WorldWideScience

Sample records for assessing environmental impacts

  1. Methodology for Environmental Impact Assessment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This report is an appendix to 'Environmental Impact Assessment Interim storage, encapsulation and disposal of spent nuclear fuel'. The appendix presents the methodology and criteria used in support investigations to conduct impact assessments

  2. Environmental impact assessment screening tool

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    An environmental assessment and impact planning software, SCREENER, was tested at a pilot project at the Cameco site (Port Hope). SCREENER was used to screen the impacts of a new construction project in accordance with the process and reporting requirements laid out in the Canadian Environmental Assessment Act. The software test concentrated on the activities that are directly involved with the structure construction and site preparation activities. In addition, a two and one half day training course was given to three AECB staff using the test case as a hands on example. The conclusion of this project is that an automated tool such as SCREENER (or Calyx, the new generation of environmental assessment tools from ESSA Software Ltd.), will help the AECB to standardize the approach to environmental assessment, assist in project planning, and save resources in the screening process. The new approach could allow to allocate AECB limited resources to the detailed assessments required for maximum impact activities

  3. Environmental impact assessment Geopressure Subprogram

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    1977-07-01

    This environmental impact assessment (EIA) addresses the expected programmatic activities of the Geopressure Subprogram of the Division of Geothermal Energy. The goal of the Geopressure Subprogram is to stimulate development of geopressured resources as an economic, reliable, operationally safe, and environmentally acceptable energy source. The subprogram includes activities in the areas of engineering research and development; resource exploration, assessment, and development; resource utilization including pilot and demonstration facilities; and environmental research and control technology development. It should be recognized that most of the subprogram activities extend over several years and are in their early stages of implementation at this time. The zones of potential geopressure development are in the region located along the Texas and Louisiana Gulf Coasts extending up to 200 miles (300 km) inland. Geopressured zones are sedimentary basins where water is trapped at high pressures within or below thick, nearly impermeable shale sequences. The confined water supports most or all of the weight of the overburden. This inhibits sediment compaction and causes formation pore pressure to exceed hydrostatic pressure. in sedimentary basins that are underlain by thin oceanic crust, upward thermal conduction from the mantle heats geopressured fluids and sediments to abnormally high temperatures, often in excess of 260 C (500 F).

  4. Proposal of standardization in environmental impact assessment

    OpenAIRE

    Maitê de Souza Sandoval; Leandro Eugenio da Silva Cerri

    2009-01-01

    The evaluation of the significance of environmental impacts remains an important critical yet poorly understood component of environmental impact assessment (EIA) practice. This work is a study upon the findings of a bibliographic review about the evaluation and communication of environmental impact assessment in Brazil practice. Particular attention is given to the use of significance criteria, thresholds and EIA methodologies intending to incorporate more efficiency of environmental impact ...

  5. Environmental Impact Assessment of Manufacturing Industry Projects

    OpenAIRE

    Sigita Židonienė

    2016-01-01

    This article is focused on manufacturing industry and its significant environmental impact aspects coverage in environmental impact assessment (EIA) reports in Lithuania. Firstly, the paper describes how a significant impact can be determined and what sources should be used in its identification. Secondly, the significant environmental aspects related to manufacturing industry are identified. The main result of the paper is the depiction of how identified significant environmental aspects are...

  6. Environmental impact assessment in the Nordic Countries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A meeting on Environmental Impact Assessment has been held in Iceland, September 2-6, 2000. It was held within the framework of the project NKS/SOS-3 (Radioactive waste), subproject NKS/SOS-3.1 (Environmental Impact Assessment). The meeting included presentations, discussions and a study trip to the Egilsstadir and Myvatn districts. (au)

  7. Is Environmental Impact Assessment fulfilling its potential?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, Sanne Vammen

    2014-01-01

    fuel with CO2-neutral energy sources. A variety of these projects are subject to environmental impact assessment (EIA), which raises the following questions: What role does an impact assessment play? When is the project environmentally friendly? How are climate change-related impacts assessed......One of the topics receiving much attention in recent years is climate change and the potential of its integration in impact assessment, both in terms of achieving mitigation and adaptation. Renewable energy projects are part of the efforts to mitigate climate change, replacing the use of fossil...... adaptation is absent. Also, the results show an emphasis on positive impacts in the reports, and in a few cases discussions of enhancements. Identification and assessment of negative climate change impacts are less apparent. This leads to a discussion of the results in the light of the purpose of EIA....

  8. Environmental Impact Assessment Studies in Additive Manufacturing

    OpenAIRE

    Kerbrat, Olivier; Le Bourhis, Florent; MOGNOL, Pascal; Hascoët, Jean-Yves

    2016-01-01

    International audience This chapter focuses on the environmental studies in additive manufacturing. For a cleaner production, environmental impacts that occur during the manufacturing phase should be assessed with accuracy. First, the literature on all the studies led to the characterization of the environmental impact of additive manufacturing processes. The studies on electric energy consumption of these processes are analyzed here, and then some studies taking into account raw material ...

  9. Road ecology in environmental impact assessment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Karlson, Mårten, E-mail: mkarlso@kth.se; Mörtberg, Ulla, E-mail: mortberg@kth.se; Balfors, Berit, E-mail: balfors@kth.se

    2014-09-15

    Transport infrastructure has a wide array of effects on terrestrial and aquatic ecosystems, and road and railway networks are increasingly being associated with a loss of biodiversity worldwide. Environmental Impact Assessment (EIA) and Strategic Environmental Assessment (SEA) are two legal frameworks that concern physical planning, with the potential to identify, predict, mitigate and/or compensate transport infrastructure effects with negative impacts on biodiversity. The aim of this study was to review the treatment of ecological impacts in environmental assessment of transport infrastructure plans and projects. A literature review on the topic of EIA, SEA, biodiversity and transport infrastructure was conducted, and 17 problem categories on the treatment of biodiversity were formulated by means of a content analysis. A review of environmental impact statements and environmental reports (EIS/ER) produced between 2005 and 2013 in Sweden and the UK was then conducted using the list of problems as a checklist. The results show that the treatment of ecological impacts has improved substantially over the years, but that some impacts remain problematic; the treatment of fragmentation, the absence of quantitative analysis and that the impact assessment study area was in general delimited without consideration for the scales of ecological processes. Actions to improve the treatment of ecological impacts could include improved guidelines for spatial and temporal delimitation, and the establishment of a quantitative framework including tools, methods and threshold values. Additionally, capacity building and further method development of EIA and SEA friendly spatial ecological models can aid in clarifying the costs as well as the benefits in development/biodiversity tradeoffs. - Highlights: • The treatment of ecological impacts in EIA and SEA has improved. • Quantitative methods for ecological impact assessment were rarely used • Fragmentation effects were recognized

  10. Road ecology in environmental impact assessment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Transport infrastructure has a wide array of effects on terrestrial and aquatic ecosystems, and road and railway networks are increasingly being associated with a loss of biodiversity worldwide. Environmental Impact Assessment (EIA) and Strategic Environmental Assessment (SEA) are two legal frameworks that concern physical planning, with the potential to identify, predict, mitigate and/or compensate transport infrastructure effects with negative impacts on biodiversity. The aim of this study was to review the treatment of ecological impacts in environmental assessment of transport infrastructure plans and projects. A literature review on the topic of EIA, SEA, biodiversity and transport infrastructure was conducted, and 17 problem categories on the treatment of biodiversity were formulated by means of a content analysis. A review of environmental impact statements and environmental reports (EIS/ER) produced between 2005 and 2013 in Sweden and the UK was then conducted using the list of problems as a checklist. The results show that the treatment of ecological impacts has improved substantially over the years, but that some impacts remain problematic; the treatment of fragmentation, the absence of quantitative analysis and that the impact assessment study area was in general delimited without consideration for the scales of ecological processes. Actions to improve the treatment of ecological impacts could include improved guidelines for spatial and temporal delimitation, and the establishment of a quantitative framework including tools, methods and threshold values. Additionally, capacity building and further method development of EIA and SEA friendly spatial ecological models can aid in clarifying the costs as well as the benefits in development/biodiversity tradeoffs. - Highlights: • The treatment of ecological impacts in EIA and SEA has improved. • Quantitative methods for ecological impact assessment were rarely used • Fragmentation effects were recognized

  11. The value of environmental impact assessments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The environment and the economy are inextricably linked. Today the environmental, economic, and social associated with project and program decisions are at times of such a magnitude and duration that they exceed our ability to understand, let alone mitigate them. Energy production, distribution, pricing, policies, end uses, and externalities demonstrate the need for wise planning and informed decision making. International cooperation, based upon mutually shared respect, responsibility, and innovative solutions is an essential component of addressing contemporary issues, impacts, and opportunities. Both egypt and the united states have laws requiring environmental impact assessments. Just as egypt can learn from our successes and failures in the environmental impact assessment field over the past 36 years, the united states and other nations can learn as egypt develops and innovates its own approaches and solutions

  12. Environmental impact assessment of nuclear desalination

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nuclear desalination is gaining interest among the IAEA Member States, as indicated by the planned projects, and it is expected that the number of nuclear desalination plants will increase in the near future. The IAEA has already provided its Member States with reports and documents that disseminate information regarding the technical and economic feasibility of nuclear desalination. With the rising environmental awareness, in the scope of IAEA's activities on seawater desalination using nuclear power, a need was identified for a report that would provide a generic assessment of the environmental issues in nuclear desalination. In order to offer an overview of specific environmental impacts which are to be expected, their probable magnitude, and recommended mitigation measures, this publication encompasses information provided by the IAEA Member States as well as other specialized sources. It is intended for decision makers and experts dealing with environmental, desalination and water management issues, offering insight into the environmental aspects that are essential in planning and developing nuclear desalination

  13. ENVIRONMENTAL CRITIQUE ON WATER SECTORAL ENVIRONMENTAL IMPACT ASSESSMENT OF BANGLADESH

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shahriar Rahman

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The water resources sector of Bangladesh relies on the Environmental Impact Assessments (EIAs to assess the possible positive and negative impacts on the environmental and social components of the project affected areas. The motivation of this research was to identify the key environmental components, gaps and lapses of current EIA practices in water resources sector of Bangladesh. Under the motivation, this study has determined the effectiveness of a water resources EIA (Gorai River Restoration Project for sustainable implication of water resources development and management projects in Bangladesh. Component-based checklist method and effectiveness review framework were used in this study to draw conclusions and to make environmental decisions on the important sections of the studied EIA. Review of the key aspects and the analysis of the effectiveness framework disclosed that the studied EIA is well performed and have considered sufficient information for decision making, but the residual and unavoidable impacts were not identified for all the important environment components in the construction and operation phase. Inclusion of important environmental and social components under different intervention scenarios, consideration of alternative flow regimes, suggestions and analysis of different project interventions ensuring public participation were the key strengths of the studies EIA. The considered environmental issues and aspects of this study can be used as guidelines for the future EIAs under the similar geo-environmental contexts. The developed review framework can be implemented in water resources EIA review process to ensure long-term sustainability of water resources projects.

  14. Determining Vulnerability Importance in Environmental Impact Assessment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The concept of vulnerability has been used to describe the susceptibility of physical, biotic, and social systems to harm or hazard. In this sense, it is a tool that reduces the uncertainties of Environmental Impact Assessment (EIA) since it does not depend exclusively on the value assessments of the evaluator, but rather is based on the environmental state indicators of the site where the projects or activities are being carried out. The concept of vulnerability thus reduces the possibility that evaluators will subjectively interpret results, and be influenced by outside interests and pressures during projects. However, up until now, EIA has been hindered by a lack of effective methods. This research study analyzes the concept of vulnerability, defines Vulnerability Importance and proposes its inclusion in qualitative EIA methodology. The method used to quantify Vulnerability Importance is based on a set of environmental factors and indicators that provide a comprehensive overview of the environmental state. The results obtained in Colombia highlight the usefulness and objectivity of this method since there is a direct relation between this value and the environmental state of the departments analyzed. - Research Highlights: ► The concept of vulnerability could be considered defining Vulnerability Importance included in qualitative EIA methodology. ► The use of the concept of environmental vulnerability could reduce the subjectivity of qualitative methods of EIA. ► A method to quantify the Vulnerability Importance proposed provides a comprehensive overview of the environmental state. ► Results in Colombia highlight the usefulness and objectivity of this method.

  15. Integrated environmental impact assessment: a Canadian example.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kwiatkowski, Roy E.; Ooi, Maria

    2003-01-01

    The Canadian federal process for environmental impact assessment (EIA) integrates health, social, and environmental aspects into either a screening, comprehensive study, or a review by a public panel, depending on the expected severity of potential adverse environmental effects. In this example, a Public Review Panel considered a proposed diamond mining project in Canada's northern territories, where 50% of the population are Aboriginals. The Panel specifically instructed the project proposer to determine how to incorporate traditional knowledge into the gathering of baseline information, preparing impact prediction, and planning mitigation and monitoring. Traditional knowledge is defined as the knowledge, innovations and practices of indigenous and/or local communities developed from experience gained over the centuries and adapted to local culture and environment. The mining company was asked to consider in its EIA: health, demographics, social and cultural patterns; services and infrastructure; local, regional and territorial economy; land and resource use; employment, education and training; government; and other matters. Cooperative efforts between government, industry and the community led to a project that coordinated the concerns of all interested stakeholders and the needs of present and future generations, thereby meeting the goals of sustainable development. The mitigation measures that were implemented take into account: income and social status, social support networks, education, employment and working conditions, physical environments, personal health practices and coping skills, and health services. PMID:12894328

  16. Philippine Environmental Impact Assessment, Mining and Genuine Development

    OpenAIRE

    Allan Ingelson, William Holden & Meriam Bravante

    2009-01-01

    Genuine development reflects sustainability. To promote genuine development in the context of mining, the environmental impact assessment process in the Philippines needs to be changed to respect ecological integrity, mitigate cumulative environmental effects, provide more information on environmental impacts to residents affected by a proposed mine and facilitate meaningful public participation in the impact assessment process.

  17. Quantitative Assessment of Implicit Environmental Impacts of Construction Projects

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    SHUAI Xiao-gen; LI Hui-qiang; TANG Li

    2009-01-01

    Assessment system of implicit environmental impacts was established including environmental impact indicator, resources consumption indicator and energy consumption indicator. The quantification of environmental impact indicators is based on the life cycle assessment system of the Society of Environmental Toxicology and Chemistry (SETAC) and the evaluation software BEES. Normalization reference values and weights of 12 categories of environmental impacts were identified, and the environmental impact indicators in the phases of raw material extraction, transportation, manufacturing, use and end of life were analyzed. By analyzing the environmental performance of a university refectory as a case study, it is demonstrated that human health, global warming and acidification are the first three environmental impacts in 12 categories. The total implicit environmental impact load per square meter of this project is 18.448×10~(-2) standard human equivalent weight. Moreover, 97.3% of total environmental impacts occur in the phase of raw material extraction.

  18. Methodology for Environmental Impact Assessment; Metodik foer miljoekonsekvensbedoemning

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Malmlund, Anna (Structor Miljoebyraan Stockholm AB (Sweden))

    2010-12-15

    This report is an appendix to 'Environmental Impact Assessment Interim storage, encapsulation and disposal of spent nuclear fuel'. The appendix presents the methodology and criteria used in support investigations to conduct impact assessments.

  19. Spatial information in public consultation within environmental impact assessments

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mwenda, A.N.

    2015-01-01

    Thesis Summary Spatial information in public consultation within Environmental Impact Assessments Angela N. Mwenda Established in the United States of America in 1970, Environmental Impact Assessment (EIA) is an interdisciplinary approach that considers the anticipated impacts of de

  20. A Computer-Based Approach to Environmental Impact Assessment

    OpenAIRE

    Fedra, K.

    1990-01-01

    Environmental Impact Assessment (EIA) requires the qualitative and quantitative prediction, assessment and evaluation of the impacts of human activities on the environment in terms of appropriate indicators. Various types of models are major tools for the prediction and analysis of these impacts. They must describe environmental systems in terms of those indicators that environmental law and regulations define and prescribe to evaluate the severity of impacts. In this report, methods and...

  1. Environmental impact assessment in the Nordic Countries; Miljoekonsekvensbeskrivningar i Norden

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Broden, K. [Studsvik RadWaste AB (Sweden); Palsson, S.E. [Geislavarnir rikisins (Iceland); Poroddsson, P. [Skipulagsstofnun (Iceland)

    2000-12-01

    A meeting on Environmental Impact Assessment has been held in Iceland, September 2-6, 2000. It was held within the framework of the project NKS/SOS-3 (Radioactive waste), subproject NKS/SOS-3.1 (Environmental Impact Assessment). The meeting included presentations, discussions and a study trip to the Egilsstadir and Myvatn districts. (au)

  2. Theory and Practice of Transboundary Environmental Impact Assessment

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bastmeijer, C.J.; Koivurova, T.

    2008-01-01

    Environmental Impact Assessment (EIA) is a well-established instrument of environmental law and policy that aims to ensure that potential adverse environmental effects of human activities are assessed before decisions on such activities are made. The instrument is increasingly being applied in respe

  3. 75 FR 5873 - Environmental Assessment or Environmental Impact Statement for Purchase of Renewable Energy From...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-02-04

    ... Environmental Assessment or Environmental Impact Statement for Purchase of Renewable Energy From CPV Ashley Wind... completed with publication of the Energy Vision 2020 Integrated Resource Plan and Final Environmental Impact... environmental impact statement (EIS) in order to address the potential environmental......

  4. A comprehensive environmental impact assessment method for shale gas development

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Renjin Sun

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available The great success of US commercial shale gas exploitation stimulates the shale gas development in China, subsequently, the corresponding supporting policies were issued in the 12th Five-Year Plan. But from the experience in the US shale gas development, we know that the resulted environmental threats are always an unavoidable issue, but no uniform and standard evaluation system has yet been set up in China. The comprehensive environment refers to the combination of natural ecological environment and external macro-environment. In view of this, we conducted a series of studies on how to set up a comprehensive environmental impact assessment system as well as the related evaluation methodology and models. First, we made an in-depth investigation into shale gas development procedures and any possible environmental impacts, and then compared, screened and modified environmental impact assessment methods for shale gas development. Also, we established an evaluating system and assessment models according to different status of the above two types of environment: the correlation matrix method was employed to assess the impacts on natural ecological environment and the optimization distance method was modified to evaluate the impacts on external macro-environment. Finally, we substitute the two subindexes into the comprehensive environmental impact assessment model and achieved the final numerical result of environmental impact assessment. This model can be used to evaluate if a shale gas project has any impact on environment, compare the impacts before and after a shale gas development project, or the impacts of different projects.

  5. An environmental impact assessment system for agricultural R and D

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A strategic planning process has been implemented at the Brazilian Agricultural Research Agency (Embrapa) to introduce sustainable agriculture concepts in all steps of Research and Development (R and D). An essential part of the devised mission statement called for the impact assessment of all technology innovation resulting from R and D, under field conditions (ex-post). However, methods for impact assessment of technology innovations at the farmstead level appropriate for the institutional context were lacking. The environmental impact assessment (EIA) system (AMBITEC-AGRO) developed to attend that demand is composed by a set of weighing matrices constructed in an electronic spreadsheet. Impact indicators are evaluated in the field in an interview/survey, and weighed according to their spatial scale and importance toward effecting environmental impacts. The results of these weighing procedures are expressed graphically in the assessment spreadsheets. Finally, the indicator evaluations are composed into an Environmental Impact Index for the agricultural technology innovation

  6. Environmental impacts assessment of industrial estate providing with managerial process

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nouri, J.; Mahvi, A.H.; Younesian, M.; Nabizadeh, R.; Hashemi, I. [Univ. of Tehran (Iran)

    2007-07-01

    The existence of balance, coordination and required order among natural elements is one of the key factors in the ecosystem. If this balance is disturbed under certain circumstances, it will damage the structure of living existences and more specifically human beings. Since a half century ago, factors such as important economical and industrial activites, advanced technologies together with growing population and lack of concordance among different couhntries to take optimal advantage of the existing natural resources have distrubed the balance in the ecosystem. As a result, man has caused many problems such as high death tolls and arduous diseases due to the different pollutions in water, air, land, sound, temperature, etc and factors such as erosion, desert, expansion, floods, extinction of plant and animal species, ozone layer destruction, global warming, sea level rise and greenhouse gases increase. Environmental Impact Assessment (EIA) is to recognize and assess systematic consequences of projects and programs on elements like physicochemical, biological, cultural, economical and social phenomena in th environment; in other words it is a way or method to determine the direction of predication and assessment of environmental impacts of activities on the environmental health of the ecosystem affecting human lives. In this study, and environmental impact assessment of the establishment of the Shahzand Industrial Estate in Arak at the central part of Iran was investigated. After collection of data and analysis of the findings, the positive and negative impacts resulting from establishment of the indutrial estate were investigated using the Leopold Matrix and Scaling checklist methods providing the managerial solutions in order to minimize the harmful environmental impacts. The existing environmental situation was investigated and then environmental impact alternatives were determined. This was done in regard to the amount and kind of predicted pollution for the

  7. Assessing the environmental impacts of aircraft noise and emissions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mahashabde, Anuja; Wolfe, Philip; Ashok, Akshay; Dorbian, Christopher; He, Qinxian; Fan, Alice; Lukachko, Stephen; Mozdzanowska, Aleksandra; Wollersheim, Christoph; Barrett, Steven R. H.; Locke, Maryalice; Waitz, Ian A.

    2011-01-01

    With the projected growth in demand for commercial aviation, many anticipate increased environmental impacts associated with noise, air quality, and climate change. Therefore, decision-makers and stakeholders are seeking policies, technologies, and operational procedures that balance environmental and economic interests. The main objective of this paper is to address shortcomings in current decision-making practices for aviation environmental policies. We review knowledge of the noise, air quality, and climate impacts of aviation, and demonstrate how including environmental impact assessment and quantifying uncertainties can enable a more comprehensive evaluation of aviation environmental policies. A comparison is presented between the cost-effectiveness analysis currently used for aviation environmental policy decision-making and an illustrative cost-benefit analysis. We focus on assessing a subset of the engine NO X emissions certification stringency options considered at the eighth meeting of the International Civil Aviation Organization’s Committee on Aviation Environmental Protection. The FAA Aviation environmental Portfolio Management Tool (APMT) is employed to conduct the policy assessments. We show that different conclusions may be drawn about the same policy options depending on whether benefits and interdependencies are estimated in terms of health and welfare impacts versus changes in NO X emissions inventories as is the typical practice. We also show that these conclusions are sensitive to a variety of modeling uncertainties. While our more comprehensive analysis makes the best policy option less clear, it represents a more accurate characterization of the scientific and economic uncertainties underlying impacts and the policy choices.

  8. E-IMPACT - A ROBUST HAZARD-BASED ENVIRONMENTAL IMPACT ASSESSMENT APPROACH FOR PROCESS INDUSTRIES

    OpenAIRE

    KHANDOKER A. HOSSAIN; FAISAL KHAN; KELLY HAWBOLDT

    2008-01-01

    This paper proposes a hazard-based environmental impact assessment approach (E-Impact), for evaluating the environmental impact during process design and retrofit stages. E-Impact replaces the normalisation step of the conventional impact assessment phase. This approach compares the impact scores for different options and assigns a relative score to each option. This eliminates the complexity of the normalisation step in the evaluation phase. The applicability of the E-Impact has been illustr...

  9. Environmental impact assessment for energy pathways: an integrated methodology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This document presents the synthesis of my research work contributing to the development of an integrated methodology of environmental impact assessment for energy pathways. In the context of world globalization, environmental impact assessments issues are highly linked with the following questioning: Which environmental impacts? for which demand? at which location? at which temporal scale? My work is built upon the definition of a conceptual framework able to handle these issues and upon its progressive implementation. The integration of the spatial and temporal issues within the methodology are key elements. Fundamental cornerstones of this framework are presented along the DPSIR concept (Driving forces, Pressures, State, Impacts, Responses). They cover a comprehensive analysis of the limits and the relevance of life cycle analysis and the development of a geo-spatialized environmental performance approach for an electrical production pathway. Perspectives linked with the development of this integrated methodology are detailed for energy pathways. (author)

  10. Assessing environmental impacts in a life cycle perspective

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hauschild, Michael Zwicky

    2005-01-01

    is focused on the product system which comprises all the processes which the product and its components meet throughout their lives- from the extraction of raw materials via manufacture, use and waste management to final disposal, or in short from the cradle to the grave (see Figure 1). The focus......What are the environmental impacts from an armchairor a cellular phone or a steak, if you take into account all the activities needed to produce, maintain, use or consume and eventually dispose of it? Life cycle impact assessment is the part of life cycle assessment (LCA) where the inventory...... of material flows in the life cycle of a product are translated into environmental impacts and consumption of resources, and questions like these are given an answer. The environmental impacts may range from very local (e.g. land use) to global (like climate change). As an environmental analysis tool, LCA...

  11. Environmental impact assessment in practice: A gender critique

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The author evaluates the extent to which environmental impact assessment (EIA) as conceptualized by EIA systems is a gendered process. Through a discourse analysis of in-depth interviews with bureaucrats, technocrats, and activists involved with the Sardar Sarovar dam project in India, the author examines the practice of EIA in a Third World country. She uses a theoretical framework, informed by a theory of gender, to evaluate the interviews. In practice, EIA is marked by gender biases that ignore the gender-specific nature of impacts. Such biases distort the impact assessment process, making environmental sustainability difficult, if not impossible, to achieve

  12. Use of animal species data in environmental impact assessments

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Knegtering, E; Drees, JM; Geertsema, P; Huitema, HJ; Uiterkamp, AJMS; Huitema, Hans J.; Schoot Uiterkamp, Anton J.M.

    2005-01-01

    Environmental Impact Assessments (EIAs) should ideally help minimize adverse effects on biological diversity by considering impacts of projects on wide ranges of species. This paper investigates how recent Dutch EIAs included the species comprising animal diversity. We present results of two studies

  13. Environmental impacts assessment: Instruments for environmental policy making and resource management

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This review of evaluation criteria for environmental impacts assessments in Italy covers the following aspects: the efficacy of current Italian normatives governing assessment methods, the current approach of regional public administrations, the necessity for the creation of a national regulating board, environmental impacts assessment for complex environmental systems, the application of impacts assessment recommendations to resource development modelling in the planning of integrated environmental-economic systems, the involvement of the general public in decision making, techniques to determine the monetary worth of environmental resources, the use of multi-criteria analysis techniques

  14. A Study on Public Participation in Environmental Impact Assessments

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WangJing

    2005-01-01

    China's legislature on the environmental impact assessments contains related provisions on public participation as an important element of institutions in this field. So far, however, the stipulation remains at the level of a plain statement of principle both substantially and procedurally. The newly enacted Law on the Assessment of the Environment Impact has seen great progress in provisions for public participation if compared with similar statutes enacted in the past legislation. However, there is a gap in the procedures,

  15. Recent advances in environmental monitoring and impact assessment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Right from the beginning, protection of public from radiation is considered as the top priority research area among nuclear scientists. It is mandatory to conduct an environmental impact assessment during the various stages of nuclear installation such as design, construction, operation, decommissioning, etc. to ensure that radiological impact to human due to the practices will not impart any undue impact to present generation as well as to future generation. Over the period of time, the impact assessment methodologies have evolved from using mere measured data to complicated mathematical calculations based on several environmental parameters. This was necessary to accommodate the complex transport of radionuclides through environment which depends upon many other physical, chemical and biological parameters of the environment. (author)

  16. Environmental impact assessement related to metallurgical industry activities

    OpenAIRE

    Cirtina, D.; Ionescu, N; L. M. Cirtina

    2016-01-01

    In this work is presented the impact assess of metallurgical specific activities on the environment through global pollution index calculation. The pollution index value calculated for environmental components: air, water, soil, vegetation, noise, waste, population health status indicated an environment subject to human effect within acceptable limits.

  17. Innovative highlights in the environmental impact assessment Maasvlakte 2

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ledden, M.; Bolle, L.J.; Boon, J.; Borst, W.; Prooijen, van B.; Ronde, de J.

    2008-01-01

    This paper highlights the innovations during the environmental impact assessment of the land reclamation (Maasvlakte 2) near the port of Rotterdam (The Netherlands). The construction of this new port area consists of two main activities: sand mining in the North Sea and land reclamation near the har

  18. Silver emissions and their environmental impacts: a multilevel assessment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eckelman, Matthew J; Graedel, T E

    2007-09-01

    A detailed accounting of environmental releases of silver is presented for the year 1997, based on data from Yale University's Stocks and Flows (STAF) project and other sources. The analysis is carried out for 64 countries, eight regions, and the world. From the chemical composition and receiving media of these different releases, each emission category is assigned an environmental impact score in accordance with the Indiana Relative Chemical Hazard (IRCH) ranking system. Flows are scaled by impact and land area to form an overall semiquantitative assessment of the environmental impact of silver. Of the 64 countries, the United States has the highest gross emissions for nearly all flows to the environment. On a regional basis, Asia is the largest emitter of silver directly to land and water. In major silver-producing countries, tailings tend to have the highest environmental impact of any emissions category; in nonproducing countries, it is dissipation to land (Hong Kong having the highest impact in this category). Globally, more than 13 Gg of silver are emitted annually to the environment, with that in tailings and landfills making up almost three-fourths of the total. The utility of this method for evaluating the environmental impact of other metals is explored. PMID:17937316

  19. Environmental impact assessment of genetically modified biocontrol agents

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This review summarises the theoretical basis of risk analysis, and the political and social implications of introducing new biotechnology products in agricultural environments. The main factors to be considered under the present European regulation in the environmental impact assessment of genetically modified biocontrol agents are briefly discussed. Finally, an alternative risk assessment paradigm is proposed for genetically modified microorganisms, which shall consider the intrinsic properties of each antagonist, rather than the method used for generating it

  20. [Environmental impact assessment based on planning support system].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Wen-Bo; Carsjens, Gerrit-Jan

    2011-02-01

    How to assess environmental impact is one of the keys in land use planning. This article described in detail the concepts of activities, impact zones, functions, and sensitivities, as well as the development of STEPP (strategic tool for integrating environmental aspects in planning procedures) based on Avenue, the secondary developing language of ArcView GIS. The system makes it convenient for planning practitioners exchanging information, and can spatially, visually and quantitatively describe environmental impact and its change. In this study, the urban-rural combination area located between EDE and Veenendaal of The Netherlands was taken as case, and the results indicated that the environment was incorporated well in the planning procedure based on the concepts, and could also demonstrate the effects of planning measures on environment spatially, explicitly, and in real-time, facilitating the participation of planning practitioners and decision-making. Some proposals of how to promote STEEP application in China were suggested.

  1. Environmental information system for visualizing environmental impact assessment information.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cserny, Angelika; Kovács, Zsófia; Domokos, Endre; Rédey, Akos

    2009-01-01

    The Institute of Environmental Engineering at the University of Pannonia has undertaken the challenge to develop an online environmental information system. This system is able to receive and process the collected environmental data via Internet. The authors have attached importance to the presentation of the data and have included other comprehensible information for laymen as well in order to work out visualisation techniques that are expressive and attract attention for environmental questions through the developed information system. The ways of visualizing physical and chemical parameters of surface water and the effects of motorway construction were examined.

  2. Planning Environmental Impact Assessment Orienting Sustainable Development:Opportunities and Challenges

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Sun Yanjun; Chen Xingeng; Bao Yun; Peng Xiaochun; Gao Changbo

    2005-01-01

    Strategic Environmental Assessment is a frontier subject in the field of Environmental Impact Assessment. In the past two decades, especially in recent years, much more importance has been attached to Strategic Environmental Assessment. The Environmental Impact Assessment Law of the P.R.China which was promulgated provides a great opportunity for the development of Planning Environmental Impact Assessment and brings great challenges for the development of traditional Project Environmental Impact Assessment and Planning Environmental Impact Assessment at the same time.In order to promote the implementation of"The EIA Law", the inherent limitations of Project Environmental Impact Assessment must be identified sufficiendy and the theory research and practice of Planning Environmental Impact Assessment should be strengthened as well. Measures should be taken currendy to enforce the operation system. The authors wish to offer a few references to the progress and implementation of Planning Environmental Impact Assessment in China.

  3. Environmental impacts assessment for hydropower development planning in China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Gu Hongbin; Yu Weiqi; Cui Lei

    2009-01-01

    This article briefly introduced China's law framework and technical standards related to environmental im-pacts assessment(EIA) for hydropower development, and the EIA developing process for hydropower development plan-ning. Authors summarized the working experiences about hydropower development planning EIA done in the recent years in China, discussed the considerations and methods of hydropower development planning EIA, and put forward the index system for hydropower development planning EIA initially.

  4. Environmental impact assessment for an OTEC plant in Martinique Island

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Ocean Thermal Energy Conversion (OTEC) is a marine renewable energy system that uses the temperature difference between the cold deep waters and warm surface waters to produce electricity. DCNS, a world-expert in naval defence and an innovator in energy has conducted technical, juridical and environmental feasibility studies of a plant offshore Martinique under an agreement with the Regional Council. In this context, DCNS realised a preliminary Environmental Impact Assessment in order to prepare public debate to be done further. Due to innovation of such a project, a specific methodology has been done for that. First step was to study bibliography in details, for site assessment of course, but also for impacts of other projects in the world that should present relevant similarities with OTEC (coastal thermal power plants for example). This bibliographic study dealt with thematic synthesis for each topic of physical, biological and human field that could be impacted by the project (total of 28 topics). The aim was to define priorities for specific assessments that have been done further: acoustic impacts, biogeochemical impacts of artificial upwelling, biofouling impacts, etc. Some of these topics are now on course with specific scientific research programs that have been launched at the end of this study. For each new topic, a specific methodology has been used or adapted for OTEC. These methods are made step by step, with a preliminary approach followed by a specific research program when it is necessary. Noise prediction has been done with a specific tool used for ship construction industry and a 3D propagation modelling. Biofouling has been assessed by a bibliographic approach and will be precised further with experimental moorings. Biogeochemical and biological impacts due to artificial and localised upwelling are now being studied in details with a double skill approach (physical modelling and plankton analysis), after preliminary water chemicals

  5. A new approach for environmental justice impact assessment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    President Clinton's Executive Order 12898 calls for examination of disproportionately high and adverse impacts to minority and low-income communities. In addition to demographic mapping, environmental justice analyses should also include quantitative impact assessment to show presence or absence of disproportionate impacts. This study demonstrates use of a geographic information system (GIS) and a computer model. For this demonstration, a safety analysis report and a computer code were used to develop impact assessment data from a hypothetical facility accident producing a radiological airborne plume. The computer code modeled the plume, plotted dose contours, and provided latitude and longitude coordinates for transfer to the GIS. The GIS integrated and mapped the impact and demographic data toprovide a graphical representation of the plume with respect to the population. Impacts were then analyzed. The GIS was used to estimate the total dose to the exposed population under the plume, the dose to the low-income population under the plume, and the dose to the minority population under the plume. Impacts among the population groups were compared to determine whether a dispropotionate share of the impacts were borne by minority or low-income populations

  6. Environmental Impact Assessment in the Visegrad Group countries

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gałaś, Slávka, E-mail: sgalas@geol.agh.edu.pl [AGH University of Science and Technology, Faculty of Geology, Geophysics and Environmental Protection, Department of Environmental Analysis, Cartography and Economic Geology Al. Mickiewicza 30, 30 059 Krakow (Poland); Gałaś, Andrzej, E-mail: pollux@geol.agh.edu.pl [AGH University of Science and Technology, Faculty of Geology, Geophysics and Environmental Protection, Department of Environmental Analysis, Cartography and Economic Geology Al. Mickiewicza 30, 30 059 Krakow (Poland); Zeleňáková, Martina, E-mail: martina.zelenakova@tuke.sk [Technical University of Košice, Faculty of Civil Engineering, Institute of Environmental Engineering, Vysokoškolská 4, 042 00 Košice (Slovakia); Zvijáková, Lenka, E-mail: lenkazvijakova@gmail.com [Technical University of Košice, Faculty of Civil Engineering, Institute of Environmental Engineering, Vysokoškolská 4, 042 00 Košice (Slovakia); Fialová, Jitka, E-mail: jitka.fialova@mendelu.cz [Mendel University in Brno, Faculty of Forestry and Wood Technology, Department of Landscape Management, Zemědělská 3, 613 00 Brno (Czech Republic); and others

    2015-11-15

    Highlights: • Comparison and evaluation of EIA systems in the V4 countries are presented. • Strengths and weaknesses of EIA systems based on a questionnaire survey are stated. • The function and efficiency of the EIA application in the V4 countries are analysed. • Irregularities and shortcomings of EIA systems in the V4 should be eliminated. The Environmental Impact Assessment Directive (EIA Directive) has created a reference framework for the implementation of the system of Environmental Impact Assessment (EIA) into the legal systems of the Member States of the European Union, including the countries belonging to the Visegrad Group (V4): Poland, Slovakia, the Czech Republic and Hungary. The Directive was the basis for the introduction of compulsory stages of the EIA process in the V4. The stages were then adapted to national requirements, including thresholds of the qualifying criteria of projects at the screening and scoping stages. The EIA system in the analysed countries has been growing, changing and being modified together with the political and economic changes of the last 30 years. Although all Visegrad Group countries are members of the EU and should harmonize the provisions of the EIA Directive and its amendments, there still exist singularities in each country's national EIA legislation, in terms of complementarities among the V4 countries, access to information resources, protection of natural resources, mitigation of socio-environmental impacts, or transboundary impact assessment. The article compares and evaluates the EIA systems in the four countries, specifies similarities and differences in the implementation of administrative proceedings and points out opportunities to strengthen the system. It presents selected results of a study conducted in 2013 within the framework of the international project “Assessment of the quality of the environment in the V4 Countries” (AQE V4). This paper indicates examples of good practice in the EIA

  7. Environmental Impact Assessment in the Visegrad Group countries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Highlights: • Comparison and evaluation of EIA systems in the V4 countries are presented. • Strengths and weaknesses of EIA systems based on a questionnaire survey are stated. • The function and efficiency of the EIA application in the V4 countries are analysed. • Irregularities and shortcomings of EIA systems in the V4 should be eliminated. The Environmental Impact Assessment Directive (EIA Directive) has created a reference framework for the implementation of the system of Environmental Impact Assessment (EIA) into the legal systems of the Member States of the European Union, including the countries belonging to the Visegrad Group (V4): Poland, Slovakia, the Czech Republic and Hungary. The Directive was the basis for the introduction of compulsory stages of the EIA process in the V4. The stages were then adapted to national requirements, including thresholds of the qualifying criteria of projects at the screening and scoping stages. The EIA system in the analysed countries has been growing, changing and being modified together with the political and economic changes of the last 30 years. Although all Visegrad Group countries are members of the EU and should harmonize the provisions of the EIA Directive and its amendments, there still exist singularities in each country's national EIA legislation, in terms of complementarities among the V4 countries, access to information resources, protection of natural resources, mitigation of socio-environmental impacts, or transboundary impact assessment. The article compares and evaluates the EIA systems in the four countries, specifies similarities and differences in the implementation of administrative proceedings and points out opportunities to strengthen the system. It presents selected results of a study conducted in 2013 within the framework of the international project “Assessment of the quality of the environment in the V4 Countries” (AQE V4). This paper indicates examples of good practice in the EIA

  8. Approaches to integrated monitoring for environmental health impact assessment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Liu Hai-Ying

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Although Integrated Environmental Health Monitoring (IEHM is considered an essential tool to better understand complex environmental health issues, there is no consensus on how to develop such a programme. We reviewed four existing frameworks and eight monitoring programmes in the area of environmental health. We identified the DPSEEA (Driving Force-Pressure-State-Exposure-Effect-Action framework as most suitable for developing an IEHM programme for environmental health impact assessment. Our review showed that most of the existing monitoring programmes have been designed for specific purposes, resulting in narrow scope and limited number of parameters. This therefore limits their relevance for studying complex environmental health topics. Other challenges include limited spatial and temporal data availability, limited development of data sharing mechanisms, heterogeneous data quality, a lack of adequate methodologies to link disparate data sources, and low level of interdisciplinary cooperation. To overcome some of these challenges, we propose a DPSEEA-based conceptual framework for an IEHM programme that would enable monitoring and measuring the impact of environmental changes on human health. We define IEHM as ‘a systemic process to measure, analyse and interpret the state and changes of natural-eco-anthropogenic systems and its related health impact over time at the same location with causative explanations across the various compartments of the cause-effect chain’. We develop a structural work process to integrate information that is based on existing environmental health monitoring programmes. Such a framework allows the development of combined monitoring systems that exhibit a large degree of compatibility between countries and regions.

  9. Environmental and health impact assessment for ports in Thailand.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chanchang, Chamchan; Sithisarankul, Pornchai; Supanitayanon, Thanawat

    2016-01-01

    Port development in Thailand is an essential part of the national maritime interest in connection with ship and shore activities. The growth of maritime industry and transportation has led to the expansion of ports' areas and capacity. Each port type causes different environmental impacts. Therefore, the Port Authority of Thailand has set up guidelines on ports' environmental management. This is divided into 3 major phases; namely, planning, construction and operation commencement periods. The Report of Environmental and Health Impact Assessment (EIA, HIA and EHIA) is regarded as the environmental management process in the planning period. It is a key tool to anticipate and prevent any adverse effects that might occur on the environment as well as community health resulting from the project implementation. This measure, in turn, creates advance preparation on both the preventive and problem-solving means before the project gets off the ground. At present, the majority of new projects on port development have still been in the process of information gathering for EHIA submission. Some cannot start to operate due to their EHIA failure. For example, the Tha-sala port which did not pass EHIA, mainly because emphasis had been focused on adhering to legal regulations without taking into consideration the in-depth analysis of data being conducted by community entities in the area. Thus caused the project to be finally abolished. Impact assessment on environment and health should be aimed at detailed understanding of the community in each particular area so that effective data of objective achievement in preventing environmental problems could actually be carried out and welcomed by the concerned society. PMID:27364177

  10. Health Impact Assessment Practice and Potential for Integration within Environmental Impact and Strategic Environmental Assessments in Italy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nunzia Linzalone

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Avoiding or minimizing potential environmental impact is the driving idea behind protecting a population’s health via Environmental Impact Assessments (EIAs and Strategic Environmental Assessments (SEAs. However, both are often carried out without any systematic approach. This paper describes the findings of a review of HIA, EIA and SEA experiences carried out by the authors, who act as institutional competent subjects at the national and regional levels in Italy. The analysis of how health is tackled in EIA and SEA procedures could support the definition of a protocol for the integration of HIA with EIA and SEA. Although EIA and SEA approaches include the aim of protecting health, significant technical and methodological gaps are present when assessing health systematically, and their basic principles regarding assessment are unsatisfactory for promoting and addressing healthcare concepts stated by the WHO. HIA is still poorly integrated into the decision-making process, screening and monitoring phases are only occasionally implemented, and operational details are not well-defined. The collaborative approach of institutions involved in environment and health is a core element in a systematic advancement toward supporting effective decisions and effective protection of the environment and health. At the Italian national level, the definition of guidelines and tools for HIA, also in relation with EIA and SEA, is of great interest.

  11. Study on Environmental Impact Assessment of Technological Transformation Project of X Corporation

    OpenAIRE

    Dianwei Qi; Xin Zhang

    2013-01-01

    China is the world first country to produce cement. It is necessary for concrete construction project to implement environmental impact assessment according to national legal requirements. Applying the theory of the environmental impact assessment and environmental impact laws and regulations ,based on engineering analysis and environmental status investigation and evaluation, the paper studies on environmental impact assessment about technological transformation project of X Corporation and ...

  12. 78 FR 46378 - La Crosse Boiling Water Reactor, Environmental Assessment and Finding of No Significant Impact...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-07-31

    ... COMMISSION La Crosse Boiling Water Reactor, Environmental Assessment and Finding of No Significant Impact Regarding an Exemption Request AGENCY: Nuclear Regulatory Commission. ACTION: Environmental assessment and... Waste Management and Environmental Protection, Office of Federal and State Materials and...

  13. Biogas upgrading technologies:Energetic analysis and environmental impact assessment

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Yajing Xu; Ying Huang; Bin Wu; Xiangping Zhang; Suojiang Zhang

    2015-01-01

    Biogas upgrading for removing CO2 and other trace components from raw biogas is a necessary step before the biogas to be used as a vehicle fuel or supplied to the natural gas grid. In this work, three technologies for biogas upgrading, i.e., pressured water scrubbing (PWS), monoethanolamine aqueous scrubbing (MAS) and ionic liquid scrubbing (ILS), are studied and assessed in terms of their energy consumption and environmental impacts with the process simulation and green degree method. A non-random-two-liquid and Henry's law property method for a CO2 separation system with ionic liquid 1-butyl-3-methylimidazolium bis(trifluoromethylsulfonyl)imide ([bmim][Tf2N]) is established and verified with experimental data. The assessment results indicate that the specific energy consumption of ILS and PWS is almost the same and much less than that of MAS. High purity CO2 product can be obtained by MAS and ILS methods, whereas no pure CO2 is recovered with the PWS. For the environmental aspect, ILS has the highest green degree production value, while MAS and PWS produce serious environmental impacts.

  14. A Model for Environmental Impact Assessment of Land Reclamation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    GUO Wei; LI Shu-heng; MAO Liang; YIN Yong; ZHU Da-kui

    2007-01-01

    Land reclamation is a complex marine environmental engineering and has a huge impact on social, economic, and physical environment. Reclamation environmental impact assessment (REIA) is also a complicated project, including the assessment of social economic background, ocean engineering, coastal geomorphology, sediment transportation, marine hydrodynamics and marine ecosystem and so on. Nowadays, a large number of land reclaimed projects have been carried out or in the process of construction along the coastal zone, thus, it is necessary to build up a framework on REIA to evaluate and quantify the environmental changes, to contribute to reclamation program, to reduce marine environmental disasters, and to sustain development of coastal zone. This article focuses on the research of REIA framework theory and puts forward a REIA model on land reclaimed evaluation, at the same time, applies this assessment system in Shenzhen City, which is a highly developed coastal city with an expectation of land reclamation. By use of the Remote Sensing (RS) and Geographic Information System (GIS) techniques, along with the topographic map and in situ survey in reclamation area, it concludes that the area of 2680 hectares in total has been reclaimed in Shenzhen city by the end of the year 2000. Thus, reclamation is usually applied to meet the needs for infrastructure, such as harbors, industries and highways in Shenzhen City. However, some serious negative impacts have been created to the coastal environment shown clearly in the following aspects. Firstly, it caused the dramatic changes of tidal flat and channels along the western coast, made this area more unstable, which is threatening the function of the harbor in this area. Secondly, Tidal prism has decreased rapidly. During the 20 years of reclamation, the tidal prism has been reduced by 20%~30% along the western coast in the Lingdingyang Estuary, and 15.6% in the Shenzhen Bay. As a result, the velocity of the tidal current

  15. Analysis of environmental impact assessment (EIA) system in Turkey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coşkun, Aynur Aydın; Turker, Ozhan

    2011-04-01

    The Environmental Impact Assessment (EIA) System, which embodies the "prevention principle" of the environmental law, is an important tool for environmental protection. This tool has a private importance for Turkey since it is a developing country, and it entered the Turkish law in 1983 with the Environmental Law. Besides, the EIA Regulation, which shows the application principles, became effective in 1993. Because Turkey is a candidate for European Union (EU), the EIA Regulation has been changed due to the EU compliance procedure, and its latest version became valid in 2008. This study aims to emphasize The EIA system in Turkey to supervise the efficiency of this procedure and point the success level. In the introduction part, general EIA concept, its importance, and some notations are mentioned. Following that, the legislation, which builds the EIA system, has been analyzed starting from the 1982 Turkish Constitution. Then, the legislation rules are explained due to the basic steps of the EIA procedure. In order to shed light upon the application, the EIA final decisions given until today, the results, and their distributions to the industries are assessed. In the final part of the study, a SWOT analysis is made to mention the weaknesses, strengths, opportunities, and threats of the EIA system in Turkey.

  16. Quantitative Assessment on the Embodied Environmental Impact of Concrete with or without Fly Ash

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LI Sitang; LI Huiqiang

    2005-01-01

    According to the life cycle assessment and the environmental design method of industry production, a quantitative assessment model for the embodied environmental impact of concrete with or without fly ash was proposed. The environmental burden impact indicator (EBII), the resources depletion impact indicator (RDII), and the environmental impact comprehensive indicator (EICI) are defined. The specific environmental impact values of different grade concretes with or without fly ash were presented. In the embodied process of concrete with or without fly ash, the key potential environmental impact categories are global warming and dust emission, and it is an effective way for reducing the embodied environmental impact of concrete to mix fly ash and lower grade cement. The method presented in this paper makes it possible to quantitatively assess the embodied environmental impact of concrete with or without fly ash. The results calculated in this paper can be used to quantitatively assess the life cycle environmental impact of construction materials and buildings.

  17. Meteorological assessment of SRM exhaust products' environmental impact

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dingle, A. N.

    1982-01-01

    The environmental impact of solid rocket motor (SRM) exhaust products discharged into the free air stream upon the launching of space vehicles that depend upon SRM boosters to obtain large thrust was assessed. The emission of Al2O3 to the troposphere from the SRMs in each Shuttle launch is considered. The Al2O3 appears as particles suitable for heterogeneous nucleation of hydrochloric acid which under frequently occurring atmospheric conditions may form a highly acidic rain capable of damaging property and crops and of impacting upon the health of human and animal populations. The cloud processes leading to the formation of acid rain and the concentration of the acid that then reaches the ground, and the atmospheric situations that lead to the production of cloud and rain at and near a launch site, and the prediction of weather conditions that may permit or prohibit a launch operation are studied.

  18. Use of Animal Species Data in Environmental Impact Assessments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Knegtering, Edo; Drees, J. Marijke; Geertsema, Paul; Huitema, Hans J.; Uiterkamp, Anton J. M. Schoot

    2005-12-01

    Environmental Impact Assessments (EIAs) should ideally help minimize adverse effects on biological diversity by considering impacts of projects on wide ranges of species. This paper investigates how recent Dutch EIAs included the species comprising animal diversity. We present results of two studies on fauna data used in the EIAs. Objectives were to determine for different taxa (a) the relative representation of species in Environmental Impact Statements (EISs); (b) the extent to which EISs referred to specific species and the accuracy of survey data referred to; and (c) apparent roles of different EIA actors in species inclusion. EIAs were found to use data on various taxa but on limited numbers of species. The frequency with which taxa were included varied significantly. Birds were most frequently included, followed by mammals, amphibians, and other species groups. The quality of data on birds exceeded that regarding other vertebrates. Our results indicate that (a) EIA working groups of independent experts were the most influential in determining the data to be used; (b) on average, proponents included data more often than required by guidelines; and (c) in 30 to 40% of the EIAs, the participation of nongovernmental organizations prompted use of data. Despite the key role of experts in data inclusion, the taxon rankings found in the EIAs showed little deviation from those observed in studies on people’s preferences for species. Given the limited ranges of species considered, it is doubtful that the EIAs examined effectively contributed to conserving animal species diversity.

  19. Environmental impact assessment in Sri Lanka: A progress report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Butler, J.W. [International Resources Group, Ltd., Washington, DC (United States)

    1995-12-01

    The paper reports on progress by the Government of Sri Lanka in the implementation of a formal environmental impact assessment (EIA) requirement. The authors have recently conducted several activities in Sri Lanka intended to improve the analytical quality of EIA documents and the utility of the EIA process in government decisionmaking, with particular attention to the use of programmatic or sectoral EIAs. The U.S. Agency for International Development established a 5-year project, the Natural Resources and Environmental Policy Project (NAREPP), to provide training and technical assistance in EIA and related disiplines for the Central Environmental Authority (CEA), several other Sri Lanka government agencies, and the private sector. This activity has involved efforts to expand the technical expertise within Sri Lanka for conducting EIA, which include developing EIA courses and materials in cooperation with several universities and conducting intensive training programs for both government and private-sector environmental professionals. This EIA will focus on the selection of government-approved industrial estates throughout the country, on which most new industrial development projects are to be located. Further training programs in the use of current analytical methodologies for EIA were also developed and conducted. The effectiveness of these activities can be assessed by evaluating changes in the content and quality of subsequent EIA documents and in the extent to which such documents affect environmental decisionmaking in Sri Lanka. The authors discuss the role of the programmatic EIA in the industrial development program of Sri Lanka, remaining constraints on the EIA process, and recommendations for further improvement.

  20. ENVIRONMENTAL IMPACT ASSESSMENT OF CEMENT-CONCRETE SYSTEM

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2000-01-01

    In this paper,a life-cycle assessment methodology is used to evaluate the environmental effects of cement-concrete system.The production factors notably affecting environment are obtained and the way improving environmental effects is indicated.

  1. Evaluation process of global environmental impact: assessment guidelines

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In developed and developing countries, the EIA (Environmental Impact Assessment) is becoming mandatory for the approval of Industrial projects and projects of Environmental hazards. The approving authority of each country has its own guidelines to get projects approved and make project proponents responsible to submit Environmental Impact Statement for the its detailed assessment. In this paper authors have studied an existing EIA Global guidelines and its evaluation process of altogether 40 countries from four continents, Asia, Pacific/Middle East, Europe, Australia and America/Canada. This evaluation process is recorded in the tabulation form and it has been formulated stage wise in which stage one highlights the inception of EIA guidelines of each country and stage two and three gives implementation process. The inception stage of guidelines gives an idea that when EIA was started and an implementation stages provide all information that when EIA become a part of legislation that provide an opportunity to the reader to understand the decision making process for project approvals. The main objective of writing EIA guidelines is to monitor the sustain ability of various types of the projects under different sectoral guidelines, therefore Projects related with different Sectors have been chosen and a detailed record in tabulation form gives an idea to understand the interaction of these guidelines. To make this paper more comprehensive, authors have gone thorough the sectoral guidelines of altogether 64 countries and studied 21 sector oriented project fields. These are of Agriculture/Irrigation, Biodiversity, Coastal/Marine, Community Participation, Extractive industries, Fisheries, Forestry, Hazard Risk, Health, Human settlement, Industry, Multi sectorial, Ports and Harbors, Power, refugees/resettlement, Social, Strategies/Planning, Tourism/Recreational, transportation, Waste Pollution and Wetlands/Water resources. (author)

  2. Selenium transformation in coal mine spoils: Its environmental impact assessment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Harness, J.; Atalay, A.; Koll, K.J.; Zhang, H.; Maggon, D.

    1991-12-31

    The objective of this program was to conduct an environmental impact assessment study for selenium from coal mine spoils. The use of in-situ lysimetry to predict selenium speciation, transformation, and mobility under natural conditions was evaluated. The scope of the study was to construct and test field-scale lysimeter and laboratory mini-column to assess mobility and speciation of selenium in coal mine overburden and soil systems; to conduct soil and groundwater sampling throughout the state of Oklahoma for an overall environmental impact assessment of selenium; and to conduct an in-depth literature review on the solubility, speciation, mobility, and toxicity of selenium from various sources. Groundwater and surface soil samples were also collected from each county in Oklahoma. Data collected from the lysimeter study indicated that selenium in the overburden of the abandoned mine site was mainly found in the selenite form. The amount of selenite found was too low and immobile to be of concern to the environment. The spoil had equilibrated long enough (over 50 years) that most of the soluble forms of selenium have already been lost. Examination of the overburden indicated the presence of pyrite crystals that precipitated over time. The laboratory mini-column study indicated that selenite is quite immobile and remained on the overburden material even after leaching with dilute acid. Data from groundwater samples indicated that based on the current permissible level for selenium in groundwater (0.01 mg Se/L), Oklahoma groundwater is widely contaminated with the element. However, according to the new regulation (0.05 mg Se/L), which is to be promulgated in 1992, only 9 of the 77 counties in the state exceed the limit.

  3. Environmental Impact Assessment of Coal Mining: Indian Scenario

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sribas Goswami

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Coal mining is a development activity, which is bound to damage the natural ecosystem by all its activities direct and ancillary, starting from land acquisition to coal beneficiation and use of the products. This is so because environmental degradation has affected especially the common property resources such as land and water on which depend the subsistence and well-being of the local community. The study area being the foremost coal producing region of the country also ranked high in the record of environmentally degraded region. Huge areas in the Raniganj and Jharia coalfield in India have become ruined due to abandoned and active mine surface and underground mines. In open cast mines, waste resources are usually stacked as huge dumps in the surroundings. These, coupled with coal dumps, cause noteworthy visual impact. Large vicinity of forest, farming land, and pasture land has been transformed into colliery colonies or into uncultivated land due to rapid expansion of the coal mines. As a result, land use pattern has been changed considerably over last three decades. This study is pursued to assess the impact of coal mining activities on local community and environment.

  4. Life cycle assessment for the "implicit" environmental impact of construction projects

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2009-01-01

    The paper has established an assessment system and a quantitative calculation method of the "implicit" environmental impact including environmental impact indicator,resources consumption indicator and energy consumption indicator. The quantitative calculation of the environmental impact indicator is based on the life cycle assessment system and the evaluation software BEES. The paper identifies normalization reference values and weights for 12 categories of the environmental impact. It also analyzes the env...

  5. Importance of environmental impact assessment and monitoring studies in industrial development

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Ingole, B.S.

    Environmental assessment is taken up in this exercise as a rapid assessment technique for determining the current status of the environment and identifying impact of critical activities on environmental parameters. EIA is a relatively new planning...

  6. 77 FR 76050 - Draft Environmental Assessment and Preliminary Finding of No Significant Impact Concerning a...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-12-26

    ... HUMAN SERVICES Food and Drug Administration Draft Environmental Assessment and Preliminary Finding of No Significant Impact Concerning a Genetically Engineered Atlantic Salmon; Availability AGENCY: Food and Drug... the availability for public comment of the Agency's draft environmental assessment (EA) of...

  7. Game theoretic analysis of environmental impact assessment system in China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    CHENG Hongguang; QI Ye; PU Xiao; GONG Li

    2007-01-01

    Environmental impact assessment (EIA) system has been established in China since 1973.In present EIA cases,there are four participants in general:governments,enterprises,EIA organizations and the public.The public has held responsible for both social costs and social duties.The public supervises social costs produced by enterprises discharging pollutant in EIA.However public participation is mostly deputized by governments,which severely weaken the independence of the public as one participant in EIA.In this paper,EIA refers to the different attitudes of the participants whose optional strategies may be described by a proper game model.According to disfigurements in EIA,three sides (governments,enterprises,and EIA organizations)dynamic iterative game theory of many phases is established referring to iterative game theory,dynamic game theory of incomplete information,and perfect Bayesian equilibrium theory to analyze the reciprocity relation among governments,EIA organizations and enterprises.The results show that in a short period,economic benefit is preponderant over social benefit.Governments and enterprises both do not want to take EIA to reveal social costs.EIA organizations' income comes from enterprises and the collusions are built between them to vindicate economic benefit.In a long run,social benefit loss caused by environmental pollution must be recuperated sooner or later and environmental deterioration will influence the achievements of economic benefit,so both governments and eaterprises are certain to pursue high social benefit and willing to take EIA,helpful to increase private benefit.EIA organizations will make fair assessment when their economic benefit are ensured.At present,the public as silent victims can not take actual part in EIA.The EIA system must be improved to break the present equilibrium of three sides,bringing the public to the equilibrium to exert public supervision.

  8. Climate Change in Environmental Impact Assessment of Renewable Energy Projects

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, Sanne Vammen

    2012-01-01

    Many renewable energy projects are subject to EIA. However a question that surfaces is what use an impact assessment is when the project is ‘good for the environment’? One of the current topics receiving much attention in impact assessment is climate change and how this factor is integrated...... in impact assessments. This warrants the question: How do we assess the climate change related impacts of a project that inherently has a positive effect on climate? This paper is based on a document study of EIA reports from Denmark. The results show that climate change is included in most of the EIA...... reports reviewed, and that only climate change mitigation is in focus while adaptation is absent. Also the results point to focus on positive impacts, while the indirect negative impacts are less apparent. This leads to a discussion of the results in the light of the purpose of EIA....

  9. 78 FR 5514 - Supplemental Environmental Assessment and Finding of No Significant Impact for License Renewal...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-01-25

    ... COMMISSION Supplemental Environmental Assessment and Finding of No Significant Impact for License Renewal for... Environmental Assessment Summary On May 30, 2008, Cogema Mining, Inc. submitted an application to the NRC... NRC finds that there are no significant environmental impacts from the proposed action, and that...

  10. Comparing environmental impacts for livestock products: A review of life cycle assessments

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vries, de M.; Boer, de I.J.M.

    2010-01-01

    Livestock production has a major impact on the environment. Choosing a more environmentally-friendly livestock product in a diet can mitigate environmental impact. The objective of this research was to compare assessments of the environmental impact of livestock products. Twenty-five peer-reviewed s

  11. Public participation in environmental impact assessment: why, who and how?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Even a cursory glance at the literature on environmental impact assessment (EIA) reveals that public participation is being considered as an integral part of the assessment procedure. Public participation in EIA is commonly deemed to foster democratic policy-making and to render EIA more effective. Yet a closer look at the literature unveils that, beyond this general assertion, opinions of the precise meaning, objectives and adequate representation of public participation in EIA considerably diverge. Against this background, in this article we aim to provide a comprehensive overview of the academic debate on public participation in EIA concerning its meaning, objectives and adequate level of inclusiveness. In so doing, we hope to stimulate a more focused debate on the subject, which is key to advancing the research agenda. Furthermore, this paper may serve as a starting point for practitioners involved in defining the role of public participation in EIA practice. -- Highlights: • There is little reflection on the meaning, objectives and adequate level of inclusiveness of public participation in EIA. • We provide a comprehensive overview of the academic debate on public participation in EIA concerning the meaning, objectives and adequate level of inclusiveness. • Theoretical claims put forth by scholars are contrasted with empirical evidence. • Overview shall stimulate a more focused debate on the subject. • This paper may serve as a starting point for practitioners involved in defining the role of public participation in EIA

  12. Setting boundaries of participation in environmental impact assessment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Salomons, Geoffrey H., E-mail: gsalomon@ualberta.ca [University of Alberta, Department of Political Science, 10-16 Henry Marshall Tory Building, University of Alberta, Edmonton, AB T6G 2H4 (Canada); Hoberg, George, E-mail: george.hoberg@ubc.ca [University of British Columbia, Faculty of Forestry, Forest Sciences Centre 2045, 2424 Main Mall, Vancouver, British Columbia V6T 1Z4 (Canada)

    2014-02-15

    Public participation processes are touted as an effective way to increase the capacity and legitimacy of environmental assessment and the regulatory process that rely on them. Recent changes to the Canadian environmental assessment process narrowed the criteria for who can participate in environmental assessments from any who were interested to those who were most directly affected. This article examines the potential consequences of this change by exploring other areas of Canadian regulatory law where a similar directed affected test has been applied. This new standard risks institutionalizing the long-understood representational bias confronted by more diffuse interest like environmental protection. Restricting participation to the “directly affected” is far too narrow a test for processes like environmental assessment that are designed to determine the public interest. -- Highlights: • Public participation can improve the legitimacy of environmental assessments. • New Canadian rules narrow the range of eligible participants. • Similar rules in Alberta have excluded environmental representation. • The new rules may institutionalize bias against more diffuse interests. • Restricting participation to the “directly affected” is far too narrow.

  13. Environmental impact assessment and optimisation of commercial aviation

    OpenAIRE

    Howe, Stuart

    2011-01-01

    The aviation industry represents approximately 3% of global greenhouse gas emissions, however with significant growth expected over the coming decades this proportion is expected to increase. Continued governmental and social pressure to reduce global emissions is posing a challenging question to the industry; how to improve environmental efficiency and reduce emissions with increasing industry growth. The environmental impact of aviation globally is discussed, examining the...

  14. Life cycle assessment of energy products: environmental impact assessment of biofuels

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zah, R.; Boeni, H.; Gauch, M.; Hischier, R.; Lehmann, M.; Waeger, P.

    2007-05-15

    This final report for the Swiss Federal Office of Energy (SFOE) deals with the results of a study that evaluated the environmental impact of the entire production chain of fuels made from biomass and used in Switzerland. Firstly, the study supplies an analysis of the possible environmental impacts of biofuels that can be used as a basis for political decisions. Secondly, an environmental life cycle assessment (LCA) of various biofuels is presented. In addition, the impacts of fuel use are compared with other uses for bioenergy such as the generation of electricity and heat. The methods used in the LCA are discussed, including the Swiss method of ecological scarcity (Environmental Impact Points, UBP 06), and the European Eco-indicator 99 method. The results of the study are discussed, including the finding that not all biofuels can reduce environmental impacts as compared to fossil fuels. The role to be played by biofuels produced in an environmentally-friendly way together with other forms of renewable energy in our future energy supply is discussed.

  15. 78 FR 10620 - Draft Environmental Assessment and Preliminary Finding of No Significant Impact Concerning a...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-02-14

    ... HUMAN SERVICES Food and Drug Administration Draft Environmental Assessment and Preliminary Finding of No Significant Impact Concerning a Genetically Engineered Atlantic Salmon; Extension of Comment Period AGENCY... Drug Administration (FDA) is extending the comment period for two draft environmental review...

  16. Geochemical Principles and Methods of Assessment of Surface Water Environmental Impact on Sensitive Zones

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    程鸿德; 程林; 等

    1998-01-01

    This paper describes how to carry out environmental impact assessment in an environmentally sensitive zone.The principles,the train of thought and methods are proposed in this paper,We have made the water environmental impact assessment on the engineering project of technical reforms in Guiyang Battery Mill.The hasis for engineering construction and environmental protection in this mill has been laid dawn.

  17. Environmental Impact Assessment for Olkiluoto 4 Nuclear Power Plant Unit in Finland

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dersten, Riitta; Gahmberg, Sini; Takala, Jenni [Teollisuuden Voima Oyj, Olkiluoto, FI-27160 Eurajoki (Finland)

    2008-07-01

    In order to improve its readiness for constructing additional production capacity, Teollisuuden Voima Oyj (TVO) initiated in spring 2007 the environmental impact assessment procedure (EIA procedure) concerning a new nuclear power plant unit that would possibly be located at Olkiluoto. When assessing the environmental impacts of the Olkiluoto nuclear power plant extension project, the present state of the environment was first examined, and after that, the changes caused by the projects as well as their significance were assessed, taking into account the combined impacts of the operations at Olkiluoto. The environmental impact assessment for the planned nuclear power plant unit covers the entire life cycle of the plant unit. (authors)

  18. User-friendliness of current building environmental impact assessment tools: an architect's perspective

    OpenAIRE

    Meex, Elke; KNAPEN, Elke; Verbeeck, Griet

    2016-01-01

    In the building sector, the global environmental impact of buildings is gaining attention. This environmental impact includes all impacts related to the building (materials) throughout the entire life cycle. A number of tools to assess the environmental impact of buildings as a whole has already been developed, usually with an underlying life cycle approach. As architects are a central actor in the design process, they are responsible for the building design and the accompanying environmen...

  19. Regional Persistent Organic Pollutants' Environmental Impact Assessment and Control Model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jurgis Staniskis

    2008-10-01

    Full Text Available The sources of formation, environmental distribution and fate of persistent organic pollutants (POPs are increasingly seen as topics to be addressed and solved at the global scale. Therefore, there are already two international agreements concerning persistent organic pollutants: the Protocol of 1998 to the 1979 Convention on the Long-Range Transboundary Air Pollution on Persistent Organic Pollutants (Aarhus Protocol; and the Stockholm Convention on Persistent Organic Pollutants. For the assessment of environmental pollution of POPs, for the risk assessment, for the evaluation of new pollutants as potential candidates to be included in the POPs list of the Stokholmo or/and Aarhus Protocol, a set of different models are developed or under development. Multimedia models help describe and understand environmental processes leading to global contamination through POPs and actual risk to the environment and human health. However, there is a lack of the tools based on a systematic and integrated approach to POPs management difficulties in the region.

  20. Incorporating detectability of threatened species into environmental impact assessment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garrard, Georgia E; Bekessy, Sarah A; McCarthy, Michael A; Wintle, Brendan A

    2015-02-01

    Environmental impact assessment (EIA) is a key mechanism for protecting threatened plant and animal species. Many species are not perfectly detectable and, even when present, may remain undetected during EIA surveys, increasing the risk of site-level loss or extinction of species. Numerous methods now exist for estimating detectability of plants and animals. Despite this, regulations concerning survey protocol and effort during EIAs fail to adequately address issues of detectability. Probability of detection is intrinsically linked to survey effort; thus, minimum survey effort requirements are a useful way to address the risks of false absences. We utilized 2 methods for determining appropriate survey effort requirements during EIA surveys. One method determined the survey effort required to achieve a probability of detection of 0.95 when the species is present. The second method estimated the survey effort required to either detect the species or reduce the probability of presence to 0.05. We applied these methods to Pimelea spinscens subsp. spinescens, a critically endangered grassland plant species in Melbourne, Australia. We detected P. spinescens in only half of the surveys undertaken at sites where it was known to exist. Estimates of the survey effort required to detect the species or demonstrate its absence with any confidence were much higher than the effort traditionally invested in EIA surveys for this species. We argue that minimum survey requirements be established for all species listed under threatened species legislation and hope that our findings will provide an impetus for collecting, compiling, and synthesizing quantitative detectability estimates for a broad range of plant and animal species. PMID:25155009

  1. Environmental impact assessment as a complement of life cycle assessment. Case study: Upgrading of biogas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morero, Betzabet; Rodriguez, María B; Campanella, Enrique A

    2015-08-01

    This work presents a comparison between an environmental impact assessment (EIA) and a life cycle assessment (LCA) using a case study: upgrading of biogas. The upgrading of biogas is studied using three solvents: water, physical solvent and amine. The EIA follows the requirements of the legislation of Santa Fe Province (Argentina), and the LCA follows ISO 14040. The LCA results showed that water produces a minor impact in most of the considered categories whereas the high impact in the process with amines is the result of its high energy consumptions. The positive results obtained in the EIA (mainly associated with the cultural and socioeconomic components) make the project feasible and all the negative impacts can be mitigated by preventive and remedial measures. From the strengths and weaknesses of each tool, it is inferred that the EIA is a procedure that can complement the LCA.

  2. Assessing the environmental impact of buildings in the UK

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bartlett, P.; Baldwin, R. [Building Research Establishment, Watford (United Kingdom)

    1994-12-31

    The protection of the environment is one of today`s key issues demanding international action. In the UK, the government has issued a {open_quotes}green{close_quotes} White Paper and two updating reviews, setting out its Agenda; businesses are also responding by developing environmental policy statements as part of their business strategy; general public concern is evident through changes in purchasing practices and an increasing interest in recycling waste such as paper, cans, and bottles. In Europe, initiatives are being taken to develop ecolabelling schemes specifically for assessing consumer products. Environmental management systems are being developed through BSI and internationally. Underlying these concerns is a perception that industrialised economies have significantly and irreversibly changed (or perhaps about to change) the planet`s climate, atmosphere and ecosystems. This perception is fuelled by reports in the media of rising pollution, poor air quality, threats to ecosystems such as historic hedgerows, and even graffiti and litter. This paper describes action taken by the BRE to set standards for environmentally friendlier buildings which uses market forces to bring about environmental sensitivity in the industry. BREEAM is an environmental assessment method, embodies in an accreditation scheme, which is enjoying considerable success in the UK. The paper describes its development and underlying philosophy and provides details of its content and operation.

  3. Groundwater Impacts of Radioactive Wastes and Associated Environmental Modeling Assessment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ma, Rui; Zheng, Chunmiao; Liu, Chongxuan

    2012-11-01

    This article provides a review of the major sources of radioactive wastes and their impacts on groundwater contamination. The review discusses the major biogeochemical processes that control the transport and fate of radionuclide contaminants in groundwater, and describe the evolution of mathematical models designed to simulate and assess the transport and transformation of radionuclides in groundwater.

  4. Inventory and Methodology for Assessing the Impacts of Environmental Regulations in the Agricultural Sector

    OpenAIRE

    Nolet, Jean; Sauve, Claude; Geoffroy, Amelie; Sanchez, Richard

    2006-01-01

    There is a growing concern about the impact and effectiveness of environmental regulations, specifically impact on the competitiveness of primary agriculture. The objective of this report is to discuss different methodologies and assessment criteria for the evaluation of the impacts of environmental regulations in the agricultural sector; to identify the relevant environmental regulations administered at the federal, provincial and local levels; and an analytical framework to evaluate the fut...

  5. Life cycle assessment for the "implicit" environmental impact of construction projects

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Xiao-gen Shuai; Hui-qiang Li; Li Tang

    2009-01-01

    The paper has established an assessment system and a quantitative calculation method of the "implicit" environmental impact including environmental impact indicator, resources consumption indicator and energy consumption indicator. The quantitative calculation of the environmental impact indicator is based on the life cycle assessment system and the evaluation software BEES. The paper identifies normalization reference values and weights for 12 categories of the environmental impact. It also analyzes the environmental impact indicator in life cycle stages, raw materials, transportation, manufacturing, utilization, and end of life. A university refectory project is studied. The result has shown that human health, global warming and acidification are the first three environmental impacts in 12 categories. The environmental impact indicator per m2 of this project is 18.448×10-2 standard human equivalent weight. Moreover, 97.3 % of the total environmental impact occurs at the raw material stage, in which the most severe environmental impact is cancerous health effect; the global warming is the main impact at the transportation and manufacturing stages; the indoor air quality impact is at the usage stage.

  6. Stakeholder involvement, particularly in the environmental impact assessment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The statements of the Finnish environmental administration show that the EIA itself was an important stage for discussion on the selection of a final disposal facility for spent nuclear fuel. Nuclear safety and human impacts were considered to be the most important issues. The EIA process was a tool that could be used to carry on organised discussions. The Finnish environment administration was satisfied with its participation in the process, it got the information it needed and its viewpoints were seriously taken into consideration. (authors)

  7. Transportation risk assessment for the US Department of Energy Environmental Management Programmatic Environmental Impact Statement

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In its Programmatic Environmental Impact Statement (PEIS), the Office of Environmental Management (EM) of the US Department of Energy (DOE) is considering a broad range of alternatives for the future management of radioactive and hazardous waste at the facilities of the DOE complex. The alternatives involve facilities to be used for treatment, storage, and disposal of various wastes generated from DOE's environmental restoration activities and waste management operation. Included in the evaluation are six types of waste (five types of radioactive waste plus hazardous waste), 49 sites, and numerous cases associated with each different alternative for waste management. In general, the alternatives are evaluated independently for each type of waste and reflect decentralized, regionalized, and centralized approaches. Transportation of waste materials is an integral component of the EM PEIS alternatives for waste management. The estimated impact on human health that is associated with various waste transportation activities is an important element leading to a complete appraisal of the alternatives. The transportation risk assessment performed for the EM PEIS is designed to ensure -- through uniform and judicious selection of models, data, and assumptions -- that relative comparisons of risk among the various alternatives are meaningful and consistent

  8. Environmental impact assessment of the national climate strategy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The national climate strategy aims at fulfilling the obligations to reduce emissions of greenhouse gases in accordance with the Kyoto protocol. The environmental impacts of the strategy were analysed by comparing a business as usual scenario with two scenarios based on additional measures. Both scenarios with additional measures are based on more emphasis on energy saving and use of renewable sources of energy, but they differ with respect to energy production. The environmental consequences until 2010 are similar in the scenarios with additional measures, and they are better from an environmental point of view than the business as usual scenario. Many of the measures have significant effects only in the long term, and all have indirect effects, opportunities and uncertain factors. Some measures can create societal conflicts, which further increases the uncertainty in implementing the climate strategy. In order to be able to adapt to and react on deviations from the development that the strategy aims at achieving the monitoring of the strategy should examine the implementation from many different aspects, because profound knowledge of the nature of the effects and key cause and effects relations is essential in revising and updating the strategy. (orig.)

  9. Environmental Impacts of Solar Thermal Systems with Life Cycle Assessment

    OpenAIRE

    De Laborderie, Alexis; Puech, Clément; Adra, Nadine; Blanc, Isabelle; Beloin-Saint-Pierre, Didier; Padey, Pierryves; Payet, Jérôme; Sie, Marion; Jacquin, Philippe

    2011-01-01

    Available on: http://www.ep.liu.se/ecp/057/vol14/002/ecp57vol14_002.pdf; International audience; Solar thermal systems are an ecological way of providing domestic hot water. They are experiencing a rapid growth since the beginning of the last decade. This study characterizes the environmental performances of such installations with a life-cycle approach. The methodology is based on the application of the international standards of Life Cycle Assessment. Two types of systems are presented. Fir...

  10. POLICY ISSUES ASSOCIATED WITH USING SIMULATION TO ASSESS ENVIRONMENTAL IMPACTS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Uchitel, Kirsten; Tanana, Heather

    2014-11-01

    This report examines the relationship between simulation-based science and judicial assessments of simulations or models supporting evaluations of environmental harms or risks, considering both how it exists currently and how it might be shaped in the future. This report considers the legal standards relevant to judicial assessments of simulation-based science and provides examples of the judicial application of those legal standards. Next, this report discusses the factors that inform whether there is a correlation between the sophistication of a challenged simulation and judicial support for that simulation. Finally, this report examines legal analysis of the broader issues that must be addressed for simulation-based science to be better understood and utilized in the context of judicial challenge and evaluation. !

  11. Ecohydrological modeling for large-scale environmental impact assessment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Woznicki, Sean A; Nejadhashemi, A Pouyan; Abouali, Mohammad; Herman, Matthew R; Esfahanian, Elaheh; Hamaamin, Yaseen A; Zhang, Zhen

    2016-02-01

    Ecohydrological models are frequently used to assess the biological integrity of unsampled streams. These models vary in complexity and scale, and their utility depends on their final application. Tradeoffs are usually made in model scale, where large-scale models are useful for determining broad impacts of human activities on biological conditions, and regional-scale (e.g. watershed or ecoregion) models provide stakeholders greater detail at the individual stream reach level. Given these tradeoffs, the objective of this study was to develop large-scale stream health models with reach level accuracy similar to regional-scale models thereby allowing for impacts assessments and improved decision-making capabilities. To accomplish this, four measures of biological integrity (Ephemeroptera, Plecoptera, and Trichoptera taxa (EPT), Family Index of Biotic Integrity (FIBI), Hilsenhoff Biotic Index (HBI), and fish Index of Biotic Integrity (IBI)) were modeled based on four thermal classes (cold, cold-transitional, cool, and warm) of streams that broadly dictate the distribution of aquatic biota in Michigan. The Soil and Water Assessment Tool (SWAT) was used to simulate streamflow and water quality in seven watersheds and the Hydrologic Index Tool was used to calculate 171 ecologically relevant flow regime variables. Unique variables were selected for each thermal class using a Bayesian variable selection method. The variables were then used in development of adaptive neuro-fuzzy inference systems (ANFIS) models of EPT, FIBI, HBI, and IBI. ANFIS model accuracy improved when accounting for stream thermal class rather than developing a global model. PMID:26595397

  12. A method proposal for cumulative environmental impact assessment based on the landscape vulnerability evaluation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cumulative environmental impact assessment deals with the occasional use in practical application of environmental impact assessment process. The main reasons are the difficulty of cumulative impact identification caused by lack of data, inability to measure the intensity and spatial effect of all types of impacts and the uncertainty of their future evolution. This work presents a method proposal to predict cumulative impacts on the basis of landscape vulnerability evaluation. For this purpose, qualitative assessment of landscape ecological stability is conducted and major vulnerability indicators of environmental and socio-economic receptors are specified and valuated. Potential cumulative impacts and the overall impact significance are predicted quantitatively in modified Argonne multiple matrixes while considering the vulnerability of affected landscape receptors and the significance of impacts identified individually. The method was employed in the concrete environmental impact assessment process conducted in Slovakia. The results obtained in this case study reflect that this methodology is simple to apply, valid for all types of impacts and projects, inexpensive and not time-consuming. The objectivity of the partial methods used in this procedure is improved by quantitative landscape ecological stability evaluation, assignment of weights to vulnerability indicators based on the detailed characteristics of affected factors, and grading impact significance. - Highlights: • This paper suggests a method proposal for cumulative impact prediction. • The method includes landscape vulnerability evaluation. • The vulnerability of affected receptors is determined by their sensitivity. • This method can increase the objectivity of impact prediction in the EIA process

  13. Review and assessments of potential environmental, health and safety impacts of MHD technology. Final draft

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1978-01-01

    The purpose of this document is to develop an environmental, health and safety (EH and S) assessment and begin a site - specific assessment of these and socio - economic impacts for the magnetohydrodynamics program of the United States Department of Energy. This assessment includes detailed scientific and technical information on the specific EH and S issues mentioned in the MHD Environmental Development Plan. A review of current literature on impact-related subjects is also included. This document addresses the coal-fired, open-cycle MHD technology and reviews and assesses potential EH and S impacts resulting from operation of commercially-installed technology.

  14. Environmental indicators for communication of life cycle impact assessment results and their applications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lim, Seong-Rin; Park, Jong Moon

    2009-08-01

    Life cycle impact assessment (LCIA) is performed to quantitatively evaluate all environmental impacts from products, systems, processes and services. However, LCIA does not always provide valuable information for choosing among alternatives with different specifications, functionalities and lifetimes. The objectives of this study are (1) to propose environmental indicators to evaluate environmental efficiency and value qualitatively and quantitatively on the basis of analogies to financial and economic indicators, and (2) to present the application of the indicators. Incremental evaluation using a reference is employed to obtain the environmental indicators. The environmental efficiency indicators are conceptually based on the ratios of reduced environmental burdens returned to environmental burdens required: environmental return on investment, environmental payback period and environmental internal rate of return. The environmental value indicator is the sum of all reduced and required environmental burdens: i.e., environmental net present value. All the environmental indicators can be used to compare and rank the environmental efficiencies or values of alternatives. The environmental efficiency indicators can be applied to a new environmental labeling. The concept of eco-efficiency labeling is developed by combining the environmental efficiency indicators with financial indicators. A case study is performed to illustrate the necessity and importance of the environmental indicators. These environmental indicators can help easily communicate LCIA results in the field of environmental management.

  15. PROFILE: Environmental Impact Assessment Under the National Environmental Policy Act and the Protocol on Environmental Protection to the Antarctic Treaty.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ensminger; McCold; Webb

    1999-07-01

    / Antarctica has been set aside by the international community for protection as a natural reserve and a place for scientific research. Through the Antarctic Treaty of 1961, the signing nations agreed to cooperate in protecting the antarctic environment, in conducting scientific studies, and in abstaining from the exercise of territorial claims. The 1991 signing of the Protocol on Environmental Protection to the Antarctic Treaty (Protocol) by representatives of the 26 nations comprising the Antarctic Treaty Consultative Parties (Parties) significantly strengthened environmental protection measures for the continent. The Protocol required ratification by each of the governments individually prior to official implementation. The US government ratified the Protocol by passage of the Antarctic Science, Tourism, and Conservation Act of 1997. Japan completed the process by ratifying the Protocol on December 15, 1997. US government actions undertaken in Antarctica are subject to the requirements of both the Protocol and the US National Environmental Policy Act (NEPA). There are differences in the scope and intent of the Protocol and NEPA; however, both require environmental impact assessment (EIA) as part of the planning process for proposed actions that have the potential for environmental impacts. In this paper we describe the two instruments and highlight key similarities and differences with particular attention to EIA. Through this comparison of the EIA requirements of NEPA and the Protocol, we show how the requirements of each can be used in concert to provide enhanced environmental protection for the antarctic environment. NEPA applies only to actions of the US government; therefore, because NEPA includes certain desirable attributes that have been refined and clarified through numerous court cases, and because the Protocol is just entering implementation internationally, some recommendations are made for strengthening the procedural requirements of the Protocol

  16. Strategic environmental impact assessment of hydrocarbon activities in the Disko West area[Greenland

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mosbech, A.; Boertmann, D.; Jespersen, Martin

    2007-05-15

    This publication is a strategic environmental impact assessment of activities related to exploration, development and exploitation of hydrocarbons in the sea of West Greenland between 67 deg. and 71 deg. N (= the Disko West Area). (au)

  17. Environmental Impact Assessment and Sustainable Agricultural Development--With Special Reference to Kenya.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kiragu, Consolater Wambuku; Goode, Pamela M.

    1990-01-01

    The concept of sustainable agriculture from the perspective of development in Kenya is discussed. The steps in an Environmental Impact Assessment which takes into account the physical, cultural, social, and ecological aspects of the problem are presented. (CW)

  18. Strategic environmental impact assessment of hydrocarbon activities in the Disko West area

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This publication is a strategic environmental impact assessment of activities related to exploration, development and exploitation of hydrocarbons in the sea of West Greenland between 67 deg. and 71 deg. N (the Disko West Area). (au)

  19. Hybrid LCA model for assessing the embodied environmental impacts of buildings in South Korea

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The assessment of the embodied environmental impacts of buildings can help decision-makers plan environment-friendly buildings and reduce environmental impacts. For a more comprehensive assessment of the embodied environmental impacts of buildings, a hybrid life cycle assessment model was developed in this study. The developed model can assess the embodied environmental impacts (global warming, ozone layer depletion, acidification, eutrophication, photochemical ozone creation, abiotic depletion, and human toxicity) generated directly and indirectly in the material manufacturing, transportation, and construction phases. To demonstrate the application and validity of the developed model, the environmental impacts of an elementary school building were assessed using the developed model and compared with the results of a previous model used in a case study. The embodied environmental impacts from the previous model were lower than those from the developed model by 4.6–25.2%. Particularly, human toxicity potential (13 kg C6H6 eq.) calculated by the previous model was much lower (1965 kg C6H6 eq.) than what was calculated by the developed model. The results indicated that the developed model can quantify the embodied environmental impacts of buildings more comprehensively, and can be used by decision-makers as a tool for selecting environment-friendly buildings. - Highlights: • The model was developed to assess the embodied environmental impacts of buildings. • The model evaluates GWP, ODP, AP, EP, POCP, ADP, and HTP as environmental impacts. • The model presents more comprehensive results than the previous model by 4.6–100%. • The model can present the HTP of buildings, which the previous models cannot do. • Decision-makers can use the model for selecting environment-friendly buildings

  20. Hybrid LCA model for assessing the embodied environmental impacts of buildings in South Korea

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jang, Minho, E-mail: minmin40@hanmail.net [Asset Management Division, Mate Plus Co., Ltd., 9th Fl., Financial News Bldg. 24-5 Yeouido-dong, Yeongdeungpo-gu, Seoul, 150-877 (Korea, Republic of); Hong, Taehoon, E-mail: hong7@yonsei.ac.kr [Department of Architectural Engineering, Yonsei University, Seoul, 120-749 (Korea, Republic of); Ji, Changyoon, E-mail: chnagyoon@yonsei.ac.kr [Department of Architectural Engineering, Yonsei University, Seoul, 120-749 (Korea, Republic of)

    2015-01-15

    The assessment of the embodied environmental impacts of buildings can help decision-makers plan environment-friendly buildings and reduce environmental impacts. For a more comprehensive assessment of the embodied environmental impacts of buildings, a hybrid life cycle assessment model was developed in this study. The developed model can assess the embodied environmental impacts (global warming, ozone layer depletion, acidification, eutrophication, photochemical ozone creation, abiotic depletion, and human toxicity) generated directly and indirectly in the material manufacturing, transportation, and construction phases. To demonstrate the application and validity of the developed model, the environmental impacts of an elementary school building were assessed using the developed model and compared with the results of a previous model used in a case study. The embodied environmental impacts from the previous model were lower than those from the developed model by 4.6–25.2%. Particularly, human toxicity potential (13 kg C{sub 6}H{sub 6} eq.) calculated by the previous model was much lower (1965 kg C{sub 6}H{sub 6} eq.) than what was calculated by the developed model. The results indicated that the developed model can quantify the embodied environmental impacts of buildings more comprehensively, and can be used by decision-makers as a tool for selecting environment-friendly buildings. - Highlights: • The model was developed to assess the embodied environmental impacts of buildings. • The model evaluates GWP, ODP, AP, EP, POCP, ADP, and HTP as environmental impacts. • The model presents more comprehensive results than the previous model by 4.6–100%. • The model can present the HTP of buildings, which the previous models cannot do. • Decision-makers can use the model for selecting environment-friendly buildings.

  1. Environmental impact associated with activated carbon preparation from olive-waste cake via life cycle assessment

    OpenAIRE

    Hjaila, Kefah; Baccar, Rym; Sarrà, Montserrat; Gasol, C.M.; Blánquez, Paqui

    2013-01-01

    he life cycle assessment (LCA) environmental tool was implemented to quantify the potential environmental impacts associated with the activated carbon (AC) production process from olive-waste cakes in Tunisia. On the basis of laboratory investigations for AC preparation, a flowchart was developed and the environmental impacts were determined. The LCA functional unit chosen was the production of 1 kg of AC from by-product olive-waste cakes. The results showed that impregnation using H3PO4 pres...

  2. Evaluation of environmental impacts of cellulosic ethanol using life cycle assessment with technological advances over time

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Life Cycle Assessment (LCA) has been used in quantifying the environmental impacts of materials, processes, products, or systems across their entire lifespan from creation to disposal. To evaluate the environmental impact of advancing technology, Life Cycle Assessment with Technological Advances over Time (LCA-TAT) incorporates technology improvements within the traditional LCA framework. In this paper, the LCA-TAT is applied to quantify the environmental impacts of ethanol production using cellulosic biomass as a feedstock through the simultaneous saccharification and co-fermentation (SSCF) process as it improves over time. The data for the SSCF process are taken from the Aspen Plus® simulation developed by the National Renewable Energy Lab (NREL). The Environmental Fate and Risk Assessment Tool (EFRAT) is used to calculate the fugitive emissions and SimaPro 7.1 software is used to quantify the environmental impacts of processes. The impact indicators of the processes are calculated using the Eco-indicator 95 method; impact categories analyzed include ozone layer depletion, heavy metals, carcinogens, summer smog, winter smog, pesticides, greenhouse effect, acidification, and eutrophication. Based on the LCA-TAT results, it is found that removal of the continuous ion exchange step within the pretreatment area increases the environmental impact of the process. The main contributor to the increase in the environmental impact of the process is the heavy metal indicator. In addition, a sensitivity analysis is performed to identify major inputs and outputs that affect environmental impacts of the overall process. Based on this analysis it is observed that an increase in waste production and acid use have the greatest effect on the environmental impacts of the SSCF process. Comparing economic analysis with projected technological advances performed by NREL, the improvement in environmental impact was not matched by a concomitant improvement in economic performance. In

  3. Research on environmental impact assessment of flame oxyacetylene welding processes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gh. Amza

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents the factors that may cause pollution of the work environment when working with the oxyacetylene flame welding process. Experiments were performed using an oven that allows the analysis of all gases resulted in the welding process, but also enables their monitoring using a video camera, and the resulting film was processed in that the frames for each second of experimentation were extracted. The materials used in the experiments were S235JR steel as the base material, and as filler materials, E70S. In order to assess the impact on the work environment of this welding process, the pollution coefficient CP was defined based on the equation of the material balance.

  4. Relation of Environmental Impact Assessment (EIA and Strategic Environmental Assessment (SEA and the Importance of Strategic Environmental Assessment in Landscape Planning Process

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gizem CENGİZ GÖKÇE

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available The main goal in the countries which have not completed their development progress is industrialization and development just as soon as possible. Therefore, negative effects of industrialization and development on envi ronment and/or nature cannot be mostly discussed adequately. One of the planning approach instruments that targets sustainability, Environmental Impact Assessment (EIA is used in many countries effectively. But in recent years, that has understood; EIA is an impact assessment instrument that contains defensive preventions only on the basis of projects and this situation has caused some concerns against EIA. In this direction, Strategical Environmental Assessment (SEA exists as the final point of the instruments which are formed to provide sustainable development . In this study; the importance and the requirement of effectively taking a role of landscape architectures that have ecological based job, in the SEA workings which isn’t have got a legal status in Turkey yet, are emphasized by reviewing the relations between EIA and SEA concepts.

  5. A multi-scale metrics approach to forest fragmentation for Strategic Environmental Impact Assessment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Eunyoung, E-mail: eykim@kei.re.kr [Korea Environment Institute, 215 Jinheungno, Eunpyeong-gu, Seoul 122-706 (Korea, Republic of); Song, Wonkyong, E-mail: wksong79@gmail.com [Suwon Research Institute, 145 Gwanggyo-ro, Yeongtong-gu, Suwon-si, Gyeonggi-do 443-270 (Korea, Republic of); Lee, Dongkun, E-mail: dklee7@snu.ac.kr [Department of Landscape Architecture and Rural System Engineering, Seoul National University, 599 Gwanakro, Gwanak-gu, Seoul 151-921 (Korea, Republic of); Research Institute for Agriculture and Life Sciences, Seoul National University, Seoul 151-921 (Korea, Republic of)

    2013-09-15

    Forests are becoming severely fragmented as a result of land development. South Korea has responded to changing community concerns about environmental issues. The nation has developed and is extending a broad range of tools for use in environmental management. Although legally mandated environmental compliance requirements in South Korea have been implemented to predict and evaluate the impacts of land-development projects, these legal instruments are often insufficient to assess the subsequent impact of development on the surrounding forests. It is especially difficult to examine impacts on multiple (e.g., regional and local) scales in detail. Forest configuration and size, including forest fragmentation by land development, are considered on a regional scale. Moreover, forest structure and composition, including biodiversity, are considered on a local scale in the Environmental Impact Assessment process. Recently, the government amended the Environmental Impact Assessment Act, including the SEA, EIA, and small-scale EIA, to require an integrated approach. Therefore, the purpose of this study was to establish an impact assessment system that minimizes the impacts of land development using an approach that is integrated across multiple scales. This study focused on forest fragmentation due to residential development and road construction sites in selected Congestion Restraint Zones (CRZs) in the Greater Seoul Area of South Korea. Based on a review of multiple-scale impacts, this paper integrates models that assess the impacts of land development on forest ecosystems. The applicability of the integrated model for assessing impacts on forest ecosystems through the SEIA process is considered. On a regional scale, it is possible to evaluate the location and size of a land-development project by considering aspects of forest fragmentation, such as the stability of the forest structure and the degree of fragmentation. On a local scale, land-development projects should

  6. Environmental Assessment and Finding of No Significant Impact: Kalina Geothermal Demonstration Project Steamboat Springs, Nevada

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    N/A

    1999-02-22

    The Department of Energy (DOE) has prepared an Environmental Assessment (EA) to provide the DOE and other public agency decision makers with the environmental documentation required to take informed discretionary action on the proposed Kalina Geothermal Demonstration project. The EA assesses the potential environmental impacts and cumulative impacts, possible ways to minimize effects associated with partial funding of the proposed project, and discusses alternatives to DOE actions. The DOE will use this EA as a basis for their decision to provide financial assistance to Exergy, Inc. (Exergy), the project applicant. Based on the analysis in the EA, DOE has determined that the proposed action is not a major Federal action significantly affecting the quality of the human or physical environment, within the meaning of the National Environmental Policy Act (NEPA) of 1969. Therefore, the preparation of an environmental impact statement is not required and DOE is issuing this Finding of No Significant Impact (FONSI).

  7. Integrated approach of environmental impact and risk assessment of Rosia Montana Mining Area, Romania.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stefănescu, Lucrina; Robu, Brînduşa Mihaela; Ozunu, Alexandru

    2013-11-01

    The environmental impact assessment of mining sites represents nowadays a large interest topic in Romania. Historical pollution in the Rosia Montana mining area of Romania caused extensive damage to environmental media. This paper has two goals: to investigate the environmental pollution induced by mining activities in the Rosia Montana area and to quantify the environmental impacts and associated risks by means of an integrated approach. Thus, a new method was developed and applied for quantifying the impact of mining activities, taking account of the quality of environmental media in the mining area, and used as case study in the present paper. The associated risks are a function of the environmental impacts and the probability of their occurrence. The results show that the environmental impacts and quantified risks, based on quality indicators to characterize the environmental quality, are of a higher order, and thus measures for pollution remediation and control need to be considered in the investigated area. The conclusion drawn is that an integrated approach for the assessment of environmental impact and associated risks is a valuable and more objective method, and is an important tool that can be applied in the decision-making process for national authorities in the prioritization of emergency action.

  8. The use of environmental impact assessment in protecting the built cultural heritage

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Flynn, Errol David

    2004-01-01

    This article examines the application of the environmental impact assessment as a means of protecting the built and cultural heritage during and after the construction of the new national opera house in the Holmen area of Copenhagen. It assesses the affect the new building has had on the surround......This article examines the application of the environmental impact assessment as a means of protecting the built and cultural heritage during and after the construction of the new national opera house in the Holmen area of Copenhagen. It assesses the affect the new building has had...

  9. Environmental assessment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Narayan, M C; Tennant, J

    1997-11-01

    The significance, standard elements, components, and documentation of an environmental assessment in home care are discussed. This assessment is delineated within Maslow's Hierarchy of Needs and from a functional perspective. An Environmental Assessment Form that can be used as a documentation tool is included.

  10. Global guidance on environmental life cycle impact assessment indicators: Progress and case study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Frischknecht, Rolf; Fantke, Peter; Tschümperlin, Laura;

    2016-01-01

    Purpose The life cycle impact assessment (LCIA) guidance flagship project of the United Nations Environment Programme (UNEP)/Society of Environmental Toxicology and Chemistry (SETAC) Life Cycle Initiative aims at providing global guidance and building scientific consensus on environmental LCIA in...

  11. Guidelines for the environmental impact assessment in procedure for mining projects

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Salminen, R.; Heikkinen, P.; Nikkarinen, M.; Parkkinen, J.; Sipilae, P.; Suomela, P.; Wennerstroem, M.

    2000-01-01

    The procedure for environmental impact assessment (EIA) in connection with mining covers extraction, preparation and processing of metallic minerals or other extractable minerals when the total amount of ore to be extracted is at least 550 000 tonnes per year or when the surface area of the open-cast mine exceeds 25 hectares. In addition, the Ministry of the Environment can decide that the assessment procedure shall be applied to an individual project (The EIA Act paragraph 1, section 4.) The EIA procedure is two-stage. The first stage comprises drawing up of an assessment programme. The second stage includes collecting assessment reports on the basis of which an assessment of the environmental impact will be made. The authority concerned shall then disseminate information on the project and arrange hearing of the parties. Hearing is followed by submission of an executive summary of the assessment programme and the environmental impact assessment, which together with the environmental impact statement will be used by the licensing authority when taking decision on the matter. The environmental impact assessment procedure in connection with mining will coincide either with the application for mining concession or the submission of the environmental impact statement to the Safety Technology Authority together with a general plan. The aim of the environmental impact assessment is to study what indirect and direct, both positive and negative, effects the project will have on the surrounding nature, man, society and industry. A further aim is to present a proposal for actions in order to prevent and limit the detrimental effects of the project on the environment as well as to present a proposal for a follow-up programme. The dialogue between the operator and the contact authority is of great importance during the entire process of the environmental impact assessment. It is in the interest of all parties that the environmental impact assessment will be made with care. In

  12. Assessment of the environmental impacts deriving from the life cycle of a typical solar water heater

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. Gaidajis

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available According to life cycle thinking, the environmental burden deriving from different life cycle stages of a product or a system, such as manufacturing, transportation, maintenance and landfilling should be taken into consideration while assessing its environmental performance. In that aspect, the environmental impacts deriving from the life cycle of a typical solar water heater (SWH in Greece are analyzed and assessed with the application of relative life cycle assessment (LCA software in this study. In order to examine various impact categories such as global warming, ozone layer depletion, ecotoxicity and so forth, the IMPACT2002+ method is applied. The aim of this study is to examine the life cycle stages, processes and materials that significantly affect the system under examination and to provide a discussion regarding the environmental friendliness of solar water heaters.

  13. Environmental Impact Assessment: Uri hydroelectric power project on River Jhelum in Kashmir, India

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This report is an Initial Aquatic Environmental Impact Assessment of the Uri Hydroelectric Power Project on River Jhelum in Kashmir, India. It includes the Terms of Reference of the assessment, a discussion on biodiversity and threats to it, the environmental indicators used to monitor and predict the impacts, a description of the physical, chemical and biological prerequisites of the River Jhelum ecosystem, a description of the survey sites chosen, and an overview of the present fish and bottom fauna. Finally, there are sections on the potential impacts on biota of the Uri Project and a list of proposals for how mitigating and enhancing measures could be enforced

  14. Environmental Impact Assessment: Uri hydroelectric power project on River Jhelum in Kashmir, India

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nyman, L.

    1995-09-01

    This report is an Initial Aquatic Environmental Impact Assessment of the Uri Hydroelectric Power Project on River Jhelum in Kashmir, India. It includes the Terms of Reference of the assessment, a discussion on biodiversity and threats to it, the environmental indicators used to monitor and predict the impacts, a description of the physical, chemical and biological prerequisites of the River Jhelum ecosystem, a description of the survey sites chosen, and an overview of the present fish and bottom fauna. Finally, there are sections on the potential impacts on biota of the Uri Project and a list of proposals for how mitigating and enhancing measures could be enforced

  15. Integrated Environmental Health Impact Assessment for Risk Governance Purposes; Across What Do We Integrate?

    OpenAIRE

    Erik Lebret

    2015-01-01

    Integrated Environmental Health Impact Assessment (IEHIA) can be considered as an element in the third phase of environmental risk management. Its focus is on providing inclusive descriptions of multiple impacts from multiple stressors in such a way that they can be evaluated against the potential societal benefits of the causes of the stressors. This paper emphasises some differences and difficulties in the integration across professional paradigms and scientific fields, across stakeholder p...

  16. Environmental impact for offshore wind farms: Geolocalized Life Cycle Assessment (LCA) approach

    OpenAIRE

    Guermont, Catherine; Menard, Lionel; Gschwind, Benoît; Blanc, Isabelle; Ranchin, Thierry

    2013-01-01

    International audience This paper presents an approach for Environmental Impact Assessment through the use of geolocalized LCA approach, for fixed and floating offshore wind farms. This work was undertaken within the EU-sponsored EnerGEO project, aiming at providing a versatile modeling platform for stakeholders allowing calculation, forecasting and monitoring of environmental impacts of different sources of energy. This paper described the geolocalized LCA approach, and its use for the ev...

  17. National Ignition Facility Project Input for Assessment of Environmental Impacts of NIF for the Sitewide Environmental Impact Statement

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brereton, S

    2003-10-01

    This report provides the baseline data from which the environmental impacts of bounding NIF operations can be assessed. Included are operations in the NE Laser and Target Area Building (LTAB) and the Optics Assembly Building (OAB), (Buildings 581 and 681), and the Building 582 equipment building. The NIF is an experimental laser fusion facility undergoing construction and commissioning at Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory. The LTAB, the main experimental building of the NIF, is where laser-driven experiments will be conducted. The LTAB consists of two laser bays, two optical switchyards, a target bay, target diagnostics areas, capacitor bays, mechanical equipment areas, control rooms, and operational support areas. The LTAB provides an optically stable and clean environment and provides sufficient shielding against prompt radiation and residual radioactivity to meet the as low as reasonably achievable (ALARA) principle.

  18. Proceedings of the second international conference on environmental impact assessment of all economical activities. Vol. 1

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Proceedings of the conference consist of 3 volumes: Vol. 1 - 'Environmental Impact Assessment of all Economical Activities including Industry'; Vol. 2 - 'Air Pollution Control and Prevention'; Vol. 3 - Waste Management and Environmental Problems in Construction Industry'. Out of 32 papers contained in Vol. 1, 2 were inputted to INIS. They deal with models of radionuclide transport in food chains and the use of aerial monitoring in the study of environmental contamination. (Z.S.)

  19. Proceedings of the second international conference on environmental impact assessment of all economical activities. Vol. 2

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Proceedings of the conference consist of 3 volumes: Vol. 1 - 'Environmental Impact Assessment of all Economical Activities including Industry'; Vol. 2 - 'Air Pollution Control and Prevention'; Vol. 3 - Waste Management and Environmental Problems in Construction Industry'. Out of 32 papers contained in Vol. 2, 4 were inputted to INIS. They deal with nuclear fusion as a potential energy source, with environmental aspects of disposal of ashes from power plants in the Czech Republic, and with land reclamation after mining activities. (Z.S.)

  20. Environmental and sustainability impact assessment in small islands : the case of Azores and Madeira

    OpenAIRE

    Ramos, Tomás B; Caeiro, Sandra; Douglas, Calbert H.; Ochieng, Cocker

    2009-01-01

    This paper compares Environmental Impact Assessment (EIA) practices and effectiveness in the Portuguese islands of the Azores and Madeira. This was accomplished by qualitative appraisal and evaluation of the contents of EIA statements and the characterisation of the EIA practices. Data was collected from the islands’ regional environmental agencies and from the Environmental Portuguese Agency internet database. The findings reveal that most EIA project practitioners and consultants in the isl...

  1. Walking the sustainability assessment talk — Progressing the practice of environmental impact assessment (EIA)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Internationally there is a growing demand for environmental impact assessment (EIA) to move away from its traditional focus towards delivering more sustainable outcomes. South Africa is an example of a country where the EIA system seems to have embraced the concept of sustainability. In this paper we test the existing objectives for EIA in South Africa against sustainability principles and then critique the effectiveness of EIA practice in delivering these objectives. The outcome of the research suggests that notwithstanding a strong and explicit sustainability mandate through policy and legislation, the effectiveness of EIA practice falls far short of what is mandated. This shows that further legislative reform is not required to improve effectiveness but rather a focus on changing the behaviour of individual professionals. We conclude by inviting further debate on what exactly practitioners can do to give effect to sustainability in EIA practice.

  2. Environmental impact assessment in the pipeline industry. Experiences with the UK north western ethylene pipeline

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ryde, A.

    1997-12-31

    The north western ethylene pipeline is the final link between Shell`s oil and gas fields in the North Sea and its petrochemical complexes in Cheshire. The natural gas from which ethylene is obtained comes from the Brent and central fields in the North Sea. Environmental impacts are discussed in this paper covering topics as follow: Regulatory and legal aspects; environmental assessment during planning and design; environmental control during construction; environmental management during operation; environmental controls at sensitive sites on the north western ethylene pipeline: some examples. 11 refs., 2 figs.

  3. Environmental impact assessment of electricity production by photovoltaic system using GEOSS recommendations on interoperability

    OpenAIRE

    Ménard, Lionel; Gschwind, Benoît; Blanc, Isabelle; Beloin-Saint-Pierre, Didier; Wald, Lucien; Blanc, Philippe; Ranchin, Thierry; Hischier, Roland; Gianfranceschi, Simone; Smolders, Steven; Gilles, Marc; Grassin, Cyril

    2011-01-01

    International audience Within the Architecture Implementation Pilot (AIP-3) of GEOSS, we have developed a scenario called "environmental impact assessment of the production, transportation and use of energy for the photovoltaic (PV) sector through Life Cycle Assessment (LCA)". It aims at providing decision-makers and policy-planners with reliable and geo-localized knowledge of several impacts induced by various technologies of the PV sector. The scenario is implemented in the GEOSS Common ...

  4. Assessing and evaluating the health impact of environmental exposures

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hollander, Augustinus Ernst Maria de

    2004-01-01

    Never in our Western-European history we have been as healthy as we are now. Until the 20th century the (physical) environment was the source of 70-80 percent of disease burden, nowadays, environmental factors probably contribute less than 5%, while life-style is responsible for the bulk of the curr

  5. A comprehensive environmental impact assessment method for shale gas development

    OpenAIRE

    Renjin Sun; Zhenjie Wang

    2015-01-01

    The great success of US commercial shale gas exploitation stimulates the shale gas development in China, subsequently, the corresponding supporting policies were issued in the 12th Five-Year Plan. But from the experience in the US shale gas development, we know that the resulted environmental threats are always an unavoidable issue, but no uniform and standard evaluation system has yet been set up in China. The comprehensive environment refers to the combination of natural ecological environm...

  6. A Protocol for Lifetime Energy and Environmental Impact Assessment of Building Insulation Materials

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shrestha, Som S [ORNL; Biswas, Kaushik [ORNL; Desjarlais, Andre Omer [ORNL

    2014-01-01

    This article describes a proposed protocol that is intended to provide a comprehensive list of factors to be considered in evaluating the direct and indirect environmental impacts of building insulation materials, as well as detailed descriptions of standardized calculation methodologies to determine those impacts. The energy and environmental impacts of insulation materials can generally be divided into two categories: (1) direct impact due to the embodied energy of the insulation materials and other factors, and (2) indirect or environmental impacts avoided as a result of reduced building energy use due to addition of insulation. Standards and product category rules exist that provide guidelines about the life cycle assessment (LCA) of materials, including building insulation products. However, critical reviews have suggested that these standards fail to provide complete guidance to LCA studies and suffer from ambiguities regarding the determination of the environmental impacts of building insulation and other products. The focus of the assessment protocol described here is to identify all factors that contribute to the total energy and environmental impacts of different insulation products and, more importantly, provide standardized determination methods that will allow comparison of different insulation material types. Further, the intent is not to replace current LCA standards but to provide a well-defined, easy-to-use comparison method for insulation materials using existing LCA guidelines.

  7. Proceedings of the second international conference on environmental impact assessment of all economical activities. Vol. 3

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Proceedings of the conference consist of 3 volumes: Vol. 1 - 'Environmental Impact Assessment of all Economical Activities including Industry'; Vol. 2 - 'Air Pollution Control and Prevention'; Vol. 3 - Waste Management and Environmental Problems in Construction Industry'. Out of 39 papers contained in Vol. 3, 3 were inputted to INIS. They deal with the use of portable radioisotope X-ray fluorescence analyzers in the determination of building material contamination by toxic elements, with underground waste repositories and ground water contamination, and the impact of the Temelin nuclear power plant on the hydrosphere and other environmental components. (Z.S.)

  8. An endpoint damage oriented model for life cycle environmental impact assessment of buildings in China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    GU LiJing; LIN BoRong; GU DaoJin; ZHU YingXin

    2008-01-01

    The midpoint impact assessment methodology and several weighting methods that are currently used by most building Life cycle assessment (LCA) researchers in China, still have some shortcomings. In order to make the evaluation results have better temporal and spatial applicability, the endpoint impact assessment methodology was adopted in this paper. Based on the endpoint damage oriented concept, four endpoints of resource exhaustion, energy exhaustion, human health damage and ecosystem damage were selected according to the situation of China and the specialties of the building industry. Subsequently the formula for calculating each endpoint, the background value for normalization and the weighting factors were defined. Following that, an endpoint damage oriented model to evaluate the life cycle environmental impact of buildings in China was established. This model can produce an integrated indicator for environmental impact, and consequently provides references for directing the sustainable building design.

  9. Environmental impact assessment for uranium mine, mill and in situ leach projects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Environmental impact assessments and/or statements are an inherent part of any uranium mining project and are a prerequisite for the future opening of an exploitation and its final closure and decommissioning. Since they contain all information related to the physical, biological, chemical and economic condition of the areas where industrial projects are proposed or planned, they present invaluable guidance for the planning and implementation of environmental mitigation as well as environmental restoration after the mine is closed. They further yield relevant data on the socio-economic impacts of a project. The present report provides guidance on the environmental impact assessment of uranium mining and milling projects, including in situ leach projects which will be useful for companies in the process of planning uranium developments as well as for the regional or national authorities who will assess such developments. Additional information and advice is given through environmental case histories from five different countries. Those case histories are not meant to be prescriptions for conducting assessments nor even firm recommendations, but should serve as examples for the type and extent of work involved in assessments. A model assessment and licensing process is recommended based on the experience of the five countries

  10. Assessing tourism's global environmental impact 1900–2050

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gössling, Stefan; Peeters, Paul

    2015-01-01

    This paper pioneers the assessment of tourism's total global resource use, including its fossil fuel consumption, associated CO2 emissions, fresh water, land, and food use. As tourism is a dynamic growth system, characterized by rapidly increasing tourist numbers, understanding its pas

  11. Integrated Environmental Health Impact Assessment for Risk Governance Purposes; Across What Do We Integrate?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lebret, Erik

    2016-01-01

    Integrated Environmental Health Impact Assessment (IEHIA) can be considered as an element in the third phase of environmental risk management. Its focus is on providing inclusive descriptions of multiple impacts from multiple stressors in such a way that they can be evaluated against the potential societal benefits of the causes of the stressors. This paper emphasises some differences and difficulties in the integration across professional paradigms and scientific fields, across stakeholder perspectives and differences in impact indicators that emanate from these different fields and paradigms.

  12. Integrated Environmental Health Impact Assessment for Risk Governance Purposes; Across What Do We Integrate?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lebret, Erik

    2016-01-01

    Integrated Environmental Health Impact Assessment (IEHIA) can be considered as an element in the third phase of environmental risk management. Its focus is on providing inclusive descriptions of multiple impacts from multiple stressors in such a way that they can be evaluated against the potential societal benefits of the causes of the stressors. This paper emphasises some differences and difficulties in the integration across professional paradigms and scientific fields, across stakeholder perspectives and differences in impact indicators that emanate from these different fields and paradigms. PMID:26703709

  13. Guidebook on environmental impact assessment for in situ leach mining projects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Assessment of the potential environmental impact of an in situ leach (ISL) project is the first step in the permission and licensing process. An Environmental Impact Assessment (EIA) serves as the basis for preparing an Environmental Impact Statement (EIS), which in turn identifies the potential environmental and socioeconomic impact of a proposed project and outlines measures to mitigate the impact. The EIS review process serves to inform the public about a proposed project as well as provide regulatory agencies with assurance that ISL technology will comply with environmental standards, and that project sites can be rehabilitated to pre-mining use. This publication provides a step-by-step description of project parameters that must be addressed in conducting an EIA and preparing an EIS. It also includes EIA/EIS case histories for current operations in Australia, the Czech Republic, Kazakhstan and the United States of America. The publication will be useful to companies considering development of ISL projects and to regulatory personnel who are responsible for writing environmental regulations and licensing ISL projects

  14. Environmental impact assessment of the proposed Information Technology Park at Perungudi.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharmilaa, G

    2007-10-01

    Environmental impact assessment studies of the proposed Information Technology Park at Perungudi have been carried out. The study involved assessing the existing environmental quality of the proposed site, and predicting impacts and preparing an environmental management plan. Data on the existing quality of water, soil, land use pattern, air, noise and socio-economic details of the proposed project were assessed. The impacts due to the proposed activity were identified and evaluated using the Network Impact Methodology. The water requirement was found to be 3,63,400 L/day. The total wastewater likely to be generated was found to be 2,90,720 L/day. The wastewater will be treated in a sewage treatment plant. The generation of solid waste was assessed to about 500 kg/day. Increase in traffic level was found out by traffic survey. The socio-economic environment will have a positive impact from the proposed project. An Environmental Management Plan was prepared which includes the mitigation measures for improving the eco-profile of the study area.

  15. Cloud-Based Environmental Impact Assessment Expert System – A Case Study of Fiji

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sam Goundar

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available Environmental impact assessments [EIA] involve identifying, measuring, and assessing impacts. This complex process deals with considerable amount of information and requires processing and analysis of quantitative data, qualitative information as well as expert human judgements. Often, available information is incomplete, subjective, and inconsistent. This challenge of collecting, processing, analyzing, and reporting EIA information can be met by computer systems. A Cloud-based Environmental Impact Assessment [EIA] system is proposed in this paper to overcome the many challenges faced by practitioners. Fiji’s EIA process is used as a case study. The steps involved in the process are automated as a sequence of computer executable programs with Expert System. Based on the information provided about projects, the EIA system is expected to compute environmental impacts and produce Environment Impact Statements. With the system, a user enters information about the environmental settings in which the development project is expected to take place as well as the proposed development project activities. Based on the input, an expert system with an inference engine uses rules to check the knowledge base and report on possible impacts and mitigation actions. The knowledge base is connected to databases on domain experts, GIS and simulation models.

  16. Comprehensive assessment method for environmental impact of railway based on geographic information system

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    吴小萍; 陈秀方; 马超群; 杨晓宇; 冉茂平; 孟祥定

    2004-01-01

    By integrating the merits of the map overlay method and the geographic information system (GIS), a GIS based map overlay method was developed to analyze comprehensively the environmental vulnerability around railway and its impact on the environment, which is adapted for the comprehensive assessment of railway environmental impact and the optimization of railway alignments. The assessment process of the GIS based map overlay method was presented, which includes deciding the system structure and weights of assessment factors, making environmental vulnerability grade maps, and evaluating the alternative alignments comprehensively to obtain the best one. With the GIS functions of spatial analysis, such as overlay analysis and buffer analysis, and functions of handling attribute data, the GIS based map overlay method overcomes the shortcomings of the existing map overlay method and the conclusion is more reasonable. In the end, a detailed case study was illustrated to verify the efficiency of the method.

  17. The role of Life Cycle Assessment in identifying and reducing environmental impacts of CCS

    OpenAIRE

    Sathre, Roger

    2011-01-01

    Life Cycle Assessment (LCA) should be used to assist carbon capture and sequestration (CCS) planners to reduce greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions and avoid unintended environmental trade-offs. LCA is an analytical framework for determining environmental impacts resulting from processes, products, and services. All life cycle stages are evaluated including raw material sourcing, processing, operation, maintenance, and component end-of-life, as well as intermediate stages such as transportation. I...

  18. ENVIRONMENTAL IMPACT ASSESSMENT OF LAND USE PLANING AROUND THE LEASED LIMESTONE MINE USING REMOTE SENSING TECHNIQUES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. Ranade

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Mining activities and the waste products produced can have significant impact on the surrounding environment - ranging from localized surface and ground water contamination to the damaging effects of airborne pollutants on the regional ecosystem. The long term monitoring of environmental impacts requires a cost effective method to characterize land cover and land cover changes over time. As per the guidelines of Ministry of Environment and Forest, Govt. of India, it is mandatory to study and analyze the impacts of mining on its surroundings. The use of remote sensing technology to generate reliable land cover maps is a valuable asset to completing environmental assessments over mining affected areas. In this paper, a case study has been discussed to study the land use – land cover status around 10 Km radius of open cast limestone mine area and the subsequent impacts on environmental as well as social surroundings.

  19. Spatial information during public participation within environmental impact assessment in Kenya

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mwenda, A.N.; Bregt, A.K.; Ligtenberg, A.

    2013-01-01

    This study set out to evaluate the use of spatial information during public participation within Environmental Impact Assessment (EAI) in Kenya, through a case study. A conceptual framework developed for this study considered four key elements: the stages of EIA in Kenya (EIA study stage), public pa

  20. Assessment of the environmental impact of plutonium transport within the European Community

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Assessment is given of the environmental impact of plutonium transport within the European Community in the 1990's. This includes shipments of plutonium, raw materials, fresh and spent mixed oxide fuel assemblies and plutonium contaminated solid wastes. The consequences on general traffic, the radiation doses to transport workers and the general public and the heat release during transport are presented

  1. Environmental impact assessment of dutch tomato crop production in a Venlo glasshouse

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Antón, A.; Torrellas, M.; Montero, J.I.; Ruijs, M.N.A.; Vermeulen, P.C.M.; Stanghellini, C.

    2012-01-01

    This environmental impact assessment of the current situation of Dutch tomato production in a Venlo greenhouse in a temperate climate was developed as part of the EUPHOROS project. The project aims to develop a more sustainable greenhouse system with a reduction of external inputs yet with high prod

  2. Designing a Spatially Intelligent Public Participative System for the Environmental Impact Assessment Process

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lei, Lei

    2013-01-01

    Environmental Impact Assessment (EIA) is a decision-making process that often involves public participation in the scoping and reviewing stage. Although the importance of engaging the public in the EIA process has long been recognized, it is often considered ineffective due to factors such as time, budget, resource, technical and procedural…

  3. Foundation stones for a real socio-environmental integration in projects' impact assessments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andres Dominguez-Gomez, J.

    2015-04-01

    In the last twenty years, both the increase in academic production and the expansion of professional involvement in Environmental Impact Assessment (EIA) and Social Impact Assessment (SIA), have evidenced growing scientific and business interest in risk and impact analysis. However, this growth has not brought with it a parallel progress in addressing their main shortcomings: insufficient integration of environmental and social features into development project analyses and, in cases where the social aspects are considered, technical-methodological failings in their diagnosis and assessment. It is clear that these weaknesses carry with them substantial threats to the sustainability (social, environmental and economic) of schemes which impact on the environment, and in consequence, to the local contexts where they are carried out and to the delicate balance of the global ecosystem. This paper argue that, in a sociological context of growing complexity, four foundation-stones are required to underpin research methodologies (for both diagnosis and assessment) in the socio-environmental risks of development projects: a theoretical foundation in actor-network theory; an ethical grounding in values which are internationally recognized though not always carried through into practice; a (new) epistemological-scientific base; and a methodological foundation in social participation.

  4. Substituted plan analysis in the environmental impact assessment of Yongchuan wastewater treatment project

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    FANG Jun-hua

    2006-01-01

    Substituted plan in the environmental impact assessment (EIA) mainly means the treatment technology and the substituted site of plant, and it also includes the many kinds of environment protection measures. This paper will make detailed analysis on the treatment technology, the substituted site of plant, the purpose of discharged water and the dispose of sludge in the Yongchuan wastewater treatment project.

  5. Environmental risk assessment for plant pests: a procedure to evaluate their impacts on ecosystem services

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gilioli, G.; Schrader, G.; Baker, R.H.A.;

    2014-01-01

    The current methods to assess the environmental impacts of plant pests differ in their approaches and there is a lack of the standardized procedures necessary to provide accurate and consistent results, demonstrating the complexity of developing a commonly accepted scheme for this purpose. By inc...... citrus long-horn beetle, Anoplophora chinensis....

  6. Scope and profoundness of environmental assessments. A study in the frame of environmental impact assessments. Strategic environmental assessment and FFH (fauna-flora-habitat) impact assessment under specific consideration of the conflict wind energy - bird protection; Untersuchungsumfang und Ermittlungstiefe in Umweltpruefungen. Eine Untersuchung im Rahmen von Umweltvertraeglichkeitspruefung, strategischer Umweltpruefung und FFH-Vertraeglichkeitspruefung unter besonderer Beruecksichtigung des Konfliktfelds Windenergie - Vogelschutz

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Erb, Mareen

    2013-07-01

    The legal background of environmental impact assessments and the principle regulations and guidelines for this assessment are shortly summarized. The following Issues are discussed in detail: fundamentals of environmental assessments, profoundness and scope in environmental assessments; the conflict wind energy parks and birds.

  7. Valuation of ecotoxicological impacts from tributyltin based on a quantitative environmental assessment framework.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Noring, Maria; Håkansson, Cecilia; Dahlgren, Elin

    2016-02-01

    In the scientific literature, few valuations of biodiversity and ecosystem services following the impacts of toxicity are available, hampered by the lack of ecotoxicological documentation. Here, tributyltin is used to conduct a contingent valuation study as well as cost-benefit analysis (CBA) of measures for improving the environmental status in Swedish coastal waters of the Baltic Sea. Benefits considering different dimensions when assessing environmental status are highlighted and a quantitative environmental assessment framework based on available technology, ecological conditions, and economic valuation methodology is developed. Two scenarios are used in the valuation study: (a) achieving good environmental status by 2020 in accordance with EU legislation (USD 119 household(-1) year(-1)) and (b) achieving visible improvements by 2100 due to natural degradation (USD 108 household(-1) year(-1)) during 8 years. The later scenario was used to illustrate an application of the assessment framework. The CBA results indicate that both scenarios might generate a welfare improvement.

  8. Assessing environmental impacts using a comparative LCA of industrial and artisanal production processes: "Minas Cheese" case

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elbert Muller Nigri

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available This study uses the Life Cycle Assessment (LCA methodology to evaluate and compare the environmental impacts caused by both the artisanal and the industrial manufacturing processes of "Minas cheese". This is a traditional cheese produced in the state of Minas Gerais (Brazil, and it is considered a "cultural patrimony" in the country. The high participation of artisanal producers in the market justifies this research, and this analysis can help the identification of opportunities to improve the environmental performance of several stages of the production system. The environmental impacts caused were also assessed and compared. The functional unit adopted was 1 kilogram (Kg of cheese. The system boundaries considered were the production process, conservation of product (before sale, and transport to consumer market. The milk production process was considered similar in both cases, and therefore it was not included in the assessment. The data were collected through interviews with the producers, observation, and a literature review; they were ordered and processed using the SimaPro 7 LCA software. According to the impact categories analyzed, the artisanal production exerted lower environmental impacts. This can be justified mainly because the industrial process includes the pasteurization stage, which uses dry wood as an energy source and refrigeration.

  9. Environmental impact assessment of the incineration of municipal solid waste with auxiliary coal in China

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zhao, Yan; Xing, Wei; Lu, Wenjing;

    2012-01-01

    The environmental impacts of waste incineration with auxiliary coal were investigated using the life-cycle-based software, EASEWASTE, based on the municipal solid waste (MSW) management system in Shuozhou City. In the current system, MSW is collected, transported, and incinerated with 250kg of coal...... per ton of waste. Based on observed environmental impacts of incineration, fossil CO2 and heavy metals were primary contributors to global warming and ecotoxicity in soil, respectively. Compared with incinerators using excess coal, incineration with adequate coal presents significant benefits......-separated and landfilled, the incineration of rest-waste presents better results on global warming, acidification, nutrient enrichment, and even ecotoxicity in soil. This process is considered a promising solution for MSW management in Shuozhou City. Weighted normalized environmental impacts were assessed based on Chinese...

  10. Analysis of the Environmental Impact Assessment (EIA) Directive and the EIA decision in Turkey

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Environmental Impact Assessment (EIA) Directive first entered into force in the United States in 1969, and began to be implemented in many other countries by 1990. The first Environmental Impact Assessment (EIA) Directive in Turkey was published on February 7, 1993, under the Environmental Law No. 2872. The EIA Directive was revised seven times on June 23, 1997, June 6, 2002, December 16, 2003, July 17, 2008, October 3, 2013, and November 25, 2014. Several amendments were made during this process. The first EIA Directive dated 1993 was narrow in scope and its procedure was long, while the amendments in 2003, 2008, 2013, and 2014 widened the scope of the EIA, and shortened the EIA assessment procedures. In this study, the amendments to the Turkish EIA Directive were analysed, and their effect on the number of EIA decisions made was addressed. It was concluded that the uncertainties in EIA procedures were removed, procedures were shortened, and as a result, the number of EIA decisions increased thanks to the revisions made in line with harmonisation with European Union (EU) acquis. - Highlights: • Demonstrates the Environmental Impact Assessment practices in Turkey. • Demonstrates the application of the EIA in Turkey by sector. • Demonstrates the amendments of the EIA by-laws in Turkey. • Demonstrates the changes in EIA practices and EIA decisions

  11. Analysis of the Environmental Impact Assessment (EIA) Directive and the EIA decision in Turkey

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bilgin, Ayla

    2015-07-15

    The Environmental Impact Assessment (EIA) Directive first entered into force in the United States in 1969, and began to be implemented in many other countries by 1990. The first Environmental Impact Assessment (EIA) Directive in Turkey was published on February 7, 1993, under the Environmental Law No. 2872. The EIA Directive was revised seven times on June 23, 1997, June 6, 2002, December 16, 2003, July 17, 2008, October 3, 2013, and November 25, 2014. Several amendments were made during this process. The first EIA Directive dated 1993 was narrow in scope and its procedure was long, while the amendments in 2003, 2008, 2013, and 2014 widened the scope of the EIA, and shortened the EIA assessment procedures. In this study, the amendments to the Turkish EIA Directive were analysed, and their effect on the number of EIA decisions made was addressed. It was concluded that the uncertainties in EIA procedures were removed, procedures were shortened, and as a result, the number of EIA decisions increased thanks to the revisions made in line with harmonisation with European Union (EU) acquis. - Highlights: • Demonstrates the Environmental Impact Assessment practices in Turkey. • Demonstrates the application of the EIA in Turkey by sector. • Demonstrates the amendments of the EIA by-laws in Turkey. • Demonstrates the changes in EIA practices and EIA decisions.

  12. Framework for Assessing Indicators of Environmental Impacts in the Transport Sector

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Joumard, Robert; Gudmundsson, Henrik; Folkeson, Lennart

    2011-01-01

    The following questions were addressed in this study: How can environmental impacts of transport be identified? How can the impacts be represented by operational indicators? How can several indicators be considered jointly? How can indicators be used in planning and decision making? First......, a definition of the phrase “indicator of environmental impacts in the transport sector” was derived. The concept of a chain of causality between a source and a final target was developed as a common reference for indicators and their assessment. Criteria and methods for the assessment and selection...... of indicators were derived in terms of measurement, monitoring, and management. Finally, examples of the application of the criteria for individual indicators of seven chains of causality and for selected aggregated indicators were developed and are presented in this paper....

  13. Not so Black and White: environmental justice and cumulative impact assessments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    not typically identified as meeting EJ criteria (in demographic terms) also face more significant ecological hazards. Thus, the strict bifurcation of communities into categories of Environmental Justice and Non-Environmental Justice is problematic, and poses a serious dilemma for policy makers, public health officials, and community activists. To overcome this challenge requires the adoption of a cumulative environmental justice impact assessment (CEJIA), which in addition to the demographic characteristics of a community, also takes into account the total environmental burden and related health impacts upon residents. Furthermore, through the adoption of the precautionary principle, source reduction, and alternative forms of ''cleaner'' production, environmental justice advocates must work for policies which reduce the environmental threat for the full range of communities, as well as their own

  14. Assessing environmental impacts of storage technologies and competing options for balancing demand and supply in 2050

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Droste-Franke, Bert [Europaeische Akademie Bad Neuenahr-Ahrweiler GmbH, Bad Neuenahr-Ahrweiler (Germany)

    2012-07-01

    The major aim of using renewable energies for electricity production is to realise a sustainable and environmental friendly energy system which can be operated viably in the long term. One major indicator to reach this aim is the overall emission of CO2 resulting from the use of a certain technology. However, further environmental aspects have to be taken into account for an adequate evaluation of technologies. With respect to preserving the environmental basis for future generations several environmental pressures have to be considered which can either lead to small and substitutable, marginal environmental damages or to environmental impacts which contribute to burdens which could become critical, i.e., jeopardising important environmental functions. Thus, it should be accounted for the societal acceptability of their (potential) environmental impacts. The analysis presented here deals with the assessment of environmental effects of both types, marginal and potentially critical, for current and advanced technologies which can be used for balancing fluctuations in the electricity production from renewable sources in an economic environment of 2050. The basic results used were derived in a study carried out by the Europaeische Akademie GmbH (Droste-Franke et al. 2012).

  15. Billy Shaw Dam and Reservoir: Environmental assessment and finding of no significant impacts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This notice announces BPA's decision to fund the construction, operation, and maintenance of the Billy Shaw Dam and Reservoir on the Duck Valley Reservation. This project is part of a continuing effort to address system-wide fish and wildlife losses caused by the development of the hydropower system in the Columbia River Basin. BPA has prepared an Environmental Assessment (EA) evaluating the potential environmental impacts of the proposed project. Based on the analysis in the EA, BPA has determined that the Proposed Action is not a major Federal action significantly affecting the quality of the human environment, within the meaning of the National Environmental Policy Act (NEPA) of 1969. Therefore, the preparation of an Environmental Impact Statement (EIS) is not required and BPA is issuing this FONSI

  16. Billy Shaw Dam and Reservoir : Environmental Assessment and Finding of No Significant Impacts.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    United States. Bonneville Power Administration; Shoshone-Paiute Tribes of the Duck Valley Reservation, Nevada.

    1997-03-01

    This notice announces BPA`s decision to fund the construction, operation, and maintenance of the Billy Shaw Dam and Reservoir on the Duck Valley Reservation. This project is part of a continuing effort to address system-wide fish and wildlife losses caused by the development of the hydropower system in the Columbia River Basin. BPA has prepared an Environmental Assessment (EA) evaluating the potential environmental impacts of the proposed project. Based on the analysis in the EA, BPA has determined that the Proposed Action is not a major Federal action significantly affecting the quality of the human environment, within the meaning of the National Environmental Policy Act (NEPA) of 1969. Therefore, the preparation of an Environmental Impact Statement (EIS) is not required and BPA is issuing this FONSI.

  17. The environmental impact statement for mining projects within the framework of the Environmental Assessment Act in Canada

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The current evolution of environmental law in Canada is characterized by the development of mandatory project review processes, at both the federal and provincial levels. At the federal level the Canadian Environmental Assessment Act, Bill C-78, is the result of the federal government's environmental assessment reform in 1991/1992. In this reform previous guideline orders which did not have the force of the law have been replaced by a law of general application. Bill C-78 provides for the possibility of a public review process in the initial assessment part - if warranted by early screening - especially for all major projects and mining projects. - In the past environment assessment and review of a project was conducted less openly and mainly between the proponent and various provincial and federal agencies according to guidelines. These guidelines did not provide clear procedures and responsibilities, and they did not establish a mechanism for full public participation in the initial assessment part. By taking care of these difficulties the new process has become more open, public and enforceable. Therefore environmental impact statements for mining projects (example uranium ore mines in Saskatchewan), should be suitable for widespread public distribution and review, and should at the same time provide a concise but complete statement of the anticipated short term and long term environmental costs and benefits can be and cannot be expressed in monetary terms. (orig)

  18. Methods for assessing environmental impacts of a FUSRAP property-cleanup/interim-storage remedial action

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This document provides a description of a property-cleanup/interim-storage action, explanation of how environmental impacts might occur, comprehensive treatment of most potential impacts that might occur as a result of this type of action, discussion of existing methodologies for estimating and assessing impacts, justification of the choice of specific methodologies for use in FUSRAP environmental reviews, assessments of representative impacts (or expected ranges of impacts where possible), suggested mitigation measures, and some key sources of information. The major topical areas covered are physical and biological impacts, radiological impacts, and socioeconomic impacts. Some project-related issues were beyond the scope of this document, including dollar costs, specific accident scenarios, project funding and changes in Congressional mandates, and project management (contracts, labor relations, quality assurance, liability, emergency preparedness, etc.). These issues will be covered in other documents supporting the decision-making process. Although the scope of this document covers property-cleanup and interim-storage actions, it is applicable to other similar remedial actions. For example, the analyses discussed herein for cleanup activities are applicable to any FUSRAP action that includes site cleanup

  19. Assessment of the health impact of an environmental pollution and quantitative assessment of health risks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The report made by a working group is written for experts in health risk assessment or for professionals involved in risk management. It proposes a methodological and conceptual framework which could build a unified approach to a quantitative assessment of health risks. In the first part, under the form of questions and answers, it defines the health impact, describes how to assess the excess of individual risk and the related hypothesis, how to pass from the excess of individual risk to the health impact, how to express the results of an health impact calculation, how to take the lack of knowledge into account at the different steps of this calculation, what is the significance of the result of such a calculation, and how useful an health impact assessment can be. The second part proposes a more detailed presentation of the scientific background for the health impact calculation with its indicators, its uncertainties, its practice in other countries, its relevance, and its fields of application. Then, after a comment of the dose-response relationship, it reports the scientific validity of the assessment of a number of cases

  20. Proposal of Environmental Impact Assessment Method for Concrete in South Korea: An Application in LCA (Life Cycle Assessment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tae Hyoung Kim

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available This study aims to develop a system for assessing the impact of the substances discharged from concrete production process on six environmental impact categories, i.e., global warming (GWP, acidification (AP, eutrophication (EP, abiotic depletion (ADP, ozone depletion (ODP, and photochemical oxidant creation (POCP, using the life a cycle assessment (LCA method. To achieve this, this study proposed an LCA method specifically applicable to the Korean concrete industry by adapting the ISO standards to suit the Korean situations. The proposed LCA method involves a system that performs environmental impact assessment on the basis of input information on concrete mix design, transport distance, and energy consumption in a batch plant. The Concrete Lifecycle Assessment System (CLAS thus developed provides user-friendly support for environmental impact assessment with specialized database for concrete mix materials and energy sources. In the case analysis using the CLAS, among the substances discharged from the production of 24 MPa concrete, those contributing to GWP, AP, EP, ADP, ODP, and POCP were assessed to amount to 309 kg-CO2 eq/m3, 28.7 kg-SO2 eq/m3, 5.21 kg-PO43− eq/m3, 0.000049 kg-CFC11 eq/m3, 34 kg/m3, and 21 kg-Ethylene eq/m3, respectively. Of these six environmental impact categories selected for the LCA in this study, ordinary Portland cement (OPC was found to contribute most intensely to GWP and POCP, and aggregates, to AP, EP, ODP, and ADP. It was also found that the mix design with increased prop proportion of recycled aggregate was found to contribute to reducing the impact in all other categories.

  1. Life cycle assessment of energy products: environmental impact assessment of biofuels; Oekobilanz von Energieprodukten: Oekologische Bewertung von Biotreibstoffen

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zah, R.; Boeni, H.; Gauch, M.; Hischier, R.; Lehmann, M.; Waeger, P.

    2007-05-15

    This final report for the Swiss Federal Office of Energy (SFOE) deals with the results of a study that evaluated the environmental impact of the entire production chain of fuels made from biomass and used in Switzerland. Firstly, the study supplies an analysis of the possible environmental impacts of biofuels that can be used as a basis for political decisions. Secondly, an environmental life cycle assessment (LCA) of various biofuels is presented. In addition, the impacts of fuel use are compared with other uses for bioenergy such as the generation of electricity and heat. The methods used in the LCA are discussed, including the Swiss method of ecological scarcity (Environmental Impact Points, UBP 06), and the European Eco-indicator 99 method. The results of the study are discussed, including the finding that not all biofuels can reduce environmental impacts as compared to fossil fuels. The role to be played by biofuels produced in an environmentally-friendly way together with other forms of renewable energy in our future energy supply is discussed.

  2. Environmental Impact Assessment for Potential Continuous Processes for the Production of Carbon Nanotubes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aditi Singh

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available As an emerging discipline, nanotechnology has the potential to improve environmental sustainability through its application in pollution prevention, treatment, remediation, etc. One challenging issue in the growth of nanotechnology is how to produce purified carbon nanotubes (CNT in commercial quantities at affordable price and with low environmental impacts. A detailed assessment of such a manufacturing process from both economic and environmental aspects at the design phase will benefit both the industry and the society. In this work, an LCA type of environmental impact assessment is conducted for the conceptual design of two catalytic, chemical vapor deposition processes (CNT-PFR and CNT-FBR used for continuous large–scale production of CNT. The core of both processes is a high-temperature catalytic reactor. Mineral acids are used in the purification steps, from which liquid and solid wastes are generated and must be treated before discharge. Based on the simulation results, the environmental impacts of each process are calculated. The results provide vital information that can be used during the design phase of these processes for better decision-making.

  3. Impacts Analyses Supporting the National Environmental Policy Act Environmental Assessment for the Resumption of Transient Testing Program

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Annette L. Schafer; Lloyd C. Brown; David C. Carathers; Boyd D. Christensen; James J. Dahl; Mark L. Miller; Cathy Ottinger Farnum; Steven Peterson; A. Jeffrey Sondrup; Peter V. Subaiya; Daniel M. Wachs; Ruth F. Weiner

    2013-11-01

    Environmental and health impacts are presented for activities associated with transient testing of nuclear fuel and material using two candidate test reactors. Transient testing involves irradiation of nuclear fuel or materials for short time-periods under high neutron flux rates. The transient testing process includes transportation of nuclear fuel or materials inside a robust shipping cask to a hot cell, removal from the shipping cask, pre-irradiation examination of the nuclear materials, assembly of an experiment assembly, transportation of the experiment assembly to the test reactor, irradiation in the test reactor, transport back to the hot cell, and post-irradiation examination of the nuclear fuel or material. The potential for environmental or health consequences during the transportation, examination, and irradiation actions are assessed for normal operations, off-normal (accident) scenarios, and transportation. Impacts to the environment (air, soil, and groundwater), are assessed during each phase of the transient testing process. This report documents the evaluation of potential consequences to the general public. This document supports the Environmental Assessment (EA) required by the U.S. National Environmental Policy Act (NEPA) (42 USC Subsection 4321 et seq.).

  4. Environmental impacts of remediation of a trichloroethene-contaminated site: life cycle assessment of remediation alternatives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lemming, Gitte; Hauschild, Michael Z; Chambon, Julie; Binning, Philip J; Bulle, Cécile; Margni, Manuele; Bjerg, Poul L

    2010-12-01

    The environmental impacts of remediation of a chloroethene-contaminated site were evaluated using life cycle assessment (LCA). The compared remediation options are (i) in situ bioremediation by enhanced reductive dechlorination (ERD), (ii) in situ thermal desorption (ISTD), and (iii) excavation of the contaminated soil followed by off-site treatment and disposal. The results showed that choosing the ERD option will reduce the life-cycle impacts of remediation remarkably compared to choosing either ISTD or excavation, which are more energy-demanding. In addition to the secondary impacts of remediation, this study includes assessment of local toxic impacts (the primary impact) related to the on-site contaminant leaching to groundwater and subsequent human exposure via drinking water. The primary human toxic impacts were high for ERD due to the formation and leaching of chlorinated degradation products, especially vinyl chloride during remediation. However, the secondary human toxic impacts of ISTD and excavation are likely to be even higher, particularly due to upstream impacts from steel production. The newly launched model, USEtox, was applied for characterization of primary and secondary toxic impacts and combined with a site-dependent fate model of the leaching of chlorinated ethenes from the fractured clay till site. PMID:21053954

  5. Tucannon River Spring Chinook Captive Broodstock Program Final Environmental Assessment and Finding of No Significant Impact

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    N/A

    2000-05-24

    Bonneville Power Administration (BPA) is proposing to fund the Tucannon River Spring Chinook Captive Broodstock Program, a small-scale production initiative designed to increase numbers of a weak but potentially recoverable population of spring chinook salmon in the Tucannon River in the State of Washington. BPA has prepared an Environmental Assessment (EA) (DOE/EA-l326) evaluating the proposed project. Based on the analysis in the EA, BPA has determined that the proposed action is not a major Federal action significantly affecting the quality of the human environment, within the meaning of the National Environmental Policy Act (NEPA) of 1969. Therefore, the preparation of an Environmental Impact Statement (EIS) is not required, and BPA is issuing this Finding of No Significant Impact (FONSI).

  6. Mid-Columbia Coho Reintroduction Feasibility Project : Final Environmental Assessment and Finding of No Significant Impact.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    United States. Bonneville Power Administration; Confederated Tribes and Bands of the Yakama Nation; Washington State Department of Fish and Wildlife

    1999-04-01

    Bonneville Power Administration (BPA) is proposing to fund research for 2 to 3 years on the feasibility of reintroducing coho salmon into mid-Columbia River basin tributaries. The research would take place in the Methow and Wenatchee river basins in Chelan and Okanogan Counties, Washington. BPA has prepared an Environmental Assessment (EA) (DOE/EA-1282) evaluating the proposed project. Based on the analysis in the EA, BPA has determined that the proposed action is not a major Federal action significantly affecting the quality of the human environment, within the meaning of the National Environmental Policy Act (NEPA) of 1969. Therefore, the preparation of an Environmental Impact Statement (EIS) is not required, and BPA is issuing this Finding of No Significant Impact.

  7. Mid-Columbia Coho Reintroduction Feasibility Project. Final Environmental Assessment and Finding of No Significant Impact

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bonneville Power Administration (BPA) is proposing to fund research for 2 to 3 years on the feasibility of reintroducing coho salmon into mid-Columbia River basin tributaries. The research would take place in the Methow and Wenatchee river basins in Chelan and Okanogan Counties, Washington. BPA has prepared an Environmental Assessment (EA) (DOE/EA-1282) evaluating the proposed project. Based on the analysis in the EA, BPA has determined that the proposed action is not a major Federal action significantly affecting the quality of the human environment, within the meaning of the National Environmental Policy Act (NEPA) of 1969. Therefore, the preparation of an Environmental Impact Statement (EIS) is not required, and BPA is issuing this Finding of No Significant Impact

  8. Environmental impact assessment in Colombia: Critical analysis and proposals for improvement

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The evaluation of Environmental Impact Assessment (EIA) systems is a highly recommended strategy for enhancing their effectiveness and quality. This paper describes an evaluation of EIA in Colombia, using the model and the control mechanisms proposed and applied in other countries by Christopher Wood and Ortolano. The evaluation criteria used are based on Principles of Environmental Impact Assessment Best Practice, such as effectiveness and control features, and they were contrasted with the opinions of a panel of Colombian EIA experts as a means of validating the results of the study. The results found that EIA regulations in Colombia were ineffective because of limited scope, inadequate administrative support and the inexistence of effective control mechanisms and public participation. This analysis resulted in a series of recommendations regarding the further development of the EIA system in Colombia with a view to improving its quality and effectiveness.

  9. Assessment of transportation risk for the U.S. Department of Energy Environmental Management programmatic environmental impact statement

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In its Programmatic Environmental Impact Statement (PEIS), the Office of Environmental Management (EM) of the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) is considering a broad range of alternatives for the future management of radioactive and hazardous waste at the facilities of the DOE complex. The alternatives involve facilities to be used for treatment, storage, and disposal of various wastes generated from DOE environmental restoration activities and waste management operations. The evaluation includes five types of waste (four types of radioactive waste plus hazardous waste), 49 sites, and numerous cases associated with each alternative for waste management. In general, the alternatives are evaluated independently for each type of waste and reflect decentralized, regionalized, and centralized approaches. Transportation of waste materials is an integral component of the EM PEIS alternatives for waste management. The estimated impact on human health that is associated with various waste transportation activities is an important component of a complete appraisal of the alternatives. The transportation risk assessment performed for the EM PEIS is designed to ensure through uniform and judicious selection of models, data, and assumptions that relative comparisons of risk among the various alternatives are meaningful and consistent. Among other tasks, Argonne National Laboratory is providing technical assistance to the EM PEIS on transportation risk assessment. The objective is to perform a human health risk assessment for each type of waste relative to the EM PEIS alternatives for waste management. The transportation risk assessed is part of the overall impacts being analyzed for the EM PEIS to determine the safest, most environmentally and economically sound manner in which to satisfy requirements for waste management in the coming decades

  10. Effects on birds of an offshore wind park at Horns Rev: Environmental impact assessment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Noer, H.; Kjaer Christensen, T.; Clausager, I.; Krag Petersen, I. [DMU, Dept. of Coastal Zone Ecology (Denmark)

    2000-07-01

    This report presents the technical background to the ornithological environmental impact assessment for the construction of an offshore windpark at Horns Rev, 14 km west-south-west of Blaevandshuk, Denmark. Construction of the park is planned to commence in 2001. The park will consist of c. 80 wind turbines, each of at least 1.8 MW, and cover an area of 27.5 km{sup 2} (including the 200 m exclusion zone around the park). (au)

  11. Exploring the psychology of trade-off decision-making in environmental impact assessment

    OpenAIRE

    Retief, Francois; Morrison-Saunders, Angus; Geneletti, Davide; Pope, Jenny

    2013-01-01

    Dealing with trade-offs lies at the heart of environmental impact assessment (EIA). However, there has been scant reflection to date on the concept of trade-offs within the EIA literature. This paper aims to contribute to the thinking about trade-offs by distilling key learning points from research conducted within the field of psychology. In particular, the paper explores three interrelated questions namely: When are trade-off decisions difficult? How do we react when faced with dif...

  12. Environmental impact assessment and eco-friendly decision-making in civil structures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Sang-Hyo; Choi, Moon-Seock; Mha, Ho-Seong; Joung, Jung-Yeun

    2013-09-15

    This study develops two useful procedures in performing an environmental-impact assessment. One is the advanced life-cycle assessment (LCA) method, which effectively tracks the flow of materials and considers the recycling and demolition of a civil structure. The other is an eco-friendly decision-making procedure, which may effectively apply when determining the prototype of a civil structure. The advanced LCA method differs from traditional LCA procedure, as it classifies the input material prior to the impact assessment. Classification work is performed to establish independent life-cycle stages for each material. The processes of recycling and demolition are appropriately added to the life-cycle stages. The impact assessment is performed separately for the materials, and results are aggregated at the end of the analysis. The eco-friendly decision-making procedure enables designers to choose an economical, and environmentally friendly, alternative during the planning phase of the construction project. This procedure rationally amalgamates economical value and environmental effects into a single indicator. The life cycle cost (LCC) of a structure can be analysed by using conventional LCC tools, whereas the environmental impact is estimated by LCA. The results from LCC and LCA are then integrated by using either a CO2 conversion method or an analytical hierarchy process (AHP). The CO2 conversion method presents the result as a monetary value, whereas the AHP presents the result as a non-dimensional value. A practical example using a steel box girder bridge and a pre-stressed concrete (PSC) box-girder bridge is also given in order to aid the understanding of the presented procedure. PMID:23681357

  13. Assessing the environmental impact of biobleaching: effects of the operational conditions

    OpenAIRE

    Valls Vidal, Cristina; Quintana, Elisabet; Roncero Vivero, María Blanca

    2012-01-01

    The environmental impact of enzyme bleaching stages applied to oxygen-delignified eucalypt kraft pulp was assessed via the chemical oxygen demand (COD), color, absorbance spectrum, residual enzyme activity and Microtox toxicity of the effluents from a laccase–HBT (1-hydoxybenzotriazole) treatment. The influence of the laccase and HBT doses, and reaction time, on these effluent properties was also examined. The laccase dose was found to be the individual variable most strongly affecting COD, w...

  14. Quality of environmental impact assessment (EIA) reports on biological pest control / Thea Henriette Carroll

    OpenAIRE

    Carroll, Thea Henriette

    2006-01-01

    Decision making regarding the release of biological control agents for invasive species such as lantana, Lantana camara, requires the consideration and evaluation of environmental impact assessment (EIA) reports by a competent authority. Although various biological control agents have been authorised for release into the environment for the control of lantana, the quality of the EIA reports that form the basis for decision making has never been evaluated. The evaluation of the ...

  15. An Investigation of the Factors Affecting Performance of Environmental Impact Assessment Practices (EIA in Pakistan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shahbaz Hussain

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Environmental Impact Assessment is used to detect changes that a proposed project may have on environment. The intent of present study is to investigate impact of institutional capacity and legal framework on performance of Environmental Impact Assessment practices in Pakistan such as screening, scoping and mitigation, environmental management plan and reporting. Sample of 200 EIA professionals have been selected by using random sampling approach from all provinces of Pakistan. Data has been collected through structured questionnaire and analysed by using AMOS 19 (Analysis of Moment Structures software. Results of path analysis indicated that institutional capacity and legal framework have significant direct impact on performance of all EIA practices in Pakistan. Model fit statistics such as GFI, RMR, NFI, IFI, TLI, RFI, CFI indicate the fitness of research model in this context. It has been suggested that there must be relevant and sufficient human resources that can uplift institutional capacity and legal framework must be well implemented because it will lead to enhanced performance of EIA practices in Pakistan.

  16. Environmental integrated impact assessment for waste treatment activity: methodology and case-study application

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A literature method for the environmental integrated impact assessment, according to the IPPC Directive, has been critically analysed and adjusted in order to be used for the environmental performance assessment of waste treatment activities. The assessment parameters, sorted in eight treatment and combined pollution categories, have been partly redefined and re balanced. The adjusted methodology has been applied to a real case-study, a chemical- physical waste treatment plant, in order to calculate the current performance (Actual Integrated Index) and the ideal performance (Actual Integrated Index) achievable by technical and operational improvements. The adjusted methodology has also been used as a decision support system, in order to estimate the value of the expected environmental performances improvement after the execution achievable from the introduction of a single one or a set of improvement actions. The valuation of the Integrated Index percentage reduction, along with the action achievable, made the best actions able to be identified, both in comparative way and in the cost-effective one. The results, 50 as Effective Integrated Index and 42 as Ideal Integrated Index, in a 10-100 scale, show a medium impact level and point out an appreciable improvement margin on all the environmental performances, especially in air emission control and water consumption

  17. The role of Life Cycle Assessment in identifying and reducing environmental impacts of CCS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sathre, Roger; Masanet, Eric; Cain, Jennifer; Chester, Mikhail

    2011-04-20

    Life Cycle Assessment (LCA) should be used to assist carbon capture and sequestration (CCS) planners to reduce greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions and avoid unintended environmental trade-offs. LCA is an analytical framework for determining environmental impacts resulting from processes, products, and services. All life cycle stages are evaluated including raw material sourcing, processing, operation, maintenance, and component end-of-life, as well as intermediate stages such as transportation. In recent years a growing number of LCA studies have analyzed CCS systems. We reviewed 50+ LCA studies, and selected 11 studies that compared the environmental performance of 23 electric power plants with and without CCS. Here we summarize and interpret the findings of these studies. Regarding overall climatemitigation effectiveness of CCS, we distinguish between the capture percentage of carbon in the fuels, the net carbon dioxide (CO2) emission reduction, and the net GHG emission reduction. We also identify trade-offs between the climate benefits and the potential increased non-climate impacts of CCS. Emissions of non-CO2 flue gases such as NOx may increase due to the greater throughput of fuel, and toxicity issues may arise due to the use of monoethanolamine (MEA) capture solvent, resulting in ecological and human health impacts. We discuss areas where improvements in LCA data or methods are needed. The decision to implement CCS should be based on knowledge of the overall environmental impacts of the technologies, not just their carbon capture effectiveness. LCA will be an important tool in providing that knowledge.

  18. Assessing environmental impact of magnesium production using Pidgeon process in China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    GAO Feng; NIE Zuo-ren; WANG Zhi-hong; GONG Xian-zheng; ZUO Tie-yong

    2008-01-01

    Based on the practice of magnesium production in China,a quantitative evaluation of the environment impact was carried out according to the theory and framework of life cycle assessment (LCA) study.The major gaseous pollutants including CO2,SO2,NOx,CH4,HF and particulates were calculated.The accumulative environmental performances of different energy use strategies and the characterization results,including abiotic depletion potential (ADP),global warming potential (GWP),acidification potential (AP) and human-toxicity potential (HTP) were compared.The results show that the direct emission of fuel combustion in the process is the major contributor to the pollutants emission of magnesium production.Global warming potential and acidification potential make the main contribution to the accumulative environmental impact.The different fuel use strategies in the practice of magnesium production cause much different impacts on the environmental performance.The accumulative environmental impact of coal burned directly is the highest,and that of producer-gas comes to the next,while that of coke-oven gas is the lowest.

  19. Making Governance "Good": The Production of Scale in the Environmental Impact Assessment and Governance of the Salween River

    OpenAIRE

    Vanessa Lamb

    2014-01-01

    Environmental impact assessments (EIAs) are generally considered an important component of formal decision-making processes about development, serving to ensure that a project′s environmental impacts are considered in decisions about whether and how it will proceed. Scale is an important part of the narrative built into the assessment. Building on a rich literature at the intersection of human geography and political ecology, I focus on the way that scale is remade through the environmental i...

  20. Environmental impact associated with activated carbon preparation from olive-waste cake via life cycle assessment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hjaila, K; Baccar, R; Sarrà, M; Gasol, C M; Blánquez, P

    2013-11-30

    The life cycle assessment (LCA) environmental tool was implemented to quantify the potential environmental impacts associated with the activated carbon (AC) production process from olive-waste cakes in Tunisia. On the basis of laboratory investigations for AC preparation, a flowchart was developed and the environmental impacts were determined. The LCA functional unit chosen was the production of 1 kg of AC from by-product olive-waste cakes. The results showed that impregnation using H3PO4 presented the highest environmental impacts for the majority of the indicators tested: acidification potential (62%), eutrophication (96%), ozone depletion potential (44%), human toxicity (64%), fresh water aquatic ecotoxicity (90%) and terrestrial ecotoxicity (92%). One of the highest impacts was found to be the global warming potential (11.096 kg CO2 eq/kg AC), which was equally weighted between the steps involving impregnation, pyrolysis, and drying the washed AC. The cumulative energy demand of the AC production process from the by-product olive-waste cakes was 167.63 MJ contributed by impregnation, pyrolysis, and drying the washed AC steps. The use of phosphoric acid and electricity in the AC production were the main factors responsible for the majority of the impacts. If certain modifications are incorporated into the AC production, such as implementing synthesis gas recovery and reusing it as an energy source and recovery of phosphoric acid after AC washing, additional savings could be realized, and environmental impacts could be minimized. PMID:24091159

  1. EI Scale: an environmental impact assessment scale related to the construction materials used in the reinforced concrete

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gilson Morales

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available This study aimed to create EI Scal, an environmental impact assessment scal, related to construction materials used in the reinforced concrete structure production. The main reason for that was based on the need to classify the environmental impact levels through indicators to assess the damage level process. The scale allowed converting information to estimate the environmental impact caused. Indicators were defined trough the requirements and classification criteria of impact aspects considering the eco-design theory. Moreover, the scale allowed classifying the materials and processes environmental impact through four score categories which resulted in a single final impact score. It was concluded that the EI scale could be cheap, accessible, and relevant tool for environmental impact controlling and reduction, allowing the planning and material specification to minimize the construction negative effects caused in the environment.

  2. Assessment of the environmental impact of artificial effluent lagoon in Jiayuguan City of China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2003-01-01

    An artificial effluent lagoon for storing wastewater were excavated in Jiayuguan City since 1994. As a part of a demonstration projectof Sino-Australia cooperation, an assessment of the environmental impact of the lagoon was carried out. The assessment was based on field andlaboratory tests and predictive model. The main impacts from the lagoon site are likely to be on the groundwater system, and, to a lesser extent,on ambient air quality in the vicinity. Currently it is expected that groundwater is being polluted with effluent from the effluent lagoon. Airpollution(odor nuisance) is mainly caused by untreated effluent in the irrigation channel. The impact of high total dissolved salt(TDS) ongroundwater is likely to be significant in the long run if the lagoon is continuously used. There is, consequently, no likelihood of contaminationof surface water system, particularly of the city water supply system, from infiltration of effluent at the lagoon.

  3. Consideration of biodiversity in environmental impact assessment in Western Australia: practitioner perceptions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Biodiversity has become a central concern in environmental management. As such, it is crucial that it is included and fully considered in environmental impact assessment (EIA). This paper explores the definitions and perceptions of biodiversity, and the associated management implications, held by those involved in preparing and assessing EIA documents in Western Australia. This State has world-recognised biodiversity values and comprehensive impact assessment processes. These practitioners defined biodiversity in a range of ways from a very basic through to a sophisticated, extended definition. A range of approaches to its assessment was also evident. The most sophisticated practitioners placed biodiversity in its spatial and temporal context as well as being cognizant of community aspirations and the principle of net conservation benefit. The ability to properly consider biodiversity in EIA is dependent on good information, not only on flora and fauna but also on the concepts and processes associated with biodiversity. Clear policy directions, from the assessing authority, regarding the level and detail of assessment required, are also critical

  4. Tool for the Reduction and Assessment of Chemical and Other Environmental Impacts (TRACI) TRACI version 2.1 User’s Guide

    Science.gov (United States)

    TRACI 2.1 (the Tool for the Reduction and Assessment of Chemical and other environmental Impacts) has been developed for sustainability metrics, life cycle impact assessment, industrial ecology, and process design impact assessment for developing increasingly sustainable products...

  5. The application of an ecological risk assessment approach to define environmental impact of ionizing radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Frameworks for assessing and managing environmental risks are normally organized in three different stages: 1) the problem formulation stage where the purpose of the assessment is determined, based on considerations for hazard identification and characterization, temporal and spatial scales, as well as levels of simplification and conservatism; 2) the assessment stage, where the most suitable methodology, including the exposure and effect analyses, is selected and employed, resulting in a characterization of the risk; and 3) the risk management stage involving methodologies to eliminate, mitigate and/or prevent environmental consequences. No international guidance is available on a methodology for assessments and management of environmental risks resulting from radioactive contaminants. Whereas the current ICRP system addresses both the problem formulation and assessment stages, it is not concerned with the environment per se, and the usefulness of the management principles (justification, optimization and dose limits) in environmental radiological protection is debatable. The present paper explores approaches, commonalties, differences and applicability of recent developed methodologies, notably the European Commission funded FASSET (Framework for ASSessment of Environmental impacT) project, and the BIOMASS (BIOsphere Modelling and ASSessment) project supported by the International Atomic Energy Agency. Furthermore, reference is given to the regulatory guidance in England and Wales to protect wildlife from ionizing radiation. The paper considers, inter alia, the following elements: methods for selection of radionuclides, based on, e.g. toxicity, persistence, particle-reactivity, dispersion, and type of source; the need for generalizations, e.g. reference ecosystems, reference organisms and stylized dosimetric models, and the applicability of probabilistic approaches; and the selection of biological effects, covering the range from acute to chronic effects. (author)

  6. Improving the effectiveness of impact assessment pertaining to Indigenous peoples in the Brazilian environmental licensing procedure

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hanna, Philippe [Department of Cultural Geography, Faculty of Spatial Sciences, University of Groningen, PO Box 800, 9700 AV Groningen (Netherlands); Vanclay, Frank, E-mail: frank.vanclay@rug.nl [Department of Cultural Geography, Faculty of Spatial Sciences, University of Groningen, PO Box 800, 9700 AV Groningen (Netherlands); Langdon, Esther Jean [Department of Anthropology, Center for Philosophy and Human Sciences, Federal University of Santa Catarina PO Box 5104, 88040-970, Florianópolis, SC (Brazil); Arts, Jos [Department of Planning, Faculty of Spatial Sciences, University of Groningen, PO Box 800, 9700 AV Groningen (Netherlands)

    2014-04-01

    The number of environmental licence applications for projects affecting Indigenous peoples in Brazil has increased since the implementation of a major infrastructure program (Programa de Aceleração do Crescimento) in 2007. This increase has caused problems for Brazilian agencies involved in environmental licensing procedures (IBAMA, FUNAI and others). We analyze the Brazilian environmental licensing procedure for situations involving Indigenous peoples, Maroons (Quilombolas) or other traditional communities in order to identify potential improvements for Brazil and potentially other countries. Although Brazilian procedures are consistent with international best practice in environmental licensing, in practice social impacts are inadequately addressed, mitigation measures are poorly implemented, and there is a lack of enforcement and compliance. The paper is based on document analysis and interviews with key actors in governmental and non-governmental organizations and Indigenous leaders. We suggest that Free, Prior and Informed Consent (FPIC) processes need to be conducted at the earliest stages of project planning, and that Indigenous peoples should actively participate in impact assessment, monitoring and evaluation processes. In order to achieve a social licence to operate, there needs to be full recognition of traditional knowledge and acceptance of Indigenous values and concepts. We also recommend increased involvement of social experts and mediators as well as improved accountability, enforcement and grievance mechanisms in the licensing process. - Highlights: • The Brazilian environmental licensing system needs to address social impacts better. • Communities need to be consulted at the earliest stage possible. • Indigenous peoples need to be invited to participate in impact assessment teams. • Independent Indigenous committees to monitor implementation of mitigation measures. • Accountability, enforcement and grievance mechanisms need to be

  7. Improving the effectiveness of impact assessment pertaining to Indigenous peoples in the Brazilian environmental licensing procedure

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The number of environmental licence applications for projects affecting Indigenous peoples in Brazil has increased since the implementation of a major infrastructure program (Programa de Aceleração do Crescimento) in 2007. This increase has caused problems for Brazilian agencies involved in environmental licensing procedures (IBAMA, FUNAI and others). We analyze the Brazilian environmental licensing procedure for situations involving Indigenous peoples, Maroons (Quilombolas) or other traditional communities in order to identify potential improvements for Brazil and potentially other countries. Although Brazilian procedures are consistent with international best practice in environmental licensing, in practice social impacts are inadequately addressed, mitigation measures are poorly implemented, and there is a lack of enforcement and compliance. The paper is based on document analysis and interviews with key actors in governmental and non-governmental organizations and Indigenous leaders. We suggest that Free, Prior and Informed Consent (FPIC) processes need to be conducted at the earliest stages of project planning, and that Indigenous peoples should actively participate in impact assessment, monitoring and evaluation processes. In order to achieve a social licence to operate, there needs to be full recognition of traditional knowledge and acceptance of Indigenous values and concepts. We also recommend increased involvement of social experts and mediators as well as improved accountability, enforcement and grievance mechanisms in the licensing process. - Highlights: • The Brazilian environmental licensing system needs to address social impacts better. • Communities need to be consulted at the earliest stage possible. • Indigenous peoples need to be invited to participate in impact assessment teams. • Independent Indigenous committees to monitor implementation of mitigation measures. • Accountability, enforcement and grievance mechanisms need to be

  8. Assessing the influence of Environmental Impact Assessments on science and policy: an analysis of the Three Gorges Project.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tullos, Desiree

    2009-07-01

    The need to understand and minimize negative environmental outcomes associated with large dams has both contributed to and benefited from the introduction and subsequent improvements in the Environmental Impact Assessment (EIA) process. However, several limitations in the EIA process remain, including those associated with the uncertainty and significance of impact projections. These limitations are directly related to the feedback between science and policy, with information gaps in scientific understanding discovered through the EIA process contributing valuable recommendations on critical focus areas for prioritizing and funding research within the fields of ecological conservation and river engineering. This paper presents an analysis of the EIA process for the Three Gorges Project (TGP) in China as a case study for evaluating this feedback between the EIA and science and policy. For one of the best-studied public development projects in the world, this paper presents an investigation into whether patterns exist between the scientific interest (via number of publications) in environmental impacts and (a) the identification of impacts as uncertain or priority by the EIA, (b) decisions or political events associated with the dam, and (c) impact type. This analysis includes the compilation of literature on TGP, characterization of ecosystem interactions and responses to TGP through a hierarchy of impacts, coding of EIA impacts as "uncertain" impacts that require additional study and "priority" impacts that have particularly high significance, mapping of an event chronology to relate policies, institutional changes, and decisions about TGP as "events" that could influence the focus and intensity of scientific investigation, and analysis of the number of publications by impact type and order within the impact hierarchy. From these analyses, it appears that the availability and consistency of scientific information limit the accuracy of environmental impact

  9. Hybird Fuzzy Decision Making Framework for Environmental Impact Assessment, Tangier, Morocco

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kaoutar BENNIS

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this paper is to implement a methodology based on stakeholder’s judgment with assistance of fuzzy Multi-Criteria Decision Analysis (MCDA methods to assess the environmental impact. Fuzzy Analytic Hierarchy Process (FAHP is used as a multi-level decision-making tool taking into consideration human evaluation; it captures the vagueness in ordinal judgments obtained from stakeholder’s filled questionnaires and translates them into priorities which are not vague. Fuzzy ELECTRE III, known as the elimination and choice translating reality method is employed to opt for a solution to mitigate the assessed impacts. Soil, underground, surface water, underground water, air, aquatic ecology, terrestrial ecology, public health, view, economy are the ten sub-criteria used in environmental impact assessment, they are subject to the appreciations of six stakeholders groups which represent the main decision makers (DM: neighbors, enterprises, keys actors, state departments, medias and research institutions. The set of alternatives comprises the creation of a new landfill site, creation of a new ringroad, installation of a recycling unit, installation of a lixiviat unit, installation of a biogas unit and soil stabilization. The use of combined Stakeholder's analysis, Fuzzy AHP and Fuzzy ELECTRE III are the distinguishing features of this paper, they form an integrated decision aiding framework that constitutes its novelty. It is applied on the linguistic judgments values to assess the environmental impact. This work proposes an integrated decision-making approach applied in the case study of the urban waste landfill of Tangier city in north Morocco.

  10. Environmental impact and risk assessments and key factors contributing to the overall uncertainties.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salbu, Brit

    2016-01-01

    There is a significant number of nuclear and radiological sources that have contributed, are still contributing, or have the potential to contribute to radioactive contamination of the environment in the future. To protect the environment from radioactive contamination, impact and risk assessments are performed prior to or during a release event, short or long term after deposition or prior and after implementation of countermeasures. When environmental impact and risks are assessed, however, a series of factors will contribute to the overall uncertainties. To provide environmental impact and risk assessments, information on processes, kinetics and a series of input variables is needed. Adding problems such as variability, questionable assumptions, gaps in knowledge, extrapolations and poor conceptual model structures, a series of factors are contributing to large and often unacceptable uncertainties in impact and risk assessments. Information on the source term and the release scenario is an essential starting point in impact and risk models; the source determines activity concentrations and atom ratios of radionuclides released, while the release scenario determine the physico-chemical forms of released radionuclides such as particle size distribution, structure and density. Releases will most often contain other contaminants such as metals, and due to interactions, contaminated sites should be assessed as a multiple stressor scenario. Following deposition, a series of stressors, interactions and processes will influence the ecosystem transfer of radionuclide species and thereby influence biological uptake (toxicokinetics) and responses (toxicodynamics) in exposed organisms. Due to the variety of biological species, extrapolation is frequently needed to fill gaps in knowledge e.g., from effects to no effects, from effects in one organism to others, from one stressor to mixtures. Most toxtests are, however, performed as short term exposure of adult organisms

  11. Environmental impact assessment of mountain tourism in developing regions: A study in Ladakh, Indian Himalaya

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mountain tourism in developing countries is becoming a growing environmental concern due to extreme seasonality, lack of suitable infrastructures and planning, and interference with fragile ecosystems and protected areas. This paper presents a study devoted to assess the adverse environmental impacts of tourism, and in particular of trekking-related activities, in Ladakh, Indian Himalaya. The proposed approach is based on the use of Geographical Information System (GIS) modeling and remote sensing imageries to cope with the lack of data that affect the region. First, stressors associated with trekking, and environmental receptors potentially affected were identified. Subsequently, a baseline study on stressors (trail use, waste dumping, camping, pack animal grazing and off-road driving) and receptors (soil, water, wildlife, vegetation) was conducted through field work, data collection, and data processing supported by GIS. Finally, impacts were modeled by considering the intensity of the stressors, and the vulnerability and the value of the receptors. The results were spatially aggregated into watershed units, and combined to generate composite impact maps. The study concluded that the most affected watersheds are located in the central and southeastern part of Ladakh, along some of the most visited trails and within the Hemis and the Tsokar Tsomoriri National parks. The main objective of the study was to understand patterns of tourism-induced environmental degradation, so as to support mitigation interventions, as well as the development of suitable tourism policies.

  12. Assessing the Environmental Impact of Flax Fibre Reinforced Polymer Composite from a Consequential Life Cycle Assessment Perspective

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yelin Deng

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available The study implements the consequential life cycle assessment (CLCA to provide a market based perspective on how overall environmental impact will change when shifting glass fibres to flax fibres as reinforcements in composite fabrication. With certain assumptions, the marginal flax fibre supply is identified to be a combination of Chinese flax fibre (70% and French flax fibre (30%. Due to inferior cultivars and coal-fired electricity in Chinese flax cultivation, the CLCA study reveals that flax mat-PP has 0.8–2 times higher environmental impact values than the glass mat-PP in most environmental impact categories over the production and end-of-life (EoL phases. For purpose of providing potential trajectories of marginal flax fibre supply, additional scenarios: the “all French fibre”, and “all Chinese fibre” are evaluated formulating the lower and upper boundaries in terms of environmental impact change, respectively. A “the attributional fibre supply mix” scenario is supplied as well. All of these scenarios are useful for policy analysis.

  13. Evaluating environmental impacts of contrasting pig farming systems with life cycle assessment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dourmad, J Y; Ryschawy, J; Trousson, T; Bonneau, M; Gonzàlez, J; Houwers, H W J; Hviid, M; Zimmer, C; Nguyen, T L T; Morgensen, L

    2014-12-01

    Environmental impacts of 15 European pig farming systems were evaluated in the European Union Q-PorkChains project using life cycle assessment. One conventional and two non-conventional systems were evaluated from each of the five countries: Denmark, The Netherlands, Spain, France and Germany. The data needed for calculations were obtained from surveys of 5 to 10 farms from each system. The systems studied were categorised into conventional (C), adapted conventional (AC), traditional (T) and organic (O). Compared with C systems, AC systems differed little, with only minor changes to improve meat quality, animal welfare or environmental impacts, depending on the system. The difference was much larger for T systems, using very fat, slow-growing traditional breeds and generally outdoor raising of fattening pigs. Environmental impacts were calculated at the farm gate and expressed per kg of pig live weight and per ha of land used. For C systems, impacts per kg LW for climate change, acidification, eutrophication, energy use and land occupation were 2.3 kg CO2-eq, 44.0 g SO2-eq, 18.5 g PO4-eq, 16.2 MJ and 4.1 m2, respectively. Compared with C, differences in corresponding mean values were +13%, +5%, 0%, +2% and +16% higher for AC; +54%, +79%, +23%, +50% and +156% for T, and +4%, -16%, +29%, +11% and +121% for O. Conversely, when expressed per ha of land use, mean impacts were 10% to 60% lower for T and O systems, depending on the impact category. This was mainly because of higher land occupation per kg of pig produced, owing to feed production and the outdoor raising of sows and/or fattening pigs. The use of straw bedding tended to increase climate change impact per kg LW. The use of traditional local breeds, with reduced productivity and feed efficiency, resulted in higher impacts per kg LW for all impact categories. T systems with extensive outdoor raising of pigs resulted in markedly lower impact per ha of land used. Eutrophication potential per ha was substantially

  14. Evaluating environmental impacts of contrasting pig farming systems with life cycle assessment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dourmad, J Y; Ryschawy, J; Trousson, T; Bonneau, M; Gonzàlez, J; Houwers, H W J; Hviid, M; Zimmer, C; Nguyen, T L T; Morgensen, L

    2014-12-01

    Environmental impacts of 15 European pig farming systems were evaluated in the European Union Q-PorkChains project using life cycle assessment. One conventional and two non-conventional systems were evaluated from each of the five countries: Denmark, The Netherlands, Spain, France and Germany. The data needed for calculations were obtained from surveys of 5 to 10 farms from each system. The systems studied were categorised into conventional (C), adapted conventional (AC), traditional (T) and organic (O). Compared with C systems, AC systems differed little, with only minor changes to improve meat quality, animal welfare or environmental impacts, depending on the system. The difference was much larger for T systems, using very fat, slow-growing traditional breeds and generally outdoor raising of fattening pigs. Environmental impacts were calculated at the farm gate and expressed per kg of pig live weight and per ha of land used. For C systems, impacts per kg LW for climate change, acidification, eutrophication, energy use and land occupation were 2.3 kg CO2-eq, 44.0 g SO2-eq, 18.5 g PO4-eq, 16.2 MJ and 4.1 m2, respectively. Compared with C, differences in corresponding mean values were +13%, +5%, 0%, +2% and +16% higher for AC; +54%, +79%, +23%, +50% and +156% for T, and +4%, -16%, +29%, +11% and +121% for O. Conversely, when expressed per ha of land use, mean impacts were 10% to 60% lower for T and O systems, depending on the impact category. This was mainly because of higher land occupation per kg of pig produced, owing to feed production and the outdoor raising of sows and/or fattening pigs. The use of straw bedding tended to increase climate change impact per kg LW. The use of traditional local breeds, with reduced productivity and feed efficiency, resulted in higher impacts per kg LW for all impact categories. T systems with extensive outdoor raising of pigs resulted in markedly lower impact per ha of land used. Eutrophication potential per ha was substantially

  15. European Monitoring Systems and Data for Assessing Environmental and Climate Impacts on Human Infectious Diseases

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gordon L. Nichols

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Surveillance is critical to understanding the epidemiology and control of infectious diseases. The growing concern over climate and other drivers that may increase infectious disease threats to future generations has stimulated a review of the surveillance systems and environmental data sources that might be used to assess future health impacts from climate change in Europe. We present an overview of organizations, agencies and institutions that are responsible for infectious disease surveillance in Europe. We describe the surveillance systems, tracking tools, communication channels, information exchange and outputs in light of environmental and climatic drivers of infectious diseases. We discuss environmental and climatic data sets that lend themselves to epidemiological analysis. Many of the environmental data sets have a relatively uniform quality across EU Member States because they are based on satellite measurements or EU funded FP6 or FP7 projects with full EU coverage. Case-reporting systems for surveillance of infectious diseases should include clear and consistent case definitions and reporting formats that are geo-located at an appropriate resolution. This will allow linkage to environmental, social and climatic sources that will enable risk assessments, future threat evaluations, outbreak management and interventions to reduce disease burden.

  16. 76 FR 4859 - Availability of an Environmental Assessment and Finding of No Significant Impact for a Biological...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-01-27

    ... Animal and Plant Health Inspection Service Availability of an Environmental Assessment and Finding of No Significant Impact for a Biological Control Agent for Asian Citrus Psyllid AGENCY: Animal and Plant Health... Health Inspection Service has prepared an environmental assessment and finding of no significant...

  17. Impacts Analyses Supporting the National Environmental Policy Act Environmental Assessment for the Resumption of Transient Testing Program

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Annette L. Schafer; LLoyd C. Brown; David C. Carathers; Boyd D. Christensen; James J. Dahl; Mark L. Miller; Cathy Ottinger Farnum; Steven Peterson; A. Jeffrey Sondrup; Peter V. Subaiya; Daniel M. Wachs; Ruth F. Weiner

    2014-02-01

    This document contains the analysis details and summary of analyses conducted to evaluate the environmental impacts for the Resumption of Transient Fuel and Materials Testing Program. It provides an assessment of the impacts for the two action alternatives being evaluated in the environmental assessment. These alternatives are (1) resumption of transient testing using the Transient Reactor Test Facility (TREAT) at Idaho National Laboratory (INL) and (2) conducting transient testing using the Annular Core Research Reactor (ACRR) at Sandia National Laboratory in New Mexico (SNL/NM). Analyses are provided for radiologic emissions, other air emissions, soil contamination, and groundwater contamination that could occur (1) during normal operations, (2) as a result of accidents in one of the facilities, and (3) during transport. It does not include an assessment of the biotic, cultural resources, waste generation, or other impacts that could result from the resumption of transient testing. Analyses were conducted by technical professionals at INL and SNL/NM as noted throughout this report. The analyses are based on bounding radionuclide inventories, with the same inventories used for test materials by both alternatives and different inventories for the TREAT Reactor and ACRR. An upper value on the number of tests was assumed, with a test frequency determined by the realistic turn-around times required between experiments. The estimates provided for impacts during normal operations are based on historical emission rates and projected usage rates; therefore, they are bounding. Estimated doses for members of the public, collocated workers, and facility workers that could be incurred as a result of an accident are very conservative. They do not credit safety systems or administrative procedures (such as evacuation plans or use of personal protective equipment) that could be used to limit worker doses. Doses estimated for transportation are conservative and are based on

  18. Impact of energy and environmental legislation on industry: problems of regulatory cost assessment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Meier, P; Brown, S

    1980-01-01

    An examination is made of some of the problems of environmental impact assessment in the industrial sector, with particular attention to some important methodological problems frequently ignored. Some general problems of impact analysis are addressed in Section 2. This is followed in Section 3 by an overview of these major issues: the level of import substitutions, capital expenditures on pollution control, and a brief examination at how the industrial sector responded to post embargo energy price changes. Section 4 investigates marketplace responses to changes in manufacturing costs induced by regulatory requirements, from a general, theoretical microeconomics perspective. How industry responses can be estimated quantitatively for practical assessment purposes is taken up in Section 5, with a focus on the advantages and limitations of the two major modeling approaches (econometric and process models). These models allow investigations of the effects of different policies. (MCW)

  19. A framework for integrated environmental health impact assessment of systemic risks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Briggs, David J

    2008-01-01

    Traditional methods of risk assessment have provided good service in support of policy, mainly in relation to standard setting and regulation of hazardous chemicals or practices. In recent years, however, it has become apparent that many of the risks facing society are systemic in nature - complex risks, set within wider social, economic and environmental contexts. Reflecting this, policy-making too has become more wide-ranging in scope, more collaborative and more precautionary in approach. In order to inform such policies, more integrated methods of assessment are needed. Based on work undertaken in two large EU-funded projects (INTARESE and HEIMTSA), this paper reviews the range of approaches to assessment now in used, proposes a framework for integrated environmental health impact assessment (both as a basis for bringing together and choosing between different methods of assessment, and extending these to more complex problems), and discusses some of the challenges involved in conducting integrated assessments to support policy. Integrated environmental health impact assessment is defined as a means of assessing health-related problems deriving from the environment, and health-related impacts of policies and other interventions that affect the environment, in ways that take account of the complexities, interdependencies and uncertainties of the real world. As such, it depends heavily on how issues are selected and framed, and implies the involvement of stakeholders both in issue-framing and design of the assessment, and to help interpret and evaluate the results. It is also a comparative process, which involves evaluating and comparing different scenarios. It consequently requires the ability to model the way in which the influences of exogenous factors, such as policies or other interventions, feed through the environment to affect health. Major challenges thus arise. Chief amongst these are the difficulties in ensuring effective stakeholder participation, in

  20. Creating a spatial multi-criteria decision support system for energy related integrated environmental impact assessment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    By their spatially very distributed nature, profitability and impacts of renewable energy resources are highly correlated with the geographic locations of power plant deployments. A web-based Spatial Decision Support System (SDSS) based on a Multi-Criteria Decision Analysis (MCDA) approach has been implemented for identifying preferable locations for solar power plants based on user preferences. The designated areas found serve for the input scenario development for a subsequent integrated Environmental Impact Assessment. The capabilities of the SDSS service get showcased for Concentrated Solar Power (CSP) plants in the region of Andalusia, Spain. The resulting spatial patterns of possible power plant sites are an important input to the procedural chain of assessing impacts of renewable energies in an integrated effort. The applied methodology and the implemented SDSS are applicable for other renewable technologies as well. - Highlights: • The proposed tool facilitates well-founded CSP plant siting decisions. • Spatial MCDA methods are implemented in a WebGIS environment. • GIS-based SDSS can contribute to a modern integrated impact assessment workflow. • The conducted case study proves the suitability of the methodology

  1. Environmental Impact Section

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Section is concerned with preparation of environmental statements and assessments and development of assessment methodologies for energy technologies. During 1976, activities involved nuclear, fossil, and geothermal energy; this work was supported by the U.S.Army, HUD, US ERDA, and US NRC. Two special studies--one on the effects of power plant intake structures on fish impingement and another on multiple uses of cooling lakes--were completed and should serve as references for future analyses. Two research projects sponsored by NRC--the Unified Transport Approach (UTA) to Power Plant Assessment and the Environmental Monitoring Data Evaluation Study--were continued. The purpose of the UA program is to develop fast-transient, one- and two-dimensional transport models for estimating thermal, radiological, chemical, and biological impacts in complicated water bodies. The impact of public use of various products that contain radioactive isotope is being evaluated. The Environmental Impact Sections assistance to NRC expanded to include assessments of fuel-fabrication facilities being considered for relicensing and two uranium in-situ solution mining facility proposals. The work for HUD comprises an assessment of the first application of MIUS in a new town development. A generic environmental statement was prepared and an environmental monitoring program for the facility was designed

  2. Economic assessment of sludge handling and environmental impact of sludge treatment in a reed bed system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nielsen, Steen

    2015-01-01

    The effect on the environment of the establishment and operation of a sludge treatment reed bed system (STRB) is quite limited compared to mechanical sludge dewatering, with its accompanying use of energy and chemicals. The assessment presented here of the investment, operation and maintenance costs of a typical STRB, and of the related environmental impact, is based on the experiences gained from the operation of a large number of STRB in Denmark. There are differences in the environmental perspectives and costs involved in mechanical sludge dewatering and disposal on agricultural land compared to STRB. The two treatment methods were considered for comparison based on a treatment capacity of 550 tons of dry solids per year and with land application of the biosolids in Denmark. The initial capital cost for STRB is higher than a conventional mechanical system; however, an STRB would provide significant power and operating-cost savings, with a significant saving in the overall cost of the plant over 20-30 years. The assessment focuses on the use of chemicals, energy and greenhouse gas emissions and includes emptying, sludge residue quality and recycling. STRB with direct land application is the most cost-effective scenario and has the lowest environmental impact. A sludge strategy consisting of an STRB will be approximately DKK 536,894-647,636 cheaper per year than the option consisting of a new screw press or decanter.

  3. A life cycle assessment framework combining nutritional and environmental health impacts of diet: a case study on milk

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Stylianou, Katerina S.; Heller, Martin C.; Fulgoni III, Victor L.;

    2016-01-01

    of less healthy foods (sugar-sweetened beverages). Further studies are needed to test whether this conclusion holds within a more comprehensive assessment of environmental and nutritional health impacts. Conclusions This case study provides the first quantitative epidemiology-based estimate......Purpose While there has been considerable effort to understand the environmental impact of a food or diet, nutritional effects are not usually included in food-related life cycle assessment (LCA). Methods We developed a novel Combined Nutritional and Environmental Life Cycle Assessment (CONE......-LCA) framework that evaluates and compares in parallel the environmental and nutritional effects of foods or diets. We applied this framework to assess human health impacts, expressed in Disability Adjusted Life Years (DALYs), in a proof-of conceptcase study that investigated the environmental and nutritional...

  4. Environmental impact assessment of structural flood mitigation measures by a rapid impact assessment matrix (RIAM) technique: a case study in Metro Manila, Philippines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gilbuena, Romeo; Kawamura, Akira; Medina, Reynaldo; Amaguchi, Hideo; Nakagawa, Naoko; Bui, Duong Du

    2013-07-01

    In recent decades, the practice of environmental impact assessment (EIA) in the planning processes of infrastructure projects has created significant awareness on the benefits of environmentally sound and sustainable urban development around the world. In the highly urbanized megacities in the Philippines, like Metro Manila, high priority is given by the national government to structural flood mitigation measures (SFMM) due to the persistently high frequency of flood-related disasters, which are exacerbated by the on-going effects of climate change. EIA thus, should be carefully and effectively executed to maximize the potential benefits of the SFMM. The common practice of EIA in the Philippines is generally qualitative and lacks clear methodology in evaluating multi-criteria systems. Thus, this study proposes the use of the rapid impact assessment matrix (RIAM) technique to provide a method that would systematically and quantitatively evaluate the socio-economic and environmental impacts of planned SFMM in Metro Manila. The RIAM technique was slightly modified to fit the requirements of this study. The scale of impact was determined for each perceived impact, and based on the results, the planned SFMM for Metro Manila will likely bring significant benefits; however, significant negative impacts may also likely occur. The proposed modifications were found to be highly compatible with RIAM, and the results of the RIAM analysis provided a clear view of the impacts associated with the implementation of SFMM projects. This may prove to be valuable in the practice of EIA in the Philippines.

  5. Evaluation of indicators to assess the environmental impact of dairy production systems

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Thomassen, M.A.; Boer, de I.J.M.

    2005-01-01

    Current awareness of environmental pollution of animal production in Western Europe has triggered research on development of environmental indicators at farm level. Only when the environmental impact of commercial farms can be quantified effectively, important differences in impact can be demonstrat

  6. Environmental impact assessment methodological framework for liquefied natural gas terminal and transport network planning

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The recent discovery of significant offshore natural gas reserves in the Aphrodite field, south of the island of Cyprus in the Mediterranean Sea, changes the energy landscape in the greater Mediterranean-Middle East-Caucasian Region. In this paper, different alternative locations for the construction and operation of a liquefied natural gas (LNG) terminal station in Cyprus were evaluated, explicitly considering also their connection to the power generation station of Mari and the country's gateway. The problem of determining the optimal location for an LNG terminal in Cyprus has been approached using multiple methodological components, which consider environmental and transportation issues, both technocratic in nature, as well as more subjective and based on expert opinion. The first step was a REGIME multi-criteria decision analysis used to prioritize alternative LNG terminal locations. Then, multiple modes (railroad and pipeline) of transportation connections were evaluated and geometric alignments were proposed, considering a multitude of restrictions. Finally an environmental impact assessment based on a structured questionnaire and an expert panel was conducted to validate and assess the impact of the alternative options (combination of location and transportation mode and route). During the evaluation process parameters such as safety, existing infrastructure, and access were also considered. - Highlights: • Determined the optimal location for an LNG terminal in Cyprus. • REGIME multi-criteria analysis used to prioritize alternative LNG terminal locations. • Multiple modes of transportation connections were evaluated and geometric alignments were proposed. • Environmental impact assessment and validation was undertaken based on a structured questionnaire and an expert panel. • Parameters such as safety, existing infrastructure, and access were also considered

  7. Environmental impact assessments of a fifth nuclear power plant unit in Finland

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This paper presents the results of president questionnaires and media monitoring of press cuttings concerned with siting of the new fifth in a row Finnish NPP. Two years ago both Fortum Power and Heat Oy and Teollisuuden Voima Oy (TVO) launched their Environmental impact assessment (EIA) procedures of a new nuclear power unit in Finland. The EIA procedures were launched to investigate the environmental impacts of a fifth nuclear power plant which possibly will be built in Loviisa or at Olkiluoto. In Finland there are four operating NPP units, two in Loviisa (Fortum) and two in Eurajoki, Olkiluoto (TVO). In the EIA procedure citizens and various associations and authorities have an opportunity to express their views on the matters related to the project. The Ministry of Trade and Industry (MTI) as the coordination authority arranges the organisation of the EIA hearings and the collection of statements and opinions. The EIA procedure in Finland takes place in two stages. The first stage i.e. the EIA programme describes the project and presents the plan on how the environmental effects are investigated and assessed. In the second stage the actual assessment of the environmental effects of the project will be submitted. Both Fortum and Teollisuuden Voima Oy (TVO) launched in spring 1998 their EIA procedures. The main alternatives are the Loviisa 3 project includes two plant type alternatives. The size of the plant is between 1000 and 1700 MWe, and the extension project of the Olkiluoto NPP to build a NPP unit of about 1000-1500 MWe at Olkiluoto. The EIA reports were submitted to the MTI in August 1999 and after that they were on display for two months for opinions and statements

  8. A preliminary strategic environmental impact assessment of mineral and hydrocarbon activities on the Nuussuaq peninsula, West Greenland

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Boertmann, D.; Asmund, G.; Glahder, C.; Tamstorf, M.

    2008-01-15

    There is an increasing interest for mineral and hydrocarbon exploration in Greenland and in both regards the Nuussuaq peninsula is in focus. This preliminary strategic environmental impact assessment describes the status of the biological knowledge from the area and designates potential conflicts between activities and the biological environment. Furthermore biological knowledge gaps are identified. These should be filled before specific environmental impacts assessments can be carried out and relevant studies to fill these data gaps are proposed. (au)

  9. The Environmental Audit And Assessment Of The Impact Of Agricultural Activities On The State Of The Natural Resources Of Agrosphere

    OpenAIRE

    Mykola Kocherga

    2013-01-01

    Developed Methodical bases of ecological-economic evaluation of the impact of agricultural activities on the state of natural resources to create the conditions for sustainable development of agro-ecosystems. Proposed a scheme of this assessment at carrying out environmental audit of objects in agriculture. The principles of environmental and economic assessment of the impact of agriculture on natural resources agrosphere proposed to reduce to determine the difference between the environmenta...

  10. A framework for a european network for a systematic environmental impact assessment of genetically modified organisms (GMO)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Graef, Frieder; Römbke, Jörg; Binimelis, Rosa;

    2012-01-01

    The assessment of the impacts of growing genetically modified (GM) crops remains a major political and scientific challenge in Europe. Concerns have been raised by the evidence of adverse and unexpected environmental effects and differing opinions on the outcomes of environmental risk assessments...... within the ERA research and testing community, weaknesses in consideration of stakeholder interests and specific regional conditions, and the lack of comprehensive assessments that address the environmental and socio-economic risk assessment interface. To address these challenges, we propose a European...... Network for systematic GMO impact assessment (ENSyGMO) with the aim directly to enhance ERA and post-market environmental monitoring (PMEM) of GM crops, to harmonize and ultimately secure the long-term socio-political impact of the ERA process and the PMEM in the EU. These goals would be achieved...

  11. M. V. sea transporter oil spill and its environmental impact assessment

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Singbal, S.Y.S.; Fondekar, S.P.; Ansari, Z.A.; Matondkar, S.G.P.; D'Silva, C.; Ingole, B.S.; Sawkar, K.; Verlecar, X.N.; Sawant, S.S.; Sreepada, R.A.; Karim, S.A.; Mhamal, N.P.; Saldana, M.C.

    ENVIRONMENTAL IMPACT ASSESSMENT DIRECTOR : PROJECT COORDINATORS : PROJECT LEADERS : Dr. E. DESA Drs. L. U. JOSHI & A. H. PARULEKAR (Deputy Director) Drs. S. Y. S. SINGBAL, S. P. FONDEKAR & Z. A. ANSARI AUGUST, 1994 LIST OF CONTENTS PAGE PARTICIPANTS i EXECUTIVE....G.P. Matondkar Mr. B.S. Ingole Dr. X.N. Verlencar Mr. R.A. Sreepada Mr. N.P. Mhamal Ms. M.C. Saldana EXECUTIVE SUMMARY a) On 5 June 1994, ore carrier M.V. Sea Transporter, was drifted to Sinquerim-Goa coast from Mormugao harbour in the squall that hit the Goa...

  12. Assessing the environmental impacts of using demineralized coal for electricity generation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ryberg, Morten; Owsianiak, Mikolaj; Laurent, Alexis

    2014-01-01

    The energy sector is the source of two-thirds of global greenhouse-gas emissions, and is the main target ofclimate policies among authorities and governments. The share of fossil coals (hard coal and lignite) in world total net electricity generation is 40% in 2010. Demineralization or ash removal...... in alkaline and acidic solution to dissolve and remove the ash. This process is well-studied on lab scale but has only to a small extent been tried on a full scale. This assessment is conducted as an aid for further developing thetechnology, allowing for early identification of environmental impacts...

  13. Environmental impact of pyrolysis of mixed WEEE plastics part 2: Life cycle assessment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alston, Sue M; Arnold, J Cris

    2011-11-01

    Waste electrical and electronic equipment (WEEE) contains up to 25% plastics. Extraction of higher quality fractions for recycling leaves a mix of plastic types contaminated with other materials, requiring the least environmentally harmful disposal route. Data from trials of pyrolysis, described in part 1 of this paper set, were used in a life cycle assessment of the treatment of WEEE plastics. Various levels of recycling of the sorted fraction were considered, and pyrolysis was compared with incineration (with energy recovery) and landfill for disposal of the remainder. Increased recycling gave reduced environmental impact in almost all categories considered, although inefficient recycling decreased that benefit. Significant differences between pyrolysis, incineration and landfill were seen in climate change impacts, carbon sent to landfill, resources saved, and radiation. There was no overall "best" option. Landfill had the least short-term impact on climate change so could be a temporary means of sequestering carbon. Incineration left almost no carbon to landfill, but produced the most greenhouse gases. Pyrolysis or incineration saved most resources, with the balance depending on the source of electricity replaced by incineration. Pyrolysis emerged as a strong compromise candidate since the gases and oils produced could be used as fuels and so provided significant resource saving without high impact on climate change or landfill space. PMID:21939231

  14. Environmental impact assessment of the incineration of municipal solid waste with auxiliary coal in China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Yan; Xing, Wei; Lu, Wenjing; Zhang, Xu; Christensen, Thomas H

    2012-10-01

    The environmental impacts of waste incineration with auxiliary coal were investigated using the life-cycle-based software, EASEWASTE, based on the municipal solid waste (MSW) management system in Shuozhou City. In the current system, MSW is collected, transported, and incinerated with 250 kg of coal per ton of waste. Based on observed environmental impacts of incineration, fossil CO(2) and heavy metals were primary contributors to global warming and ecotoxicity in soil, respectively. Compared with incinerators using excess coal, incineration with adequate coal presents significant benefits in mitigating global warming, whereas incineration with a mass of coal can avoid more impacts to acidification, photochemical ozone and nutrient enrichment because of increased electricity substitution and reduced emission from coal power plants. The "Emission standard of air pollutants for thermal power plants (GB13223-2011)" implemented in 2012 introduced stricter policies on controlling SO(2) and NO(x) emissions from coal power plants. Thus, increased use of auxiliary coal during incineration yields fewer avoided impacts on acidification and nutrient enrichment. When two-thirds of ash is source-separated and landfilled, the incineration of rest-waste presents better results on global warming, acidification, nutrient enrichment, and even ecotoxicity in soil. This process is considered a promising solution for MSW management in Shuozhou City. Weighted normalized environmental impacts were assessed based on Chinese political reduction targets. Results indicate that heavy metal and acidic gas emissions should be given more attention in waste incineration. This study provides scientific support for the management of MSW systems dominated by incineration with auxiliary coal in China. PMID:22683228

  15. Environmental impacts program

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Environmental Impacts Program (EIP) prepared environmental analyses relating to federal energy planning and decision-making processes. This effort includes preparation of Environmental Impact Statements (EISs) and Environmental Assessments (EIAs), development of environmental monitoring strategies and protocols, formulation of guidelines and environmental compliance documents, and technical assistance. The Program assists the Department of Energy (D0E) and the Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) in accomplishing their environmental responsibilities under the National Environmental Policy Act (NEPA). The EIP is organized around six team activities: Power Stations, Nuclear Fuel Cycle, Geothermal Energy and Fuel Conversions, NEPA Affairs and Fossil Energy, Monitoring Protocols Development, and Solar and Special Projects. Impact statement work is a cooperative effort with the ORNL Energy Division, in which the EIP analyzes issues dealing with terrestrial and aquatic ecology and land and water use. The primary goal of the Program is to promote the inclusion of scientifically sound and supportable environmental analyses and advice as input into major federal decisions. To implement this goal the EIP engaged in several activities this year which provide guidance, technical assistance, planning, and long-range analyses

  16. Oxidative stress enzyme and histopathological lesions in Colossoma macropomum (pisces, ariidae) for environmental impact assessment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andrade, Ticianne de Sousa de Oliveira Mota; Sousa, Debora Batista Pinheiro; Dantas, Janaina Gomes; Castro, Jonatas da Silva; Neta, Raimunda Nonata Fortes Carvalho

    2015-12-01

    This study used oxidative stress enzyme (Glutathione S-Transferase and Catalase), histopathological lesions (Branchial lesions) and biometric data in the freshwater fish tambaqui, Colossoma macropomum, to assess environmental impacts in an Environmental Protection Area at São Luis, Brazil. Fish were sampled from two locations (A1 = contaminated area and A2 = reference site) within the protected area on four occasions. The activity of catalase (CAT) and glutathione S-transferase (GST) in C. macropomum was compared with biometric data and histopathological lesions. Results have shown that biometric data decreased significantly in fish (p<0.05) at the contaminated site. The activity of CAT was higher in fish specifically caught in A1. A significant difference was observed in the GST activity in the liver of C. macropomum when comparing fish from the contaminated site and those from the reference site (p<0.05).

  17. Contribution to the knowledge of threatened terrestrial fauna of Brazil: data from PETROBRAS environmental impact assessments

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Basbaum, Marcos A.; Fonseca, Renata A.A. [SEEBLA - Servicos de Engenharia Emilio Baumgart Ltda., Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil)], e-mail: mbasbaum.seebla@petrobras.com.br, e-mail: renataamorim.seebla@petrobras.com.br; Torggler, Bianca F.; Fernandes, Renato; Guimaraes, Ricardo Z.P. [PETROBRAS S.A., Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil)], e-mail: torggler@petrobras.com.br, e-mail: renatofer@petrobras.com.br, e-mail: rzaluar@petrobras.com.br

    2009-12-19

    One of the major problems related to the protection of threatened species in Brazil is the current lack of primary data on their occurrence. PETROBRAS, due to the processes of environmental licensing of new pipelines, held numerous studies on the occurrence of several species. Most of these studies took place in Atlantic Forest remnants located in the states of Sao Paulo, Rio de Janeiro, Minas Gerais, Espirito Santo, Bahia, Sergipe, Alagoas and Pernambuco. This study compared primary data from these Environmental Impact Assessments with the Brazilian list of threatened species published by MMA (Brazilian Ministry of Environment). Many threatened species were recorded in areas where native forest fragments are reduced in number and size, such as those in the Northeastern region. (author)

  18. Can contingent valuation resolve the 'adding-up problem' in environmental impact assessment?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Because most proposals that are to be evaluated by environmental impact assessments could have numerous effects on the environment, it is necessary to find a method to 'add up' the benefits and costs to determine whether the net benefits of the proposal are positive. One technique that has been proposed for minimizing the subjectivity inherent in this calculation is contingent valuation, CV. Critical analyses of CV have focused almost exclusively on the difficulties of estimating consumers' valuations of products-environmental amenities-that are not normally sold in the market place. In this paper, I look beyond those difficulties to ask whether CV would be a useful technique for EIA practitioners even if the measurement issues could be resolved satisfactorily. I conclude that, in most circumstances, EIA is a sufficiently complex task that the cost of estimating contingent values would be prohibitive

  19. Models for environmental impact assessments of releases of radioactive substances from CERN facilities

    CERN Document Server

    Vojtyla, P

    2005-01-01

    The document describes generic models for environmental impact assessments of releases of radioactive substances from CERN facilities. Except for few models developed in the Safety Commission, the models are based on the 1997 Swiss directive HSK-R-41 and on the 2001 IAEA Safety Report No. 19. The writing style is descriptive, facilitating the practical implementation of the models at CERN. There are four scenarios assumed for airborne releases: (1) short-term releases for release limit calculations, (2) actual short-term releases, (3) short-term releases during incidents/accidents, and (4) chronic long-term releases during the normal operation of a facility. For water releases, two scenarios are considered: (1) a release into a river, and (2) a release into a water treatment plant. The document shall be understood as a reference for specific environmental studies involving radioactive releases and as a recommendation of the Safety Commission.

  20. Analytical Assessment of Environmental Impact for APR1400DC UHS Cooling Tower

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Jaiho [KHNP-Central Research Institute, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2015-05-15

    Hot process water is pumped from the plant process to the cooling towers. Heat is rejected through evaporation of the process water, interacting with ambient air blown upward by fans.. Plumes generated from exit ports of the cooling tower may have adverse effects on the environment, such as deposition of cooling tower drift release, fogging, icing, shadowing, and ground-level temperature and humidity increase. These kinds of environmental impact of the cooling tower are linked closely with the dispersion of the cooling tower plumes. In this respect, predicting the behavior of the plumes has become one of the most important issues in the environmental assessments of the cooling towers. The SACTI (seasonal/annual cooling tower impact) model is an analytical tool to predict the environmental effect of cooling tower, which was developed by Argonne National Laboratory and University of Illinois with support from EPRI (electric power research institute). The initial version of SACTI has been widely used to assess the environmental effect of cooling towers in many industrial fields such as steam power plants and NPPs. Guo et. al. investigated impact of heat rejection and cooling tower height on plume dispersion using the SACTI model, for the purpose of the future construction of inland NPPs. They found that increasing cooling tower height decreases the plume length and height frequencies. Their simulation results showed that the increase in heat rejection increases the plum radius frequency. The APR1400DC is an advanced light water reactor developed for the purpose of NRC-DC (design certification). The cooling towers for APR1400DC UHS consist of two linear mechanical draft cooling towers (LMDCTs). The LMDCT for APR1400DC UHS is conceptually designed because the plant site has not been decided yet. In the present study, the dependency of plume dispersion on the number of cooling towers is investigated using SACTI-2-beta, for predicting annual environmental effect of APR

  1. The use of expert elicitation in environmental health impact assessment: a seven step procedure

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    van der Sluijs Jeroen P

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Environmental health impact assessments often have to deal with substantial uncertainties. Typically, the knowledge-base is limited with incomplete, or inconsistent evidence and missing or ambiguous data. Consulting experts can help to identify and address uncertainties. Methods Formal expert elicitation is a structured approach to systematically consult experts on uncertain issues. It is most often used to quantify ranges for poorly known parameters, but may also be useful to further develop qualitative issues such as definitions, assumptions or conceptual (causal models. A thorough preparation and systematic design and execution of an expert elicitation process may increase the validity of its outcomes and transparency and trustworthiness of its conclusions. Various expert elicitation protocols and methods exist. However, these are often not universally applicable, and need customization to suite the needs of a specific study. In this paper, we set out to develop a widely applicable method for the use of expert elicitation in environmental health impact assessment. Results We present a practical yet flexible seven step procedure towards organising expert elicitation in the context of environmental health impact assessment, based on existing protocols. We describe how customization for specific applications is always necessary. In particular, three issues affect the choice of methods for a particular application: the types of uncertainties considered, the intended use of the elicited information, and the available resources. We outline how these three considerations guide choices regarding the design and execution of expert elicitation. We present signposts to sources where the issues are discussed in more depth to give the newcomer the insights needed to make the protocol work. The seven step procedure is illustrated using examples from earlier published elicitations in the field of environmental health research

  2. Towards answering the "so what" question in marine renewables environmental impact assessment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Degraer, Steven; Birchenough, Silvana N. R.; Braeckman, Ulrike; Coolen, Joop W. P.; Dannheim, Jennifer; De Mesel, Ilse; Grégoire, Marilaure; Kerckhof, Francis; Lacroix, Geneviève; Lindeboom, Han; Moens, Tom; Soetaert, Karline; Vanaverbeke, Jan; Van Hoey, Gert

    2016-04-01

    Marine renewable energy (MRE) projects are increasingly occupying the European North-Atlantic coasts and this is clearly observed in the North Sea. Given the expected impacts on the marine environment, each individual project is accompanied by a legally mandatory, environmental monitoring programme. These programmes are focused on the resultant effects on ecosystem component structure (e.g. species composition, numbers and densities) of single industrial projects. To date, there is a tendency to further narrow down to only a selection of ecosystem components (e.g. marine mammals and birds). While a wide knowledge-based understanding of structural impacts on (a selection of) ecosystem components exists, this evidence is largely lacking when undertaking impact assessments at the ecosystem functioning level (e.g. trophic interactions, dispersal and nutrient cycling). This critical knowledge gap compromises a scientifically-underpinned answer to the "so what" question of environmental impacts, i.e. whether the observed impacts are considered to be good or bad, or acceptable or unacceptable. The importance of ecosystem functioning is further acknowledged in the descriptors 4 and 6 of the Marine Strategy Framework Directive (EU MSFD) and is at the heart of a sustainable use and management of our marine resources. There hence is a fundamental need to focus on ecosystem functioning at the spatial scales at which marine ecosystems function when assessing MRE impacts. Here, we make a plea for an increased investment in a large (spatial) scale impact assessment of MRE projects focused on ecosystem functioning. This presentation will cover a selection of examples from North Sea MRE monitoring programmes, where the current knowledge has limited conclusions on the "so what" question. We will demonstrate how an ecosystem functioning-focused approach at an appropriate spatial scale could advance our current understanding, whilst assessing these issues. These examples will cover

  3. ENVIRONMENTAL IMPACT ASSESSMENT TAXONOMY PROVIDING COMPREHENSIVE COVERAGE OF MIDPOINTS, ENDPOINTS, DAMAGES, AND AREAS OF PROTECTION

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prior to conducting a comprehensive impact assessment, such as a Life Cycle Impact Assessment (LCIA), there is a need to discuss the range of impacts which could and should be included. Up to this point in time, there has not been available a comprehensive list of impacts for po...

  4. Cost versus life cycle assessment-based environmental impact optimization of drinking water production plants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Capitanescu, F; Rege, S; Marvuglia, A; Benetto, E; Ahmadi, A; Gutiérrez, T Navarrete; Tiruta-Barna, L

    2016-07-15

    Empowering decision makers with cost-effective solutions for reducing industrial processes environmental burden, at both design and operation stages, is nowadays a major worldwide concern. The paper addresses this issue for the sector of drinking water production plants (DWPPs), seeking for optimal solutions trading-off operation cost and life cycle assessment (LCA)-based environmental impact while satisfying outlet water quality criteria. This leads to a challenging bi-objective constrained optimization problem, which relies on a computationally expensive intricate process-modelling simulator of the DWPP and has to be solved with limited computational budget. Since mathematical programming methods are unusable in this case, the paper examines the performances in tackling these challenges of six off-the-shelf state-of-the-art global meta-heuristic optimization algorithms, suitable for such simulation-based optimization, namely Strength Pareto Evolutionary Algorithm (SPEA2), Non-dominated Sorting Genetic Algorithm (NSGA-II), Indicator-based Evolutionary Algorithm (IBEA), Multi-Objective Evolutionary Algorithm based on Decomposition (MOEA/D), Differential Evolution (DE), and Particle Swarm Optimization (PSO). The results of optimization reveal that good reduction in both operating cost and environmental impact of the DWPP can be obtained. Furthermore, NSGA-II outperforms the other competing algorithms while MOEA/D and DE perform unexpectedly poorly. PMID:27107954

  5. Environmental Impact Assessment in the marine environment: A comparison of legal frameworks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Environmental Impact Assessment (EIA) is a well-established practice in most developed countries, even though its application to projects in the marine environment is at a much earlier stage of development. We use the Portuguese example to address marine EIA legislation since its exclusive economic zone (EEZ) is currently the third largest in the European Union and its EIA legislation does not require various offshore activities with potentially negative environmental impacts to undergo EIA before being licensed. This paper aims to determine whether three types of projects implemented within Portuguese maritime zones – artificial reefs using sunken ships, hydrocarbon prospecting and wave-energy generation – would benefit from application of an appropriately designed EIA. We have conducted a structured review of EIA legal provisions from seven other countries, and considered whether a full EIA was required for each project type. Consequently, 12 Environmental Impact Statements (EIS) have been compared to identify patterns of (dis)similarity across countries and project types. Additionally, we identified key descriptors and predicted impacts for each project type referred to in their EIS. The main conclusion is that ultimately all three projects would benefit from mandatory EIA in Portugal. This paper is relevant for countries with large maritime areas and underdeveloped marine EIA legislation, helping improve international policy-making relating to these three types of marine projects. - Highlights: • EIA is not mandatory for some project types developed in Portuguese maritime zones. • Artificial reefs, oil&gas prospecting and wave-energy licensing differ in 8 countries. • EIA should be mandatory in Portugal for artificial reefs and oil&gas prospecting. • However, an AEInc approach is enough for wave-energy projects in Portugal. • Findings could be extended to other EU countries with extensive maritime zones

  6. Environmental Impact Assessment in the marine environment: A comparison of legal frameworks

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Guerra, Flávia, E-mail: f.c.diasguerra@vu.nl [Institute for Environmental Studies, VU University Amsterdam, De Boelelaan 1087, 1081 HV Amsterdam (Netherlands); Liga para a Protecção da Natureza, 1500-124 Lisboa (Portugal); Grilo, Catarina [Liga para a Protecção da Natureza, 1500-124 Lisboa (Portugal); Pedroso, Nuno M. [Laboratório de Ecologia Isotópica — CENA, Universidade de São Paulo, Caixa Postal 96, 13416-000 Piracicaba, SP (Brazil); Centre for Ecology, Evolution and Environmental Changes — cE3c, Faculdade de Ciências, Universidade de Lisboa, 1749-016 Lisboa (Portugal); Cabral, Henrique [MARE — Marine and Environmental Sciences Centre, Faculdade de Ciências, Universidade de Lisboa, 1749-016 Lisboa (Portugal)

    2015-11-15

    Environmental Impact Assessment (EIA) is a well-established practice in most developed countries, even though its application to projects in the marine environment is at a much earlier stage of development. We use the Portuguese example to address marine EIA legislation since its exclusive economic zone (EEZ) is currently the third largest in the European Union and its EIA legislation does not require various offshore activities with potentially negative environmental impacts to undergo EIA before being licensed. This paper aims to determine whether three types of projects implemented within Portuguese maritime zones – artificial reefs using sunken ships, hydrocarbon prospecting and wave-energy generation – would benefit from application of an appropriately designed EIA. We have conducted a structured review of EIA legal provisions from seven other countries, and considered whether a full EIA was required for each project type. Consequently, 12 Environmental Impact Statements (EIS) have been compared to identify patterns of (dis)similarity across countries and project types. Additionally, we identified key descriptors and predicted impacts for each project type referred to in their EIS. The main conclusion is that ultimately all three projects would benefit from mandatory EIA in Portugal. This paper is relevant for countries with large maritime areas and underdeveloped marine EIA legislation, helping improve international policy-making relating to these three types of marine projects. - Highlights: • EIA is not mandatory for some project types developed in Portuguese maritime zones. • Artificial reefs, oil&gas prospecting and wave-energy licensing differ in 8 countries. • EIA should be mandatory in Portugal for artificial reefs and oil&gas prospecting. • However, an AEInc approach is enough for wave-energy projects in Portugal. • Findings could be extended to other EU countries with extensive maritime zones.

  7. Environmental Impact Assessment for the Decommissioning of Nuclear Installations. Vol. 1-3

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This Report presents the results of a study concerned with Environmental Impact Assessment (EIA) for the decommissioning of nuclear installations in European Union Member States and in the Applicant Countries in Central and Eastern Europe. The study, undertaken for the Environment Directorate General of the European Commission, took place between January 2000 and March 2001 under contract number B4-3040/99/136035/MAR/C2 entitled Environmental Impact Assessment for the Decommissioning of nuclear Installations. The study presents an analysis of the current situation in the European Union and in the Applicant Countries, and develops guidance for applying the relevant Directives for EIA to the specific issue of decommissioning nuclear installations although there is also scope for application to other large or controversial projects. The first part of the report (Volume 1) describes the current situation in the EU Member States and Applicant Countries. On the basis of this status, the guidance presented in Volume 2 was developed. Draft versions of these volumes were reviewed by an independent review panel and were then subjected to detailed discussion and debate at a Workshop held in Brussels in January 2001. The Workshop was attended by more than 60 representatives of the nuclear industry, nuclear regulators, public interest groups and EIA experts. Some minor changes were made following the Workshop, a record of which can be found in Volume 3. (author)

  8. Assessing environmental impacts of constructed wetland effluents for vegetable crop irrigation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Castorina, A; Consoli, S; Barbagallo, S; Branca, F; Farag, A; Licciardello, F; Cirelli, G L

    2016-01-01

    The objective of this study was to monitor and assess environmental impacts of reclaimed wastewater (RW), used for irrigation of vegetable crops, on soil, crop quality and irrigation equipment. During 2013, effluents of a horizontal sub-surface flow constructed treatment wetland (TW) system, used for tertiary treatment of sanitary wastewater from a small rural municipality located in Eastern Sicily (Italy), were reused by micro-irrigation techniques to irrigate vegetable crops. Monitoring programs, based on in situ and laboratory analyses were performed for assessing possible adverse effects on water-soil-plant systems caused by reclaimed wastewater reuse. In particular, experimental results evidenced that Escherichia coli content found in RW would not present a risk for rotavirus infection following WHO (2006) standards. Irrigated soil was characterized by a certain persistence of microbial contamination and among the studied vegetable crops, lettuce responds better, than zucchini and eggplants, to the irrigation with low quality water, evidencing a bettering of nutraceutical properties and production parameters.

  9. Life-Cycle Assessment of Energy and Environmental Impacts of LED Lighting Products, Part 3: LED Environmental Testing

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tuenge, Jason R.; Hollomon, Brad; Dillon, Heather E.; Snowden-Swan, Lesley J.

    2013-03-01

    This report covers the third part of a larger U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) project to assess the life-cycle environmental and resource impacts in the manufacturing, transport, use, and disposal of light-emitting diode (LED) lighting products in relation to incumbent lighting technologies. All three reports are available on the DOE website (www.ssl.energy.gov/tech_reports.html). • Part 1: Review of the Life-Cycle Energy Consumption of Incandescent, Compact Fluorescent and LED Lamps; • Part 2: LED Manufacturing and Performance; • Part 3: LED Environmental Testing. Parts 1 and 2 were published in February and June 2012, respectively. The Part 1 report included a summary of the life-cycle assessment (LCA) process and methodology, provided a literature review of more than 25 existing LCA studies of various lamp types, and performed a meta-analysis comparing LED lamps with incandescent and compact fluorescent lamps (CFLs). Drawing from the Part 1 findings, Part 2 performed a more detailed assessment of the LED manufacturing process and used these findings to provide a comparative LCA taking into consideration a wider range of environmental impacts. Both reports concluded that the life-cycle environmental impact of a given lamp is dominated by the energy used during lamp operation—the upstream generation of electricity drives the total environmental footprint of the product. However, a more detailed understanding of end-of-life disposal considerations for LED products has become increasingly important as their installation base has grown. The Part 3 study (reported herein) was undertaken to augment the LCA findings with chemical analysis of a variety of LED, CFL, and incandescent lamps using standard testing procedures. A total of 22 samples, representing 11 different models, were tested to determine whether any of 17 elements were present at levels exceeding California or Federal regulatory thresholds for hazardous waste. Key findings include: • The selected

  10. MKB and SMB in the Northern countries[Environmental impact assessment; Strategic environmental assessment; Radiactive waste disporal]; MKB och SMB i Norden

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Broden, K. [Studsvik RadWaste AB (Sweden); Andersson, K. [Krinta konsult (Sweden)

    2001-12-01

    A meeting on Environmental Impact Assessment and Strategic Environmental Assessment has been held in Turku, Finland, August 22-24 2001. It was held within the framework of two NKS projects: SOS-3 (Radioactive waste) and SOS- 1 (Risk assessment and strategies for safety). The meeting included presenta- tions, discussions and a study visit to the final repository for low- and intermedi- ate level radioactive waste and the intermediate storage for spent nuclear fuel at Olkiluoto. Abstract in Danish: Inom ramen for NKS-projekten SOS-3 (Avfall) och SOS-1 (Riskvaardering och strategi for saakerhet) har ett seminarium om miljokonsekvensbeskrivningar och strategisk miljokonsekvensbedomning haallits i Aabo 22-24 augusti, 2001. Seminariet omfattade foredrag, diskussioner samt en studieresa till Olkoluoto daar besok gjordes till mellanlagret for anvaant braansle och till slutforvaret for laag- och medelaktivt avfall. Under forutsaattning att styrelsen for NKS samtycker kommer ett nytt MKB- seminarium att haallas i Osthammar 2002. (au)

  11. Environmental impact assessment of STORA SKOG:s forest fertilizing program. Part 1: Basic facts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nitrogen fertilization of forest soils has been used for several decades to improve productivity. STORA plans to fertilize 10 to 15 thousand hectares forests with nitrogen annually, over an area of 1 545 000 hectares productive forest land. The ecological effects of this forest fertilization plan have been studied in the form of an environmental impact assessment (EIA). The first part of this EIA, presented in this report by the Swedish Environmental Research Institute (IVL), include the present and possible future state of the forest environment in Sweden, in relation to STORA owned forests and the fertilization programme and present knowledge about nitrogen cycling and forest fertilization. The second part, presented in a separate report contains information about the ecological effects of implementation of STORA fertilization plans, identification of shortcomings in knowledge to date, and recommendations for evasion of possible negative effects of implementation. Environmental effects of nitrogen fertilization are described in contrast to the possible environmental effects of acidification of soil and surface water, build-up of nitrogen pool in soils, leakage of nitrogen to surface waters from soils, changes in forest soil fertility, uptake and loss of climate affecting gases, and the biological diversity of the forest ecosystem. 193 refs, 4 figs, 7 tabs

  12. Evaluation of the environmental impact of Brownfield remediation options: comparison of two life cycle assessment-based evaluation tools.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cappuyns, Valérie; Kessen, Bram

    2012-01-01

    The choice between different options for the remediation of a contaminated site traditionally relies on economical, technical and regulatory criteria without consideration of the environmental impact of the soil remediation process itself. In the present study, the environmental impact assessment of two potential soil remediation techniques (excavation and off-site cleaning and in situ steam extraction) was performed using two life cycle assessment (LCA)-based evaluation tools, namely the REC (risk reduction, environmental merit and cost) method and the ReCiPe method. The comparison and evaluation of the different tools used to estimate the environmental impact of Brownfield remediation was based on a case study which consisted of the remediation of a former oil and fat processing plant. For the environmental impact assessment, both the REC and ReCiPe methods result in a single score for the environmental impact of the soil remediation process and allow the same conclusion to be drawn: excavation and off-site cleaning has a more pronounced environmental impact than in situ soil remediation by means of steam extraction. The ReCiPe method takes into account more impact categories, but is also more complex to work with and needs more input data. Within the routine evaluation of soil remediation alternatives, a detailed LCA evaluation will often be too time consuming and costly and the estimation of the environmental impact with the REC method will in most cases be sufficient. The case study worked out in this paper wants to provide a basis for a more sounded selection of soil remediation technologies based on a more detailed assessment of the secondary impact of soil remediation.

  13. The environmental impact and risk assessment of CO2 capture, transport and storage - an evaluation of the knowledge base

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Koornneef, J.M.; Ramirez, C.A.; Turkenburg, W.C.; Faaij, A.P.C.

    2012-01-01

    In this study, we identify and characterize known and new environmental consequences associated with CO2 capture from power plants, transport by pipeline and storage in geological formations. We have reviewed (analogous) environmental impact assessment procedures and scientific literature on carbon

  14. Life cycle assessment to evaluate the environmental impact of biochar implementation in conservation agriculture in Zambia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sparrevik, Magnus; Field, John L; Martinsen, Vegard; Breedveld, Gijs D; Cornelissen, Gerard

    2013-02-01

    Biochar amendment to soil is a potential technology for carbon storage and climate change mitigation. It may, in addition, be a valuable soil fertility enhancer for agricultural purposes in sandy and/or weathered soils. A life cycle assessment including ecological, health and resource impacts has been conducted for field sites in Zambia to evaluate the overall impacts of biochar for agricultural use. The life cycle impacts from conservation farming using cultivation growth basins and precision fertilization with and without biochar addition were in the present study compared to conventional agricultural methods. Three different biochar production methods were evaluated: traditional earth-mound kilns, improved retort kilns, and micro top-lit updraft (TLUD) gasifier stoves. The results confirm that the use of biochar in conservation farming is beneficial for climate change mitigation purposes. However, when including health impacts from particle emissions originating from biochar production, conservation farming plus biochar from earth-mound kilns generally results in a larger negative effect over the whole life cycle than conservation farming without biochar addition. The use of cleaner technologies such as retort kilns or TLUDs can overcome this problem, mainly because fewer particles and less volatile organic compounds, methane and carbon monoxide are emitted. These results emphasize the need for a holistic view on biochar use in agricultural systems. Of special importance is the biochar production technique which has to be evaluated from both environmental/climate, health and social perspectives.

  15. Selenium transformation in coal mine spoils: Its environmental impact assessment. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Harness, J.; Atalay, A.; Koll, K.J.; Zhang, H.; Maggon, D.

    1991-12-31

    The objective of this program was to conduct an environmental impact assessment study for selenium from coal mine spoils. The use of in-situ lysimetry to predict selenium speciation, transformation, and mobility under natural conditions was evaluated. The scope of the study was to construct and test field-scale lysimeter and laboratory mini-column to assess mobility and speciation of selenium in coal mine overburden and soil systems; to conduct soil and groundwater sampling throughout the state of Oklahoma for an overall environmental impact assessment of selenium; and to conduct an in-depth literature review on the solubility, speciation, mobility, and toxicity of selenium from various sources. Groundwater and surface soil samples were also collected from each county in Oklahoma. Data collected from the lysimeter study indicated that selenium in the overburden of the abandoned mine site was mainly found in the selenite form. The amount of selenite found was too low and immobile to be of concern to the environment. The spoil had equilibrated long enough (over 50 years) that most of the soluble forms of selenium have already been lost. Examination of the overburden indicated the presence of pyrite crystals that precipitated over time. The laboratory mini-column study indicated that selenite is quite immobile and remained on the overburden material even after leaching with dilute acid. Data from groundwater samples indicated that based on the current permissible level for selenium in groundwater (0.01 mg Se/L), Oklahoma groundwater is widely contaminated with the element. However, according to the new regulation (0.05 mg Se/L), which is to be promulgated in 1992, only 9 of the 77 counties in the state exceed the limit.

  16. Integrating human health into environmental impact assessment: case studies of Canada's Northern mining resource sector

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This paper examines the integration of human health considerations into environmental impact assessment (EIA) in the Canadian North. Emphasis is placed on the northern mining sector, where more land has been staked in the past decade than in the previous 50 years combined. Using information from interviews with northern EIA and health practitioners and reviews of selected project documents, we examined three principal mining case studies, northern Saskatchewan uranium mining operations, the Ekati diamond project, and the Voisey's Bay mine/mill project, to determine whether and how health considerations in EIA have evolved and the current nature and scope of health integration. Results suggest that despite the recognized link between environment and health and the number of high-profile megaprojects in Canada's North, human health, particularly social health, has not been given adequate treatment in northern EIA. Health considerations in EIA have typically been limited to physical health impacts triggered directly by project-induced environmental change, while social and other health determinants have been either not considered at all, or limited to those aspects of health and well-being that the project proponent directly controlled, namely employment opportunities and worker health and safety. In recent years, we have been seeing improvements in the scope of health in EIA to reflect a broader range of health determinants, including traditional land use and culture. However, there is still a need to adopt impact mitigation and enhancement measures that are sensitive to northern society, to monitor and follow up actual health impacts after project approval, and to ensure that mitigation and enhancement measures are effective. (author)

  17. Do Community Based Initiatives foster sustainability transitions? Towards a unique Environmental Impact Assessment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martellozzo, Federico; Hendrickson, Cary; Gozdowska, Iga; Groß, Helge; Henderson, Charles; Reusser, Dominik

    2015-04-01

    The active participation in Community Based Initiatives (CBI) is a spreading phenomenon that has reached a significant magnitude and - in some cases - CBIs are also supposed to have catalysed social and technological innovation, thus contributing to global transition into low-carbon economy. Generally speaking, CBIs are grassroots initiatives with broad sustainability foci that promote a plethora of activities such as alternative transportation, urban gardening, renewable energy implementation, waste regeneration/reduction, etc. Some advocate that such practices fostered by bottom-up activities, rather than top-down policies, represent a proficient countermeasure to alleviate global environmental change and effectively foster a societal transition towards sustainability. However, thus far most empirical research grounds mainly on anecdotal evidence and little work has been done to quantitatively assess CBIs' "environmental impacts" (EI) or their carbon footprints using comparative methodologies. This research main aim is to frame a methodology to assess univocally CBIs' EIs which are crucial to understanding their role in societal sustainability transition. However, to do so, three main caveats need to be addressed: first, some CBIs do not directly produce tangible measurable outputs, nor have an intelligibly defined set of inputs (e.g. CBIs focusing on environmental education and awareness rising). Thus, calculating their "indirect" EI may represent an intricate puzzle that is very much open to subjective interpretation. Second, CBIs' practices are heterogenic and therefore existing methodologies to make comparisons of their EIs are neither straightforward nor proficient, also given the lack of available data. Third, another issue closely related to the one previously mentioned, is a general lack of consensus among already existing impact-assessment frameworks for certain practices (e.g. composting). A potential way of estimating a CBI's EI is a standard Carbon

  18. An evaluation of the environmental impact assessment system in Vietnam: The gap between theory and practice

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vietnam has one of the fastest growing economies in the world and has achieved significant socio-economic development in recent years. However this growth is placing increased pressure on an already depleted natural environment. Environmental impact assessment (EIA) is recognised by the Government and international organizations as an important tool in the management of the impacts of future development on the country's natural resource base. The Government's commitment to EIA has been demonstrated through the development and adoption of the Law on Environment Protection (Revised) in 2005 which sets out the requirements for EIA and which represents a major step in the development of a robust legislative framework for EIA in Vietnam. The Law on Environment Protection (Revised) 2005 has now been operational for several years and we have undertaken an evaluation of the resulting EIA system in Vietnam. We argue that while significant improvements have been achieved in the EIA policy framework, an important gap remains between EIA theory and practice. We contend that the basis of the current EIA legislation is strong and that future developments of the EIA system in Vietnam should focus on improving capacity of EIA practitioners rather than further substantial legislative change. Such improvements would allow the Vietnamese EIA system to emerge as an effective and efficient tool for environmental management in Vietnam and as a model EIA framework for other developing countries.

  19. Environmental-impact assessment for the proposed oil-shale integrated tri-generation plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Air, land and water impacts for a proposed commercial-sized oil-shale integrated tri-generation system (OSITGS) are predicted. A preliminary analysis of the processes incurred was conducted to determine the nature and expected rates of various effluent streams emerging from the OSITGS. Mining and the processing of the oil-shale will significantly disturb the environment, as a result of pollution by dust particles and ash derived from the oil-shale as well as various gaseous emissions from the proposed development. However, it is likely that solid-waste handling (including ultimate disposal) as well as land-use impacts will be of greater concern than emissions to the atmosphere from the proposed oil-shale operations. Preliminary predictions indicate that the proposed integrated process will be financially attractive, as well as an environmentally-acceptable technique for producing synthetic (liquid and gaseous) fuels and electricity from oil-shale, compared with conventional utilisation methods. But significant information gaps exist, so inhibiting the making of accurate environmental assessments concerning the behaviour of the OSITGS at this time. (Copyright (c) 1999 Elsevier Science B.V., Amsterdam. All rights reserved.)

  20. Comparing environmental impacts of beef production systems: A review of life cycle assessments

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vries, de M.; Middelaar, van C.E.; Boer, de I.J.M.

    2015-01-01

    Livestock production, and especially beef production, has a major impact on the environment. Environmental impacts, however, vary largely among beef systems. Understanding these differences is crucial to mitigate impacts of future global beef production. The objective of this research, therefore, wa

  1. Environmental impact assessment of a WtE plant after structural upgrade measures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Passarini, Fabrizio; Nicoletti, Monica; Ciacci, Luca; Vassura, Ivano; Morselli, Luciano

    2014-04-01

    The study focuses on analysing the evolution of environmental impacts caused by a medium-large Italian WtE plant before and after revamping and maintenance operations, with the aim of providing an evaluation of how much these structural upgrade measures may affect the total environmental performance. LCA methodology was applied for the modelling and comparison of six WtE scenarios, each describing the main structural upgrades carried out in the plant over the years 1996-2011. The comparison was conducted by adopting 1ton of MSW as the functional unit, and the net contribution from energy recovery to power generation was distinguished by defining consistent national grid electricity mixes for every year considered. The Ecoindicator99 2.09 impact assessment method was used to evaluate the contribution to midpoint and endpoint categories (e.g. carcinogens, respiratory inorganics and organics, climate change, damage to human health). Lastly, the "Pedigree quality matrix" was applied to verify the reliability and robustness of the model created. As expected, the results showed better environmental scores after both the implementation of new procedures and the integration of operations. However, while a net reduction of air emissions seems to be achievable through dedicated flue gas treatment technologies, outcomes underscored potentials for improving the management of bottom ash through the adoption of alternative options aimed to use that solid residue mainly as filler, and to decrease risks from its current disposal in landfill. If the same effort that is put into flue gas treatment were devoted to energy recovery, the targets for the WtE plant could be easily met, achieving a higher sustainability. This aspect is even more complex: national policies for implementing greener and renewable energy sources would result in a lower impact of the national energy mix and, hence, in a lower net avoided burden from energy recovery. The study confirmed the expected improvements

  2. Environmental impact assessment of STORA SKOG:s forest fertilizing program. Part 2: Judgement

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The ecological effects of forest fertilization have been studied in the form of an environmental impact assessment (EIA). The first part of this EIA, presented in an earlier report by the Swedish Environmental Research Institute (IVL), included the present and possible future state of the forest environment in Sweden, in relation to STORA owned forests and the fertilization programme and present knowledge about nitrogen cycling and forest fertilization. The second part is presented here, and contains information about the ecological effects of implementation of STORA fertilization plans, identification of shortcomings in knowledge to date, and recommendations for evasion of possible negative effects of implementation. The general consensus of this EIA is that the forest fertilization plans drawn up by STORA will not negatively affect the use of the forest as a natural resource in an ecologically sound way, taken into account that the guidelines included in the EIA are followed. The possible environmental effects of a 10 to 20 year period from onset of the plan were studied in contrast to the possible environmental effects of acidification of soil and surface water, build-up of nitrogen pool in soils, leakage of nitrogen to surface waters from soils, changes in forest soil fertility, uptake and loss of climate affecting gases, and the biological diversity of the forest ecosystem. The recommendations given in this EIA include the choice of forest stands for fertilization, environmental awareness, amount of fertilizer applied, frequency of applications, application procedures and effects follow up, communications, and documentation of the events. 69 refs, 14 tabs

  3. A Spatially Intelligent Public Participation System for the Environmental Impact Assessment Process

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lei Lei

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available An environmental impact assessment (EIA is a decision-making process that evaluates the possible significant effects that a proposed project may exert on the environment. The EIA scoping and reviewing stages often involve public participation. Although its importance has long been recognized, public participation in the EIA process is often regarded as ineffective, due to time, budget, resource, technical and procedural constraints, as well as the complexity of environmental information. Geographic Information System (GIS and Volunteer Geographic Information (VGI have the potential to contribute to data collection, sharing and presentation, utilize local user-generated content to benefit decision-making and increase public outreach. This research integrated GIS, VGI, social media tools, data mining and mobile technology to design a spatially intelligent framework that presented and shared EIA information effectively to the public. A spatially intelligent public participative system (SIPPS was also developed as a proof-of-concept of the framework. The research selected the Tehachapi Renewable Transmission Project (TRTP as the pilot study area. Survey questionnaires were designed to collect feedback and conduct evaluation. Results show that SIPPS was able to improve the effectiveness of public participation, promote environmental awareness and achieve good system usability.

  4. Slovak Republic Act No. 130/2006 on the assessment of environmental impact and amending some laws

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This Act regulates: (a) process of expert and public assessment of environmental impact: 1. strategic documents prior to their approval; 2. proposed actions before deciding on their location or from their authorized under special regulations; (b) competence of state administration and municipalities in the scope of the EIA; (c) the rights and obligations of the assessment process for assessing impacts. (2) This Act does not apply to strategic documents whose sole purpose is national defense, civil, financial or budget plans and programs. This Act consists of the following parts: (1) Basic provisions; (2) Assessment and design strategy papers and strategic documents nationwide; (3) Assessment of proposed action; (4) Assessment transboundary impacts; (5) Competence of state administration; (6) Common, transitional and repealing provisions. The Act includes the following annexes: (1) Strategic documents subject to the assessment of their impact on the environment, including health; (2) Content and structure of the notice of strategic documents; (3) Criteria for screening under par. 7; (4) Content and structure of the strategic assessment document; (5) Content and structure of the assessment report territorial planning documentation; (6) Content and structure of the final assessment of strategic document; (7) Impact clause strategic documents nationwide for the environment; (8) The list of proposed activities requiring the assessment of their impact on the environment; (9) Content and structure plan; (10) Criteria for screening by Act par. 29; (11) Content and structure of the report of the assessment of the proposed action; (12) Concluding observations of the impact assessment proposed action on the environment; (13) List of activities subject to compulsory international assessment of their impact on the environment, transboundary; (14) General criteria for determining significant adverse transboundary impact; (15) Contents assessment documentation impacts of the

  5. INPRO Methodology for Sustainability Assessment of Nuclear Energy Systems: Environmental Impact from Depletion of Resources

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    INPRO is an international project to help ensure that nuclear energy is available to contribute in a sustainable manner to meeting the energy needs of the 21st century. A basic principle of INPRO in the area of environmental impact from depletion of resources is that a nuclear energy system will be capable of contributing to the energy needs in the 21st century while making efficient use of non-renewable resources needed for construction, operation and decommissioning. Recognizing that a national nuclear energy programme in a given country may be based both on indigenous resources and resources purchased from abroad, this publication provides background materials and summarizes the results of international global resource availability studies that could contribute to the corresponding national assessments

  6. Environmental impact of an Italian wine bottle: Carbon and water footprint assessment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bonamente, Emanuele; Scrucca, Flavio; Rinaldi, Sara; Merico, Maria Cleofe; Asdrubali, Francesco; Lamastra, Lucrezia

    2016-08-01

    The food sector represents one of the major impacting sectors from an environmental point of view and, among all the products, wine emerges as one of the most studied by the literature. Single-issue approaches are commonly used, but a more comprehensive analysis is desirable, since a single indicator does not properly track the pressure on the environment. This paper presents a combined carbon and water footprint assessment, with a cradle to grave approach, for a protected designation of origin Italian red wine, and suggests a correlation among the two indicators across the life cycle phases. A total CF equal to 1.07±0.09kgCO2eq/bottle and a total WF equal to 580±30l/bottle were calculated for the studied product and a direct proportionality was found between the total CF and the sum of WFgrey(indirect) and WFblue. PMID:27101464

  7. Deep-sea benthic community and environmental impact assessment at the Atlantic Frontier

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gage, John D.

    2001-05-01

    The seabed community provides a sensitive litmus for environmental change. North Sea analysis of benthic populations provides an effective means for monitoring impacts from man's interventions, such as offshore oil exploitation and fishing, against baseline knowledge of the environment. Comparable knowledge of the benthic biology in the deep waters of the Atlantic Frontier beyond the N.E. Atlantic shelf edge is poorly developed. But uncertainties should not encourage assumptions and extrapolations from the better-known conditions on the continental shelf. While sampling at present still provides the best means to assess the health of the deepwater benthic habitat, protocols developed for deep-sea fauna should be applied. These are necessary because of (a) lower faunal densities, (b) higher species richness, (c) smaller body size, and (d) to ensure comparability with other deep-sea data. As in the North Sea, species richness and relative abundance can be analysed from quantitative samples in order to detect impacts. But analysis based on taxonomic sufficiency above species level is premature, even if arguably possible for coastal communities. Measures also need to ensure identifications are not forced to more familiar coastal species without proper study. Species-level analysis may be applied to seabed photographs of megafauna in relation to data on bottom environment, such as currents and the sediment, to monitor the health of the deep-water community. Although the composition of higher taxa in the benthic community is broadly similar to soft sediments on the shelf, concordance in sensitivities is speculative. Moreover, new organisms occur, such as giant protozoan xenophyophores, unknown on the continental shelf, whose sensitivities remain conjectural. Past knowledge of the benthic biology of the deep-water areas off Scotland is based on scattered stations and some more focussed, multidisciplinary studies, and should be significantly augmented by the results from

  8. Assessing planetary and regional nitrogen boundaries related to food security and adverse environmental impacts

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Vries, Wim; Kros, Hans; Kroeze, Carolien; Seitzinger, Sybil

    2014-05-01

    In this presentation, we first discuss the concept of -, governance interest in- and criticism on planetary boundaries, specifically with respect to the nitrogen (N) cycle. We then systematically evaluate the criticism and argue that planetary N boundaries need to include both the benefits and adverse impacts of reactive N (Nr) and the spatial variability of Nr impacts, in terms of shortage and surplus, being main arguments for not deriving such boundaries. Next, we present an holistic approach for an updated planetary N boundary by considering the need to: (i) avoid adverse impacts of elevated Nr emissions to water, air and soils, and (ii) feed the world population in an adequate way. The derivation of a planetary N boundary, in terms of anthropogenic fixation of di-nitrogen (N2) by growing legumes and production of N fertilizer, is illustrated by (i) identification of multiple threat N indicators and setting critical limits for them, (ii) back calculating critical N losses from critical limits for N indicators, while accounting for the spatial variability of indicators and their exceedance and (iii) back calculating critical N fixation rates from critical N losses. The derivation of the needed planetary N fixation is assessed from the global population, the recommended dietary N consumption per capita and the N use efficiency in the complete chain from N fixation to N consumption. Results of example applications show that the previously suggested planetary N boundary of 25% of the current value is too low in view of needed N fixation and also unnecessary in view of most environmental impacts. We also illustrate the impacts of changes in the N use efficiency on planetary boundaries in terms of critical N fixation rates.

  9. Environmental impact of cow milk production in the central Italian Alps using Life Cycle Assessment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chiara A. Penati

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the study was to analyze environmental impact of cow milk production in an alpine area through a cradle-to-farm-gate Life Cycle Assessment and to identify farming strategies that can improve environmental sustainability without negatively affecting profitability. Data were collected from farmers in 28 dairy farms in an Italian alpine valley. The production of 1 kg of fat protein corrected milk (FPCM needed 3.18 m2 of land; land use on-farm was high because a large part of farm land consisted of pastures in the highland, used extensively during summer. Also the use of energy from non-renewable sources was high, 5.14 MJ kg FPCM-1 on average. Diesel for production and transportation of feed purchased off-farm was mainly used, especially concentrates which were entirely purchased. The average emission of greenhouse and acidification causing gases was 1.14 kg CO2-eq and 0.021 kg SO2-eq kg FPCM-1. Eutrophication was on average 0.077 kg of nitrate-eq kg FPCM-1. Farms with low producing cows had higher environmental impact per kg of milk and lower gross margin per cow compared to the others. Low stocking rate farms had the best results regarding acidification and eutrophication per kg FPCM. Farms with high feed self-sufficiency had significantly lower acidification potential than the others. Increasing milk yield per cow, by selection and feeding, and enhancing feed self-sufficiency, by higher forage production and quality and more exploitation of highland pastures, seem to be the best strategies to improve ecological performances of dairy farms in the Alps while maintaining their profitability.

  10. Environmental Impact Assessment of Rosia Jiu Opencast Area Using AN Integrated SAR Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Poenaru, V. D.; Negula, I. F. Dana; Badea, A.; Cuculici, R.

    2016-06-01

    The satellite data provide a new perspective to analyse and interpret environmental impact assessment as function of topography and vegetation. The main goal of this paper is to investigate the new Staring Spotlight TerraSAR-X mode capabilities to monitor land degradation in Rosia Jiu opencast area taking into account the mining engineering standards and specifications. The second goal is to relate mining activities with spatio-temporal dynamics of land degradation by using differential Synthetic Aperture Radar interferometry (DInSAR). The experimental analysis was carried out on data acquired in the LAN_2277 scientific proposal framework during 2014-2015 period. A set of 25 very height resolution SAR data gathered in the VV polarisation mode with a resolution of 0.45 m x 0.16m and an incidence angle of 37° have been used in this study. Preliminary results showed that altered terrain topography with steep slopes and deep pits has led to the layover of radar signal. Initially, ambiguous results have been obtained due to the highly dynamic character of subsidence induced by activities which imply mass mining methods. By increasing the SAR data number, the land degradation assessment has been improved. Most of the interferometric pairs have low coherence therefore the product coherence threshold was set to 0.3. A coherent and non-coherent analysis is performed to delineate land cover changes and complement the deformation model. Thus, the environmental impact of mining activities is better studied. Moreover, the monitoring of changes in pit depths, heights of stock-piles and waste dumps and levels of tailing dumps provide additional information about production data.

  11. Product environmental footprint in policy and market decisions: Applicability and impact assessment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lehmann, Annekatrin; Bach, Vanessa; Finkbeiner, Matthias

    2015-07-01

    In April 2013, the European Commission published the Product and Organisation Environmental Footprint (PEF/OEF) methodology--a life cycle-based multicriteria measure of the environmental performance of products, services, and organizations. With its approach of "comparability over flexibility," the PEF/OEF methodology aims at harmonizing existing methods, while decreasing the flexibility provided by the International Organization for Standardization (ISO) standards regarding methodological choices. Currently, a 3-y pilot phase is running, aiming at testing the methodology and developing product category and organization sector rules (PEFCR/OEFSR). Although a harmonized method is in theory a good idea, the PEF/OEF methodology presents challenges, including a risk of confusion and limitations in applicability to practice. The paper discusses the main differences between the PEF and ISO methodologies and highlights challenges regarding PEF applicability, with a focus on impact assessment. Some methodological aspects of the PEF and PEFCR Guides are found to contradict the ISO 14044 (2006) and ISO 14025 (2006). Others, such as prohibition of inventory cutoffs, are impractical. The evaluation of the impact assessment methods proposed in the PEF/OEF Guide showed that the predefined methods for water consumption, land use, and abiotic resources are not adequate because of modeling artefacts, missing inventory data, or incomplete characterization factors. However, the methods for global warming and ozone depletion perform very well. The results of this study are relevant for the PEF (and OEF) pilot phase, which aims at testing the PEF (OEF) methodology (and potentially adapting it) as well as addressing challenges and coping with them. PMID:25919189

  12. ENVIRONMENTAL IMPACT ASSESSMENT OF ROSIA JIU OPENCAST AREA USING AN INTEGRATED SAR ANALYSIS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. D. Poenaru

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available The satellite data provide a new perspective to analyse and interpret environmental impact assessment as function of topography and vegetation. The main goal of this paper is to investigate the new Staring Spotlight TerraSAR-X mode capabilities to monitor land degradation in Rosia Jiu opencast area taking into account the mining engineering standards and specifications. The second goal is to relate mining activities with spatio-temporal dynamics of land degradation by using differential Synthetic Aperture Radar interferometry (DInSAR. The experimental analysis was carried out on data acquired in the LAN_2277 scientific proposal framework during 2014-2015 period. A set of 25 very height resolution SAR data gathered in the VV polarisation mode with a resolution of 0.45 m x 0.16m and an incidence angle of 37° have been used in this study. Preliminary results showed that altered terrain topography with steep slopes and deep pits has led to the layover of radar signal. Initially, ambiguous results have been obtained due to the highly dynamic character of subsidence induced by activities which imply mass mining methods. By increasing the SAR data number, the land degradation assessment has been improved. Most of the interferometric pairs have low coherence therefore the product coherence threshold was set to 0.3. A coherent and non-coherent analysis is performed to delineate land cover changes and complement the deformation model. Thus, the environmental impact of mining activities is better studied. Moreover, the monitoring of changes in pit depths, heights of stock-piles and waste dumps and levels of tailing dumps provide additional information about production data.

  13. Green Template for Life Cycle Assessment of Buildings Based on Building Information Modeling: Focus on Embodied Environmental Impact

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sungwoo Lee

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The increased popularity of building information modeling (BIM for application in the construction of eco-friendly green buildings has given rise to techniques for evaluating green buildings constructed using BIM features. Existing BIM-based green building evaluation techniques mostly rely on externally provided evaluation tools, which pose problems associated with interoperability, including a lack of data compatibility and the amount of time required for format conversion. To overcome these problems, this study sets out to develop a template (the “green template” for evaluating the embodied environmental impact of using a BIM design tool as part of BIM-based building life-cycle assessment (LCA technology development. Firstly, the BIM level of detail (LOD was determined to evaluate the embodied environmental impact, and constructed a database of the impact factors of the embodied environmental impact of the major building materials, thereby adopting an LCA-based approach. The libraries of major building elements were developed by using the established databases and compiled evaluation table of the embodied environmental impact of the building materials. Finally, the green template was developed as an embodied environmental impact evaluation tool and a case study was performed to test its applicability. The results of the green template-based embodied environmental impact evaluation of a test building were validated against those of its actual quantity takeoff (2D takeoff, and its reliability was confirmed by an effective error rate of ≤5%. This study aims to develop a system for assessing the impact of the substances discharged from concrete production process on six environmental impact categories, i.e., global warming (GWP, acidification (AP, eutrophication (EP, abiotic depletion (ADP, ozone depletion (ODP, and photochemical oxidant creation (POCP, using the life a cycle assessment (LCA method. To achieve this, we proposed an LCA method

  14. Environmental impact assessment of siting plan for near surface repository of low and intermediate level solid radioactive wastes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    It is necessary to construct near surface repositories for the safe disposal of low and intermediate solid radioactive wastes (LIRW), because it is an effective way to reduce the environmental risks in managing LIRW as well as its impacts to the public and environment. Planning and siting near surface repositories on a whole county basis contribute to a rational distribution of repositories, good use of resources, and also the impact reduction of the public and environment. To reduce environmental impacts while implementing the siting plan, an environmental impact assessment (EIA) on The Siting Plan of LIRW Near Surface Repositories of China is needed. How to carry out this kind of assessment is discussed in this paper. (authors)

  15. Integrated impact assessment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Porter, A.L.; Rossini, F.A.

    1981-12-01

    Impact assessment studies the effects on society of proposed projects, programs, or policies. It is perhaps best known in the forms of technology assessment and environmental-impact assessment. The institutionalization of impact assessment, the principal features of impact assessment and its performance are discussed here, keynoting interdisciplinarity as a critical factor. Substantial progress in performance has occurred over the past decade, especially in environmental and social analyses, pointing to some critical issues for the decade ahead. Within studies, integration across disciplinary components, between contributions from professionals and parties-at-interest, and between producers and users must be improved. Across studies, practitioners of impact assessment need to intercommunicate to advance the state of their art. 38 references.

  16. Assessing Environmental Impacts of Biofuels using Life-Cycle-Based Approaches

    Science.gov (United States)

    There is no simple answer to the question “are materials and products that are made from biofeedstocks environmentally sustainable?” However, thinking holistically allows decision-makers to view the potential ‘cradle-to-grave’ environmental impacts of the engineered systems that ...

  17. Environmental Assessment and Finding of No Significant Impact: Pond B Dam Repair Project at the Savannah River Site

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    N/A

    1999-09-27

    The Department of Energy (DOE) has prepared an environmental assessment (EA) (DOE/EA-1285) for the proposed repair of the Pond B dam at the Savannah River Site (SRS), located near Aiken, South Carolina. Based on the analyses in the EA, DOE has determined that the proposed action is not a major Federal action significantly affecting the quality of the human environment within the meaning of the National Environmental Policy Act of 1969 (NEPA). Therefore, the preparation of an environmental impact statement (EIS) is not required, and DOE is issuing this Finding of No Significant Impact (FONSI) and Floodplain Statement of Findings.

  18. Environmental Assessment and Finding of No Significant Impact: Implementation of the Wetland Mitigation Bank Program at the Savannah River Site

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    N/A

    1999-04-28

    The Department of Energy (DOE) has prepared an environmental assessment (EA) (DOE/EA-1205) for the proposed implementation of a wetland mitigation bank program at the Savannah River Site (SRS), located near Aiken, South Carolina. Based on the analyses in the EA, DOE has determined that the proposed action is not a major Federal action significantly affecting the quality of the human environment within the meaning of the National Environmental Policy Act of 1969 (NEPA). Therefore, the preparation of an environmental impact statement (EIS) is not required, and DOE is issuing this Finding of No Significant Impact (FONSI) and Floodplain Statement of Findings.

  19. 77 FR 49457 - Availability of the Final Environmental Assessment and Finding of No Significant Impact for...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-08-16

    ... Assessment and Finding of No Significant Impact for Non-native Plant Control and Re-establishment of Riparian... Management Lands are available. A notice of finding of no significant impact dated January 24, 2012, provided..., wetlands, wild and scenic rivers, or ecologically critical areas. The proposed action will impact...

  20. Ethical implications of democratic theory for U.S. public participation in environmental impact assessment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Traditional mechanisms for public participation in environmental impact assessment under U.S. federal law have been criticized as ineffective and unable to resolve conflict. As these mechanisms are modified and new approaches developed, we argue that participation should be designed and evaluated not only on practical grounds of cost-effectiveness and efficiency, but also on ethical grounds based on democratic ideals. In this paper, we review and synthesize modern democratic theory to develop and justify four ethical principles for public participation: equal opportunity to participate, equal access to information, genuine deliberation, and shared commitment. We then explore several tensions that are inherent in applying these ethical principles to public participation in EIA. We next examine traditional NEPA processes and newer collaborative approaches in light of these principles. Finally, we explore the circumstances that argue for more in-depth participatory processes. While improved EIA participatory processes do not guarantee improved outcomes in environmental management, processes informed by these four ethical principles derived from democratic theory may lead to increased public engagement and satisfaction with government agency decisions. - Highlights: ► Four ethical principles based on democratic theory for public participation in EIA. ► NEPA and collaboration offer different strengths in meeting these principles. ► We explore tensions inherent in applying these principles. ► Improved participatory processes may improve public acceptance of agency decisions.

  1. Nuclear risk assessment for the Mars 2020 mission environmental impact statement.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Clayton, Daniel James; Bignell, John L.; Jones, Christopher Andrew; Rohe, Daniel Peter; Flores, Gregg J.; Bartel, Timothy James; Gelbard, Fred; Le, San; Morrow, Charles.; Potter, Donald L.; Young, Larry W.; Bixler, Nathan E.; Lipinski, Ronald J.

    2014-01-01

    In the summer of 2020, the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) plans to launch a spacecraft as part of the Mars 2020 mission. One option for the rover on the proposed spacecraft uses a Multi-Mission Radioisotope Thermoelectric Generator (MMRTG) to provide continuous electrical and thermal power for the mission. An alternative option being considered is a set of solar panels for electrical power with up to 80 Light-Weight Radioisotope Heater Units (LWRHUs) for local component heating. Both the MMRTG and the LWRHUs use radioactive plutonium dioxide. NASA is preparing an Environmental Impact Statement (EIS) in accordance with the National Environmental Policy Act. The EIS will include information on the risks of mission accidents to the general public and on-site workers at the launch complex. This Nuclear Risk Assessment (NRA) addresses the responses of the MMRTG or LWRHU options to potential accident and abort conditions during the launch opportunity for the Mars 2020 mission and the associated consequences. This information provides the technical basis for the radiological risks of both options for the EIS.

  2. Assessing the environmental impact of ashes used in a landfill cover construction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Travar, I; Lidelöw, S; Andreas, L; Tham, G; Lagerkvist, A

    2009-04-01

    Large amounts of construction materials will be needed in Europe in anticipation for capping landfills that will be closed due to the tightening up of landfill legislation. This study was conducted to assess the potential environmental impacts of using refuse derived fuel (RDF) and municipal solid waste incineration (MSWI) ashes as substitutes for natural materials in landfill cover designs. The leaching of substances from a full-scale landfill cover test area built with different fly and bottom ashes was evaluated based on laboratory tests and field monitoring. The water that drained off above the liner (drainage) and the water that percolated through the liner into the landfill (leachate) were contaminated with Cl(-), nitrogen and several trace elements (e.g., As, Cu, Mo, Ni and Se). The drainage from layers containing ash will probably require pre-treatment before discharge. The leachate quality from the ash cover is expected to have a minor influence on overall landfill leachate quality because the amounts generated from the ash covers were low, modelling indicated that precipitation of clay minerals and other secondary compounds in the ash liner was possible within 3 years after construction, which could contribute to the retention of trace elements in the liner in the long term. Hence, from an environmental view point, the placement of ashes in layers above the liner is more critical than within the liner. PMID:19081235

  3. Nuclear Risk Assessment for the Mars 2020 Mission Environmental Impact Statement

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Clayton, Daniel J.; Bignell, John; Jones, Christopher A.; Rohe, Daniel P.; Flores, Gregg J.; Bartel, Timothy J.; Gelbard, Fred; Le, San; Morrow, Charles W.; Potter, Donald L.; Young, Larry W.; Bixler, Nathan E.; Lipinski, Ronald J.

    2014-01-01

    In the summer of 2020, the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) plans to launch a spacecraft as part of the Mars 2020 mission. One option for the rover on the proposed spacecraft uses a Multi-Mission Radioisotope Thermoelectric Generator (MMRTG) to provide continuous electrical and thermal power for the mission. An alternative option being considered is a set of solar panels for electrical power with up to 80 Light-Weight Radioisotope Heater Units (LWRHUs) for local component heating. Both the MMRTG and the LWRHUs use radioactive plutonium dioxide. NASA is preparing an Environmental Impact Statement (EIS) in accordance with the National Environmental Policy Act. The EIS will include information on the risks of mission accidents to the general public and on-site workers at the launch complex. This Nuclear Risk Assessment (NRA) addresses the responses of the MMRTG or LWRHU options to potential accident and abort conditions during the launch opportunity for the Mars 2020 mission and the associated consequences. This information provides the technical basis for the radiological risks of both options for the EIS.

  4. Life Cycle Assessment of Environmental and Economic Impacts of Advanced Vehicles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zach C. Winfield

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Many advanced vehicle technologies, including electric vehicles (EVs, hybrid electric vehicles (HEVs, and fuel cell vehicles (FCVs, are gaining attention throughout the World due to their capability to improve fuel efficiencies and emissions. When evaluating the operational successes of these new fuel-efficient vehicles, it is essential to consider energy usage and greenhouse gas (GHG emissions throughout the entire lifetimes of the vehicles, which are comprised of two independent cycles: a fuel cycle and a vehicle cycle. This paper intends to contribute to the assessment of the environmental impacts from the alternative technologies throughout the lifetimes of various advanced vehicles through objective comparisons. The methodology was applied to six commercial vehicles that are available in the U.S. and that have similar dimensions and performances. We also investigated the shifts in energy consumption and emissions through the use of electricity and drivers’ behavior regarding the frequencies of battery recharging for EVs and plug-in hybrid electric vehicles (PHEVs. This study thus gives insight into the impacts of the electricity grid on the total energy cycle of a vehicle lifetime. In addition, the total ownership costs of the selected vehicles were examined, including considerations of the fluctuating gasoline prices. The cost analysis provides a resource for drivers to identify optimal choices for their driving circumstances.

  5. Study of environmental impact assessment for Mochovce NPP Units 3 and 4. Executive summary. September 2007

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    SE/ENEL, on a voluntary basis, has prepared new EIA Study for the completion of Units 3 and 4 of Mochovce Nuclear Power Plant (MO34 NPP) according to International current practices and European Directives. The results of the analysis, according to SE/ENEL Environment and Corporate Social Responsibility policies, will be provided to local Communities and Public Authorities. The Environmental Impact Assessment is performed: - in compliance with appendix 11 of Slovak Act. No. 24/2006 'On the assessment of the effects on the environment and on the modification and enlargement of some laws'; - meeting the requirements of the Exhibit II 'Illustrative list of potential social and environmental issues to be addressed in the Social and Environmental Assessment documentation' as reported in the document 'Equator Principles' of 2006 July developed by the International Finance Corporation (IFC). The area of Mochovce NPP is situated in Central Europe in the south-western region of the Slovak Republic (SR) at the western border of the Levice district. The area lies in the south-western part of the Kozmalovske hills mainly in the Hron highlands. From the point of view of the terrestrial and administrative organization of the SR, Mochovce NPP is situated in the eastern part of the Nitra region, in the north-western part of the Levice district, close to the border with the Nitra and Zlate Moravce districts. Mochovce NPP is approx. 12 km from the district capital Levice, which is the largest town within a 20 km distance from the power plant. Initial site preparation began in August 1983. In April 1998 the first fuel was loaded into Unit 1 of Mochovce NPP. The operation started in August 1998. Unit 2 started operation in January 2000. The original Construction Permit No. Vyst. 2010/86 for MO 34 was issued by the District National Committee in Levice on the basis of the Land Planning Decisions on 12 November 1986. This Permit has been renewed firstly on 5 May 1997 by letter of the

  6. Environmental impact of using specialty feed ingredients in swine and poultry production: A life cycle assessment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kebreab, E; Liedke, A; Caro, D; Deimling, S; Binder, M; Finkbeiner, M

    2016-06-01

    Livestock production has a variety of environmental impacts such as greenhouse gas emissions, water pollution, acidification, and primary energy consumption. The demand for livestock products is expected to grow substantially, creating even more environmental pressure. The use of specialty feed ingredients (SFI) such as supplemented AA and phytase can reduce nutrient input into the system without compromising productivity and consequently can reduce emissions. The global change impact of using SFI in pig and broiler production systems in Europe and North and South America was studied. A life cycle assessment according to international standards (ISO 14040/44) analyzed contributions from producing SFI and animals to global change. Three different alternatives were analyzed. In addition, partial sensitivity analysis was conducted using 5 scenarios for each region for both production systems. Specialty feed ingredient supplementation in pig and broiler diets reduced greenhouse gas emissions (cradle to farm gate) by 56% and 54% in Europe, 17% and 15% in North America, and 33% and 19% in South America, respectively, compared to an unsupplemented diet. A total of 136 Mt CO equivalent (CO eq) was saved in 2012, rising to 146 Mt CO eq in 2050 on the basis of United Nations population projections. Considerable benefits of supplementation with SFI were apparent in European and South American diets when direct land use change was considered because of the reduced demand for soybean meal. The eutrophication potential of unsupplemented diets was reduced by up to 35% in pig and 49% in broiler production systems compared to supplemented alternatives. The acidification potential of supplemented strategies was reduced by up to 30% in pig and 79% in broiler production systems. The primary energy demand was similar in all alternatives, and this could be an area where the SFI industry can improve. Overall, SFI supplementation substantially reduced the global warming, eutrophication

  7. Horns Rev offshore wind farm. Environmental impact assessment of sea bottom and marine biology

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Leonhard, S.B.

    2000-03-15

    An Environmental Impact Assessment (EIA) of a planned 150 MW offshore wind farm at Horns Rev has been carried out for the marine biology and sea bottom in the area, and includes vegetation and benthic fauna. The study forms part of a total EIA of the planned offshore wind farm. This EIA study has been drawn up in accordance with the guidelines laid down by the Ministry of Environment and Energy in the publication, 'Guidelines for preparation of EIAstudies for offshore wind farms. Horns Rev is situated off Blaevands Huk, which is Denmark's most westerly point. It is a shallow reef with water depths between 2 and 9 metres and is primarily composed of sand, gravel and pebbles. The area designated for the wind farm lies directly south of Horns Rev and is dominated by sand with a median particle size of 0.3 mm. Along the edges, towards areas of greater depth, the particle size increases. There are areas of fine sand in the deepest area, and in isolated pockets within the proposed wind farm site. The sediment is characterised by a very low (<1%) organic matter content. On the basis of the expected impact from the establishment of the wind farm, it is not deemed necessary to carry out special programmes during the construction phase for monitoring of the environmental-biological conditions. A monitoring and control programme is recommended during the production phase in order to follow the copper concentration in bivalves, or alternatively to initiate recovery or elimination of the copper-laden waste. A control programme is recommended during the production phase in order to follow the establishment and succession of the fouling community on the wind turbine foundations and scour-protecting revetments. (BA)

  8. Uncertainties in assessing the environmental impact of amine emissions from a CO2 capture plant

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Karl

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available In this study, a new model framework that couples the atmospheric chemistry transport model system Weather Research and Forecasting–European Monitoring and Evaluation Programme (WRF-EMEP and the multimedia fugacity level III model was used to assess the environmental impact of in-air amine emissions from post-combustion carbon dioxide capture. The modelling framework was applied to a typical carbon capture plant artificially placed at Mongstad, on the west coast of Norway. The study region is characterized by high precipitation amounts, relatively few sunshine hours, predominantly westerly winds from the North Atlantic and complex topography. Mongstad can be considered as moderately polluted due to refinery activities. WRF-EMEP enables a detailed treatment of amine chemistry in addition to atmospheric transport and deposition. Deposition fluxes of WRF-EMEP simulations were used as input to the fugacity model in order to derive concentrations of nitramines and nitrosamine in lake water. Predicted concentrations of nitramines and nitrosamines in ground-level air and drinking water were found to be highly sensitive to the description of amine chemistry, especially of the night-time chemistry with the nitrate (NO3 radical. Sensitivity analysis of the fugacity model indicates that catchment characteristics and chemical degradation rates in soil and water are among the important factors controlling the fate of these compounds in lake water. The study shows that realistic emission of commonly used amines result in levels of the sum of nitrosamines and nitramines in ground-level air (0.6–10 pg m−3 and drinking water (0.04–0.25 ng L−1 below the current safety guideline for human health that is enforced by the Norwegian Environment Agency. The modelling framework developed in this study can be used to evaluate possible environmental impacts of emissions of amines from post-combustion capture in other regions of the world.

  9. Assessing the potential environmental impact of Athabasca oil sands development in lakes across Northwest Saskatchewan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahad, J. M.; Cumming, B. F.; Das, B.; Sanei, H.

    2011-12-01

    The continued development of Canada's Athabasca oil sands poses a significant environmental challenge. Low buffered boreal lakes located downwind of the prevailing eastward wind direction may be threatened by acidification and elevated inputs of airborne contaminants such as polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs). An accurate assessment of the impact that increased levels of bitumen production may have on lakes in the region requires an understanding of the historic variability within these systems prior to at least the past several decades. Here we report concentrations of PAHs, δ13C and δ15N of organic matter (OM), Rock-Eval pyrolysis analyses, and distributions of n-alkanes in dated sediment cores from ten lakes located across NW Saskatchewan. Concentrations of PAHs were relatively low (fires as a principal PAH source. Plots of Hydrogen Index (HI) versus Oxygen Index (OI) fell within a relatively narrow range typical for sediments containing a high content of algal-derived OM. Relatively lower C/N ratios and higher abundances of C17 n-alkane in more recent sediments pointed to an increasingly larger component of algal-derived OM. In all ten lakes δ13C showed gradual upcore depletions that fell within the expected range for fossil fuel combustion (i.e., Suess effect), although this alone may not explain the up to ~3% depletion observed in several of the lakes. In conjunction with the other upcore trends these data may suggest a possible increase in primary productivity over the past several decades in many of the lakes studied. δ15N signatures were more variable, showing upcore increases in some lakes and upcore depletions in others. The increasingly lighter values observed in more recent sediments in some lakes suggest a potential input of depleted bioavailable nitrogen, as might be expected from anthropogenic NOx emissions. This study implies that thus far it appears that oil sands industry related emissions have had only a minor environmental impact on

  10. Environmental impact assessment and socio political issues of nuclear waste management

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The study is a part of the Publicly Administrated Nuclear Waste Management Research Programme (JYT2) which was carried out in 1994-1996. The principal goal of the research programme has been to provide the authorities with information and research results relevant for the safety of nuclear waste management in order to support the various activities of the authorities. The main emphasis of the research programme focuses on the disposal of spent fuel. In addition to nuclear waste research in the field of natural sciences and technology, the research program- me has focused mostly on societal issues associated with nuclear waste disposal facilities and on the non-radiological environmental effects in the environs of the disposal site. Some of the local effects are already revealed in the research phase, before any final decisions are made as to the selection of the disposal site. The study has focused primarily on local and regional issues. The statutory requirement to conduct environ- mental impact assessment (EIA) chiefly concerns those who are responsible for waste management, but the authorities also need to acquire systematic information in the field to support developing requirements for the content and scope of EIA procedure and preparedness to check the assessments made. This is a report of the first parts of the study in 1994-1995. The report deals with the subject matter generally based on earlier studies in Finland and other countries. The results of the study will be reported later

  11. Science, law, and Hudson River power plants: A case study in environmental impact assessment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Barnthouse, L.W.; Klauda, R.J.; Vaughan, D.S.; Kendall, R.L. (eds.)

    1988-01-01

    Between 1963 and 1980, the Hudson River estuary was the focus of one of the most ambitious environmental research and assessment programs ever performed. The studies supported a series of US federal proceedings involving licenses and discharge permits for two controversial electric power generating facilities: the Cornwall pumped storage facility, and units 2 and 3 of the Indian Point nuclear generating station. Both facilities were to draw large volumes of water from a region of the Hudson used as spawning and nursery habitat by several fish species, including the striped bass. Fishermen and conservationists feared that a major fraction of the striped bass eggs and larvae in the Hudson would be entrained with the pumped water and killed. Additional fish would be killed on trash screens at the intakes. Scientists were asked to aid the utility companies and regulatory agencies in determining the biological importance of entrainment and impingement. This monograph contains both technical papers that present research results and synthesis papers that summarize and interpret the results. The intent was to: (1) summarize the scientific issues and approaches; (2) present the significant results of the Hudson River biological studies; (3) describe the role of the studies in the decision-making process; (4) evaluate the successes and failures of the studies; and (5) present recommendations for future estuarine impact assessments. Separate abstracts are processed for 22 papers for inclusion in the appropriate data bases.

  12. Assessing the Impacts of Environmental Regulations on the Food Processing Industry in Vietnam

    OpenAIRE

    Le Ha Thanh

    2010-01-01

    This study assesses the effectiveness of Decree 67, a key piece of the country's 'polluter-pays' environmental legislation. Industrial waste-water pollution is one of the most significant environmental problems affecting Vietnam. Although the country has implemented a range of anti-pollution legislation, the problem has not been resolved and companies continue to pollute on a large scale. This makes it important to understand why current environmental legislation is not working and what must ...

  13. Assessment of the environmental impact statement for the proposed expansion of the Olympic Dam operations at Roxby Downs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This Environmental Assessment Report assesses the social, environmental and economic impact of the proposal by Western Mining Corporation (Olympic Dam Corporation) Pty Ltd. (WMC) to increase their production at Olympic Dam mine from 150,000t/a of copper and associated products to 350,000t/a by a phased expansion. The first phase would take production to approximately 200,000t/a. The report reviews the 1997 Environmental Impact Statement (EIS), public comments on the EIS, and the proponent's responses to these comments in the Supplement to the EIS. It also relies on information, comments and advice provided by appropriate South Australian and Commonwealth government agencies (through the joint assessment process) and previous studies undertaken in the region.The focus of the contents of this assessment report are: water usage; tailing management; radiation management; economic and employment estimates; EIS process, regulation and monitoring as well as flora, fauna and town management issues. This report also recognises that the Olympic Dam mine has been subject to previous environmental assessments which resulted in the environmental regime currently in place for the existing operations.It is concluded that the risks to the biophysical, historical, cultural and social environments from the proposed Olympic dam expansion are acceptable provided the mine continues to operate under stringent environmental control

  14. Environmental Impact of the Production of Mealworms as a Protein Source for Humans - A Life Cycle Assessment

    OpenAIRE

    Dennis G A B Oonincx; de Boer, Imke J.M.

    2012-01-01

    The demand for animal protein is expected to rise by 70–80% between 2012 and 2050, while the current animal production sector already causes major environmental degradation. Edible insects are suggested as a more sustainable source of animal protein. However, few experimental data regarding environmental impact of insect production are available. Therefore, a lifecycle assessment for mealworm production was conducted, in which greenhouse gas production, energy use and land use were quantified...

  15. The exploitation versus conservation dilemma : preparative research towards a comprehensive and extensive environmental & social impact assessment : Koh Rong archipelago, Cambodia

    OpenAIRE

    Thomasberger, Aris David, 1986-

    2015-01-01

    Following years of civil war and economic stagnation in the late twentieth century, Cambodia’s strong commitment to economic development today often collides with introduced measures of environmental protection, resulting in frequently occurring interest conflicts of exploitation versus conservation. By conducting a preparative research towards a comprehensive and extensive Environmental and Social Impact Assessment of a planned tourism development project within a proposed Marine Protected A...

  16. Environmental impact assessment and environmental audit in large-scale public infrastructure construction: the case of the Qinghai-Tibet Railway.

    Science.gov (United States)

    He, Guizhen; Zhang, Lei; Lu, Yonglong

    2009-09-01

    Large-scale public infrastructure projects have featured in China's modernization course since the early 1980s. During the early stages of China's rapid economic development, public attention focused on the economic and social impact of high-profile construction projects. In recent years, however, we have seen a shift in public concern toward the environmental and ecological effects of such projects, and today governments are required to provide valid environmental impact assessments prior to allowing large-scale construction. The official requirement for the monitoring of environmental conditions has led to an increased number of debates in recent years regarding the effectiveness of Environmental Impact Assessments (EIAs) and Governmental Environmental Audits (GEAs) as environmental safeguards in instances of large-scale construction. Although EIA and GEA are conducted by different institutions and have different goals and enforcement potential, these two practices can be closely related in terms of methodology. This article cites the construction of the Qinghai-Tibet Railway as an instance in which EIA and GEA offer complementary approaches to environmental impact management. This study concludes that the GEA approach can serve as an effective follow-up to the EIA and establishes that the EIA lays a base for conducting future GEAs. The relationship that emerges through a study of the Railway's construction calls for more deliberate institutional arrangements and cooperation if the two practices are to be used in concert to optimal effect. PMID:19636608

  17. Resource consumption and environmental impacts of the agrofood sector: life cycle assessment of italian citrus-based products.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beccali, Marco; Cellura, Maurizio; Iudicello, Maria; Mistretta, Marina

    2009-04-01

    Food production and consumption cause significant environmental burdens during the product life cycles. As a result of intensive development and the changing social attitudes and behaviors in the last century, the agrofood sector is the highest resource consumer after housing in the EU. This paper is part of an effort to estimate environmental impacts associated with life cycles of the agrofood chain, such as primary energy consumption, water exploitation, and global warming. Life cycle assessment is used to investigate the production of the following citrus-based products in Italy: essential oil, natural juice, and concentrated juice from oranges and lemons. The related process flowcharts, the relevant mass and energy flows, and the key environmental issues are identified for each product. This paper represents one of the first studies on the environmental impacts from cradle to gate for citrus products in order to suggest feasible strategies and actions to improve their environmental performance. PMID:19184189

  18. The Analysis of Environmental Monitoring at Environmental Impact Assessment%环境监测在环境影响评价中的分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张伟涛; 王龙胜

    2011-01-01

    In the new period, environmental protection work is facing new opportunities and challenges. Environmental monitoring is through the entire environmental impact assessment system. The initial assessment, construction period, operation period and the after evaluation period of environmental impact assessment are all supported by environmental monitoring data which is the technological basis of environmental impact assessment and with the strong monitoring function.%在新的时期下,环境保护工作的发展面临着新的机遇和挑战.环境监测贯穿于整个环境影响评价体系中,环境影响评价中的评价初期、建设期、运行期以及后评价期,均由环境监测数据来支撑结果,是环境影响评价的技术基础,同时具有较强的监督功能.

  19. Assessing long-term sustainable environmental impacts of agri-environment schemes on land use

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vesterager, Jens Peter; Teilmann, Kasper; Vejre, Henrik

    2012-01-01

    , and indicators of the environmental state at farm level. In a Danish test case, agricultural practices at twenty-five farms in two groundwater protection zones were assessed. Data was collected from databases, registers, maps and interviews with farmers. The index was calculated for 1996/7 and 2006/7 to track......The lack of generic methods to assess the environmental consequences of agricultural practices and the lack of consensus on monitoring and evaluation of environmental, agricultural and socio-economic effects of agri-environment schemes (AES) in EU Member States call for better evaluation methods....... It is important to consider the robustness of each indicator: to assess whether changes will occur over time; whether changes are linked to management practices or external factors; and whether data are available up to date. Indicators dependent upon uptake data from agri-environmental schemes should be used...

  20. Using Choice Experiments to Assess Environmental Impacts of Dams in Portugal

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anabela Botelho

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Despite their well-known benefits in electricity production, dams are also responsible for some adverse environmental impacts affecting particularly the wellbeing of residents of the local communities. These environmental damages have not been included in the cost-benefit analysis of hydropower developments mainly because of the difficulty to determine their value. The prime objective of this paper is to measure the economic values of several environmental impacts due to the dams' activity in Portugal, using a discrete choice experiments approach. With the results of this research paper, we expect to contribute to a more efficient and thorough cost-benefit analysis within the complex process of deciding the optimal location of future dams to be built not only in Portugal, but elsewhere. The addition of this stage to the decision-making process allows the integration of economic, social and environmental dimensions, promoting a richer and more informed decision process.

  1. 76 FR 13597 - Availability of an Environmental Assessment and Finding of No Significant Impact for a Biological...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-03-14

    ...; ] DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE Animal and Plant Health Inspection Service Availability of an Environmental Assessment and Finding of No Significant Impact for a Biological Control Agent for Hawkweeds AGENCY: Animal... subterminalis, into the continental United States as a biological control agent to reduce the severity...

  2. 76 FR 37842 - Environmental Assessment and Finding of No Significant Impact Related to Exemption for the Peach...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-06-28

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION Environmental Assessment and Finding of No Significant Impact Related to Exemption for the Peach... security requirements in 10 CFR part 73 and 10 CFR 50.54(p) for the Peach Bottom Atomic Power...

  3. Environmental Impact Assessment of the Industrial Estate Development Plan with the Geographical Information System and Matrix Methods

    OpenAIRE

    Mohammad Ghasemian; Parinaz Poursafa; Mohammad Mehdi Amin; Mohammad Ziarati; Hamid Ghoddousi; Seyyed Alireza Momeni; Amir Hossein Rezaei

    2012-01-01

    Background. The purpose of this study is environmental impact assessment of the industrial estate development planning. Methods. This cross-sectional study was conducted in 2010 in Isfahan province, Iran. GIS and matrix methods were applied. Data analysis was done to identify the current situation of the region, zoning vulnerable areas, and scoping the region. Quantitative evaluation was done by using matrix of Wooten and Rau. Results. The net score for impact of industrial units operation on...

  4. Approaches to assess the environmental impact of organic farming with particular regard to Denmark

    OpenAIRE

    Hansen, Birgitte; Alrøe, Hugo Fjelsted; Kristensen, Erik Steen

    2001-01-01

    Ever increasing attention is being paid to the environmental impact of intensive agricultural practices, and in this context organic farming is gaining recognition as a relatively friendly production system. In general, the risk of harmful environmental effects is lower with organic than with conventional farming methods, though not necessarily so. This review examines organic farming in the light of European conditions, with special regard to recent research findings from Denmark. It specifi...

  5. Decree Law No. 38/90 of 8 November 1990 providing for environmental impact assessments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This Decree, made in implementation of Decree-Law No. 186/90 on environmental protection, provides that prior to any licence being granted to any project, including nuclear installations, the licensing authority must be provided with an environmental impact study of the planned installation. This study must include a description of the project, its site, its operational characteristics, physical, geological, hydrological, ecological, demographic data, as well as information on the quality of the environment

  6. Assessing the environmental impact of changes in pesticide use on transgenic crops

    OpenAIRE

    Kleter, G.A.; Kuiper, H.A.

    2004-01-01

    Two main traits that have been introduced into genetically modified crops that are currently on the market, viz., herbicide and insect resistance, likely affect pesticide use on these crops. Various surveys have been carried out, such as those of the USDAERS and NCFAP, comparing the pesticide use on genetically modified versus conventional crops. Environmental indicators for pesticides may aid in comparing the outcomes of such assays in terms of environmental impact. Previously we applied one...

  7. Environmental impact assessment of the 2011 Tohoku-oki tsunami on the Sendai Plain

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chagué-Goff, Catherine; Niedzielski, Przemyslaw; Wong, Henri K. Y.; Szczuciński, Witold; Sugawara, Daisuke; Goff, James

    2012-12-01

    Large areas of farmland in the Sendai Plain, Japan, were inundated by the 11 March 2011 Tohoku-oki tsunami and covered by a discontinuous 30-0.2 cm thick sediment layer consisting of sand and/or mud and generally thinning and fining inland. Two months after the tsunami, numerous rice paddy fields and depressions remained ponded with brackish or saline water. A series of field surveys in May, August and October 2011 were carried out north of Sendai airport, in order to assess the environmental impact of the tsunami. While evaporation had resulted in elevated conductivity in ponded water in May (up to 68.2 mS cm- 1), rainfall over the next five months led to dilution, although brackish water was still recorded in depressions and on paddy fields. Tsunami sediments, underlying soil and soil beyond the tsunami inundation limit were collected at 43 sites along and near a transect extending over 5 km inland, and analysed for grain size, organic content, water leachable ions, acid leachable metals and exchangeable metalloids. Water leachable anion and cation concentrations were elevated in sandy and muddy tsunami deposits and soils particularly in areas, where seawater had stagnated for a longer period of time after the tsunami, with up to 10.5% Cl, 6.6% Na, 2.8% SO4, 440 mg kg- 1 Br measured in surface sediments (saltwater inundation was documented in the chemistry of soils underlying tsunami sediments, which were affected by salt contamination down to ~ 15 cm depth, and soils not covered by tsunami deposits. The latter implies that the extent of tsunami inundation may successfully be determined using geochemical markers in absence of any sedimentological evidence. Water leachable ions mostly decreased over time, however, they remained high enough to impact on rice farming, which was completely halted in 2011. Although further work is required to assess the longer term impact of tsunami inundation, flushing of salt with freshwater, as well as the possible removal of sandy

  8. Revision of three-stakeholder signaling game for environmental impact assessment in China

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Since environmental impact assessment (EIA) regulations were adopted in China 30 years ago, the implementation rate of EIA policies for development projects has been steadily increasing while national environmental quality keeps deteriorating. This contradiction prevents achievement of the goals that the regulations were originally created for, raising concerns regarding the EIA implementation process. One of the objectives of EIA is the evaluation of socio-economic costs introduced by various commercial activities. However, independent economic entities are inclined to break away from these cost related responsibilities, making it necessary for government agencies and EIA organizations to participate in the evaluation process. The practice of avoiding costs may also bring forth other issues, such as rent-seeking behavior and conspiracies. Reducing private costs and the tendency of the three EIA stakeholders to evade social responsibility are intertwined in every EIA process. Their activities are as follows: The government is the lawmaker whose attitude toward the EIA organization determines how business owners react in the EIA process. The government inclination can be interpreted as a signal from which enterprises can determine the nature of the government, which helps the enterprise owners formulate their future actions. A similar relationship also exists among the government, EIA organizations, and enterprise entities. Fundamentally, the correlations between the EIA stakeholders are determined by their socio-economic situation, namely, the economic costs and benefits they encounter. In this article, signaling game theory derived from the classic game theory is applied to describe the EIA process in China by analyzing the activities of the stakeholders and searching for game equilibrium solutions. The optimal reaction schema for stakeholders was obtained by transforming the equilibrium.

  9. Horns Rev offshore wind power farm. Environmental impact assessment on water quality

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Andersen, Per

    2000-05-15

    As part of an overall Environmental Impact Assessment (EIA) undertaken in connection with a planned 150 MW offshore wind farm at Horns Rev, an assessment was made of the effects the wind farm would have on the water quality in the area. This EIA study was drawn up in accordance with the guidelines laid down by the Danish Ministry of Environment and Energy in the publication 'Guidelines for the preparation of EIA studies for offshore wind farms'. Horns Rev is situated off Blaevands Huk, which is Denmark's most westerly point. It is a shallow reef with water depths between 2 and 9 metres and is primarily composed of sand, gravel and pebbles. Only local and minor changes are anticipated in connection with the currents, sediments and wave conditions during the production phase. These will occur in the immediate vicinity of the individual foundations. For these reasons, no changes are expected in the water quality. This also includes also the pelagic primary production and the occurrence of plankton in the area. Increased local copper contamination of phytoplankton and zooplankton may be expected during the production phase, as a result of the total annual discharge of 206 kg copper from the slip-rings in the wind turbines. The contamination will potentially result in a local reduction of the pelagic primary production and changes in the species composition of the plankton. The wind turbines will be sandblasted and painted once during their lifetime, as part of the routine maintenance. The sandblasting and painting will lead to a temporary spill of paint, paint waste and sand. The impacts on water quality and plankton production are unknown. It is recommended that factors such as the toxicity of the paint be investigated, and that spills and the impact of waste be reduced as much as possible. The water quality and the plankton in the wind farm area and along the cable line's passage to shore through the international protected area, will only be

  10. Environmental impacts of combining pig slurry acidification and separation under different regulatory regimes - A life cycle assessment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ten Hoeve, Marieke; Gómez-Muñoz, Beatriz; Jensen, Lars S; Bruun, Sander

    2016-10-01

    Global livestock production is increasing rapidly, leading to larger amounts of manure and environmental impacts. Technologies that can be applied to treat manure in order to decrease certain environmental impacts include separation and acidification. In this study, a life cycle assessment was used to investigate the environmental effects of slurry acidification and separation, and whether there were synergetic environmental benefits to combining these technologies. Furthermore, an analysis was undertaken into the effect of implementing regulations restricting the P application rate to soils on the environmental impacts of the technologies. The impact categories analysed were climate change, terrestrial, marine and freshwater eutrophication, fossil resource depletion and toxicity potential. In-house slurry acidification appeared to be the most beneficial scenario under both N and P regulations. Slurry separation led to a lower freshwater eutrophication potential than the other scenarios in which N regulations alone were in force, while these environmental benefits disappeared after implementation of stricter P regulations. With N regulations alone, there was a synergetic positive effect of combining in-house acidification and separation on marine eutrophication potential compared to these technologies individually. The model was sensitive to the chosen ammonia emission coefficients and to the choice of inclusion of indirect nitrous oxide emissions, since scenarios changed ranking for certain impact categories. PMID:27566935

  11. Assessment of environmental impact models in natural occurring radionuclides solid wastes disposal from the mineral industry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This work evaluates the behavior of wastes with naturally occurring radionuclides as generated by the mineral industry and their final disposal in landfills. An integrated methodology is used to predict the performance of an industrial landfill for disposal of wastes containing NORM/TENORM, and to define acceptable amounts that can be disposed at the landfill using long-term environmental assessment. The governing equations for radionuclide transport are solved analytically using the generalized integral transform technique. Results obtained for each compartment of the biogeosphere are validated with experimental results or compared to other classes of solutions. An impact analysis is performed in order to define the potential consequences of a landfill to the environment, considering not only the engineering characteristics of the waste deposit but also the exposure pathways and plausible scenarios in which the contaminants could migrate and reach the environment and the human population. The present work permits the development of a safety approach that can be used to derive quantitative waste acceptance criteria for the disposal of NORM/TENORM waste in landfills. (author)

  12. Application of graph overlay method to environmental impact assessment of railway noise

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WU Xiao-ping; YANG Xiao-yu; MA Chao-qun; RAN Mao-ping

    2005-01-01

    The graph overlay method is used to evaluate the noise impact of route alignment and the results can serve as a reference for the route alignment optimal selection. The geographic information system(GIS), with its powerful function of handling attribute data and spatial analysis, is adopted to calculate the noise comprehensive impact area of each alignment. With the graph overlay method, the noise vulnerability and noise impact distribution are both taken into account in the noise impact assessment of route alignment. With GIS, the efficiency of work and the reliability of result are greatly improved. By a combination of them, the noise impact on environment is fully presented in a visual way and the assessment result has vital value in route alignment optimal selection. A detailed case study is illustrated and the efficiency of the method is verified.

  13. Environmental impact assessment of solid waste management in Beijing City, China

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zhao, Yan; Christensen, Thomas Højlund; Lu, Wenjing;

    2011-01-01

    The environmental impacts of municipal solid waste management in Beijing City were evaluated using a life-cycle-based model, EASEWASTE, to take into account waste generation, collection, transportation, treatment/disposal technologies, and savings obtained by energy and material recovery....... The current system, mainly involving the use of landfills, has manifested significant adverse environmental impacts caused by methane emissions from landfills and many other emissions from transfer stations. A short-term future scenario, where some of the landfills (which soon will reach their capacity...... because of rising amount of waste in Beijing City) are substituted by incinerators with energy recovery, would not result in significant environmental improvement. This is primarily because of the low calorific value of mixed waste, and it is likely that the incinerators would require significant amounts...

  14. A quantitative approach to the assessment of the environmental impact of building materials

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Harris, D.J. [Heriot-Watt Univ., Dept. of Building Engineering and Surveying, Edinburgh (United Kingdom)

    1999-07-01

    The materials from which a building is constructed make a significant contribution to its overall impact on the environment. This impact is felt in a number of ways; locally, through the effects of activities such as quarrying; globally, as a result of carbon dioxide released by using energy used to manufacture the materials; and internally, in the effects of health of the occupants of the building. Some of these effects are easier to measure than others, and comparisons between the seriousness of the different effects are difficult to make. It therefore seems unreasonable to attempt to advise a single figure of merit for the overall environmental impact of a building: what is needed is a profile which gathers together a range of indicators, but allows them to remain separate. This article describes the development of such an environmental profile which can be used as a design aid, and illustrates its use with a case study of a typical British house. (Author)

  15. Preliminary assessment of the environmental impacts of the Satellite Power System (SPS)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The impact of the Satellite Power System (SPS) Microwave Power Transmission System (MPTS) as well as impacts related to other elements of the total SPS on the environment are being determined. The goal of these programs is to advance the state of knowledge by the year 1980 to the point where an assessment can be made of the probability and severity of the impacts of the SPS. Assessments will be made of the effects on the health and safety of the public, and occupationally involved personnel, and the ecology; the upper and lower atmosphere including climatological impacts; and on communications systems including electromagnetic compatibility, the effects of microwave heating of the ionosphere and magnetosphere, and the effects of F-layer depletion by launch vehicle and transport vehicle effluents. If the assessment indicates that the impacts are acceptable or that feasible mitigating strategies can be implemented and if other related assessments (the impact on society and a competitive comparison of the SPS with other energy alternatives) are favorable, a decision may be made to implement the development of the SPS related technologies. This paper identifies postulated effects and summarizes the research efforts to determine whether or not these effects will occur

  16. Environmental impact assessment on the construction and operation of municipal solid waste sanitary landfills in developing countries: China case study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Yang, Na; Damgaard, Anders; Lü, Fan;

    2014-01-01

    life cycle assessment (LCA). The amounts of materials and energy used during this type of undertaking in China are comparable to those in developed countries, except that the consumption of concrete and asphalt is significantly higher in China. A comparison of the normalized impact potential between...... of mineral materials. To test the influences of different landfill C&O approaches on environmental impacts, six baseline alternatives were assessed through sensitivity analysis. If geomembranes and geonets were utilized to replace daily and intermediate soil covers and gravel drainage systems, respectively...

  17. Facility Environmental Vulnerability Assessment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    From mid-April through the end of June 2001, a Facility Environmental Vulnerability Assessment (FEVA) was performed at Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL). The primary goal of this FEVA was to establish an environmental vulnerability baseline at ORNL that could be used to support the Laboratory planning process and place environmental vulnerabilities in perspective. The information developed during the FEVA was intended to provide the basis for management to initiate immediate, near-term, and long-term actions to respond to the identified vulnerabilities. It was expected that further evaluation of the vulnerabilities identified during the FEVA could be carried out to support a more quantitative characterization of the sources, evaluation of contaminant pathways, and definition of risks. The FEVA was modeled after the Battelle-supported response to the problems identified at the High Flux Beam Reactor at Brookhaven National Laboratory. This FEVA report satisfies Corrective Action 3A1 contained in the Corrective Action Plan in Response to Independent Review of the High Flux Isotope Reactor Tritium Leak at the Oak Ridge National Laboratory, submitted to the Department of Energy (DOE) ORNL Site Office Manager on April 16, 2001. This assessment successfully achieved its primary goal as defined by Laboratory management. The assessment team was able to develop information about sources and pathway analyses although the following factors impacted the team's ability to provide additional quantitative information: the complexity and scope of the facilities, infrastructure, and programs; the significantly degraded physical condition of the facilities and infrastructure; the large number of known environmental vulnerabilities; the scope of legacy contamination issues [not currently addressed in the Environmental Management (EM) Program]; the lack of facility process and environmental pathway analysis performed by the accountable line management or facility owner; and poor

  18. Facility Environmental Vulnerability Assessment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Van Hoesen, S.D.

    2001-07-09

    From mid-April through the end of June 2001, a Facility Environmental Vulnerability Assessment (FEVA) was performed at Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL). The primary goal of this FEVA was to establish an environmental vulnerability baseline at ORNL that could be used to support the Laboratory planning process and place environmental vulnerabilities in perspective. The information developed during the FEVA was intended to provide the basis for management to initiate immediate, near-term, and long-term actions to respond to the identified vulnerabilities. It was expected that further evaluation of the vulnerabilities identified during the FEVA could be carried out to support a more quantitative characterization of the sources, evaluation of contaminant pathways, and definition of risks. The FEVA was modeled after the Battelle-supported response to the problems identified at the High Flux Beam Reactor at Brookhaven National Laboratory. This FEVA report satisfies Corrective Action 3A1 contained in the Corrective Action Plan in Response to Independent Review of the High Flux Isotope Reactor Tritium Leak at the Oak Ridge National Laboratory, submitted to the Department of Energy (DOE) ORNL Site Office Manager on April 16, 2001. This assessment successfully achieved its primary goal as defined by Laboratory management. The assessment team was able to develop information about sources and pathway analyses although the following factors impacted the team's ability to provide additional quantitative information: the complexity and scope of the facilities, infrastructure, and programs; the significantly degraded physical condition of the facilities and infrastructure; the large number of known environmental vulnerabilities; the scope of legacy contamination issues [not currently addressed in the Environmental Management (EM) Program]; the lack of facility process and environmental pathway analysis performed by the accountable line management or facility owner; and

  19. A study on the feasibility of environmental impacts assessment for Wolsung nuclear 3 and 4 - Ecology, population and socio-economic environment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kang, Ho; Lee, Jin Hong; Hong, Seong Soo [Chungnam National Univ., Taejon (Korea, Republic of)] (and others)

    1993-09-15

    It is necessary to study persistently methodology and all relevant information for environmental impacts assessment, which will make the assessment be more effective. The contents and scope of this project are summarized as follows : review on the feasibility of the overall environmental status surveyed at the vicinity of the proposed nuclear power plants, review on the assessment of the probable impacts, review on the potential of alternatives to minimize the adverse impacts on the surrounding environments.

  20. 76 FR 30639 - Final Environmental Assessment and Mitigated Finding of No Significant Impact; Giant Miscanthus...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-05-26

    ... on April 8, 2011 (76 FR 19741) and used additional inputs from the Natural Resources Conservation... on October 27, 2010 (75 FR 65995-66007) is incorporated by reference in the EA. FSA considered the... Commodity Credit Corporation Farm Service Agency Final Environmental Assessment and Mitigated Finding of...

  1. Environmental Impact Assessment Law in China's courts: A study of 107 judicial decisions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zining, Jin, E-mail: jinzn@pkusz.edu.cn

    2015-11-15

    The article explores the practices of Environmental Impact Assessment (EIA) Law in China's courts by examining 107 judicial decisions. Each of the 107 judicial decisions has been analyzed to determine the time/location of the decision, what type of EIA document was referred to, what specific claim was made by the plaintiffs, and what the court's ruling was on the case. The results indicate that: unlike in Germany or Japan, all kinds of EIA decisions made by environment protect bureaus (EPBs) in China were widely taken as justiciable, and China's courts generally allowed local residents to have standing and thus challenge the EPBs' decisions made during the EIA process. On the other hand, the research also shows the EPBs overwhelmingly prevailed in those EIA lawsuits. It is also found that China's reviewing judges were highly self-restrained, giving obvious deference to the technocrat with the substantial contents of EIA documents. Also, the concept of “flaw” was created when it came to procedural issues. These two factors, among others, were both helping the EPBs' prevailing successes. - Highlights: • 107 judicial decisions referring to China's EIA law are examined. • The justiciability of EPB's EIA decisions were taken for granted. • The defenders overwhelmingly prevailed in those EIA lawsuits. • The reviewing judges were highly self-restrained, defering to the technocrat with the EIA documents. • A functional concept, “flaw”, was created by reviewing judges when it came to procedural issues.

  2. Environmental Impact Assessment Law in China's courts: A study of 107 judicial decisions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The article explores the practices of Environmental Impact Assessment (EIA) Law in China's courts by examining 107 judicial decisions. Each of the 107 judicial decisions has been analyzed to determine the time/location of the decision, what type of EIA document was referred to, what specific claim was made by the plaintiffs, and what the court's ruling was on the case. The results indicate that: unlike in Germany or Japan, all kinds of EIA decisions made by environment protect bureaus (EPBs) in China were widely taken as justiciable, and China's courts generally allowed local residents to have standing and thus challenge the EPBs' decisions made during the EIA process. On the other hand, the research also shows the EPBs overwhelmingly prevailed in those EIA lawsuits. It is also found that China's reviewing judges were highly self-restrained, giving obvious deference to the technocrat with the substantial contents of EIA documents. Also, the concept of “flaw” was created when it came to procedural issues. These two factors, among others, were both helping the EPBs' prevailing successes. - Highlights: • 107 judicial decisions referring to China's EIA law are examined. • The justiciability of EPB's EIA decisions were taken for granted. • The defenders overwhelmingly prevailed in those EIA lawsuits. • The reviewing judges were highly self-restrained, defering to the technocrat with the EIA documents. • A functional concept, “flaw”, was created by reviewing judges when it came to procedural issues

  3. Environmental Impact Assessment (EIA of Gas Pipeline Transmission (Case Study: Duzduzan – Ahar

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Saeed Karimi

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available The national gas transmission Ahar – Duzduzan, transmit fresh gas in the West north of Iran. According to Iran’s environmental regulation, construction and operation of pipelines is required EIA studies. Due to this linear project it is required to develop a particular EIA methodology on this kind of projects. Therefore at first we attempted to get a real knowledge about environmental endnotes of project with library and field studies. Along with reviewing the technical resources of the project, attempted to identify all of the construction and operation activities. Finally two methods of explanatory checklist and simplified matrix selected for EIA. In The construction phase 19 micro activities have evaluated in front of about 12 environmental factors (in the various environments. In the construction phase, activities such as; excavation, embankment and excavation show the greatest negative impact on the whole environment of area. And the most important activity with positive effects on the aforementioned factors is manpower recruitment. Also In the operation phase 15 micro activities have evaluated in front of about 15 environmental factors (in the various environments. In the Operation phase activities such as; grazing, vehicle traffic and wastewater production can have negative effects. Most positive impacts on environmental factors are revenue and welfare, employment levels, commerce and manning activities, immigration control and air quality. Most of the Operation phase effects are positive which involve; exploitation of gas or natural gas transportation and gas pipeline monitoring. According to the developed methodology it is necessary to use RS and GIS tools in the study current environment situation, routing environmental alternatives and make land use maps of transmission path. With regard to all issues presented in explanatory checklist of this project and also previous clauses from the standpoint of environmental compliance

  4. Making Governance "Good": The Production of Scale in the Environmental Impact Assessment and Governance of the Salween River

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vanessa Lamb

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Environmental impact assessments (EIAs are generally considered an important component of formal decision-making processes about development, serving to ensure that a project′s environmental impacts are considered in decisions about whether and how it will proceed. Scale is an important part of the narrative built into the assessment. Building on a rich literature at the intersection of human geography and political ecology, I focus on the way that scale is remade through the environmental impact assessment process for the Hatgyi hydroelectric dam proposed on the Salween River. Proposed near the stretch of the river that makes up the Thai-Burma border, the scales of governance for this cross-border project challenge assumed definitions of ′local′ impacts for ′national′ decision-making. By illustrating how scale-making is accomplished through producing and mobilising ecological knowledge, I illustrate how the scale of the local and the nation are at stake in these projects.

  5. Environmental Impact Assessment of Onyeama Coal Mine in Enugu, Southeastern Nigeria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ezemokwe, D.E

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Heavy-metal concentration levels in water, coal wastes, soil and background soil were determined with a view to assessing the degree of contamination and environmental impact due to coal mining activities around Onyeama coal mine. A total of 58 samples comprising 11 water, 11 coal wastes, 22 soils and 14 background soils were collected and analyzed. Various physico-chemical characteristics of water analyzed include pH, alkalinity, total hardness, total dissolved solids (TDS, sulphate, chloride, calcium and magnesium. Chemical analysis of water, coal wastes, soil and background soil samples were undertaken to determine concentrations of Cd, Cr, Ni, Cu, Co, Pb, Zn, As, Mn and Fe using an Atomic Absorption Spectrophotometer. The Enrichment Factor (EF and Pollution Index (PI results indicate significant enrichments of Cd, Pb and Ni in all the media examined compared with other elements studied. In water, the concentrations of Fe (3.13 mg/l, Cd (0.33 mg/l, Ni (1.30 mg/l, Cr (0.12 mg/l and As (0.07 mg/l exceeded the recommended values (1.0, 0.003, 0.02, 0.05 and 0.01mg/l respectively for potable water. In coal waste samples, Cd (2.52mg/kg is high with health risk level of 5. Cu (2.81mg/kg, Co (1.57 mg/kg and As (0.19 mg/kg moderately polluted the environment. In soil, high mean concentration levels are recorded for Cd (5.56 mg/kg and Pb (3.15 mg/kg, moderate to low levels for Cr (1.88 mg/kg, Cu (1.70 mg/kg, Co (0.44mg/kg, Mn (0.99mg/kg and As (0.16 mg/kg. Concentration of metals in the four media examined indicated that the level of pollution is in descending order as shown: soil medium >>>coal wastes medium >> water medium> background soil medium. Reference to World Health Organization standards, the observed trend in the concentration of the metals in the media, will pose health problems to humans and may impact adversely on the ecological, agricultural as well as underground water systems.

  6. Environmental impact assessment on the construction and operation of municipal solid waste sanitary landfills in developing countries: China case study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Na; Damgaard, Anders; Lü, Fan; Shao, Li-Ming; Brogaard, Line Kai-Sørensen; He, Pin-Jing

    2014-05-01

    An inventory of material and energy consumption during the construction and operation (C&O) of a typical sanitary landfill site in China was calculated based on Chinese industrial standards for landfill management and design reports. The environmental impacts of landfill C&O were evaluated through life cycle assessment (LCA). The amounts of materials and energy used during this type of undertaking in China are comparable to those in developed countries, except that the consumption of concrete and asphalt is significantly higher in China. A comparison of the normalized impact potential between landfill C&O and the total landfilling technology implies that the contribution of C&O to overall landfill emissions is not negligible. The non-toxic impacts induced by C&O can be attributed mainly to the consumption of diesel used for daily operation, while the toxic impacts are primarily due to the use of mineral materials. To test the influences of different landfill C&O approaches on environmental impacts, six baseline alternatives were assessed through sensitivity analysis. If geomembranes and geonets were utilized to replace daily and intermediate soil covers and gravel drainage systems, respectively, the environmental burdens of C&O could be mitigated by between 2% and 27%. During the LCA of landfill C&O, the research scope or system boundary has to be declared when referring to material consumption values taken from the literature; for example, the misapplication of data could lead to an underestimation of diesel consumption by 60-80%.

  7. Environmental impact assessment of offshore wind farms: a simulation-based approach

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Perez Lapena, B.; Wijnberg, K.M.; Hulscher, S.J.M.H.; Stein, A.

    2010-01-01

    1.  Assessing and monitoring the impact of offshore wind farms on marine fauna is vital if we want to achieve ecologically sustainable development of this renewable energy resource. Given the complexity of the marine environment, a method capable of accommodating spatio-temporal behaviour of specifi

  8. Life Cycle Assessment of Common Plastic Packaging for Reducing Environmental Impact and Material Consumption

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Visvaldas Varžinskas

    2009-12-01

    the Faculty of Design and Technologies, Kaunas University of Technology, together with packaging and environmental protection specialists of the University, and in cooperation with the Department of Printed Publications and Packaging of the Ukrainian Print Academy. The present paper analyses certain basic findings of the study on the possibilities of improving the ecological level of packaging within the framework of the project. It is stated that appropriate investigation of packaging, its production and application has to be performed in order to prove that the packaging was produced in compliance with preventive and other principles; this investigation is related to a wide variety of package testing, some of which has not yet got methodology acknowledged at a sufficient level (the EU or groups of countries. Therefore, one of the research directions in the above mentioned project, discussed in the present paper, is related to developing a single system, recognized throughout the EU, which would enable researchers to perform the required tests confirming the packaging quality compliance with the environmental requirements. The paper analyzes the EU prevention regulations for reducing the amount of raw material and the system of checking the realization of the requirements based on identification of critical areas, aimed at reaching the lowest possible package weight and/or volume, consequently, the minimum waste amount, without increasing the amount of faulty products and product waste. The paper presents the findings of the research obtained in assessing the life cycle, when applying the Ecoindicator'99 qualitative analysis, concerning the impact of common plastic packages and processes on the environment during manufacturing, usage and disposal. Compression test results of common type plastic packaging construction are presented, which allow us to assess the impact of the package shape and construction upon the packaging reliability and minimization of its mass.

  9. Assessment of environmental pollution from brick kilns and their impacts on human health in Bangladesh

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bricks are the most essential component for expanding urbanization in Bangladesh. Brick kilns situated all over the country meet the demand of these bricks. But brick fields are causing some environmental problems too. The objective of this study is to identify the pattern of energy consumption in brick fields as well as their impacts on the environment. An attempt has been made to estimate the emission of pollutants (Green house gases and non- green house gases) from brick fields to assess the impacts of the pollutants on human health of the surrounding areas. In Bangladesh, the total number of brick fields is around 6000. Brick fields use coal, wood fuel and crude a mainly for burning bricks in the kiln. Estimation reveals that in Bangladesh for the years 2003-2004, the coal required was 1800 kton while the wood fuel required was 1260 kton. Estimation also reveals that for Bangladesh the annual emission of the pollutants are 7505931.01 tons CO/sub 2/, 943.93 tons CH/sub 4/, 128.40 tons N/sub 2/O, 21763.49 tons NO/sub x/, 40777.21 tons CO, 1698.48 tons NMVOC and 176223.04 tons SO/sub 2/. CO/sub 2/ emission is the most prominent from brick burning. Estimation shows that, for the present level of CO/sub 2/ emission in Bangladesh yearly afforestation required is about 1.4 x 10/sup 9/9 m/sup 2/ area. The emission causes some health problems among both the workers and local inhabitants. The concentration persist around brick fields (200 m) is very high and is 3000 micro g/m/sup 3/ for SO/sub 2/ and 300 micro g/m/sup 3/ for NO/sub x/ and PM-10 during winter, while for summer the concentration is 1000 micro g/m/sup 3/ and 125 micro g/m/sup 3/ respectively. From the high concentration of these pollutants people face some of the health problems. About 30% of the workers suffer from dizziness while 60% feel fatigue. The headache is the most common problem of all the workers and 75% suffer from it. Those working for many years feel fatigue more than the new comers, 55% and 3

  10. Toward an analytical framework for understanding complex social-ecological systems when conducting environmental impact assessments in South Africa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rebecca Bowd

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Consideration of biophysical impacts has historically dominated environmental impact assessment (EIA practice. Despite the emergence of social impact assessment, the consideration of socioeconomic impacts in EIA is variable, as is the extent of their integration in EIA findings. There is growing recognition for the need to move EIA practice toward sustainability assessment, characterized by comprehensiveness, i.e., scope of impacts, integration, i.e., of biophysical and socioeconomic impacts, and a greater strategic focus. This is particularly the case in developing regions and in countries like South Africa, which have statutory requirements for the full consideration of socioeconomic impacts in EIA. We suggest that EIA practice could benefit from incorporating evolving theory around social-ecological systems (SES as an effective way of moving toward sustainability assessment. As far as we are aware, our study constitutes the first attempt to apply and formalize SES constructs to EIA practice within a regulated procedure. Our framework goes beyond conventional scoping approaches reliant on checklists and matrices by requiring the EIA practitioner to cocreate a conceptual model of the current and future social-ecological system with the implicated communities. This means social and biophysical impacts are assessed integratively, and that communities participate meaningfully in the EIA process, thereby helping address two of the most common shortfalls of EIA practice. The framework was applied in two case studies, establishment of community-based accommodation linked to existing tourism infrastructure (Eastern Cape, South Africa, and a proposed wine estate (KwaZulu-Natal, South Africa. The framework revealed impacts, which would not be considered in a biophysically-oriented EIA, and helped identify development synergies and institutional and governance needs that are equally likely to have been overlooked. We suggest the framework has value as a

  11. Assessment of co-composting of sludge and woodchips in the perspective of environmental impacts (EASETECH)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zhao, Yan; Lu, Wenjing; Damgaard, Anders;

    2015-01-01

    To reveal potential impacts to environment and human health quantitatively, co-composting and utilization of sludge and woodchips were investigated using a life-cycle-based model, EASETECH. Three scenarios were assessed through experiments using different material ratios. Emission amounts during co...... of phosphorus substitution. With the application of fewer woodchips, impacts to acidification and terrestrial eutrophication decreased because more ammonium was reserved rather than released. All impacts to human toxicity were not significant (8.2. ±. 0.6 PE) because the compost was used for urban landscaping......-composting were determined by monitoring data and mass balance. With 100. t sludge treatment, co-composting showed impacts to acidification (29.9 PE) and terrestrial eutrophication (57.7 PE) mainly for ammonia emission. Compost utilization presented savings on freshwater eutrophication (-1.5 PE) because...

  12. MODELKEY: Models for assessing and forecasting the impact of environmental key pollutants on freshwater and marine ecosystems and biodiversity

    OpenAIRE

    Brack, W; Deckere, de, E.A.; Deerenberg, C.M.; Gils, van, Dennis Paulus Maria

    2005-01-01

    Background Triggered by the requirement of Water Framework Directive for a good ecological status for European river systems till 2015 and by still existing lacks in tools for cause identification of insufficient ecological status MODELKEY (http://www.modelkey.org), an Integrated Project with 26 partners from 14 European countries, was started in 2005. MODELKEY is the acronym for 'Models for assessing and forecasting the impact of environmental key pollutants on freshwater and marine ecosyste...

  13. MODELKEY: Models for assessing and forecasting the impact of environmental key pollutants on freshwater and marine ecosystems and biodiversity

    OpenAIRE

    Brack, W; Bakker, J.; De Deckere, E.; Deerenberg, C.; Van Gils, J.A.G.; Hein, M; Jurajda, P.; Kooijman, B.; Lamoree, M; LEK S.; López de Alda, M.J.; Marcomini, A.; Muñoz, I.(Departamento of Física, Universidad de Concepción, Casilla 160-C, Concepción, Chile); Rattei, S.; Segner, H

    2005-01-01

    Background: Triggered by the requirement of Water Framework Directive for a good ecological status for European river systems till 2015 and by still existing lacks in tools for cause identification of insufficient ecological status MODELKEY (http://www.modelkey.org), an Integrated Project with 26 partners from 14 European countries, was started in 2005. MODELKEY is the acronym for 'Models for assessing and forecasting the impact of environmental key pollutants on freshwater and marine ecosyst...

  14. Environmental Assessment and Finding of No Significant Impact - Mckay Bypass Canal Extension

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    N/A

    1998-09-01

    The Department of Energy (DOE) has prepared an environmental assessment (EA) (DOE/EA-1262) to extend the McKay Bypass Canal on the east side of the Rocky Flats Environmental Technology Site (Site), located north of Golden, Colorado. The McKay Bypass Canal Extension (Extension) is needed to route water from the existing canal around the Walnut Creek drainage, thus preventing potential co-mingling of Broomfield city water (collected from the Coal Creek drainage) with Site runoff water. The EA describes and analyzes the environmental effects of the Proposed Action (using a buried pipeline for the extension), and the alternatives of taking no action, using an open ditch for the extension, and using an aboveground pipeline for the extension. The EA was the subject of a public comment period from July 22 to August 6, 1998. Written comments regarding the EA were received from the City of Broomfield and the Colorado Department of Public Health and Environment.

  15. 78 FR 13082 - Draft Environmental Impact Report/Environmental Impact Statement/Environmental Impact Statement...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-02-26

    ... Bureau of Reclamation Draft Environmental Impact Report/Environmental Impact Statement/ Environmental...: The Bureau of Reclamation has made available for public review and comment the draft Environmental Impact Report/Environmental Impact Statement/Environmental Impact Statement (EIR/EIS/EIS) for the...

  16. Life cycle assessment of energy products: environmental impact assessment of biofuels; Ecobilan d'agents energetiques. Evaluation ecologique de biocarburants

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zah, R.; Boeni, H.; Gauch, M.; Hischier, R.; Lehmann, M.; Waeger, P.

    2007-05-15

    This final report for the Swiss Federal Office of Energy (SFOE) deals with the results of a study that evaluated the environmental impact of the entire production chain of fuels made from biomass and used in Switzerland. Firstly, the study supplies an analysis of the possible environmental impacts of biofuels that can be used as a basis for political decisions. Secondly, an environmental life cycle assessment (LCA) of various biofuels is presented. In addition, the impacts of fuel use are compared with other uses for bioenergy such as the generation of electricity and heat. The methods used in the LCA are discussed, including the Swiss method of ecological scarcity (Environmental Impact Points, UBP 06), and the European Eco-indicator 99 method. The results of the study are discussed, including the finding that not all biofuels can reduce environmental impacts as compared to fossil fuels. The role to be played by biofuels produced in an environmentally-friendly way together with other forms of renewable energy in our future energy supply is discussed.

  17. Life Cycle Assessment, ExternE and Comprehensive Analysis for an integrated evaluation of the environmental impact of anthropogenic activities

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pietrapertosa, F.; Cosmi, C. [National Research Council, Institute of Methodologies for Environmental Analysis C.N.R.-I.M.A.A. C.da S.Loja, I-85050 Tito Scalo (PZ) (Italy); National Research Council, National Institute for the Physics of Matter, C.N.R.-I.N.F.M. Via Cinthia, I-80126 Naples (Italy); Macchiato, M. [Federico II University, Department of Physical Sciences, Via Cinthia, I-80126 Naples (Italy); National Research Council, National Institute for the Physics of Matter, C.N.R.-I.N.F.M. Via Cinthia, I-80126 Naples (Italy); Salvia, M.; Cuomo, V. [National Research Council, Institute of Methodologies for Environmental Analysis C.N.R.-I.M.A.A. C.da S.Loja, I-85050 Tito Scalo (PZ) (Italy)

    2009-06-15

    The implementation of resource management strategies aimed at reducing the impacts of the anthropogenic activities system requires a comprehensive approach to evaluate on the whole the environmental burdens of productive processes and to identify the best recovery strategies from both an environmental and an economic point of view. In this framework, an analytical methodology based on the integration of Life Cycle Assessment (LCA), ExternE and Comprehensive Analysis was developed to perform an in-depth investigation of energy systems. The LCA methodology, largely utilised by the international scientific community for the assessment of the environmental performances of technologies, combined with Comprehensive Analysis allows modelling the overall system of anthropogenic activities, as well as sub-systems, the economic consequences of the whole set of environmental damages. Moreover, internalising external costs into partial equilibrium models, as those utilised by Comprehensive Analysis, can be useful to identify the best paths for implementing technology innovation and strategies aimed to a more sustainable energy supply and use. This paper presents an integrated application of these three methodologies to a local scale case study (the Val D'Agri area in Basilicata, Southern Italy), aimed to better characterise the environmental impacts of the energy system, with particular reference to extraction activities. The innovative methodological approach utilised takes advantage from the strength points of each methodology with an added value coming from their integration as emphasised by the main results obtained by the scenario analysis. (author)

  18. Introducing a conditional 'Willingness to Pay' index as a quantifier for environmental impact assessment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Batzias, Fragiskos; Kopsidas, Odysseas

    2012-12-01

    The optimal concentration Copt of a pollutant in the environment can be determined as an equilibrium point in the trade off between (i) environmental cost, due to impact on man/ecosystem/economy, and (ii) economic cost for environmental protection, as it can be expressed by Pigouvian tax. These two conflict variables are internalized within the same techno-economic objective function of total cost, which is minimized. In this work, the first conflict variable is represented by a Willingness To Pay (WTP) index. A methodology is developed for the estimation of this index by using fuzzy sets to count for uncertainty. Implementation of this methodology is presented, concerning odor pollution of air round an olive pomace oil mill. The ASTM E544-99 (2004) 'Standard Practice for Referencing Suprathreshold Odor Intensity' has been modified to serve as a basis for testing, while a network of the quality standards, required for the realization/application of this 'Practice', is also presented. Last, sensitivity analysis of Copt as regards the impact of (i) the increase of environmental information/sensitization and (ii) the decrease of interest rate reveals a shifting of Copt to lower and higher values, respectively; certain positive and negative implications (i.e., shifting of Copt to lower and higher values, respectively) caused by socio-economic parameters are also discussed.

  19. Environmental impact assessment of land use systems using emergy in Teresópolis-Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juan Carlos Torrico Albino

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available This paper provides a set of indices based on emergy analysis for the Côrrego Sujo basin, Teresópolis-Brazil. Encompassing natural and agricultural systems, the Côrrego Sujo basin has been affected by destruction and fragmentation of natural habitats and unsustainable land use practices. The main objective is to evaluate the environmental impact of the land use systems, the load capacity and the use of natural and economic resources. The studied land use systems were: i agriculture, ii grassland and cattle, iii rainforest and iv forest in regeneration stage (fallow: 1, 2 and 3 years old. Emergy analysis integrates all flows within a system of coupled economic and environmental work in common biophysical units (solar emjoules – seJ. The main conclusions of the study are: the basin does not have dependence of purchased resources and the environmental impact is moderate; the efficiency of the basin as a system is highly positive and it represents a positive contribution to the economy; the emergy exchange ratio is moderate and; the biggest contributions to the system come from natural sources showing that the ecological sustainability is moderate to good.

  20. Evaluation of Iranian Leopold Matrix application in the Environmental Impact Assessment (EIA of solid waste management options in Birjand city

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S Valizadeh

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Background and Objective: Significant increase in population and as a result, the production of excessive waste has recently made attention to municipal solid waste management a necessary issue. The objective of this study was to use matrix-based EIA process in order to determine best waste management option in Birjand City and to suggest appropriate solutions to managers and planners of this city. Materials and Methods: Assessing the environmental impacts of waste management options was done using Iranian Leopold Matrix. Through this method, the environmental impacts of waste management options were determined in the Birjand City. The options were Open dumping, Recycling, Composting, and Sanitary damping. Results: The results indicated that Open dumping with a final score of -3.06 had the highest environmental impact and was introduced as the fourth preference. In addition, composting with final score of -2.34 has the lowest environmental impact compared with other options. Conclusion: About 76.95% of the composition of municipal solid waste of Birjand City is household waste; therefore, putrescible organic materials are the predominant waste. Thus, according to the results of the Iranian Leopold matrix method, composting option was introduced as the first priority and the most logical option for waste management in the Birjand City.

  1. Development and Climate Change: A Mainstreaming Approach for Assessing Economic, Social, and Environmental Impacts of Adaptation Measures

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Halsnæs, Kirsten; Trærup, Sara Lærke Meltofte

    2009-01-01

    how development policy indicators in practice can be used to assess climate change impacts and adaptation measures based on three case studies, namely a road project in flood prone areas of Mozambique, rainwater harvesting in the agricultural sector in Tanzania and malaria protection in Tanzania...... as representatives of focal development policy objectives, and a stepwise approach for addressing climate change impacts, development linkages, and the economic, social and environmental dimensions related to vulnerability and adaptation are introduced. Within this context it is illustrated using three case studies...

  2. Environmental impacts of organic and conventional agricultural products--are the differences captured by life cycle assessment?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meier, Matthias S; Stoessel, Franziska; Jungbluth, Niels; Juraske, Ronnie; Schader, Christian; Stolze, Matthias

    2015-02-01

    Comprehensive assessment tools are needed that reliably describe environmental impacts of different agricultural systems in order to develop sustainable high yielding agricultural production systems with minimal impacts on the environment. Today, Life Cycle Assessment (LCA) is increasingly used to assess and compare the environmental sustainability of agricultural products from conventional and organic agriculture. However, LCA studies comparing agricultural products from conventional and organic farming systems report a wide variation in the resource efficiency of products from these systems. The studies show that impacts per area farmed land are usually less in organic systems, but related to the quantity produced impacts are often higher. We reviewed 34 comparative LCA studies of organic and conventional agricultural products to analyze whether this result is solely due to the usually lower yields in organic systems or also due to inaccurate modeling within LCA. Comparative LCAs on agricultural products from organic and conventional farming systems often do not adequately differentiate the specific characteristics of the respective farming system in the goal and scope definition and in the inventory analysis. Further, often only a limited number of impact categories are assessed within the impact assessment not allowing for a comprehensive environmental assessment. The most critical points we identified relate to the nitrogen (N) fluxes influencing acidification, eutrophication, and global warming potential, and biodiversity. Usually, N-emissions in LCA inventories of agricultural products are based on model calculations. Modeled N-emissions often do not correspond with the actual amount of N left in the system that may result in potential emissions. Reasons for this may be that N-models are not well adapted to the mode of action of organic fertilizers and that N-emission models often are built on assumptions from conventional agriculture leading to even greater

  3. Assessing climate change impacts on river flows and environmental flow requirements at catchment scale

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gül, G.O.; Rosbjerg, Dan; Gül, A.;

    2010-01-01

    mostly at the local scale. though potential changes in the hydrological cycle and eco-hydrological processes are more difficult to model and analyse at this level. The difficulty is even greater for studies on lowland river systems, which require the modelling of hydrological processes in greater detail....... In this Study, the regional impacts of climate change on river flow and environmental flow requirement. which is a negotiated trade-off between water uses, are analysed for a lowland catchment in Denmark through MIKE SHE/MIKE 11 coupling. The Coupled model possesses an important capacity for simulating stream...... flows and groundwater head levels in a dynamic system. Although the simulation results from different global circulation models (GCMs) indicate different responses in flows to the climate change, there are obvious deviations of the river flows and environmental flow potentials computed for all...

  4. Environmental characterization to assess potential impacts of thermal discharge to the Columbia River

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Laboratory and field studies were conducted to assess the potential impact of the N-Reactor thermal plume on fish from the Hanford Reach of the Columbia River. Discharge water temperatures were measured over a range of river flows and reactor operating conditions. Data were mathematically modeled to define spatial and thermal characteristics of the plume. Four species of Columbia River fish were exposed to thermal conditions expected in the plume. Exposed fish were subjected to predators and disease organisms to test for secondary effects from thermal stress. Spatial and temporal distribution of anadromous fish in the river near N-Reactor were also evaluated to define location relative to the plume. Potential thermal exposures were insufficient to kill or injure fish during operation of N-Reactor. These studies demonstrate that characterization of hydrological conditions and thermal tolerance can adequately assess potential impacts of a thermal discharge to fish

  5. Environmental impact assessment of land use systems using emergy in Teresópolis-Brazil

    OpenAIRE

    Juan Carlos Torrico Albino; Marc Janssens

    2012-01-01

    This paper provides a set of indices based on emergy analysis for the Côrrego Sujo basin, Teresópolis-Brazil. Encompassing natural and agricultural systems, the Côrrego Sujo basin has been affected by destruction and fragmentation of natural habitats and unsustainable land use practices. The main objective is to evaluate the environmental impact of the land use systems, the load capacity and the use of natural and economic resources. The studied land use systems were: i) agriculture, ii) gras...

  6. Heterogeneity of atmospheric ammonia at the landscape scale and consequences for environmental impact assessment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vogt, Esther; Dragosits, Ulrike; Braban, Christine F; Theobald, Mark R; Dore, Anthony J; van Dijk, Netty; Tang, Y Sim; McDonald, Chris; Murray, Scott; Rees, Robert M; Sutton, Mark A

    2013-08-01

    We examined the consequences of the spatial heterogeneity of atmospheric ammonia (NH₃) by measuring and modelling NH₃ concentrations and deposition at 25 m grid resolution for a rural landscape containing intensive poultry farming, agricultural grassland, woodland and moorland. The emission pattern gave rise to a high spatial variability of modelled mean annual NH₃ concentrations and dry deposition. Largest impacts were predicted for woodland patches located within the agricultural area, while larger moorland areas were at low risk, due to atmospheric dispersion, prevailing wind direction and low NH3 background. These high resolution spatial details are lost in national scale estimates at 1 km resolution due to less detailed emission input maps. The results demonstrate how the spatial arrangement of sources and sinks is critical to defining the NH₃ risk to semi-natural ecosystems. These spatial relationships provide the foundation for local spatial planning approaches to reduce environmental impacts of atmospheric NH₃.

  7. Energy and environmental assessment

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lund, Henrik; Sukkumnoed, Decharut

    2004-01-01

    The paper introduce and discuss strategic environmental assessment (SEA) and economic assessment for energy innovation and suggests approach to influence support for sustainable energy development in Thailand.......The paper introduce and discuss strategic environmental assessment (SEA) and economic assessment for energy innovation and suggests approach to influence support for sustainable energy development in Thailand....

  8. Surface water drainage system. Environmental assessment and finding of no significant impact

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1996-05-01

    This Environmental Assessment (EA) is written pursuant to the National Environmental Policy Act (NEPA). The document identifies and evaluates the action proposed to correct deficiencies in, and then to maintain, the surface water drainage system serving the Department of Energy`s Rocky Flats Environmental Technology Site (Site), located north of Golden, Colorado. Many of the activities proposed would not normally be subject to this level of NEPA documentation. However, in many cases, maintenance of the system has been deferred to the point that wetlands vegetation has become established in some ditches and culverts, creating wetlands. The proposed activities would damage or remove some of these wetlands in order to return the drainage system to the point that it would be able to fully serve its intended function - stormwater control. The Department of Energy (DOE) regulations require that activities affecting environmentally sensitive areas like wetlands be the subject of an EA. Most portions of the surface water drainage system are presently inadequate to convey the runoff from a 100-year storm event. As a result, such an event would cause flooding across much of the Site and possibly threaten the integrity of the dams at the terminal ponds. Severe flooding would not only cause damage to facilities and equipment, but could also facilitate the transport of contaminants from individual hazardous substance sites (IHSSs). Uncontrolled flow through the A- and B-series ponds could cause contaminated sediments to become suspended and carried downstream. Additionally, high velocity flood flows significantly increase erosion losses.

  9. Surface water drainage system. Environmental assessment and finding of no significant impact

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This Environmental Assessment (EA) is written pursuant to the National Environmental Policy Act (NEPA). The document identifies and evaluates the action proposed to correct deficiencies in, and then to maintain, the surface water drainage system serving the Department of Energy's Rocky Flats Environmental Technology Site (Site), located north of Golden, Colorado. Many of the activities proposed would not normally be subject to this level of NEPA documentation. However, in many cases, maintenance of the system has been deferred to the point that wetlands vegetation has become established in some ditches and culverts, creating wetlands. The proposed activities would damage or remove some of these wetlands in order to return the drainage system to the point that it would be able to fully serve its intended function - stormwater control. The Department of Energy (DOE) regulations require that activities affecting environmentally sensitive areas like wetlands be the subject of an EA. Most portions of the surface water drainage system are presently inadequate to convey the runoff from a 100-year storm event. As a result, such an event would cause flooding across much of the Site and possibly threaten the integrity of the dams at the terminal ponds. Severe flooding would not only cause damage to facilities and equipment, but could also facilitate the transport of contaminants from individual hazardous substance sites (IHSSs). Uncontrolled flow through the A- and B-series ponds could cause contaminated sediments to become suspended and carried downstream. Additionally, high velocity flood flows significantly increase erosion losses

  10. Introduction to 'MINEO' project of European community and its enlightenments to monitoring and assessment of environmental impacts caused by mining in China

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Du Pei-jun; Zheng Hui; Zhang Hai-rong [China University of Mining and Technology, Xuzhou (China). Dept. of RS and GIS

    2008-01-15

    In order to promote environmental damage monitoring and environmental impacts assessment caused by mining in China, the most significant project that uses advanced Earth Observation technology to assess environmental impacts caused by mining, namely MINEO (assessment and monitoring the environmental impact of mining activities in Europe using advanced Earth Observation technology) was introduced and its enlightenment to China were investigated. It was proposed that an integrated technical framework of monitoring environmental impacts caused by mining be designed, quantitative inversion of biological and environmental parameters from RS data be emphasised, hyperspectral Remote Sensing be applied, RS and GIS be integrated with professional models, multi-object applications of RS be implemented, and related standards and specification be drawn up based on typical case study sites. 23 refs., 1 fig.

  11. Air quality analysis and related risk assessment for the Bonneville Power Administration's Resource Program Environmental Impact Statement

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Glantz, C S; Burk, K W; Driver, C J; Liljegren, J C; Neitzel, D A; Schwartz, M N; Dana, M T; Laws, G L; Mahoney, L A; Rhoads, K

    1992-04-01

    The Bonneville Power Administration (BPA) is considering 12 different alternatives for acquiring energy resources over the next 20 years. Each of the alternatives utilizes a full range of energy resources (e.g., coal, cogeneration, conservation, and nuclear); however, individual alternatives place greater emphases on different types of power-producing resources and employ different timetables for implementing these resources. The environmental impacts that would result from the implementation of each alternative and the economic valuations of these impacts, will be an important consideration in the alternative selection process. In this report we discuss the methods used to estimate environmental impacts from the resource alternatives. We focus on pollutant emissions rates, ground-level air concentrations of basic criteria pollutants, the acidity of rain, particulate deposition, ozone concentrations, visibility attenuation, global warming, human health effects, agricultural and forest impacts, and wildlife impacts. For this study, pollutant emission rates are computed by processing BPA data on power production and associated pollutant emissions. The assessment of human health effects from ozone indicated little variation between the resource alternatives. Impacts on plants, crops, and wildlife populations from power plant emissions are projected to be minimal for all resource alternatives.

  12. Assessing environmental impacts embodied in manufacturing and labor input for the China-U.S. trade.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Ming; Williams, Eric; Allenby, Braden

    2010-01-15

    Previous studies on environmental impacts embodied in trade have paid little attention to the impacts of labor input, or environmental overhead of labor input (EOLI). EOLI occurs to support lifestyles both in the purchase of goods and services and in the consumption of fuels and electricity by workers. This research investigates both supply chain manufacturing and EOLI energy use and carbon dioxide (CO(2)) emissions embodied in the 2002 China-U.S. trade. EOLI is substantial in scale: 24% of manufacturing energy in the U.S. and 6% for China. The higher share of EOLI in the U.S. is the result of higher energy use to support worker lifestyles. Analysis shows China's EOLI is dominated by the manufacturing of products consumed by workers, while EOLI on the U.S. side is primarily from workers' direct consumption. The total manufacturing and EOLI energy and CO(2) embodied in the eastbound trade from China to the U.S. are 6.5 exajoules (EJ) of energy (6% EOLI) and 440 million tons (Mt) of CO(2) (8% EOLI). The total manufacturing and EOLI energy and CO(2) embodied in the westbound trade from the U.S. to China are 424 petajoules (PJ) of energy (19% EOLI) and 25.3 Mt of CO(2) (21% EOLI).

  13. Recycled-PET fibre based panels for building thermal insulation: environmental impact and improvement potential assessment for a greener production.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ingrao, Carlo; Lo Giudice, Agata; Tricase, Caterina; Rana, Roberto; Mbohwa, Charles; Siracusa, Valentina

    2014-09-15

    A screening of Life Cycle Assessment for the evaluation of the damage arising from the production of 1 kg of recycled Polyethylene Terephthalate (RPET) fibre-based panel for building heat insulation was carried out according to the ISO 14040:2006 and 14044:2006. All data used were collected on site based on observations during site visits, review of documents and interviews with technical personnel and management. These data were processed by using SimaPro 7.3.3, accessing the Ecoinvent v.2.2 database and using the Impact 2002+ method. The study showed damage to be equal to 0.000299 points mostly due to the: 1) PET thermo-bonding fibre supply from China by means of a freight-equipped intercontinental aircraft; 2) production of bottle-grade granulate PET; 3) medium voltage electricity consumption during the manufacturing of RPET fibre panel. It was also highlighted that there were environmental benefits due to recycling through mainly avoiding significant emissions and reduced resource consumption. An improvement assessment was carried out to find solutions aimed at reducing the damage coming from the most impacting phases. Furthermore, the environmental impacts due to the production of the analysed RPET fibre-based panel were compared to other materials with the same insulating function, such as polystyrene foam, rock wool and cork slab. Finally, the environmental benefits of the recycling of PET bottles for flake production were highlighted compared to other treatment scenarios such as landfill and municipal incineration.

  14. Environmental impact assessment of the Swedish high-level radioactive waste disposal system - examples of likely considerations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sweden is investigating the feasibility of establishing a high-level radioactive waste (HLW) disposal system consisting of three components as follows: (1) Encapsulation facility, (2) system for transporting waste and (3) geologic repository. Swedish law requires that an Environmental Impact Assessment (EIA) be written for any planned action expected to have a significant impact on the environment. Before embarking on construction and operation of a HLW disposal system, the Swedish government will evaluate the expected environmental impacts to assure that the Swedish people and environmental will not be unduly affected by the disposal system. The EIA process requires that reasonable alternatives to the proposed action, including the 'zero' or 'no action' alternative, be considered so that the final approved plan for disposal will have undergone scrutiny and comparison of alternatives to arrive at a plan which is the best achievable given reasonable physical and monetary constraints. This report has been prepared by the Center for Nuclear Waste Regulatory Analyses (CNWRA) for use by the Swedish Radiation Protection Institute (SSI). The purpose of this report is to establish a document which outlines the types of information which would be in an EIA for a three part disposal system like that envisioned by the Swedish Nuclear Fuel and Waste Management Company (SKB) for the disposal of Sweden's HLW. Technical information that would normally be included in an EIA is outlined in this document. The SSI's primary interest is in radiological impacts. However, for the sake of completeness and also to evaluate all environmental impacts in a single document, non-radiological impacts are also included. Swedish authorities other than the SSI may have interest in the non-radiological parts of the document. 26 refs

  15. Environmental Impact Assessment of the Industrial Estate Development Plan with the Geographical Information System and Matrix Methods

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammad Ghasemian

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. The purpose of this study is environmental impact assessment of the industrial estate development planning. Methods. This cross-sectional study was conducted in 2010 in Isfahan province, Iran. GIS and matrix methods were applied. Data analysis was done to identify the current situation of the region, zoning vulnerable areas, and scoping the region. Quantitative evaluation was done by using matrix of Wooten and Rau. Results. The net score for impact of industrial units operation on air quality of the project area was (−3. According to the transition of industrial estate pollutants, residential places located in the radius of 2500 meters of the city were expected to be affected more. The net score for impact of construction of industrial units on plant species of the project area was (−2. Environmental protected areas were not affected by the air and soil pollutants because of their distance from industrial estate. Conclusion. Positive effects of project activities outweigh the drawbacks and the sum scores allocated to the project activities on environmental factor was (+37. Totally it does not have detrimental effects on the environment and residential neighborhood. EIA should be considered as an anticipatory, participatory environmental management tool before determining a plan application.

  16. Assessment of nitrogen ceilings for Dutch agricultural soils to avoid adverse environmental impacts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Vries, W; Kros, H; Oenema, O; Erisman, J W

    2001-11-01

    In the Netherlands, high traffic density and intensive animal husbandry have led to high emissions of reactive nitrogen (N) into the environment. This leads to a series of environmental impacts, including: (1) nitrate (NO3) contamination of drinking water, (2) eutrophication of freshwater lakes, (3) acidification and biodiversity impacts on terrestrial ecosystems, (4) ozone and particle formation affecting human health, and (5) global climate change induced by emissions of N2O. Measures to control reactive N emissions were, up to now, directed towards those different environmental themes. Here we summarize the results of a study to analyse the agricultural N problem in the Netherlands in an integrated way, which means that all relevant aspects are taken into account simultaneously. A simple N balance model was developed, representing all crucial processes in the N chain, to calculate acceptable N inputs to the farm (so-called N ceiling) and to the soil surface (application in the field) by feed concentrates, organic manure, fertiliser, deposition, and N fixation. The N ceilings were calculated on the basis of critical limits for NO 3 concentrations in groundwater, N concentrations in surface water, and ammonia (NH3) emission targets related to the protection of biodiversity of natural areas. Results show that in most parts of the Netherlands, except the western and the northern part, the N ceilings are limited by NH 3 emissions, which are derived from critical N loads for nature areas, rather than limits for both ground- and surface water. On the national scale, the N ceiling ranges between 372 and 858 kton year(-1) depending on the choice of critical limits. The current N import is 848 kton year(-1). A decrease of nearly 60% is needed to reach the ceilings that are necessary to protect the environment against all adverse impacts of N pollution from agriculture. PMID:12805837

  17. Assessment of Nitrogen Ceilings for Dutch Agricultural Soils to Avoid Adverse Environmental Impacts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wim de Vries

    2001-01-01

    Full Text Available In the Netherlands, high traffic density and intensive animal husbandry have led to high emissions of reactive nitrogen (N into the environment. This leads to a series of environmental impacts, including: (1 nitrate (NO3 contamination of drinking water, (2 eutrophication of freshwater lakes, (3 acidification and biodiversity impacts on terrestrial ecosystems, (4 ozone and particle formation affecting human health, and (5 global climate change induced by emissions of N2O. Measures to control reactive N emissions were, up to now, directed towards those different environmental themes. Here we summarize the results of a study to analyse the agricultural N problem in the Netherlands in an integrated way, which means that all relevant aspects are taken into account simultaneously. A simple N balance model was developed, representing all crucial processes in the N chain, to calculate acceptable N inputs to the farm (so-called N ceiling and to the soil surface (application in the field by feed concentrates, organic manure, fertiliser, deposition, and N fixation. The N ceilings were calculated on the basis of critical limits for NO3 concentrations in groundwater, N concentrations in surface water, and ammonia (NH3 emission targets related to the protection of biodiversity of natural areas. Results show that in most parts of the Netherlands, except the western and the northern part, the N ceilings are limited by NH3 emissions, which are derived from critical N loads for nature areas, rather than limits for both ground- and surface water. On the national scale, the N ceiling ranges between 372 and 858 kton year–1 depending on the choice of critical limits. The current N import is 848 kton year–1. A decrease of nearly 60% is needed to reach the ceilings that are necessary to protect the environment against all adverse impacts of N pollution from agriculture.

  18. Environmental assessment of nutrient recycling from biological pig slurry treatment--impact of fertilizer substitution and field emissions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brockmann, Doris; Hanhoun, Mary; Négri, Ophélie; Hélias, Arnaud

    2014-07-01

    Pig slurry treatment is an important means in reducing nitrogen loads applied to farmland. Solid phase separation prior to biological treatment further allows for recovering phosphorus with the solid phase. The organic residues from the pig slurry treatment can be applied as organic fertilizers to farmland replacing mineral fertilizers. The environmental impacts of nutrient recycling from aerobic, biological pig slurry treatment were evaluated applying the life cycle assessment (LCA) methodology. LCA results revealed that direct field emissions from organic fertilizer application and the amount of avoided mineral fertilizers dominated the environmental impacts. A modified plant available nitrogen calculation (PAN) was introduced taking into account calculated nitrogen emissions from organic fertilizer application. Additionally, an equation for calculating the quantity of avoided mineral fertilizers based on the modified PAN calculation was proposed, which accounted for nitrogen emissions from mineral fertilizer application.

  19. Assessing anaerobic co-digestion of pig manure with agroindustrial wastes: the link between environmental impacts and operational parameters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodriguez-Verde, Ivan; Regueiro, Leticia; Carballa, Marta; Hospido, Almudena; Lema, Juan M

    2014-11-01

    Anaerobic co-digestion (AcoD) is established as a techno-economic profitable process by incrementing biogas yield (increased cost-efficiency) and improving the nutrient balance (better quality digestate) in comparison to mono-digestion of livestock wastes. However, few data are available on the environmental consequences of AcoD and most of them are mainly related to the use of energy crops as co-substrates. This work analysed the environmental impact of the AcoD of pig manure (PM) with several agroindustrial wastes (molasses, fish, biodiesel and vinasses residues) using life cycle assessment (LCA) methodology. For comparative purposes, mono digestion of PM has also been evaluated. Four out of six selected categories (acidification, eutrophication, global warming and photochemical oxidation potentials) showed environmental impacts in all the scenarios assessed, whereas the other two (abiotic depletion and ozone layer depletion potentials) showed environmental credits, remarking the benefit of replacing fossil fuels by biogas. This was also confirmed by the sensitivity analysis applied to the PM quality (i.e. organic matter content) and the avoided energy source demonstrating the importance of the energy recovery step. The influence of the type of co-substrate could not be discerned; however, a link between the environmental performance and the hydraulic retention time, the organic loading rate and the nutrient content in the digestate could be established. Therefore, LCA results were successfully correlated to process variables involved in AcoD, going a step further in the combination of techno-economic and environmental feasibilities. PMID:25150742

  20. The Lake Bosumtwi impact structure in Ghana: A brief environmental assessment and discussion of ecotourism potential

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boamah, Daniel; Koeberl, Christian

    Lake Bosumtwi is a natural inland freshwater lake that originated from a meteorite impact. The lake is becoming a popular tourist attraction in Ghana and has the potential to be developed as an ecotourism site in the future. However, there have been some unregulated human activities and unplanned infrastructure development, and there are increased levels of pollutants in the lake water. In order to make ecotourism at Lake Bosumtwi successful in the long term, the Lake Bosumtwi Development Committee has been formed to ensure that local people are empowered to mobilize their own capacities. It has been realized that an important criterion required to develop ecotourism in a socially responsible, economically efficient, and environmentally viable way is to foster a constructive dialogue between the local people and tourists about the needs of the indigenous people.

  1. Environmental impact report (draft)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1980-05-01

    The three projects as proposed by Pacific Gas and Electric Company and the environmental analysis of the projects are discussed. Sections on the natural and social environments of the proposed projects and their surrounding areas consist of descriptions of the setting, discussions of the adverse and beneficial consequences of the project, and potential mitigation measures to reduce the effects of adverse impacts. The Environmental Impact Report includes discussions of unavoidable adverse effects, irreversible changes, long-term and cumulative impacts, growth-inducing effects, and feasible alternatives to the project. (MHR)

  2. Exergy and Environmental Impact Assessment between Solar Powered Gas Turbine and Conventional Gas Turbine Power Plant

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ali Rajaei

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Recuperator is a heat exchanger that is used in gas turbine power plants to recover energy from outlet hot gases to heat up the air entering the combustion chamber. Similarly, the combustion chamber inlet air can be heated up to temperatures up to 1000 (°C by solar power tower (SPT as a renewable and environmentally benign energy source. In this study, comprehensive comparison between these two systems in terms of energy, exergy, and environmental impacts is carried out. Thermodynamic simulation of both cycles is conducted using a developed program in MATLAB environment. Exergetic performances of both cycles and their emissions are compared and parametric study is carried out. A new parameter (renewable factor is proposed to evaluate resources quality and measure how green an exergy loss or destruction or a system as a whole is. Nonrenewable exergy destruction and loss are reduced compared to GT with recuperator cycle by 34.89% and 47.41%, respectively. Reductions in CO2, NOx, and CO compared to GT with recuperator cycle by 49.92%, 66.14%, and 39.77%, respectively, are in line with renewable factor value of around 55.7 which proves the ability of the proposed green measure to evaluate and compare the cycles performances.

  3. The use of EAF dust in cement composites: assessment of environmental impact.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sturm, Tina; Milacic, Radmila; Murko, Simona; Vahcic, Mitja; Mladenovic, Ana; Suput, Jerneja Strupi; Scancar, Janez

    2009-07-15

    Electric arc filter dust (EAF dust) is a waste by-product which occurs in the production of steel. Instead of being disposed of, it can be used in cement composites for civil engineering, and for balances in washing machines. To estimate the environmental impact of the use of EAF dust in cement composites leachability tests based on diffusion were performed using water and salt water as leaching agents. Compact and ground cement composites, and cement composites with addition of 1.5% of EAF dust by mass were studied. The concentrations of total Cr and Cr(VI) were determined in leachates over a time period of 175 days. At the end of the experiment the concentrations of some other metals were also determined in leachates. The results indicated that Cr in leachates was present almost solely in its hexavalent form. No leaching of Cr(VI) was observed in aqueous leachates from compact cement composites and compact cement composites to which different quantities of EAF dust have been added. In ground cement composites and in ground cement composites with addition of EAF dust, Cr(VI) was leached with water in very low concentrations up to 5 microg L(-1). Cr(VI) concentrations were higher in salt water leachates. In compact and ground cement composites with addition of EAF dust Cr(VI) concentrations were 40 and 100 microg L(-1), respectively. It was experimentally found that addition of EAF dust had almost no influence on leaching of Cr(VI) from cement composites. Leaching of Cr(VI) originated primarily from cement. Leaching of other metals from composites investigated did not represent an environmental burden. From the physico-mechanical and environmental aspects EAF dust can be used as a component in cement mixtures.

  4. Learning about knowledge management for improving environmental impact assessment in a government agency: the Western Australian experience.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sánchez, Luis Enrique; Morrison-Saunders, Angus

    2011-09-01

    How does knowledge management (KM) by a government agency responsible for environmental impact assessment (EIA) potentially contribute to better environmental assessment and management practice? Staff members at government agencies in charge of the EIA process are knowledge workers who perform judgement-oriented tasks highly reliant on individual expertise, but also grounded on the agency's knowledge accumulated over the years. Part of an agency's knowledge can be codified and stored in an organizational memory, but is subject to decay or loss if not properly managed. The EIA agency operating in Western Australia was used as a case study. Its KM initiatives were reviewed, knowledge repositories were identified and staff surveyed to gauge the utilisation and effectiveness of such repositories in enabling them to perform EIA tasks. Key elements of KM are the preparation of substantive guidance and spatial information management. It was found that treatment of cumulative impacts on the environment is very limited and information derived from project follow-up is not properly captured and stored, thus not used to create new knowledge and to improve practice and effectiveness. Other opportunities for improving organizational learning include the use of after-action reviews. The learning about knowledge management in EIA practice gained from Western Australian experience should be of value to agencies worldwide seeking to understand where best to direct their resources for their own knowledge repositories and environmental management practice. PMID:21592648

  5. Marine environmental impact assessment of abalone, Haliotis discus hannai, cage farm in Wan-do, Republic of Korea

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oh, Hyun-Taik; Jung, Rae-Hong; Cho, Yoon-Sik; Hwang, Dong-Woon; Yi, Yong-Min

    2015-12-01

    To assess the marine environmental impacts of abalone, Haliotis discus hannai, cage farms in Wan-do, we monitored the benthic environment on top of the sediment underneath cage farm stations and reference stations. We applied two methods for this assessment. One was the A- and B-investigation of the MOM system (Modeling-On fish farm-Monitoring) developed in Norway. The other was a general environmental monitoring method which is widely used. In this study, we found benthic animals in all samples that belonged to condition 1 which were based on group 1(presence of macrofauna) of the B-investigation method. The values of redox potential (group 2-pH, redox potential) in all samples were above +65 mV belonging to condition 1. Based on sensory results (group 3-gas, color, odor, thickness of deposits), five out of seven experiment samples showed condition 1 while stations 2 and 7 showed condition 2, which have been cultured for 10 years in semi-closed waters. As group 2 takes precedence over group 3, the level of the conditions for B-investigation results consequently showed condition 1 in all stations. We found that pollutants and trace metals in the sediment underneath cage farms were lower than the pollution standard. This led us to conclude that the environmental impacts of the cage farms in this study were not significant.

  6. Industry-Cost-Curve Approach for Modeling the Environmental Impact of Introducing New Technologies in Life Cycle Assessment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kätelhön, Arne; von der Assen, Niklas; Suh, Sangwon; Jung, Johannes; Bardow, André

    2015-07-01

    The environmental costs and benefits of introducing a new technology depend not only on the technology itself, but also on the responses of the market where substitution or displacement of competing technologies may occur. An internationally accepted method taking both technological and market-mediated effects into account, however, is still lacking in life cycle assessment (LCA). For the introduction of a new technology, we here present a new approach for modeling the environmental impacts within the framework of LCA. Our approach is motivated by consequential life cycle assessment (CLCA) and aims to contribute to the discussion on how to operationalize consequential thinking in LCA practice. In our approach, we focus on new technologies producing homogeneous products such as chemicals or raw materials. We employ the industry cost-curve (ICC) for modeling market-mediated effects. Thereby, we can determine substitution effects at a level of granularity sufficient to distinguish between competing technologies. In our approach, a new technology alters the ICC potentially replacing the highest-cost producer(s). The technologies that remain competitive after the new technology's introduction determine the new environmental impact profile of the product. We apply our approach in a case study on a new technology for chlor-alkali electrolysis to be introduced in Germany.

  7. Learning about knowledge management for improving environmental impact assessment in a government agency: the Western Australian experience.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sánchez, Luis Enrique; Morrison-Saunders, Angus

    2011-09-01

    How does knowledge management (KM) by a government agency responsible for environmental impact assessment (EIA) potentially contribute to better environmental assessment and management practice? Staff members at government agencies in charge of the EIA process are knowledge workers who perform judgement-oriented tasks highly reliant on individual expertise, but also grounded on the agency's knowledge accumulated over the years. Part of an agency's knowledge can be codified and stored in an organizational memory, but is subject to decay or loss if not properly managed. The EIA agency operating in Western Australia was used as a case study. Its KM initiatives were reviewed, knowledge repositories were identified and staff surveyed to gauge the utilisation and effectiveness of such repositories in enabling them to perform EIA tasks. Key elements of KM are the preparation of substantive guidance and spatial information management. It was found that treatment of cumulative impacts on the environment is very limited and information derived from project follow-up is not properly captured and stored, thus not used to create new knowledge and to improve practice and effectiveness. Other opportunities for improving organizational learning include the use of after-action reviews. The learning about knowledge management in EIA practice gained from Western Australian experience should be of value to agencies worldwide seeking to understand where best to direct their resources for their own knowledge repositories and environmental management practice.

  8. Environmental Impact Assessment, Critical Areas data layer for Cecil County, Published in 2011, 1:4800 (1in=400ft) scale, Cecil County Government.

    Data.gov (United States)

    NSGIC GIS Inventory (aka Ramona) — This Environmental Impact Assessment dataset, published at 1:4800 (1in=400ft) scale as of 2011. It is described as 'Critical Areas data layer for Cecil County'. The...

  9. Environmental Impact Assessment, Grantville, Georgia Hazards Map, Published in 2005, 1:12000 (1in=1000ft) scale, Chattahoochee-Flint Regional Development.

    Data.gov (United States)

    NSGIC GIS Inventory (aka Ramona) — This Environmental Impact Assessment dataset, published at 1:12000 (1in=1000ft) scale, was produced all or in part from Hardcopy Maps information as of 2005. It is...

  10. Comparing the Environmental Impacts of Alkali Activated Mortar and Traditional Portland Cement Mortar using Life Cycle Assessment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matheu, P. S.; Ellis, K.; Varela, B.

    2015-11-01

    Since the year 1908 there has been research into the use alkali activated materials (AAM) in order to develop cementitious materials with similar properties to Ordinary Portland Cement. AAMs are considered green materials since their production and synthesis is not energy intensive. Even though AAMs have a high compressive strength, the average cost of production among other issues limits its feasibility. Previous research by the authors yielded a low cost AAM that uses mine tailings, wollastonite and ground granulated blast furnace slag (GGBFS). This mortar has an average compressive strength of 50MPa after 28 days of curing. In this paper the software SimaPro was used to create a product base cradle to gate Life Cycle Assessment (LCA). This compared the environmental impact of the AAM mortar to an Ordinary Portland Cement mortar (PCHM) with similar compressive strength. The main motivation for this research is the environmental impact of producing Ordinary Portland Cement as compared to alkali activated slag materials. The results of this LCA show that the Alkali Activated Material has a lower environmental impact than traditional Portland cement hydraulic mortar, in 10 out of 12 categories including Global Warming Potential, Ecotoxicity, and Smog. Areas of improvement and possible future work were also discovered with this analysis.

  11. Washington wildlife mitigation projects. Final programmatic environmental assessment and finding of no significant impact

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bonneville Power Administration (BPA) proposes to fund the portion of the Washington Wildlife Mitigation Agreement (Agreement) pertaining to wildlife habitat mitigation projects to be undertaken in a cooperative effort with the Washington Department of Fish and Wildlife (WDFW). This Agreement serves to establish a monetary budget funded by BPA for projects proposed by Washington Wildlife Coalition members and approved by BPA to protect, mitigate, and improve wildlife and/or wildlife habitat within the State of Washington that has been affected by the construction of Federal dams along the Columbia River. This Environmental Assessment examines the potential environmental effects of acquiring and/or improving wildlife habitat within five different project areas. These project areas are located throughout Grant County and in parts of Okanogan, Douglas, Adams, Franklin, Kittias, Yakima, and Benton Counties. The multiple projects would involve varying combinations of five proposed site-specific activities (habitat improvement, operation and maintenance, monitoring and evaluation, access and recreation management, and cultural resource management). All required Federal, State, and tribal coordination, permits and/or approvals would be obtained prior to ground-disturbing activities

  12. Washington Wildlife Mitigation Projects : Final Programmatic Environmental Assessment and Finding of No Significant Impact.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    United States. Bonneville Power Administration; Washington (State). Dept. of Fish and Wildlife.

    1996-08-01

    Bonneville Power Administration (BPA) proposes to fund the portion of the Washington Wildlife Mitigation Agreement (Agreement) pertaining to wildlife habitat mitigation projects to be undertaken in a cooperative effort with the Washington Department of Fish and Wildlife (WDFW). This Agreement serves to establish a monetary budget funded by BPA for projects proposed by Washington Wildlife Coalition members and approved by BPA to protect, mitigate, and improve wildlife and/or wildlife habitat within the State of Washington that has been affected by the construction of Federal dams along the Columbia River. This Environmental Assessment examines the potential environmental effects of acquiring and/or improving wildlife habitat within five different project areas. These project areas are located throughout Grant County and in parts of Okanogan, Douglas, Adams, Franklin, Kittias, Yakima, and Benton Counties. The multiple projects would involve varying combinations of five proposed site-specific activities (habitat improvement, operation and maintenance, monitoring and evaluation, access and recreation management, and cultural resource management). All required Federal, State, and tribal coordination, permits and/or approvals would be obtained prior to ground-disturbing activities.

  13. Environmental impact assessment of radioactive materials during sea transportation: Case study of plutonium released in the ocean

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The objectives of the environmental impact assessments of radioactive materials are at first given. The NSPI (Nuclear Safety Protection Institut) is jointly involved in these assessments. Currently, the NSPI is studying the case of plutonium release. The summary of this study is given. Indeed, to perform this assessment, the marine environment has to be modelled on a large scale and the exposure path to be calculated. Hypothesis has been made on the release phenomena as well. The proposed model, the origin of contamination, the hypothesis for the calculation and the exposure pathway are then explained. All the sea products are supposed to be eaten within the European countries. Cumulated collective doses for European countries after 50 years should be 160 man Sv in the western part of the Channel and 4.47 man Sv in the north eastern part of the atlantic ocean. (O.M.)

  14. A hybrid multi-region method (HMR) for assessing the environmental impact of private consumption

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vringer, Kees; Benders, Rene; Wilting, Harry; Brink, Corjan; Drissen, Eric; Nijdam, Durk; Hoogervorst, Nico

    2010-01-01

    The environmental load from consumption can be reduced by changing consumption patterns. For an effective consumer policy to reduce the environmental load from society, we need insight into the environmental load from consumption patterns. This requires detailed accurate quantitative environmental i

  15. Environmental Justice and Sustainability Impact Assessment: In Search of Solutions to Ethnic Conflicts Caused by Coal Mining in Inner Mongolia, China

    OpenAIRE

    Lee Liu; Jie Liu; Zhenguo Zhang

    2014-01-01

    The Chinese government adopted more specific and stringent environmental impact assessment (EIA) guidelines in 2011, soon after the widespread ethnic protests against coal mining in Inner Mongolia. However, our research suggests that the root of the ethnic tension is a sustainability problem, in addition to environmental issues. In particular, the Mongolians do not feel they have benefited from the mining of their resources. Existing environmental assessment tools are inadequate to address su...

  16. Environmental impact assessment. Investigation of marine mammals in relation to the establishment of a marine wind farm on Horns Reef

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2000-02-15

    Elsamproject has decided to carry out an environmental impact assessment with the aim to investigate whether the establishment of a marine wind farm on Horns Reef may impact on breeding and non-breeding marine mammals, particularly harbour porpoise Phocoena phocoena and common seal Phoca vitulina. The marine mammals of the northern part of the German Bight can be characterised by a regular occurrence of harbour porpoise and common seal throughout the year, an irregular occurrence of grey seal Halichoerus grypus and white-beaked dolphin Lagenorhynchus albirostris and rare occurrences of white-sided dolphin Lagenorhynchus acutus, minke whale Balaenoptera acutorostrata, sperm whale Physeter macrocephalus, long-finned pilot whale Globicephala melas and killer whale Orcinus orca. The environment impact assessment therefore focuses on the evaluation of the possible effects on harbour porpoise and common seal. The investigation constitutes the first phase of a before-after-control-impact (BACI) analysis of the occurrence of harbour porpoise before, during and after the construction of the wind farm. (au)

  17. Rapid Assessment of Environmental Health Impacts for Policy Support: The Example of Road Transport in New Zealand

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David Briggs

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available An integrated environmental health impact assessment of road transport in New Zealand was carried out, using a rapid assessment. The disease and injury burden was assessed from traffic-related accidents, air pollution, noise and physical (inactivity, and impacts attributed back to modal source. In total, road transport was found to be responsible for 650 deaths in 2012 (2.1% of annual mortality: 308 from traffic accidents, 283 as a result of air pollution, and 59 from noise. Together with morbidity, these represent a total burden of disease of 26,610 disability-adjusted life years (DALYs. An estimated 40 deaths and 1874 DALYs were avoided through active transport. Cars are responsible for about 52% of attributable deaths, but heavy goods vehicles (6% of vehicle kilometres travelled, vkt accounted for 21% of deaths. Motorcycles (1 per cent of vkt are implicated in nearly 8% of deaths. Overall, impacts of traffic-related air pollution and noise are low compared to other developed countries, but road accident rates are high. Results highlight the need for policies targeted at road accidents, and especially at heavy goods vehicles and motorcycles, along with more general action to reduce the reliance on private road transport. The study also provides a framework for national indicator development.

  18. Rapid Assessment of Environmental Health Impacts for Policy Support: The Example of Road Transport in New Zealand.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Briggs, David; Mason, Kylie; Borman, Barry

    2016-01-01

    An integrated environmental health impact assessment of road transport in New Zealand was carried out, using a rapid assessment. The disease and injury burden was assessed from traffic-related accidents, air pollution, noise and physical (in)activity, and impacts attributed back to modal source. In total, road transport was found to be responsible for 650 deaths in 2012 (2.1% of annual mortality): 308 from traffic accidents, 283 as a result of air pollution, and 59 from noise. Together with morbidity, these represent a total burden of disease of 26,610 disability-adjusted life years (DALYs). An estimated 40 deaths and 1874 DALYs were avoided through active transport. Cars are responsible for about 52% of attributable deaths, but heavy goods vehicles (6% of vehicle kilometres travelled, vkt) accounted for 21% of deaths. Motorcycles (1 per cent of vkt) are implicated in nearly 8% of deaths. Overall, impacts of traffic-related air pollution and noise are low compared to other developed countries, but road accident rates are high. Results highlight the need for policies targeted at road accidents, and especially at heavy goods vehicles and motorcycles, along with more general action to reduce the reliance on private road transport. The study also provides a framework for national indicator development. PMID:26703699

  19. MULTICRITERIA APPROACH FOR ASSESSMENT OF ENVIRONMENTAL QUALITY

    OpenAIRE

    Boris Agarski; Igor Budak; Janko Hodolič; Đorđe Vukelić

    2010-01-01

    Environment is important and inevitable element that has direct impact on life quality. Furthermore, environmental protection represents prerequisite for healthy and sustainable way of life. Environmental quality can be represented through specific indicators that can be identified, measured, analyzed, and assessed with adequate methods for assessment of environmental quality. Problem of insight in total environmental quality, caused by different, mutually incomparable, indicators of environm...

  20. Analysis of aromatic hydrocarbons in overburden from coal mines: Assessment of the environmental impact

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bituminous coals are known to contain significant amounts of petroleum-like hydrocarbons trapped in the pore system of the macromolecular network. With increasing thermal stress acting upon coals under the particular conditions in their deposits, the relative amount of volatile aromatic hydrocarbons within the trapped bitumen increases until the coal reaches the rank of medium-volatile bituminous coals. Coking coals particularly are rich in compounds such as benzene, biphenyl, naphthalene, and their alkylated derivatives. Potential hazardous environmental impact of these hydrocarbons has to be considered when mining or reclaiming overburden because approximately 10% overburden material related to coal mining is coal. Exposure to long-term weathering destroys the pore system of coals, which might result in a release of highly volatile bituminous coal constituents into the atmosphere. This view is supported by analyses of coals present in overburden material. In the present study, the on-line combination of thermodesorption coupled to gas chromatography and mass spectrometry is shown to be an appropriate tool for the detection and quantitation of hydrocarbons of a wide boiling temperature range present in solid sample material. The method is preferentially suitable for the analysis of highly volatile constituents such as benzene, toluene, and xylenes, which are not quantitatively analyzed using conventional solvent-extraction methods

  1. Assessment of environmental impact on air quality by cement industry and mitigating measures: a case study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kabir, G; Madugu, A I

    2010-01-01

    In this study, environmental impact on air quality was evaluated for a typical Cement Industry in Nigeria. The air pollutants in the atmosphere around the cement plant and neighbouring settlements were determined using appropriate sampling techniques. Atmospheric dust and CO2 were prevalent pollutants during the sampling period; their concentrations were recorded to be in the range of 249-3,745 mg/m3 and 2,440-2,600 mg/m3, respectively. Besides atmospheric dust and CO2, the air pollutants such as NOx, SOx and CO were in trace concentrations, below the safe limits approved by FEPA that are 0.0062-0.093 mg/m3 NOx, 0.026 mg/m3 SOx and 114.3 mg/m3 CO, respectively. Some cost-effective mitigating measures were recommended that include the utilisation of readily available and low-cost pozzolans material to produce blended cement, not only could energy efficiency be improved, but carbon dioxide emission could also be minimised during clinker production; and the installation of an advance high-pressure grinding rolls (clinker-roller-press process) to maximise energy efficiency to above what is obtainable from the traditional ball mills and to minimise CO2 emission from the power plant. PMID:19067202

  2. Environmental impact assessment of veterinary drug on fish aquaculture for food safety.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kwon, Jin-Wook

    2016-05-01

    The degradation of veterinary drugs approved for use in aquaculture is very important in the evaluation of the impact of these drugs on the environment and to ensure safe food production. The purpose of this study is to provide guidance on how the interpretation of environmental fate data can be used by applicants to aid in protecting the environment and for the basis for food production, by suggesting the correct interpretation of data as part of an effective registration process. Tests were performed using a modification of the Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development (OECD) 308 guideline using erythromycin and oxolinic acid under combinations of aerobic and anaerobic conditions, with and without sediment, in sea water and fresh water. Estimated DT50 s of erythromycin in fresh and sea water ranged from 6.8 to 37.9 days and estimated DT90 s were from 22.6 to 125.9 days. Degradation was more rapid in fresh water than in sea water with the formation of three degradation products: anhydroerythomycin A, erythromycin A enol ether, and pseudoerythomycin A enol ether. Estimated DT50 s of oxolinic acid in fresh and sea water were from 10.3 to 63.0 days and estimated DT90 s were from 34.3 to 209.4 days which suggests that oxolinic acid is more persistent in the environment than erythromycin. Copyright © 2016 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. PMID:27443211

  3. Burlington Bottoms Wildlife Mitigation Project. Final Environmental Assessment/Management Plan and Finding of No Significant Impact.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1994-12-01

    Bonneville Power Administration (BPA) proposes to fund wildlife management and enhancement activities for the Burlington bottoms wetlands mitigation site. Acquired by BPA in 1991, wildlife habitat at Burlington bottoms would contribute toward the goal of mitigation for wildlife losses and inundation of wildlife habitat due to the construction of Federal dams in the lower Columbia and Willamette River Basins. Target wildlife species identified for mitigation purposes are yellow warbler, great blue heron, black-capped chickadee, red-tailed hawk, valley quail, spotted sandpiper, wood duck, and beaver. The Draft Management Plan/Environmental Assessment (EA) describes alternatives for managing the Burlington Bottoms area, and evaluates the potential environmental impacts of the alternatives. Included in the Draft Management Plan/EA is an implementation schedule, and a monitoring and evaluation program, both of which are subject to further review pending determination of final ownership of the Burlington Bottoms property.

  4. Environmental assessment and finding of no significant impact: Biorecycling Technologies, Inc., Noble Biogas and Fertilizer Plant, Fresno County, California

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The US Department of Energy (DOE) is considering a proposal from the California Energy Commission for partial funding up to $1,500,000 of the construction of the biorecycling Technologies, Inc., (BTI) Noble Biogas and Fertilizer Plant in Fresno County, California. BTI along with its contractors and business partners would develop the plant, which would use manure and green waste to produce biogas and a variety of organic fertilizer products. The California Energy Commission has requested funding from the DOE Commercialization Ventures program to assist in the construction of the plant, which would produce up to one megawatt of electricity by burning biogas in a cogeneration unit. The purpose of this environmental assessment (EA) is to provide DOE and the public with information on potential environmental impacts associated with funding development of the proposed project

  5. Burlington Bottoms Wildlife Mitigation Project. Final environmental assessment/management plan and finding of no significant impact

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bonneville Power Administration (BPA) proposes to fund wildlife management and enhancement activities for the Burlington bottoms wetlands mitigation site. Acquired by BPA in 1991, wildlife habitat at Burlington bottoms would contribute toward the goal of mitigation for wildlife losses and inundation of wildlife habitat due to the construction of Federal dams in the lower Columbia and Willamette River Basins. Target wildlife species identified for mitigation purposes are yellow warbler, great blue heron, black-capped chickadee, red-tailed hawk, valley quail, spotted sandpiper, wood duck, and beaver. The Draft Management Plan/Environmental Assessment (EA) describes alternatives for managing the Burlington Bottoms area, and evaluates the potential environmental impacts of the alternatives. Included in the Draft Management Plan/EA is an implementation schedule, and a monitoring and evaluation program, both of which are subject to further review pending determination of final ownership of the Burlington Bottoms property

  6. Environmental assessment and finding of no significant impact: Biorecycling Technologies, Inc., Noble Biogas and Fertilizer Plant, Fresno County, California

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1997-09-01

    The US Department of Energy (DOE) is considering a proposal from the California Energy Commission for partial funding up to $1,500,000 of the construction of the biorecycling Technologies, Inc., (BTI) Noble Biogas and Fertilizer Plant in Fresno County, California. BTI along with its contractors and business partners would develop the plant, which would use manure and green waste to produce biogas and a variety of organic fertilizer products. The California Energy Commission has requested funding from the DOE Commercialization Ventures program to assist in the construction of the plant, which would produce up to one megawatt of electricity by burning biogas in a cogeneration unit. The purpose of this environmental assessment (EA) is to provide DOE and the public with information on potential environmental impacts associated with funding development of the proposed project.

  7. Environmental impact of the production of mealworms as a protein source for humans - a life cycle assessment.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dennis G A B Oonincx

    Full Text Available The demand for animal protein is expected to rise by 70-80% between 2012 and 2050, while the current animal production sector already causes major environmental degradation. Edible insects are suggested as a more sustainable source of animal protein. However, few experimental data regarding environmental impact of insect production are available. Therefore, a lifecycle assessment for mealworm production was conducted, in which greenhouse gas production, energy use and land use were quantified and compared to conventional sources of animal protein. Production of one kg of edible protein from milk, chicken, pork or beef result in higher greenhouse gas emissions, require similar amounts of energy and require much more land. This study demonstrates that mealworms should be considered a more sustainable source of edible protein.

  8. Environmental impact of pharmaceuticals from Portuguese wastewaters: geographical and seasonal occurrence, removal and risk assessment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pereira, André M P T; Silva, Liliana J G; Meisel, Leonor M; Lino, Celeste M; Pena, Angelina

    2015-01-01

    The occurrence, fate, geographical and seasonal influence and environmental risk assessment of eleven of the most consumed pharmaceuticals in Portugal were studied in wastewater treatment plants (WWTPs) influents and (WWI) and effluents (WWE). WWI and WWE samples, from two sampling campaigns (spring and summer), in 2013, were evaluated in 15 different WWTPs across the country, by solid phase extraction (SPE) and liquid chromatography coupled with tandem mass detection (LC-MS-MS). Lipid regulators were the most frequently found in WWI and WWE (184.1 and 22.3mg/day/1000 inhab., respectively), followed by anti-inflammatories (1339.4 and 15.0mg/day/1000 inhab., respectively), and antibiotics (330.7 and 68.6 mg/day/1000 inhab., respectively). Anxiolytics were the least detected with 3.3 and 3.4 mg/day/1000 inhab. in WWI and WWE, respectively. The mass loads, both in WWI and WWE, were higher in summer than those found during the spring season, being remarkable the high values registered in a region where population triplicates in this time of the year. The mean removal efficiency achieved was of 94.5%, nonetheless, between the different therapeutic groups, as well as within each group, important variations in removal were observed, going from not eliminated to 100%. In the summer higher efficiencies were observed regarding lipid regulators and antibiotics. Furthermore, an important outcome was the evaluation, by means of risk quotients (RQs), of the potential ecotoxicological risk posed by the selected pharmaceuticals to different aquatic organisms, exposed to the effluents studied. Ciprofloxacin, bezafibrate, gemfibrozil, simvastatin and diclofenac showed RQs higher than one, being expected that these pharmaceuticals might pose a threat to the three trophic levels (algae, daphnids and fish) evaluated. These results highlight the importance of these monitoring studies, as required by the Directive 2013/39/EU, in order to minimize their aquatic environmental contamination

  9. Environmental impact assessment of biofuel production on contaminated land - Swedish case studies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Andersson-Skoeld, Yvonne; Suer, Pascal (Swedish Geotechnical Institute, Linkoeping (Sweden)); Blom, Sonja (FB Engineering AB, Goeteborg (Sweden)); Bardos, Paul (r3 Environmental Technology Ltd, Reading (United Kingdom)); Track, Thomas; Polland, Marcel (DECHEMA e. V., Frankfurt am Main (Germany))

    2009-07-01

    This report studies the (possible) cultivation of short rotation wood (Salix Vinimalis) on two contaminated sites from an environmental perspective, through a life cycle analysis (LCA) and carbon footprint, with an outlook towards an overarching method for a qualitative or semi-quantitative analysis based on a life cycle framework. Two areas were selected as case studies: a small site where short rotation crop (Salix Vinimalis) cultivation is in progress and a large site where biofuel production is hypothetical. For the selection of suitable sites, the following aspects were considered: Site location and size, so that biofuel cultivation might be economically viable without a remediation bonus, Topography and soil conditions, so that machinery could be used for cultivation, Time, so that the site was not in urgent need of remediation due to environmental or human health risks, or acute exploitation requirements, Contamination degree, which should not be plant-toxic, Contamination depth, Assessment of optimum crop and its use. For doubtful areas, it is especially important to analyse what the most viable option for the contaminated site is, and what bio-product could be used. For a more comprehensive analysis, which also incorporates local economic and social aspects, the decision support matrix, inter alia, described in the main report of the project Rejuvenate, is recommended. The calculation of emissions for the LCA and the carbon footprint used a German software tool for LCA of soil remediation. The software includes equipment emission data published in 1995. The module 'landfarming' has been used in this study to calculate emissions from herbicide application, fertilisation, ploughing and deep-ploughing, Salix harvest, harrowing etc. Since production of herbicide and Salix Vinimalis shoots were not included in the software, they were not included in the study. The conclusions for the two sites were very similar, in spite of the large differences

  10. Impact assessment revisited

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thiele, Jan; Kollmann, Johannes Christian; Markussen, Bo;

    2010-01-01

    The theoretical underpinnings of the assessment of invasive alien species impacts need to be improved. At present most approaches are unreliable to quantify impact at regional scales and do not allow for comparison of different invasive species. There are four basic problems that need to be addre......The theoretical underpinnings of the assessment of invasive alien species impacts need to be improved. At present most approaches are unreliable to quantify impact at regional scales and do not allow for comparison of different invasive species. There are four basic problems that need...... to be addressed: (1) Some impacted ecosystem traits are spatially not additive; (2) invader effects may increase non-linearly with abundance or there may be effect thresholds impairing estimates of linear impact models; (3) the abundance and impact of alien species will often co-vary with environmental variation......; and (4) the total invaded range is an inappropriate measure for quantifying regional impact because the habitat area available for invasion can vary markedly among invasive species. Mathematical models and empirical data using an invasive alien plant species (Heracleum mantegazzianum) indicate...

  11. Lepreau 2 environmental impact statement

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Maritime Nuclear, a joint undertaking of Atomic Energy of Canada Limited and the New Brunswick Electric Power Commission, proposes to construct a second CANDU 600 MW nuclear-powered generating unit at the site of the existing Point Lepreau Generating Station, in New Brunswick. A feasibility study is now underway and guidelines issued by the Lepreau 2 Environmental Assessment Panel identified six priority issues and concerns. These are: impacts on the biological environment, impacts of radiation on humans, impacts on the socio-economic environment, monitoring, emergency planning, and decommissioning. These factors as well as a description of the site and proposed facility are described in this report

  12. Life-cycle assessment of energy consumption and environmental impact of an integrated food waste-based biogas plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Highlights: • 47.76% of the energy consumption is from the primary treatment process. • The dominant environmental impact comes from GWP100 emission (96.97 kgCO2-eq/t). • Increasing recycling rate of product can effectively reduce consumption and impact. - Abstract: Recycling food waste to produce biogas by anaerobic digestion (AD) is a promising process that can both provide renewable energy and dispose solid waste safely. However, this process affects the environment due to greenhouse gas emissions. By lifecycle assessment (LCA), we assessed the energy consumption (EC) and environmental impact (EI) of an integrated food waste-based biogas system and its subsystems. Data were collected from an actual plant in China that adopted a combination of wet-heat treatment and wet AD process at thermophilic condition. The EC of the system for processing 1 ton of waste was 663.89 MJ, among which 47.76% was from the primary treatment process (including pretreatment and AD). The GWP100 (100-year global warming potential) emission of the system reached 96.97 kgCO2-eq/t, and the AP (acidification potential), EP (eutrophication potential), HTPinf (human toxicity potential) and FAETPinf (fresh water ecotoxicity) emissions were low. The EI was mainly generated by two subsystems, namely, the primary treatment and the secondary pollution control. Sensitivity analysis showed that a 40% increase of the feed fat content resulted in 38% increase in the net energy value output and 48% decrease in EP effect. The increase in oil content and biogas production rate could significantly reduce the EC and EI of the system. It has been shown that improving the technology of the process and increasing the recycling rate of products will result in the reduction of EC and EI of the biogas system. In addition, a quantitative assessment model of EC and EI in integrated food waste-based biogas technology is established

  13. Environmental impact assessment in urban transport planning: Exploring process-related barriers in Spanish practice

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The effectiveness of EIA for evaluating transport planning projects is increasingly being questioned by practitioners, institutions and scholars. The academic literature has traditionally focused more on solving content-related problems with EIA (i.e. the measurement of environmental effects) than on process-related issues (i.e. the role of EIA in the planning process and the interaction between key actors). Focusing only on technical improvements is not sufficient for rectifying the effectiveness problems of EIA. In order to address this knowledge gap, the paper explores how EIA is experienced in the Spanish planning context and offers in-depth insight into EIA process-related issues in the field of urban transport planning. From the multitude of involved actors, the research focuses on exploring the perceptions of the two main professional groups: EIA developers and transport planners. Through a web-based survey we assess the importance of process-related barriers to the effective use of EIA in urban transport planning. The analyses revealed process issues based fundamentally on unstructured stakeholders involvement and an inefficient public participation - Highlights: • Qualitative research on perceptions of EIA participants on EIA processes. • Web-based survey with different participants (EIA-developers; transport planners). • It was seen an inefficient participation of stakeholders during the EIA processes

  14. Application of the AERMOD modeling system for environmental impact assessment of NO2 emissions from a cement complex

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Kanyanee Seangkiatiyuth; Vanisa Surapipith; Kraichat Tantrakamapa; Anchaleeporn W. Lothongkum

    2011-01-01

    We applied the model of American Meteorological Society-Environmental Protection Agency Regulatory Model (AERMOD) as a tool for the analysis of nitrogen dioxide (NO2) emissions from a cement complex as a part of the environmental impact assessment.The dispersion of NO2 from four cement plants within the selected cement complex were investigated both by measurement and AERMOD simulation in dry and wet seasons.Simulated values of NO2 emissions were compared with those obtained during a 7-day continuous measurement campaign at 12 receptors.It was predicted that NO2 concentration peaks were found more within 1 to 5 km, where the measurement and simulation were in good agreement, than at the receptors 5 km further away from the reference point.The QuantileQuantile plots of NO2 concentrations in dry season were mostly fitted to the middle line compared to those in wet season.This can be attributed to high NO2 wet deposition.The results show that for both the measurement and the simulation using the AERMOD, NO2 concentrations do not exceed the NO2 concentration limit set by the National Ambient Air Quality Standards (NAAQS) of Thailand.This indicates that NO2 emissions from the cement complex have no significant impact on nearby communities.It can be concluded that the AERMOD can provide useful information to identify high pollution impact areas for the EIA guidelines.

  15. Environmental impact assessment of biofuel production on contaminated land - Swedish case studies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Andersson-Skoeld, Yvonne; Suer, Pascal (Swedish Geotechnical Institute, Linkoeping (Sweden)); Blom, Sonja (FB Engineering AB, Goeteborg (Sweden)); Bardos, Paul (r3 Environmental Technology Ltd, Reading (United Kingdom)); Track, Thomas; Polland, Marcel (DECHEMA e. V., Frankfurt am Main (Germany))

    2009-07-01

    This report studies the (possible) cultivation of short rotation wood (Salix Vinimalis) on two contaminated sites from an environmental perspective, through a life cycle analysis (LCA) and carbon footprint, with an outlook towards an overarching method for a qualitative or semi-quantitative analysis based on a life cycle framework. Two areas were selected as case studies: a small site where short rotation crop (Salix Vinimalis) cultivation is in progress and a large site where biofuel production is hypothetical. For the selection of suitable sites, the following aspects were considered: Site location and size, so that biofuel cultivation might be economically viable without a remediation bonus, Topography and soil conditions, so that machinery could be used for cultivation, Time, so that the site was not in urgent need of remediation due to environmental or human health risks, or acute exploitation requirements, Contamination degree, which should not be plant-toxic, Contamination depth, Assessment of optimum crop and its use. For doubtful areas, it is especially important to analyse what the most viable option for the contaminated site is, and what bio-product could be used. For a more comprehensive analysis, which also incorporates local economic and social aspects, the decision support matrix, inter alia, described in the main report of the project Rejuvenate, is recommended. The calculation of emissions for the LCA and the carbon footprint used a German software tool for LCA of soil remediation. The software includes equipment emission data published in 1995. The module 'landfarming' has been used in this study to calculate emissions from herbicide application, fertilisation, ploughing and deep-ploughing, Salix harvest, harrowing etc. Since production of herbicide and Salix Vinimalis shoots were not included in the software, they were not included in the study. The conclusions for the two sites were very similar, in spite of the large differences

  16. Developments in Social Impact Assessment

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vanclay, Frank

    2014-01-01

    Along with environmental impact assessment, social impact assessment (SIA) has its origins in the 1970s and has developed from being a tool to meet regulatory requirements, to a discipline that seeks to contribute proactively to better project and policy development and to enhance the wellbeing of a

  17. Quality and Environmental Impact Assessment of Coal Deposits of Punjab Pakistan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    *1S. Imad

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Major coal fields in Punjab Province are located in the Salt and Surghar ranges, whose collective reserves are 235 million tons. Representative coal samples were collected from Makarwal, Kallar Kahar and Dandot for assessment of quality and its impact on environment during combustion. The coal was classified as sub-bituminous type on the basis of proximate analysis. Average measured calorific values were noted 6801, 5624 and 6415 Btu/lb for Makarwal, Kallar Kahar and Dandot samples respectively. Moderate moisture, volatiles, fixed carbon and low ash designate it as suitable material for electric generation and cement manufacturing. The average sulfur content of all samples was appeared as 5.13%, which is high for power generation and other allied industries. The combustion of this coal may pose threat to the environment in the region due to the presence of high sulfur and other trace elements like Al, Cr, Fe, Zn, Mn, Cu, Sn, and Ni in appreciable quantities. Appropriate measure is essential to substantially reduce sulfur and these trace elements before using it in the power generation plants and other industries of Pakistan

  18. The Santa Quiteria project - an environmental impact assessment of its phosphogypsum stack

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Reis, Rocio G. dos; Lauria, Dejanira da Costa, E-mail: rocio@ird.gov.br, E-mail: dejanira@ird.gov.br [Instituto de Radioprotecao e Dosimetria (IRD/CNEN-RJ), Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil)

    2011-07-01

    The Santa Quiteria Project is located in Ceara state, Brazil. Actually, it is the biggest Brazilian uranium mine project. A peculiarity of this project is the association of uranium with phosphate and the mining and processing of both together by two enterprises. A private company will be responsible for the production of phosphoric acid and a state owned company will be responsible for the production yellow cake. At full capacity, the plant will generate 10% of Brazil's total annual phosphoric acid production and 1,500 tons of yellow cake per year. The reaction, by which phosphoric acid is produced, generates phosphogypsum (PG) as a by-product. The ratio of phosphogypsum to phosphoric acid is around 5 to 1. After all the phosphate has been extracted and processed, it is expected that some 37 million tons of phosphogypsum with 13 Bq/g of radium 226 will be produced. Aiming to assess the potential radioactive impact of this PG stack on the workers and surrounding inhabitants, a generic assessment was performed by RESRAD offsite and onsite codes. A hypothetical farmer scenario was used to calculate potential dose out of the project boundary and over the stack piles, after the shutdown of the project. The annual exposure dose of workers according to the progress of processing was also evaluated. In conservative approach the potential public dose was estimated as 2.5 mSv/y. This study identified the rainfall erosion index, the geometric shape of the PG stack and the fish consumption as parameters where an improvement of information and understanding could improve the quality of the dose assessment. The worker dose estimation stressed the need for action plan to mitigate worker exposures on the stack. In addition, the onsite public dose pointed out the importance of a planning for remediating the area after the shutdown of the plant, in order to assure that public and environment health will not be affected by the presence of the PG stack. (author)

  19. Indicators of bioenergy-related certification schemes – An analysis of the quality and comprehensiveness for assessing local/regional environmental impacts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bioenergy is receiving increasing attention because it may reduce greenhouse gas emissions, secure and diversify energy supplies and stimulate rural development. The environmental sustainability of bioenergy production systems is often determined through life-cycle assessments that focus on global environmental effects, such as the emission of greenhouse gases or air pollutants. Local/regional environmental impacts, e.g., the impacts on soil or on biodiversity, require site-specific and flexible options for the assessment of environmental sustainability, such as the criteria and indicators used in bioenergy certification schemes. In this study, we compared certification schemes and assessed the indicator quality through the environmental impact categories, using a standardized rating scale to evaluate the indicators. Current certification schemes have limitations in their representation of the environmental systems affected by feedstock production. For example, these schemes predominantly use feasible causal indicators, instead of more reliable but less feasible effect indicators. Furthermore, the comprehensiveness of the depicted environmental systems and the causal links between human land use activities and biophysical processes in these systems have been assessed. Bioenergy certification schemes seem to demonstrate compliance with underlying legislation, such as the EU Renewable Energy Directive, rather than ensure environmental sustainability. Beyond, certification schemes often lack a methodology or thresholds for sustainable biomass use. Lacking thresholds, imprecise causal links and incomplete indicator sets may hamper comparisons of the environmental performances of different feedstocks. To enhance existing certification schemes, we propose combining the strengths of several certification schemes with research-based indicators, to increase the reliability of environmental assessments. - Highlights: • Certification schemes for bioenergy feedstocks are

  20. Development and Climate Change: A Mainstreaming Approach for Assessing Economic, Social, and Environmental Impacts of Adaptation Measures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Halsnæs, Kirsten; Trærup, Sara

    2009-05-01

    The paper introduces the so-called climate change mainstreaming approach, where vulnerability and adaptation measures are assessed in the context of general development policy objectives. The approach is based on the application of a limited set of indicators. These indicators are selected as representatives of focal development policy objectives, and a stepwise approach for addressing climate change impacts, development linkages, and the economic, social and environmental dimensions related to vulnerability and adaptation are introduced. Within this context it is illustrated using three case studies how development policy indicators in practice can be used to assess climate change impacts and adaptation measures based on three case studies, namely a road project in flood prone areas of Mozambique, rainwater harvesting in the agricultural sector in Tanzania and malaria protection in Tanzania. The conclusions of the paper confirm that climate risks can be reduced at relatively low costs, but the uncertainty is still remaining about some of the wider development impacts of implementing climate change adaptation measures.

  1. Workshop on environmental assessment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Objectives of the workshop were: to review and evaluate the state-of-the-art of environmental impact assessments as applied to the regulation of applications of nuclear energy and related ancillary systems; to identify areas where existing technology allows establishing acceptable methods or standard practices that will meet the requirements of the NRC regulations, standards and guides for both normal operations and off-standard conditions including accident considerations; to illuminate topics where existing models or analytical methods are deficient because of unverified assumptions, a paucity of empirical data, conflicting results reported in the literature or a need for observation of operation systems; to compile, analyze and synthesize a prioritized set of research needs to advance the state-of-the-art to the level which will meet all of the requirements of the Commission's regulations, standards and guides; and to develop bases for maintaining the core of regulatory guidance at the optimum level balancing technical capabilities with practical considerations of cost and value to the regulatory process. The discussion held in small group sessions on aquatic, atmospheric, and terrestrial pathways are presented. The following research needs were identified as common to all three groups: validation of models; characterization of source terms; development of screening techniques; basis for de minimis levels of contamination; and updating of objectives for environmental monitoring programs

  2. Limitations to the Use of Species-Distribution Models for Environmental-Impact Assessments in the Amazon.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carneiro, Lorena Ribeiro de A; Lima, Albertina P; Machado, Ricardo B; Magnusson, William E

    2016-01-01

    Species-distribution models (SDM) are tools with potential to inform environmental-impact studies (EIA). However, they are not always appropriate and may result in improper and expensive mitigation and compensation if their limitations are not understood by decision makers. Here, we examine the use of SDM for frogs that were used in impact assessment using data obtained from the EIA of a hydroelectric project located in the Amazon Basin in Brazil. The results show that lack of knowledge of species distributions limits the appropriate use of SDM in the Amazon region for most target species. Because most of these targets are newly described and their distributions poorly known, data about their distributions are insufficient to be effectively used in SDM. Surveys that are mandatory for the EIA are often conducted only near the area under assessment, and so models must extrapolate well beyond the sampled area to inform decisions made at much larger spatial scales, such as defining areas to be used to offset the negative effects of the projects. Using distributions of better-known species in simulations, we show that geographical-extrapolations based on limited information of species ranges often lead to spurious results. We conclude that the use of SDM as evidence to support project-licensing decisions in the Amazon requires much greater area sampling for impact studies, or, alternatively, integrated and comparative survey strategies, to improve biodiversity sampling. When more detailed distribution information is unavailable, SDM will produce results that generate uncertain and untestable decisions regarding impact assessment. In many cases, SDM is unlikely to be better than the use of expert opinion. PMID:26784891

  3. Limitations to the Use of Species-Distribution Models for Environmental-Impact Assessments in the Amazon.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carneiro, Lorena Ribeiro de A; Lima, Albertina P; Machado, Ricardo B; Magnusson, William E

    2016-01-01

    Species-distribution models (SDM) are tools with potential to inform environmental-impact studies (EIA). However, they are not always appropriate and may result in improper and expensive mitigation and compensation if their limitations are not understood by decision makers. Here, we examine the use of SDM for frogs that were used in impact assessment using data obtained from the EIA of a hydroelectric project located in the Amazon Basin in Brazil. The results show that lack of knowledge of species distributions limits the appropriate use of SDM in the Amazon region for most target species. Because most of these targets are newly described and their distributions poorly known, data about their distributions are insufficient to be effectively used in SDM. Surveys that are mandatory for the EIA are often conducted only near the area under assessment, and so models must extrapolate well beyond the sampled area to inform decisions made at much larger spatial scales, such as defining areas to be used to offset the negative effects of the projects. Using distributions of better-known species in simulations, we show that geographical-extrapolations based on limited information of species ranges often lead to spurious results. We conclude that the use of SDM as evidence to support project-licensing decisions in the Amazon requires much greater area sampling for impact studies, or, alternatively, integrated and comparative survey strategies, to improve biodiversity sampling. When more detailed distribution information is unavailable, SDM will produce results that generate uncertain and untestable decisions regarding impact assessment. In many cases, SDM is unlikely to be better than the use of expert opinion.

  4. Limitations to the Use of Species-Distribution Models for Environmental-Impact Assessments in the Amazon.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lorena Ribeiro de A Carneiro

    Full Text Available Species-distribution models (SDM are tools with potential to inform environmental-impact studies (EIA. However, they are not always appropriate and may result in improper and expensive mitigation and compensation if their limitations are not understood by decision makers. Here, we examine the use of SDM for frogs that were used in impact assessment using data obtained from the EIA of a hydroelectric project located in the Amazon Basin in Brazil. The results show that lack of knowledge of species distributions limits the appropriate use of SDM in the Amazon region for most target species. Because most of these targets are newly described and their distributions poorly known, data about their distributions are insufficient to be effectively used in SDM. Surveys that are mandatory for the EIA are often conducted only near the area under assessment, and so models must extrapolate well beyond the sampled area to inform decisions made at much larger spatial scales, such as defining areas to be used to offset the negative effects of the projects. Using distributions of better-known species in simulations, we show that geographical-extrapolations based on limited information of species ranges often lead to spurious results. We conclude that the use of SDM as evidence to support project-licensing decisions in the Amazon requires much greater area sampling for impact studies, or, alternatively, integrated and comparative survey strategies, to improve biodiversity sampling. When more detailed distribution information is unavailable, SDM will produce results that generate uncertain and untestable decisions regarding impact assessment. In many cases, SDM is unlikely to be better than the use of expert opinion.

  5. Environmental impact assessment and monetary ecosystem service valuation of an ecosystem under different future environmental change and management scenarios; a case study of a Scots pine forest.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schaubroeck, Thomas; Deckmyn, Gaby; Giot, Olivier; Campioli, Matteo; Vanpoucke, Charlotte; Verheyen, Kris; Rugani, Benedetto; Achten, Wouter; Verbeeck, Hans; Dewulf, Jo; Muys, Bart

    2016-05-15

    For a sustainable future, we must sustainably manage not only the human/industrial system but also ecosystems. To achieve the latter goal, we need to predict the responses of ecosystems and their provided services to management practices under changing environmental conditions via ecosystem models and use tools to compare the estimated provided services between the different scenarios. However, scientific articles have covered a limited amount of estimated ecosystem services and have used tools to aggregate services that contain a significant amount of subjective aspects and that represent the final result in a non-tangible unit such as 'points'. To resolve these matters, this study quantifies the environmental impact (on human health, natural systems and natural resources) in physical units and uses an ecosystem service valuation based on monetary values (including ecosystem disservices with associated negative monetary values). More specifically, the paper also focuses on the assessment of ecosystem services related to pollutant removal/generation flows, accounting for the inflow of eutrophying nitrogen (N) when assessing the effect of N leached to groundwater. Regarding water use/provisioning, evapotranspiration is alternatively considered a disservice because it implies a loss of (potential) groundwater. These approaches and improvements, relevant to all ecosystems, are demonstrated using a Scots pine stand from 2010 to 2089 for a combination of three environmental change and three management scenarios. The environmental change scenarios considered interannual climate variability trends and included alterations in temperature, precipitation, nitrogen deposition, wind speed, Particulate matter (PM) concentration and CO2 concentration. The addressed flows/ecosystem services, including disservices, are as follows: particulate matter removal, freshwater loss, CO2 sequestration, wood production, NOx emissions, NH3 uptake and nitrogen pollution/removal. The monetary

  6. Seminar on Comparative assessment of the environmental impact of radionuclides released during three major nuclear accidents: Kyshtym, Windscale, Chernobyl. Vol. 1

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    These proceedings of seminar on comparative assessment of the environmental impact of radionuclides released during three major nuclear accidents (Kyshtym, Windscale, Chernobyl) are divided into 5 parts bearing on: part 1: accident source terms; part 2: atmospheric dispersion, resuspension, chemical and physical forms of contamination; part 3: environmental contamination and transfer; part 4: radiological implications for man and his environment; part 5: countermeasures

  7. Nuclear power and the environment: comparative assessment of environmental and health impacts of electricity-generating systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rashad, S.M.; Hammad, F.H. [Atomic Energy Authority, National Centre for Nuclear Safety and Radiation Control, Cairo (Egypt)

    2000-04-01

    This paper deals with comparative assessment of the environmental and health impacts of nuclear and other electricity-generation systems. The study includes normal operations and accidents in the full energy chain analysis. The comparison of environmental impacts arising from the waste-management cycles associated with non-emission waste are also discussed. Nuclear power, while economically feasible and meeting 17% of the world's demand for electricity, is almost free of the air polluting gases that threaten the global climate. Comparing nuclear power with other sources for electricity generation in terms of their associated environmental releases of pollutant such as SO{sub 2}, NOx, CO{sub 2} CH{sub 4} and radioisotopes, taking into account the full fuel chains of supply option, nuclear power will help to reduce environmental degradation due to electricity generation activities. In view of CO{sub 2} emission, the ranking order commences with hydro, followed by nuclear, wind and photovoltaic power plants. CO{sub 2} emissions from a nuclear power plant are by two order of magnitude lower than those of fossil-fuelled power plants. A consequent risk comparison between different energy sources has to include all phases of the whole energy cycle. Coal mine accidents have resulted in several 1000 acute deaths over the years. Then came hydropower, also resulting in many catastrophes and loss of human lives, followed by the oil and gas energy industries, last in the list is commercial nuclear energy, which has had a 'bad' press because of the Chernobyl accidents, resulting officially in 31 acute fatalities, and at least 145 latent fatalities. The paper offers some findings and conclusions on the role of nuclear power in protecting the global environment. (Author)

  8. Environmental and health impacts of fine and ultrafine metallic particles: Assessment of threat scores

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Goix, Sylvaine [Université de Toulouse, INP-ENSAT, Av. Agrobiopôle, 31326 Castanet-Tolosan (France); UMR 5245 CNRS-INP-UPS, EcoLab (Laboratoire d' écologie fonctionnelle), Avenue de l' Agrobiopôle, BP 32607, 31326 Castanet-Tolosan (France); Lévêque, Thibaut [Université de Toulouse, INP-ENSAT, Av. Agrobiopôle, 31326 Castanet-Tolosan (France); UMR 5245 CNRS-INP-UPS, EcoLab (Laboratoire d' écologie fonctionnelle), Avenue de l' Agrobiopôle, BP 32607, 31326 Castanet-Tolosan (France); ADEME (French Agency for Environment and Energy Management), 20 Avenue du Grésillé, BP 90406, 49004 Angers Cedex 01 (France); Xiong, Tian-Tian [Université de Toulouse, INP-ENSAT, Av. Agrobiopôle, 31326 Castanet-Tolosan (France); UMR 5245 CNRS-INP-UPS, EcoLab (Laboratoire d' écologie fonctionnelle), Avenue de l' Agrobiopôle, BP 32607, 31326 Castanet-Tolosan (France); Schreck, Eva [Géosciences Environnement Toulouse (GET), Observatoire Midi Pyrénées, Université de Toulouse, CNRS, IRD, 14 Avenue E. Belin, F-31400 Toulouse (France); and others

    2014-08-15

    This study proposes global threat scores to prioritize the harmfulness of anthropogenic fine and ultrafine metallic particles (FMP) emitted into the atmosphere at the global scale. (Eco)toxicity of physicochemically characterized FMP oxides for metals currently observed in the atmosphere (CdO, CuO, PbO, PbSO{sub 4}, Sb{sub 2}O{sub 3}, and ZnO) was assessed by performing complementary in vitro tests: ecotoxicity, human bioaccessibility, cytotoxicity, and oxidative potential. Using an innovative methodology based on the combination of (eco)toxicity and physicochemical results, the following hazard classification of the particles is proposed: CdCl{sub 2}∼CdO>CuO>PbO>ZnO>PbSO{sub 4}>Sb{sub 2}O{sub 3}. Both cadmium compounds exhibited the highest threat score due to their high cytotoxicity and bioaccessible dose, whatever their solubility and speciation, suggesting that cadmium toxicity is due to its chemical form rather than its physical form. In contrast, the Sb{sub 2}O{sub 3} threat score was the lowest due to particles with low specific area and solubility, with no effects except a slight oxidative stress. As FMP physicochemical properties reveal differences in specific area, crystallization systems, dissolution process, and speciation, various mechanisms may influence their biological impact. Finally, this newly developed and global approach could be widely used in various contexts of pollution by complex metal particles and may improve risk management. - Highlights: • Seven micro- and nano- monometallic characterized particles were studied as references. • Bioaccessibility, eco and cytotoxicity, and oxidative potential assays were performed. • According to calculated threat scores: CdCl{sub 2}∼CdO>CuO>PbO>ZnO>PbSO{sub 4}>Sb{sub 2}O{sub 3}.

  9. Social Impact Assessment in Europe

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, Sanne Vammen; Hansen, Anne Merrild; Lyhne, Ivar;

    2015-01-01

    Social impact assessment (SIA) is applied worldwide to assess social impacts of plans and projects. In Europe, directives on environmental assessment (EA) require attention to social impacts, however, there is a need to investigate the implementation in practise. To this end, we study three Danish...... cases, which are characterised by debates and conflicts on social issues. Analysis of the EA statements shows inclusion of a broad range of social impacts. However, the EAs do not fully match the concerns of the public, and social impacts are not always analysed in depth, mitigation measures are not...... suggested or are postponed and the geographical distribution of impacts assessed is biased towards including negative local impacts. We discuss the scope and handling of social impacts, and possible implications. Based on this, we conclude with the view that EA might do the job of handling social impacts in...

  10. 78 FR 57847 - Proposed Information Collection Request; Comment Request; Environmental Impact Assessment of...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-09-20

    ... Protocol on Environmental Protection (Protocol) to the Antarctic Treaty of 1959 (Treaty). The Rule provides... Environmental Protection 120 days in advance of the next Antarctic Treaty Consultative Meeting (ATCM) at which... Article VII of the Antarctic Treaty of 1959; this includes all nongovernmental expeditions to and...

  11. 78 FR 75370 - Draft Supplemental Environmental Assessment and Finding of No Significant Impact for Flood...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-12-11

    ... National Environmental Policy ] Act of 1969; the Council on Environmental Quality Final Regulations (40 CFR..., published in the Federal Register September 2, 1981, (46 FR 44083); the USIBWC hereby gives notice that the... the ground. Sheet Pile Wall Alternative. This alternative would construct a sheet pile wall instead...

  12. An integrated impact assessment and weighting methodology: evaluation of the environmental consequences of computer display technology substitution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Xiaoying; Schoenung, Julie M

    2007-04-01

    Computer display technology is currently in a state of transition, as the traditional technology of cathode ray tubes is being replaced by liquid crystal display flat-panel technology. Technology substitution and process innovation require the evaluation of the trade-offs among environmental impact, cost, and engineering performance attributes. General impact assessment methodologies, decision analysis and management tools, and optimization methods commonly used in engineering cannot efficiently address the issues needed for such evaluation. The conventional Life Cycle Assessment (LCA) process often generates results that can be subject to multiple interpretations, although the advantages of the LCA concept and framework obtain wide recognition. In the present work, the LCA concept is integrated with Quality Function Deployment (QFD), a popular industrial quality management tool, which is used as the framework for the development of our integrated model. The problem of weighting is addressed by using pairwise comparison of stakeholder preferences. Thus, this paper presents a new integrated analytical approach, Integrated Industrial Ecology Function Deployment (I2-EFD), to assess the environmental behavior of alternative technologies in correlation with their performance and economic characteristics. Computer display technology is used as the case study to further develop our methodology through the modification and integration of various quality management tools (e.g., process mapping, prioritization matrix) and statistical methods (e.g., multi-attribute analysis, cluster analysis). Life cycle thinking provides the foundation for our methodology, as we utilize a published LCA report, which stopped at the characterization step, as our starting point. Further, we evaluate the validity and feasibility of our methodology by considering uncertainty and conducting sensitivity analysis. PMID:16714079

  13. Assessment of co-composting of sludge and woodchips in the perspective of environmental impacts (EASETECH)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zhao, Yan; Lu, Wenjing; Damgaard, Anders;

    2015-01-01

    phosphorus substitution. With the application of fewer woodchips, impacts to acidification and terrestrial eutrophication decreased because more ammonium was reserved rather than released. All impacts to human toxicity were not significant (8.2. ±. 0.6 PE) because the compost was used for urban landscaping...... rather than farming. Trace gaseous compounds showed marginal impacts to global warming and toxicity categories. The results provide a new perspective and offer evidence for appropriate sludge treatment selection....

  14. Environmental impact of nuclear industry and power generation in the Russian Federation: assessment of contribution to general damage

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The objective of the study was assess the contribution of nuclear industry and power generation to environmental pollution in the Russian Federation. The general aim is to provide rationale for the sound strategy and priorities in addressing issues related to technogenous environmental pollution at the national and regional governance levels. Estimates were derived from data found in reviews published by federal environmental protection authorities. The impact of major sectors of economy to contamination of the environment was estimated through analyzing the amount of chemical and radioactive releases, as well as parameters of air, water, soil and forest contamination for economic regions and provinces where major nuclear plants are located. Pollutant maximum permissible concentrations (MPC) for natural environment media (ambient air, natural water, soil) as adopted in RF were taken as evaluation criteria. A relative pollution index taking account of the gross product value in the given sector of economy was proposed for the purposes of economic assessment. According to reported data nuclear power and industry plants make no adverse effect on the ambient air quality in impact areas. Emissions of industrial gases and pollutants, and fossil-fuel combustion (dust and soot, NO2, CO etc.) remain the main sources of dangerous (exceeding MPC) chemical air pollution in each province concerned. The leading industries contributing a principal load to air pollution are: automobile transport, metallurgy, etc. Specific pollution indexes were calculated for several major sectors: φ=P/(MPC)·M m3/Rb, where P is gross pollutant emission, g/year; MPC - as above, g/m3; M is value of annual production, Rb/year. Values of φ for these sectors are given in table form. Water quality in most natural fresh water resources fails to meet the standards, the most widespread pollutants being represented by oil products, phenols, etc. Major sources of water pollution are: industrial wastewater

  15. Environmental Assessment and Finding of No Significant Impact: Widening Trench 36 of the 218-E-12B Low-Level Burial Ground, Hanford Site, Richland, Washington

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    N/A

    1999-02-11

    This environmental assessment was prepared to assess potential environmental impacts associated with the proposed action to widen and operate unused Trench 36 in the 218-E-12B Low-Level Burial Ground for disposal of low-level waste. Information contained herein will be used by the Manager, U.S. Department of Energy, Richland Operations Office, to determine if the Proposed Action is a major federal action significantly affecting the quality of the human environment. If the Proposed Action is determined to be major and significant, an environmental impact statement will be prepared. If the Proposed Action is determined not to be major and significant, a Finding of No Significant Impact will be issued and the action may proceed. Criteria used to evaluate significance can be found in Title 40, Code of Federal Regulations 1508.27. This environmental assessment was prepared in compliance with the ''National Environmental Policy Act of1969'', as amended, the Council on Environmental Quality Regulations for Implementing the Procedural Provisions of ''National Environmental Policy Act'' (Title 40, Code of Federal Regulations 1500-1508), and the U.S. Department of Energy Implementing Procedures for ''National Environmental Polio Act'' (Title 10, Code of Federal Regulations 1021). The following is a description of each section of this environmental assessment. (1) Purpose and Need for Action. This section provides a brief statement concerning the problem or opportunity the U.S, Department of Energy is addressing with the Proposed Action. Background information is provided. (2) Description of the Proposed Action. This section provides a description of the Proposed Action with sufficient detail to identify potential environmental impacts. (3) Alternatives to the Proposed Action. This section describes reasonable,alternative actions to the Proposed Action, which addresses the Purpose and Need. A No Action Alternative

  16. Environmental impact assessment of benthic community stability in an estuarine complex

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Ansari, Z.A.; Abidi, S.A.H.

    environmental disturbances causEd. by human activities such as mining and sand excavation. High suspended solids by mining rejects and disturbance of bottom resulted in more than 40% reduction in macrobenthic crop and about 50% reduction in species diversity...

  17. A policy relevant assessment of the environmental impacts of organic farming

    OpenAIRE

    Dabbert, S.; Stolze, M.; Häring, A.M.; Piorr, A.

    2000-01-01

    Organic farming has become an important aspect of European agri-environmental policy. Since the implementation of EC Reg. 2078/92, the EU promotes organic farming based explicitly on its positive effects on the environment. The objective of this paper is to contribute to a better understanding of organic farming's effects on the environment in comparison to conventional farming and to discuss the policy relevance of these issues. For this purpose the OECD set of environmental indicators fo...

  18. Micronucleus frequency and hematologic index in Colossoma macropomum (Pisces, Ariidae) for environmental impact assessment at a protected area in Brazil

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sousa, Debora Batista Pinheiro, E-mail: deborabpsousa@gmail.com [Postgraduate Program of Aquatic Resources and Fishery (PPGRAP/UEMA), State University of Maranhão (Brazil); Neta, Raimunda Nonata Fortes Carvalho [Department of Chemistry and Biology, State University of Maranhão (Brazil)

    2014-10-06

    This study used micronucleus assays and erythrocyte indices in the freshwater fish tambaqui, Colossoma macropomum, to assess environmental impacts in the Environmental Protection Area at Maracanã, São Luis, Brazil. Fish were sampled from two locations within the protected area, Serena Lagoon and Ambude River, on four occasions. Biometric data (length and weight) and an aliquot of blood were collected from each fish for analysis. Erythrocyte indices including: mean corpuscular volume, mean corpuscular hemoglobin and mean corpuscular hemoglobin concentration were calculated, and blood samples were examined for micronuclei and nuclear morphological changes. Micronuclei were found in fish from both locations, although the frequency was higher in fish from Ambude River. Nuclear morphological changes were identified only in fish collected from Ambude River. Several nuclear morphological changes were found in erythrocytes stained with Giemsa, including: micronuclei and binucleate nuclei. On average, erythrocyte indices were lower in fish collected from Ambude River than in those from Serena Lagoon. Our results indicate that micronuclei and erythrocyte indices can be used in C. macropomum as indicators of environmental health.

  19. Assessing impacts of hydropower schemes in upland rivers and sensitivity to hydrological change: new modelling tools for evaluating environmental flows

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tetzlaff, D.; Geris, J.; Seibert, J.; Vis, M.; Soulsby, C.

    2013-12-01

    Upland river systems provide a suite of critical ecosystem services, such as the provision of high quality downstream water supplies and the maintenance of in-stream habitats. Environmental legislation dictates that exploiting the hydro-power potential of such headwaters requires that the ecological status of in-stream habitats is maintained. This requires that decision makers have adequate scientific understanding of natural flow regimes, the nature of regulation impacts, and the sensitivity of managed systems to future change. This is often limited by a lack of adequate pre- regulation data. Here we present a new modelling tool that can be used in data sparse mountain river ecosystems to assess current impacts, evaluate sensitivity to future change and provide a basis for discussing the development of new adaptive management strategies. The HBV rainfall-runoff model was adapted to incorporate regulation components (reservoirs, water transfers), and applied to the heavily regulated River Lyon (391 km2), Scotland, UK. The Lyon has long been subjected to hydropower generation, which is supported by several river impoundments and a complex network of inter- and intra-catchment water transfers, and there are concerns that these are affecting high conservation status freshwater populations of Atlantic Salmon (Salmo salar). In the absence of adequate pre-regulation data, the model was used to characterise the natural flow regime, assess the regulation impacts, and explore sensitivities to hydrological changes in water management. Overall, changes following regulation in the Lyon include decreases in inter-and intra annual variability of all parameters of the flow regime in terms of magnitude, frequency, duration and timing that are important in various life stages of the Atlantic Salmon. Although these effects are most pronounced closest to the impoundments, the regulation affects the regime for a considerable distance downstream. Sensitivity tests showed that a more

  20. Predicting the environmental impacts of chicken systems in the United Kingdom through a life cycle assessment: egg production systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leinonen, I; Williams, A G; Wiseman, J; Guy, J; Kyriazakis, I

    2012-01-01

    The aim of this study was to apply a life cycle assessment (LCA) method, from cradle to gate, to quantify the environmental burdens per 1,000 kg of eggs produced in the 4 major hen-egg production systems in the United Kingdom: 1) cage, 2) barn, 3) free range, and 4) organic. The analysis was based on an approach that applied a structural model for the industry and mechanistic submodels for animal performance, crop production, and nutrient flows. Baseline feeds representative of those used by the UK egg production industry were used. Typical figures from the UK egg production industry, feed intake, mortality of birds, farm energy, and material use in different systems were applied. Monte Carlo simulations were used to quantify the uncertainties in the outputs and allow for comparisons between the systems. The number of birds required to produce 1,000 kg of eggs was highest in the organic and lowest in the cage system; similarly, the amount of feed consumed per bird was highest in the organic and lowest in the cage system. These general differences in productivity largely affected the differences in the environmental impacts between the systems. Feed production, processing, and transport caused greater impacts compared with those from any other component of production; that is, 54 to 75% of the primary energy use and 64 to 72% of the global warming potential of the systems. Electricity (used mainly for ventilation, automatic feeding, and lighting) had the second greatest impact in primary energy use (16-38%). Gas and oil (used mainly for heating in pullet rearing and incineration of dead layer birds) used 7 to 14% of the total primary energy. Manure had the greatest impact on the acidification and eutrophication potentials of the systems because of ammonia emissions that contributed to both of these potentials and nitrate leaching that only affected eutrophication potential. The LCA method allows for comparisons between systems and for the identification of hotspots

  1. 76 FR 62442 - Final Environmental Impact Report/Environmental Impact Statement for Upper Truckee River...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-10-07

    ... Bureau of Reclamation Final Environmental Impact Report/Environmental Impact Statement for Upper Truckee.... ACTION: Notice of availability. SUMMARY: The final Environmental Impact Report/Environmental Impact... publication of the final Environmental Impact Report/Environmental Impact Statement. ADDRESSES: The...

  2. Life cycle assessment in the environmental impact evaluation of urban development-a case study of land readjustment project,Hyogo District, Japan

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    GE Jian(葛坚); LU Jiang(陆江); HOKAO Kazunori

    2003-01-01

    In this paper, the Life Cycle of Urban Development was firstly analyzed, and the phases of Life Cycle Assessment applied to Urban Development (ULCA) were described. As a case study, ULCA was applied in the environmental impact assessment of the land readjustment project of Hyogo District of Saga, Japan. In addition, mitigation proposals for reducing CO2 were also presented and the relevant environmental effects were simulated.

  3. Life cycle assessment in the environmental impact evaluation of urban development--a case study of land readjustment project, Hyogo District, Japan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ge, Jian; Lu, Jiang; Hokao, Kazunori

    2003-01-01

    In this paper, the Life Cycle of Urban Development was firstly analyzed, and the phases of Life Cycle Assessment applied to Urban Development (ULCA) were described. As a case study, ULCA was applied in the environmental impact assessment of the land readjustment project of Hyogo District of Saga, Japan. In addition, mitigation proposals for reducing CO(2) were also presented and the relevant environmental effects were simulated.

  4. Life cycle assessment in the environmental impact evaluation of urbandevelopment--a case study of land readjustment project,Hyogo District, Japan

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    葛坚; 陆江; HOKAOKazunori

    2003-01-01

    In this paper, the Life Cycle of Urban Development was firstly analyzed, and the phases of Life Cycle Assessment applied to Urban Development (ULCA) were described. As a case study, ULCA was applied in the environmental impact assessment of the land readjustment project of Hyogo District of Saga, Japan. In addition, mitigation proposals for reducing CO2 were also presented and the relevant environmental ef-fects were simulated.

  5. Assessment of the environmental impacts and health benefits of a nitrogen emission control area in the North Sea

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hammingh, P.; Geilenkirchen, G. [Netherlands Environmental Assessment Agency PBL, Bilthoven (Netherlands); Maas, R. [National Institute of Public Health and Environmental Protection RIVM, Bilthoven (Netherlands); Holland, M.R. [Ecometrics Research and Consulting EMRC, Reading (United Kingdom); Jonson, J.E. [The Meteorological Synthesizing Centre - West MSC-W, Norwegian Meteorological Institute, Oslo (Norway)

    2012-06-15

    In the last five to ten years, concerns about the health and ecosystem effects of air polluting emissions from ships have grown in international policy debate regarding further air pollutant emissions control. As an outcome of the debate, the International Maritime Organisation (IMO) adopted more stringent emission standards in 2008 to further control air pollution from sea shipping. For example, their most stringent nitrogen oxide emission standards are about 75 per cent lower than the standards for current ships. However, these most stringent standards are only mandatory in specific emission control areas designated by the IMO. Such specific areas aim to protect densely populated areas and sensitive ecosystems from air pollution from nearby international shipping. Prior to a possible application for designation of a nitrogen oxide emission control area, the eight North Sea countries commissioned an assessment of the environmental impacts and health benefits (this report) and the economic impacts and costs (Danish EPA, 2012). The main conclusions of this assessment are presented and concisely explained below. A detailed elaboration of the work carried out, the results and the uncertainties can be found in 'Full results'.

  6. A computer-based system for environmental impact assessment (EIA) applications to energy power stations in Turkey: CEDINFO

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Say, Nuriye Peker; Yuecel, Muzaffer [Cukurova University, Adana (Turkey). Department of Landscape Architecture; Yilmazer, Mehmet [Bogazici University, Kandilli, Istanbul (Turkey). Kandilli Observatory and Earthquake Research Institute

    2007-12-15

    Environmental impact assessment (EIA) is a tool for decision makers to take into account the possible effects of a proposed project on the environment and is also a process for collecting the data related to a project design and project area. Different techniques are used for the EIA process. In recent years, including the design and development of databases, classification systems, computer models and expert systems have been used extensively in impact assessment studies. Knowledge-based systems referred to as expert systems and different computer-based systems are an emerging technology in information processing and are becoming increasingly useful tools in different applications areas including EIA studies. Their use for EIA has been quite limited in developing countries, because of the constraints on resources, particularly in expertise and data. In this study, a knowledge-based software - CEDINFO - developed by authors was introduced. CEDINFO to be used for EIA practices on energy-generating stations was designed based on the legal EIA process in Turkey. According to the EIA Regulation enacted in Turkey in 1993, energy-generating stations (thermal power station, hydraulic station, nuclear station) in different categories require mandatory EIA reports duly approved by The Ministry of Environment and Forestry before their construction. CEDINFO primarily aims to provide educational support for EIA practices and decision-makers on energy-generating stations. (author)

  7. A computer-based system for environmental impact assessment (EIA) applications to energy power stations in Turkey: CEDINFO

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nuriye Peker Say; Muzaffer Yucel; Mehmet Yilmazer [Cukurova University, Adana (Turkey). Department of Landscape Architecture

    2007-12-15

    Environmental impact assessment (EIA) is a tool to enable decision makers to account for the possible effects of a proposed project on the environment and is also a process for collecting the data related to a project design and project area. Different techniques are used for the EIA process. In recent years, including the design and development of databases, classification systems, computer models and expert systems have been used extensively in impact assessment studies. Knowledge-based systems referred to as expert systems and different computer-based systems are an emerging technology in information processing and are becoming increasingly useful tools in different applications areas including EIA studies. Their use for EIA has been quite limited in developing countries, because of the constraints on resources, particularly in expertise and data. In this study, a knowledge-based software CEDINFO developed by authors was introduced. CEDINFO to be used for EIA practices on energy-generating stations was designed based on the legal EIA process in Turkey. According to the EIA Regulation enacted in Turkey in 1993, energy-generating stations (thermal power stations, hydroelectric power stations, nuclear power stations) in different categories require mandatory EIA reports duly approved by The Ministry of Environment and Forestry before their construction. CEDINFO primarily aims to provide educational support for EIA practices and decision-makers on energy-generating stations. 23 refs., 5 figs., 2 tabs.

  8. Lifetime environmental impact of buildings

    CERN Document Server

    Mequignon, Marc

    2014-01-01

    This work discusses the impact of the life of buildings on? sustainable development methods.?The study of the lifespan of the building is used to assess and?manage the environmental impacts associated?with all the stages of a product's life, from raw material extraction?through to repair, maintenance and?? 'end of life' scenarios. While several papers have discussed thegreenhouse gas emissions of buildings,?less research has been done on how these are affected by the lifespan?of the building. This book serves to?highlight the pertinence of this factor and contributes to providing?new ideas on

  9. Environmental impact assessment - A management tool for conservation of large marine ecosystems

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Nair, V.R.

    Coastal development includes a variety of activities which will have significant impact on marine ecosystem especially in the shallow nearshore areas. The stress relevant to coastal zone emerge from hinterland activities, urban development and waste...

  10. Environmental Impact Assessment of Infrasound in Room%居室次声环境影响评价

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘凤丽

    2012-01-01

    The paper introduced different sources of infrasound in room,pointed out its harm to human health and made environmental impact assessment for the situation of infrasound in room.The results showed that the harm of infrasound in room mainly stemed from househould electric appliances.Then some shielding measures of infrasound in room were presented,in order to reduce the harm of infrasound in room.%介绍居室内的不同次声源,指出其对人体的危害,并对居室内的次声现状进行环境影响评价。结果表明:居室内的次声危害主要来源于家用电器。由此提出居室次声的防护措施,以降低居室次声的危害。

  11. Life-Cycle Assessment of Energy and Environmental Impacts of LED Lighting Products Part 2: LED Manufacturing and Performance

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Scholand, Michael; Dillon, Heather E.

    2012-05-01

    Part 2 of the project (this report) uses the conclusions from Part 1 as a point of departure to focus on two objectives: producing a more detailed and conservative assessment of the manufacturing process and providing a comparative LCA with other lighting products based on the improved manufacturing analysis and taking into consideration a wider range of environmental impacts. In this study, we first analyzed the manufacturing process for a white-light LED (based on a sapphire-substrate, blue-light, gallium-nitride LED pumping a yellow phosphor), to understand the impacts of the manufacturing process. We then conducted a comparative LCA, looking at the impacts associated with the Philips Master LEDbulb and comparing those to a CFL and an incandescent lamp. The comparison took into account the Philips Master LEDbulb as it is now in 2012 and then projected forward what it might be in 2017, accounting for some of the anticipated improvements in LED manufacturing, performance and driver electronics.

  12. Life cycle assessment of energy generation of biogas fed combined heat and power plants: environmental impact of different agricultural substrates

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lansche, Jens; Mueller, Joachim [Universitaet Hohenheim, Institute of Agricultural Engineering, Stuttgart (Germany)

    2012-06-15

    The utilization of agricultural biomass for anaerobic digestion is increasing in Germany since the first version of the Renewable Energies Sources Act (EEG) in 2000. Main products of this conversion process are biogas and digestate, whereby the biogas is mainly used for generation of heat and electricity in combined heat and power plants (CHP). This study investigated the potential environmental impact of anaerobic digestion processes with different agricultural substrates by the life cycle assessment (LCA) method. It focuses on liquid manure and energy crops as feedstock on the one hand and a comparison of four virtual model plants on the other hand. Besides global warming potential (GWP), the impact categories eutrophication potential (EP) and acidification potential (AP) are presented in this work. The results show that greenhouse gas emissions can be reduced with anaerobic digestion of liquid manure as well as energy crops, particularly when digestate storage tanks are gas-tight. When energy crops are fermented together with liquid manure, the biggest credit for the avoidance of greenhouse gas emissions was given for the generation of electricity. The results differ from those of GWP when looking at the AP and the EP. These impact categories show similar results with a reduction of emissions for liquid manure in mono-digestion but increasing emissions for digestion of energy crops together with 0-35% liquid manure. (copyright 2012 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH 8 Co. KGaA, Weinheim)

  13. Predicting the environmental impacts of chicken systems in the United Kingdom through a life cycle assessment: broiler production systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leinonen, I; Williams, A G; Wiseman, J; Guy, J; Kyriazakis, I

    2012-01-01

    The aim of this study was to apply the life cycle assessment (LCA) method, from cradle to gate, to quantify the environmental burdens per 1,000 kg of expected edible carcass weight in the 3 main broiler production systems in the United Kingdom: 1) standard indoor, 2) free range, and 3) organic, and to identify the main components of these burdens. The LCA method evaluates production systems logically to account for all inputs and outputs that cross a specified system boundary, and it relates these to the useful outputs. The analysis was based on an approach that applied a structural model for the UK broiler industry and mechanistic submodels for animal performance, crop production, and major nutrient flows. Simplified baseline feeds representative of those used by the UK broiler industry were used. Typical UK figures for performance and mortality of birds and farm energy and material use were applied. Monte Carlo simulations were used to quantify the uncertainties in the outputs. The length of the production cycle was longer for free-range and organic systems compared with that of the standard indoor system, and as a result, the feed consumption and manure production per bird were higher in the free-range and organic systems. These differences had a major effect on the differences in environmental burdens between the systems. Feed production, processing, and transport resulted in greater overall environmental impacts than any other components of broiler production; for example, 65 to 81% of the primary energy use and 71 to 72% of the global warming potential of the system were due to these burdens. Farm gas and oil use had the second highest impact in primary energy use (12-25%) followed by farm electricity use. The direct use of gas, oil, and electricity were generally lower in free-range and organic systems compared with their use in the standard indoor system. Manure was the main component of acidification potential and also had a relatively high eutrophication

  14. Improving the effectiveness of impact assessment pertaining to Indigenous peoples in the Brazilian environmental licensing procedure

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hanna, Philippe; Vanclay, Frank; Langdon, Esther Jean; Arts, Jos

    2014-01-01

    The number of environmental licence applications for projects affecting Indigenous peoples in Brazil has increased since the implementation of a major infrastructure program (Programa de Aceleração do Crescimento) in 2007. This increase has caused problems for Brazilian agencies involved in environm

  15. Evaluating environmental impacts of contrasting pig farming systems with life cycle assessment

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dourmad, J. Y.; Ryschawy, J.; Trousson, T.;

    2014-01-01

    . The data needed for calculations were obtained from surveys of 5 to 10 farms from each system. The systems studied were categorised into conventional (C), adapted conventional (AC), traditional (T) and organic (O). Compared with C systems, AC systems differed little, with only minor changes to improve meat...... kg of pig produced, owing to feed production and the outdoor raising of sows and/or fattening pigs. The use of straw bedding tended to increase climate change impact per kg LW. The use of traditional local breeds, with reduced productivity and feed efficiency, resulted in higher impacts per kg LW...... LW, whereas differentiated systems had lower local impacts (eutrophication, acidification), expressed per ha of land use....

  16. Environment and environmental impacts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rejane de Fátima Victor Vasconcelos

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available The article shows what can be environmental impacts and how those happen, both by the actions made by human kind and by natural disasters. Another concern of the research is the unstoppable incident of the natural resources destruction, result f the globalization actions and the economy, and that the environment impacts have happen in every direction, independently of the geographic scale, harming the life in earth, without giving importance who is the target. The article made reference to incidents because of the disorder of the environment, the consequences of rural exodus, the improper tourism, and which actions to solve this problem have not been enough. With reference to sustainable development, it is waited that everyone can live under environmental, social and economical equilibrium, and also has reasonable habit, being sensible to the conservation of the environmental practice. The article emphasizes the values as a need in the equilibrium of sustainability, and even made reference to the lost of the country in the sustainable development and that Brazil could have more interest by the cause, mainly in the managing in the use of pesticides e fungicides in agriculture. The concern with the globalized economy is a radical change which the developing countries are facing. The cause affects of pollutions resulting in health problems. The danger that humanity faces with its own action, as predatory fishing, causing aquatic disorder and the invasion of commerce in the area of permanent conservation.

  17. Final environmental impact assessment of the Paducah Gaseous Diffusion Plant site, Paducah, Kentucky

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1982-08-01

    This document considers: the need for uranium enrichment facilities; site location; plant description; and describes the power generating facilities in light of its existing environment. The impacts from continuing operations are compared with alternatives of shutdown, relocation, and alternative power systems. (PSB)

  18. Assessing planetary and regional nitrogen boundaries related to food security and adverse environmental impacts

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vries, de W.; Kros, J.; Kroeze, C.; Seitzinger, S.P.

    2013-01-01

    This paper first describes the concept of, governance interest in, and criticism on planetary boundaries, specifically with respect to the nitrogen (N) cycle. These criticisms are then systematically evaluated. We argue that planetary N boundaries should include both the benefits and adverse impacts

  19. Numerical modeling of chemical spills and assessment of their environmental impacts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chemical spills in surface water bodies often occur in modern societies, which cause significant impacts on water quality, eco-environment and drinking water safety. In this paper, chemical spill contamination in water resources was studied using a depth-integrated computational model, CCHE2D, for p...

  20. Environmental Justice and Sustainability Impact Assessment: In Search of Solutions to Ethnic Conflicts Caused by Coal Mining in Inner Mongolia, China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lee Liu

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available The Chinese government adopted more specific and stringent environmental impact assessment (EIA guidelines in 2011, soon after the widespread ethnic protests against coal mining in Inner Mongolia. However, our research suggests that the root of the ethnic tension is a sustainability problem, in addition to environmental issues. In particular, the Mongolians do not feel they have benefited from the mining of their resources. Existing environmental assessment tools are inadequate to address sustainability, which is concerned with environmental protection, social justice and economic equity. Thus, it is necessary to develop a sustainability impact assessment (SIA to fill in the gap. SIA would be in theory and practice a better tool than EIA for assessing sustainability impact. However, China’s political system presents a major challenge to promoting social and economic equity. Another practical challenge for SIA is corruption which has been also responsible for the failing of EIA in assessing environmental impacts of coal mining in Inner Mongolia. Under the current political system, China should adopt the SIA while continuing its fight against corruption.

  1. Evaluating Environmental Impact Assessment Systems - Part 1 : Theoretical and Methodological Considerations

    OpenAIRE

    Emmelin, Lars

    1999-01-01

    The paper addresses the problem of evaluating the functioning of EIA by relating EIA to professional and organisational cultures in environmental planning and management. The paper offers a model of modes of evaluation and suggests that the understanding of implementation structures is necessary to complement other types of evaluation which tend to focus on systems structure and document structure and to take an insider perspective on effectiveness of EIA.

  2. Evaluation of environmental impact predictions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    An analysis and evaluation of the ecological monitoring program at the Surry Nuclear Power Plant showed that predictions of potential environmental impact made in the Final Environmental Statement (FES), which were based on generally accepted ecological principles, were not completely substantiated by environmental monitoring data. The Surry Nuclear Power Plant (Units 1 and 2) was chosen for study because of the facility's relatively continuous operating history and the availability of environmental data adequate for analysis. Preoperational and operational fish monitoring data were used to assess the validity of the FES prediction that fish would congregate in the thermal plume during winter months and would avoid the plume during summer months. Analysis of monitoring data showed that fish catch per unit effort (CPE) was generally high in the thermal plume during winter months; however, the highest fish catches occurred in the plume during the summer. Possible explanations for differences between the FES prediction and results observed in analysis of monitoring data are discussed, and general recommendations are outlined for improving impact assessment predictions

  3. Engineering assessment and feasibility study of Chattanooga Shale as a future source of uranium. [Environmental, socioeconomic, regulatory impacts

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1978-06-01

    This volume characterizes the major baseline environmental features of the Chattanooga Shale study and projects the effects which may accrue from implementation of a large scale development to recover uranium from the shale. Environmental, socioeconomic, and regulatory impacts are covered. The prototype project is located in Dekalb County in Tennessee. (DLC)

  4. Environmental exposure to mercury in gold mining: health impact assessment in guainía, colombia

    OpenAIRE

    Gasca Álvarez, Adriana del Pilar

    2010-01-01

    Artisanal gold mining is an ancient practice that remains used in present times. Occupational exposure to mercury has been investigated in several studies, but effects related to its use in gold mining have been less addressed. Several studies are found in the literature, specially related to the gold rush in South America, and the impact of the practice along the Amazon rivers. Due to the informal characteristics of the practice, gold mining with mercury has not been well registered; thus, e...

  5. Environmental assessment of potential produced water impacts and developments in oil spill countermeasures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The long-term ecosystem effects of produced water from oil exploration platforms is discussed, citing evidence from the North Sea which shows that long-term ecosystem effects may be induced even by low level exposures. The North Sea evidence is supplemented by results of more recent studies at the Cohasset site which demonstrated that produced water discharges will induce flocculation processes that mediate the concentration and transport of contaminants to the benthic environment and the sea-surface microlayer. In response to the danger to the fisheries inherent in these studies, Fisheries and Oceans Canada is mounting a study of produced water impacts in Atlantic Canada. The program will address the chemical characteristics of the produced water, the significance of the flocculation processes in the transport of contaminants, the potential impact of produced water on resident biota, methods to identify and trace the impact zone of discharges and the application of numerical models to predict the fate and effects of wastes from offshore hydrocarbon platforms. Fisheries and Oceans Canada is also engaged in research to develop and validate in-situ bioremediation techniques to counter oil spills. Treatment strategies to date involved bioaugmentation such as seeding oil-degrading bacteria, and biostimulation, involving the addition of nutrients or growth enhancing substances to stimulate the growth of indigenous oil degraders. Future research will concentrate on identifying the benefits and limitations of bioremediation relative to existing technologies, and providing guidance for application. 1 fig

  6. A gene to organism approach--assessing the impact of environmental pollution in eelpout (Zoarces viviparus) females and larvae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Asker, Noomi; Carney Almroth, Bethanie; Albertsson, Eva; Coltellaro, Mariateresa; Bignell, John Paul; Hanson, Niklas; Scarcelli, Vittoria; Fagerholm, Björn; Parkkonen, Jari; Wijkmark, Emma; Frenzilli, Giada; Förlin, Lars; Sturve, Joachim

    2015-07-01

    A broad biomarker approach was applied to study the effects of marine pollution along the Swedish west coast using the teleost eelpout (Zoarces viviparus) as the sentinel species. Measurements were performed on different biological levels, from the molecular to the organismal, including measurements of messenger RNA (mRNA), proteins, cellular and tissue changes, and reproductive success. Results revealed that eelpout captured in Stenungsund had significantly higher hepatic ethoxyresorufin O-deethylase activity, high levels of both cytochrome P4501A and diablo homolog mRNA, and high prevalence of dead larvae and nuclear damage in erythrocytes. Eelpout collected in Göteborg harbor displayed extensive macrovesicular steatosis, whereby the majority of hepatocytes were affected throughout the liver, which could indicate an effect on lipid metabolism. Results also indicate that eelpouts collected at polluted sites might have an affected immune system, with lower mRNA expression of genes involved in the innate immune system and a higher number of lymphocytes. Biomarker assessment also was performed on livers dissected from unborn eelpout larvae collected from the ovary of the females. No significant differences were noted, which might indicate that the larvae to some extent are protected from effects of environmental pollutants. In conclusion, usage of the selected set of biological markers, covering responses from gene to organism, has demonstrated site-specific biomarker patterns that provided a broad and comprehensive picture of the impact of environmental stressors.

  7. Trace elements assessment in agricultural and desert soils of Aswan area, south Egypt: Geochemical characteristics and environmental impacts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Darwish, Mohamed Abdallah Gad; Pöllmann, Hebert

    2015-12-01

    Determination of chemical elements, Al, Cd, Co, Cr, Cu, Fe, Li, Mn, Mo, Ni, P, Pb, Sc, Sr, Ti, Y, and Zn have been performed in agricultural and desert soils and alfalfa (Medicago sativa) at Aswan area. Consequently, the pollution indices, univariate and multivariate statistical methods have been applied, in order to assess the geochemical characteristics of these elements and their impact on soil environmental quality and plant, and to reach for their potential input sources. The investigation revealed that the mean and range values of all element concentrations in agricultural soil are higher than those in desert soil. Furthermore, the agricultural soil displayed various degrees of enrichment and pollution of Cd, Zn, Mo, Co, P, Ti, Pb. The geochemical pattern of integrated pollution indices gave a clear image of extreme and strong pollution in the agricultural soil stations, their poor quality with high risk to human health and considered as a tocsin for an alert. In contrast, the desert soil is the good environmental quality and safe for plant, animal and human health. Alfalfa is tolerant plant and considered as a biomarker for P and Mo in polluted agricultural soil. Four geochemical associations of analyzing elements in agricultural soil and three ones in desert soil have been generated, and their enhancements were essentially caused by various anthropogenic activities and geogenic sources. The investigation also revealed that the broad extended desert soil is fruitful and promising as cultivable lands for agricultural processes in the futures.

  8. Eco-Environmental Impact Assessment of Pre-Leisure Beach Nourishment on the Benthic Invertebrate Community at Anping Coast

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Chun-Han SHIH; Yi-Yu KUO; Ta-Jen CHU; Wen-Chieh CHOU; Wei-Tse CHANG; Ying-Chou LEE

    2011-01-01

    In recent years, owing to global warming and the rising sea levels, beach nourishment and groin building have been increasingly employed to protect coastal land from shoreline erosion. These actions may degrade beach habitats and reduce biomass and invertebrate density at sites where they were employed. We conducted an eco-environmental evaluation at the Anping artificial beach-nourishment project area. At this site, sand piles within a semi-enclosed spur groin have been enforced by use of eco-engineering concepts since 2003. Four sampling sites were monitored during the study period from July 2002 to September 2008. The environmental impact assessment and biological investigations that we conducted are presented here. The results from this study indicate that both biotic (number of species, number of individual organisms, and Shannon-Wiener diversity) and abiotic parameters (suspended solids, biological oxygen demand, chemical oxygen demand, dissolved inorganic nitrogen, dissolved inorganic phosphorus, total phosphorus, total organic carbon, median diameter, and water content) showed significant differences before and after beach engineering construction. Biological conditions became worse in the beginning stages of the engineering but improved after the restoration work completion.This study reveals that the composition of benthic invertebrates changed over the study period, and two groups oforganisms, Bivalvia and Gastropoda, seemed to be particularly suitable to this habitat after the semi-enclosed artificial structures completion.

  9. Life Cycle Assessment of Common Plastic Packaging for Reducing Environmental Impact and Material Consumption

    OpenAIRE

    Visvaldas Varžinskas; Jurgis Kazimieras Staniškis; Alis Lebedys; Edmundas Kibirkštis; Valdas Miliūnas

    2009-01-01

    In order to sell production, the goods packaging must comply with the demands of the international market and the requirements of the corresponding legal acts. In accordance with the EU regulations, member states have to ensure that a particular production packaging is used only when it complies with all the environmental regulations laid down in the EU Directives 94/62/EB and 2004/12/EB and the elaborated document system. One of the basic requirements is to produce packaging in such a way t...

  10. The Environmental Impact of Industrial Bamboo Products: Life-cycle Assessment and Carbon Sequestration

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vogtlander, J.G.; Van der Lugt, P.

    2014-01-01

    This report gives a Life-Cycle Assessment (LCA) and carbon footprint analysis on a selection of industrial bamboo products. The LCA is made for cradle-to-gate, plus the end-of-life stages of the bamboo products. For end-of-life it is assumed that 90% of the bamboo products are incinerated in an elec

  11. Safety assessment and environmental impact assessment: Application to regulation of nuclear and radiation safety, with special consideration to Lepse related operations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Makarov, V.G. [Gosatomnadzor (Russian Federation); Smith, G.M.; Stone, D.M. [QuantiSci Ltd., Henley-on-Thames (United Kingdom)

    2000-11-01

    This report discusses the links between safety assessment and environmental impact assessment as applied to operations for unloading of spent nuclear fuel from the Lepse storage vessel. Regulatory responsibilities and regulatory requirements in these areas are under discussion and development in the Russian Federation and in other countries. The authors provide a briefing, based on inputs from Russian and western organisations, of their understanding of the situation at the time the work was done. They also make a variety of suggestions according to their perspectives. These suggestions should be relevant to the Lepse situation and to some other nuclear activities, bur do not represent the position of any particular organisation. Accordingly, this report is published by the SSI with the intention to promote discussion and interaction among relevant authorities.

  12. 75 FR 7515 - Notice of Availability of the Draft Environmental Impact Statement/Staff Assessment for the...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-02-19

    ... described in the Drainage Avoidance 1 alternative that may reduce impacts to primary water drainages of the... Drainage Avoidance 2 alternative that may substantially reduce impacts in eastern and western high flow... Least Environmentally Damaging Practicable Alternative which maximizes avoidance and minimization...

  13. Oil Spill Contingency and Response (OSCAR) analysis in support of environmental impact assessment offshore Namibia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The work reported here encompasses analyses of specific potential spill scenarios for oil exploration activity planned offshore of Namibia. The analyses are carried out with the SINTEF Oil Spill Contingency and Response (OSCAR) 3-dimensional model systems. A spill scenario using 150 m3 of marine diesel demonstrates the rapidity with which such a spill will dissipate naturally, even in light winds. Vertical and horizontal mixing bring subsurface hydrocarbon concentrations to background levels within a few days. A hypothetical 10 day blowout scenario releasing 11,000 bbl per day of light crude oil is investigated in terms of the potential for delivering oil to selected bird and marine mammal areas along the Namibian coast. Worst case scenarios are selected to investigate the potential mitigating effects of planned oil spill response actions. Mechanical recovery significantly reduces, and in some cases eliminates, potential environmental consequences of these worst case scenarios. Dispersant application from fixed wing aircraft further reduces the potential surface effects. The analysis supplies an objective basis for net environmental analysis of the planned response strategies. (Author)

  14. Environmental impact assessment of the charcoal production and utilization system in central Zambia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The present study is the outcome of the Zambia Charcoal Utilization Programme, which is based on cooperation that started in 1989 between the Department of Energy, Ministry of Energy and Water Development (then Ministry of Power, Transport and Communications) and the Stockholm Environmental Institute (SEI). The programme, which is funded by the Swedish International Development Authority (SIDA), consists of a number of studies focusing on different aspects of the wood and charcoal industry in Zambia. Selection of this energy system for detailed study was based on the fact that wood provides the largest contribution to total energy supply in Zambia, and the fact that wood is a renewable resource that could be exploited on a sustainable basis if properly managed. The studies therefore range from those that look at sustainability of the natural forests exploited for charcoal, to those that deal with transportation and health aspects of charcoal production and use. The present report focuses on the environmental and socio-economic effects of charcoal production and use. 72 refs., 20 figs., 38 tabs

  15. Assessing Resiliency in a Large Lake Receiving Mine Tailings Waste: Impacts of Major Environmental Disturbance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Petticrew, Ellen; Owens, Philip; Albers, Sam

    2016-04-01

    On 4th August 2014, the tailings impoundment of the Mount Polley copper and gold mine in British Columbia failed. Material from the impoundment (surface area = 2.7 km2) flowed into nearby Polley Lake and Hazeltine Creek, before discharging into Quesnel Lake, a large (ca. 100 km long, >500 m deep), relatively pristine lake. Initial estimates suggest that approximately 25 Mm3 of tailings (water and solids) and eroded soils and surficial materials from Hazeltine Creek were delivered to Quesnel Lake, raising the lake by 7.7 cm. Much of this material was deposited at the bottom of Quesnel Lake but a plume of fine-grained sediment (D50 of ca. 1 μm) remained suspended in the water column. The impact of the distribution of this sediment was monitored over the next 15 months using water column profiling for temperature, conductivity, fluorescence and turbidity with depth. The plume movement was regulated by natural processes associated with the physical limnology of this large fjord lake, specifically, seiche events which transferred suspended particles both up-lake, against the flow regime, and down-lake into the Quesnel River. Samples of lake water and bottom sediment taken from the impacted area show elevated levels of total metals and other elements, which may have important ecosystem implications in this watershed. Indeed, the breach occurred at a time when a peak run of sockeye salmon were returning to their natal streams in the Quesnel basin. Zooplankton sampling for metals was initiated in fall 2014 to determine up take of metals into the food web. This poster describes the failure of the impoundment dam and presents results of sampling the aquatic environment over the first fifteen months of impact.

  16. Can Parasites Really Reveal Environmental Impact?

    Science.gov (United States)

    This review assesses the usefulness of parasites as bioindicators of environmental impact. Relevant studies published in the past decade were compiled; factorial meta-analysis demonstrated significant effects and interactions between parasite levels and the presence and concentra...

  17. Assessment of environmental impact of commercial wine yeast in vineyard ecosystems

    OpenAIRE

    Valero, Eva; Schuller, Dorit Elisabeth; Cambon, Brigitte; Casal, Margarida; Dequin, Sylvie

    2005-01-01

    Poster e resumo apresentados no congresso "Intrafood 2005 - Innovations in traditional foods", em Valencia, Espanha, em 2005. Modern winemaking practices and diversification of wine products involve an increasing quest for specialised wine yeasts. During the last two decades considerable efforts have been made to improve wine yeast strains through the use of new biotechnologies. In the present study we used commercial wine yeast currently used in wineries as a model to assess the potential...

  18. International congress on analytical science for advanced material processing and environmental impact assessment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The topics covered in the proceedings of the International Congress on Analytical Science 2010 include sampling and sample treatment pre-concentration (including solid phase extraction) organic analytical reagents, chemometrics, quality assurance/quality control, chromatography (GC, HPLC, IC, TLC etc.) and related techniques, hyphenated methods atomic spectroscopy (absorption, emission, fluorescence, XRF, XRD, lasers), molecular spectroscopy (IR, Raman), separation methods in analytical chemistry, sensors. Mass spectrometry, nuclear analytical methods, electroanalytical methods, geoanalytical chemistry, thermal analysis, process analytical chemistry, molecular probes for analyte sensing and imaging, express test methods, surface analytical methods, analytical microscopy, bioanalytical chemistry, environmental analysis, characterization of nano materials, analysis of new materials (including high-purity materials), analysis of food and agricultural products, clinical/forensic analysis, online analysis/process analytical chemistry, novel analytical techniques, lab on chips, LIMS, trace metal analysis and speciation. Papers relevant to INIS are indexed separately

  19. Environmental impacts assessment study on residential-industrial suburban community of Rome, Italy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Valle Galeria, a 8x5 km Roman suburb, with a population of about 30,000 residents, is host to a 4.3 million tonnes/year refinery, a 5,500 tonnes/day municipal waste dump site, an asphalt production plant and an incinerator for hospital and industrial wastes. To assist community planners in their decision making relative to the proposed construction of a refuse derived power plant, a new incinerator complex and a turbogas electric power station, ENEA (Italian Agency for New Technology, Energy and the Environment) performed a study to characterize the community's current environmental quality, in particular, its air quality. In addition to the effects caused by present industrial activities, the local natural environment has already suffered negative effects in the past due to the presence of numerous quarries. This paper tables the study's results concerning air pollution concentration levels and sources of air pollution

  20. The SusTEACH Methodology: Assessment of the environmental impacts of Higher Education Teaching Models and development of an Environmental Appraisal toolkit

    OpenAIRE

    Caird, Sally; Swithenby, Edward; Lane, Andrew

    2015-01-01

    Sustainable, low carbon Higher Education (HE) teaching systems are part of the carbon reduction strategies needed to meet the targets set for HE institutions. Significant changes in the use of Information and Communication Technologies (ICTs) have led to new methods in teaching and learning, blending conventional and ICT-based teaching models. Little is known about their environmental impacts. Few studies have considered the whole system carbon-based environmental impacts of different systems...

  1. Environmental impact assessment and socio political issues of nuclear waste management; Ydinjaetehuollon ympaeristoevaikutusten arviointi ja sosiopoliittiset kysymykset

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Harmaajaervi, I.; Tolsa, H. [VTT Communities and Infrastructure, Espoo (Finland). Urban Planning; Vuori, S. [VTT Energy, Espoo (Finland). Nuclear Energy; Litmanen, T. [Jyvaeskylae Univ. (Finland)

    1997-09-01

    The study is a part of the Publicly Administrated Nuclear Waste Management Research Programme (JYT2) which was carried out in 1994-1996. The principal goal of the research programme has been to provide the authorities with information and research results relevant for the safety of nuclear waste management in order to support the various activities of the authorities. The main emphasis of the research programme focuses on the disposal of spent fuel. In addition to nuclear waste research in the field of natural sciences and technology, the research program- me has focused mostly on societal issues associated with nuclear waste disposal facilities and on the non-radiological environmental effects in the environs of the disposal site. Some of the local effects are already revealed in the research phase, before any final decisions are made as to the selection of the disposal site. The study has focused primarily on local and regional issues. The statutory requirement to conduct environ- mental impact assessment (EIA) chiefly concerns those who are responsible for waste management, but the authorities also need to acquire systematic information in the field to support developing requirements for the content and scope of EIA procedure and preparedness to check the assessments made. This is a report of the first parts of the study in 1994-1995. The report deals with the subject matter generally based on earlier studies in Finland and other countries. The results of the study will be reported later. 101 refs.

  2. The Environmental Impact of Industrial Bamboo Products: Life-cycle Assessment and Carbon Sequestration

    OpenAIRE

    Vogtlander, J.G.; Van der Lugt, P.

    2014-01-01

    This report gives a Life-Cycle Assessment (LCA) and carbon footprint analysis on a selection of industrial bamboo products. The LCA is made for cradle-to-gate, plus the end-of-life stages of the bamboo products. For end-of-life it is assumed that 90% of the bamboo products are incinerated in an electrical power plant, and 10% will end-up in landfill, which is considered to be a realistic scenario for the Netherlands (NEN 8006) and Western Europe. In addition to the standard LCA (ISO 14040 and...

  3. Finding of No Significant Impact and Environmental Assessment for Establishment of Proposed Manatee Sanctuaries in Kings Bay of Crystal River

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This environmental assessment (EA) evaluates seven alternatives for controlling human harassment of the West Indian Manatee an endangered species. The preferred...

  4. Eco-environmental Impact Assessment of the Change of Regional Industrial Structure and Regulative Measures

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Zhang Jian

    2008-01-01

    Acting as an important driving force for the change of the regional land use, the change of industrial structure also has some influences on the ecological environment. The assessment and mechanism analysis of these influences will be beneficial to the sustainable development of regional economy and the im-provement of relationships between man and earth. Taking Chuzhou City in Anhui Province as an example, on the basis of a qualitative analysis of the influence of the development of differ-ent industry on the regional ecological environment, this paper builds the influence factor of industrial structure on natural envi-ronment and the influence index of industrial structure on natural environment, makes a quantitative assessment of the change of the industrial structure and its comprehensive influences on the eco-logical environment in the Chuzhou City from 1974 to 1995. Studies show that, during the analysed period, Chuzhou City's industrial structure has changed markedly, having undergone two transformations. The influence of industrial structure on natural environment from 1974 to 1995 increased as a whole, while from 1996 to 2004, the influence of industrial structure on natural en-vironment decreased year-on-year. These changes indicate that the regional change of industrial structure results in better ecological effects. Finally, we propose appropriate regulatory measures ac-cording to our research results.

  5. ASSESSMENT OF IMPACT OF COHERENT LIGHT ON RESISTANCE OF PLANTS GROWING IN UNFAVOURABLE ENVIRONMENTAL CONDITIONS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Małgorzata Śliwka

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available The results of experiments on the effect of the coherent light emitted by lasers on plant material show that properly selected laser stimulation parameters, such as: wavelength, power, time and type of exposure, allow to obtain a greater growth of plant biomass, changes in the content of elements in the biomass and increasing plant resistance to unfavorable environmental conditions. The aim of this study was to determine the effect of laser stimulation on selected plant species (Iris pseudoacorus L., Lemna minor L. to increase their resistance to low temperatures and the ability to adapt to an environment polluted by mining activities (Phelum pratense L.. Plants from experimental groups (Iris pseudoacorus L., Phelum pratense L., Lemna minor L. were stimulated with coherent light with specific characteristics. To irradiate plants from experimental groups different algorithms of stimulation parameters, differentiating the method and time of exposure were used. Plants group without the stimulation, were the reference group. The article discusses the results of preliminary experiments carried out on a laboratory scale and pot experiments.

  6. Environmental behavior of technetium in soil and vegetation: implications for radiological impact assessment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hoffman, F.O.

    1982-04-01

    Significant radiological exposures have been estimated for hypothetical atmospheric releases of Tc-99 from gaseous diffusion facilities when vegetation-to-soil concentration ratios representative of laboratory experiments are substituted for generic default values assumed in current regulatory models. To test the relevancy of these laboratory ratios, field investigations were conducted to obtain measurements of the vegetation-to-soil concentration ratio for Tc-99 in samples collected near operating gaseous diffusion facilities and to observe the dynamic behavior of technetium in soil and vegetation following a single application of a sprayed solution of /sup 95m/TcO/sub 4//sup -/ Comparison of observed field concentration ratios and calculated steady-state concentration ratios with ratios obtained from previous laboratory experiments indicates that concentration ratios obtained from field data are one to two orders of magnitude less than those obtained from the laboratory. Furthermore, a substantial accumulation of technetium in soil and vegetation may not occur over long periods of time, since concentrations of technetium in both environmental media were observed to decrease with time subsequent to initial application of /sup 95m/TcO/sub 4//sup -/.

  7. Environmental Impact Assessment of a Flood Control Channel in Sfax City, Tunisia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Noura Dahri

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this study is to evaluate water and sediment quality in the southern branch of a flood control channel in Sfax city, as well as its neighboring sites.  This artificial channel, located 4km away from downtown Sfax, was implemented in 1984 to protect the city against floods. Even though it contributed to reduce the harmful flood effects, this channel also resulted in new environmental problems that may cause a public health threat. Indeed, artificial surfaces pose a greater risk of infection due to bacteria, fungi and other microorganisms. A total of 19 water samples (9 from the channel and 10 from groundwater wells were collected in a dry period and analyzed in the laboratory. Furthermore, 12 sediment samples were taken from the bottom of the channel. Water quality data were used to examine the spatial variability of the different water quality parametrs. The resultant maps revealed an important contamination and illustrated that the degree of contamination differs from one site to another, depending on the distance from the pollution source (industrial, domestic or agricultural activity, the depth of the groundwater table and also the maintenance of the well and its surroundings.

  8. Environmental behavior of technetium in soil and vegetation: implications for radiological impact assessment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Significant radiological exposures have been estimated for hypothetical atmospheric releases of Tc-99 from gaseous diffusion facilities when vegetation-to-soil concentration ratios representative of laboratory experiments are substituted for generic default values assumed in current regulatory models. To test the relevancy of these laboratory ratios, field investigations were conducted to obtain measurements of the vegetation-to-soil concentration ratio for Tc-99 in samples collected near operating gaseous diffusion facilities and to observe the dynamic behavior of technetium in soil and vegetation following a single application of a sprayed solution of /sup 95m/TcO4- Comparison of observed field concentration ratios and calculated steady-state concentration ratios with ratios obtained from previous laboratory experiments indicates that concentration ratios obtained from field data are one to two orders of magnitude less than those obtained from the laboratory. Furthermore, a substantial accumulation of technetium in soil and vegetation may not occur over long periods of time, since concentrations of technetium in both environmental media were observed to decrease with time subsequent to initial application of /sup 95m/TcO4-

  9. Assessment of environmental change and its socio-economic impacts in the mangrove ecological zone of the Niger Delta, Nigeria

    Science.gov (United States)

    James, Godstime Kadiri

    The Niger Delta, located in the central part of Southern Nigeria, is endowed with immense Mangrove resources, estimated to be the fourth largest in the world. The term Mangrove refers to salt tolerant species of trees or shrubs that grow on shores and in estuaries located in the coastal tropics and sub-tropical regions of the world. They support highly productive marine food chains. However, Mangrove ecosystems are in serious decline around the world due to the rapid increase in maritime commerce and exploration of mineral resources in the last few decades. These pressures often have immediate consequences on sensitive coastal environments and can potentially impact future human use of coastal space and resources. This dynamic process presents unique opportunities for research to explore the nature and consequences of these pressures. This dissertation focused on the Mangrove ecological zone of the Niger Delta, where resource exploitation and indigenous use of the environment are in direct conflict with important socio-economic implications. Environmental accounting metrics derived from the Driver-Pressure-State-Impact-Response (DPSIR) framework were used to assess changes in the spatial extent of the Niger Delta Mangrove ecosystem and the socio-economic impacts of the observed changes. Landsat remotely sensed satellite data from the mid-1980s through 2003 was used to assess change in the spatial extent of the Mangrove vegetation in the region. A total of 21,340 hectares of Mangrove forest was determined to be lost over the study period. Field research in the region confirmed that this loss was primarily driven by urbanization and activities of the multinational oil and gas corporations operating in the region. To estimate the socio-economic impacts of the Mangrove loss in the region, neoclassical economic valuation and participatory social valuation approaches were adopted. Results from the economic valuation revealed that the net present value of future income

  10. Analysis of the Importance of Environmental Monitoring in the Environmental Impact Assessment%环境监测在环境影响评价中的重要性分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    贾卫; 李蕊; 陈春飞; 王凯月

    2011-01-01

    环境影响评价的评价初期、建设期、运行期以及后评价期的整个环境评价体系中,均需要环境监测数据来支撑,环境监测贯穿于整个环境影响评价体系之中,是环境影响评价的技术基础,同时还具有较强的监督功能。%Environmental monitoring data were needed to support the environmental assessment system in the initial evaluation period,construction period,run-time and post-evaluation phase.Environmental monitoring run throughout the whole system of environmental impact assessment,was the technology base of the environmental impact assessment,also had a strong function of supervision.

  11. Environmental impact assessment of trace metal deposition around the petrol filling stations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The wide use of petroleum products causes contamination of air, water, soil and plants. The present study was conducted to monitor the trace metal deposition in road side soil around the petrol filling stations along the busy roads of Karachi, Pakistan. Total 21 road side soil samples were collected from selected locations of busy roads. The soil samples were digested using acid digestion method and atomic absorption spectrophotometer (AAS) was used for the elemental analysis. Results of the study showed that concentration of lead was highest in the soil samples ranging from 41.3 to 361 mg/kg, then copper from 23.0 to 101 mg/kg, manganese from 36.2 to 125.0 mg/kg and zinc from 27.5 to 213.0 mg/kg, respectively. The correlation-coefficient (r) was also calculated between the metals in soil samples. The correlation matrix showed that all the pollution is coming from the same source. The gravitational sedimentation and impact on vegetation of coarse fraction is responsible for the high lead contamination of vegetation and soils. Collected data showed that, almost all the pollution being generated by automobile exhaust in urban areas of Karachi. The soil acts as an important sink for pollutants released through different activities. (author)

  12. Power and environmental assessment

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Cashmore, Matthew Asa; Richardson, Tim

    2013-01-01

    The significance of politics and power dynamics has long been recognised in environmental assessment (EA) research, but there has not been sustained attention to power, either theoretically or empirically. The aim of this special issue is to encourage the EA community to engage more consistently...

  13. Environmental criteria to incorporate into civil engineering studies and projects to improve environmental impact assessment proceeding; Criterios ambientales a incorporar en proyectos de ingenieria civil para favorecer el procedimiento de Evaluacion de Impacto Ambiental

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lazano Valero, I.; Palacios Garcia de la Rosa, D.; Doncel Moratilla, A.; Iglesias Perez, L.; Ortega Santos, L.; Varela Nieto, J. M.; Garcia Sanchez-Colomer, M.

    2009-07-01

    This study fulfils the need of establishing a guideline for environmental conditions that could be used to designing stages in projects submitted to Environmental Impact Assessment (EIA), in order to consider minimal requirements not only to encourage EIA proceedings but also to reduce Environmental Impact Statement (EIS) contents. EIS from the last 10 year for different civil works projects (roads, railways, airports, dams, hidroelectrical power stations, river channelizations, pipelines, water transfers, ports and works in the coast) have been studied, extracting all the environmental conditions found. Effectiveness and real implementation of theses conditions have been analysed in different phases of the project development, which have allowed a characterization of a series of environmental conditions that could improve environmental assessments and authorities decisions for EIS. (Author) 6 refs.

  14. Environmental impact assessment using a utility-based recursive evidential reasoning approach for structural flood mitigation measures in Metro Manila, Philippines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gilbuena, Romeo; Kawamura, Akira; Medina, Reynaldo; Nakagawa, Naoko; Amaguchi, Hideo

    2013-12-15

    In recent years, the practice of environmental impact assessment (EIA) has created significant awareness on the role of environmentally sound projects in sustainable development. In view of the recent studies on the effects of climate change, the Philippine government has given high priority to the construction of flood control structures to alleviate the destructive effects of unmitigated floods, especially in highly urbanized areas like Metro Manila. EIA thus, should be carefully and effectively carried out to maximize or optimize the potential benefits that can be derived from structural flood mitigation measures (SFMMs). A utility-based environmental assessment approach may significantly aid flood managers and decision-makers in planning for effective and environmentally sound SFMM projects. This study proposes a utility-based assessment approach using the rapid impact assessment matrix (RIAM) technique, coupled with the evidential reasoning approach, to rationally and systematically evaluate the ecological and socio-economic impacts of 4 planned SFMM projects (i.e. 2 river channel improvements and 2 new open channels) in Metro Manila. Results show that the overall environmental effects of each of the planned SFMM projects are positive, which indicate that the utility of the positive impacts would generally outweigh the negative impacts. The results also imply that the planned river channel improvements will yield higher environmental benefits over the planned open channels. This study was able to present a clear and rational approach in the examination of overall environmental effects of SFMMs, which provides valuable insights that can be used by decision-makers and policy makers to improve the EIA practice and evaluation of projects in the Philippines.

  15. Estimation of Production Amount of Livestock and Poultry Manure and Environmental Impact Assessment in Guangxi

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Qing; LIAO; Dongliang; HUANG; Zepu; JIANG; Guangpo; WEI; Panxia; LIANG; Yuning; WANG; Yangrui; LI

    2013-01-01

    This study was intended to estimate production of major livestock and poultry manure and contaminant content,and find out current situation of manure pollution,so as to provide reference for pollution control of livestock and poultry breeding industry in Guangxi.Based on the related statistic data in 2010 and the excretion coefficient of different livestock and poultry,the manure and its contaminant production amount of main livestock and poultry in Guangxi were estimated.Then the annual livestock and poultry manure load of farmland and the loss of contaminant were also calculated to analyze the ecological pressure resulted from livestock and poultry breeding in Guangxi.Following results were obtained:in 2010,the production amount of the livestock and poultry manure in Guangxi was 9141.30×104tons,including nutrient TN42.07×104tons and TP 13.62×104tons;the annual livestock and poultry manure and N,P pure nutrient load of farmland was 21t/hm2,98kg/hm2,and 32 kg/hm2respectively;the production amount of manure contaminants was BOD5383.43×104tons,COD Cr435.42×104tons,and NH3-N 42.08×104tons;according to 30%loss rate,the loss amount of COD Cr and NH3-N was higher than the sum of industrial and life waste water.It was concluded that the livestock and poultry breeding industry had little impact on soil environment,but posed a grave threat to water environment.

  16. Assessment of Environmental and Economic Impacts of Vine-Growing Combining Life Cycle Assessment, Life Cycle Costing and Multicriterial Analysis

    OpenAIRE

    Giacomo Falcone; Anna Irene De Luca; Teodora Stillitano; Alfio Strano; Giuseppa Romeo; Giovanni Gulisano

    2016-01-01

    The wine sector is going through a significant evolution dealing with the challenges of competition issues in international markets and with necessary commitments to sustainability improvement. In the wine supply chain, the agricultural phase represents a potential source of pollution and costs. From the farmers’ point of view, these contexts require them to be more attentive and find a compromise among environmental benefits, economic benefits, and costs linked to farming practices. This pap...

  17. Assessing the Environmental and Socio-Economic Impacts of Artisanal Gold Mining on the Livelihoods of Communities in the Tarkwa Nsuaem Municipality in Ghana

    OpenAIRE

    Samuel Obiri; Precious A. D. Mattah; Mattah, Memuna M.; Frederick A. Armah; Shiloh Osae; Sam Adu-kumi; Philip O. Yeboah

    2016-01-01

    Gold mining has played an important role in Ghana’s economy, however the negative environmental and socio-economic effects on the host communities associated with gold mining have overshadowed these economic gains. It is within this context that this paper assessed in an integrated manner the environmental and socio-economic impacts of artisanal gold mining in the Tarkwa Nsuaem Municipality from a natural and social science perspective. The natural science group collected 200 random samples o...

  18. Environmental Impact Assessment of Shrimp Culture Practice in Southwest Coastal Region of Bangladesh

    Science.gov (United States)

    Islam, M. M.; Rouf, M. A.; Hambrey, J.

    2008-12-01

    nutrients through supply water was slightly higher than nutrient discharged through water outlet, which indicates a net retention of nutrients in the pond ecosystems. A large portion of this sediment nutrient eventually finds its routes into the wider aquatic system every year during pond preparation. Though the aquatic environment is able to accommodate the load from the present level of aquaculture practice, the assimilative power of aquatic environment is in danger of being degraded with the unplanned intensification of shrimp culture areas. In planning aquaculture and future development all the issues and impacts must be considered.

  19. Assessing indoor air quality options: Final environmental impact statement on new energy-efficient home programs: Volume 2

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This report discusses the impact of energy conservation measures on indoor air quality in various size residential buildings. This volume includes appendices on ventilation rates, indoor pollutant levels, health effects, human risk assessment, radon, fiberglass hazards, tobacco smoke, mitigation

  20. Sustainability in the Apparel Industry: Improving How Companies Assess and Address Environmental Impacts Through a Revised Higg Index Facility Module

    OpenAIRE

    Connolly, Clare B.

    2015-01-01

    This study was focused on analyzing the Facility Environmental Module (FEM) of the Sustainable Apparel Coalition’s (SAC) Higg Index. The research objectives were twofold: 1) to test whether the indicators featured in the FEM could accommodate the data requirements for calculating environmental impacts of apparel products, and 2) to identify if the FEM indicators could satisfy the data and information needs of other key stakeholder groups. The long track record of irresponsible social and e...

  1. Strategic environmental assessment

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kørnøv, Lone

    1997-01-01

    The integration of environmental considerations into strategic decision making is recognized as a key to achieving sustainability. In the European Union a draft directive on Strategic Environmental Assessment (SEA) is currently being reviewed by the member states. The nature of the proposed SEA...... directive is outlined, together with its relationship with the process of spatial planning and public participation in Denmark. This paper analyses the adoption of the proposed directive and discusses whether the SEA is an appropriate tool for opening and democratizing political structures. It concludes...

  2. Environmental risk assessment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    MacDonell, M.M.

    1997-10-01

    This paper presents a current overview of the basic elements of environmental risk assessment within the basic four-step process of hazard identification, exposure assessment, toxicity assessment, and risk characterization. These general steps have been applied to assess both human and ecological risks from environmental exposures. Approaches used to identify hazards and exposures are being refined, including the use of optimized field sampling and more representative, rather than conservative,upper-bound estimates. In addition, toxicity data are being reviewed more rigorously as US and European harmonization initiatives gain strength, and the classification of chemicals has become more qualitative to more flexibly accommodate new dose-response information as it is developed. Finally, more emphasis is being placed on noncancer end points, and human and ecological risks are being weighed against each other more explicitly at the risk characterization phase. Recent advances in risk-based decision making reflect the increased transparency of the overall process, with more explicit incorporation of multiple trade-offs. The end result is a more comprehensive life-cycle evaluation of the risks associated with environmental exposures at contaminated sites.

  3. Transport Processes In A Heavy Eutrophic Marine Bay,Alexandria (Egypt, Applying Environmental ImpactAssessment (EIA Model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S.K.Mikhail, W.L.Gergis and E.E.Siam

    2001-09-01

    Full Text Available Autogenous and allogenous control of the phytoplankton standing crop and biomass was proved in Mex Bay, west of Alexandria (Egypt. Among the clear signs of eutrophication are the heavy visible blooms, which became regular events, at intermittent periods during the warm seasons. The causative organisms progressed differently, the dinoflagellate, Gymnodinium catenatum, is well known toxic species. The Environmental Impact Assessment model (EIA was applied to Mex Bay. It is a three-dimensional water quality and flow model, based on the three interacted dimensional: longitude, latitude and depth, calculations of time and space variations. The model deals with processes that affecting the water quality. It was initiated with measured field data and load input. The model was used to simulate phytoplankton biomass transport and ambient nutrient concentrations (nitrate, phosphate & ammonia. The model results and the field measurements are compared in order to fit the model. Generally, the calculated flow and concentrations corresponded well with observations. Deviations are attributed to several reasons. A notable influence of the main outfall on the concentrations, particularly in the near shore area, as well as, on the seawater quality was detected. The spatial distribution of the phytoplankton standing crop coincided clearly with the accompanied chlorophyll a concentrations calculated by the model. The results stressed the need to reduce load input into Mex Bay, in order to counteract eutrophication in Alexandria waters. Nitrogen reduction is more important for the whole area, while phosphorous reduction is more effective in the bay.

  4. Life Cycle Assessment of age-related environmental impact of biogenic hydraulic fluids; Life Cycle Assessment der alterungsbedingten Umweltvertraeglichkeit biogener Hydraulik-Schmierstoffe

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bressling, Jana

    2012-07-01

    Biogenic hydraulic fluids, based on synthetic esters (category: HEES), have an excellent environmental profile in the unused state, so that they are typically classified into water hazard class 1 or as ''not hazardous to water''. During storage at room temperature and tribological application, occurring chemical and toxicological changes take no account in the classification of lubricants until now. However, the ageing and oxidation stability gets increasing importance, since it determines the service life of lubricants in tribological systems in addition to the storage time. Since it always comes to direct and uncontrolled entries into the environment in case of accidents or hydraulic leaks, it is essential to assess whether there is an environmental hazard by waste oils. With an increased use of biogenic hydraulic fluids in environmentally sensitive areas, thus the need for an appropriate monitoring and assessment approach as part of a Life Cycle Assessment (LCA). The aquatic and miniaturised test procedures applied in this work with the Water Soluble Fraction (WSF) concept, allows a simple and quick screening of age-related ecotoxic potential of lubricants by oxidative processes and tribological application. For detection of genotoxic potential the umu-test is a suitable indicator test to detect geno- and cytotoxic effects by oxidative reactions. The determination of biodegradability is essential for the assessment of the environmental impact of hydraulic fluids. The optimised biodegradability test system ''O2/CO2-Headspace Test'' has proved itself as a suitable procedure for the investigation of biogenic lubricants within the scope of a LCA and shows therefore a comparable method of the required test procedures for the assignment of ecolabels. In addition, the combination of biological test procedures and chemical analysis allows a comprehensive investigation of effects and causes of age-related changes of hydraulic

  5. Technology assessment: environmental, health, and safety impacts associated with oil recovery from US tar-sand deposits

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Daniels, J.I.; Anspaugh, L.R.; Ricker, Y.E.

    1981-10-13

    The tar-sand resources of the US have the potential to yield as much as 36 billion barrels (bbls) of oil. The tar-sand petroleum-extraction technologies now being considered for commercialization in the United States include both surface (above ground) systems and in situ (underground) procedures. The surface systems currently receiving the most attention include: (1) thermal decomposition processes (retorting); (2) suspension methods (solvent extraction); and (3) washing techniques (water separation). Underground bitumen extraction techniques now being field tested are: (1) in situ combustion; and (2) in situ steam-injection procedures. At this time, any commercial tar-sand facility in the US will have to comply with at least 7 major federal regulations in addition to state regulations; building, electrical, and fire codes; and petroleum-industry construction standards. Pollution-control methods needed by tar-sand technologies to comply with regulatory standards and to protect air, land, and water quality will probably be similar to those already proposed for commercial oil-shale systems. The costs of these systems could range from about $1.20 to $2.45 per barrel of oil produced. Estimates of potential pollution-emisson levels affecting land, air, and water were calculated from available data related to current surface and in situ tar-sand field experiments in the US. These data were then extrapolated to determine pollutant levels expected from conceptual commercial surface and in situ facilities producing 20,000 bbl/d. The likelihood-of-occurrence of these impacts was then assessed. Experience from other industries, including information concerning health and ecosystem damage from air pollutants, measurements of ground-water transport of organic pollutants, and the effectiveness of environmental-control technologies was used to make this assessment.

  6. Is there an environmental benefit from remediation of a contaminated site? Combined assessments of the risk reduction and life cycle impact of remediation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lemming, Gitte; Chambon, Julie Claire Claudia; Binning, Philip John;

    2012-01-01

    A comparative life cycle assessment is presented for four different management options for a trichloroethene-contaminated site with a contaminant source zone located in a fractured clay till. The compared options are (i) long-term monitoring (ii) in-situ enhanced reductive dechlorination (ERD...... impacts due to contaminant leaching into groundwater that is used for drinking water, whereas the secondary environmental impacts are related to remediation activities such as monitoring, drilling and construction of wells and use of remedial amendments. The primary impacts for the compared scenarios were...... determined by a numerical risk assessment and remedial performance model, which predicted the contaminant mass discharge over time at a point of compliance in the aquifer and at the waterworks. The combined assessment of risk reduction and life cycle impacts showed that all management options result...

  7. The eastern Baffin Bay. A preliminary strategic environmental impact assessment of hydrocarbon activities in the KANUMAS West area; Greenland

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Boertmann, D.; Johansen, K.; Maltha Rasmussen, L.; Schiedek, D.; Ugarte, F.; Mosbech, A.; Frederiksen, M.; Bjerrum, M.

    2009-05-15

    The environmental impacts of exploration activities will mainly be disturbance from activities creating noise such as seismic surveys and drilling. The impacts are expected to be relatively small, local and temporary, because of the intermittent nature of the exploration activities. Furthermore, the season for exploration activities is very short and limited to the few months with light ice conditions (June-October). The activities during development, production and transport are on the other hand long-lasting, and there are several activities which have the potential to cause severe environmental impacts. Careful Health, Safety and Environment (HSE) procedures, application of Best Available Technique (BAT) and Best Environmental Practice (BEP), zero-discharge policy and planning in combination with thorough background studies and application of the Precautionary Principle can mitigate most of these. The environmentally most severe accident would be a large oil spill. This has the potential to impact the marine ecosystem on all levels from primary production to the top predators. Oil spill trajectory modelling was carried out by DMI as a part of this SEIA. In most of the modelled oil spill drift scenarios oil does not reach the coasts, but stays offshore. However, three of the 24 scenarios indicate that under certain conditions, oil may reach shores up to several hundred kilometres from the spill site. (ln)

  8. The western Greenland Sea. A preliminary strategic environmental impact assessment of hydrocarbon activities in the KANUMAS East area; Greenland

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Boertmann, D.; Johansen, K.; Maltha Rasmussen, L.; Schiedek, D.; Ugarte, F.; Mosbech, A.; Frederiksen, M.; Bjerrum, M.

    2009-05-15

    The environmental impacts of exploration activities will mainly be disturbance from activities creating noise such as seismic surveys and drilling. The impacts are expected to be relatively small, local and temporary, because of the intermittent nature of the exploration activities. Furthermore, the season for exploration activities is very short and limited to the few months with light ice conditions (June-October). The activities during development, production and transport are on the other hand long-lasting, and there are several activities which have the potential to cause severe environmental impacts. Careful Health, Safety and Environment (HSE) procedures, application of Best Available Technique (BAT) and Best Environmental Practice (BEP), zero-discharge policy and planning in combination with thorough background studies and application of the Precautionary Principle can mitigate most of these. The environmentally most severe accident would be a large oil spill. This has the potential to impact the marine ecosystem on all levels from primary production to the top predators. Oil spill trajectory modelling was carried out by DMI as a part of this SEIA. In most of the modelled oil spill drift scenarios oil does not reach the coasts, but stays offshore. However, three of the 24 scenarios indicate 11 that under certain conditions, oil may reach shores up to several hundred kilometres from the spill site. (ln)

  9. Application of a Life Cycle Impact Assessment framework to evaluate and compare environmental performances with economic values of supplied coal products

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mangena, S.J.; Brent, A.C. [University of Pretoria, Pretoria (South Africa). Dept. for Engineering & Technological Management

    2006-07-01

    The South African economy is strongly based on coal as a mined resource, and various grades of coal are supplied to local and international customers. However, the environmental impacts associated with the preparation and production of different coal grades from Run of Mine (RoM) or raw coal are variable; specifically, the different mining methods used for coal extraction opencast or underground mining - have different environmental impacts. The entire life cycles of the grades of coal must therefore be evaluated in order to compare environmental performances with supplied economic values. In this paper, a Life Cycle Impact Assessment (LCIA) methodology, based on the ISO 14040 standard, is applied for this purpose. Four cases are considered in South Africa: typical high-grade and low-grade coals from opencast and underground mines.

  10. BIOGAS STATIONS AND THEIR ENVIRONMENTAL IMPACTS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vladimir Lapčik

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available The article summarizes the authors’ experience with environmental impact assessment in branch of biogas plants. The introductory part of the paper describes legislative obligations of the Czech Republic concerning the fulfilment of the European Union’s limits as for utilization of renewable energy resources. The next parts of the paper deal with an impact analysis of biogas plants on the environment. The final part of the paper deals with experience with implementation of the environmental impact assessment process in the field of biogas plants in the Czech Republic.

  11. Evaluation of Groundwater Impacts to Support the National Environmental Policy Act Environmental Assessment for the INL Remote-Handled Low-Level Waste Disposal Project

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Annette Schafer, Arthur S. Rood, A. Jeffrey Sondrup

    2011-12-23

    Groundwater impacts have been analyzed for the proposed remote-handled low-level waste disposal facility. The analysis was prepared to support the National Environmental Policy Act environmental assessment for the top two ranked sites for the proposed disposal facility. A four-phase screening and analysis approach was documented and applied. Phase I screening was site independent and applied a radionuclide half-life cut-off of 1 year. Phase II screening applied the National Council on Radiation Protection analysis approach and was site independent. Phase III screening used a simplified transport model and site-specific geologic and hydrologic parameters. Phase III neglected the infiltration-reducing engineered cover, the sorption influence of the vault system, dispersion in the vadose zone, vertical dispersion in the aquifer, and the release of radionuclides from specific waste forms. These conservatisms were relaxed in the Phase IV analysis which used a different model with more realistic parameters and assumptions. Phase I screening eliminated 143 of the 246 radionuclides in the inventory from further consideration because each had a half-life less than 1 year. An additional 13 were removed because there was no ingestion dose coefficient available. Of the 90 radionuclides carried forward from Phase I, 57 radionuclides had simulated Phase II screening doses exceeding 0.4 mrem/year. Phase III and IV screening compared the maximum predicted radionuclide concentration in the aquifer to maximum contaminant levels. Of the 57 radionuclides carried forward from Phase II, six radionuclides were identified in Phase III as having simulated future aquifer concentrations exceeding maximum contaminant limits. An additional seven radionuclides had simulated Phase III groundwater concentrations exceeding 1/100th of their respective maximum contaminant levels and were also retained for Phase IV analysis. The Phase IV analysis predicted that none of the thirteen remaining

  12. An environmental assessment system for environmental technologies

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Clavreul, Julie; Baumeister, Hubert; Christensen, Thomas Højlund;

    2014-01-01

    A new model for the environmental assessment of environmental technologies, EASETECH, has been developed. The primary aim of EASETECH is to perform life-cycle assessment (LCA) of complex systems handling heterogeneous material flows. The objectives of this paper are to describe the EASETECH...

  13. Assessment of different doses of N applied to a melon crop in the quality of groundwater: environmental impact indexes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Castellanos, M. T.; Cartagena, M. C.; Ribas, F.; Cabello, M. J.; Arce, A.; Tarquis, A. M.

    2010-05-01

    Provided that the intensive use of N in agricultural systems has negatively impacted environmental quality, because a higher fertilization requirements of the crop to make the nitrate leached into the aquifer contaminating, as well as increasing their presence on the ground resulting in a time of intercropping nitrates washing with the arrival of rains. It's necessary to know the N management to reduce the pollution risks and may lead the higher production with the fewer economic cost, environmental and health. The aim of this study was to asses how different doses of nitrogen applied to a melon crop affected the quality of groundwater. The doses of N applied ranged between 11 and 393 kg ha-1. Several indexes, based in N leaching consequence of the agricultural practice, were calculated and provided an essential tool for knowing the risks of groundwater pollution with the practices used. Drinking water impact, irrigation water management impact and environmental impact indexes were obtained during four years in a vulnerable area of the centre of Spain. Acknowledgements: This project has been supported by INIA-RTA04-111

  14. Preliminary assessment of freshwater crayfish as environmental indicators of human impacts in canyons of the Blue Mountains, Australia

    OpenAIRE

    Hardiman, Nigel; Burgin, Shelley

    2010-01-01

    Canyoning has become a popular recreation activity in the Greater Blue Mountains World Heritage Area (Australia), and park management consider that the activity is having an impact on the local fauna of the fragile canyon ecosystems. Although only limited data exist on the native freshwater crayfish populations that inhabit these canyons, it has been suggested that freshwater crayfish have the potential to act as a rapid bioindicator of human impacts. As a preliminary assessment, we sampled c...

  15. Environmental compliance assessment review

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    During the period 1972-1991, The United States Congress passed stringent environmental statues which the Environment Protection Agency implemented via regulations. The statues and regulations contain severe civil and criminal penalties. Civil violations resulted in fines, typically payable by the company. The act of willfully and knowingly violating the permit conditions or regulations can result in criminal charges being imposed upon the responsible part, i.e., either the company or individual. Criminal charges can include fines, lawyer fees, court costs and incarceration. This paper describes steps necessary to form an effective Environmental Compliance Assessment Review [CAR] program, train field and engineering personnel and perform a CAR audit. Additionally, the paper discusses the findings of a number of Exploration and Production [E and P] field audits

  16. Quantifying the environmental impact of an integrated human/industrial-natural system using life cycle assessment; a case study on a forest and wood processing chain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schaubroeck, Thomas; Alvarenga, Rodrigo A F; Verheyen, Kris; Muys, Bart; Dewulf, Jo

    2013-01-01

    Life Cycle Assessment (LCA) is a tool to assess the environmental sustainability of a product; it quantifies the environmental impact of a product's life cycle. In conventional LCAs, the boundaries of a product's life cycle are limited to the human/industrial system, the technosphere. Ecosystems, which provide resources to and take up emissions from the technosphere, are not included in those boundaries. However, similar to the technosphere, ecosystems also have an impact on their (surrounding) environment through their resource usage (e.g., nutrients) and emissions (e.g., CH4). We therefore propose a LCA framework to assess the impact of integrated Techno-Ecological Systems (TES), comprising relevant ecosystems and the technosphere. In our framework, ecosystems are accounted for in the same manner as technosphere compartments. Also, the remediating effect of uptake of pollutants, an ecosystem service, is considered. A case study was performed on a TES of sawn timber production encompassing wood growth in an intensively managed forest ecosystem and further industrial processing. Results show that the managed forest accounted for almost all resource usage and biodiversity loss through land occupation but also for a remediating effect on human health, mostly via capture of airborne fine particles. These findings illustrate the potential relevance of including ecosystems in the product's life cycle of a LCA, though further research is needed to better quantify the environmental impact of TES.

  17. Quantifying the environmental impact of an integrated human/industrial-natural system using life cycle assessment; a case study on a forest and wood processing chain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schaubroeck, Thomas; Alvarenga, Rodrigo A F; Verheyen, Kris; Muys, Bart; Dewulf, Jo

    2013-01-01

    Life Cycle Assessment (LCA) is a tool to assess the environmental sustainability of a product; it quantifies the environmental impact of a product's life cycle. In conventional LCAs, the boundaries of a product's life cycle are limited to the human/industrial system, the technosphere. Ecosystems, which provide resources to and take up emissions from the technosphere, are not included in those boundaries. However, similar to the technosphere, ecosystems also have an impact on their (surrounding) environment through their resource usage (e.g., nutrients) and emissions (e.g., CH4). We therefore propose a LCA framework to assess the impact of integrated Techno-Ecological Systems (TES), comprising relevant ecosystems and the technosphere. In our framework, ecosystems are accounted for in the same manner as technosphere compartments. Also, the remediating effect of uptake of pollutants, an ecosystem service, is considered. A case study was performed on a TES of sawn timber production encompassing wood growth in an intensively managed forest ecosystem and further industrial processing. Results show that the managed forest accounted for almost all resource usage and biodiversity loss through land occupation but also for a remediating effect on human health, mostly via capture of airborne fine particles. These findings illustrate the potential relevance of including ecosystems in the product's life cycle of a LCA, though further research is needed to better quantify the environmental impact of TES. PMID:24195778

  18. A Life-Cycle Approach to Characterising Environmental and Economic Impacts of Multifunctional Land-Use Systems: An Integrated Assessment in the UK

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Miguel Brandão

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available An integrated environmental and economic assessment of land use for food, energy and timber in the UK has been performed using environmental Life Cycle Assessment (LCA and economic Life Cycle Costing (LCC, to explore complementary sustainability aspects of alternative land uses. The environmental assessment includes impacts on climate change, ecosystem services and biodiversity, all of which include soil carbon emissions. The systems explored include all processes from cradle to farm ‘gate’. The crops assessed were wheat and oilseed rape (under both organic and conventional farming systems, Scots Pine, and willow and Miscanthus. Food crops, particularly conventional food crops, are shown to have the highest climate-changing emissions per ha, whereas energy and forestry crops show negative net emissions. To a lesser extent, the same situation applies to impacts on ecosystems and biodiversity, with carbon storage in biomass playing a larger role than carbon in soils. The energy and forestry crops in this study show an overall beneficial environmental impact, in particular due to soil carbon sequestration, making these land uses the lowest contributors to climate change. Combining this with the non-renewable CO2 emissions displaced will mean that energy crops have an even lower impact. Economically, conventional food crops present the highest costs per ha, followed by organic food crops, energy and forestry crops. Integrating the results from LCA and LCC shows that the climate impacts per monetary unit of all land uses are dominated by soil management and, in the case of food production, also by fertilisation. Taxes or incentives such as “carbon charging” will encourage changes in practice in these areas to improve the sustainability of land management, mainly by building up Soil Organic Carbon (SOC.

  19. Risk assessment for the on-site transportation of radioactive wastes for the U.S. Department of Energy Waste Management programmatic environmental impact statement

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This report documents the risk assessment performed for the on-site transportation of radioactive wastes in the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Waste Management (WM) Programmatic Environmental Impact Statement (PEIS). Risks for the routine shipment of wastes and the impacts from potential accidental releases are analyzed for operations at the Hanford Site (Hanford) near Richland, Washington. Like other large DOE sites, Hanford conducts waste management operations for all wastes types; consequently, the impacts calculated for Hanford are expected to be greater than those for smaller sites. The risk assessment conducted for on-site transportation is intended to provide an estimate of the magnitude of the potential risk for comparison with off-site transportation risks assessed for the WM PEIS

  20. Risk assessment for the on-site transportation of radioactive wastes for the U.S. Department of Energy Waste Management Programmatic Environmental Impact Statement

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This report documents the risk assessment performed for the on-site transportation of radioactive wastes in the US Department of Energy (DOE) Waste Management Programmatic Environmental Impact Statement (WM PEIS). Risks for the routine shipment of wastes and the impacts from potential accidental releases are analyzed for operations at the Hanford Site (Hanford) near Richland, Washington. Like other large DOE sites, hanford conducts waste management operations for all wastes types; consequently, the impacts calculated for Hanford are expected to be greater than those for smaller sites. The risk assessment conducted for on-site transportation is intended to provide an estimate of the magnitude of the potential risk for comparison with off-site transportation risks assessed for the WM PEIS

  1. Simplified matrix for assessment to environmental impacts on small hydroelectric power plants (SHP); Matriz simplificada para avaliar impactos ambientais em pequenas centrais hidreletricas (PCH)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Barbosa, Tania A.P. de Souza; Dupas, Francisco Antonio [Universidade Federal de Itajuba, MG (Brazil). Inst. de Recursos Naturais]. E-mails: taniabarbosa@unifei.edu.br; dupas@unifei.edu.br

    2006-07-01

    This work intends to study the methodologies used by EIA and proposes the adaptation of a simplified matrix for the assessment of environmental impacts regarding small hydropower plants. A case study of Ninho da Aguia SHP, located in the city of Delfim Moreira, MG, was used for elaborating the matrix. The methodology used the analysis of all the negative impacts and they were given combined weight based on a pre-established impact scale. The weights that were given to each impact were distributed according to the combination of features presented in the referred EIA. The results attained show that the environmental damage is reduced by 45% when the mitigating measures suggested by the EIA and by the analysis carried out by this study are applied. Besides, this preliminary proposal will make it possible for the process of getting an environmental license to be accelerated. Today, this process is considered as an investment inhibitor because of its slowness caused by the environmental organs that analyze these studies. Also, it may be used as initial guidelines regarding the environmental cost of the implementation of the enterprise. The proposed matrix shows itself as efficient because it is easy to be used and it is a useful tool for the analysis of projects that will be implemented.

  2. Assessing climate impacts

    OpenAIRE

    Wohl, Ellen E.; Roger S. Pulwarty; Zhang, Jian Yun

    2000-01-01

    Assessing climate impacts involves identifying sources and characteristics of climate variability, and mitigating potential negative impacts of that variability. Associated research focuses on climate driving mechanisms, biosphere–hydrosphere responses and mediation, and human responses. Examples of climate impacts come from 1998 flooding in the Yangtze River Basin and hurricanes in the Caribbean and Central America. Although we have limited understanding of the fu...

  3. Environmental Impact Assessment and End-of-Life Treatment Policy Analysis for Li-Ion Batteries and Ni-MH Batteries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yajuan Yu

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Based on Life Cycle Assessment (LCA and Eco-indicator 99 method, a LCA model was applied to conduct environmental impact and end-of-life treatment policy analysis for secondary batteries. This model evaluated the cycle, recycle and waste treatment stages of secondary batteries. Nickel-Metal Hydride (Ni-MH batteries and Lithium ion (Li-ion batteries were chosen as the typical secondary batteries in this study. Through this research, the following results were found: (1 A basic number of cycles should be defined. A minimum cycle number of 200 would result in an obvious decline of environmental loads for both battery types. Batteries with high energy density and long life expectancy have small environmental loads. Products and technology that help increase energy density and life expectancy should be encouraged. (2 Secondary batteries should be sorted out from municipal garbage. Meanwhile, different types of discarded batteries should be treated separately under policies and regulations. (3 The incineration rate has obvious impact on the Eco-indicator points of Nickel-Metal Hydride (Ni-MH batteries. The influence of recycle rate on Lithium ion (Li-ion batteries is more obvious. These findings indicate that recycling is the most promising direction for reducing secondary batteries’ environmental loads. The model proposed here can be used to evaluate environmental loads of other secondary batteries and it can be useful for proposing policies and countermeasures to reduce the environmental impact of secondary batteries.

  4. Environmental impact assessment of radionuclide and metal contamination at the former U sites Taboshar and Digmai, Tajikistan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Skipperud, L; Strømman, G; Yunusov, M; Stegnar, P; Uralbekov, B; Tilloboev, H; Zjazjev, G; Heier, L S; Rosseland, B O; Salbu, B

    2013-09-01

    Uranium (U) ore mining and processing were initiated in the former Soviet Republics of Tajikistan after the Second World War as part of the USSR nuclear weapon programme. The U mine in Taboshar was opened in 1936, and mining took place from 1945 to 1965, while the Digmai tailings dump was exploited during 1963-1993. The mining, milling and extraction activities have resulted in large amounts of waste rock deposits and U tailing materials placed in the vicinity of inhabited areas. To assess the environmental impact of radionuclides and trace metals in the Taboshar and Digmai mining and tailing sites in Tajikistan, field expeditions were performed in 2006 and 2008. In addition to in situ gamma and radon dose rate measurements, sampling of water, fish, sediments, soils and vegetation including in situ fractionation of water were performed. The U concentrations in water from Taboshar Pit Lake (2.0 mg U/L) were higher than in waters collected in the Digmai area. The Pit Lake and the stream water from the tailing mountain were also characterised by elevated concentrations of As, Mo, Mn and Fe, exceeding the WHO recommended values for drinking water. Uranium, As, Mo and Ni were present as low molecular mass species in the waters, and are therefore considered mobile and potentially bioavailable. The (238)U concentrations in sediments and soils varied between the sites; with peak concentrations (6 kBq/kg dw) in sediments from the Pit Lake, while the soil concentrations were significantly lower (296-590 Bq/kg dw). In contrast, high levels of the radium isotopes ((226)Ra and (228)Ra) were found in the Digmai soil (17-32 kBq/kg dw). Based on sequential extraction results, both U and Pb were found to be quite mobile at the Pit Lake site, showing that these elements were associated with the pH sensitive and redox sensitive amorphous fractions. In tailings, U was found to be quite mobile, but here Pb was rather inert. The transfer of radionuclides and metals from sediments to

  5. Environmental impact assessment of radionuclide and metal contamination at the former U sites Taboshar and Digmai, Tajikistan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Uranium (U) ore mining and processing were initiated in the former Soviet Republics of Tajikistan after the Second World War as part of the USSR nuclear weapon programme. The U mine in Taboshar was opened in 1936, and mining took place from 1945 to 1965, while the Digmai tailings dump was exploited during 1963–1993. The mining, milling and extraction activities have resulted in large amounts of waste rock deposits and U tailing materials placed in the vicinity of inhabited areas. To assess the environmental impact of radionuclides and trace metals in the Taboshar and Digmai mining and tailing sites in Tajikistan, field expeditions were performed in 2006 and 2008. In addition to in situ gamma and radon dose rate measurements, sampling of water, fish, sediments, soils and vegetation including in situ fractionation of water were performed. The U concentrations in water from Taboshar Pit Lake (2.0 mg U/L) were higher than in waters collected in the Digmai area. The Pit Lake and the stream water from the tailing mountain were also characterised by elevated concentrations of As, Mo, Mn and Fe, exceeding the WHO recommended values for drinking water. Uranium, As, Mo and Ni were present as low molecular mass species in the waters, and are therefore considered mobile and potentially bioavailable. The 238U concentrations in sediments and soils varied between the sites; with peak concentrations (6 kBq/kg dw) in sediments from the Pit Lake, while the soil concentrations were significantly lower (296–590 Bq/kg dw). In contrast, high levels of the radium isotopes (226Ra and 228Ra) were found in the Digmai soil (17–32 kBq/kg dw). Based on sequential extraction results, both U and Pb were found to be quite mobile at the Pit Lake site, showing that these elements were associated with the pH sensitive and redox sensitive amorphous fractions. In tailings, U was found to be quite mobile, but here Pb was rather inert. The transfer of radionuclides and metals from sediments to

  6. Environmental impact of greenhouse tomato production in France

    OpenAIRE

    Boulard, Thierry; Raeppel, Caroline; Brun, Richard; Lecompte, François; Hayer, Franck; Carmassi, Giulia; Gaillard, Gérard

    2011-01-01

    The environmental impact of greenhouse production in France is poorly documented. Environmental benefits versus drawbacks of greenhouse production are not well known. Assessments that intregrate pesticide toxicology and transfer of mass and energy are scarce. Here, we compared the main types of tomato production, heated, year-round production in plastic houses or glasshouses, and seasonal production under polytunnel. Environmental impacts where assesse...

  7. Playing It Safe: Assessing Cumulative Impact and Social Vulnerability through an Environmental Justice Screening Method in the South Coast Air Basin, California

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Justin Scoggins

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available Regulatory agencies, including the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (US EPA and state authorities like the California Air Resources Board (CARB, have sought to address the concerns of environmental justice (EJ advocates who argue that chemical-by-chemical and source-specific assessments of potential health risks of environmental hazards do not reflect the multiple environmental and social stressors faced by vulnerable communities. We propose an Environmental Justice Screening Method (EJSM as a relatively simple, flexible and transparent way to examine the relative rank of cumulative impacts and social vulnerability within metropolitan regions and determine environmental justice areas based on more than simply the demographics of income and race. We specifically organize 23 indicator metrics into three categories: (1 hazard proximity and land use; (2 air pollution exposure and estimated health risk; and (3 social and health vulnerability. For hazard proximity, the EJSM uses GIS analysis to create a base map by intersecting land use data with census block polygons, and calculates hazard proximity measures based on locations within various buffer distances. These proximity metrics are then summarized to the census tract level where they are combined with tract centroid-based estimates of pollution exposure and health risk and socio-economic status (SES measures. The result is a cumulative impacts (CI score for ranking neighborhoods within regions that can inform diverse stakeholders seeking to identify local areas that might need targeted regulatory strategies to address environmental justice concerns.

  8. Environmental Impact of Concrete

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dan Babor

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available The cement and concrete industries are huge. What does this mean in terms of the environment? Concrete and other cementitious materials have both environmental advantages and disadvantages. This paper takes a look at how these materials are made, then reviews a number of environmental considerations relating to their production and use.

  9. Environmental Impact of Concrete

    OpenAIRE

    Dan Babor; Diana Plian; Loredana Judele

    2009-01-01

    The cement and concrete industries are huge. What does this mean in terms of the environment? Concrete and other cementitious materials have both environmental advantages and disadvantages. This paper takes a look at how these materials are made, then reviews a number of environmental considerations relating to their production and use.

  10. Risk assessment for the off-site transportation of high-level waste for the U.S. Department of Energy Waste Management Programmatic Environmental Impact Statement

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This report describes the human health risk assessment conducted for the transportation of high-level waste (HLW) in support of the US Department of Energy Waste Management Programmatic Environmental Impact Statement (WM PEIS). The assessment considers risks to collective populations and individuals under both routine and accident transportation conditions for truck and rail shipment modes. The report discusses the scope of the HLW transportation assessment, describes the analytical methods used for the assessment, defines the alternatives considered in the WM PEIS, and details important assessment assumptions. Results are reported for four alternatives. In addition, to aid in the understanding and interpretation of the results, specific areas of uncertainty are described, with an emphasis on how the uncertainties may affect comparisons of the alternatives. The number and scope of the WM PEIS HLW alternatives were revised after the preparation of this report. An addendum has been added to make this HLW transportation risk assessment consistent with that presented in the WM PEIS

  11. Environmental impact assessment in environmental monitoring work related issues%环境影响评价中环境监测工作的相关问题探讨

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    屈秋艳

    2012-01-01

      In the environmental impact assessment, environment monitoring is to obtain the environmental quality status of the baseline value process, it gives the environmental impact assessment to provide essential basic data. Environmental impact statement on the construction project is completed the surrounding environment quality evaluation conclusions are reliable, first of all depends on engineering analysis is correct, accurate, then depends on the environmental quality of baseline value representation and accuracy. Therefore, environment monitoring environmental impact assessment work is a very important one annulus. Not fair, accurate, good representative environment monitoring data, environment impact assessment conclusion is become without this wood, credibility is questionable.%  在环境影响评价工作中,环境现状监测是获得环境质量现状基线值的过程,它给环境影响评价提供必不可少的基础数据。环境影响报告书对建设项目建成后周围环境质量状况的评价结论是否可信,首先取决于工程分析是否正确、准确,其次就取决于环境质量基线值的代表性与准确性。因此,环境现状监测是环境影响评价工作中非常重要的一环。没有公正、准确、代表性好的环境现状监测数据,环境影响评价的结论就成为无本之木,可信度必然大打折扣

  12. Environmental impact assessment of radionuclide and metal contamination at the former U site at Kadji Sai, Kyrgyzstan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lind, O C; Stegnar, P; Tolongutov, B; Rosseland, B O; Strømman, G; Uralbekov, B; Usubalieva, A; Solomatina, A; Gwynn, J P; Lespukh, E; Salbu, B

    2013-09-01

    During 1949-1967, a U mine, a coal-fired thermal power plant and a processing plant for the extraction of U from the produced ash were operated at the Kadji Sai U mining site in Tonsk district, Issyk-Kul County, Kyrgyzstan. The Kadji Sai U legacy site represents a source of contamination of the local environment by naturally occurring radionuclides and associated trace elements. To assess the environmental impact of radionuclides and trace metals at the site, field expeditions were performed in 2007 and 2008 by the Joint collaboration between Norway, Kazakhstan, Kyrgyzstan, Tajikistan (JNKKT) project and the NATO SfP RESCA project. In addition to in situ gamma and Rn dose rate measurements, sampling included at site fractionation of water and sampling of water, fish, sediment, soils and vegetation. The concentrations of radionuclides and trace metals in water from Issyk-Kul Lake were in general low, but surprisingly high for As. Uptake of U and As was also observed in fish from the lake with maximum bioconcentration factors for liver of 1.6 and 75, respectively. The concentrations of U in water within the Kadji Sai area varied from 0.01 to 0.05 mg/L, except for downstream from the mining area where U reached a factor of 10 higher, 0.2 mg/L. Uranium concentrations in the drinking water of Kadji Sai village were about the level recommended by the WHO for drinking water. The (234)U/(238)U activity ratio reflected equilibrium conditions in the mining pond, but far from equilibrium outside this area (reaching 2.3 for an artesian well). Uranium, As and Ni were mainly present as low molecular mass (LMM, less than 10 kDa) species in all samples, indicating that these elemental species are mobile and potentially bioavailable. The soils from the mining sites were enriched in U, As and trace metals. Hot spots with elevated radioactivity levels were easily detected in Kadji Sai and radioactive particles were observed. The presence of particles carrying significant amount of

  13. Environmental impact assessment of radionuclide and metal contamination at the former U site at Kadji Sai, Kyrgyzstan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    During 1949–1967, a U mine, a coal-fired thermal power plant and a processing plant for the extraction of U from the produced ash were operated at the Kadji Sai U mining site in Tonsk district, Issyk-Kul County, Kyrgyzstan. The Kadji Sai U legacy site represents a source of contamination of the local environment by naturally occurring radionuclides and associated trace elements. To assess the environmental impact of radionuclides and trace metals at the site, field expeditions were performed in 2007 and 2008 by the Joint collaboration between Norway, Kazakhstan, Kyrgyzstan, Tajikistan (JNKKT) project and the NATO SfP RESCA project. In addition to in situ gamma and Rn dose rate measurements, sampling included at site fractionation of water and sampling of water, fish, sediment, soils and vegetation. The concentrations of radionuclides and trace metals in water from Issyk-Kul Lake were in general low, but surprisingly high for As. Uptake of U and As was also observed in fish from the lake with maximum bioconcentration factors for liver of 1.6 and 75, respectively. The concentrations of U in water within the Kadji Sai area varied from 0.01 to 0.05 mg/L, except for downstream from the mining area where U reached a factor of 10 higher, 0.2 mg/L. Uranium concentrations in the drinking water of Kadji Sai village were about the level recommended by the WHO for drinking water. The 234U/238U activity ratio reflected equilibrium conditions in the mining pond, but far from equilibrium outside this area (reaching 2.3 for an artesian well). Uranium, As and Ni were mainly present as low molecular mass (LMM, less than 10 kDa) species in all samples, indicating that these elemental species are mobile and potentially bioavailable. The soils from the mining sites were enriched in U, As and trace metals. Hot spots with elevated radioactivity levels were easily detected in Kadji Sai and radioactive particles were observed. The presence of particles carrying significant amount of

  14. Critical analyses of public participation as part of the environmental impact assessment process for the installation of gas pipeline / by Werner Petrick

    OpenAIRE

    Petrick, Werner Arthur

    2004-01-01

    The protection of the environment is becoming one of the most pressing concerns of mankind in the 21St century. South African Legislation requires an environmental impact assessment (EM) to obtain authorisation for executing certain activities. Constructing and operating a gas pipeline requires an authorisation from the relevant authorities under the EIA legislation. One of the objectives of an EIA is to ensure public involvement. South African legislation stipulates guid...

  15. Introducing Life Cycle Impact Assessment

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hauschild, Michael Zwicky; Huijbregts, Mark AJ

    2015-01-01

    methodology projects and presents the international scientific discussions and methodological consensus attempts in consecutive working groups under the auspices of the Society of Environmental Toxicology and Chemistry (SETAC) as well as the UNEP/ SETAC Life Cycle Initiative, and the (almost) parallel......This chapter serves as an introduction to the presentation of the many aspects of life cycle impact assessment (LCIA) in this volume of the book series ‘LCA Compendium’. It starts with a brief historical overview of the development of life cycle impact assessment driven by numerous national LCIA...

  16. Live Fire Range Environmental Assessment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    1993-08-01

    The Central Training Academy (CTA) is a DOE Headquarters Organization located in Albuquerque, New Mexico, with the mission to effectively and efficiently educate and train personnel involved in the protection of vital national security interests of DOE. The CTA Live Fire Range (LFR), where most of the firearms and tactical training occurs, is a complex separate from the main campus. The purpose of the proposed action is to expand the LFR to allow more options of implementing required training. The Department of Energy has prepared this Environmental Assessment (EA) for the proposed construction and operation of an expanded Live Fire Range Facility at the Central Training Academy in Albuquerque, New Mexico. Based on the analysis in the EA, DOE has determined that the proposed action is not a major Federal action significantly affecting the quality of the human environment, within the meaning of the National Environmental Policy Act (NEPA) of 1969. Therefore, the preparation of an environmental impact statement is not required and DOE is issuing this Finding of No Significant Impact (FONSI).

  17. An environmental assessment system for environmental technologies

    OpenAIRE

    Clavreul, Julie; Baumeister, Hubert; Christensen, Thomas Højlund; Damgaard, Anders

    2014-01-01

    A new model for the environmental assessment of environmental technologies, EASETECH, has been developed. The primary aim of EASETECH is to perform life-cycle assessment (LCA) of complex systems handling heterogeneous material flows. The objectives of this paper are to describe the EASETECH framework and the calculation structure. The main novelties compared to other LCA software are as follows. First, the focus is put on material flow modelling, as each flow is characterised as a mix of mate...

  18. Environmental assessment, Pinellas Plant site, Petersburg, Florida

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The purpose of this environmental assessment is to describe the operations at the Pinellas Plant, discuss the locale in which the plant is situated and assess the actual and possible impacts of plant operation on the surrounding environment. The facility and the local environment are described; impacts on the economy, local community and the environment discussed, and alternatives presented. A comparison of the environmental impact of operating the Pinellas Plant versus the benefits gained by its operation suggests that the plant should continue its function of supplying nuclear weapons components for the US Department of Energy

  19. Surrogate species selection for assessing potential adverse environmental impacts of genetically engineered insect-resistant plants on non-target organisms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carstens, Keri; Cayabyab, Bonifacio; De Schrijver, Adinda; Gadaleta, Patricia G; Hellmich, Richard L; Romeis, Jörg; Storer, Nicholas; Valicente, Fernando H; Wach, Michael

    2014-01-01

    Most regulatory authorities require that developers of genetically engineered insect-resistant (GEIR) crops evaluate the potential for these crops to have adverse impacts on valued non-target organisms (NTOs), i.e., organisms not intended to be controlled by the trait. In many cases, impacts to NTOs are assessed using surrogate species, and it is critical that the data derived from surrogates accurately predict any adverse impacts likely to be observed from the use of the crop in the agricultural context. The key is to select surrogate species that best represent the valued NTOs in the location where the crop is going to be introduced, but this selection process poses numerous challenges for the developers of GE crops who will perform the tests, as well as for the ecologists and regulators who will interpret the test results. These issues were the subject of a conference "Surrogate Species Selection for Assessing Potential Adverse Environmental Impacts of Genetically Engineered Plants on Non-Target Organisms" convened by the Center for Environmental Risk Assessment, ILSI Research Foundation. This report summarizes the proceedings of the conference, including the presentations, discussions and the points of consensus agreed to by the participants.

  20. 78 FR 54906 - Draft Supplemental Environmental Impact Report/Environmental Impact Statement for a Proposed...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-09-06

    ... Fish and Wildlife Service Draft Supplemental Environmental Impact Report/Environmental Impact Statement... Coachella Valley Conservation Commission (CVCC), has prepared a joint draft Supplemental Environmental Impact Report/Environmental Impact Statement (draft Supplemental EIR/EIS) under the...