to the categories of PBT and vPvB; REACH regulation requires authorization for the use of such chemicals, and additionally plans for safer alternatives. In the context of screening and priority-setting tools for PBT-assessment, the cumulative PBT Index model, implemented in QSARINS (QSAR-INSUBRIA), new software tool for the development and validation of multiple linear regression QSAR models, offers a new holistic approach for the identification of chemicals with cumulative PBT properties directly from their molecular structure. In this study the Insubria PBT Index in QSARINS is applied to the screening and prioritization of various data sets, containing a large variety of chemicals of heterogeneous molecular structure, previously screened by various authors by different methods, for their potential PBT behavior. Particular attention is devoted to the model Applicability Domain, using different approaches such as Descriptor Range, Leverage, and Principal Component Analysis (PCA) of the modeling molecular descriptors, in order to discriminate between interpolated and extrapolated predictions. The results of this screening, which is based only on the molecular structure features and is not dependent on single threshold values for P, B and T, are compared with those obtained by the on-line US-EPA PBT Profiler. Good agreement between the various approaches is found, supporting the utility of a consensus approach in priority-setting studies. The main discrepancies are highlighted and commented on. Moreover, a priority list containing the most hazardous compounds identified in agreement between the two tools is drafted. The PBT Index, implemented in QSARINS, which was demonstrated to be a practical, precautionary and reliable screening tool for PBT-behavior directly from the molecular structure, can be

  7. Comparison of different stepwise screening strategies for type 2 diabetes: Finding from Danish general practice, Addition-DK.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dalsgaard, Else-Marie; Christensen, Jesper O; Skriver, Mette Vinter; Borch-Johnsen, Knut; Lauritzen, Torsten; Sandbaek, Annelli

    2010-12-01

    To examine attendance, number of people with T2DM and costs of three different stepwise screening strategies for T2DM in general practice (GP). Diabetes risk questionnaires were mailed to individuals aged 40-69 years from 45 general practices in 2001-2002 and individuals at high risk for T2DM, were asked to contact their GP to arrange a screening test. In 2005-2006, 26 general practices were randomised into two different opportunistic screening programmes (OP-direct and OP-subsequent) and risk questionnaires were distributed to individuals aged 40-69 years during GP consultations. In the OP-direct approach, high-risk individuals were offered to start the screening during the actual consultation while high-risk individuals in the OP-subsequent approach, were invited to a screening test at a later date. We report attendance, number of people with T2DM and costs of each screening approach. The mail-distributed approach identified 0.8% of the target population with T2DM, the OP-direct approach and the OP-subsequent approach, 0.9% and 0.5% respectively. Cost per person with T2DM was in the mail-distributed approach: € 1058, OP-direct approach: € 707 and the OP-subsequent approach: € 727. This study indicates that opportunistic screening identifies the same level of unknown diabetes as a mail-distributed approach but with lower costs. Copyright © 2010 Primary Care Diabetes Europe. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Knowledge, Attitudes, Beliefs, and Personal Practices regarding Colorectal Cancer Screening among Health Care Professionals in Rural Colorado: A Pilot Survey

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rim, Sun Hee; Zittleman, Linda; Westfall, John M.; Overholser, Linda; Froshaug, Desiree; Coughlin, Steven S.

    2009-01-01

    Purpose: This study reports the baseline knowledge, attitudes, beliefs, and personal practices of health care professionals regarding colorectal cancer (CRC) screening in the High Plains Research Network (HPRN) of rural Colorado prior to a community-based educational intervention. It also examines the association between health care staff members'…

  9. Maternal and paternal parenting practices and their influence on children's adiposity, screen-time, diet and physical activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lloyd, Adam B; Lubans, David R; Plotnikoff, Ronald C; Collins, Clare E; Morgan, Philip J

    2014-08-01

    The primary aim of this study was to examine a range of potential behavioral and maternal/paternal correlates of adiposity in children. Secondary aims were to examine (a) correlates of screen-time, diet and physical activity and (b) if there were differences in maternal and paternal physical activity- and dietary-related parenting practices. Cross-sectional analysis was conducted using 70 families with children (59% boys (41/70), mean age 8.4 (±2.4) years). Parenting practices were measured using the Parenting Strategies for Eating and Activity Scale. Children's outcomes included: 7-day pedometry (physical activity), screen-time, percent energy from core foods (Food frequency questionnaire) and BMI z-score. Multiple regression models were generated to examine the associations between maternal and paternal parenting practices and children's variables. In the regression analyses, fathers' BMI (p parenting practices [limit setting (p = .01), reinforcement (p = .02)] and child screen-time (p = .02) were significantly associated with intake of core foods. Despite some similarities within families, three out of five parenting constructs were significantly different between mothers and fathers. Mothers and fathers have different parental influences on their children's weight status and lifestyle behaviors and both should be included in lifestyle interventions targeting children. A focus on maternal parenting specifically relating to screen-time and diet, and father's physical activity parenting and weight status may support their children in developing more healthy behaviors. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Insecticide Exposures on Commercial Aircraft: A Literature Review and Screening Level Assessment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Maddalena, Randy I.; McKone, Thomas E.

    2008-10-01

    The objective of this project was to provide initial estimates of the relationship between insecticide use on passenger aircraft and exposure levels present in the cabin environment. The work was initially divided into three tasks including 1) a review of insecticide application practices in commercial aircraft, 2) exploratory measurements of insecticide concentrations in treated aircraft and 3) screening level exposure modeling. Task 1 gathered information that is needed to assess the time-concentration history of insecticides in the airline cabin. The literature review focused on application practices, information about the cabin environment and existing measurements of exposure concentrations following treatment. Information from the airlines was not available for estimating insecticide application rates in the U.S. domestic fleet or for understanding how frequently equipment rotate into domestic routes following insecticide treatment. However, the World Health Organization (WHO) recommends several methods for treating aircraft with insecticide. Although there is evidence that these WHO guidelines may not always be followed, and that practices vary by airline, destination, and/or applicator company, the guidelines in combination with information related to other indoor environments provides a plausible basis for estimating insecticide loading rates on aircraft. The review also found that while measurements of exposure concentrations following simulated aerosol applications are available, measurements following residual treatment of aircraft or applications in domestic aircraft are lacking. Task 2 focused on developing an approach to monitor exposure concentrations in aircraft using a combination of active and passive sampling methods. An existing active sampling approach was intended to provide data immediately following treatment while a passive sampler was developed to provide wider coverage of the fleet over longer sampling periods. The passive sampler, based

  11. Mammography requests in general practice during the introduction of nationwide breast cancer screening, 1988-1995.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Beemsterboer, P.M.M.; Koning, H.J. de; Looman, C.W.N.; Borsboom, G.J.J.M.; Bartelds, A.I.M.; Maas, P.J. van der

    1999-01-01

    Introducing an organised breast cancer screening programme for certain age groups in a population might induce opportunistic screening in adjacent (non-invited) age groups and influence health behaviour in the target population. We analysed the effect of the start of the Dutch national screening

  12. Quantitative assessment of smoking-induced emphysema progression in longitudinal CT screening for lung cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suzuki, H.; Mizuguchi, R.; Matsuhiro, M.; Kawata, Y.; Niki, N.; Nakano, Y.; Ohmatsu, H.; Kusumoto, M.; Tsuchida, T.; Eguchi, K.; Kaneko, M.; Moriyama, N.

    2015-03-01

    Computed tomography has been used for assessing structural abnormalities associated with emphysema. It is important to develop a robust CT based imaging biomarker that would allow quantification of emphysema progression in early stage. This paper presents effect of smoking on emphysema progression using annual changes of low attenuation volume (LAV) by each lung lobe acquired from low-dose CT images in longitudinal screening for lung cancer. The percentage of LAV (LAV%) was measured after applying CT value threshold method and small noise reduction. Progression of emphysema was assessed by statistical analysis of the annual changes represented by linear regression of LAV%. This method was applied to 215 participants in lung cancer CT screening for five years (18 nonsmokers, 85 past smokers, and 112 current smokers). The results showed that LAV% is useful to classify current smokers with rapid progression of emphysema (0.2%/year, pemphysema in CT screening for lung cancer.

  13. An Improved On-line Contingency Screening for Power System Transient Stability Assessment

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Weckesser, Johannes Tilman Gabriel; Jóhannsson, Hjörtur; Glavic, Mevludin

    2017-01-01

    This paper presents a contingency screening method and a framework for its on-line implementation. The proposed method carries out contingency screening and on-line stability assessment with respect to first-swing transient stability. For that purpose, it utilizes the single machine equivalent...... method and aims at improving the prior developed contingency screening approaches. In order to determine vulnerability of the system with respect to a particular contingency, only one time-domain simulation needs to be performed. An early stop criteria is proposed so that in a majority of the cases...... the simulation can be terminated after a few hundred milliseconds of simulated system response. The method's outcome is an assessment of the system's stability and a classification of each considered contingency. The contingencies are categorized by exploiting parameters of an equivalent one machine infinite bus...

  14. Breast cancer screening among women younger than age 50: a current assessment of the issues.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, R A

    2000-01-01

    In the hope of resolving underlying policy questions related to the value of breast cancer screening with mammography for women younger than 50 years of age, the National Institutes of Health and the National Cancer Institute in 1997 jointly sponsored a consensus conference on the subject. While the panel concluded that the data were insufficient to endorse mammography for this age group apart from individual choice, the conclusion was not the "consensus" sought by many of those with strong opinions on both sides of this issue, and the debate raged on. Prior to the 1997 conference, and since, meta-analyses of trial data and assessments of service screening programs have indicated that breast cancer screening with mammography for women between 40 and 49 meets recommended levels of performance compared with performance in women 50 years and older, especially if programs achieve high quality and screen at 12-to-18 month intervals. Because the detectable preclinical phase is shorter in younger women who develop breast cancer compared with that in women 50 years of age or older, a key component of any screening program for those younger than 50 is an appropriate screening interval. Many of the screening programs that had historically been developed for women in their forties--and whose disappointing results contributed to the confusion and controversy about the efficacy of mammography in younger women--had a 24-month screening interval, which was not found to be of significant benefit for early detection of breast cancer in this age group. While a new emphasis of this controversy has focused on the balance of benefits and harms in women ages 40 to 49, women of all ages need to be fully informed about the benefits and limitations of breast cancer screening--more specifically, what to expect at the time of screening, and what to expect from screening. There are differences in the performance and effectiveness of mammography in different age groups of women aged 40 and

  15. A review of current practices to increase Chlamydia screening in the community--a consumer-centred social marketing perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Phillipson, Lyn; Gordon, Ross; Telenta, Joanne; Magee, Chris; Janssen, Marty

    2016-02-01

    Chlamydia trachomatis is one of the most frequently reported sexually transmitted infections (STI) in Australia, the UK and Europe. Yet, rates of screening for STIs remain low, especially in younger adults. To assess effectiveness of Chlamydia screening interventions targeting young adults in community-based settings, describe strategies utilized and assess them according to social marketing benchmark criteria. A systematic review of relevant literature between 2002 and 2012 in Medline, Web of Knowledge, PubMed, Scopus and the Cumulative Index to Nursing and Allied Health was undertaken. Of 18 interventions identified, quality of evidence was low. Proportional screening rates varied, ranging from: 30.9 to 62.5% in educational settings (n = 4), 4.8 to 63% in media settings (n = 6) and from 5.7 to 44.5% in other settings (n = 7). Assessment against benchmark criteria found that interventions incorporating social marketing principles were more likely to achieve positive results, yet few did this comprehensively. Most demonstrated customer orientation and addressed barriers to presenting to a clinic for screening. Only one addressed barriers to presenting for treatment after a positive result. Promotional messages typically focused on providing facts and accessing a testing kit. Risk assessment tools appeared to promote screening among higher risk groups. Few evaluated treatment rates following positive results; therefore, impact of screening on treatment rates remains unknown. Future interventions should consider utilizing a comprehensive social marketing approach, using formative research to increase insight and segmentation and tailoring of screening interventions. Easy community access to both screening and treatment should be prioritized. © 2015 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  16. Common practices in assessing conditions of concrete bridges

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alsharqawi Mohammed

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Bridge condition assessment is an essential step in bridge management. To ensure safety and serviceability of bridge infrastructure, accurate condition assessment is needed to provide basis for bridge Maintenance, Repair, and Replacement (MRR decisions. In Canada and the United States, visual inspection is the common practice to evaluate a bridge condition. Meanwhile, this practice is limited to detect surface defects and external flaws. For subsurface defects, Non-Destructive Testing and Evaluation (NDT&E technologies are being used to supplement visual inspection. This paper reviews the common practices in assessing concrete bridges’ conditions and discusses the limitations of available condition assessment models. Further, this research studies six NDT&E techniques and establishes a set of selection criteria which is utilized to compare each technique in terms of providing the best inspection results. Based on the comparison, it is found that Ground Penetrating Radar (GPR appears to be the most appropriate NDT&E techniques for inspection of concrete bridges. Thus, this paper recommends integrating GPR technology with the dominant visual inspection practice in order to establish a more accurate overall bridge condition rating system where surface and subsurface defects are assessed.

  17. Public health nutrition practice in Canada: a situational assessment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fox, Ann; Chenhall, Cathy; Traynor, Marie; Scythes, Cindy; Bellman, Jane

    2008-08-01

    Renewed focus on public health has brought about considerable interest in workforce development among public health nutrition professionals in Canada. The present article describes a situational assessment of public health nutrition practice in Canada that will be used to guide future workforce development efforts. A situational assessment is a planning approach that considers strengths and opportunities as well as needs and challenges, and emphasizes stakeholder participation. This situational assessment consisted of four components: a systematic review of literature on public health nutrition workforce issues; key informant interviews; a PEEST (political, economic, environmental, social, technological) factor analysis; and a consensus meeting. Information gathered from these sources identified key nutrition and health concerns of the population; the need to define public health nutrition practice, roles and functions; demand for increased training, education and leadership opportunities; inconsistent qualification requirements across the country; and the desire for a common vision among practitioners. Findings of the situational assessment were used to create a three-year public health nutrition workforce development strategy. Specific objectives of the strategy are to define public health nutrition practice in Canada, develop competencies, collaborate with other disciplines, and begin to establish a new professional group or leadership structure to promote and enhance public health nutrition practice. The process of conducting the situational assessment not only provided valuable information for planning purposes, but also served as an effective mechanism for engaging stakeholders and building consensus.

  18. The assessment of learning in engineering education practice and policy

    CERN Document Server

    Heywood, John

    2016-01-01

    Explores how we judge engineering education in order to effectively redesign courses and programs that will prepare new engineers for various professional and academic careers This book considers the functions of assessment and its measurement in engineering education. Chapters two through three discuss efforts toward alternative curriculum in engineering and advanced level exams for university entry in engineering science. Chapter four reviews investigations of what engineers do at work and their implications assessment. Chapter five records the development of competency based assessment and considers its implications for the engineering curriculum. Chapter six discusses the impact of the accrediting authorities on assessment, outcomes based assessment, taxonomies and assessment in mastery and personalized systems of instruction. Chapters seven through eight consider student variability (e.g. intellectual development, emotional intelligence) and reflective practice. Questio s are raised about the assessment...

  19. Screening and brief intervention targeting risky drinkers in Danish general practice - a pragmatic controlled trial

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Beich, A.; Gannik, D.; Saelan, H.

    2007-01-01

    AIMS: Recommendations for routine alcohol screening and brief counselling intervention in primary health care rest on results from intervention efficacy studies. By conducting a pragmatic controlled trial (PCT), we aimed at evaluating the effectiveness of the WHO recommendations for screening......-14 months. Outcome measures focused on patients' acceptance of screening and intervention and their self-reported alcohol consumption. RESULTS: Patient acceptance of screening and intervention -10.3% (N = 794) of the target population (N = 7, 691) explicitly refused screening. All intervention group...

  20. Screening life cycle assessment study of a sisal fibre reinforced micro-concrete structural insulated panel

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Ampofo-Anti, N

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available benefits and also save costs. Such an approach will therefore place the building industry on a more sustainable path. This paper reports on a screening life cycle assessment (LCA) study of a sisal fibre reinforced (SFR) micro-concrete structural insulated...

  1. Correlates of Harmful Alcohol Consumption in Six Countries: Development of an International Screening and Assessment Procedure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aasland, Olaf Gjerlow; and Others

    The aim of this study was to develop tools for screening and assessment of socio-medical effects of alcohol use which are simple and inexpensive enough to be used in any primary health care setting. A test protocol was prepared by a group of investigators from Australia, Bulgaria, Kenya, Mexico, Norway, and the United States. Based on a number of…

  2. Assessment of Prospective Memory – a Validity Study of Memory for Intentions Screening Test

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bezdicek, O.; Raskin, S.A.; Altgassen, A.M.; Ruzicka, E.

    2014-01-01

    Aim: The goal of the present study was to validate the Czech version of the Memory for Intentions (Screening) Test (MIST, 2010). We included standardized testing material, translation of administration and scoring, and assessment of normative data for the MIST in the Czech population. Introduction:

  3. Informed decision-making about prenatal cfDNA screening: An assessment of written materials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Michie, Marsha; Kraft, Stephanie A; Minear, Mollie A; Ryan, Roberta R; Allyse, Megan A

    2016-01-01

    The introduction of prenatal cfDNA screening for fetal aneuploidy and other genetic conditions has exacerbated concerns about informed decision-making in clinical prenatal testing. To assess the information provided to patients to facilitate decisions about cfDNA screening, we collected written patient education and consent documents created by laboratories and clinics. Informed consent documents (IC) were coded by two independent coders. Each IC was assessed for readability, attention to elements of informed consent, and completeness of information about the test and the screened conditions. We found variance between IC produced by commercial laboratories versus those provided by local clinics or health care systems, and considerable variance among materials from all sources. "Commercial" IC were longer and written at a more difficult reading level than "non-commercial" IC, and were less likely to state explicitly that cfDNA only screens for certain conditions. About one-third of IC were combined with laboratory order forms. Though most IC recommended confirmatory testing for positive results, only about half clearly stated that results could be incorrect-including mentions of false positives or false negatives. About one-third of IC explicitly stated that cfDNA screening was optional. While nearly all IC from any source listed the conditions screened by the test, only about half of the IC included any phenotypic descriptions of these conditions. Few IC mentioned psychosocial considerations, and only one IC mentioned the availability of support groups for families of children with genetic conditions. Based on our findings, we recommend that written and well-informed consent be sought before performing cfDNA screening, and we offer minimal and recommended standards for patient education and consent materials.

  4. Strategies to prevent hepatitis B virus infection in China: immunization, screening, and standard medical practices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Chunyu; Zhong, Yuesi; Guo, Liping

    2013-02-01

    China has one of the world's highest rates of hepatitis B infection. Over the past 20 years, a series of strategies have been implemented to prevent infection with the hepatitis B virus (HBV) in China. These strategies include hepatitis B (hepB) immunization for susceptible populations such as infants and young children and for high-risk populations such as health care workers and patients, premarital health care for couples of childbearing age, and standard medical practices. A series of measures implemented by the Chinese government caused the HBV infection rate in China to decrease from 9.75% in 1992 to 7.2% in 2006. However, a report on infectious diseases indicated that more than 1 million people in China were infected with hepB in 2011. There is room for improvement. The current work analyzed the current status of and challenges for strategies to prevent HBV infection in China. This work also recommends clear guidance regarding hepB immunization for parents in rural areas, more flexible premarital health care, health education for both patients and health care workers, and routine HBV screening for high-risk health care workers.

  5. Good Practices for Object-Based Accuracy Assessment

    OpenAIRE

    Julien Radoux; Patrick Bogaert

    2017-01-01

    Thematic accuracy assessment of a map is a necessary condition for the comparison of research results and the appropriate use of geographic data analysis. Good practices of accuracy assessment already exist, but Geographic Object-Based Image Analysis (GEOBIA) is based on a partition of the spatial area of interest into polygons, which leads to specific issues. In this study, additional guidelines for the validation of object-based maps are provided. These guidelines include recommendations ab...

  6. A DPSIR model for ecological security assessment through indicator screening: a case study at Dianchi Lake in China.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhen Wang

    Full Text Available Given the important role of lake ecosystems in social and economic development, and the current severe environmental degradation in China, a systematic diagnosis of the ecological security of lakes is essential for sustainable development. A Driving-force, Pressure, Status, Impact, and Risk (DPSIR model, combined with data screening for lake ecological security assessment was developed to overcome the disadvantages of data selection in existing assessment methods. Correlation and principal component analysis were used to select independent and representative data. The DPSIR model was then applied to evaluate the ecological security of Dianchi Lake in China during 1988-2007 using an ecological security index. The results revealed a V-shaped trend. The application of the DPSIR model with data screening provided useful information regarding the status of the lake's ecosystem, while ensuring information efficiency and eliminating multicollinearity. The modeling approach described here is practical and operationally efficient, and provides an attractive alternative approach to assess the ecological security of lakes.

  7. Cognitive screening in Parkinson's disease: Comparison of the Parkinson Neuropsychometric Dementia Assessment (PANDA) with 3 other short scales.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gasser, A-I; Calabrese, P; Kalbe, E; Kessler, J; Rossier, P

    2016-02-01

    Cognitive screening is crucial in Parkinson's disease (PD). However, there is still a lack of short tools in French. In this study, we aimed to compare the Parkinson Neuropsychometric Dementia Assessment (PANDA) with the Mini Mental Parkinson (MMP), the Mini Mental State Examination (MMSE) and the Clock Test in French-speaking patients. We also aimed to propose cut-off scores for cognitive impairment and dementia for the French language version of the PANDA. Fifty-one patients with PD took the PANDA, the MMSE, the MMP, and the Clock Test. They also underwent extensive neuropsychological testing by a neuropsychologist who was blinded to the above-mentioned screening test results. Patients were classified as either having normal cognition (n=15), mild cognitive impairment (n=20) or dementia (n=16). When compared with the three other screening tools, the PANDA exhibited the highest area under the curve (AUC) for both cognitive disorders and dementia. Using the cut-off scores proposed for the German version, the PANDA had 94% specificity and 100% sensitivity for dementia and 100% and 72%, respectively for cognitive disorders. In our study, the PANDA exhibited a higher discriminative power than the three other tests in detecting cognitive disorders and dementia. In PD patients, the PANDA should thus be considered for the detection of cognitive impairment in routine clinical practice. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  8. Trust is the basis for effective suicide risk screening and assessment in veterans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ganzini, Linda; Denneson, Lauren M; Press, Nancy; Bair, Matthew J; Helmer, Drew A; Poat, Jennifer; Dobscha, Steven K

    2013-09-01

    To reduce suicides among Veterans, the Department of Veterans Affairs (VA) has designated suicide risk assessments for Veterans who screen positive for depression or post-traumatic stress disorder as a national performance goal. Many VA Medical Centers (VAMCs) are using brief suicidal ideation screens, administered in non-mental health ambulatory care settings, as the first step in the assessment process. To explore Veterans' perceptions of the suicide screening and risk assessment process, the barriers and facilitators to disclosing suicidal thoughts, and perceptions of possible consequences of revealing suicidal thoughts. Investigators recorded one semi-structured interview with each Veteran. Transcripts were analyzed using a modified grounded theory approach. Thirty-four Operation Enduring Freedom/Operation Iraqi Freedom (OEF/OIF) Veterans who screened positive for suicidal ideation in non-mental health ambulatory care settings in 2009 and 2010. Veterans accepted the need to assess suicide risk. They increasingly experienced attempts to suppress and avoid thoughts of suicide as burdensome and exhausting. Despite this, Veterans often failed to disclose severe and pervasive suicidal thoughts when screened because: (1) they considered suicidal thoughts as shameful and a sign of weakness; (2) they believed suicidal thoughts were private and not to be divulged to strangers; (3) they worried that disclosure would lead to unwanted hospitalization or medication recommendations; and (4) the templated computer reminder process was perceived as perfunctory and disrespectful. In contrast, admitting and discussing thoughts of suicide with a health provider who focused on building a relationship, demonstrated genuineness and empathy, offered information on the rationale for suicide risk assessment, and used straightforward and understandable language, all promoted trust that resulted in more honest disclosure of suicidal thoughts. In ambulatory care settings, both provider

  9. Health literacy assessment and patient satisfaction in surgical practice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Komenaka, Ian K; Nodora, Jesse N; Machado, Lorenzo; Hsu, Chiu-Hsieh; Klemens, Anne E; Martinez, Maria Elena; Bouton, Marcia E; Wilhelmson, Krista L; Weiss, Barry D

    2014-03-01

    Individuals with limited health literacy have barriers to patient-physician communication. Problems in communication are known to contribute to malpractice litigation. Concern exists, however, about the feasibility and patient acceptance of a health literacy assessment. This study was performed to determine the feasibility of health literacy assessment in surgical practice and its effect on patient satisfaction. Every patient seen in a Breast Surgery Clinic during a 2-year period was asked to undergo a health literacy assessment with the Newest Vital Sign (NVS) as part of the routine history and physical examination. During the year before routine NVS assessments and during the 2-year study period, all patients were asked to rate their "overall satisfaction with clinic visit" on a 5-point scale. A total of 2,026 of 2,097 patients (96.6%) seen during the study were eligible for the health literacy assessment. Of those, no patients refused assessment, and only one patient was missed. Therefore, 2,025 of 2,026 eligible patients (99.9%) underwent the assessment. The average time for NVS assessment was 2:02 minutes. Only 19% of patients had adequate health literacy. Patient satisfaction ratings were slightly greater during the first year of the health literacy assessment (3.8 vs 3.7, P = .049) compared with the year prior to health literacy assessment and greater during the second year of health literacy assessment (4.1 vs 3.7, P < .0001). Routine health literacy assessment is feasible in surgical practice and results in no decrease in patient satisfaction. In fact, satisfaction was greater during the years when health literacy assessments were performed. Copyright © 2014 Mosby, Inc. All rights reserved.

  10. The Training in Educational Assessment practices of Special Education Teachers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Javier J. Maquilón Sánchez

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available Admitting the importance of evaluation in the culture of quality, and especially in the field of education, 233 teachers have taken part in this research. They work to help children with especial educational needs, in Murcia (Spain.We asked them about their level of real execution of practical assessment of learning, teaching and programs, and the level of importance that they give to this evaluation. In this study we analyzed the differences found in variables as gender, type of the school (specific/ordinary, speciality (therapeutic pedagogy/audition and language, administrative situation (official/supply teacher and years of experience. In general, they gave more importance to evaluation than their real practice shows, and it concerned more the evaluation of learning and less that of teaching. The comparison between variables is allowed to make an x-ray about commitment to practical systematized assessment.

  11. Clinical Vignettes Improve Performance in Anatomy Practical Assessment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ikah, December S. K.; Finn, Gabrielle M.; Swamy, Meenakshi; White, Pamela M.; McLachlan, John C.

    2015-01-01

    Although medical curricula now adopt an integrated teaching approach, this is not adequately reflected in assessment of anatomy knowledge and skills. In this study, we aimed to explore the impact of the addition of clinical vignette to item stems on students' performance in anatomy practical examinations. In this study, 129 undergraduate medical…

  12. Assessment of Non-Sterile Pharmaceutical Compounding Practices ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    A descriptive cross-sectional survey was conducted to assess the practices of non-sterile pharmaceutical compounding in selected 42 community and 3 hospital pharmacies in Addis Ababa, Ethiopia from 01 April, 2016 to 15 May, 2016. The study revealed that the most commonly prescribed and compounded non-sterile ...

  13. Students' Assessment Of Farm Practical Programme In Selected ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The study evaluates students' assessment of farm practical programme in selected universities of southwestern Nigeria. A multi-stage sampling technique was used in selecting 180 students from 6 selected universities in the study area. Frequency counts, percentages, chi-square, Pearson Product Moment Correlation and ...

  14. The assessment of female students' perceptions, practices and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The main purpose of this study was to assess perceptions, practices and challenges of female students in cooperative learning (one- in- five) at Mettu College of Teacher Education. To achieve this objective, descriptive case study research method was employed. The subjects of the study were 80 (22 low achievers,34 ...

  15. Best Practices for Competency Development and Assessment in Higher Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Redondo Duarte, Sara; Learreta Ramos, Begoña; Ruiz Rosillo, María Auxiliadora; Alperstedt, Cristiane; Hazé, Emmanuël

    2015-01-01

    The main objective of this article is to present the results of a study aimed at determining, classifying and evaluating practices of interest for general competency development and assessment in undergraduate programmes. The study encompassed the following phases: (1) focus group in order to establish a starting point regarding competency…

  16. Assessment of sharps waste management practices in a referral ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Sharps waste is part of infectious waste generated in health facilities, management of which is critical. This study aimed at assessing the sharps waste management practices in a referral hospital. The study was conducted at Muhimbili National Hospital (MNH) in Dar es Salaam, Tanzania. Data on sharps waste containers ...

  17. Assessment of Teaching and Learning Styles in Practical Motor ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This study was designed to assess teaching and learning styles in practical motor vehicle mechanics work at technical college level in Niger State. Two research questions ... A descriptive survey research design was employed for the study. The study was ... The instrument was face and content validated by three Lecturers.

  18. Assessment of Perceived Corrupt Practices in Marketing of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    user

    This study assessed the corrupt practices in marketing of agricultural produce among women marketers in. Ogbomoso Agricultural Zone of Oyo State, Nigeria. Multistage sampling technique was adopted in the selection of respondents for the study; while structured interview schedule was employed to obtain data from fifty ...

  19. Assessment of Perceived Corrupt Practices in Marketing of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This study assessed the corrupt practices in marketing of agricultural produce among women marketers in Ogbomoso Agricultural Zone of Oyo State, Nigeria. Multistage sampling technique was adopted in the selection of respondents for the study; while structured interview schedule was employed to obtain data from fifty ...

  20. Assessment of management practices for ungulates in old Oyo ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Assessment of the habitat management practices was investigated for four months to identify the various management strategies and threats affecting ungulates in Old Oyo National Park. The methods used for the study are observation techniques and questionnaire administration and data were analyzed descriptively.

  1. Educators' conceptions and practice of classroom assessment in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Erna Kinsey

    any efforts to change educators' pedagogical practices, whether by mandate or through professional ... When the system emphasi- ses content, conformity, and high-stakes summative assessment, as it did in ... manner and ensure that learners integrate and apply knowledge and skills". (Department of Education 2002a:18).

  2. Assessing Preschool Teachers' Practices to Promote Self-Regulated Learning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adagideli, Fahretdin Hasan; Saraç, Seda; Ader, Engin

    2015-01-01

    Recent research reveals that in preschool years, through pedagogical interventions, preschool teachers can and should promote self-regulated learning. The main aim of this study is to develop a self-report instrument to assess preschool teachers' practices to promote self-regulated learning. A pool of 50 items was recruited through literature…

  3. Review Article: The roles of assessment in curriculum practice and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Assessment is indispensable component of curriculum practice. In systems of education, one of the prime considerations of administrators, teachers, and students alike are the outcomes of learning, what ability students can demonstrate because of increase in their knowledge and changes in understanding because of ...

  4. Assessment of farmers awareness and practice of health safety ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The broad objective of the study was to assess farmers' awareness and practice of health safety measures in the use of agrochemicals in Niger state , Nigeria. The specific objectives were to describe the socio-economic and demographic features of the farmers, identify the common agrochemicals being used by the farmers ...

  5. Appraisal of assessment practices among primary school teachers ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The study appraises assessment practices of the primary school teachers in the areas under study. A survey research design was used to select 18 primary schools for the study. The stratified sampling and simple random sampling techniques were used to obtain 250 primary school teachers from the 18 selected schools ...

  6. Assessing knowledge, attitude and practice of vital registration ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    One of the key issues that have kept the sub-Saharan African countries in the state of underdevelopment is the unavailability of accurate statistical data for social and economic planning purposes. This study utilizes the data collected in Ile-Ife, Osun State, Southwest Nigeria to assess the knowledge, attitude and practice of ...

  7. An assessment of water, sanitation and hygiene (wash) practices ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    An assessment of water, sanitation and hygiene (wash) practices and quality of routinely collected data in Machakos County Kenya. D.M. Kavoo, S.H. Ali, A.B. Kihara, R.J. Kosgei, H Tweya, W Kizito, Omondi Ogutu, C.N. Tauta ...

  8. Assessment of best practice of software development in developing ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Software development in most developing nations such as Nigeria were categorised as non standard while these nations still request for software from developed nations. These call for the assessment of the best practice and the way forward. ICT firms that specialized in software development were involved using ...

  9. Assessment of pesticide use and application practices in tomato ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    However, pesticides are poisons and can affect human health and contaminate the environment. This paper reports on the findings of an assessment of pesticide use, application and practices in Kaliluni, Kathiani district in Kenya. The dominant activity in the area is intensive irrigated tomato farming for local and other ...

  10. Autism Spectrum Disorders: Neurobiology and Current Assessment Practices

    Science.gov (United States)

    Allen, Ryan A.; Robins, Diana L.; Decker, Scott L.

    2008-01-01

    This study reviews recent research related to the neurobiology of Autism Spectrum Disorders (ASDs) an provides an empirical analysis of current assessment practices. Data were collected through a survey of 117 school psychologists. The Childhood Autism Rating Scale (CARS), Gilliam Autism Rating Scale (GARS), and Gilliam Asperger's Disorder Scale…

  11. Teaching and Assessing Racquet Games Using "Play Practice"--Part 2: Integrating Assessment into Teaching

    Science.gov (United States)

    van der Mars, Hans; Harvey, Stephen

    2010-01-01

    One of the central functions of teaching is formal assessment. However, formal assessment in school physical education often consists of attributing final grades to students at the conclusion of a unit (i.e., summative assessment). Moreover, grades have often been based on effort, attendance, and dress. Practical and authentic assessment…

  12. Personal Understanding of Assessment and the Link to Assessment Practice: The Perspectives of Higher Education Staff

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reimann, Nicola; Sadler, Ian

    2017-01-01

    The study investigates how higher education staff understand assessment, and the relationship between these understandings and their assessment practices. Nine individuals attended a workshop that guided them through the creation of a concept map about assessment, which was subsequently discussed in one-to-one semi-structured interviews. We found…

  13. Is Online Patchwork Text Assessment a Panacea for Assessment Practices in Higher Education?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Upton, Penney; Taylor, Charlotte

    2013-01-01

    Although assessment is acknowledged as being of central importance to the student learning experience, assessment practices have been consistently highlighted as one of the weakest features by the Quality Assurance Agency and identified by many as a crisis within higher education. This paper explores the use of Patchwork Text Assessment within a…

  14. The assessment of the Newborn Hearing Screening Program in the Region of Murcia from 2004 to 2012.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cubillana-Herrero, Jose Domingo; Pelegrín-Hernández, Juan Pablo; Soler-Valcarcel, Alejandro; Mínguez-Merlos, Nieves; Cubillana-Martínez, María José; Navarro Barrios, Álvaro; Medina-Banegas, Alfonso; Fernandez Hernandez, Juan Angel

    2016-09-01

    Newborn (NB) auditory deficit has a prevalence of 1-2% in the world. Since the 1990s different screening programs have been put into practice. The Newborn Hearing Screening Program has been in operation since 2002 in our hospital (HCUVA) in Murcia (Spain) and two years later it was introduced into the whole of the Autonomous Community of the Region of Murcia as part of universal healthcare. The objective of this study was to analyze and assess its results. The newborn (NB) population is divided into two groups: not-at-risk NBs and at-risk NBs. In the first case we carry out acoustic otoemissions (AOEs) 48 h after birth and depending on the result the child is either discharged or, in negative cases, the infant undergoes a series of tests in a period of 30-45 days to confirm or rule out the existence of hearing anomalies. In the at-risk group we combine AOEs with brain trunk potentials (BERA) following the stages in a decision tree diagram similar to the ones for not-at-risk children in order to provide a clinical diagnosis in the first three months of life. The screening performance was assessed for the 156,122 children studied, of which 151,258 belonged to the group of not-at-risk children; and 4864 to the group at risk of hypoacusia. As a result of the screening only 410 (0.26%) were sent to consultation, 213 in the not-at-risk group (0.14%) and 197 (24.7%) in the at-risk group. A total of 7452 false positives were identified (4.7%), 6951 (4.5%) in the not-at-risk group; and 501 (10.3%) in the group with risk factors; and there were 53 false negatives (0.03%). Sensitivity in the screening program was 88.5%, with a specificity of 95%. The Region of Murcia has a Newborn Hearing Screening Program with tests that provide a high level of sensitivity and specificity in accordance with the findings of the literature. Our results endorse the program and the patients were treated in a way that met the objective of providing a correct diagnosis and the appropriate

  15. Conceptual and practical challenges in the assessment of physician competencies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Whitehead, Cynthia R; Kuper, Ayelet; Hodges, Brian; Ellaway, Rachel

    2015-03-01

    Abstract The shift to using outcomes-based competency frameworks in medical education in many countries around the world requires educators to find ways to assess multiple competencies. Contemporary medical educators recognize that a competent trainee not only needs sound biomedical knowledge and technical skills, they also need to be able to communicate, collaborate and behave in a professional manner. This paper discusses methodological challenges of assessment with a particular focus on the CanMEDS Roles. The paper argues that the psychometric measures that have been the mainstay of assessment practices for the past half-century, while still valuable and necessary, are not sufficient for a competency-oriented assessment environment. New assessment approaches, particularly ones from the social sciences, are required to be able to assess non-Medical Expert (Intrinsic) roles that are situated and context-bound. Realist and ethnographic methods in particular afford ways to address the challenges of this new assessment. The paper considers the theoretical and practical bases for tools that can more effectively assess non-Medical Expert (Intrinsic) roles.

  16. Improving Breast Cancer Outcomes among Women in China: Practices, Knowledge, and Attitudes Related to Breast Cancer Screening

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tsu-Yin Wu

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. Breast cancer is a major public health issue and the most commonly diagnosed cancer for women worldwide. Despite lower incidence rates than those living in Western countries, breast cancer incidence among Chinese women has increased dramatically in the past 20 years. Nevertheless, there is a paucity of studies reporting the attitudes toward and practices of breast cancer screening among Chinese women. Methods. This cross-sectional study examined the practices, knowledge, and attitudes toward breast cancer screening (BCS on a convenience sample of 400 Chinese women. Results. Among study participants, 75% of the women never had a mammogram and the top three barriers reported were low priority, feeling OK, and lack of awareness/knowledge toward breast cancer screening. The results from the logistic regression model showed increased self-efficacy; having performed monthly self-exams, and having had clinical breast exams in the past two years were significant correlates while demographic variables were not correlated with screening behaviors. Conclusion. The findings provide a foundation to better understand beliefs and practices of Chinese women toward BCS and highlight the critical need for general public, health professionals, and the health care system to work collaboratively toward improving the quality of breast cancer care in this population.

  17. The Malnutrition Screening Tool in Geriatric Rehabilitation: A Comparison of Validity When Completed by Health Professionals With and Without Malnutrition Screening Training Has Implications for Practice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marshall, Skye; Young, Adrienne; Isenring, Elizabeth

    2018-01-01

    The validity of the Malnutrition Screening Tool (MST) in geriatric rehabilitation has been evaluated in a research environment but not in professional practice. In older adults admitted to rehabilitation, this study was undertaken to compare the MST scoring agreement (inter-rater reliability) between health professionals with and without malnutrition risk and screening training; to evaluate the concurrent validity of the MST completed by the trained and untrained health professionals compared to the International Classification of Diseases, Tenth Revision, Australian Modification using different MST score cutoffs; and to determine whether patient characteristics were associated with MST scoring accuracy when completed by health professionals without malnutrition risk and screening training. This was an observational, cross-sectional study. Fifty-seven older adults (mean age=79.1±7.3 years) were recruited from August 2013 to February 2014 from two rural rehabilitation units in New South Wales, Australia. MST, International Classification of Diseases, Tenth Revision, Australian Modification, classification of malnutrition, and patient characteristics were used to measure outcomes. Measures of diagnostic accuracy generated from a contingency table, receiver operating characteristic curve, and Spearman's correlation were used. The MST scores completed by health professionals with and without malnutrition risk and screening training showed moderate correlation and fair agreement (rs=0.465; P=0.001; κ=0.297; P=0.028). When compared to the International Classification of Diseases, Tenth Revision, Australian Modification, the untrained MST administration showed moderate diagnostic accuracy (sensitivity 56.5%, specificity 83.3%), but increasing the MST score to ≥3 caused the sensitivity of both the trained and untrained MST administration to decrease (56.5% and 22.9%, respectively). The application of the MST by health professionals without malnutrition risk and

  18. Factors affecting compliance with clinical practice guidelines for pap smear screening among healthcare providers in africa: systematic review and meta-summary of 2045 individuals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Asonganyi, Etienne; Vaghasia, Meenakshi; Rodrigues, Clarissa; Phadtare, Amruta; Ford, Anne; Pietrobon, Ricardo; Atashili, Julius; Lynch, Catherine

    2013-01-01

    Although the importance of the Pap smear in reducing cancer incidence and mortality is known, many countries in Africa have not initiated yet widespread national cervical cancer screening programs. The World Health Organization (WHO) has published Clinical Practice Guidelines (CPGs) on cervical cancer screening in developing countries; however, there is a gap between expectations and clinical performance. Thus, the aim of this study was to conduct a systematic review and meta-summary to identify factors affecting compliance with CPGs for Pap screening among healthcare providers in Africa. And Findings: MEDLINE, Scirus, Opengate and EMBASE databases were searched in January 2012. Studies involving medical personnel practicing in Africa, whose outcome measured any factors that affect medical personnel from using a Pap smear to screen for cervical cancer, were included. Two reviewers independently evaluated titles and abstracts, then full-texts, extracted data and assessed quality of the included studies. A descriptive analysis of the included studies was conducted. We calculated Frequency effect sizes (FES) for each finding and Intensity effect sizes (IES) for each article to represent their magnitudes in the analyses. Of 1011 studies retrieved, 11 studies were included (2045 individuals). Six different themes related to the factors affecting compliance with CPGs were identified: Insufficient Knowledge/Lack of awareness (FES = 82%), Negligence/Misbeliefs (FES = 82%), Psychological Reasons (FES = 73%), Time/Cost Constraint (FES = 36%), Insufficient infrastructure/training (FES = 45%) and also no reason given (FES = 36%). IES for articles ranged between 33 and 83%. These results suggest that prevention initiatives should be comprehensive to include education and resources needs assessments and improvement, Pap smear test training, strategies on costing, and practitioner time studies.

  19. Factors Affecting Compliance with Clinical Practice Guidelines for Pap Smear Screening among Healthcare Providers in Africa: Systematic Review and Meta-Summary of 2045 Individuals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Asonganyi, Etienne; Vaghasia, Meenakshi; Rodrigues, Clarissa; Phadtare, Amruta; Ford, Anne; Pietrobon, Ricardo; Atashili, Julius; Lynch, Catherine

    2013-01-01

    Background Although the importance of the Pap smear in reducing cancer incidence and mortality is known, many countries in Africa have not initiated yet widespread national cervical cancer screening programs. The World Health Organization (WHO) has published Clinical Practice Guidelines (CPGs) on cervical cancer screening in developing countries; however, there is a gap between expectations and clinical performance. Thus, the aim of this study was to conduct a systematic review and meta-summary to identify factors affecting compliance with CPGs for Pap screening among healthcare providers in Africa. Methods And Findings: MEDLINE, Scirus, Opengate and EMBASE databases were searched in January 2012. Studies involving medical personnel practicing in Africa, whose outcome measured any factors that affect medical personnel from using a Pap smear to screen for cervical cancer, were included. Two reviewers independently evaluated titles and abstracts, then full-texts, extracted data and assessed quality of the included studies. A descriptive analysis of the included studies was conducted. We calculated Frequency effect sizes (FES) for each finding and Intensity effect sizes (IES) for each article to represent their magnitudes in the analyses. Of 1011 studies retrieved, 11 studies were included (2045 individuals). Six different themes related to the factors affecting compliance with CPGs were identified: Insufficient Knowledge/Lack of awareness (FES = 82%), Negligence/Misbeliefs (FES = 82%), Psychological Reasons (FES = 73%), Time/Cost Constraint (FES = 36%), Insufficient infrastructure/training (FES = 45%) and also no reason given (FES = 36%). IES for articles ranged between 33 and 83%. Conclusions These results suggest that prevention initiatives should be comprehensive to include education and resources needs assessments and improvement, Pap smear test training, strategies on costing, and practitioner time studies. PMID:24069156

  20. Theory versus practice in Strategic Environmental Assessment (SEA)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lobos, Víctor, E-mail: vlobosg@gmail.com [CEG-IST, Instituto Superior Técnico, Universidade de Lisboa, Research Group on Strategic Approaches to Environment and Sustainability (SENSU), 1049-001 Lisboa (Portugal); Centro de Estudios del Desarrollo, San Crescente 551, Las Condes, Santiago (Chile); Partidario, Maria [CEG-IST, Instituto Superior Técnico, Universidade de Lisboa, Research Group on Strategic Approaches to Environment and Sustainability (SENSU), 1049-001 Lisboa (Portugal)

    2014-09-15

    Could the theory of Strategic Environmental Assessment (SEA) be ahead of its time and decoupled from its practice? This paper evolved in search for this leading research question. Over the years the discourse on SEA experienced a gradual shift from the technocratic and rationalist thinking that supported its origin to more strategic approaches and integrated concepts, suggested since the mid 1990's. In this paper we share the results of our analysis of international thinking and practical experience with SEA. Results reveal that SEA practice changes very slowly when compared to advanced thinking supporting the noted shift. Current SEA practice shows to be still predominantly rooted in the logic of projects' environmental impact assessment (EIA). It is strongly bound to legal and regulatory requirements, and the motivation for its application persists being the delivery of environmental (or final) reports to meet legal obligations. Even though advanced SEA theoretical thinking claim its potential to help decisions to look forward, change mind-sets and the rationale of decision-making to meet sustainability challenges and enhance societal values, we note a weak relationship between the theoretical development of SEA and its practice. Why is this happening? Which factors explain this apparent inertia, resistance to change, in the SEA practice? Results appear to demonstrate the influence of assumptions, understandings, concepts, and beliefs in the use of SEA, which in turn suggest the political sensitivity of the instrument. - Highlights: • Theoretical thinking in SEA is ahead of its time. • SEA international practice reveals inertia to move out of project’ EIA comfort zone. • World current SEA practice show similar understandings of 30 years ago. • 100 world reports and survey of practitioners supported world review. • SEA great challenge is to change paradigms into new scientific complexity theories.

  1. Mental health assessments in refugees and asylum seekers: evaluation of a tablet-assisted screening software.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morina, Naser; Ewers, Simon M; Passardi, Sandra; Schnyder, Ulrich; Knaevelsrud, Christine; Müller, Julia; Bryant, Richard A; Nickerson, Angela; Schick, Matthis

    2017-01-01

    Mental health problems resulting from persecution and forced migration are very common among refugees and asylum seekers and evolve into a major public health challenge in hosting societies. Language barriers often prevent timely access to appropriate health care, leading to chronic trajectories and abortive social integration. Tools for multilingual screening and assessment could be of great benefit for this particularly vulnerable population as well as for policy makers. This study aimed at testing the reliability, feasibility and usability of the Multi-Adaptive Psychological Screening Software (MAPSS), a newly developed Audio Computer-Assisted Self-Interview Software (ACASI) for touchscreen devices, for screening purposes in a clinical setting. In a randomized cross-over design including both MAPSS and paper-pencil clinician-administered interviews, 30 treatment-seeking refugees completed clinical measures and a feasibility questionnaire to rate the user interface of MAPSS. Five professionals performed given tasks in MAPSS and completed usability questionnaires for the administration interface. Results showed no differences between the two assessment modalities with regard to symptom scores. The findings suggest good feasibility and usability of MAPSS in traumatized refugees. The administration via MAPSS was significantly shorter than the paper-pencil interview. MAPSS may be a cost-effective, flexible and valid alternative to interpreter-based psychometric screening and assessment.

  2. Assessing the improvements in the newborn screening strategy for cystic fibrosis in the Balearic Islands.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bauça, Josep Miquel; Morell-Garcia, Daniel; Vila, Magdalena; Pérez, Gerardo; Heine-Suñer, Damián; Figuerola, Joan

    2015-04-01

    Newborn screening strategies for cystic fibrosis (CF) are run worldwide, and aim at the early detection of the disorder to significantly improve the quality of life. Elevated levels of immunoreactive trypsinogen (IRT) represent a high likelihood for the screened child to be affected with CF. However, the specificity of IRT is low. The objective of this study was to assess the screening program in the Balearic Islands during the past 14 years. We evaluated all results of the screening program after 14 years, by considering all changes in the protocol and assessing the number of positive samples, the mutations detected, the number of sweat tests performed, the incidence of CF and the presence of false-negative cases. Despite a great variability among the different Balearic Islands, the global incidence of CF was 1:6059 for the 14 years assessed. The incidence in the smaller islands is about 5 times higher than in Majorca (1:2376 versus 1:10,613). After different changes in the protocol, an IRT cut-off value of 60 ng/mL was established. The two most common mutations are ΔF508 and G542X, in accordance with other geographical regions. The changes in the protocol helped reduce the number of sweat tests performed without any increase in the false-negative rate. Copyright © 2015 The Canadian Society of Clinical Chemists. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  3. Assessment and monitoring practices of Australian fitness professionals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bennie, Jason A; Wiesner, Glen H; van Uffelen, Jannique G Z; Harvey, Jack T; Craike, Melinda J; Biddle, Stuart J H

    2017-07-14

    Assessment and monitoring of client health and fitness is a key part of fitness professionals' practices. However, little is known about prevalence of this practice. This study describes the assessment/monitoring practices of a large sample of Australian fitness professionals. Cross-sectional. In 2014, 1206 fitness professionals completed an online survey. Respondents reported their frequency (4 point-scale: [1] 'never' to [4] 'always') of assessment/monitoring of eight health and fitness constructs (e.g. body composition, aerobic fitness). This was classified as: (i) 'high' ('always' assessing/monitoring ≥5 constructs); (ii) 'medium' (1-4 constructs); (iii) 'low' (0 constructs). Classifications are reported by demographic and fitness industry characteristics. The odds of being classified as a 'high assessor/monitor' according to social ecological correlates were examined using a multiple-factor logistic regression model. Mean age of respondents was 39.3 (±11.6) years and 71.6% were female. A total of 15.8% (95% CI: 13.7%-17.9%) were classified as a 'high' assessor/monitor. Constructs with the largest proportion of being 'always' assessed were body composition (47.7%; 95% CI: 45.0%-50.1%) and aerobic fitness (42.5%; 95% CI: 39.6%-45.3%). Those with the lowest proportion of being 'always' assessed were balance (24.0%; 95% CI: 24.7%-26.5%) and mental health (20.2%; 95% CI: 18.1%-29.6%). A perceived lack of client interest and fitness professionals not considering assessing their responsibility were associated with lower odds of being classified as a 'high assessor/monitor'. Most fitness professionals do not routinely assess/monitor client fitness and health. Key factors limiting client health assessment and monitoring include a perceived lack of client interest and professionals not considering this their role. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  4. Accuracy of quick and easy undernutrition screening tools--Short Nutritional Assessment Questionnaire, Malnutrition Universal Screening Tool, and modified Malnutrition Universal Screening Tool--in patients undergoing cardiac surgery

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Venrooij, Lenny M. W.; van Leeuwen, Paul A. M.; Hopmans, Wendy; Borgmeijer-Hoelen, Mieke M. M. J.; de Vos, Rien; de Mol, Bas A. J. M.

    2011-01-01

    The objective of this study was to compare the quick-and-easy undernutrition screening tools, ie, Short Nutritional Assessment Questionnaire and Malnutrition Universal Screening Tool, in patients undergoing cardiac surgery with respect to their accuracy in detecting undernutrition measured by a

  5. Delirium assessment in hospitalized elderly patients: Italian translation and validation of the nursing delirium screening scale.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spedale, Valentina; Di Mauro, Stefania; Del Giorno, Giulia; Barilaro, Monica; Villa, Candida E; Gaudreau, Jean D; Ausili, Davide

    2017-08-01

    Delirium has a high incidence pathology associated with negative outcomes. Although highly preventable, half the cases are not recognized. One major cause of delirium misdiagnosis is the absence of a versatile instrument to measure it. Our objective was to translate the nursing delirium screening scale (Nu-DESC) and evaluate its performance in Italian settings. This was a methodological study conducted in two sequential phases. The first was the Italian translation of Nu-DESC through a translation and back-translation process. The second aimed to test the inter-rater reliability, the sensibility and specificity of the instrument on a convenience sample of 101 hospitalized elderly people admitted to relevant wards of the San Gerardo Hospital in Monza. To evaluate the inter-rater reliability, two examiners tested Nu-DESC on 20 patients concurrently without comparison. To measure the sensibility and specificity of Nu-DESC, the confusion assessment method was used as a gold standard measure. The inter-rater reliability (Cohen Kappa) was 0.87-an excellent agreement between examiners. The study of the ROC curve showed an AUC value of 0.9461 suggesting high test accuracy. Using 3 as a cut-off value, Nu-DESC showed 100 % sensibility and 76 % specificity. Further research is needed to test Nu-DESC on a larger sample. However, based on our results, Nu-DESC can be used in research and clinical practice in Italian settings because of its very good and similar performances to previous validation studies. The value of 3 appears to be the optimal cut-off in the Italian context.

  6. Cardiac pre-competiton screening in Swiss athletes. Current situation in competitive athletes and short-time assessment of an exemplary local screening program.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schmied, Christian; Notz, Sara; Cribari, Marco; Gähwiler, Roman; Keller, Dagmar I; Lüscher, Thomas F

    2012-05-31

    In Switzerland, screening concepts for the prevention of sports-associated sudden cardiac death are still insufficiently established in the large group of competitive athletes who are not integrated in an Olympic- or other high-level squad. The aim of the present study was to objectively determine the current situation in this particular group of athletes concerning cardiac pre-competition screening and define specific features of an "ideal" Swiss screening concept. Based on these data, the feasibility and validity was tested by the implementation of an exemplary local screening programme. A standardised questionnaire was completed by 1,047 competitive athletes of different ages and gender. The individual, sports-specific profile of an athlete and furthermore, the personal attitude towards and the vision of a "perfect" cardiac screening were assessed. Based on the results, an exemplary local screening programme for competitive athletes was implemented at the "Academic Sports Association Zurich" (ASVZ) in Zurich, Switzerland and evaluated 1 year after its introduction. Only 9% of the 1,047 interviewed competitive athletes (aged 13 to 64 years; median age 22 years, SD = 5.87) had previously undergone a cardiac screening. Only 47% of the interviewed competitive athletes expressed their interest to undergo a cardiac screening at all. Male and older athletes showed a significantly higher acceptance rate for the screening programme than women and younger athletes. All athletes accepted to bear the expenses for the baseline screening programme, adapted to international standards (minimal accepted fee of 60 Swiss Francs). Almost half of the athletes (49.2%) preferred easy accessibility to a sports cardiologist (max. distance of 10 kilometres). The exemplary local screening programme proved to be feasible and successful. However, only 30% of the 102 screened individuals were female and most of the athletes (80%) who made use of the screening had a specific concern or

  7. Self-Assessment in Librarianship: Current Practices and Future Possibilities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ania Dymarz

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available The authors of this qualitative study set out to investigate self-assessment practices within the library profession. The researchers conducted semi-structured interviews with a purposeful sample of nine librarians coming from a range of library settings and possessing a diversity of library experience. Interviews were then transcribed and coded in NVIVO to identify emergent themes. This paper details some of the results of that study, highlighting motivations, limitations, and strategies with regard to self-assessment. The findings present a summary of a range of approaches to the practice of assessment as reported by the interviewees. One area of possible growth for our profession, as highlighted by the findings, is in the development of peer networks as a support for the individual practice of self-assessment. While the results of this small case study cannot be generalized, the authors hope these preliminary findings can open up the conversation around self-assessment both for individual librarians and for those librarians and managers working to shape their workplace culture.

  8. Good Practices for Object-Based Accuracy Assessment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Julien Radoux

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Thematic accuracy assessment of a map is a necessary condition for the comparison of research results and the appropriate use of geographic data analysis. Good practices of accuracy assessment already exist, but Geographic Object-Based Image Analysis (GEOBIA is based on a partition of the spatial area of interest into polygons, which leads to specific issues. In this study, additional guidelines for the validation of object-based maps are provided. These guidelines include recommendations about sampling design, response design and analysis, as well as the evaluation of structural and positional quality. Different types of GEOBIA applications are considered with their specific issues. In particular, accuracy assessment could either focus on the count of spatial entities or on the area of the map that is correctly classified. Two practical examples are given at the end of the manuscript.

  9. The final word on nutritional screening and assessment in older persons.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cereda, Emanuele; Veronese, Nicola; Caccialanza, Riccardo

    2017-10-14

    To provide an updated perspective of how nutritional screening and assessment in older persons should be performed and reasonably implemented in the near future. Although nutritional screening and assessment should be fast and easy procedures, there is increasing evidence that more time should be dedicated to them. This is probably an answer to the claim to a medicine being more preventive than curative. Increasing interest is currently given to healthy aging and nutritional status is more likely to be addressed for its implications on functional status and disability. Important prognostic conditions, such as frailty, sarcopenia, and cachexia, which are closely linked to the nutritional domain, are at the top of the agenda. Therefore, body composition is a key issue and functional status is suggested as primary endpoint of nutrition trials. In this scenario, there is also a rationale for systematic assessment of inflammation, protein intake, and vitamin D status as potential contributing factors to reduced muscle mass and function. A 'second-generation' multidimensional nutritional screening and assessment including the evaluation of body composition, frailty, sarcopenia, and cachexia could be hypothesized. Nutritional assessment should be also completed by the systematic evaluation of inflammation, protein intake, and vitamin D status.

  10. Screening food-borne and zoonotic pathogens associated with livestock practices in the Sumapaz region, Cundinamarca, Colombia

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Arenas, Nelson E.; Abril, Diego A.; Valencia, Paola

    2017-01-01

    -borne and zoonotic pathogens associated with local livestock practices. We evaluated 1098 cows from 46 livestock farms in the Sumapaz region that were selected by random. Of the total population of cattle, 962 animals (88%) were tested for bovine TB using a caudal-fold tuberculin test and 546 (50%) for brucellosis...... findings suggest that livestock products could be a source of exposure to Brucella and multidrug-resistant E. coli and S. aureus strains as a result of unhygienic livestock practices in the Sumapaz region. Training in good farming practices is the key to improving safety in food production.......Hazardous practices regarding antibiotics misuse, unsanitary milking procedures, and the commercial sales of raw milk and unpasteurized dairy products are currently being practiced by livestock farmers in the Sumapaz region (Colombia). The purpose of this study was to screen for food...

  11. Assessing barriers to change in drinking behavior: results of an online employee screening program.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aseltine, Robert H; Demarco, Frank J; Wallenstein, Gene V; Jacobs, Douglas G

    2009-01-01

    The impact of alcohol abuse on worker productivity is considerable and appears to be increasing over time. Although early screening and intervention may help prevent or reduce the damaging health and productivity effects of problem drinking, barriers to behavioral change may render broad-based prevention efforts ineffectual. This study examined the correlates of two potential barriers to changes in drinking behavior--underestimation of drinking and lack of knowledge of helping resources--using data from web-based employee alcohol screenings. Anonymous screening data from 1185 employees of ten companies participating in the 2003 National Alcohol Screening Day were analyzed. The AUDIT, a 10-item screening instrument developed by the World Health Organization, was used to measure drinking behavior; employees' subjective assessments of their drinking were also obtained. Over 53% of participants subjectively underestimated their drinking relative to their AUDIT results, and 58% of respondents did not know whether their medical insurance included benefits for alcohol treatment. Logistic regression analysis revealed that younger and male respondents tended to have the highest AUDIT scores and also (along with married respondents) were most likely to underestimate their drinking. Younger, unmarried respondents were least likely to be aware of their alcohol treatment insurance benefits. Current corporate efforts to curtail problem drinking among employees may not adequately address barriers to change. Targeting at-risk employee groups for alcohol screening and dissemination of information about health insurance benefits and treatment options is recommended, as is providing personalized feedback based on screening results to raise awareness of at-risk drinking and available helping resources.

  12. The validity of dietary assessment in general practice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Little, P; Barnett, J; Margetts, B; Kinmonth, A L; Gabbay, J; Thompson, R; Warm, D; Warwick, H; Wooton, S

    1999-03-01

    To validate a range of dietary assessment instruments in general practice. Using a randomised block design, brief assessment instruments and more complex conventional dietary assessment tools were compared with an accepted "relative" standard--a seven day weighed dietary record. The standard was checked using biomarkers, and by performing test-retest reliability in additional subjects (n = 29). Agreement with weighed record. Percentage agreement with weighed record, rank correlation from scatter plot, rank correlation from Bland-Altman plot. Reliability of the weighed record. Practice nurse treatment room in a single suburban general practice. Patients with risk factors for cardiovascular disease (n = 61) or age/sex stratified general population group (n = 50). Brief self completion dietary assessment tools based on food groups caten during a week show reasonable agreement with the relative standard. For % energy from fat and saturated fat, non-starch polysaccharide, grams of fruit and vegetables and starchy foods consumed the range of agreement with the standard was: median % difference -6% to 12%, rank correlation 0.5 to 0.6. This agreement is of a similar order to the reliability of the weighed record, as good as or better than test standard agreement for more time consuming instruments, and compares favourably with research instruments validated in other settings. Under-reporting of energy intake was common (40%) and more likely if subjects were obese (body mass idex (BMI) > or = 30 60% under-reported; BMI < 30 29%, p < 0.001). Under-reporting of absolute energy intake is common, particularly among obese patients. Simple self assessment tools based on food groups, designed for practice nurse dietary assessment, show acceptable agreement with a standard, and suggest such tools are sufficiently accurate for clinical work, research, and possibly population dietary monitoring.

  13. Establishing criterion validity of the Useful Field of View assessment and Stroke Drivers' Screening Assessment: comparison to the result of on-road assessment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    George, Stacey; Crotty, Maria

    2010-01-01

    We sought to determine the criterion validity of the Useful Field of View (UFOV) assessment and Stroke Drivers' Screening Assessment (SDSA) through comparison to the results of on-road assessment. This was a prospective study with people with stroke. Outcome measures used were UFOV, SDSA, and the results of on-road assessment. Both the results on UFOV (Divided Attention subtest, pSDSA (pSDSA are valid assessments of driving ability for stroke. The Divided Attention subtest of the UFOV can guide decision making of occupational therapists in stroke driver rehabilitation and in determining those who require further assessment on road because they pose a safety risk. Screening assists people with stroke to decide whether they are ready to have an on-road assessment.

  14. Decision-making in healthcare: a practical application of partial least square path modelling to coverage of newborn screening programmes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fischer Katharina E

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Decision-making in healthcare is complex. Research on coverage decision-making has focused on comparative studies for several countries, statistical analyses for single decision-makers, the decision outcome and appraisal criteria. Accounting for decision processes extends the complexity, as they are multidimensional and process elements need to be regarded as latent constructs (composites that are not observed directly. The objective of this study was to present a practical application of partial least square path modelling (PLS-PM to evaluate how it offers a method for empirical analysis of decision-making in healthcare. Methods Empirical approaches that applied PLS-PM to decision-making in healthcare were identified through a systematic literature search. PLS-PM was used as an estimation technique for a structural equation model that specified hypotheses between the components of decision processes and the reasonableness of decision-making in terms of medical, economic and other ethical criteria. The model was estimated for a sample of 55 coverage decisions on the extension of newborn screening programmes in Europe. Results were evaluated by standard reliability and validity measures for PLS-PM. Results After modification by dropping two indicators that showed poor measures in the measurement models’ quality assessment and were not meaningful for newborn screening, the structural equation model estimation produced plausible results. The presence of three influences was supported: the links between both stakeholder participation or transparency and the reasonableness of decision-making; and the effect of transparency on the degree of scientific rigour of assessment. Reliable and valid measurement models were obtained to describe the composites of ‘transparency’, ‘participation’, ‘scientific rigour’ and ‘reasonableness’. Conclusions The structural equation model was among the first applications of PLS-PM to

  15. Decision-making in healthcare: a practical application of partial least square path modelling to coverage of newborn screening programmes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fischer, Katharina E

    2012-08-02

    Decision-making in healthcare is complex. Research on coverage decision-making has focused on comparative studies for several countries, statistical analyses for single decision-makers, the decision outcome and appraisal criteria. Accounting for decision processes extends the complexity, as they are multidimensional and process elements need to be regarded as latent constructs (composites) that are not observed directly. The objective of this study was to present a practical application of partial least square path modelling (PLS-PM) to evaluate how it offers a method for empirical analysis of decision-making in healthcare. Empirical approaches that applied PLS-PM to decision-making in healthcare were identified through a systematic literature search. PLS-PM was used as an estimation technique for a structural equation model that specified hypotheses between the components of decision processes and the reasonableness of decision-making in terms of medical, economic and other ethical criteria. The model was estimated for a sample of 55 coverage decisions on the extension of newborn screening programmes in Europe. Results were evaluated by standard reliability and validity measures for PLS-PM. After modification by dropping two indicators that showed poor measures in the measurement models' quality assessment and were not meaningful for newborn screening, the structural equation model estimation produced plausible results. The presence of three influences was supported: the links between both stakeholder participation or transparency and the reasonableness of decision-making; and the effect of transparency on the degree of scientific rigour of assessment. Reliable and valid measurement models were obtained to describe the composites of 'transparency', 'participation', 'scientific rigour' and 'reasonableness'. The structural equation model was among the first applications of PLS-PM to coverage decision-making. It allowed testing of hypotheses in situations where there

  16. Health technology assessment of computer-assisted pap test screening in Italy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dalla Palma, Paolo; Moresco, Luca; Giorgi Rossi, Paolo

    2013-01-01

    To assess the introduction of computer-assisted Pap test screening in cervical cancer screening. Various scenarios are considered: conventional and liquid-based cytology (LBC) slides, fully automatic instrumentation (Becton Dickinson FocalPoint™ Slide Profiler and Hologic ThinPrep® Imaging System), and semiautomatic scanner (Hologic Integrated Imager I-Squared). A working group was formed that included researchers from the largest centers already using instrumentation. A questionnaire on laboratory management and on social/ethical issues and annual workload was proposed. Prices for the technology were obtained directly from the producers; costs were calculated from observed and literature data. The scope of the report and final draft were submitted to a consulting committee of stakeholders. The break-even point was found to be 49,000 cases/year, if conventional slides were used, while it was near the theoretical maximum capacity, 70,000 cases/year, with LBC slides. Efficiency increased with the volume of slides. Screening time decreased by two thirds for conventional slides and by less than half for LBC slides. Acceptance of the instrumentation by the users was good. Computer-assisted screening may increase productivity even if in most situations it will mean additional costs. Furthermore, primary screening with human papillomavirus tests will drastically reduce the need for Pap test reading. Copyright © 2013 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  17. Conjunction Assessment Screening Volume Sizing and Event Filtering in Light of Natural Conjunction Event Development Behaviors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hejduk, M. D.; Pachura, D. A.

    2017-01-01

    Conjunction Assessment screening volumes used in the protection of NASA satellites are constructed as geometric volumes about these satellites, of a size expected to capture a certain percentage of the serious conjunction events by a certain time before closest approach. However, the analyses that established these sizes were grounded on covariance-based projections rather than empirical screening results, did not tailor the volume sizes to ensure operational actionability of those results, and did not consider the adjunct ability to produce data that could provide prevenient assistance for maneuver planning. The present study effort seeks to reconsider these questions based on a six-month dataset of empirical screening results using an extremely large screening volume. The results, pursued here for a highly-populated orbit regime near 700 km altitude, identify theoretical limits of screening volume performance, explore volume configuration to facilitate both maneuver remediation planning as well as basic asset protection, and recommend sizing principles that maximize volume performance while minimizing the capture of "chaff" conjunctions that are unlikely ever to become serious events.

  18. Progress report on Safe VISITOR: approaching a practical instrument for terahertz security screening

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heinz, Erik; Born, Detlef; Zieger, Gabriel; May, Torsten; Krause, Torsten; Krüger, Andre; Schulz, Marco; Anders, Solveig; Zakosarenko, Viatcheslav; Meyer, Hans-Georg; Starkloff, Michael; Rößler, Mario; Thorwirth, Guenter; Krause, Ulf

    2010-04-01

    As reported before,1, 2 Safe VISITOR (Safe VISible, Infrared and Terahertz Object recognition) is a German project to build a passive security camera which visualizes sub-mm wavelengths using cooled bolometer arrays. This camera could be used for a variety of application scenarios, such as airport screenings or to protect military camps. In all cases, a practical instrument requires ease of use, in particular a flexible installation and a straightforward usage by the security personnel. Here we present a new generation of Safe VISITOR designed to meet these requirements. The main condition for an effective operation is a high frame rate of the imager. Safe VISITOR is able to record videos up to 10 Hz, using a small array of superconducting bolometers in combination with an opto-mechanical scanner. The required cooling of the detector array is provided by a commercial pulse tube cooler with a second, self-contained cooling stage. The cooling cycle is completely automated; after 10 hours of initial cooling from room temperature the system can operate quasi-continuously. For imaging, a 50 cm diameter optics is used which is able to provide an object resolution of approximately 1.5 cm at 8 m distance. For a flexible installation, the object distance can be tuned manually between 7 and 10 m. Additionally, video streams from two commercial cameras are fused with the sub-mm stream: a CCD for visible light and a microbolometer for far infrared (14 μm). This combines the ability of identification of the person under test with the unprecedented temperature resolution at infrared and the almost perfect transmission at sub-mm. To assist a security official, all image data are displayed in various graphic renditions by a unified system software.

  19. Screening for blunt cardiac injury: an Eastern Association for the Surgery of Trauma practice management guideline.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clancy, Keith; Velopulos, Catherine; Bilaniuk, Jaroslaw W; Collier, Bryan; Crowley, William; Kurek, Stanley; Lui, Felix; Nayduch, Donna; Sangosanya, Ayodele; Tucker, Brian; Haut, Elliott R

    2012-11-01

    Diagnosing blunt cardiac injury (BCI) can be difficult. Many patients with mechanism for BCI are admitted to the critical care setting based on associated injuries; however, debate surrounds those patients who are hemodynamically stable and do not otherwise require a higher level of care. To allow safe discharge home or admission to a nonmonitored setting, BCI should be definitively ruled out in those at risk. This Eastern Association for the Surgery of Trauma (EAST) practice management guideline (PMG) updates the original from 1998. English-language citations were queried for BCI from March 1997 through December 2011, using the PubMed Entrez interface. Of 599 articles identified, prospective or retrospective studies examining BCI were selected. Each article was reviewed by two members of the EAST BCI PMG workgroup. Data were collated, and a consensus was obtained for the recommendations. We identified 35 institutional studies evaluating the diagnosis of adult patients with suspected BCI. This PMG has 10 total recommendations, including two Level 2 updates, two upgrades from Level 3 to Level 2, and three new recommendations. Electrocardiogram (ECG) alone is not sufficient to rule out BCI. Based on four studies showing that the addition of troponin I to ECG improved the negative predictive value to 100%, we recommend obtaining an admission ECG and troponin I from all patients in whom BCI is suspected. BCI can be ruled out only if both ECG result and troponin I level are normal, a significant change from the previous guideline. Patients with new ECG changes and/or elevated troponin I should be admitted for monitoring. Echocardiogram is not beneficial as a screening tool for BCI and should be reserved for patients with hypotension and/or arrhythmias. The presence of a sternal fracture alone does not predict BCI. Cardiac computed tomography or magnetic resonance imaging can be used to differentiate acute myocardial infarction from BCI in trauma patients.

  20. Reliability of the Tuck Jump Injury Risk Screening Assessment in Elite Male Youth Soccer Players.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Read, Paul J; Oliver, Jon L; de Ste Croix, Mark B A; Myer, Gregory D; Lloyd, Rhodri S

    2016-06-01

    Read, PJ, Oliver, JL, de Ste Croix, MBA, Myer, GD, and Lloyd, RS. Reliability of the tuck jump injury risk screening assessment in elite male youth soccer players. J Strength Cond Res 30(6): 1510-1516, 2016-Altered neuromuscular control has been suggested as a mechanism for injury in soccer players. Ligamentous injuries most often occur during dynamic movements, such as decelerations from jump-landing maneuvers where high-risk movement patterns are present. The assessment of kinematic variables during jump-landing tasks as part of a preparticipation screen is useful in the identification of injury risk. An example of a field-based screening tool is the repeated tuck jump assessment. The purpose of this study was to analyze the within-subject variation of the tuck jump screening assessment in elite male youth soccer players. Twenty-five pre-peak height velocity (PHV) and 25 post-PHV elite male youth soccer players from the academy of a professional English soccer club completed the assessment. A test-retest design was used to explore the within-subject intersession reliability. Technique was graded retrospectively against the 10-point criteria set out in the screening protocol using two-dimensional video cameras. The typical error range reported for tuck jump total score (0.90-1.01 in pre-PHV and post-PHV players respectively) was considered acceptable. When each criteria was analyzed individually, kappa coefficient determined that knee valgus was the only criterion to reach substantial agreement across the two test sessions for both groups. The results of this study suggest that although tuck jump total score may be reliably assessed in elite male youth soccer players, caution should be applied in solely interpreting the composite score due to the high within-subject variation in a number of the individual criteria. Knee valgus may be reliably used to screen elite youth male soccer players for this plyometric technique error and for test-retest comparison.

  1. Method for screening prevention and control measures and technologies based on groundwater pollution intensity assessment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Li, Juan, E-mail: lijuan@craes.org.cn [College of Water Sciences, Beijing Normal University, Beijing 100875 (China); Chinese Research Academy of Environmental Sciences, Beijing 100012 (China); State Environmental Protection Key Laboratory of Simulation and Control of Groundwater Pollution, Beijing, 100012 (China); Yang, Yang [College of Environment, Beijing Normal University, Beijing 100875 (China); Chinese Research Academy of Environmental Sciences, Beijing 100012 (China); State Environmental Protection Key Laboratory of Simulation and Control of Groundwater Pollution, Beijing, 100012 (China); Huan, Huan; Li, Mingxiao [Chinese Research Academy of Environmental Sciences, Beijing 100012 (China); State Environmental Protection Key Laboratory of Simulation and Control of Groundwater Pollution, Beijing, 100012 (China); Xi, Beidou, E-mail: xibd413@yeah.net [Chinese Research Academy of Environmental Sciences, Beijing 100012 (China); State Environmental Protection Key Laboratory of Simulation and Control of Groundwater Pollution, Beijing, 100012 (China); Lanzhou Jiaotong University, Lanzhou 730070 (China); Lv, Ningqing [Chinese Research Academy of Environmental Sciences, Beijing 100012 (China); State Environmental Protection Key Laboratory of Simulation and Control of Groundwater Pollution, Beijing, 100012 (China); Wu, Yi [Guizhou Academy of Environmental Science and Designing, Guizhou 550000 (China); Xie, Yiwen, E-mail: qin3201@126.com [School of Chemical and Environmental Engineering, Dongguan University of Technology, Dongguan, 523808 (China); Li, Xiang; Yang, Jinjin [Chinese Research Academy of Environmental Sciences, Beijing 100012 (China); State Environmental Protection Key Laboratory of Simulation and Control of Groundwater Pollution, Beijing, 100012 (China)

    2016-05-01

    index-based methodology to assess the groundwater pollution intensity (GPI). • GPI assessment includes PSH assessment and GIV assessment. • Measures to prevent and control groundwater pollution based on GPI assessment. • An index-based methodology for prevention and control technologies (PCT) screening. • PCT screening based on GPI assessment results and TOPSIS method.

  2. Assessment of general education teachers' Tier 1 classroom practices: contemporary science, practice, and policy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reddy, Linda A; Fabiano, Gregory A; Jimerson, Shane R

    2013-12-01

    Progress monitoring is a type of formative assessment. Most work on progress monitoring in elementary school settings has been focused on students. However, teachers also can benefit from frequent evaluations. Research addressing teacher progress monitoring is critically important given the recent national focus on teacher evaluation and effectiveness. This special topic section of School Psychology Quarterly is the first to showcase the current research on measuring Tier 1 instructional and behavioral management practices used by prekindergarten and elementary school teachers in general education settings. The three studies included in the special section describe the development and validation efforts of several teacher observational and self-report measures of instruction and/or behavioral management. These studies provide evidence for the utility of such assessments for documenting the use of classroom practices, and these assessment results may be leveraged in innovative coaching models to promote best practice. These articles also offer insight and ideas for the next generation of teacher practice assessment for the field. Finally, the special topic is capped by a commentary synthesizing the current work and offers "big ideas" for future measurement development, policy, and professional development initiatives. PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2013 APA, all rights reserved.

  3. Contacts to general practice and antidepressant treatment initiation after screening for anxiety and depression in patients with heart disease

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, Karen Kjær; Vestergaard, Claus Høstrup; Schougaard, Liv Marit Valen

    2016-01-01

    treatment. Methods A population-based cohort study was conducted in 2011-2013 comprising 1,658 people with heart disease treated at a Danish regional hospital. Collected data were based on Danish national registers and patient questionnaires. Results Patients with heart disease and anxiety or depressive......Introduction Anxiety and depression are found in 20-30% of all persons with heart disease, and depression is known to impact mortality. This paper aimed to describe the effect of systematic screening of this population in terms of use of general practice, psychological therapy and antidepressant...... symptoms had more general practitioner (GP) contact rates than patients without anxiety or depressive symptoms both before and after the screening. Furthermore, patients with depressive symptoms increased their GP contact rate significantly in the first month after the screening, while...

  4. A Preliminary Investigation of Emotional and Behavioral Screening Practices in K-12 Schools

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bruhn, Allison Leigh; Woods-Groves, Suzanne; Huddle, Sally

    2014-01-01

    Recently, the Council for Children with Behavioral Disorders (CCBD) highlighted the need to "actively screen for those in need of mental health services." Questions remain, however, about the prevalence of screening and associated processes. The purpose of this study was to gather initial evidence through an electronic survey about…

  5. A practical approach to radiological evaluation of CT lung cancer screening examinations

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Xie, Xueqian; Heuvelmans, Marjolein A.; van Ooijen, Peter M. A.; Oudkerk, Matthijs; Vliegenthart, Rozemarijn

    2013-01-01

    Lung cancer is the most common cause of cancer-related death in the world. The Dutch-Belgian Randomized Lung Cancer Screening Trial (Dutch acronym: NELSON) was launched to investigate whether screening for lung cancer by low-dose multidetector computed tomography (CT) in high-risk patients will lead

  6. Setting good practices to assess the efficiency of iron fertilizers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    El-Jendoubi, Hamdi; Melgar, Juan Carlos; Alvarez-Fernández, Ana; Sanz, Manuel; Abadía, Anunciación; Abadía, Javier

    2011-05-01

    The most prevalent nutritional disorder in fruit tree crops growing in calcareous soils is Fe deficiency chlorosis. Iron-deficient, chlorotic tree orchards require Fe-fertilization, since chlorosis causes decreases in tree vegetative growth as well as fruit yield and quality losses. When assessing the effectiveness of Fe-fertilizers, it is necessary to use sound practices based in the state-of-the art knowledge on the physiology and biochemistry of Fe deficiency. This review provides an overview on how to carry out the assessment of the efficiency of Fe-fertilizers, discussing common errors found in the literature, outlining adequate procedures and giving real examples of practical studies carried out in our laboratory in the past decade. The review focuses on: i) the design of Fe-fertilization experiments, discussing several issues such as the convenience of using controlled conditions or field experiments, whether fertilizer assessment experiments should mimic usual fertilization practices, as well as aspects regarding product formulations, dosages, control references and number of replicates; ii) the assessment of chlorosis recovery upon Fe-fertilization by monitoring leaf chlorophyll, and iii) the analysis of the plant responses upon Fe-fertilization, discussing the phases of leaf chlorosis recovery and the control of other leaf nutritional parameters. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  7. MNA® Mini Nutritional Assessment as a nutritional screening tool for hospitalized older adults; rationales and feasibility.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Calvo, I; Olivar, J; Martínez, E; Rico, A; Díaz, J; Gimena, M

    2012-01-01

    The high prevalence of malnutrition in the growing population of older adults makes malnutrition screening critical, especially in hospitalized elderly patients. The aim of our study was to evaluate the use of the MNA® Mini Nutritional Assessment in hospitalized older adults for rapid evaluation of nutritional risk. A prospective cohort study was made of 106 patients 65 years old or older admitted to an internal medicine ward of a tertiary-care teaching hospital to evaluate the use of the short form, or screening phase, of the MNA-SF. In the first 48 hours of admission, the full MNA questionnaire was administered and laboratory tests and a dermatologic evaluation were made. The MNA score showed that 77% of the patients were at risk of malnutrition or were frankly malnourished. Low blood levels of albumin, cholesterol and vitamins A and D showed a statistically significant association with malnutrition or risk of malnutrition. Separate evaluation of the MNA-SF showed that it was accurate, sensitive and had predictive value for the screening process. Routine use of the MNA-SF questionnaire by admission nurses to screen patients is recommended. Patients with MNA-SF scores of 11 or lower should be specifically assessed by the nutritional intervention team.

  8. Teaching and Assessing Professionalism in Medical Learners and Practicing Physicians*

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mueller, Paul S.

    2015-01-01

    Professionalism is a core competency of physicians. Clinical knowledge and skills (and their maintenance and improvement), good communication skills, and sound understanding of ethics constitute the foundation of professionalism. Rising from this foundation are behaviors and attributes of professionalism: accountability, altruism, excellence, and humanism, the capstone of which is professionalism. Patients, medical societies, and accrediting organizations expect physicians to be professional. Furthermore, professionalism is associated with better clinical outcomes. Hence, medical learners and practicing physicians should be taught and assessed for professionalism. A number of methods can be used to teach professionalism (e.g. didactic lectures, web-based modules, role modeling, reflection, interactive methods, etc.). Because of the nature of professionalism, no single tool for assessing it among medical learners and practicing physicians exists. Instead, multiple assessment tools must be used (e.g. multi-source feedback using 360-degree reviews, patient feedback, critical incident reports, etc.). Data should be gathered continuously throughout an individual’s career. For the individual learner or practicing physician, data generated by these tools can be used to create a “professionalism portfolio,” the totality of which represents a picture of the individual’s professionalism. This portfolio in turn can be used for formative and summative feedback. Data from professionalism assessments can also be used for developing professionalism curricula and generating research hypotheses. Health care leaders should support teaching and assessing professionalism at all levels of learning and practice and promote learning environments and institutional cultures that are consistent with professionalism precepts. PMID:25973263

  9. Teaching and Assessing Professionalism in Medical Learners and Practicing Physicians

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paul S. Mueller

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Professionalism is a core competency of physicians. Clinical knowledge and skills (and their maintenance and improvement, good communication skills, and sound understanding of ethics constitute the foundation of professionalism. Rising from this foundation are behaviors and attributes of professionalism: accountability, altruism, excellence, and humanism, the capstone of which is professionalism. Patients, medical societies, and accrediting organizations expect physicians to be professional. Furthermore, professionalism is associated with better clinical outcomes. Hence, medical learners and practicing physicians should be taught and assessed for professionalism. A number of methods can be used to teach professionalism (e.g. didactic lectures, web-based modules, role modeling, reflection, interactive methods, etc.. Because of the nature of professionalism, no single tool for assessing it among medical learners and practicing physicians exists. Instead, multiple assessment tools must be used (e.g. multi-source feedback using 360-degree reviews, patient feedback, critical incident reports, etc.. Data should be gathered continuously throughout an individual’s career. For the individual learner or practicing physician, data generated by these tools can be used to create a “professionalism portfolio,” the totality of which represents a picture of the individual’s professionalism. This portfolio in turn can be used for formative and summative feedback. Data from professionalism assessments can also be used for developing professionalism curricula and generating research hypotheses. Health care leaders should support teaching and assessing professionalism at all levels of learning and practice and promote learning environments and institutional cultures that are consistent with professionalism precepts.

  10. Contacts to general practice and antidepressant treatment initiation after screening for anxiety and depression in patients with heart disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Larsen, Karen Kjær; Vestergaard, Claus Høstrup; Schougaard, Liv Marit Valen; Larsen, Louise Pape; Jessen, Anne; May, Ole; Hjøllund, Niels Henrik

    2016-02-01

    Anxiety and depression are found in 20-30% of all persons with heart disease, and depression is known to impact mortality. This paper aimed to describe the effect of systematic screening of this population in terms of use of general practice, psychological therapy and antidepressant treatment. A population-based cohort study was conducted in 2011-2013 comprising 1,658 people with heart disease treated at a Danish regional hospital. Collected data were based on Danish national registers and patient questionnaires. Patients with heart disease and anxiety or depressive symptoms had more general practitioner (GP) contact rates than patients without anxiety or depressive symptoms both before and after the screening. Furthermore, patients with depressive symptoms increased their GP contact rate significantly in the first month after the screening, while this was not the case for patients with anxiety symptoms. Finally, patients with heart disease and anxiety or depressive symptoms more frequently initiated treatment with antidepressants than patients with heart disease without anxiety or depressive symptoms, whereas therapy sessions with a psychologist were rarely used. Heart patients with depressive symptoms may benefit from screening for depression, information about the screening result and a subsequent recommendation to consult their GP in case of signs of depression. -However, the observed effect seems to be modest. The study was supported by an unrestricted grant from the Lundbeck Foundation (grant number: R155-2012-11280). none.

  11. Spanish- and English-Speaking Pregnant Women's Views on cfDNA and Other Prenatal Screening: Practical and Ethical Reflections.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Floyd, Erin; Allyse, Megan A; Michie, Marsha

    2016-10-01

    The rapid clinical implementation of cell-free DNA (cfDNA) screening, a non-invasive method of prenatal genetic screening, has outpaced research on its social and ethical implications. This study is the first to compare the ethical and practical views of Spanish- and English-speaking pregnant women in the United States about cfDNA screening. Semi-structured interviews were conducted with diverse Spanish- and English-speaking women who had received prenatal care at a large academic medical center. Of the 24 interviewees, ten were Latinas who were interviewed in Spanish; English-language interviews were conducted with seven non-Hispanic Asian and seven non-Hispanic White women. Participants held positive opinions concerning the accuracy of cfDNA screening and often noted that it would enhance preparedness. Participants also expressed concerns about the possibility of inaccurate results and the potentially negative effects of cfDNA screening on the experience of pregnancy. Differences emerged between Spanish and English speakers in their portrayals of their relationships with prenatal health care providers, the extent to which they questioned providers' advice, their ethical concerns, and their informational needs. We emphasize the importance of customizing prenatal test counseling to the needs of the individual patient, providing educationally appropriate counseling and literature, and mitigating potential language barriers.

  12. NASA Conjunction Assessment Organizational Approach and the Associated Determination of Screening Volume Sizes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Newman, Lauri K.; Hejduk, Matthew D.

    2015-01-01

    NASA is committed to safety of flight for all of its operational assets Performed by CARA at NASA GSFC for robotic satellites Focus of this briefing Performed by TOPO at NASA JSC for human spaceflight he Conjunction Assessment Risk Analysis (CARA) was stood up to offer this service to all NASA robotic satellites Currently provides service to 70 operational satellites NASA unmanned operational assets Other USG assets (USGS, USAF, NOAA) International partner assets Conjunction Assessment (CA) is the process of identifying close approaches between two orbiting objects; sometimes called conjunction screening The Joint Space Operations Center (JSpOC) a USAF unit at Vandenberg AFB, maintains the high accuracy catalog of space objects, screens CARA-supported assets against the catalog, performs OD tasking, and generates close approach data.

  13. Assessing preschool teachers’ practices to promote self-regulated learning

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fahretdin Hasan Adagideli

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Recent research reveals that in preschool years, through pedagogical interventions, preschool teachers can and should promote self-regulated learning. The main aim of this study is to develop a self-report instrument to assess preschool teachers’ practices to promote self-regulated learning. A pool of 50 items was recruited through literature review. Items, then, were formulated as statements, to which the teachers could respond on a Likert-scale. In line with the expert and teacher opinions, twenty statements were removed from the original pool and some statements were reformulated. The latest version of the scale consisted of 21 statements. The participants were preschool teacher (N=169 from Istanbul. Empirical testing at item and scale level showed that T-SRL is a reliable and a valid instrument to assess preschool teachers’ classroom practices promoting self-regulated learning of their children at the age of 3-6.

  14. Screening for Psychosocial Risk in Pediatric Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kazak, Anne E.; Brier, Moriah; Alderfer, Melissa A.; Reilly, Anne; Parker, Stephanie Fooks; Rogerwick, Stephanie; Ditaranto, Susan; Barakat, Lamia P.

    2012-01-01

    Major professional organizations have called for psychosocial risk screening to identify specific psychosocial needs of children with cancer and their families and facilitate the delivery of appropriate evidence-based care to address these concerns. However, systematic screening of risk factors at diagnosis is rare in pediatric oncology practice. Subsequent to a brief summary of psychosocial risks in pediatric cancer and the rationale for screening, this review identified three screening models and two screening approaches (Distress Thermometer [DT], Psychosocial Assessment Tool [PAT]), among many more papers calling for screening. Implications of broadly implemented screening for all patients across treatment settings are discussed. PMID:22492662

  15. Current assessment practice, personality measurement, and rorschach usage by psychologists.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Musewicz, John; Marczyk, Geoffrey; Knauss, Linda; York, David

    2009-09-01

    In this study, we investigated current personality assessment practice and attitudes toward Rorschach (Exner, 2003) usage by 215 psychologists. We administered an Internet survey to members of the Society for Personality Assessment (SPA) and the American Psychological Association. Results were similar to those of past surveys, but the importance of using tests with strong psychometric properties was greater in this study. The majority of respondents reported using the Rorschach and supporting efforts to standardize and psychometrically validate the test. However, SPA members agreed more strongly than non-SPA members that the Rorschach is an effective test. Implications and directions for future research are discussed.

  16. Benefits of Cervical Cancer Screening by Liquid-Based Cytology as Part of Routine Antenatal Assessment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parkpinyo, Nichamon; Inthasorn, Perapong; Laiwejpithaya, Somsak; Punnarat, Tippawan

    2016-01-01

    To determine the prevalence of abnormal cervical cytology, as diagnosed using a liquid-based cytology technique, in pregnant women attending the Antenatal Care (ANC) clinic at Siriraj Hospital. This cross-sectional study included 655 first-visit pregnant women who attended ANC clinic at Siriraj Hospital during June to November 2015 study period. After receiving routine antenatal care, cervical cytology screening was performed with the Siriraj liquid-based cytology technique. All specimens were reviewed by a certi ed cytopathologist using Bethesda System 2001 criteria. Patients with abnormal PAP results characterized as epithelial cell abnormalities were referred to a gynecologic oncologist for further management according to ASCCP Guidelines 2012. Mean age of participants was 28.9±6.2 years. Prevalence of abnormal cervical cytology was 3.4% (95% CI: 2.0-4.7). Among this group, there were ASC-US, ASC-H, LSIL, HSIL for 12(1.8%), 2(0.3%), 7(1.1%) and 1(0.2%), respectively. In 633 specimens of the normal group, infection was identified in 158 specimens (24.1%) which were caused by Candida spp. and Trichomonas vaginalis. Regarding patient perception about the importance of cervical cancer screening, although most women perceived screening to be important, 54% of participants had never been screened for cervical cancer. Rate of loss to follow-up in the postpartum period was as high as 41.8%. Prevalence of abnormal cervical cytology in pregnant women attending the ANC clinic at Siriraj Hospital was 3.4%. Inclusion of cervical cancer screening as part of antenatal assessment can help to identify precancerous lesions or cervical cancers in patients who might otherwise not be screened, thereby facilitating early treatment and improved patient outcomes.

  17. Assessment of Electrical Safety Beliefs and Practices: A Case Study

    OpenAIRE

    Boubaker, S.; Mekni, S.; Jerbi, H.

    2017-01-01

    In this paper, the electrical safety beliefs and practices in Hail region, Saudi Arabia, have been assessed. Based on legislative recommendations and rules applied in Saudi Arabia, on official statistics regarding the electricity-caused accidents and on the analysis of more than 200 photos captured in Hail (related to electrical safety), a questionnaire composed of 36 questions (10 for the respondents information, 16 for the home safety culture and 10 for the electrical devices purchasing cul...

  18. Comparative effectiveness of digital versus film-screen mammography in community practice in the United States: a cohort study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kerlikowske, Karla; Hubbard, Rebecca A; Miglioretti, Diana L; Geller, Berta M; Yankaskas, Bonnie C; Lehman, Constance D; Taplin, Stephen H; Sickles, Edward A

    2011-10-18

    Few studies have examined the comparative effectiveness of digital versus film-screen mammography in U.S. community practice. To determine whether the interpretive performance of digital and film-screen mammography differs. Prospective cohort study. Mammography facilities in the Breast Cancer Surveillance Consortium. 329,261 women aged 40 to 79 years underwent 869 286 mammograms (231 034 digital; 638 252 film-screen). Invasive cancer or ductal carcinoma in situ diagnosed within 12 months of a digital or film-screen examination and calculation of mammography sensitivity, specificity, cancer detection rates, and tumor outcomes. Overall, cancer detection rates and tumor characteristics were similar for digital and film-screen mammography, but the sensitivity and specificity of each modality varied by age, tumor characteristics, breast density, and menopausal status. Compared with film-screen mammography, the sensitivity of digital mammography was significantly higher for women aged 60 to 69 years (89.9% vs. 83.0%; P = 0.014) and those with estrogen receptor-negative cancer (78.5% vs. 65.8%; P = 0.016); borderline significantly higher for women aged 40 to 49 years (82.4% vs. 75.6%; P = 0.071), those with extremely dense breasts (83.6% vs. 68.1%; P = 0.051), and pre- or perimenopausal women (87.1% vs. 81.7%; P = 0.057); and borderline significantly lower for women aged 50 to 59 years (80.5% vs. 85.1%; P = 0.097). The specificity of digital and film-screen mammography was similar by decade of age, except for women aged 40 to 49 years (88.0% vs. 89.7%; P film-screen mammography is similar in U.S. women aged 50 to 79 years undergoing screening mammography. Women aged 40 to 49 years are more likely to have extremely dense breasts and estrogen receptor-negative tumors; if they are offered mammography screening, they may choose to undergo digital mammography to optimize cancer detection. National Cancer Institute.

  19. Design of a Screen Based Simulation for Training and Automated Assessment of Teamwork Skills

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-08-01

    scenarios include the same basic and advanced teamwork skills , including conflict resolution (under leadership and mutual support).  Major Task 3. Design...21  Introduces self to other team members (1a, 2a) Elicits or knows skills of various team members (1a & 1c) 1. Leadership Establishes himself or...AWARD NUMBER: W81XWH-16-1-0308 TITLE: Design of a Screen-Based Simulation for Training and Automated Assessment of Teamwork Skills PRINCIPAL

  20. Diabetic Profile- Screening of HBA1C - A Random Community Assessment

    OpenAIRE

    Suchitra, M.R.; Jaiganesh, K; Parthasarathy, S.

    2013-01-01

    Background: Diabetes mellitus is becoming the commonest non–communicable disease in the world. Strict control of diabetes mellitus is associated with fewer incidences of complications. Screening for control of diabetes is a useful intervention, because diabetes is a highly morbid illness with a long asymptomatic phase. Glycosylated Haemoglob in (HbA1C) is the ideal parameter which can be used to assess the diabetic control, as this parameter is not alterable with single day manipulations.

  1. A Brief Vestibular/Ocular Motor Screening (VOMS) Assessment to Evaluate Concussions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mucha, Anne; Collins, Michael W.; Elbin, R.J.; Furman, Joseph M.; Troutman-Enseki, Cara; DeWolf, Ryan M.; Marchetti, Greg; Kontos, Anthony P.

    2014-01-01

    Background Vestibular and ocular motor impairments and symptoms have been documented in patients with sport-related concussions. However, there is no current brief clinical screen to assess and monitor these issues. Purpose To describe and provide initial data for the internal consistency and validity of a brief clinical screening tool for vestibular and ocular motor impairments and symptoms after sport-related concussions. Study Design Cross-sectional study; Level of evidence, 2. Methods Sixty-four patients, aged 13.9 ± 2.5 years and seen approximately 5.5 ± 4.0 days after a sport-related concussion, and 78 controls were administered the Vestibular/Ocular Motor Screening (VOMS) assessment, which included 5 domains: (1) smooth pursuit, (2) horizontal and vertical saccades, (3) near point of convergence (NPC) distance, (4) horizontal vestibular ocular reflex (VOR), and (5) visual motion sensitivity (VMS). Participants were also administered the Post-Concussion Symptom Scale (PCSS). Results Sixty-one percent of patients reported symptom provocation after at least 1 VOMS item. All VOMS items were positively correlated to the PCSS total symptom score. The VOR (odds ratio [OR], 3.89; P concussed group. An NPC distance ≥5 cm and any VOMS item symptom score ≥2 resulted in an increase in the probability of correctly identifying concussed patients of 38% and 50%, respectively. Receiver operating characteristic curves supported a model including the VOR, VMS, NPC distance, and ln(age) that resulted in a high predicted probability (area under the curve = 0.89) for identifying concussed patients. Conclusion The VOMS demonstrated internal consistency as well as sensitivity in identifying patients with concussions. The current findings provide preliminary support for the utility of the VOMS as a brief vestibular/ocular motor screen after sport-related concussions. The VOMS may augment current assessment tools and may serve as a single component of a comprehensive approach

  2. Accuracy of quick and easy undernutrition screening tools--Short Nutritional Assessment Questionnaire, Malnutrition Universal Screening Tool, and modified Malnutrition Universal Screening Tool--in patients undergoing cardiac surgery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Venrooij, Lenny M W; van Leeuwen, Paul A M; Hopmans, Wendy; Borgmeijer-Hoelen, Mieke M M J; de Vos, Rien; De Mol, Bas A J M

    2011-12-01

    The objective of this study was to compare the quick-and-easy undernutrition screening tools, ie, Short Nutritional Assessment Questionnaire and Malnutrition Universal Screening Tool, in patients undergoing cardiac surgery with respect to their accuracy in detecting undernutrition measured by a low-fat free mass index (FFMI; calculated as kg/m(2)), and secondly, to assess their association with postoperative adverse outcomes. Between February 2008 and December 2009, a single-center observational cohort study was performed (n=325). A low FFMI was set at ≤14.6 in women and ≤16.7 in men measured using bioelectrical impedance spectroscopy. To compare the accuracy of the Malnutrition Universal Screening Tool and Short Nutritional Assessment Questionnaire in detecting low FFMI sensitivity, specificity, and other accuracy test characteristics were calculated. The associations between the Malnutrition Universal Screening Tool and Short Nutritional Assessment Questionnaire and adverse outcomes were analyzed using logistic regression analyses with odds ratios and 95% confidence intervals (CI) presented. Sensitivity and receiver operator characteristic-based area under the curve to detect low FFMI were 59% and 19%, and 0.71 (95% CI: 0.60 to 0.82) and 0.56 (95% CI: 0.44 to 0.68) for the Malnutrition Universal Screening Tool and Short Nutritional Assessment Questionnaire, respectively. Accuracy of the Malnutrition Universal Screening Tool improved when age and sex were added to the nutritional screening process (sensitivity 74%, area under the curve: 0.72 [95% CI: 0.62 to 0.82]). This modified version of the Malnutrition Universal Screening Tool, but not the original Malnutrition Universal Screening Tool or Short Nutritional Assessment Questionnaire, was associated with prolonged intensive care unit and hospital stay (odds ratio: 2.1, 95% CI: 1.3 to 3.4; odds ratio: 1.6, 95% CI: 1.0 to 2.7). The accuracy to detect a low FFMI was considerably higher for the Malnutrition

  3. A Consensus Model: Shifting assessment practices in dietetics tertiary education.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bacon, Rachel; Kellett, Jane; Dart, Janeane; Knight-Agarwal, Cathy; Mete, Rebecca; Ash, Susan; Palermo, Claire

    2018-02-21

    The aim of this research was to evaluate a Consensus Model for competency-based assessment. An evaluative case study was used to allow a holistic examination of a constructivist-interpretivist programmatic model of assessment. Using a modified Delphi process, the competence of all 29 students enrolled in their final year of a Master of Nutrition and Dietetics course was assessed by a panel (with expertise in competency-based assessment; industry and academic representation) from a course e-portfolio (that included the judgements of student performance made by worksite educators) and a panel interview. Data were triangulated with assessments from a capstone internship. Qualitative descriptive studies with worksite educators (focus groups n = 4, n = 5, n = 8) and students (personal interviews n = 29) explored stakeholder experiences analysed using thematic analysis. Panel consensus was achieved for all cases by the third-round and corroborated by internship outcomes. For 34% of students this differed to the 'interpretations' of their performance made by their worksite educator/s. Emerging qualitative themes from stakeholder data found the model: (i) supported sustainable assessment practices; (ii) shifted the power relationship between students and worksite educators and (iii) provided a fair method to assess competence. To maximise benefits, more refinement, resources and training are required. This research questions competency-based assessment practices based on discrete placement units and supports a constructivist-interpretivist programmatic approach where evidence across a whole course of study is considered by a panel of assessors. © 2018 Dietitians Association of Australia.

  4. Opinions and Practice of US-Based Obstetrician-Gynecologists regarding Vitamin D Screening and Supplementation of Pregnant Women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mohamed, Sara A; Al-Hendy, Ayman; Schulkin, Jay; Power, Michael L

    2016-01-01

    Vitamin D deficiency/insufficiency is prevalent among pregnant women. Recommendations for adequate levels of circulating 25-hydroxyvitamin D and appropriate vitamin D supplementation during pregnancy differ between the Institute of Medicine and the Endocrine Society. Obstetrician-gynecologists must make clinical decisions in this environment of uncertain guidance. An online questionnaire regarding physician practice patterns for screening and supplementing pregnant women was administered to 225 randomly selected practicing obstetrician-gynecologists of whom 101 (45%) completed the questionnaire. A majority indicated that vitamin D insufficiency was a problem in their patient population (68.4%) and that most of their pregnant patients would benefit from vitamin D supplementation (66.3%). Half (52.5%) would recommend vitamin D supplementation during pregnancy to some patients, but only 16.8% to all. Only one in four (25.8%) routinely screen their pregnant patients for vitamin D status. Physicians who indicated that vitamin D status was a problem in their patient population were more likely to screen routinely (32.8% versus 9.7%, P = 0.002) and believe their patients would benefit from supplementation (91.2% versus 16.1%, P = 0.001). Opinion regarding supplementation levels and indicators of adequacy were split between the two competing recommendations, suggesting that clinical practice will likely remain variable across physicians, with uncertain public health consequences.

  5. Everyday classroom assessment practices in science classrooms in Sweden

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gómez, María del Carmen; Jakobsson, Anders

    2014-12-01

    The focus of this study is to examine to what extent and in what ways science teachers practice assessment during classroom interactions in everyday activities in an upper-secondary school in Sweden. We are science teachers working now with a larger research project on assessment in science education that seeks to examine teachers' assessment practices in the upper-secondary school. Framing questions include: are teachers performing an integrated assessment of students' skills as the national curriculum mandates? If so, what do the instructional discourses look like in those situations and what are students' experiences regarding their agency on learning and assessment? We emphasize the social, cultural and historic character of assessment and sustain a situated character of learning instead of the notion that learning is "stored inside the head". Teacher led lessons in three science classrooms were video-recorded and analyzed by combining ethnographic and discourse methods of analysis. Both methods are appropriate to the theoretical foundation of our approach on learning and can give some answers to questions about how individuals interact socially, how their experience is passed on to next generations through language and how language use may reveal cultural changes in the studied context. Making the study of action in a classroom the focal point of sociocultural analysis supports the examination of assessment processes and identification of the social roles in which teachers and students are immersed. Such an approach requires observations of how teachers act in authentic teaching situations when they interact with their students in classroom making possible to observe negotiation processes, agencies when both teachers and students are involved in every-day activities. Our study showed that teachers mostly ignored students' questions and that students solved their own problems by helping each other. Teachers did not provide opportunities for students to discuss

  6. Assessment of Integrated Learning: Suggested Application of Concept Mapping to Prior Learning Assessment Practices

    Science.gov (United States)

    Popova-Gonci, Viktoria; Lamb, Monica C.

    2012-01-01

    Prior learning assessment (PLA) students enter academia with different types of concepts--some of them have been formally accepted and labeled by academia and others are informally formulated by students via independent and/or experiential learning. The critical goal of PLA practices is to assess an intricate combination of prior learning…

  7. Genetic screening for the predisposition to venous thromboembolism: a cost-utility analysis of clinical practice in the Italian health care system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Compagni, Amelia; Melegaro, Alessia; Tarricone, Rosanna

    2013-01-01

    In the Italian health care system, genetic tests for factor V Leiden and factor II are routinely prescribed to assess the predisposition to venous thromboembolism (VTE) of women who request oral contraception. With specific reference to two subpopulations of women already at risk (i.e., familial history or previous event of VTE), the study aimed to assess whether current screening practices in Italy are cost-effective. Two decisional models accrued costs and quality-adjusted life-years (QALY) annually from the perspective of the National Health Service. The two models were derived from a decision analysis exercise concerning testing practices and consequent prescribing behavior for oral contraception conducted with 250 Italian gynecologists. Health care costs were compiled on the basis of 10-year hospital discharge records and the activities of a thrombosis center. Whenever possible, input data were based on the Italian context; otherwise, the data were taken from the international literature. Current testing practices on women with a familial history of VTE generate an incremental cost-effectiveness ratio of €72,412/QALY, which is well above the acceptable threshold of cost-effectiveness of €40,000 to €50,000/QALY. In the case of women with a previous event of VTE, the most frequently used testing strategy is cost-ineffective and leads to an overall loss of QALY. This study represents the first attempt to conduct a cost-utility analysis of genetic screening practices for the predisposition to VTE in the Italian setting. The results indicate that there is an urgent need to better monitor the indications for which tests for factor V Leiden and factor II are prescribed. Copyright © 2013, International Society for Pharmacoeconomics and Outcomes Research (ISPOR). Published by Elsevier Inc.

  8. Determination of Orientation and Practice Requirements When Using an Obstacle Course for Mobility Performance Assessment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karakolis, Thomas; Sinclair, Brittany A; Kelly, Alison; Terhaar, Phil; Bossi, Linda L M

    2017-06-01

    Determine effect of orientation (introduction and familiarization) and practice (repeated performance) on human performance under various load conditions as assessed by an obstacle course. Obstacle courses are commonly used as screening tools by military, police, and firefighters or to assess human capabilities and the effect of wearing personal protective equipment (PPE) and other occupationally necessary equipment on mobility task performance. Unfortunately, little is formally documented about the effect of orientation and practice on performance outcomes of obstacle or mobility courses being used. Forty-eight participants were recruited from the Canadian Army Infantry and Combat Engineer population. Participants either received regular or extensive orientation of the course before completing it. Following orientation, participants completed the course five consecutive times while wearing their PPE with full fighting order (FFO) and five consecutive times while wearing no PPE and non-FFO across a five-day period (maximum two runs per day), with ensemble presentation order counterbalanced. Total course completion time and individual obstacle completion times were measured for each run of the course. While wearing FFO, participants continued to decrease the time required for completing the course; however, while wearing non-FFO, time to course completion did not significantly change over the five runs. There were no differences in course completion times for the regular and extensive course orientation groups. Considerations required to mitigate orientation and practicing effects can differ depending on type or complexity of load condition. While wearing FFO, practicing effects can introduce undesired confounding factors into data collection. Any practice runs on an obstacle course prior to its use as an assessment tool should focus on the loaded (e.g., FFO) condition because improvement on loaded runs is likely transferred to unloaded, but this does not apply in

  9. [Postpartum psychological disorders: Screening and prevention after birth. Guidelines for clinical practice].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bydlowski, S

    2015-12-01

    Focusing on the mother's postpartum psychological and psychiatric disorders. Bibliographic research carried out by the data banks and the recommendations of learned societies from the following French words translated into English: postpartum, perinatal, postpartum, breastfeeding, birth, weaning, peripartum, lactation, postnatal, mood disorders, anxiety disorders, depression, anxiety, psychosis. These keywords were combined with the following words: prevalence, incidence, recurrence, development, identification, scale, assessment, test, father, man, husband, partner, hormones, treatment, intervention, prevention, testing, therapy, medicine, medication, to prescribe, prescription. The months following the birth are a transitional period, and psychological alterations concern all parents (LE2). It is more difficult in case of psychosocial risk factors (LE2). In situations of proven psychological difficulties, the impact on the psycho-emotional development of children can be important (LE3). Among these difficulties, postpartum depression is the most common situation. Given its prevalence (about 13 %) and because of its implications for the entire family, it's an important health issue (LE2). However, the risk is generally higher in the perinatal period for all mental disorders (LE3). Pregnancy and postpartum are periods favorable to develop links with health professionals. New parents are often looking for support to deal with the upheavals associated with the birth. The postpartum period is thus for clinicians a unique opportunity to address the mental, social and somatic aspects of the health of their patients (professional agreement). Early detection and treatment of mental disorders are essential for family functioning and parent-child relationship (professional agreement). The issue of screening and prevention of postpartum mental disorders is fundamental and requires involvement of all professional receiving parents and babies in the aftermath of the birth

  10. Applying ethological and health indicators to practical animal welfare assessment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wemelsfelder, F; Mullan, S

    2014-04-01

    There is a growing effort worldwide to develop objective indicators for animal welfare assessment, which provide information on an animal's quality of life, are scientifically trustworthy, and can readily be used in practice by professionals. Animals are sentient beings capable of positive and negative emotion, and so these indicators should be sensitive not only to their physical health, but also to their experience of the conditions in which they live. This paper provides an outline of ethological research aimed at developing practical welfare assessment protocols. The first section focuses on the development and validation of welfare indicators generally, in terms of their relevance to animal well-being, their interobserver reliability, and the confidence with which the prevalence of described features can be estimated. Challenges in this work include accounting for the ways in which welfare measures may fluctuate over time, and identifying measures suited to monitoring positive welfare states. The second section focuses more specifically on qualitative welfare indicators, which assess the 'whole animal' and describe the expressive qualities of its demeanour (e.g. anxious, content). Such indicators must be validated in the same way as other health and behaviour indicators, with the added challenge of finding appropriate methods of measurement. The potential contribution of qualitative indicators, however, is to disclose an emotional richness in animals that helps to interpret information provided by other indicators, thus enhancing the validity of welfare assessment protocols. In conclusion, the paper emphasises the importance of integrating such different perspectives, showing that new knowledge of animals and new ways of relating to animals are both needed for the successful development of practical welfare assessment tools.

  11. Genetic counseling and neonatal screening for cystic fibrosis: an assessment of the communication process.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ciske, D J; Haavisto, A; Laxova, A; Rock, L Z; Farrell, P M

    2001-04-01

    To assess the effectiveness of communication between health care providers (physicians, nurses, genetic counselors) in Wisconsin and parents of children identified as heterozygote carriers for cystic fibrosis (CF) in the routine Wisconsin Newborn Screening Program that was implemented using trypsinogen/DNA testing. Routine CF neonatal screening, implemented in July 1994, involved a statewide system that recommended but did not mandate follow-up sweat tests at 1 of the Wisconsin's 2 certified CF centers. The Wisconsin Division of Health sent requests to participate to the parents of 483 infants identified as CF carriers between July 1994 and December 1997. Of the 483 parents, 183 agreed to participate and were asked to complete a questionnaire assessing their CF newborn screening experiences and their knowledge of CF genetics and any changes they made in their reproductive behavior as a result of this knowledge. Follow-up telephone interviews by a genetic counselor were attempted within 1 year for those completing the questionnaire. Within 4 months after the mailing, 138 of 183 (75%) parents completed the questionnaire. Subsequently, 123 of the 138 responders (89%) were contacted and interviewed by telephone. We learned that 67.6% of parents recalled receiving genetic counseling, but 32.4% of parents apparently did not participate in a risk communication session. When asked, "Who performed the genetic counseling?" parents indicated that their communication was with physicians in 8% of cases, nurses in 12.4%, and certified genetic counselors in 32.8% of cases; 17.5% of parents did not recall who performed the genetic counseling and 29.2% of parents indicated they did not receive genetic counseling. Based on the 138 responses, it was found that 88.3% of parents understood that their child was a carrier for CF, but 15.4% of parents were unsure whether being a carrier could cause illness. In addition, 12.4% of parents were unsure whether at least 1 of them (parents) was

  12. Screening-level risk assessment for styrene-acrylonitrile (SAN) trimer detected in soil and groundwater.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kirman, C R; Gargas, M L; Collins, J J; Rowlands, J C

    2012-01-01

    A screening-level risk assessment was conducted for styrene-acrylonitrile (SAN) Trimer detected at the Reich Farm Superfund site in Toms River, NJ. Consistent with a screening-level approach, on-site and off-site exposure scenarios were evaluated using assumptions that are expected to overestimate actual exposures and hazards at the site. Environmental sampling data collected for soil and groundwater were used to estimate exposure point concentrations. Several exposure scenarios were evaluated to assess potential on-site and off-site exposures, using parameter values for exposures to soil (oral, inhalation of particulates, and dermal contact) and groundwater (oral, dermal contact) to reflect central tendency exposure (CTE) and reasonable maximum exposure (RME) conditions. Three reference dose (RfD) values were derived for SAN Trimer for short-term, subchronic, and chronic exposures, based upon its effects on the liver in exposed rats. Benchmark (BMD) methods were used to assess the relationship between exposure and response, and to characterize appropriate points of departure (POD) for each RfD. An uncertainty factor of 300 was applied to each POD to yield RfD values of 0.1, 0.04, and 0.03 mg/kg-d for short-term, subchronic, and chronic exposures, respectively. Because a chronic cancer bioassay for SAN Trimer in rats (NTP 2011a) does not provide evidence of carcinogenicity, a cancer risk assessment is not appropriate for this chemical. Potential health hazards to human health were assessed using a hazard index (HI) approach, which considers the ratio of exposure dose (i.e., average daily dose, mg/kg-d) to toxicity dose (RfD, mg/kg-d) for each scenario. All CTE and RME HI values are well below 1 (where the average daily dose is equivalent to the RfD), indicating that there is no concern for potential noncancer effects in exposed populations even under the conservative assumptions of this screening-level assessment.

  13. Screening and follow-up of living kidney donors: a systematic review of clinical practice guidelines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tong, Allison; Chapman, Jeremy R; Wong, Germaine; de Bruijn, Jeanine; Craig, Jonathan C

    2011-11-15

    To minimize the health risks faced by living kidney donors, multiple clinical practice guidelines have been developed on the assessment and care of potential donors. This study aims to compare the quality, scope, and consistency of these guidelines. We searched for guidelines on living kidney donation in electronic databases, guideline registries, and relevant Web sites to February 21, 2011. Methodological quality was assessed using the Appraisal of Guidelines for Research and Education (AGREE) instrument. Textual synthesis was used to compare guideline recommendations. Ten guidelines, published from 1996 to 2010, were identified. Although generally comprehensive, scope varied considerably and mostly appeared to lack methodological rigor. Many recommendations were consistent, but important differences were evident, particularly for thresholds for comorbidities which precluded donation; obesity/overweight (body mass index, 30-35 kg/m), diabetes/prediabetes (fasting blood glucose level, 6.1-7.0 mmol/L and oral glucose tolerance test, 7.8-11.1 mmol/L), hypertension (130/85 to 140/90 mm Hg), cardiovascular disease, malignancy, and nephrolithiasis. The importance of informed voluntary consent, genuine motivation, support, and psychological health were recognized but difficult to implement as specific tools for conducting psychosocial assessments were not recommended. Multiple major guidelines for living kidney donation have been published recently, resulting in unnecessary duplicative efforts. Most do not meet standard processes for development, and important recommendations about thresholds for exclusion based on comorbidities are contradictory. There is an urgent need for international collaboration and coordination to ensure, where possible, that guidelines for living donation are consistent, evidence based, and comprehensive to promote best outcomes for a precious resource.

  14. Knowledge Regarding Symptoms and Risk Factors and Screening of Breast Cancer in Women Under 30 Years and Their Practice Relative to Self-Examination

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    F. Jafari

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available Background: Breast cancer is the most common malignancy among women worldwide. In Iran, breast cancer ranks first among cancers diagnosed in women. Nevertheless, many of women haven’t enough knowledge about breast cancer risk factors and symptoms. The main reason for this escalating mortality is lack of awareness and late diagnosis of disease. The aim of present study assessed the knowledge about risk factors and symptoms of breast cancer, also the screening method and practice (Breast self examination about it. Methods: This is a descriptive and cross-sectional study. In this study 340 red crescent volunteer women participated in a national congress were selected with convenience sampling method. The data collection instrument consisted of a three part questionnaire which included demographic factors, Knowledge level about risk factors, symptoms and screening methods of breast cancer and questions concerning practice about breast self examination (BSE.The study tool was a researcher-designed questionnaire which could evaluated a number of variables. After data collection, analysis was carried out with descriptive tests by SPSS.16 software. Results: The mean age of subjects was 23±2.1yrs. Knowledge about breast cancer risk factors was very poor, the most widely known risk factor and lowest among the participants was family history of breast cancer (30.6 % and early menarche (under 12 years (0.3% respectively. Only 47.9% respondents correctly recognized breast lump and 11.2% breast discharge as the most common symptoms of breast cancer.30% of subjects were aware of BSE. However, a lesser proportion (9.4% was done BSE regular monthly every few months. Conclusion: Regarding the low level of the women’s knowledge about breast cancer especially in young educated women, screening and interventional programs to improve awareness and practice is essential.

  15. Understanding teen dating violence: practical screening and intervention strategies for pediatric and adolescent healthcare providers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cutter-Wilson, Elizabeth; Richmond, Tracy

    2011-08-01

    Teen dating violence (TDV) is a serious and potentially lethal form of relationship violence in adolescence. TDV is highly correlated with several outcomes related to poor physical and mental health. Although incidence and prevalence data indicate high rates of exposure to TDV among adolescents throughout the United States, significant confusion remains in healthcare communities concerning the definition and implications of TDV. Additionally, healthcare providers are uncertain about effective screening and intervention methods. The article will review the definition and epidemiology of TDV and discuss possible screening and intervention strategies. TDV research is a relatively new addition to the field of relationship violence. Although some confusion remains, the definition and epidemiology of TDV are better understood, which has greatly led to effective ways in which to screen and intervene when such violence is detected. Universal screening with a focus on high-risk subgroups combined with referrals to local and national support services are key steps in reducing both primary and secondary exposure. TDV is a widespread public health crisis with serious short-term and long-term implications. It is necessary for pediatric and adolescent healthcare providers to be aware of TDV and its potential repercussions, as well as possible methods for screening and intervention. More research is needed to better understand TDV as well as to further define effective screening and intervention protocol for the clinical environment.

  16. Association of Wage With Employee Participation in Health Assessments and Biometric Screening.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sherman, Bruce W; Addy, Carol

    2017-01-01

    To understand differences in health risk assessment (HRA) and biometric screening participation rates among benefits-enrolled employees in association with wage category. Cross-sectional analysis of employee eligibility file and health benefits (wellness and claims) data. Data from self-insured employers participating in the RightOpt private exchange (Conduent HR Services) during 2014. Active employees from 4 companies continuously enrolled in health insurance for which wage data were available. Measures included HRA and biometric screening participation rates and wage status, with employee age, sex, employer, job tenure, household income, geographic location, and health benefits deductible as a percentage of total wages serving as covariates. Employees were separated into 5 groups based on wage status. Logistic regression analysis incorporated other measures as covariates to adjust for differences between groups, with HRA and biometric screening participation rates determined as binary outcomes. Participation rates for HRA and biometric screening were 90% and 87%, respectively, in the highest wage category, decreasing to 67% and 60%, respectively, among the lowest wage category. Employee wage status is associated with significant differences in HRA and biometric participation rates. Generalizing the results generated by modest participation in these offerings to entire populations may risk misinterpretation of results based on variable participation rates across wage categories.

  17. Assessment of the Medmont C100 test for colour vision screening of male Saudi Arabians

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abdullah Z. Alotaibi

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: To assess the Medmont C100 test as a colour vision screening tool. Methods: One hundred and seventeen young male adults were screened with the Medmont C100, Ishihara plates, and the screening mode of the Oculus Anomaloscope tests. All subjects were tested under constant room illumination, namely that of a day light fluorescent lamp at 200 lux. Inclusion criteria were visual acuities (VA of 20/20 or better with or without correction and absence of known ocular pathologies.Aided and unaided visual acuities were measured with the Snellen VA chart. Results: Five out of the117 subjects, were found to have red-green colour vision deficiency (CVD with Ishihara and anomaloscope tests indicating a 4.7% CVD prevalence, while the Medmont C100 test yielded 33 cases of red-green deficiency indicating CVD prevalence of 28%.  With the Ishihara test, all five subjects were identified as deutans, while the anomaloscope revealed three as deutans and two as protans, and the Medmont C100 test identified all 33 cases as protans. Conclusion:  The Medmont C100 test yielded significantly higher prevalence of protan CVD compared with the Ishihara platesand Anomaloscope tests. These findings suggest that caution should be taken when using Medmont C100 test for colour vision screening as it tends togive more false positive results with bias for protans.  (S Afr Optom 2011 70(1 14-20

  18. Incorporating Self and Peer Assessment in Reflective Teaching Practices

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ni Made Ratminingsih

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available More currently literature reviews suggests the use of authentic assessment, which aims to involve students to be more responsible with their learning. This article reports the findings of a descriptive study on student teachers’ perception on the use of self and peer assessment to give evaluation on planning the lesson and teaching performance in Reflective Teaching Class. There were 100 samples taken randomly from 234 students in a survey using questionnaire and 15 students participating in the focus group discussion (FGD. The finding from the questionnaire shows that they had a very positive perception toward the use of self and peer assessment. Additionally, from the FGD, they conveyed by practicing doing self assessment, they could learn to see self performance deeply, strengths and weaknesses. From peer-assessment, they could learn collaboratively from feedback given by peers how to make a better lesson plan and perform a more effective teaching. Hence, self and peer assessment is considered beneficial for preparing the real teaching practicum and future career development. However, there are some problems challenged them, such as feeling subjectivity in assessing both self or peers, embarrassed and less confidence, and time constraints to make evaluation and reflection in the classroom

  19. Reflective practice: assessment of assignments in English for Specific Purposes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Galina Kavaliauskiené

    2007-10-01

    Full Text Available The construct alternative assessment has been widely used in higher education. It is often defined as any type of assessment of learners who provide a response to an assignment. The key features of alternative assessment are active participation of learners in self-evaluation of their performance, and the development of reflective thinking through reflective thinking (Schön, 1983. The success of alternative assessment in language teaching is predetermined by student’s performance and demonstrates learner’s language proficiency in contemporary communicative classrooms. This paper aims at researching the influence of students’ evaluations of various assignments for their linguistic development in English for Specific Purposes (ESP. The study uses learners’ assessment of different assignments and learners’ in-course and post-course written reflections on benefits to language mastery. Learners’ assignments included were contributions to portfolios (dossiers, such as essays and summaries, oral presentations, short impromptu talks, creative tasks, tests, and self-assessment notes (reflections on activities in learning ESP. Findings were obtained for two streams of the project participants. Results showed that self-assessment was beneficial for learners’ linguistic development. The context of learners’ reflections reveals that the attitudes to various assignments are affected by success or failure in students’ performance. Reflective practice might help teachers develop ways of dealing with previously identified difficulties and improve the quality of teaching.

  20. Australian nurses in general practice, enabling the provision of cervical screening and well women's health care services: a qualitative study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mills, Jane; Chamberlain-Salaun, Jennifer; Christie, Leane; Kingston, Margot; Gorman, Elise; Harvey, Caroline

    2012-11-12

    The role of Australian general practice nurses (PNs) has developed exponentially since the introduction of service based funding in 2005. In particular, their role has expanded to include cervical screening and well women's health care services provided under the supervision of a general practitioner (GP). While previous research identifies barriers to the provision of these services, this study sought to investigate enablers for nurse led care in this area. A number of grounded theory methods including constantly comparing data, concurrent data collection and analysis and theoretical sampling are utilised in this qualitative, exploratory study. A purposive sample of PNs who completed the required program of education in order to provide cervical screening and well women's health care services was recruited to the study. Data is presented in categories, however a limitation of the study is that a fully integrated grounded theory was unable to be produced due to sampling constraints. Four enablers for the implementation of a change in the PN role to include cervical screening and well women's health checks are identified in this study. These enablers are: GPs being willing to relinquish the role of cervical screener and well women's health service provider; PNs being willing to expand their role to include cervical screening and well women's health services; clients preferring a female practice nurse to meet their cervical screening and well women's health needs; and the presence of a culture that fosters interprofessional teamwork. Seven strategies for successfully implementing change from the perspective of PNs are also constructed from the data. This study additionally highlights the lack of feedback on smear quality provided to PNs cervical screeners and well women's health service providers. The influence of consumers on the landscape of primary care service delivery in Australia is of particular note in this study. Developing interprofessional teams that

  1. Multisource feedback to assess pediatric practice: a systematic review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Samah Al Alawi

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: The assessment and maintenance of competence for pediatricians has recently received increased attention. The aim of the present study was to investigate further the use of multisource feedback for assessing pediatricians in practice. Methods: A systematic literature review was conducted using the electronic databases EMBASE, PsycINFO, MEDLINE, PUBMED, and CINAHL for English-language articles. Results: 762 articles were identified with the initial search and 756 articles were excluded for a total of six studies that met the inclusion criteria for this systematic review. Internal consistency reliability was reported in five studies with α > 0.95 for both subscales and full scales. Generalizability was also reported in two studies with Ep2 generally > 0.78. These adequate Ep2 coefficients were achieved with different numbers of raters. Evidence for content, criterion-related (e.g., Pearson’s r and construct validity (e.g., principal component factor analysis was reported in all 6 studies. Conclusion: Multisource feedback is a feasible, reliable, and valid method to assess pediatricians in practice. The results indicate that multisource feedback system can be used to assess key competencies such as communication skills, interpersonal skills, collegiality, and medical expertise. Further implementation of multisource feedback is desirable.

  2. An Investigation of the Factors Affecting Performance of Environmental Impact Assessment Practices (EIA in Pakistan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shahbaz Hussain

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Environmental Impact Assessment is used to detect changes that a proposed project may have on environment. The intent of present study is to investigate impact of institutional capacity and legal framework on performance of Environmental Impact Assessment practices in Pakistan such as screening, scoping and mitigation, environmental management plan and reporting. Sample of 200 EIA professionals have been selected by using random sampling approach from all provinces of Pakistan. Data has been collected through structured questionnaire and analysed by using AMOS 19 (Analysis of Moment Structures software. Results of path analysis indicated that institutional capacity and legal framework have significant direct impact on performance of all EIA practices in Pakistan. Model fit statistics such as GFI, RMR, NFI, IFI, TLI, RFI, CFI indicate the fitness of research model in this context. It has been suggested that there must be relevant and sufficient human resources that can uplift institutional capacity and legal framework must be well implemented because it will lead to enhanced performance of EIA practices in Pakistan.

  3. Initial development of a practical safety audit tool to assess fleet safety management practices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mitchell, Rebecca; Friswell, Rena; Mooren, Lori

    2012-07-01

    Work-related vehicle crashes are a common cause of occupational injury. Yet, there are few studies that investigate management practices used for light vehicle fleets (i.e. vehicles less than 4.5 tonnes). One of the impediments to obtaining and sharing information on effective fleet safety management is the lack of an evidence-based, standardised measurement tool. This article describes the initial development of an audit tool to assess fleet safety management practices in light vehicle fleets. The audit tool was developed by triangulating information from a review of the literature on fleet safety management practices and from semi-structured interviews with 15 fleet managers and 21 fleet drivers. A preliminary useability assessment was conducted with 5 organisations. The audit tool assesses the management of fleet safety against five core categories: (1) management, systems and processes; (2) monitoring and assessment; (3) employee recruitment, training and education; (4) vehicle technology, selection and maintenance; and (5) vehicle journeys. Each of these core categories has between 1 and 3 sub-categories. Organisations are rated at one of 4 levels on each sub-category. The fleet safety management audit tool is designed to identify the extent to which fleet safety is managed in an organisation against best practice. It is intended that the audit tool be used to conduct audits within an organisation to provide an indicator of progress in managing fleet safety and to consistently benchmark performance against other organisations. Application of the tool by fleet safety researchers is now needed to inform its further development and refinement and to permit psychometric evaluation. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Assessment of radiation protection practices among radiographers in Lagos, Nigeria

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eze, Cletus Uche; Abonyi, Livinus Chibuzo; Njoku, Jerome; Irurhe, Nicholas Kayode; Olowu, Oluwabola

    2013-01-01

    Background: Use of ionising radiation in diagnostic radiography could lead to hazards such as somatic and genetic damages. Compliance to safe work and radiation protection practices could mitigate such risks. The aim of the study was to assess the knowledge and radiation protection practices among radiographers in Lagos, Nigeria. Materials and Methods: The study was a prospective cross sectional survey. Convenience sampling technique was used to select four x-ray diagnostic centres in four tertiary hospitals in Lagos metropolis. Data were analysed with Epi- info software, version 3.5.1. Results: Average score on assessment of knowledge was 73%. Most modern radiation protection instruments were lacking in all the centres studied. Application of shielding devices such as gonad shield for protection was neglected mostly in government hospitals. Most x-ray machines were quite old and evidence of quality assurance tests performed on such machines were lacking. Conclusion: Radiographers within Lagos metropolis showed an excellent knowledge of radiation protection within the study period. Adherence to radiation protection practices among radiographers in Lagos metropolis during the period studied was, however, poor. Radiographers in Lagos, Nigeria should embrace current trends in radiation protection and make more concerted efforts to apply their knowledge in protecting themselves and patients from harmful effects of ionising radiation. PMID:24665152

  5. Microchip screening platform for single cell assessment of NK cell cytotoxicity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karolin eGuldevall

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Here we report a screening platform for assessment of the cytotoxic potential of individual natural killer (NK cells within larger populations. Human primary NK cells were distributed across a silicon-glass microchip containing 32 400 individual microwells loaded with target cells. Through fluorescence screening and automated image analysis the numbers of NK and live or dead target cells in each well could be assessed at different time points after initial mixing. Cytotoxicity was also studied by time-lapse live-cell imaging in microwells quantifying the killing potential of individual NK cells. Although most resting NK cells (≈75% were non-cytotoxic against the leukemia cell line K562, some NK cells were able to kill several (≥3 target cells within the 12 hours long experiment. In addition, the screening approach was adapted to increase the chance to find and evaluate serial killing NK cells. Even if the cytotoxic potential varied between donors it was evident that a small fraction of highly cytotoxic NK cells were responsible for a substantial portion of the killing. We demonstrate multiple assays where our platform can be used to enumerate and characterize cytotoxic cells, such as NK or T cells. This approach could find use in clinical applications, e.g. in the selection of donors for stem cell transplantation or generation of highly specific and cytotoxic cells for adoptive immunotherapy.

  6. Automated assessment of bilateral breast volume asymmetry as a breast cancer biomarker during mammographic screening

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Williams, Alex C [ORNL; Hitt, Austin N [ORNL; Voisin, Sophie [ORNL; Tourassi, Georgia [ORNL

    2013-01-01

    The biological concept of bilateral symmetry as a marker of developmental stability and good health is well established. Although most individuals deviate slightly from perfect symmetry, humans are essentially considered bilaterally symmetrical. Consequently, increased fluctuating asymmetry of paired structures could be an indicator of disease. There are several published studies linking bilateral breast size asymmetry with increased breast cancer risk. These studies were based on radiologists manual measurements of breast size from mammographic images. We aim to develop a computerized technique to assess fluctuating breast volume asymmetry in screening mammograms and investigate whether it correlates with the presence of breast cancer. Using a large database of screening mammograms with known ground truth we applied automated breast region segmentation and automated breast size measurements in CC and MLO views using three well established methods. All three methods confirmed that indeed patients with breast cancer have statistically significantly higher fluctuating asymmetry of their breast volumes. However, statistically significant difference between patients with cancer and benign lesions was observed only for the MLO views. The study suggests that automated assessment of global bilateral asymmetry could serve as a breast cancer risk biomarker for women undergoing mammographic screening. Such biomarker could be used to alert radiologists or computer-assisted detection (CAD) systems to exercise increased vigilance if higher than normal cancer risk is suspected.

  7. Microchip Screening Platform for Single Cell Assessment of NK Cell Cytotoxicity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guldevall, Karolin; Brandt, Ludwig; Forslund, Elin; Olofsson, Karl; Frisk, Thomas W.; Olofsson, Per E.; Gustafsson, Karin; Manneberg, Otto; Vanherberghen, Bruno; Brismar, Hjalmar; Kärre, Klas; Uhlin, Michael; Önfelt, Björn

    2016-01-01

    Here, we report a screening platform for assessment of the cytotoxic potential of individual natural killer (NK) cells within larger populations. Human primary NK cells were distributed across a silicon–glass microchip containing 32,400 individual microwells loaded with target cells. Through fluorescence screening and automated image analysis, the numbers of NK and live or dead target cells in each well could be assessed at different time points after initial mixing. Cytotoxicity was also studied by time-lapse live-cell imaging in microwells quantifying the killing potential of individual NK cells. Although most resting NK cells (≈75%) were non-cytotoxic against the leukemia cell line K562, some NK cells were able to kill several (≥3) target cells within the 12-h long experiment. In addition, the screening approach was adapted to increase the chance to find and evaluate serial killing NK cells. Even if the cytotoxic potential varied between donors, it was evident that a small fraction of highly cytotoxic NK cells were responsible for a substantial portion of the killing. We demonstrate multiple assays where our platform can be used to enumerate and characterize cytotoxic cells, such as NK or T cells. This approach could find use in clinical applications, e.g., in the selection of donors for stem cell transplantation or generation of highly specific and cytotoxic cells for adoptive immunotherapy. PMID:27092139

  8. Do pressure ulcer risk assessment scales improve clinical practice?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jan Kottner

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available Jan Kottner1, Katrin Balzer21Department of Nursing Science, Charité-Universitätsmedizin Berlin, Germany; 2Nursing Research Group, Institute for Social Medicine, Universitätsklinikum Schleswig-Holstein, Lübeck, GermanyAbstract: Standardized assessment instruments are deemed important for estimating pressure ulcer risk. Today, more than 40 so-called pressure ulcer risk assessment scales are available but still there is an ongoing debate about their usefulness. From a measurement point of view pressure ulcer (PU risk assessment scales have serious limitations. Empirical evidence supporting the validity of PU risk assessment scale scores is weak and obtained scores contain varying amounts of measurement error. The concept of pressure ulcer risk is strongly related to the general health status and severity of illness. A clinical impact due do the application of these scales could also not be demonstrated. It is questionable whether completion of standardized pressure ulcer risk scales in clinical practice is really needed.Keywords: Braden pressure ulcer, prevention, risk assessment, nursing assessment, predictive value, clinical effectiveness, review

  9. Headspace screening: A novel approach for fast quality assessment of the essential oil from culinary sage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cvetkovikj, Ivana; Stefkov, Gjoshe; Acevska, Jelena; Karapandzova, Marija; Dimitrovska, Aneta; Kulevanova, Svetlana

    2016-07-01

    Quality assessment of essential oil (EO) from culinary sage (Salvia officinalis L., Lamiaceae) is limited by the long pharmacopoeial procedure. The aim of this study was to employ headspace (HS) sampling in the quality assessment of sage EO. Different populations (30) of culinary sage were assessed using GC/FID/MS analysis of the hydrodistilled EO (pharmacopoeial method) and HS sampling directly from leaves. Compound profiles from both procedures were evaluated according to ISO 9909 and GDC standards for sage EO quality, revealing compliance for only 10 populations. Factors to convert HS values, for the target ISO and GDC components, into theoretical EO values were calculated. Statistical analysis revealed a significant relationship between HS and EO values for seven target components. Consequently, HS sampling could be used as a complementary extraction technique for rapid screening in quality assessment of sage EOs. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Assessment practices of Iowa science teachers from a constructivist perspective

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harris Freedman, Robin Lee

    How do students learn? What can they do? When assessments evolve out of instruction as is expected in inquiry and constructivist based classrooms, one can derive definitive results. It was the purpose of this study to describe the assessment environment found in the Iowa SS&C compared to those in other Iowa science classrooms. Science instruction in classrooms of Iowa SS&C teachers is based on NSES, Constructivist theory, and an STS approach. In Iowa SS&C classrooms the primary focus is to make science personal and relevant to students. Iowa science teachers were surveyed. Survey results revealed that the two groups of teachers had different perceptions regarding their grading philosophies and in the use of traditional and non-traditional assessments. The two groups were similar in their ability to identify appropriate uses for assessments and the use of a variety of assessments that make up a student's grade. Several methods were used to gain understanding of how the two teacher groups were different, i.e., in-depth interviews, a collection of assessment artifacts, and a student survey of a sub-sample of teachers. Artifact analysis revealed that the Iowa SS&C teachers used more application items, were more familiar and more likely to use non-traditional assessments, and used more assessments of higher order thinking skills than other Iowa science teachers. Student perspectives regarding assessments were surveyed. Students who completed the survey felt competent to assess themselves. Iowa SS&C students perceived that they have an active role in establishing the classroom assessment environment, share and listen to each others' ideas, and have a voice in how and by what means they are assessed. Synthesis of interview data revealed an assessment environment that reflected NSES philosophy and the STS approach. The assessment environment according to Iowa SS&C teachers was defined by teacher beliefs and practices, how teachers engage students, and internal and external

  11. A practical approach to screen for authorised and unauthorised genetically modified plants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Waiblinger, Hans-Ulrich; Grohmann, Lutz; Mankertz, Joachim; Engelbert, Dirk; Pietsch, Klaus

    2010-03-01

    In routine analysis, screening methods based on real-time PCR are most commonly used for the detection of genetically modified (GM) plant material in food and feed. In this paper, it is shown that the combination of five DNA target sequences can be used as a universal screening approach for at least 81 GM plant events authorised or unauthorised for placing on the market and described in publicly available databases. Except for maize event LY038, soybean events DP-305423 and BPS-CV127-9 and cotton event 281-24-236 x 3006-210-23, at least one of the five genetic elements has been inserted in these GM plants and is targeted by this screening approach. For the detection of these sequences, fully validated real-time PCR methods have been selected. A screening table is presented that describes the presence or absence of the target sequences for most of the listed GM plants. These data have been verified either theoretically according to available databases or experimentally using available reference materials. The screening table will be updated regularly by a network of German enforcement laboratories.

  12. Innovative Soil Management Practices (SMP) Assessment in Europe and China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barão, Lúcia

    2017-04-01

    The growing world population poses a major challenge to global agricultural food and feed production through the pressure to increase agricultural outputs either by increasing the land area dedicated to agriculture or by productivity increases. Whether in developed or developing regions, agricultural intensification based on conventional approaches has resulted in severe environmental impacts and innovative soil management practices are needed to halter ongoing soil degradation and promote sustainable land management capable to produce more from less. The iSQAPER project - Interactive Soil Quality Assessment in Europe and China for Agricultural Productivity and Environmental Resilience - aims to develop a Soil Quality app (SQAPP) linking soil and agricultural management practices to soil quality indicators. This easy friendly tool will provide a direct and convenient way to advise farmers and other suitable actors in this area, regarding the best management practices to be adopted in very specific and local conditions. In this particular study from iSQAPER, we aimed to identify the most promising innovative soil management practices (SMP) currently used and its geographical distribution along different pedo-climatic regions in Europe (Boreal, Atlantic, Mediterranean Temperate, Mediterranean Semi-Arid, Southern Sub-Continental and Northern Sub-Continental) and China (Middle Temperate, Warm temperate and Central Asia Tropical). So far we have identified 155 farms where innovative SMP's are used, distributed along 4 study site regions located in China (Qiyang, Suining, Zhifanggou and Gongzhuling) and 10 study site regions located in Europe (The Netherlands, France, Portugal, Spain, Greece, Slovenia, Hungary, Romania, Poland and Estonia) and covering the major pedo-climatic regions. From this identification we concluded that the most used innovative SMP's in the study site regions in Europe are Manuring & Composting (14%), Min-till (14%), Crop rotation (12

  13. Automated assessment of patients' self-narratives for posttraumatic stress disorder screening using natural language processing and text mining

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    He, Qiwei; Veldkamp, Bernard P.; Glas, Cornelis A.W.; de Vries, Theo

    2017-01-01

    Patients’ narratives about traumatic experiences and symptoms are useful in clinical screening and diagnostic procedures. In this study, we presented an automated assessment system to screen patients for posttraumatic stress disorder via a natural language processing and text-mining approach. Four

  14. Assessment of the Knowledge and Attitudes of Saudi Mothers towards Newborn Screening

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ayman Al-Sulaiman

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective. To assess the attitude and knowledge of the Saudi mothers toward newborn screening (NBS program. Methods. A total of 425 Saudi women (only mothers who have at least one pregnancy participated in the study from different regions in Saudi Arabia and completed the structured questionnaire which sought their views on the NBS services. Results. A majority of the participating women (91.1% supported the NBS program and felt it was very important and useful. However, knowledge of NBS was found to be very limited and only 34.6% knew that NBS was a test to detect genetic disorders. A lack of communication and counseling to NBS clients by health authorities offering screening is implied. Conclusion. In general, there is a positive attitude towards the NBS program among Saudi women. However, they have several concerns to improve the availability of medication and formulas, genetic counseling, medical interventions, communication, education materials, and awareness.

  15. Reliability of clinician scoring of the functional movement screen to assess movement patterns.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stobierski, Lisa M; Fayson, Shirleeah D; Minthorn, Lindsay M; Valovich McLeod, Tamara C; Welch, Cailee E

    2015-05-01

    Clinical Scenario: Injuries are inevitable in the physically active population. As a part of preventive medicine, health care professionals often seek clinical tools that can be used in real time to identify factors that may predispose individuals to these injuries. The Functional Movement Screen (FMS), a clinical tool consisting of 7 individual tasks, has been reported as useful in identifying individuals in various populations that may be susceptible to musculoskeletal injuries. If factors that may predispose physically active individuals to injury could be identified before participation, clinicians may be able to develop a training plan based on FMS scores, which could potentially decrease the likelihood of injury and overall time missed from physical activities. However, in order for a screening tool to be used clinically, it must demonstrate acceptable reliability. Focused Clinical Question: Are clinicians reliable at scoring the FMS, in real time, to assess movement patterns of physically active individuals?

  16. The advisory brought to practice: routine screening on depression (and anxiety) in coronary heart disease; consequences and implications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luttik, M L A; Jaarsma, T; Sanderman, R; Fleer, J

    2011-12-01

    Following the evidence, the American Heart Association recently published a Science Advisory with the recommendation that patients with Coronary Heart Disease (CHD) should be screened for depressive symptoms and depression. Also the Heart Failure Guidelines recommend routine screening for depressive symptoms. Screening for anxiety was not included in these recommendations, despite findings in literature suggesting that cardiac patients are at risk for high levels of anxiety. The aim of the current study is to obtain a realistic estimation of the consequences and implications of this advice for clinical practice. Data on anxiety, and depression, need for help, demographics and disease related variables were collected in a cross-sectional study within a 2-month period (July-August 2008) at the cardiac outpatient clinic of the University Medical Center Groningen (The Netherlands). Data of 217 patients were analyzed, mean age was 58years (±16) and 62% of the respondents were male. Of 217 patients, 26% indicated to have depressive symptoms and 42% indicated elevated levels of anxiety. About 35-50% of these patients indicated a moderate to high need for help. The prevalence of anxiety and depression was mainly associated with demographic factors and the occurrence of stressful life events. Routine screening will put an increased demand on psychosocial diagnostics and treatment, therefore the availability of professionals should be guaranteed in advance. Copyright © 2010 European Society of Cardiology. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  17. [Cancer genetic screening for patient with multiple renal tumors: What is the current practice for what results?].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beaugerie, A; Verkarre, V; Audenet, F; Le Guilchet, T; Hurel, S; Richard, S; Corréas, J M; Fontaine, E; Méjean, A; Timsit, M O

    2016-06-01

    To evaluate in a high volume center the practice and the performance of cancer genetic screening for patients with multiple renal tumors without a predisposition to kidney tumors known at the time of surgery. All patients treated for multiple renal tumors from January 2000 to December 2013 in our center were included. Patients with a family history of renal cell carcinoma, a kidney disease or a genetic predisposition to renal cancer known at the time of surgery were excluded from the analysis. Our list of patients was retrospectively compared to the records from PREDIR (PREDisposition to Kidney Tumors) center of Île-de-France, which regionally centralizes the care of patients with kidney tumors associated with a genetic predisposition. One hundred and thirty-six patients were included. Twenty-six patients of 136 (19%) were referred to PREDIR center: 23 followed the screening and 3 did not show up in consultation. Of the 23 patients screened, three genetic predispositions to kidney tumors were identified (13%). Of the 95 patients with synchronous tumors, 48% with more than 3 tumors benefited from cancer genetics investigation against 13% of those presenting only two tumors. Our study shows that cancer genetic investigations are not routinely offered to patients with multiple kidney tumors, conversely to existing guidelines. Urologists must be aware of this screening. 4. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  18. Digital Breast Tomosynthesis and the Challenges of Implementing an Emerging Breast Cancer Screening Technology Into Clinical Practice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Christoph I; Lehman, Constance D

    2016-11-01

    Emerging imaging technologies, including digital breast tomosynthesis, have the potential to transform breast cancer screening. However, the rapid adoption of these new technologies outpaces the evidence of their clinical and cost-effectiveness. The authors describe the forces driving the rapid diffusion of tomosynthesis into clinical practice, comparing it with the rapid diffusion of digital mammography shortly after its introduction. They outline the potential positive and negative effects that adoption can have on imaging workflow and describe the practice management challenges when incorporating tomosynthesis. The authors also provide recommendations for collecting evidence supporting the development of policies and best practices. Copyright © 2013 American College of Radiology. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  19. Assessing Idaho Rural Family Physician Scope of Practice Over Time.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schmitz, David; Baker, Ed; MacKenzie, Lisa; Kinney, Logan; Epperly, Ted

    2015-01-01

    An important consideration determining health outcomes is to have an adequate supply of physicians to address the health needs of the community. The purpose of this investigation was to assess scope of practice factors for Idaho rural family physicians in 2012 and to compare these results to findings from a 2007 study. The target population in this study was rural family physicians in Idaho counties with populations of fewer than 50,000. Identical surveys and methods were utilized in both 2007 and 2012. The physician survey was mailed to 252 rural physicians and was returned by 89 for a response rate of 35.3%. Parametric and nonparametric statistical analyses were conducted to analyze the 2012 results and to assess changes in scope of practice across the time periods. The percentage of rural family physicians in Idaho in 2012 who provided prenatal care, vaginal deliveries, and nursing home care was significantly lower than the results from the 2007 survey. Female physicians were more likely to provide prenatal care and vaginal deliveries than males in 2012. Male physicians were more likely to provide emergency room coverage and esophagogastroduodenoscopy or colonoscopy services than females in 2012. Younger physicians were found to be more likely to provide inpatient admissions and mental health services in 2012 than older physicians. Employed physicians were more likely to provide cesarean delivery, other operating room services and emergency room coverage in 2012 than nonemployed physicians. Further research is needed to assess the root causes of these changes. © 2015 National Rural Health Association.

  20. Advanced Practice Nursing Competency Assessment Instrument (APNCAI): clinimetric validation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sastre-Fullana, Pedro; Morales-Asencio, Jose Miguel; Sesé-Abad, Albert; Fernández-Domínguez, Juan Carlos; De Pedro-Gómez, Joan

    2017-01-01

    Objective To describe the development and clinimetric validation of the Advanced Practice Nursing Competency Assessment Instrument (APNCAI) through several evidence sources about reliability and validity in the Spanish context. Design and setting APNCAI development was based on a multisequential and systematic process: literature review, instrument content consensus through qualitative Delphi method approach (a panel of 51 Advanced Practice in Nursing –APN– experts was selected) and the clinimetric validation process based on a sample of 600 nurses from the Balearic Islands public healthcare setting. Methods An initial step for tool's content development process based on Delphi method approach of expert consensus was implemented. A subsequent phase of tool validation started from the analysis of APN core competencies latent measurement model, including exploratory and confirmatory techniques. Reliability evidence for each latent factor was also obtained. Items' scores were submitted to descriptive analysis, plus univariate and multivariate normality tests. Results An eight-factor competency assessment latent model obtained adequate fit, and it was composed by ‘Research and Evidence-Based Practice’, ‘Clinical and Professional Leadership’, ‘Interprofessional Relationship and Mentoring’, ‘Professional Autonomy’, ‘Quality Management’, ‘Care Management’, ‘Professional Teaching and Education’ and ‘Health Promotion’. Conclusions Adequate empirical evidence of reliability and validity for APNCAI makes it useful for application in healthcare policy programmes for APN competency assessment in Spain. PMID:28235968

  1. Pain and stress assessment after retinopathy of prematurity screening examination: indirect ophthalmoscopy versus digital retinal imaging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moral-Pumarega, M Teresa; Caserío-Carbonero, Sonia; De-La-Cruz-Bértolo, Javier; Tejada-Palacios, Pilar; Lora-Pablos, David; Pallás-Alonso, Carmen R

    2012-08-28

    Increasingly, neonatal clinics seek to minimize painful experiences and stress for premature infants. Fundoscopy performed with a binocular indirect ophthalmoscope is the reference examination technique for screening of retinopathy of prematurity (ROP), and it is associated with pain and stress. Wide-field digital retinal imaging is a recent technique that should be evaluated for minimizing infant pain and stress. The purpose of the study was to assess and compare the impact of using a binocular indirect ophthalmoscope (BIO), or wide-field digital retinal imaging (WFDRI) on pain and stress in infants undergoing ROP screening examination. This was a comparative evaluation study of two screening procedures. Ophthalmologic examinations (N = 70) were performed on 24 infants with both BIO and WFDRI. Pain assessments were performed with two specific neonatal scales (Crying, requires oxygen, increased vital signs, expression and sleeplessness, CRIES and, Premature infant pain profile, PIPP) just prior to the examination, and 30 seconds, 1 hour, and 24 hours later after ending the examination. Changes over time were significantly different between BIO and WFDRI with both scales (PIPP score, p = .007, and CRIES score, p = .001). Median PIPP score (interquartile interval) at baseline was 4 (3-5). At 30 seconds the score was 8 (6-9) for BIO and 6 (5-7) for WFDRI, respectively. The increase in PIPP score between baseline and 30 seconds was significantly lower with WFDRI (p = .006). The median increase in CRIES score from baseline to 30 seconds was 1 point lower for WFDRI than for BIO (p stress response occurs with both BIO and WFDRI. Infants examined for screening of ROP with digital retinal imaging present less pain and stress at 30 seconds following completion of the exam when compared with binocular indirect ophthalmoscopy.

  2. Pain and stress assessment after retinopathy of prematurity screening examination: Indirect ophthalmoscopy versus digital retinal imaging

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Moral-Pumarega M

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Increasingly, neonatal clinics seek to minimize painful experiences and stress for premature infants. Fundoscopy performed with a binocular indirect ophthalmoscope is the reference examination technique for screening of retinopathy of prematurity (ROP, and it is associated with pain and stress. Wide-field digital retinal imaging is a recent technique that should be evaluated for minimizing infant pain and stress. Methods The purpose of the study was to assess and compare the impact of using a binocular indirect ophthalmoscope (BIO, or wide-field digital retinal imaging (WFDRI on pain and stress in infants undergoing ROP screening examination. This was a comparative evaluation study of two screening procedures. Ophthalmologic examinations (N = 70 were performed on 24 infants with both BIO and WFDRI. Pain assessments were performed with two specific neonatal scales (Crying, requires oxygen, increased vital signs, expression and sleeplessness, CRIES and, Premature infant pain profile, PIPP just prior to the examination, and 30 seconds, 1 hour, and 24 hours later after ending the examination. Results Changes over time were significantly different between BIO and WFDRI with both scales (PIPP score, p = .007, and CRIES score, p = .001. Median PIPP score (interquartile interval at baseline was 4 (3–5. At 30 seconds the score was 8 (6–9 for BIO and 6 (5–7 for WFDRI, respectively. The increase in PIPP score between baseline and 30 seconds was significantly lower with WFDRI (p = .006. The median increase in CRIES score from baseline to 30 seconds was 1 point lower for WFDRI than for BIO (p  Conclusions A transient short-term pain and stress response occurs with both BIO and WFDRI. Infants examined for screening of ROP with digital retinal imaging present less pain and stress at 30 seconds following completion of the exam when compared with binocular indirect ophthalmoscopy.

  3. Assessing methods for measurement of clinical outcomes and quality of care in primary care practices

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Green Michael E

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Purpose To evaluate the appropriateness of potential data sources for the population of performance indicators for primary care (PC practices. Methods This project was a cross sectional study of 7 multidisciplinary primary care teams in Ontario, Canada. Practices were recruited and 5-7 physicians per practice agreed to participate in the study. Patients of participating physicians (20-30 were recruited sequentially as they presented to attend a visit. Data collection included patient, provider and practice surveys, chart abstraction and linkage to administrative data sets. Matched pairs analysis was used to examine the differences in the observed results for each indicator obtained using multiple data sources. Results Seven teams, 41 physicians, 94 associated staff and 998 patients were recruited. The survey response rate was 81% for patients, 93% for physicians and 83% for associated staff. Chart audits were successfully completed on all but 1 patient and linkage to administrative data was successful for all subjects. There were significant differences noted between the data collection methods for many measures. No single method of data collection was best for all outcomes. For most measures of technical quality of care chart audit was the most accurate method of data collection. Patient surveys were more accurate for immunizations, chronic disease advice/information dispensed, some general health promotion items and possibly for medication use. Administrative data appears useful for indicators including chronic disease diagnosis and osteoporosis/ breast screening. Conclusions Multiple data collection methods are required for a comprehensive assessment of performance in primary care practices. The choice of which methods are best for any one particular study or quality improvement initiative requires careful consideration of the biases that each method might introduce into the results. In this study, both patients and providers were

  4. A Practice-Based Evaluation of Distress Screening Protocol Adherence and Medical Service Utilization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zebrack, Brad; Kayser, Karen; Bybee, Deborah; Padgett, Lynne; Sundstrom, Laura; Jobin, Chad; Oktay, Julianne

    2017-07-01

    Background: This study examined the extent to which cancer programs demonstrated adherence to their own prescribed screening protocol, and whether adherence to that protocol was associated with medical service utilization. The hypothesis is that higher rates of service utilization are associated with lower rates of adherence to screening protocols. Methods: Oncology social workers at Commission on Cancer-accredited cancer programs reviewed electronic health records (EHRs) in their respective cancer programs during a 2-month period in 2014. Rates of overall adherence to a prescribed distress screening protocol were calculated based on documentation in the EHR that screening adherence and an appropriate clinical response had occurred. We examined documentation of emergency department (ED) use and hospitalization within 2 months after the screening visit. Results: Review of 8,409 EHRs across 55 cancer centers indicated that the overall adherence rate to screening protocols was 62.7%. The highest rates of adherence were observed in Community Cancer Programs (76.3%) and the lowest rates were in NCI-designated Cancer Centers (43.3%). Rates of medical service utilization were significantly higher than expected when overall protocol adherence was lacking. After controlling for patient and institutional characteristics, risk ratios for ED use (0.82) and hospitalization (0.81) suggest that when overall protocol adherence was documented, 18% to 19% fewer patients used these medical services. Conclusions: The observed associations between a mandated psychosocial care protocol and medical service utilization suggest opportunities for operational efficiencies and costs savings. Further investigations of protocol integrity, as well as the clinical care models by which psychosocial care is delivered, are warranted. Copyright © 2017 by the National Comprehensive Cancer Network.

  5. Assessing the delivery of alcohol screening and brief intervention in sexual health clinics in the north east of England

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C. Sullivan

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Risky drinking is associated with risky sexual experiences, however the relationship between alcohol and sex is complex. The aim of the study was to assess the feasibility of delivering alcohol screening and brief interventions in genitourinary medicine (GUM clinics. The objectives were to; understand the levels of alcohol use amongst patients; report on the number of alcohol interventions delivered; and to analyse the relationship between alcohol use with demographic data as well as diagnosed sexually transmitted infections (STIs to see if there were any associations. Methods All new patients attending GUM between April 2012 and March 2013 self-completed the Alcohol Use Disorder Identification Test (AUDIT prior to their clinical consultation. Where appropriate (scoring 8+ on AUDIT the clinician would deliver up to 2–3 min of alcohol brief intervention. Descriptive statistics, t-tests, ANOVA and logistic regression were carried out as appropriate. Results AUDIT scores were available for 90% of all new patients (3058/3390 with an average mean score of 7.75. Of those who drank alcohol, 44% were categorised as being AUDIT positive, including 2% who had a score indicative of probable alcohol dependence (20+. 55 % (n = 638 of patients who screened positive on the AUDIT received a brief intervention whilst 24% (n = 674 of drinkers were diagnosed with a STI. Logistic regression modelling revealed that males, younger age groups and those of ‘white’ ethnicity were more likely to score positive on AUDIT. Patients classified as non-students, living in deprivation quintiles one to four and categorised as probable alcohol dependence on the AUDIT were more likely to be diagnosed with an STI. Conclusion It is possible to embed alcohol screening into routine practice within sexual health services however further work is required to embed brief interventions particularly amongst increasing risk drinkers. If resources are limited

  6. Assessment of Clinical Practices for Crushing Medication in Geriatric Units.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fodil, M; Nghiem, D; Colas, M; Bourry, S; Poisson-Salomon, A-S; Rezigue, H; Trivalle, C

    2017-01-01

    To assess the modification of the form of medication and evaluate staff observance of good clinical practices. One-day assessment of clinical practices. 17 geriatrics units in the 3 Teaching Hospitals of Paris-Sud (APHP), France. Elderly in-patients with difficulties swallowing capsules and tablets. Assessment of target-patient prescriptions and direct observation of nurses' medical rounds. 155/526 in-patients (29.5%) were unable to swallow tablets or capsules: 98 (40.3%) in long-term care, 46 patients (23.8%) in the rehabilitation unit and 11 (12.2%) in the acute care unit (p = .005). In thirty-nine (27.3%) of the 143 prescriptions studied all tablets were safe to crush and all capsules were safe to open. In 104 cases, at least one medication could not be safely modified, including 26 cases (18.2%) in which none of the prescribed drugs were safe to crush or open. In 48.2% of the 110 medications that were crushed, crushing was forbidden, and presented a potential threat in 12.7% of cases or a reduced efficacy in 8.2% of cases. Crushing methods were rarely appropriate: no specific protective equipment was used (81.8%), crushing equipment was shared between patients without cleaning (95.1%), medications were spilled or lost (69.9%). The method of administration was appropriate (water, jellified water) in 25% of the cases, questionable (soup, coffee, compote, juice, cream) in 55% of the cases and unacceptable (laxative) in 21% of the cases. Management of drug prescriptions in patients with swallowing difficulties is not optimal, and may even have iatrogenic effects. In this study, 12.7% of the modifications of the drug form could have been harmful. Doctors, pharmacists and nurses need to reevaluate their practices.

  7. Creating scientists teaching and assessing science practice for the NGSS

    CERN Document Server

    Moore, Christopher

    2018-01-01

    Teach students to reason like scientists. This practical new book provides a clear framework for helping students develop scientific thinking so they are not just memorizing content but are becoming engaged in the real work scientists do. You'll learn how to teach students to analyse scientific testing, to understand if something caused something else, and to understand the value of evidence. The book offers ideas for lesson plans and assessments and also features reproducible tools and handouts that you can use in the classroom immediately.

  8. Outline of restorative neurology: definition, clinical practice, assessment, intervention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dimitrijevic, Milan R

    2012-06-01

    Rather than focusing on the deficits and lost function caused by upper motor neuron lesions or disorders, it is more advantageous to elucidate, in each individual, the specific neural functions that remain available, and then, to build upon them by designing a treatment protocol to optimize their effectiveness and thus improve recovery. The practice of Restorative Neurology is based on detailed assessment of the individual patient, the use of neurophysiological methods to elucidate and characterize subclinical function and the application of interventions that modify neural activity to improve clinical function. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  9. Brent Spar abandonment - Best Practicable Environmental Option (BPEO) assessment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1994-12-01

    Possible methods of abandoning or re-using the Brent Spar storage and tanker offloading facility following its decommissioning in 1991 are discussed. The report assesses six of the thirteen possible methods, including horizontal dismantling and onshore disposal, vertical dismantling and onshore disposal, in-field disposal, deep water disposal, refurbishment and re-use, and continued maintenance, in order to determine the Best Practicable Environmental Option (BPEO). The BPEO covers technical feasibility risks to health and safety of the work force, environmental impacts, public acceptability and costs. (UK)

  10. [Breast cancer screening in Dakar: knowledge and practice of breast self examination among a female population in Senegal].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gueye, S M K; Bawa, K D D; Ba, M G; Mendes, V; Toure, C T; Moreau, J C

    2009-01-01

    In front of the absence of a mammographic screening program and the late diagnosis of the breast cancers in Senegal, we wanted to evaluate the knowledge and the practice of the breast self examination (BSE) by feminine population in Senegal. During the period between July 10th to August 25th 2006, through five big hospitals in Dakar, we interviewed 300 patients coming from a medical or surgical consultation. For every patient we studied the social and demographic characteristics, the antecedents and arguments about the knowledge and practice of BSE. We found, in majority, a young population (the average age was 34 years), no sent to school (26.7%), without any financial income (58.7%), with a brief knowledge about BSE (42.7%) and a regular practice of BSE (29%). The information about BSE originated essentially from educational television (52.9%). This knowledge and practice were significantly influenced by the study level (p = 0.000) and the level of financial income (p = 0.02). Among these who presented certain factors of breast cancer risk, the knowledge and the practice of the BSE were however low. The authors insist on the need to encourage the women schooling and their socioprofessional insertion so to improve the knowledge and practice of the breast self-examination in our developing countries.

  11. A cross-sectional survey assessing factors associated with reading cancer screening information: previous screening behaviour, demographics and decision-making style.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghanouni, Alex; Renzi, Cristina; Waller, Jo

    2017-04-18

    There is broad agreement that cancer screening invitees should know the risks and benefits of testing before deciding whether to participate. In organised screening programmes, a primary method of relaying this information is via leaflets provided at the time of invitation. Little is known about why individuals do not engage with this information. This study assessed factors associated with reading information leaflets provided by the three cancer screening programmes in England. A cross-sectional survey asked screening-eligible members of the general population in England about the following predictor variables: uptake of previous screening invitations, demographic characteristics, and 'decision-making styles' (i.e. the extent to which participants tended to make decisions in a way that was avoidant, rational, intuitive, spontaneous, or dependent). The primary outcome measures were the amount of the leaflet that participants reported having read at their most recent invitation, for any of the three programmes for which they were eligible. Associations between these outcomes and predictor variables were assessed using binary or ordinal logistic regression. After exclusions, data from 275, 309, and 556 participants were analysed in relation to the breast, cervical, and bowel screening programmes, respectively. Notable relationships included associations between regularity of screening uptake and reading (more of) the information leaflets for all programmes (e.g. odds ratio: 0.16 for participants who never/very rarely attended breast screening vs. those who always attended previously; p = .009). Higher rational decision-making scores were associated with reading more of the cervical and bowel screening leaflets (OR: 1.13, p < .0005 and OR: 1.11, p = .045, respectively). Information engagement was also higher for White British participants compared with other ethnic groups for breast (OR: 3.28, p = .008) and bowel (OR: 2.58, p = .015) information; an

  12. Variation in internal medicine residency clinic practices: assessing practice environments and quality of care.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mladenovic, Jeanette; Shea, Judy A; Duffy, F Daniel; Lynn, Lorna A; Holmboe, Eric S; Lipner, Rebecca S

    2008-07-01

    Few studies have systematically and rigorously examined the quality of care provided in educational practice sites. The objectives of this study were to (1) describe the patient population cared for by trainees in internal medicine residency clinics; (2) assess the quality of preventive cardiology care provided to these patients; (3) characterize the practice-based systems that currently exist in internal medicine residency clinics; and (4) examine the relationships between quality, practice-based systems, and features of the program: size, type of program, and presence of an electronic medical record. This is a cross-sectional observational study. This study was conducted in 15 Internal Medicine residency programs (23 sites) throughout the USA. The participants included site champions at residency programs and 709 residents. Abstracted charts provided data about patient demographics, coronary heart disease risk factors, processes of care, and clinical outcomes. Patients completed surveys regarding satisfaction. Site teams completed a practice systems survey. Chart abstraction of 4,783 patients showed substantial variability across sites. On average, patients had between 3 and 4 of the 9 potential risk factors for coronary heart disease, and approximately 21% had at least 1 important barrier of care. Patients received an average of 57% (range, 30-77%) of the appropriate interventions. Reported satisfaction with care was high. Sites with an electronic medical record showed better overall information management (81% vs 27%) and better modes of communication (79% vs 43%). This study has provided insight into the current state of practice in residency sites including aspects of the practice environment and quality of preventive cardiology care delivered. Substantial heterogeneity among the training sites exists. Continuous measurement of the quality of care provided and a better understanding of the training environment in which this care is delivered are important

  13. Screening Risk Assessment for Possible Radionuclides in the Amchitka Marine Environment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NNSA/NV

    2002-10-31

    As part of its environmental stewardship program the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) is reevaluating three sites where underground nuclear tests were conducted in the deep subsurface of Amchitka Island, Alaska. The tests (i.e., Long Shot, Milrow, and Cannikin) were conducted in 1965, 1969, and 1971, respectively. Extensive investigations were conducted on these tests and their effect on the environment. Evaluations at the time of testing indicated limited release of radionuclides and absence of risk related to the testing; however, these are being reevaluated under the current DOE environmental stewardship program. A screening risk assessment of potential radionuclide release into the marine environment is an important part of this reevaluation. The risk assessment is one of three interrelated activities: a groundwater model and this screening risk assessment, both of which guide the decisions in the third activity, the site closure plan. Thus, the overall objective of the work is to understand, and subsequently manage, any risk to humans and the environment through a closure and long-term stewardship plan. The objective of this screening risk assessment is to predict whether possible releases of radionuclides at the ocean floor would represent potential risks to Native Alaskans by consumption of marine subsistence species. In addition, risks were predicted for consumers of commercial catches of marine organisms. These risks were calculated beginning with estimates of possible radionuclide release at the seafloor (from a groundwater modeling study), into the seawater, through possible uptake by marine organisms, and finally possible consumption by humans. The risk assessment model has 11 elements, progressing from potential release at the seafloor through water and food chains to human intake. Data for each of these elements were systematically found and synthesized from many sources, and represent the best available knowledge. Whenever precise data were lacking

  14. Lessons from high-throughput protein crystallization screening: 10 years of practical experience

    Science.gov (United States)

    JR, Luft; EH, Snell; GT, DeTitta

    2011-01-01

    Introduction X-ray crystallography provides the majority of our structural biological knowledge at a molecular level and in terms of pharmaceutical design is a valuable tool to accelerate discovery. It is the premier technique in the field, but its usefulness is significantly limited by the need to grow well-diffracting crystals. It is for this reason that high-throughput crystallization has become a key technology that has matured over the past 10 years through the field of structural genomics. Areas covered The authors describe their experiences in high-throughput crystallization screening in the context of structural genomics and the general biomedical community. They focus on the lessons learnt from the operation of a high-throughput crystallization screening laboratory, which to date has screened over 12,500 biological macromolecules. They also describe the approaches taken to maximize the success while minimizing the effort. Through this, the authors hope that the reader will gain an insight into the efficient design of a laboratory and protocols to accomplish high-throughput crystallization on a single-, multiuser-laboratory or industrial scale. Expert Opinion High-throughput crystallization screening is readily available but, despite the power of the crystallographic technique, getting crystals is still not a solved problem. High-throughput approaches can help when used skillfully; however, they still require human input in the detailed analysis and interpretation of results to be more successful. PMID:22646073

  15. Screening for microalbuminuria in patients with type 2 diabetes is incomplete in general practice

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Knudsen, Soren Tang; Mosbech, Thomas Hammershaimb; Hansen, Birtha

    2012-01-01

    .0% had overt proteinuria. In contrast, 97.6% of patients had had a minimum of one plasma-creatinine measurement within the past year. CONCLUSION: In Danish primary care, screening for microalbuminuria in type 2 diabetes is insufficiently implemented, whereas renal function is evaluated in almost all...

  16. Diagnosis and Development of Screening Items for Migraine in Neurological Practice in Taiwan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shuu-Jiun Wang

    2008-06-01

    Conclusion: Migraine was the most common headache diagnosis in the neurologists’ clinics. Probable migraine was not completely adopted as a migraine spectrum among neurologists. In contrast to ID™, moderate or severe headache intensity replaced headache-related disability as one screening item for migraine in Taiwan.

  17. Screening for diabetes: what do the results of the ADDITION trial mean for clinical practice?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lauritzen, Torsten; Borch-Johnsen, Knut; Davies, Melanie J

    2013-01-01

    Artiklen opsummerer de nuværende resultater fra ADDITION studiet. Forfatterne konkluderer at ADDITION studiet har skabt yderligere evidens til støtte for tidlig opsporing og behandling af patienter med uerkendt diabetes. Frem for at fokusere på populationsbaseret screening opfordre forfatterne pr...

  18. Awareness and practice of breast screening and its impact on early ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background: Breast cancer is the most common malignancy among females in Nigeria. The concept of breast screening (BS) is that it would result in presentation at earlier stages. We evaluated the impact of BS on early detection and presentation of breast cancer and determined the aspects BS need improvement. Patients ...

  19. Screen-Related Sedentary Behaviors: Children's and Parents' Attitudes, Motivations, and Practices

    Science.gov (United States)

    He, Meizi; Piche, Leonard; Beynon, Charlene; Harris, Stewart

    2010-01-01

    Objective: To investigate school-aged children's and parents' attitudes, social influences, and intentions toward excessive screen-related sedentary behavior (S-RSB). Design: A cross-sectional study using a survey methodology. Setting: Elementary schools in London, Ontario, Canada. Participants: All grades 5 and 6 students, their parents, and…

  20. Cancer Screening Practices among Amish and Non-Amish Adults Living in Ohio Appalachia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Katz, Mira L.; Ferketich, Amy K.; Paskett, Electra D.; Harley, Amy; Reiter, Paul L.; Lemeshow, Stanley; Westman, Judith A.; Clinton, Steven K.; Bloomfield, Clara D.

    2011-01-01

    Purpose: The Amish, a unique community living in Ohio Appalachia, have lower cancer incidence rates than non-Amish living in Ohio Appalachia. The purpose of this study was to examine cancer screening rates among Amish compared to non-Amish adults living in Ohio Appalachia and a national sample of adults of the same race and ethnicity in an effort…