WorldWideScience

Sample records for assessing screening practices

  1. The 'grey' assessment practice of IA screening

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bidstrup, Morten

    2017-01-01

    practice, which influences the outcomes of formal screening procedures through consideration of impacts on neighbours and spatial zones of protection. Grey IA is to some extent motivated by the opportunity to save the resources required for full-scale IA, but an additional ‘green’ rationale also exists...

  2. Screen Practice in Curating

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Toft, Tanya Søndergaard

    2014-01-01

    During the past one and a half decade, a curatorial orientation towards "screen practice" has expanded the moving image and digital art into the public domain, exploring alternative artistic uses of the screen. The emergence of urban LED screens in the late 1990s provided a new venue that allowed...

  3. Assessment of screening practices for gestational hyperglycaemia in public health facilities: a descriptive study in Bangalore, India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Giridhara R. Babu

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Background. Screening and timely treatment of gestational hyperglycaemia (GH is proved to be beneficial and improves maternal and foetal health outcomes. To understand screening practices, we explored the knowledge and perceptions of doctors working in public health facilities in Bangalore, India. We also studied participation factors by examining whether undergoing glucose estimation tests affects morning sickness in pregnant women. Design and Methods. We aimed to understand the screening practices and knowledge of doctors. A semi-structured questionnaire was self-administered by the 50 participant doctors, selected from the sampling frame comprising of all the doctors working in public health facilities. We included 105 pregnant women for baseline assessment, in whom a well-structured questionnaire was used. Results. We reported that gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM screening was done in nearly all the health centres (96%. However, only 12% of the doctors could provide all components of GDM diagnosis and management correctly and 46% would diagnose by using a random blood glucose test. A majority (92% of the doctors had poor knowledge (68% about the cut-off values of glucose tests. More than 80% of pregnant women experienced some discomfort mostly due to rapid ingestion glucose in short span of time. Conclusions. Our study established that screening for GH is done in most public health facilities. Nonetheless, knowledge of doctors on the glucose tests and their interpretation needs improvement. Re-orientation trainings of the doctors can improve their knowledge and thereby can efficiently screen for GH. Further, adequate planning prior to the tests can aid successful completion of them.

  4. An assessment of the utility of unselected coagulation screening in general hospital practice.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    McHugh, Johnny

    2011-03-01

    Coagulation screening using prothrombin time (PT) and activated partial thromboplastin time (APTT) is widely used. We performed an audit of coagulation screening in an Irish teaching hospital. We analysed PT and\\/or APTT results received during normal working hours during a 1-week period in our hospital. Abnormal results due to anticoagulants were excluded from further study. In samples with PT longer than 15.5 s and\\/or APTT longer than 42 s, we proceeded to 1: 1 mixing studies if the PT was prolonged and 1: 1 mixing studies, factor XII assay and lupus screen if the APTT was prolonged. We also obtained referral source for all samples and clinical details for abnormal samples. Six hundred and seventy-one coagulation requests were received during the study period. Three hundred and eighteen of 671 (47.4%) coagulation requests were for monitoring of anticoagulation. Three hundred and fifty-three of 671 (52.6%) requests were for coagulation screening rather than anticoagulant monitoring. In the coagulation screens received, PT was prolonged in 19 of 353 (5.4%). PT was longer than 20 s in four of 353 cases (1.1%). APTT was prolonged in 19 of 353 (5.4%). APTT was longer than 50 s in four of 353 (1.1%). No patients with abnormal PT or APTT had any bleeding sequelae during the study period. Unregulated coagulation screening has a low yield of abnormal results; the majority of these abnormal results show mild prolongation of PT or APTT with no evidence that they are associated with an increased bleeding risk.

  5. Linking Child Welfare and Mental Health Using Trauma-Informed Screening and Assessment Practices

    Science.gov (United States)

    Conradi, Lisa; Wherry, Jeffrey; Kisiel, Cassandra

    2011-01-01

    An abundance of research suggests that children in the child welfare system (CWS) have experienced numerous traumatic events and are exhibiting traumatic stress symptoms. Therefore, it is critical that the CWS work closely with the mental health system to ensure that these children receive the appropriate trauma screening, trauma-focused…

  6. Tuberculosis screening in patients with HIV: An audit against UK national guidelines to assess current practice and the effectiveness of an electronic tuberculosis-screening prompt.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fox-Lewis, A; Brima, N; Muniina, P; Grant, A D; Edwards, S G; Miller, R F; Pett, S L

    2016-09-01

    A retrospective clinical audit was performed to assess if the British HIV Association 2011 guidelines on routine screening for tuberculosis in HIV are being implemented in a large UK urban clinic, and if a tuberculosis-screening prompt on the electronic patient record for new attendees was effective. Of 4658 patients attending during the inclusion period, 385 were newly diagnosed first-time attendees and routine tuberculosis screening was recommended in 165. Of these, only 6.1% of patients had a completed tuberculosis screening prompt, and 12.1% underwent routine tuberculosis screening. This audit represents the first published UK data on routine screening rates for tuberculosis in HIV and demonstrates low rates of tuberculosis screening despite an electronic screening prompt designed to simplify adherence to the national guideline. Reasons why tuberculosis screening rates were low, and the prompt ineffective, are unclear. A national audit is ongoing, and we await the results to see if our data reflect a lack of routine tuberculosis screening in HIV-infected patients at a national level.

  7. Evaluating cognitive impairment in the clinical setting: practical screening and assessment tools.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Valcour, Victor G

    2011-12-01

    HIV-associated neurocognitive disorders (HAND) remain a substantial problem in the era of combination antiretroviral therapy. Neither the Mini Mental State Exam nor the HIV Dementia Scale is sufficiently sensitive for HAND. The Montreal Cognitive Assessment shows promise, but current data suggest that adding an additional test will be needed to improve sensitivity for the clinical setting. Patient reporting of symptoms is insensitive as most cases of HAND are asymptomatic. Examination of cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) is sometimes warranted in select patients to evaluate for CSF HIV RNA detectability. CSF escape of virus, when CSF HIV RNA is detectable but plasma HIV RNA is not, appears to be a relatively uncommon event in the clinical setting where the level of detectability for typical clinical assays is around 50 copies/mL. In cases of CSF escape, cognitive improvement has been linked to changes in antiretroviral regimens that are aimed at either overcoming antiretroviral resistance or improving central nervous system (CNS) penetration-effectiveness. Currently, for most patients with HAND in the absence of unusual features, there are insufficient data for a recommendation to routinely intensify therapy with a neurointensive antiretroviral regimen; however, there is considerable uncertainty given emerging data and variability in approach among experts in the field. This article summarizes a case-based presentation by Victor G. Valcour, MD, at the 14th Annual Clinical Conference for the Ryan White HIV/AIDS Program held in Tampa, Florida, in June 2011. The Clinical Conference is sponsored by the IAS-USA under the Health Resources and Services Administration (HRSA) contract number HHSH250200900010C.

  8. Refractory Chronic Pain Screening Tool (RCPST): a feasibility study to assess practicality and validity of identifying potential neurostimulation candidates

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Baron, R.; Backonja, M.M.; Eldridge, P.; Levy, R.; Vissers, K.C.P.; Attal, N.; Buchser, E.; Cruccu, G.; Andres, J. De; Hansson, P.; Jacobs, M.; Loeser, J.D.; Prager, J.P.; Hicks, M.; Regnault, A.; Abeele, C. Van den; Taylor, R.S.

    2014-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: An international panel of pain specialists (anesthesiology, neurology, neurosurgery, and psychology) and research methodologists developed a screening tool to identify patients who may be suitable for spinal cord stimulation (SCS)--the Refractory Chronic Pain Screening Tool (RCPST) protot

  9. Cholesterol Screening: A Practical Guide to Implementation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kingery, Paul M.

    1995-01-01

    Dry-chemistry cholesterol analysis has made screening feasible in a variety of settings. The article provides practical tips for the implementation of mass cholesterol screening using a portable dry-chemistry analyzer and discusses issues involved in conducting effective cholesterol screening programs from start to finish. (SM)

  10. Interrupting Gendered Assessment Practices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hildebrand, Gaell M.

    This paper is part of the symposium on "Gender and Assessment of Physics in Context: Getting It Right!" It examines ways in which current practices privilege the "masculine" over the "feminine" and presents an agenda for gender inclusive assessment practices. It is argued that physics like other domains of knowledge, is a constructed entity, and…

  11. Screening for foot problems in children: is this practice justifiable?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Evans Angela

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Podiatry screening of children is a common practice, which occurs largely without adequate data to support the need for such activity. Such programs may be either formalised, or more ad hoc in nature, depending upon the use of guidelines or existing models. Although often not used, the well-established criteria for assessing the merits of screening programs can greatly increase the understanding as to whether such practices are actually worthwhile. This review examines the purpose of community health screening in the Australian context, as occurs for tuberculosis, breast, cervical and prostate cancers, and then examines podiatry screening practices for children with reference to the criteria of the World Health Organisation (WHO. Topically, the issue of paediatric foot posture forms the focus of this review, as it presents with great frequency to a range of clinicians. Comparison is made with developmental dysplasia of the hip, in which instance the WHO criteria are well met. Considering that the burden of the condition being screened for must be demonstrable, and that early identification must be found to be beneficial, in order to justify a screening program, there is no sound support for either continuing or establishing podiatry screenings for children.

  12. A practice guideline revisited: screening for hypertension.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Littenberg, B

    1995-06-15

    In 1993, the Clinical Efficacy Assessment Subcommittee began evaluation of new topics and reevaluation of previous guidelines on common screening tests, which were published in Annals of Internal Medicine between 1988 and 1990 and republished as a collection in 1991 (Eddy DM, ed. Common Screening Tests. Philadelphia: American College of Physicians; 1991). Of the 11 guidelines contained in Common Screening Tests, only 3 (for breast, colon, and cholesterol screening) will be published with new data supporting new recommendations. Dr. Littenberg's analysis of the evidence that has appeared since the publication of the original paper on screening for hypertension (Littenberg B, Garber AM, Sox HC. Screening for Hypertension. Ann Intern Med. 1990;112:192-202) presents a new format for updating Clinical Efficacy Assessment Project (CEAP) guidelines that have not been altered by new evidence. This "updated guideline" reports on new published studies and its analysis affirms the approved American College of Physicians recommendations of 1990. The Clinical Efficacy Assessment Subcommittee carried out the Internal and external review procedures that are used for all CEAP guidelines. The plan is to keep all American College of Physicians guidelines updated in this way on a regular basis. Direct any comments or suggestions to Director, Scientific Policy, American College of Physicians, 6th Street at Race, Philadelphia, PA 19106.

  13. Improving population-based cervical cancer screening in general practice : effects of a national strategy

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hermens, R P; Hak, E; Hulscher, M E; Mulder, J; Tacken, M A; Braspenning, J C; Grol, R P

    1999-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To assess the effects of a Dutch national prevention programme, aimed at general practitioners (GPs), on the adherence to organizational guidelines for effective cervical cancer screening in general practice. To identify the characteristics of general practices determining success. DESIGN

  14. Clinical practice guideline: screening and diagnosing autism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blackwell, J

    2001-12-01

    The clinical practice guideline (CPG) reviewed in this month's column concerns the screening and diagnosis of autism. Autism is the third most common developmental disability and affects more than 1 in 500 children, or nearly 400,000 people in the United States, in some form. Primary care providers of children, including pediatric nurse practitioners (PNPs) and family nurse practitioners (FNPs), should reasonably expect to care for at least one child with autism (CWA). The American Academy of Neurology (AAN) has therefore developed guidelines to help healthcare providers facilitate the early identification of children with autism.

  15. Locating Interim Assessments within Teachers' Assessment Practice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Riggan, Matthew; Olah, Leslie Nabors

    2011-01-01

    Promising research on the teaching and learning impact of classroom-embedded formative assessment has spawned interest in a broader array of assessment tools and practices, including interim assessment. Although researchers have begun to explore the impact of interim assessments in the classroom, like other assessment tools and practices, they…

  16. Assessment as an "Emotional Practice"

    Science.gov (United States)

    Steinberg, Carola

    2008-01-01

    The intention of this article is to illustrate how assessment is an "emotional practice" (Hargreaves, 1998) for teachers and how paying attention to the emotions involved can provide useful information about assessment practices to teachers, teacher-educators and policy-reformers. Through presenting a review of research literature it makes three…

  17. Practical Privacy Assessment

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Peen, Søren; Jansen, Thejs Willem; Jensen, Christian D.

    2008-01-01

    This chapter proposes a privacy assessment model called the Operational Privacy Assessment Model that includes organizational, operational and technical factors for the protection of personal data stored in an IT system. The factors can be evaluated in a simple scale so that not only the resulting...... graphical depiction can be easily created for an IT system, but graphical comparisons across multiple IT systems are also possible. Examples of factors presented in a Kiviat graph are also presented. This assessment tool may be used to standardize privacy assessment criteria, making it less painful...... for the management to assess privacy risks on their systems....

  18. Predictors of colorectal cancer screening in diverse primary care practices

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tabbarah Melissa

    2006-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background To explain why rates of colorectal cancer (CRC screening including fecal occult blood testing (FOBT, flexible sigmoidoscopy (FS, colonoscopy (CS, and barium enema (BE, are low, this study assessed determinants of CRC screening from medical records. Methods Data were abstracted from patients aged ≥64 years selected from each clinician from 30 diverse primary care practices (n = 981. Measurements included the rates of annual FOBT, ever receiving FOBT, ever receiving FS/CS/BE under a combination variable, endoscopy/barium enema (EBE. Results Over five years, 8% had received annual FOBT, 53% had ever received FOBT and 22% had ever received EBE. Annual FOBT was negatively associated with female gender, odds ratio (OR = .23; 95% confidence interval = .12–.44 and positively associated with routinely receiving influenza vaccine, OR = 2.55 (1.45–4.47; and more office visits: 3 to Conclusion Overall CRC screening rates were low, but were related to the number of primary care office visits. FOBT was related to immunization status, suggesting the possible benefit of linking these preventive services.

  19. 'Organised' cervical screening 45 years on: How consistent are organised screening practices?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williams, Jane H; Carter, Stacy M; Rychetnik, Lucie

    2014-11-01

    Organised screening programmes have been remarkably successful in reducing incidence and mortality from cervical cancer, while opportunistic screening varies in its effectiveness. Experts recommend that cervical screening or HPV testing be carried out only in the context of an organised programme. We sought to answer the following study questions: What does it mean for a cervical screening programme to be organised? Is there a place for opportunistic screening (in an organised programme)? We reviewed 154 peer-reviewed papers on organised and opportunistic approaches to cervical screening published between 1970 and 2014 to understand how the term 'organised' is used, formally and in practice. We found that despite broad recognition of a prescriptive definition of organisation, in practice the meaning of organisation is much less clear. Our review revealed descriptions of organised programmes that differ significantly from prescribed norms and from each other, and a variety of ways that opportunistic and organised programmes intersect. We describe the breadth of the variation in cervical cancer screening programmes and examine the relationships and overlaps between organised and opportunistic screening. Implications emerging from the review include the need to better understand the breadth of organisation in practice, the drivers and impacts of opportunistic screening and the impact of opportunistic screening on population programme outcomes. Appreciation of the complexity of cervical screening programmes will benefit both screeners and women as programmes are changed to reflect a partially vaccinated population, new evidence and new technologies.

  20. Evaluating developmental screening in clinical practice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peter Dawson

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To demonstrate a method of evaluating accuracy of developmental screening modeled on the evidence-based medical literature. Method: A retrospective review was performed on 418 children screened with the Denver II by a trained technician. Two models for analyzing screening data were examined, using predictive values and likelihood ratios (LR+ and LR−. Results: The technician, working at 20% time, screened 44% of eligible children. There were 129/418 (31% children with Suspect Denver II results, 115/418 who were referred, 81/115 (70% who were evaluated by Early Intervention, and 64/81 (79% who qualified for services. The uncorrected positive predictive value for the Denver II alone (44% was insufficient to meet the preset standard of 60%, but the LR+ of 4.16 indicated a significant contribution of test information to improving predictive value. Combining test results with information from the parent–technician conference to achieve a referral decision resulted in an uncorrected predictive value of 56%, which rose with correction for children referred but not evaluated to 72% (LR+ 10.33. Negative predictive values and likelihood ratios of a negative test and a non-referral decision achieved recommended levels. Parents who expressed concern were significantly more likely to complete recommended evaluation than those who did not (82% vs 58%, p < .01. Results were in the same range as in published studies with other screening tests but showed three areas for improvement: screening more children, more carefully supervising some referral decisions, and getting more children to evaluation. Conclusion: Levels of predictive accuracy above 60% can be obtained by combining different types of information about development to make decisions about referral for more complete evaluation. Systematic study of such combinations could lead to improved predictive accuracy of screening programs and support attempts to close the gap between referral

  1. English Teachers Classroom Assessment Practices

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saefurrohman; Balinas, Elvira S.

    2016-01-01

    The new language assessment policies in the Philippines and in Indonesia have impact on English teachers' assessment practices. Classroom assessment; as mandated in the current curriculum of both countries swifts from sources of information to the inseparable process of teaching and learning. This study describes Filipino and Indonesian high…

  2. Primary care physicians' cancer screening recommendation practices and perceptions of cancer risk of Asian Americans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kwon, Harry T; Ma, Grace X; Gold, Robert S; Atkinson, Nancy L; Wang, Min Qi

    2013-01-01

    Asian Americans experience disproportionate incidence and mortality rates of certain cancers, compared to other racial/ethnic groups. Primary care physicians are a critical source for cancer screening recommendations and play a significant role in increasing cancer screening of their patients. This study assessed primary care physicians' perceptions of cancer risk in Asians and screening recommendation practices. Primary care physicians practicing in New Jersey and New York City (n=100) completed a 30-question survey on medical practice characteristics, Asian patient communication, cancer screening guidelines, and Asian cancer risk. Liver cancer and stomach cancer were perceived as higher cancer risks among Asian Americans than among the general population, and breast and prostate cancer were perceived as lower risks. Physicians are integral public health liaisons who can be both influential and resourceful toward educating Asian Americans about specific cancer awareness and screening information.

  3. Crystallization screening: the influence of history on current practice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luft, Joseph R; Newman, Janet; Snell, Edward H

    2014-07-01

    While crystallization historically predates crystallography, it is a critical step for the crystallographic process. The rich history of crystallization and how that history influences current practices is described. The tremendous impact of crystallization screens on the field is discussed.

  4. The chicken enucleated eye test (CEET) : a practical (pre)screen for the assessment of eye irritation/corrosion potential of test materials

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Prinsen, M.K.

    1996-01-01

    The enucleated eye test with chicken eyes (CEET) obtained from an abattoir proved to be a valuable and practical alternative for the 'traditional' enucleated eye test with eyes of laboratory rabbits. Since 1992, the CEET has been incorporated in standard contract toxicity testing at the Toxicology D

  5. A UK guide to intake fish-screening regulations, policy and best practice with particular reference to hydroelectric power schemes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Turnpenny, A.W.H.; Struthers, G.; Hanson, P.

    1998-07-01

    A review of fish screening regulations in England, Wales, Scotland, and Northern Ireland is presented, and a summary of findings on screening legislation is given. The views of hydroelectric scheme developers, owners and operators are considered, and recommendations including the development of a risk assessment procedure are discussed. Fish screening technology, bypasses and other escape routes, and common fault in screen design and operation are examined, and guidance to Best Practice is given. (UK)

  6. Species for the screening assessment. Columbia River Comprehensive Impact Assessment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Becker, J.M.; Brandt, C.A.; Dauble, D.D.; Maughan, A.D.; O`Neil, T.K.

    1996-03-01

    Because of past nuclear production operations along the Columbia River, there is intense public and tribal interest in assessing any residual Hanford Site related contamination along the river from the Hanford Reach to the Pacific Ocean. The Columbia River Comprehensive Impact Assessment was proposed to address these concerns. The assessment of the Columbia River is being conducted in phases. The initial phase is a screening assessment of the risk, which addresses current environmental conditions for a range of potential uses. One component of the screening assessment estimates the risk from contaminants in the Columbia River to the environment. The objective of the ecological risk assessment is to determine whether contaminants from the Columbia River pose a significant threat to selected receptor species that exist in the river and riparian communities of the study area. This report (1) identifies the receptor species selected for the screening assessment of ecological risk and (2) describes the selection process. The species selection process consisted of two tiers. In Tier 1, a master species list was developed that included many plant and animal species known to occur in the aquatic and riparian systems of the Columbia River between Priest Rapids Dam and the Columbia River estuary. This master list was reduced to 368 species that occur in the study area (Priest Rapids Dam to McNary Dam). In Tier 2, the 181 Tier 1 species were qualitatively ranked based on a scoring of their potential exposure and sensitivity to contaminants using a conceptual exposure model for the study area.

  7. Practical Approaches to Risk Assessment

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2001-01-01

    The importance of using risk assessment in developing foodregulations is growing with the globalization of our food supply. The World Trade Organization has entrenched the principles of science-based risk assessment in the Agreement on Sanitary and Phytosanitary Measures. The relevant international organization for food standards, the Codex Alimentarius Commission, recognises risk analysis, and its component parts risk assessment, risk management and risk communication, as the basis for scientific decision-making. Risk assessment comprises two activities: hazard evaluation; and exposure estimation. A hazard may be chemical, microbiological or nutritional in origin. The practical application of risk assessment in Australia is illustrated in this presentation by four examples involving: (1) food additives, (2) microbiological safety of imported raw milk cheeses, (3) genetically modified foods and (4) imported food inspection.

  8. Practical Approaches to Risk Assessment

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    SIMONBROOKE-TAYLOR

    2001-01-01

    The importance of using risk assessment in developing food regulations is growing with the globalization of our food supple,The World Trade Oranization has entrenched the principles of science-based risk assessment in the Agreement on Sanitary and Phytosanitary Measures.The relevant international organization for food standards,the Codex Alimentarius Commission,recognises risk analysis,and its component parts risk assessment,risk management and risk communication as the basis for scientific decision-making,Risk assessment comprises two activities:hazard evaluation;and exposure estimation.A hazard may be chemical,microbiological or nutritional in origin,The practical application of risk assessment in Australia is illustrated in this presentation y four examples involving:(1) food additives,(2) microiological safety of imported raw milk cheeses,(3) genetically modified foods and (4) imported food inspection.

  9. Crystallization screening: the influence of history on current practice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luft, Joseph R.; Newman, Janet; Snell, Edward H.

    2014-01-01

    While crystallization historically predates crystallography, it is a critical step for the crystallographic process. The rich history of crystallization and how that history influences current practices is described. The tremendous impact of crystallization screens on the field is discussed. PMID:25005076

  10. Syphilis screening practices in blood transfusion facilities in Ghana

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Francis Sarkodie

    2016-02-01

    Conclusions: Despite international and national recommendations, more than half of the studied health facilities that provide blood transfusions in Ghana are not screening blood donations for syphilis. These data show a considerable mismatch between recommendations and practice, with serious consequences for blood safety and public health.

  11. Construction of an Occupational Therapy Screenings Assessment for elderly medical patients

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Holsbæk, Jonas

    Background: Occupational Therapist working with Elderly Medical inpatients at hospitals in Denmark, are under pressure due to an increasing patients, demands for validated interventions and best practice and economically effectually solutions at the same time. Occupational Therapists in Denmark...... there for demands a validated Occupational Therapy Screening Assessment, that fast and easy can tell if more Occupational Therapy is needed. Aim: The aim of the study is to develop a Screening Assessment which can be used in the Occupational Therapist practice screening Hospitalized Elderly medical inpatients...

  12. Gestational diabetes mellitus in Europe: prevalence, current screening practice and barriers to screening.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Buckley, B S

    2011-12-12

    Background:  Gestational diabetes mellitus is a potentially serious condition that affects many pregnancies and its prevalence is increasing. Evidence suggests early detection and treatment improves outcomes, but this is hampered by continued disagreement and inconsistency regarding many aspects of its diagnosis. Methods:  The Vitamin D and Lifestyle Intervention for Gestational Diabetes Mellitus Prevention (DALI) research programme aims to promote pan-European standards in the detection and diagnosis of gestational diabetes and to develop effective preventive interventions. To provide an overview of the context within which the programme will be conducted and its findings interpreted, systematic searching and narrative synthesis have been used to identify and review the best available European evidence relating to the prevalence of gestational diabetes, current screening practices and barriers to screening. Results:  Prevalence is most often reported as 2-6% of pregnancies. Prevalence may be lower towards the Northern Atlantic seaboard of Europe and higher in the Southern Mediterranean seaboard. Screening practice and policy is inconsistent across Europe, hampered by lack of consensus on testing methods, diagnostic glycaemic thresholds and the value of routine screening. Poor clinician awareness of gestational diabetes, its diagnosis and local clinical guidelines further undermine detection of gestational diabetes. Conclusions:  Europe-wide agreement on screening approaches and diagnostic standards for gestational diabetes could lead to better detection and treatment, improved outcomes for women and children and a strengthened evidence base. There is an urgent need for well-designed research that can inform decisions on best practice in gestational diabetes mellitus screening and diagnosis. © 2011 The Authors. Diabetic Medicine© 2011 Diabetes UK.

  13. Quantitative assessment model for gastric cancer screening

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Kun Chen; Wei-Ping Yu; Liang Song; Yi-Min Zhu

    2005-01-01

    AIM: To set up a mathematic model for gastric cancer screening and to evaluate its function in mass screening for gastric cancer.METHODS: A case control study was carried on in 66patients and 198 normal people, then the risk and protective factors of gastric cancer were determined, including heavy manual work, foods such as small yellow-fin tuna, dried small shrimps, squills, crabs, mothers suffering from gastric diseases, spouse alive, use of refrigerators and hot food,etc. According to some principles and methods of probability and fuzzy mathematics, a quantitative assessment model was established as follows: first, we selected some factors significant in statistics, and calculated weight coefficient for each one by two different methods; second, population space was divided into gastric cancer fuzzy subset and non gastric cancer fuzzy subset, then a mathematic model for each subset was established, we got a mathematic expression of attribute degree (AD).RESULTS: Based on the data of 63 patients and 693 normal people, AD of each subject was calculated. Considering the sensitivity and specificity, the thresholds of AD values calculated were configured with 0.20 and 0.17, respectively.According to these thresholds, the sensitivity and specificity of the quantitative model were about 69% and 63%.Moreover, statistical test showed that the identification outcomes of these two different calculation methods were identical (P>0.05).CONCLUSION: The validity of this method is satisfactory.It is convenient, feasible, economic and can be used to determine individual and population risks of gastric cancer.

  14. [Assessment of screening in women cancers and in 75 years older in Loire department].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Swalduz, Aurélie; Guibert, Cyril; Trone, Jane-Chloé; Guichard, Jean-Baptiste; Rivoirard, Romain; Pacaut, Cécile; Méry, Benoîte; Guy, Jean-Baptiste; Eddekkaoui, Houda; Fournel, Pierre; de Laroche, Guy; Merrouche, Yacine; Magné, Nicolas

    2014-09-01

    In France, there is an important interregional disparity concerning participation to cancer screening programs. The aim of this study was to assess oncologic screening practices in Loire, a French rural department, in women and in the elderly (over age 74 years). For this, two surveys were conducted. The first one was regarding screening for breast, cervical and colorectal cancer in women over age 18 years living in Loire. The second survey was regarding onco-geriatric screening through two questionnaires : one for the elderly and the other for general practitioner (GP) of the department, evaluating screening for breast, colorectal, prostate, cervical and lung cancer. One hundred sixty six women were included in the first investigation mean age of 47.6 years. Ninety three point six per cent were screening for breast cancer, 19% received Human Papilloma virus vaccine, 83.1% were screening by Papanicolau smear for cervical cancer and finally, 51.7% were screening for colorectal cancer, among the one entering screening program criteria. In the second survey, 44 patients and 28 GP were included. Thirty-eight point six per cent of patients over 74 years continue screening. Only 11.4% were reluctant to screening and in 80% because of anxiety du to the results. Among GP, 50 % continued screening on two major criteria : life expectancy and performans status. The present study shows heterogeneity of screening in this department both rural and working class and gives us a societo-medical photography.

  15. Assessment: Examining Practice in Entrepreneurship Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pittaway, Luke; Edwards, Corina

    2012-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this paper is to develop knowledge about the nature of student assessment practice in entrepreneurship education. Design/methodology/approach: This paper introduces general assessment practice issues and highlights key considerations. It explains prior research on assessment practice in entrepreneurship education and argues…

  16. Gestational diabetes mellitus in Europe: prevalence, current screening practice and barriers to screening

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Buckley, B S; Harreiter, J; Damm, P

    2012-01-01

    of its diagnosis. Methods: The Vitamin D and Lifestyle Intervention for Gestational Diabetes Mellitus Prevention (DALI) research programme aims to promote pan-European standards in the detection and diagnosis of gestational diabetes and to develop effective preventive interventions. To provide...... an overview of the context within which the programme will be conducted and its findings interpreted, systematic searching and narrative synthesis have been used to identify and review the best available European evidence relating to the prevalence of gestational diabetes, current screening practices...... standards for gestational diabetes could lead to better detection and treatment, improved outcomes for women and children and a strengthened evidence base. There is an urgent need for well-designed research that can inform decisions on best practice in gestational diabetes mellitus screening and diagnosis...

  17. NSGC practice guideline: prenatal screening and diagnostic testing options for chromosome aneuploidy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilson, K L; Czerwinski, J L; Hoskovec, J M; Noblin, S J; Sullivan, C M; Harbison, A; Campion, M W; Devary, K; Devers, P; Singletary, C N

    2013-02-01

    The BUN and FASTER studies, two prospective multicenter trials in the United States, validated the accuracy and detection rates of first and second trimester screening previously reported abroad. These studies, coupled with the 2007 release of the American College of Obstetricians and Gynecologists (ACOG) Practice Bulletin that endorsed first trimester screening as an alternative to traditional second trimester multiple marker screening, led to an explosion of screening options available to pregnant women. ACOG also recommended that invasive diagnostic testing for chromosome aneuploidy be made available to all women regardless of maternal age. More recently, another option known as Non-invasive Prenatal Testing (NIPT) became available to screen for chromosome aneuploidy. While screening and testing options may be limited due to a variety of factors, healthcare providers need to be aware of the options in their area in order to provide their patients with accurate and reliable information. If not presented clearly, patients may feel overwhelmed at the number of choices available. The following guideline includes recommendations for healthcare providers regarding which screening or diagnostic test should be offered based on availability, insurance coverage, and timing of a patient's entry into prenatal care, as well as a triage assessment so that a general process can be adapted to unique situations.

  18. Syphilis screening practices in blood transfusion facilities in Ghana

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sarkodie, Francis; Hassall, Oliver; Owusu-Dabo, Ellis

    2016-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: The primary objective of this study was to compare laboratory practices for screening blood donors for syphilis at blood transfusion facilities in Ghana with the recommendations of the World Health Organization and the National Blood Service, Ghana (NBSG). The prevalence of syphilis.......9%, compared to 4.0% in family donations (p=0.001). Only 6.9% of the health facilities were using standard operating procedures (SOPs). CONCLUSIONS: Despite international and national recommendations, more than half of the studied health facilities that provide blood transfusions in Ghana are not screening...... antibodies in blood donors in Ghana was also estimated. METHODS: Over an 11-month period, from February 2014 to January 2015, a semi-structured questionnaire was administered to 122 laboratory technical heads out of a total of 149 transfusion facilities in Ghana. The response rate was 81.9%. RESULTS: A total...

  19. Validation and practical implementation of a multidisciplinary cancer distress screening questionnaire

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kirchheiner, K.; Czajka, A.; Komarek, E.; Hohenberg, G.; Poetter, R. [Medical University of Vienna (Austria). Dept. of Radiation Oncology; Ponocny-Seliger, E. [Sigmund Freud Private University, Vienna (Austria). Dept. of Psychology; Doerr, W. [Medical University of Vienna (Austria). Dept. of Radiation Oncology; Medical University of Vienna (Austria). Christian Doppler Laboratory for Medical Radiation Research for Radiation Oncology

    2013-07-15

    Background: In order to identify cancer patients with psychosocial needs during radiotherapy, a routine screening questionnaire is widely recommended in the literature. Several tools focusing mainly on psychological issues have been developed during the past decade. However, problems with their implementation into clinical routine have been repeatedly reported, due to a lack of practicability for clinicians and nurses. This study reports the compilation of a multidisciplinary screening questionnaire and an analysis of the effectiveness of its implementation into clinical routine at the Department of Radiotherapy, Medical University of Vienna. Materials and methods: The screening questionnaire is based on a compilation of several subscales from established and validated assessment tools. It focuses on comprehensive information with high a clinical relevance for all professions. In a pilot study, patients' acceptance was assessed qualitatively. Analysis of missing screening data in consecutively admitted patients reflects the effectiveness of implementation and representativity of the data. A validation analysis of the psychological subscales was performed using external criteria and its internal consistency was tested with Cronbachs' {alpha}. Results: Qualitative patient acceptance of the screening questionnaire is good. The overall response rate in the screening procedure was 75 %. Missing patient screening data sets arose randomly - mainly due to organizational problems - and did not result in systematic errors. The psychological subscales identify highly distressed patients with a sensitivity of 89 and 78 %, and an internal consistency of 0.843 and 0.617. Conclusion: The multidisciplinary screening questionnaire compiled in this study has a high patient acceptance, provides reliable and representative data and identifies highly distressed patients with excellent sensitivity. Although requiring additional personnel resources, it can be implemented

  20. Prenatal screening: current practice, new developments, ethical challenges.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Jong, Antina; Maya, Idit; van Lith, Jan M M

    2015-01-01

    Prenatal screening pathways, as nowadays offered in most Western countries consist of similar tests. First, a risk-assessment test for major aneuploides is offered to pregnant women. In case of an increased risk, invasive diagnostic tests, entailing a miscarriage risk, are offered. For decades, only conventional karyotyping was used for final diagnosis. Moreover, several foetal ultrasound scans are offered to detect major congenital anomalies, but the same scans also provide relevant information for optimal support of the pregnancy and the delivery. Recent developments in prenatal screening include the application of microarrays that allow for identifying a much broader range of abnomalities than karyotyping, and non-invasive prenatal testing (NIPT) that enables reducing the number of invasive tests for aneuploidies considerably. In the future, broad NIPT may become possible and affordable. This article will briefly address the ethical issues raised by these technological developments. First, a safe NIPT may lead to routinisation and as such challenge the central issue of informed consent and the aim of prenatal screening: to offer opportunity for autonomous reproductive choice. Widening the scope of prenatal screening also raises the question to what extent 'reproductive autonomy' is meant to expand. Finally, if the same test is used for two different aims, namely detection of foetal anomalies and pregnancy-related problems, non-directive counselling can no longer be taken as a standard. Our broad outline of the ethical issues is meant as an introduction into the more detailed ethical discussions about prenatal screening in the other articles of this special issue.

  1. The Practical Impact of Intellectual Assessment Issues.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Braden, Jeffery P.

    1997-01-01

    School psychologists spend more time on assessment than in other activities. Attempts to establish three links between issues and practice for intellectual assessment: technologies for intellectual assessment, methods of intellectual assessment, and theories of intellectual assessment. Argues that practitioners should heed research showing strong…

  2. Using urbanization profiles to assess screening performance

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Boon, ME; Kok, LP

    2004-01-01

    The large Dutch data sets acquired as a result of population-based cervical smear screening programs can be further exploited to obtain an urbanization-weighted score to gain insight into the quality of the performance of the individual cytology laboratories. Based on the first four digits of the po

  3. Environmental Screening Assessment of Perchlorate Replacements

    Science.gov (United States)

    2007-08-01

    nitramido)dinitroethylene AP Ammonium perchlorate CAS Chemical Abstract Services DNNC 1,3,5,5-tetranitrohexahydropyrimidine EPI Estimation Program...can be created and pasted into the input screen or obtained from a linked file of Chemical Abstract Services (CAS) numbers. The EPI Suite Interface

  4. Changing Practices: Influences on Classroom Assessment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tierney, Robin D.

    2006-01-01

    The pedagogical potential of classroom assessment to support student learning has increasingly been evidenced in research over the past decade. Constructive classroom assessment has been championed by assessment specialists, and endorsed by professional organizations. In practice, however, the process of changing classroom assessment from its…

  5. Screening assessment and requirements for a comprehensive assessment: Volume 1, Draft. Columbia River comprehensive impact assessment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1997-04-01

    To evaluate the impact to the Columbia River from the Hanford Site-derived contaminants, the U.S. Department of Energy, U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, and Washington State Department of Ecology initiated a study referred to as the Columbia River Comprehensive Impact Assessment (CRCIA). To address concerns about the scope and direction of CRCIA as well as enhance regulator, tribal, stockholder, and public involvement, the CRCIA Management Team was formed in August 1995. The Team agreed to conduct CRCIA using a phased approach. The initial phase, includes two components: 1) a screening assessment to evaluate the potential impact to the river, resulting from current levels of Hanford-derived contaminants in order to support decisions on Interim Remedial Measures, and 2) a definition of the essential work remaining to provide an acceptable comprehensive river impact assessment. The screening assessment is described in Part I of this report. The essential work remaining is Part II of this report. The objective of the screening assessment is to identify areas where the greatest potential exists for adverse effects on humans or the environment. Part I of this report discusses the scope, technical approach, and results of the screening assessment. Part II defines a new paradigm for predecisional participation by those affected by Hanford cleanup decisions.

  6. Best practice in wound assessment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benbow, Maureen

    2016-03-01

    Accurate and considered wound assessment is essential to fulfil professional nursing requirements and ensure appropriate patient and wound management. This article describes the main aspects of holistic assessment of the patient and the wound, including identifying patient risk factors and comorbidities, and factors affecting wound healing to ensure optimal outcomes.

  7. Portfolio assessment: practice teachers' early experience.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spence, William; El-Ansari, Walid

    2004-07-01

    Experience was recognised to be a vital source of learning as long ago as 1762 [Emile, Everyman, London, 1993] and reflection on practice experience may be one way forward in addressing nursing's anxieties concerning the practice theory gap. However, despite the acceptance that subjectivity in the process seems inevitable and potentially important, little is understood of the practitioner's experience of practice assessment. Two questionnaires sought the views of specialist community nursing practitioner (SCNP) programme (United Kingdom Central Council for Nursing, Midwifery and Health Visiting (UKCC) 2001) practice teachers (PTs) on the introduction of the portfolio approach to practice assessment. These were distributed to 62 and 76 PTs and the response rates were 32% and 50%, respectively. Responses of those PTs from the three specialisms participating in the piloting of the portfolio approach were compared with those using an existing approach. An action research method was adopted which attempted to use established theory to explain the challenges presented by the introduction of this approach and ultimately to raise the PT group's awareness of assessment issues. Both qualitative and quantitative data were collected and the findings support the use of the portfolio approach to practice assessment. The PT experience of portfolio use was found to be a largely positive one. PTs reported the utility of the portfolio in prompting student self-evaluation of learning. Concerns were expressed by PTs around the quality of portfolio evidence although many felt that it had promoted students' reflection on practice. Inter-PT reliability in practice assessment was identified as a topic for PT continuing professional development. Many sources of evidence, including patient feedback, were used by PTs in their assessment of students although PTs using the portfolio approach used less first-hand experience of students' practice in their assessments of competence, relying more

  8. Learning Community Assessment 101--Best Practices

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huerta, Juan Carlos; Hansen, Michele J.

    2013-01-01

    Good assessment is part of all good learning communities, and this article provides a useful set of best practices for learning community assessment planning: (1) articulating agreed-upon learning community program goals; (2) identifying the purpose of assessment (e.g., summative or formative); (3) employing qualitative and quantitative assessment…

  9. Promoting chlamydia screening with posters and leaflets in general practice - a qualitative study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ford-Young William

    2009-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background General practice staff are reluctant to discuss sexual health opportunistically in all consultations. Health promotion materials may help alleviate this barrier. Chlamydia screening promotion posters and leaflets, produced by the English National Chlamydia Screening Programme (NCSP, have been available to general practices, through local chlamydia screening offices, since its launch. In this study we explored the attitudes of general practice staff to these screening promotional materials, how they used them, and explored other promotional strategies to encourage chlamydia screening. Methods Twenty-five general practices with a range of screening rates, were purposively selected from six NCSP areas in England. In focus groups doctors, nurses, administrative staff and receptionists were encouraged to discuss candidly their experiences about their use and opinions of posters, leaflets and advertising to promote chlamydia screening. Researchers observed whether posters and leaflets were on display in reception and/or waiting areas. Data were collected and analysed concurrently using a stepwise framework analytical approach. Results Although two-thirds of screening practices reported that they displayed posters and leaflets, they were not prominently displayed in most practices. Only a minority of practices reported actively using screening promotional materials on an ongoing basis. Most staff in all practices were not following up the advertising in posters and leaflets by routinely offering opportunistic screening to their target population. Some staff in many practices thought posters and leaflets would cause offence or embarrassment to their patients. Distribution of chlamydia leaflets by receptionists was thought to be inappropriate by some practices, as they thought patients would be offended when being offered a leaflet in a public area. Practice staff suggested the development of pocket-sized leaflets. Conclusion The NCSP

  10. Arab women's breast cancer screening practices: a literature review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Donnelly, Tam Truong; Khater, Al-Hareth Al; Al-Bader, Salha Bujassoum; Al Kuwari, Mohammed Ghaith; Al-Meer, Nabila; Malik, Mariam; Singh, Rajvir; Jong, Floor Christie-de

    2013-01-01

    Breast cancer incidence and mortality rates are increasing in the Arab world and the involved women are often diagnosed at advanced stages of breast cancer. This literature review explores factors influencing Arab women's breast cancer screening behavior. Searched databases were: Medline, PubMed, Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews, CINAHL Plus, Google Scholar, Index Medicus for WHO Eastern Mediterranean, and Asian Pacific Journal of Cancer Prevention. Breast cancer screening participation rates are low. Screening programs are opportunistic and relatively new to the region. Knowledge amongst women and health care providers, professional recommendation, socio-demographic factors, cultural traditions, beliefs, religious, social support, accessibility and perceived effectiveness of screening influence screening behavior.

  11. Screening for cancer: when to stop?: A practical guide and review of the evidence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soung, Michael C

    2015-03-01

    Deciding when to stop cancer screening in older adults is a complex challenge that involves multiple factors: individual health status and life expectancy; risks and benefits of screening, which vary with age and comorbidity; and individual preferences and values. This article examines current cancer screening practices and reviews the risks and benefits of cancer screening for colorectal, breast, lung, prostate, and cervical cancer, particularly in older individuals and those with multiple comorbidities. Tools for estimating life expectancy are reviewed, and a practical framework is presented to guide discussions on when the harms of screening likely outweigh the benefits.

  12. Screening for microalbuminuria in patients with type 2 diabetes is incomplete in general practice

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Knudsen, Søren Tang; Mosbech, Thomas Hammershaimb; Hansen, Birtha Petrea;

    2012-01-01

    National Danish guidelines recommend screening for microalbuminuria with assessment of urinary albumin/creatinine ratio at least annually in patients with type 2 diabetes. To which extent such screening is actually performed is not known.......National Danish guidelines recommend screening for microalbuminuria with assessment of urinary albumin/creatinine ratio at least annually in patients with type 2 diabetes. To which extent such screening is actually performed is not known....

  13. Virtual Screening with AutoDock: Theory and Practice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cosconati, Sandro; Forli, Stefano; Perryman, Alex L.; Harris, Rodney; Goodsell, David S.; Olson, Arthur J.

    2011-01-01

    Importance to the field Virtual screening is a computer-based technique for identifying promising compounds to bind to a target molecule of known structure. Given the rapidly increasing number of protein and nucleic acid structures, virtual screening continues to grow as an effective method for the discovery of new inhibitors and drug molecules. Areas covered in this review We describe virtual screening methods that are available in the AutoDock suite of programs, and several of our successes in using AutoDock virtual screening in pharmaceutical lead discovery. What the reader will gain A general overview of the challenges of virtual screening is presented, along with the tools available in the AutoDock suite of programs for addressing these challenges. Take home message Virtual screening is an effective tool for the discovery of compounds for use as leads in drug discovery, and the free, open source program AutoDock is an effective tool for virtual screening. PMID:21532931

  14. US Primary Care Physicians’ Prostate Cancer Screening Practices

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sun Hee Rim

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Background: Limited information exists on primary care physicians’ (PCPs use of the prostate-specific antigen (PSA test by patient risk category. We describe PCP responses to hypothetical patient scenario (PS involving PSA testing among high-risk asymptomatic men. Methods: Data were from the 2007 to 2008 National Survey of Primary Care Physicians’ Practices Regarding Prostate Cancer Screening. PS#1: healthy 55-year-old white male with no family history of prostate cancer; PS#2: healthy 45-year-old African American male with no family history of prostate cancer; and PS#3: healthy 50-year-old male with a family history of prostate cancer. Data were analyzed in SAS/SUDAAN. Results: Most PCPs indicated that they generally discuss the possible benefits/risks of PSA testing with the patient and then recommend the test (PS#1-PS#3 range, 53.4%-68.7%; P < .001; only about 1% reported discussing and then recommending against the test. For PS#3, compared to PS#1 and #2, PCPs were more likely to discuss and recommend the test or attempt to persuade the patient who initially declines the test. For PS#3, all clinicians generally would order/discuss the PSA test and not rely on the patient to ask. Conclusion: Clinicians treat family history as an important reason to recommend, persuade, and initiate PSA testing.

  15. Improved risk assessment by screening sperm parameters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Plassmann, S; Urwyler, H

    2001-02-28

    The question of whether a 4 or 9 week premating treatment period is more suitable in studies for effects on fertility and early embryonic development, and the extent to which the screening of sperm parameters may contribute to the detection of effects, has been under discussion since the ICH guideline changed in 1994/1995. This study presents a comparison between 4 and 9 weeks treatment with known male reproductive toxicants with regard to sperm motility, count, morphology, abnormal movements and testicular and epididymal histopathology. Mating outcome was examined after 4 weeks treatment. Three compounds with different targets and mechanisms of action were chosen: two testicular toxicants, Pyridoxine and Adriamycin and the epididymal toxicant, alpha-Chlorohydrine. Sperm motility was reduced in males treated with Pyridoxine (markedly) and alpha-Chlorohydrine (slightly) after 4 weeks treatment and in males treated with Adriamycin after 9 weeks treatment. With Pyridoxine and Adriamycin, sperm count was significantly increased after 4 weeks. Histopathological examination after 4 weeks showed characteristic changes leading to marked testicular tubular atrophy at 8/9 weeks, which was confirmed by a significantly reduced sperm count at 8/9 weeks. With alpha-Chlorohydrine, sperm count was not affected and the results of the histopathological examination were equivocal. Changes in sperm morphology were observed after 4/9 weeks of treatment with Pyridoxine. Mating outcome after 4 weeks was markedly affected with both Pyridoxine and alpha-Chlorohydrine, but no effect was observed with Adriamycin. The results of this study indicate that the two testicular toxicants would have been detected as male reproductive toxicants in a 4-week general toxicity study with routine testicular histopathology and examination of sperm parameters, without the need for mating trials. For the epididymal toxicant, alpha-Chlorohydrine, there was slightly reduced sperm motility after 4 weeks

  16. Classroom Assessment Practices of Ohio Teachers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mertler, Craig A.

    A descriptive study was conducted to examine the current assessment practices of teachers in Ohio. The specific aim of the study was to gain an understanding of the extent to which teachers use traditional versus alternative forms of assessment techniques in their classrooms. Participants were 625 teachers from kindergarten through grade 12. The…

  17. [Cervical cancer screening in Switzerland - current practice and future challenges].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Untiet, Sarah; Schmidt, Nicole; Low, Nicola; Petignat, Patrick

    2013-04-01

    At the beginning of the 20th Century, cervical cancer was the leading cause of death from cancer in women. A marked decline in cervical cancer has been observed since the 1960s, in parallel with the introduction of the Papanicolau (Pap) test as a cytological screening method. Today, Pap smear screening is still the most widely used tool for cervical cancer prevention. Testing for human papillomavirus (HPV) in cervical specimens or a combination of Pap and HPV testing are also now available. In this article we compare current guidelines for cervical cancer screening in Switzerland with those in other European countries. In view of the opportunities offered by HPV testing and, since 2008, HPV vaccination, current guidelines for cervical cancer screening should be updated. Both the choice of screening tests and general organization of cervical cancer screening should be reviewed.

  18. Do Social Network Characteristics Predict Mammography Screening Practices?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Allen, Jennifer D.; Stoddard, Anne M.; Sorensen, Glorian

    2008-01-01

    Background: Many breast cancer outreach programs assume that dissemination of information through social networks and provision of social support will promote screening. The authors prospectively examined the relationship between social network characteristics and adherence to screening guidelines. Method: Employed women age 40 years and older…

  19. Screening for type 2 diabetes in general practice

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Janssen, P.G.H.

    2008-01-01

    The presented studies were conducted within the framework of the international ADDITION study (Anglo-Danish-Dutch Study of Intensive Treatment in People with Screen-Detected Diabetes in Primary Care), a randomised controlled trial in 3,057 screen-detected type 2 diabetic patients. The aim of ADDITIO

  20. Knowledge, attitudes and practices toward breast cancer screening in a rural South African community

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dorah U. Ramathuba

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Objectives: The study assessed the knowledge, attitudes and breast cancer screening practices amongst women aged 30–65 years residing in a rural South African community.Method: A quantitative, descriptive cross-sectional design was used and a systematic sampling technique was employed to select 150 participants. The questionnaire was pretested for validity and consistency. Ethical considerations were adhered to in protecting the rights of participants. Thereafter, data were collected and analysed descriptively using the Predictive Analytics Software program.Results: Findings revealed that the level of knowledge about breast cancer of women in Makwarani Community was relatively low. The attitude toward breast cancer was negative whereas the majority of women had never performed breast cancer diagnostic methods.Conclusion: Health education on breast cancer screening practices is lacking and the knowledge deficit can contribute negatively to early detection of breast cancer and compound late detection. Based on the findings, community-based intervention was recommended in order to bridge the knowledge gap

  1. Binding-site assessment by virtual fragment screening.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Niu Huang

    Full Text Available The accurate prediction of protein druggability (propensity to bind high-affinity drug-like small molecules would greatly benefit the fields of chemical genomics and drug discovery. We have developed a novel approach to quantitatively assess protein druggability by computationally screening a fragment-like compound library. In analogy to NMR-based fragment screening, we dock approximately 11,000 fragments against a given binding site and compute a computational hit rate based on the fraction of molecules that exceed an empirically chosen score cutoff. We perform a large-scale evaluation of the approach on four datasets, totaling 152 binding sites. We demonstrate that computed hit rates correlate with hit rates measured experimentally in a previously published NMR-based screening method. Secondly, we show that the in silico fragment screening method can be used to distinguish known druggable and non-druggable targets, including both enzymes and protein-protein interaction sites. Finally, we explore the sensitivity of the results to different receptor conformations, including flexible protein-protein interaction sites. Besides its original aim to assess druggability of different protein targets, this method could be used to identifying druggable conformations of flexible binding site for lead discovery, and suggesting strategies for growing or joining initial fragment hits to obtain more potent inhibitors.

  2. Preventive cancer screening practices in HIV-positive patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Momplaisir, Florence; Mounzer, Karam; Long, Judith A

    2014-01-01

    As patients with HIV age, they are at risk of developing non-AIDS defining malignancies. We performed a questionnaire study to evaluate colorectal and breast cancer screening among HIV-positive and HIV-negative patients seeking care from either an integrated (HIV/primary care), nonintegrated (specialized HIV), or general internal medicine clinic between August 2010 and July 2011. We performed a logistic regression to determine the odds of cancer screening. A total of 813 surveys were collected, and 762 were included in the analysis. As much as 401 were from HIV-positive patients. Patients with HIV were less likely to be current with their colorectal cancer screening (CRCS) (54.4% versus 65.0%, p=0.009); mammography rates were 24.3% versus 62.3% if done during the past year (pscreening in HIV-positive patients compared to negative controls was not statistically significant (OR 0.8; 95% CI 0.5-1.3); however, HIV-positive women remained significantly less likely to be current with breast cancer screening (BCS) whether their mammogram was completed within 1 year (OR 0.1, 95% CI 0.1-0.2) or within 5 years (OR 0.1, 95% CI 0.0-0.2). Integrated care was not associated with improved screening; however, having frequent visits to a primary care physician (PCP) increased the likelihood of getting screened. BCS was lower in HIV-positive compared to HIV-negative women. Frequent visits to a PCPs improved cancer screening.

  3. Using financial ratios to assess physician practices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Doelling, P M

    1996-01-01

    Purchasing physician practices has become commonplace in the health care environment today. The most commonly used method to evaluate a physician's practice is the medical practice assessment. Although assessments include examining revenues, expenses, staffing ratios, collection ratios and other pertinent statistics, one of the often overlooked financial areas is the balance sheet. Evaluating a business, such as a medical practice, requires a thorough examination of the total financial picture including assets, liabilities, owner's equity or net worth, and the relationship of all the variables to each other. Ratios put the numbers into perspective by creating relationships between the balance sheet variables of assets, liabilities and owner's equity, and key income statement components of revenues, expenses and net income. As a result, ratios provide a unique perspective to the assessment process and enable a more complete analysis. This article examines the types and uses of ratios to assist physicians, managers, and hospital executives to better evaluate the financial viability of a physician's solo or group practice.

  4. Practical considerations in voltage stability assessment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kundur, P.; Gao, B. [Powertech Labs. Inc., Surrey, BC (Canada)

    1994-12-31

    This paper deals with some of the most important practical issues related to voltage stability assessment of large practical systems. A brief discussion of the practical aspects of voltage stability problem and prevention of voltage instability is given first, followed by descriptions of different analytical techniques and tools for voltage stability analysis. Presentations of analytical tools is focused on the VSTAB program which incorporates the modal analysis, continuation power flow, and shortest distance to instability techniques, Finally, an example case study of a practical large system is presented. The case study illustrates how modal analysis is used to determine the most effective load shedding scheme for preventing voltage instability. (author) 15 refs., 2 figs., 2 tabs.

  5. 76 FR 49473 - Petition to Maximize Practical Utility of List 1 Chemicals Screened Through EPA's Endocrine...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-08-10

    ... AGENCY Petition to Maximize Practical Utility of List 1 Chemicals Screened Through EPA's Endocrine... decisions on data received in response to the test orders issued under the Endocrine Disruptor Screening...'' system, which means EPA will not know your identity or contact information unless you provide it in...

  6. Do general practices adhere to organizational guidelines for effective cervical cancer screening?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hermens, R P; Hak, E; Hulscher, M E; Mulder, J; Braspenning, J C; Grol, R P

    1998-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Well-organized cervical screening has been shown to be effective in the reduction of both morbidity and mortality from cancer of the uterine cervix. In The Netherlands, the GP plays an important role in the cervical screening. The question is whether the general practices are able to org

  7. Cancer screening in a middle-aged general population: factors associated with practices and attitudes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Perneger Thomas V

    2009-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The aim of this study was to identify factors associated with cancer screening practices and with general attitudes toward cancer screening in a general population. Methods Mailed survey of 30–60 year old residents of Geneva, Switzerland, that included questions about screening for five cancers (breast, cervix uteri, prostate, colon, skin in the past 3 years, attitudes toward screening, health care use, preventive behaviours and socio-demographic characteristics. Cancer screening practice was dichotomised as having done at least one screening test in the past 3 years versus none. Results The survey response rate was 49.3% (2301/4670. More women than men had had at least one cancer screening test in the past 3 years (83.2% vs 34.5%, p Conclusion Attitudes play an important role in cancer screening practices among middle-aged adults in the general population, independent of demographic variables (age and sex that determine in part screening recommendations. Negative attitudes were the most frequent among men and the most socio-economically disadvantaged. The moderate participation rate raises the possibility of selection bias.

  8. Screening Level Risk Assessment for the New Waste Calcining Facility

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    M. L. Abbott; K. N. Keck; R. E. Schindler; R. L. VanHorn; N. L. Hampton; M. B. Heiser

    1999-05-01

    This screening level risk assessment evaluates potential adverse human health and ecological impacts resulting from continued operations of the calciner at the New Waste Calcining Facility (NWCF) at the Idaho Nuclear Technology and Engineering Center (INTEC), Idaho National Engineering and Environmental Laboratory (INEEL). The assessment was conducted in accordance with the Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) report, Guidance for Performing Screening Level Risk Analyses at Combustion Facilities Burning Hazardous Waste. This screening guidance is intended to give a conservative estimate of the potential risks to determine whether a more refined assessment is warranted. The NWCF uses a fluidized-bed combustor to solidify (calcine) liquid radioactive mixed waste from the INTEC Tank Farm facility. Calciner off volatilized metal species, trace organic compounds, and low-levels of radionuclides. Conservative stack emission rates were calculated based on maximum waste solution feed samples, conservative assumptions for off gas partitioning of metals and organics, stack gas sampling for mercury, and conservative measurements of contaminant removal (decontamination factors) in the off gas treatment system. Stack emissions were modeled using the ISC3 air dispersion model to predict maximum particulate and vapor air concentrations and ground deposition rates. Results demonstrate that NWCF emissions calculated from best-available process knowledge would result in maximum onsite and offsite health and ecological impacts that are less then EPA-established criteria for operation of a combustion facility.

  9. Psychosocial screening and assessment in oncology and palliative care settings

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luigi eGrassi

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Psychiatric and psychosocial disorders among cancer patients have been reported as a major consequence of the disease and treatment. The problems in applying a pure psychiatric approach have determined the need for structuring more defined methods, including screening for distress and emotional symptoms and a more specific psychosocial assessment, to warrant proper care to cancer patients with psychosocial problems. This review examines some of the most significant issues related to these two steps, screening and assessment of psychosocial morbidity in cancer and palliative care. With regard to this , the many different variables, such as the factors affecting individual vulnerability (e.g. life events, chronic stress and allostatic load, well-being, and health attitudes and the psychosocial correlates of medical disease (e.g. psychiatric disturbances, psychological symptoms, illness behavior, and quality of life which are possibly implicated not only in classical psychiatric disorders but more broadly in psychosocial suffering. Multidimensional tools (e.g. and specific psychosocially oriented interview (e.g. the Diagnostic Criteria for Psychosomatic Research - DCPR represent a way to screen for and assess emotional distress, anxiety and depression, maladaptive coping, dysfunctional attachment, as well as other significant psychosocial dimensions secondary to cancer, such as demoralization and health anxiety. Cross-cultural issues, such as language, ethnicity, race, and religion, are also discussed as possible factors influencing the patients and families perception of illness, coping mechanisms, psychological response to a cancer diagnosis.

  10. Assessing potential health effects from municipal sludge incinerators: screening methodology

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fradkin, L.; Bruins, J.F.; Lutkenhoff, S.D.; Stara, J.F.; Lomnitz, E.; Rubin, A.

    1987-04-01

    This paper describes a risk assessment methodology for preliminary assessment of municipal sludge incineration. The methodology is a valuable tool in that it can be used for determining the hazard indices of chemical contaminants that might be present in sewage sludge used in incineration. The paper examines source characteristics (i.e., facility design), atmospheric dispersion of emission, and resulting human exposure and risk from sludge incinerators. Seven of the ten organics were screened for further investigation. An example of the calculations are presented for cadmium.

  11. Newborn Hearing Screening: An Analysis of Current Practices

    Science.gov (United States)

    Houston, K. Todd; Bradham, Tamala S.; Munoz, Karen F.; Guignard, Gayla Hutsell

    2011-01-01

    State coordinators of early hearing detection and intervention (EHDI) programs completed a strengths, weaknesses, opportunities, and threats, or SWOT, analysis that consisted of 12 evaluative areas of EHDI programs. For the newborn hearing screening area, a total of 293 items were listed by 49 EHDI coordinators, and themes were identified within…

  12. Screening for Peripheral Artery Disease and Cardiovascular Disease Risk Assessment with Ankle Brachial Index in Adults

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Force Recommendations Screening for Peripheral Artery Disease and Cardiovascular Disease Risk Assessment with Ankle Brachial Index in Adults ... on Screening for Peripheral Artery Disease (PAD) and Cardiovascular Disease (CVD) Risk Assessment with Ankle Brachial Index (ABI) ...

  13. Evaluating factors influencing screening for pulmonary hypertension in systemic sclerosis: does disparity between available guidelines influence clinical practice?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pauling, John D; McHugh, Neil J

    2012-02-01

    Pulmonary arterial hypertension (PAH) is one of the leading causes of mortality in systemic sclerosis (SSc). We audited adherence with available recommendations regarding cardiopulmonary screening for PAH in SSc and explored potential factors influencing clinical practice. A retrospective case note review of 108 patients with SSc who had attended outpatient clinic over the previous year was undertaken. Records were scrutinised for evidence of previous assessment with trans-thoracic echocardiography (TTE) and pulmonary function tests (PFT), along with information regarding clinical phenotype and serological subset. The proportion of patients for whom screening had been undertaken within the previous 12 months was low, with significantly fewer having TTE compared with PFT assessment (34.7% vs. 53.1%, p = 0.014). The majority of patients had undergone TTE and PFT assessment within the previous 2 years, but a lower proportion had undergone TTE compared with PFT (69.4% vs. 82.7%, p = 0.044). There were strong trends for more frequent PFT assessment in younger patients, limited cutaneous SSc and worse previous PFT results. In contrast, the frequency of TTE assessment was not associated with previous investigation results or disease subtype. Serological profile did not influence the frequency of either TTE or PFT assessments. Disparity between available published guidelines may influence both the frequency and preference of PAH screening in SSc in clinical practice. The higher frequency of PFT assessment might reflect a perceived superiority amongst clinicians of PFT over TTE in the early identification of SSc-PAH. SSc-specific guidelines, possibly incorporating additional independent risk factors, may improve the cost-effectiveness and clinical efficacy of screening recommendations designed to ensure the early identification of PAH in patients with SSc.

  14. Current directions in screening-level ecological risk assessments

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Carlsen, T M; Efroymson, R A

    2000-12-11

    Ecological risk assessment (ERA) is a tool used by many regulatory agencies to evaluate the impact to ecological receptors from changes in environmental conditions. Widespread use of ERAs began with the United States Environmental Protection Agency's Superfund program to assess the ecological impact from hazardous chemicals released to the environment. Many state hazardous chemical regulatory agencies have adopted the use of ERAs, and several state regulatory agencies are evaluating the use of ERAs to assess ecological impacts from releases of petroleum and gas-related products. Typical ERAs are toxicologically-based, use conservative assumptions with respect to ecological receptor exposure duration and frequency, often require complex modeling of transport and exposure and are very labor intensive. In an effort to streamline the ERA process, efforts are currently underway to develop default soil screening levels, to identify ecological screening criteria for excluding sites from formal risk assessment, and to create risk-based corrective action worksheets. This should help reduce the time spent on ERAs, at least for some sites. Work is also underway to incorporate bioavailability and spatial considerations into ERAs. By evaluating the spatial nature of contaminant releases with respect to the spatial context of the ecosystem under consideration, more realistic ERAs with respect to the actual impact to ecological receptors at the population, community or ecosystem scale should be possible. In addition, by considering the spatial context, it should be possible to develop mitigation and monitoring efforts to more appropriately address such sites within the context of an ecological framework.

  15. Assessment and pedagogical practices of teachers.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juan Quevedo Toro

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available The evaluation should become a dynamic process of school life in any educational institution with the primary purpose to understand and assess their practical and academic, social and pedagogical relations, educational discourse, actions and decisions conducive to transform reality and praxis pedagogical. In this sense, the Pedagogical Project Bread teacher training has allowed reconceptualize and evaluative and educational recontextualise light of qualitative practices, integrated, personal and social, exceeding the quantitative conception, before qualifying and only rote knowledge . The project constitutes the optimal space for future teachers articulate evaluative theory and practice related to pedagogy and his knowledge of this discipline. He then conceives of evaluation as the opportunity to learn to understand and understanding to transform our educational and institutional realities.

  16. Assessing the Suitability of Various Physiological Traits to Screen Wheat Genotypes for Salt Tolerance

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Salah E. El-Hendawy; Yuncai Hu; Urs Schmidhalter

    2007-01-01

    Success of improving the salt tolerance of genotypes requires effective and reliable screening traits in breeding programs.The objective was to assess the suitability of various physiological traits to screen wheat genotypes for salt tolerance.Thirteen wheat genotypes from Egypt, Germany, Australia and India were grown in soil with two salinity levels (control and 150 mmol/L NaCl) in a greenhouse. The physiological traits (ion contents in leaves and stems, i.e. Na+, Cl-, K+, Ca2+), the ratios of K+/Na+ and Ca+/Na+ in the leaves and stems, net photosynthesis rate, stomatal conductance, transpiration rate,chlorophyll content (SPAD value), and leaf water relations, were measured at different growth stages. The physiological traits except for Na+ and Cl- in stems and the leaf transpiration rate at 150 mmol/L NaCl showed a significant genotypic variation, indicating that the traits that have a significant genotypic variation may be possibly used as screening criteria.According to the analysis of linear regression of the scores of the physiological traits against those of grain yield, however,the physiological traits of Ca2+ and Ca2+/Na+ at 45 d and final harvest with the greatest genotypic variation were ranked at the top. From a practical and economic point of view, SPAD value should be considered to be used as screening criteria and/or there is a need to develop a quick and practical approach to determine Ca2+ in plant tissues.

  17. Abnormal ovarian cancer screening test result: women's informational, psychological and practical needs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ryan, Patricia Y; Graves, Kristi D; Pavlik, Edward J; Andrykowski, Michael A

    2007-01-01

    Considerable effort has been devoted to the identification of cost-effective approaches to screening for ovarian cancer (OC). Transvaginal ultrasound (TVS) is one such screening approach. Approximately 5-7% of routine TVS screening tests yield abnormal results. Some women experience significant distress after receipt of an abnormal TVS screening test. Four focus groups provided in-depth, qualitative data regarding the informational, psychological, and practical needs of women after the receipt of an abnormal TVS result. Through question and content analytic procedures, we identified four themes: anticipation, emotional response, role of the screening technician, and impact of prior cancer experiences. Results provide initial guidance toward development of interventions to promote adaptive responses after receipt of an abnormal cancer screening test result.

  18. DR services in Fiji: attitudes, barriers and screening practices

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    Bridget Kool

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to describe the attitudes and perceptions of primary health care doctors in Fiji regarding the importance of eye care in diabetes mellitus (DM management, to explore current eye care practice, and to investigate awareness and use of relevant clinical practice guidelines. The study builds on earlier research conducted in Fiji that identified a rapid increase of late-stage DR patients presenting for treatment, at a time when surgery was the only option.

  19. A qualitative analysis of lung cancer screening practices by primary care physicians.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Henderson, Susan; DeGroff, Amy; Richards, Thomas B; Kish-Doto, Julia; Soloe, Cindy; Heminger, Christina; Rohan, Elizabeth

    2011-12-01

    Lung cancer is the leading cause of cancer death in the United States, but no scientific organization currently recommends screening because of limited evidence for its effectiveness. Despite this, physicians often order screening tests such as chest X-rays and computerized tomography scans for their patients. Limited information is available about how physicians decide when to order these tests. To identify factors that affect whether physicians' screen patients for lung cancer, we conducted five 75-min telephone-based focus groups with 28 US primary care physicians and used inductive qualitative research methods to analyze their responses. We identified seven factors that influenced these physicians' decisions about screening patients for lung cancer: (1) their perception of a screening test's effectiveness, (2) their attitude toward recommended screening guidelines, (3) their practice experience, (4) their perception of a patient's risk for lung cancer, (5) reimbursement and payment for screening, (6) their concern about litigation, and (7) whether a patient requested screening. Because these factors may have conflicting effects on physicians' decisions to order screening tests, physicians may struggle in determining when screening for lung cancer is appropriate. We recommend (1) more clinician education, beginning in medical school, about the existing evidence related to lung cancer screening, with emphasis on the benefit of and training in tobacco use prevention and cessation, (2) more patient education about the benefits and limitations of screening, (3) further studies about the effect of patients' requests to be screened on physicians' decisions to order screening tests, and (4) larger, quantitative studies to follow up on our formative data.

  20. Improving asthma severity and control screening in a primary care pediatric practice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sudhanthar, Sathyanarayan; Thakur, Kripa; Sigal, Yakov; Turner, Jane; Gold, Jonathan

    2016-01-01

    Asthma is the most commonly encountered chronic disease in children. Periodic assessment of asthma severity and control is an integral part of asthma management, but patients with uncontrolled asthma don't always schedule routine asthma care visits. The aim of this project was to improve asthma control and severity screening in a primary care setting by using a validated tool for all visits for patients with a diagnosis of asthma aged 4-21 years. Our QI team developed a protocol to administer the Asthma Control Test (TM), a validated questionnaire to assess asthma control. The stakeholders involved were the physicians, nursing staff, and the Health Information Team (HIT). All patients who had a prior diagnosis of asthma or with an asthma medication in their chart, who presented for any clinical visit including asthma were administered ACT. The staff scored the ACT and included the form in the encounter sheet so that the physicians can review the scores, address the asthma control, severity, and document in the chart. The number of patients whose asthma control was assessed improved from 10% per year to 85% after the three PDSA cycles. Administration of the tool did not impact the flow of the patients in a busy primary care practice. Screening asthma severity and control for patients diagnosed with asthma with a validated questionnaire when presenting for any chief complaint including asthma will help the provider address the severity and control of asthma symptoms in a timely manner and would potentially help prevent unwanted emergency department or urgent care usage.

  1. COMPETENCE ASSESSMENT: BEST PRACTICES IN EUROPEAN COUNTRIES

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    Magdalena VELCIU

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available In the current changing environment of work, the process of competence assessment is increasingly relevant as workers gain knowledge and practical skills through fulfilling different and new working tasks and through self-education. In this context, innovative tools for competence assessment and validation are very useful for encouraging movement of individuals between jobs and from unemployment or inactivity to employment and for increasing the capacity of companies to respond and adapt to changing and challenging environments. This article presents an overview of best practices for competence assessment and validation in order to identify and select methods that have been effective in various European countries including Romania. The article concludes with a set of „learned lessons” and short recommendations in order to improve the framework of competence assessment in Romanian context. Our findings are useful for the new human resources management that aims toward efficiently usage of the workforce, inside companies and in a global labour market, encouraging flexibility and adaptability.

  2. Academic detailing to increase colorectal cancer screening by primary care practices in Appalachian Pennsylvania

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Graybill Marie A

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background In the United States, colorectal cancer (CRC is the third most frequently diagnosed cancer and second leading cause of cancer death. Screening is a primary method to prevent CRC, yet screening remains low in the U.S. and particularly in Appalachian Pennsylvania, a largely rural area with high rates of poverty, limited health care access, and increased CRC incidence and mortality rates. Receiving a physician recommendation for CRC screening is a primary predictor for patient adherence with screening guidelines. One strategy to disseminate practice-oriented interventions is academic detailing (AD, a method that transfers knowledge or methods to physicians, nurses or office staff through the visit(s of a trained educator. The objective of this study was to determine acceptability and feasibility of AD among primary care practices in rural Appalachian Pennsylvania to increase CRC screening. Methods A multi-site, practice-based, intervention study with pre- and 6-month post-intervention review of randomly selected medical records, pre- and post-intervention surveys, as well as a post-intervention key informant interview was conducted. The primary outcome was the proportion of patients current with CRC screening recommendations and having received a CRC screening within the past year. Four practices received three separate AD visits to review four different learning modules. Results We reviewed 323 records pre-intervention and 301 post-intervention. The prevalence of being current with screening recommendation was 56% in the pre-intervention, and 60% in the post-intervention (p = 0. 29, while the prevalence of having been screened in the past year increased from 17% to 35% (p Conclusions AD appears to be acceptable and feasible for primary care providers in rural Appalachia. A ceiling effect for CRC screening may have been a factor in no change in overall screening rates. While the study was not designed to test the efficacy of AD

  3. Assessment of a Novel Automatic Real-Time PCR Assay on the Cobas 4800 Analyzer as a Screening Platform for Hepatitis C Virus Genotyping in Clinical Practice: Comparison with Massive Sequencing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nieto-Aponte, Leonardo; Ruiz-Ripa, Alicia; Tabernero, David; Gonzalez, Carolina; Gregori, Josep; Vila, Marta; Asensio, Miriam; Garcia-Cehic, Damir; Ruiz, Gerardo; Chen, Qian; Ordeig, Laura; Llorens, Meritxell; Saez, Montserrat; Esteban, Juan I.; Esteban, Rafael; Buti, Maria; Pumarola, Tomas

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT The unequivocal identification of hepatitis C virus (HCV) subtypes 1a/1b and genotypes 2 to 6 is required for optimizing the effectiveness of interferon-free, direct-acting antiviral therapies. We compared the performance of a new real-time HCV genotyping assay used on the Cobas 4800 system (C4800) with that of high-resolution HCV subtyping (HRCS). In total, 502 samples were used, including 184 samples from chronic HCV patients (from routine laboratory activity during April 2016), 5 stored samples with double HCV genotype infections for testing the limitations of the method, and 313 samples from a screening protocol implemented in our hospital (from May to August 2016) based on the new method to further determine its genotyping accuracy. A total of 282 samples, including 171 from April 2016 (the 13 remaining had too low of a viral load for HRCS), 5 selected with double infections, and 106 from screening, were analyzed by both methods, and 220 were analyzed only by the C4800. The C4800 correctly subtyped 125 of 126 1a/1b samples, and the 1 remaining sample was reported as genotype 1. The C4800 correctly genotyped 38 of 45 non-1a/1b samples (classified by HRCS), and it reported the remaining 7 samples as indeterminate. One hundred two of 106 non-1a/1b genotype samples that were identified using the C4800 for screening were confirmed by HRCS. In the 4 remaining samples, 3 were correctly reported as genotype 1 (without defining the subtype) and 1 was reported as indeterminate. None of the samples were misgenotyped. Four of 7 samples with double HCV infections were correctly genotyped by the C4800. Excluding the 5 selected double-infected samples, the C4800 showed 95.7% concordant results for genotyping HCVs 2 to 6 and 1a/1b subtyping, and 99.2% concordance for subtyping 1a/1b single infections in clinical samples. To improve laboratory workflow, we propose using the C4800 as a first-line test for HCV genotyping and 1a/1b classification, followed by

  4. [Screening for breast cancer on basis of individual risk assessment for women ineligible for the national population screening program].

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Asperen, C J; de Bock, G H; van der Horst, F; de Koning, H J; Rutgers, E J

    2001-01-20

    For healthy women, without malignancies in their personal histories, a positive family history for breast cancer is the single indication for individual breast surveillance outside the population screening. Management of women is based on individual risk assessment. A cumulative risk of 20% and more, as a result of a positive family history, will in practice be an indication for breast surveillance. This threshold is not evidence-based yet, nor are data available on the benefits of this surveillance efficacy. When a personal cumulative risk of more than 30% exists to develop breast cancer, a consultation with a clinical geneticist involved in a family cancer clinic should be offered. Surveillance of women with a high-risk cumulative risk should preferably be included in a prospective study design. Only in this way will data about compliance and the estimates of different ways of surveillance become available. There is no convincing evidence that population screening for women aged 40-49 years does lead to important mortality reduction in combination with a good balance between pros and cons for the women involved. Women in the age category 50-75 years, with breast cancer in their personal histories, who are not followed anymore, should be informed by their specialist about participating (again) in the population breast screening. There is no evidence of mortality reduction as a result of breast self-examination nor of palpation performed by a physician. However, awareness of the own body can be useful for early recognition of breast abnormalities; it may reduce the delay between the first recognizable symptom and the subsequently initiated therapy.

  5. Assessment and treatment of malnutrition in Dutch geriatric practice: consensus through a modified Delphi study.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Asselt, D.Z.B. van; Bokhorst-de van der Schueren, M.A. van; Cammen, T.J.M. van der; Disselhorst, L.G.; Janse, A.; Lonterman-Monasch, S.; Maas, H.A.; Popescu, M.E.; Schölzel-Dorenbos, C.J.M.; Sipers, W.M.; Veldhoven, C.M. van; Wijnen, H.H.M; Olde Rikkert, M.

    2012-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: scientific evidence regarding the optimal management of malnutrition in geriatric patients is scarce. Our aim was to develop a consensus statement for geriatric hospital practice concerning six elements: (i) definition of malnutrition, (ii) screening and assessment, (iii) treatment and mo

  6. BREAST CANCER SCREENING KNOWLEDGE AND PRACTICE AMONG WOMEN IN SOUTHEAST OF IRAN

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Z Heidari

    2008-08-01

    Full Text Available "nBreast cancer is the most common cancer occurring among women. The mortality rate of breast cancer can be reduced by regular breast cancer screening program. This study was carried out to identify the knowledge and practice of women about breast cancer screening in Zahedan, southeast of Iran. In this cross- sectional study, 384 women were selected as an improbability sample of women referring to Qouds maternity hospital. Knowledge and practice of them about breast cancer screening were investigated through face-to-face interview based on a purposed questionnaire, and data were analyzed using descriptive and analytical statistics. Only 8.3% of women were aware of breast cancer screening methods. About breast self-examination 21.6%, and about mammography 3.4% had good knowledge. Overall knowledge of breast cancer screening was insufficient in 67.4%. There was statistically significant relationship between knowledge of breast cancer screening and level of education, history of individual breast disease, and history of breast cancer in their families (P < 0.001. There was statistically significant and inverse relationship between knowledge of how to examine the breasts and knowledge about mammography with age (P < 0.001. Practices of women in Zahedan about Breast cancer screening were very low. Only 4.5% of women performed breast self examination (BSE, on a regular basis, 4.1% had ever had a clinical breast examination (CBE, and %1.3 had a mammography throughout their life. Our findings suggest that knowledge and practice about breast cancer screening was relatively in a weak level and it needs to be improved.

  7. Human scenarios for the screening assessment. Columbia River Comprehensive Impact Assessment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Napier, B.A.; Harper, B.L.; Lane, N.K.; Strenge, D.L.; Spivey, R.B.

    1996-03-01

    Because of past nuclear production operations along the Columbia River, there is intense public and tribal interest in assessing any residual Hanford Site related contamination along the river from the Hanford Reach to the Pacific Ocean. The Columbia River Impact Assessment (CRCIA) was proposed to address these concerns. The assessment of the Columbia River is being conducted in phases. The initial phase is a screening assessment of risk, which addresses current environmental conditions for a range of potential uses. One component of the screening assessment estimates the risk from contaminants in the Columbia River to humans. Because humans affected by the Columbia river are involved in a wide range of activities, various scenarios have been developed on which to base the risk assessments. The scenarios illustrate the range of activities possible by members of the public coming in contact with the Columbia River so that the impact of contaminants in the river on human health can be assessed. Each scenario illustrates particular activity patterns by a specific group. Risk will be assessed at the screening level for each scenario. This report defines the scenarios and the exposure factors that will be the basis for estimating the potential range of risk to human health from Hanford-derived radioactive as well as non-radioactive contaminants associated with the Columbia River.

  8. Rapid Assessment of Contrast Sensitivity with Mobile Touch-screens

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mulligan, Jeffrey B.

    2013-01-01

    The availability of low-cost high-quality touch-screen displays in modern mobile devices has created opportunities for new approaches to routine visual measurements. Here we describe a novel method in which subjects use a finger swipe to indicate the transition from visible to invisible on a grating which is swept in both contrast and frequency. Because a single image can be swiped in about a second, it is practical to use a series of images to zoom in on particular ranges of contrast or frequency, both to increase the accuracy of the measurements and to obtain an estimate of the reliability of the subject. Sensitivities to chromatic and spatio-temporal modulations are easily measured using the same method. We will demonstrate a prototype for Apple Computer's iPad-iPod-iPhone family of devices, implemented using an open-source scripting environment known as QuIP (QUick Image Processing,

  9. Generic Screening Models for Assessing Exposures to the Public and ICRP Reference Animals and Plants

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yankovich, Tamara L.; Proehl, Gerhard; Telleria, Diego [International Atomic Energy Agency, P.O. Box 100, 1400 Vienna (Austria); Berkovskyy, Volodymyr [Ukrainian Radiation Protection Institute (RPI), 53, Melnikova Street, 04050, Kiev (Ukraine)

    2014-07-01

    With the update of the IAEA Fundamental Safety Principles (SF-1) stating the objective to protect people and the environment from harmful effects of ionizing radiation, it has been necessary to update International Basic Safety Standards (BSS) on Radiation Protection and Safety of Radiation Sources and the underlying safety guides and technical documents to provide guidance on how this could be achieved in practice. The current paper provides an update on the status and plans to revise the IAEA Safety Report 'Generic Models for Use in Assessing the Impact of Discharges of Radioactive Substances to the Environment' (SRS 19) that was published in 2001. The models of SRS 19 (2001), which was focused on assessment of exposures to the public, is being expanded into three volumes that provide methodologies for screening assessments for the public, as well as for flora and fauna. The revised SRS 19 guide will ultimately facilitate the application of screening models for different levels of assessment using updated parameter values from database that have been developed as part of the IAEA's EMRAS (Environmental Modelling for Radiation Safety) and EMRAS II international model validation programmes. The scope of the revised SRS 19 covers prospective screening assessment of doses to the representative person and Reference Animals and Plants (RAPs), and will provide simple and robust assessment methods for radiological assessment related to planning and design, applying a graded approach. Tabulated screening coefficients and environmental dilution factors will be included for 825 radionuclides. The screening coefficients are developed assuming equilibrium conditions; they can be used to assess radiological impacts arising from routine discharges of radionuclides to terrestrial and aquatic receptors for planned exposure situations. Volumes 1 and 2 of the revised SRS 19 are at an advanced stage of completion and are focused on 'Screening Assessment of Public

  10. Knowledge, attitudes and practice of breast cancer screening among female health workers in a Nigerian urban city

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Omuemu Vivian O

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Late presentation has been observed as the hallmark of breast cancer in Nigerian women and an earlier onset has been reported in this population. This study was designed to assess the awareness of female health workers about risk factors and screening methods for early detection of breast cancer. Methods A cross-sectional descriptive study was carried out among female health workers in the two major government health institutions in Benin City, Edo State capital in Nigeria. Data analysis was by SPSS version 10 and test of significance was done with differences considered significant at p Results Three hundred and ninety-three (393 female health workers out of five hundred and five eligible subjects completed and returned the questionnaires, giving a response rate of 77.8%. One hundred and two (26% were Doctors, two hundred and fifty-four (64.6% Nurses, and thirty-seven (9.4% were Radiographers, Laboratory Scientists and Pharmacists. A high proportion of our respondents had very poor knowledge about risk factors for breast cancer (55%. The awareness of mammography as a diagnostic method was very high (80.7%, but an extremely low knowledge of mammography as a screening method was found. Mammography practice of only 3.1% was found among those above 40 years of age who qualify for routine annual screening. Relatively low knowledge (45.5% about Breast Self Examination (BSE as a screening method was found. Conclusion These female health workers who are expected to act as role models and educate the public had poor knowledge of risk factors for breast cancer and practice of breast cancer screening. There is very urgent need for regular update courses for health workers concerning breast cancer education including screening methods.

  11. Assessment of stereoscopic optic disc images using an autostereoscopic screen – experimental study

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    Vaideanu Daniella

    2008-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Stereoscopic assessment of the optic disc morphology is an important part of the care of patients with glaucoma. The aim of this study was to assess stereoviewing of stereoscopic optic disc images using an example of the new technology of autostereoscopic screens compared to the liquid shutter goggles. Methods Independent assessment of glaucomatous disc characteristics and measurement of optic disc and cup parameters whilst using either an autostereoscopic screen or liquid crystal shutter goggles synchronized with a view switching display. The main outcome measures were inter-modality agreements between the two used modalities as evaluated by the weighted kappa test and Bland Altman plots. Results Inter-modality agreement for measuring optic disc parameters was good [Average kappa coefficient for vertical Cup/Disc ratio was 0.78 (95% CI 0.62–0.91 and 0.81 (95% CI 0.6–0.92 for observer 1 and 2 respectively]. Agreement between modalities for assessing optic disc characteristics for glaucoma on a five-point scale was very good with a kappa value of 0.97. Conclusion This study compared two different methods of stereo viewing. The results of assessment of the different optic disc and cup parameters were comparable using an example of the newly developing autostereoscopic display technologies as compared to the shutter goggles system used. The Inter-modality agreement was high. This new technology carries potential clinical usability benefits in different areas of ophthalmic practice.

  12. Collaborative Assessment Tool (CAT) - Assessing scientific practices in introductory physics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Irving, Paul

    2017-01-01

    An important learning goal of Projects and Practices in Physics (P3) , the transformed introductory mechanics course at Michigan State University, is the development of scientific practices. The design team, as part of the P3 course construction, made clear attempts to assess learning goals that can often be perceived as being a part of the hidden curriculum or considered difficult to assess (e.g., learning to work productively in a group) by developing a collaborative assessment tool (CAT). The CAT is a formative assessment tool that provides students with a numerical grade for how they participated in their learning group on a weekly basis while also providing feedback in the form of written commentary and suggestions on how they might improve at a particular collaborative practice. In this presentation, we demonstrate the CAT tool from two perspectives: 1) how the CAT tool is used within the P3 context and 2) how the formative feedback has affected changes in student interactions in class. We will present the case studies of 3 students who had differing reactions to the feedback they received. We will explore the role the feedback had in their interactions over a four-week period from an in-class perspective and a reflected perspective through interviews and observations. The analysis will also be presented from a tutor and group perspective, which will highlight the affordances the CAT can have in creating a productive learning group. The research on the CAT shows promise in encouraging growth in students' collaborative skills, but this research is still in its infancy and needs to be expanded to include different contexts.

  13. Cardiotocography (CTG as the screening method of fetal condition assessment

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    V. Zulčić-Nakić

    2007-02-01

    Full Text Available A basic function of fetal monitoring is an analysis of fetal cardiac action. Cardiotocography (CTG cannot provide all necessary information for assessment of the fetal condition as it is not sufficiently reliable and gives a large number of false positive results that increase the number of cesarean sections. An objective of this work was to establish CTG reliability as a method for assessment of intrapartal fetal condition. Based on CTG parameters (baseline fetal heart rate, fetal heart rate variability, oscillations and decelerations 100 pathological CTG records, collected at Obstetrics and Gynecology Department of the Tuzla University Clinic Hospital from 01.12.2004 to 05.08.2005 were identified. Using binomial distribution they were classified as non-pathological (indicating absence of asphyxia and pathological (indicating possible presence of asphyxia. After the delivery the condition of newborns was assessed according to the Apgar score. Based on comparison between certain pathological parametres of CTG records and newborns’ conditions at birth the results indicated high positive predictive values whereas sensitivity and accuracy were low. Apgar score 1. from 7 upwards was given to 96 (96% newborns whereas Apgar score 2 from 7 upwards was given to all the newborns with previous pathological CTG records. Results have confirmed that CTG can be used only as a screening method for assessment of intrapartal fetal condition.

  14. Development of a social skills assessment screening scale for psychiatric rehabilitation settings: A pilot study

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    Poornima Bhola

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Context: Deficits in social skills may present in a range of psychiatric disorders, particularly in the more serious and persistent conditions, and have an influence on functioning across various domains. Aims: This pilot study aimed at developing a brief measure, for structured evaluation and screening for social skills deficits, which can be easily integrated into routine clinical practice. Settings and Design: The sample consisted of 380 inpatients and their accompanying caregivers, referred to Psychiatric Rehabilitation Services at a tertiary care government psychiatric hospital. Materials and Methods: The evaluation included an Inpatient intake Proforma and the 20-item Social Skills Assessment Screening Scale (SSASS. Disability was assessed using the Indian Disability Evaluation and Assessment Scale (IDEAS for a subset of 94 inpatients. Statistical Analysis Used: The analysis included means and standard deviations, frequency and percentages, Cronbach's alpha to assess internal consistency, t-tests to assess differences in social skills deficits between select subgroups, and correlation between SSASS and IDEAS scores. Results: The results indicated the profile of social skills deficits assessed among the inpatients with varied psychiatric diagnoses. The “psychosis” group exhibited significantly higher deficits than the “mood disorder” group. Results indicated high internal consistency of the SSASS and adequate criterion validity demonstrated by correlations with select IDEAS domains. Modifications were made to the SSASS following the pilot study. Conclusions: The SSASS has potential value as a measure for screening and individualised intervention plans for social skills training in mental health and rehabilitation settings. The implications for future work on the psychometric properties and clinical applications are discussed.

  15. Colorectal cancer screening practices of primary care providers: results of a national survey in Malaysia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Norwati, Daud; Harmy, Mohamed Yusoff; Norhayati, Mohd Noor; Amry, Abdul Rahim

    2014-01-01

    The incidence of colorectal cancer has been increasing in many Asian countries including Malaysia during the past few decades. A physician recommendation has been shown to be a major factor that motivates patients to undergo screening. The present study objectives were to describe the practice of colorectal cancer screening by primary care providers in Malaysia and to determine the barriers for not following recommendations. In this cross sectional study involving 132 primary care providers from 44 Primary Care clinics in West Malaysia, self-administered questionnaires which consisted of demographic data, qualification, background on the primary care clinic, practices on colorectal cancer screening and barriers to colorectal cancer screening were distributed. A total of 116 primary care providers responded making a response rate of 87.9%. About 21% recommended faecal occult blood test (FOBT) in more than 50% of their patients who were eligible. The most common barrier was "unavailability of the test". The two most common patient factors are "patient in a hurry" and "poor patient awareness". This study indicates that colorectal cancer preventive activities among primary care providers are still poor in Malaysia. This may be related to the low availability of the test in the primary care setting and poor awareness and understanding of the importance of colorectal cancer screening among patients. More awareness programmes are required for the public. In addition, primary care providers should be kept abreast with the latest recommendations and policy makers need to improve colorectal cancer screening services in health clinics.

  16. Another look at Emergency Department HIV screening in practice: no need to revise expectations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Czarnogosrki Maggie

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background A recent study reported a lower than expected specificity and positive predictive value of the rapid oral HIV test in the setting of routine emergency department (ED screening. These results appeared inconsistent with the findings in another urban Emergency Department during the same time period. Objective To compare the specificity and positive predictive vale (PPV of an oral rapid HIV test used in an ED screening program in Washington DC with that performed in the USHER clinical trial. Design Period cross-sectional analysis of rapid oral HIV testing conducted in an ongoing HIV screening program emergency department patients. Setting The George Washington University Emergency Department (Washington DC from 7 February to 1 October 2007. Patients 1,560 adults seen in the ED for non-HIV-related presenting complaints, who participated in the HIV screening program. Intervention Rapid HIV testing with the OraQuick ADVANCE Rapid HIV-1/2 Antibody Test (OraSure Technologies, Bethlehem, Pennsylvania. Patients with reactive rapid test results were offered Western blot testing for confirmation. Measurements Specificity and positive predictive value for the program were determined. Findings were compared to those found in the USHER trial. Results Of 1,560 patients screened for HIV, 13 [0.8%, 95% CI 0.38% to 1.28%] had a reactive HIV screening test, and all were confirmed to be positive by Western Blot. The specificity was 100% (95% CI 99.6%-100%. Limitation Since non-reactive tests were not confirmed, the test sensitivity cannot be determined. Conclusion Review of our data conflict with findings from the USHER study surrounding false positive OraQuick HIV screening. Our data suggest that rapid HIV screening protocols implemented in EDs outside of the clinical trial paradigm perform effectively without an excess of false positive results. Compared with other screening tests, HIV rapid screening should remain an essential component of ED

  17. Screening for Infectious Diseases among Newly Arrived Migrants in EU/EEA Countries—Varying Practices but Consensus on the Utility of Screening

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tommi Kärki

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Screening is one possible tool for monitoring infectious diseases among migrants. However, there is limited information on screening programmes targeted for newly arrived migrants in EU/EEA countries. Our aim was to investigate the implementation, practices and usefulness of these programmes. We conducted a survey among country experts from EU/EEA countries and Switzerland, asking whether their countries had implemented screening programmes. We also estimated the association between the implementation of these programmes and the rate of asylum-seekers in the population. Of the countries, 16 (59% had implemented screening programmes and 15 (56% had national guidelines. The rate of asylum-seekers was associated with implementation of screening programmes (p = 0.014. Screening was performed most often for tuberculosis; most commonly on holding level, and was targeted to specific migrant groups in over half of the countries performing screening. Twenty-five of all the country experts (96% considered screening among migrants useful, and 24 (92% would welcome EU level guidelines for screening. The implementation of screening programmes varied, and the practices were different among countries. Our survey suggests, that establishing EU level guidelines for screening would be useful, although they would have to take into account differences between individual countries.

  18. Health Assessment of School Children II -- Screening Tests

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eisner, Victor; Oglesby, Allan

    1971-01-01

    The article concludes that adequate screening, and the use of expensive diagnostic procedures (such as medical referral) only for children who have failed a screening test, will result in the most effective use of school health time and funds. (Author)

  19. The whispered voice: The best test for screening for hearing impairment in general practice?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Eekhof, J.A.H.; Bock, G.H. de; Laat, J.A.P.M. de; Dap, R.; Schaapveld, K.; Springer, M.P.

    1996-01-01

    Hearling loss is an important health problem in the elderly which sometimes leads to social isolation. In a study with 62 patients, the diagnostic value of four simple tests for screening for hearing loss in general practice was examined. When paying attention to the loudness of the whispering, the

  20. Screening, brief intervention, and referral to treatment (SBIRT) as an integral part of nursing practice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Finnell, Deborah S; Nowzari, Shahrzad; Reimann, Brie; Fischer, Leigh; Pace, Elizabeth; Goplerud, Eric

    2014-01-01

    ABSTRACT. Substance use screening, brief intervention, and referral to treatment (SBIRT) should be an integral part of the scope of nursing practice. This commentary is an appeal for nurses to advance their knowledge and competencies related to SBIRT. The question of how to move SBIRT into the mainstream of nursing practice was posed to several leaders of federal agencies, health care and nursing organizations, nurse educators, and nurse leaders. The authors provide recommendations for moving this set of clinical strategies (i.e., SBIRT) into day-to-day nursing practice.

  1. Adolescent idiopathic scoliosis screening for school, community, and clinical health promotion practice utilizing the PRECEDE-PROCEED model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wyatt Lawrence A

    2005-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Screening for adolescent idiopathic scoliosis (AIS is a commonly performed procedure for school children during the high risk years. The PRECEDE-PROCEDE (PP model is a health promotion planning model that has not been utilized for the clinical diagnosis of AIS. The purpose of this research is to study AIS in the school age population using the PP model and its relevance for community, school, and clinical health promotion. Methods MEDLINE was utilized to locate AIS data. Studies were screened for relevance and applicability under the auspices of the PP model. Where data was unavailable, expert opinion was utilized based on consensus. Results The social assessment of quality of life is limited with few studies approaching the long-term effects of AIS. Epidemiologically, AIS is the most common form of scoliosis and leading orthopedic problem in children. Behavioral/environmental studies focus on discovering etiologic relationships yet this data is confounded because AIS is not a behavioral. Illness and parenting health behaviors can be appreciated. The educational diagnosis is confounded because AIS is an orthopedic disorder and not behavioral. The administration/policy diagnosis is hindered in that scoliosis screening programs are not considered cost-effective. Policies are determined in some schools because 26 states mandate school scoliosis screening. There exists potential error with the Adam's test. The most widely used measure in the PP model, the Health Belief Model, has not been utilized in any AIS research. Conclusion The PP model is a useful tool for a comprehensive study of a particular health concern. This research showed where gaps in AIS research exist suggesting that there may be problems to the implementation of school screening. Until research disparities are filled, implementation of AIS screening by school, community, and clinical health promotion will be compromised. Lack of data and perceived importance by

  2. Teaching child psychiatric assessment skills: Using pediatric mental health screening tools.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hargrave, T M; Arthur, M E

    2015-01-01

    This article describes the workshop "Teaching Child Psychiatric Assessment Skills: Using Mental Health Screening Instruments," presented at the 35th Forum for Behavioral Sciences in Family Medicine on 20 September 2014. The goals of the presentation were (1) to teach family medicine behavioral health educators to use both general and problem-specific mental health screening tools (MHSTs) in their work with trainees to help satisfy the Accreditation Council for Graduate Medical Education (ACGME) mandate for behavioral and mental health experience during family medicine residency, (2) to reflect on how MHSTs might be integrated into the flow of family medicine teaching practices, and (3) to exemplify how evidence-based methods of adult education might be used in teaching such content. One general MHST, the Pediatric Symptom Checklist-17 and one problem-specific MHST for each of the four commonest pediatric mental health issues: for attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder, the Vanderbilt; for Anxiety, the Screen for Childhood Anxiety-Related Emotional Disorders; for Depression, the Patient Health Questionnaire-9 for teens; and for Aggression, the Retrospective-Modified Overt Aggression Scale, were practiced at least twice in the context of a clinical vignette. All of the selected MHSTs are free in the public domain and available for download from the website: www.CAPPCNY.org. Participants were asked to reflect on their own office practice characteristics and consider how MHSTs might be integrated into their systems of care. This workshop could be replicated by others wishing to teach the use of MHSTs in primary care settings or teaching programs.

  3. Prevailing clinical practices regarding screening for retinopathy of prematurity among pediatricians in India: A pilot survey

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Saurabh Dileep Patwardhan

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Aims: To evaluate the prevailing practices for proper screening and referral scheme among Indian pediatricians for retinopathy of prematurity (ROP. Materials and Methods: Pediatricians registered with Indian Academy of Pediatrics from six states of India were selected randomly and were telephonically interviewed in accordance with a preformed questionnaire which comprised of questions regarding demographic factors, number of premature children seen per month, awareness and referral scheme to ophthalmologist; responses thus obtained were analyzed. Results: Hundred percent knowledge about ROP and need for screening in premature babies was observed among the respondents. However, only 135 (58% pediatricians always referred for ROP screening, 19 (8% referred only sometimes and 80 (34% did not refer at all. Consistent referral protocols taking into account all plausible risk factors for ROP were followed by only 25% of those who always referred. Major deterrent in ROP screening was perceived as non-availability of trained ophthalmologists. Conclusions: Only 14.5% of total pediatricians contacted were following international recommendations for ROP referral. Screening for ROP remains dismal as observed in this pilot survey as a consequence of non-availability of trained ophthalmologists as well as inconsistent screening guidelines.

  4. Anal Pap Screening for HIV-infected Men Who Have Sex With Men: Practice Improvement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Welbeck, Monique

    2016-01-01

    HIV-infected men who have sex with men (MSM) have the highest rates of anal dysplasia and anal cancer when compared to HIV-uninfected MSM and when compared to HIV-infected heterosexual men and women. Despite significantly increasing rates of anal dysplasia and anal cancer in HIV-infected MSM, in many settings, no standard protocol is in place to screen for anal dysplasia in this high-risk group. A practice improvement project was conducted at a primary care health center to educate the HIV health care team about anal Pap screening in an effort to increase provider knowledge and rates of anal Pap screening performed as part of primary comprehensive care for HIV-infected MSM. Increased health care provider knowledge of anal Pap screening within this setting resulted in increased anal Pap screening for HIV-infected MSM. Routine screening leads to improved surveillance and treatment of precancerous lesions, decreasing morbidity and mortality in HIV-infected MSM.

  5. Hepatocellular carcinoma screening practices and impact on survival among hepatitis B-infected Asian Americans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sarkar, M; Stewart, S; Yu, A; Chen, M S; Nguyen, T T; Khalili, M

    2012-08-01

    Asians Americans have a high burden of hepatitis B virus (HBV) associated hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC). HCC screening practices in this population are unknown. We aimed to investigate predictors and patterns of HCC screening and its impact on survival in HBV-infected Asian Americans. Clinical data were obtained from a retrospective cohort of 1870 HBsAg-positive Asians in San Francisco's safety net clinics. In 824 patients at-risk for HCC, screening (≥1 imaging and/or AFP per year) decreased from 67% to 47% to 24% from the 1st to 2nd to 10th year after HBV diagnosis, respectively. AFP, imaging, and imaging plus AFP were used in 37%, 14%, and 49% during the first year after diagnosis, and imaging plus AFP increased to 64% by the 10th year. Among 1431 patients followed in 2007, age 40-64 years, female gender, cirrhosis, hepatologist evaluation, HBV diagnosis after 2003, and testing for HBeAg were associated with HCC screening. Of the 51 patients with HCC, more cirrhotics received screening and were diagnosed with early stage disease. Median survival following HCC diagnosis was higher in screened patients (1624 days vs. 111 days, P = 0.02). MELD score at HCC diagnosis (HR 1.2, 95% CI 1.1-1.3) and receipt of curative therapy (HR 0.3, 95% CI 0.08-0.94) were associated with survival. Screening rates in at-risk Asian Americans, particularly among noncirrhotics, were suboptimal and decreased over time. Among patients with HCC, receipt of prior screening improved survival, and this survival benefit was related to better liver function at HCC diagnosis and receipt of curative therapy.

  6. Assessment and Screening of the Risk Factors in Metabolic Syndrome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jaspinder Kaur

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Metabolic syndrome (MetS is chronic inflammatory epidemic state contributing to total and cardiovascular mortality. The current study planned to assess and screen risk factors for MetS and its components. A cross-sectional study conducted to assess age, gender, social status, employment, education, family history, physical activity, dietary habits, alcohol, sleep, body mass index and stress as determinants of MetS. The results were analyzed by Chi Square test with statistical significance of p value <0.05. The frequency of MetS was 17.38% as per modified National Cholesterol Education Program–Adult Treatment Panel III criteria. Females (57.38%, age >50 years (86.90%; p < 0.05, middle socioeconomic status (70.50%, illiteracy (39.35%, and unemployment (81.97%; p < 0.05 were found contributing though to different extents. Subjects with a sedentary lifestyle (72.14%, positive family history (42.63%, omnivore diet (47.55%, stress (78.69%; p < 0.05, insomnia (29.51% and increased BMI (83.62%; p < 0.001 had shown predisposition to MetS. However, the protective role of alcohol (38.28%, an active lifestyle (36.21%, vegetarian diet (62.07% and adequate sleep (73.11% was observed. A significant hypertension (98.37%; p < 0.001, dyslipidemia (77.05%; p < 0.001, dysglycemia (75.41%; p < 0.001 and obesity (59.02%; p < 0.001 was reported in MetS. Common concerns of female gender, increasing age and BMI, sedentary lifestyle, stress and positive family history should be considered for early identification and appropriate intervention to fight the growing MetS epidemic.

  7. Assessment of cannabis use disorders: a systematic review of screening and diagnostic instruments

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lopez-Pelayo, H.; Batalla, A.; Balcells, M.M.; Colom, J.; Gual, A.

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Cannabis use and misuse have become a public health problem. There is a need for reliable screening and assessment tools to identify harmful cannabis use at an early stage. We conducted a systematic review of published instruments used to screen and assess cannabis use disorders. METHOD:

  8. Quality assessment in prospective nuchal translucency screening for Down syndrome

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wøjdemann, K R; Christiansen, M; Sundberg, K;

    2001-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: To develop and apply a quality control system in a Down syndrome screening study using nuchal translucency as an interventional marker. METHODS: In a prospective Down syndrome screening study fetal nuchal translucency thickness was measured in 9236 of the 10 045 examined pregnancies...

  9. Terrestrial Eco-Toxicological Tests as Screening Tool to Assess Soil Contamination in Krompachy Area

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ol'ga, Šestinová; Findoráková, Lenka; Hančuľák, Jozef; Fedorová, Erika; Tomislav, Špaldon

    2016-10-01

    In this study, we present screening tool of heavy metal inputs to agricultural and permanent grass vegetation of the soils in Krompachy. This study is devoted to Ecotoxicity tests, Terrestrial Plant Test (modification of OECD 208, Phytotoxkit microbiotest on Sinapis Alba) and chronic tests of Earthworm (Dendrobaena veneta, modification of OECD Guidelines for the testing of chemicals 317, Bioaccumulation in Terrestrial Oligochaetes) as practical and sensitive screening method for assessing the effects of heavy metals in Krompachy soils. The total Cu, Zn, As, Pb and Hg concentrations and eco-toxicological tests of soils from the Krompachy area were determined of 4 sampling sites in 2015. An influence of the sampling sites distance from the copper smeltery on the absolutely concentrations of metals were recorded for copper, lead, zinc, arsenic and mercury. The highest concentrations of these metals were detected on the sampling sites up to 3 km from the copper smeltery. The samples of soil were used to assess of phytotoxic effect. Total mortality was established at earthworms using chronic toxicity test after 7 exposure days. The results of our study confirmed that no mortality was observed in any of the study soils. Based on the phytotoxicity testing, phytotoxic effects of the metals contaminated soils from the samples 3KR (7-9) S.alba seeds was observed.

  10. Anal Cancer Screening in an Urban HIV Clinic: Provider Perceptions and Practice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sowah, Leonard Anang; Buchwald, Ulrike K; Riedel, David J; Gilliam, Bruce L; Khambaty, Mariam; Fantry, Lori; Spencer, Derek E; Weaver, Jeffery; Taylor, Gregory; Skoglund, Mary; Amoroso, Anthony; Redfield, Robert R

    2015-01-01

    In this article, we sought to understand the perceptions and practice of providers on anal cancer screening in HIV-infected patients. Providers in an academic outpatient HIV practice were surveyed. Data were analyzed to determine the acceptability and perceptions of providers on anal Papanicolaou tests. Survey response rate was 55.3% (60.7% among male and 47.4% among female providers). One-third of the providers had received screening requests from patients. Female providers had higher self-rated comfort with anal Papanicolaou tests, with a mean score of 7.1 (95% confidence interval [CI] 4.7-9.5) compared to 3.6 (95% CI 1.5-5.7) for male providers, P = .02. Sixty-seven percent of male providers and 37.5% of female providers would like to refer their patients for screening rather than perform the test themselves. Only 54.2% of our providers have ever performed anal cytology examination. Our survey revealed that not all providers were comfortable performing anal cancer screening for their patients.

  11. Formative assessment in Swedish mathematics classroom practice

    OpenAIRE

    Andersson, Catarina; Boström, Erika

    2015-01-01

    International audience; Using formative assessment has woken interest in many countries because of the potential effect on student achievement. To investigate Swedish teachers' use of formative assessment in mathematics, this study used classroom observations and teacher interviews of 38 mathematics teachers. The teachers used formative assessment, but additional formative activities could support teachers to better take advantage of the potential in using formative assessment.

  12. Knowledge, attitude and practice of cervical cancer screening in women visiting a tertiary care hospital of Delhi

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M Singh

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Cervical cancer being a major cause of morbidity and mortality in women in developing countries, its awareness is essential. Aim: The aim of this study is to assess the knowledge, attitude and practices of women regarding the basic screening test for detection of cancer cervix. Settings and Design: Population based cross-sectional study. Materials and Methods: Cross-sectional prospective study was conducted. Information from consenting participants (450 was collected using structured questionnaire. Answers were described in terms of knowledge, attitude and practice and their respective adequacy with respect to Papanicolaou (Pap test, the most common test used for early detection of cervical cancer. Adequacy was compared between the categories of socio demographic and clinical variables. Statistical Analysis: The data collected was analyzed using statistical package (SPSS version 18.0. Adequacy was compared between the categories of the control variables by χ2 test with a 5% significance level. Results: Knowledge, attitude and practices regarding Pap test were adequate in 32.7%, 18.2% and 7.3% of women respectively. Major impediment to adequate practice was lack of request by physician. Knowledge, attitudes and practices were found to increase significantly with increasing age and education. Conclusion: Effective information, education and communication strategies are required to improve the level of awareness of public. Health-care professional should be proactive in imparting knowledge at every opportunity.

  13. The Knowledge and Practice of Breast Cancer Screening Among Women in Kerman, Iran

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Narges Khanjani

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Breast cancer is the most common cancer in women, and if diagnosed on time, the chance of treatment will increase. There is limited information about the knowledge and practice of Iranian women about early detection of breast cancer and in this study we aimed to investigate it in Kerman. Methods: This was a cross-sectional study done on 120 women; from 6 randomly selected maternal and childcare centers spread around Kerman, women were questioned about the primary signs of breast cancer and the screening methods. Results: The results show that 70% of women thought that with on time detection, breast cancer can be successfully treated, but 47% had no idea about any screening method. The most common breast cancer sign mentioned by women was a painless lump. Breast self examination as the easiest and cheapest screening method was never done in 51% of women. The most common reason for not performing screening tests in the participants, was not knowing anything about it. Conclusion: Although breast cancer when diagnosed on time is treatable, the knowledge and attitude of Iranian women about breast cancer screening and the signs of breast cancer are very low. Educational programs to increase women's knowledge about breast cancer should be foreseen and performed

  14. Down syndrome screening information in midwifery practices in the Netherlands: Strategies to integrate biomedical information.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosman, Sophia

    2016-03-01

    The aim of this qualitative study was to analyse counselling with regard to prenatal screening in midwifery consultations in the Netherlands where a national prenatal screening programme has only existed since 2007, after years of social and political debates. The methodology is based on in situ observations of 25 counselling consultations in four midwifery practices in two main cities in the Netherlands. The results of this study show that, since midwives are obliged to offer information on Down syndrome screening to all pregnant women (2007), they have to deal with the communication of medical screening information using biostatistical concepts to explain risks, calculations, probabilities and chromosomal anomalies. In order to avoid the risk of medicalization of their consultation, midwives develop strategies that allow them to integrate this new biomedical discourse while maintaining their low medicalized approach of midwife-led care. One of their main strategies is to switch from 'alarming' biomedical messages to 'reassuring words' in order to manage the anxiety induced by the information and to keep the control over their low medicalized consultation. They also tend to distance themselves from the obligation to talk about screening. The way midwives handle these counselling consultations allows them to respect their obligation to propose information, and to remain faithful to their struggle to protect the natural process of pregnancy as well as their professional autonomy.

  15. Screening for microalbuminuria in patients with type 2 diabetes is incomplete in general practice

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Knudsen, Soren Tang; Mosbech, Thomas Hammershaimb; Hansen, Birtha

    2012-01-01

    ,057 patients with type 2 diabetes were randomly selected from 64 general practitioners (GPs) from different geographical areas of Denmark. Clinical and laboratory data on the individual patients were collected through the GPs' electronic medical patient records; particular emphasis was given to annual...... patients by plasma-creatinine measurements. The importance of diagnosing microalbuminuria in patients with type 2 diabetes needs to be emphasised.......INTRODUCTION: National Danish guidelines recommend screening for microalbuminuria with assessment of urinary albumin/creatinine ratio at least annually in patients with type 2 diabetes. To which extent such screening is actually performed is not known. MATERIAL AND METHODS: A total of 2...

  16. 4 Formative Assessment Practices That Make a Difference in Classrooms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Northwest Evaluation Association, 2016

    2016-01-01

    Teachers know they need to focus on practices that can make the biggest difference to their students--but which practices have a track record of improving learning and growth? Read the second article in our five-part series to discover specific classroom formative assessment practices proven to take students from zoned out to tuned in. You'll…

  17. Cognitive Assessment Practices: A Survey of School Psychologists

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sotelo-Dynega, Marlene; Dixon, Shauna G.

    2014-01-01

    The present article describes an exploratory study regarding the preferred cognitive assessment practices of current school psychologists. Three hundred and twenty-three school psychologists participated in the survey. The results suggest that the majority of school psychologists endorsed that they base their assessment practices on an underlying…

  18. Improving Initial Assessment: Guide to Good Practice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Knasel, Eddy; Meed, John; Rossetti, Anna; Read, Hilary

    2006-01-01

    This guide is aimed at anyone in work-based training who is responsible for learners during their first few weeks. Readers will (1) understand the value and purpose of initial assessment in key skills and Skills for Life; (2) become familiar with a range of techniques for the initial assessment; (3) plan an initial assessment system that is…

  19. Comparison of different stepwise screening strategies for type 2 diabetes: Finding from Danish general practice, Addition-DK

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dalsgaard, Else-Marie; Christensen, Jesper O; Skriver, Mette Vinter;

    2010-01-01

    AIM: To examine attendance, number of people with T2DM and costs of three different stepwise screening strategies for T2DM in general practice (GP). METHODS: Diabetes risk questionnaires were mailed to individuals aged 40-69 years from 45 general practices in 2001-2002 and individuals at high risk...... for T2DM, were asked to contact their GP to arrange a screening test. In 2005-2006, 26 general practices were randomised into two different opportunistic screening programmes (OP-direct and OP-subsequent) and risk questionnaires were distributed to individuals aged 40-69 years during GP consultations...

  20. Shared decision making for prostate cancer screening: the results of a combined analysis of two practice-based randomized controlled trials

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sheridan Stacey L

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Professional societies recommend shared decision making (SDM for prostate cancer screening, however, most efforts have promoted informed rather than shared decision making. The objective of this study is to 1 examine the effects of a prostate cancer screening intervention to promote SDM and 2 determine whether framing prostate information in the context of other clearly beneficial men’s health services affects decisions. Methods We conducted two separate randomized controlled trials of the same prostate cancer intervention (with or without additional information on more clearly beneficial men’s health services. For each trial, we enrolled a convenience sample of 2 internal medicine practices, and their interested physicians and male patients with no prior history of prostate cancer (for a total of 4 practices, 28 physicians, and 128 men across trials. Within each practice site, we randomized men to either 1 a video-based decision aid and researcher-led coaching session or 2 a highway safety video. Physicians at each site received a 1-hour educational session on prostate cancer and SDM. To assess intervention effects, we measured key components of SDM, intent to be screened, and actual screening. After finding that results did not vary by trial, we combined data across sites, adjusting for the random effects of both practice and physician. Results Compared to an attention control, our prostate cancer screening intervention increased men’s perceptions that screening is a decision (absolute difference +41%; 95% CI 25 to 57% and men’s knowledge about prostate cancer screening (absolute difference +34%; 95% CI 19% to 50%, but had no effect on men’s self-reported participation in shared decisions or their participation at their preferred level. Overall, the intervention decreased screening intent (absolute difference −34%; 95% CI −50% to −18% and actual screening rates (absolute difference −22%; 95% CI −38 to

  1. e-assessment practice at Russell Group Universities\\ud

    OpenAIRE

    2015-01-01

    The Learning Technology & Innovation (LTI) at the London School of Economics & Political Science (LSE) undertook a study on e-assessment practice across Russell Group universities in an effort to better understand the current e-assessment landscape and the various institutional factors affecting the degree of engagement with e-assessment practice. This report details the results of the online survey relating to all Russell Group universities while providing a focused analysis on LSE from a co...

  2. LIFE CYCLE ASSESSMENT: PRINCIPLES AND PRACTICE

    Science.gov (United States)

    The following document provides an introductory overview of Life Cycle Assessment (LCA) and describes the general uses and major components of LCA. This document is an update and merger of two previous EPA documents on LCA ("Life Cycle Assessment: Inventory Guidelines and Princip...

  3. Learning Progressions that Support Formative Assessment Practices

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alonzo, Alicia C.

    2011-01-01

    Black, Wilson, and Yao (this issue) lay out a comprehensive vision for the way that learning progressions (or other "road maps") might be used to inform and coordinate formative and summative purposes of assessment. As Black, Wilson, and others have been arguing for over a decade, the effective use of formative assessment has great potential to…

  4. Theory and Practice of the Stereo—View on the CRT Screen

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    夏运钧

    1996-01-01

    Of the various kinds of research on the Virtual Reality and GIS,stereo-view is one of the key technologies.The following two aspects are covered in this paper,(1) Physiological fundamental of the natural binocular stereo-vision,theory of 3D color TV and the stereo-view on the CRT screen are presented,especially the theory of widely adopted Time-Division System is introduced.(2)The preliminary practice for using the stereo-view technology on the screen to the terrain visual simulation is described,and the paper shows how to use 3DS to construct a movable real stereo terrain perspective by taking DTM data as the first hand information for the purpose of terrain visual simulation.

  5. Student-Focused Assessment Criteria: Thinking through Best Practice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Worth, Nancy

    2014-01-01

    Using results from a survey and focus groups with staff and students, I evaluate best practice for student-focused assessment criteria, including the value of specific assessment criteria, where and when students engage with criteria, the use of exemplars, how assessment criteria connect to feedback and the importance of bringing students more…

  6. Quality Assessment of Colonoscopy Reporting: Results from a Statewide Cancer Screening Program

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jun Li

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper aimed to assess quality of colonoscopy reports and determine if physicians in practice were already documenting recommended quality indicators, prior to the publication of a standardized Colonoscopy Reporting and Data System (CO-RADS in 2007. We examined 110 colonoscopy reports from 2005-2006 through Maryland Colorectal Cancer Screening Program. We evaluated 25 key data elements recommended by CO-RADS, including procedure indications, risk/comorbidity assessments, procedure technical descriptions, colonoscopy findings, specimen retrieval/pathology. Among 110 reports, 73% documented the bowel preparation quality and 82% documented specific cecal landmarks. For the 177 individual polyps identified, information on size and morphology was documented for 87% and 53%, respectively. Colonoscopy reporting varied considerately in the pre-CO-RADS period. The absence of key data elements may impact the ability to make recommendations for recall intervals. This paper provides baseline data to assess if CO-RADS has an impact on reporting and how best to improve the quality of reporting.

  7. Assessing neuropsychological impairment using Reitan and Wolfson's screening battery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Preiss, J; Preiss, M

    2013-08-01

    The aim was to verify the applicability of Reitan and Wolfson's proposed neuropsychological screening battery for adults (2006, 2008) in the Czech population. The sample consisted of 70 participants aged 19-65 years, all of whom were examined using a screening method as well as the full Halstead-Reitan neuropsychological battery (HRNB). The correlation, logistic regression, ROC curve analysis, sensitivity and specificity, and positive and negative predictive values were all calculated. The Pearson correlation between the screening scale of neuropsychological deficit and the General Neuropsychological Deficit Scale (GNDS) from HRNB was 0.78 (p Archives of Clinical Neuropsychology, 23, 393-398, 2008, but different from Reitan, & Wolfson in The use of serial testing in evaluating the need for comprehensive neuropsychological testing of adults. Applied Neuropsychology, 15, 21-32, 2008), 78.6% of individuals were correctly classified having neuropsychological impairment or no impairment according to the GNDS. Our results confirm that this neuropsychological screening battery has good psychometric properties in the Czech population.

  8. Psychiatric Assessment and Screening for the Elderly in Primary Care: Design, Implementation, and Preliminary Results

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Robert C. Abrams

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction. We describe the design and implementation of a psychiatric collaborative care model in a university-based geriatric primary care practice. Initial results of screening for anxiety and depression are reported. Methods and Materials. Screens for anxiety and depression were administered to practice patients. A mental health team, consisting of a psychiatrist, mental health nurse practitioner, and social worker, identified patients who on review of screening and chart data warranted evaluation or treatment. Referrals for mental health interventions were directed to members of the mental health team, primary care physicians at the practice, or community providers. Results. Subjects (N=1505 comprised 38.2% of the 3940 unique patients seen at the practice during the 4-year study period. 37.1% (N=555 screened positive for depression, 26.9% (N=405 for anxiety, and 322 (21.4% screened positive for both. Any positive score was associated with age (P<0.033, female gender (P<0.006, and a nonsignificant trend toward living alone (P<0.095. 8.87% had suicidal thoughts. Conclusions. Screening captured the most affectively symptomatic patients, including those with suicidal ideation, for intervention. The partnering of mental health professionals and primary care physicians offers a workable model for addressing the scarcity of expertise in geriatric psychiatry.

  9. Prenatal screening and prenatal diagnosis: contemporary practices in light of the past.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iltis, Ana S

    2016-06-01

    The 20th century eugenics movement in the USA and contemporary practices involving prenatal screening (PNS), prenatal diagnosis (PND), abortion and preimplantation genetic diagnosis (PGD) share important morally relevant similarities. I summarise some features of the 20th century eugenics movement; describe the contemporary standard of care in the USA regarding PNS, PND, abortion and PGD; and demonstrate that the 'old eugenics' the contemporary standard of care share the underlying view that social resources should be invested to prevent the birth of people with certain characteristics. This comparison makes evident the difficulty of crafting moral arguments that treat some uses of PNS, PND, abortion and PGD as licit and others as illicit.

  10. Physical activity and food environment assessments: implications for practice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eyler, Amy A; Blanck, Heidi M; Gittelsohn, Joel; Karpyn, Allison; McKenzie, Thomas L; Partington, Susan; Slater, Sandy J; Winters, Meghan

    2015-05-01

    There is growing interest in the use of physical activity and nutrition environmental measures by both researchers and practitioners. Built environment assessment methods and tools range from simple to complex and encompass perceived, observed, and geographic data collection. Even though challenges in tool selection and use may exist for non-researchers, there are opportunities to incorporate these measures into practice. The aims of this paper are to (1) describe examples of built environment assessment methods and tools in the practice context; (2) present case studies that outline successful approaches for the use of built environment assessment tools and data among practitioners; and (3) make recommendations for both research and practice. As part of the Built Environment Assessment Training Think Tank meeting in July 2013, experts who work with community partners gathered to provide input on conceptualizing recommendations for collecting and analyzing built environment data in practice and research. The methods were summarized in terms of perceived environment measures, observational measures, and geographic measures for physical activity and food environment assessment. Challenges are outlined and case study examples of successful use of assessments in practice are described. Built environment assessment tools and measures are important outside the research setting. There is a need for improved collaboration between research and practice in forming partnerships for developing tools, collecting and analyzing data, and using the results to work toward positive environmental changes.

  11. Investigating the Dynamics of Formative Assessment: Relationships between Teacher Knowledge, Assessment Practice and Learning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herman, Joan; Osmundson, Ellen; Dai, Yunyun; Ringstaff, Cathy; Timms, Michael

    2015-01-01

    This exploratory study of elementary school science examines questions central to policy, practice and research on formative assessment: What is the quality of teachers' content-pedagogical and assessment knowledge? What is the relationship between teacher knowledge and assessment practice? What is the relationship between teacher knowledge,…

  12. Tuberculosis screening in patients with HIV

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bjerrum, Stephanie; Bonsu, Frank; Hanson-Nortey, Nii Nortey

    2016-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Tuberculosis screening of people living with HIV (PLHIV) can contribute to early tuberculosis diagnosis and improved patient outcomes. Evidence-based guidelines for tuberculosis screening are available, but literature assessing their implementation and the quality of clinical practice...... is scarce. OBJECTIVES: To assess tuberculosis screening practices and the effectiveness of audit and performance feedback to improve quality of tuberculosis screening at HIV care clinics in Ghana. DESIGN: Healthcare providers at 10 large HIV care clinics prospectively registered patient consultations during...

  13. Clinical practice of risk assessment of sexual violence

    OpenAIRE

    Judge, Joseph Gerard

    2012-01-01

    Background: Risk assessment of sexual violence involves evidence based evaluation of the risks posed by sexual offenders. It informs risk management; the provision of treatment that reduces the risk of future sexual violence. Previous research has focused on assessment of the predictive accuracy of different risk assessment tools, as well as the identification of risk factors that are associated with recidivism. In contrast, the clinical practice of risk assessment is a research a...

  14. Assessment of school mathematics: Teachers' perceptions and practices

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pfannkuch, Maxine

    2001-12-01

    This is the first report of a proposed ten-year interval longitudinal study about teacher assessment practice in Auckland, New Zealand. Interviews with teachers of Year 3, 6, 8, 10, and 13 students are analysed. These interviews indicate that primary teachers are using a variety of assessment strategies in a mastery-based system. Their judgement of mathematical performance is dominated by the belief that all students must feel that they are achieving. The secondary teacher interviews indicate common use of alternative assessment strategies in non-examination classes. Judgement of student performance is benchmarked against national examinations. It is conjectured that an education system effect determines teachers' assessment practices.

  15. Socio-economic inequalities in breast and cervical cancer screening practices in Europe: influence of the type of screening program

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    L. Palència; A. Espelt; M. Rodríguez-Sanz; R. Puigpinós; M. Pons-Vigués; M.I. Pasarín; T. Spadea; A.E. Kunst; C. Borrell

    2010-01-01

    Methods A cross-sectional study was performed using individual-level data from the WHO World Health Survey (2002) and data regarding the implementation of cancer screening programmes. The study population consisted of women from 22 European countries, aged 25-69 years for cervical cancer screening (

  16. Fair and Equitable Assessment Practices for All Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scott, Shelleyann; Webber, Charles F.; Lupart, Judy L.; Aitken, Nola; Scott, Donald E.

    2014-01-01

    This paper focuses on promoting fairness and equity in student assessment practices. The researchers used questionnaires and interviews and the study encompassed a total of 3312 individuals representing a range of stakeholders. The paper is presented in two parts: fairness and discrimination, and challenging policy and practice. Five key…

  17. Development of a touch-screen-based paradigm for assessing working memory in the mouse.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kwak, Chuljung; Lim, Chae-Seok; Kaang, Bong-Kiun

    2015-03-01

    Assessing the working memory of the rodent by using a touch-screen system has several advantages (e.g., allowing highly accurate data collection and flexibility in memory task design). However, there is currently no available testing paradigm utilizing touch-screen systems that can assess working memory in the mouse. In this study, we developed a touch-screen testing paradigm in which mice were trained to choose a location that is matched to a sample location after a time delay. Consistent with previous studies, this study showed that mice could not only learn the rule in the delayed matched to position (DMTP), but also could retain a transitory memory of the sample position during delay. This indicates that a touch-screen system can provide a DMTP testing platform to assess working memory in the mouse.

  18. Impact of Breast Density Legislation on Breast Cancer Risk Assessment and Supplemental Screening: A Survey of 110 Radiology Facilities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nayak, Lina; Miyake, Kanae K; Leung, Jessica W T; Price, Elissa R; Liu, Yueyi I; Joe, Bonnie N; Sickles, Edward A; Thomas, William R; Lipson, Jafi A; Daniel, Bruce L; Hargreaves, Jonathan; Brenner, R James; Bassett, Lawrence W; Ojeda-Fournier, Haydee; Lindfors, Karen K; Feig, Stephen A; Ikeda, Debra M

    2016-09-01

    Breast density notification laws, passed in 19 states as of October 2014, mandate that patients be informed of their breast density. The purpose of this study is to assess the impact of this legislation on radiology practices, including performance of breast cancer risk assessment and supplemental screening studies. A 20-question anonymous web-based survey was emailed to radiologists in the Society of Breast Imaging between August 2013 and March 2014. Statistical analysis was performed using Fisher's exact test. Around 121 radiologists from 110 facilities in 34 USA states and 1 Canadian site responded. About 50% (55/110) of facilities had breast density legislation, 36% of facilities (39/109) performed breast cancer risk assessment (one facility did not respond). Risk assessment was performed as a new task in response to density legislation in 40% (6/15) of facilities in states with notification laws. However, there was no significant difference in performing risk assessment between facilities in states with a law and those without (p facilities in states with laws implemented handheld whole breast ultrasound (WBUS), automated WBUS, and tomosynthesis, respectively. The ratio of facilities offering handheld WBUS was significantly higher in states with a law than in states without (p facilities are offering supplemental screening with WBUS and tomosynthesis, and many are performing formal risk assessment for determining patient management.

  19. Lay health educators within primary care practices to improve cancer screening uptake for South Asian patients: challenges in quality improvement

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lofters, AK; Vahabi, M; Prakash, V; Banerjee, L; Bansal, P; Goel, S; Dunn, S

    2017-01-01

    Background Cancer screening uptake is known to be low among South Asian residents of Ontario. The objective of this pilot study was to determine if lay health educators embedded within the practices of primary care providers could improve willingness to screen and cancer screening uptake for South Asian patients taking a quality improvement approach. Materials and methods Participating physicians selected quality improvement initiatives to use within their offices that they felt could increase willingness to screen and cancer screening uptake. They implemented initiatives, adapting as necessary, for six months. Results Four primary care physicians participated in the study. All approximated that at least 60% of their patients were of South Asian ethnicity. All physicians chose to work with a preexisting lay health educator program geared toward South Asians. Health ambassadors spoke to patients in the office and telephoned patients. For all physicians, ~60% of South Asian patients who were overdue for cancer screening and who spoke directly to health ambassadors stated they were willing to be screened. One physician was able to track actual screening among contacted patients and found that screening uptake was relatively high: from 29.2% (colorectal cancer) to 44.6% (breast cancer) of patients came in for screening within six months of the first phone calls. Although physicians viewed the health ambassadors positively, they found the study to be time intensive and resource intensive, especially as this work was additional to usual clinical duties. Discussion Using South Asian lay health educators embedded within primary care practices to telephone patients in their own languages showed promise in this study to increase awareness about willingness to screen and cancer screening uptake, but it was also time intensive and resource intensive with numerous challenges. Future quality improvement efforts should further develop the phone call invitation process, as well as

  20. Intergrating injury screening with measurement and monitoring: a conceptual approach using a patient global assessment of the body and limbs scale

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. Gabel

    2006-02-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: To  develop a conceptual model for patients withmusculoskeletal injuries that relates Injury Screening to Measurement and Monitoring (ISMAM. Screening scores would predict quantifiable outcomes on a proposed Global Assessment of Body And Limbs (GABAL composite scale.  The scale would define status as a percentage of pre-injury capacity using quantitative and qualitative self report outcome measures combined with work and life status data. Background: Screening questionnaires use psychosocial yellow flags and activity limitation to identify potential chronic patients. Outcome measures provide clinical evidence by establishing patient status and assessing intervening change.  Independently developed,definitive statistical links between these established concepts are yet to be determined. Description: The ISMAM components are integrated using a graph of time versus score on the GABAL-scale with initial screening predicting recovery time to a designated pre-injury percentage level.  Actual status would be assessed through initial then subsequent sequential measurements with GABAL-scale scores enabling trendline analysis to  verify if the rate of actual recovery coincides with that predicted by screening. Observations: Face and content validity are apparent because validated screening tools are available and the requiredcomponents for the GABAL-scale would be existing validated outcome measures and quantifiable data.Conclusions: This model should provide a practical method of integrating screening and global measurement thatfacilitates communication across agencies and professions.  A clinical research trial to validate the ISMAM concepthas been initiated.

  1. Assessing the utility and limitations of high throughput virtual screening

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paul Daniel Phillips

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Due to low cost, speed, and unmatched ability to explore large numbers of compounds, high throughput virtual screening and molecular docking engines have become widely utilized by computational scientists. It is generally accepted that docking engines, such as AutoDock, produce reliable qualitative results for ligand-macromolecular receptor binding, and molecular docking results are commonly reported in literature in the absence of complementary wet lab experimental data. In this investigation, three variants of the sixteen amino acid peptide, α-conotoxin MII, were docked to a homology model of the a3β2-nicotinic acetylcholine receptor. DockoMatic version 2.0 was used to perform a virtual screen of each peptide ligand to the receptor for ten docking trials consisting of 100 AutoDock cycles per trial. The results were analyzed for both variation in the calculated binding energy obtained from AutoDock, and the orientation of bound peptide within the receptor. The results show that, while no clear correlation exists between consistent ligand binding pose and the calculated binding energy, AutoDock is able to determine a consistent positioning of bound peptide in the majority of trials when at least ten trials were evaluated.

  2. Transforming Professional Learning and Practice in Assessment for Learning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Poskitt, Jenny

    2014-01-01

    Assessing student learning is a complex process requiring teachers to have deep knowledge of the curriculum, assessment, and pedagogy. Changing political climates mean that teachers are expected to respond to new approaches or systems and adjust their classroom practice accordingly. Teachers often engage in professional learning (PL) to assist…

  3. Bilingual School Psychologists' Assessment Practices with English Language Learners

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Bryon, Elisabeth C.; Rogers, Margaret R.

    2010-01-01

    This study explored bilingual school psychologists' assessment practices with students identified as English language learners (ELL). One thousand bilingual National Association of School Psychologist members were recruited nationwide, and 276 participated. Among those conducting language proficiency assessments of ELLs, many (58%) use…

  4. Violence Risk Assessment Practices in Denmark: A Multidisciplinary National Survey

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nielsen Louise Hjort

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available With a quadrupling of forensic psychiatric patients in Denmark over the past 20 years, focus on violence risk assessment practices across the country has increased. However, information is lacking regarding Danish risk assessment practice across professional disciplines and clinical settings; little is known about how violence risk assessments are conducted, which instruments are used for what purposes, and how mental health professionals rate their utility and costs. As part of a global survey exploring the application of violence risk assessment across 44 countries, the current study investigated Danish practice across several professional disciplines and settings in which forensic and high-risk mental health patients are assessed and treated. In total, 125 mental health professionals across the country completed the survey. The five instruments that respondents reported most commonly using for risk assessment, risk management planning and risk monitoring were Broset, HCR-20, the START, the PCL-R, and the PCL:SV. Whereas the HCR-20 was rated highest in usefulness for risk assessment, the START was rated most useful for risk management and risk monitoring. No significant differences in utility were observed across professional groups. Unstructured clinical judgments were reported to be faster but more expensive to conduct than using a risk assessment instrument. Implications for clinical practice are discussed.

  5. Digitizing Practical Production Work for High-Stakes Assessments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Newhouse, C. Paul; Tarricone, Pina

    2014-01-01

    High-stakes external assessment for practical courses is fraught with problems impacting on the manageability, validity and reliability of scoring. Alternative approaches to assessment using digital technologies have the potential to address these problems. This paper describes a study that investigated the use of these technologies to create and…

  6. Assessing Pre-Service Teachers' Quality Teaching Practices

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Weiyun; Hendricks, Kristin; Archibald, Kelsi

    2011-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to design and validate the Assessing Quality Teaching Rubrics (AQTR) that assesses the pre-service teachers' quality teaching practices in a live lesson or a videotaped lesson. Twenty-one lessons taught by 13 Physical Education Teacher Education (PETE) students were videotaped. The videotaped lessons were evaluated…

  7. Evaluation of Continuous Assessment Practice by University Lecturers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Osadebe, Patrick U.

    2015-01-01

    The study evaluated the extent to which Continuous Assessment (CA) was practiced by university lecturers in Delta State University, Abraka, Nigeria. The evaluation of continuous assessment focused on the cognitive, affective and psychomotor domains of students' behaviour. That is teaching and learning should focus on these areas. Two research…

  8. English Language Assessment in Malaysia: Teachers’ Practices in Test Preparation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Soubakeavathi Rethinasamy

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available In the context of English language teaching, many studies that claimed to investigate teachers’ assessment practices were actually exploring their perceptions and belief with little reference to what they were practising in schools. The need to address such a limitation has prompted this study to examine the current formal assessment practices of English language teachers in lower secondary schools. Specifically, this paper reports how the teachers prepare the formal assessments. Extensive structured interviews were conducted with 72 teachers from 24 schools in Kuching division, Sarawak. Relevant documents such as test papers and assessment guidelines were also collected for further analysis. The findings from this study revealed that a majority of the teachers conducted formal assessments mainly due to the requirements of the school and ministry while following pre-determined steps in preparing a test. Furthermore, the findings also revealed teachers’ reliance on commercial reference books in constructing exam questions and sample answers. The outcome of the study provides an insight on the nature of English language teachers’ assessment practices in relation to the classroom teaching and learning at the secondary level.This could help inform the Ministry of Education in providing necessary support for the teachers particularly assessment practices in ESL context as well as in formulating a better assessment policy for schools.

  9. Increased Authenticity in Practical Assessment Using Emergency Case OSCE Stations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruesseler, Miriam; Weinlich, Michael; Byhahn, Christian; Muller, Michael P.; Junger, Jana; Marzi, Ingo; Walcher, Felix

    2010-01-01

    In case of an emergency, a fast and structured patient management is crucial for patient's outcome. The competencies needed should be acquired and assessed during medical education. The objective structured clinical examination (OSCE) is a valid and reliable assessment format to evaluate practical skills. However, traditional OSCE stations examine…

  10. Learning Potential Assessment: Theoretical, Methodological and Practical Issues.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hamers, J. H. M., Ed.; Sijtsma, K., Ed.; Ruijssenaars, A. J. J. M., Ed.

    The first part of this volume is concerned with theoretical and conceptual issues concerning learning potential assessment. The second part deals with methodological and measurement issues in learning potential assessment, and the third part is devoted to research projects and practical applications of learning potential tests. The following…

  11. A Theory of Classroom Assessment and Teacher Practice in Mathematics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kulm, Gerald

    The theoretical and practice-based framework is presented for a study that explored the effect of teachers' use of alternative assessment on their mathematics teaching. A model for the impact of alternative assessment on teacher knowledge and classroom teaching processes is proposed, building on work by E. Fennema and M. L. Franke (1992) and P. L.…

  12. Improving asthma severity and control screening in a primary care pediatric practice

    OpenAIRE

    2016-01-01

    Asthma is the most commonly encountered chronic disease in children. Periodic assessment of asthma severity and control is an integral part of asthma management, but patients with uncontrolled asthma don't always schedule routine asthma care visits. The aim of this project was to improve asthma control and severity screening in a primary care setting by using a validated tool for all visits for patients with a diagnosis of asthma aged 4-21 years. Our QI team developed a protocol to administer...

  13. Optimizing stormwater treatment practices a handbook of assessment and maintenance

    CERN Document Server

    Erickson, Andrew J; Gulliver, John S

    2013-01-01

    Optimizing Stormwater Treatment Practices: A Handbook of Assessment and Maintenance provides the information necessary for developing and operating an effective maintenance program for stormwater treatment. The book offers instructions on how to measure the level of performance of stormwater treatment practices directly and bases proposed maintenance schedules on actual performance and historical maintenance efforts and costs. The inspection methods, which are proven in the field and have been implemented successfully, are necessary as regulatory agencies are demanding evaluations of the performance of stormwater treatment practices. The authors have developed a three-tiered approach that offers readers a standard protocol for how to determine the effectiveness of stormwater treatment practices currently in place. This book also: Provides a standard protocol for how to determine the effectiveness of stormwater treatment practices Assists readers with identifying which assessment techniques to use for stormwa...

  14. Using touch-screen technology to assess smoking in a low-income primary care clinic: a pilot study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Philip H; Homish, Gregory G; Barrick, Christopher; Grier, Nancy L

    2011-01-01

    This pilot study examined the use of a touch-screen tablet personal computer to assess smoking and alcohol use among low-income primary care patients (N = 100) and tested cross-method consistency with a paper assessment. Data were collected in 2009. A touch-screen survey assessed smoking, alcohol use, partner smoking, and acceptability. A separate paper survey assessed smoking, partner smoking, and acceptability. The touch-screen assessment was highly acceptable and reliable. Implications and limitations are noted. Future research should explore the use of touch-screen technology for clinical endeavors requiring a quick assessment of substance use. There was no outside funding for this study.

  15. Nursing assessment of obstructive sleep apnea in hospitalised adults: a review of risk factors and screening tools.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sheldon, Alison; Belan, Ingrid; Neill, Jane; Rowland, Sharn

    Obstructive sleep apnea (OSA) affects approximately 2-4% of the general population and may be more prevalent in obese adults. However, sleep apnea remains consistently under-diagnosed in the general population as well as in hospital wards. Nurse awareness of OSA during routine monitoring could allow specific observations of hospitalised adults to identify those at high risk and ensure appropriate referral. This integrative literature review analysed major risk factors for OSA and identified screening tools that nurses could utilise in hospital wards. The most important risk factors relevant to nursing practice in hospital settings were obesity, hypertension and sleep position. The most suitable screening tool was the Berlin Questionnaire, while there was some evidence to support measuring waist circumference. A nursing assessment flow chart was developed based on the literature reviewed. This paper highlights a role for nurses in recognising patients at risk of OSA and minimising complications in hospitalised adults.

  16. Beyond Screen Time: Assessing Recreational Sedentary Behavior among Adolescent Girls

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Katherine W. Bauer

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Most studies of sedentary behavior have focused on television use or screen time. This study aims to examine adolescent girls' participation in a variety of recreational sedentary behaviors (e.g., talking on the phone and hanging around, and their association with physical activity (PA, dietary behaviors, and body mass index. Data were from a sample of 283 adolescent girls. Recreational sedentary behavior, PA, and dietary behaviors were self-reported, and girls' height and weight were measured. Over 95% of girls engaged in at least one recreational sedentary behavior during the recall period. Watching television and hanging around were the most common behaviors. Watching television, using the Internet, and hanging around were associated with less PA; watching television, hanging around, and talking on the phone were associated with less healthful dietary behaviors. No associations were found with body mass index. Interventions may benefit from capitalizing on and intervening upon girls' common recreational sedentary behaviors.

  17. Assessment Training: A Precondition for Teachers' Competencies and Use of Classroom Assessment Practices

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koloi-Keaikitse, Setlhomo

    2016-01-01

    Student assessment, particularly at classroom level, remains an integral part of teaching and learning and is a driving force for the implementation of educational policies and practices in many countries. Nevertheless, problems associated with teachers' classroom assessment practices continue to exist in schools and research shows that teachers…

  18. Promoting Assessment Efficacy through an Integrated System for Online Clinical Assessment of Practical Skills

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hay, Peter J.; Engstrom, Craig; Green, Anita; Friis, Peter; Dickens, Sue; Macdonald, Doune

    2013-01-01

    This paper presents evaluation outcomes from an externally funded research project involving the online clinical assessment of practical skills (eCAPS) using web-based video technologies within a university medical programme. eCAPS was implemented to trial this web-based approach for promoting the efficacy of "practical" skills assessment in knee…

  19. Knowledge, attitudes and practices of breast cancer screening among women in Jordan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Othman, Areej; Ahram, Mamoun; Al-Tarawneh, Mohammed Rasoul; Shahrouri, Manal

    2015-01-01

    Enhancing breast cancer screening in developing countries is pivotal in improving women's health. We aimed at describing knowledge of and perceived reasons for performing breast cancer screening. We interviewed 1,549 population-based randomly selected women. We found that women share limited knowledge about breast cancer screening. Few women performed screening for early detection purposes. The influence of physicians was the main reason for performing mammography. Prevalence of breast cancer screening might be enhanced by integrating screening into other medical services. Health agencies need to invite women for screening and educate them regarding the importance of screening in the absence of symptoms.

  20. Screening-Level Risk Assessment for Styrene-Acrylonitrile (SAN) Trimer Detected in Soil and Groundwater

    OpenAIRE

    Kirman, C. R.; Gargas, M L; Collins, J. J.; Rowlands, J. C.

    2012-01-01

    A screening-level risk assessment was conducted for styrene-acrylonitrile (SAN) Trimer detected at the Reich Farm Superfund site in Toms River, NJ. Consistent with a screening-level approach, on-site and off-site exposure scenarios were evaluated using assumptions that are expected to overestimate actual exposures and hazards at the site. Environmental sampling data collected for soil and groundwater were used to estimate exposure point concentrations. Several exposure scenarios were evaluate...

  1. Screening for developmental dysplasia of the hip: current practices in Ireland.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    O'Grady, M J

    2012-01-31

    OBJECTIVE: To ascertain the current approach to screen for developmental dysplasia of the hip in the Republic of Ireland. METHODS: Two-pronged prospective and retrospective study. (1) Postal questionnaire to consultant paediatricians responsible for the routine neonatal care of infants in the Irish Republic in June 2006. (2) Retrospective database review to identify infants undergoing radiological follow-up and their outcome. RESULTS: All maternity units surveyed responded. Most units (84%) were dependent on radiographs at 4-6 months for imaging hips, only two units primarily used ultrasound (10.5%). We estimate that neonatal hip examination is performed by an experienced examiner in less than 30% of routine newborn examinations. On retrospective analysis, 94% of radiographs performed were normal. CONCLUSIONS: The most effective interventions, selective ultrasound and examination by an experienced clinician are not widely practiced. There is a need for the development of national guidelines based on available resources.

  2. Risk assessment of cattle handling on pasture using work environment screening tool.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Geng, Qiuqing; Field, William E; Salomon, Eva

    2015-01-01

    Working with beef cattle in an open area or while on pasture has been shown to expose workers to a high risk of work-related injury. Prior research on this problem has been conducted using mail surveys, interviews, self-reporting of work practices and injury experiences, and summaries of published injury data, including media reports. Prior research on injury prevention has largely focused on worker education in a specific cultural or geographical setting. A pilot study was conducted to test the cross-cultural usability of the Working Environment Screening Tool in Agriculture (WEST-AG), a modification of the WEST, developed for Swedish industrial applications, to assess risk factors associated with farmers working with cattle being raised largely on pasture as compared with cattle raised in confined feeding operations. Swedish and English language versions of WEST-AG were developed and pilot-tested on a convenient sample of eight Swedish and eight Indiana farms that raise beef cattle primarily on pasture. On-site observations were conducted independently by Swedish and US agricultural safety professionals and documented using photography and a 15-risk-of-injury component on an 11-degree linear scale. Comparisons were made between independent observations documented from the Swedish and Indiana application of the WEST, including collective assessment of photographic record, and the results reported. Key findings included (a) a higher level of observed risks on Indiana farms studied as compared with their Swedish counterparts; (b) high levels of worker exposure to cattle, especially mature breeding bulls, on both sets of farms; (c) a higher frequency of self-reported farm-related injuries than anticipated on both Swedish and Indiana farms; (d) substantially different economic, social, cultural, and regulatory forces that influence small-operation Swedish and Indiana beef producers' decisions regarding adoption of safer work practices, including use of new and safer

  3. Assessment of electromechanical properties of screen printed polymer nanopastes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Janeczek, Kamil, E-mail: kamil.janeczek@itr.org.pl [Tele and Radio Research Institute, 11 Ratuszowa Street, 03-450 Warsaw (Poland); Kozioł, Grażyna [Tele and Radio Research Institute, 11 Ratuszowa Street, 03-450 Warsaw (Poland); Jakubowska, Małgorzata [Institute of Electronic Materials Technology, 133 Wolczynska Street, 01-919 Warsaw (Poland); Warsaw University of Technology, Institute of Metrology and Biomedical Engineering, 8 Sankt Andrzej Bobola Street, 02-525 Warsaw (Poland); Araźna, Aneta [Tele and Radio Research Institute, 11 Ratuszowa Street, 03-450 Warsaw (Poland); Młożniak, Anna [Institute of Electronic Materials Technology, 133 Wolczynska Street, 01-919 Warsaw (Poland); Futera, Konrad [Tele and Radio Research Institute, 11 Ratuszowa Street, 03-450 Warsaw (Poland)

    2013-05-01

    Highlights: ► Carbon nanotubes and graphite nanofibers exhibited a tendency to agglomeration. ► Layer thickness appeared to be used nanopaste- and substrate-dependent. ► EL-P3040/GNF exhibited higher sheet resistance than EL-P3040 and EL-P3040/CNT. ► Multilayer printing caused the layers to be less durable to cyclic bending. -- Abstract: Printed electronics has provided different printing techniques as environmentally friendly and cost-effective manufacturing methods of electronic components. The printed items can be produced on low cost, different types of flexible substrates, even when their surface is corrugated. This opens a new application range of printed electronics and makes them competitive with traditionally manufactured electronics. However, it is necessary to investigate new materials to continue the rapid progress in printed electronics. In our study, the electromechanical properties of polymer nanopastes consisted of carbon nanotubes and graphite platelet nanofibers mixed with a conductive polymer poly(3,4-ethylenedioxythiophene):poly(styrenesulfonate) (PEDOT:PSS) were investigated. Their microstructure and the layer morphology were observed using a scanning electron microscope and an optical microscope. The thickness and average roughness of the layers printed on the foil and paper were determined with a contact profilometer. The mechanical durability of the screen printed layers was verified in a cyclic bending test. The highest mechanical durability was exhibited by the polymer pastes containing carbon nanotubes.

  4. Assessing severity of delirium by the Delirium Observation Screening Scale

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Scheffer, Alice C.; van Munster, Barbara C.; Schuurmans, Marieke J.; de Rooij, Sophia E.

    2011-01-01

    Objective: Delirium is the most common acute neuropsychiatric disorder in hospitalized elderly. Assessment of the severity of delirium is important for adjusting medication. The minimal dose of medication is preferable to prevent side effects. Only few nurse based severity measures are available. Th

  5. Guidance Manual for Conducting Screening Level Ecological Risk Assessments at the INEL

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    R. L. VanHorn; N. L. Hampton; R. C. Morris

    1995-06-01

    This document presents reference material for conducting screening level ecological risk assessments (SLERAs)for the waste area groups (WAGs) at the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory. Included in this document are discussions of the objectives of and processes for conducting SLERAs. The Environmental Protection Agency ecological risk assessment framework is closely followed. Guidance for site characterization, stressor characterization, ecological effects, pathways of contaminant migration, the conceptual site model, assessment endpoints, measurement endpoints, analysis guidance, and risk characterization are included.

  6. Assessment of Quality Management Practices Within the Healthcare Industry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    William J. Miller

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Problem Statement: Considerable effort has been devoted over the years by many organizations to adopt quality management practices, but few studies have assessed critical factors that affect quality practices in healthcare organizations. The problem addressed in this study was to assess the critical factors influencing the quality management practices in a single important industry (i.e., healthcare. Approach: A survey instrument was adapted from business quality literature and was sent to all hospitals in a large US Southeastern state. Valid responses were received from 147 of 189 hospitals yielding a 75.6% response rate. Factor analysis using principal component analysis with an orthogonal rotation was performed to assess 58 survey items designed to measure ten dimensions of hospital quality management practices. Results: Eight factors were shown to have a statistically significant effect on quality management practices and were classified into two groups: (1 four strategic factors (role of management leadership, role of the physician, customer focus, training resources investment and (2 four operational factors (role of quality department, quality data/reporting, process management/training and employee relations. The results of this study showed that a valid and reliable instrument was developed and used to assess quality management practices in hospitals throughout a large US state. Conclusion: The implications of this study provided an understanding that management of quality required both a focus on longer-term strategic leadership, as well as day-to-day operational management. It was recommended that healthcare researchers and practitioners focus on the critical factors identified and employ this survey instrument to manage and better understand the nature of hospital quality management practices across wider geographical regions and over longer time periods. Furthermore, this study extended the scope of existing quality management

  7. Environmental assessment and exposure reduction of cockroaches: A practice parameter

    OpenAIRE

    Portnoy, Jay; Chew, Ginger L.; Phipatanakul, Wanda; Williams, P. Brock; Grimes, Carl; Kennedy, Kevin; Matsui, Elizabeth C.; Miller, J David; Bernstein, David; Blessing-Moore, Joann; Cox, Linda; Khan, David; Lang, David; Nicklas, Richard; Oppenheimer, John

    2013-01-01

    This parameter was developed by the Joint Task Force on Practice Parameters, representing the American Academy of Allergy, Asthma & Immunology (AAAAI); the American College of Allergy, Asthma & Immunology (ACAAI); and the joint Council of Allergy, Asthma & Immunology. The AAAAI and the ACAAI have jointly accepted responsibility for establishing “Environmental assessment and remediation: a practice parameter.” This is a complete and comprehensive document at the current time. The medical envir...

  8. The assessment of learning in engineering education practice and policy

    CERN Document Server

    Heywood, John

    2016-01-01

    Explores how we judge engineering education in order to effectively redesign courses and programs that will prepare new engineers for various professional and academic careers This book considers the functions of assessment and its measurement in engineering education. Chapters two through three discuss efforts toward alternative curriculum in engineering and advanced level exams for university entry in engineering science. Chapter four reviews investigations of what engineers do at work and their implications assessment. Chapter five records the development of competency based assessment and considers its implications for the engineering curriculum. Chapter six discusses the impact of the accrediting authorities on assessment, outcomes based assessment, taxonomies and assessment in mastery and personalized systems of instruction. Chapters seven through eight consider student variability (e.g. intellectual development, emotional intelligence) and reflective practice. Questio s are raised about the assessment...

  9. LCTL Teachers’ Assessment Knowledge and Practices: An Exploratory Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Megan Montee

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Language assessment allows teachers to gather information about student learning and adjust their instructional practices accordingly. When integrated with instruction, assessment can support student-centered teaching by helping instructors understand what students have learned or are able to do and what they still need to know (Shepard, 2000. However, language teachers often receive limited pre-service training in assessment and testing (Malone, 2008. To date, limited empirical work has been conducted about LCTL teacher education and language assessment literacy. This paper explores a teacher training program designed to address the assessment needs of LCTL educators. This program provides a model of evidence-based assessment training that may be useful to other teacher educators. Furthermore, data generated from the project contributes to research about LCTL teacher education and assessment literacy and suggests future directions for work in this area.

  10. Assessment Of Basic Practical Skills In An Undergraduate Medical Curriculum

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sambandam Elango

    2007-06-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Health educators and accrediting bodieshave defined objectives and competencies that medicalstudents need to acquire to become a safe doctor. Thereis no report in Malaysia, about the ability of medicalstudents to perform some of the basic surgical skillsbefore entering the houseman ship. The aim of thisstudy is to determine whether the teaching/ learningmethods of practical skills in our undergraduate programhave been effective in imparting the desired level ofcompetencies in these skills.Methods: A list of basic practical skills that studentsshould be competent has been identified. These skillsare taught in a structured way and assessed as part of thecomposite end- of- semester examination. Practicalskills stations form part of an Objective structuredpractical examination (OSPE.Results: The results of 244 students who participated inthree ends of semester examinations were analyzed. Themean score for the practical skills stations were higherthan the mean OSPE (of all 18 stations and overallscore (of the written, practical and clinicalexamination. However the failure rate in the practicalskills stations is higher in most of the stations (7 out of8 stations compared to overall failure rates.Conclusions: In spite of the formal skills training manystudents failed to demonstrate the desired level ofcompetencies in these stations. Assessment of practicalskills as part of overall composite examination may notbe effective in ensuring that all students have achievedthe required level of competency. Practical skills shouldbe assessed through dedicated formative assessments tomake sure that all the students acquire the requiredcompetencies.

  11. An Analysis of State Autism Educational Assessment Practices and Requirements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barton, Erin E; Harris, Bryn; Leech, Nancy; Stiff, Lillian; Choi, Gounah; Joel, Tiffany

    2016-03-01

    States differ in the procedures and criteria used to identify ASD. These differences are likely to impact the prevalence and age of identification for children with ASD. The purpose of the current study was to examine the specific state variations in ASD identification and eligibility criteria requirements. We examined variations by state in autism assessment practices and the proportion of children eligible for special education services under the autism category. Overall, our findings suggest that ASD identification practices vary across states, but most states use federal guidelines, at least in part, to set their requirements. Implications and recommendations for policy and practice are discussed.

  12. A quantitative screening-level approach to incorporate chemical exposure and risk/safety into alternative assessment evaluations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arnold, Scott M; Greggs, Bill; Goyak, Katy O; Landenberger, Bryce D; Mason, Ann M; Howard, Brett; Zaleski, Rosemary; Howard, Brett; Zaleski, Rosemary T

    2017-03-10

    As the general public and retailers ask for disclosure of chemical ingredients in the marketplace, a number of hazard screening tools were developed to evaluate the so called "greenness" of individual chemical ingredients and/or formulations. The majority of these tools focus only on hazard, often using chemical lists, ignoring the other part of the risk equation: exposure. Using a hazard-only focus can result in regrettable substitutions, changing one chemical ingredient for another that turns out to be more hazardous or shifts the toxicity burden to others. To minimize the incidents of regrettable substitutions, BizNGO describes 'Common Principles' to frame a process for informed substitution. Two of the six principles state reduce hazard and minimize exposure. A number of frameworks have emerged to evaluate and assess alternatives. One framework developed by leading experts under the auspices of the U.S. National Academy of Sciences recommended that hazard and exposure be specifically addressed in the same step when assessing candidate alternatives. For the alternative assessment community, this paper serves as an informational resource for considering exposure in an alternatives assessment using elements of problem formulation; product identity, use, and composition; hazard analysis; exposure analysis; and risk characterization. These conceptual elements build upon practices from government, academia, and industry and are exemplified through two hypothetical case studies demonstrating the questions asked and decisions faced in new product development. These two case studies - inhalation exposure to a generic paint product and environmental exposure to a shampoo rinsed down the drain - demonstrate the criteria, considerations, and methods required to combine exposure models addressing human health and environmental impacts to provide a screening level hazard/exposure (risk) analysis. This paper informs practices for these elements within a comparative risk

  13. Cost impact assessment of cost accounting practice changes

    OpenAIRE

    Anderson, James S.

    1980-01-01

    Approved for public release; distribution unlimited This thesis represents the results of research on cost impact assessment of cost accounting practice changes to Cost Account Standards- covered contracts. The objectives of the research were to explore the current environment in which cost impact is measured and to develop a structured approach to aid the decision-maker in the assessment. The requirements of the Cost Accounting Standards and Administration of Cost Accoun...

  14. Optimisation and assessment of three modern touch screen tablet computers for clinical vision testing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tahir, Humza J; Murray, Ian J; Parry, Neil R A; Aslam, Tariq M

    2014-01-01

    Technological advances have led to the development of powerful yet portable tablet computers whose touch-screen resolutions now permit the presentation of targets small enough to test the limits of normal visual acuity. Such devices have become ubiquitous in daily life and are moving into the clinical space. However, in order to produce clinically valid tests, it is important to identify the limits imposed by the screen characteristics, such as resolution, brightness uniformity, contrast linearity and the effect of viewing angle. Previously we have conducted such tests on the iPad 3. Here we extend our investigations to 2 other devices and outline a protocol for calibrating such screens, using standardised methods to measure the gamma function, warm up time, screen uniformity and the effects of viewing angle and screen reflections. We demonstrate that all three devices manifest typical gamma functions for voltage and luminance with warm up times of approximately 15 minutes. However, there were differences in homogeneity and reflectance among the displays. We suggest practical means to optimise quality of display for vision testing including screen calibration.

  15. Optimisation and assessment of three modern touch screen tablet computers for clinical vision testing.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Humza J Tahir

    Full Text Available Technological advances have led to the development of powerful yet portable tablet computers whose touch-screen resolutions now permit the presentation of targets small enough to test the limits of normal visual acuity. Such devices have become ubiquitous in daily life and are moving into the clinical space. However, in order to produce clinically valid tests, it is important to identify the limits imposed by the screen characteristics, such as resolution, brightness uniformity, contrast linearity and the effect of viewing angle. Previously we have conducted such tests on the iPad 3. Here we extend our investigations to 2 other devices and outline a protocol for calibrating such screens, using standardised methods to measure the gamma function, warm up time, screen uniformity and the effects of viewing angle and screen reflections. We demonstrate that all three devices manifest typical gamma functions for voltage and luminance with warm up times of approximately 15 minutes. However, there were differences in homogeneity and reflectance among the displays. We suggest practical means to optimise quality of display for vision testing including screen calibration.

  16. Trialling computer touch-screen technology to assess psychological distress in patients with gynaecological cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Georgia Halkett

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available BackgroundCancer impacts on the psychological well-being of many cancer patients. Appropriate tools can be used to assist health professionals in identifying patient needs and psychological distress. Recent research suggests that touchscreen technology can be used to administer surveys. The aim of this study was to evaluate the use of a touchscreen system in comparison to written questionnaires in a large tertiary hospital in Western Australia (WA.Method Patients who were scheduled to commence treatment for gynaecological cancer participated in this study. Patients were assigned to complete either a written questionnaire or the same survey using the touchscreen technology. Both methods of survey contained the same scales. All participants were asked to complete a follow-up patient satisfaction survey. Semi-structured interviews were conducted with health professionals to elicit views about the implementation of the technology and the available referral pathways. Data was analysed using descriptive statistics and content analysis. ResultsThirty patients completed the touchscreen questionnaires and an equal number completed the survey on paper. Participants who used the touchscreens were not significantly more satisfied than other participants. Four themes were noted in the interviews with health professionals: usability of technology, patients’ acceptance of technology, advantages of psychological screening and the value of the instruments included.ConclusionAlthough previous studies report that computerised assessments are a feasible option for assessing cancer patients’ needs, the data collected in this study demonstrates that the technology was not reliable with significant practical problems. The technology did not serve these patients better than pen and paper.

  17. Assessing screening criteria for the radiocarbon dating of bone mineral

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fernandes, Ricardo, E-mail: ldv1452@gmail.com [Leibniz Labor for Isotopic and Radiometric Dating, Max-Eyth-Str. 11-13, 24118 Kiel (Germany); Graduate School Human Development in Landscapes, Christian Albrecht University, Kiel (Germany); Huels, Matthias [Leibniz Labor for Isotopic and Radiometric Dating, Max-Eyth-Str. 11-13, 24118 Kiel (Germany); Nadeau, Marie-Josee; Grootes, Pieter M. [Leibniz Labor for Isotopic and Radiometric Dating, Max-Eyth-Str. 11-13, 24118 Kiel (Germany); Graduate School Human Development in Landscapes, Christian Albrecht University, Kiel (Germany); Garbe-Schoenberg, C.-Dieter [Institute of Geosciences, Marine Climate Research and ICPMS Lab, Kiel University, Ludewig-Meyn-Str. 10, D-24118 Kiel (Germany); Graduate School Human Development in Landscapes, Christian Albrecht University, Kiel (Germany); Hollund, Hege I. [Institute for Geo- and Bioarchaeology, The VU University, De Boelelaan 1085, 1081 HV Amsterdam (Netherlands); Lotnyk, Andriy [Faculty of Engineering, Institute for Material Science, Synthesis and Real Structure, Kiel University, Kaiserstr. 2, D-24143 Kiel (Germany); Leibniz Institute of Surface Modification (IOM), Permoserstr. 15, D-04318 Leipzig (Germany); Kienle, Lorenz [Faculty of Engineering, Institute for Material Science, Synthesis and Real Structure, Kiel University, Kaiserstr. 2, D-24143 Kiel (Germany); Graduate School Human Development in Landscapes, Christian Albrecht University, Kiel (Germany)

    2013-01-15

    Radiocarbon dating of bone mineral (carbonate in the apatite lattice) has been the target of sporadic research for the last 40 years. Results obtained by different decontamination protocols have, however, failed to provide a consistent agreement with reference ages. In particular, quality criteria to assess bone mineral radiocarbon dating reliability are still lacking. Systematic research was undertaken to identify optimal preservation criteria for bone mineral in archeological bones. Six human long bones, originating from a single site, were radiocarbon-dated both for collagen and apatite, with the level of agreement between the dates providing an indication of exogenous carbon contamination. Several techniques (Histology, FTIR, TEM, LA-ICP-MS) were employed to determine the preservation status of each sample. Research results highlight the importance of a micro-scale approach in establishing bone preservation, in particular the use of trace element concentration profiles demonstrated its potential use as a viable sample selection criterion for bone carbonate radiocarbon dating.

  18. PBT assessment and prioritization by PBT Index and consensus modeling: comparison of screening results from structural models.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gramatica, Paola; Cassani, Stefano; Sangion, Alessandro

    2015-04-01

    The limited availability of comprehensive data for Persistence, Bioaccumulation and Toxicity (PBT) of chemicals is a serious hindrance to the assignment of compounds to the categories of PBT and vPvB; REACH regulation requires authorization for the use of such chemicals, and additionally plans for safer alternatives. In the context of screening and priority-setting tools for PBT-assessment, the cumulative PBT Index model, implemented in QSARINS (QSAR-INSUBRIA), new software tool for the development and validation of multiple linear regression QSAR models, offers a new holistic approach for the identification of chemicals with cumulative PBT properties directly from their molecular structure. In this study the Insubria PBT Index in QSARINS is applied to the screening and prioritization of various data sets, containing a large variety of chemicals of heterogeneous molecular structure, previously screened by various authors by different methods, for their potential PBT behavior. Particular attention is devoted to the model Applicability Domain, using different approaches such as Descriptor Range, Leverage, and Principal Component Analysis (PCA) of the modeling molecular descriptors, in order to discriminate between interpolated and extrapolated predictions. The results of this screening, which is based only on the molecular structure features and is not dependent on single threshold values for P, B and T, are compared with those obtained by the on-line US-EPA PBT Profiler. Good agreement between the various approaches is found, supporting the utility of a consensus approach in priority-setting studies. The main discrepancies are highlighted and commented on. Moreover, a priority list containing the most hazardous compounds identified in agreement between the two tools is drafted. The PBT Index, implemented in QSARINS, which was demonstrated to be a practical, precautionary and reliable screening tool for PBT-behavior directly from the molecular structure, can be

  19. Autism Spectrum Disorders: Neurobiology and Current Assessment Practices

    Science.gov (United States)

    Allen, Ryan A.; Robins, Diana L.; Decker, Scott L.

    2008-01-01

    This study reviews recent research related to the neurobiology of Autism Spectrum Disorders (ASDs) an provides an empirical analysis of current assessment practices. Data were collected through a survey of 117 school psychologists. The Childhood Autism Rating Scale (CARS), Gilliam Autism Rating Scale (GARS), and Gilliam Asperger's Disorder Scale…

  20. The Use of Computers in Social Work Practice: An Assessment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, Henry

    1986-01-01

    The potential use of computers in social work education and practice is discussed. Possibilities are emerging in regard to case management, diagnosis and assessment, and even treatment. The bottleneck is no longer expensive hardware but the development of usable and relevant software and courseware. (Author/MH)

  1. Case Disposition: An Assessment of Literature on Police Referral Practices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scott, Eric J.; And Others

    This report reviews the manner in which police handle citizen requests for social services. The focus is on how officers make their decisions--whether they handle such requests themselves, direct them elsewhere in the department, or refer citizens to other agencies. In their assessment of the literature on referral practices, the authors point out…

  2. Assessing Preschool Teachers' Practices to Promote Self-Regulated Learning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adagideli, Fahretdin Hasan; Saraç, Seda; Ader, Engin

    2015-01-01

    Recent research reveals that in preschool years, through pedagogical interventions, preschool teachers can and should promote self-regulated learning. The main aim of this study is to develop a self-report instrument to assess preschool teachers' practices to promote self-regulated learning. A pool of 50 items was recruited through literature…

  3. Insecticide Exposures on Commercial Aircraft: A Literature Review and Screening Level Assessment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Maddalena, Randy I.; McKone, Thomas E.

    2008-10-01

    The objective of this project was to provide initial estimates of the relationship between insecticide use on passenger aircraft and exposure levels present in the cabin environment. The work was initially divided into three tasks including 1) a review of insecticide application practices in commercial aircraft, 2) exploratory measurements of insecticide concentrations in treated aircraft and 3) screening level exposure modeling. Task 1 gathered information that is needed to assess the time-concentration history of insecticides in the airline cabin. The literature review focused on application practices, information about the cabin environment and existing measurements of exposure concentrations following treatment. Information from the airlines was not available for estimating insecticide application rates in the U.S. domestic fleet or for understanding how frequently equipment rotate into domestic routes following insecticide treatment. However, the World Health Organization (WHO) recommends several methods for treating aircraft with insecticide. Although there is evidence that these WHO guidelines may not always be followed, and that practices vary by airline, destination, and/or applicator company, the guidelines in combination with information related to other indoor environments provides a plausible basis for estimating insecticide loading rates on aircraft. The review also found that while measurements of exposure concentrations following simulated aerosol applications are available, measurements following residual treatment of aircraft or applications in domestic aircraft are lacking. Task 2 focused on developing an approach to monitor exposure concentrations in aircraft using a combination of active and passive sampling methods. An existing active sampling approach was intended to provide data immediately following treatment while a passive sampler was developed to provide wider coverage of the fleet over longer sampling periods. The passive sampler, based

  4. Risk-based immunization policies and tuberculosis screening practices for animal care and research workers in the United States: survey results and recommendations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weigler, Benjamin J; Cooper, Donna R; Hankenson, F Claire

    2012-01-01

    A national survey was conducted to assess immunization practices and tuberculosis screening methods for animal care and research workers in biomedical settings throughout the United States. Veterinarians (n = 953) were surveyed via a web-based mechanism; completed surveys (n = 308) were analyzed. Results showed that occupational health and safety programs were well-developed, enrolling veterinary, husbandry, and research staff at rates exceeding 90% and involving multiple modalities of health assessments and risk communication for vaccine-preventable diseases. Most (72.7%) institutions did not store serum samples from animal research personnel. More than half of the institutions housed nonhuman primates and maintained tuberculosis screening programs, although screening methods varied. Immunization protocols included various recommended or required vaccines that differed depending on job duties, type of institution, and nature of scientific programs. A single case of an identified vaccine-preventable illness in a laboratory worker was noted. Tetanus toxoid was the predominant vaccine administered (91.7%) to animal care and research workers, followed by hepatitis B (54.8%), influenza (39.9%), and rabies (38.3%). For some immunization protocols, an inconsistent rationale for administration was evident. Indications that animal care and research workers are unprotected from work-related etiologic agents did not emerge from this survey; rather, existing guidelines from the Advisory Committee on Immunization Practices and available biologics seem sufficient to address most needs of the laboratory animal research community. Institutions should commit to performance-based standards in parallel with context-specific risk assessment methods to maintain occupational health and safety programs and practices appropriate to their needs.

  5. A DPSIR model for ecological security assessment through indicator screening: a case study at Dianchi Lake in China.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhen Wang

    Full Text Available Given the important role of lake ecosystems in social and economic development, and the current severe environmental degradation in China, a systematic diagnosis of the ecological security of lakes is essential for sustainable development. A Driving-force, Pressure, Status, Impact, and Risk (DPSIR model, combined with data screening for lake ecological security assessment was developed to overcome the disadvantages of data selection in existing assessment methods. Correlation and principal component analysis were used to select independent and representative data. The DPSIR model was then applied to evaluate the ecological security of Dianchi Lake in China during 1988-2007 using an ecological security index. The results revealed a V-shaped trend. The application of the DPSIR model with data screening provided useful information regarding the status of the lake's ecosystem, while ensuring information efficiency and eliminating multicollinearity. The modeling approach described here is practical and operationally efficient, and provides an attractive alternative approach to assess the ecological security of lakes.

  6. Self-Assessment in Librarianship: Current Practices and Future Possibilities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ania Dymarz

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available The authors of this qualitative study set out to investigate self-assessment practices within the library profession. The researchers conducted semi-structured interviews with a purposeful sample of nine librarians coming from a range of library settings and possessing a diversity of library experience. Interviews were then transcribed and coded in NVIVO to identify emergent themes. This paper details some of the results of that study, highlighting motivations, limitations, and strategies with regard to self-assessment. The findings present a summary of a range of approaches to the practice of assessment as reported by the interviewees. One area of possible growth for our profession, as highlighted by the findings, is in the development of peer networks as a support for the individual practice of self-assessment. While the results of this small case study cannot be generalized, the authors hope these preliminary findings can open up the conversation around self-assessment both for individual librarians and for those librarians and managers working to shape their workplace culture.

  7. Maternal and paternal parenting practices and their influence on children's adiposity, screen-time, diet and physical activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lloyd, Adam B; Lubans, David R; Plotnikoff, Ronald C; Collins, Clare E; Morgan, Philip J

    2014-08-01

    The primary aim of this study was to examine a range of potential behavioral and maternal/paternal correlates of adiposity in children. Secondary aims were to examine (a) correlates of screen-time, diet and physical activity and (b) if there were differences in maternal and paternal physical activity- and dietary-related parenting practices. Cross-sectional analysis was conducted using 70 families with children (59% boys (41/70), mean age 8.4 (±2.4) years). Parenting practices were measured using the Parenting Strategies for Eating and Activity Scale. Children's outcomes included: 7-day pedometry (physical activity), screen-time, percent energy from core foods (Food frequency questionnaire) and BMI z-score. Multiple regression models were generated to examine the associations between maternal and paternal parenting practices and children's variables. In the regression analyses, fathers' BMI (p parenting practices [limit setting (p = .01), reinforcement (p = .02)] and child screen-time (p = .02) were significantly associated with intake of core foods. Despite some similarities within families, three out of five parenting constructs were significantly different between mothers and fathers. Mothers and fathers have different parental influences on their children's weight status and lifestyle behaviors and both should be included in lifestyle interventions targeting children. A focus on maternal parenting specifically relating to screen-time and diet, and father's physical activity parenting and weight status may support their children in developing more healthy behaviors.

  8. Theory versus practice in Strategic Environmental Assessment (SEA)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lobos, Víctor, E-mail: vlobosg@gmail.com [CEG-IST, Instituto Superior Técnico, Universidade de Lisboa, Research Group on Strategic Approaches to Environment and Sustainability (SENSU), 1049-001 Lisboa (Portugal); Centro de Estudios del Desarrollo, San Crescente 551, Las Condes, Santiago (Chile); Partidario, Maria [CEG-IST, Instituto Superior Técnico, Universidade de Lisboa, Research Group on Strategic Approaches to Environment and Sustainability (SENSU), 1049-001 Lisboa (Portugal)

    2014-09-15

    Could the theory of Strategic Environmental Assessment (SEA) be ahead of its time and decoupled from its practice? This paper evolved in search for this leading research question. Over the years the discourse on SEA experienced a gradual shift from the technocratic and rationalist thinking that supported its origin to more strategic approaches and integrated concepts, suggested since the mid 1990's. In this paper we share the results of our analysis of international thinking and practical experience with SEA. Results reveal that SEA practice changes very slowly when compared to advanced thinking supporting the noted shift. Current SEA practice shows to be still predominantly rooted in the logic of projects' environmental impact assessment (EIA). It is strongly bound to legal and regulatory requirements, and the motivation for its application persists being the delivery of environmental (or final) reports to meet legal obligations. Even though advanced SEA theoretical thinking claim its potential to help decisions to look forward, change mind-sets and the rationale of decision-making to meet sustainability challenges and enhance societal values, we note a weak relationship between the theoretical development of SEA and its practice. Why is this happening? Which factors explain this apparent inertia, resistance to change, in the SEA practice? Results appear to demonstrate the influence of assumptions, understandings, concepts, and beliefs in the use of SEA, which in turn suggest the political sensitivity of the instrument. - Highlights: • Theoretical thinking in SEA is ahead of its time. • SEA international practice reveals inertia to move out of project’ EIA comfort zone. • World current SEA practice show similar understandings of 30 years ago. • 100 world reports and survey of practitioners supported world review. • SEA great challenge is to change paradigms into new scientific complexity theories.

  9. Screening and brief intervention targeting risky drinkers in Danish general practice - a pragmatic controlled trial

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Beich, A.; Gannik, D.; Saelan, H.;

    2007-01-01

    AIMS: Recommendations for routine alcohol screening and brief counselling intervention in primary health care rest on results from intervention efficacy studies. By conducting a pragmatic controlled trial (PCT), we aimed at evaluating the effectiveness of the WHO recommendations for screening...

  10. Measures for assessing practice change in medical practitioners

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Green Sally

    2006-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background There are increasing numbers of randomised trials and systematic reviews examining the efficacy of interventions designed to bring about a change in clinical practice. The findings of this research are being used to guide strategies to increase the uptake of evidence into clinical practice. Knowledge of the outcomes measured by these trials is vital not only for the interpretation and application of the work done to date, but also to inform future research in this expanding area of endeavour and to assist in collation of results in systematic reviews and meta-analyses. Methods The objective of this review was to identify methods used to measure change in the clinical practices of health professionals following an intervention aimed at increasing the uptake of evidence into practice. All published trials included in a recent, comprehensive Health Technology Assessment of interventions to implement clinical practice guidelines and change clinical practice (n = 228 formed the sample for this study. Using a standardised data extraction form, one reviewer (SH, extracted the relevant information from the methods and/or results sections of the trials. Results Measures of a change of health practitioner behaviour were the most common, with 88.8% of trials using these as outcome measures. Measures that assessed change at a patient level, either actual measures of change or surrogate measures of change, were used in 28.8% and 36.7% of studies (respectively. Health practitioners' knowledge and attitudes were assessed in 22.8% of the studies and changes at an organisational level were assessed in 17.6%. Conclusion Most trials of interventions aimed at changing clinical practice measured the effect of the intervention at the level of the practitioner, i.e. did the practitioner change what they do, or has their knowledge of and/or attitude toward that practice changed? Less than one-third of the trials measured, whether or not any change

  11. Assessment of the psychological distress difficulties in patients with cancer using the national comprehensive cancer network rapid screening measure

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Hamid Saeedi Saedi; Mona Koochak Pour; Emad Sabahi; Soodabeh Shahidsales

    2012-01-01

    Objective: Clinical guidelines like National Comprehensive Cancer Network Disease recommend routine psychological distress screening as a common problem among patients with cancer. The purpose of this study was to assess the prevalence of clinically significant emotional distress related to demographic and clinical association by standard distress thermometer (DT) within the patients lived in different regions of Gilan state, Iran. Methods: Participants (n = 256) completed the DT, rapid screening measure for distress and identified the presence or absence of 34 problems using the standardized checklist. Results: More than 59 percent of participants had more than 4 cut-off score for distress. The scores varied significantly in case of reported emotional source of distress, physical, physiological and total number of concerns (P < 0.001).DT scores more than four were more likely to report 22 of 32 problems on the problem list. In case of the practical and family problems, the main problems were related to child care and dealing with children, respectively. Moreover worrisome and nervousness were considered the prominent emotional problems in the list. Conclusion: Our result promise that distress thermometer measurement tool compare favorably with longer measures used to screening of distress in cancerous patients. Accompaniment of a psychologist expert in lethal or chronic disease consultation with the therapeutic team and training the rest of members of the team might be able to decrease the emotional distress problems of the cancerous patients.

  12. Practice-Based Evidence of Evidence-Based Practice: Professional Practice Portfolios for the Assessment of Work-Based Learning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, Elizabeth

    2013-01-01

    This article proposes that professional education programmes can help promote the development of professional judgment by the use of a well-designed professional practice portfolio as an assessment tool. An explanation of the portfolio process is followed by evidence from a four-year action research study, demonstrating how compiling a…

  13. Validation of nutritional screening tools against anthropometric and functional assessments among elderly people in selangor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suzana, Shahar; Siti Saifa, Hussain

    2007-03-01

    This cross sectional study was conducted to determine the validity of three screening tools, Mini Nutritional Assessment Short Form (MNA-SF), Malnutrition Risk Screening Tool for Community (MRST-C) and Malnutrition Risk Screening Tool for Hospital (MRST-H) among elderly people at health clinics. The screening tools were validated against anthropometric and functional assessments. The anthropometric assessments that were carried out included body weight, height, arm span, body mass index (BMI), calf circumference (CC) and mid upper arm circumference (MUAC). A set of questionnaire on manual dexterity, muscular strength, instrumental activities daily living (IADL) and cognitive status was used to assess functional abilities. A total of 156 subjects were recruited from rural (38 subjects) and urban (118 subjects) health clinics at Sabak Bernam and Cheras respectively. Subjects' age ranged from 60 to 83 years old, with 44.2% were men and 55.8% women. The prevalence of muscle wasting among the subjects assessed from MUAC and CC were both 7.0%. MNA-SF had the highest correlation with BMI (r = 0.497, pMNA-SF (93.2%), followed by MRST-H (52.5%) and MRST-C (25.8%). Specificity was the highest for MRST-H (97.3%), followed by MRST-C (90.8%) and MNA-SF (79.4%). Positive predictive value (PPV) for MRST-H, MNA-SF and MRST-C was 55.5%, 18.2% and 14.1%, respectively. In conclusion, among the screening tools being validated, MNA-SF is considered the most appropriate tool to be used in health clinics for identification of elderly individuals who are at high risk of malnutrition.

  14. Assessing System Thinking Through Different Concept-Mapping Practices

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brandstädter, Kristina; Harms, Ute; Großschedl, Jörg

    2012-09-01

    System thinking is usually investigated by using questionnaires, video analysis, or interviews. Recently, concept-mapping (CM) was suggested as an adequate instrument for analysing students' system thinking. However, there are different ways with which to use this method. Therefore, the purpose of this study was to examine whether particular features of CM practices affect the valid assessment of students' system thinking. The particular features analysed were the medium (computer versus paper-pencil) and the directedness (highly directed versus nondirected) of CM practices. These features were evaluated with respect to their influence on (a) students' performance in CM and (b) the validity of different CM practices for system thinking. One hundred fifty-four German fourth graders (mean age: 9.95 years) and 93 eighth graders (mean age: 14.07 years) participated in the study following an experimental pre-test-post-test design. Three variations of CM practices were applied: (a) highly directed computer mapping, (b) highly directed paper-pencil mapping, and (c) nondirected paper-pencil mapping. In addition to the CM task, a paper-pencil questionnaire was employed to investigate the validity of the CM practices. Results showed that the computer positively influenced student performance in CM when compared with paper-pencil. By contrast, there was no difference between highly directed and nondirected mapping. Whereas the medium rarely influenced the validity of CM for system thinking, high directedness showed a positive influence. Considering the limitations and benefits of particular CM practices, we suggest highly directed and computer-based CM as an appropriate assessment tool-in particular, with regard to large-scale assessments of system thinking.

  15. Factors affecting compliance with clinical practice guidelines for pap smear screening among healthcare providers in africa: systematic review and meta-summary of 2045 individuals.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Etienne Asonganyi

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Although the importance of the Pap smear in reducing cancer incidence and mortality is known, many countries in Africa have not initiated yet widespread national cervical cancer screening programs. The World Health Organization (WHO has published Clinical Practice Guidelines (CPGs on cervical cancer screening in developing countries; however, there is a gap between expectations and clinical performance. Thus, the aim of this study was to conduct a systematic review and meta-summary to identify factors affecting compliance with CPGs for Pap screening among healthcare providers in Africa. METHODS: And Findings: MEDLINE, Scirus, Opengate and EMBASE databases were searched in January 2012. Studies involving medical personnel practicing in Africa, whose outcome measured any factors that affect medical personnel from using a Pap smear to screen for cervical cancer, were included. Two reviewers independently evaluated titles and abstracts, then full-texts, extracted data and assessed quality of the included studies. A descriptive analysis of the included studies was conducted. We calculated Frequency effect sizes (FES for each finding and Intensity effect sizes (IES for each article to represent their magnitudes in the analyses. Of 1011 studies retrieved, 11 studies were included (2045 individuals. Six different themes related to the factors affecting compliance with CPGs were identified: Insufficient Knowledge/Lack of awareness (FES = 82%, Negligence/Misbeliefs (FES = 82%, Psychological Reasons (FES = 73%, Time/Cost Constraint (FES = 36%, Insufficient infrastructure/training (FES = 45% and also no reason given (FES = 36%. IES for articles ranged between 33 and 83%. CONCLUSIONS: These results suggest that prevention initiatives should be comprehensive to include education and resources needs assessments and improvement, Pap smear test training, strategies on costing, and practitioner time studies.

  16. Assessment of general education teachers' Tier 1 classroom practices: contemporary science, practice, and policy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reddy, Linda A; Fabiano, Gregory A; Jimerson, Shane R

    2013-12-01

    Progress monitoring is a type of formative assessment. Most work on progress monitoring in elementary school settings has been focused on students. However, teachers also can benefit from frequent evaluations. Research addressing teacher progress monitoring is critically important given the recent national focus on teacher evaluation and effectiveness. This special topic section of School Psychology Quarterly is the first to showcase the current research on measuring Tier 1 instructional and behavioral management practices used by prekindergarten and elementary school teachers in general education settings. The three studies included in the special section describe the development and validation efforts of several teacher observational and self-report measures of instruction and/or behavioral management. These studies provide evidence for the utility of such assessments for documenting the use of classroom practices, and these assessment results may be leveraged in innovative coaching models to promote best practice. These articles also offer insight and ideas for the next generation of teacher practice assessment for the field. Finally, the special topic is capped by a commentary synthesizing the current work and offers "big ideas" for future measurement development, policy, and professional development initiatives.

  17. Setting good practices to assess the efficiency of iron fertilizers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    El-Jendoubi, Hamdi; Melgar, Juan Carlos; Alvarez-Fernández, Ana; Sanz, Manuel; Abadía, Anunciación; Abadía, Javier

    2011-05-01

    The most prevalent nutritional disorder in fruit tree crops growing in calcareous soils is Fe deficiency chlorosis. Iron-deficient, chlorotic tree orchards require Fe-fertilization, since chlorosis causes decreases in tree vegetative growth as well as fruit yield and quality losses. When assessing the effectiveness of Fe-fertilizers, it is necessary to use sound practices based in the state-of-the art knowledge on the physiology and biochemistry of Fe deficiency. This review provides an overview on how to carry out the assessment of the efficiency of Fe-fertilizers, discussing common errors found in the literature, outlining adequate procedures and giving real examples of practical studies carried out in our laboratory in the past decade. The review focuses on: i) the design of Fe-fertilization experiments, discussing several issues such as the convenience of using controlled conditions or field experiments, whether fertilizer assessment experiments should mimic usual fertilization practices, as well as aspects regarding product formulations, dosages, control references and number of replicates; ii) the assessment of chlorosis recovery upon Fe-fertilization by monitoring leaf chlorophyll, and iii) the analysis of the plant responses upon Fe-fertilization, discussing the phases of leaf chlorosis recovery and the control of other leaf nutritional parameters.

  18. Teaching and Assessing Professionalism in Medical Learners and Practicing Physicians

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paul S. Mueller

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Professionalism is a core competency of physicians. Clinical knowledge and skills (and their maintenance and improvement, good communication skills, and sound understanding of ethics constitute the foundation of professionalism. Rising from this foundation are behaviors and attributes of professionalism: accountability, altruism, excellence, and humanism, the capstone of which is professionalism. Patients, medical societies, and accrediting organizations expect physicians to be professional. Furthermore, professionalism is associated with better clinical outcomes. Hence, medical learners and practicing physicians should be taught and assessed for professionalism. A number of methods can be used to teach professionalism (e.g. didactic lectures, web-based modules, role modeling, reflection, interactive methods, etc.. Because of the nature of professionalism, no single tool for assessing it among medical learners and practicing physicians exists. Instead, multiple assessment tools must be used (e.g. multi-source feedback using 360-degree reviews, patient feedback, critical incident reports, etc.. Data should be gathered continuously throughout an individual’s career. For the individual learner or practicing physician, data generated by these tools can be used to create a “professionalism portfolio,” the totality of which represents a picture of the individual’s professionalism. This portfolio in turn can be used for formative and summative feedback. Data from professionalism assessments can also be used for developing professionalism curricula and generating research hypotheses. Health care leaders should support teaching and assessing professionalism at all levels of learning and practice and promote learning environments and institutional cultures that are consistent with professionalism precepts.

  19. [Validation of a questionnaire to assess consumer satisfaction with mammography screening, Rome (Italy)].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Semyonov, Leda; Boggi, Roberto; Napoli, Massimo; Ravelli, Giuliana; Fulgenzi, Roberta; Landi, Adelaide; La Torre, Giuseppe

    2015-01-01

    Only 40% of women in the territory of the Local Health Unit RMA (Rome, Italy) adhere to the local breast cancer screening programme. A questionnaire was administered to participating women, to assess their level of satisfaction with the programme. A descriptive analysis, logistic regression and reliability analysis using the Cronbach's alpha as a measure of internal consistency, were performed. Most women who adhere to mammography screening are employers, retired, and with a low education. Factors that affect adherence include receiving a letter of invitation, intent to participate, age, and low education. The questionnaire is reliable for evaluating reasons affecting participation.

  20. Improving Breast Cancer Outcomes among Women in China: Practices, Knowledge, and Attitudes Related to Breast Cancer Screening

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tsu-Yin Wu

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. Breast cancer is a major public health issue and the most commonly diagnosed cancer for women worldwide. Despite lower incidence rates than those living in Western countries, breast cancer incidence among Chinese women has increased dramatically in the past 20 years. Nevertheless, there is a paucity of studies reporting the attitudes toward and practices of breast cancer screening among Chinese women. Methods. This cross-sectional study examined the practices, knowledge, and attitudes toward breast cancer screening (BCS on a convenience sample of 400 Chinese women. Results. Among study participants, 75% of the women never had a mammogram and the top three barriers reported were low priority, feeling OK, and lack of awareness/knowledge toward breast cancer screening. The results from the logistic regression model showed increased self-efficacy; having performed monthly self-exams, and having had clinical breast exams in the past two years were significant correlates while demographic variables were not correlated with screening behaviors. Conclusion. The findings provide a foundation to better understand beliefs and practices of Chinese women toward BCS and highlight the critical need for general public, health professionals, and the health care system to work collaboratively toward improving the quality of breast cancer care in this population.

  1. Knowledge, practices and education of clients on cervical cancer screening among female health care workers in Plateau State Nigeria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P M Utoo

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Most patients with cancer of the cervix present late with poor prognosis. Health workers′ knowledge and utilization of the screening services might influence their clients. The aim of this study was to determine the knowledge, practice and education of clients on cervical cancer and its screening among female healthcare workers in plateau state. Material and Methods: This was a cross-sectional survey of 182 female healthcare workers in selected Primary Healthcare Centres (PHC in Plateau state Nigeria. Semi-structured, self- administered questionnaires were used to obtain data which was analyzed using Epi info statistical software version 3.3.2 Results: Those aware of cancer of the cervix comprised of Community Health Extension Workers (44.0% and Nurse/ Midwives (17.6% among others. Human Papilloma Virus (HPV, multiple sexual partners and early sexual intercourse were among the cited risk factors. Although, 136(87.2% of the "aware" respondents accepted that cancer of the cervix could be prevented, 33.8% of them could not identify regular cervical screening as a preventive strategy. Similarly, 140(89% knew about the cervical cancer screening but only 12(8.6% had actually been screened (p < 0.005. Additionally, only 40% of the "aware" respondents had ever educated their clients. Conclusion: The knowledge and practice of the health workers about cancer of the cervix has not been commensurately translated to utilization of screening services or education of clients. Strategies such as seminars and workshops to train as well as motivate health workers towards the utilization of screening services should be explored.

  2. Decision-making in healthcare: a practical application of partial least square path modelling to coverage of newborn screening programmes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fischer Katharina E

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Decision-making in healthcare is complex. Research on coverage decision-making has focused on comparative studies for several countries, statistical analyses for single decision-makers, the decision outcome and appraisal criteria. Accounting for decision processes extends the complexity, as they are multidimensional and process elements need to be regarded as latent constructs (composites that are not observed directly. The objective of this study was to present a practical application of partial least square path modelling (PLS-PM to evaluate how it offers a method for empirical analysis of decision-making in healthcare. Methods Empirical approaches that applied PLS-PM to decision-making in healthcare were identified through a systematic literature search. PLS-PM was used as an estimation technique for a structural equation model that specified hypotheses between the components of decision processes and the reasonableness of decision-making in terms of medical, economic and other ethical criteria. The model was estimated for a sample of 55 coverage decisions on the extension of newborn screening programmes in Europe. Results were evaluated by standard reliability and validity measures for PLS-PM. Results After modification by dropping two indicators that showed poor measures in the measurement models’ quality assessment and were not meaningful for newborn screening, the structural equation model estimation produced plausible results. The presence of three influences was supported: the links between both stakeholder participation or transparency and the reasonableness of decision-making; and the effect of transparency on the degree of scientific rigour of assessment. Reliable and valid measurement models were obtained to describe the composites of ‘transparency’, ‘participation’, ‘scientific rigour’ and ‘reasonableness’. Conclusions The structural equation model was among the first applications of PLS-PM to

  3. Discourses and Practices in Teaching Methods and Assessment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Deepak Gopinath

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Translating the purposes of education into practice is particularly challenging for those who are new or have recently entered academia. By reflecting on my first years of teaching in higher education, I discuss two key aspects of my teaching practice: shifts in choice of teaching methods and a critique of different forms of assessment. Through the discussion, I argue that a teacher needs to be reflective on both these aspects and that such reflection needs to be carried out so that the student develops into a “self-directing,” “self-monitoring,” and “self-correcting” individual. At the end of the discussion, the relevance of a “project-based learning” approach starts to become significant in taking my pedagogical practice forward.

  4. Life cycle assessment of rice straw utilization practices in India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soam, Shveta; Borjesson, Pal; Sharma, Pankaj K; Gupta, Ravi P; Tuli, Deepak K; Kumar, Ravindra

    2017-03-01

    The aim of this study is to find potential utilization practice of rice straw in India from an environmental perspective. Life cycle assessment (LCA) is conducted for four most realistic utilization practices of straw including: (1) incorporation into the field as fertilizer (2) animal fodder (3) electricity (4) biogas. The results show that processing of 1 ton straw to electricity and biogas resulted in net reduction of 1471 and 1023kg CO2 eq., 15.0 and 3.4kg SO2 eq. and 6.7 and 7.1kg C2H6 eq. emissions in global warming, acidification and photochemical oxidation creation potential respectively. Electricity production from straw replaces the coal based electricity and resulted in benefits in most of the environmental impacts whereas use as an animal fodder resulted in eutrophication benefits. The burning of straw is a harmful practice of managing straw in India which can be avoided by utilizing straw for bioenergy.

  5. Blended Simulation Progress Testing for Assessment of Practice Readiness

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smithburger, Pamela; Donihi, Amy Calabrese; Empey, Philip; Kobulinsky, Lawrence; Seybert, Amy; Waters, Thomas; Drab, Scott; Lutz, John; Farkas, Deborah; Meyer, Susan

    2017-01-01

    Objective. To design an assessment of practice readiness using blended-simulation progress testing. Design. A five-station, blended simulation assessment was developed to evaluate patient care outcomes in first- and third-year pharmacy (P1 and P3) students, as well as first-year postgraduate (PGY1) pharmacy residents. This assessment of practice readiness included knowledge and performance evaluations administered as a progress test. Assessment. Eighteen PGY1 residents, 108 P3 students, and 106 P1 students completed the assessment. P3 students scored significantly higher than P1 students across all evaluations. Third-year pharmacy students scored significantly lower than PGY1 residents in interprofessional communications and attitudes of ownership in a standardized colleague/mannequin model station, and in patient communication in a standardized patient station. Conclusion. Learners demonstrated evolving skills as they progressed through the curriculum. A blended simulation integrated progress test provides data for improvement of individual student clinical skills, informs curricular advancement, and aligns curricular content, process, and outcomes with accreditation standards.

  6. Current assessment practice, personality measurement, and rorschach usage by psychologists.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Musewicz, John; Marczyk, Geoffrey; Knauss, Linda; York, David

    2009-09-01

    In this study, we investigated current personality assessment practice and attitudes toward Rorschach (Exner, 2003) usage by 215 psychologists. We administered an Internet survey to members of the Society for Personality Assessment (SPA) and the American Psychological Association. Results were similar to those of past surveys, but the importance of using tests with strong psychometric properties was greater in this study. The majority of respondents reported using the Rorschach and supporting efforts to standardize and psychometrically validate the test. However, SPA members agreed more strongly than non-SPA members that the Rorschach is an effective test. Implications and directions for future research are discussed.

  7. Everyday classroom assessment practices in science classrooms in Sweden

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gómez, María del Carmen; Jakobsson, Anders

    2014-12-01

    The focus of this study is to examine to what extent and in what ways science teachers practice assessment during classroom interactions in everyday activities in an upper-secondary school in Sweden. We are science teachers working now with a larger research project on assessment in science education that seeks to examine teachers' assessment practices in the upper-secondary school. Framing questions include: are teachers performing an integrated assessment of students' skills as the national curriculum mandates? If so, what do the instructional discourses look like in those situations and what are students' experiences regarding their agency on learning and assessment? We emphasize the social, cultural and historic character of assessment and sustain a situated character of learning instead of the notion that learning is "stored inside the head". Teacher led lessons in three science classrooms were video-recorded and analyzed by combining ethnographic and discourse methods of analysis. Both methods are appropriate to the theoretical foundation of our approach on learning and can give some answers to questions about how individuals interact socially, how their experience is passed on to next generations through language and how language use may reveal cultural changes in the studied context. Making the study of action in a classroom the focal point of sociocultural analysis supports the examination of assessment processes and identification of the social roles in which teachers and students are immersed. Such an approach requires observations of how teachers act in authentic teaching situations when they interact with their students in classroom making possible to observe negotiation processes, agencies when both teachers and students are involved in every-day activities. Our study showed that teachers mostly ignored students' questions and that students solved their own problems by helping each other. Teachers did not provide opportunities for students to discuss

  8. Usefulness of the Spanish version of the mood disorder questionnaire for screening bipolar disorder in routine clinical practice in outpatients with major depression

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    Montes José

    2008-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background According to some studies, almost 40% of depressive patients – half of them previously undetected – are diagnosed of bipolar II disorder when systematically assessed for hypomania. Thus, instruments for bipolar disorder screening are needed. The Mood Disorder Questionnaire (MDQ is a self-reported questionnaire validated in Spanish in stable patients with a previously known diagnosis. The purpose of this study is to evaluate in the daily clinical practice the usefulness of the Spanish version of the MDQ in depressive patients. Methods Patients (n = 87 meeting DSM-IV-TR criteria for a major depressive episode, not previously known as bipolar were included. The affective module of the Structured Clinical Interview (SCID was used as gold standard. Results MDQ screened 24.1% of depressive patients as bipolar, vs. 12.6% according to SCID. For a cut-off point score of 7 positive answers, sensitivity was 72.7% (95% CI = 63.3 – 82.1 and specificity 82.9% (95% CI = 74.9–90.9. Likelihood ratio of positive and negative tests were 4,252 y 0,329 respectively. Limitations The small sample size reduced the power of the study to 62%. Conclusion Sensitivity and specificity of the MDQ were high for screening bipolar disorder in patients with major depression, and similar to the figures obtained in stable patients. This study confirms that MDQ is a useful instrument in the daily clinical assessment of depressive patients.

  9. Practical approaches to the assessment of work-related risks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kogi, K

    1993-01-01

    The control of work-related risks calls for practical improvements in job content and the working environment. For assessment of risks, it is essential to resort to the most practical methods in the local context. Important common methods are examination of the process, equipment and organisation of work, walk-through surveys, evaluation of risk factors in the working environment, inquiries and questionnaires as well as monitoring of various health indicators. Biological tests and other health indicators can thus only be regarded as components of overall occupational health-risk assessment strategy, with their advantages, disadvantages and limitations. Important are the validity of biological tests and the ethical aspects related to their use, such as confidentiality of data and the individual worker's informed consent, preference being given to noninvasive-methods. Occupational health services should thus play a positive role by providing practical advice, training and information for participatory risk assessment keeping in view such an overall strategy that facilitates immediate preventive action. Biological monitoring should be applied when the additional guidance it provides on preventive action is essential. Proposals to use biological monitoring must emphasise this justification aspect.

  10. Assessment of the effectiveness of radon screening programs in reducing lung cancer mortality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gagnon, Fabien; Courchesne, Mathieu; Lévesque, Benoît; Ayotte, Pierre; Leclerc, Jean-Marc; Belles-Isles, Jean-Claude; Prévost, Claude; Dessau, Jean-Claude

    2008-10-01

    The present study was aimed at assessing the health consequences of the presence of radon in Quebec homes and the possible impact of various screening programs on lung cancer mortality. Lung cancer risk due to this radioactive gas was estimated according to the cancer risk model developed by the Sixth Committee on Biological Effects of Ionizing Radiations. Objective data on residential radon exposure, population mobility, and tobacco use in the study population were integrated into a Monte-Carlo-type model. Participation rates to radon screening programs were estimated from published data. According to the model used, approximately 10% of deaths due to lung cancer are attributable to residential radon exposure on a yearly basis in Quebec. In the long term, the promotion of a universal screening program would prevent less than one death/year on a province-wide scale (0.8 case; IC 99%: -3.6 to 5.2 cases/year), for an overall reduction of 0.19% in radon-related mortality. Reductions in mortality due to radon by (1) the implementation of a targeted screening program in the region with the highest concentrations, (2) the promotion of screening on a local basis with financial support, or (3) the realization of systematic investigations in primary and secondary schools would increase to 1%, 14%, and 16.4%, respectively, in the each of the populations targeted by these scenarios. Other than the battle against tobacco use, radon screening in public buildings thus currently appears as the most promising screening policy for reducing radon-related lung cancer.

  11. Reliability of the Tuck Jump Injury Risk Screening Assessment in Elite Male Youth Soccer Players.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Read, Paul J; Oliver, Jon L; de Ste Croix, Mark B A; Myer, Gregory D; Lloyd, Rhodri S

    2016-06-01

    Read, PJ, Oliver, JL, de Ste Croix, MBA, Myer, GD, and Lloyd, RS. Reliability of the tuck jump injury risk screening assessment in elite male youth soccer players. J Strength Cond Res 30(6): 1510-1516, 2016-Altered neuromuscular control has been suggested as a mechanism for injury in soccer players. Ligamentous injuries most often occur during dynamic movements, such as decelerations from jump-landing maneuvers where high-risk movement patterns are present. The assessment of kinematic variables during jump-landing tasks as part of a preparticipation screen is useful in the identification of injury risk. An example of a field-based screening tool is the repeated tuck jump assessment. The purpose of this study was to analyze the within-subject variation of the tuck jump screening assessment in elite male youth soccer players. Twenty-five pre-peak height velocity (PHV) and 25 post-PHV elite male youth soccer players from the academy of a professional English soccer club completed the assessment. A test-retest design was used to explore the within-subject intersession reliability. Technique was graded retrospectively against the 10-point criteria set out in the screening protocol using two-dimensional video cameras. The typical error range reported for tuck jump total score (0.90-1.01 in pre-PHV and post-PHV players respectively) was considered acceptable. When each criteria was analyzed individually, kappa coefficient determined that knee valgus was the only criterion to reach substantial agreement across the two test sessions for both groups. The results of this study suggest that although tuck jump total score may be reliably assessed in elite male youth soccer players, caution should be applied in solely interpreting the composite score due to the high within-subject variation in a number of the individual criteria. Knee valgus may be reliably used to screen elite youth male soccer players for this plyometric technique error and for test-retest comparison.

  12. Method for screening prevention and control measures and technologies based on groundwater pollution intensity assessment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Li, Juan, E-mail: lijuan@craes.org.cn [College of Water Sciences, Beijing Normal University, Beijing 100875 (China); Chinese Research Academy of Environmental Sciences, Beijing 100012 (China); State Environmental Protection Key Laboratory of Simulation and Control of Groundwater Pollution, Beijing, 100012 (China); Yang, Yang [College of Environment, Beijing Normal University, Beijing 100875 (China); Chinese Research Academy of Environmental Sciences, Beijing 100012 (China); State Environmental Protection Key Laboratory of Simulation and Control of Groundwater Pollution, Beijing, 100012 (China); Huan, Huan; Li, Mingxiao [Chinese Research Academy of Environmental Sciences, Beijing 100012 (China); State Environmental Protection Key Laboratory of Simulation and Control of Groundwater Pollution, Beijing, 100012 (China); Xi, Beidou, E-mail: xibd413@yeah.net [Chinese Research Academy of Environmental Sciences, Beijing 100012 (China); State Environmental Protection Key Laboratory of Simulation and Control of Groundwater Pollution, Beijing, 100012 (China); Lanzhou Jiaotong University, Lanzhou 730070 (China); Lv, Ningqing [Chinese Research Academy of Environmental Sciences, Beijing 100012 (China); State Environmental Protection Key Laboratory of Simulation and Control of Groundwater Pollution, Beijing, 100012 (China); Wu, Yi [Guizhou Academy of Environmental Science and Designing, Guizhou 550000 (China); Xie, Yiwen, E-mail: qin3201@126.com [School of Chemical and Environmental Engineering, Dongguan University of Technology, Dongguan, 523808 (China); Li, Xiang; Yang, Jinjin [Chinese Research Academy of Environmental Sciences, Beijing 100012 (China); State Environmental Protection Key Laboratory of Simulation and Control of Groundwater Pollution, Beijing, 100012 (China)

    2016-05-01

    index-based methodology to assess the groundwater pollution intensity (GPI). • GPI assessment includes PSH assessment and GIV assessment. • Measures to prevent and control groundwater pollution based on GPI assessment. • An index-based methodology for prevention and control technologies (PCT) screening. • PCT screening based on GPI assessment results and TOPSIS method.

  13. Improving validated depression screen among adolescent population in primary care practice using electronic health records (EHR).

    OpenAIRE

    2015-01-01

    Adolescent depression, has been identified as one of the important risk factors for adolescent safety. The American Academy of Pediatrics (AAP) recommends screening the adolescent population for depression with a validated screening tool at least once a year. Given the time constraints in primary care, many physicians tend to rely more on clinical questioning to screen depression.This has the potential to miss many adolescents who may have mild to moderate depression which may prove detriment...

  14. Reflective practice: assessment of assignments in English for Specific Purposes

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    Galina Kavaliauskiené

    2007-10-01

    Full Text Available The construct alternative assessment has been widely used in higher education. It is often defined as any type of assessment of learners who provide a response to an assignment. The key features of alternative assessment are active participation of learners in self-evaluation of their performance, and the development of reflective thinking through reflective thinking (Schön, 1983. The success of alternative assessment in language teaching is predetermined by student’s performance and demonstrates learner’s language proficiency in contemporary communicative classrooms. This paper aims at researching the influence of students’ evaluations of various assignments for their linguistic development in English for Specific Purposes (ESP. The study uses learners’ assessment of different assignments and learners’ in-course and post-course written reflections on benefits to language mastery. Learners’ assignments included were contributions to portfolios (dossiers, such as essays and summaries, oral presentations, short impromptu talks, creative tasks, tests, and self-assessment notes (reflections on activities in learning ESP. Findings were obtained for two streams of the project participants. Results showed that self-assessment was beneficial for learners’ linguistic development. The context of learners’ reflections reveals that the attitudes to various assignments are affected by success or failure in students’ performance. Reflective practice might help teachers develop ways of dealing with previously identified difficulties and improve the quality of teaching.

  15. Applying ethological and health indicators to practical animal welfare assessment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wemelsfelder, F; Mullan, S

    2014-04-01

    There is a growing effort worldwide to develop objective indicators for animal welfare assessment, which provide information on an animal's quality of life, are scientifically trustworthy, and can readily be used in practice by professionals. Animals are sentient beings capable of positive and negative emotion, and so these indicators should be sensitive not only to their physical health, but also to their experience of the conditions in which they live. This paper provides an outline of ethological research aimed at developing practical welfare assessment protocols. The first section focuses on the development and validation of welfare indicators generally, in terms of their relevance to animal well-being, their interobserver reliability, and the confidence with which the prevalence of described features can be estimated. Challenges in this work include accounting for the ways in which welfare measures may fluctuate over time, and identifying measures suited to monitoring positive welfare states. The second section focuses more specifically on qualitative welfare indicators, which assess the 'whole animal' and describe the expressive qualities of its demeanour (e.g. anxious, content). Such indicators must be validated in the same way as other health and behaviour indicators, with the added challenge of finding appropriate methods of measurement. The potential contribution of qualitative indicators, however, is to disclose an emotional richness in animals that helps to interpret information provided by other indicators, thus enhancing the validity of welfare assessment protocols. In conclusion, the paper emphasises the importance of integrating such different perspectives, showing that new knowledge of animals and new ways of relating to animals are both needed for the successful development of practical welfare assessment tools.

  16. Screening practices and knowledge, attitudes, and beliefs about cancer among Hispanic and non-Hispanic white women 35 years old or older in Nueces County, Texas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tortolero-Luna, G; Glober, G A; Villarreal, R; Palos, G; Linares, A

    1995-01-01

    A telephone survey was conducted among women 35 years old or older in Nueces County, Tex., to assess ethnic differences between Hispanic and non-Hispanic white women in self-reported cancer-screening practices and knowledge, attitudes, and beliefs about cancer and to evaluate the effect of ethnicity as a predictor for screening practices. A total of 233 Hispanic and 332 non-Hispanic white women participated in the survey. Hispanics were younger and had lower educational and income levels. Overall, Hispanics had lower rates than did non-Hispanics of lifetime mammography (65% versus 79%), clinical breast examination (86% versus 96%), monthly performance of breast self-examination (37% versus 49%), and lifetime fecal occult blood testing (36% versus 69%). After control for confounding factors, Hispanics were still less likely to have ever had a clinical breast examination and fecal occult blood test. Our results suggest the need for more culturally sensitive health promotion efforts to improve knowledge about cancer and early detection practices among Hispanic women.

  17. MNA® Mini Nutritional Assessment as a nutritional screening tool for hospitalized older adults; rationales and feasibility.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Calvo, I; Olivar, J; Martínez, E; Rico, A; Díaz, J; Gimena, M

    2012-01-01

    The high prevalence of malnutrition in the growing population of older adults makes malnutrition screening critical, especially in hospitalized elderly patients. The aim of our study was to evaluate the use of the MNA® Mini Nutritional Assessment in hospitalized older adults for rapid evaluation of nutritional risk. A prospective cohort study was made of 106 patients 65 years old or older admitted to an internal medicine ward of a tertiary-care teaching hospital to evaluate the use of the short form, or screening phase, of the MNA-SF. In the first 48 hours of admission, the full MNA questionnaire was administered and laboratory tests and a dermatologic evaluation were made. The MNA score showed that 77% of the patients were at risk of malnutrition or were frankly malnourished. Low blood levels of albumin, cholesterol and vitamins A and D showed a statistically significant association with malnutrition or risk of malnutrition. Separate evaluation of the MNA-SF showed that it was accurate, sensitive and had predictive value for the screening process. Routine use of the MNA-SF questionnaire by admission nurses to screen patients is recommended. Patients with MNA-SF scores of 11 or lower should be specifically assessed by the nutritional intervention team.

  18. Contacts to general practice and antidepressant treatment initiation after screening for anxiety and depression in patients with heart disease

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, Karen Kjær; Vestergaard, Claus Høstrup; Schougaard, Liv Marit Valen;

    2016-01-01

    Introduction Anxiety and depression are found in 20-30% of all persons with heart disease, and depression is known to impact mortality. This paper aimed to describe the effect of systematic screening of this population in terms of use of general practice, psychological therapy and antidepressant...... symptoms had more general practitioner (GP) contact rates than patients without anxiety or depressive symptoms both before and after the screening. Furthermore, patients with depressive symptoms increased their GP contact rate significantly in the first month after the screening, while...... this was not the case for patients with anxiety symptoms. Finally, patients with heart disease and anxiety or depressive symptoms more frequently initiated treatment with antidepressants than patients with heart disease without anxiety or depressive symptoms, whereas therapy sessions with a psychologist were rarely...

  19. An Investigation of the Factors Affecting Performance of Environmental Impact Assessment Practices (EIA in Pakistan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shahbaz Hussain

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Environmental Impact Assessment is used to detect changes that a proposed project may have on environment. The intent of present study is to investigate impact of institutional capacity and legal framework on performance of Environmental Impact Assessment practices in Pakistan such as screening, scoping and mitigation, environmental management plan and reporting. Sample of 200 EIA professionals have been selected by using random sampling approach from all provinces of Pakistan. Data has been collected through structured questionnaire and analysed by using AMOS 19 (Analysis of Moment Structures software. Results of path analysis indicated that institutional capacity and legal framework have significant direct impact on performance of all EIA practices in Pakistan. Model fit statistics such as GFI, RMR, NFI, IFI, TLI, RFI, CFI indicate the fitness of research model in this context. It has been suggested that there must be relevant and sufficient human resources that can uplift institutional capacity and legal framework must be well implemented because it will lead to enhanced performance of EIA practices in Pakistan.

  20. Assessment practices of Iowa science teachers from a constructivist perspective

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harris Freedman, Robin Lee

    How do students learn? What can they do? When assessments evolve out of instruction as is expected in inquiry and constructivist based classrooms, one can derive definitive results. It was the purpose of this study to describe the assessment environment found in the Iowa SS&C compared to those in other Iowa science classrooms. Science instruction in classrooms of Iowa SS&C teachers is based on NSES, Constructivist theory, and an STS approach. In Iowa SS&C classrooms the primary focus is to make science personal and relevant to students. Iowa science teachers were surveyed. Survey results revealed that the two groups of teachers had different perceptions regarding their grading philosophies and in the use of traditional and non-traditional assessments. The two groups were similar in their ability to identify appropriate uses for assessments and the use of a variety of assessments that make up a student's grade. Several methods were used to gain understanding of how the two teacher groups were different, i.e., in-depth interviews, a collection of assessment artifacts, and a student survey of a sub-sample of teachers. Artifact analysis revealed that the Iowa SS&C teachers used more application items, were more familiar and more likely to use non-traditional assessments, and used more assessments of higher order thinking skills than other Iowa science teachers. Student perspectives regarding assessments were surveyed. Students who completed the survey felt competent to assess themselves. Iowa SS&C students perceived that they have an active role in establishing the classroom assessment environment, share and listen to each others' ideas, and have a voice in how and by what means they are assessed. Synthesis of interview data revealed an assessment environment that reflected NSES philosophy and the STS approach. The assessment environment according to Iowa SS&C teachers was defined by teacher beliefs and practices, how teachers engage students, and internal and external

  1. Reading and Studying on the Screen: An Overview of Literature towards Good Learning Design Practice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nichols, Mark

    2016-01-01

    As distance education moves increasingly towards online provision, and because of the benefits provided by online approaches, students will be expected to engage with more resources available on screen. Contemporary forms of reading from the screen include reading from tablet devices, LCD monitors, and smartphones. However, print remains the…

  2. A practical approach to radiological evaluation of CT lung cancer screening examinations

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Xie, Xueqian; Heuvelmans, Marjolein A.; van Ooijen, Peter M. A.; Oudkerk, Matthijs; Vliegenthart, Rozemarijn

    2013-01-01

    Lung cancer is the most common cause of cancer-related death in the world. The Dutch-Belgian Randomized Lung Cancer Screening Trial (Dutch acronym: NELSON) was launched to investigate whether screening for lung cancer by low-dose multidetector computed tomography (CT) in high-risk patients will lead

  3. Breast Cancer Screening among Older Hispanic Women: Knowledge, Attitudes, and Practices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saint-Germain, Michelle A.; Longman, Alice J.

    1993-01-01

    Data from 409 Hispanic-American and 138 Anglo older women in Tucson identified few differences in their use of breast cancer screening and low levels of risk knowledge. Both groups fell well below recommended frequency of screening. Clinical examination and self-examination were used more than mammography. (SK)

  4. Do pressure ulcer risk assessment scales improve clinical practice?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jan Kottner

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available Jan Kottner1, Katrin Balzer21Department of Nursing Science, Charité-Universitätsmedizin Berlin, Germany; 2Nursing Research Group, Institute for Social Medicine, Universitätsklinikum Schleswig-Holstein, Lübeck, GermanyAbstract: Standardized assessment instruments are deemed important for estimating pressure ulcer risk. Today, more than 40 so-called pressure ulcer risk assessment scales are available but still there is an ongoing debate about their usefulness. From a measurement point of view pressure ulcer (PU risk assessment scales have serious limitations. Empirical evidence supporting the validity of PU risk assessment scale scores is weak and obtained scores contain varying amounts of measurement error. The concept of pressure ulcer risk is strongly related to the general health status and severity of illness. A clinical impact due do the application of these scales could also not be demonstrated. It is questionable whether completion of standardized pressure ulcer risk scales in clinical practice is really needed.Keywords: Braden pressure ulcer, prevention, risk assessment, nursing assessment, predictive value, clinical effectiveness, review

  5. Initial development of a practical safety audit tool to assess fleet safety management practices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mitchell, Rebecca; Friswell, Rena; Mooren, Lori

    2012-07-01

    Work-related vehicle crashes are a common cause of occupational injury. Yet, there are few studies that investigate management practices used for light vehicle fleets (i.e. vehicles less than 4.5 tonnes). One of the impediments to obtaining and sharing information on effective fleet safety management is the lack of an evidence-based, standardised measurement tool. This article describes the initial development of an audit tool to assess fleet safety management practices in light vehicle fleets. The audit tool was developed by triangulating information from a review of the literature on fleet safety management practices and from semi-structured interviews with 15 fleet managers and 21 fleet drivers. A preliminary useability assessment was conducted with 5 organisations. The audit tool assesses the management of fleet safety against five core categories: (1) management, systems and processes; (2) monitoring and assessment; (3) employee recruitment, training and education; (4) vehicle technology, selection and maintenance; and (5) vehicle journeys. Each of these core categories has between 1 and 3 sub-categories. Organisations are rated at one of 4 levels on each sub-category. The fleet safety management audit tool is designed to identify the extent to which fleet safety is managed in an organisation against best practice. It is intended that the audit tool be used to conduct audits within an organisation to provide an indicator of progress in managing fleet safety and to consistently benchmark performance against other organisations. Application of the tool by fleet safety researchers is now needed to inform its further development and refinement and to permit psychometric evaluation.

  6. Accuracy of quick and easy undernutrition screening tools--Short Nutritional Assessment Questionnaire, Malnutrition Universal Screening Tool, and modified Malnutrition Universal Screening Tool--in patients undergoing cardiac surgery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Venrooij, Lenny M W; van Leeuwen, Paul A M; Hopmans, Wendy; Borgmeijer-Hoelen, Mieke M M J; de Vos, Rien; De Mol, Bas A J M

    2011-12-01

    The objective of this study was to compare the quick-and-easy undernutrition screening tools, ie, Short Nutritional Assessment Questionnaire and Malnutrition Universal Screening Tool, in patients undergoing cardiac surgery with respect to their accuracy in detecting undernutrition measured by a low-fat free mass index (FFMI; calculated as kg/m(2)), and secondly, to assess their association with postoperative adverse outcomes. Between February 2008 and December 2009, a single-center observational cohort study was performed (n=325). A low FFMI was set at ≤14.6 in women and ≤16.7 in men measured using bioelectrical impedance spectroscopy. To compare the accuracy of the Malnutrition Universal Screening Tool and Short Nutritional Assessment Questionnaire in detecting low FFMI sensitivity, specificity, and other accuracy test characteristics were calculated. The associations between the Malnutrition Universal Screening Tool and Short Nutritional Assessment Questionnaire and adverse outcomes were analyzed using logistic regression analyses with odds ratios and 95% confidence intervals (CI) presented. Sensitivity and receiver operator characteristic-based area under the curve to detect low FFMI were 59% and 19%, and 0.71 (95% CI: 0.60 to 0.82) and 0.56 (95% CI: 0.44 to 0.68) for the Malnutrition Universal Screening Tool and Short Nutritional Assessment Questionnaire, respectively. Accuracy of the Malnutrition Universal Screening Tool improved when age and sex were added to the nutritional screening process (sensitivity 74%, area under the curve: 0.72 [95% CI: 0.62 to 0.82]). This modified version of the Malnutrition Universal Screening Tool, but not the original Malnutrition Universal Screening Tool or Short Nutritional Assessment Questionnaire, was associated with prolonged intensive care unit and hospital stay (odds ratio: 2.1, 95% CI: 1.3 to 3.4; odds ratio: 1.6, 95% CI: 1.0 to 2.7). The accuracy to detect a low FFMI was considerably higher for the Malnutrition

  7. Assessment of radiation protection practices among radiographers in Lagos, Nigeria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cletus Uche Eze

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Use of ionising radiation in diagnostic radiography could lead to hazards such as somatic and genetic damages. Compliance to safe work and radiation protection practices could mitigate such risks. The aim of the study was to assess the knowledge and radiation protection practices among radiographers in Lagos, Nigeria. Materials and Methods: The study was a prospective cross sectional survey. Convenience sampling technique was used to select four x-ray diagnostic centres in four tertiary hospitals in Lagos metropolis. Data were analysed with Epi- info software, version 3.5.1. Results: Average score on assessment of knowledge was 73%. Most modern radiation protection instruments were lacking in all the centres studied. Application of shielding devices such as gonad shield for protection was neglected mostly in government hospitals. Most x-ray machines were quite old and evidence of quality assurance tests performed on such machines were lacking. Conclusion: Radiographers within Lagos metropolis showed an excellent knowledge of radiation protection within the study period. Adherence to radiation protection practices among radiographers in Lagos metropolis during the period studied was, however, poor. Radiographers in Lagos, Nigeria should embrace current trends in radiation protection and make more concerted efforts to apply their knowledge in protecting themselves and patients from harmful effects of ionising radiation.

  8. Women's interest in a personal breast cancer risk assessment and lifestyle advice at NHS mammography screening

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilkinson, L.; Valencia, A.

    2017-01-01

    Abstract Background Although mortality from breast cancer is declining, incidence continues to increase and is often detected at routine NHS screening. Most middle aged and older women in England attend for screening every 3 years. Assessing their personal breast cancer risk and providing preventative lifestyle advice could help to further reduce breast cancer incidence. Methods A cross-sectional, self-complete postal survey measured attendees' interest in having a personal risk assessment, expected impact on screening attendance, knowledge of associations between lifestyle and breast cancer and preferred ways of accessing preventative lifestyle advice. Results A total of 1803/4948 (36.4%) completed questionnaires were returned. Most participants (93.7%) expressed interest in a personal risk assessment and 95% (1713/1803) believed it would make no difference or encourage re-attendance. Two-thirds (1208/1803) associated lifestyle with breast cancer, but many were unaware of specific risks such as weight gain, obesity, alcohol consumption and physical inactivity. NHS sourced advice was expected to be more credible than other sources, and booklets, brief counselling or an interactive website were most preferred for accessing this. Conclusions Attendees appear to welcome an intervention that would facilitate more proactive clinical and lifestyle prevention and address critical research gaps in breast cancer prevention and early detection. PMID:26834190

  9. Reliability of a Simple Physical Therapist Screening Tool to Assess Errors during Resistance Exercises for Musculoskeletal Pain

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Kenneth Jay; Sundstrup, E.; Andersen, L. L.

    2014-01-01

    to substantial mean w. scores were found between the two observers, slightly improving from round one to round two ranging from 0.40 (0.20-0.59) to 0.68 (0.45-0.91) in round one to 0.52 (0.20-0.80) to 0.69 (0.39-0.86) in round two. The exercise error assessment demonstrated fair to substantial intratester......The main objective was to investigate the intra- and intertester reliability of a simple screening tool assessing errors in exercise execution by visual observation. 38 participants with no previous resistance exercise experience practiced for two weeks four typical upper limb exercises using...... elastic tubing. At 2-week follow-up, the participants were invited for a test-retest assessment on errors in technical execution. The assessment was based on ordinal deviation of joint position from neutral of the shoulder, elbow, and wrist in a single plane by visual observation. Moderate intratester...

  10. Spanish- and English-Speaking Pregnant Women's Views on cfDNA and Other Prenatal Screening: Practical and Ethical Reflections.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Floyd, Erin; Allyse, Megan A; Michie, Marsha

    2016-10-01

    The rapid clinical implementation of cell-free DNA (cfDNA) screening, a non-invasive method of prenatal genetic screening, has outpaced research on its social and ethical implications. This study is the first to compare the ethical and practical views of Spanish- and English-speaking pregnant women in the United States about cfDNA screening. Semi-structured interviews were conducted with diverse Spanish- and English-speaking women who had received prenatal care at a large academic medical center. Of the 24 interviewees, ten were Latinas who were interviewed in Spanish; English-language interviews were conducted with seven non-Hispanic Asian and seven non-Hispanic White women. Participants held positive opinions concerning the accuracy of cfDNA screening and often noted that it would enhance preparedness. Participants also expressed concerns about the possibility of inaccurate results and the potentially negative effects of cfDNA screening on the experience of pregnancy. Differences emerged between Spanish and English speakers in their portrayals of their relationships with prenatal health care providers, the extent to which they questioned providers' advice, their ethical concerns, and their informational needs. We emphasize the importance of customizing prenatal test counseling to the needs of the individual patient, providing educationally appropriate counseling and literature, and mitigating potential language barriers.

  11. Screening-level risk assessment for styrene-acrylonitrile (SAN) trimer detected in soil and groundwater.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kirman, C R; Gargas, M L; Collins, J J; Rowlands, J C

    2012-01-01

    A screening-level risk assessment was conducted for styrene-acrylonitrile (SAN) Trimer detected at the Reich Farm Superfund site in Toms River, NJ. Consistent with a screening-level approach, on-site and off-site exposure scenarios were evaluated using assumptions that are expected to overestimate actual exposures and hazards at the site. Environmental sampling data collected for soil and groundwater were used to estimate exposure point concentrations. Several exposure scenarios were evaluated to assess potential on-site and off-site exposures, using parameter values for exposures to soil (oral, inhalation of particulates, and dermal contact) and groundwater (oral, dermal contact) to reflect central tendency exposure (CTE) and reasonable maximum exposure (RME) conditions. Three reference dose (RfD) values were derived for SAN Trimer for short-term, subchronic, and chronic exposures, based upon its effects on the liver in exposed rats. Benchmark (BMD) methods were used to assess the relationship between exposure and response, and to characterize appropriate points of departure (POD) for each RfD. An uncertainty factor of 300 was applied to each POD to yield RfD values of 0.1, 0.04, and 0.03 mg/kg-d for short-term, subchronic, and chronic exposures, respectively. Because a chronic cancer bioassay for SAN Trimer in rats (NTP 2011a) does not provide evidence of carcinogenicity, a cancer risk assessment is not appropriate for this chemical. Potential health hazards to human health were assessed using a hazard index (HI) approach, which considers the ratio of exposure dose (i.e., average daily dose, mg/kg-d) to toxicity dose (RfD, mg/kg-d) for each scenario. All CTE and RME HI values are well below 1 (where the average daily dose is equivalent to the RfD), indicating that there is no concern for potential noncancer effects in exposed populations even under the conservative assumptions of this screening-level assessment.

  12. Mapping HPV Vaccination and Cervical Cancer Screening Practice in the Pacific Region-Strengthening National and Regional Cervical Cancer Prevention

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Obel, J; McKenzie, J; Buenconsejo-Lum, L E

    2015-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To provide background information for strengthening cervical cancer prevention in the Pacific by mapping current human papillomavirus (HPV) vaccination and cervical cancer screening practices, as well as intent and barriers to the introduction and maintenance of national HPV vaccination...... guidelines and policies for HPV vaccination. CONCLUSION: Current practices to prevent cervical cancer in the Pacific Region do not match the high burden of disease from cervical cancer. A regional approach, including reducing vaccine prices by bulk purchase of vaccine, technical support for implementation...

  13. Assessment of Acute Pain in Nursing Practice in Latvia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Iveta Strode

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available Background: International Association for the Study of Pain defines pain as annoying sensations and emotions associated with actual or potential tissue damage or is described as such damage. Pains always are considered to be subjective sensations with multidimensional nature composed from physical, emotional and cognitive components. One of the main tasks in pain syndrome effective therapy is the option to perform objective assessment of pain intensity and quality utilizing principle of continuity. Independent surveys on pain management in postoperative period are performed in different countries of the world. Studies analyze effectiveness of both - medical and non-medical measurements in order to reduce pain syndrome. Very few investigations of chronic and acute pain influence on recovery process, progress and outcome of illness, assessment of pain intensity and quality are performed in Latvia. In the case of acute pain chronification, pain perception and management can be changed; pains become inadequately long lasting and may combine with psychogenic pains. According to the data obtained by the World Health Organization, fifty percent patients after injuries or operations have severe and insufferable pains despite the development of acute pain treatment and care. Insufficiently controlled postoperative pains become a risk factor for development of various abnormalities. Aim of the study: To study the usage of postoperative period pain intensity and quality assessment scales in the clinical practice of nursing, as well as availability of these methodsMaterial and methods: Survey utilizes quantitative research method. As an investigation tool was chosen questionnaire. Survey was carried out in the surgical profile wards in Riga and regional clinics of Latvia. Questionnaire embraced 309 nurses, working in the surgical profile.Results: Assessment of acute pains should be considered as the fifth vital sign providing more successful achievement of

  14. Assessing methods for measurement of clinical outcomes and quality of care in primary care practices

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Green Michael E

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Purpose To evaluate the appropriateness of potential data sources for the population of performance indicators for primary care (PC practices. Methods This project was a cross sectional study of 7 multidisciplinary primary care teams in Ontario, Canada. Practices were recruited and 5-7 physicians per practice agreed to participate in the study. Patients of participating physicians (20-30 were recruited sequentially as they presented to attend a visit. Data collection included patient, provider and practice surveys, chart abstraction and linkage to administrative data sets. Matched pairs analysis was used to examine the differences in the observed results for each indicator obtained using multiple data sources. Results Seven teams, 41 physicians, 94 associated staff and 998 patients were recruited. The survey response rate was 81% for patients, 93% for physicians and 83% for associated staff. Chart audits were successfully completed on all but 1 patient and linkage to administrative data was successful for all subjects. There were significant differences noted between the data collection methods for many measures. No single method of data collection was best for all outcomes. For most measures of technical quality of care chart audit was the most accurate method of data collection. Patient surveys were more accurate for immunizations, chronic disease advice/information dispensed, some general health promotion items and possibly for medication use. Administrative data appears useful for indicators including chronic disease diagnosis and osteoporosis/ breast screening. Conclusions Multiple data collection methods are required for a comprehensive assessment of performance in primary care practices. The choice of which methods are best for any one particular study or quality improvement initiative requires careful consideration of the biases that each method might introduce into the results. In this study, both patients and providers were

  15. Screening methodology for assessing potential health effects from municipal sludge incinerators

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fradkin, L.; Bruins, R.J.F.; Lutkenhoff, S.D.; Stara, J.F.; Lomnitz, E.

    1987-01-01

    This paper describes a risk assessment methodology for preliminary assessment of municipal sludge incineration. The methodology is a valuable tool in that it can be used for determining the hazard indices of chemical contaminants that might be present in sewage sludge used in incineration. The paper examines source characteristics (i.e., facility design), atmospheric dispersion of emission, and resulting human exposure and risk from sludge incinerators. Seven of the ten organics were screened for further investigation. An example of the calculations are presented for cadmium.

  16. Screening methodology for assessing potential health effects from municipal sludge incinerators

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fradkin, L.; Bruins, R.J.F.; Lutkenhoff, S.D.; Stara, J.F.; Lomnitz, E.; Rubin, A.

    1987-04-01

    This paper describes a risk assessment of methodology for preliminary assessment of municipal sludge incineration. The methodology is a valuable tool in that it can be used for determining the hazard indices of chemical contaminants that might be present in sewage sludge used in incineration. The paper examines source characteristics (i.e. facility design), atmospheric dispersion of emission, and resulting human exposure and risk from sludge incinerators. Seven of the ten organics were screened for further investigation. An example of the calculations are presented for cadmium. (Refs. 5).

  17. Advanced Practice Nursing Competency Assessment Instrument (APNCAI): clinimetric validation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sastre-Fullana, Pedro; Morales-Asencio, Jose Miguel; Sesé-Abad, Albert; Fernández-Domínguez, Juan Carlos; De Pedro-Gómez, Joan

    2017-01-01

    Objective To describe the development and clinimetric validation of the Advanced Practice Nursing Competency Assessment Instrument (APNCAI) through several evidence sources about reliability and validity in the Spanish context. Design and setting APNCAI development was based on a multisequential and systematic process: literature review, instrument content consensus through qualitative Delphi method approach (a panel of 51 Advanced Practice in Nursing –APN– experts was selected) and the clinimetric validation process based on a sample of 600 nurses from the Balearic Islands public healthcare setting. Methods An initial step for tool's content development process based on Delphi method approach of expert consensus was implemented. A subsequent phase of tool validation started from the analysis of APN core competencies latent measurement model, including exploratory and confirmatory techniques. Reliability evidence for each latent factor was also obtained. Items' scores were submitted to descriptive analysis, plus univariate and multivariate normality tests. Results An eight-factor competency assessment latent model obtained adequate fit, and it was composed by ‘Research and Evidence-Based Practice’, ‘Clinical and Professional Leadership’, ‘Interprofessional Relationship and Mentoring’, ‘Professional Autonomy’, ‘Quality Management’, ‘Care Management’, ‘Professional Teaching and Education’ and ‘Health Promotion’. Conclusions Adequate empirical evidence of reliability and validity for APNCAI makes it useful for application in healthcare policy programmes for APN competency assessment in Spain. PMID:28235968

  18. Screening and follow-up of living kidney donors: a systematic review of clinical practice guidelines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tong, Allison; Chapman, Jeremy R; Wong, Germaine; de Bruijn, Jeanine; Craig, Jonathan C

    2011-11-15

    To minimize the health risks faced by living kidney donors, multiple clinical practice guidelines have been developed on the assessment and care of potential donors. This study aims to compare the quality, scope, and consistency of these guidelines. We searched for guidelines on living kidney donation in electronic databases, guideline registries, and relevant Web sites to February 21, 2011. Methodological quality was assessed using the Appraisal of Guidelines for Research and Education (AGREE) instrument. Textual synthesis was used to compare guideline recommendations. Ten guidelines, published from 1996 to 2010, were identified. Although generally comprehensive, scope varied considerably and mostly appeared to lack methodological rigor. Many recommendations were consistent, but important differences were evident, particularly for thresholds for comorbidities which precluded donation; obesity/overweight (body mass index, 30-35 kg/m), diabetes/prediabetes (fasting blood glucose level, 6.1-7.0 mmol/L and oral glucose tolerance test, 7.8-11.1 mmol/L), hypertension (130/85 to 140/90 mm Hg), cardiovascular disease, malignancy, and nephrolithiasis. The importance of informed voluntary consent, genuine motivation, support, and psychological health were recognized but difficult to implement as specific tools for conducting psychosocial assessments were not recommended. Multiple major guidelines for living kidney donation have been published recently, resulting in unnecessary duplicative efforts. Most do not meet standard processes for development, and important recommendations about thresholds for exclusion based on comorbidities are contradictory. There is an urgent need for international collaboration and coordination to ensure, where possible, that guidelines for living donation are consistent, evidence based, and comprehensive to promote best outcomes for a precious resource.

  19. Construction of Knowledge, Attitude and Practice Questionnaire for Assessing Plagiarism

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M Mirfakhraei

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Background: This study was conducted to develop a questionnaire in order to evaluate knowledge, attitude and practice (KAP of the faculty members and students toward plagiarism.Methods: A KAP study was conducted from June to October 2011 enrolling 390 volunteers anonymously (response rate 96%. The questionnaire included the following four parts: (a general characteristics like gender, academic degree and education level; (b nine questions regarding knowledge (Min=0, Max=9; (c nine questions regarding attitude (Min=9, Max=27; and (d eight questions regarding practice (Min=0, Max=8. A pilot study was conducted to assess reliability of the questions regarding knowledge and attitude. Cronbach's alpha coefficient for the knowledge and attitude questions was 0.70 and 0.74 respectively.Results: The overall prevalence of at least once plagiarism commission was 38% (SD=0.035. The overall mean score of knowledge, attitude and practice was 5.94 (SD=1.66, 24.12 (SD=2.99, and 0.66 (SD=1.15 respectively. Knowledge of plagiarism was significantly higher among higher academic degrees and females. Their negative attitude toward plagiarism was stronger too. No statistically significant difference regarding plagiarism commission was observed among different academic degrees in both sexes. According to linear regression analysis, plagiarism commission decreased 13% per one unit increase in score of knowledge (P=0.005 and 16% per one unit increase in score of attitude (P<0.001.Conclusions: This knowledge, attitude, and practice (KAP questionnaire was developed as a standard tool in order to assess perception of subjects toward plagiarism and to estimate the prevalence and the type of plagiarism commission.

  20. A Randomized Controlled Trial (RCT) to Assess and Improve the Effectiveness of Post-Deployment Screening for Mental Illness

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-09-01

    and comparing them to the rates in other studies carried out at King’s Centre for Mental Health Research (KCMHR) such as the in- theatre assessment...Department of Defense, 2010 38 10 Rona RJ, Jones M, French C, Hooper R, Wessely S. Screening for physical and psychological illness in the...12 French C, Rona RJ, Jones M, Wessely S. Screening for physical and psychological illness in the British Armed Forces: II: Barriers to screening

  1. Assessment of required resources for implementation of national breast cancer screening program in Serbia

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    Majstorović Nemanja

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction. High values of standardized mortality and morbidity rates of standardized cancer mortality in Serbia, especially colorectal, cervical and breast cancer led to creation of national programs for their early detection and engagement of the international support for their implementation. Objective. Assessment of required resources (time, personnel, financial to implement the National program for screening of breast cancer in the Republic of Serbia. Methods. Three possible scenarios have been prepared (optimistic, realistic and pessimistic based on the expected coverage by screening of women aged 45 to 69 years, and time, personnel and financial feasibility estimates were made for a two-year screening cycle. Results. Time aspect of feasibility even under conditions of “relaxation” of the assumption on the number of working days during the year did not question feasibility of any of the scenarios. Personnel feasibility is only possible in the pessimistic scenario, while the financial feasibility only makes sense in optimistic scenario as the least unfavorable solution due to economies of scale. Conclusion. Establishment of the initial base of skilled radiologists and radiology technicians and the system for their continuous medical education as well as allocation of specific MoH budget line for screening program expenditures, along with donated mammographs and good organization and coordination, may provide unobstructed implementation of the National program for early detection of breast cancer in the Republic of Serbia.

  2. Headspace screening: A novel approach for fast quality assessment of the essential oil from culinary sage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cvetkovikj, Ivana; Stefkov, Gjoshe; Acevska, Jelena; Karapandzova, Marija; Dimitrovska, Aneta; Kulevanova, Svetlana

    2016-07-01

    Quality assessment of essential oil (EO) from culinary sage (Salvia officinalis L., Lamiaceae) is limited by the long pharmacopoeial procedure. The aim of this study was to employ headspace (HS) sampling in the quality assessment of sage EO. Different populations (30) of culinary sage were assessed using GC/FID/MS analysis of the hydrodistilled EO (pharmacopoeial method) and HS sampling directly from leaves. Compound profiles from both procedures were evaluated according to ISO 9909 and GDC standards for sage EO quality, revealing compliance for only 10 populations. Factors to convert HS values, for the target ISO and GDC components, into theoretical EO values were calculated. Statistical analysis revealed a significant relationship between HS and EO values for seven target components. Consequently, HS sampling could be used as a complementary extraction technique for rapid screening in quality assessment of sage EOs.

  3. Combining Computed Tomography-Based Bone Density Assessment with FRAX Screening in Men with Prostate Cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McDonald, Andrew M; Jones, Joseph A; Cardan, Rex A; Saag, Kenneth S; Mayhew, David L; Fiveash, John B

    2016-10-01

    To investigate the addition of a computed tomography (CT)-based method of osteoporosis screening to FRAX without bone mineral density (BMD) fracture risk assessment in men undergoing radiotherapy for prostate cancer, we reviewed the records of all patients with localized prostate cancer treated with external beam radiotherapy at our institution between 2001 and 2012. The 10-yr probability of hip fracture was calculated using the FRAX algorithm without BMD. The CT attenuation of the L5 trabecular bone (L5CT) was assessed by contouring the trabecular bone on a single CT slice at the level of the midvertebral body and by averaging the Hounsfield units (HU) of all included voxels. L5CT values of 105 and 130 HU were used as screening thresholds. The clinical characteristics of additional patients identified by each L5CT screening threshold value were compared to patients whose estimated 10-yr risk of hip fracture was 3% or greater by FRAX without BMD. A total of 609 patients treated between 2001 and 2012 had CT scans available for review and complete clinical information allowing for FRAX without BMD risk calculation. Seventy-four (12.2%) patients had an estimated 10-yr risk of hip fracture of 3% or greater. An additional 22 (3.6%) and 71 (11.6%) patients were identified by CT screening when thresholds L5CT = 105 HU and L5CT = 130 HU were used, respectively. Compared to the group of patients identified by FRAX without BMD, the additional patients identified by CT screening at each L5CT threshold level tended to be younger and heavier, and were more likely to be African-American or treated without androgen deprivation therapy. These results suggest that the addition of CT-based screening to FRAX without BMD risk assessment identifies additional men with different underlying clinical characteristics who may be at risk for osteoporosis and may benefit from pharmacological therapy to increase BMD and reduce fracture risk.

  4. Socioeconomic status as determinant for participation in mammography screening: assessing the difference between using women's own versus their partner's

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kjellén, Malin; von Euler-Chelpin, My

    2010-01-01

    Earlier research has shown that participation in mammography screening tends to vary across socioeconomic levels. We assessed the difference between using the woman's own socioeconomic status (SES) and using that of her household or partner as determinant of participation in mammography screening....

  5. Automated assessment of bilateral breast volume asymmetry as a breast cancer biomarker during mammographic screening

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williams, Alex C.; Hitt, Austin; Voisin, Sophie; Tourassi, Georgia

    2013-03-01

    The biological concept of bilateral symmetry as a marker of developmental stability and good health is well established. Although most individuals deviate slightly from perfect symmetry, humans are essentially considered bilaterally symmetrical. Consequently, increased fluctuating asymmetry of paired structures could be an indicator of disease. There are several published studies linking bilateral breast size asymmetry with increased breast cancer risk. These studies were based on radiologists' manual measurements of breast size from mammographic images. We aim to develop a computerized technique to assess fluctuating breast volume asymmetry in screening mammograms and investigate whether it correlates with the presence of breast cancer. Using a large database of screening mammograms with known ground truth we applied automated breast region segmentation and automated breast size measurements in CC and MLO views using three well established methods. All three methods confirmed that indeed patients with breast cancer have statistically significantly higher fluctuating asymmetry of their breast volumes. However, statistically significant difference between patients with cancer and benign lesions was observed only for the MLO views. The study suggests that automated assessment of global bilateral asymmetry could serve as a breast cancer risk biomarker for women undergoing mammographic screening. Such biomarker could be used to alert radiologists or computer-assisted detection (CAD) systems to exercise increased vigilance if higher than normal cancer risk is suspected.

  6. Microchip Screening Platform for Single Cell Assessment of NK Cell Cytotoxicity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guldevall, Karolin; Brandt, Ludwig; Forslund, Elin; Olofsson, Karl; Frisk, Thomas W.; Olofsson, Per E.; Gustafsson, Karin; Manneberg, Otto; Vanherberghen, Bruno; Brismar, Hjalmar; Kärre, Klas; Uhlin, Michael; Önfelt, Björn

    2016-01-01

    Here, we report a screening platform for assessment of the cytotoxic potential of individual natural killer (NK) cells within larger populations. Human primary NK cells were distributed across a silicon–glass microchip containing 32,400 individual microwells loaded with target cells. Through fluorescence screening and automated image analysis, the numbers of NK and live or dead target cells in each well could be assessed at different time points after initial mixing. Cytotoxicity was also studied by time-lapse live-cell imaging in microwells quantifying the killing potential of individual NK cells. Although most resting NK cells (≈75%) were non-cytotoxic against the leukemia cell line K562, some NK cells were able to kill several (≥3) target cells within the 12-h long experiment. In addition, the screening approach was adapted to increase the chance to find and evaluate serial killing NK cells. Even if the cytotoxic potential varied between donors, it was evident that a small fraction of highly cytotoxic NK cells were responsible for a substantial portion of the killing. We demonstrate multiple assays where our platform can be used to enumerate and characterize cytotoxic cells, such as NK or T cells. This approach could find use in clinical applications, e.g., in the selection of donors for stem cell transplantation or generation of highly specific and cytotoxic cells for adoptive immunotherapy. PMID:27092139

  7. Automated assessment of bilateral breast volume asymmetry as a breast cancer biomarker during mammographic screening

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Williams, Alex C [ORNL; Hitt, Austin N [ORNL; Voisin, Sophie [ORNL; Tourassi, Georgia [ORNL

    2013-01-01

    The biological concept of bilateral symmetry as a marker of developmental stability and good health is well established. Although most individuals deviate slightly from perfect symmetry, humans are essentially considered bilaterally symmetrical. Consequently, increased fluctuating asymmetry of paired structures could be an indicator of disease. There are several published studies linking bilateral breast size asymmetry with increased breast cancer risk. These studies were based on radiologists manual measurements of breast size from mammographic images. We aim to develop a computerized technique to assess fluctuating breast volume asymmetry in screening mammograms and investigate whether it correlates with the presence of breast cancer. Using a large database of screening mammograms with known ground truth we applied automated breast region segmentation and automated breast size measurements in CC and MLO views using three well established methods. All three methods confirmed that indeed patients with breast cancer have statistically significantly higher fluctuating asymmetry of their breast volumes. However, statistically significant difference between patients with cancer and benign lesions was observed only for the MLO views. The study suggests that automated assessment of global bilateral asymmetry could serve as a breast cancer risk biomarker for women undergoing mammographic screening. Such biomarker could be used to alert radiologists or computer-assisted detection (CAD) systems to exercise increased vigilance if higher than normal cancer risk is suspected.

  8. Assessments of cognitive abilities in a mouse model of Parkinson's disease with a touch screen test.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kwak, Chuljung; Lim, Chae-Seok; Kaang, Bong-Kiun

    2016-03-15

    Patients with Parkinson's disease (PD) experience both motor output deficits and cognitive disabilities. Various PD rodent models have been developed to investigate the genetic and brain circuit-related causes of PD and have contributed to the basic and clinical research and to therapeutic strategies for this disease. Most studies using PD rodent models have focused on the motor output deficits, rather than cognitive disabilities due to the lack of appropriate testing tools that do not require significant motor abilities. In this study, we assessed the cognitive disabilities of PD model mice using a touch screen test that required only little motor ability. We found that the PD model mice, which had motor deficits caused by unilateral striatal dopaminergic degeneration, successfully underwent operant conditioning with a touch screen test. Additionally, we found that the PD model mice demonstrated impaired location discrimination, but intact attention and reversal learning in the cognitive tests. Therefore, the touch screen test is useful for assessing hidden cognitive disabilities in disease model animals with decreased motor function.

  9. Microchip screening platform for single cell assessment of NK cell cytotoxicity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karolin eGuldevall

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Here we report a screening platform for assessment of the cytotoxic potential of individual natural killer (NK cells within larger populations. Human primary NK cells were distributed across a silicon-glass microchip containing 32 400 individual microwells loaded with target cells. Through fluorescence screening and automated image analysis the numbers of NK and live or dead target cells in each well could be assessed at different time points after initial mixing. Cytotoxicity was also studied by time-lapse live-cell imaging in microwells quantifying the killing potential of individual NK cells. Although most resting NK cells (≈75% were non-cytotoxic against the leukemia cell line K562, some NK cells were able to kill several (≥3 target cells within the 12 hours long experiment. In addition, the screening approach was adapted to increase the chance to find and evaluate serial killing NK cells. Even if the cytotoxic potential varied between donors it was evident that a small fraction of highly cytotoxic NK cells were responsible for a substantial portion of the killing. We demonstrate multiple assays where our platform can be used to enumerate and characterize cytotoxic cells, such as NK or T cells. This approach could find use in clinical applications, e.g. in the selection of donors for stem cell transplantation or generation of highly specific and cytotoxic cells for adoptive immunotherapy.

  10. Awareness of general public towards cancer prostate and screening practice in Arabic communities: a comparative multi-center study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arafa, Mostafa A; Rabah, Danny M; Wahdan, Iman H

    2012-01-01

    The current study aimed at exploring the knowledge and beliefs of men aged forty years and over towards prostate cancer screening and early detection in three Arab countries. The field work was conducted in three countries; Saudi Arabia, Egypt and Jordan, during the period February through December 2011. Our target population were men aged 40 years and over. It was a population-based cross sectional study comprising 400 subjects at each site. In addition to socio-demographic data, history of the present and past medical illness, practice history of prostatic cancer examination, family history of cancer prostate; participants were inquired about their knowledge and attitude towards prostate cancer and screening behavior using two different likert scales. The percentage of participants who practiced regular prostate check up ranged from 8-30%. They had poor knowledge and fair attitude towards prostate cancer screening behavior, where the mean total knowledge score was 10.25±2.5, 10.76±3.39 and 11.24±3.39 whereas the mean total attitude score was 18.3±4.08, 20.68±6.4 and 17.96±5.3 for Saudi Arabia, Egypt and Jordan respectively. The respondents identified the physicians as the main sources of this information (62.4%), though they were not the main motives for regular checkup. Knowledge was the only significant predictor for participants' attitude in the multiple regression models. Participants' attitudes depends mainly on level of knowledge and quantity of information provided to the patients and their families. Such attitudes should rely on a solid background of proper information and motivation from physicians to enhance and empower behaviors towards prostate cancer screening practices.

  11. Benchmarking methods and data sets for ligand enrichment assessment in virtual screening.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xia, Jie; Tilahun, Ermias Lemma; Reid, Terry-Elinor; Zhang, Liangren; Wang, Xiang Simon

    2015-01-01

    Retrospective small-scale virtual screening (VS) based on benchmarking data sets has been widely used to estimate ligand enrichments of VS approaches in the prospective (i.e. real-world) efforts. However, the intrinsic differences of benchmarking sets to the real screening chemical libraries can cause biased assessment. Herein, we summarize the history of benchmarking methods as well as data sets and highlight three main types of biases found in benchmarking sets, i.e. "analogue bias", "artificial enrichment" and "false negative". In addition, we introduce our recent algorithm to build maximum-unbiased benchmarking sets applicable to both ligand-based and structure-based VS approaches, and its implementations to three important human histone deacetylases (HDACs) isoforms, i.e. HDAC1, HDAC6 and HDAC8. The leave-one-out cross-validation (LOO CV) demonstrates that the benchmarking sets built by our algorithm are maximum-unbiased as measured by property matching, ROC curves and AUCs.

  12. Rapid assessment of injection practices in Cambodia, 2002

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Goldstein Susan

    2005-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Injection overuse and unsafe injection practices facilitate transmission of bloodborne pathogens such as hepatitis B virus (HBV, hepatitis C virus (HCV, and human immunodeficiency virus (HIV. Anecdotal reports of unsafe and unnecessary therapeutic injections and the high prevalence of HBV (8.0%, HCV (6.5%, and HIV (2.6% infection in Cambodia have raised concern over injection safety. To estimate the magnitude and patterns of such practices, a rapid assessment of injection practices was conducted. Methods We surveyed a random sample of the general population in Takeo Province and convenience samples of prescribers and injection providers in Takeo Province and Phnom Penh city regarding injection-related knowledge, attitudes, and practices. Injection providers were observed administering injections. Data were collected using standardized methods adapted from the World Health Organization safe injection assessment guidelines. Results Among the general population sample (n = 500, the overall injection rate was 5.9 injections per person-year, with 40% of participants reporting receipt of ≥ 1 injection during the previous 6 months. Therapeutic injections, intravenous infusions, and immunizations accounted for 74%, 16% and 10% of injections, respectively. The majority (>85% of injections were received in the private sector. All participants who recalled their last injection reported the injection was administered with a newly opened disposable syringe and needle. Prescribers (n = 60 reported that 47% of the total prescriptions they wrote included a therapeutic injection or infusion. Among injection providers (n = 60, 58% recapped the syringe after use and 13% did not dispose of the used needle and syringe appropriately. Over half (53% of the providers reported a needlestick injury during the previous 12 months. Ninety percent of prescribers and injection providers were aware HBV, HCV, and HIV were transmitted through unsafe

  13. Assessment of Breast Cancer Risk and Belief in Breast Cancer Screening Among the Primary Healthcare Nurses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    İz, Fatma Başalan; Tümer, Adile

    2016-09-01

    Breast cancer is the most frequently diagnosed cancer in women. Early detection of breast cancer is known to increase survival rates significantly after diagnosis. This research was carried out to determine the level of breast cancer risk among primary healthcare nurses and their belief in breast cancer screening. In this descriptive research, the data were collected in face-to-face interviews with the participants. The researchers contacted all primary healthcare nurses currently working in the province. The data collection tools included a questionnaire form on sociodemographic characteristics, breast cancer risk assessment form, and Champion's Health Belief Model Scale (CHBMS) for breast cancer screening. In data analysis, descriptive statistics, t test, and analysis of variance (ANOVA) were used. The mean age of nurses was 35 ± 3.6. The mean score for the breast cancer risk assessment form was calculated as 82.9 ± 18.7. The subscale scores for the CHBMS for breast cancer screening were as follows: susceptibility 7.3 ± 1.8, seriousness 19.5 ± 4.1, benefits of breast self-exam 15.5 ± 2.6, barriers to breast self-exam 15.1 ± 2.8, self-efficacy 40.3 ± 7.0, and motivation 19.5 ± 4.1. The risk of breast cancer was found to be low in the study group. The analysis of the subscale scores for the CHBMS for breast cancer screening revealed that nurses had a below-average susceptibility perception, a somewhat lower perception of seriousness, an above-average mean score for perceived benefits, a moderate barrier perception, a relatively high perceived self-efficacy, and motivation above average.

  14. Pain and stress assessment after retinopathy of prematurity screening examination: Indirect ophthalmoscopy versus digital retinal imaging

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Moral-Pumarega M

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Increasingly, neonatal clinics seek to minimize painful experiences and stress for premature infants. Fundoscopy performed with a binocular indirect ophthalmoscope is the reference examination technique for screening of retinopathy of prematurity (ROP, and it is associated with pain and stress. Wide-field digital retinal imaging is a recent technique that should be evaluated for minimizing infant pain and stress. Methods The purpose of the study was to assess and compare the impact of using a binocular indirect ophthalmoscope (BIO, or wide-field digital retinal imaging (WFDRI on pain and stress in infants undergoing ROP screening examination. This was a comparative evaluation study of two screening procedures. Ophthalmologic examinations (N = 70 were performed on 24 infants with both BIO and WFDRI. Pain assessments were performed with two specific neonatal scales (Crying, requires oxygen, increased vital signs, expression and sleeplessness, CRIES and, Premature infant pain profile, PIPP just prior to the examination, and 30 seconds, 1 hour, and 24 hours later after ending the examination. Results Changes over time were significantly different between BIO and WFDRI with both scales (PIPP score, p = .007, and CRIES score, p = .001. Median PIPP score (interquartile interval at baseline was 4 (3–5. At 30 seconds the score was 8 (6–9 for BIO and 6 (5–7 for WFDRI, respectively. The increase in PIPP score between baseline and 30 seconds was significantly lower with WFDRI (p = .006. The median increase in CRIES score from baseline to 30 seconds was 1 point lower for WFDRI than for BIO (p  Conclusions A transient short-term pain and stress response occurs with both BIO and WFDRI. Infants examined for screening of ROP with digital retinal imaging present less pain and stress at 30 seconds following completion of the exam when compared with binocular indirect ophthalmoscopy.

  15. Toward a simple risk assessment screening tool for HCV infection in Egypt.

    Science.gov (United States)

    El-Ghitany, Engy M; Farghaly, Azza G; Abdel Wahab, Moataza M; Farag, Shehata; Abd El-Wahab, Ekram W

    2016-10-01

    Asymptomatic patients with HCV infection identified through screening program could benefit not only from treatment but also from other interventions such as counseling to maintain health and avoid risk behaviors. This might prevent the spread of infection and result in significant public health benefits. However, mass screening would quickly deplete resources. This work aims to develop a brief HCV risk assessment questionnaire that inquires initially about a wide range of risk factors found to be potentially associated with HCV infection in order to identify the few most significant questions that could be quickly used to facilitate cost-effective HCV case-finding in the general population in Egypt. An exhaustive literature search was done to include all reported HCV risk factors that were pooled in a 65 item questionnaire. After an initial pilot study, a case-control study was performed that included 1,024 cases and 1,046 controls. In a multivariable model, a list of independent risk factors were found to be significant predictors for being HCV seropositive among two age strata (45 years) for each gender. A simplified model that assigned values of the odds ratio as a weight for each factor present predicted HCV infection with high diagnostic accuracy. Attaining the defined cut-off value of the total risk score enhances the effectiveness of screening. HCV risk factors in the Egyptian population vary by age and gender. An accurate prediction screening tool can be used to identify those at high risk who may benefit most from HCV serologic testing. These results are to be further validated in a large scale cross-sectional study to assess the wider use of this tool. J. Med. Virol. 88:1767-1775, 2016. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  16. Initial Health Assessments and HIV Screening under the Affordable Care Act.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arleen A Leibowitz

    Full Text Available The Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC estimates that 156,300 (95% CI 144,100-165,900 Americans living with HIV in 2012 were unaware of their infection. To increase knowledge of HIV status, CDC guidelines seek to make HIV screening a routine part of medical care. This paper examines how routinely California primary care providers test for HIV and how providers' knowledge of California's streamlined testing requirements, use of sexual histories, and having an electronic medical record prompt for HIV testing, relate to test offers.We surveyed all ten California health plans offered under health reform's Insurance Exchange (response rate = 50% and 322 primary care providers to those plans (response rate = 19% to assess use of HIV screening and risk assessments.Only 31.7% of 60 responding providers reported offering HIV tests to all or most new enrollees and only 8.8% offered an HIV test of blood samples all or most of the time despite the California law requiring that providers offer HIV testing of blood samples in primary care settings. Twenty-eight of the 60 providers (46.6% were unaware that California had reduced barriers to HIV screening by eliminating the requirement for written informed consent and pre-test counseling. HIV screening of new enrollees all or most of the time was reported by 53.1% of the well-informed providers, but only 7.1% of the less informed providers, a difference of 46 percentage points (95% CI: 21.0%-66.5%. Providers who routinely obtained sexual histories were 29 percentage points (95% CI: 0.2%-54.9% more likely to screen for HIV all or most of the time than those who did not ask sexual histories.Changing HIV screening requirements is important, but not sufficient to make HIV testing a routine part of medical care. Provider education to increase knowledge about the changed HIV testing requirements could positively impact testing rates.

  17. Breast cancer screening among females in Iran and recommendations for improved practice: a review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Babu, Giridhara R; Samari, Goleen; Cohen, Sharon Phoebe; Mahapatra, Tanmay; Wahbe, Randa May; Mermash, Sherin; Galal, Osman M

    2011-01-01

    Breast cancer is the second most common cancer amongst women, in Iran comprising 21.4% of female cancers. There are several screening modalities for breast cancer including breast self-examination, clinical breast examination and mammography. This research reviews the literature surrounding the implementation of these screening approaches in the Islamic Republic of Iran. After initial results produced approximately 208 articles, a total of 96 articles were included because they specifically addressed epidemiological characteristics of breast cancer, culture, religion, health seeking behavior, screening programs and the health system in Iran. Literature showed that breast self-examination and clinical breast examination were most common as there is no population-based mammography screening program in Iran. Additionally, most women appear to obtain information through the mass media. Results also indicate that Islamic beliefs and preventative medicine are very much aligned and can be used to promote breast cancer screening in Iran. These results highlight that there is a need for aggressive preventative measures focusing on breast self examination and gradually moving towards national mammography programs in Iran ideally disseminated through the media with government support.

  18. Diabetic Retinopathy Screening and Monitoring of Early Stage Disease in Australian General Practice: Tackling Preventable Blindness within a Chronic Care Model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lisa Crossland

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction. Diabetic retinopathy (DR is the leading cause of preventable blindness in Australia. Up to 50% of people with proliferative DR who do not receive timely treatment will become legally blind within five years. Innovative and accessible screening, involving a variety of primary care providers, will become increasingly important if patients with diabetes are to receive optimal eye care. Method. An open controlled trial design was used. Five intervention practices in urban, regional, and rural Australia partnered with ophthalmologists via telehealth undertook DR screening and monitoring of type 2 diabetes patients and were compared with control practices undertaking usual care 2011–2014. Results. Recorded screening rates were 100% across intervention practices, compared with 22–53% in control practices. 31/577 (5% of patients in the control practices were diagnosed with mild-moderate DR, of whom 9 (29% had appropriate follow-up recorded. This was compared with 39/447 (9% of patients in the intervention group, of whom 37 (95% had appropriate follow-up recorded. Discussion and Conclusion. General practice-based DR screening via Annual Cycle of Care arrangements is effective across differing practice locations. It offers improved recording of screening outcomes for Australians with type 2 diabetes and better follow-up of those with screen abnormalities.

  19. Evaluating the Screening Accuracy of the Florida Assessments for Instruction in Reading (FAIR). REL 2013-008

    Science.gov (United States)

    Foorman, Barbara R.; Kershaw, Sarah; Petscher, Yaacov

    2013-01-01

    Florida requires that students who do not meet grade-level reading proficiency standards on the end-of-year state assessment (Florida Comprehensive Assessment Test, FCAT) receive intensive reading intervention. With the stakes so high, teachers and principals are interested in using screening or diagnostic assessments to identify students with a…

  20. Screening Risk Assessment for Possible Radionuclides in the Amchitka Marine Environment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NNSA/NV

    2002-10-31

    As part of its environmental stewardship program the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) is reevaluating three sites where underground nuclear tests were conducted in the deep subsurface of Amchitka Island, Alaska. The tests (i.e., Long Shot, Milrow, and Cannikin) were conducted in 1965, 1969, and 1971, respectively. Extensive investigations were conducted on these tests and their effect on the environment. Evaluations at the time of testing indicated limited release of radionuclides and absence of risk related to the testing; however, these are being reevaluated under the current DOE environmental stewardship program. A screening risk assessment of potential radionuclide release into the marine environment is an important part of this reevaluation. The risk assessment is one of three interrelated activities: a groundwater model and this screening risk assessment, both of which guide the decisions in the third activity, the site closure plan. Thus, the overall objective of the work is to understand, and subsequently manage, any risk to humans and the environment through a closure and long-term stewardship plan. The objective of this screening risk assessment is to predict whether possible releases of radionuclides at the ocean floor would represent potential risks to Native Alaskans by consumption of marine subsistence species. In addition, risks were predicted for consumers of commercial catches of marine organisms. These risks were calculated beginning with estimates of possible radionuclide release at the seafloor (from a groundwater modeling study), into the seawater, through possible uptake by marine organisms, and finally possible consumption by humans. The risk assessment model has 11 elements, progressing from potential release at the seafloor through water and food chains to human intake. Data for each of these elements were systematically found and synthesized from many sources, and represent the best available knowledge. Whenever precise data were lacking

  1. Assessment of the contents related to screening on Portuguese language websites providing information on breast and prostate cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniel Ferreira

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this study was to assess the quality of the contents related to screening in a sample of websites providing information on breast and prostate cancer in the Portuguese language. The first 200 results of each cancer-specific Google search were considered. The accuracy of the screening contents was defined in accordance with the state of the art, and its readability was assessed. Most websites mentioned mammography as a method for breast cancer screening (80%, although only 28% referred to it as the only recommended method. Almost all websites mentioned PSA evaluation as a possible screening test, but correct information regarding its effectiveness was given in less than 10%. For both breast and prostate cancer screening contents, the potential for overdiagnosis and false positive results was seldom addressed, and the median readability index was approximately 70. There is ample margin for improving the quality of websites providing information on breast and prostate cancer in Portuguese.

  2. Assessment of the contents related to screening on Portuguese language websites providing information on breast and prostate cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferreira, Daniel; Carreira, Helena; Silva, Susana; Lunet, Nuno

    2013-11-01

    The objective of this study was to assess the quality of the contents related to screening in a sample of websites providing information on breast and prostate cancer in the Portuguese language. The first 200 results of each cancer-specific Google search were considered. The accuracy of the screening contents was defined in accordance with the state of the art, and its readability was assessed. Most websites mentioned mammography as a method for breast cancer screening (80%), although only 28% referred to it as the only recommended method. Almost all websites mentioned PSA evaluation as a possible screening test, but correct information regarding its effectiveness was given in less than 10%. For both breast and prostate cancer screening contents, the potential for overdiagnosis and false positive results was seldom addressed, and the median readability index was approximately 70. There is ample margin for improving the quality of websites providing information on breast and prostate cancer in Portuguese.

  3. Screening for type 2 diabetes is feasible, acceptable, but associated with increased short-term anxiety: A randomised controlled trial in British general practice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Prevost A Toby

    2008-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background To assess the feasibility and uptake of a diabetes screening programme; to examine the effects of invitation to diabetes screening on anxiety, self-rated health and illness perceptions. Methods Randomised controlled trial in two general practices in Cambridgeshire. Individuals aged 40–69 without known diabetes were identified as being at high risk of having undiagnosed type 2 diabetes using patient records and a validated risk score (n = 1,280. 355 individuals were randomised in a 2 to 1 ratio into non-invited (n = 238 and invited (n = 116 groups. A stepwise screening programme confirmed the presence or absence of diabetes. Six weeks after the last contact (either test or invitation, a questionnaire was sent to all participants, including non-attenders and those who were not originally invited. Outcome measures included attendance, anxiety (short-form Spielberger State Anxiety Inventory-STAI, self-rated health and diabetes illness perceptions. Results 95 people (82% of those invited attended for the initial capillary blood test. Six individuals were diagnosed with diabetes. Invited participants were more anxious than those not invited (37.6 vs. 34.1 STAI, p-value = 0.015, and those diagnosed with diabetes were considerably more anxious than those classified free of diabetes (46.7 vs. 37.0 STAI, p-value = 0.031. Non-attenders had a higher mean treatment control sub-scale (3.87 vs. 3.56, p-value = 0.016 and a lower mean emotional representation sub-scale (1.81 vs. 2.68, p-value = 0.001 than attenders. No differences in the other five illness perception sub-scales or self-rated health were found. Conclusion Screening for type 2 diabetes in primary care is feasible but may be associated with higher levels of short-term anxiety among invited compared with non-invited participants. Trial registration ISRCTN99175498

  4. Breast Cancer Screening and Prevention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nattinger, Ann B; Mitchell, Julie L

    2016-06-07

    This issue provides a clinical overview of breast cancer screening and prevention, focusing on risk assessment, screening, prevention, and practice improvement. The content of In the Clinic is drawn from the clinical information and education resources of the American College of Physicians (ACP), including MKSAP (Medical Knowledge and Self-Assessment Program). Annals of Internal Medicine editors develop In the Clinic in collaboration with the ACP's Medical Education and Publishing divisions and with the assistance of additional science writers and physician writers.

  5. Occupational exposure assessment: Practices in Malaysian nuclear agency

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sarowi, S. Muhd; Ramli, S. A.; Kontol, K. Mohamad; Rahman, N. A. H. Abd.

    2016-01-01

    Malaysian Nuclear Agency (Nuclear Malaysia) is the leading agency in introducing and promoting the application of nuclear science technology in Malaysia. The agency provides major nuclear facilities purposely for research and commercialisation such as reactor, irradiation plants and radioisotope production laboratory. When dealing with ionizing radiation, there is an obligatory requirement to monitor and assess the radiation exposure to the workers. The personal dose of radiation workers were monitored monthly by assessing their Thermoluminescence Dosimeter (TLD) dose reading. This paper will discuss the current practice in managing, assessing, record keeping and reporting of the occupational exposure in Nuclear Malaysia including the Health Physic Group roles and challenges. The statistics on occupational radiation exposure of monitored workers working in different fields in Nuclear Malaysia from 2011 - 2013 will also be presented. The results show that the null hypothesis (H₀) was accepted which the means of every populations are all equal or not differ significantly. This hypothesis states that the dose exposure received by the radiation workers in Nuclear Malaysia is similar and there were no significant changes from 2011 to 2013. The radiation monitoring programme correlate with the requirement of our national law, the Atomic Energy Licensing Act 1984 (Act 304).

  6. Protection goals in environmental risk assessment: a practical approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garcia-Alonso, Monica; Raybould, Alan

    2014-12-01

    Policy protection goals are set up in most countries to minimise harm to the environment, humans and animals caused by human activities. Decisions on whether to approve new agricultural products, like pesticides or genetically modified (GM) crops, take into account these policy protection goals. To support decision-making, applications for approval of commercial uses of GM crops usually comprise an environmental risk assessment (ERA). These risk assessments are analytical tools, based on science, that follow a conceptual model that includes a problem formulation step where policy protection goals are considered. However, in most countries, risk assessors face major problems in that policy protection goals set in the legislation are stated in very broad terms and are too ambiguous to be directly applicable in ERAs. This means that risk assessors often have to interpret policy protection goals without clear guidance on what effects would be considered harmful. In this paper we propose a practical approach that may help risk assessors to translate policy protection goals into unambiguous (i.e., operational) protection goals and to establish relevant assessment endpoints and risk hypotheses that can be used in ERAs. Examples are provided to show how this approach can be applied to two areas of environmental concern relevant to the ERAs of GM crops.

  7. Occupational exposure assessment: Practices in Malaysian nuclear agency

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sarowi, S. Muhd, E-mail: suzie@nuclearmalaysia.gov.my; Ramli, S. A.; Kontol, K. Mohamad [Radiation Safety & Health Division, Malaysian Nuclear Agency, 43000 Kajang, Selangor (Malaysia); Rahman, N. A. H. Abd. [Faculty of Science & Mathematics, Sultan Idris of Education Universit, 35900, Tanjong Malim, Perak Darul Ridzuan (Malaysia)

    2016-01-22

    Malaysian Nuclear Agency (Nuclear Malaysia) is the leading agency in introducing and promoting the application of nuclear science technology in Malaysia. The agency provides major nuclear facilities purposely for research and commercialisation such as reactor, irradiation plants and radioisotope production laboratory. When dealing with ionizing radiation, there is an obligatory requirement to monitor and assess the radiation exposure to the workers. The personal dose of radiation workers were monitored monthly by assessing their Thermoluminescence Dosimeter (TLD) dose reading. This paper will discuss the current practice in managing, assessing, record keeping and reporting of the occupational exposure in Nuclear Malaysia including the Health Physic Group roles and challenges. The statistics on occupational radiation exposure of monitored workers working in different fields in Nuclear Malaysia from 2011 - 2013 will also be presented. The results show that the null hypothesis (H{sub 0}) was accepted which the means of every populations are all equal or not differ significantly. This hypothesis states that the dose exposure received by the radiation workers in Nuclear Malaysia is similar and there were no significant changes from 2011 to 2013. The radiation monitoring programme correlate with the requirement of our national law, the Atomic Energy Licensing Act 1984 (Act 304)

  8. SCREENING FOR POSTSTROKE COGNITIVE IMPAIRMENT VIA MINI MENTAL STATE EXAMINATION AND MONTREAL COGNITIVE ASSESSMENT SCALE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mirena Valkova

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Objective: The aim of our study is to examine cognitive performance after mild stroke via Mini Mental State Examination (MMSE and Montreal cognitive assessment scale (MoCA and to compare the results.Material and methods: We examined 54 patients with mild stroke (aged 52 to 72 (mean 63.17, SD 5.96; 34 males and 20 females and 54 controls, adjusted by age, sex and education level. All subjects were tested via MMSE (Bulgarian version and MoCa (Bulgarian version. Data was collected in the single step model at the 90th day after stroke incident for patients and at the day of obtaining informed consent for controls. Results: Patients have poorer performance on both MMSE and MoCa than controls. MoCa has comparatively good discriminative validity and sensitivity.Conclusions: Although MMSE is one of the classical screening tools for cognitive impairment widely used in Bulgaria, other screening tools should not be ignored. On the basis of our results, MoCa is also a good screening instrument, especially for poststroke cognitive impairment.

  9. Lessons from high-throughput protein crystallization screening: 10 years of practical experience

    Science.gov (United States)

    JR, Luft; EH, Snell; GT, DeTitta

    2011-01-01

    Introduction X-ray crystallography provides the majority of our structural biological knowledge at a molecular level and in terms of pharmaceutical design is a valuable tool to accelerate discovery. It is the premier technique in the field, but its usefulness is significantly limited by the need to grow well-diffracting crystals. It is for this reason that high-throughput crystallization has become a key technology that has matured over the past 10 years through the field of structural genomics. Areas covered The authors describe their experiences in high-throughput crystallization screening in the context of structural genomics and the general biomedical community. They focus on the lessons learnt from the operation of a high-throughput crystallization screening laboratory, which to date has screened over 12,500 biological macromolecules. They also describe the approaches taken to maximize the success while minimizing the effort. Through this, the authors hope that the reader will gain an insight into the efficient design of a laboratory and protocols to accomplish high-throughput crystallization on a single-, multiuser-laboratory or industrial scale. Expert Opinion High-throughput crystallization screening is readily available but, despite the power of the crystallographic technique, getting crystals is still not a solved problem. High-throughput approaches can help when used skillfully; however, they still require human input in the detailed analysis and interpretation of results to be more successful. PMID:22646073

  10. A practical fluorogenic substrate for high-throughput screening of glutathione S-transferase inhibitors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fujikawa, Yuuta; Morisaki, Fumika; Ogura, Asami; Morohashi, Kana; Enya, Sora; Niwa, Ryusuke; Goto, Shinji; Kojima, Hirotatsu; Okabe, Takayoshi; Nagano, Tetsuo; Inoue, Hideshi

    2015-07-21

    We report a new fluorogenic substrate for glutathione S-transferase (GST), 3,4-DNADCF, enabling the assay with a low level of nonenzymatic background reaction. Inhibitors against Noppera-bo/GSTe14 from Drosophila melanogaster were identified by high throughput screening using 3,4-DNADCF, demonstrating the utility of this substrate.

  11. Screening for diabetes: what do the results of the ADDITION trial mean for clinical practice?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lauritzen, Torsten; Borch-Johnsen, Knut; Davies, Melanie J

    2013-01-01

    Artiklen opsummerer de nuværende resultater fra ADDITION studiet. Forfatterne konkluderer at ADDITION studiet har skabt yderligere evidens til støtte for tidlig opsporing og behandling af patienter med uerkendt diabetes. Frem for at fokusere på populationsbaseret screening opfordre forfatterne pr...

  12. Cancer Screening Practices among Amish and Non-Amish Adults Living in Ohio Appalachia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Katz, Mira L.; Ferketich, Amy K.; Paskett, Electra D.; Harley, Amy; Reiter, Paul L.; Lemeshow, Stanley; Westman, Judith A.; Clinton, Steven K.; Bloomfield, Clara D.

    2011-01-01

    Purpose: The Amish, a unique community living in Ohio Appalachia, have lower cancer incidence rates than non-Amish living in Ohio Appalachia. The purpose of this study was to examine cancer screening rates among Amish compared to non-Amish adults living in Ohio Appalachia and a national sample of adults of the same race and ethnicity in an effort…

  13. Mass Casualty Chemical Incident Operational Framework, Assessment and Best Practices

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Greenwalt, R. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States); Hibbard, W. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States)

    2016-08-09

    Emergency response agencies in most US communities are organized, sized, and equipped to manage those emergencies normally expected. Hospitals in particular do not typically have significant excess capacity to handle massive numbers of casualties, as hospital space is an expensive luxury if not needed. Unfortunately this means that in the event of a mass casualty chemical incident the emergency response system will be overwhelmed. This document provides a self-assessment means for emergency managers to examine their response system and identify shortfalls. It also includes lessons from a detailed analysis of five communities: Baltimore, Boise, Houston, Nassau County, and New Orleans. These lessons provide a list of potential critical decisions to allow for pre-planning and a library of best practices that may be helpful in reducing casualties in the event of an incident.

  14. Application of screening model for assessing subsurface NAPL contamination and remediation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    MacFarlane, S.; Shiu, W.Y. [Univ. of Toronto, Ontario (Canada); Mackay, D. [Trent Univ., Peterborough, Ontario (Canada)

    1997-12-31

    To select the most appropriate technique for remediating non-aqueous phase liquids (NAPL)-contaminated sites a full understanding is required of the characteristics of the site, the contaminant, and the effectiveness of the remedial measure. A screening model has been developed (MacFarlane and Mackay, in press) for evaluating the partitioning of components of NAPLs present in the subsurface environment and for providing order of magnitude estimates of the effectiveness, in terms of recovery time, of a variety of remedial technologies including water and solvent flushing, air and steam stripping, and enhanced degradation. The model calculations employ the fugacity concept which is found to simplify and clarify the calculations. Two types of calculations are employed in the screening assessment. Level 1 fugacity calculations are simple multimedia equilibrium calculations that deduce how a chemical partitions between media or phases in a defined environment. Level 2 fugacity calculations account for or quantify losses of chemical being conveyed out of the environment by advective flows in phases such as air or water or by degradation by chemical or biochemical reactions. The screening model was originally applied to an existing fractured bedrock site in Smithville, Ontario which is contaminated with a NAPL containing polychlorinated biphenyls, trichlorobenzene, and trichloroethylene. In this paper, the model approach is illustrated for vinyl chloride which may be present at the site due to biochemical reactions occurring in the subsurface. It is their aim to show that this approach can provide screening level insights into the behavior and remediation of NAPLs and can serve as a first step and justification towards more detailed modeling.

  15. Social vulnerability assessment: a growing practice in Europe?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tapsell, S.; McC arthy, S.

    2012-04-01

    This paper builds upon work on social vulnerability from the CapHaz-Net consortium, an ongoing research project funded by the European Commission in its 7th Framework Programme. The project focuses on the social dimensions of natural hazards, as well as on regional practices of risk prevention and management, and aims at improving the resilience of European societies to natural hazards, paying particular attention to social capacity building. The topic of social vulnerability is one of seven themes being addressed in the project. There are various rationales for examining the relevance of social vulnerability to natural hazards. Vulnerability assessment has now been accepted as a requirement for the effective development of emergency management capability, and assessment of social vulnerability has been recognised as being integral to understanding the risk to natural hazards. The aim of our research was to examine social vulnerability, how it might be understood in the context of natural hazards in Europe, and how social vulnerability can be addressed to increase social capacity. The work comprised a review of research on social vulnerability to different natural hazards within Europe and included concepts and definitions of social vulnerability (and related concepts), the purpose of vulnerability assessment and who decides who is vulnerable, different approaches to assessing or measuring social vulnerability (such as the use of 'classical' quantitative vulnerability indicators and qualitative community-based approaches, along with the advantages and disadvantages of both), conceptual frameworks for assessing social vulnerability and three case studies of social vulnerability studies within Europe: flash floods in the Italian Alps, fluvial flooding in Germany and heat waves in Spain. The review reveals variable application of social vulnerability analysis across Europe and there are indications why this might be the case. Reasons could range from the scale of

  16. Number of genera as a potential screening tool for assessing quality of bryophyte communities in Ohio wetlands

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schumacher, William; Stapanian, Martin A.; Andreas, Barbara; Gara, Brian

    2016-01-01

    Bryophytes (mosses, liverworts, and hornworts) have numerous advantages as indicators of environmental quality. A quality assessment index for bryophyte species assemblages (BQAI) was developed for the State of Ohio, USA. Reliable identification of bryophytes to species often requires considerable training, practice, and time. In contrast, reliable identification to genera for most bryophytes in Ohio requires much less training. We identified 110 bryophyte species (14 liverworts and 96 mosses) belonging to 69 genera (13 liverwort and 56 moss) in 45 wetlands (27 emergent, 13 forested, and 5 shrub) in Ohio. As expected, there were more genera and higher BQAI scores in forested than in emergent wetlands. Number of genera was highly correlated (r ≥ 0.9) with BQAI in emergent and forested wetlands and for the combined set of wetlands. Number of genera and BQAI responded almost identically to an index of wetland disturbance. The results suggest that number of genera has potential as a screening tool for assessing bryophyte community quality in wetlands in some regions.

  17. Updating Best Practices: Applying On-Screen Reading Strategies to Résumé Writing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Diaz, Charlsye Smith

    2013-01-01

    The best practices presented in textbooks and professional publications provide separate guidelines for paper-based and electronic or "scannable" résumés. This article recommends changing these practices so that writers can prepare one résumé for both paper and electronic delivery. These recommendations focus on three areas. Résumés…

  18. Prospective Assessment of an innovative test for prostate cancer screening using the VITA process model framework.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gantner-Bär, Marion; Meier, Florian; Kolominsky-Rabas, Peter; Djanatliev, Anatoli; Metzger, Armin; Voigt, Wieland; Prokosch, Hans-Ulrich; Sedlmayr, Martin

    2014-01-01

    Healthcare innovations are crucial for enhancing patient treatment and a high-quality healthcare system. However, bringing new technologies, methods and procedures into the healthcare market is challenging. Enormous amounts of financial, personnel and organizational resources are required with no upfront certainty for the medical and economic benefit. A new and innovative approach uses interdisciplinary medical, technical and economic expertise to forecast effects of healthcare innovations already at the early research and concept phase of an idea and before major investments are made. A process model framework was developed to operationalize this structured assessment of healthcare innovations. The Visionary Iterative Tailored Approach (VITA) is based on conceptual modeling, simulation and health economics evaluation. Its application for the prospective assessment of an innovative prostate cancer screening is presented.

  19. Evidence-Based Assessment of Child Obsessive Compulsive Disorder: Recommendations for Clinical Practice and Treatment Research

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lewin, Adam B.; Piacentini, John

    2010-01-01

    Obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD) presents heterogeneously and can be difficult to assess in youth. This review focuses on research-supported assessment approaches for OCD in childhood. Content areas include pre-visit screening, diagnostic establishment, differential diagnosis, assessment of comorbid psychiatric conditions, tracking symptom…

  20. Neuroimaging Signatures and Cognitive Correlates of the Montreal Cognitive Assessment Screen in a Nonclinical Elderly Sample

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paul, Robert; Lane, Elizabeth M.; Tate, David F.; Heaps, Jodi; Romo, Dana M.; Akbudak, Erbil; Niehoff, Jennifer; Conturo, Thomas E.

    2011-01-01

    The Montreal Cognitive Assessment (MoCA) screen was developed as a brief instrument to identify mild cognitive impairment and dementia among older individuals. To date, limited information is available regarding the neuroimaging signatures associated with performance on the scale, or the relationship between the MoCA and more comprehensive cognitive screening measures. The present study examined performances on the MoCA among 111 non-clinical older adults (ages 51–85) enrolled in a prospective study of cognitive aging. Participants were administered the MoCA, Mini-Mental State Exam (MMSE), and the Repeatable Battery for the Assessment of Neuropsychological Status (RBANS). A subset of participants (N = 69) underwent structural 3 T magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) to define the volumes of total frontal gray matter, total hippocampus, T2-weighted subcortical hyperintensities (SH), and total brain volume. The results revealed significant correlations between the total score on the MoCA and total score on the RBANS and MMSE, though the strength of the correlations was more robust between the MoCA and the RBANS. Modest correlations between individual subscales of the MoCA and neuroimaging variables were evident, but no patterns of shared variance emerged between the MoCA total score and neuroimaging indices. In contrast, total brain volume correlated significantly with total score on the RBANS. These results suggest that additional studies are needed to define the significance of MoCA scores relative to brain integrity among an older population. PMID:21642663

  1. 2011 PERFORMANCE ASSESSMENT COMMUNITY OF PRACTICE TECHNICAL EXCHANGE - SUMMARY

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Seitz, R.

    2011-12-30

    The Performance Assessment Community of Practice (PA CoP) was developed in 2008 to improve consistency and quality in the preparation of performance assessments (PAs) and risk assessments across the Department of Energy (DOE) Complex. The term, PA, is used to represent all of these modeling applications in this report. The PA CoP goals are to foster the exchange of information among PA practitioners and to share lessons learned from PAs conducted for DOE, commercial disposal facilities, and international entities. Technical exchanges and workshops are a cornerstone of PA CoP activities. Previous technical exchanges have addressed Engineered Barriers (2009 - http://www.cresp.org/education/workshops/pacop/), the Advanced Simulation Capability for Environmental Management and the Cementitious Barriers Partnership (2010 - http://srnl.doe.gov/copexchange/links.htm). Each technical exchange also includes summary presentations regarding activities at DOE, the Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) and other organizations (e.g., International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA)) as well as a number of presentations from selected sites to provide insight and perspective from on-going modeling activities. Through the deployment of PA Assistance Teams, the PA CoP has also been engaged in the development of new PAs across the DOE Complex. As a way of improving consistency in the preparation of new PAs, the teams provide technical advice and share experiences, noteworthy practices, and lessons learned from previous Low-Level Waste Disposal Facility Federal Review Group (LFRG) reviews. Teams have provided support for PAs at Hanford, Idaho, Paducah and Portsmouth. The third annual PA CoP Technical Exchange was held on May 25-26, 2011 in Atlanta, GA. The PA CoP Steering Committee Meeting held its first meeting on May 24 prior to the Technical Exchange. Decision making using models and software quality assurance were the topical emphasis for the exchange. A new feature at the 2011 technical

  2. [Cancer screening in clinical practice: the value of shared decision-making].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cornuz, Jacques; Junod, Noëlle; Pasche, Olivier; Guessous, Idris

    2010-07-14

    Shared decision-making approach to uncertain clinical situations such as cancer screening seems more appropriate than ever. Shared decision making can be defined as an interactive process where physician and patient share all the stages of the decision making process. For patients who wish to be implicated in the management of their health conditions, physicians might express difficulty to do so. Use of patient decision aids appears to improve such process of shared decision making.

  3. Colorectal Cancer in the Arab World--Screening Practices and Future Prospects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arafa, Mostafa A; Farhat, Karim

    2015-01-01

    Colorectal cancer (CRC) incidence and mortality rates have dropped 30% in the US in the last 10 years among adults ages 50 and older due to the widespread uptake of colonoscopy, yet incidences in the Arab countries have been increasing in the past ten years, albeit with lower figures when compared with developed countries. Lifestyle changes, food consumption patterns and obesity have been observed during the past years where the regular consumption of traditional foods is being replaced with more Western-style and ready-made foods. Most high income countries have implemented population based colorectal cancer screening programs, which aid in decreasing the incidence and mortality of cancer, while these are lacking in most of the Arab world countries due to many cultural and religious barriers to CRC screening as well as lack of high education or familiarity. What is needed is health education to modify risky lifestyle, and to increase motives and enhance positive attitudes towards early screening especially amongst high risk groups in addition to policy designed to encourage healthier living.

  4. Integrating Communication Best Practices in the Third National Climate Assessment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hassol, S. J.

    2014-12-01

    Modern climate science assessments now have a history of nearly a quarter-century. This experience, together with important advances in relevant social sciences, has greatly improved our ability to communicate climate science effectively. As a result, the Third National Climate Assessment (NCA) was designed to be truly accessible and useful to all its intended audiences, while still being comprehensive and scientifically accurate. At a time when meeting the challenge of climate change is increasingly recognized as an urgent national and global priority, the NCA is proving to be valuable to decision-makers, the media, and the public. In producing this latest NCA, a communication perspective was an important part of the process from the beginning, rather than an afterthought as has often been the case with scientific reports. Lessons learned from past projects and science communications research fed into developing the communication strategy for the Third NCA. A team of editors and graphic designers worked closely with the authors on language, graphics, and photographs throughout the development of the report, Highlights document, and other products. A web design team helped bring the report to life online. There were also innovations in outreach, including a network of organizations intended to extend the reach of the assessment by engaging stakeholders throughout the process. Professional slide set development and media training were part of the preparation for the report's release. The launch of the NCA in May 2014 saw widespread and ongoing media coverage, continued references to the NCA by decision-makers, and praise from many quarters for its excellence in making complex science clear and accessible. This NCA is a professionally crafted report that exemplifies best practices in 21st century communications.

  5. Non-invasive assessment of liver fibrosis in chronic liver diseases: Implementation in clinical practice and decisional algorithms

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Giada Sebastiani

    2009-01-01

    Chronic hepatitis B and C together with alcoholic and non-alcoholic fatty liver diseases represent the major causes of progressive liver disease that can eventually evolve into cirrhosis and its end-stage complications, including decompensation, bleeding and liver cancer. Formation and accumulation of fibrosis in the liver is the common pathway that leads to an evolutive liver disease. Precise definition of liver fibrosis stage is essential for management of the patient in clinical practice since the presence of bridging fibrosis represents a strong indication for antiviral therapy for chronic viral hepatitis, while cirrhosis requires a specific follow-up including screening for esophageal varices and hepatocellular carcinoma. Liver biopsy has always represented the standard of reference for assessment of hepatic fibrosis but it has some limitations being invasive, costly and prone to sampling errors. Recently, blood markers and instrumental methods have been proposed for the non-invasive assessment of liver fibrosis. However, there are still some doubts as to their implementation in clinical practice and a real consensus on how and when to use them is not still available. This is due to an unsatisfactory accuracy for some of them, and to an incomplete validation for others. Some studies suggest that performance of non-invasive methods for liver fibrosis assessment may increase when they re combined. Combination algorithms of non-invasive methods for assessing liver fibrosis may represent a rational and reliable approach to implement noninvasive assessment of liver fibrosis in clinical practice and to reduce rather than abolish liver biopsies.

  6. Metabolic Syndrome and Cardiovascular Disease after Hematopoietic Cell Transplantation: Screening and Preventive Practice Recommendations from the CIBMTR and EBMT.

    Science.gov (United States)

    DeFilipp, Zachariah; Duarte, Rafael F; Snowden, John A; Majhail, Navneet S; Greenfield, Diana M; Miranda, José López; Arat, Mutlu; Baker, K Scott; Burns, Linda J; Duncan, Christine N; Gilleece, Maria; Hale, Gregory A; Hamadani, Mehdi; Hamilton, Betty K; Hogan, William J; Hsu, Jack W; Inamoto, Yoshihiro; Kamble, Rammurti T; Lupo-Stanghellini, Maria Teresa; Malone, Adriana K; McCarthy, Philip; Mohty, Mohamad; Norkin, Maxim; Paplham, Pamela; Ramanathan, Muthalagu; Richart, John M; Salooja, Nina; Schouten, Harry C; Schoemans, Helene; Seber, Adriana; Steinberg, Amir; Wirk, Baldeep M; Wood, William A; Battiwalla, Minoo; Flowers, Mary E D; Savani, Bipin N; Shaw, Bronwen E

    2016-08-01

    Metabolic syndrome (MetS) is a constellation of cardiovascular risk factors that increases the risk of cardiovascular disease, diabetes mellitus, and all-cause mortality. Long-term survivors of hematopoietic cell transplantation (HCT) have a substantial risk of developing MetS and cardiovascular disease, with an estimated prevalence of MetS of 31% to 49% among HCT recipients. Although MetS has not yet been proven to impact cardiovascular risk after HCT, an understanding of the incidence and risk factors for MetS in HCT recipients can provide the foundation to evaluate screening guidelines and develop interventions that may mitigate cardiovascular-related mortality. A working group was established through the Center for International Blood and Marrow Transplant Research and the European Group for Blood and Marrow Transplantation with the goal to review literature and recommend practices appropriate to HCT recipients. Here we deliver consensus recommendations to help clinicians provide screening and preventive care for MetS and cardiovascular disease among HCT recipients. All HCT survivors should be advised of the risks of MetS and encouraged to undergo recommended screening based on their predisposition and ongoing risk factors.

  7. Metabolic syndrome and cardiovascular disease following hematopoietic cell transplantation: screening and preventive practice recommendations from CIBMTR and EBMT.

    Science.gov (United States)

    DeFilipp, Z; Duarte, R F; Snowden, J A; Majhail, N S; Greenfield, D M; Miranda, J L; Arat, M; Baker, K S; Burns, L J; Duncan, C N; Gilleece, M; Hale, G A; Hamadani, M; Hamilton, B K; Hogan, W J; Hsu, J W; Inamoto, Y; Kamble, R T; Lupo-Stanghellini, M T; Malone, A K; McCarthy, P; Mohty, M; Norkin, M; Paplham, P; Ramanathan, M; Richart, J M; Salooja, N; Schouten, H C; Schoemans, H; Seber, A; Steinberg, A; Wirk, B M; Wood, W A; Battiwalla, M; Flowers, M E D; Savani, B N; Shaw, B E

    2017-02-01

    Metabolic syndrome (MetS) is a constellation of cardiovascular risk factors that increases the risk of cardiovascular disease, diabetes mellitus and all cause mortality. Long-term survivors of hematopoietic cell transplantation (HCT) have a substantial risk of developing MetS and cardiovascular disease, with the estimated prevalence of MetS being 31-49% among HCT recipients. Although MetS has not yet been proven to impact cardiovascular risk after HCT, an understanding of the incidence and risk factors for MetS in HCT recipients can provide the foundation to evaluate screening guidelines and develop interventions that may mitigate cardiovascular-related mortality. A working group was established through the Center for International Blood and Marrow Transplant Research and the European Group for Blood and Marrow Transplantation with the goal of reviewing literature and recommend practices appropriate to HCT recipients. Here we deliver consensus recommendations to help clinicians provide screening and preventive care for MetS and cardiovascular disease among HCT recipients. All HCT survivors should be advised of the risks of MetS and encouraged to undergo recommended screening based on their predisposition and ongoing risk factors.

  8. Metabolic syndrome and cardiovascular disease following hematopoietic cell transplantation: screening and preventive practice recommendations from CIBMTR and EBMT

    Science.gov (United States)

    DeFilipp, Zachariah; Duarte, Rafael F.; Snowden, John A.; Majhail, Navneet S.; Greenfield, Diana M.; Miranda, José López; Arat, Mutlu; Baker, K. Scott; Burns, Linda J.; Duncan, Christine N.; Gilleece, Maria; Hale, Gregory A.; Hamadani, Mehdi; Hamilton, Betty K.; Hogan, William J.; Hsu, Jack W.; Inamoto, Yoshihiro; Kamble, Rammurti T.; Lupo-Stanghellini, Maria Teresa; Malone, Adriana K.; McCarthy, Philip; Mohty, Mohamad; Norkin, Maxim; Paplham, Pamela; Ramanathan, Muthalagu; Richart, John M.; Salooja, Nina; Schouten, Harry C.; Schoemans, Helene; Seber, Adriana; Steinberg, Amir; Wirk, Baldeep M.; Wood, William A.; Battiwalla, Minoo; Flowers, Mary E.D.; Savani, Bipin N.; Shaw, Bronwen E.

    2016-01-01

    Metabolic syndrome (MetS) is a constellation of cardiovascular risk factors that increases the risk of cardiovascular disease, diabetes mellitus, and all cause mortality. Long-term survivors of hematopoietic cell transplantation (HCT) have a substantial risk of developing MetS and cardiovascular disease, with the estimated prevalence of MetS being 31–49% amongst HCT recipients. While MetS has not yet been proven to impact cardiovascular risk after HCT, an understanding of the incidence and risk factors for MetS in HCT recipients can provide the foundation to evaluate screening guidelines and develop interventions that may mitigate cardiovascular-related mortality. A working group was established through the Center for International Blood and Marrow Transplant Research and the European Group for Blood and Marrow Transplantation with the goal to review literature and recommend practices appropriate to HCT recipients. Here we deliver consensus recommendations to help clinicians provide screening and preventive care for MetS and cardiovascular disease among HCT recipients. All HCT survivors should be advised of the risks of MetS and encouraged to undergo recommended screening based on their predisposition and ongoing risk factors. PMID:27184625

  9. Self-Assessment of Gerontology Teaching Practice: A First-Step in Enhancing Student Learning

    Science.gov (United States)

    VonDras, Dean D.

    2008-01-01

    This article discusses self-assessment of gerontology teaching practice. Through a process of self-reflection one may find insight into their teaching and, concomitantly, develop best-practices for enhancing student learning in gerontology. A self-assessment framework is presented, illuminating best-practices in the areas of the lecture-discussion…

  10. Associations between rule-based parenting practices and child screen viewing: A cross-sectional study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joanna M. Kesten

    2015-01-01

    Conclusions: Limit setting is associated with greater SV. Collaborative rule setting may be effective for managing boys' game-console use. More research is needed to understand rule-based parenting practices.

  11. Effects of screening for psychological distress on patient outcomes in cancer : A systematic review

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Meijer, Anna; Roseman, Michelle; Delisle, Vanessa C.; Milette, Katherine; Levis, Brooke; Syamchandra, Achyuth; Stefanek, Michael E.; Stewart, Donna E.; de Jonge, Peter; Coyne, James C.; Thombs, Brett D.

    2013-01-01

    Objective: Several practice guidelines recommend routine screening for psychological distress in cancer care. The objective was to evaluate the effect of screening cancer patients for psychological distress by assessing the (1) effectiveness of interventions to reduce distress among patients identif

  12. Model of practical skill performance as an instrument for supervision and formative assessment

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Carsten; Sommer, Irene; Larsen, Karin;

    2012-01-01

    as during practice, performance and formative assessment of practical skills learning. It provided a common language about practical skills and enhanced the participants’ understanding of professionalism in practical nursing skill. In conclusion, the model helped to highlight the complexity in mastering...

  13. The James Supportive Care Screening: integrating science and practice to meet the NCCN guidelines for distress management at a Comprehensive Cancer Center

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gregorio, Sharla Wells-Di; Porensky, Emily K.; Minotti, Matthew; Brown, Susan; Snapp, Janet; Taylor, Robert M.; Adolph, Michael D.; Everett, Sherman; Lowther, Kenneth; Callahan, Kelly; Streva, Devita; Heinke, Vicki; Leno, Debra; Flower, Courtney; McVey, Anne; Lee Andersen, Barbara

    2014-01-01

    Background Selecting a measure for oncology distress screening can be challenging. The measure must be brief, but comprehensive, capturing patients’ most distressing concerns. The measure must provide meaningful coverage of multiple domains, assess symptom and problem-related distress, and ideally be suited for both clinical and research purposes. Methods From March 2006 to August 2012, the James Supportive Care Screening (SCS) was developed and validated in three phases including content validation, factor analysis, and measure validation. Exploratory factor analyses were completed with 596 oncology patients followed by a confirmatory factor analysis with 477 patients. Results Six factors were identified and confirmed including (i) emotional concerns; (ii) physical symptoms; (iii) social/practical problems; (iv) spiritual problems; (v) cognitive concerns; and (vi) healthcare decision making/communication issues. Subscale evaluation reveals good to excellent internal consistency, test–retest reliability, and convergent, divergent, and predictive validity. Specificity of individual items was 0.90 and 0.87, respectively, for identifying patients with DSM-IV-TR diagnoses of major depression and generalized anxiety disorder. Conclusions Results support use of the James SCS to quickly detect the most frequent and distressing symptoms and concerns of cancer patients. The James SCS is an efficient, reliable, and valid clinical and research outcomes measure. PMID:23436568

  14. Preliminary Screening Assessment of the Potential Impact of the Phosphate Fertilizer Industry on Wildlife

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vandenhove, Hildegarde; Sweeck, Lieve; Vives i Batlle, Jordi [SCK.CEN, Belgian Nuclear Research Centre, Boeretang 200, B-2400 Mol (Belgium)

    2014-07-01

    The activities of the phosphate industry may lead to enhanced levels of naturally occurring radioactivity in terrestrial and freshwater ecosystems. We here perform a preliminary environmental risk assessment (ERA) of the activities of the phosphate industry (phosphate ore mining, phosphate fertilizer factories, phosphate export platforms). We evaluated the environmental impact of 5 phosphate fertilizer plants (located in Belgium, Spain, Syria, Egypt, Brazil) and one phosphate-mine and phosphate-export platforms in the harbour(both located in Syria). These sites were selected because of the enhanced concentrations of naturally occurring radionuclides in the surrounding environments. The ERICA non-human biota assessment tool was used to predict radiation dose rates to the reference organisms and associated risks. Reference organisms were those assigned as default by the ERICA Tool. Potential impact is expressed as a risk quotient (RQ) based on a radiation screening value of 10 μGy h{sup -1}. If RQ ≤ 1, the environment is unlikely at risk and further radiological assessment is deemed not to be required. For all the cases assessed, RQ exceeded 1 for at least one of the reference organisms. {sup 226}Ra or {sup 210}Po were generally the highest contributors to the dose. The aquatic ecosystems in the vicinity of the phosphate fertilizer plants in Tessenderlo (Belgium), Huelva (Spain), Goias (Brazil) and the terrestrial environment around the phosphate mine in Palmyra (Syria) are the ecosystems predicted most at risk. (authors)

  15. Modeling the Connectedness Between best Management Practices and Vulnerability Assessments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anandhi, A.; Bailey, N.; Thomas, M.; Bartnick, B.

    2015-12-01

    The overall goal of this study is to better understand the connectedness between Best management practices (BMPs) and vulnerability assessments (VA) in a changing landuse. Developing this connectedness will help understand key vulnerabilities and improve adaptive capacity important for ecosystem sustainability. BMPs are practical management practices or systems designed and installed in watersheds to provide a wide range of effects to protect or restore the physical, chemical, and biological condition of waterbodies (e.g. changing hydrology; improving vegetative habitat; mitigate adverse environmental change). VAs can be defined as "the degree to which the system is susceptible to and is unable to cope with adverse effects of change" and are often characterized as a function of exposure, sensitivity and adaptive capacity. There are many variables and factors used in calculating the impact of BMPs and VAs. The event mean concentration or load (e.g. nutrient, sediment,) associated with the specific landuse is an important variable. There is much data that predicts the loads associated with the major landuses (urban, agricultural). Loads greatly vary with region; rainfall characteristics (e.g. rainfall intensity, rainfall frequency); soil characteristics (e.g. soil type, hydrologic soil groups); hydrologic characteristics (e.g. runoff potential). A concern also exists that possibly all of the variables associated with changes in an individual land use have not been identified and distinguished for their impact on land use. For example, the loads associated with a high density residential with much green space may be more similar to medium density than loads associated with high rise apartment buildings. Other factors may include age of construction, % of families with children, % of families with pets, level of transiency, and construction activity The objective of our study is to develop an initial framework using multiple variables and factors to represent the

  16. Mental health learning needs assessment: competency-based instrument for best practice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McKnight, Sylvia E

    2013-06-01

    A learning needs assessment focused on psychiatric/mental health nursing competency development is a central component of nursing education in specialty mental health nursing practice. The provision of education for mental health nursing relies on the underlying assumption that the learning needs of experienced mental health nurses have been assessed and educational programs implemented to address educational needs for competency in professional practice. Few professional learning needs assessments have been developed to identify learning needs in mental health nursing practice. The majority of available professional learning needs assessments focus on medical nursing practice applications rather than the psychosocial aspects of a mental health assessment. The mental health field addresses very different assessment criteria such as knowledge of suicide assessment and therapeutic interventions. The purpose of this article is to present and describe the process of developing a learning needs assessment focused on competency development for the specialty practice of mental health nursing that addresses and resolves complex learning needs.

  17. A Comparative Study on the Practice of Continuous Assessment between Addis Ababa and Unity Universities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zeleke, Aytaged Sisay

    2013-01-01

    This paper aims to explore the practice of continuous assessment at Unity University College and Addis Ababa University. It has also investigated constraints instructors say they have been facing in implementing continuous assessment. Students' attitudes about the practice of this assessment mode towards their course achievements were explored.…

  18. Influence of Experience, Grade Level, and Subject Area on Teachers' Assessment Practices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bol, Linda; Stephenson, Patricia L.; O'Connell, Ann A.; Nunnery, John A.

    1998-01-01

    Explored teachers' self-reported assessment practices and the influence of teaching experience, grade level, and subject area on those practices. Surveys of 893 teachers in 34 schools indicated that they used observational assessment and performance tasks more frequently than traditional assessment. Experienced teachers, elementary teachers, and…

  19. Assessing Technologies for Information-Seeking on Prostate Cancer Screening by Low-Income Men

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Susan W. McRoy

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: This paper presents a multipart investigation of the benefits and challenges in deploying automated question-answering as an alternative to web-based searching to provide information about prostate cancer screening for low-income men age 40 years and older. Methods: The study comprised: 1 a survey assessing current use of the Internet, mobile phones and texting; 2 a controlled observational study of both web-based searching and automated question-answering for information about prostate cancer; and 3 a formative field study in which subjects interacted with a health department nurse using text messages. Results: Survey results suggest the target population has greater access to, and familiarity with, cell phones and text messaging compared to the Internet and web-based searching. Participants were significantly more confident using a cell phone and preferred to get health information through text messaging. Participants in the controlled observational study accepted the text messaging system, with most indicating it answered their questions, was easy to use and was a favorable tool for information-seeking. The field study also demonstrated potential for automated question-answering and text messaging to help the target population access health information. Conclusions: A two-way text messaging system has great potential to promote health communication and health information distribution. Participant interest in this system was high and did not seem to be specific to prostate cancer screening, suggesting that information about other topics, such as high blood pressure screening, could be provided similarly. We believe more investigations should be focused on this area, especially on benefits for the low-income community.

  20. The development and standardization of Self-assessment for Hearing Screening of the Elderly

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kim G

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Gibbeum Kim,1 Wondo Na,1 Gungu Kim,1 Woojae Han,2 Jinsook Kim2 1Department of Speech Pathology and Audiology, Hallym University Graduate School, Chuncheon, Republic of Korea; 2Division of Speech Pathology and Audiology, Research Institute of Audiology and Speech Pathology, College of Natural Sciences, Hallym Universtiy, Chuncheon, Republic of Korea Purpose: The present study aimed to develop and standardize a screening tool for elderly people who wish to check for themselves their level of hearing loss. Methods: The Self-assessment for Hearing Screening of the Elderly (SHSE consisted of 20 questions based on the characteristics of presbycusis using a five-point scale: seven questions covered general issues related to sensorineural hearing loss, seven covered hearing difficulty under distracting listening conditions, two covered hearing difficulty with fast-rated speech, and four covered the working memory function during communication. To standardize SHSE, 83 elderly participants took part in the study: 25 with normal hearing, and 22, 23, and 13 with mild, moderate, and moderate-to-severe sensorineural hearing loss, respectively, according to their hearing sensitivity. All were retested 3 weeks later using the same questionnaire to confirm its reliability. In addition, validity was assessed using various hearing tests such as a sentence test with background noise, a time-compressed speech test, and a digit span test. Results: SHSE and its subcategories showed good internal consistency. SHSE and its subcategories demonstrated high test–retest reliability. A high correlation was observed between the total scores and pure-tone thresholds, which indicated gradually increased SHSE scores of 42.24%, 55.27%, 66.61%, and 78.15% for normal hearing, mild, moderate, and moderate-to-severe groups, respectively. With regard to construct validity, SHSE showed a high negative correlation with speech perception scores in noise and a moderate negative

  1. Extreme sensitivity and the practical implications of risk assessment thresholds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bukowski, John; Nicolich, Mark; Lewis, R Jeffrey

    2013-01-01

    Traditional risk-assessment theory assumes the existence of a threshold for non-cancer health effects. However, a recent trend in environmental regulation rejects this assumption in favor of non-threshold linearity for these endpoints. This trend is driven largely by two related concepts: (1) a theoretical assumption of wide-ranging human sensitivity, and (2) inability to detect thresholds in epidemiologic models. Wide-ranging sensitivity assumes a subpopulation with extreme background vulnerability, so that even trivial environmental exposures are hazardous to someone somewhere. We use examples from the real world of clinical medicine to show that this theoretical assumption is inconsistent with the biology of mammalian systems and the realities of patient care. Using examples from particulate-matter air-pollution research, we further show that failure to reject linearity is usually driven by statistical rather than biological considerations, and that nonlinear/threshold models often have a similar or better fit than their linear counterparts. This evidence suggests the existence of practical, real-world thresholds for most chemical exposures.

  2. Best practices in academic assessment in higher education: A case in formative and shared assessment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Victor Manuel López Pastor

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available 800x600 Normal 0 21 false false false CA X-NONE X-NONE The aim of this article is three-fold: (a to present an example of best practices in formative assessment in university instruction, offering three different methods of learning and assessment to pass a subject; (b to analyze differences in academic performance depending on method of learning and assessment chosen; (c to consider professors´ and students´ evaluation of these assessment methods, as well as analyze the workload these methods suppose for both students and professors. The design is based on a single case study. The study analyzes the results obtained in a third- year course at the University of Valladolid (Spain that participated in an ECTS pilot program. Data was collected during academic year 2009-10. Total number of registered students was 77. This paper describes the procedure to develop a formative assessment system and collect data, as well as the main techniques to obtain and analyze data. Findings indicate that there are important differences in student academic performance depending on the learning and assessment method employed in an academic course. Courses are using formative and on going assessment result in significantly higher student academic performance than courses using other learning and assessment methods. Lastly, empirical data suggest that the workload is in line with the ECTS European Credit Transfer System, and is no excessive for the professor. However, students´ subjective perception is that this method involves a heavier workload. These findings may be important, given the current process of convergence towards the new Degrees and ECTS credit system, and the need to adapt these degrees and credits to students’ real workload.  

  3. Variation in practices and attitudes of clinicians assessing PTSD-related disability among veterans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jackson, James C; Sinnott, Patricia L; Marx, Brian P; Murdoch, Maureen; Sayer, Nina A; Alvarez, Joann M; Greevy, Robert A; Schnurr, Paula P; Friedman, Matthew J; Shane, Andrea C; Owen, Richard R; Keane, Terence M; Speroff, Theodore

    2011-10-01

    One hundred thirty-eight Veterans Affairs mental health professionals completed a 128-item Posttraumatic Stress Disorder (PTSD) Practice Inventory that asked about their practices and attitudes related to disability assessment of PTSD. Results indicate strikingly wide variation in the attitudes and practices of clinicians conducting disability assessments for PTSD. In a high percentage of cases, these attitudes and practices conflict with best-practice guidelines. Specifically, 59% of clinicians reported rarely or never using testing, and only 17% indicated routinely using standardized clinical interviews. Less than 1% of respondents reported using functional assessment scales.

  4. Assessment of speech in neurological disorders: Development of a Swahili screening test

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nick Miller

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Assessments for acquired motor-speech disorders that look at movements of the articulators would appear at first glance to be universal. This may be true for the most basic non-speech aspects of movement. We argue that assessments for speech motor control must be attuned to language-specific variables to be fully valid. We describe the rationale for, and development of a motor-speech-disorder screening test for Swahili speakers which includes impairment measures as well as measures of intelligibility and speech-voice naturalness. We further describe its initial validation in terms of content validity, feasibility of administration and scoring without requirements for lengthy training and technical expertise and application to groups of people with and without Parkinson’s disease in Tanzania. Results indicate that the protocol is ready to use in so far as it is acceptable to users (clinicians, patients, is feasible to use, shows good interrater reliability, and is capable of differentiating performance in healthy speakers and those whose speech is disordered. We highlight needs for further development, including issues around training, development of local norms for healthy speakers and for speakers with a variety of neurological disturbances, and extension of the tool to cover culturally valid assessment of impact of communication disorders.

  5. Screening for personality disorder with the Standardised Assessment of Personality: Abbreviated Scale (SAPAS: further evidence of concurrent validity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Moran Paul

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The assessment of personality disorders (PD is costly and time-consuming. There is a need for a brief screen for personality disorders that can be used in routine clinical settings and epidemiological surveys. Aims: To test the validity of the Standardised Assessment of Personality: Abbreviated Scale (SAPAS as a screen for PD in a clinical sample of substance abusers. Methods Convergent validity of the SAPAS with both categorical and dimensional representations of personality disorders was estimated. Results In this sample, the SAPAS correlated well with dimensional representations of cluster A and C personality disorders, even after controlling for ADHD symptoms, anxiety/depression symptoms and recent substance use. The SAPAS was also significantly associated with total number of PD criteria, although correlation with categorical measures of PD was weak. Conclusions The SAPAS is an valid brief screen for PD as assessed dimensionally.

  6. The development and standardization of Self-assessment for Hearing Screening of the Elderly

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Gibbeum; Na, Wondo; Kim, Gungu; Han, Woojae; Kim, Jinsook

    2016-01-01

    Purpose The present study aimed to develop and standardize a screening tool for elderly people who wish to check for themselves their level of hearing loss. Methods The Self-assessment for Hearing Screening of the Elderly (SHSE) consisted of 20 questions based on the characteristics of presbycusis using a five-point scale: seven questions covered general issues related to sensorineural hearing loss, seven covered hearing difficulty under distracting listening conditions, two covered hearing difficulty with fast-rated speech, and four covered the working memory function during communication. To standardize SHSE, 83 elderly participants took part in the study: 25 with normal hearing, and 22, 23, and 13 with mild, moderate, and moderate-to-severe sensorineural hearing loss, respectively, according to their hearing sensitivity. All were retested 3 weeks later using the same questionnaire to confirm its reliability. In addition, validity was assessed using various hearing tests such as a sentence test with background noise, a time-compressed speech test, and a digit span test. Results SHSE and its subcategories showed good internal consistency. SHSE and its subcategories demonstrated high test–retest reliability. A high correlation was observed between the total scores and pure-tone thresholds, which indicated gradually increased SHSE scores of 42.24%, 55.27%, 66.61%, and 78.15% for normal hearing, mild, moderate, and moderate-to-severe groups, respectively. With regard to construct validity, SHSE showed a high negative correlation with speech perception scores in noise and a moderate negative correlation with scores of time-compressed speech perception. However, there was no statistical correlation between digit span results and either the SHSE total or its subcategories. A confirmatory factor analysis supported three factors in SHSE. Conclusion We found that the developed SHSE had valuable internal consistency, test–retest reliability, and convergent and construct

  7. Standard Practice for Laboratory Screening of Metallic Containment Materials for Use With Liquids in Solar Heating and Cooling Systems

    CERN Document Server

    American Society for Testing and Materials. Philadelphia

    1980-01-01

    1.1 This practice covers several laboratory test procedures for evaluating corrosion performance of metallic containment materials under conditions similar to those that may occur in solar heating and cooling systems. All test results relate to the performance of the metallic containment material only as a part of a metal/fluid pair. Performance in these laboratory test procedures, taken by itself, does not necessarily constitute an adequate basis for acceptance or rejection of a particular metal/fluid pair in solar heating and cooling systems, either in general or in a particular design. This practice is not intended to preclude the use of other screening tests, particularly when those tests are designed to more closely simulate field service conditions. 1.2 This practice describes apparatus and procedures for several tests, any one or more of which may be used to evaluate the deterioration of the metallic containment material in a metal/fluid pair. The procedures are designed to permit simulation, heating...

  8. SUPPORTING TEACHERS IN IMPLEMENTING FORMATIVE ASSESSMENT PRACTICES IN EARTH SYSTEMS SCIENCE

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harris, C. J.; Penuel, W. R.; Haydel Debarger, A.; Blank, J. G.

    2009-12-01

    An important purpose of formative assessment is to elicit student thinking to use in instruction to help all students learn and inform next steps in teaching. However, formative assessment practices are difficult to implement and thus present a formidable challenge for many science teachers. A critical need in geoscience education is a framework for providing teachers with real-time assessment tools as well as professional development to learn how to use formative assessment to improve instruction. Here, we describe a comprehensive support system, developed for our NSF-funded Contingent Pedagogies project, for addressing the challenge of helping teachers to use formative assessment to enhance student learning in middle school Earth Systems science. Our support system is designed to improve student understanding about the geosphere by integrating classroom network technology, interactive formative assessments, and contingent curricular activities to guide teachers from formative assessment to instructional decision-making and improved student learning. To accomplish this, we are using a new classroom network technology, Group Scribbles, in the context of an innovative middle-grades Earth Science curriculum called Investigating Earth Systems (IES). Group Scribbles, developed at SRI International, is a collaborative software tool that allows individual students to compose “scribbles” (i.e., drawings and notes), on “post-it” notes in a private workspace (a notebook computer) in response to a public task. They can post these notes anonymously to a shared, public workspace (a teacher-controlled large screen monitor) that becomes the centerpiece of group and class discussion. To help teachers implement formative assessment practices, we have introduced a key resource, called a teaching routine, to help teachers take advantage of Group Scribbles for more interactive assessments. Routine refers to a sequence of repeatable interactions that, over time, become

  9. Society of Anesthesia and Sleep Medicine Guideline on Preoperative Screening and Assessment of Patients With Obstructive Sleep Apnea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chung, Frances; Memtsoudis, Stavros; Krishna Ramachandran, Satya; Nagappa, Mahesh; Opperer, Mathias; Cozowicz, Crispiana; Patrawala, Sara; Lam, David; Kumar, Anjana; Joshi, Girish P; Fleetham, John; Ayas, Najib; Collop, Nancy; Doufas, Anthony; Eikermann, Matthias; Englesakis, Marina; Gali, Bhargavi; Gay, Peter; Hernandes, Adrian; Kaw, Roop; Kezirian, Eric; Malhotra, Atul; Mokhlesi, Babak; Parthasarathy, Sairam; Stierer, Tracey; Wappler, Frank; Hillman, David R; Auckley, Dennis

    2016-06-01

    The purpose of the Society of Anesthesia and Sleep Medicine guideline on preoperative screening and assessment of patients with obstructive sleep apnea (OSA) is to present recommendations based on the available clinical evidence on the topic where possible. As very few well-performed randomized studies in this field of perioperative care are available, most of the recommendations were developed by experts in the field through consensus processes involving utilization of evidence grading to indicate the level of evidence upon which recommendations were based. This guideline may not be appropriate for all clinical situations and all patients. The decision whether to follow these recommendations must be made by a responsible physician on an individual basis. Protocols should be developed by individual institutions taking into account the patients' conditions, extent of interventions and available resources. This practice guideline is not intended to define standards of care or represent absolute requirements for patient care. The adherence to these guidelines cannot in any way guarantee successful outcomes and is rather meant to help individuals and institutions formulate plans to better deal with the challenges posed by perioperative patients with OSA. These recommendations reflect the current state of knowledge and its interpretation by a group of experts in the field at the time of publication. While these guidelines will be periodically updated, new information that becomes available between updates should be taken into account. Deviations in practice from guidelines may be justifiable and such deviations should not be interpreted as a basis for claims of negligence.This is an open-access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution-Non Commercial-No Derivatives License 4.0 (CCBY-NC-ND), where it is permissible to download and share the work provided it is properly cited. The work cannot be changed in any way or used commercially.

  10. Climate Change Vulnerability Assessments: Four Case Studies of Water Utility Practices (2011 Final)

    Science.gov (United States)

    EPA has released the final report titled, Climate Change Vulnerability Assessments: Four Case Studies of Water Utility Practices. This report was prepared by the National Center for Environmental Assessment's Global Climate Research Staff in the Office of Research and D...

  11. A systematic review of prerequisites for implementing assessment for learning in classroom practice

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Heitink, M.C.; Kleij, van der F.M.; Veldkamp, B.P.; Schildkamp, K.; Kippers, W.B.

    2016-01-01

    Although many researchers acknowledge that Assessment for Learning can significantly enhance student learning, the factors facilitating or hindering its implementation in daily classroom practice are unclear. A systematic literature review was conducted to reveal prerequisites needed for Assessment

  12. Assessment of human resources management practices in Lebanese hospitals

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jamal Diana

    2009-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Sound human resources (HR management practices are essential for retaining effective professionals in hospitals. Given the recruitment and retention reality of health workers in the twenty-first century, the role of HR managers in hospitals and those who combine the role of HR managers with other responsibilities should not be underestimated. The objective of this study is to assess the perception of HR managers about the challenges they face and the current strategies being adopted. The study also aims at assessing enabling factors including role, education, experience and HR training. Methods A cross-sectional survey design of HR managers (and those who combine their role as HR manager with other duties in Lebanese hospitals was utilized. The survey included a combination of open- and close-ended questions. Questions included educational background, work experience, and demographics, in addition to questions about perceived challenges and key strategies being used. Quantitative data analysis included uni-variate analysis, whereas thematic analysis was used for open-ended questions. Results A total of 96 respondents from 61 hospitals responded. Respondents had varying levels of expertise in the realm of HR management. Thematic analysis revealed that challenges varied across respondents and participating hospitals. The most frequently reported challenge was poor employee retention (56.7%, lack of qualified personnel (35.1%, and lack of a system for performance evaluation (28.9%. Some of the strategies used to mitigate the above challenges included offering continuing education and training for employees (19.6%, improving salaries (14.4%, and developing retention strategies (10.3%. Mismatch between reported challenges and strategies were observed. Conclusion To enable hospitals to deliver good quality, safe healthcare, improving HR management is critical. There is a need for a cadre of competent HR managers who can fully

  13. Practical assessment of veiling glare in camera lens system

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ivana Tomić

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Veiling glare can be defined as an unwanted or stray light in an optical system caused by internal reflections between elements of the camera lens. It leads to image fogging and degradation of both image density and contrast, diminishing its overall quality. Each lens is susceptible to veiling glare to some extent - sometimes it is negligible, but it most cases it leads to the visible defects in an image. Unlike the other flaws and errors, lens flare is not easy to correct. Hence, it is highly recommended to prevent it during the capturing phase, if possible. For some applications, it can also be useful to estimate the susceptibility to a lens glare i.e. the degree of a glare in the lens system. Few methods are usually used for this types of testing. Some of the methods are hard to implement and often do not lead to consistent results. In this paper, we assessed one relatively easy method for practical evaluation of veiling glare. Method contains three steps: creating an appropriate scene, capturing the target image and analyzing it. In order to evaluate its applicability, we tested four lenses for Nikon 700 digital camera. Lenses used were with the fixed focal length of 35 and 85 mm and differed by the coatings of their elements. Furthermore, we evaluated the influence of aperture on veiling glare value. It was shown that presented method is not applicable for testing the lenses with short focal length and that the new generation of lenses, equipped with Nano crystal coatings are less susceptible to veiling glare. Aperture did not affect veiling glare value significantly.

  14. Self-Assessment of High-Quality Academic Enrichment Practices

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holstead, Jenell; King, Mindy Hightower

    2011-01-01

    Self-assessment is an often-overlooked alternative to external assessment. Program staff can use self-assessment processes to systematically review the quality of their afterschool programming and to facilitate discussions on ways to enhance it. Self-assessment of point-of-service activities, which can provide a wealth of valuable information…

  15. Development of an electrical conductivity screening test for mine waste assessments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rezaee, Mohammad; Warner, Richard C; Honaker, Rick Q

    2016-10-01

    An environmental concern at mining operations is the potential leaching of trace elements from overburden and byproduct streams of processing plants. To provide a timely assessment of this concern, electrical conductivity of the leachate emanating from the plant waste streams can be measured as an indicator of the trace element content levels using the USGS Field Leach Test (FLT). However, the research reported in this publication revealed the need to modify the FLT procedure to improve the precision of the test results. The primary issue involved the importance of leachant volume-to-particle surface area ratio in the assessment of the leaching potential for a given source. To determine the key factors impacting leachability of a given material, a statistically-designed parametric study was performed. The experimental program evaluated the effects of particle surface area, the leachant volume-to-surface area ratio, and the amount of oxidant used to expedite the leaching rate during the test. The results revealed that the significant parameters are leachant volume-to-solid surface area ratio and the amount of oxidant. The findings were used to recommend a modification to the conductivity screening test.

  16. Toxicity assessment through multiple endpoint bioassays in soils posing environmental risk according to regulatory screening values.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodriguez-Ruiz, A; Asensio, V; Zaldibar, B; Soto, M; Marigómez, I

    2014-01-01

    Toxicity profiles of two soils (a brownfield in Legazpi and an abandoned iron mine in Zugaztieta; Basque Country) contaminated with several metals (As, Zn, Pb and Cu in Legazpi; Zn, Pb, Cd and Cu in Zugaztieta) and petroleum hydrocarbons (in Legazpi) were determined using a multi-endpoint bioassay approach. Investigated soils exceeded screening values (SVs) of regulatory policies in force (Basque Country; Europe). Acute and chronic toxicity bioassays were conducted with a selected set of test species (Vibrio fischeri, Dictyostelium discoideum, Lactuca sativa, Raphanus sativus and Eisenia fetida) in combination with chemical analysis of soils and elutriates, as well as with bioaccumulation studies in earthworms. The sensitivity of the test species and the toxicity endpoints varied depending on the soil. It was concluded that whilst Zugaztieta soil showed very little or no toxicity, Legazpi soil was toxic according to almost all the toxicity tests (solid phase Microtox, D. discoideum inhibition of fruiting body formation and developmental cycle solid phase assays, lettuce seed germination and root elongation test, earthworm acute toxicity and reproduction tests, D. discoideum cell viability and replication elutriate assays). Thus, albeit both soils had similar SVs, their ecotoxicological risk, and therefore the need for intervening, was different for each soil as unveiled after toxicity profiling based on multiple endpoint bioassays. Such a toxicity profiling approach is suitable to be applied for scenario-targeted soil risk assessment in those cases where applicable national/regional soil legislation based on SVs demands further toxicity assessment.

  17. Storage and use of Newborn Screening Blood Specimens for Research: Assessing Public Opinion in Illinois.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hart, Alexa; Petros, Michael; Charrow, Joel; Nash, Claudia; Wicklund, Catherine

    2015-06-01

    Storage and use of residual dried blood spots (DBS) from newborn screening (NBS) for research purposes has been a topic of elevated interest following high profile disputes between genetic privacy advocacy groups and state NBS programs. Our objective was to assess public opinion in Illinois regarding storage and use of residual DBS for research. Five hundred twenty-six Illinois residents completed a survey assessing attitudes about research uses for DBS, storage length, and consent issues. Over 80 % of respondents expressed agreement with questions regarding research uses of DBS. Eighty-three percent of respondents were in favor of storage for at least one year with 44 % favoring indefinite storage. Respondents with higher educational attainment were more likely to support research use of DBS and less likely to desire contact for each future study (P research or to favor long-term storage (P public health program. Trust in the public health service of NBS must be protected through transparency in the policy process.

  18. Landscape Diversity as a Screening Tool to Assess Agroecosystems Sustainability; Preliminary Study in Central Italy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Francesco Visicchio

    2007-06-01

    Full Text Available Modernization of agricultural activities has strongly modified agricultural landscapes. Intensive agriculture, with the increased use of inorganic fertiliser and density of livestock, affects water quality discharging nutrients such as nitrogen and phosphorus in water bodies. Nutrients in rivers, subsequently, are excellent indicators to assess sustainability/ land-use intensity in agroecosystems. Landscape, however, is a dynamic system and is the product of interaction amongst the natural environment and human activities, including farming which is a main driving force. At present not much has been investigated on the predictive role of landscape on land-use intensity. Aim of this study is to determine if, in Italian agroecosystem, landscape complexity can be related to land-use intensity. Indexes of landscape complexity (i.e. edge density, number of patches, Shannon’s diversity index, Interspersion-Juxtaposition index derived by processing Corine Land Cover data (level IV, 1:25.000 of Lazio Region, were related with landuse intensity (values of compounds of nitrogen and phosphorus and other parameters found in rivers monitored in accordance to European Directives on Waste Water. Results demonstrate that some landscape indexes were related to some environment parameters. Consequently landscape complexity, with further investigation, could be an efficient screening tool, at large scale, to assess water quality and ultimately agroecosystems sustainability in the absence of monitoring stations.

  19. Comparative Study of Child Assessment Practices in English and Korean Preschools

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nah, Kwi-Ok

    2014-01-01

    Child assessment practices in English and Korean preschools were compared by analysing data from interviews with educators, examples of child assessment, and official documents from each country. Child assessment in England was systematically implemented and characterised by several methodological and procedural strengths, whereas assessment in…

  20. Writing Information Literacy Assessment Plans: A Guide to Best Practice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Megan Oakleaf

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available Academic librarians throughout higher education add value to the teaching and learning missions of their institutions though information literacy instruction. To demonstrate the full impact of librarians on students in higher education, librarians need comprehensive information literacy assessment plans, composed of instructional program-level and outcome-level components, that summarize the purpose of information literacy assessment, emphasize the theoretical basis of their assessment efforts, articulate specific information literacy goals and outcomes, describe the major assessment methods and tools used to capture evidence of student learning, report assessment results, and highlight improvements made as a consequence of learning assessment.

  1. Screening level dose assessment of aquatic biota downstream of the Marcoule nuclear complex in southern France.

    Science.gov (United States)

    St-Pierre, S; Chambers, D B; Lowe, L M; Bontoux, J G

    1999-09-01

    Aquatic biota in the Rhone River downstream of the Marcoule nuclear complex in France are exposed to natural sources of radiation and to radioactivity released from the Marcoule complex. A simple conservative screening level model was used to estimate the range of concentrations in aquatic media (water, sediments, and aquatic organisms) of both artificial and natural radionuclides and the consequent absorbed (whole body) dose rates for aquatic organisms. Five categories of aquatic organisms were studied, namely, submerged aquatic plants (phanerogam), non-bottom-feeding fish, bottom-feeding fish, mollusca, and fish-eating birds. The analysis was based on the radionuclide concentrations reported in four consecutive annual radioecological monitoring reports published by French agencies with nuclear regulatory responsibilities. The results of this assessment were used to determine, qualitatively, the magnitude of any potential health impacts on each of the five categories of aquatic organisms studied. The range of dose rate estimates ranged over three orders of magnitude, with maximum dose rates estimated to be in the order of 1 to 10 microGy h(-1). These maximum dose rates are a factor 40 or more below the international guideline intended to ensure the protection of aquatic populations (about 400 microGy h(-1)), and a factor ten or more below the level which may trigger the need for a more detailed evaluation of potential ecological consequences to the exposed populations (about 100 microGy h(-1)). As a result, chronic levels of radioactivity, artificial and natural, measured in aquatic media downstream of Marcoule are unlikely to result in adverse health impacts on the categories and species of aquatic organisms studied. Thus, based on the screening level analysis discussed in this paper, a more detailed evaluation of the dose rates does not appear to be warranted.

  2. Rural male health workers in Western Jamaica: Knowledge, attitudes and practices toward prostate cancer screening

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paul Andrew Bourne

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Statistics have shown that since 1988, a significant percentage of males are unwilling to seek medical care. The question is if they had the knowledge, worked in the health system and were educated, would this be any different? Aim: The current study aims to fill this void in the literature by examining the perception of rural male health workers (from the Western Region about prostate examination, and why they are reluctant to inquire about the probability of having, or the likelihood of not having prostate cancer. Materials and Methods: The study utilized primary cross-sectional data that was collected during February and March 2008 from 170 males (ages 29 years and older, health-care workers who were employed in particular rural health institutions in Jamaica (i.e. Western Regional Health Authority. SPSS was used to analyze the data. Results: When the respondents were asked “Have you ever heard about the screening procedure for prostate?” 71.2% indicated yes, but only 27.1% had got their prostate checked by a health practitioner. When respondents were asked to state what influenced their choice of not doing a digital rectal examination, 20.6% indicated comfort level; 9.4% stated the gender of the health practitioner, 5.3% mentioned fear and others did not respond. Of those who had the examination 2 years ago, 96.5% did not state the choice of method. Conclusion: The current study is limited in terms of its generalizability to rural males or rural males in Western Jamaica, but it does provide an insight into the difficulty of men in breaking away from culture.

  3. Structural Decoupling between the VET and the Employment Systems: Challenges Manifested in Assessment of Practical Training

    Science.gov (United States)

    Umarik, Meril; Loogma, Krista; Hinno, Krista

    2010-01-01

    This article aims to analyse how structural decoupling, which is an especially relevant problem for school-based vocational education and training (VET) systems, reveals itself in the assessment of practical training. Niklas Luhmann's social system theory has been applied to the analysis of assessment practices as a communication act between the…

  4. Secondary Teachers' Conceptions and Practices of Assessment Models: The Case for Mathematics Teachers in Jordan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al Duwairi, Ahmed

    2013-01-01

    This study aimed at investigating the extent to which secondary schools mathematics teachers practice to assessment models in their mathematics teaching and learning. Definitely, the study aimed at answering the following questions: (1) To what extent do secondary schools mathematics teachers practice each of the assessment models in their…

  5. An Investigation of Assessment and Feedback Practices in Fully Asynchronous Online Undergraduate Mathematics Courses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trenholm, Sven; Alcock, Lara; Robinson, Carol

    2015-01-01

    Research suggests it is difficult to learn mathematics in the fully asynchronous online (FAO) instructional modality, yet little is known about associated teaching and assessment practices. In this study, we investigate FAO mathematics assessment and feedback practices in particular consideration of both claims and findings that these practices…

  6. A Review of Cloud Application Assessment Practices at the University of Ballarat

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilmott, Deirdre; Knox, Ian

    2012-01-01

    It has been suggested that traditional assessment practices in tertiary institutions tend not to equip students well for the processes of effective learning in a learning society [1]. This paper reviews alternative Internet based assessment practices used in Library, Business and Education courses at the University of Ballarat, Victoria, Australia…

  7. Competence Assessment Integrating Reflective Practice in a Professional Psychology Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lewis, Deborah; Virden, Tom; Hutchings, Philinda Smith; Bhargava, Ruchi

    2011-01-01

    The Midwestern University Clinical Psychology Program--Glendale Campus (MWU) created a Comprehensive Assessment Method in Psychology (CAMP) comprised of 35 different "tasks" of authentic work products representing a variety of assessment techniques based on pedagogical theory. Each task assesses one or more components of one of the program's five…

  8. A Practical Rationale for Classroom Assessment: The SWOT Approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    McLaurin, Sidney E.; Bell, Beulah; Smith, Curtis

    2009-01-01

    The classroom assessment process can have encouraging results when it begins with "early assessment" that addresses student learning, as well as the social and emotional needs of student(s) in the classroom. This paper presents a SWOT (Strengths, Weaknesses, Opportunities, and Threats) analysis for classroom assessment. It will review literature…

  9. 24 CFR 35.1320 - Lead-based paint inspections, paint testing, risk assessments, lead-hazard screens, and...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 24 Housing and Urban Development 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Lead-based paint inspections, paint testing, risk assessments, lead-hazard screens, and reevaluations. 35.1320 Section 35.1320 Housing and Urban Development Office of the Secretary, Department of Housing and Urban Development LEAD-BASED...

  10. Dermal permeation data and models for the prioritization and screening-level exposure assessment of organic chemicals

    Science.gov (United States)

    High throughput screening (HTS) models are being developed and applied to prioritize chemicals for more comprehensive exposure and risk assessment. Dermal pathways are possible exposure routes to humans for thousands of chemicals found in personal care products and the indoor env...

  11. Screening and Assessing Immigrant and Refugee Youth in School-Based Mental Health Programs. Issue Brief No. 1

    Science.gov (United States)

    Birman, Dina; Chan, Wing Yi

    2008-01-01

    This paper provides an overview of screening, identification, and assessment tools and processes that can be used by practitioners and researchers who care for immigrant and refugee youth. The authors focus particularly on those tools useful in school-based settings. First, the authors review mental health needs of immigrant and refugee youth and…

  12. Which part of a short, global risk assessment, the Risk Instrument for Screening in the Community, predicts adverse healthcare outcomes?

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    O’Caoimh, Rónán

    2015-01-01

    The Risk Instrument for Screening in the Community (RISC) is a short, global risk assessment to identify community-dwelling older adults’ one-year risk of institutionalisation, hospitalisation, and death. We investigated the contribution that the three components of the RISC (\

  13. Mammographic density and structural features can individually and jointly contribute to breast cancer risk assessment in mammography screening

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Winkel, Rikke Rass; von Euler-Chelpin, My Catarina; Nielsen, Mads

    2016-01-01

    in Denmark in 2007 (followed until 31 December 2010). Mammograms were assessed using the Breast Imaging-Reporting and Data System (BI-RADS) density classification, Tabár's classification on parenchymal patterns and a fully automated texture quantification technique. The individual and combined association...... to future personalized screening strategies....

  14. Simple and practical screening approach to identify HIV-infected individuals with depression or at risk of developing depression

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rodkjaer, L; Gabel, C; Laursen, T

    2016-01-01

    by a consultant psychiatrist. The BDI-II score was compared to the outcome of mental health history review, and to results obtained using the European AIDS Clinical Society (EACS) two-item depression screening tool. RESULTS: A total of 501 HIV-infected individuals were included in the study. Symptoms of moderate/major...... of depression. METHODS: The Beck Depression Inventory II (BDI-II) was used to assess the prevalence and severity of depressive symptoms among HIV-infected individuals attending two out-patient clinics in Denmark. HIV-infected individuals with a BDI-II score ≥ 20 were offered a clinical evaluation...... depression (BDI-II score ≥ 20) were observed in 111 patients (22%); 65 of these patients consulted a psychiatrist, of whom 71% were diagnosed with a co-existing disorder. The BDI-II score was compared to the outcome of a mental health history review, and to results obtained using the European AIDS Clinical...

  15. [Pediatrics. Screening for nutritional deficiencies in hospitalized children: new practices at the Hôpital de I'Enfance in Lausanne].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dony, C; Ranson, M O; Gerdy, P; Gehri, M; Coti, Bertrand P

    2013-01-16

    Screening for undernutrition among hospitalized children requires a systematic assessment of dietary intake. The development of a new tool for quick and playful assessment of dietary intake, called "Fleur" ("Flower"), at the Hôpital de l'Enfance in Lausanne allows to identify children at risk of undernutrition and to adapt their nutrition to their specific needs.

  16. Implementation of a risk assessment tool based on a probabilistic safety assessment developed for radiotherapy practices

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Paz, A.; Godinez, V.; Lopez, R., E-mail: abpaz@cnsns.gob.m [Comision Nacional de Seguridad Nuclear y Salvaguardias, Dr. Barragan No. 779, Col. Narvarte, 03020 Mexico D. F. (Mexico)

    2010-10-15

    The present work describes the implementation process and main results of the risk assessment to the radiotherapy practices with Linear Accelerators (Linac), with cobalt 60, and with brachytherapy. These evaluations were made throughout the risk assessment tool for radiotherapy practices SEVRRA (risk evaluation system for radiotherapy), developed at the Mexican National Commission in Nuclear Safety and Safeguards derived from the outcome obtained with the Probabilistic Safety Analysis developed at the Ibero-American Regulators Forum for these radiotherapy facilities. The methodology used is supported by risk matrices method, a mathematical tool that estimates the risk to the patient, radiation workers and public from mechanical failures, mis calibration of the devices, human mistakes, and so. The initiating events are defined as those undesirable events that, together with other failures, can produce a delivery of an over-dose or an under-dose of the medical prescribed dose, to the planned target volume, or a significant dose to non prescribed human organs. Initiating events frequency and reducer of its frequency (actions intended to avoid the accident) are estimated as well as robustness of barriers to those actions, such as mechanical switches, which detect and prevent the accident from occurring. The spectrum of the consequences is parameterized, and the actions performed to reduce the consequences are identified. Based on this analysis, a software tool was developed in order to simplify the evaluations to radiotherapy installations and it has been applied as a first step forward to some Mexican installations, as part of a national implementation process, the final goal is evaluation of all Mexican facilities in the near future. The main target and benefits of the SEVRRA implementation are presented in this paper. (Author)

  17. Alcohol screening for older adults in an acute general hospital: FAST v. MAST-G assessments

    OpenAIRE

    Knightly, Rachel; Tadros , George; Sharma, Juhi; Duffield, Peter; Carnall, Emma; Fisher, Jacqui; Salman, Shaza

    2016-01-01

    Aims and method Documented prevalence of alcohol misuse among older adult patients at Birmingham Heartlands Hospital is significantly lower than the national prevalence. We aimed to evaluate our alcohol misuse screening protocol for older adults to identify possible shortcomings. Hospital protocol is to screen all adults for alcohol misuse in the accident and emergency (A&E) department using the Fast Alcohol Screening Test (FAST). One hundred consecutive consenting in-patients aged 65-94 admi...

  18. Formative assessment practices in Bhutanese secondary schools and its impact on Quality of Education

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Utha, Karma

    Using case study approach, the dissertation provides the notions and practices of formative assessment in Bhutanese Secondary Schools. It includes the teachers’ understanding of the practice of student-centered teaching and learning, which is regarded as a precondition for effective formative...... assessment. It also take account of those features of formative assessment which are much more favored by students and teachers in the case study schools....

  19. Assessment and d/Deaf and Hard of Hearing Multilingual Learners: Considerations and Promising Practices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pizzo, Lianna; Chilvers, Amanda

    2016-01-01

    The authors address considerations and promising practices relating to assessment of d/Deaf and Hard of Hearing Multilingual Learners. DMLs' unique culture(s), language(s), and learning needs must be considered when assessments of this population are being planned, conducted, and interpreted. The authors address theory and research on (a) general considerations for the overarching assessment process, (b) specific assessment approaches used to assess DMLs, and (c) assessment of language proficiency for diverse language learners. In addition, basic recommendations for the assessment of DMLs are made, including increased availability of assessments in various languages, use of multiple sources of individual and family data, assessment of all languages, and incorporation of a strong assessment component (that includes nondiscrimination practices) into teacher preparation programs.

  20. Adrenal suppression: A practical guide to the screening and management of this under-recognized complication of inhaled corticosteroid therapy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ahmet Alexandra

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Inhaled corticosteroids (ICSs are the most effective anti-inflammatory agents available for the treatment of asthma and represent the mainstay of therapy for most patients with the disease. Although these medications are considered safe at low-to-moderate doses, safety concerns with prolonged use of high ICS doses remain; among these concerns is the risk of adrenal suppression (AS. AS is a condition characterized by the inability to produce adequate amounts of the glucocorticoid, cortisol, which is critical during periods of physiological stress. It is a proven, yet under-recognized, complication of most forms of glucocorticoid therapy that can persist for up to 1 year after cessation of corticosteroid treatment. If left unnoticed, AS can lead to significant morbidity and even mortality. More than 60 recent cases of AS have been described in the literature and almost all cases have involved children being treated with ≥500 μg/day of fluticasone. The risk for AS can be minimized through increased awareness and early recognition of at-risk patients, regular patient follow-up to ensure that the lowest effective ICS doses are being utilized to control asthma symptoms, and by choosing an ICS medication with minimal adrenal effects. Screening for AS should be considered in any child with symptoms of AS, children using high ICS doses, or those with a history of prolonged oral corticosteroid use. Cases of AS should be managed in consultation with a pediatric endocrinologist whenever possible. In patients with proven AS, stress steroid dosing during times of illness or surgery is needed to simulate the protective endogenous elevations in cortisol levels that occur with physiological stress. This article provides an overview of current literature on AS as well as practical recommendations for the prevention, screening and management of this serious complication of ICS therapy.

  1. Environmentally Relevant Inoculum Concentrations Improve the Reliability of Persistent Assessments in Biodegradation Screening Tests.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martin, Timothy J; Snape, Jason R; Bartram, Abigail; Robson, Aidan; Acharya, Kishor; Davenport, Russell J

    2017-02-23

    Standard OECD biodegradation screening tests (BSTs) have not evolved at the same rate as regulatory concerns, which now place an increased emphasis on environmental persistence. Consequently, many chemicals are falsely assigned as being potentially persistent based on results from BSTs. The present study increased test duration and increased inoculum concentrations to more environmentally relevant levels to assess their impact on biodegradation outcome and intratest replicate variability for chemicals with known environmental persistence. Chemicals were assigned to potential persistence categories based on existing degradation data. These more environmentally relevant BSTs (erBSTs) improved the reliability of persistence assignment by reducing the high variability associated with these tests and the occurrence of failures at low inoculum concentrations due to the exclusion of specific degraders. Environmental fate was determined using a reference set of (14)C-labeled compounds with a range of potential environmental persistences, and full mass balance data were collated. The erBST correctly assigned five reference chemicals of known biodegradabilities to their appropriate persistence category in contrast to a standard OECD Ready Biodegradation Test (RBTs, P < 0.05). The erBST was significantly more reproducible than an OECD RBT (ANOVA, P < 0.05), with more consistent rates and extent of biodegradation observed in the erBST.

  2. Assessing dental students' competence: best practice recommendations in the performance assessment literature and investigation of current practices in predoctoral dental education.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Albino, Judith E N; Young, Stephen K; Neumann, Laura M; Kramer, Gene A; Andrieu, Sandra C; Henson, Lindsey; Horn, Bruce; Hendricson, William D

    2008-12-01

    In this article, the Task Force on Student Outcomes Assessment of the American Dental Education Association's Commission on Change and Innovation in Dental Education describes the current status of student outcomes assessment in U.S. dental education. This review is divided into six sections. The first summarizes the literature on assessment of dental students' performance. Section two discusses catalysts, with a focus on problem-based learning, for development of new assessment methods, while the third section presents several resources and guides that can be used to inform selection of assessment techniques for various domains of competence. The fourth section describes the methodology and results of a 2008 survey of current assessment practices in U.S. dental schools. In the fifth section, findings from this survey are discussed within the context of competency-based education, the educational model for the predoctoral curriculum endorsed by the American Dental Education Association and prescribed by the Commission on Dental Accreditation. The article concludes with a summary of assessments recommended as optimal strategies to measure three components of professional competence based on the triangulation model. The survey of assessment practices in predoctoral education was completed by 931 course directors, representing 45 percent of course directors nationwide, from fifty-three of the fifty-six U.S. dental schools. Survey findings indicate that five traditional mainstays of student performance evaluation-multiple-choice testing, lab practicals, daily grades, clinical competency exams, and procedural requirements-still comprise the primary assessment tools in dental education. The survey revealed that a group of newer assessment techniques, although frequently identified as best practices in the literature and commonly used in other areas of health professions education, are rarely employed in predoctoral dental education.

  3. Assessment of radiographic screen-film systems: a comparison between the use of a microdensitometer and a drum film digitiser.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Verdun, F R; Pachoud, M; Bergmann, D; Buhr, E

    2005-01-01

    A high-end drum film digitiser (Tango, Germany) and a calibrated linear microdensitometer developed by PTB were used to assess the modulation transfer function (MTF) and the noise power spectra (NPS) of 3 mammographic screen film systems at optical density levels of 0.8, 1.5 and 2.5. The use of a drum scanner to assess MTF and NPS data appears to be adequate but requires an appropriate characterisation of the scanner to verify its internal noise level and its MTF. It is further necessary to calibrate the scanner output in terms of visual diffuse optical densities. Processing of two-dimensional digital data of grating images need to be more strictly defined for accurate MTF measurements of screen-film systems. Nevertheless, even now it seems to be feasible to use commercially available high-end and well calibrated scanners to assess screen film systems. This is especially important for quality assurance purposes because important parameters of screen film systems such like MTF and NPS can now be determined without using sophisticated microdensitometers which are not commercially available.

  4. Examining Progress across Time with Practical Assessments in Ensemble Settings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crochet, Lorrie S.; Green, Susan K.

    2012-01-01

    This article provides the rationale for effective music assessment that tracks individual progress across time and offers examples to illustrate assessment of a range of music-learning goals. Gauging progress across time helps students become more mastery-oriented, while showing more effort and positive attitudes. As instruction and assessment…

  5. Assessing Practical Laboratory Skills in Undergraduate Molecular Biology Courses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hunt, Lynne; Koenders, Annette; Gynnild, Vidar

    2012-01-01

    This study explored a new strategy of assessing laboratory skills in a molecular biology course to improve: student effort in preparation for and participation in laboratory work; valid evaluation of learning outcomes; and students' employment prospects through provision of evidence of their skills. Previously, assessment was based on written…

  6. Objectivity in needs assessment practice : admission to a residential home

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jörg, F; Boeije, H R; Huijsman, R; de Weert, G H; Schrijvers, A J P; Jorg, Frederike

    2002-01-01

    In 1997, the Dutch government installed independent agencies to assess the long-term care needs of individual clients and to give advice on the allocation of appropriate services. Needs assessors assess, among other things, the eligibility of clients requesting admission to a residential home. Accor

  7. Improving Formative Assessment Practice with Educational Information Technology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Terry Vendlinski

    2006-12-01

    Full Text Available This paper describes a web-based assessment design tool, the ADDS, that provides teachers both a structure and the resources required to develop and use quality assessments. The tool is applicable across subject domains. The heart of the ADDS is an assessment design workspace that allows teachers to decide the attributes of an assessment, as well as the context and type of responses the students will generate, as part of their assessment design process. While the tool is very flexible and allows the above steps to be done in any order (or skipped entirely, our goal was to streamline and scaffold the process for teachers by organizing all the materials for them in one place and to provide resources they could use or reuse to create assessments for their students. The tool allows teachers to deliver the assessments to their students either online or on paper. Initial results from our first teacher study suggest that teachers who used the tool developed assessments that were more cognitively demanding of students and addressed the "big ideas" rather than disassociated facts of a domain.

  8. Computerized sociometric and peer assessment: An empirical and practical evaluation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Berg, Y.H.M. van den; Cillessen, A.H.N.

    2013-01-01

    A systematic analysis and comparison was conducted of the psychometric properties of standard (paper-and-pencil) and computerized sociometry and peer assessments. The standard assessment took place with 817 children (47.5% boys) in 34 fifth- and sixth-grade classrooms of 28 elementary schools. The c

  9. The Assessment of Self-Access Language Learning: Practical Challenges

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reinders, Hayo; Lazaro, Noemi

    2008-01-01

    Self-access centers are a popular type of language support offered by an increasing number of schools and universities around the world. Assessment of the learning that takes place in such centers is seen as both crucial and problematic. Many barriers to successful assessment appear to exist, but these have not been comprehensively documented,…

  10. Connected Classroom Technology Facilitates Multiple Components of Formative Assessment Practice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shirley, Melissa L.; Irving, Karen E.

    2015-01-01

    Formative assessment has been demonstrated to result in increased student achievement across a variety of educational contexts. When using formative assessment strategies, teachers engage students in instructional tasks that allow the teacher to uncover levels of student understanding so that the teacher may change instruction accordingly. Tools…

  11. Theory and Practice of Transboundary Environmental Impact Assessment

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bastmeijer, C.J.; Koivurova, T.

    2008-01-01

    Environmental Impact Assessment (EIA) is a well-established instrument of environmental law and policy that aims to ensure that potential adverse environmental effects of human activities are assessed before decisions on such activities are made. The instrument is increasingly being applied in respe

  12. Ideas in Practice: Toward a Participatory Approach to Program Assessment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bruch, Patrick L.; Reynolds, Thomas

    2012-01-01

    Drawing on critical multicultural education scholarship, this article discusses an alternative assessment of academic support programs. It highlights the importance and value of supplementing traditional assessments with direct student participation. Through a discussion of data from a summer bridge program at a large research university, the…

  13. Where is the "self" in teacher self-assessment? An examination of teachers' reflection and assessment practices in relation to their teaching practices

    Science.gov (United States)

    Madsen, Andrea Jean

    The purpose of this study was to identify the levels of explicit reflection-on-action and criteria with which teachers self-assess their teaching, and to compare these levels and criteria to classroom practices. These reflections and practices were then compared to the participants' preservice preparation to determine the extent to which strategies taught transferred to classroom practice. To investigate these issues, this study utilized classroom observations, interviews, and relevant documents from thirteen second-, third-, fourth-, or fifth-year teachers who had graduated from a traditional elementary teacher education program at a landgrant university in the Midwestern United States. Classroom observations were rated using the Local Systemic Change Observation Protocol (Horizon Research, 2004). Teacher interviews examined the criteria teachers consider, as well as the reasoning and reflection they use to make sense of the assessment criteria and their classroom decisions. Interviews were coded using the five reflection levels used by Manouchehri (2002). This study responds to Kagan's (1990) concern about the lack of information linking reflection to practice, and provides evidence that such a relationship exists. This relationship is most evident in the use of theory. Only the most effective teachers spoke of theory and educational literature, and their use in personal teaching practices. In addition, the content and focus of teachers' reflections differed markedly as teachers demonstrated more effective teaching practices. Even though self-assessment and reflection practices were taught to the participants of this study during their preservice education program, such knowledge bases were often implemented in a piecemeal fashion, particularly by the least effective teachers in this study. Only the most effective teachers in this study implement self-assessment practices in ways that will most likely lead to changes consistent with current reform documents

  14. Functional Movement Screening Performance of Brazilian Jiu-Jitsu Athletes From Brazil: Differences Considering Practice Time and Combat Style.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Del Vecchio, Fabrício Boscolo; Gondim, Denis Foster; Arruda, Antonio Carlos Pereira

    2016-08-01

    Boscolo Del Vecchio, F, Foster, D, and Arruda, A. Functional movement screening performance of Brazilian jiu-jitsu athletes from Brazil: differences considering practice time and combat style. J Strength Cond Res 30(8): 2341-2347, 2016-Brazilian jiu-jitsu (BJJ) is a grappling combat sport that athletes, lying (guard fighter) or kneeling (pass fighter) on the mat, attempt to force their opponents to submit. Brazilian jiu-jitsu practices may result in muscular imbalances, which increase the risk of injury. Instead, the Functional Movement Screen (FMS) is an evaluation routine that could be related to injury incidence and seeks to detect muscular imbalance and movement dysfunction. Thus, the aim of the study was to investigate the injury profile and the FMS score and their relationship, with consideration for the BJJ fight style. Sports injuries were recorded in the last 12 months of 33 BJJ athletes, and the statistical analyses were applied to a routine evaluation FMS and a score of 14 points or less was considered low performance in FMS. We used a logistic regression; the effect size (ES) was calculated, and 5% was assumed as the statistical significance level. Pass fighters showed a higher percentage of injuries on the thorax (24.24%) than did guard fighters (6.67%, p = 0.01). Upper limbs were the most injured part of the body (χ = 36.7; p performance between guard and pass fighters (t = 1.97; p = 0.05), its magnitude was considered medium (ES = 0.77). There was an association between FMS and presence of injury (χ = 4.95; p = 0.03). Considering the FMS score as a predictor and the presence or absence of injury as the dependent variable, the data met a Wald coefficient of 4.55, p = 0.03 and Exp (B) = 5.71. The study found that almost half of the sample had injuries in the upper limbs and a quarter had injuries in the lower limbs in the last year. A poor FMS score was observed, and lower scores in the FMS were associated with a higher risk of injury in BJJ athletes.

  15. Pure tone audiometry and impedance screening of school entrant children by nurses: evaluation in a practical setting.

    OpenAIRE

    Holtby, I; Forster, D P; Kumar, U.

    1997-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Screening for hearing loss in English children at entry to school (age 5-6 years) is usually by pure tone audiometry sweep undertaken by school nurses. This study aimed to compare the validity and screening rates of pure tone audiometry with impedance screening in these children. METHODS: Two stage pure tone audiometry and impedance methods of screening were compared in 610 school entry children from 19 infant schools in north east England. Both procedures were completed by school...

  16. Qualitative Screening Method for Impact Assessment of Uncertain Building Geometry on Thermal Energy Demand Predictions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wate, P.; Coors, V.; Robinson, D.; Iglesias, M.

    2016-10-01

    Virtual 3D models of cities are now being extensively employed for the estimation of thermal energy demand at varying spatial and temporal scales. Efforts in preparing and management of the datasets required for the simulations have reached an advanced stage. Thus allowing to perform city scale simulations using simplified thermal energy balance models. However, the uncertainty inherent in datasets and the reliability of their data sources are often not given due consideration. Such consideration to the uncertainty problem would need a paradigm shift in simulation practices from a single value assignment to uncertainty characterization followed by assessment of qualitative and quantitative impact on the simulation results. The proposed study establishes a mechanism to handle the uncertainty arising from the building geometry reconstruction process and its possible consequences on the thermal energy demand calculations.

  17. A practical manual to assess and improve farm performances

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Aarts, H.F.M.; Grignard, A.; Boonen, J.; Haan, de M.; Hennart, S.; Oenema, J.; Lorinquer, E.; Sylvain, F.; Herrmann, K.; Elsaesser, M.; Castellan, E.; Kohnen, H.

    2013-01-01

    The business of a dairy farmer is to supply society with dairy products in a way that provides him sufficient income and satisfaction. But he has to avoid farming practices hampering the rural area to deliver other valuable products, like clean drinking water, biodiversity, and attractive recreation

  18. Assessing University Nephrology Training as Preparation for Community Consultative Practice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muther, Richard S.; And Others

    1989-01-01

    Information about the consultative practice of nephrology in a community environment was gathered and used to speculate about improvements that could be made in the training of nephrologists in academic medical centers, based on their knowledge of such training. (Author/MLW)

  19. Observing Teaching Practice: Assessing Competence in the Classroom

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mansell, Ray

    2013-01-01

    In this article, I draw on my experiences as a Teaching Practice Observer for various Colleges of Further Education and Adult Education establishments across South West England from 1994-2002. I discuss the essential lesson components that observers need to attend to when evaluating candidates. These include the candidate's diversity of teaching…

  20. Assessment in Music Education: Relationships between Classroom Practice and Professional Publication Topics

    Science.gov (United States)

    McQuarrie, Sarah H.; Sherwin, Ronald G.

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the relationship between actual current assessment practices of elementary music teachers and the assessment topics as published in the literature aimed at those teachers. Specifically, this study sought to: 1) identify the current assessment techniques utilized by elementary music teachers; 2) identify…

  1. The Development and Validation of the Religious/Spiritually Integrated Practice Assessment Scale

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oxhandler, Holly K.; Parrish, Danielle E.

    2016-01-01

    Objective: This article describes the development and validation of the Religious/Spiritually Integrated Practice Assessment Scale (RSIPAS). The RSIPAS is designed to assess social work practitioners' self-efficacy, attitudes, behaviors, and perceived feasibility concerning the assessment or integration of clients' religious and spiritual beliefs…

  2. The Relationship between Students' Perceptions of Portfolio Assessment Practice and Their Approaches to Learning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Segers, Mien; Gijbels, David; Thurlings, Marieke

    2008-01-01

    This study focuses on students' learning approaches in the context of a competency-based program on Applied Sciences, with portfolio assessment as its core mode of assessment. The study examines students' perceptions of these assessment practices and the relationships to their learning approaches. Additionally, differences in perceptions and…

  3. 75 FR 51806 - Climate Change Vulnerability Assessment: Four Case Studies of Water Utility Practices

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-08-23

    ...-0701] Climate Change Vulnerability Assessment: Four Case Studies of Water Utility Practices AGENCY...-day public comment period for the draft document titled, ``Climate Change Vulnerability Assessment... utilities to assess their vulnerability to future climate change. The report is intended to illustrate...

  4. Assessing Violence Risk and Psychopathy in Juvenile and Adult Offenders: A Survey of Clinical Practices

    Science.gov (United States)

    Viljoen, Jodi L.; McLachlan, Kaitlyn; Vincent, Gina M.

    2010-01-01

    This study surveyed 199 forensic clinicians about the practices that they use in assessing violence risk in juvenile and adult offenders. Results indicated that the use of risk assessment and psychopathy tools was common. Although clinicians reported more routine use of psychopathy measures in adult risk assessments compared with juvenile risks…

  5. "Reality" Revisited: Self-Assessment of Terministic Screens through a Political Autobiography Assignment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hunter, Karla M.

    2016-01-01

    Courses: Argumentation, Public Speaking, Political Communication. Objectives: After completing this unit activity, students should be able to (1) demonstrate comprehension of Burke's (1941) concept of terministic screens; (2) apply the concept of terministic screens to write a brief political autobiography of themselves that analyzes the history…

  6. Population Based Screening for Prostate Cancer: assessment of diagnostic tools and cancers detected

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    J.B.W. Rietbergen (John)

    1998-01-01

    textabstractOver the past decade, considerable debate has occurred over the question whether or not to screen asymptomatic men for prostate cancer. It is unknown whether early detection and treatment of the disease will decrease the disease specific mortality. On theoretical grounds screening may pr

  7. Pilot Testing a New Short Screen for the Assessment of Older Women's PTSD Symptomatology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lagana, Luciana; Schuitevoerder, Sage

    2009-01-01

    It is difficult for busy health care providers to perform routine screening for older women's posttraumatic stress symptomatology. This difficulty is due, at least partially, to a paucity of instruments specifically tested on such a population. To address this issue, in this preliminary study we tested an abbreviated screen from the set of 20…

  8. Teachers' Attitudes toward Assessment of Student Learning and Teacher Assessment Practices in General Educational Institutions: The Case of Georgia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kitiashvili, Anastasia

    2014-01-01

    The aim of this article is to study teachers' attitudes toward assessment of students' learning and their assessment practices in Georgia's general educational institutions. Georgia is a country in the South Caucasus with a population of 4.5 million people, with 2300 general educational institutions and about 559,400 students. The research…

  9. The mathematics of a successful deconvolution: a quantitative assessment of mixture-based combinatorial libraries screened against two formylpeptide receptors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Santos, Radleigh G; Appel, Jon R; Giulianotti, Marc A; Edwards, Bruce S; Sklar, Larry A; Houghten, Richard A; Pinilla, Clemencia

    2013-05-30

    In the past 20 years, synthetic combinatorial methods have fundamentally advanced the ability to synthesize and screen large numbers of compounds for drug discovery and basic research. Mixture-based libraries and positional scanning deconvolution combine two approaches for the rapid identification of specific scaffolds and active ligands. Here we present a quantitative assessment of the screening of 32 positional scanning libraries in the identification of highly specific and selective ligands for two formylpeptide receptors. We also compare and contrast two mixture-based library approaches using a mathematical model to facilitate the selection of active scaffolds and libraries to be pursued for further evaluation. The flexibility demonstrated in the differently formatted mixture-based libraries allows for their screening in a wide range of assays.

  10. The Mathematics of a Successful Deconvolution: A Quantitative Assessment of Mixture-Based Combinatorial Libraries Screened Against Two Formylpeptide Receptors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Richard A. Houghten

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available In the past 20 years, synthetic combinatorial methods have fundamentally advanced the ability to synthesize and screen large numbers of compounds for drug discovery and basic research. Mixture-based libraries and positional scanning deconvolution combine two approaches for the rapid identification of specific scaffolds and active ligands. Here we present a quantitative assessment of the screening of 32 positional scanning libraries in the identification of highly specific and selective ligands for two formylpeptide receptors. We also compare and contrast two mixture-based library approaches using a mathematical model to facilitate the selection of active scaffolds and libraries to be pursued for further evaluation. The flexibility demonstrated in the differently formatted mixture-based libraries allows for their screening in a wide range of assays.

  11. Assessment of Sediment Heavy Metals Pollution Using Screening Methods (XRF, TGA/MS, XRPD and Earthworms Bioassay)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Findoráková, Lenka; Šestinová, Ol'ga; Hančul'ák, Jozef; Fedorová, Erika; Zorkovská, Anna

    2016-10-01

    The aim of this study is focused on the use of screening methods (TG/DTA coupled with MS, XRF, AAS, XRPD and earthworm bioassay) for sediments pollution assessing by heavy metals (Cu, Zn, Pb, Hg) coming from the former mining workloads in the central Spis, Eastern Slovakia. The screening methods (XRF, AAS) indicated pollution of studied sediments by Cu, Zn, Pb, Hg. The earthworms Dendrobaena veneta caused in some studied samples decrease of heavy metals concentration after their 7 days’ exposure in sediments. The other screening methods such as thermal analysis and XRPD analysis, does not confirm the specifically changes in physicochemical properties comparing the properties before and after 7 days’ earthworm's exposure.

  12. The Mathematics of a Successful Deconvolution: A Quantitative Assessment of Mixture-Based Combinatorial Libraries Screened Against Two Formylpeptide Receptors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Santos, Radleigh G.; Appel, Jon R.; Giulianotti, Marc A.; Edwards, Bruce S.; Sklar, Larry A.; Houghten, Richard A.; Pinilla, Clemencia

    2014-01-01

    In the past 20 years, synthetic combinatorial methods have fundamentally advanced the ability to synthesize and screen large numbers of compounds for drug discovery and basic research. Mixture-based libraries and positional scanning deconvolution combine two approaches for the rapid identification of specific scaffolds and active ligands. Here we present a quantitative assessment of the screening of 32 positional scanning libraries in the identification of highly specific and selective ligands for two formylpeptide receptors. We also compare and contrast two mixture-based library approaches using a mathematical model to facilitate the selection of active scaffolds and libraries to be pursued for further evaluation. The flexibility demonstrated in the differently formatted mixture-based libraries allows for their screening in a wide range of assays. PMID:23722730

  13. Do pressure ulcer risk assessment scales improve clinical practice?

    OpenAIRE

    Jan Kottner; Katrin Balzer

    2010-01-01

    Jan Kottner1, Katrin Balzer21Department of Nursing Science, Charité-Universitätsmedizin Berlin, Germany; 2Nursing Research Group, Institute for Social Medicine, Universitätsklinikum Schleswig-Holstein, Lübeck, GermanyAbstract: Standardized assessment instruments are deemed important for estimating pressure ulcer risk. Today, more than 40 so-called pressure ulcer risk assessment scales are available but still there is an ongoing debate about their usefulne...

  14. Connected Classroom Technology Facilitates Multiple Components of Formative Assessment Practice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shirley, Melissa L.; Irving, Karen E.

    2015-02-01

    Formative assessment has been demonstrated to result in increased student achievement across a variety of educational contexts. When using formative assessment strategies, teachers engage students in instructional tasks that allow the teacher to uncover levels of student understanding so that the teacher may change instruction accordingly. Tools that support the implementation of formative assessment strategies are therefore likely to enhance student achievement. Connected classroom technologies (CCTs) include a family of devices that show promise in facilitating formative assessment. By promoting the use of interactive student tasks and providing both teachers and students with rapid and accurate data on student learning, CCT can provide teachers with necessary evidence for making instructional decisions about subsequent lessons. In this study, the experiences of four middle and high school science teachers in their first year of implementing the TI-Navigator™ system, a specific type of CCT, are used to characterize the ways in which CCT supports the goals of effective formative assessment. We present excerpts of participant interviews to demonstrate the alignment of CCT with several main phases of the formative assessment process. CCT was found to support implementation of a variety of instructional tasks that generate evidence of student learning for the teacher. The rapid aggregation and display of student learning evidence provided teachers with robust data on which to base subsequent instructional decisions.

  15. CONCEPTIONS AND PRACTICES OF ASSESSMENT: A CASE OF TEACHERS REPRESENTING IMPROVEMENT CONCEPTION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Astuti Azis

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Despite numerous quantitative studies on teachers’ conceptions and practices of assessment, little research exists regarding the unique assessment environment of Indonesia. This study uses both quantitative and qualitative data to examine how Indonesian junior high school teachers understand assessment and how their conceptions of assessment relate to their assessment practices. This mixed methods study adopted a participant selection model in which quantitative data was analysed to select participants for the qualitative phase. Participants of this study believed that the purpose of assessment was to improve teaching and learning and also to demonstrate the accountability of students and school. They tended to disagree with the view that assessment is irrelevant. Further analysis of the data revealed that teachers’ conceptions of assessment were conflicted. They were keen to use assessment practices to improve their classroom teaching, but felt that the state-wide examination policy requirements constrained their efforts. This suggests that government, policy makers, and curriculum developers must work to build a strong synergy among themselves in order to share consistent goals with teachers. If cultural expectations of school assessment and government policy were aligned, Indonesian teachers may be better able to resolve conflict between their beliefs and assessment practices.

  16. Assessing elemental mercury vapor exposure from cultural and religious practices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Riley, D M; Newby, C A; Leal-Almeraz, T O; Thomas, V M

    2001-08-01

    Use of elemental mercury in certain cultural and religious practices can cause high exposures to mercury vapor. Uses include sprinkling mercury on the floor of a home or car, burning it in a candle, and mixing it with perfume. Some uses can produce indoor air mercury concentrations one or two orders of magnitude above occupational exposure limits. Exposures resulting from other uses, such as infrequent use of a small bead of mercury, could be well below currently recognized risk levels. Metallic mercury is available at almost all of the 15 botanicas visited in New York, New Jersey, and Pennsylvania, but botanica personnel often deny having mercury for sale when approached by outsiders to these religious and cultural traditions. Actions by public health authorities have driven the mercury trade underground in some locations. Interviews indicate that mercury users are aware that mercury is hazardous, but are not aware of the inhalation exposure risk. We argue against a crackdown by health authorities because it could drive the practices further underground, because high-risk practices may be rare, and because uninformed government intervention could have unfortunate political and civic side effects for some Caribbean and Latin American immigrant groups. We recommend an outreach and education program involving religious and community leaders, botanica personnel, and other mercury users.

  17. Talking about the elephant in the room: Improving fundamental assessment practices

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Betty Gill

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available This paper reports on an institution-wide strategy to improve first year assessment practices. Assessment is central to the student experience and to informing their developing conceptions of themselves as students. Despite this central importance, much national and international literature raises questions about the fitness-for-purpose of assessment practices in higher education. The reported strategy was developed in response to analysis of student feedback, which suggested, like the literature, substantial opportunity for improvement. Student feedback on their assessment experience was validated by an audit of first session assessment and used to inform the strategy. A significant improvement in quantitative and qualitative measures of student satisfaction across routine data sources is provided to demonstrate impact. This supports a conclusion that the first year student experience can be impacted by the systemic application of a small number of fundamental good practice assessment strategies which are outlined.

  18. Teamwork Assessment Tools in Modern Surgical Practice: A Systematic Review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Whittaker, George; Abboudi, Hamid; Khan, Muhammed Shamim; Dasgupta, Prokar; Ahmed, Kamran

    2015-01-01

    Introduction. Deficiencies in teamwork skills have been shown to contribute to the occurrence of adverse events during surgery. Consequently, several teamwork assessment tools have been developed to evaluate trainee nontechnical performance. This paper aims to provide an overview of these instruments and review the validity of each tool. Furthermore, the present paper aims to review the deficiencies surrounding training and propose several recommendations to address these issues. Methods. A systematic literature search was conducted to identify teamwork assessment tools using MEDLINE (1946 to August 2015), EMBASE (1974 to August 2015), and PsycINFO (1806 to August 2015) databases. Results. Eight assessment tools which encompass aspects of teamwork were identified. The Nontechnical Skills for Surgeons (NOTSS) assessment was found to possess the highest level of validity from a variety of sources; reliability and acceptability have also been established for this tool. Conclusions. Deficits in current surgical training pathways have prompted several recommendations to meet the evolving requirements of surgeons. Recommendations from the current paper include integration of teamwork training and assessment into medical school curricula, standardised formal training of assessors to ensure accurate evaluation of nontechnical skill acquisition, and integration of concurrent technical and nontechnical skills training throughout training.

  19. Teamwork Assessment Tools in Modern Surgical Practice: A Systematic Review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    George Whittaker

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction. Deficiencies in teamwork skills have been shown to contribute to the occurrence of adverse events during surgery. Consequently, several teamwork assessment tools have been developed to evaluate trainee nontechnical performance. This paper aims to provide an overview of these instruments and review the validity of each tool. Furthermore, the present paper aims to review the deficiencies surrounding training and propose several recommendations to address these issues. Methods. A systematic literature search was conducted to identify teamwork assessment tools using MEDLINE (1946 to August 2015, EMBASE (1974 to August 2015, and PsycINFO (1806 to August 2015 databases. Results. Eight assessment tools which encompass aspects of teamwork were identified. The Nontechnical Skills for Surgeons (NOTSS assessment was found to possess the highest level of validity from a variety of sources; reliability and acceptability have also been established for this tool. Conclusions. Deficits in current surgical training pathways have prompted several recommendations to meet the evolving requirements of surgeons. Recommendations from the current paper include integration of teamwork training and assessment into medical school curricula, standardised formal training of assessors to ensure accurate evaluation of nontechnical skill acquisition, and integration of concurrent technical and nontechnical skills training throughout training.

  20. A Genetic Screen To Assess Dopamine Receptor (DopR1 Dependent Sleep Regulation in Drosophila

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yiqin Jiang

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Sleep is an essential behavioral state of rest that is regulated by homeostatic drives to ensure a balance of sleep and activity, as well as independent arousal mechanisms in the central brain. Dopamine has been identified as a critical regulator of both sleep behavior and arousal. Here, we present results of a genetic screen that selectively restored the Dopamine Receptor (DopR/DopR1/dumb to specific neuroanatomical regions of the adult Drosophila brain to assess requirements for DopR in sleep behavior. We have identified subsets of the mushroom body that utilizes DopR in daytime sleep regulation. These data are supported by multiple examples of spatially restricted genetic rescue data in discrete circuits of the mushroom body, as well as immunohistochemistry that corroborates the localization of DopR protein within mushroom body circuits. Independent loss of function data using an inducible RNAi construct in the same specific circuits also supports a requirement for DopR in daytime sleep. Additional circuit activation of discrete DopR+ mushroom body neurons also suggests roles for these subpopulations in sleep behavior. These conclusions support a new separable function for DopR in daytime sleep regulation within the mushroom body. This daytime regulation is independent of the known role of DopR in nighttime sleep, which is regulated within the Fan-Shaped Body (FSB. This study provides new neuroanatomical loci for exploration of dopaminergic sleep functions in Drosophila, and expands our understanding of sleep regulation during the day vs. night.

  1. Can we import quality tools? a feasibility study of European practice assessment in a country with less organised general practice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pestiaux Dominique

    2009-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Quality is on the agenda of European general practice (GP. European researchers have, in collaboration, developed tools to assess quality of GPs. In this feasibility study, we tested the European Practice Assessment (EPA in a one-off project in Belgium, where general practice has a low level of GP organisation. Methods A framework for feasibility analysis included describing the recruiting of participants, a brief telephone study survey among non-responders, organisational and logistic problems. Using field notes and focus groups, we studied the participants' opinions. Results In this study, only 36 of 1000 invited practices agreed to participate. Co-ordination, administrative work, practice visits and organisational problems required several days per practice. The researchers further encountered technical problems, for instance when entering the data and uploading to the web-based server. In subsequent qualitative analysis using two focus groups, most participant GPs expressed a positive feeling after the EPA procedure. In the short period of follow-up, only a few GPs reported improvements after the visit. The participant GPs suggested that follow-up and coaching would probably facilitate the implementation of changes. Conclusion This feasibility study shows that prior interest in EPA is low in the GP community. We encountered a number of logistic and organisational problems. It proved attractive to participants, but it can be augmented by coaching of participants in more than a one-off project to identify and achieve targets for quality improvement. In the absence of commitment of the government, a network of universities and one scientific organisation will offer EPA as a service to training practices.

  2. Screening Assessment of Potential Human-Health Risk from Future Natural-Gas Drilling Near Project Rulison in Western Colorado

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Daniels Jeffrey I.,Chapman Jenny B.

    2012-01-01

    The Project Rulison underground nuclear test was conducted in 1969 at a depth of 8,400 ft in the Williams Fork Formation of the Piceance Basin, west-central Colorado (Figure 1). The U.S. Department of Energy Office of Legacy Management (LM) is the steward of the site. Their management is guided by data collected from past site investigations and current monitoring, and by the results of calculations of expected behavior of contaminants remaining in the deep subsurface. The purpose of this screening risk assessment is to evaluate possible health risks from current and future exposure to Rulison contaminants so the information can be factored into LM's stewardship decisions. For example, these risk assessment results can inform decisions regarding institutional controls at the site and appropriate monitoring of nearby natural-gas extraction activities. Specifically, the screening risk analysis can provide guidance for setting appropriate action levels for contaminant monitoring to ensure protection of human health.

  3. Structural Equation Modeling Reporting Practices for Language Assessment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ockey, Gary J.; Choi, Ikkyu

    2015-01-01

    Studies that use structural equation modeling (SEM) techniques are increasingly encountered in the language assessment literature. This popularity has created the need for a set of guidelines that can indicate what should be included in a research report and make it possible for research consumers to judge the appropriateness of the…

  4. Toward an HRD Auditing Protocol: Assessing HRD Risk Management Practices

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clardy, Alan

    2004-01-01

    Even though HRD-related programs and activities carry risks that should be monitored and assessed, there is little literature on how auditing applies to the HRD function; the existing literature on the topic defines HRD auditing in widely different ways. The nature of risk for organizational process is discussed, followed by a review of the…

  5. Teacher Performance Assessment Instruments: Plans for Practice Rating.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Capie, William; And Others

    This manual consists of lesson plans developed to train data collectors in the use of the Teacher Performance Assessment Instruments (TPAI). Each set of plans was designed for one of three purposes. Lesson plans developed for the Teaching Plans and Materials Instrument (TPM) simulate a portfolio prepared by the teacher. One-day plans developed for…

  6. Pedagogic Models, Teachers' Frames of Interpretation and Assessment Practices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sakonidis, Haralambos; Tsatsaroni, Anna; Lamnias, Costas

    2002-01-01

    Constructed a theoretical framework to connect the internal structure of specialized educational discourse with the frames of interpretation that teachers used in dealing with teaching, learning, and assessment. Data from Greek elementary school teachers indicated that teachers' interpretive frames related to the serial languages of traditional,…

  7. Bootcamp EMMA MOOC Assessment for learning in practice

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Firssova, Olga; Brouns, Francis

    2016-01-01

    At the EDEN Conference an introduction to the EMMA platform will be combined with learning activities relevant to the topic of Formative Assessment. EDEN conference participants will have an opportunity to join the MOOC prior to the conference or at the conference. A range of learning activities wil

  8. Choosing Assessment Instruments for Bulimia Practice and Outcome Research

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sandberg, Katie; Erford, Bradley T.

    2013-01-01

    Six commonly used instruments for assessment of eating disorders were analyzed. Effect size results from Erford et al.'s (2013) meta-analysis for the treatment of bulimia nervosa were used to compare each scale's ability to measure treatment outcomes for bulimia nervosa. Effect size comparisons indicated higher overall effect sizes using the…

  9. Design Thinking: A Fresh Approach for Transformative Assessment Practice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benson, Joy; Dresdow, Sally

    2014-01-01

    Management and professional business education is central to developing human talent that can help organizations be competitive in today's complex business environment. So the question for management educators is how do we know that graduates have the talent that business needs? Learning outcome assessment has been the process used by…

  10. Survey of Prior Learning Assessment Practices in Pharmacy Education.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fjortoft, Nancy F.; Zgarrick, David P.

    2001-01-01

    Surveyed nontraditional Pharm.D (NTPD) program directors to determine use of prior learning assessment (PLA). Eighty-four percent of respondents reported using PLA for one or more purposes, including the admissions process and awarding of advanced standing for didactic and experiential courses. Transcript review, faculty-developed exams, and…

  11. Practice and Assessment of Constructing Translation Net Platform

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LUAN Ying

    2013-01-01

    The article aims at system description and effect evaluation to a set of web self learning system ,which is researched and developed towards translational characteristics of learning pattern, therefore, it tests and verifies the feasibility and effectiveness of translational self learning combining with the internet. This system introduces a large number of conductive learning designs, pro-moting students to learn translational theories and practices in an effective and correct way by using Net Tools and E-books. Be-cause such kinds of learning pattern is ground-making, we examine learning effects from different aspects cautiously. Finally, we perfect the evaluation of the whole system.

  12. Assessment of Appropriateness of Screening Community-Dwelling Older People to Prevent Functional Decline

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Drewes, Yvonne M.; Gussekloo, Jacobijn; van der Meer, Victor; Rigter, Henk; Dekker, Janny H.; Goumans, Marleen J. B. M.; Metsemakers, Job F. M.; van Overbeek, Riki; de Rooij, Sophia E.; Schers, Henk J.; Schuurmans, Marieke J.; Sturmans, Ferd; de Vries, Kerst; Westendorp, Rudi G. J.; Wind, Annet W.; Assendelft, Willem J. J.

    2012-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: To identify appropriate screening conditions, stratified according to age and vulnerability, to prevent functional decline in older people. DESIGN: A RAND/University of California at Los Angeles appropriateness method. SETTING: The Netherlands. PARTICIPANTS: A multidisciplinary panel of

  13. Economic assessment of preeclampsia : Screening, diagnosis, treatment options, and long term outcomes - A systematic review

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zakiyah, Neily; Van Asselt, Antoinette D.; Baker, Philip N.; Postma, Maarten J.

    2015-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: Provide a comprehensive overview of the existing evidence on the health economics of screening, diagnosis, and treatment options in preeclampsia. METHODS: A systematic literature search was undertaken using three electronic databases (MEDLINE, Embase, Cochrane) to identify all English la

  14. Economic assessment of preeclampsia : Screening, diagnosis, treatment options, and long term outcomes, a systematic review

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zakiyah, N.; Van Asselt, A.; Baker, P.; Postma, M.J.

    2014-01-01

    Objectives: To provide a comprehensive overview of the existing evidence on the health economics of screening, diagnosis, and treatment options in preeclampsia. Methods: A systematic literature search was undertaken using three electronic databases (MEDLINE, Embase, Cochrane) to identify all English

  15. Facilitating reflective practice and self-assessment of competence through the use of narratives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Levett-Jones, Tracy Lynn

    2007-03-01

    Reflective practice is a skill that is central to nursing students' professional development. Although there is an abundance of literature on the value of reflective practice there are few concrete methods that facilitate self-assessment of competence through the use of reflective practice. One such method is narrative reflection. A nursing narrative is a brief recount of an actual situation or episode in clinical practice that is significant because it resulted in new learning and/or new understanding. Narratives provide important opportunities for uncovering nursing practices that often go unnoticed and a new appreciation of the knowledge and skills of clinical practice. Nursing narratives reveal the richness of the clinical knowledge embedded in practice and provide a way for knowledge and practice to be linked together in meaningful dialogue, promoting interpretive analysis and reflection. A narrative approach contextualises knowledge and values and builds upon the clinical experiences of the student. Narratives afford opportunities for nursing students to: Learn from practice through reflection. Describe and critically analyse episodes of their clinical practice. Illuminate and assess their own level of competence by applying competency standards as a benchmark. Identify areas of strength and those requiring development. Develop practice-driven clinical learning objectives. Narratives have proven to be a successful means of developing students' ability to reflect upon and assess competence in a clinically relevant and motivating way. This paper will explore the possibilities that narratives hold for developing clinical acumen, promoting reflective practice, and assessing competence. It will provide an overview of narrative writing, and discuss some of the challenges encountered in the implementation of this clinical learning innovation at the author's university in Australia.

  16. Assessment of risk to wildlife from ionising radiation: can initial screening tiers be used with a high level of confidence?

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Beresford, N A; Barnett, C L [Centre for Ecology and Hydrology Lancaster, Lancaster Environment Centre, Library Avenue, Bailrigg, Lancaster LA1 4AP (United Kingdom); Hosseini, A; Brown, J E [Norwegian Radiation Protection Authority, Department of Emergency Preparedness and Environmental Radioactivity, Grini naeringspark 13 Postbox 55, NO-1332 Oesteraas (Norway); Cailes, C; Copplestone, D [Environment Agency, PO Box 12, Richard Fairclough House, Knutsford Road, Warrington WA4 1HG (United Kingdom); Beaugelin-Seiller, K, E-mail: nab@ceh.ac.u [Institut de Radioprotection et de Surete Nucleaire DEI/SECRE, CE Cadarache-Batiment 159, BP 3, 13115 Saint-Paul-lez-Durance (France)

    2010-06-15

    A number of models are being used to assess the potential environmental impact of releases of radioactivity. These often use a tiered assessment structure whose first tier is designed to be highly conservative and simple to use. An aim of using this initial tier is to identify sites of negligible concern and to remove them from further consideration with a high degree of confidence. In this paper we compare the screening assessment outputs of three freely available models. The outputs of these models varied considerably in terms of estimated risk quotient (RQ) and the radionuclide-organism combinations identified as being the most limiting. A number of factors are identified as contributing to this variability: values of transfer parameters (concentration ratios and K{sub d}) used; organisms considered; different input options and how these are utilised in the assessment; assumptions as regards secular equilibrium; geometries and exposure scenarios. This large variation in RQ values between models means that the level of confidence required by users is not achieved. We recommend that the factors contributing to the variation in screening assessments be subjected to further investigation so that they can be more fully understood and assessors (and those reviewing assessment outputs) can better justify and evaluate the results obtained.

  17. Consonance and Dissonance between Turkish Prospective Teachers' Values and Practices: Conceptions about Teaching, Learning, and Assessment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eren, Altay

    2010-01-01

    This study aimed to examine the consonance and dissonance between prospective teachers' values and practices in terms of their conceptions about teaching/learning and conceptions about assessment, as well as to explore the patterns of those consonance and dissonance between prospective teachers' values and practices. The sample consisted of 304…

  18. Documenting organisational development in general practice using a group-based assessment method: the Maturity Matrix.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Eriksson, T.; Siersma, V.D.; Logstrup, L.; Buch, M.S.; Elwyn, G.; Edwards, A.

    2010-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: The Maturity Matrix (MM) comprises a formative evaluation instrument for primary care practices to self-assess their degree of organisational development in a group setting, guided by an external facilitator. The practice teams discuss organisational development, score their own performan

  19. Barriers to cancer screening.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Womeodu, R J; Bailey, J E

    1996-01-01

    greatest responsibility lies with medical and health care institutions and those who determine the priorities of these institutions. Patient and physician barriers to mass cancer screening can be addressed by institutional support. If the quality of care delivered by providers, group practices, managed-care organizations, and HMOs is assessed with priority given to the regularity and consistency with which basic screening procedures are performed, cancer screening will undoubtedly receive greater attention in the clinic. Medical institutions must collaborate to develop standards for cancer screening with attention to the cost-effectiveness of various screening techniques to determine how limited resources can best be spent in cancer control. Such efforts should keep in mind "that a very small change implemented over a broad population may have a greater effect in absolute numbers than a large level of change applied in a small segment of the population."

  20. MNA ® Mini Nutritional Assessment as a nutritional screening tool for hospitalized older adults; rationales and feasibility

    OpenAIRE

    Calvo, Isabel; Olivar, Juana; Martínez, Eufrasio; Rico, Antonia G.; Díaz, Joaquina M.; Gimena, Manuel

    2012-01-01

    The high prevalence of malnutrition in the growing population of older adults makes malnutrition screening critical, especially in hospitalized elderly patients. The aim of our study was to evaluate the use of the MNA® Mini Nutritional Assessment in hospitalized older adults for rapid evaluation of nutritional risk. A prospective cohort study was made of 106 patients 65 years old or older admitted to an internal medicine ward of a tertiary-care teaching hospital to eva...

  1. TBI Assessment of Readiness Using a Gait Evaluation Test (TARGET): Development of a Portable mTBI Screening Device

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-05-01

    Portable mTBI Screening Device PRINCIPAL INVESTIGATOR: Dr. Christopher Rhea CONTRACTING ORGANIZATION : University of Carolina at Greensboro Greensboro...NC 27412 REPORT DATE: May 2016 TYPE OF REPORT: Annual PREPARED FOR: U.S. Army Medical Research and Materiel Command Fort Detrick, Maryland...DATE May 2016 2. REPORT TYPE Annual 3. DATES COVERED 1 May 2015 - 30 Apr 2016 4. TITLE AND SUBTITLE TBI Assessment of Readiness Using a Gait

  2. Measurement of air temperature in the presence of a large radiant flux: an assessment of passively ventilated thermometer screens

    Science.gov (United States)

    Erell, Evyatar; Leal, Vítor; Maldonado, Eduardo

    The energy balance of small temperature sensors was modelled to illustrate the effects of sensor characteristics, particularly size, on the accuracy of readings in the presence of strong shortwave or longwave radiant loads. For all but extremely small sensors, radiant exchange may lead to unacceptable errors. The common practice of using passively ventilated instrument screens was evaluated in a series of comparative measurements. The differences resulting from the use of different models of shields may be an order of magnitude greater than the error resulting from sensor calibration. In the absence of technological innovation capable of reducing the error due to radiant exchange to negligible proportions, it is suggested that a standard methodology for calibrating and labelling the error resulting from the characteristics of the screens be adopted, to allow comparison of new data with long-established records.

  3. SAFETY CULTURE ASSESSMENT – OPTIMIZATION OF EXISTING PRACTICE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mirela Valenta Grebenšek

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Improving aviation safety has always been a priority for the aviation industry. While in recent decades the reliability of machinery and computers dramatically improved the reliability of the people and the organizational aspect of safety did not change much. Many of air accident investigations have shown that one of the causal factors, which increase the probability and severity of accidents, is exactly poor safety culture. The purpose of this paper is to present the concept of safety culture assessment and the overview and review of different methods of measuring the safety culture in aviation. This research provides the suggestion that by use of different methods of assessment (evaluation of the results, more credible insight into the level of safety culture in the organization can be obtained. It also provides an understanding of how measurement systems in order to guide future performance can be used proactively.

  4. The Stanford Health Assessment Questionnaire: Dimensions and Practical Applications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fries James F

    2003-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract The ability to effectively measure health-related quality-of-life longitudinally is central to describing the impacts of disease, treatment, or other insults, including normal aging, upon the patient. Over the last two decades, assessment of patient health status has undergone a dramatic paradigm shift, evolving from a predominant reliance on biochemical and physical measurements, such as erythrocyte sedimentation rate, lipid profiles, or radiographs, to an emphasis upon health outcomes based on the patient's personal appreciation of their illness. The Health Assessment Questionnaire (HAQ, published in 1980, was among the first instruments based on generic, patient-centered dimensions. The HAQ was designed to represent a model of patient-oriented outcome assessment and has played a major role in many diverse areas such as prediction of successful aging, inversion of the therapeutic pyramid in rheumatoid arthritis (RA, quantification of NSAID gastropathy, development of risk factor models for osteoarthrosis, and examination of mortality risks in RA. Evidenced by its use over the past two decades in diverse settings, the HAQ has established itself as a valuable, effective, and sensitive tool for measurement of health status. It is available in more than 60 languages and is supported by a bibliography of more than 500 references. It has increased the credibility and use of validated self-report measurement techniques as a quantifiable set of hard data endpoints and has contributed to a new appreciation of outcome assessment. In this article, information regarding the HAQ's development, content, dissemination and reference sources for its uses, translations, and validations are provided.

  5. Teamwork Assessment Tools in Modern Surgical Practice: A Systematic Review

    OpenAIRE

    George Whittaker; Hamid Abboudi; Muhammed Shamim Khan; Prokar Dasgupta; Kamran Ahmed

    2015-01-01

    Introduction. Deficiencies in teamwork skills have been shown to contribute to the occurrence of adverse events during surgery. Consequently, several teamwork assessment tools have been developed to evaluate trainee nontechnical performance. This paper aims to provide an overview of these instruments and review the validity of each tool. Furthermore, the present paper aims to review the deficiencies surrounding training and propose several recommendations to address these issues. Methods. A s...

  6. Collaborative Action Research as a Tool for Generating Formative Feedback on Teachers' Classroom Assessment Practice: The KREST Project

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harrison, Christine

    2013-01-01

    This paper sets out to explore science teachers' classroom assessment practices and outlines some of the tensions and synergies in changing assessment practices. It describes episodes from a collaborative action research project with science teachers designed to support the strengthening of classroom assessment practices--the King's…

  7. Land Degradation Neutrality: Concept development, practical applications and assessment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kust, German; Andreeva, Olga; Cowie, Annette

    2016-11-05

    The paper explores the background and scientific basis of Land Degradation Neutrality (LDN), a new paradigm reflecting the inter-related aspirations and demands of land-related sustainable development goals. The paper draws on academic literature, field observations, insight from development researchers and practitioners, professional meetings, and agency reports to describe the LDN concept and its relationship with sustainable land management (SLM). We discuss the potential for LDN to facilitate the adoption and assessment of SLM, and to provide a framework to achieve the "land degradation neutral world" goal of the Sustainable Development Agenda 2030. We present insights relevant to the implementation of LDN. These include the need to: consider quality as well as quantity of land degraded and restored; apply an ecosystem-based approach for LDN assessment; consider land degradation risks; recognize different uses of land and approaches to reach the LDN target; and define the LDN baseline and indicators. We discuss the contradictions of using two different modes for evaluating land degradation and successes in land restoration, which we name the "Anti-degradation view" and "Production-advocacy view". To harmonize these approaches we propose that LDN be considered as a phenomenon of equilibrium of the land system, in terms of the balance between deterioration and improvement of terrestrial ecosystems' qualities, functions and services. Indicators to reflect this balance can use different approaches relevant to the various countries and areas, and to the types of land use. Two examples of using this approach are described. The first shows the assessment of the state of LDN based on the homeostasis of land cover and is based on assessment of distribution of ecosystems, and the dynamics of the land cover pattern in the areas prone to land degradation. The second is based on the combination of the well-known principle of Leibig's Law of the Minimum (1843), and Shelford

  8. Subjectivity Problem in Student Assessment: Theoretical and Practical Aspects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Natalja Kosareva

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available Summary. Objective evaluation is not an easy task when assessing student attainment even if we are evaluating such a well-measured subject as knowledge of mathematics. This subject is discussed in a number of papers. Their authors are of the same opinion that even when the evaluation criteria is matching in detail, different teachers evaluate the samework differently. Subjectivity in knowledge assessment is researched in this paper. Not only teachers’’ individual characteristics in assessing student attainment are analyzed, but also problems of designing objective evaluation criteria of evaluated object, for example, solved problem. Authors analyze their own works and researches of other scientists in this field. The paper describes the authors’ original experiments and the results of their statistical analysis. As the solution of the evaluation subjectivity problem authors propose a methodology which allows dividing students to groups according to their attainment level. This methodology could be applied not only for evaluation of mathematical knowledge, but also for attainment evaluation in other disciplines. The experiment, when 15 accidentally selected student’s works in higher mathematics were independently verified by 6 teachers, is described in the paper. The analysis of the total test result and the results of individual tasks was performed with nonparametric statistical methods. To check the compatibility of teachers assessment Kendall’s coefficient of concordance W was calculated, nonparametric Friedman’s test was applied. The conclusion of the investigation was that all 6 teachers’ estimates were rather similar when evaluating students’ attainment except the estimation of the fifth task. Page’s L test was applied to the total test result to determine trend and consequently norm-referenced estimate of tested students. Least significant differences between sums of neighbouring ranks were calculated to establish 5

  9. Subjectivity Problem in Student Assessment: Theoretical and Practical Aspects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rima Kriauzienė

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available Objective evaluation is not an easy task when assessing student attainment even if we are evaluating such a well-measured subject as knowledge of mathematics. This subject is discussed in a number of papers. Their authors are of the same opinion that even when the evaluation criteria is matching in detail, different teachers evaluate the same work differently. Subjectivity in knowledge assessment is researched in this paper. Not only teachers’’ individual characteristics in assessing student attainment are analyzed, but also problems of designing objective evaluation criteria of evaluated object, for example, solved problem. Authors analyze their own works and researches of other scientists in this field. The paper describes the authors’ original experiments and the results of their statistical analysis. As the solution of the evaluation subjectivity problem authors propose a methodology which allows dividing students to groups according to their attainment level. This methodology could be applied not only for evaluation of mathematical knowledge, but also for attainment evaluation in other disciplines. The experiment, when 15 accidentally selected student’s works in higher mathematics were independently verified by 6 teachers, is described in the paper. The analysis of the total test result and the results of individual tasks was performed with nonparametric statistical methods. To check the compatibility of teachers assessment Kendall’s coefficient of concordance W was calculated, nonparametric Friedman’s test was applied. The conclusion of the investigation was that all 6 teachers’ estimates were rather similar when evaluating students’ attainment except the estimation of the fifth task. Page’s L test was applied to the total test result to determine trend and consequently norm-referenced estimate of tested students. Least significant differences between sums of neighbouring ranks were calculated to establish 5 groups in

  10. Physics and chemistry middle school teachers’ conceptions and practices about assessment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marisa Sofia Monteiro Correia

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available The main goal of this study is to characterize conceptions that Portuguese teachers of Physics and Chemistry have about learning assessment and how teachers incorporate assessment in their teaching practices within a curriculum reorganization. Three case studies of teachers with less than three years of service were carried out. Data was collected from semi-structured interviews, observations of lessons and documents supplied by the participants. This study’s findings indicate two conceptions of assessment: assessment of learning and assessment for learning. One of the participants shows a conception of assessment of learning, valuing a summative viewpoint of assessment. The other teachers revealed a conception of assessment for learning emphasizing a formative perspective of assessment, that as the role of regularizing and promoting improvement of learning. Relatively to the teachers’ practices, it seems clear that the assessment criteria are implicit, the feedback is sporadic and the students have a reduced role in the assessment process. All of the teachers demonstrate difficulties in assessment of attitudinal and procedural competences. Only one of the participants elaborates observation with registration to assess these competences. The tests constitute the main assessment instrument in the teachers' lessons, what is coherent with a teaching and learning conception that still remains traditional.

  11. A Screening Tool for Assessing Alcohol Use Risk among Medically Vulnerable Youth.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sharon Levy

    Full Text Available In an effort to reduce barriers to screening for alcohol use in pediatric primary care, the National Institute on Alcoholism and Alcohol Abuse (NIAAA developed a two-question Youth Alcohol Screening Tool derived from population-based survey data. It is unknown whether this screening tool, designed for use with general populations, accurately identifies risk among youth with chronic medical conditions (YCMC. This growing population, which comprises nearly one in four youth in the US, faces a unique constellation of drinking-related risks.To validate the NIAAA Youth Alcohol Screening Tool in a population of YCMC, we performed a cross-sectional validation study with a sample of 388 youth ages 9-18 years presenting for routine subspecialty care at a large children's hospital for type 1 diabetes, persistent asthma, cystic fibrosis, inflammatory bowel disease, or juvenile idiopathic arthritis. Participants self-administered the NIAAA Youth Alcohol Screening Tool and the Diagnostic Interview Schedule for Children as a criterion standard measure of alcohol use disorders (AUD. Receiver operating curve analysis was used to determine cut points for identifying youth at moderate and highest risk for an AUD.Nearly one third of participants (n = 118; 30.4% reported alcohol use in the past year; 86.4% (106 of past year drinkers did not endorse any AUD criteria, 6.8% (n = 8 of drinkers endorsed a single criterion, and 6.8% of drinkers met criteria for an AUD. Using the NIAAA tool, optimal cut points found to identify youth at moderate and highest risk for an AUD were ≥ 6 and ≥12 drinking days in the past year, respectively.The NIAAA Youth Alcohol Screening Tool is highly efficient for detecting alcohol use and discriminating disordered use among YCMC. This brief screen appears feasible for use in specialty care to ascertain alcohol-related risk that may impact adversely on health status and disease management.

  12. Assessing learning styles: practical tips for patient education.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Inott, Theresa; Kennedy, Betsy B

    2011-09-01

    Nurses must facilitate and support patient and family decision-making and improvement in health outcomes using instructional skills. Complex patient needs and nursing responsibilities necessitate thoughtful consideration for maximizing the effectiveness of patient teaching encounters. This article reviews assessment of patient learning styles in combination with context for an individualized approach, as well as motivation for adult learners as a framework for organization of patient teaching. Methods and modes of patient teaching are discussed as well as tips for overcoming barriers to planning and implementing patient teaching.

  13. Assessment of risk factors and test performance on malnutrition prevalence at admission using four different screening tools

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Josefina Olivares

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Background & aims: Malnutrition is very common in patients when admitted to the hospital. The aim of the present study was: a to determine the prevalence of malnutrition at admission in a tertiary care hospital and identify risk factors for malnutrition, and b to test the sensitivity and specificity of different screening tests for malnutrition compared to subjective global assessment (SGA. Methods: We conducted a prospective study at 24h of admission in order to assess malnutrition in 537 adult subjects (56.4% males, mean age of 61.3±17.7 years using 4 different screening tools: mininutritional assessment short form (MNA-SF, nutritional risk screening 2002 (NRS2002, malnutrition universal screening tool (MUST, and SGA. Anthropometrics and comorbidities were registered. Results: The overall rate of undernutrition was 47.3%. Specific rates were 54.2% in patients > 65y vs.40.7% 65y (OR 2.10 CI 95% 1.19-3.93 p = 0.011, medicine department (OR 3.58 CI 95% 1.93-6.62 p < 0.001 for SGA (AUC 0.96; lung disease (OR 3.34 CI 95% 1.45-7.73 p = 0.005, medicine department (OR 2.55 CI 95%1.09-5.98 p = 0.032 for NRS 2002 (AUC 0.97. Recent unintentional weight loss was a common factor. Conclusions: Undernourishment at hospital admission is frequent. Comorbidities may contribute to the presence of undernutrition at admission. Nonetheless, SGA, NRS2002, MNA-SF or MUST can be used in our setting.

  14. Evaluation of sexual history-based screening of anatomic sites for chlamydia trachomatis and neisseria gonorrhoeae infection in men having sex with men in routine practice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jansen Casper L

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Sexually transmitted infection (STI screening programmes are implemented in many countries to decrease burden of STI and to improve sexual health. Screening for Chlamydia trachomatis and Neisseria gonorrhoeae has a prominent role in these protocols. Most of the screening programmes concerning men having sex with men (MSM are based on opportunistic urethral testing. In The Netherlands, a history-based approach is used. The aim of this study is to evaluate the protocol of screening anatomic sites for C. trachomatis and N. gonorrhoeae infection based on sexual history in MSM in routine practice in The Netherlands. Methods All MSM visiting the clinic for STI in The Hague are routinely asked about their sexual practice during consulting. As per protocol, tests for urogenital, oropharyngeal and anorectal infection are obtained based on reported site(s of sexual contact. All consultations are entered into a database as part of the national STI monitoring system. Data of an 18 months period were retrieved from this database and analysed. Results A total of 1455 consultations in MSM were registered during the study period. The prevalence of C. trachomatis and N. gonorrhoeae per anatomic site was: urethral infection 4.0% respectively and 2.8%, oropharynx 1.5% and 4.2%, and anorectum 8.2% and 6.0%. The majority of chlamydia cases (72% involved a single anatomic site, which was especially manifest for anorectal infections (79%, while 42% of gonorrhoea cases were single site. Twenty-six percent of MSM with anorectal chlamydia and 17% with anorectal gonorrhoea reported symptoms of proctitis; none of the oropharyngeal infections were symptomatic. Most cases of anorectal infection (83% and oropharyngeal infection (100% would have remained undiagnosed with a symptom-based protocol. Conclusions The current strategy of sexual-history based screening of multiple anatomic sites for chlamydia and gonorrhoea in MSM is a useful and valid guideline

  15. Self-assessment and students' study strategies in a community of clinical practice: a qualitative study.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Al-Kadri, H.M.; Al-Moamary, M.S.; Al-Takroni, H.; Roberts, C.; Vleuten, C.P.M. van der

    2012-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Self-assessment is recognized as a necessary skill for lifelong learning. It is widely reported to offer numerous advantages to the learner. The research evaluated the impact of students' and supervisors' self-assessment and feedback training on students' perceptions and practices of sel

  16. Meanings and Practices of Power in Academics' Conceptions of Student Self-Assessment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tan, Kelvin H. K.

    2009-01-01

    Recent publications and research have warned that student self-assessment practices in higher education cannot be presumed to empower students in ways that enhances their learning. This is partly due to a tendency to speak of power in student self-assessment in general and undefined terms. Hence, there is a need to identify the types of power…

  17. Signifying Authenticity in Academic Practice: A Framework for Better Understanding and Harnessing Portfolio Assessment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trevitt, Chris; Stocks, Claire

    2012-01-01

    Portfolios are an assessment tool that help frame expectations of personal professional learning about teaching in higher education, a key dimension of academic practice. In this paper, we review our experiences in both supporting academic colleagues to develop a teaching portfolio, and in their assessment. We argue that the authenticity of the…

  18. Portfolio Assessment of Teaching Practice: Views From Business Education In-Service Student Teachers in Botswana

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sithole, Burman Musa

    2011-01-01

    Portfolio assessment of teaching practice was first introduced into the University of Botswana's Faculty of Education in May 2010. This study sought to investigate the impact of this innovative new professional development/assessment system on the professional growth and development of in-service teachers. The findings of the study suggest that…

  19. Relating Knowledge about Reading to Teaching Practice: An Exploratory Validity Study of a Teacher Knowledge Assessment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Phelps, Geoffrey; Johnson, David; Carlisle, Joanne

    2009-01-01

    The research reported in this paper is focused directly on assessing the validity of the "Teaching Knowledge about Reading and Reading Practices" (TKRRP) assessment. Following the recommendations of the Standards for Educational and Psychological Testing (APA/AERA, 1999), the authors see validation as a process of constructing an…

  20. Using Video to Examine Formative Assessment Practices as Measures of Expertise for Mathematics and Science Teachers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gotwals, Amelia Wenk; Philhower, Joanne; Cisterna, Dante; Bennett, Steven

    2015-01-01

    Formative assessment practices, including eliciting a broad range of student ideas, noticing the nuances in students' ideas, using these ideas to guide instruction, and promoting student self-regulation of learning are key components of expert teaching. Given the inherent dialogical nature of formative assessment in the classroom, video can…

  1. Reliability and validity of the assessment of depression in general practice : the Short Depression Interview (SDI)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Terluin, B; van Hout, HPJ; van Marwijk, HWJ; Ader, HJ; van der Meer, K; de Haan, M; van Dyck, R

    2002-01-01

    General practitioners (GPs) are recommended to use DSM-IV criteria to diagnose major depression in daily clinical practice. This implies the assessment of nine depressive symptoms and four additional criteria. A short structured interview has been developed to assess these symptoms and criteria, and

  2. Science Teachers' Representations of Classroom Practice in the Process of Formative Assessment Design

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heredia, Sara C.; Furtak, Erin Marie; Morrison, Deb; Renga, Ian Parker

    2016-01-01

    Formative assessment has been recognized as an essential element of effective classroom practice; as a result, teachers are increasingly required to create formative assessments for their classrooms. This study examines data drawn from a long-term, site-based professional development program that supported a department of biology teachers in the…

  3. Best Implementation Practices: Disseminating New Assessment Technologies in a Juvenile Justice Agency

    Science.gov (United States)

    Young, Douglas; Moline, Karl; Farrell, Jill; Bierie, David

    2006-01-01

    Much has been written in recent years about advances in assessment technologies designed to aid decision making in the juvenile justice system. Adoption and implementation of this latest generation of actuarial tools, however, have lagged behind their development. Assessment in juvenile justice exemplifies the "science-practice gap" that…

  4. Formative Assessment in Confucian Heritage Culture Classrooms: Activity Theory Analysis of Tensions, Contradictions and Hybrid Practices

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thanh Pham, Thi Hong; Renshaw, Peter

    2015-01-01

    Formative assessment has recently become a preferred assessment strategy in educational institutions worldwide. However, it is not easy to implement in Asian classrooms, because local cultures and institutional constraints potentially hinder the practice. This one-semester study aimed to use the "third space", as the core of the third…

  5. 76 FR 38399 - Assessing the Current Research, Policy, and Practice Environment in Public Health Genomics

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-06-30

    ... HUMAN SERVICES Centers for Disease Control and Prevention Assessing the Current Research, Policy, and..., and other information helpful to assess the current research, policy, and practice environment in... Control and Prevention (CDC) has worked to integrate genomics into public health research, policy,...

  6. Validation of the Evidence-Based Practice Process Assessment Scale--Short Version

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parrish, Danielle E.; Rubin, Allen

    2011-01-01

    Objective: This report describes the reliability and validity of the Evidence-Based Practice Process Assessment Scale (EBPPAS)--Short Version, validated with three disciplines (Social Work, Licensed Marriage and Family Therapists (LMFTs), and Psychologists), that assesses practitioners' perceived familiarity with, attitudes about, and…

  7. The Practice of Student Assessment: The Case of College of Natural Science, Addis Ababa University, Ethiopia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soromessa, Teshome

    2015-01-01

    This study attempted to assess the practice of student assessment in the College of Natural Science of Addis Ababa University, specifically aimed at investigating whether or not science instructors are well aware of test blue-print, general principles of evaluation and rule of test construction as anticipated in the new education and training…

  8. Using Innovative Technology to Develop Sustainable Assessment Practices in Marketing Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Debuse, Justin C. W.; Lawley, Meredith

    2011-01-01

    Timely, constructive feedback on assessment is critically important to students and yet is increasingly difficult for time-poor academics to consistently provide. Marketing educators also face pressure to incorporate sustainability into both the curriculum and practices such as assessment. This article outlines the development of an innovative…

  9. A Participatory Approach to Develop the Power Mobility Screening Tool and the Power Mobility Clinical Driving Assessment Tool

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Deepan C. Kamaraj

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The electric powered wheelchair (EPW is an indispensable assistive device that increases participation among individuals with disabilities. However, due to lack of standardized assessment tools, developing evidence based training protocols for EPW users to improve driving skills has been a challenge. In this study, we adopt the principles of participatory research and employ qualitative methods to develop the Power Mobility Screening Tool (PMST and Power Mobility Clinical Driving Assessment (PMCDA. Qualitative data from professional experts and expert EPW users who participated in a focus group and a discussion forum were used to establish content validity of the PMCDA and the PMST. These tools collectively could assess a user’s current level of bodily function and their current EPW driving capacity. Further multicenter studies are necessary to evaluate the psychometric properties of these tests and develop EPW driving training protocols based on these assessment tools.

  10. Self-assessment and students’ study strategies in a community of clinical practice: A qualitative study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hanan M. Al-Kadri

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available : Self-assessment is recognized as a necessary skill for lifelong learning. It is widely reported to offer numerous advantages to the learner. The research evaluated the impact of students’ and supervisors’ self-assessment and feedback training on students’ perceptions and practices of self-assessment. Moreover, it evaluated the effect of self-assessment process on students’ study strategies within a community of clinical practice.: We conducted a qualitative phenomenological study from May 2008 to December 2009. We held 37 semi-structured individual interviews with three different cohorts of undergraduate medical students until we reached data saturation. The cohorts were exposed to different contexts while experiencing their clinical years’ assessment program. In the interviews, students’ perceptions and interpretations of ‘self-assessment practice’ and ‘supervisor-provided feedback’ within different contexts and the resulting study strategies were explored.: The analysis of interview data with the three cohorts of students yielded three major themes: strategic practice of self-assessment, self-assessment and study strategies, and feedback and study strategies. It appears that self-assessment is not appropriate within a summative context, and its implementation requires cultural preparation. Despite education and orientation on the two major components of the self-assessment process, feedback was more effective in enhancing deeper study strategies.: This research suggests that the theoretical advantages linked to the self-assessment process are a result of its feedback component rather than the practice of self-assessment isolated from feedback. Further research exploring the effects of different contextual and personal factors on students’ self-assessment is needed.

  11. Assessing the "I" in group work assessment: : State of the art and recommendations for practice

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dijkstra, Joost; Latijnhouwers, Mieke; Norbart, Adriaan; Tio, Rene A.

    2016-01-01

    Introduction: The use of group work assessment in medical education is becoming increasingly important to assess the competency of collaborator. However, debate continues on whether this does justice to individual development and assessment. This paper focuses on assessing the individual component w

  12. An Assessment of risk response strategies practiced in software projects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vanita Bhoola

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available Risk management and success in projects are highly intertwined – better approaches to project risk management tend to increase chances of project success in terms of achieving scope & quality, schedule and cost targets. The process of responding to risk factors during a project’s life cycle is a crucial aspect of risk management referred to as risk response strategies, in this paper. The current research explores the status of risk response strategies applied in the software development projects in India. India provides a young IT-savvy English-speaking population, which is also cost effective. Other than the workforce, the environment for implementation of software projects in India is different from the matured economies. Risk management process is a commonly discussed theme, though its implementation in practice has a huge scope for improvement in India. The paper talks about four fundamental treatments to risk response – Avoidance, Transference, Mitigation and Acceptance (ATMA. From a primary data of 302 project managers, the paper attempts to address the risk response factors that lead to successful achievement of project scope & quality, schedule and cost targets, by using a series of regressions followed with Seemingly Unrelated Regression Equations (SURE modelling. Mitigation emerged as the most significant risk response strategy to achieve project targets. Acceptance, transference, and avoidance of risk were mostly manifested in the forms of transparency in communication across stakeholders, careful study of the nature of risks and close coordination between project team, customers/end-users and top management.

  13. Assessing nutrition in the critically ill elderly patient: A comparison of two screening tools

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Swagata Tripathy

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Context: Few malnutrition screening tests are validated in the elderly Intensive Care Unit (ICU patient. Aim: Having previously established malnutrition as a cause of higher mortality in this population, we compared two screening tools in elderly patients. Subjects and Methods: For this prospective study, 111 consecutive patients admitted to the ICU and > 65 years underwent the Malnutrition Universal Screening Tool (MUST, and the Geriatric Nutrition Risk Index (GNRI screening tests. Statistical Analysis: Standard definition of malnutrition risk was taken as the gold standard to evaluate the sensitivity, specificity and predictive values of the tools. The k statistic was calculated to measure the agreement between the tools. The Shrout classification was used to interpret its values. Results: The mean age of the patients screened was 74.7 ± 8.4 (65-97 years. The standard definition, MUST and GNRI identified 52.2%, 65.4%, and 64.9% to be malnourished, respectively. The sensitivity and specificity of the tests were 96.5% computed tomography (CI (87.9-99.5% and 72.3% CI (57.5-84.5% for MUST and 89.5% CI (75.2-96.7% and 55.0% CI (75.2-96.9% for GNRI, respectively. Screening was not possible by GNRI and MUST tool in 31% versus 4% of patients, respectively. The agreement between the tools was moderate for Standard-MUST k = 0.65 and MUST-GNRI k = 0.60 and fair for Standard-GNRI k = 0.43. Conclusions: The risk of malnutrition is high among our patients as identified by all the tools. Both GNRI and MUST showed a high sensitivity with MUST showing a higher specificity and greater applicability.

  14. Wind resource assessment a practical guide to developing a wind project

    CERN Document Server

    Brower, Michael

    2012-01-01

    A practical, authoritative guide to the assessment of wind resources for utility-scale wind projects-authored by a team of experts from a leading renewable energy consultancy The successful development of wind energy projects depends on an accurate assessment of where, how often, and how strongly the wind blows. A mistake in this stage of evaluation can cause severe financial losses and missed opportunities for developers, lenders, and investors. Wind Resource Assessment: A Practical Guide to Developing a Wind Project shows readers how to achieve a high standard of resource a

  15. Science Teachers' Representations of Classroom Practice in the Process of Formative Assessment Design

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heredia, Sara C.; Furtak, Erin Marie; Morrison, Deb; Renga, Ian Parker

    2016-09-01

    Formative assessment has been recognized as an essential element of effective classroom practice; as a result, teachers are increasingly required to create formative assessments for their classrooms. This study examines data drawn from a long-term, site-based professional development program that supported a department of biology teachers in the iterative design and enactment of common formative assessment tools. We analyze teacher conversations to understand how teachers collaborated to design formative assessments. Results indicate that when teachers attended to problems of practice related to teaching evolution, increased transparency in their talk helped build consensus about the design of formative assessment tools. These results highlight the importance of encouraging transparency in teacher dialog when they are engaged in collaborative design of formative assessments.

  16. Science Teachers' Representations of Classroom Practice in the Process of Formative Assessment Design

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heredia, Sara C.; Furtak, Erin Marie; Morrison, Deb; Renga, Ian Parker

    2016-11-01

    Formative assessment has been recognized as an essential element of effective classroom practice; as a result, teachers are increasingly required to create formative assessments for their classrooms. This study examines data drawn from a long-term, site-based professional development program that supported a department of biology teachers in the iterative design and enactment of common formative assessment tools. We analyze teacher conversations to understand how teachers collaborated to design formative assessments. Results indicate that when teachers attended to problems of practice related to teaching evolution, increased transparency in their talk helped build consensus about the design of formative assessment tools. These results highlight the importance of encouraging transparency in teacher dialog when they are engaged in collaborative design of formative assessments.

  17. Assessing sustainable land-use practices using geographic information systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davis, Amelie Y.

    Many prominent scientists have claimed that we need to develop environmentally sustainable practices otherwise societies may collapse. The use of Geographic Information Systems allows detailed studies that can cross disciplinary boundaries and lead to quantifiable statements as to the change of land use practices that took place in the past and those that may occur in the future. This dissertation focuses on two research topics. One that attempts to quantify the environmental consequences of parking lots located in the Midwest, USA. The other research topic focuses on the land area needed to support ethanol in the United States. In Tippecanoe County, Indiana, it was determined that parking lots occupied approximately 6.6% of the urban areas, that the area devoted to parking lots exceeded the area devoted to urban parks by a factor of 3, and that these parking lots contributed to increased runoff of pollutants. The parking lots of Tippecanoe County were estimated to be responsible for 46.5 thousand pounds of oil and grease released annually in runoff, as well as an increase of 240.6 thousand pounds of suspended solids, and 65.7 pounds of lead released when compared to pre-development conditions. A method that scales up the county wide study was also developed to determine the areal footprint of parking lots with the states of Illinois, Indiana, Michigan and Wisconsin. It was estimated that these four states allocate approximately 1260 square km of their land to parking lots and that this accounts for 4.97% of urban land use and over 43 million parking spaces, whereas the number of individuals in age of driving (adults over 18 years old) amounted to just over 25 million. Within the four states studied, states where urban sprawl was considered more prevalent were also states that had a higher proportion of their urban land devoted to parking lots. The second dissertation topic focused on using GIS to locate suitable sites for corn or cellulosic based ethanol

  18. Video Screen Capture Basics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dunbar, Laura

    2014-01-01

    This article is an introduction to video screen capture. Basic information of two software programs, QuickTime for Mac and BlueBerry Flashback Express for PC, are also discussed. Practical applications for video screen capture are given.

  19. Factors related to the practice of breast self examination (BSE and Pap smear screening among Malaysian women workers in selected electronics factories

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shamsuddin K

    2003-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The Malaysian Ministry of Health promotes breast self-examination (BSE for all women, and Pap smear screening every three years for all sexually active women ages 20 years and above. The objectives of this paper were to examine the practice of these two screening tests among women production workers in electronics factories, and to identify factors related to practice. Methods This was a cross-sectional survey of women production workers from ten electronics factories. Data was collected by a self-administered questionnaire from a total of 1,720 women. The chi-square test, odds ratio and binomial logistic regression were used in bivariate and multivariate analysis. Results Prevalence rates were 24.4% for BSE once a month, and 18.4% for Pap smear examination within the last three years. Women who were significantly more likely to perform BSE every month were 30 years and older, Malays, with upper secondary education and above, answered the BSE question correctly, and had a Pap smear within the last three years. The proportion of women who had a Pap smear within the last three years were significantly higher among those who were older, married, with young children, on the contraceptive pill or intra-uterine device, had a medical examination within the last five years, answered the Pap smear question correctly, and performed BSE monthly. Conclusion Screening practice rates in this study were low when compared to national rates. Socio-demographic and health care factors significantly associated with screening practice are indicative of barriers which should be further understood so that more effective educational and promotional strategies could be developed.

  20. 'It's Not Easy': School Nurse Pain Assessment Practices for Students with Special Needs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quinn, Brenna L

    2016-04-01

    Assessing pain in children with special needs presents unique challenges for school nurses, as no evidence-based or clinical standards to guide practices have been established for use in the school setting. Additionally, school nurse staffing has not kept pace with the growth in the population of children with special needs, which has increased by 60% since 2002. The aim of this study was to explore school nurses' pain assessment practices for students with special needs. A cross-sectional study was conducted via the web. Participants/Subjects: Of 3,071 special needs school nurses invited, 27% participated (n = 825). STATA13 was used to analyze descriptive statistics, while content analysis was performed in NVIVO 10. The majority of participants assessed pain in students with special needs using objective assessments (97.34%) and consultations with teachers (91.09%) and parents (88.64%). School nurses utilize pain assessment methods used previously in other practice areas, and rated pain assessment practices at the low benchmark of adequate. Overall, school nurses assess pain by selecting approaches that are best matched to the abilities of the student with special needs. When assessing students with special needs, nurses should utilize objective clinical assessments, teacher consultations, and parent input scales. In addition to continuing education, policies facilitating lower nurse-to-student ratios are needed to improve pain assessment practices in the school setting. Research to understand the perspectives of nurses, teachers, parents, and students is needed to support the creation of evidence-based policies and procedures.

  1. Screening of Industrial Development Policies, Plans and Programs of Strategic Environmental Assessment in the Industrial Sector of Iran

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. Nouri

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available The present investigation deals with the quality of capacity building and institutional strengthening of Strategic Environmental Assessment (SEA in the industrial sector as well as determining the environmental strategies for industrial sustainable development in Iran. The leading aim of this paper has been to systematize the environmental considerations in industrial development strategies, policies, plans and programs in the highest strategic decision making processes and to ensure environmental considerations and alternatives together with other economic and social considerations in the procedures, before the research processes. In order to analysis of Iran,s industrial development strategies, a matrix method was used as one of the most practical techniques of strategic programing as; SWOT (strenghts, weaknesses, opportunities and threats. Eventually the result of SWOT analysis in the form of a cell 29*12 matrix, has been an indicative of the degree of need toward performing SEA in conection with the kinds of the country,s industrial strategies in a categorizing priorities system. As among all the industrial strategic policies, have been screened and evaluated 8 strategies in the first priority and 4 strategies in the second priority.The industrial strategies with the first priority require; the emphasis on new industries, supporting and encouraging of the exports, privatization, competative industrial growth, commercial discharging, attracting the foreign direct investments, developing energy oriented industries and priorities of industrial fields strategies.Industrial strategies also require SEA in the second priority including: supporting the small and medium industries,considering the indexes of industrial potentiality measurement,following demands for establishing industrial workshops from spatial development system and developing legal, institutional and physical structures strategies.The basis of the results of this study is achieving

  2. Practice of Strategic Environmental Assessment in Coastal Zone, China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Zhang Luoping; Hong Huasheng; Chen Weiqi; Xue Xiongzhi; Liu Yan; Chen Bin

    2005-01-01

    @@ The mistakes made in the decision-making process would result in more serious environmental problems than in the project process. How to reduce or avoid the negative environmental impacts that may be created in the decision-making process,and push the decision-making towards sustainability, strategic environmental assessment ( SEA ) was considered one of the most effective approaches and tools. Although SEA has been in existence for over ten years, it should be noted that there are still some shortcomings involving the framework,methodology, procedure and review methods.Based upon three SEA case studies in the coastal zone of Xiamen, China, this paper systematically compares and analyzes targets, contents, methodologies, and effects of SEA. The results showed that the higher the level of the target, the larger the effect of SEA; and the earlier SEA is involved in the decision-making process, the more effective SEA is in influencing decision-making. The conceptual framework for environmental protection principles proposed at the beginning of the decision-making process was developed. It was proven a very efficacious methodology for SEA.

  3. Reaching women in the Peruvian Andes through cervical cancer screening campaigns: assessing attitudes of stakeholders and patients

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luque, John S; Maupin, Jonathan N; Ferris, Daron G; Guevara Condorhuaman, Wendy S

    2016-01-01

    Background Peru is characterized by high cervical cancer incidence and mortality rates. The country also experiences significant gaps in quality cervical cancer screening coverage for the population. Objective This descriptive mixed methods study conducted in Cusco, Peru, aimed to assess the attitudes and perceptions of medical staff, health care workers, and patients toward a cervical cancer screening program that included both clinic-based and community outreach services conducted by a nongovernmental organization clinic (CerviCusco). The study also explored patient knowledge and attitudes around cervical cancer and about the human papillomavirus (HPV) to inform patient education efforts. Methods The study employed structured interviews with key informants (n=16) primarily from CerviCusco, which provides cervical cancer prevention, screening, diagnosis and treatment services, and surveys with a sample of patients (n=30) receiving services at the clinic and at screening campaigns. Results The majority of key informant medical staff participants felt that the general public had a very negative view of government health services. One theme running throughout the interviews was the perception that the general population lacked a culture of preventive health care and would wait until symptoms were severe before seeking treatment. Regarding services that were received by patients at CerviCusco, the participants responded that the prices were reasonable and more affordable than some private clinics. Patients attending the rural health campaigns liked that the services were free and of good quality. Conclusion CerviCusco has demonstrated its capacity to provide screening outreach campaigns to populations who had not previously had access to liquid-based cytology services. The finding that patients had generally low levels of knowledge about cervical cancer and the HPV vaccine prompted the development of culturally and linguistically appropriate educational and

  4. Cross-trimester repeated measures testing for Down's syndrome screening: an assessment.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Wright, D

    2010-07-01

    To provide estimates and confidence intervals for the performance (detection and false-positive rates) of screening for Down\\'s syndrome using repeated measures of biochemical markers from first and second trimester maternal serum samples taken from the same woman.

  5. Screening for Developmental Neurotoxicity in Zebrafish Larvae: Assessment of Behavior and Malformations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    The U.S. Environmental Protection Agency is evaluating methods to screen and prioritize large numbers of chemicals for developmental toxicity. As part of this approach, it is important to be able to separate overt toxicity (Le., malformed larvae) from the more specific neurotoxic...

  6. Performance assessment of CsI(Tl) screens on various substrates for X-ray imaging

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    FENG Zhao-Dong; JIANG Peng; ZHANG Hong-Kai; ZHAO Bo-Zhen; QIN Xiu-Bo; WEI Cun-Feng; LIU Yu

    2015-01-01

    Thallium-doped cesium iodide (CsI(Tl)) screens are widely used in X-ray imaging devices because of the columnar structure of the CsI(Tl) layer,but few reports focus on the optical role of the substrate in the screen system.In this paper,four substrates including fused silica (SiO2),silver-film coated SiO2,graphite (C) and fiber optic plate (FOP) are used to fabricate CsI(Tl) screens by thermal evaporation.Their imaging performance is evaluated by relative light output (RLO),modulation transfer function (MTF),normalized noise power spectrum (NNPS) and noise equivalent quanta (NEQ).The results reveal that although CsI(Tl) film on graphite plate yields images with the lowest light output,it presents relatively higher spatial resolution and better signal-to-noise characteristics.However,films on SiO2 plate obtain low MTF but high NNPS curves,whether they are coated with silver film or not.Furthermore,scintillation screens on FOP have bright images with low NNPS and high NEQ,but have the lowest MTF.By controlling the substrate optical features,CsI(Tl) films can be tailored to suit a given application.

  7. Experimental assessment of the insertion loss of an underwater noise mitigation screen for marine pile driving

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jansen, H.W.; Jong, C.A.F. de; Jung, B.

    2012-01-01

    Because of the concern about potential effects on marine pile driving, the industry is developing silent marine pile driving concepts. One of the new concepts, which has been engineered by IHC Hydrohammer in the Netherlands, is the application of a steel Noise Mitigation Screen (NMS) around the pile

  8. Application of multimedia models for screening assessment of long-range transport potential and overall persistence.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Klasmeier, Jörg; Matthies, Michael; Macleod, Matthew; Fenner, Kathrin; Scheringer, Martin; Stroebe, Maximilian; Gall, Anne Christine le; McKone, Thomas; Meent, Dik van de; Wania, Frank

    2006-01-01

    We propose a multimedia model-based methodology to evaluate whether a chemical substance qualifies as POP-like based on overall persistence (Pov) and potential for long-range transport (LRTP). It relies upon screening chemicals against the Pov and LRTP characteristics of selected reference chemicals

  9. Grounding formative assessment in high-school chemistry classrooms: Connections between professional development and teacher practice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cisterna Alburquerque, Dante Igor

    This study describes and analyzes the experiences of two high-school chemistry teachers who participated in a team-based professional development program to learn about and enact formative assessment in their classrooms. The overall purpose of this study is to explain how participation in this professional development influenced both teachers' classroom enactment of formative assessment practices. This study focuses on 1) teachers' participation in the professional development program, 2) teachers' enactment of formative assessment, and 3) factors that enabled or hindered enactment of formative assessment. Drawing on cultural-historical activity theory (CHAT) and using evidence from teacher lessons, teacher interviews, professional development meetings as data sources, this single embedded case study analyzes how these two teachers who participated in the same learning team and have similar characteristics (i.e., teaching in the same school, teaching the same courses and population of students, and using the same materials) differentially used the professional development learning about formative assessment as mediating tools to improve their classroom instruction. The learning team experience contributed to both teachers' development of a better understanding of formative assessment---especially in recognizing that their current grading and assessment practices were not appropriate to promote student learning---and the co-creation of artifacts to gather evidence of students' ideas. Although both teachers demonstrated understanding about how formative assessment may serve to promote student learning and had a set of tools available to utilize for formative assessment use, they did not enact these tools in the same way. One teacher appropriated formative assessment as mediating tool to verify if the students were following her explanations, and to check if the students were able to provide the correct response. The other teacher used the mediating tool to promote

  10. Assessing midwives' breastfeeding knowledge: Properties of the Newborn Feeding Ability questionnaire and Breastfeeding Initiation Practices scale

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cantrill Ruth M

    2008-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background There are few reliable and valid tools to assess lactation and infant feeding knowledge and practices. This study tested the psychometric properties of two new scales, the Newborn Feeding Ability (NFA questionnaire and Breastfeeding Initiation Practices (BIP scale to assess midwives' breastfeeding knowledge and practices specific to breastfeeding initiation. Methods A national postal survey of Australian midwives (n = 3500 was conducted in October 2001. Reliability was determined through Cronbach's alpha coefficient and stability determined by a test-retest. Content validity was established through a critical review of literature and review by an expert panel. Construct validity was informed by an exploratory factor analysis and principle component analysis with varimax rotation. Correlations between NFA and BKQ knowledge subscale scores and BIP and BKQ practice subscale scores assessed criterion validity. A multiple hierarchical regression analysis determined predictive validity of the NFA and BIP. Results A response rate of 31.6% (n = 1107 was achieved. Adequate internal consistency was established for both instruments. Five factors on the NFA questionnaire were congruent with knowledge about effects of skin-to-skin contact, physiological stability, newborn innate abilities, work practices and effective breastfeeding. The BIP revealed three factors related to observing pre-feeding behavior, mother/baby care and attachment and positioning practices. Predictive validity of knowledge was moderate (r = 0.481, p Conclusion The Newborn Feeding Ability questionnaire and the Breastfeeding Initiation Practices scale can contribute to practice development by assessing lactation and infant feeding knowledge and practice deficits. Individual learning needs can be identified, and effectiveness of education interventions evaluated using these tools. Further testing is required with other samples of midwives and health professionals

  11. Culture and genetic screening in Africa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jegede, Ayodele S

    2009-12-01

    Africa is a continent in transition amidst a revival of cultural practices. Over previous years the continent was robbed of the benefits of medical advances by unfounded cultural practices surrounding its cultural heritage. In a fast moving field like genetic screening, discussions of social and policy aspects frequently need to take place at an early stage to avoid the dilemma encountered by Western medicine. This paper, examines the potential challenges to genetic screening in Africa. It discusses how cultural practices may affect genetic screening. It views genomics science as a culture which is trying to diffuse into another one. It argues that understanding the existing culture will help the diffusion process. The paper emphasizes the importance of genetic screening for Africa, by assessing the current level of burden of diseases in the continent and shows its role in reducing disease prevalence. The paper identifies and discusses the cultural challenges that are likely to confront genetic screening on the continent, such as the worldview, rituals and taboos, polygyny, culture of son preference and so on. It also discusses cultural practices that may promote the science such as inheritance practices, spouse selection practices and naming patterns. Factors driving the cultural challenges are identified and discussed, such as socialization process, patriarchy, gender, belief system and so on. Finally, the paper discusses the way forward and highlights the ethical considerations of doing genetic screening on the continent. However, the paper also recognizes that African culture is not monolithic and therefore makes a case for exceptions.

  12. Scope of practice review: providers for triage and assessment of spine-related disorders

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boakye, Omenaa; Birney, Arden; Suter, Esther; Phillips, Leah Adeline; Suen, Victoria YM

    2016-01-01

    Purpose This study explored which health care providers could be involved in centralized intake for patients with nonspecific low back pain to enhance access, continuity, and appropriateness of care. Methods We reviewed the scope of practice regulations for a range of health care providers. We also conducted telephone interviews with 17 individuals representing ten provincial colleges and regulatory bodies to further understand providers’ legislated scopes of practice. Activities relevant to triaging and assessing patients with low back pain were mapped against professionals’ scope of practice. Results Family physicians and nurse practitioners have the most comprehensive scopes and can complete all restricted activities for spine assessment and triage, while the scope of registered nurses and licensed practical nurses are progressively narrower. Chiropractors, occupational therapists, physiotherapists, and athletic therapists are considered experts in musculoskeletal assessments and appear best suited for musculoskeletal specific assessment and triage. Other providers may play a complementary role depending on the individual patient needs. Conclusion These findings indicate that an interprofessional assessment and triage team that includes allied health professionals would be a feasible option to create a centralized intake model. Implementation of such teams would require removing barriers that currently prevent providers from delivering on their full scope of practice. PMID:27274267

  13. The use of portfolios for continuing assessment of physiotherapy students in clinical practice settings

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N. Naidoo

    2004-02-01

    Full Text Available Many and varied methods of assessment are used to evaluate undergraduate physiotherapy students. Different modes of assessment occur as a result of contrasting educational theories and because the purpose of assessment is variable. In this era of performance assessment related to  the students’ mastery of the core curriculum, portfolios can enhance the assessment process by revealing a range of skills and understandings. This fits snugly into the physiotherapy curriculum for undergraduate continuous assessment purposes. Portfolio assessment can facilitate more reflection on students’ learning, more ownership of learning and more awareness of self-development. This supports the South African Qualifications Authority’s objective for higher education of reflection and life-long learning in our students. This article presents discussion on the use of portfolios in physiotherapy student learning and assessment in clinical practice.

  14. Formative Assessment Probes: Big and Small Seeds. Linking Formative Assessment Probes to the Scientific Practices

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keeley, Page

    2016-01-01

    This column focuses on promoting learning through assessment. Formative assessment probes are designed to uncover students' ideas about objects, events, and processes in the natural world. This assessment information is then used throughout instruction to move students toward an understanding of the scientific ideas behind the probes. During the…

  15. Screening Physical Activity in Family Practice: Validity of the Spanish Version of a Brief Physical Activity Questionnaire.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anna Puig-Ribera

    Full Text Available The use of brief screening tools to identify inactive patients is essential to improve the efficiency of primary care-based physical activity (PA programs. However, the current employment of short PA questionnaires within the Spanish primary care pathway is unclear. This study evaluated the validity of the Spanish version of a Brief Physical Activity Assessment Tool (SBPAAT.A validation study was carried out within the EVIDENT project. A convenience sample of patients (n = 1,184; age 58.9±13.7 years; 60.5% female completed the SBPAAT and the 7-day Physical Activity Recall (7DPAR and, in addition, wore an accelerometer (ActiGraph GT3X for seven consecutive days. Validity was evaluated by measuring agreement, Kappa correlation coefficients, sensitivity and specificity in achieving current PA recommendations with the 7DPAR. Pearson correlation coefficients with the number of daily minutes engaged in moderate and vigorous intensity PA according to the accelerometer were also assessed. Comparison with accelerometer counts, daily minutes engaged in sedentary, light, moderate, and vigorous intensity PA, total daily kilocalories, and total PA and leisure time expenditure (METs-hour-week between the sufficiently and insufficiently active groups identified by SBPAAT were reported.The SBPAAT identified 41.3% sufficiently active (n = 489 and 58.7% insufficiently active (n = 695 patients; it showed moderate validity (k = 0.454, 95% CI: 0.402-0.505 and a specificity and sensitivity of 74.3% and 74.6%, respectively. Validity was fair for identifying daily minutes engaged in moderate (r = 0.215, 95% CI:0.156 to 0.272 and vigorous PA (r = 0.282, 95% CI:0.165 to 0.391. Insufficiently active patients according to the SBPAAT significantly reported fewer counts/minute (-22%, fewer minutes/day of moderate (-11.38 and vigorous PA (-2.69, spent fewer total kilocalories/day (-753, and reported a lower energy cost (METs-hour-week of physical activities globally (-26

  16. Tuberculosis screening in patients with HIV

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bjerrum, Stephanie; Bonsu, Frank; Hanson-Nortey, Nii Nortey;

    2016-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Tuberculosis screening of people living with HIV (PLHIV) can contribute to early tuberculosis diagnosis and improved patient outcomes. Evidence-based guidelines for tuberculosis screening are available, but literature assessing their implementation and the quality of clinical practice...... is scarce. OBJECTIVES: To assess tuberculosis screening practices and the effectiveness of audit and performance feedback to improve quality of tuberculosis screening at HIV care clinics in Ghana. DESIGN: Healthcare providers at 10 large HIV care clinics prospectively registered patient consultations during...... May and October 2014, before and after a performance feedback intervention in August 2014. The outcomes of interest were overall tuberculosis suspicion rate during consultations and provider adherence to the International Standards for Tuberculosis Care and the World Health Organizations' guidelines...

  17. Hepatitis B Vaccination and Screening Awareness in Primary Care Practitioners

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adnan Said

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction. The goals of Healthy People US 2020 have called for increased screening and vaccination of high-risk groups for Hepatitis B (HBV. Methods. We performed a survey of 400 randomly chosen primary care practitioners (PCPs in Wisconsin to assess their knowledge, attitudes, and practices regarding screening and vaccination for HBV. Results. Screening rates of patients at risk of sexual transmission were low, with 61% of respondents stating that they screen patients who had more than 1 sex partner in 6 months and 86% screening patients with a history of sex with prostitutes. Screening rate for persons with a history of intravenous drug use was 94%. Children of immigrants were screened by 65%, persons on hemodialysis by 73%, and prison inmates by 69%. Screening increased with provider experience with HBV. Deficiencies in vaccination rates mirrored screening practices. Major barriers to screening were cost, someone else’s responsibility, time constraints, or lack of knowledge. Conclusions. Without improved education and practices of PCPs about HBV screening and vaccination, the goals of healthy people 2020 regarding HBV will not be met. Barriers to screening and vaccination need to be addressed. Cost-effectiveness of alternative strategies such as universal vaccination under the age of 50 should be explored.

  18. Feasibility and acceptance of electronic quality of life assessment in general practice: an implementation study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kochen Michael M

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Patients' health related quality of life (HRQoL has rarely been systematically monitored in general practice. Electronic tools and practice training might facilitate the routine application of HRQoL questionnaires. Thorough piloting of innovative procedures is strongly recommended before the conduction of large-scale studies. Therefore, we aimed to assess i the feasibility and acceptance of HRQoL assessment using tablet computers in general practice, ii the perceived practical utility of HRQoL results and iii to identify possible barriers hindering wider application of this approach. Methods Two HRQoL questionnaires (St. George's Respiratory Questionnaire SGRQ and EORTC QLQ-C30 were electronically presented on portable tablet computers. Wireless network (WLAN integration into practice computer systems of 14 German general practices with varying infrastructure allowed automatic data exchange and the generation of a printout or a PDF file. General practitioners (GPs and practice assistants were trained in a 1-hour course, after which they could invite patients with chronic diseases to fill in the electronic questionnaire during their waiting time. We surveyed patients, practice assistants and GPs regarding their acceptance of this tool in semi-structured telephone interviews. The number of assessments, HRQoL results and interview responses were analysed using quantitative and qualitative methods. Results Over the course of 1 year, 523 patients filled in the electronic questionnaires (1–5 times; 664 total assessments. On average, results showed specific HRQoL impairments, e.g. with respect to fatigue, pain and sleep disturbances. The number of electronic assessments varied substantially between practices. A total of 280 patients, 27 practice assistants and 17 GPs participated in the telephone interviews. Almost all GPs (16/17 = 94%; 95% CI = 73–99%, most practice assistants (19/27 = 70%; 95% CI = 50–86% and the majority of

  19. A Survey to Assess Family Physicians’ Motivation to Teach Undergraduates in Their Practices

    OpenAIRE

    2012-01-01

    BACKGROUND: In Germany, family physicians (FPs) are increasingly needed to participate in undergraduate medical education. Knowledge of FPs' motivation to teach medical students in their practices is lacking. PURPOSE: To describe a novel questionnaire that assesses the motivation of FPs to teach undergraduates in their practices and to show the results of a subsequent survey using this instrument. METHODS: The questionnaire was developed based on a review of the literature. Previously used em...

  20. Scope of practice review: providers for triage and assessment of spine-related disorders

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Boakye O

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Omenaa Boakye,1 Arden Birney,1 Esther Suter,1 Leah Adeline Phillips,2 Victoria YM Suen3 1Workforce Research and Evaluation, Alberta Health Services, Calgary, 2College of Licensed Practical Nurses of Alberta, Edmonton, 3Addiction and Mental Health SCN, Alberta Health Services, Edmonton, AB, Canada Purpose: This study explored which health care providers could be involved in centralized intake for patients with nonspecific low back pain to enhance access, continuity, and appropriateness of care. Methods: We reviewed the scope of practice regulations for a range of health care providers. We also conducted telephone interviews with 17 individuals representing ten provincial colleges and regulatory bodies to further understand providers' legislated scopes of practice. Activities relevant to triaging and assessing patients with low back pain were mapped against professionals' scope of practice. Results: Family physicians and nurse practitioners have the most comprehensive scopes and can complete all restricted activities for spine assessment and triage, while the scope of registered nurses and licensed practical nurses are progressively narrower. Chiropractors, occupational therapists, physiotherapists, and athletic therapists are considered experts in musculoskeletal assessments and appear best suited for musculoskeletal specific assessment and triage. Other providers may play a complementary role depending on the individual patient needs. Conclusion: These findings indicate that an interprofessional assessment and triage team that includes allied health professionals would be a feasible option to create a centralized intake model. Implementation of such teams would require removing barriers that currently prevent providers from delivering on their full scope of practice. Keywords: scope of practice review, low back pain, integrated service model, centralized intake, interprofessional team

  1. The Impact of an Alternative Professional Development Model on Teacher Practices in Formative Assessment and Student Learning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robinson, Jack; Myran, Steve; Strauss, Richard; Reed, William

    2014-01-01

    Among contemporary means of enhancing student learning, formative assessment is perhaps one of the most important and effective. While formative assessment ideas and practices have been shown to have a proven record enhancing student learning, these practices are slow to be fully integrated into teachers' day-to-day classroom practices. This study…

  2. Bioassays Against Pinewood Nematode: Assessment of a Suitable Dilution Agent and Screening for Bioactive Essential Oils

    OpenAIRE

    Ana Cristina Figueiredo; Luis G. Pedro; Barroso, José G.; Maria Teresa Tinoco; Luís Silva Dias; Mendes, Marta D.; Jorge M. S. Faria; Pedro Barbosa; Manuel Mota

    2012-01-01

    Acetone was investigated and found to be an appropriate alternative to Triton X-100 as a solvent of essential oils in bioassays aimed to investigate their effects on pinewood nematode (Bursaphelenchus xylophilus) mortality. Therefore it was used as dilution agent to screen the effectiveness of fifty two essential oils against this pest. Thirteen essential oils were highly effective, resulting in more than 90% pinewood nematode mortality at 2 mg/mL, with six of them resulting in 100% mortality...

  3. Method for screening prevention and control measures and technologies based on groundwater pollution intensity assessment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Juan; Yang, Yang; Huan, Huan; Li, Mingxiao; Xi, Beidou; Lv, Ningqing; Wu, Yi; Xie, Yiwen; Li, Xiang; Yang, Jinjin

    2016-05-01

    This paper presents a system for determining the evaluation and gradation indices of groundwater pollution intensity (GPI). Considering the characteristics of the vadose zone and pollution sources, the system decides which anti-seepage measures should be implemented at the contaminated site. The pollution sources hazards (PSH) and groundwater intrinsic vulnerability (GIV) are graded by the revised Nemerow Pollution Index and an improved DRTAS model, respectively. GPI is evaluated and graded by a double-sided multi-factor coupling model, which is constructed by the matrix method. The contaminated sites are categorized as prior, ordinary, or common sites. From the GPI results, we develop guiding principles for preventing and removing pollution sources, procedural interruption and remediation, and end treatment and monitoring. Thus, we can select appropriate prevention and control technologies (PCT). To screen the technological schemes and optimize the traditional analytical hierarchy process (AHP), we adopt the technique for order preference by the similarity to ideal solution (TOPSIS) method. Our GPI approach and PCT screening are applied to three types of pollution sites: the refuse dump of a rare earth mine development project (a potential pollution source), a chromium slag dump, and a landfill (existing pollution sources). These three sites are identified as ordinary, prior, and ordinary sites, respectively. The anti-seepage materials at the refuse dump should perform as effectively as a 1.5-m-thick clay bed. The chromium slag dump should be preferentially treated by soil flushing and in situ chemical remediation. The landfill should be treated by natural attenuation technology. The proposed PCT screening approach was compared with conventional screening methods results at the three sites and proved feasible and effective. The proposed method can provide technical support for the monitoring and management of groundwater pollution in China.

  4. Dynamic balance control in elders: gait initiation assessment as a screening tool

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chang, H.; Krebs, D. E.; Wall, C. C. (Principal Investigator)

    1999-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To determine whether measurements of center of gravity-center of pressure separation (CG-CP moment arm) during gait initiation can differentiate healthy from disabled subjects with sufficient specificity and sensitivity to be useful as a screening test for dynamic balance in elderly patients. SUBJECTS: Three groups of elderly subjects (age, 74.97+/-6.56 yrs): healthy elders (HE, n = 21), disabled elders (DE, n = 20), and elders with vestibular hypofunction (VH, n = 18). DESIGN: Cross-sectional, intact-groups research design. Peak CG-CP moment arm measures how far the subject will tolerate the whole-body CG to deviate from the ground reaction force's CP; it represents dynamic balance control. Screening test cutoff points at 16 to 18 cm peak CG-CP moment arm predicted group membership. RESULTS: The magnitude of peak CG-CP moment arm was significantly greater in HE than in DE and VH subjects (pphase in all groups. As a screening test, the peak moment arm has greater than 50% sensitivity and specificity to discriminate the HE group from the DE and VH groups with peak CG-CP moment arm cutoff points between 16 and 18 cm. CONCLUSIONS: Examining dynamic balance through the use of the CG-CP moment arm during single stance in gait initiation discriminates between nondisabled and disabled older persons and warrants further investigation as a potential tool to identify people with balance dysfunction.

  5. Fractional flow reserve and resting indices for coronary physiologic assessment: Practical guide, tips, and tricks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Picard, Fabien; Pighi, Michele; Ly, Hung Q

    2017-02-04

    Physiologic assessment using fractional flow reserve (FFR) to guide percutaneous coronary interventions (PCI) has been demonstrated to improve clinical outcomes, compared to angiography-guided PCI. Recently, resting indices such as resting Pd/Pa, "instantaneous wave-free ratio", and contrast medium induced FFR have been evaluated for the assessment of the functional consequences of coronary lesions. Herein, we review and discuss the use of FFR and other indices for the functional assessment of coronary lesions. This review will cover theoretical aspects, as well as practical points and common pitfalls related to coronary physiological assessment. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  6. Development and validation of a screening instrument to assess the types and quality of foods served at home meals

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fulkerson Jayne A

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Although there is growing interest in assessing the home food environment, no easy-to-use, low cost tools exist to assess the foods served at home meals, making it difficult to assess the meal component of the food environment. The aim of this study was to develop and validate a user-friendly screener to assess the types of foods served at home meals. Methods Primary food preparing adults (n = 51 participated in a validation study in their own homes. Staff and participants independently completed a screener as participants cooked dinner. The screener assessed the types of foods offered, method(s of preparation, and use of added fats. Two scale scores were created: 1 to assess offerings of foods in five food groups (meat and other protein, milk, vegetables, fruit, grains, 2 to assess the relative healthfulness of foods based on types offered, preparation method, and added fats. Criterion validity was assessed comparing staff and participant reports of individual foods (kappa (k and scale scores (Spearman correlations. Results Criterion validity was high between participants' and staffs' record of whether major food categories (meat and other protein, bread and cereal, salad, vegetables, fruits, dessert were served (k = 0.79-1.0, moderate for reports of other starches (e.g., rice being served (k = 0.52, and high for the Five Food Group and Healthfulness scale scores (r = 0.75-0.85, p Conclusions This new meal screening tool has high validity and can be used to assess the types of foods served at home meals allowing a more comprehensive assessment of the home food environment.

  7. Marking criteria for assessing practice-based portfolios at masters' level.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jasper, Melanie A; Fulton, John

    2005-07-01

    Whilst portfolios have increasingly been used to assess attainment and competence in nursing and other health care professions for over a decade, the assessment processes and criteria for assessing them have remained largely rudimentary and undeveloped. In fact, assessment often remains localised, impressionistic and dependent upon the interpretation and adaptation of criteria developed generically for work at this level within individual Higher Education Institutes (HEIs). This paper presents Masters' level marking criteria for portfolios from practice-based healthcare disciplines developed from the Quality Assurance Agency (QAA) descriptors of Masters level achievement and graduateness [Quality Assurance Agency for Higher Education, 2001. The Framework for Higher Education Qualifications in England, Scotland, Northern Ireland] in combination with practice-based outcomes. A six-stage methodology was devised to analyse these descriptors, develop, re-order, test and refine them in order to enhance their applicability to portfolios from practice-based disciplines. As part of this process the emerging criteria were tested against existing portfolios. Extracts from these are presented to illustrate the criteria. Two case study sites from diverse areas of England are used where Masters' courses in nursing and healthcare disciplines are offered. For portfolios to be effective in demonstrating Masters' level academic criteria, learning outcomes and advanced professional practice they need to demonstrate coherent structure, conclusions drawn from reflection on practice and a body of evidence that is coherent with, and linked to their reflective commentaries. The marking criteria presented to assess these attributes incorporate features of the structures, processes and outcomes of both practice and learning. The strategy can be used by both assessors and students, in formative and summative assessment, to identify student attainments, strengths and weaknesses.

  8. Expert knowledge-based assessment of farming practices for different biotic indicators using fuzzy logic.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sattler, Claudia; Stachow, Ulrich; Berger, Gert

    2012-03-01

    The study presented here describes a modeling approach for the ex-ante assessment of farming practices with respect to their risk for several single-species biodiversity indicators. The approach is based on fuzzy-logic techniques and, thus, is tolerant to the inclusion of sources of uncertain knowledge, such as expert judgment into the assessment. The result of the assessment is a so-called Index of Suitability (IS) for the five selected biotic indicators calculated per farming practice. Results of IS values are presented for the comparison of crops and for the comparison of several production alternatives per crop (e.g., organic vs. integrated farming, mineral vs. organic fertilization, and reduced vs. plow tillage). Altogether, the modeled results show that the different farming practices can greatly differ in terms of their suitability for the different biotic indicators and that the farmer has a certain scope of flexibility in opting for a farming practice that is more in favor of biodiversity conservation. Thus, the approach is apt to identify farming practices that contribute to biodiversity conservation and, moreover, enables the identification of farming practices that are suitable with respect to more than one biotic indicator.

  9. Clinical practice guidelines and consensus statements in oncology--an assessment of their methodological quality.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carmel Jacobs

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Consensus statements and clinical practice guidelines are widely available for enhancing the care of cancer patients. Despite subtle differences in their definition and purpose, these terms are often used interchangeably. We systematically assessed the methodological quality of consensus statements and clinical practice guidelines published in three commonly read, geographically diverse, cancer-specific journals. Methods Consensus statements and clinical practice guidelines published between January 2005 and September 2013 in Current Oncology, European Journal of Cancer and Journal of Clinical Oncology were evaluated. Each publication was assessed using the Appraisal of Guidelines for Research and Evaluation II (AGREE II rigour of development and editorial independence domains. For assessment of transparency of document development, 7 additional items were taken from the Institute of Medicine's standards for practice guidelines and the Journal of Clinical Oncology guidelines for authors of guidance documents. METHODS: Consensus statements and clinical practice guidelines published between January 2005 and September 2013 in Current Oncology, European Journal of Cancer and Journal of Clinical Oncology were evaluated. Each publication was assessed using the Appraisal of Guidelines for Research and Evaluation II (AGREE II rigour of development and editorial independence domains. For assessment of transparency of document development, 7 additional items were taken from the Institute of Medicine's standards for practice guidelines and the Journal of Clinical Oncology guidelines for authors of guidance documents. FINDINGS: Thirty-four consensus statements and 67 clinical practice guidelines were evaluated. The rigour of development score for consensus statements over the three journals was 32% lower than that of clinical practice guidelines. The editorial independence score was 15% lower for consensus statements than clinical practice

  10. Assessment of pain in children with brain injury: moving to best practice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nissen, Sally; Dunford, Carolyn

    Nurses are guided to use pain tools for assessing pain. Appropriate tools exist for all ages of children, as well as accounting for diverse communicative abilities and impairments such as brain injury. Use of pain tools, and good documentation of pain management, is part of providing best practice, high-quality care. Clinical audit, based on compliance with the Royal College of Nursing guideline for pain assessment, measured current and changing practice at a 70-bed national specialist centre for children with brain injury. Compliance was initially poor. Changes in practice were supported by evidence-based measures, including a written guideline, classroom teaching, visits to practice areas, sharing of audit results, reminders and a special interest group. Over 3 years, the audits showed an increase of child-specific pain tools available in children's care files from 9% to 83%; assessment of pain using a pain tool, when indicated, increased from 0 to 30%. Documentation of interventions to relieve pain increased from 51% to 80% and reassessment of pain following an intervention increased from 15% to 63%. This article will resonate with any organisation trying to embed systematic pain assessment into routine practice.

  11. Predicting reading outcomes in the classroom using a computer-based phonological awareness screening and monitoring assessment (Com-PASMA).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carson, Karyn; Boustead, Therese; Gillon, Gail

    2014-12-01

    The screening and monitoring of phonological awareness (PA) in the classroom is of great importance to the early identification and prevention of reading disorder. This study investigated whether a time-efficient computer-based PA screening and monitoring assessment (Com-PASMA) could accurately predict end-of-year reading outcomes for 5-year-old children in the first year of schooling. A longitudinal design was employed where the Com-PASMA was used to measure the PA ability of 95 5-year-old children at the start, middle, and end of the first year of school. Of this group, 21 children presented with spoken language impairment. Reading outcomes were formally measured after 1 year of schooling. School-entry measures of PA using the Com-PASMA (p Com-PASMA was 92% accurate at school-entry, and 94% accurate by the middle of the school year in predicting reading outcomes at 6-years of age. Results suggest that a time-efficient computer-based method of screening and monitoring PA can support the early identification of reading difficulties in the first year of schooling.

  12. The rationale for simple approaches for sustainability assessment and management in contaminated land practice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bardos, R Paul; Bone, Brian D; Boyle, Richard; Evans, Frank; Harries, Nicola D; Howard, Trevor; Smith, Jonathan W N

    2016-09-01

    The scale of land-contamination problems, and of the responses to them, makes achieving sustainability in contaminated land remediation an important objective. The Sustainable Remediation Forum in the UK (SuRF-UK) was established in 2007 to support more sustainable remediation practice in the UK. The current international interest in 'sustainable remediation' has achieved a fairly rapid consensus on concepts, descriptions and definitions for sustainable remediation, which are now being incorporated into an ISO standard. However the sustainability assessment methods being used remain diverse with a range of (mainly) semi-quantitative and quantitative approaches and tools developed, or in development. Sustainability assessment is site specific and subjective. It depends on the inclusion of a wide range of considerations across different stakeholder perspectives. Taking a tiered approach to sustainability assessment offers important advantages, starting from a qualitative assessment and moving through to semi-quantitative and quantitative assessments on an 'as required' basis only. It is also clear that there are a number of 'easy wins' that could improve performance against sustainability criteria right across the site management process. SuRF-UK has provided a checklist of 'sustainable management practices' that describes some of these. This paper provides the rationale for, and an outline of, and recently published SuRF-UK guidance on preparing for and framing sustainability assessments; carrying out qualitative sustainability assessment; and simple good management practices to improve sustainability across contaminated land management activities.

  13. Copy number variants in a sample of patients with psychotic disorders: is standard screening relevant for actual clinical practice?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van de Kerkhof, Noortje WA; Feenstra, Ilse; van der Heijden, Frank MMA; de Leeuw, Nicole; Pfundt, Rolph; Stöber, Gerald; Egger, Jos IM; Verhoeven, Willem MA

    2012-01-01

    With the introduction of new genetic techniques such as genome-wide array comparative genomic hybridization, studies on the putative genetic etiology of schizophrenia have focused on the detection of copy number variants (CNVs), ie, microdeletions and/or microduplications, that are estimated to be present in up to 3% of patients with schizophrenia. In this study, out of a sample of 100 patients with psychotic disorders, 80 were investigated by array for the presence of CNVs. The assessment of the severity of psychiatric symptoms was performed using standardized instruments and ICD-10 was applied for diagnostic classification. In three patients, a submicroscopic CNV was demonstrated, one with a loss in 1q21.1 and two with a gain in 1p13.3 and 7q11.2, respectively. The association between these or other CNVs and schizophrenia or schizophrenia-like psychoses and their clinical implications still remain equivocal. While the CNV affected genes may enhance the vulnerability for psychiatric disorders via effects on neuronal architecture, these insights have not resulted in major changes in clinical practice as yet. Therefore, genome-wide array analysis should presently be restricted to those patients in whom psychotic symptoms are paired with other signs, particularly dysmorphisms and intellectual impairment. PMID:22848183

  14. Basic principles and practice of gastric cancer screening using high-definition white-light gastroscopy: Eyes can only see what the brain knows.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gotoda, Takuji; Uedo, Noriya; Yoshinaga, Shigetaka; Tanuma, Tokuma; Morita, Yoshinori; Doyama, Hisashi; Aso, Akira; Hirasawa, Toshiaki; Yano, Tomonori; Uchita, Kunihisa; Ho, Shiaw-Hooi; Hsieh, Ping-Hsin

    2016-04-01

    Endoscopic diagnosis of gastrointestinal tumors consists of the following processes: (i) detection; (ii) differential diagnosis; and (iii) quantitative diagnosis (size and depth) of a lesion. Although detection is the first step to make a diagnosis of the tumor, the lesion can be overlooked if an endoscopist has no knowledge of what an early-stage 'superficial lesion' looks like. In recent years, image-enhanced endoscopy has become common, but white-light endoscopy (WLI) is still the first step for detection and characterization of lesions in general clinical practice. Settings and practice of routine esophagogastroduodenoscopy (EGD) such as use of antispasmodics, number of endoscopic images taken, and observational procedure are customarily decided in each facility in each country and are not well standardized. Therefore, in the present article, we attempted to outline currently available evidence and actual Japanese practice on gastric cancer screening using WLI, and provide tips for detecting EGC during routine EGD which could become the basis of future research.

  15. Mathematics Formative Assessment: 75 Practical Strategies for Linking Assessment, Instruction, and Learning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keeley, Page; Tobey, Cheryl Rose

    2011-01-01

    Award-winning author Page Keeley and mathematics expert Cheryl Rose Tobey apply the successful format of Keeley's best-selling "Science Formative Assessment" to mathematics. They provide 75 formative assessment strategies and show teachers how to use them to inform instructional planning and better meet the needs of all students. Research shows…

  16. A Case Study of Teacher Personal Practice Assessment Theories and Complexities of Implementing Formative Assessment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Box, Cathy; Skoog, Gerald; Dabbs, Jennifer M.

    2015-01-01

    The value and effectiveness of formative assessment in the classroom has gained an increasing amount of attention during the past decade, especially since the publication of seminal work by Black and Wiliam titled "Assessment and Classroom Learning." Since that time, there has been a renewed interest in describing and evaluating teacher…

  17. Breast examination as a cost-effective screening tool in a clinical practice setting in Ibadan, Nigeria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adetola M. Ogunbode

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Breast cancer is a disease of public health importance. It results in high morbidity and mortality in women worldwide. The high morbidity and mortality from breast cancer can be decreased by measures targeted at early detection such as screening. Breast examination as a screening tool for breast cancer in developing countries is advocated in view of its costeffectiveness.Method: The article selection method was obtained from primary and secondary literature sources which included original research articles, case control studies, review articles, proceedings, transactions and textbooks. The authors cited a clinical audit and articles published between 1988 and 2011. The search strategy included the use of internet search engines. This review was part of a larger research and the study protocol was approved by the University of Ibadan/University College Hospital, Ibadan Institutional Review Board (UI/UCH IRB. Clinical trial registration number-NHREC/05/01/2008a.Results: Breast self-examination (BSE and clinical breast examination (CBE as screening tools for breast cancer were analysed in detail.Conclusion: Breast examination is a screening tool that is cost-effective and reliable and should be encouraged in resource-constrained countries. Given the high cost and expertise required for mammography, current efforts at screening for breast cancer in developing countries should rely more on a combination of BSE and CBE.

  18. Validation of a new mass screening tool for cognitive impairment: Cognitive Assessment for Dementia, iPad version

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Onoda K

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available Keiichi Onoda,1 Tsuyoshi Hamano,2 Yoko Nabika,1 Atsuo Aoyama,1 Hiroyuki Takayoshi,1 Tomonori Nakagawa,1 Masaki Ishihara,1 Shingo Mitaki,1 Takuya Yamaguchi,1 Hiroaki Oguro,1 Kuninori Shiwaku,3 Shuhei Yamaguchi1 1Department of Neurology, 2Center for Community-Based Health Research and Education, Shimane University, Izumo, 3Shimane University, Matsue, Shimane, Japan Background: We have developed a new screening test for dementia that runs on an iPad and can be used for mass screening, known as the Cognitive Assessment for Dementia, iPad version (CADi. The CADi consists of items involving immediate recognition memory for three words, semantic memory, categorization of six objects, subtraction, backward repetition of digits, cube rotation, pyramid rotation, trail making A, trail making B, and delayed recognition memory for three words. The present study examined the reliability and validity of the CADi. Methods: CADi evaluations were conducted for patients with dementia, healthy subjects selected from a brain checkup system, and community-dwelling elderly people participating in health checkups. Results: CADi scores were lower for dementia patients than for healthy elderly individuals and correlated significantly with Mini-Mental State Examination scores. Cronbach’s alpha values for the CADi were acceptable (over 0.7, and test–retest reliability was confirmed via a significant correlation between scores separated by a one-year interval. Conclusion: These results suggest that the CADi is a useful tool for mass screening of dementia in Japanese populations. Keywords: dementia, mass screening, early detection, iPad

  19. Formative assessment as a vehicle for changing classroom practice in a specific cultural context

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Jingping

    2015-09-01

    In this commentary, I interpret Xinying Yin and Gayle Ann Buck's collaborative action research from a social-cultural perspective. Classroom implementation of formative assessment is viewed as interaction between this assessment method and the local learning culture. I first identify Yin and Buck's definition of the formative assessment, and then analyze the role of formative assessment in the change of local learning culture. Based on the practice of Yin and Buck I emphasize the significance of their "bottom up" strategy to the teachers' epistemological change. I believe that this strategy may provide practicable solutions to current Chinese educational problems as well as a means for science educators to shift toward systematic professional development.

  20. Exploring the Complexity of Student Learning Outcome Assessment Practices Across Multiple Libraries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Donna Harp Ziegenfuss

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Objectives – The purpose of this collaborative qualitative research project, initiated by the Greater Western Library Alliance (GWLA, was to explore how librarians were involved in the designing, implementing, assessing, and disseminating student learning outcomes (SLOs in GWLA member academic libraries. The original objective of the research was to identify library evaluation/assessment practices at the different libraries to share and discuss by consortia members at a GWLA-sponsored Student Learning Assessment Symposium in 2013. However, findings raised new questions and areas to explore beyond student learning assessment, and additional research was continued by two of the GWLA collaborators after the Symposium. The purpose of this second phase of research was to explore the intersection of library and institutional contexts and academic library assessment practices. Methods – This qualitative research study involved a survey of librarians at 23 GWLA member libraries, about student learning assessment practices at their institutions. Twenty follow-up interviews were also conducted to further describe and detail the assessment practices identified in the survey. Librarians with expertise in library instruction, assessment, and evaluation, either volunteered or were designated by their Dean or Director, to respond to the survey and participate in the interviews. Interview data were analyzed by seven librarians, across six different GWLA libraries, using constant comparison methods (Strauss & Corbin, 2014. Emerging themes were used to plan a GWLA member Symposium. Based on unexpected findings, after the Symposium, two GWLA researchers continued the analysis using a grounded theory methodology to re-examine the data and uncover categorical relationships and conceptual coding, and to explore data alignment to theoretical possibilities. Results – Seventeen categories and five themes emerged from the interview data and were used to

  1. On exploratory factor analysis: a review of recent evidence, an assessment of current practice, and recommendations for future use.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gaskin, Cadeyrn J; Happell, Brenda

    2014-03-01

    Exploratory factor analysis (hereafter, factor analysis) is a complex statistical method that is integral to many fields of research. Using factor analysis requires researchers to make several decisions, each of which affects the solutions generated. In this paper, we focus on five major decisions that are made in conducting factor analysis: (i) establishing how large the sample needs to be, (ii) choosing between factor analysis and principal components analysis, (iii) determining the number of factors to retain, (iv) selecting a method of data extraction, and (v) deciding upon the methods of factor rotation. The purpose of this paper is threefold: (i) to review the literature with respect to these five decisions, (ii) to assess current practices in nursing research, and (iii) to offer recommendations for future use. The literature reviews illustrate that factor analysis remains a dynamic field of study, with recent research having practical implications for those who use this statistical method. The assessment was conducted on 54 factor analysis (and principal components analysis) solutions presented in the results sections of 28 papers published in the 2012 volumes of the 10 highest ranked nursing journals, based on their 5-year impact factors. The main findings from the assessment were that researchers commonly used (a) participants-to-items ratios for determining sample sizes (used for 43% of solutions), (b) principal components analysis (61%) rather than factor analysis (39%), (c) the eigenvalues greater than one rule and screen tests to decide upon the numbers of factors/components to retain (61% and 46%, respectively), (d) principal components analysis and unweighted least squares as methods of data extraction (61% and 19%, respectively), and (e) the Varimax method of rotation (44%). In general, well-established, but out-dated, heuristics and practices informed decision making with respect to the performance of factor analysis in nursing studies. Based on

  2. Influenza vaccine effectiveness: best practice and current limitations of the screening method and their implications for the clinic.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Minodier, Laëtitia; Blanchon, Thierry; Souty, Cecile; Turbelin, Clement; Leccia, Frederic; Varesi, Laurent; Falchi, Alessandra

    2014-08-01

    Is there a role for the screening method in estimating influenza vaccine effectiveness (VE)? The answer is yes, but the simplicity of the method used has raised concerns about its validity, and several cautions should be noted. The screening method provides an approximation of influenza VE by comparing the proportion of cases vaccinated (PCV) with the proportion of persons vaccinated (PPV) in the general population. This method has an important disadvantage: VE estimation could be inaccurate if the values for PCV and PPV are drawn from different populations, but it has an important strength, compared with other observational studies, in providing an early indication of VE in the field. Thus, when an infrastructure, such as routine surveillance, is in place to collect robust PCV values, and PPV can be obtained from routine vaccine uptake monitoring systems, the screening method can provide early estimates of influenza VE in target groups.

  3. Advancing the theory and practice of impact assessment: Setting the research agenda

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pope, Jenny, E-mail: jenny@integral-sustainability.net [Integral Sustainability, PO Box 79, South Fremantle WA 6162 (Australia); School of Geo and Spatial Sciences, North-West University, Potchefstroom Campus, Private Bag X6001, Potchefstroom 2520 (South Africa); Curtin University Sustainability Policy Institute, GPO Box U1987, Perth WA 6845 (Australia); Bond, Alan, E-mail: alan.bond@uea.ac.uk [School of Geo and Spatial Sciences, North-West University, Potchefstroom Campus, Private Bag X6001, Potchefstroom 2520 (South Africa); School of Environmental Sciences, University of East Anglia, Norwich Research Park, Norwich, Norfolk NR4 7TJ (United Kingdom); Morrison-Saunders, Angus, E-mail: a.morrison-saunders@murdoch.edu.au [Integral Sustainability, PO Box 79, South Fremantle WA 6162 (Australia); School of Geo and Spatial Sciences, North-West University, Potchefstroom Campus, Private Bag X6001, Potchefstroom 2520 (South Africa); School of Environmental Science, Murdoch University, South St, Murdoch WA 6150 (Australia); Retief, Francois, E-mail: francois.retief@nwu.ac.za [School of Geo and Spatial Sciences, North-West University, Potchefstroom Campus, Private Bag X6001, Potchefstroom 2520 (South Africa)

    2013-07-15

    Impact assessment has been in place for over 40 years and is now practised in some form in all but two of the world's nations. In this paper we reflect on the state of the art of impact assessment theory and practice, focusing on six well-established forms: EIA, SEA, policy assessment, SIA, HIA and sustainability assessment. We note that although the fundamentals of impact assessment have their roots in the US National Environmental Policy Act 1969 (NEPA) each branch of the field is distinct in also drawing on other theoretical and conceptual bases that in turn shape the prevailing discourse in each case, generating increasing degrees of specialisation within each sub-field. Against this backdrop, we consider the strengths and weaknesses of collective impact assessment practice, concluding that although there are substantial strengths, the plethora of specialist branches is generating a somewhat confusing picture and lack of clarity regarding how the pieces of the impact assessment jigsaw puzzle fit together. We use this review to suggest an overarching research agenda that will enable impact assessment to evolve in line with changing expectations for what it should deliver. -- Highlights: ► Strengths, weakness, opportunities and threats for IA are explored in this paper ► EIA, SEA, policy assessment, SIA, HIA and sustainability assessment are reviewed ► Diversity of practice is both a strength and weakness in the current economic climate ► There are opportunities to simplify IA by focusing on common and fundamental elements ► Continued research into theory related to IA effectiveness is also essential.

  4. A cost/effective screening method for assessing the toxicity of nutrient rich effluents to algae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carbonell, G; Fernández, C; Tarazona, J V

    2010-07-01

    Screening whole effluent toxicity tests are cost/effective methods for detecting the presence of toxic concentrations of unknown pollutants, but the application must solve the problem associated with the effect of high and variable concentrations of nutrients in the effluent on the results of algal toxicity tests. This work proposes a cost/effective test, based on three dilution levels measured at a single point time and a discriminant model for establishing if this kind of complex samples, with difficult interpretation of dilution-response curves, should be considered toxic to algae. This procedure identified properly around 85% of the samples considered toxic by expert judgement.

  5. Screening tool development for health impact assessment of large administrative structural changes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ravn, Anne Katrine; Nicolaisen, Henriette; Linnrose, Karina

    2008-01-01

    available on the Internet and in the scientific literature, in many cases lack of access to those tools creates a barrier to the use of HIA. RESULTS: Denmark is undergoing a major structural change in state administration, moving many responsibilities from the state to the local level. Newly constructed...... councils are faced with challenges regarding their responsibilities in health promotion and other fields, and this has opened a window for the introduction of HIA at a local level. Owing to the lack of experience with HIA in Denmark, screening tools are lacking and are frequently requested by councils...

  6. Progression from impaired fasting glucose and impaired glucose tolerance to diabetes in a high-risk screening programme in general practice: the ADDITION Study, Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rasmussen, Signe Sætre; Glümer, Charlotte; Sandbæk, Annelli;

    2007-01-01

    in Primary Care]). METHODS: Persons aged 40-69 years were screened for type 2 diabetes based on a high-risk, stepwise strategy. At baseline, anthropometric measurements, blood samples and questionnaire data were collected. A total of 1,160 persons had IFG or IGT at baseline: 811 (70%) accepted re......-examination after 1 year. Glucose tolerance classification was based on the 1999 WHO definition. At follow-up, diabetes was based on one diabetic glucose value of fasting blood glucose or 2-h blood glucose. RESULTS: At baseline, 308 persons had IFG and 503 had IGT. The incidence of diabetes was 17.6 and 18.8 per...... 100 person-years in the two groups, respectively. CONCLUSIONS/INTERPRETATION: IFG and IGT identified in general practice during a stepwise, high-risk screening programme for type 2 diabetes have high 1-year progression rates to diabetes. Consequently, intensive follow-up and intervention strategies...

  7. Can Touch Screen Tablets be Used to Assess Cognitive and Motor Skills in Early Years Primary School Children? A Cross-Cultural Study

    OpenAIRE

    Nicola Pitchford; Laura Ann Outhwaite

    2016-01-01

    Assessment of cognitive and motor functions is fundamental for developmental and neuropsychological profiling. Assessments are usually conducted on an individual basis, with a trained examiner, using standardized paper and pencil tests, and can take up to an hour or more to complete, depending on the nature of the test. This makes traditional standardized assessments of child development largely unsuitable for use in low-income countries. Touch screen tablets afford the opportunity to assess ...

  8. Can touch screen tablets be used to assess cognitive and motor skills in early years primary school children? A cross-cultural study

    OpenAIRE

    Pitchford, Nicola J.; Laura A. Outhwaite

    2016-01-01

    Assessment of cognitive and motor functions is fundamental for developmental and neuropsychological profiling. Assessments are usually conducted on an individual basis, with a trained examiner, using standardized paper and pencil tests, and can take up to an hour or more to complete, depending on the nature of the test. This makes traditional standardized assessments of child development largely unsuitable for use in low-income countries. Touch screen tablets afford the opportunity to assess ...

  9. Assessment of current cybersecurity practices in the public domain : cyber indications and warnings domain.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hamlet, Jason R.; Keliiaa, Curtis M.

    2010-09-01

    This report assesses current public domain cyber security practices with respect to cyber indications and warnings. It describes cybersecurity industry and government activities, including cybersecurity tools, methods, practices, and international and government-wide initiatives known to be impacting current practice. Of particular note are the U.S. Government's Trusted Internet Connection (TIC) and 'Einstein' programs, which are serving to consolidate the Government's internet access points and to provide some capability to monitor and mitigate cyber attacks. Next, this report catalogs activities undertaken by various industry and government entities. In addition, it assesses the benchmarks of HPC capability and other HPC attributes that may lend themselves to assist in the solution of this problem. This report draws few conclusions, as it is intended to assess current practice in preparation for future work, however, no explicit references to HPC usage for the purpose of analyzing cyber infrastructure in near-real-time were found in the current practice. This report and a related SAND2010-4766 National Cyber Defense High Performance Computing and Analysis: Concepts, Planning and Roadmap report are intended to provoke discussion throughout a broad audience about developing a cohesive HPC centric solution to wide-area cybersecurity problems.

  10. Perceived Barriers and Facilitators of Using a Web-Based Interactive Decision Aid for Colorectal Cancer Screening in Community Practice Settings: Findings From Focus Groups With Primary Care Clinicians and Medical Office Staff

    OpenAIRE

    2013-01-01

    Background Information is lacking about the capacity of those working in community practice settings to utilize health information technology for colorectal cancer screening. Objective To address this gap we asked those working in community practice settings to share their perspectives about how the implementation of a Web-based patient-led decision aid might affect patient-clinician conversations about colorectal cancer screening and the day-to-day clinical workflow. Methods Five focus group...

  11. Assessment of Substances Abuse in Burn Patients by Using Drug Abuse Screening Test

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kobra Gaseminegad

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available There has been an increase in the frequency of substance abuse among hospitalized burn injury patients. However, few studies have investigated substance abuse among burn patients. This study was aimed to identify the incidence of substance abuse in burn injury patients using the "Drug Abuse Screening Test" (DAST-20. We determined the validity of DAST-20 in spring 2010. Subsequently, this descriptive study was performed on 203 burn injury patients who fit the study's inclusion criteria. We chose a score of 6 as the cutoff and thus achieved a sensitivity of 89% and a specificity of 85% for the DAST-20. During the study, we gathered demographic data, burn features and DAST-20 results for all patients. Patients with scores of 6 or more were considered to be substances abusers. A statistical analysis was conducted using SPSS v16 software. According to the DAST-20 results, 33% of the patients were in the user group. The mean score of DAST-20 was significantly higher among users than it was among nonusers (P<0.05. The level of substance abuse was severe in 77% of users. No significant differences were found among the substances, with the exception of alcohol. Substance abuse is an important risk factor for burn patients. In addition, this study showed that DAST-20 is a valid screening measure for studies on burn patients.

  12. Toxicological assessment of heavy straight run naphtha in a repeated dose/reproductive toxicity screening test.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McKee, Richard H; Steup, David; Schreiner, Ceinwen; Podhasky, Paula; Malley, Linda A; Roberts, Linda

    2014-01-01

    Gasoline blending stocks (naphthas) are comprised of normal, iso- and cycloparaffins and aromatic hydrocarbons with carbon numbers ranging from C4 to C12. Heavy straight run naphtha (HSRN, CAS number 64741-41-9) was selected for toxicity screening because substances of this type contain relatively high levels (28%) of cycloparaffins by comparison to other naphtha streams and the data complement toxicity information on other gasoline blending streams. Rats were exposed by inhalation to wholly vaporized material at levels of approximately 100, 500, or 3000 parts per million (ppm) daily to screen the potential for systemic toxicity, neurotoxicity, reproductive toxicity, and developmental effects to postnatal day 4. All animals survived the treatment period. Principal effects of repeated exposure included increased liver weights in males and females, increased kidney weights in males, and histological changes in the thyroid, secondary to liver enzyme induction. These changes were not considered to be toxicologically meaningful and are not relevant to humans. There were no treatment-related effects in functional observation tests or motor activity; no significant reductions in fertility or changes in other reproductive parameters; and no evidence of developmental toxicity in offspring. The overall no observed adverse effect concentration was 3000 ppm (approximately 13, 600 mg/m(3)). In conclusion the HSRN effects on liver and kidney are consistent with the results of other studies of volatile fractions or other naphthas or formulated gasoline, and there were no HSRN effects on neurological developmental or reproductive parameters.

  13. [Health technology assessment report. Use of liquid-based cytology for cervical cancer precursors screening].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ronco, Guglielmo; Confortini, Massimo; Maccallini, Vincenzo; Naldoni, Carlo; Segnan, Nereo; Sideri, Mario; Zappa, Marco; Zorzi, Manuel; Calvia, Maria; Giorgi Rossi, Paolo

    2012-01-01

    OBJECTIVE OF THE PROJECT: Purpose of this Report is to evaluate the impact of the introduction of liquid-based cytology (LBC) in cervical cancer screening in terms of efficacy, undesired effects, costs and implications for organisation. EFFICACY AND UNDESIRED EFFECTS: LBC WITH MANUAL INTERPRETATION: The estimates of cross-sectional accuracy for high-grade intraepithelial neoplasia (CIN2 or more severe and CIN3 or more severe) obtained by a systematic review and meta-analysis published in 2008 were used. This review considered only studies in which all women underwent colposcopy or randomised controlled trials (RCTs) with complete verification of test positives. A systematic search of RCTs published thereafter was performed. Three RCTs were identified. One of these studies was conducted in 6 Italian regions and was of large size (45,174 women randomised); a second one was conducted in another Italian region (Abruzzo) and was of smaller size (8,654 women randomised); a third RCT was conducted in the Netherlands and was of large size (89,784 women randomised). No longitudinal study was available. There is currently no clear evidence that LBC increases the sensitivity of cytology and even less that its introduction increases the efficacy of cervical screening in preventing invasive cancers. The Italian randomised study NTCC showed a decrease in specificity, which was not observed in the other two RCTs available. In addition, the 2008 meta-analysis observed a reduction - even if minimal - in specificity just at the ASC-US cytological cut-off, but also a remarkable heterogeneity between studies. These results suggest that the effect of LBC on specificity is variable and plausibly related to the local style of cytology interpretation. There is evidence that LBC reduces the proportion of unsatisfactory slides, although the size of this effect varies remarkably. LBC WITH COMPUTER-ASSISTED INTERPRETATION: An Australian study, based on double testing, showed a statistically

  14. Sexually transmitted infection screening and reproductive health counseling in adolescent renal transplant recipients: Perceptions and practice patterns. A study from the Midwest Pediatric Nephrology Consortium.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ashoor, Isa F; Dharnidharka, Vikas R

    2015-11-01

    We wanted to identify practice patterns and perceived barriers among pediatric nephrologists regarding STI screening and reproductive health counseling in adolescent renal transplant recipients. We created an online Likert-scaled survey. Response rate was 54%. The majority (83%) believed STI risk in their patients was similar to or higher than healthy teens. Interestingly, while 67% felt moderately or very confident in asking about sexual activity and counseling about safer sex, only 43% routinely or always inquired about sexual activity, and only 42% routinely or always counseled about safer sex. Fifty-four percent routinely or always discussed contraceptive options and implications of unintentional pregnancy. Fifty-one percent routinely or always referred patients to a gynecologist or adolescent provider for contraception prescription. The most common counseling mechanism was informal discussions in clinic (87%). Ten percent had no mechanism in place. Major barriers included time limitations, adolescents' fear regarding confidentiality, and lack of professional training. This is the first report of perceptions and practice patterns of pediatric nephrologists regarding STI screening and reproductive health counseling. Providers seem to recognize the importance of counseling; however, translation into practice remains low. Professional training in this area and increased encounter time could improve counseling delivery and thereby reduce risk in this population.

  15. Relationships between Teacher Knowledge, Assessment Practice, and Learning--Chicken, Egg, or Omelet? CRESST Report 809

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herman, Joan; Osmundson, Ellen; Dai, Yunyun; Ringstaff, Cathy; Timms, Mike

    2011-01-01

    Drawing from a large efficacy study in upper elementary science, this report had three purposes: First to examine the quality of teachers' content-pedagogical knowledge in upper elementary science; second, to analyze the relationship between teacher knowledge and their assessment practice; and third, to study the relationship between teacher…

  16. The School-Tertiary Interface in Mathematics: Teaching Style and Assessment Practice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thomas, Michael O. J.; Klymchuk, Sergiy

    2012-01-01

    Issues arising in the transition from secondary school to tertiary mathematics study are increasingly coming under scrutiny. In this paper, we analyse two practical aspects of the school-tertiary interface: teaching style; and assessment. We present some of the findings arising from a 2-year national project in New Zealand titled "Analysing the…

  17. Practice Parameter for the Assessment and Treatment of Children and Adolescents with Obsessive-Compulsive Disorder

    Science.gov (United States)

    Journal of the American Academy of Child & Adolescent Psychiatry, 2012

    2012-01-01

    Research in etiology, neurobiology, genetics, clinical correlates, and evidence-based treatments in children and adolescents with obsessive-compulsive disorder indicate a need for the revision of the Practice Parameters for the Assessment and Treatment of Children and Adolescents with Obsessive-Compulsive Disorder first published a decade ago. The…

  18. A Survey of Functional Behavior Assessment Methods Used by Behavior Analysts in Practice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oliver, Anthony C.; Pratt, Leigh A.; Normand, Matthew P.

    2015-01-01

    To gather information about the functional behavior assessment (FBA) methods behavior analysts use in practice, we sent a web-based survey to 12,431 behavior analysts certified by the Behavior Analyst Certification Board. Ultimately, 724 surveys were returned, with the results suggesting that most respondents regularly use FBA methods, especially…

  19. Incorporating Risk Assessment and Inherently Safer Design Practices into Chemical Engineering Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seay, Jeffrey R.; Eden, Mario R.

    2008-01-01

    This paper introduces, via case study example, the benefit of including risk assessment methodology and inherently safer design practices into the curriculum for chemical engineering students. This work illustrates how these tools can be applied during the earliest stages of conceptual process design. The impacts of decisions made during…

  20. Authentic Assessment as "Best Practice" for Early Childhood Intervention: National Consumer Social Validity Research

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bagnato, Stephen J.; Goins, Deborah D.; Pretti-Frontczak, Kristie; Neisworth, John T.

    2014-01-01

    The early childhood professionals recognize the limitations of conventional testing with young children. This recognition has given rise to Authentic Assessment, now recognized officially as best practice by the major professional organizations. However, no national studies have been conducted to document the comparative qualities of either…