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Sample records for assessing chemotheraphy side-effects

  1. In vivo assessment of antiretroviral therapy-associated side effects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eduardo Milton Ramos-Sanchez

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Antiretroviral therapy has been associated with side effects, either from the drug itself or in conjunction with the effects of human immunodeficiency virus infection. Here, we evaluated the side effects of the protease inhibitor (PI indinavir in hamsters consuming a normal or high-fat diet. Indinavir treatment increased the hamster death rate and resulted in an increase in triglyceride, cholesterol and glucose serum levels and a reduction in anti-oxLDL auto-antibodies. The treatment led to histopathological alterations of the kidney and the heart. These results suggest that hamsters are an interesting model for the study of the side effects of antiretroviral drugs, such as PIs.

  2. Symptoms and side effects in chronic non-cancer pain:patient report vs. systematic assessment

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jonsson, Torsten; Christrup, Lona Louring; Højsted, Jette

    2011-01-01

    relieving distressing symptoms and managing the side effects of analgesics are essential in order to improve quality of life and functional capacity in chronic non-cancer pain patients. A quick, reliable and valid tool for assessing symptoms and side effects is needed in order to optimize treatment...

  3. Side Effects

    Science.gov (United States)

    Side effects are problems that occur when cancer treatment affects healthy tissues or organs. Learn about side effects caused by cancer treatment. Know what signs and symptoms to call your doctor about. Learn about treatments for side effects.

  4. [Comparison of two assessment tools of antidepressant side-effects: UKU scale versus spontaneous notification].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gruwez, B; Gury, C; Poirier, M-F; Bouvet, O; Gérard, A; Bourdel, M-C; Baylé, F-J; Olié, J-P

    2004-01-01

    Overall, the efficacy of the newer antidepressants: serotonin selective reuptake inhibitors (SSRI), selective serotonin/norepinephrine reuptake inhibitor (SNRI), noradrenergic and specific serotonergic antidepressant (NaSSA) and tianeptine is similar to that of the tricyclics, and so their acceptability/safety becomes a selection criterion for the clinician. However, side-effect assessment comes up against several difficulties: distinguishing between somatic symptoms caused by the depression and those caused by the treatment -- which assessment tool to use (spontaneous notification, standardized scales that are not specific for the side effects caused by psychotropic drugs, standardised scales specific for the side effects caused by psychotropic drugs, meta-analysis, etc.) -- which data sources to consult (anecdotal reports, reviews, prospective studies), and which data set to use, etc. As a result, the question of the exhaustiveness and reliability of the data consulted by the clinician can arise. We therefore conducted a comparative study in patients treated with these newer antidepressants, of 2 antidepressants side-effect assessment tools: spontaneous notification (SN) versus the UKU scale, a standardised scale specific for the side effects of psychotropic drugs. The depressed outpatients were selected from a psychiatric unit in a French psychiatric hospital and from a non-hospital consulting room. The main inclusion criteria were: male or female subjects, suffering from major depression without melancholia or psychotic features or suffering from mood disorders (according to DSM IV criteria), who had been treated for at least 4 weeks with one of the newer antidepressants. The main exclusion criteria were: any other psychiatric disorder, a serious physical disorder, treatment with neuroleptics, mood-changing drugs or other antidepressants, and patients who were not able to understand the questionnaire. The investigation was carried out by a clinical pharmacist

  5. Neonicotinoids in bees: a review on concentrations, side-effects and risk assessment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blacquière, Tjeerd; Smagghe, Guy; van Gestel, Cornelis A M; Mommaerts, Veerle

    2012-05-01

    Neonicotinoid insecticides are successfully applied to control pests in a variety of agricultural crops; however, they may not only affect pest insects but also non-target organisms such as pollinators. This review summarizes, for the first time, 15 years of research on the hazards of neonicotinoids to bees including honey bees, bumble bees and solitary bees. The focus of the paper is on three different key aspects determining the risks of neonicotinoid field concentrations for bee populations: (1) the environmental neonicotinoid residue levels in plants, bees and bee products in relation to pesticide application, (2) the reported side-effects with special attention for sublethal effects, and (3) the usefulness for the evaluation of neonicotinoids of an already existing risk assessment scheme for systemic compounds. Although environmental residue levels of neonicotinoids were found to be lower than acute/chronic toxicity levels, there is still a lack of reliable data as most analyses were conducted near the detection limit and for only few crops. Many laboratory studies described lethal and sublethal effects of neonicotinoids on the foraging behavior, and learning and memory abilities of bees, while no effects were observed in field studies at field-realistic dosages. The proposed risk assessment scheme for systemic compounds was shown to be applicable to assess the risk for side-effects of neonicotinoids as it considers the effect on different life stages and different levels of biological organization (organism versus colony). Future research studies should be conducted with field-realistic concentrations, relevant exposure and evaluation durations. Molecular markers may be used to improve risk assessment by a better understanding of the mode of action (interaction with receptors) of neonicotinoids in bees leading to the identification of environmentally safer compounds.

  6. Side Effects: Sleep Problems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sleep problems are a common side effect during cancer treatment. Learn how a polysomnogram can assess sleep problems. Learn about the benefits of managing sleep disorders in men and women with cancer.

  7. A System of Assessment for Adaptive Behavior, Social Skills, Behavioral Function, Medication Side-Effects, and Psychiatric Disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matson, Johnny L.; Mayville, Stephen B.; Laud, Rinita B.

    2003-01-01

    This article describes a method of assessing individuals with mental retardation that operates within financial and human constraints using informant-based measures that assess adaptive and maladaptive behaviors, psychiatric disorders, behavior function, and medication side-effects. Integrating the assessment results for treatment planning is…

  8. Assessing clinicians' perspectives about the identification and management of antipsychotic medication side-effects: Psychometric evaluation of a survey questionnaire.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stomski, Norman J; Morrison, Paul; Meehan, Tom

    2016-04-01

    Eliciting clinicians' views about antipsychotic medication side-effects may assist in understanding strategies that could enhance the identification and management of these side-effects. The present paper details the development and psychometric evaluation of a questionnaire that captures clinicians' perceptions about these issues. An initial item set was derived from a literature review, and then refined by an expert content validity panel that assessed the relevance of the items. The online questionnaire was distributed to Australian mental health nurses and 140 fully completed questionnaires were returned. Principal components analysis yielded two robust scales that conceptually tapped "system responsibility" and "personal confidence". These scales may be used to advance knowledge about how mental health nurses' attitudes towards the assessment and management of antipsychotic medication side-effects influences their clinical behaviour. © 2016 Australian College of Mental Health Nurses Inc.

  9. Clinical and sonographic assessment of the side effects of intracavernous injection of vasoactive substances.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moemen, M N; Hamed, H A; Kamel, I I; Shamloul, R M; Ghanem, H M

    2004-04-01

    The objective of this study is to evaluate the side effects of intracavernous vasoactive agents on clinical and sonographic basis. Two groups of patients were included, group I included 168 ED patients trained on self-injection therapy using one of the three protocols. Protocol A: papaverine; protocol B: PGE1; and protocol C: trimix (papaverine, phentolamine and PGE1). Patients were followed up clinically, sonographically and by laboratory investigations for 6 months to evaluate the occurrence of side effects. Group II included 21 patients presenting to our department for the first time with a complication of intracavernous injection pharmacotherapy (ICI) initiated elsewhere. In all, 168 patients of group I completed the study. Patients on papaverine had the highest incidence of complications concerning prolonged erection, subcutaneous hematoma and penile fibrosis. Postinjection penile pain was observed more with groups B and C than group A. No systemic side effects were reported. Duplex ultrasound was beneficial in detecting mild clinically impalpable fibrosis. In total, 10 patients of group II presented with prolonged erection, seven with penile fibrosis, three with cavernositis and one with intracavernous needle breakage. We conclude that although ICI therapy is an effective second-line treatment option, patients on a self-injection program should be followed up both clinically and sonographically both at the initiation phase and on regular follow-up visits.

  10. Assessment of oral side effects of Antiepileptic drugs and traumatic oro-facial injuries encountered in Epileptic children

    OpenAIRE

    Ghafoor, P A Fazal; Rafeeq, Mohammed; Dubey, Alok

    2014-01-01

    Background: Epilepsy is a chronic disorder with unpredictably recurring seizure. Uncontrolled attacks can put patients at risk of suffering oro-facial trauma. Antiepileptic drugs (AED) provide satisfactory control of seizures in most of the patients with epilepsy. However use of AED has been found to cause many side effects inclusive of side effects in the oral cavity also. Materials & Methods: This study was conducted on 150 epileptic children, who were on anti epi...

  11. Side Effects: Pain

    Science.gov (United States)

    Controlling pain is an important part of your cancer treatment plan. Learn how to track levels of pain. Find out how pain, a side effect of cancer treatment, is treated using acupuncture, biofeedback, and physical therapy.

  12. Side Effects: Appetite Loss

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cancer treatments may lower your appetite. Side effects such as nausea, fatigue, or mouth sores can also making eating difficult. Learn how to eat well to avoid losing weight or becoming dehydrated, so you stay strong during treatment.

  13. Side Effects: Diarrhea

    Science.gov (United States)

    Diarrhea, a side effect of cancer treatment, may cause symptoms such as loose, watery stools. Diarrhea can lead to dehydration and malnutrition in cancer patients. Learn about ways to treat and manage diarrhea during cancer treatment.

  14. Side Effects: Fatigue

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fatigue is a common side effect of many cancer treatments such as chemotherapy, radiation therapy, immunotherapy, and surgery. Anemia and pain can also cause fatigue. Learn about symptoms and way to manage fatigue.

  15. Side Effects: Anemia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anemia is a side effect of cancer treatments, including chemotherapy and radiation therapy. It can make women and men feel fatigued, dizzy, and short of breath. Learn how to manage fatigue caused by anemia during cancer treatment.

  16. Side Effects of Chemotherapy

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Many vs Cancer Contact Us Side Effects of Chemotherapy Each of the chemotherapy drugs available today works in a slightly different ... few rules of thumb when it comes to chemotherapy that should always be kept in mind. Ignore ...

  17. [Psychoanalysis and Side Effect].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shirahase, Joichiro

    2015-01-01

    A study of psychoanalysis from the perspective of side effects reveals that its history was a succession of measures to deal with its own side effects. This, however, does not merely suggest that, as a treatment method, psychoanalysis is incomplete and weak: rather, its history is a record of the growth and development of psychoanalysis that discovered therapeutic significance from phenomena that were initially regarded as side effects, made use of these discoveries, and elaborated them as a treatment method. The approach of research seen during the course of these developments is linked to the basic therapeutic approach of psychoanalysis. A therapist therefore does not draw conclusions about a patient's words and behaviors from a single aspect, but continues to make efforts to actively discover a variety of meanings and values from them, and to make the patient's life richer and more productive. This therapeutic approach is undoubtedly one of the unique aspects of psychoanalysis. I discuss the issue of psychoanalysis and side effects with the aim of clarifying this unique characteristic of psychoanalysis. The phenomenon called resistance inevitably emerges during the process of psychoanalytic treatment. Resistance can not only obstruct the progress of therapy; it also carries the risk of causing a variety of disadvantages to the patient. It can therefore be seen as an adverse effect. However, if we re-examine this phenomenon from the perspective of transference, we find that resistance is in fact a crucial tool in psychoanalysis, and included in its main effect, rather than a side effect. From the perspective of minimizing the character of resistance as a side effect and maximizing its character as a main effect, I have reviewed logical organization, dynamic evaluation, the structuring of treatment, the therapist's attitudes, and the training of therapists. I conclude by stating that psychoanalysis has aspects that do not match the perspective known as a side

  18. Assessment of individual radiosensitivity in human lymphocytes of cancer patients and its correlation with adverse side effects to radiation therapy

    CERN Document Server

    Di Giorgio, M; Busto, E; Mairal, L; Menendez, P; Roth, B; Sardi, M; Taja, M R; Vallerga, M B

    2003-01-01

    Background and purpose: Individual radiosensitivity is an inherent characteristic, associated with an increased reaction to ionizing radiation on the human body. Biological endpoints such as clonogenic survival, chromosome aberration formation and repair capacity of radiation-induced damage have been applied to evaluate individual radiosensitivity in vitro. 5%-7% of cancer patients develop adverse side effects to radiation therapy in normal tissues within the treatment field, which are referred as 'clinical radiation reactions' and include acute effects, late effects and cancer induction. It has been hypothesized that the occurrence and severity of these reactions are mainly influenced by genetic susceptibility to radiation. Additionally, the nature of the genetic disorders associated with hypersensitivity to radiotherapy suggests that DNA repair mechanisms are involved. Consequently, the characterization of DNA repair in lymphocytes through cytokinesis blocked micronucleus (MN) and alkaline single-cell micro...

  19. Probiotics: Safety and Side Effects

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... of this page please turn JavaScript on. Feature: Probiotics Safety and Side Effects Past Issues / Winter 2016 ... Says About the Safety and Side Effects of Probiotics Whether probiotics are likely to be safe for ...

  20. Assessment of Correlation between Chromosomal Radiosensitivity of Peripheral Blood Lymphocytes after In vitro Irradiation and Normal Tissue Side Effects for Cancer Patients Undergoing Radiotherapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guogytė, Kamilė; Plieskienė, Aista; Ladygienė, Rima; Vaisiūnas, Žygimantas; Sevriukova, Olga; Janušonis, Vinsas; Žiliukas, Julius

    2017-01-01

    Patients receiving identical radiation treatments experience different effects, from undetectable to severe, on normal tissues. A crucial factor of radiotherapy related side effects is individual radiosensitivity. It is difficult to spare surrounding normal tissues delivering radiation to cancer cells during radiotherapy. Therefore, it may be useful to develop a simple routine cytogenetic assay which would allow the screening of a large number of individuals for radiosensitivity optimizing tumor control rates and minimizing severe radiotherapy effects with possibility to predict risk level for developing more severe early normal tissue adverse events after irradiation. This study was conducted to assess the correlation between in vitro radiosensitivity of peripheral blood lymphocytes from cancer patients who are undergoing radiotherapy using the cytokinesis-block micronucleus (CBMN), G2 chromosomal radiosensitivity assays, and normal tissue acute side effects. The CBMN and G2 chromosomal radiosensitivity assays were performed on blood samples taken from cancer patients before radiotherapy, after first fractionation, and after radiotherapy. Acute normal tissue reactions were graded according to the Radiation Therapy Oncology Group/European Organization for Research and Treatment of Cancer. This study suggests that there is a correlation between higher frequency of micronuclei after in vitro irradiation of blood samples and higher degree of normal tissue reactions. In addition, higher number of chromatid breaks was observed in patients with more severe normal tissue reactions. This pilot study included only 5 cancer patients, and therefore, further studies with a bigger cohort are required to identify radiosensitive patients.

  1. Side-effects after IPL photodepilation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moreno-Arias, Gerardo A; Castelo-Branco, Camil; Ferrando, Juan

    2002-12-01

    Intense pulsed light (IPL) has been successfully used as an efficient hair removal system; however, possible side-effects have been not specifically addressed in the literature. To assess all possible side-effects after IPL hair removal in a series of 49 females with facial hirsutism during a total of 390 treatment sessions of IPL photodepilation. Immediate post-treatment clinical, photography evaluation, and a two-month post-treatment questionnaire were done in 49 females with facial hirsutism submitted to photodepilation with an IPL source (EpiLight trade mark, ESC, Israel). Side-effects observed were: transient erythema (n = 30), late evanescent erythema (n = 3), mild pain (n = 43), moderate pain (n = 6), crust formation (n = 9), superficial burning (n = 1), isolated vesicles (n = 3), transient hyperpigmentation (n = 8), transient hypopigmentation (n = 1), paradoxical effect (n = 5), persistent local heat sensation (n = 1), and minimal scar (n = 1). Even though common, most side-effects secondary to IPL photodepilation are mild and transient. Permanent side-effects such as scars are unlikely but they may occur. Growth of new, fine and dark hair may be seen in untreated areas in close proximity to the treatment area, especially in the neck, a side-effect that is reported for the first time in the literature.

  2. HIV Medicines and Side Effects

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Medicines HIV and Immunizations What is a Drug Interaction? Side Effects of HIV Medicines HIV Medicines and Side Effects ... a life-threatening condition. Any swelling of the face, eyes, lips, throat, or ... effect that requires immediate medical attention. People with HIV ...

  3. The PsyLOG mobile application: development of a tool for the assessment and monitoring of side effects of psychotropic medication.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuzman, Martina Rojnic; Andlauer, Olivier; Burmeister, Kai; Dvoracek, Boris; Lencer, Rebekka; Koelkebeck, Katja; Nawka, Alexander; Riese, Florian

    2017-06-01

    Mobile health interventions are regarded as affordable and accessible tools that can enhance standard psychiatric care. As part of the mHealth Psycho-Educational Intervention Versus Antipsychotic-Induced Side Effects (mPIVAS) project (www.psylog.eu), we developed the mobile application "PsyLOG" based on mobile "smartphone" technology to monitor antipsychotic-induced side effects. The aim of this paper is to describe the rationale and development of the PsyLOG and its clinical use. The PsyLOG application runs on smartphones with Android operating system. The application is currently available in seven languages (Croatian, Czech, English, French, German, Japanese and Serbian). It consists of several categories: "My Drug Effects", "My Life Styles", "My Charts", "My Medication", "My Strategies", "My Supporters", "Settings" and "About". The main category "My Drug Effects" includes a list of 30 side effects with the possibility to add three additional side effects. Side effects are each accompanied by an appropriate description and the possibility to rate its severity on a visual analogue scale from 0-100%. The PsyLOG application is intended to enhance the link between patients and mental health professionals, serving as a tool that more objectively monitors side-effects over certain periods of time. To the best of our knowledge, no such applications have so far been developed for patients taking antipsychotic medication or for their therapists.

  4. Side Effects: Nausea and Vomiting

    Science.gov (United States)

    Types of nausea and vomiting caused by cancer treatment include: anticipatory, acute, and delayed. Controlling these side effects will help to prevent serious problems such as malnutrition and dehydration in people with cancer.

  5. Coping – Late Side Effects

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cancer treatment can cause late side effects that may not show up for months or years after treatment. These late effects may include heart and lung problems, bone loss, eye and hearing changes, lymphedema, and other problems

  6. Side Effects: Infection and Neutropenia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Infection and neutropenia can be serious side effects during cancer treatment. Chemotherapy can increase your risk. Learn how to prevent infection during treatment. Find out what signs and symptoms to call the doctor about.

  7. Side Effects: Hair Loss (Alopecia)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hair loss, also called alopecia, is a side effect of cancer treatments, such as chemotherapy and radiation therapy. Learn how to cope with and manage hair loss. Listen to tips from others who have experienced hair loss.

  8. Managing Chemotherapy Side Effects: Constipation

    Science.gov (United States)

    N ational C ancer I nstitute Managing Chemotherapy Side Effects Constipation Take these steps: Eat high-fiber foods such as: ● ● Whole-grain breads and cereals ● ● Fruits and vegetables ● ● Nuts and seeds ...

  9. Side effects of external tooth bleaching

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bruzell, E.M.; Pallesen, Ulla; Thoresen, N.R.

    2013-01-01

    Objective The study was performed to assess the risk of at-home and in-office bleaching procedures, and to recognise potential predictors for side effects. Design Multi-centre, questionnaire-based prospective study with follow-ups at around 14 days and around one year post-treatment. Setting Gene...

  10. Sequential testing scheme for the assessment of the side-effects of plant protection products on the predatory bug Orius laevigatus

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Veire, Van de M.; Sterk, G.; Staaij, van der M.; Ramakers, P.M.J.; Tirry, L.

    2002-01-01

    This paper describes a number of test methods, to beused in a sequential scheme, for testing the side-effects ofplant protection products on anthocorid bugs. Orius laevigatuswas used as test species. A `worst case' laboratory method wasdeveloped for evaluating the effect on mortality of the

  11. Running away from side effects

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Casla, S; Hojman, P; Márquez-Rodas, I

    2015-01-01

    be an integrative complementary intervention to improve physiological, physical and psychological factors that affect survival and quality of life of these patients. For that reason, the main objective of this review is to provide a general overview of exercise benefits in breast cancer patients and recommendations......The number of breast cancer survivors increases every year, thanks to the development of new treatments and screening techniques. However, patients present with numerous side effects that may affect their quality of life. Exercise has been demonstrated to reduce some of these side effects......, but in spite of this, few breast cancer patients know and follow the exercise recommendations needed to remain healthy. In this review, we describe the different breast cancer treatments and the related side effects and implications of exercise in relation to these. We propose that exercise could...

  12. Opioid complications and side effects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benyamin, Ramsin; Trescot, Andrea M; Datta, Sukdeb; Buenaventura, Ricardo; Adlaka, Rajive; Sehgal, Nalini; Glaser, Scott E; Vallejo, Ricardo

    2008-03-01

    Medications which bind to opioid receptors are increasingly being prescribed for the treatment of multiple and diverse chronic painful conditions. Their use for acute pain or terminal pain is well accepted. Their role in the long-term treatment of chronic noncancer pain is, however, controversial for many reasons. One of the primary reasons is the well-known phenomenon of psychological addiction that can occur with the use of these medications. Abuse and diversion of these medications is a growing problem as the availability of these medications increases and this public health issue confounds their clinical utility. Also, the extent of their efficacy in the treatment of pain when utilized on a chronic basis has not been definitively proven. Lastly, the role of opioids in the treatment of chronic pain is also influenced by the fact that these potent analgesics are associated with a significant number of side effects and complications. It is these phenomena that are the focus of this review. Common side effects of opioid administration include sedation, dizziness, nausea, vomiting, constipation, physical dependence, tolerance, and respiratory depression. Physical dependence and addiction are clinical concerns that may prevent proper prescribing and in turn inadequate pain management. Less common side effects may include delayed gastric emptying, hyperalgesia, immunologic and hormonal dysfunction, muscle rigidity, and myoclonus. The most common side effects of opioid usage are constipation (which has a very high incidence) and nausea. These 2 side effects can be difficult to manage and frequently tolerance to them does not develop; this is especially true for constipation. They may be severe enough to require opioid discontinuation, and contribute to under-dosing and inadequate analgesia. Several clinical trials are underway to identify adjunct therapies that may mitigate these side effects. Switching opioids and/or routes of administration may also provide benefits

  13. Insidious Side Effects of Design

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vissonova, Karina

    2015-01-01

    to the design of technical artefacts. I argue that technical artefacts are designed as sustainable based on the extent side effects are addressed with the design. I present necessary and sufficient conditions in the presence of which the design of technical artefacts falls under the concept of sustainability...

  14. Finasteride and sexual side effects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Venkataram Mysore

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Finasteride, a 5-alpha reductase inhibitor, widely used in the medical management of male pattern hairloss, has been reported to cause sexual side effects. This article critically examines the evidence available and makes recommendations as to how a physician should counsel a patient while prescribing the drug.

  15. Prospective, randomized cross-over trial to assess the ability of a dry-powder inhaler to reverse the local side effects of pressurized metered-dose inhalers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhalla, R K; Watson, G; Taylor, W; Jones, A S; Roland, N J

    2008-11-01

    To determine whether a corticosteroid dry-powder inhaler could reverse the pharyngeal and laryngeal side effects produced by a corticosteroid pressurised metered-dose inhaler. Prospective, randomized, controlled, cross-over, evaluator-blinded study. University Hospital Aintree, Liverpool, United Kingdom. Thirty-seven adults recruited over a 12-month period from Ear, Nose and Throat clinics at our University hospital. Patients were randomized into three groups using a computer-generated random number list and sealed opaque envelopes. Scores were achieved on respiratory symptom and vocal performance questionnaires. Acoustic analysis was performed followed by a standardized biopsy of the posterior pharyngeal wall. Histological markers of inflammation were correlated with pharyngitis. The data were tested for normality using the Kalmogorov-Smirnov test. The Kruskal-Wallis analysis of variance was used to investigate differences between medians and ranges. The data were further investigated for correlations using the Spearman test. Discriminant analysis was used to examine the effect of the three groups on each variable. Discomfort scores (median and range) were significantly lower after dry-powder inhaler use than with either a spacer or water gargle (p inhaler therapy. The reduction in pharyngitis in each of the three groups was not significant. Vocal performance scores improved with dry-powder inhaler use. Jitter, shimmer, and closed-phase quotient scores improved with dry-powder inhaler use (p inhaler was restored (p 0.01). A dry-powder inhaler may alleviate the local side effects produced by a pressurized metered-dose inhaler. Laryngeal dysfunction appears to be particularly responsive to the absence of propellant. More observational and randomized controlled trials are necessary to examine existing inhalers and specifically, how and why they cause local side effects.

  16. Antipsychotic Drug Side Effects for Persons with Intellectual Disability

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matson, Johnny L.; Mahan, Sara

    2010-01-01

    Antipsychotic drugs are the most frequently prescribed of the psychotropic drugs among the intellectually disabled (ID) population. Given their widespread use, efforts to systematically assess and report side effects are warranted. Specific scaling methods such as the "Matson Evaluation of Side Effects" ("MEDS"), the "Abnormal Inventory Movement…

  17. Assessment of the tumor load as well as toxic and side effects after herceptin combined with doxorubicin liposome treatment of HER-2 positive breast cance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guo-Quan Wen

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To study the effect of herceptin combined with doxorubicin liposome treatment on tumor load as well as toxic and side effects of HER-2 positive breast cancer. Methods: A total of 138 patients with HER-2 positive breast cancer who received chemotherapy in our hospital between July 2014 and December 2015 were selected as the research subjects and randomly divided into two groups, liposome group received herceptin combined with doxorubicin liposome treatment and control group received herceptin combined with doxorubicin treatment. After 8 weeks of treatment, the content of tumor markers, active molecules and myocardial injury markers in serum as well as the expression levels of immune marker molecules in peripheral blood mononuclear cells were detected. Results: After 8 weeks of treatment, CEA, CA199, CA153, CA125, VEGF, nectin-4, TK-1, PF-4, TSGF, CK, CK-MB, cTnI and cTnT content in serum of liposome group were significantly lower than those of control group, and the fluorescence intensity of CD3, CD4, CD8, CD16, CD19 and CD25 on peripheral blood mononuclear cell surface were significantly higher than those of control group. Conclusions: Herceptin combined with doxorubicin liposome treatment of HER-2 positive breast cancer can more effectively reduce the tumor load and cause less toxic and side effects on the heart and the immune system.

  18. Interface solutions for interface side effects?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stoffregen Thomas A.

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Human-computer interfaces often give rise to a variety of side effects, including eyestrain, headache, fatigue, and motion sickness (aka cybersickness, simulator sickness. We might hope that improvements in interface design would tend to reduce these side effects. Unfortunately, history reveals just the opposite: The incidence and severity of motion sickness (for example is positively related to the progressive sophistication of display technology and systems. In this presentation, I enquire about the future of interface technologies in relation to side effects. I review the types of side effects that occur and what is known about the causes of interface side effects. I suggest new ways of understanding relations between interface technologies and side effects, and new ways to approach the problem of interface side effects.

  19. Acute and long-term psychiatric side effects of mefloquine

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ringqvist, Asa; Bech, Per; Glenthøj, Birte

    2014-01-01

    BACKGROUND: The aim of the study was to explore the profile of acute and long-term psychiatric side effects associated with mefloquine. METHODS: Subjects (n = 73) reported to a Danish national register during five consecutive years for mefloquine associated side effects were included. Acute...... psychiatric side effects were retrospectively assessed using the SCL-90-R and questions based on Present State Examination (PSE). Subjects reporting suspected psychotic states were contacted for a personal PSE interview. Electronic records of psychiatric hospitalizations and diagnoses were cross-checked. Long......), and vitality (VT) in the mefloquine group compared to matched controls. CONCLUSION: The most frequent acute psychiatric problems were anxiety, depression, and psychotic symptoms. Data indicated that subjects experiencing acute mefloquine adverse side effects may develop long-term mental health problems...

  20. Consumer confusion between prescription drug precautions and side effects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amoozegar, Jacqueline B; Rupert, Douglas J; Sullivan, Helen W; O'Donoghue, Amie C

    2017-06-01

    Multiple studies have identified consumers' difficulty correctly interpreting risk information provided about prescription drugs, whether in printed format or online. This study's purpose was to explore whether consumers can distinguish between prescription drug precautions and side effects presented on brand-name drug websites. Participants (n=873) viewed fictitious drug websites that presented both precautions and side effects for one of four drugs, and they completed a survey assessing recall and comprehension. We coded open-ended recall data to identify whether drug precautions were mentioned and, if so, how they were interpreted. Approximately 15% of participants mentioned at least one drug precaution. The majority (59.7%) misinterpreted precautions as potential side effects. Participants who misinterpreted precautions rated the drugs as significantly more likely to cause side effects than participants who accurately interpreted the precautions. Age, education, literacy, and other factors did not appear to predict precaution interpretation. At least some consumers are likely to interpret precautions on drug websites as potential side effects, which might affect consumer preferences, treatment decisions, and medication safety. Healthcare providers should be aware of this potential confusion, assess patients' understanding of precautions and potential side effects, and address any misunderstandings. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. Sexual side effects induced by psychotropic drugs

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kristensen, Ellids

    2002-01-01

    The majority of psychotropic drugs entail sexual side effects. The sexual side effects may reduce quality of life and may give rise to non-compliance. For example, 30-60 per cent of patients treated with antidepressants are known to develop a sexual dysfunction. However, some psychotropic drugs...... with no or very few sexual side effects have begun to emerge. The treatment of sexual side effects induced by psychotropic drugs may consist of: modified sexual habits, reduction in dosage, switching to another medication, possibly in combination with different psychotropic agents, other varieties...

  2. How Do I Manage Side Effects?

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... to watch a recording on demand. Watch webinar Key Points Side effects from treatment are very common. ... litter boxes) Use a soft toothbrush Use an electric shaver instead of a razor Gastrointestinal Issues Might ...

  3. Lymphedema as a Cancer Treatment Side Effect

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Navigating Cancer Care > Side Effects > Lymphedema Request Permissions Lymphedema Approved by the Cancer.Net Editorial Board , 08/ ... years after cancer treatment has ended. Symptoms of lymphedema People with lymphedema in their arm or leg ...

  4. Side Effects: Mouth and Throat Problems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cancer treatments may cause dental, mouth, and throat side effects such as changes in taste (dysgeusia), dry mouth (xerostomia), infections, mouth sores, pain or swelling in your mouth (oral mucositis), sensitivity to foods, and swallowing problems.

  5. Side Effects - Memory or Concentration Problems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cancer treatments, such as chemo, may cause difficulty thinking, concentrating, or other cognitive problems. Learn about steps people with cancer can take to manage these side effects. See a list of helpful questions for families to ask the doctor.

  6. Managing Chemotherapy Side Effects: Memory Changes

    Science.gov (United States)

    N ational C ancer I nstitute Managing Chemotherapy Side Effects Memory Changes What is causing these changes? Your doctor will work to find out what is causing these problems. They may be caused by ...

  7. Managing Chemotherapy Side Effects: Hair Loss (Alopecia)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... C ancer I nstitute Managing Chemotherapy Side Effects Hair Loss (Alopecia) “Losing my hair was hard at first. Then ... and anywhere on your body may fall out. Hair loss is called alopecia. When will my hair start ...

  8. Side Effects of Yttrium-90 Radioembolization

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ahsun eRiaz

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Limited therapeutic options are available for hepatic malignancies. Image guided targeted therapies have established their role in management of primary and secondary hepatic malignancies. Radioembolization with yttrium-90 (90Y microspheres is safe and efficacious for treatment of hepatic malignancies. The tumoricidal effect of radioembolization is predominantly due to radioactivity and not ischemia. This article will present a comprehensive review of the side effects that have been associated with radioembolization using 90Y microspheres. Some of the described side effects are associated with all transarterial procedures. Side effects specific to radioembolization will also be discussed in detail. Methods to decrease the incidence of these potential side effects will also be discussed.

  9. Side effects of drugs used in directly observed treatment short ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Aim: The study assessed the side effects of drugs used in directly observed treatment short course in a newly diagnosed pulmonary tuberculosis patients at the chest unit of University of Nigeria Teaching Hospital in Enugu State, Nigeria. Methods: A retrospective study, involving a 3-year review of case files of TB patients ...

  10. [Side Effects of Occupational Group Therapy].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Flöge, B; Fay, D; Jöbges, M; Linden, M; Muschalla, B

    2016-12-01

    Background: Occupational therapy is an important co-therapy in psychiatric therapy. It is a common belief that no risks are associated with occupational therapy. Negative effects caused by group therapy, especially occupational therapy, have not been in the focus of research yet. In this study we want to illustrate possible types and intensities of group side effects through occupational therapy. Patients and Methods: Patients of an inpatient rehabilitation facility filled out the Adverse Treatment Reaction Group Checklist. The checklist contains 47 items divided in six dimensions: group size, content, group participants, group outcome and global. The self-rating used a 5-point likert scale (0 = not at all; 4 = very much, extremely stressful) and gives information about types and intensities of the side effects. Results: 88.9 % of 45 patients reported negative effects of occupational group therapy. 28.9 % of the patients rated the side effect as at least severe. Discussion: Occupational therapy is associated with side effects as every other group therapy. Possible side effects caused by group therapy should be considered while planning and implementing occupational therapy. © Georg Thieme Verlag KG Stuttgart · New York.

  11. Side effects of ambulatory blood pressure monitoring.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Steen, M.S. van der; Lenders, J.W.M.; Thien, Th.

    2005-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To study the experiences and complaints of patients who underwent 24 h blood pressure monitoring. METHODS: Two groups of hypertensive patients of a tertiary outpatient clinic were asked to fill in a nine-item questionnaire about the side effects of ambulatory blood pressure monitoring

  12. Ritalin Side Effects: Placebo Controlled Evaluation

    OpenAIRE

    J Gordon Millichap

    1993-01-01

    The frequency of side effects of Ritalin was examined in a randomized double-blind placebo-controlled cross-over trial in 206 children aged 5 through 15 years with ADHD at the Marshfield Clinic and Research Foundation, Marshfield, WI.

  13. Enhancing Clinical Trials by Incorporating Side Effects

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schrag, Francis

    2009-01-01

    Evidence-based medicine is often seen as a model for evidence-based education, and deservedly so, but evaluators in education have been slow to adopt one of its salient features, attention to side effects. Many education evaluations focus almost exclusively on efficacy, that is on achievement test scores. Regardless of domain, all interventions…

  14. Chemotherapy Side Effects: A Cause of Heart Disease?

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... side effects: A cause of heart disease? Can chemotherapy side effects increase the risk of heart disease? Answers from Timothy J. Moynihan, M.D. Chemotherapy side effects may increase the risk of heart ...

  15. The Social Side Effects of Acetaminophen

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mischkowski, Dominik

    About 23% of all adults in the US take acetaminophen during an average week (Kaufman, Kelly, Rosenberg, Anderson, & Mitchell, 2002) because acetaminophen is an effective physical painkiller and easily accessible over the counter. The physiological side effects of acetaminophen are well documented and generally mild when acetaminophen is consumed in the appropriate dosage. In contrast, the psychological and social side effects of acetaminophen are largely unknown. Recent functional neuroimaging research suggests that the experience of physical pain is fundamentally related to the experience of empathy for the pain of other people, indicating that pharmacologically reducing responsiveness to physical pain also reduces cognitive, affective, and behavioral responsiveness to the pain of others. I tested this hypothesis across three double-blind between-subjects drug intervention studies. Two experiments showed that acetaminophen had moderate effects on empathic affect, specifically personal distress and empathic concern, and a small effect on empathic cognition, specifically perceived pain, when facing physical and social pain of others. The same two experiments and a third experiment also showed that acetaminophen can increase the willingness to inflict pain on other people, i.e., actual aggressive behavior. This effect was especially pronounced among people low in dispositional empathic concern. Together, these findings suggest that the physical pain system is more involved in the regulation of social cognition, affect, and behavior than previously assumed and that the experience of physical pain and responsiveness to the pain of others share a common neurochemical basis. Furthermore, these findings suggest that acetaminophen has unappreciated but serious social side effects, and that these side effects may depend on psychological characteristics of the drug consumer. This idea is consistent with recent theory and research on the context-dependency of neurochemical

  16. Side effects of desmopressin in patients with bleeding disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stoof, S C M; Cnossen, M H; de Maat, M P M; Leebeek, F W G; Kruip, M J H A

    2016-01-01

    Desmopressin is frequently used in patients with bleeding disorders because of its prohaemostatic effects. In recent years desmopressin use increased due to reported high incidence of inhibitors in mild haemophilia after clotting factor infusion and the rising costs of clotting factor concentrates. The safety and frequency of side effects have hardly been assessed in well-designed studies. We therefore prospectively evaluated side effects of desmopressin in a large unselected cohort of bleeding disorder patients, who received a desmopressin test dose. Blood was drawn prior to, one, three, six and 24 h after desmopressin. Primary outcome was change in serum sodium, haematocrit, serum- and urine osmolality, body weight and vital signs. Self-reported side effects were evaluated as secondary outcome. In total, 108 patients were included, median age 30 years, the majority of whom had von Willebrand disease type 1 (76%). A significant change in water balance parameters was observed. Four patients (4%) had hyponatraemia (≤135 mmol L(-1) ) after 24 h but no severe hyponatraemia occurred (≤125 mmol L(-1) ). After infusion, 41 (38%) patients were hypotensive (≤90 mmHg SBP and/or ≤60 mmHg DBP) and 10 (9%) presented with tachycardia (>100 min(-1) ). However, none of these effects sustained at 24 h. Infusion was discontinued in one patient because of tachycardia, nausea and malaise. Self-reported side effects included: headache, fatigue, flush and dizziness. Observed side effects correspond with the known antidiuretic and vasomotor effects of desmopressin. Changes in parameters were temporary and not clinically relevant. In conclusion, our study supports desmopressin use as a safe treatment option in patients with various bleeding disorders. © 2015 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  17. Neglected Side Effects After Radical Prostatectomy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Frey, Anders Ullmann; Sønksen, Jens; Fode, Mikkel

    2014-01-01

    INTRODUCTION: A series of previously neglected sexually related side effects to radical prostatectomy (RP) has been identified over the recent years. These include orgasm-associated incontinence (OAI), urinary incontinence in relation to sexual stimulation (UISS), altered perception of orgasm....... RESULTS: A total of 43 articles were included. OAI and UISS are experienced by 20-93% of RP patients at least a few times after surgery. Although these issues are associated to postoperative daytime incontinence, previous transurethral resection of the prostate (TURP) is the only known predicting factor......, orgasm-associated pain (OAP), penile shortening (PS), and penile deformity. AIM: The aim of this article is to conduct a systematic review of the literature regarding the above-mentioned side effects. METHODS: A predefined search strategy was applied in a thorough search of Medline, Web of science...

  18. Opiates and elderly: Use and side effects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Diane L Chau

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available Diane L Chau1, Vanessa Walker2, Latha Pai3, Lwin M Cho4University of Nevada School of Medicine, Reno, NV, USA 1Division Geriatric Medicine, 2Internal Medicine, 3Psychiatry, 4Geriatric Medicine, Sierra Nevada Healthcare System, Veterans Affairs Medical Center, Reno, NV, USAAbstract: The evaluation of pain and the subsequent issue of pain control is a clinical challenge that all healthcare providers face. Pain in the elderly population is especially difficult given the myriad of physiological, pharmacological, and psychological aspects of caring for the geriatric patient. Opiates are the mainstay of pain treatment throughout all age groups but special attention must be paid to the efficacy and side effects of these powerful drugs when prescribing to a population with impaired metabolism, excretion and physical reserve. In a random chart review of 300 US veterans, 44% of those receiving an analgesic also received opioids. The increasing use of opiates for pain management by healthcare practitioners requires that those prescribing opioids be aware of the special considerations for treating the elderly. This article will address the precautions one must take when using opiates in the geriatric population, as well as the side effects and ways to minimize them.Keywords: opiates, pain, elderly, side effects

  19. [Management of side-effects of targeted therapies in renal cancer: gastrointestinal side-effects].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davin, Jean-Louis; Ducrotté, Philippe; Houédé, Nadine

    2011-01-01

    Several types of gastrointestinal complications can occur during treatment with targeted therapies: diarrhoea, nausea and vomiting, abnormalities in hepatic and pancreatic profiles, etc. Gastrointestinal problems in targeted therapy can have a significant impact on the general status of patients, their weight and their adherence to the treatment. The prevention, screening and rapid treatment of these side-effects are essential elements of patient care and can limit the associated dose reductions and loss of therapeutic benefit. In the case of diarrhoea, treatment must be started at the onset of grade 1 or 2 diarrhoea (four to six stools per day), with loperamide or racecadotril. Treatment with targeted therapy must be stopped if there is diarrhoea of grade 3 or 4 (more than six stools per day). In the case of nausea/vomiting or burning pain in the oesophagus, symptomatic treatment without stopping the targeted therapy is recommended. Biological assessment including transaminases, total and conjugated bilirubin should be prescribed before treatment initiation with targeted therapy. An elevation in alkaline phosphatases without elevation of transaminases suggests primarily the existence of hepatic metastases. In the event of worsening of the hepatic profile, if ALT greater than 5N, treatment must be stopped and specialist advice sought. Copyright © 2011 Société Française du Cancer. Published by Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  20. Side effects from intense pulsed light

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thaysen-Petersen, Daniel; Erlendsson, Andres M; Nash, J F

    2017-01-01

    . Outcome measures were: (i) blinded clinical skin reactions; (ii) objectively measured erythema and pigmentation; (iii) pain measured by visual analog scale (VAS); (iv) histology (H&E, Fontana-Masson); and (v) mRNA-expression of p53. RESULTS: Fifteen subjects with FST II-IV completed the protocol. IPL...... exposure of UVR did not exacerbate side effects (P ≥ 0.180). Clinical findings were confirmed objectively by reflectance spectrometry and qualitatively by histological changes in skin architecture, inflammatory infiltration, and pigmentation. Marker of cellular DNA damage, that is, p53, did not increase...

  1. Misconceptions about the side effects of combined oral contraceptive pills.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Küçük, Mert; Aksu, Hilmiye; Sezer, Selda Demircan

    2012-04-01

    Although combined oral contraceptive pills (COCPs) are one of the most commonly used methods of contraception in western countries, they are taken by only a minority of sexually active women in Turkey. The purpose of this research has been to define women's specific misconceptions with regard to the side effects of COCPs. This descriptive and cross-sectional research was conducted on 418 reproductive aged women who agreed to participate. Data were collected through face-to-face interviews with a questionnaire which assessed socio-demographic characteristics and women's beliefs about the side effects of COCPs. It is observed that 45.2% believed that the pills cause weight gain. Another 7.9% of the cases held the belief that COCPs cause cancer. A group of 13.4% of the subjects thought that COCPs lead to infertility, 28.7% believed that they cause headache, 41.1% believed that they cause acne and/or an increase in body hair, and 11.7% were afraid that they cause a decrease in libido. The present study has shown that misconceptions about the side effects of COCPs were considerably prevalent among this cohort group of Turkish women. Healthcare professionals have the potential of playing an important role in dispersing these misconceptions.

  2. Reirradiation on recurrent cervical cancer case: Treatment response and side effects

    Science.gov (United States)

    Siregar, M. F.; Supriana, N.; Nuranna, L.; Prihartono, J.

    2017-08-01

    Management of recurrent cervical cancer by reirradiation after radiation treatment remains controversial. In Indonesia, there is currently no data about reirradiation tumor response and side effects. This study aims to assess the tumor response to and side effects of reirradiation, the effect of time interval between first radiation treatment and cancer recurrence on the tumor response and side effects, and the effect of tumor size on tumor response. A cohort retrospective study with no comparison was done with the Radiotherapy Department at Cipto Mangunkusumo General Hospital, Jakarta. Participants were recurrent cervical cancer patients undergoing reirradiation. Data was collected from patients’ medical records and follow-up phone calls. Twenty-two patients participated in this study. Nine patients (40.9%) had complete responses, 10 patients (45.5%) had partial responses, 1 patient (4.5%) had a stable response, and 2 patients (9.1%) had tumor progressions. In general, 15 patients (68.2%) had no to light side effects (grade 0-2 RTOG) and 7 patients (31.8%) had severe side effects (grade 3-4 RTOG). Four patients (18.1%) had severe gastrointestinal acute side effects, 6 patients (27.3%) had severe gastrointestinal late side effects, 2 patients (9.1%) had severe urogenital side effects, and there were no patients had severe urogenital late side effects. There was no significant difference in tumor response between patients with time interval between first radiation treatment and recurrence of 4 cm. Reirradiation can be considered as a modality in recurrent cervical cancer management since good tumor response was achieved and the majority of patients had no to light side effects (grade 0-2 RTOG). This study found no correlation between tumor response, side effects, and time gap between first radiation treatment and recurrence of 4 cm.

  3. Side effects of treatment with benzodiazepines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Uzun, Suzana; Kozumplik, Oliver; Jakovljević, Miro; Sedić, Biserka

    2010-03-01

    The use of benzodiazepine anxiolytics and hypnotics continues to excite controversy. Views differ from expert to expert and from country to country as to the extent of the problem, or even whether long-term benzodiazepine use actually constitutes a problem. Although as a class benzodiazepines act rapidly and are well tolerated, their use presents clinical issues such as dependence, rebound anxiety, memory impairment, and discontinuation syndrome. The aim of this article is to review literature regarding different side effects associated with treatment with benzodiazepines - effects on cognition, treatment with benzodiazepines during pregnancy, dependence on benzodiazepines and risk of falling. Literature research included structured searches of Medline and other publications on the subject of treatment with benzodiazepines, particularly effects on cognition, risk of falls, benzodiazepine dependence and treatment with benzodiazepines during pregnancy. Results of investigations have revealed different side effects associated with treatment with benzodiazepines. Previous investigations showed that treatment with benzodiazepines may induce anterograde amnesia. Also, previous studies confirmed occurrence of physical dependence in high percentage of patients in long term treatment with benzodiazepines at therapeutic dosages. Some investigation suggested higher risk of oral cleft, the floppy infant syndrome, or marked neonatal withdrawal symptoms when using benzodiazepines during pregnany. Investigations have shown increased risk of falling in elderly persons taking benzodiazepines.

  4. Esomeprazole induced galactorrhea: a novel side effect.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pipaliya, Nirav; Solanke, Dattatray; Rathi, Chetan; Patel, Ruchir; Ingle, Meghraj; Sawant, Prabha

    2016-02-01

    Proton pump inhibitors (PPIs) are one of the most frequently prescribed medications across the globe. Esomeprazole is the S-isomer of omeprazole, and it is currently the most widely prescribed PPI. The safety profile of esomeprazole is extremely favorable with only minor side effects, like headache and diarrhea, that are encountered in day to day practice. We report a case of a young female with symptoms of gastroesophageal reflux disease who developed galactorrhea after starting esomeprazole therapy. Resolution of galactorrhea after stopping the drug and self-rechallenge by the patient herself with reappearance of galactorrhea confirmed the culprit to be esomeprazole only. We postulate that esomeprazole may have a mild inhibitory effect on CYP3A4, which leads to decreased metabolism of estrogen, thereby increasing serum estrogen levels. Estrogen causes stimulation and production of prolactin release, which results in development of galactorrhea. This is the first case of esomeprazole induced galactorrhea, to the best of our knowledge.

  5. Statin Side Effects: Weigh the Benefits and Risks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Statin side effects: Weigh the benefits and risks Statin side effects can be uncomfortable, making it seem ... medications. By Mayo Clinic Staff Doctors often prescribe statins for people with high cholesterol to lower their ...

  6. Mesothelioma Treatment: Recovery, Side Effects, What to Expect

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Treatment > Mesothelioma Treatment > Mesothelioma Treatment Recovery Side Effects Mesothelioma Treatment and Recovery Scenarios: e-News Signup Click ... questions. (877) END-MESO (877) 363-6376 Testimonials Mesothelioma Treatment: Recovery, Side Effects, What to Expect Mesothelioma ...

  7. Attitudes toward disclosure of medication side effects: a nationwide survey of Korean patients, caregivers, and oncologists.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shin, Dong Wook; Roter, Debra L; Cho, Juhee; Kim, So Young; Yang, Hyung Kook; Suh, Beomseok; Kim, Yoon; Han, Ji-Youn; Chung, Ik Joo; Park, Jong-Hyock

    2015-11-01

    We aimed to compare the views of cancer patients, family caregivers, and oncologists about the disclosure of side effects in respect to their probability of occurrence, severity, and treatment purpose. We also compared attitudes toward potential harm of side effect disclosure, patients' perceived ability to understand the risk of the side effects, and informed decision-making regarding side effects. A national survey was performed with 750 patient-caregiver dyads (75.5% participation rate) recruited by 134 oncologists in 13 cancer centers (93% participation rate). Attitudes toward communication of side effects were assessed in terms of drug purpose, severity of potential complications, and probability of harm. Most patients (82.1-87.0%) and caregivers (75.9-81.5%) thought they should be informed of all possible drug side effects regardless of risk, severity, or drug purpose and wanted these risks to be communicated explicitly. Patients and their caregivers believed that detailed explanations of side effects did not harm patients, and further, they believed that patients could understand risks and make treatment decision based on that information. In contrast, oncologists held less positive attitudes toward providing detailed information about drug side effects, especially if they were not severe and if the drugs were designed for supportive care. Cancer patients and family members had different perspectives and preferences regarding communication of drug side effects from their oncologists. The data from our study can serve as a guide for oncologists in presenting side effects information to their patients, as well as a basis for physician training. Copyright © 2015 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  8. Coenzyme Q10: Can It Prevent Statin Side Effects?

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Q10: Can it prevent statin side effects? Can coenzyme Q10 reduce the risk of side effects from statins? ... Francisco Lopez-Jimenez, M.D. At this time, coenzyme Q10 isn't universally recommended for preventing side effects ...

  9. [Pulmonary side effects of gold treatment].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reinicke, C

    1981-12-15

    On the basis of more than 35 cases from literature a survey of clinical and paraclinical findings, diagnostic criteria, differential diagnosis, therapy and prognosis of the pulmonary reaction evoked by gold is given. The first symptoms mostly appear within the initial phase of the treatment, after several weeks to months. Unexpectedly increasing dyspnoea, weakness, cough and feeling of sickness in patients who are treated with gold salts are warning signals which refer to the possibility of a lung injury by gold. The differential-diagnostic demarcation from rheumatoid lung, a rare extraarticular manifestation of the rheumatoid arthritis, may render difficulties. The latter, however, usually refers to a slower progressing, is not or only incompletely able to involution and scarcely reacts to cortisonoids. The gold-conditioned pulmonary changes in most cases completely involve after a well-timed finish of the treatment with the gold-preparation. Cortisonoids are given for the acceleration of the remission. The prognosis is in general good. However, it depends on the fact, how long the gold treatment is still continued after the appearance of the pulmonary side-effect.

  10. Immediate side effects of large fraction radiotherapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Devereux, S; Hatton, M Q; Macbeth, F R

    1997-01-01

    The use of hypofractionated radiotherapy regimens is becoming more widely recognized in the palliation of non-small cell lung carcinoma (NSCLC). Anecdotal reports of chest pain, rigors and fevers in the hours that follow radiotherapy led us to perform a survey estimating the frequency and severity of these symptoms following treatment to the thorax. One hundred and eighteen patients completed questionnaires 24 hours after palliative radiotherapy treatment; 84 were male. The median age was 67 years. One hundred and seven had histologically confirmed NSCLC. A parallel opposed technique was used in 113 patients. Doses ranged from 8 Gy in a single fraction to 60 Gy in 30 fractions. Chest pain was reported by 54 (45.8%) patients after the first radiotherapy fraction; in 42 it commenced within 12 hours of treatment. The pain varied in site, nature and duration; on 23 occasions, it lasted under 2 hours. Systemic symptoms (rigors, sweating, fevers) were documented on 43 questionnaires, starting within 12 hours of treatment in 33 patients and on 30 occasions lasting less than 2 hours. Chest pain and systemic symptoms occurred together in 28 patients. Only 49 (41.5%) patients reported no immediate side effects. We conclude that patients receiving palliative radiotherapy for bronchial carcinoma often develop significant symptoms in the hours following treatment. The timing and duration suggest a relationship with the radiotherapy, and we feel that patients should be warned of the possible occurrence of these symptoms.

  11. Side effects in Internet-based interventions for Social Anxiety Disorder

    OpenAIRE

    Boettcher, Johanna; Rozental, Alexander; Andersson, Gerhard; Carlbring, Per

    2014-01-01

    Internet-based interventions are effective in the treatment of various mental disorders and have already been integrated in routine health care in some countries. Empirical data on potential negative effects of these interventions is lacking. This study investigated side effects in an Internet-based treatment for Social Anxiety Disorder (SAD). A total of 133 individuals diagnosed with SAD took part in an 11-week guided treatment. Side effects were assessed as open formatted questions after...

  12. The association of HIV/AIDS treatment side effects with health status, work productivity, and resource use.

    Science.gov (United States)

    daCosta DiBonaventura, Marco; Gupta, Shaloo; Cho, Michelle; Mrus, Joseph

    2012-01-01

    Due to stable incidence and improved survival rates, there are an increasing number of patients living with HIV/AIDS in the USA. Although highly effective, current antiretroviral therapies are associated with a variety of side effects. The role side effects play on health outcomes has not been fully examined. The current study assessed the association of medication side effects with (1) self-assessed health status; (2) work productivity and activity impairment; and (3) healthcare resource utilization. Data were from a cross-sectional patient-reported survey fielded in the USA using a dual methodology of Internet and paper questionnaires. A total of 953 patients living with HIV/AIDS who were currently taking a medication for their condition were included in the analyses. The most frequent side effects reported by patients were fatigue (70.72%), diarrhea (62.96%), insomnia (58.97%), dizziness (52.78%), neuropathy (52.68%), joint pain (52.36%), nausea (51.63%), and abdominal pain (50.37%). The presence of each side effect was associated with reduced self-assessed health status, increased productivity loss, increased activity impairment, and increased healthcare resource use. Controlling for CD4 cell counts in regression modeling did little to diminish the impact of side effects. Although not all side effects were associated with all outcomes, every side effect was associated with worse health status, some measure of increased work productivity loss, and/or some measure of increased healthcare resource use. Patients are living longer with HIV and, therefore, spending a greater length of time on treatment. The results of the current study suggest that many of these patients are experiencing a wide array of side effects from these therapies. These side effects have demonstrated a profound association with self-assessed health, work productivity, and healthcare resource use. Improved management of these side effects or development of treatments with a better side effect

  13. Toward achieving optimal response: understanding and managing antidepressant side effects

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kelly, Karen; Posternak, Michael; Jonathan, E. Alpert

    2008-01-01

    The safety and tolerability of antidepressants have improved considerably over the past two decades, Nevertheless, antidepressant side effects are still common and problematic. The majority of patients treated with contemporary agents experience one or more bothersome side effects. These side effects often create barriers to achieving depressive remission, as well as to preventing relapse and recurrence. Clinicians tend to underestimate the prevalence of side effects, and as many as one quarter of patients discontinue their antidepressants because of difficult-to-tolerate side effects; others may continue on antidepressant therapy but experience diminished quality of life related to troublesome side effects. This article reviews the prevalence of side effects, the impact of side effects on treatment adherence, and methodological issues including the challenge of distinguishing side effects from residual depressive symptoms, discontinuation effects, and general medical problems. In addition, we address the most common side effects such as sexual dysfunction, gastrointestinal problems, sleep disturbance, apathy, and fatigue, and offer strategies for management that may help patients achieve optimal response to pharmacotherapy. PMID:19170398

  14. Optic and otic side effects of molecular targeted therapies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Leary, Colleen

    2014-08-01

    To discuss the optic and otic toxicities associated with molecular targeted therapies including description, presentation, grading, and management of these toxicities. PubMed, CINAHL, the Cochrane Library and nursing text books. Although targeted therapies often do not have the same systemic toxicities as chemotherapy, they have their own unique side effects. Optic and otic toxicities are seen with a variety of targeted therapies and, although these are not life-threatening toxicities, they do have the potential to severely impair a patient's quality of life. Baseline optic and otic assessments along with periodic assessments throughout treatment can lead to early recognition of problems with the eyes or ears. Recognition and treatment of these problems will help maintain the patient's quality of life. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  15. Association of symptom severity, insight and increased pharmacologic side effects in acutely hospitalized patients with schizophrenia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Jie; Rosenheck, Robert; Mohamed, Somaia; Zhou, Yanling; Chang, Qing; Ning, Yuping; He, Hongbo

    2014-11-01

    Many studies have shown that more severe symptoms and poorer insight are associated with poor treatment compliance in schizophrenia while severe symptoms may result in higher medication dosages. Since pharmacologic side effects may accompany greater medication compliance and higher medication dosage, the relationship between symptoms, insight and side effects deserves study. In this study, 174 inpatients diagnosed with schizophrenia were assessed during the week before hospital discharge from a large psychiatric hospital in Guangzhou, China. Symptoms were measured by the Positive and Negative Syndrome Scale for Schizophrenia (PANSS). Insight was assessed by the Insight and Treatment Attitudes Questionnaire (ITAQ). Pharmacologic side effects were assessed by the Treatment Emergent Symptoms Scale (TESS). Bivariate and multivariate regression models were used to examine the relationship of symptoms, insight and the interaction between the two, to the severity of side effects. As expected, the PANSS total score was significantly associated with poorer ITAQ scores and with more severe side effects, and on multivariate analysis both higher PANSS and lower ITAQ scores were associated with more severe side effects. Stepwise multiple linear regression analysis showed that the model with the PANSS total score alone explained 3.4% of the variance in side-effect scores, while adding the ITAQ increased the explained variance to 11.8%. Analysis of the interaction of symptoms and insight showed that patients with both more severe symptoms and high insight had the most severe side effects (B=.006, p=.008, R(2)=15.4%). More severe symptoms and greater insight among schizophrenic inpatients were both significantly if modestly associated with more severe pharmacologic side effects, the former presumably because of the need for higher doses of medication and the latter because of greater medication compliance. In addition, patients with both more severe symptoms and greater insight

  16. Side effects of retinoid therapy on the quality of vision

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bergler-Czop Beata

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Retinoids are compounds chemically related to vitamin A, which are frequently used in dermatological practice (1. They are characterized by numerous mechanisms of action leading to normalization of keratinocyte proliferation and maturation. They have anti-seborrhoeic, immunomodulatory and anti-inflammatory effects (1, 2. A number of side effects to retinoid treatment have been recorded; one group of such side effects relates to eyes and vision. Dry eye syndrome and blepharoconjunctivitis are the most common side effects, appearing in 20-50 % of patients treated with retinoids. They often contribute to the occurrence of other side-effects such as eye discomfort and contact lens intolerance. Due to the widespread use in clinical practice, the adverse effects, including ocular side effects, should be studied. To confirm the variety of adverse effects of retinoids, several case reports of rare side-effects are presented.

  17. Side effects of retinoid therapy on the quality of vision.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bergler-Czop, Beata; Bilewicz-Stebel, Monika; Stańkowska, Anna; Bilewicz-Wyrozumska, Teresa

    2016-12-01

    Retinoids are compounds chemically related to vitamin A, which are frequently used in dermatological practice (1). They are characterized by numerous mechanisms of action leading to normalization of keratinocyte proliferation and maturation. They have anti-seborrhoeic, immunomodulatory and anti-inflammatory effects (1, 2). A number of side effects to retinoid treatment have been recorded; one group of such side effects relates to eyes and vision. Dry eye syndrome and blepharoconjunctivitis are the most common side effects, appearing in 20-50 % of patients treated with retinoids. They often contribute to the occurrence of other side-effects such as eye discomfort and contact lens intolerance. Due to the widespread use in clinical practice, the adverse effects, including ocular side effects, should be studied. To confirm the variety of adverse effects of retinoids, several case reports of rare side-effects are presented.

  18. Systematic identification of proteins that elicit drug side effects

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kuhn, Michael; Al Banchaabouchi, Mumna; Campillos, Monica

    2013-01-01

    Side effect similarities of drugs have recently been employed to predict new drug targets, and networks of side effects and targets have been used to better understand the mechanism of action of drugs. Here, we report a large-scale analysis to systematically predict and characterize proteins...... that cause drug side effects. We integrated phenotypic data obtained during clinical trials with known drug-target relations to identify overrepresented protein-side effect combinations. Using independent data, we confirm that most of these overrepresentations point to proteins which, when perturbed, cause...... side effects. Of 1428 side effects studied, 732 were predicted to be predominantly caused by individual proteins, at least 137 of them backed by existing pharmacological or phenotypic data. We prove this concept in vivo by confirming our prediction that activation of the serotonin 7 receptor (HTR7...

  19. Gastrointestinal side effects associated with novel therapies in patients with multiple myeloma: consensus statement of the IMF Nurse Leadership Board.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Lisa C; Bertolotti, Page; Curran, Kathleen; Jenkins, Bonnie

    2008-06-01

    The novel immunomodulatory drugs lenalidomide and thalidomide and the novel proteasome inhibitor bortezomib can cause gastrointestinal side effects, including constipation, diarrhea, nausea, and vomiting, which can have a deleterious effect on quality of life and interfere with optimal therapy. The International Myeloma Foundation's Nurse Leadership Board developed this consensus statement for the management of gastrointestinal side effects associated with novel therapies to be used by healthcare providers in any medical setting. It includes grading criteria and general recommendations for assessing and managing the side effects. Although constipation, diarrhea, nausea, and vomiting are expected side effects associated with novel therapies for multiple myeloma, they are manageable with appropriate medical interventions.

  20. Cancer treatment: fertility and sexual side effects in women

    Science.gov (United States)

    Radiotherapy - fertility; Radiation - fertility; Chemotherapy - fertility; Sexual dysfunction - cancer treatment ... Numbness or pain in the genitals Problems with fertility Many people also have emotional side effects after ...

  1. Side-effects of topical steroids: A long overdue revisit

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arijit Coondoo

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The introduction of topical steroids (TS of varying potency have rendered the therapy of inflammatory cutaneous disorders more effective and less time-consuming. However the usefulness of these has become a double edged sword with constantly rising instances of abuse and misuse leading to serious local, systemic and psychological side effects. These side effects occur more with TS of higher potency and on particular areas of the body like face and genitalia.The article reviews the side effects of TS with special mention about peadiatric age group, also includes the measures for preventing the side effects.

  2. Long-term oral appliance therapy in obstructive sleep apnea syndrome : a controlled study on dental side effects

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Doff, M. H. J.; Finnema, K. J.; Hoekema, A.; Wijkstra, P. J.; de Bont, L. G. M.; Stegenga, B.

    This study aimed to assess possible dental side effects associated with long-term use of an adjustable oral appliance compared with continuous positive airway pressure (CPAP) in patients with the obstructive sleep apnea syndrome and to study the relationship between these possible side effects and

  3. Many Women Mistaken on 'Side Effects' of Breast Cancer Drug

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... fullstory_166947.html Many Women Mistaken on 'Side Effects' of Breast Cancer Drug Study shows that normal symptoms of menopause are ... because they confuse naturally occurring symptoms with side effects from the drug. That's the finding of a new study of ...

  4. Drugs with anticholinergic side-effects in primary care | Yayla ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background: Anticholinergic drugs in elderly people have been associated with some serious side.effects. Patients in Turkey tend to attend primary care centers to have prescriptions of the drugs they chronically use. However, very little are known about how frequent that these drugs are prescribed and their side-effects in ...

  5. Measuring side effects after radiotherapy for pharynx cancer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Kenneth

    2007-01-01

    measure is obtainable, and the case of a patient-relevant measure is even rarer. Radiotherapy is often followed by complex symptoms not easily quantifiable by the observer. Quantitative patient reported side effects can be retrieved using validated questionnaires, but this kind of data is often difficult......Data on side effects after radiotherapy is needed to establish the benefits and drawbacks of new treatments, but side effects are not quantified as easily as survival or local control. Side effects may be quantified using physical measures. Unfortunately, only few endpoints exist where a physical...... effects. Using pharynx cancer as an example, the purpose of this article is to summarize the possibilities and limitations of different methods for measurement of radiotherapy-induced side effects. Udgivelsesdato: 2007-Sep-17...

  6. Are peripheral opioid antagonists the solution to opioid side effects?

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Bates, John J

    2012-02-03

    Opioid medication is the mainstay of therapy for severe acute and chronic pain. Unfortunately, the side effects of these medications can affect patient comfort and safety, thus limiting their proven therapeutic potential. Whereas the main analgesic effects of opioids are centrally mediated, many of the common side effects are mediated via peripheral receptors. Novel peripheral opioid antagonists have been recently introduced that can block the peripheral actions of opioids without affecting centrally mediated analgesia. We review the clinical and experimental evidence of their efficacy in ameliorating opioid side effects and consider what further information might be useful in defining their role. IMPLICATIONS: The major analgesic effects of opioid medication are mediated within the brain and spinal cord. Many of the side effects of opioids are caused by activation of receptors outside these areas. Recently developed peripherally restricted opioid antagonists have the ability to block many opioid side effects without affecting analgesia.

  7. A side effect resource to capture phenotypic effects of drugs

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kuhn, Michael; Campillos, Monica; Letunic, Ivica

    2010-01-01

    The molecular understanding of phenotypes caused by drugs in humans is essential for elucidating mechanisms of action and for developing personalized medicines. Side effects of drugs (also known as adverse drug reactions) are an important source of human phenotypic information, but so far research...... on this topic has been hampered by insufficient accessibility of data. Consequently, we have developed a public, computer-readable side effect resource (SIDER) that connects 888 drugs to 1450 side effect terms. It contains information on frequency in patients for one-third of the drug-side effect pairs. For 199...... drugs, the side effect frequency of placebo administration could also be extracted. We illustrate the potential of SIDER with a number of analyses. The resource is freely available for academic research at http://sideeffects.embl.de....

  8. Building the process-drug–side effect network to discover the relationship between biological Processes and side effects

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-01-01

    Background Side effects are unwanted responses to drug treatment and are important resources for human phenotype information. The recent development of a database on side effects, the side effect resource (SIDER), is a first step in documenting the relationship between drugs and their side effects. It is, however, insufficient to simply find the association of drugs with biological processes; that relationship is crucial because drugs that influence biological processes can have an impact on phenotype. Therefore, knowing which processes respond to drugs that influence the phenotype will enable more effective and systematic study of the effect of drugs on phenotype. To the best of our knowledge, the relationship between biological processes and side effects of drugs has not yet been systematically researched. Methods We propose 3 steps for systematically searching relationships between drugs and biological processes: enrichment scores (ES) calculations, t-score calculation, and threshold-based filtering. Subsequently, the side effect-related biological processes are found by merging the drug-biological process network and the drug-side effect network. Evaluation is conducted in 2 ways: first, by discerning the number of biological processes discovered by our method that co-occur with Gene Ontology (GO) terms in relation to effects extracted from PubMed records using a text-mining technique and second, determining whether there is improvement in performance by limiting response processes by drugs sharing the same side effect to frequent ones alone. Results The multi-level network (the process-drug-side effect network) was built by merging the drug-biological process network and the drug-side effect network. We generated a network of 74 drugs-168 side effects-2209 biological process relation resources. The preliminary results showed that the process-drug-side effect network was able to find meaningful relationships between biological processes and side effects in an

  9. Nelfinavir and nevirapine side effects during pregnancy

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Timmermans, Sarah; Tempelman, Claire; Godfried, Mieke H.; Nellen, Jeanine; Dieleman, Jeanne; Sprenger, Herman; Schneider, Margriet Ee; de Wolf, Frank; Boer, Kees; van der Ende, Marchina E.

    2005-01-01

    BACKGROUND: The risk of vertical transmission of HIV has been substantially reduced since the introduction of highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART); however, the impact of taking HAART during pregnancy on the woman, the fetus and the infant is not yet understood. OBJECTIVE: To assess and

  10. Nelfinavir and nevirapine side effects during pregnancy

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Timmermans, S; Tempelman, C; Godfried, MH; Nellen, J; Sprenger, H; Schneider, MEE; de Wolf, F; Boer, K; van der Ende, Marchina E.

    2005-01-01

    Background: The risk of vertical transmission of HIV has been substantially reduced since the introduction of highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART); however, the impact of taking HAART during pregnancy on the woman, the fetus and the infant is not yet understood. Objective: To assess and

  11. Patients' attitudes toward side effects of antidepressants: an Internet survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kikuchi, Toshiaki; Uchida, Hiroyuki; Suzuki, Takefumi; Watanabe, Koichiro; Kashima, Haruo

    2011-03-01

    Patients' attitudes toward side effects of antidepressants are likely to differ according to gender, which has not yet been fully addressed in the literature. From the 228,310 registrants, 1,305 participants who had received antidepressant drugs within the past year were identified with the Yahoo Japan research monitor through four-step screening procedures. Participants were asked as to which side effect(s) they had experienced, whether they had reported those side effects to their physicians, and whether they had taken any action to counteract them. The questionnaire was completed by 1,187 participants. Side effects were reported in 73.4% of the participants; the prevalence of self-reported side effects was significantly higher in men than women (80.4% vs. 68.3%, P <0.05). The percentage of participants who reported side effects to their physicians widely differed depending on the nature of their experience, ranging from 45.7% to 89.9%; the lowest was for sexual dysfunction. The percentage of participants who had taken any action to relieve side effects varied among side effects from 26.3% for sexual dysfunction to 89.5% for dry mouth. Moreover, a lower percentage of women had reported sexual dysfunction to physicians (36.6% vs. 60.7%, P <0.05) and had taken any action to counteract the problem (19.8% vs. 36.9%, P <0.05). Given that patients experienced with antidepressants are likely to be reluctant to report sexual side effects, physicians should be cognizant of the potential presence of sexual dysfunction in patients who are taking antidepressants, especially for women.

  12. Measuring contraceptive efficacy and side effects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sivin, I

    To assess effectiveness of contraceptives, one reports all pregnancies during use. Multiple and single decrement life-table pregnancy rates computed from these reports constitute the fundamental measures of effectiveness in clinical trials. Minimally biased evaluation of a new method requires a randomized, double-blind (or its nearest semblance), multicentered study of sexually active women. New contraceptives are studied in special, volunteer populations. Evaluation of marketed contraceptives implies broader-gauged representation, larger numbers and longer time frames. Prospective studies, like clinical trials, should include several methods, and may use subsamples for case-control analysis of risk. Well-designed and executed multicentered, prospective studies, nevertheless, may represent specially selected populations. Risk-benefit analyses based on findings from selected populations require careful scrutiny. Although the most persuasive estimates of effectiveness derive from national, representative samples, moderately large samples in the USA have not been able to distinguish among products within a class. Formidable problems of recall are present in household surveys. In the United Kingdom, Europe and North America, analysis of risks and benefits may be enriched by better utilization of the data collection and record linkage resources of national health statistics systems.

  13. What side effects are problematic for patients prescribed antipsychotic medication? The Maudsley Side Effects (MSE) measure for antipsychotic medication.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wykes, T; Evans, J; Paton, C; Barnes, T R E; Taylor, D; Bentall, R; Dalton, B; Ruffell, T; Rose, D; Vitoratou, S

    2017-10-01

    Capturing service users' perspectives can highlight additional and different concerns to those of clinicians, but there are no up to date, self-report psychometrically sound measures of side effects of antipsychotic medications. Aim To develop a psychometrically sound measure to identify antipsychotic side effects important to service users, the Maudsley Side Effects (MSE) measure. An initial item bank was subjected to a Delphi exercise (n = 9) with psychiatrists and pharmacists, followed by service user focus groups and expert panels (n = 15) to determine item relevance and language. Feasibility and comprehensive psychometric properties were established in two samples (N43 and N50). We investigated whether we could predict the three most important side effects for individuals from their frequency, severity and life impact. MSE is a 53-item measure with good reliability and validity. Poorer mental and physical health, but not psychotic symptoms, was related to side-effect burden. Seventy-nine percent of items were chosen as one of the three most important effects. Severity, impact and distress only predicted 'putting on weight' which was more distressing, more severe and had more life impact in those for whom it was most important. MSE is a self-report questionnaire that identifies reliably the side-effect burden as experienced by patients. Identifying key side effects important to patients can act as a starting point for joint decision making on the type and the dose of medication.

  14. Neonatal side effects of maternal labetalol treatment in severe preeclampsia

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Heida, Karst Y.; Zeeman, Gerda G.; Van Veen, Teelkien R.; Hulzebos, Christian V.

    Objective: Labetalol is often used in severe preeclampsia (PE). Hypotension, bradycardia and hypoglycemia are feared neonatal side effects, but may also occur in (preterm) infants regardless of labetalol exposure. We analyzed the possible association between intrauterine labetalol exposure and such

  15. Managing Chemotherapy Side Effects: Mouth and Throat Changes

    Science.gov (United States)

    N ational C ancer I nstitute Managing Chemotherapy Side Effects Mouth and Throat Changes “My mouth felt sore. I let my nurse know right away. He told me about medicine that can help. He also showed ...

  16. Managing Chemotherapy Side Effects: Skin and Nail Changes

    Science.gov (United States)

    N ational C ancer I nstitute Managing Chemotherapy Side Effects Skin and Nail Changes “I was glad to learn that most skin and nail problems go away after treatment. For now, my nurse told me about ...

  17. Managing Chemotherapy Side Effects: Sexual and Fertility Changes in Men

    Science.gov (United States)

    N ational C ancer I nstitute Managing Chemotherapy Side Effects Sexual and Fertility Changes in Men “I talked with my doctor before treatment. I told him I would like to have children one day. I’m ...

  18. Managing Chemotherapy Side Effects: Sexual and Fertility Changes in Women

    Science.gov (United States)

    N ational C ancer I nstitute Managing Chemotherapy Side Effects Sexual and Fertility Changes in Women “Talk with your doctor before you start treatment. Ask how chemotherapy could affect your ability to have children. ” Ask what ...

  19. Managing Chemotherapy Side Effects: Fatigue (Feeling Weak and Very Tired)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... ancer I nstitute Managing Chemotherapy Side Effects Fatigue (Feeling weak and very tired) Why do I feel ... level. Some people write down how they are feeling each day in a notebook to share with ...

  20. Side Effects of HIV Medicines: HIV and Hepatotoxicity

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Find HIV Treatment Services HIV and Mental Health HIV and Nutrition and Food Safety Print This Fact Sheet Entire Series Related Content AIDSource | HIV Treatment: Side Effects Need Help? Call 1-800- ...

  1. Personal coping strategies for managing the side effects of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Personal coping strategies for managing the side effects of antiretroviral ... of antiretroviral (ARV) medications negatively impact patients' quality of life and ... informationseeking, social-support seeking and positive-emotion-focused coping.

  2. The SIDER database of drugs and side effects

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kuhn, Michael; Letunic, Ivica; Jensen, Lars Juhl

    2016-01-01

    Unwanted side effects of drugs are a burden on patients and a severe impediment in the development of new drugs. At the same time, adverse drug reactions (ADRs) recorded during clinical trials are an important source of human phenotypic data. It is therefore essential to combine data on drugs......, targets and side effects into a more complete picture of the therapeutic mechanism of actions of drugs and the ways in which they cause adverse reactions. To this end, we have created the SIDER ('Side Effect Resource', http://sideeffects.embl.de) database of drugs and ADRs. The current release, SIDER 4......, contains data on 1430 drugs, 5880 ADRs and 140 064 drug-ADR pairs, which is an increase of 40% compared to the previous version. For more fine-grained analyses, we extracted the frequency with which side effects occur from the package inserts. This information is available for 39% of drug-ADR pairs, 19...

  3. Association between addressing antiseizure drug side effects and patient-reported medication adherence in epilepsy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moura, Lidia M V R; Carneiro, Thiago S; Cole, Andrew J; Hsu, John; Vickrey, Barbara G; Hoch, Daniel B

    2016-01-01

    Adherence to treatment is a critical component of epilepsy management. This study examines whether addressing antiepileptic drug (AED) side effects at every visit is associated with increased patient-reported medication adherence. This study identified 243 adults with epilepsy who were seen at two academic outpatient neurology settings and had at least two visits over a 3-year period. Demographic and clinical characteristics were abstracted. Evidence that AED side effects were addressed was measured through 1) phone interview (patient-reported) and 2) medical records abstraction (physician-documented). Medication adherence was assessed using the validated Morisky Medication Adherence Scale-4. Complete adherence was determined as answering "no" to all questions. Sixty-two (25%) patients completed the interviews. Participants and nonparticipants were comparable with respect to demographic and clinical characteristics; however, a smaller proportion of participants had a history of drug-resistant epilepsy than nonparticipants (17.7% vs 30.9%, P =0.04). Among the participants, evidence that AED side effects were addressed was present in 48 (77%) medical records and reported by 51 (82%) patients. Twenty-eight (45%) patients reported complete medication adherence. The most common reason for incomplete adherence was missed medication due to forgetfulness (n=31, 91%). There was no association between addressing AED side effects (neither physician-documented nor patient-reported) and complete medication adherence ( P =0.22 and 0.20). Among patients with epilepsy, addressing medication side effects at every visit does not appear to increase patient-reported medication adherence.

  4. Beyond the technological fix. [Detrimental and unforeseen side effects

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Weinberg, A.M.

    1978-03-01

    Both technological and social fixes are likely to bring with them deterimental and unforeseen side effects. Although the perceived side effects of nuclear energy can undoubtedly be ameliorated by improved technology, a permanent institutional infrastructure will probably also be required. It is pointed out that confinement of nuclear energy to relatively few large sites rather than many small sites may be a first step toward creating this permanent institutional infrastructure.

  5. Cutaneous side effects of doxycycline: a pediatric case series.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bayhan, Gulsum Iclal; Akbayram, Sinan; Ozaydin Yavuz, Goknur; Oner, Ahmet Fayik

    2017-06-01

    Brucellosis is highly endemic in Turkey and doxycycline is commonly used for its treatment. The present study aimed at documenting the cutaneous side effects of doxycycline in pediatric brucellosis patients in Turkey. Pediatric patients with brucellosis that were treated between February 2014 and January 2016 were analyzed retrospectively, and those that developed doxycycline-related cutaneous side effects were identified. Demographic data, epidemiological history, physical examination findings, laboratory test results, anti-brucellosis treatment regimen, duration of follow up and outcome were recorded. Among the 189 brucellosis patients, 141 treated with doxycycline plus rifampicin. Seven patients (5%) (two female and five male) developed doxycycline-related cutaneous side effects. Mean duration of treatment before the onset of cutaneous side effects was 9.5 weeks. Doxycycline therapy was continued in five of these patients and was changed in two patients. In the patients that continued to receive doxycycline the cutaneous side effects gradually improved. Cutaneous side effects of doxycycline should always be a consideration, especially in regions in which brucellosis is endemic and doxycycline is commonly used to treat it.

  6. Are sexual side effects of prolactin-raising antipsychotics reducible to serum prolactin?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Knegtering, Henderikus; van den Bosch, Rob; Castelein, Stynke; Bruggeman, Richard; Sytema, Sjoerd; van Os, Jim

    Objective: To assess the degree to which sexual side effects (SSE) are associated with prolactin-raising antipsychotics, and to what degree such SSE are reducible to serum prolactin levels. Method: A large sample (n = 264) of patients treated for 6 weeks with protactin-raising and prolactin-sparing

  7. A double-blind comparison of two creams containing urea as the active ingredient. Assessment of efficacy and side-effects by non-invasive techniques and a clinical scoring scheme.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Serup, J

    1992-01-01

    From a group of 72 healthy individuals, 47 with evidence of dry skin according to measurements by non-invasive techniques were enrolled for a 3-week study with double-blind and randomized treatment of one forearm, using either 3% urea cream (HTH lotion 'light') or 10% urea cream (HTH lotion 'Original'). The contralateral forearm served as an untreated control. Two volunteers had to be excluded because measurements of skin surface lipids gave evidence of vehicle components on the skin surface at the time of final evaluations. Evaluations took place not less than 12 h after the last application. According to questionnaire replies, the two creams were equally effective. This was confirmed by "blind" evaluation of the skin hydration state by a dermatologist, measurements of electrical capacitance and conductance indicating epidermal and skin surface hydration, and by D-Squame tape assessments including optical transmission of tapes with stratum corneum and scales from adhering skin, as well as visual scoring of the tapes. The methods showed a high degree of correlation, i.a. a definite relation between increase in electrical hydration parameters, reduced scaling according to the D-Squame tape evaluations, and clinical improvement of dryness. In skin treated with 10% urea cream the transepidermal water loss (TEWL) decreased, indicating an improved water barrier function. Skin colour measurement according to the CIE colour system showed that skin treated with the 3% urea cream turned in the direction of yellow, and there was generally a tendency for the brightness to decrease. Thus, the 3% urea cream gave the skin a more golden colour. There was no change in redness with any of the creams. Neither data from the questionnaire, the clinical examination, nor results of TEWL and colour measurements indicated any local irritant effect of urea causing water barrier damage or inflammation. In conclusion, the 3% and 10% urea creams were both found efficient, resulting in

  8. Early and Late Side Effects Associated with Photo(chemotherapy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Günseli Öztürk

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Phototherapy (PUVA ve UVB is a widely used and effective treatment method for a variety of dermatological diseases. Adverse effects associated with phototherapy can be classified as acute and chronic side effects. Acute side effects are mostly related with UV doses and drug intolerance, and include itching, nausea, erythema, edema and phototoxic reactions that sometimes blister formation is seen. Acute side effects are usually moderate and transient. Chronic side effects of phototherapy are early aging of skin, pigmentary changes and increased risk of skin carcinogenesis. The major concern is development of skin cancer. This risk is especially related to long-term exposure and high cumulative doses of PUVA, increase in time and is persistent. Therefore, risk/advantage ratio of phototherapy should be carefully evaluated in each patient, and treatment protocols with minimal UV exposure should be chosen according to the phototherapy guides. Follow-up of the patients for long terms is important in prevention or in reduction of this risk by detecting and treating any premalignant or malignant lesion early. In this article, acute and chronic side effects of phototherapy are reviewed with recent literature findings.

  9. Perceived side effects of oral contraceptives among adolescent girls.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herold, E S; Goodwin, M S

    1980-11-22

    Knowledge and attitudes of adolescent females regarding the side effects of oral contraceptives were investigated. The data source was a large study of sexual and contraceptive attitudes and experience. The questionnaire responses of 486 single females attending 10 birth control and pregnancy counseling centers in Ontario, Canada were examined. The age range of the subjects was from 13-20; 71% were attending school and 69% were living at home. They were attending the centers in order to obtain contraceptives (55%), to renew OC prescriptions (20%), or to receive pregnancy counseling (25%). 29% of the subjects had used OCs before coming to the clinic, but 91% planned to use OC after their clinic visit. 8% were planning to use an IUD; 1% were planning to use a diaphragm; and less than 1% were planning to have their boyfriend use condoms. 85% of the subjects indicated that they had heard abut side effcts of OCs with weight gain as the best known side effect. Other side effects familiar to many included nausea, circulatory disorders, headaches, emotional changes, menstrual problems and cancer. About 1/2 of the subjects had learned about these side effects from the mass media or female friends, 25% from a school sex education class, 15% from their mothers, and 3% from a physician. Despite knowledge regarding side effects, most of the subjects had positive attitudes toward OCs with 59% believing that the advnatages outweighed any disadvantages.

  10. Endocrine side effects of broad-acting kinase inhibitors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lodish, Maya B; Stratakis, Constantine A

    2010-09-01

    Targeted therapy in oncology consists of drugs that specifically interfere with abnormal signaling pathways that are dysregulated in cancer cells. Tyrosine kinase inhibitors (TKIs) take advantage of unique oncogenes that are activated in certain types of cancer, and also target common mechanisms of growth, invasion, metastasis, and angiogenesis. However, many kinase inhibitors for cancer therapy are somewhat nonselective, and most have additional mechanisms of action at the cellular level, which are not completely understood. The use of these agents has increased our knowledge of important side effects, of which the practicing clinician must be aware. Recently, proposed endocrine-related side effects of these agents include alterations in thyroid function, bone metabolism, linear growth, gonadal function, fetal development, and glucose metabolism, and adrenal function. This review summarizes the most recent data on the endocrine side effects of TKIs.

  11. Cutaneous side effects of chemotherapy in pediatric oncology patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ceylan, Can; Kantar, Mehmet; Tuna, Arzu; Ertam, Ilgen; Aksoylar, Serap; Günaydın, Aslı; Çetingül, Nazan

    2015-01-01

    Pediatric oncology patients can present with various skin lesions related to both primary disease and immunosuppressive treatments. This study aimed to evaluate the cutaneous side effects of chemotherapy in pediatric oncology patients. Sixty-five pediatric oncology patients who were scheduled to undergo chemotherapy from May 2011 to May 2013 were included in the study. Three patients were excluded from the results, as 2 patients died during treatment and 1 patient withdrew from the study; therefore, a total of 62 patients were evaluated for mucocutaneous findings. Patients were grouped according to their oncological diagnoses and a statistical analysis was performed. There was no statistical significance in the incidence of cutaneous side effects of chemotherapy among the different diagnostic groups. Awareness among dermatologists of the possible cutaneous side effects of chemotherapy in pediatric patients and their causes can promote early diagnosis and treatment in this patient population.

  12. Persistent sexual side effects of finasteride: could they be permanent?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Irwig, Michael S

    2012-11-01

    Finasteride has been associated with sexual side effects that may persist despite discontinuation of the medication. In a clinical series, 20% of subjects with male pattern hair loss reported persistent sexual dysfunction for ≥6 years, suggesting the possibility that the dysfunction may be permanent. These subjects also reported a wide range of symptoms including changes in cognition, ejaculate quality, and genital sensation. Other medications have been associated with irreversible neurological effects, such as phenothiazines with tardive dyskinesias. To prospectively study whether the persistent sexual side effects associated with finasteride resolve or endure over time. Subjects (N = 54) with persistent sexual side effects associated with finasteride were reassessed after 9-16 months (mean 14 months). All subjects were otherwise healthy young men without any baseline sexual dysfunction, medical conditions, psychiatric conditions, or use of oral prescription medications prior to taking finasteride for male pattern hair loss. Scores from the Arizona Sexual Experience Scale (ASEX). The participation rate was 81%. At reassessment persistent sexual side effects continued to be present in 96% of subjects. According to the ASEX scores, 89% of subjects met the definition of sexual dysfunction. Neither the length of finasteride use nor the duration of the sexual side effects correlated to changes in scores of sexual dysfunction. In most men who developed persistent sexual side effects (≥3 months) despite the discontinuation of finasteride, the sexual dysfunction continued for many months or years. Although several rat studies have shown detrimental changes to erectile function caused by 5 alpha reductase inhibitors, the persistent nature of these changes is an area of active research. Prescribers of finasteride and men contemplating its use should be made aware of the potential adverse medication effects. © 2012 International Society for Sexual Medicine.

  13. Neglected side effects after radical prostatectomy: a systematic review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frey, Anders Ullmann; Sønksen, Jens; Fode, Mikkel

    2014-02-01

    A series of previously neglected sexually related side effects to radical prostatectomy (RP) has been identified over the recent years. These include orgasm-associated incontinence (OAI), urinary incontinence in relation to sexual stimulation (UISS), altered perception of orgasm, orgasm-associated pain (OAP), penile shortening (PS), and penile deformity. The aim of this article is to conduct a systematic review of the literature regarding the above-mentioned side effects. A predefined search strategy was applied in a thorough search of Medline, Web of science, and the online Cochrane library. The PRISMA guidelines for systematic reviews were followed, and protocol as well as search strategies was registered at http://www.crd.york.ac.uk/Prospero/ (RN: CRD42012003165). The main outcome measure was incidence rates for the relevant side effects. A total of 43 articles were included. OAI and UISS are experienced by 20-93% of RP patients at least a few times after surgery. Although these issues are associated to postoperative daytime incontinence, previous transurethral resection of the prostate (TURP) is the only known predicting factor. Alterations of orgasmic function are experienced by approximately 80% after RP. Erectile dysfunction seems to play an important role in waning orgasmic function. OAP is only experienced by a subset of the patients with reported rates varying between 3% and 19%. Sparing of the tips of the seminal vesicles has been shown to double the risk of OAP. PS occurs in 15-68% of RP patients. Nerve sparing and preservation of erectile function may help preserve penile length. With regard to all side effects, studies indicate that they are reduced over time. The sexually related side effects summarized in this review are common after RP. Meanwhile, it is difficult to predict which patients are at risk. Daytime incontinence, previous TURP, a lack of nerve sparing, and erectile dysfunction are all associated with the above-mentioned sexually related

  14. Coping strategies for antidepressant side effects: an Internet survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kikuchi, Toshiaki; Suzuki, Takefumi; Uchida, Hiroyuki; Watanabe, Koichiro; Mimura, Masaru

    2012-12-20

    Patients' coping methods to palliate side effects of antidepressants have not been reported in the literature. Through an Internet survey, 856 participants who were diagnosed with depression and receiving antidepressants were recruited to report on the methods of coping with side effects. They were asked which side effect(s) they experienced and to write freely about the way they tried to counteract these effects. We classified active coping methods into the following sub-types: adjustment of prescriptions, additional medication, complementary therapy, consultation with physicians, and daily relief. The prevalence of active coping differed across side effects (from 26.7%, sexual dysfunction, to 89.5%, dry mouth). Events with a lower percentage of active coping were more likely to be managed with "adjustment of prescriptions": (sexual dysfunction, 41.9%; fatigue, 36.8%; sweating, 20.0%; tremor, 42.5%; and somnolence, 31.8%). Further, a strong negative correlation was found between the percentage of participants reporting an adjustment of prescription and that reporting an active coping (r=-0.907, pnegative methods such as vomiting for nausea and weight gain and drinking alcohol for insomnia. Sampling of subjects were biased due to an Internet survey and diagnosis of depression and experience of side effects were self-reported. Patients with depression use various ways in alleviating antidepressants side effects. Some effects such as sexual dysfunction and fatigue may not be amenable to subjective coping efforts and others are sometimes managed inappropriately, which warrants a prudent attention. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  15. Targeting multiple opioid receptors - improved analgesics with reduced side effects?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Günther, Thomas; Dasgupta, Pooja; Mann, Anika; Miess, Elke; Kliewer, Andrea; Fritzwanker, Sebastian; Steinborn, Ralph; Schulz, Stefan

    2017-04-05

    Classical opioid analgesics, including morphine, mediate all of their desired and undesired effects by specific activation of the μ-opioid receptor (μ receptor). The use of morphine for treating chronic pain, however, is limited by the development of constipation, respiratory depression, tolerance and dependence. Analgesic effects can also be mediated through other members of the opioid receptor family such as the κ-opioid receptor (κ receptor), δ-opioid receptor (δ receptor) and the nociceptin/orphanin FQ peptide receptor (NOP receptor). Currently, a new generation of opioid analgesics is being developed that can simultaneously bind with high affinity to multiple opioid receptors. With this new action profile, it is hoped that additional analgesic effects and fewer side effects can be achieved. Recent research is mainly focused on the development of bifunctional μ/NOP receptor agonists, which has already led to novel lead structures such as the spiroindole-based cebranopadol and a compound class with a piperidin-4-yl-1,3-dihydroindol-2-one backbone (SR16835/AT-202 and SR14150/AT-200). In addition, the ornivol BU08028 is an analogue of the clinically well-established buprenorphine. Moreover, the morphinan-based nalfurafine exerts its effect with a dominant κ receptor-component and is therefore utilized in the treatment of pruritus. The very potent dihydroetorphine is a true multi-receptor opioid ligand in that it binds to μ, κ and δ receptors. The main focus of this review is to assess the paradigm of opioid ligands targeting multiple receptors with a single chemical entity. We reflect on this rationale by discussing the biological actions of particular multi-opioid receptor ligands, but not on their medicinal chemistry and design. © 2017 The British Pharmacological Society.

  16. Patient satisfaction and side effects in primary care: An observational study comparing homeopathy and conventional medicine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thurneysen André

    2008-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background This study is part of a nationwide evaluation of complementary medicine in Switzerland (Programme Evaluation of Complementary Medicine PEK and was funded by the Swiss Federal Office of Public Health. The main objective of this study is to investigate patient satisfaction and perception of side effects in homeopathy compared with conventional care in a primary care setting. Methods We examined data from two cross-sectional studies conducted in 2002–2003. The first study was a physician questionnaire assessing structural characteristics of practices. The second study was conducted on four given days during a 12-month period in 2002/2003 using a physician and patient questionnaire at consultation and a patient questionnaire mailed to the patient one month later (including Europep questionnaire. The participating physicians were all trained and licensed in conventional medicine. An additional qualification was required for medical doctors providing homeopathy (membership in the Swiss association of homeopathic physicians SVHA. Results A total of 6778 adult patients received the questionnaire and 3126 responded (46.1%. Statistically significant differences were found with respect to health status (higher percentage of chronic and severe conditions in the homeopathic group, perception of side effects (higher percentage of reported side effects in the conventional group and patient satisfaction (higher percentage of satisfied patients in the homeopathic group. Conclusion Overall patient satisfaction was significantly higher in homeopathic than in conventional care. Homeopathic treatments were perceived as a low-risk therapy with two to three times fewer side effects than conventional care

  17. [Side effects after the usage of Chinese dieting product Meizitanc].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sein Anand, Jacek; Chodorowski, Zygmunt

    2007-01-01

    Side effects of self-treatment of eight obese women aged between 28 and 45 (average 36.5) with the body mass index (BMI) between 28 and 32 (average 30) kg/m2 have been described. All these women, without any medical consultation and upon their own will had been using Meizitanc as the only remedy for slimming. They started with a dosage of 1 capsule per day, gradually increasing the Meizitanc dose to 3 capsules a day. The patients had used the drug from 2.5 to 6 (average 3.2) months. There were many side effects observed in all women like palpitation, headache and vertigo, warm feeling, nervousness, and tremor of the hands which was observed in four patients. All these effects appeared during the last few weeks and thus forced them to get the consultation in the Poison Information Centre in the Medical University of Gdańsk. All capsules were examined with the use of gas chromatography and mass spectrophotometer GC/MS. It was found that each capsule contained 10 mg of sibutramine. There was no information about the presence of sibutramine in the composition of Meizitanc on the package and leaflet. After discontinuation of Meizitanc all side effects disappeared. Special caution is advised during the Meizitanc treatment. In case of any side effects like palpitation, headache and vertigo, nervousness or tremor which take place during the Meizitanc treatment the medical consultation is needed.

  18. Tamoxifen treatment and gynecologic side effects : A review

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mourits, MJE; De Vries, EGE; Willemse, PHB; Ten Hoor, KA; Hollema, H; Van der Zee, AGJ

    Objective: To review the literature on tamoxifen side effects on the female genital tract and psychosexual function in premenopausal and postmenopausal women. Data Sources: We used the English-language literature in MEDLINE and reference lists from selected articles. Search terms included:

  19. Capecitabine induced hypertriglyceridaemia: An underreported and potentially severe side effect

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tabchi S

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available A 57 year-old-woman, with no previous history of dyslipedemia, developed severe hypertriglyceridemia while being treated with capecitabine for metastatic breast cancer. Capecitabine was not discontinued and serum triglyceride levels were normalized after 4 weeks of treatment with fenofibrate. Capecitabine induced hypertriglyceridemia, as a rare drug-related side effect, seems to be often overlooked by clinicians.

  20. Comparing the side effect profile of the Atypical

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    antipsychotics have greater efficacy (especially for negative symptoms) and fewer EPSE when compared to the typical antipsychotics. Given the lack of studies directly comparing these agents, we used the Physician Desk Reference (PDR) to calculate the treatment emergent placebo adjusted side effects for these atypical ...

  1. Patients knowledge about side effects of orthodontic treatment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mia Amalia

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available Disharmonious of dental arrangement can possibly create problems for the patient, such as the masticatory function, esthetical, psychosocial, and also the increased risk of trauma and periodontal disease. These are reasons for a patient to seek orthodontic treatment. The aim of this study was to know the patient’s knowledge about the side effects possibility that they receive during orthodontic treatment. The side effects include pain experience during orthodontic treatment, the possibility of soft tissue damage, email demineralization, loss of tooth vitality, periodontal problem, root resorption, temporomandibular joint disorders, and relapse. A cross-sectional study was conducted in patients who registered at Orthodontic Department, Faculty of Dentistry, Universitas Indonesia on March-June 2009. The participants of this study were 100 patients, consist of 86 women and 14 men respectively. Twenty-seven questions about the side-effects of orthodontic treatment were used to obtain the patient’s knowledge and the result was categorized into 3 groups, good, average and poor. The result of the study showed that patient’s knowledge about the side effect of pain experience during orthodontic treatment was average and the patient’s knowledge about the possibility of soft tissue damage due to orthodontic treatment was good. However, the patient’s knowledge about the possibility of email demineralization, loss of tooth vitality, periodontal problem, root resorption, temporomandibular joint disorders and relapse due to orthodontic treatment was low.

  2. Side effects related to potentially inappropriate medications in elderly psychiatric patients under everyday pharmacotherapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hefner, Gudrun; Stieffenhofer, Viktoria; Gabriel, Susanne; Palmer, Gerlind; Müller, Kay-Maria; Röschke, Joachim; Hiemke, Christoph

    2015-02-01

    Potentially inappropriate medication (PIM) is suggested to give rise to adverse drug events. To study this suggestion for elderly psychiatric patients, an observational analysis related prescription of PRISCUS PIMs and drug-induced side effects in old aged (≥65 years) psychiatric inpatients and outpatients under conditions of everyday pharmacotherapy. Request forms from a therapeutic drug monitoring (TDM) survey and medical files were screened for medication to identify PIMs of the PRISCUS list and assessed using the Udvalg for Kliniske Undersøgelser (UKU) side effect rating scale. From 914 TDM request forms, data were available for 168 patients (64.3 % female). Patients (mean ± SD age 73.0 ± 5.5 years) received by mean 6.4 ± 3.9 drugs per day. More than half of them (53.0 %, n = 89) had at least one PIM, inpatients 0.9 ± 0.8 and outpatients 0.5 ± 0.7. Predominant PIMs were hypnotic drugs (69 %) in inpatients and antipsychotic drugs (35.6 %) in outpatients. The number of PIMs correlated with the total number of drugs administered per day (Spearman correlation coefficient 0.225, p  0.05) with number of PIMs. However, only 6 of 77 patients who took no PRISCUS PIMs but 2 of 3 patients who took 3 PRISCUS PIMs exhibited severe side effects. Though the prevalence for PIMs and side effects was high in old aged psychiatric inpatients and outpatients, PIMs could not be identified as major determinants of overall unwanted side effects. Nevertheless, prescription of PIMs should be minimized, especially of hypnotic drugs, to improve safety.

  3. Consumption of Energy Drinks Among Lebanese Youth: A Pilot Study on the Prevalence and Side Effects

    OpenAIRE

    Itany, Manal; Diab, Batoul; Rachidi, Samar; Awada, Sanaa; Al Hajje, Amal; Bawab, Wafaa; Salameh, Pascale

    2014-01-01

    Background: The new millennium has been together with a variety of synthetic and caffeinated high-energy drinks targeting the youth market. Energy drinks raise the level of energy and their consumption has been increased significantly worldwide. Objectives: This research aimed to determine patterns of energy drink consumption and to assess the prevalence of adverse side effects among energy drink users. Patients and Methods: A pilot cross-sectional study survey was undertaken on students aged...

  4. Drug target identification using side-effect similarity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Campillos, Monica; Kuhn, Michael; Gavin, Anne-Claude

    2008-01-01

    binding assays, of which 11 reveal inhibition constants equal to less than 10 micromolar. Nine of these were tested and confirmed in cell assays, documenting the feasibility of using phenotypic information to infer molecular interactions and hinting at new uses of marketed drugs.......Targets for drugs have so far been predicted on the basis of molecular or cellular features, for example, by exploiting similarity in chemical structure or in activity across cell lines. We used phenotypic side-effect similarities to infer whether two drugs share a target. Applied to 746 marketed...... drugs, a network of 1018 side effect-driven drug-drug relations became apparent, 261 of which are formed by chemically dissimilar drugs from different therapeutic indications. We experimentally tested 20 of these unexpected drug-drug relations and validated 13 implied drug-target relations by in vitro...

  5. Glucocorticoids in nephrology I: pharmacology and side effects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jernej Pajek

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Glucocorticoids have been used in clinical medicine since 1940s. Despite the time-long use they are still a subject of active ongoing research. We describe the mode of action, pharmacology and side effects to enable proper prescription of these drugs. Glucocorticoids exert genomic and non-genomic effects, the latter become important at higher doses. The nomenclature of dosage ranges and the principles of dosage adjustments are given. Glucocortioid use is associated with frequent and important side effects in numerous organ systems. Prophylactic treatments for osteoporosis and infections are described. The suppression of hypothalamic-hypophyseal hormonal axis determines the need for gradual glucocorticoid withdrawal and supplementation after discontinuation. Finally, glucocorticoid withdrawal syndrome is described.

  6. Tramadol, Pharmacology, Side Effects, and Serotonin Syndrome: A Review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beakley, Burton D; Kaye, Adam M; Kaye, Alan D

    2015-01-01

    Serotonin syndrome is a mild to potentially life-threatening syndrome associated with excessive serotonergic activity within the central nervous system. Serotonin syndrome is associated with medication use, drug interactions, and overdose. While serotonin syndrome is often associated with the use of selective serotonin inhibitors (SSRI), an increasing number of reports are being presented involving the use of tramadol. This review article contains an overview of serotonin syndrome while specifically looking at tramadol's pharmacology and risk factors for serotonin syndrome. With tramadol's increasing popularity, the goal of this article is to make physicians more alert and aware of this potential side effect associated with tramadol. In conclusion, with the increasing incidence of serotonin syndrome, prescribing physicians should be aware of and educate their patients on the potential side effects of tramadol. It is important that the prescribing physician reviews patient medications for concurrent serotonergic drugs and monitors for potential abuse.

  7. Suspected side effects to the quadrivalent human papilloma vaccine

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brinth, Louise; Theibel, Ann Cathrine; Pors, Kirsten

    2015-01-01

    INTRODUCTION: The quadrivalent vaccine that protects against human papilloma virus types 6, 11, 16 and 18 (Q-HPV vaccine, Gardasil) was included into the Danish childhood vaccination programme in 2009. During the past years, a collection of symptoms primarily consistent with sympathetic nervous...... system dysfunction have been described as suspected side effects to the Q-HPV vaccine. METHODS: We present a description of suspected side effects to the Q-HPV vaccine in 53 patients referred to our Syncope Unit for tilt table test and evaluation of autonomic nervous system function. RESULTS: All...... consistency in the reported symptoms as well as between our findings and those described by others. Our findings neither confirm nor dismiss a causal link to the Q-HPV vaccine, but they suggest that further research is urgently warranted to clarify the pathophysiology behind the symptoms experienced...

  8. A Rare Side Effect of Metformin: Metformin-Induced Hepatotoxicity

    OpenAIRE

    Aksay, Ersin

    2007-01-01

    Metformin is an oral hypoglycemic agent that is commonly used in the treatment of type 2 diabetes mellitus. While metformin-associated metabolic acidosis is a widely recognized side effect of this drug, metformin-induced hepatotoxicity has been rarely reported in the literature. We present herein the case of a 52-year-old male in whom metformin-associated lactic acidosis and metformin-induced hepatotoxicity developed.

  9. Linezolid induced black hairy tongue: a rare side effect.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aijazi, Ishma; Abdulla, Fadhil M

    2014-01-01

    Linezolid induced black hairy tongue is a rare benign reversible side effect of linezolid therapy. We report a case of a 61 year old diabetic lady who developed thrombocytopenia and black hairy discoloration of the tongue after being prescribed linezolid for foot osteomyelitis by the orthopaedic surgeon. Patient was encouraged to practice good oral dental hygiene, advised to use a soft tooth brush, regular mouth wash and baking soda containing tooth paste. The condition resolved four weeks after cessation of the antibiotic therapy.

  10. Ketamine for Pain Management-Side Effects & Potential Adverse Events.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Allen, Cheryl A; Ivester, Julius R

    2017-12-01

    An old anesthetic agent, ketamine is finding new use in lower doses for analgesic purposes. There are concerns stemming from its potential side effects-specifically psychomimetic effects. These side effects are directly related to dose amount. The doses used for analgesic purposes are much lower than those used for anesthesia purposes. A literature review was performed to ascertain potential side effects and/or adverse events when using ketamine for analgesia purposes. The search included CINAHL, PubMed, and Ovid using the search terms "ketamine," "ketamine infusion," "pain," "adverse events," "practice guideline," and "randomized controlled trial." Searches were limited to full-text, peer-reviewed articles and systematic reviews. Initially 1,068 articles were retrieved. The search was then narrowed by using the Boolean connector AND with various search term combinations. After adjusting for duplication, article titles and abstracts were reviewed, leaving 25 articles for an in-depth analysis. Specific exclusion criteria were then applied. The literature supports the use of ketamine for analgesic purposes, and ketamine offers a nonopioid option for the management of some pain conditions. Because ketamine is still classified as an anesthetic agent, health care institutions should develop their own set of policies and protocols for the administration of ketamine. By using forethought and understanding of the properties of ketamine, appropriate care may be planned to mitigate potential side effects and adverse events so that patients are appropriately cared for and their pain effectively managed. Copyright © 2017 American Society for Pain Management Nursing. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  11. Side Effects Exhibited by Athletes Using Anabolic Steroids

    OpenAIRE

    Leonid S. Khodasevich; Tat'yana V. Voskoboinikova

    2013-01-01

    The article examines the general problems of the use of anabolic steroids by athletes. The main reason they are banned in sports is because they artificially increase human performance by stimulating various metabolisms, as well as stimulating the constructive and energetic metabolism processes. The prohibited anabolic steroids are not only harmful to the athletes’ health but they also pose a very real threat to their life. Information regarding the side effects of anabolic steroids can be ef...

  12. Pharmaceutical ethics and physician liability in Side Effects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dhiman, Gaurav J; Amber, Kyle T

    2013-12-01

    We review Side Effects, a 2013 film involving bioethics, pharmaceuticals, and financial conspiracies. After the main character Emily unsuccessfully attempts suicide, she begins receiving care from a psychiatrist, Dr. Banks. Following numerous events, she is placed on a fictional antidepressant, Ablixa, which leads her to suffer from sleepwalking. During an episode of sleepwalking she commits a serious crime. The film poses an interesting dilemma: How responsible would the physician be in this instance? We analyze this question by applying numerous ethical principles.

  13. Efeitos colaterais do metilfenidato Side effects of methylphenidate

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Giuseppe Pastura

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available OBJETIVOS: Revisar os principais efeitos colaterais do metilfenidato, em curto e longo prazos, no tratamento de crianças com Transtorno do Déficit de Atenção (TDAH. FONTES DE DADOS: Revisão de literatura nos últimos doze anos através de pesquisa no Medline e Lilacs. RESULTADOS: Dentre os efeitos colaterais que surgem em curto prazo, prevalecem a redução de apetite, insônia, cefaléia e dor abdominal, sendo a maioria autolimitada, dose-dependente e de média intensidade. Dentre aqueles em longo prazo, são descritas alterações discretas de pressão arterial e freqüência cardíaca e uma possível discreta diminuição da estatura. O abuso e a dependência ao medicamento são observados muito raramente. CONCLUSÕES: O perfil de efeitos colaterais do metilfenidato é seguro, não parecendo justificar o seu uso constrito no Brasil, ante os benefícios robustos amplamente demonstrados na literatura.OBJECTIVE: To review main short-term and long-term side effects of methylphenidate in the treatment of Attention-Deficit Disorder in children. SOURCE OF DATA: a 12-year review in Medline and Lilacs. RESULTS: Among those side effects showed in the short-term, anorexia, insomnia, headache and abdominal pain are the most common ones, being the majority self-limited, dose-dependent and of medium intensity. Long-term side effects consist of mild blood pressure and heart rate increase and possible light growth suppression effect. Abuse and dependency are very rare. CONCLUSIONS: Methylphenidate side effects profile is safe and does not seem to justify its restricted use in Brazil, considering its solid benefits widely demonstrated in literature.

  14. Extrapyramidal side effects as a consequence of treatment with neuroleptics

    OpenAIRE

    Shirley Fumi Taniguchi; Maria de Lourdes Rabelo Pequeno; Wanessa Alves Frederico; Seizi Oga

    2008-01-01

    Objective: To check the occurrence of extrapyramidal side effects inpatients receiving neuroleptic drugs, how these effects are treated,and to observe the occurrence of hallucinations caused by treatmentof extrapyramidal symptoms. Methods: The present study analyzedmedical records and interviewed 39 schizophrenic patients beingtreated in a public primary care clinic located in the southern partof the city of São Paulo, who had previously agreed to participatein the project. Results: Among 39 ...

  15. Cutaneous side-effects during therapy of melanoma by vemurafenib

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anna Ankudowicz

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Introduction. Vemurafenib is a selective inhibitor of serine-threonine kinase BRAF used in the treatment of advanced melanoma with BRAF mutation. Effectiveness of this drug was confirmed in a large clinical trial, which led to the increase of its usage. During treatment with vemurafenib, particular attention should be paid to the numerous side effects, including those concerning the skin. Vemurafenib is highly toxic to the skin. Skin lesions occurring during the treatment of melanoma with this medicament can be divided into: early (observed 3 to 6 weeks after beginning treatment, late (observed 6 weeks after beginning treatment and hypersensitivity reactions to vemurafenib. Objective. Presentation of vemurafenib toxic effects on the skin and side effects that can be caused by this drug. Case report. We present a 58-year-old woman with metastatic melanoma who was treated with vemurafenib. During the course of therapy, numerous adverse reactions, including inflammatory tumors, emergence of a number of melanocytic naevi, skin horns, alopecia, hyperkeratosis of the palms and soles, and palmar erythrodysesthesia were observed. She was treated with anti-inflammatory drugs, an antibiotic, circulation-improving preparations and local moisturizing and keratolytic treatment. The patient remains under the care of oncologists and dermatologists. Conclusions. The new generation anti-cancer drugs bring hope for a cure or prolongation of life, but can also significantly reduce the quality of life by inducing both general and local adverse side effects. Oncological patients should also be taken care of by dermatologists.

  16. Extrapyramidal side effects as a consequence of treatment with neuroleptics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shirley Fumi Taniguchi

    2008-03-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To check the occurrence of extrapyramidal side effects inpatients receiving neuroleptic drugs, how these effects are treated,and to observe the occurrence of hallucinations caused by treatmentof extrapyramidal symptoms. Methods: The present study analyzedmedical records and interviewed 39 schizophrenic patients beingtreated in a public primary care clinic located in the southern partof the city of São Paulo, who had previously agreed to participatein the project. Results: Among 39 patients studied, 85% presentedextrapyramidal symptoms. Of these, 69.7% were treated for theside effects, 73.9% were treated with biperiden and 26.09% hadtheir neuroleptic drug reduced. Out of those patients treated withbiperiden, 70.5% had side effects, such as hallucination and delusion,blurred vision, somnolence and verbal memory deficit. Conclusions:The majority of patients (85% undergoing treatment with neurolepticdrugs developed motor side effects. When these extrapyramidalsymptoms were treated with central action anticholinergic drugs(biperiden, hallucination and/or delusion occurred in 52.94% ofpatients – probably because of increased dopaminergic activity asa consequence of cholinergic activity reduction caused by biperidenin the mesocortical and mesolimbic pathways.

  17. Association between addressing antiseizure drug side effects and patient-reported medication adherence in epilepsy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Moura LMVR

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Lidia M V R Moura,1 Thiago S Carneiro,1 Andrew J Cole,1 John Hsu,2,3 Barbara G Vickrey,4 Daniel B Hoch1 1Department of Neurology, 2Mongan Institute for Health Policy, Department of Medicine, Massachusetts General Hospital, 3Department of Health Care Policy, Harvard Medical School, Boston, MA, 4Department of Neurology, Icahn School of Medicine at Mount Sinai, New York, NY, USA Background and aim: Adherence to treatment is a critical component of epilepsy management. This study examines whether addressing antiepileptic drug (AED side effects at every visit is associated with increased patient-reported medication adherence.Patients and methods: This study identified 243 adults with epilepsy who were seen at two academic outpatient neurology settings and had at least two visits over a 3-year period. Demographic and clinical characteristics were abstracted. Evidence that AED side effects were addressed was measured through 1 phone interview (patient-reported and 2 medical records abstraction (physician-documented. Medication adherence was assessed using the validated Morisky Medication Adherence Scale-4. Complete adherence was determined as answering “no” to all questions.Results: Sixty-two (25% patients completed the interviews. Participants and nonparticipants were comparable with respect to demographic and clinical characteristics; however, a smaller proportion of participants had a history of drug-resistant epilepsy than nonparticipants (17.7% vs 30.9%, P=0.04. Among the participants, evidence that AED side effects were addressed was present in 48 (77% medical records and reported by 51 (82% patients. Twenty-eight (45% patients reported complete medication adherence. The most common reason for incomplete adherence was missed medication due to forgetfulness (n=31, 91%. There was no association between addressing AED side effects (neither physician-documented nor patient-reported and complete medication adherence (P=0.22 and 0.20.Discussion and

  18. Insufficient Sedation and Severe Side Effects after Fast Administration of Remifentanil during INSURE in Preterm Newborns.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Kort, Ellen H M; Hanff, Lidwien M; Roofthooft, Daniella; Reiss, Irwin K M; Simons, Sinno H P

    2017-01-01

    Neonatal intubation is stressful and should be performed with premedication. In the case of an INSURE (intubation/surfactant/extubation) procedure a short duration of action of the premedication used is needed to facilitate fast extubation. Given its pharmacological profile, remifentanil seems a suitable candidate. The aim here was to evaluate the effect and side effects of remifentanil as a premedication for preterm neonates undergoing INSURE. A prospective, single-center study in a level III neonatal intensive care unit was conducted. The quality of sedation was assessed in preterm infants receiving remifentanil prior to intubation for the INSURE procedure. Intravenous remifentanil was administered quickly and followed by a saline flush in approximately 30 s. The quality of sedation was defined by a combination of adequate sedation score, good intubation conditions and absence of side effects. The study was terminated after the inclusion of 14 patients because of the high rate of side effects and the poor intubation conditions. Adequate sedation was achieved in only 2 patients (14%). Six patients (43%) needed additional propofol to obtain adequate sedation. Chest wall rigidity occurred in 6 patients (43%). The rapid administration of remifentanil provides insufficient sedation and is associated with a high risk of chest wall rigidity in preterm neonates. © 2016 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  19. Which Depressive Symptoms and Medication Side Effects Are Perceived by Patients as Interfering Most with Occupational Functioning?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Raymond W. Lam

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. Major depressive disorder (MDD is associated with significant impairment in occupational functioning. This study sought to determine which depressive symptoms and medication side effects were perceived by patients with MDD to have the greatest interference on work functioning. Methods. 164 consecutive patients with MDD by DSM-IV criteria completed a standard assessment that included a self-rated questionnaire about the degree to which symptoms and side effects interfered with work functioning. Results. The symptoms perceived by patients as interfering most with work functioning were fatigue and low energy, insomnia, concentration and memory problems, anxiety, and irritability. The medication side effects rated as interfering most with work functioning were daytime sedation, insomnia, headache, and agitation/anxiety. There were no differences between men and women in symptoms or side effects that were perceived as interfering with work functioning. Limitations. This was a cross-sectional study; only subjective assessments of work functioning were obtained; the fact that patients were using varied medications acts as a potential confound. Conclusions. Specific depressive symptoms and medication side effects were perceived by patients as interfering more with occupational functioning than others. These factors should be considered in treatment selection (e.g., in the choice of antidepressant in working patients with MDD.

  20. The use of energy drinks in sport: perceived ergogenicity and side effects in male and female athletes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salinero, Juan J; Lara, Beatriz; Abian-Vicen, Javier; Gonzalez-Millán, Cristina; Areces, Francisco; Gallo-Salazar, César; Ruiz-Vicente, Diana; Del Coso, Juan

    2014-11-14

    The use of caffeine containing energy drinks has dramatically increased in the last few years, especially in the sport context because of its reported ergogenic effect. The ingestion of low to moderate doses of caffeinated energy drinks has been associated with adverse side effects such as insomnia or increased nervousness. The aim of the present study was to assess psycho-physiological changes and the prevalence of side effects resulting from the ingestion of 3 mg caffeine/kg body mass in the form of an energy drink. In a double-blind and placebo controlled experimental design, ninety experienced and low-caffeine-consuming athletes (fifty-three male and thirty-seven female) in two different sessions were provided with an energy drink that contained 3 mg/kg of caffeine or the same decaffeinated energy drink (placebo; 0 mg/kg). At 60 min after the ingestion of the energy drink, participants completed a training session. The effects of ingestion of these beverages on psycho-physiological variables during exercise and the rate of adverse side effects were measured using questionnaires. The caffeinated energy drink increased self-perceived muscle power during exercise compared with the placebo beverage (6·41 (sd 1·7) v. 5·66 (sd 1·51); P= 0·001). Moreover, the energy drink produced a higher prevalence of side effects such as insomnia (31·2 v. 10·4 %; Pdrink. There were no sex differences in the incidence of side effects (P>0·05). The ingestion of an energy drink with 3 mg/kg of caffeine increased the prevalence of side effects. The presence of these side effects was similar between male and female participants.

  1. Movement side effects of antipsychotic drugs in adults with and without intellectual disability: UK population-based cohort study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sheehan, Rory; Horsfall, Laura; Strydom, André; Osborn, David; Walters, Kate; Hassiotis, Angela

    2017-08-03

    To measure the incidence of movement side effects of antipsychotic drugs in adults with intellectual disability and compare rates with adults without intellectual disability. Cohort study using data from The Health Improvement Network. UK primary care. Adults with intellectual disability prescribed antipsychotic drugs matched to a control group of adults without intellectual disability prescribed antipsychotic drugs. New records of movement side effect including acute dystonias, akathisia, parkinsonism, tardive dyskinaesia and neuroleptic malignant syndrome. 9013 adults with intellectual disability and a control cohort of 34 242 adults without intellectual disability together contributed 148 709 person-years data. The overall incidence of recorded movement side effects was 275 per 10 000 person-years (95% CI 256 to 296) in the intellectual disability group and 248 per 10 000 person-years (95% CI 237 to 260) in the control group. The incidence of any recorded movement side effect was significantly greater in people with intellectual disability compared with those without (incidence rate ratio 1.30, 95% CI 1.18 to 1.42, pdisability-prescribed antipsychotic drugs (incidence rate ratio 3.03, 95% CI 1.26 to 7.30, p=0.013). Differences in rates of movement side effects between the groups were not due to differences in the proportions prescribed first and second-generation antipsychotic drugs. This study provides evidence to substantiate the long-held assumption that people with intellectual disability are more susceptible to movement side effects of antipsychotic drugs. Assessment for movement side effects should be integral to antipsychotic drug monitoring in people with intellectual disability. Regular medication review is essential to ensure optimal prescribing in this group. © Article author(s) (or their employer(s) unless otherwise stated in the text of the article) 2017. All rights reserved. No commercial use is permitted unless otherwise expressly granted.

  2. Time course of late rectal- and urinary bladder side effects after MRI-guided adaptive brachytherapy for cervical cancer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Georg, P.; Georg, D.; Poetter, R.; Doerr, W. [Medical University Vienna/ AKH Wien (Austria). Dept. of Radiooncology; Medical University Vienna (Austria). Christian Doppler Laboratory for Medical Radiation Research for Radiation Oncology; Medical University Vienna/ AKH Wien (Austria). Comprehensive Cancer Centre; Boni, A.; Ghabuous, A. [Medical University Vienna/ AKH Wien (Austria). Dept. of Radiooncology; Goldner, G.; Schmid, M.P. [Medical University Vienna/ AKH Wien (Austria). Dept. of Radiooncology; Medical University Vienna/ AKH Wien (Austria). Comprehensive Cancer Centre

    2013-07-15

    Background and purpose: To analyze the time course of late rectal- and urinary bladder complications after brachytherapy for cervical cancer and to compare the incidence- and prevalence rates thereof. Patients and methods: A total of 225 patients were treated with external-beam radiotherapy (EBRT) and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI)-guided brachytherapy with or without chemotherapy. Late side effects were assessed prospectively using the Late Effects in Normal Tissue - Subjective, Objective, Management and Analytic (LENT/SOMA) scale. The parameters analyzed were time to onset, duration, actuarial incidence- (occurrence of new side effects during a defined time period) and prevalence rates (side effects existing at a defined time point). Results: Median follow-up was 44 months. Side effects (grade 1-4) in rectum and bladder were present in 31 and 49 patients, 14 and 27 months (mean time to onset) after treatment, respectively. All rectal and 76 % of bladder side effects occurred within 3 years after radiotherapy. Mean duration of rectal events was 19 months; 81 % resolved within 3 years of their initial diagnosis. Mean duration of bladder side effects was 20 months; 61 % resolved within 3 years. The 3- and 5-year actuarial complication rates were 16 and 19 % in rectum and 18 and 28 % in bladder, respectively. The corresponding prevalence rates were 9 and 2 % (rectum) and 18 and 21 % (bladder), respectively. Conclusion: Late side effects after cervical cancer radiotherapy are partially reversible, but their time course is organ-dependent. The combined presentation of incidence- and prevalence rates provides the most comprehensive information. (orig.)

  3. Radiogenic Side Effects After Hypofractionated Stereotactic Photon Radiotherapy of Choroidal Melanoma in 212 Patients Treated Between 1997 and 2007

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dunavoelgyi, Roman [Department of Ophthalmology, Medical University of Vienna, Vienna (Austria); Dieckmann, Karin [Department of Radiology, Medical University of Vienna, Vienna (Austria); Gleiss, Andreas [Section of Clinical Biometrics, Medical University of Vienna, Vienna (Austria); Sacu, Stefan; Kircher, Karl; Georgopoulos, Michael [Department of Ophthalmology, Medical University of Vienna, Vienna (Austria); Georg, Dietmar [Department of Radiology, Medical University of Vienna, Vienna (Austria); Zehetmayer, Martin, E-mail: martin.zehetmayer@meduniwien.ac.at [Department of Ophthalmology, Medical University of Vienna, Vienna (Austria); Poetter, Richard [Department of Radiology, Medical University of Vienna, Vienna (Austria)

    2012-05-01

    Purpose: To evaluate side effects of hypofractionated stereotactic photon radiotherapy for patients with choroidal melanoma. Patients and Methods: Two hundred and twelve patients with choroidal melanoma unsuitable for ruthenium-106 brachytherapy or local resection were treated stereotactically at the Medical University of Vienna between 1997 and 2007 with a Linac with 6-MV photon beams in five fractions with 10, 12, or 14 Gy per fraction. Examinations for radiogenic side effects were performed at baseline and every 3 months in the first 2 years, then every 6 months until 5 years and then once a year thereafter until 10 years after radiotherapy. Adverse side effects were assessed using slit-lamp examination, funduscopy, gonioscopy, tonometry, and, if necessary, fundus photography and fluorescein angiography. Evaluations of incidence of side effects are based on an actuarial analysis. Results: One hundred and eighty-nine (89.2%) and 168 (79.2%) of the tumors were within 3 mm of the macula and the optic disc, respectively. The five most common radiotherapy side effects were retinopathy and optic neuropathy (114 cases and 107 cases, respectively), cataract development (87 cases), neovascular glaucoma (46 cases), and corneal epithelium defects (41 cases). In total, 33.6%, 38.5%, 51.2%, 75.5%, and 77.6% of the patients were free of any radiation retinopathy, optic neuropathy, cataract, neovascular glaucoma, or corneal epithelium defects 5 years after radiotherapy, respectively. Conclusion: In centrally located choroidal melanoma hypofractionated stereotactic photon radiotherapy shows a low to moderate rate of adverse long-term side effects comparable with those after proton beam radiotherapy. Future fractionation schemes should seek to further reduce adverse side effects rate while maintaining excellent local tumor control.

  4. Phytochemicals that counteract the cardiotoxic side effects of cancer chemotherapy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anita Piasek

    2009-04-01

    Full Text Available Almost all clinically used antitumor drugs exhibit toxic side effects affecting heart function. Because of cardiotoxicity during anticancer chemotherapy, effective doses of cytostatics have to be limited, which may worsen antitumor efficacy. The cardiotoxicity induced by cytostatics of the anthracycline group in particular results, among others, from massive stimulation of ROS. It has therefore been suggested that some phytochemicals with high antioxidant potential, when administered together with antitumor agents, could decrease the toxic side effects of chemotherapy and reduce the risk of heart failure. This review summarizes findings of studies undertaken to identify edible plants or phytochemicals isolated from them displaying cardioprotective properties during chemotherapy. Such properties have been shown for such foods as grapes, garlic, tomato, spinach, and beetroot. A protective role on the heart is also displayed by melatonin (a hormone synthesized by the pineal gland, but also present in many edible plants, chalcones (precursors of all known flavonoids, some herbal dietary supplements, vitamins A, C, and E, selenium, and semisynthetic flavonoid 7-monohydroxyethylrutoside (monoHER. Although to date only a limited number of investigations have been carried out, their results suggest that dietary intervention with antioxidants found in edible plants may be a safe and effective way of alleviating the toxicity of anticancer chemotherapy and preventing heart failure.

  5. Unintended Side Effects of Digital Transition: Perspectives of Japanese Experts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Masahiro Sugiyama

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available The core of the digital transition is the representation of all kinds of real-world entities and processes and an increasing number of cognitive processes by digital information and algorithms on computers. These allow for seemingly unlimited storage, operation, retrieval, and transmission capacities that make digital tools economically available for all domains of society and empower human action, particularly combined with real-world interfaces such as displays, robots, sensors, 3D printers, etc. Digital technologies are general-purpose technologies providing unprecedented potential benefits for sustainability. However, they will bring about a multitude of potential unintended side effects, and this demands a transdisciplinary discussion on unwanted societal changes as well as a shift in science from analog to digital modeling and structure. Although social discourse has begun, the topical scope and regional coverage have been limited. Here, we report on an expert roundtable on digital transition held in February 2017 in Tokyo, Japan. Drawing on a variety of disciplinary backgrounds, our discussions highlight the importance of cultural contexts and the need to bridge local and global conversations. Although Japanese experts did mention side effects, their focus was on how to ensure that AI and robots could coexist with humans. Such a perspective is not well appreciated everywhere outside Japan. Stakeholder dialogues have already begun in Japan, but greater efforts are needed to engage a broader collection of experts in addition to stakeholders to broaden the social debate.

  6. Side effects of ropinirole in patients with idiopathic Parkinson's disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Titlic, M; Tonkic, A; Jukic, I; Lusic, I; Dikanovic, M

    2008-01-01

    Results achieved in treating the Parkinson's disease (PD) by the dopamine receptor agonist, ropinirole, have been hampered by its side effects. According to the MEDLINE, the most common side effects of ropinirole are extreme sleepiness and/or sudden sleep attacks, nausea, dyspepsia, vertigo, orthostatic hypotension and leg oedema. The prospective research included PD patients who were administered non-ergoline dopamine agonist, ropinirole, over this period of time. The control group of patients were treated with levodopa. The research included 50 patients: 31 women and 19 men, of the mean age of 61.4 +/- 4.3 years. One patient reported sleepiness and one of them sudden sleep attacks. Nausea was experienced by three patients, and vertigo by two. Depression, orthostatic hypotension, leg oedema, dyspepsia, dry cough and hypersalivation were registered in particular cases. The control group of PD patients, treated with levodopa, comprised 52 patients, 33 women and 19 men of the mean age of 63.2 +/- 4.1 years. In the control group, nausea was registered in two patients. The non-ergoline dopamine agonist, ropinirole, most commonly causes nausea and sleepiness, less commonly uncontrollable sleep attacks, vertigo, dyspepsia, orthostatic hypotension, leg oedema. Dry cough and hypersalivation are recorded sporadically (Tab. 1, Ref. 22).

  7. Local Side Effects of Sublingual and Oral Immunotherapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Passalacqua, Giovanni; Nowak-Węgrzyn, Anna; Canonica, Giorgio Walter

    Sublingual immunotherapy (SLIT) is increasingly used worldwide, and several products have been recently registered as drugs for respiratory allergy by the European Medicine Agency and the Food and Drug Administration. Concerning inhalant allergens, the safety of SLIT is overall superior to that of subcutaneous immunotherapy in terms of systemic adverse events. No fatality has been ever reported, and episodes of anaphylaxis were described only exceptionally. Looking at the historical and recent trials, most (>90%) adverse events are "local" and confined to the site of administration. For this reason, a specific grading system has been developed by the World Allergy Organization to classify and describe local adverse events. There is an increasing amount of literature concerning oral desensitization for food allergens, referred to as oral immunotherapy. Also, in this case, local side effects are predominant, although systemic adverse events are more frequent than with inhalant allergens. We review herein the description of local side effects due to SLIT, with a special focus on large trials having a declared sample size calculation. The use of the Medical Dictionary for Regulatory Activities nomenclature for adverse events is mentioned in this context, as recommended by regulatory agencies. It is expected that a uniform classification/grading of local adverse events will improve and harmonize the surveillance and reporting on the safety of SLIT. Copyright © 2016 American Academy of Allergy, Asthma & Immunology. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  8. Suspected side effects to the quadrivalent human papilloma vaccine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brinth, Louise; Theibel, Ann Cathrine; Pors, Kirsten; Mehlsen, Jesper

    2015-04-01

    The quadrivalent vaccine that protects against human papilloma virus types 6, 11, 16 and 18 (Q-HPV vaccine, Gardasil) was included into the Danish childhood vaccination programme in 2009. During the past years, a collection of symptoms primarily consistent with sympathetic nervous system dysfunction have been described as suspected side effects to the Q-HPV vaccine. We present a description of suspected side effects to the Q-HPV vaccine in 53 patients referred to our Syncope Unit for tilt table test and evaluation of autonomic nervous system function. All patients had symptoms consistent with pronounced autonomic dysfunction including different degrees of orthostatic intolerance, severe non-migraine-like headache, excessive fatigue, cognitive dysfunction, gastrointestinal discomfort and widespread pain of a neuropathic character. We found consistency in the reported symptoms as well as between our findings and those described by others. Our findings neither confirm nor dismiss a causal link to the Q-HPV vaccine, but they suggest that further research is urgently warranted to clarify the pathophysiology behind the symptoms experienced in these patients and to evaluate the possibility and the nature of any causal link and hopefully establish targeted treatment options. not relevant. not relevant.

  9. [Serious adverse side effects after pupillary dilation in preterm infants].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lux, A-L; Mouriaux, F; Guillois, B; Fedrizzi, S; Peyro-Saint-Paul, L; Denion, E

    2015-03-01

    This study aimed at investigating serious side effects of the pupillary dilation protocol used in Caen University Hospital for the screening of retinopathy of prematurity. This protocol includes one drop of phenylephrine 5% and two drops of tropicamide 0.5% instilled at a 5-minute interval. This retrospective study included all premature infants with a birth weight less than or equal to 1500 g and/or a gestational age less than or equal to 30 gestational weeks, hospitalized in the neonatal intensive care unit of Caen University Medical Center, having ocular fundus examinations for retinopathy of prematurity screening between 2009 and 2014. The medical records of patients who died or developed necrotizing enterocolitis were reviewed to analyze the imputability of the two eye drops used for pupil dilation. Five-hundred and twelve infants were included, corresponding to 1033 ocular fundus examinations. No case of death could be ascribed to the use of eye drops. Two cases of necrotizing enterocolitis could be ascribed to the use of tropicamide with a doubtful and plausible intrinsic imputability according to French imputability criteria. The pupillary dilation protocol used in Caen University Hospital for screening of retinopathy of prematurity might be implicated in two cases of necrotizing enterocolitis with an uncertain imputability of tropicamide 0.5% eye drops. No serious side effect could be ascribed to the use of phenylephrine 5% eye drops in this study. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  10. The effect of probiotics supplementation on Helicobacter pylori eradication rates and side effects during eradication therapy: a meta-analysis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yini Dang

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Previous meta-analyses reported that probiotics improve the effectiveness of Helicobacter pylori (H. pylori eradication during antibiotic therapy, while results regarding a possible reduction of side effects remained inconclusive. Moreover, the effectiveness of different strains of probiotics has not been studied so far. It is further conceivable that probiotics will produce additional effects only if antibiotics are relatively ineffective. METHODS: This meta-analysis includes eligible randomized controlled trials examining effects of probiotics supplementation on eradication rates (ER and side effects, published up to May 2014. Sub-group analysis was performed to compare different probiotic strains and antibiotic therapies with different effectiveness in controls (ER 80%. Publication bias was assessed with funnel plots and Harbord's test. The quality of the trials was assessed with the Cochrane risk of bias tool. RESULTS: Thirty-three RCTs involving a total of 4459 patients met the inclusion criteria in case of eradication rates of which 20 assessed total side effects in addition. Overall, the pooled eradication rate in probiotics supplementation groups was significantly higher than in controls (ITT analysis: RR 1.122, 95% CI 1.086-1.159, PP analysis: RR 1.114, 95% CI 1.070-1.159. Sub group-analysis could, however, confirm this finding only for four individual strains (Lactobacillus acidophilus, Lactobacillus casei DN-114001, Lactobacillus gasseri, and Bifidobacterium infantis 2036 and for relatively ineffective antibiotic therapies. There was a significant difference between groups in the overall incidence of side effects (RR 0.735, 95% CI 0.598-0.902. This result was, however, only confirmed for non-blinded trials. CONCLUSIONS: The pooled data suggest that supplementation with specific strains of probiotics compared with eradication therapy may be considered an option for increasing eradication rates, particularly when antibiotic

  11. Neonatal side effects of maternal labetalol treatment in severe preeclampsia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heida, Karst Y; Zeeman, Gerda G; Van Veen, Teelkien R; Hulzebos, Christian V

    2012-07-01

    Labetalol is often used in severe preeclampsia (PE). Hypotension, bradycardia and hypoglycemia are feared neonatal side effects, but may also occur in (preterm) infants regardless of labetalol exposure. We analyzed the possible association between intrauterine labetalol exposure and such side effects. From 1 January 2003 through 31 March 2008, all infants from mothers suffering severe PE admitted to one tertiary care center were included. Severe PE was defined according to the International Society for the Study of Hypertension in Pregnancy (ISSHP) criteria. Infants exposed to labetalol in utero (labetalol infants) were compared with infants, who were not exposed to labetalol (controls). Neonatal records were reviewed for hypotension (RRlabetalol, whereas 54 were not (controls). Gestational age at delivery and birthweight were similar in both groups (31.8 vs. 32.8 weeks (p=0.06) and 1510 vs. 1639 grams (p=0.25), respectively for the labetalol vs. control group). Hypotension occurred significantly more in conjunction with labetalol exposure (16, (29.1%) vs. 4 (7.4%); p=0.003), irrespective of the route of administration. Patent ductus arteriosus (PDA) was present in 9 (56%) of hypotensive labetalol infants compared to 1 (24%) infant in the hypotensive control group (NS). In a multivariate regression model, labetalol exposure, the need for intubation and PDA appeared independently associated with hypotension (Plabetalol infants and in 23 (42.6%) of control infants (p=0.62). Bradycardia occurred in 4 (7.3%) of labetalol infants and in 1 (1.9%) of control infants (p=0.18). Hypoglycemia was more common in premature infants (n=45 (48,9%) vs. n=4 (23.5%), p=0.05) in both labetalol and control infants. Hypotension is more common after maternal labetalol exposure, regardless of the dosage and route of administration. The need for intubation and the presence of a PDA also play a role. Hypoglycemia is a very common finding in this population and is merely related to

  12. Measles Vaccine : A Study On Seroconversion And Side Effects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Malik Abida

    1998-01-01

    Full Text Available Research Question: 1. What is the extent of immune response of Edmonston Zagreb Strain in children? 2. What are the side effects of this vaccine? Objectives: 1. To follow up children after Edmonston Zagreb strain vaccination for evaluation of seroconverstion. Study: Cross sectional Setting: Well Baby Clinic of pediatrics OPD at J.N. Medical College, A.M.U., Aigarh (U.P participants: Children between 9-15 months. Sample Size: 100 consecutive children coming for routine immunization. Study variable: Malnourished and poor socio-economic status Outcome variable: Extent of seroconversion with no statistical significant difference between malnourished and socio-economically poor children. 26% showed minor self-limiting post vaccination reactions in all age groups. Recommendations: Edmonston Zagreb measles vaccine is recommended since it has very good immunogenic activity and post vaccination reactions.

  13. Side-effects of improving CERN's spam filter

    CERN Multimedia

    2004-01-01

    To further improve the fight against spam (unsolicited email), CERN implemented in June a mechanism that returns electronic mail messages to the sender if the originating server is wrongly configured. This "reverse DNS lookup" is an increasingly widespread technique to identify whether the sending e-mail server is legitimate and has a valid host name. This change has nearly doubled the spam rejection efficiency at CERN. However, it has a known side-effect. A small number of correspondents are sending legitimate electronic mail to CERN from mail servers that are incorrectly configured (in technical terms, they do not have a reverse DNS registration). These persons will have their messages returned to them with an error message, provided their sender address is valid. The typical error message that the correspondent receives in such cases is "Relaying denied. No reverse DNS configured for IP". If a correspondent complains to you that emails they are sending you at CERN are being returned with...

  14. An unexpected side-effect of a commonly used drug.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fernández González, Francisco; Miranda, Samayra; Santiago Casiano, Mónica; Nieves, José; Adorno, Edgardo; Fernández González, Ricardo

    2013-01-01

    We report a case of a 68 year-old-female patient with clinical features of drug-induced lupus erythematosus after five years of treatment with amiodarone. She presented generalized skin rash, arthralgia on upper and lower extremities, associated with difficulty to walk. Remarkable laboratory results revealed a positive antinuclear antibody test and a skin rash biopsy showing a superficial and deep perivascular infiltrate of lymphocytes, histiocytes, and eosinophils. Once the etiology of the patient's symptoms was identified, the culprit drug was removed and she had a complete remission of all signs and symptoms. Early diagnose should be recognized for prompt intervention and avoid further complications associated with this rare side-effect.

  15. The side effect of Lubricants Pharmacopuncture in the rat tissues

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kim BW

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available Objectives:This study was performed to examine the side effect of inflammatory reactions of Pharmacopuncture lubricants (CF and JsD using animal model. Methods:Pharmacopuncture lubricants (CF and JsD were treated repeatedly the same point in Sprague-Dawley rats. And after finish the treatment, we obtain the tissue of muscle layer in rats where Pharmacopuncture lubricants were treated. And we observed the tissue how the change occurred in HE staining. Results: 1. There was no evidence to make inflammation induced by pharmacopuncture lubricants except 4 weeks treated group. 2. Only 4 weeks treated group(CF, JsD were showed some infectional tissue's view in H-E staining. But it is not certain due to Pharmacopuncture lubricants. Conclusion:It appears that prolonged usage of pharmacopuncture lubricant on the specific point can induce inflammation, so we may be careful for treating time and point using pharmacopuncture lubricant in clinics.

  16. Severe akathisia as a side effect of metoclopramide.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van Gool, Arthur R; Doorduijn, Jeanette K; Seynaeve, Caroline

    2010-12-01

    A case of severe metoclopramide-induced akathisia in a breast cancer patient being treated with chemotherapy is presented, eventually culminating in hospital admission. In retrospect, this adverse effect was not recognized for several weeks because the prescription had not been properly recorded in the chart, the patient initially denied using the drug, and extensive psychological adjustment difficulties were also present. Movement disorders as an adverse effect of metoclopramide have been described on a regular basis over the past decades. Case reports such as this confirm there is under-recognition of adverse effects and emphasize the need to take a comprehensive medication history and recognize well known side effects of medications such as metoclopramide.

  17. Ocular side effect of tinidazole: A rare case report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hina Kauser

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Ocular side effects in the form of punctate epithelial erosions with the use of tinidazole - a 5-nitroimidazole group of drugs is very rare. A 32-year-old male was prescribed tablet tinidazole for the treatment of amoebiasis but developed adverse effects in the form of blisters on both upper and lower lips with itching and burning sensation, itching and burning on penile and anal area associated with punctate epithelial erosions of cornea of both the eyes. All these are rare manifestations but punctate epithelial erosions of cornea has never been reported in the literature so far. Punctate epithelial erosions of cornea have not previously been reported and should be added to the list of complications of tinidazole. Hence, this case is being reported .

  18. [CO₂ fractional resurfacing: side effects and immediate complications].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Naouri, M; Delage, M; Khallouf, R; Georgesco, G; Atlan, M

    2011-01-01

    Fractional resurfacing is a new concept in laser treatment designed to divide radiation into multiple evenly spaced microspots. The aim of our study was to analyze side effects and complications following fractional CO₂ laser therapy. This retrospective study involved the analysis of records of patients treated with ablative fractional CO₂ laser. Pain, type and duration of usual side effects, and immediate complications were analysed. Forty-six treatments were studied. The average duration of erythema was 5.2 (±2) days while that of scabs was 4.1 (±1.9) days. Average pain was 3.3/10 (±2.5) for nine patients premedicated with Emla® and 4.1/10 (±2) for the other 14 non-premedicated patients. Complications were reported for 21.7% of the 46 treatments, as follows: 10.6% facial herpes, some of which occurred despite antiviral prophylaxis (valacyclovir 500 mg/day p.o.), 8.7% inflammatory reactions, including severe facial swelling, and 2.2% acne. All complications resolved quickly. Our study specifically examined the safety of CO₂ fractional lasers and showed an acceptable per interventional pain and simple follow-ups. The frequency of complications was high compared to that described with the Fraxel®, but no severe complications were reported. Given the extent of herpes complications, our study encourages the prescription of valacyclovir prophylaxis 500 mg twice a day for all patients. Patients should also be informed of the high risk of severe inflammatory reaction. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  19. Brinzolamide-timolol suspension: acceptability and side effect profile

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Doherty MD

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available MD Doherty, SG Fraser, PS PhelanSunderland Eye Infirmary, Sunderland, Tyne and Wear, UKBackground: This study aimed to determine the frequency, nature, and impact of side effects associated with the use of brinzolamide-timolol suspension, a topical ocular antihypertensive preparation.Methods: A questionnaire was distributed to 76 consecutive patients attending the Sunderland Eye Infirmary Glaucoma Service who were using the brinzolamide-timolol suspension. The questions related specifically to effects on daily life, blurring of vision, stinging, irritation, and acceptability compared with any drops previously used. Respondents were asked to grade their answers to these questions using a numerical scale from 0 to 10.Results: Seventy-six patients (100% responded, comprising 58 females and 18 males, aged 68–95 years, treated for 3–7 months. Quality of life was not significantly affected, with the majority of patients recording a response between 0 and 2. Visual blurring was a more prominent feature, with the most common scores being 3 and 4. Stinging did not appear to be a prominent feature, with 0 as the most common response. Similarly, irritation was not a common finding, with most respondents scoring 0 and 1. Finally, the brinzolamide-timolol suspension compared favorably with previously used drops, with the vast majority of patients expressing a preference for this suspension over other topical medications.Conclusion: Brinzolamide-timolol suspension appears to be a well tolerated and acceptable medication, with minimal effect on patient quality of life.Keywords: intraocular pressure, glaucoma, quality of life, side effects

  20. Pesticide side effects in an agricultural soil ecosystem as measured by amoA expression quantification and bacterial diversity changes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Feld, Louise; Hjort Hjelmsø, Mathis; Schostag, Morten

    2015-01-01

    Assessing the effects of pesticide hazards on microbiological processes in the soil is currently based on analyses that provide limited insight into the ongoing processes. This study proposes a more comprehensive approach. The side effects of pesticides may appear as changes in the expression...

  1. Predicting the neurobehavioral side effects of dexamethasone in pediatric acute lymphoblastic leukemia

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Warris, Lidewij T.; van den Akker, Erica L. T.; Aarsen, Femke K.; Bierings, Marc B.; van den Bos, Cor; Tissing, Wim J. E.; Sassen, Sebastiaan D. T.; Veening, Margreet A.; Zwaan, Christian M.; Pieters, Rob; van den Heuvel-Eibrink, Marry M.

    2016-01-01

    Although dexamethasone is an effective treatment for acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL), it can induce a variety of serious neurobehavioral side effects. We hypothesized that these side effects are influenced by glucocorticoid sensitivity at the tissue level. We therefore prospectively studied

  2. Transient Adverse Side Effects During Neurofeedback Training: A Randomized, Sham-Controlled, Double Blind Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rogel, Ainat; Guez, Jonathan; Getter, Nir; Keha, Eldad; Cohen, Tzlil; Amor, Tali; Todder, Doron

    2015-09-01

    The benefits of clinical neurofeedback training are well known, however, its adverse side-effects are less studied. This research focuses on the transient adverse side effects of neurofeedback training via a double-blind, sham/controlled methodology. Thirty healthy undergraduate students volunteers were randomly divided into three treatment groups: increasing a modified Sensory Motor Rhythm, increasing Upper Alpha, and Sham/control group who receive a random reward. The training sessions were administered for a total of ten sessions. Questionnaires of transient adverse side effects were completed by all volunteers before each session. The results suggest that similar to most medical treatments, neurofeedback can cause transient adverse side effects. Moreover, most participants reported experiencing some side effects. The side effects can be divided into non-specific side effect, associated with the neurofeedback training in general and specific ones associated with the particular protocol. Sensory Motor Rhythm protocol seems to be the most sensitive to side effects.

  3. Predicting drug side effects by multi-label learning and ensemble learning

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Zhang, Wen; Liu, Feng; Luo, Longqiang; Zhang, Jingxia

    2015-01-01

    Predicting drug side effects is an important topic in the drug discovery. Although several machine learning methods have been proposed to predict side effects, there is still space for improvements...

  4. Subjective Report of Side Effects of Prescribed and Nonprescribed Psychostimulant Use in Young Adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Tess E; Martel, Michelle M; DeSantis, Alan D

    2017-03-21

    Side effects of prescribed and nonprescribed psychostimulant use are understudied. The study examined side effects of prescribed and nonprescribed psychostimulant use in a college sample with attention to possible gender differences. 2716 undergraduates (1448 male) between the ages of 17 and 57 years (M = 19.43 years, SD = 1.7 years) completed an online survey that included questions about the subjective side effects of prescribed and nonprescribed psychostimulant use. Results suggested that prescribed users more frequently reported side effects, compared to nonprescribed users. For prescribed users, females more frequently reported appetite, somatic, and anxiety-related side effects compared to males. For nonprescribed users, while females reported more somatic and anxiety-related side effects, males more frequently reported loss of sex drive and sweating as side effects. Conclusions/Importance: These findings suggest prescribed users of psychostimulants more frequently report side effects with prominent gender differences in line with gender roles.

  5. Topical use of MMC in the upper aerodigestive tract : a review on the side effects

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Veen, Egbert J. D.; Dikkers, Frederik G.

    Not much is known about the side effects of mitomycin C (MMC), an anti-fibrogenetic agent, in the upper aerodigestive tract. However, its use in ophthalmology is widely known and without quantitatively important side effects. A literature review was performed for side effects of MMC in the upper

  6. Patient tolerance regarding different low-density lipoprotein apheresis columns: frequent minor side effects and high patient satisfaction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hovland, Anders; Hardersen, Randolf; Enebakk, Terje; Mollnes, Tom Eirik; Lappegård, Knut Tore

    2011-01-01

    Side effects and patient satisfaction in low-density lipoprotein (LDL) apheresis treatment has been less vigorously studied than hemodialysis treatment in end-stage renal failure. In the present study we systematically compared three different LDL apheresis columns with respect to side effects and patient satisfaction. Three patients with heterozygous familial hypercholesterolemia went through six treatments with each of the LDL apheresis columns DL-75, LA-15, and EC-50W. Possible side effects were recorded during and after apheresis treatment, and patient satisfaction was assessed by means of a visual analogue scale ranging from 1 to 10. One or several side effects during apheresis were noted in 40%, 29%, and 30% of the treatments for the columns DL-75, LA-15, and EC-50W, respectively. There were no statistically significant differences between the columns. Side effects after apheresis were noted in 33%, 33%, and 18% of the treatments for the columns DL-75, LA-15, and EC-50W, respectively. The latter column was statistically different from the two others. However, general patient satisfaction was high, with visual analogue scale scores of 8.8, 8.7, and 8.9 for DL-75, LA-15, and EC-50W, respectively. Side effects were noted quite frequently during and after LDL apheresis, although significantly there were fewer when the EC-50W column was used after apheresis treatment. Patient satisfaction with the LDL apheresis treatment was high with all columns. Copyright © 2011 National Lipid Association. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  7. Mindfulness-Based Stress Reduction for HIV Treatment Side Effects: A Randomized Wait-List Controlled Trial

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duncan, Larissa G.; Moskowitz, Judith Tedlie; Neilands, Torsten B.; Dilworth, Samantha E.; Hecht, Frederick M.; Johnson, Mallory O.

    2011-01-01

    Context Advances in antiretroviral therapy (ART) for HIV offer life-extending benefit; however, the side effects associated with ART use negatively impact quality of life and medication adherence among people living with HIV. Objectives This study tested the efficacy of mindfulness-based stress reduction (MBSR) for reducing ART symptoms and bother/distress related to ART side effects. Secondary aims were to test the impact of MBSR on medication adherence and psychological functioning. Methods Seventy-six people living with HIV who were actively taking ART and reported distress from ART-related side effects were randomly assigned to MBSR or a wait-list control standard care condition. We measured side effects, ART adherence, perceived stress, depression, positive and negative affect, and mindfulness at three time points: baseline, three-month follow-up, and six-month follow-up. Side effects and related distress were assessed separately from other symptoms. Results Compared to a wait-list control, participants in the MBSR condition experienced a reduction in the frequency of symptoms attributable to antiretroviral therapies at three months post intervention (mean difference = 0.33; 95% confidence interval [CI] = 0.01, 0.66; t(132) = 2.04, P = 0.044) and at six months post intervention (mean difference = 0.38; 95% CI = 0.05, 0.71; t(132) = 2.27, P = 0.025). MBSR participants also experienced a reduction in distress associated with those symptoms at three months post intervention (mean difference = 0.47; 95% CI = 0.003, 0.94; t(132) = 1.99, P = 0.048) compared with the wait-list control condition. Conclusion Mindfulness-based stress reduction is a promising approach for reducing HIV treatment-related side effects. PMID:21925831

  8. [Antidepressant and tolerance: Determinants and management of major side effects].

    Science.gov (United States)

    David, D J; Gourion, D

    2016-12-01

    Antidepressant therapy aims to reach remission of depressive symptoms while reducing the complications and risks of relapse. Even though they have proven their efficacy, it takes several weeks for antidepressants to demonstrate full effectiveness, and adverse effects occur more quickly or (quicker) which can be a source of poor compliance. This latest aspect often leads to dose reduction and/or change of molecule that have the effect of delaying remission. This review attempts to present, from the pharmacological properties of the major classes of antidepressants (monoamine oxidase inhibitor [MAOI], tricyclic antidepressants [TCA], selective serotonin reuptake inhibitor [SSRI] and serotonin and noradrenaline reuptake inhibitor [SNRI]), to the pharmacological mechanisms involved in adverse effects by focusing on sexual dysfunction, nausea/vomiting, and weight changes and sleep disruption. If the activation of dopamine D 1/2  or norepinephrine receptors through the autonomic nervous system controls and facilitates sexual desire, increasing serotoninergic transmission through 5-HT 1B/2A/2C receptors activation inhibits this process. The pharmacological properties of drugs inducing nausea/vomiting activate opiate receptors μ, increase dopaminergic and serotoninergic transmission activating the dopamine D 2  and serotonin 5-HT 3  receptors, respectively. Among the causes responsible for weight gain under antidepressant therapy, monoamine neurotransmission still plays an important role. The blockade of serotonin 5-HT 2C or histamine H 1  receptors is directly responsible for weight gain. Finally, the activation of 5-HT 1A/1B/3/7 serotoninergique receptors modulates wakefulness, raid eyes movement or sleep duration. In conclusion, if antidepressant activity of SERT or MAO inhibitors is an indirect consequence of postsynaptic 5-HT, DA, NA receptor activation, it is also responsible for side effects, causes of poor compliance and hence therapeutic failures. Finally, we

  9. A self-rating scale for patient-perceived side effects of inhaled corticosteroids

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    Dijkstra Antoon

    2006-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Patient-reported side effect questionnaires offer a simple method for the systematic measurement of drug-related side effects. In order to measure patients' inhaled corticosteroids (ICS related side effect perceptions the 14-day retrospective Inhaled Corticosteroid Questionnaire (ICQ was developed. In this research we aim to assess the construct validity and reliability of the ICQ and test its responsiveness to dose changes in adult asthma patients. Methods In a cross-sectional study, current inhaler users with asthma completed the ICQ (27 with non ICS inhaler; 61 BDP equivalent daily ICS low dose ≤400 μg; 62 mid dose 401–800 μg; and 105 with high dose >800 μg. We generated 3 construct validity hypotheses: 1 a hierarchical dose-response pattern for scoring of the individual items on the ICQ, and statistically significant differences in the scores of each of the 15 ICQ domains by ICS dose group 2 an association between ICS dose and ICQ scoring after adjusting for appropriate confounders in multiple regression; 3 greater convergence between local side effect domains than between systemic and local domains of the scale. Test-retest reliability was assessed on a randomly selected subgroup of patients (n = 73 who also completed the ICQ a second time after 7 days. In a separate longitudinal study, 61 patients with asthma completed the ICQ at baseline and after changing their daily ICS dose, at 2- and 6- months, in order to test the ICQ's responsiveness. Results All three construct validity hypotheses were well supported: 1 a statistically significant difference existed in scores for 14 domains, the high ICS dose group scoring highest; 2 ICS dose independently predicted ICQ scoring after adjusting for confounders; 3 greater convergence existed between local ICQ domains than between local and systemic domains. The ICQ had good reproducibility: test-retest intraclass correlation coefficients were ≥0.69 for all but the 'Facial

  10. Side effects of Deferasirox Iron Chelation in Patients with Beta Thalassemia Major or Intermedia

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    Murtadha Al-Khabori

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available Objectives: Chelating agents remain the mainstay in reducing the iron burden and extending patient survival in homozygous beta-thalassemia but adverse and toxic effects may increase with the institution and long term use of this essential therapy. This study aimed to estimate the incidence of deferasirox (DFX side effects in patients with thalassemia major or intermedia.Methods: A retrospective study of 72 patients (mean age: 20.3±0.9 yrs; 36 male, 36 female with thalassemia major or intermedia treated at Sultan Qaboos University Hospital, Oman, was performed to assess the incidence of side effects related to deferasirox over a mean of 16.7 month follow-up period.Results: Six patients experienced rashes and 6 had gastro-intestinal upset. DFX was discontinued in 18 patients for the following reasons: persistent progressive rise(s in serum creatinine (7 patients; 40% mean serum creatinine rise from baseline, feeling unwell (2, severe diarrhea (1, pregnancy (1, death unrelated to chelator (2 and rise in serum transaminases (2. Three patients were reverted to desferoxamine and deferiprone combination therapy as DFX was no longer biochemically effective after 18 months of therapy. There was no correlation between baseline serum ferritin and serum creatinine or a rise in serum creatinine. Cardiac MRI T2* did not change with DFX therapy. However, there was an improvement in liver MRI T2* (p=0.013.Conclusion: Renal side effects related to deferasirox appear to be higher than those reported in published clinical trials. Further larger studies are required to confirm these findings.

  11. Comparing Efficacy and Side Effects of Memantine vs. Risperidone in the Treatment of Autistic Disorder.

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    Nikvarz, Nikvarz; Alaghband-Rad, Javad; Tehrani-Doost, Mehdi; Alimadadi, Abbas; Ghaeli, Padideh

    2017-01-01

    Introduction: This study was aimed to compare the efficacy and side effects of memantine, an antagonist of the NMDA receptor of glutamate, with risperidone given the fact that glutamate has been noted for its possible effects in the pathogenesis of autism. Risperidone, an atypical antipsychotic, has been approved by FDA for the management of irritability associated with autism. Methods: 30 children, aged 4-17 years, entered an 8-week, randomized trial. Patients were randomly assigned to receive either risperidone or memantine. Autism Behavior Checklist (ABC), Childhood Autism Rating Scale (CARS), Clinical Global Impressions - Improvement (CGI-I) and Clinical Global Impression-Severity (CGI-S) scales were used to assess behavioral symptoms of the patients. Results: Both risperidone and memantine reduced the scores of 4 subscales of ABC as well as the 10-item and the total score of CARS significantly. However, differences between the 2 drugs in the scores of each evaluating scale were not found to be significant. Relatively, larger number of patients on risperidone showed "very much improvement" when assessed by CGI-I scale when compared with those on memantine. Discussion and conclusion: The present study suggests that memantine may have beneficial effects in the treatment of many core symptoms of autism. Therefore, memantine may be considered as a potential medication in the treatment of those autistic children who do not respond or cannot tolerate side effects of risperidone. © Georg Thieme Verlag KG Stuttgart · New York.

  12. Response & Side Effects of Injectable Labetalol in Pregnancy Induced Severe Hypertension.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akter, F A; Nahar, K; Rahman, M M; Ferdousi, R A; Ahmed, M U; Begum, F; Biswas, D; Alom, M; Hossain, M Z; Razi, R Z

    2017-07-01

    The study was performed to assess the response & side effects of injectable Labetalol in the treatment of pregnancy induced severe hypertension. This interventional study was carried out on 72 patients having pregnancy induced severe hypertension attended in the Department of Obstetrics & Gynaecology, Mymensingh Medical College & Hospital (MMCH), Mymensingh, Bangladesh from November 2009 to October 2010. All patients were treated with intravenous Labetalol 20mg & the dose was repeated at sequential escalating dosages every 15 minutes until a therapeutic goal of systolic blood pressure Labetalol mean systolic blood pressure were 138.61±15.43mm of Hg, which is statistically significant (p value Labetalol controls blood pressure in 80% antenatal cases & 86% postnatal cases. Out of 72 patients 4 cases (5.5%) experienced nausea & vomiting and only 1 case (1.1%) experienced headache. Regarding fetal outcome 48% patients delivered healthy baby, about 31% patients delivered asphyxiated baby & neonatal death were noticed in 4% cases. This study assessing the response & side effects of intravenous antihypertensive drug in the treatment of pregnancy induced severe hypertension shows that Labetalol fulfils the criteria of an antihypertensive drug for this purpose.

  13. [Vascular calcifications, the hidden side effects of vitamin K antagonists].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bennis, Youssef; Vengadessane, Subashini; Bodeau, Sandra; Gras, Valérie; Bricca, Giampiero; Kamel, Saïd; Liabeuf, Sophie

    2016-09-01

    Despite the availability of new oral anticoagulants, vitamin K antagonists (VKA, such as fluindione, acenocoumarol or warfarin) remain currently the goal standard medicines for oral prevention or treatment of thromboembolic disorders. They inhibit the cycle of the vitamin K and its participation in the enzymatic gamma-carboxylation of many proteins. The VKA prevent the activation of the vitamin K-dependent blood clotting factors limiting thus the initiation of the coagulation cascade. But other proteins are vitamin K-dependent and also remain inactive in the presence of VKA. This is the case of matrix Gla-protein (MGP), a protein that plays a major inhibitory role in the development of vascular calcifications. Several experimental and epidemiological results suggest that the use of the VKA could promote the development of vascular calcifications increasing thus the cardiovascular risk. This risk seems to be higher in patients with chronic kidney disease or mellitus diabetes who are more likely to develop vascular calcifications, and may be due to a decrease of the MGP activity. This review aims at summarizing the data currently available making vascular calcifications the probably underestimated side effects of VKA. Copyright © 2016 Société française de pharmacologie et de thérapeutique. Published by Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  14. Steam inhalation therapy: severe scalds as an adverse side effect

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baartmans, Martin; Kerkhof, Evelien; Vloemans, Jos; Dokter, Jan; Nijman, Susanne; Tibboel, Dick; Nieuwenhuis, Marianne

    2012-01-01

    Background Steam inhalation therapy is often recommended in the treatment of a common cold. However, it has no proven benefit and may in fact have serious adverse side effects in terms of burn injuries. Aim To quantify the human and economic costs of steam inhalation therapy in terms of burn injury. Design and setting A prospective database study of all patients admitted to the burn centres (Beverwijk, Groningen, Rotterdam) and the hospital emergency departments in the Netherlands. Method Number and extent of burn injuries as a result of steam inhalation therapy were analysed, as well as an approximation made of the direct costs for their medical treatment. Results Annually, on average three people are admitted to in one of the Dutch burn centres for burns resulting from steam inhalation therapy. Most victims were children, and they needed skin grafting more often than adults. The total direct medical costs for burn centre and emergency department treatment were €115 500 (£93 000), emotional costs are not reflected. Conclusion As steam inhalation therapy has no proven benefit and the number and extent of complications of this therapy in terms of burn injury are significant, especially in children, steam inhalation therapy should be considered a dangerous procedure and not recommended anymore in professional guidelines and patient brochures. PMID:22781995

  15. Early and Late Onset Side Effects of Photodynamic Therapy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Francesco Borgia

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Photodynamic Therapy (PDT is a non-invasive treatment successfully used for neoplastic, inflammatory and infectious skin diseases. One of its strengths is represented by the high safety profile, even in elderly and/or immuno-depressed subjects. PDT, however, may induce early and late onset side effects. Erythema, pain, burns, edema, itching, desquamation, and pustular formation, often in association with each other, are frequently observed in course of exposure to the light source and in the hours/days immediately after the therapy. In particular, pain is a clinically relevant short-term complication that also reduces long-term patient satisfaction. Rare complications are urticaria, contact dermatitis at the site of application of the photosensitizer, and erosive pustular dermatosis. Debated is the relationship between PDT and carcinogenesis: the eruptive appearance of squamous cell carcinoma (SCC in previously treated areas has been correlated to a condition of local and/or systemic immunosuppression or to the selection of PDT-resistant SCC. Here we review the literature, with particular emphasis to the pathogenic hypotheses underlying these observations.

  16. Central diabetes insipidus: a previously unreported side effect of temozolomide.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Faje, Alexander T; Nachtigall, Lisa; Wexler, Deborah; Miller, Karen K; Klibanski, Anne; Makimura, Hideo

    2013-10-01

    Temozolomide (TMZ) is an alkylating agent primarily used to treat tumors of the central nervous system. We describe 2 patients with apparent TMZ-induced central diabetes insipidus. Using our institution's Research Patient Database Registry, we identified 3 additional potential cases of TMZ-induced diabetes insipidus among a group of 1545 patients treated with TMZ. A 53-year-old male with an oligoastrocytoma and a 38-year-old male with an oligodendroglioma each developed symptoms of polydipsia and polyuria approximately 2 months after the initiation of TMZ. Laboratory analyses demonstrated hypernatremia and urinary concentrating defects, consistent with the presence of diabetes insipidus, and the patients were successfully treated with desmopressin acetate. Desmopressin acetate was withdrawn after the discontinuation of TMZ, and diabetes insipidus did not recur. Magnetic resonance imaging of the pituitary and hypothalamus was unremarkable apart from the absence of a posterior pituitary bright spot in both of the cases. Anterior pituitary function tests were normal in both cases. Using the Research Patient Database Registry database, we identified the 2 index cases and 3 additional potential cases of diabetes insipidus for an estimated prevalence of 0.3% (5 cases of diabetes insipidus per 1545 patients prescribed TMZ). Central diabetes insipidus is a rare but reversible side effect of treatment with TMZ.

  17. Female sterilization: update on clinical efficacy, side effects and contraindications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gizzo, Salvatore; Bertocco, Anna; Saccardi, Carlo; Di Gangi, Stefania; Litta, Pietro Salvatore; D'antona, Donato; Nardelli, Giovanni Battista

    2014-10-01

    The aim of this review is to compare studies concerning female sterilization in order to define the most suitable approach and device for each patient considering timing, safety, cost-effectiveness, failure rate, complication rate and patient satisfaction. A systematic literature search was conducted in electronic databases MEDLINE-EMBASE-Sciencedirect and Cochrane Library between 2000 and 2012. All original descriptions, case reports, retrospective and review articles on tubal sterilization methods have been considered. Outcome measures were effectiveness, tolerability, procedure complications and female satisfaction. The ideal female sterilization system should be a simple, safe, highly efficient, easily learned, inexpensive, one-time procedure without negative side-effects. Nowadays, the trans-cervical approach is associated with minimal postoperative pain, allowing short hospitalization and fast resumption of daily activities. Laparoscopic and laparotomic approaches are considered second choices, since, particularly in developing countries, the transcervical hysteroscopic methods will increasingly spread within gynaecological clinical practice. Safety issues, hospital stay, costs and surgeons' experience are important factors in decision-making of the method for female sterilization. Hysteroscopic devices should be preferred when possible. The counselling time remains a fundamental step in choice. The decision concerning method depends on the setting, the surgeon's experience, the country's economical development and the woman's preference.

  18. Real-World Data on: Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder Medication Side Effects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cascade, Elisa; Kalali, Amir H; Wigal, Sharon B

    2010-04-01

    In this article, we provide information on patient-reported side effects from a cross-section of real-world patients. Specifically, data on side effects were tabulated for patients taking one of the following attention deficit hyperactivity disorder medications: amphetamine and dextroamphetamine; atomoxetine; dexmethylphenidate; isdexamfetamine; and methylphenidate. Forty-eight percent of the approximately 325 patients surveyed reported having experienced a side effect as a result of taking an attention deficit hyperactivity disorder medication. Most common side effects mentioned included loss of appetite, sleep problems, and mood disturbances. Only 21 percent of side effects were considered very bothersome or extremely bothersome. Regardless of how bothersome the side effects were, only 20 percent of patients mentioned the side effects to their prescribing physicians.

  19. Acute and late side effects to salivary glands and oral mucosa after head and neck radiotherapy in children and adolescents. Results of the "Registry for the evaluation of side effects after radiotherapy in childhood and adolescence".

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bölling, Tobias; Weege, Julia; Eich, Hans Theodor; Timmermann, Beate; Meyer, Frank-Michal; Rübe, Christian; Kortmann, Rolf-Dieter; Fischedick, Karin; Rödel, Claus; Koch, Raphael; Willich, Normann

    2015-08-01

    The registry for the evaluation of side effects after radiotherapy in childhood and adolescence (RiSK) was established to prospectively characterize radiation-associated side effects. The purpose of this analysis was to characterize side effects after radiotherapy to the head and neck in children and adolescents. Radiation doses have been collected across Germany since 2001. Acute and late side effects were characterized. Until January 2010, 133 patients (median age, 12.7 years) were recruited who had received radiotherapy to the salivary glands. Toxicity evaluation was available for 114 patients (median follow-up, 2.9 years). Acute and late toxicity significantly depended on the maximum radiation dose to the salivary glands. An increase of the mean value of maximum dose of 1 Gray (Gy) to the submandibular glands resulted in an odds ratio of 1.04 (range, 1.00-1.08; p = .039) for acute toxicities of the salivary glands and 1.08 (range, 1.03-1.13; p = .001) for acute mucosal toxicities. These data can be used for an individual risk assessment in pediatric head and neck radiotherapy. © 2014 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  20. Reversible global aphasia as a side effect of quetiapine: a case report and literature review

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    Chien CF

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available Ching-Fang Chien,1 Poyin Huang,1,2 Sun-Wung Hsieh1,2 1Department of Neurology, Kaohsiung Medical University Hospital, Kaohsiung, Taiwan; 2Department of Neurology, Kaohsiung Municipal Hsiao-Kang Hospital, Kaohsiung, Taiwan Abstract: Quetiapine is an atypical antipsychotic agent which is also prescribed for delirium due to its anti-dopaminergic effects; aphasia is an unusual side effect associated with the drug. Here, we report the case of an 83-year-old woman who was prescribed quetiapine (50 mg per day for delirium. Unexpected, global aphasia occurred 3 days after treatment began. Complete recovery occurred following discontinuation of the drug. A brain computed tomography scan excluded intracranial hemorrhage and the laboratory results confirmed that no exacerbation of infection or electrolyte imbalances were present. During the aphasic episode, the patient’s condition did not deteriorate and no new neurological symptoms occurred. We suspect that the occurrence of aphasia was directly due to an adverse reaction to quetiapine. To our knowledge, this is the first case report of reversible, global aphasia as a side effect of quetiapine. We propose that this occurrence of aphasia may be due to the action of quetiapine as a dopamine receptor antagonist. Clinicians should use quetiapine with caution, especially in elderly patients. On observation of aphasia, a review of the patient’s medical history is required to assess for the usage of quetiapine. Keywords: aphasia, quetiapine, insomnia, delirium

  1. A side effect of decreased fertility associated with vaccination against bluetongue virus serotype 8 in Holstein dairy cows.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nusinovici, Simon; Seegers, Henri; Joly, Alain; Beaudeau, François; Fourichon, Christine

    2011-08-01

    Inactivated virus vaccines have been widely used to control bluetongue after introduction of serotype 8 of the bluetongue virus (BTV) in northern Europe in 2006. To evaluate vaccination, quantitative knowledge of its possible side effects is needed. One current adverse reaction with inactivated vaccines is a rise in body temperature, which could reduce cow reproductive performance. The objective of this study was to quantify a possible side effect of vaccination on fertility before the implantation of the embryo of dairy cows under field conditions. The study was performed on herds that were not exposed to BTV. Fertility was assessed by return-to-service following artificial insemination (AI). Biological assumptions for a possible side effect of vaccination were conception failure and embryonic death. Associations between return-to-service rates and vaccine injections were assessed using mixed-logistic regression models and survival analysis. Two models were considered: a 3-week-return-to-service model comparing cows vaccinated between 3 days before and 16 days after AI and unvaccinated cows (assuming an effect on conception failure or early embryonic death), and a 90-day-return-to-service model comparing cows vaccinated between 3 days before and 42 days after AI and unvaccinated cows (assuming an effect on conception failure, early or late embryonic death). Only cows receiving a second vaccine injection between 2 and 7 days after AI had a significantly higher risk of 3-week-return-to-service (RR=1.19 [1.07-1.33]). This corresponds to an increase of return-to-service by 4 percentage points. A side effect of vaccination could be due to early embryonic death. The slight side effect on fertility associated with vaccination was low compared to effects of BTV-8 exposure on fertility. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  2. Prevalence and Side Effects of Energy Drink Consumption among Medical Students at Umm Al-Qura University, Saudi Arabia

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    Naif A. Bawazeer

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Background: Energy drinks are freely available at markets and shops on the university campus without regulation or proper education regarding its side effects. The caffeine amount within energy drinks is high and could become an addictive substance or cause intoxication. Therefore, this study aims to assess the prevalence of energy drink consumption and its reported side effects among medical students. Methods:A total number of 257 medical students from Umm Al-Qura University completed a questionnaire about energy drinks that was administrated electronically from September through November, 2012. Results:Out of the 257 participants, 27.2% (n=70 reported consuming at least one energy drink per month, with 61.5% (n=48 being males. Males consume significantly more energy drinks than females (p=0.0001. The students consumed energy drinks to get energy in general (32.8% and while studying for exams or finishing a project (31.4%. Other reasons given include, lack of sleep (12.8%, just to be like friends (11.4%, or driving (8.5%. Heart palpitations are the most common side effect in our sample (20%, followed by insomnia (10%, headache and tremors (5.7%, nausea and vomiting (4.2% and nervousness (2.8%. Conclusion: Energy drinks consumption is common practice among medical students and the main reason cited for consumption is the need for energy during general activities. Approximately one-third of the consumers manifested some side effect after consumption. We recommend the need to create public awareness about energy drinks. Further studies are recommended to assess the educational level of students consuming energy drinks, about the dangerous side effects.

  3. Systematic overdosing of oxa- and cloxacillin in severe infections treated in ICU: risk factors and side effects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neuville, Mathilde; El-Helali, Najoua; Magalhaes, Eric; Radjou, Aguila; Smonig, Roland; Soubirou, Jean-François; Voiriot, Guillaume; Le Monnier, Alban; Ruckly, Stéphane; Bouadma, Lila; Sonneville, Romain; Timsit, Jean-François; Mourvillier, Bruno

    2017-12-01

    Oxacillin and cloxacillin are the most frequently used penicillins for the treatment of severe methicillin-susceptible Staphylococcus aureus infections in intensive care units (ICUs), especially endocarditis. International recommendations do not suggest any adaptation of the dosage in case of renal impairment. We wanted to assess the risk factors for overdosing in ICU and the related observed side effects. All patients with a therapeutic drug monitoring of oxa- or cloxacillin between 2008 and 2014 were included. The target range of trough concentration for total antibiotic activity was considered to be 20-50 mg/L. Data concerning the infection, the given treatment, the renal function, and the attributed side effects of overdosing were collected. A logistic regression model was used to compute the measured trough concentrations. Sixty-two patients were included in this study. We found a median trough plasma concentration of 134.3 mg/L (IQR 65.3-201 mg/L). Ten patients (16.1%) reached the target concentration; all other patients (83.9%) were overdosed. Eleven patients (17.7%) experienced neurological side effects attributed to a high antibiotic concentration, i.e. persistent coma and delirium. When adjusted on the dosage used, the risk of overdosing was significantly associated with a creatinine clearance cloxacillin treatment in case of endocarditis and severe infections occurring in ICU, 83.9% of patients are largely overdosed. Considering the observed side effects, doses should be accurately monitored and reduced, particularly when renal replacement therapy is needed.

  4. Evaluating the Suitability of Using Rat Models for Preclinical Efficacy and Side Effects with Inhaled Corticosteroids Nanosuspension Formulations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chiang, Po-Chang; Hu, Yiding; Blom, Jason D.; Thompson, David C.

    2010-06-01

    Inhaled corticosteroids (ICS) are often prescribed as first-line therapy for patients with asthma Despite their efficacy and improved safety profile compared with oral corticosteroids, the potential for systemic side effects continues to cause concern. In order to reduce the potential for systemic side effects, the pharmaceutical industry has begun efforts to generate new drugs with pulmonary-targeted topical efficacy. One of the major challenges of this approach is to differentiate both efficacy and side effects (pulmonary vs. systemic) in a preclinical animal model. In this study, fluticasone and ciclesonide were used as tool compounds to explore the possibility of demonstrating both efficacy and side effects in a rat model using pulmonary delivery via intratracheal (IT) instillation with nanosuspension formulations. The inhibition of neutrophil infiltration into bronchoalveolar lavage fluid (BALF) and cytokine (TNFα) production were utilized to assess pulmonary efficacy, while adrenal and thymus involution as well as plasma corticosterone suppression was measured to assess systemic side effects. Based on neutrophil infiltration and cytokine production data, the ED50s for ciclesonide and fluticasone were calculated to be 0.1 and 0.03 mg, respectively. At the ED50, the average adrenal involution was 7.6 ± 5.3% for ciclesonide versus 16.6 ± 5.1% for fluticasone, while the average thymus involution was 41.0 ± 4.3% for ciclesonide versus 59.5 ± 5.8% for fluticasone. However, the differentiation became less significant when the dose was pushed to the EDmax (0.3 mg for ciclesonide, 0.1 mg for fluticasone). Overall, the efficacy and side effect profiles of the two compounds exhibited differentiation at low to mid doses (0.03-0.1 mg ciclesonide, 0.01-0.03 mg fluticasone), while this differentiation diminished at the maximum efficacious dose (0.3 mg ciclesonide, 0.1 mg fluticasone), likely due to overdosing in this model. We conclude that the rat LPS model using IT

  5. Reported side effects of intravenous midazolam sedation when used in paediatric dentistry: a review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Papineni McIntosh, Arathi; Ashley, Paul Francis; Lourenço-Matharu, Liege

    2015-05-01

    Intravenous (IV) midazolam may be of value as an alternative paediatric dental sedation technique, but there is some apprehension concerning its routine use due to a lack of evidence regarding its safety and side effects. To review all available literature reporting the side effects of IV midazolam in children undergoing dental procedures. Both randomised controlled trials (RCT) and non-randomised studies were reviewed. Reported side effects were categorised as either significant or minor, and the percentage prevalence of significant or minor side effects per episode of treatment was calculated. Five RCTs were included, in which no significant side events were reported; however, minor side effects were recorded (n = 33, 19.5%), with paradoxical reaction being the most common (n = 11, 6.5%). Six non-randomised studies were included, in which no significant side effects were reported; however, minor side effects were reported (n = 118, 16.8%) with paradoxical reaction being the most common (n = 89, 12.7%). Although no significant side effects were recorded, of the minor side effects reported paradoxical reaction was the most common. Due to inconsistency in side effect reporting, the authors suggest the application of a standardised adverse event reporting tool for future studies of sedation in paediatric dentistry. © 2014 BSPD, IAPD and John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  6. Management of side effects of novel therapies for multiple myeloma: consensus statements developed by the International Myeloma Foundation's Nurse Leadership Board.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bertolotti, Page; Bilotti, Elizabeth; Colson, Kathleen; Curran, Kathleen; Doss, Deborah; Faiman, Beth; Gavino, Maria; Jenkins, Bonnie; Lilleby, Kathy; Love, Ginger; Mangan, Patricia A; McCullagh, Emily; Miceli, Teresa; Miller, Kena; Rogers, Kathryn; Rome, Sandra; Sandifer, Stacey; Smith, Lisa C; Tariman, Joseph D; Westphal, Jeanne

    2008-06-01

    Nurses play an essential role in managing the care of patients with multiple myeloma, who require education and support to receive and adhere to optimal therapy. The International Myeloma Foundation created a Nurse Leadership Board comprised of oncology nurses from leading cancer centers and community practices. An assessment survey identified the need for specific recommendations for managing key side effects of novel antimyeloma agents. Myelosuppression, thromboembolic events, peripheral neuropathy, steroid toxicities, and gastrointestinal side effects were selected for the first consensus statements. The board developed recommendations for healthcare providers in any medical setting, including grading of side-effect toxicity and strategies for managing the side effects in general, with specific recommendations pertaining to the novel agents.

  7. Management of Side Effects of Novel Therapies for Multiple Myeloma: Consensus Statements Developed by the International Myeloma Foundation’s Nurse Leadership Board

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bertolotti, Page; Bilotti, Elizabeth; Colson, Kathleen; Curran, Kathleen; Doss, Deborah; Faiman, Beth; Gavino, Maria; Jenkins, Bonnie; Lilleby, Kathy; Love, Ginger; Mangan, Patricia A.; McCullagh, Emily; Miceli, Teresa; Miller, Kena; Rogers, Kathryn; Rome, Sandra; Sandifer, Stacey; Smith, Lisa C.; Tariman, Joseph D.; Westphal, Jeanne

    2014-01-01

    Nurses play an essential role in managing the care of patients with multiple myeloma, who require education and support to receive and adhere to optimal therapy. The International Myeloma Foundation created a Nurse Leadership Board comprised of oncology nurses from leading cancer centers and community practices. An assessment survey identified the need for specific recommendations for managing key side effects of novel antimyeloma agents. Myelosuppression, thromboembolic events, peripheral neuropathy, steroid toxicities, and gastrointestinal side effects were selected for the first consensus statements. The board developed recommendations for healthcare providers in any medical setting, including grading of side-effect toxicity and strategies for managing the side effects in general, with specific recommendations pertaining to the novel agents. PMID:18490252

  8. Development of a New Self-Reporting Instrument Measuring Benefits and Side Effects of Corticosteroids in Duchenne Muscular Dystrophy: Report from a Pilot Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hendriksen, Ruben G F; Lionarons, Judith M; Hendriksen, Jos G M; Vles, Johan S H; McAdam, Laura C; Biggar, W Douglas

    2017-01-01

    There is no cure for Duchenne Muscular Dystrophy (DMD); treatment is symptomatic and corticosteroids slow the progression. Side effects of corticosteroids - especially the physical effects - have been described, however patients' and caregivers perception on chronic corticosteroid treatment and their side effects is less well known, in particular with regards to cognition, behaviour, and emotional functioning. The primary aim of this pilot study was to (i) construct a self-report questionnaire to assess the perceived benefits and side effects of corticosteroids for patients with DMD and their parents. Furthermore we aimed to (ii) investigate the psychometric qualities of this questionnaire, (iii) whether there was a difference between parents' and patient's perceptions, and finally (iv) to what extent reported side effects may alter over time. A 23-item questionnaire (SIDECORT: side effect of corticosteroids) was constructed to assess the perception of these benefits and side effects in a systematic manner. In total, 86 patients (aged 5 - 28 years) and 125 of their parents completed the questionnaire. Internal consistency was good. Using factor analyses on the side effect items as reported by parents, two underlying factors were found, with the first factor describing cognitive, behavioural and emotional functioning, and the second factor describing physical functioning. The potential benefits of corticosteroids were highly rated among both parents and patients, although parents rated the importance of the benefits higher than their sons (p = 0.002). Similarly, parents rated the severity of the side effects generally higher than their sons (p = 0.011), especially with regards to the physical side effects (p = 0.014). Based on the parent's perception, the neurodevelopmental side effects generally appeared to decline the longer corticosteroids were used. To our knowledge, this is the first explicit study on perceived cognitive-, behavioural-, and

  9. Computational drug repositioning based on side-effects mined from social media

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Timothy Nugent

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Drug repositioning methods attempt to identify novel therapeutic indications for marketed drugs. Strategies include the use of side-effects to assign new disease indications, based on the premise that both therapeutic effects and side-effects are measurable physiological changes resulting from drug intervention. Drugs with similar side-effects might share a common mechanism of action linking side-effects with disease treatment, or may serve as a treatment by “rescuing” a disease phenotype on the basis of their side-effects; therefore it may be possible to infer new indications based on the similarity of side-effect profiles. While existing methods leverage side-effect data from clinical studies and drug labels, evidence suggests this information is often incomplete due to under-reporting. Here, we describe a novel computational method that uses side-effect data mined from social media to generate a sparse undirected graphical model using inverse covariance estimation with ℓ1-norm regularization. Results show that known indications are well recovered while current trial indications can also be identified, suggesting that sparse graphical models generated using side-effect data mined from social media may be useful for computational drug repositioning.

  10. Yoga-Based Rehabilitation Program in Reducing Physical and Emotional Side Effects in Patients With Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-01-23

    Alopecia; Anxiety; Breast Carcinoma; Cognitive Side Effects of Cancer Therapy; Colorectal Carcinoma; Depression; Fatigue; Lung Carcinoma; Nausea and Vomiting; Pain; Psychological Impact of Cancer; Sleep Disorder; Weight Change

  11. Pushed monocanalicular intubation. Pitfalls, deleterious side effects, and complications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fayet, B; Racy, E; Ruban, J-M; Katowitz, J

    2011-11-01

    intubation technique was only slightly more difficult than a simple lacrimal probing. The average operating time, excluding the anesthetic procedures, was respectively 5 min (group 2) and 4 min (group 3). COMPLICATIONS DURING SURGERY: There were no anesthetic or general problems observed in the three groups. Epistaxis was also not noted. Fifteen percent (13/90). The 13 complications noted were: two cases of canaliculitis, one intracanalicular migration, eight probes that disappeared, one keratitis, and one case of involuntary removal by the patient. DELETERIOUS SIDE EFFECTS: Tearing with the probe was in place was noted in 21.1% of the cases (19/90). This tearing disappeared as soon as the probe was removed in 50% of these cases (10/19). Overall, the success rate (absence of epiphora, absence of mucous discharge) was 90% (81/90) with an average follow-up period of 19 weeks (Range, 1 day to 60 weeks). Two cases were lost to follow-up at day 1 and day 7. Group 1: 90.9% (20/22 cases; average age: 65 years, with an average follow-up period of 24 weeks). Group 2: 100% (6/6 cases; average age: 3.1 years, with an average follow-up period of 14 weeks). Group 3: 88.3% (53/60 cases excluding the two cases that were lost to follow-up; mean age: 2.3 years, with an average follow-up period of 16 weeks). From a technical perspective, pushed nasolacrimal intubation is much simpler than the traditional pulled types of nasolacrimal intubation. The anesthetic procedure required is the same as that for a late probing procedure, but the functional results are better. The Masterka is an alternative to simple late probing in the treatment of mucosal nasolacrimal stenoses in patients of over 12 months of age. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  12. Multinational study exploring patients' perceptions of side-effects induced by chemo-radiotherapy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ruhlmann, Christina H; Iversen, Trine Zeeberg; Okera, Meena

    2015-01-01

    PURPOSE: We aimed to prospectively assess the incidence, severity and patients' perceptions of side-effects induced by radiotherapy and concomitant weekly cisplatin. PATIENTS AND METHODS: This multinational survey included patients with a diagnosis of gynaecological or head and neck cancer...... the five most severe symptoms experienced. RESULTS: An increase in the severity as well as in the mean number of symptoms (18 compared to 24) was observed during treatment. Patients ranked 7 of the 10 most feared baseline symptoms as non-physical, whereas 8 of the 10 most feared symptoms after 3weeks...... of treatment were physical. Nausea was ranked as the 5th most severe symptom during treatment, despite 98% of patients receiving antiemetic prophylaxis. CONCLUSION: Patients with head and neck cancer or gynaecological cancer suffer from a number of primarily non-physical symptoms before starting combined chemo...

  13. Specific expectancies are associated with symptomatic outcomes and side effect burden in a trial of chamomile extract for generalized anxiety disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keefe, John R; Amsterdam, Jay; Li, Qing S; Soeller, Irene; DeRubeis, Robert; Mao, Jun J

    2017-01-01

    Patient expectancies are hypothesized to contribute to the efficacy and side effects of psychiatric treatments, but little research has investigated this hypothesis in the context of psychopharmacological therapies for anxiety. We prospectively investigated whether expectancies predicted efficacy and adverse events in oral therapy for Generalized Anxiety Disorder (GAD), controlling for confounding patient characteristics correlating with outcomes. Expectancies regarding treatment efficacy and side effects were assessed at baseline of an eight week open-label phase of a trial of chamomile for Generalized Anxiety Disorder (GAD). The primary outcome was patient-reported GAD-7 scores, with clinical response and treatment-emergent side-effects as secondary outcomes. Expectancies were used to predict symptomatic and side-effect outcomes. Very few baseline patient characteristics predicted either type of expectancy. Controlling for a patient's predicted recovery based on their baseline characteristics, higher efficacy expectancies at baseline predicted greater change on the GAD-7 (adjusted β = -0.19, p = 0.011). Efficacy expectancies also predicted a higher likelihood of attaining clinical response (adjusted odds ratio = 1.69, p = 0.002). Patients with higher side effect expectancies reported more side effects (adjusted log expected count = 0.26, p = 0.038). Efficacy expectancies were unrelated to side effect reports (log expected count = -0.05, p = 0.680), and side effect expectancies were unrelated to treatment efficacy (β = 0.08, p = 0.306). Patients entering chamomile treatment for GAD with more favorable self-generated expectancies for the treatment experience greater improvement and fewer adverse events. Aligning patient expectancies with treatment selections may optimize outcomes. Trial Number NCT01072344 at ClinicalTrials.gov. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Epigenetic side-effects of common pharmaceuticals: a potential new field in medicine and pharmacology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Csoka, Antonei B; Szyf, Moshe

    2009-11-01

    . We propose that epigenetic side-effects of pharmaceuticals may be involved in the etiology of heart disease, cancer, neurological and cognitive disorders, obesity, diabetes, infertility, and sexual dysfunction. It is suggested that a systems biology approach employing microarray analyses of gene expression and methylation patterns can lead to a better understanding of long-term side-effects of drugs, and that in the future, epigenetic assays should be incorporated into the safety assessment of all pharmaceutical drugs. This new approach to pharmacology has been termed "phamacoepigenomics", the impact of which may be equal to or greater than that of pharmacogenetics. We provide here an overview of this potentially major new field in pharmacology and medicine.

  15. Side effects of antidepressants during long-term use in a naturalistic setting

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bet, P.M.; Hugtenburg, J.G.; Penninx, B.W.J.H.; Hoogendijk, W.J.G.

    2013-01-01

    Side effects of antidepressants are usually underreported in clinical trials and large scale naturalistic studies are restricted to six months of use. We examined the prevalence and nature of patient-perceived side effects and their determinants during long-term antidepressant use in a naturalistic

  16. Side effects of antidepressants during long-term use in a naturalistic setting

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    P.M. Bet (Pierre); J.G. Hugtenburg (Jacqueline); B.W.J.H. Penninx (Brenda); W.J.G. Hoogendijk (Witte)

    2013-01-01

    textabstractSide effects of antidepressants are usually underreported in clinical trials and large scale naturalistic studies are restricted to six months of use. We examined the prevalence and nature of patient-perceived side effects and their determinants during long-term antidepressant use in a

  17. Current Status of the Matson Evaluation of Drug Side Effects (MEDS)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matson, Johnny L.; Cervantes, Paige E.

    2013-01-01

    The Matson Evaluation of Drug Side Effects (MEDS) is currently the best established and most researched measure of drug side effects in the intellectual disability (ID) literature. Initial research was conducted on its psychometric properties such as reliability and validity. More recent research studies have used the measure to determine the…

  18. Pharmacogenomic and clinical data link non-pharmacokinetic metabolic dysregulation to drug side effect pathogenesis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zielinski, Daniel C.; Filipp, F. V.; Bordbar, A.

    2015-01-01

    Drug side effects cause a significant clinical and economic burden. However, mechanisms of drug action underlying side effect pathogenesis remain largely unknown. Here, we integrate pharmacogenomic and clinical data with a human metabolic network and find that non-pharmacokinetic metabolic pathways...

  19. Nursing-led management of side effects of radiation: evidence-based recommendations for practice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Poirier P

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available Patricia PoirierUniversity of Maine School of Nursing, Orono, ME, USAAbstract: It has been estimated that 50%–60% of patients diagnosed with cancer will receive radiation therapy at some point in their treatment. Although radiation therapy can play a significant role in the cure or control of cancer, and the palliation of symptoms, it also has side effects. Side effects of radiation therapy can interfere with patient quality of life and daily functioning. Severe side effects can lead to delays in treatment, potentially affecting the outcome of treatment. All patients receiving radiation therapy are at risk of fatigue and skin reactions in the area of the body being treated. Other side effects of radiation therapy are specific to the part of the body being treated. Radiation therapy to the head and neck area may cause oral mucositis, dryness, and nutritional deficiencies. Radiation therapy to the chest or lung area may lead to difficulty in swallowing and eating. Radiation therapy to the pelvis frequently causes diarrhea. There are many nursing interventions available to manage the side effects of treatment based on best available evidence and expert opinion. Nurses in all settings are essential in helping patients manage the side effects of treatment and maintain their quality of life. The purpose of this review is to provide nurses with evidence-based recommendations and suggestions for managing common acute side effects of radiation therapy.Keywords: evidence-based practice, radiation therapy, side effects, nursing management

  20. Comparison of the Efficacy and Side Effects of Chlorhexidine Mouthrinses with (Hexidine and without (Epimax Alcohol

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ahmad Mogharehabed

    2016-01-01

    Conclusion: Although Epimax mouthwash did not show any side effects, it was less suitable and caused more dental stain. Ethanol-free Hexidine mouthwash seems to be more proper for gingivitis, but its side effects are required to be taken into consideration.

  1. Incidence of neuropsychiatric side effects of efavirenz in HIV-positive ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2016-06-30

    Jun 30, 2016 ... regular training concerning ART, including changes made to guidelines as well as reminders of side effects experienced. Incidence of neuropsychiatric side effects of efavirenz in. HIV-positive treatment-naïve patients in public-sector clinics in the Eastern Cape. Read online: Scan this QR code with your.

  2. Vaccination-Related Side Effects, Humoral Immunity, and Adverse Events during the Civilian Smallpox Vaccination Campaign, Arkansas, 2003.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haselow, Dirk

    2016-01-01

    Smallpox vaccination has been associated with notable side effects and adverse events. This study assessed the frequency of each among public health workers immunized during the 2003 Arkansas civilian smallpox vaccination campaign to allow individuals and policymakers to make informed decisions whether repeat vaccination, as recommended in 10-year intervals, should be considered. This descriptive study summarizes postvaccination surveillance data for all civilians receiving smallpox vaccine (Dryvax) in Arkansas in 2003. Rates of side effects and adverse events were determined. Vaccinia-specific antibody titers among a subset of public health response team members were also assessed. Of the 1,124 vaccine recipients, 87% had a major take response. Substantial symptomatology, a 2% adverse event rate, a 0.5% hospitalization rate, and zero inadvertent transmission following vaccination were observed. Vaccinia-specific antibody titers increased on average 9-fold from 2.21*10(2) to 2.16*10(3) one month after vaccination. We found no association of age, sex, or racial subgroups with adverse events, hospitalizations, a lower take response rate, or lower postvaccination antibody titers. Prominent side effect profiles and adverse events among study participants seem to support individual and institutional reluctance to vaccinate civilians in the absence of smallpox reemergence. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  3. Developing visual images for communicating information aboutantiretroviral side effects to a low-literate population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dowse, Ros; Ramela, Thato; Barford, Kirsty-Lee; Browne, Sara

    2010-09-01

    The side effects of antiretroviral (ARV) therapy are linked to altered quality of life and adherence. Poor adherence has also been associated with low health-literacy skills, with an uninformed patient more likely to make ARV-related decisions that compromise the efficacy of the treatment. Low literacy skills disempower patients in interactions with healthcare providers and preclude the use of existing written patient information materials, which are generally written at a high reading level. Visual images or pictograms used as a counselling tool or included in patient information leaflets have been shown to improve patients' knowledge, particularly in low-literate groups. The objective of this study was to design visuals or pictograms illustrating various ARV side effects and to evaluate them in a low-literate South African Xhosa population. Core images were generated either from a design workshop or from posed photos or images from textbooks. The research team worked closely with a graphic artist. Initial versions of the images were discussed and assessed in group discussions, and then modified and eventually evaluated quantitatively in individual interviews with 40 participants who each had a maximum of 10 years of schooling. The familiarity of the human body, its facial expressions, postures and actions contextualised the information and contributed to the participants' understanding. Visuals that were simple, had a clear central focus and reflected familiar body experiences (e.g. vomiting) were highly successful. The introduction of abstract elements (e.g. fever) and metaphorical images (e.g. nightmares) presented problems for interpretation, particularly to those with the lowest educational levels. We recommend that such visual images should be designed in collaboration with the target population and a graphic artist, taking cognisance of the audience's literacy skills and culture, and should employ a multistage iterative process of modification and

  4. Women's experiences of coping with the sexual side effects of antidepressant medication.

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Mullan, Cathy; Doherty, Maryanne; Coates, Rosemary; Tilley, P J Matt

    2014-01-01

    A growing body of evidence has highlighted the sexual side effects of selective serotonin reuptake inhibitor (SSRI) medication. Whilst most of the research has focused on the prevalence and treatment of sexual difficulties, little is known about how patients cope with the SSRI-related sexual side effects. The objective of this study was to explore women's experiences of coping with the sexual side effects of SSRI medication and interpretative phenomenological analysis was employed for an in-depth exploratory study of a sample of 10 women. Four broad themes emerged which are discussed under the following headings: searching, suffering in silence, trying to resolve and accepting what is. The themes provide an insight into the different strategies used by women to cope with the sexual side effects of SSRI medication and highlight the importance of contextualising these difficulties as part of an overall approach to improve the management and treatment of SSRI-related sexual side effects.

  5. Haloperidol, risperidone, olanzapine and aripiprazole in the management of delirium: A comparison of efficacy, safety, and side effects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boettger, Soenke; Jenewein, Josef; Breitbart, William

    2015-08-01

    The aim of this study was to compare the efficacy and side-effect profile of the typical antipsychotic haloperidol with that of the atypical antipsychotics risperidone, olanzapine, and aripiprazole in the management of delirium. The Memorial Delirium Assessment Scale (MDAS), the Karnofsky Performance Status (KPS) scale, and a side-effect rating were recorded at baseline (T1), after 2-3 days (T2), and after 4-7 days (T3). Some 21 cases were case-matched by age, preexisting dementia, and baseline MDAS scores, and subsequently analyzed. The baseline characteristics of the medication groups were not different: The mean age of the patients ranged from 64.0 to 69.6 years, dementia was present in between 23.8 and 28.6%, and baseline MDAS scores were 19.9 (haloperidol), 18.6 (risperidone), 19.4 (olanzapine), and 18.0 (aripiprazole). The doses of medication at T3 were 5.5 mg haloperidol, 1.3 mg risperidone, 7.1 mg olanzapine, and 18.3 mg aripiprazole. Over one week, the decline in MDAS scores between medications was equal, and no differences between individual MDAS scores existed at T2 or T3. After one week, the MDAS scores were 6.8 (haloperidol), 7.1 (risperidone), 11.7 (olanzapine), and 8.3 (aripiprazole). At T2, delirium resolution occurred in 42.9-52.4% of cases and at T3 in 61.9-85.7%; no differences in assessments between medications existed. Recorded side effects were extrapyramidal symptoms (EPSs) in haloperidol- and risperidone-managed patients (19 and 4.8%, respectively) and sedation with olanzapine (28.6%). Haloperidol, risperidone, aripiprazole, and olanzapine were equally effective in the management of delirium; however, they differed in terms of their side-effect profile. Extrapyramidal symptoms were most frequently recorded with haloperidol, and sedation occurred most frequently with olanzapine.

  6. Side effects from intense pulsed light: Importance of skin pigmentation, fluence level and ultraviolet radiation-A randomized controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thaysen-Petersen, Daniel; Erlendsson, Andres M; Nash, J F; Beerwerth, Frank; Philipsen, Peter A; Wulf, Hans C; Paasch, Uwe; Haedersdal, Merete

    2017-01-01

    Intense pulsed light (IPL) is a mainstream treatment for hair removal. Side effects after IPL are known, but risk factors remain to be investigated. The objective of this study was to assess the contribution of skin pigmentation, fluence level, and ultraviolet radiation (UVR) on IPL-induced side effects. The study was a blinded, randomized intra-individual controlled trial including 16 healthy subjects with Fitzpatrick Skin Types (FST) II-V. Three test areas were each divided into four sites, randomized to a single IPL exposure of 22, 34, 46 J/cm(2) or triple stacking of 46 J/cm(2) . Areas were subsequently randomized to no UVR or single solar-simulated UVR exposure of 3 Standard Erythema Dose at 30 minutes or 24 hours after IPL. Each area had a corresponding control, resulting in 15 treatment sites. Follow-up visits were scheduled up to 4 weeks after IPL. Outcome measures were: (i) blinded clinical skin reactions; (ii) objectively measured erythema and pigmentation; (iii) pain measured by visual analog scale (VAS); (iv) histology (H&E, Fontana-Masson); and (v) mRNA-expression of p53. Fifteen subjects with FST II-IV completed the protocol. IPL induced a wide range of skin reactions, including erythema (87% of subjects), purpura (27%), blisters (20%), edema (13%), crusting (13%), hyper- (60%), and hypopigmentation (20%). Darker skin pigmentation and increasing IPL fluence were determinants for IPL-induced side effects (P ≤ 0.002), while a single exposure of UVR did not exacerbate side effects (P ≥ 0.180). Clinical findings were confirmed objectively by reflectance spectrometry and qualitatively by histological changes in skin architecture, inflammatory infiltration, and pigmentation. Marker of cellular DNA damage, that is, p53, did not increase after IPL (P ≥ 0.24). Skin pigmentation and IPL fluence are major determinants of side effects after IPL exposure, while a single exposure to three SED of UVR at 30 minutes or 24 hours after IPL

  7. Evaluating the Role of Omega 3 on the Side Effects of Isotretinoin in Patients with the Acnea Vulgaris

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mina Mirnezami

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background: Acne vulgaris is chronic inflamatory disease of the pilosebaceous unit.Patients experience psychological burdens like depression ,anxiety, and low self- esteem. Isotretinoin is used in the treatment of severe and recalcitrant acne; however, this treatment is associated with a number of partialy common adverse effects that it sometimes may stop the process of treatment. The aim of this study is to evaluate the effect of oral omega 3 on side-effects of isotretinoin . Materials and Methods: One hundred eighteen patients with severe acne vulgaris were randomly divided into two groups. Control group received isotretinoin (0.5 mg∕kg alone and case group received isotretinoin (0.5 mg∕kg combined with omega 3 (2 capsuls daily. The duration of treatment was 16 weeks.Mucocutaneous side-effects were assessed in patients(4, 8, 12, 16th wk. Results: Lip dryness (4, 8, 12th wk and dryness of nose, skin, eye in the 4 th week in the patients with acne vulgaris treated with isotretinoin and omega3 was lesser than in the patients treated with isotretinoin alone, that this difference was statistically significant (p<0.001. Conclusion: Based on the results of this study, Omega 3 decreased the mucocutaneous side effects in the patients with acne vulgaris who received isotretinoin.

  8. Long-term efficacy and side effects of low-dose tacrolimus for the treatment of Myasthenia Gravis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tao, Xiaoyong; Wang, Wei; Jing, Feng; Wang, Zhongkui; Chen, Yuping; Wei, Dongning; Huang, Xusheng

    2017-02-01

    The study evaluated the efficacy of low-dose tacrolimus for treating Myasthenia Gravis (MG). Data were collected from 97 patients treated with low-dose tacrolimus from February 2011 to April 2015. Metabolic analysis was performed to determine more accurate tacrolimus dosing and patients were followed-up within clinic every 6 months for up to 4 years. The myasthenia gravis-specific activities of daily living scale was used to assess MG symptoms and their effects on patients' daily activities. All side effects and adverse reactions were thoroughly documented. At the end of follow-up, 6 patients were in complete stable remission, 17 patients were in pharmacological remission, 26 patients were in minimal manifestation status, 32 patients were improved, 2 patients were unchanged, 11 patients had worsening symptoms, and 3 patients died. Side effects were reported and/or observed in 24 patients, of which 7 patients experienced elevated blood glucose, 2 patients developed neoplasms, 3 patients developed gastrointestinal symptoms, 3 showed mild increases in aminotransferases, 3 patients suffered from bone marrow suppression, 2 patients suffered from skin rashes and erythema, and 1 patient required discontinuation of therapy. Transient renal insufficiency was also observed in 1 patient and 3 other patients had minor miscellaneous side effects. This study adds some knowledge on the efficacy and side effects of low-dose tacrolimus in the treatment of MG. Tacrolimus immunotherapy is a valid option for the management of MG, and can be gradually reduced in dose once symptoms are improved until complete withdrawal is achieved.

  9. The impact of side effects from outpatient chemotherapy on presenteeism in breast cancer patients: a prospective analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tachi, Tomoya; Teramachi, Hitomi; Tanaka, Kazuhide; Asano, Shoko; Osawa, Tomohiro; Kawashima, Azusa; Hori, Akiyo; Yasuda, Masahiro; Mizui, Takashi; Nakada, Takumi; Noguchi, Yoshihiro; Tsuchiya, Teruo; Goto, Chitoshi

    2016-01-01

    In the field of occupational health services, productivity loss can be expressed by absenteeism (i.e., employees being absent from work and taking leave due to health problems) and presenteeism (i.e., a reduction in the ability to perform one's tasks at work). Similar to absenteeism, it is important to assess presenteeism because it can severely reduce productivity. Despite numerous reports about the impact of disease and medical treatments on presenteeism, there is a lack of data regarding the influence of medication side effects. In this study, a prospective analysis was conducted via questionnaire survey to clarify the influence of the side effects of anticancer drugs on presenteeism in workers receiving outpatient chemotherapy for breast cancer. Between December 2012 and November 2013, the influence of side effects on the quality of life, absenteeism, and presenteeism was investigated via a questionnaire conducted before and after 1 course of chemotherapy in 19 currently employed breast cancer patients receiving outpatient chemotherapy for the first time at Gifu Municipal Hospital, Japan. The rate of absenteeism was 24.7 %, resulting in financial losses of 2002 yen/day (national statistical data) and 881 yen/day (our questionnaire data). The rate of presenteeism was 33.7 %, resulting in financial losses of 1354 yen/day (national statistical data) and 1263 yen/day (our questionnaire data). Furthermore, a significant positive correlation was observed between absenteeism and presenteeism (r = 0.687, p = 0.001), suggesting that the productivity losses associated with presenteeism due to the side effects of anticancer drugs in breast cancer patients are large and similar to that associated with absenteeism in these patients. Our results may be useful for improving the occupational health of workers receiving chemotherapy for cancer.

  10. Deficits in neuronal cytochrome P450 activity attenuate opioid analgesia but not opioid side effects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hough, Lindsay B; Nalwalk, Julia W; Cleary, Rachel A; Phillips, James G; Fang, Cheng; Yang, Weizhu; Ding, Xinxin

    2014-10-05

    Morphine-like analgesics act on µ opioid receptors in the CNS to produce highly effective pain relief, but the same class of receptors also mediates non-therapeutic side effects. The analgesic properties of morphine were recently shown to require the activity of a brain neuronal cytochrome P450 epoxygenase, but the significance of this pathway for opioid side effects is unknown. Here we show that brain P450 activity is not required for three of morphine׳s major side effects (respiratory depression, constipation, and locomotor stimulation). Following systemic or intracerebroventricular administration of morphine, transgenic mice with brain neuron - specific reductions in P450 activity showed highly attenuated analgesic responses as compared with wild-type (control) mice. However, brain P450-deficient mice showed normal morphine-induced side effects (respiratory depression, locomotor stimulation, and inhibition of intestinal motility). Pretreatment of control mice with the P450 inhibitor CC12 similarly reduced the analgesia, but not these side effects of morphine. Because activation of brain µ opioid receptors produces both opioid analgesia and opioid side effects, dissociation of the mechanisms for the therapeutic and therapy-limiting effects of opioids has important consequences for the development of analgesics with reduced side effects and/or limited addiction liability. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  11. Side effects are incompletely reported among systematic reviews in gastroenterology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mahady, Suzanne E; Schlub, Timothy; Bero, Lisa; Moher, David; Tovey, David; George, Jacob; Craig, Jonathan C

    2015-02-01

    Systematic reviews are an integral component of evidence-based health care. However, little is known on how well they report the potential harms of interventions. We assessed the reporting of harms in recently published systematic reviews of interventions relevant to clinical gastroenterology. We identified all systematic reviews of randomized trials of gastroenterology interventions published from 2008 to 2012 in highly cited gastroenterology and general medical journals. We adapted the Consolidated Standards of Reporting Trials guidelines for harms and assessed qualitative and quantitative parameters of harms reporting. Regression analyses determined predictors of more comprehensive harms reporting. In total, 78 systematic reviews were identified, with 72 published in gastroenterology journals and six in general medical journals. Overall, one in three systematic reviews (26/78, 33%) did not refer to harms of the intervention anywhere in the article. Less than half of the studies included adverse events as an outcome measure, and data on absolute rates of adverse events were only provided in 28%. Most (65%) did not include any figures or tables on adverse event; however, all included these on efficacy outcomes (mean, 3 and range, 1-7). Regression analyses indicated that the use of reporting guidelines was significantly associated with better harms reporting (P = 0.04). The reporting of harms in gastroenterology systematic reviews is largely inadequate and highly asymmetrical compared with the reporting of benefits. We suggest that review authors routinely assess both efficacy and harms outcomes of an intervention and that reporting guidelines specifically targeting harms reporting be developed. Crown Copyright © 2015. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  12. Factors associated with the perception of side-effects relating to the use of contraceptive methods

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gerda Erasmus

    1985-09-01

    Full Text Available Limited research has been done in South Africa regarding the incidence of side-effects and perceptions of these among users of contraceptives. Numerous knowledge, attitude and practice (KAP surveys have been conducted by the Human Sciences Research Council (Erasmus 1981a; Erasmus 1981b; Erasmus 1982 ; Groenewald 1978 ; Lótter, Van Tonder 1976; Mostert, Malherbe 1974; Mostert 1974; Strydom 1981; Van der Merwe 1982 and in some of these studies questions concerning side-effects were included to determine reasons for discontinuation of specific contraceptive methods. The literature concerning research on side-effects related to contraceptive use usually pertains either to clinical studies

  13. Lymphadenitis as a Rare Side Effect of H1N1 Vaccine in a Child

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    Zuhal Gundogdu

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available We present a 5-year-old boy who had the complaint of swelling and pain on the right vaccine shot and right axillary areas. The right axillary area was diagnosed as reactive lymphadenitis, which we believe is a rare local side effect of the swine flu vaccine. The key message to take away from this case is that the patient had lymphadenitis as a local side effect of the swine flu vaccine. Lymphadenitis should be reported as a possible local side effect of the swine flu vaccine.

  14. Side-effect and vital sign profile of nifedipine as a tocolytic for preterm labour.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chan, L W; Sahota, D S; Yeung, S Y; Leung, T Y; Fung, T Y; Lau, T K; Leung, T N

    2008-08-01

    To examine the side-effect and vital sign profile of nifedipine used as a tocolytic. Retrospective audit. Tertiary care university hospital, Hong Kong. Women presenting with preterm labour (before 34 weeks of gestation) between March 2001 and September 2004. Maternal heart rate, blood pressure, and foetal heart rate were monitored regularly. A four-point Likert scale multiple-choice questionnaire was used to assess the perceived degree of flushing, headache, nausea, dizziness, and shortness of breath. All assessments were performed at predefined intervals from the onset of treatment. Repeated measures analysis of variance was performed to identify any time-dependent association with nifedipine treatment. In all, 212 episodes of preterm labour were treated with nifedipine in 203 women. In 120 episodes, preterm labour was suppressed for more than 48 hours. Treatment was discontinued in three women because of profound hypotension (or=140 beats per minute), and in two foetal tachycardia (>or=180 beats per minute) was encountered. Moderate headache was experienced in nine women, flushing in nine, dizziness in four, nausea in three, and shortness of breath in one. Repeated measures analysis of variance with time of measurement revealed a significant reduction in maternal blood pressure and increase in maternal heart rate that plateaued after 1 hour of therapy. The foetal heart rate returned to baseline values 3 hours after commencing therapy. In general, use of nifedipine as the first-line tocolytic was safe. However, severe maternal hypotension can occur and close monitoring of vital signs is warranted.

  15. Side effects of oral antibiotics in small children with cystic fibrosis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jakobsen, Karin Riisager; Bregnballe, Vibeke

    2014-01-01

    Objectives: Frequent antibiotic treatment is common in the care of patients with cystic fibrosis. The aim of the study was to explore digestion related side effects of oral antibiotics in small children with CF. Methods: A questionnaire survey was carried out. All parents of children from 0 to 6...... or/and stomach pain during antibiotic treatment. 48% reported their child to be eating little during antibiotic treatment and of these 87% were reporting diarrhoea or/and stomach pain. Half of the children with diarrhoea or/and stomach pain got treatment for the side effects. Conclusion: Most...... of the small children with CF suffered from side effect of antibiotics, but only half of them got treatment for the side effects....

  16. Side effects in Internet-based interventions for Social Anxiety Disorder

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    Johanna Boettcher

    2014-03-01

    Results suggest that a small proportion of participants in Internet-based interventions experiences negative effects during treatment. Information about potential side effects should be integrated in patient education in the practice of Internet-based treatments.

  17. Incidence of neuropsychiatric side effects of efavirenz in HIV-positive treatment-naïve patients in public-sector clinics in the Eastern Cape

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Razia Gaida

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Background: It is acknowledged that almost half of patients initiated on efavirenz will experience at least one neuropsychiatric side effect.Objectives: The aim was to determine the incidence and severity of neuropsychiatric side effects associated with efavirenz use in five public-sector primary healthcare clinics in the Eastern Cape.Method: The study was a prospective drug utilisation study. A total of 126 medical records were reviewed to obtain the required information. After baseline assessment, follow-up reviews were conducted at 4 weeks, 12 weeks and 24 weeks from 2014 to 2015.Results: The participant group was 74.60% female (n = 94, and the average age was 37.57±10.60 years. There were no neuropsychiatric side effects recorded for any patient. After the full follow-up period, there were a total of 49 non-adherent patients and one patient had demised. A non-adherent patient was defined as a patient who did not return to the clinic for follow-up assessment and medication refills 30 days or more after the appointed date. Some patients (n = 11 had sent a third party to the clinic to collect their antiretroviral therapy (ART. The clinic pharmacy would at times dispense a two-month supply of medication resulting in the patient presenting only every two months.Conclusion: Further pharmacovigilance studies need to be conducted to determine the true incidence of these side effects. Healthcare staff must be encouraged to keep complete records to ensure meaningful patient assessments. Patients being initiated on ART need to personally attend the clinic monthly for at least the first 6 months of treatment. Clinic staff should receive regular training concerning ART, including changes made to guidelines as well as reminders of side effects experienced.Keywords: neuropsychiatric; side effects; efavirenz; HIV-positive patients

  18. Side Effects of Nitrification Inhibitors on Non Target Microbial Processes in Soils

    OpenAIRE

    Johannes Carl Gottlieb Ottow; Gero Benckiser; Ferisman Tindaon

    2011-01-01

    Agricultural chemicals have been used extensively in modern agriculture and toxicological studies suggest a great potential for inducing undesirable effects on non target organisms. A model experiment was conducted in order to determine side effects of three nitrification inhibitors (NIs, 3,4dimethylpyrazolephosphate = DMPP, 4-Chlormethylpyrazole phosphate = ClMPP and dicyandiamide = DCD) on non target microbial processes in soils. Side effects and dose response curve of three NIs were quanti...

  19. [Exogenous Cushing's syndrome as a serious side-effect of therapy with ritonavir an inhaled fluticasone].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Machala, Ladislav; Kréze, Alexander; Jilich, David; Rozsypal, Hanuš

    2011-06-01

    Inhalation of fluticasone is usually devoid of systemic side-effects. The authors describe a case of a young HIV positive woman treated concomitantly with fluticasone and inhibitors of HIV protease ritonavir and lopinavir in which developed a serious endocrine side-effect - an iatrogenic Cushing's syndrome. Plasma concentration of cortisol Cushing's syndrome, and the substitution therapy with hydrocortisone was terminated. Two years later became the patient pregnant and gave birth to a healthy child.

  20. Predicting drug side effects by multi-label learning and ensemble learning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Wen; Liu, Feng; Luo, Longqiang; Zhang, Jingxia

    2015-11-04

    Predicting drug side effects is an important topic in the drug discovery. Although several machine learning methods have been proposed to predict side effects, there is still space for improvements. Firstly, the side effect prediction is a multi-label learning task, and we can adopt the multi-label learning techniques for it. Secondly, drug-related features are associated with side effects, and feature dimensions have specific biological meanings. Recognizing critical dimensions and reducing irrelevant dimensions may help to reveal the causes of side effects. In this paper, we propose a novel method 'feature selection-based multi-label k-nearest neighbor method' (FS-MLKNN), which can simultaneously determine critical feature dimensions and construct high-accuracy multi-label prediction models. Computational experiments demonstrate that FS-MLKNN leads to good performances as well as explainable results. To achieve better performances, we further develop the ensemble learning model by integrating individual feature-based FS-MLKNN models. When compared with other state-of-the-art methods, the ensemble method produces better performances on benchmark datasets. In conclusion, FS-MLKNN and the ensemble method are promising tools for the side effect prediction. The source code and datasets are available in the Additional file 1.

  1. Strategies for preventing side effects of systemic opioid in postoperative pediatric patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jitpakdee, Thanaporn; Mandee, Sahatsa

    2014-06-01

    Opioid is the gold standard for treating moderate-to-severe pain in pediatric patients. However, its undesirable side effects lead to unsatisfied postoperative pain management outcome (Pediatr Anesth, 17, 2007, 756). The most commonly reported opioid-related side effects are vomiting (40%), pruritus (20-60%) (Anesthesiology, 77, 1992, 162; Drugs, 67, 2007, 2323), and constipation (15-90%) (Int J Clin Pract, 61, 2007, 1181). The potential life-threatening adverse event, respiratory depression, is less common (0.0013%) (Pediatr Anesth, 20, 2010, 119). The aim of this review was to evaluate prevention strategies that have been shown to decrease opioid side effects in pediatric patients during the postoperative period. Literature searches were conducted from 1984 to February 2013. Meta-analysis, systematic review, and randomized, placebo-controlled studies were obtained from PubMed and the Cochrane Library. The medical subject heading (MeSH) terms were opioid analgesics, adverse effects, pediatrics, children, side effects, and postoperative pain. Data from 62 studies were reviewed. The strategies that could effectively prevent and reduce opioid side effects in pediatric patients during the postoperative period included minimizing the amount of opioid consumption by a multimodal approach, opioid titration, using local anesthetic techniques and providing the specific prophylaxis for each side effect. © 2014 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  2. Investigation of antidepressant-like and anxiolytic-like actions and cognitive and motor side effects of four N-methyl-D-aspartate receptor antagonists in mice

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Refsgaard, Louise Konradsen; Pickering, Darryl S; Andreasen T., Jesper

    2017-01-01

    Evidence suggests that N-methyl-D-aspartate receptor (NMDAR) antagonists could be efficacious in treating depression and anxiety, but side effects constitute a challenge. This study evaluated the antidepressant-like and anxiolytic-like actions, and cognitive and motor side effects of four NMDAR...... antagonists. MK-801, ketamine, S-ketamine, RO 25-6981 and the positive control, citalopram, were tested for antidepressant-like and anxiolytic-like effects in mice using the forced-swim test, the elevated zero maze and the novelty-induced hypophagia test. Side effects were assessed using a locomotor activity...... test, the modified Y-maze and the rotarod test. All compounds increased swim distance in the forced-swim test. In the elevated zero maze, the GluN2B subtype-selective RO 25-6981 affected none of the measured parameters, whereas all other compounds showed anxiolytic-like effects. In the novelty...

  3. A Pilot Study on Tamoxifen Sexual Side Effects and Hand Preference in Male Breast Cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Motofei, Ion G; Rowland, David L; Popa, Florian; Bratucu, Eugen; Straja, Dan; Manea, Mirela; Georgescu, Simona R; Paunica, Stana; Bratucu, Mircea; Balalau, Cristian; Constantin, Vlad D

    2015-08-01

    Recent clinical and imaging studies suggest that sex hormones modulate sexuality according to a psychophysiologic process of lateralization of the brain, with androgens playing a greater role in sexual functioning of left hemibrain/right handedness and estrogens possibly for right hemibrain/left handedness. Based on this perspective, the current study attempted to specify the relationship between hand preference, estrogens, and sexual function in subjects with male breast cancer, taking into account the sexual side effects of tamoxifen as the agent for inhibiting estrogen action. Twenty-eight Romanian men-17 right-handed and 11 left-handed-undergoing treatment with tamoxifen for male breast cancer participated in this study. These men were assessed both prior to and during tamoxifen treatment using the International Index of Erectile Function, a standardized instrument used for the evaluation of various aspects of sexual functioning, including erectile function (EF), orgasmic function (OF), sexual desire (SD), and overall functioning (OF). A main effect for handedness was found on EF, OF, SD, and OS scales, with right-handed men showing higher functioning than left-handed men. Regarding interaction effects, the left-handed group of men showed greater decreased sexual functioning during tamoxifen (on three subscales: OF, SD, OS) compared to right-handed men. Further research should be conducted in order to support and refine this potential lateralized process of sexual neuromodulation within the brain.

  4. The Use of Dietary Supplements to Alleviate Androgen Deprivation Therapy Side Effects during Prostate Cancer Treatment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrea Dueregger

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Prostate cancer (PCa, the most commonly diagnosed cancer and second leading cause of male cancer death in Western societies, is typically androgen-dependent, a characteristic that underlies the rationale of androgen deprivation therapy (ADT. Approximately 90% of patients initially respond to ADT strategies, however many experience side effects including hot flashes, cardiotoxicity, metabolic and musculoskeletal alterations. This review summarizes pre-clinical and clinical studies investigating the ability of dietary supplements to alleviate adverse effects arising from ADT. In particular, we focus on herbal compounds, phytoestrogens, selenium (Se, fatty acids (FA, calcium, and Vitamins D and E. Indeed, there is some evidence that calcium and Vitamin D can prevent the development of osteoporosis during ADT. On the other hand, caution should be taken with the antioxidants Se and Vitamin E until the basis underlying their respective association with type 2 diabetes mellitus and PCa tumor development has been clarified. However, many other promising supplements have not yet been subjected large-scale clinical trials making it difficult to assess their efficacy. Given the demographic trend of increased PCa diagnoses and dependence on ADT as a major therapeutic strategy, further studies are required to objectively evaluate these supplements as adjuvant for PCa patients receiving ADT.

  5. Managing Radiation Therapy Side Effects: What to Do about Feeling Sick to Your Stomach and Throwing Up (Nausea and ...

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Radiation Therapy Side Effects What To Do About Feeling Sick to Your Stomach and Throwing Up (Nausea ... you eat it. Managing Radiation Therapy Side Effects: Feeling Sick to Your Stomach and Throwing Up (Nausea ...

  6. Quantitative prediction of drug side effects based on drug-related features.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Niu, Yanqing; Zhang, Wen

    2017-09-01

    Unexpected side effects of drugs are great concern in the drug development, and the identification of side effects is an important task. Recently, machine learning methods are proposed to predict the presence or absence of interested side effects for drugs, but it is difficult to make the accurate prediction for all of them. In this paper, we transform side effect profiles of drugs as their quantitative scores, by summing up their side effects with weights. The quantitative scores may measure the dangers of drugs, and thus help to compare the risk of different drugs. Here, we attempt to predict quantitative scores of drugs, namely the quantitative prediction. Specifically, we explore a variety of drug-related features and evaluate their discriminative powers for the quantitative prediction. Then, we consider several feature combination strategies (direct combination, average scoring ensemble combination) to integrate three informative features: chemical substructures, targets, and treatment indications. Finally, the average scoring ensemble model which produces the better performances is used as the final quantitative prediction model. Since weights for side effects are empirical values, we randomly generate different weights in the simulation experiments. The experimental results show that the quantitative method is robust to different weights, and produces satisfying results. Although other state-of-the-art methods cannot make the quantitative prediction directly, the prediction results can be transformed as the quantitative scores. By indirect comparison, the proposed method produces much better results than benchmark methods in the quantitative prediction. In conclusion, the proposed method is promising for the quantitative prediction of side effects, which may work cooperatively with existing state-of-the-art methods to reveal dangers of drugs.

  7. Evaluation of Patient Satisfaction, Preference and Side Effects after Annual Zoledronic Acid Infusion in Patients with Osteoporosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Banu Dilek

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available Objective: In this study it was aimed to evaluate the patient satisfaction, therapy preference and side-effect profile in patients who receive annual zoledronic acid (ZA infusion. Materials and Methods: In this study, 59 patients who had ZA infusion were enrolled. Their demographic and osteoporosis characteristics and the number of received ZA infusions were recorded. A seven-item questionnaire was used to assess the patients’ therapy preference. General patient satisfaction, satisfaction during ZA infusion and its effects on life quality were assessed with a Likert scale. Results: The mean age of the 59 patients (50 females, 9 males was 68.49±8.65 years. Of the patients 86.4% (51 wanted to continue the same therapy, 64.4% (36 stated that the mode of administration was very convenient and 61% (36 stated that it was well-suited with their lifestyle. The most important factors for the continued usage were the annual administration convenience and the physician’s recommendation. Mild side effects (myalgia, arthralgia, flu-like syndrome, fever, headache and pruritus were reported in 23.7% of the patients (14 subsequent to the first infusion. ZA infusion was quite satisfying for 37.3% of the patients (22 and very satisfying for 40.7% of the patients (24. When the treatment effect on the quality of life was investigated, 42.4% of the patients (25 found it very effective, while 37.3% of them (22 found it extremely effective. Among these patients, 47.5% received their first ZA infusion (28, while 52.5% received multiple (2-4 infusions before (31. The increasing number of infusions did not have any influence on the patient’s life quality, satisfaction or therapy preference. Conclusion: ZA infusion is a preferable, highly satisfactory, convenient therapy and its side effects are well-tolerated, it affects the quality of life favourably.

  8. Dose Effect Relationship for Late Side Effects of the Rectum and Urinary Bladder in Magnetic Resonance Image-Guided Adaptive Cervix Cancer Brachytherapy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Georg, Petra, E-mail: petra.georg@akhwien.at [Department of Radiotherapy, Medical University of Vienna, Vienna (Austria); Poetter, Richard; Georg, Dietmar; Lang, Stefan; Dimopoulos, Johannes C.A.; Sturdza, Alina E.; Berger, Daniel; Kirisits, Christian [Department of Radiotherapy, Medical University of Vienna, Vienna (Austria); Doerr, Wolfgang [Department of Radiotherapy, Medical University of Vienna, Vienna (Austria); Department of Radiotherapy and Radiation Oncology, Medical Faculty Carl Gustav Carus, University of Technology Dresden, Dresden (Germany)

    2012-02-01

    Purpose: To establish dose-response relationships for late side effects of the rectum and bladder in cervix cancer patients after magnetic resonance image-guided adaptive brachytherapy (IGABT). Methods and Materials: A cohort of 141 patients was treated with 45 to 50.4 Gy with or without cisplatin plus 4 fractions of 7 Gy IGABT. Doses for the most exposed 2, 1, and 0.1-cm{sup 3} (D{sub 2cc}, D{sub 1cc}, D{sub 0.1cc}) volumes of the rectum and bladder were converted into the equivalent dose in 2 Gy fractions (EQD2), using a linear quadratic model ({alpha}/{beta} = 3 Gy). Late side effects were prospectively assessed (using late effects in normal tissues subjective, objective, management and analytic [LENT SOMA]) scales. Dose-response relationships were determined by logit analyses. Results: Eleven patients developed rectal side effects, and 23 patients had urinary side effects. A significant dose effect was found for all rectal dose-volume histogram (DVH) parameters for patients with side effect grades of 1 to 4 but was only significant for D{sub 2cc} and D{sub 1cc} for grades {>=}2. The ED10 values for D{sub 2cc} were 73 Gy for grades 1 to 4 and 78 Gy for grades 2 to 4 rectal morbidity. For bladder side effects, a significant dose effect was shown for all DVH parameters for complication grades {>=}2; the respective ED10 was 101 Gy. Conclusions: Well-defined dose-response curves could be established for D{sub 2cc} in the rectum and the urinary bladder.

  9. Pill side effects, continuation found similar whether self-prescribed or prescribed by doctor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1976-09-01

    In developing countries, especially Latin America, women obtain oral contraceptives without a physician's prescription. While these women experience more side effects, they have fewer accidental pregnancies than women who obtain the pills through a physician/prescription. A probability sample of 6692 Colombian women in Bogota were interviewed in 1974. Almost 1 in 20 of all women, and almost 1 in 13 of those married or living in a union, said they began using the pill on their own as their first method of contraception. The characteristics of the women without prescriptions were similar to those with, but self-prescribers were slightly older, had more children, and were less educated. 7 in 10 women of both groups continued pill use for 1 year; about 6 in 10 still used the pill after 2 years. Both groups gave side effects as their reason for discontinuation. The most frequently cited side effect was headache. None of the women reported the more serious complications, thrombophlebitis and thromboembolism. Women who did not begin with medical advice were less likely to seek it when they had side effects attributed to the pill. Half as many self-prescribers (24%), as users with a prescription (46%), reported visiting a private physician about side effects. 11% self-prescribers, compared with 25%, sought other professional help.

  10. Metoclopramide neurological side effects screening; a pharmacovigilence study in Romanian community pharmacies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Emil Ștefănescu

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Background. Metoclopramide is a pharmacological agent frequently used in therapy against nausea and vomiting that can occur in indigestion, motion sickness, gastric ulcer, pyloric spasm and after surgery as a side effect of some anesthetics. Knowing the frequency and intensity of metoclopramide neurological side effects is essential for an efficient management of the dysfunctions it addresses. Material and method. Based on a standard questionnaire containing questions regarding metoclopramide therapy, we analyzed the answers given by 1000 patients or patient tutors in 20 open circuit pharmacies situated all over Bucharest. All subjects freely consented to participate in this study that was coordinated only by pharmacists. Results. Our study highlights the fact that in certain situations having to do with the age of patients, with the use of multiple drugs or with the tendency to self medicate, the neurological side effects of metoclopramide can reach dangerous levels. In some cases it might even be necessary to immediately interrupt metoclopramide therapy, despite its positive benefit/ risk ratio. Conclusions. Respecting the physician’s recommendations, avoiding self medication and reporting side effects as quickly as possible, are essential elements for minimizing the consequences of metoclopramide side effects.

  11. DrugClust: A machine learning approach for drugs side effects prediction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dimitri, Giovanna Maria; Lió, Pietro

    2017-06-01

    Identification of underlying mechanisms behind drugs side effects is of extreme interest and importance in drugs discovery today. Therefore machine learning methodology, linking such different multi features aspects and able to make predictions, are crucial for understanding side effects. In this paper we present DrugClust, a machine learning algorithm for drugs side effects prediction. DrugClust pipeline works as follows: first drugs are clustered with respect to their features and then side effects predictions are made, according to Bayesian scores. Biological validation of resulting clusters can be done via enrichment analysis, another functionality implemented in the methodology. This last tool is of extreme interest for drug discovery, given that it can be used as a validation of the clusters obtained, as well as for the study of new possible interactions between certain side effects and nontargeted pathways. Results were evaluated on a 5-folds cross validations procedure, and extensive comparisons were made with available datasets in the field: Zhang et al. (2015), Liu et al. (2012) and Mizutani et al. (2012). Results are promising and show better performances in most of the cases with respect to the available literature. DrugClust is an R package freely available at: https://cran.r-project.org/web/packages/DrugClust/index.html. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. "Comparison of the analgesic profile and side effects of tramadol vs pethidine, following urologoical surgery "

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mojtaba Mojtahedzadeh

    2004-08-01

    Full Text Available The optimization of pain management following surgery with minimal side effects, is one the major goals of surgical and medical teams. In this randomized double blind study, sixty ASA (American Society of Anesthesiologist class I or II patients, undergoing urological surgery, were assessed to receive either pethidine or tramadol using a standard method for general anesthesia. Pain intensity was assessed by verbal rating, through a 4-step scaling system. Results of this investigation have revealed that the mean total drug administered in tramadol group were 244.53 + 56.95 mg and in pethidine group 176.78+42.99 mg respectively. There were no significant differences in analgesic effect, observed in either group during early hours following surgery, but after 8,12 and 16 hours significant differences were observed. Analgesic properties of tramadol were almost comparable with pethidine nevertheless; pethidine was superior in some extent. No significant differences in patient’s PaO2 were found, but PaCO2 at 1 and 4 hours after surgery had a greater retention in pethidine group. (P<0.001. There was a significant reduction in respiratory rate in pethidine group at 4,8,12 and 16 hours following surgery, compared with tramadol group (P<0.001. Incidence of dizziness was greater in patients who received pethidine (P<0.001, and sweating was higher in tramadol group (P<0.01. Also there was a greater need for metoclopramide to overcome nausea in tramadol group (P<0.05. Results of this study may suggest that tramadol could be considered as a safe and effective analgesic, following urological surgery as compared with pethidine

  13. People with gender dysphoria who self-prescribe cross-sex hormones: prevalence, sources, and side effects knowledge.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mepham, Nick; Bouman, Walter P; Arcelus, Jon; Hayter, Mark; Wylie, Kevan R

    2014-12-01

    There is a scarcity of research into the use of non-physician-sourced cross-sex hormones in the transgender population. However, when medication is not prescribed by health professionals, users' knowledge of such medication may be adversely affected. This study aims to define the prevalence of Internet-sourced sex hormone use in a population attending for initial assessment at a gender identity clinic, to compare the prevalence between gender-dysphoric men and women, and to compare knowledge of cross-sex hormone side effects between users who source cross-sex hormones from medical doctors and those who source them elsewhere. In the first part of the study, a cross-sectional design is used to measure the overall prevalence of sex hormone use among individuals referred to a gender clinic. The second part is a questionnaire survey aiming at measuring sex hormone knowledge among individuals referred to this clinic. Main outcome measures were (i) categorical data on the prevalence and source of cross-sex hormone use and (ii) knowledge of sex hormone side effects in a population referred to a gender clinic. Cross-sex hormone use was present in 23% of gender clinic referrals, of whom 70% sourced the hormones via the Internet. Trans men using testosterone had a sex hormone usage prevalence of 6%; one-third of users sourced it from the Internet. Trans women had a sex hormone usage prevalence of 32%; approximately 70% of users sourced hormones from the Internet. Cross-sex hormone users who sourced their hormones from physicians were more aware of side effects than those who used other sources to access hormones. One in four trans women self-prescribe cross-sex hormones before attending gender clinics, most commonly via the Internet. This practice is currently rare among trans men. Self-prescribing without medical advice leaves individuals without the knowledge required to minimize health risks. © 2014 International Society for Sexual Medicine.

  14. The significance of Bremsstrahlung SPECT/CT after yttrium-90 radioembolization treatment in the prediction of extrahepatic side effects

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ahmadzadehfar, Hojjat; Muckle, Marianne; Sabet, Amir; Biermann, Kim; Haslerud, Torjan; Biersack, Hans-Juergen; Ezziddin, Samer [University Hospital Bonn, Department of Nuclear Medicine, Bonn (Germany); Wilhelm, Kai [University Hospital Bonn, Department of Radiology, Bonn (Germany); Kuhl, Christiane [University Hospital Aachen, Department of Radiology, Aachen (Germany)

    2012-02-15

    Unwanted deposition of {sup 90}Y microspheres in organs other than the liver during radioembolization of liver tumours may cause severe side effects such as duodenal ulcer. The aim of this study was to evaluate the significance of posttherapy bremsstrahlung (BS) SPECT/CT images of the liver in comparison to planar and SPECT images in the prediction of radioembolization-induced extrahepatic side effects. A total of 188 radioembolization procedures were performed in 123 patients (50 women, 73 men) over a 2-year period. Planar, whole-body and BS SPECT/CT imaging were performed 24 h after treatment as a part of therapy work-up. Any focally increased extrahepatic accumulation was evaluated as suspicious. Clinical follow-up and gastroduodenoscopy served as reference standards. The studies were reviewed to evaluate whether BS SPECT/CT imaging was of benefit. In the light of anatomic data obtained from SPECT/CT, apparent extrahepatic BS in 43% of planar and in 52% of SPECT images proved to be in the liver and hence false-positive. The results of planar scintigraphy could not be analysed further since 12 images were not assessable due to high scatter artefacts. On the basis of the gastrointestinal (GI) complications and the results of gastroduodenoscopy, true-positive, true-negative, false-positive and false-negative results of BS SPECT and SPECT/CT imaging in the prediction of GI ulcers were determined. The sensitivity, specificity, positive and negative predictive values and the accuracy of SPECT and SPECT/CT in the prediction of GI ulcers were 13%, 88%, 8%, 92% and 82%, and 87%, 100%, 100%, 99% and 99%, respectively. Despite the low quality of BS images, BS SPECT/CT can be used as a reliable method to confirm the safe distribution of {sup 90}Y microspheres and in the prediction of GI side effects. (orig.)

  15. Absence of hematological side effects in acute and subacute nasal dosing of erythropoietin with a low content of sialic acid.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lagarto, Alicia; Bueno, Viviana; Guerra, Isbel; Valdés, Odalys; Couret, Micaela; López, Raisel; Vega, Yamile

    2011-09-01

    The use of human recombinant erythropoietin (EPO) as a neuroprotective agent is limited due to its hematological side effects. An erythropoietin along with a low content of sialic acid (rhEPOb), similar to that produced in the brain during hypoxia, may be used as a neuroprotective agent without risk of thrombotic events. The objective of this investigation was to assess the toxicological potential of a nasal formulation with rhEPOb in acute, subacute and nasal irritation assays in rats. Healthy Wistar rats (Cenp:Wistar) were used for the assays. In an irritation test, animals received 15 μl of rhEPOb into the right nostril. Rats were sacrificed after 24 h and slides of the nasal mucosa tissues were examined. Control and treated groups showed signs of a minimal irritation consisting of week edema and vascular congestion in all animals. In the acute toxicity test, the dose of 47,143 UI/kg was administered by nasal route. Hematological patterns, body weight, relative organ weight, and organ integrity were not affected by single dosing with rhEPOb. In the subacute toxicity test, Wistar rats of both sexes received 6,600 UI/kg/day for 14 days. The toxicological endpoints examined included animal body weight, food consumption, hematological and biochemical patterns, selected tissue weights, and histopathological examinations. An increase of lymphocytes was observed in males that was considered to reflect an immune response to treatment. Histopathological examination of organs and tissues did not reveal treatment-induced changes. The administration of rhEPOb at daily doses of 6,600 UI/kg during 14 days did not produce hematological side effects. These results suggest that rhEPOb could offer the same neuroprotection as EPO, without hematological side effects. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier GmbH. All rights reserved.

  16. National survey of adherence, efficacy, and side effects of methylphenidate in children with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder in Taiwan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gau, Susan Shur-Fen; Chen, Shin-Jaw; Chou, Wen-Jiun; Cheng, Helen; Tang, Ching-Shu; Chang, Hsueh-Ling; Tzang, Ruu-Fen; Wu, Yu-Yu; Huang, Ya-Fen; Chou, Miao-Chun; Liang, Hsin-Yi; Hsu, Ya-Chen; Lu, Hui-Hua; Huang, Yu-Shu

    2008-01-01

    To identify the determinants of adherence to immediate-release (IR) methylphenidate in children and adolescents with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD); to examine the impact of adherence on ADHD-related symptoms; and to compare the efficacy, adherence, and side effects of IR methylphenidate and osmotic release oral system (OROS) methylphenidate. This national survey, involving 12 hospitals, consisted of 2 phases of assessment. Treatment adherence in 240 (39.5%) of the 607 children aged 5 to 16 years with a clinical diagnosis of DSM-IV ADHD enrolled in the study was poor (defined as missing >or= 1 dose of ADHD medication a day and on 2 days or more during school days). Children with poor adherence at phase 1 were able to switch to OROS methylphenidate, while adherents remained on the IR variant. We reassessed 124 poor adherents who switched to OROS methylphenidate. The global ADHD severity, parent-child interaction, classroom behavior, academic performance, and side effects of the child subjects were evaluated by investigators. Parents completed the rating scales about the ADHD-related symptoms. The study began in April 2005 and was completed in February 2006. Determinants for poor adherence included older age, later onset of ADHD, family history of ADHD, higher paternal education level, and multi-dose administration. Mental retardation and treatment at medical centers were inversely related to poor adherence. Overall, poor adherence was associated with more severe ADHD-related symptoms by comparison to good adherence. Similar side effect profile, superior adherence, and improved efficacy were demonstrated in intra-individual comparison of the OROS and IR methylphenidate forms. Given that poor adherence to medication may be an important reason for suboptimal outcome in ADHD treatment, physicians should ensure adherence with therapy before adjusting dosage or switching medication. clinicaltrials.gov Identifier NCT00460720.

  17. No observable correlation between central nervous system side effects and EFV plasma concentrations in Japanese HIV type 1-infected patients treated with EFV containing HAART.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takahashi, Masaaki; Ibe, Shiro; Kudaka, Yuichi; Okumura, Naoya; Hirano, Atsushi; Suzuki, Tatsuo; Mamiya, Naoto; Hamaguchi, Motohiro; Kaneda, Tsuguhiro

    2007-08-01

    The present study assessed the relationship between central nervous system (CNS) side effects and plasma concentrations of efavirenz (EFV) in Japanese HIV-1-infected patients. Subjects consisted of 69 HIV-1-infected patients (57 therapy-naive and 12 therapy-experienced patients) being treated using EFV in combination with other antiretroviral agents at the outpatient HIV clinic. Successful virological treatment was achieved in 61 patients. Eight patients discontinued EFV containing therapy because CNS symptoms did not resolve (four patients), EFV-specific mutations were detected (two patients), or skin rash was observed (two patients). Mean EFV plasma concentration for 61 effectively treated patients, measured at 15 h postdosing, was 2.42 microg/ml (range: 0.78-6.82 microg/ml). This EFV concentration range contributed to suppressed viral load in these Japanese patients. Adverse CNS effects were observed in 19 patients soon after therapy onset. These effects disappeared within 1 month except for four patients who suffered severe CNS side effects. Mean EFV plasma concentrations were not significantly different between subjects with (2.45 +/- 1.08 microg/ml) and without (2.42 +/- 1.40 microg/ml) CNS side effects. We concluded no correlation existed between the plasma EFV concentration and the emergence of CNS side effects in Japanese HIV-1-infected patients. Further investigations, enforced with the drug concentration measurement at earlier time points and more appropriate assessment of CNS symptoms, are required.

  18. Management of side effects associated with sunitinib therapy for patients with renal cell carcinoma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anita Schwandt1

    2009-03-01

    Full Text Available Anita Schwandt1, Laura S Wood1, Brian Rini1,2, Robert Dreicer1,21Department of Solid Tumor Oncology; 2Taussig Cancer Institute and the Glickman Urological and Kidney Institute; Cleveland Clinic, Cleveland OH, USAAbstract: Advances in the understanding of the biology of renal cell carcinoma have led to recent approval of several new agents including drugs that target vascular endothelial growth factor. Sunitinib is an oral tyrosine kinase inhibitor which interferes with multiple intracellular tumorogenic pathways, and has demonstrated impressive antitumor activity in phase II and subsequently improvement in progression free survival in phase III renal cancer trials. We review the unique side effects of sunitinib therapy with emphasis on establishing effective patient education for anticipation and early management of therapy-related side effects.Keywords: sunitinib, renal cell carcinoma, side effects, tyrosine kinase inhibitor

  19. Side effects of anabolic androgenic steroids: pathological findings and structure-activity relationships.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Büttner, Andreas; Thieme, Detlef

    2010-01-01

    Side effects of anabolic steroids with relevance in forensic medicine are mainly due to life-threatening health risks with potential fatal outcome and cases of uncertain limitations of criminal liability after steroid administration. Both problems are typically associated with long-term abuse and excessive overdose of anabolic steroids. Side effects may be due to direct genomic or nongenomic activities (myotrophic, hepatotoxic), can result from down-regulation of endogenous biosynthesis (antiandrogenic) or be indirect consequence of steroid biotransformation (estrogenic).Logically, there are no systematic clinical studies available and the number of causally determined fatalities is fairly limited. The following compilation reviews typical abundant observations in cases where nonnatural deaths (mostly liver failure and sudden cardiac death) were concurrent with steroid abuse. Moreover, frequent associations between structural characteristics and typical side effects are summarized.

  20. Cardiovascular Side Effects of Atomoxetine and Its Interactions with Inhibitors of the Cytochrome P450 System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pashtoon Murtaza Kasi

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD is one of the most common neurobehavioral disorders of childhood and adolescence. Classically, stimulants have been used in the treatment of this condition. Atomoxetine (Strattera; Eli Lilly and Company is a selective norepinephrine reuptake inhibitor (SNRI, one of the first medications in the nonstimulant class of medications that has been approved by the FDA for the treatment of ADHD. Atomoxetine is a phenoxypropylamine derivative and is structurally related to the antidepressant fluoxetine. The common side effects reported with the use of atomoxetine include mainly GI disturbances. Cardiovascular side effects are less commonly reported. The increase in the noradrenergic tone may explain some of the side effects noted with the use of this medication. Here, we present a case of a patient who presented with syncope, orthostatic hypotension, and tachycardia and discuss the various clinical implications based on the pharmacokinetics and pharmacodynamics of the drug.

  1. Side effects of antibiotics during bacterial infection: mitochondria, the main target in host cell.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, Rochika; Sripada, Lakshmi; Singh, Rajesh

    2014-05-01

    Antibiotics are frontline therapy against microbial infectious diseases. Many antibiotics are known to cause several side effects in humans. Ribosomal RNA (rRNA) is the main target of antibiotics that inhibit protein synthesis. According to the endosymbiont theory, mitochondrion is of bacterial origin and their molecular and structural components of the protein expression system are almost similar. It has been observed that the rate of mutations in mitochondrial rRNA is higher as compared to that of nuclear rRNA. The presence of these mutations may mimic prokaryotic rRNA structure and bind to antibiotics targeted to ribosomes of bacteria. Mitochondrial functions are compromised hence may be one of the major causes of side effects observed during antibiotic therapy. The current review had summarized the studies on the role of antibiotics on mitochondrial functions and its relevance to the observed side effects in physiological and pathological conditions. Copyright © 2013. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  2. Intentions to use Hypnosis to Control the Side Effects of Cancer and its Treatment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sohl, Stephanie J.; Stossel, Lauren; Schnur, Julie B.; Tatrow, Kristin; Gherman, Amfiana; Montgomery, Guy H.

    2013-01-01

    Evidence suggests that hypnosis is an effective intervention for reducing distress, pain and other side effects associated with cancer and its treatment. However, hypnosis has failed to be adopted into standard clinical practice. This study (n=115) investigated overall intentions to use hypnosis to control side effects of cancer and its treatment, as well as demographic predictors of such intentions among healthy volunteers. Results suggest that the vast majority of patients (89%) would be willing to use hypnosis to control side effects associated with cancer treatment. Mean intention levels did not differ by gender, ethnicity, education or age. These results indicate that in the general public, there is a willingness to consider the use of hypnosis, and that willingness is not determined by demographic factors. This broad acceptance of hypnosis argues for more widespread dissemination. PMID:21049742

  3. Cardiovascular Side Effects of Atomoxetine and Its Interactions with Inhibitors of the Cytochrome P450 System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kasi, Pashtoon Murtaza; Mounzer, Rawad; Gleeson, George H.

    2011-01-01

    Attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) is one of the most common neurobehavioral disorders of childhood and adolescence. Classically, stimulants have been used in the treatment of this condition. Atomoxetine (Strattera; Eli Lilly and Company) is a selective norepinephrine reuptake inhibitor (SNRI), one of the first medications in the nonstimulant class of medications that has been approved by the FDA for the treatment of ADHD. Atomoxetine is a phenoxypropylamine derivative and is structurally related to the antidepressant fluoxetine. The common side effects reported with the use of atomoxetine include mainly GI disturbances. Cardiovascular side effects are less commonly reported. The increase in the noradrenergic tone may explain some of the side effects noted with the use of this medication. Here, we present a case of a patient who presented with syncope, orthostatic hypotension, and tachycardia and discuss the various clinical implications based on the pharmacokinetics and pharmacodynamics of the drug. PMID:21765848

  4. Metabolic and Endocrine Side Effects of Atypical Antipsychotic Drugs in Children and Adolescents

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aysegul Tahiroglu

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available omorbid psychiatric disorders, frequent hospitalization, multiple outpatient treatment, prior history of hypertension, obesity and lipid dysregulation are associated with higher risk of metabolic syndrome in children. Side effects of antipsychotic drugs and their management have recently become a major subject of research due to enhanced antipsychotic drug usage in child and adolescents. Prevention strategies are usually preferred to secondary or tertiary strategies in the management of metabolic syndrome associated with antipsychotic drugs. Clinicians should present multidisciplinary approach to endocrine and metabolic side effects due to antipsychotic use in pediatric patient groups and avoid multiple drug use in such patients. In this paper, we briefly reviewed metabolic side effects of second generation antipsychotic drugs in child and adolescent population, possible mechanisms of susceptibility to metabolic syndrome and pharmacological and non pharmacological treatment approach to prevention of weight gain.

  5. Topical use of MMC in the upper aerodigestive tract: a review on the side effects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Veen, Egbert J D; Dikkers, Frederik G

    2010-03-01

    Not much is known about the side effects of mitomycin C (MMC), an anti-fibrogenetic agent, in the upper aerodigestive tract. However, its use in ophthalmology is widely known and without quantitatively important side effects. A literature review was performed for side effects of MMC in the upper aerodigestive tract. Forty-six articles, describing the use of MMC to prevent scarring, were retracted from PubMed. Thirty-two are human studies. MMC is used in different concentrations (0.1-10 mg/ml) with different application times (2-5 min) and frequencies (up to 4 times). Five hundred and thirty-eight patients were included in those publications, of whom 19 developed side effects (3.53%). No side effects developed in studies, where post-application irrigation with saline was reported. The longest mean follow-up period is 75.5 months. Direct relations between the reported side effects and MMC seem absent in most studies. Serious complications seem to occur when MMC is used in high concentrations. Unfortunately, sometimes crucial information is lacking. One patient was described who supposedly developed laryngeal carcinoma after repeated treatment of hyperkeratosis and anterior commissure webbing. Animal studies show that excessive fibrin production can lead to acute airway obstruction. In conclusion, topical application of MMC on a wound with consecutive irrigation with saline can be performed safely to prevent scar formation in circular structures of the upper aerodigestive tract. Long-term yearly control of the application site seems advisable.

  6. Knowledge of Psychiatric Nurses About the Potentially Lethal Side-Effects of Clozapine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Hert, Marc; De Beugher, Annelien; Sweers, Kim; Wampers, Martien; Correll, Christoph U; Cohen, Dan

    2016-02-01

    Clozapine is an antipsychotic with superior efficacy in treatment refractory patients, and has unique anti-suicidal properties and a low propensity to cause extrapyramidal side-effects. Despite these advantages, clozapine utilization is low. This can in part be explained by a number of potentially lethal side effects of clozapine. Next to psychiatrists nurses play a crucial role in the long-term management of patients with schizophrenia. It is therefore important that nurses know, inform and monitor patients about the specific side-effects of clozapine. A recent study of psychiatrists published in 2011 has shown that there was a gap in the knowledge about side-effects of clozapine. The knowledge about side-effects of clozapine in nurses has never been studied. This cross-sectional study evaluated the knowledge base regarding the safety of clozapine, and its potential mediators, of psychiatric nurses in 3 psychiatric hospitals in Belgium with a specifically developed questionnaire based on the literature and expert opinion (3 clozapine experts). A total of 85 nurses completed the questionnaire. The mean total score was 6.1 of a potential maximum score of 18. Only 3 of the 18 multiple choice knowledge questions were answered correctly by more than 50% of nurses. Only 24.9% of participants passed the test (>50% correct answers). Nurses working on psychosis units were more likely to pass the test (xx.y% vs yy.z%, p=0.0124). There was a trend that nurses with a lower nursing diploma were more likely to fail the test (p=0.0561). Our study clearly identifies a large gap in the basic knowledge of psychiatric nurses about clozapine and its side-effects. Knowledge could be increased by more emphasis on the topic in nurse's training curricula as well as targeted onsite training. Only 23.5% of participants indicate that there was sufficient information in their basic nursing training. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  7. Parent perceptions of managing child behavioural side-effects of cancer treatment: a qualitative study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williams, L K; McCarthy, M C

    2015-07-01

    Very little research has examined the role of parenting in managing behavioural side-effects of cancer treatment. The purpose of this paper was to explore parent perceptions of (a) parenting in the context of childhood cancer; (b) the parenting strategies used in the context of managing child behavioural side-effects of cancer treatment; and (c) the perceived impact that cancer-specific parenting strategies have on child behaviour. Participants were 15 mothers of children aged 2-6 years in the maintenance phase of treatment for acute lymphoblastic leukaemia at the Royal Children's Hospital Children's Cancer Centre, Melbourne, Australia. Mothers participated in a one-on-one semi-structured telephone interview using an interview guide which included questions on parenting in the context of childhood cancer, specifically in relation to behavioural side-effects (problems with behaviour, sleep and eating) and any perceived impact cancer-specific parenting may have on the ill child. Many parents reported that following their child's cancer diagnosis, they had to implement a suite of 'new' strategies that 'pre-diagnosis' were used only in moderation, if at all. The most salient theme that emerged was parents' perception that their parenting became more lax since their child's diagnosis. Parents further reported specific parenting strategies for each of the main child behavioural side-effects of cancer treatment. Data from the current qualitative exploratory study highlight the role of specific parenting strategies in managing or assisting child behavioural side-effects of cancer treatment. Further quantitative research is needed to more fully examine the association between parenting and child behavioural outcomes in order to develop modifiable approaches to improving child behavioural side-effects in a paediatric oncology context. © 2014 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  8. Preference weights for chemotherapy side effects from the perspective of women with breast cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuchuk, I; Bouganim, N; Beusterien, K; Grinspan, J; Vandermeer, L; Gertler, S; Dent, S F; Song, X; Segal, R; Mazzarello, S; Crawley, F; Dranitsaris, G; Clemons, M

    2013-11-01

    Perceptions among women with breast cancer about the relative importance of different potential chemotherapy side effects is not well understood. A survey was performed by women receiving chemotherapy for breast cancer. Grade I/II (mild to moderate) and III/IV (moderate to severe) descriptions of nine common chemotherapy side effects were assigned preference weights using the standard gamble technique. For each hypothetical side effect, patients could choose to stay in the respective side effect state or take a gamble between full health (probability p) or being dead (1 - p). For each side effect, p was varied until the patient was indifferent between these options. The survey also included questions about the importance of survival, slowing cancer growth, and quality of life. This analysis included 69 patients; mean age 54 years (range 35-84), representing all cancer stages. Standard gamble preferences were lowest (i.e., least preferred) for grade III/IV nausea/vomiting (0.621), indicating that patients would, on average, risk a 38 % chance of being dead to avoid having grade III/IV nausea/vomiting for the rest of their lives. The next least preferred side effects were grade III/IV diarrhea (0.677) and grade III/IV sensory neuropathy (0.694). Survival appeared more important than slowing cancer growth and maintaining quality of life across cancer stages. Nevertheless, patients with advanced disease placed less importance on survival (p = 0.09) and higher importance on quality of life (p = 0.05). These standard gamble utilities provide unique insights into chemotherapy toxicities from the patient perspective. Differences in the relative importance of overall survival and quality of life with treatment existed between patients with different stages of disease. These studies should be expanded as the data may also be used to calculate quality-adjusted life expectancy in cost-effectiveness evaluations of breast cancer chemotherapies.

  9. Autism and Obesity: Co-Occurring Conditions or Drug Side Effects

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-10-01

    AWARD NUMBER: W81XWH-14-1-0374 TITLE: Autism and Obesity: Co-Occurring Conditions or Drug Side Effects? PRINCIPAL INVESTIGATOR: Zohreh...SUBTITLE Autism and Obesity: Co-Occurring Conditions or Drug Side Effects? 5a. CONTRACT NUMBER 5b. GRANT NUMBER W81XWH-14-1-0374 5c. PROGRAM ELEMENT...project is to better understand the relationship between autism and obesity. It is not clear if obesity is co-occurring with autism or is related to

  10. Double-blind controlled study of central nervous system side effects of amantadine, rimantadine, and chlorpheniramine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Millet, V M; Dreisbach, M; Bryson, Y J

    1982-01-01

    A total of 52 healthy, adult volunteers were randomly assigned to five treatment groups to be treated twice daily for 4 days with 100 mg of amantadine, 100 mg of rimantadine, 4 mg of chlorpheniramine or placebo alone, or 100 mg of amantadine in combination with chlorpheniramine. The results of tests measuring performance on tasks of attention, reasoning, and memory were unaffected by treatment. Subjective side effects in recipients of amantadine, rimantadine, and chlorpheniramine were comparable and minimal. Side effects appeared to be enhanced in subjects receiving both amantadine and chlorpheniramine. PMID:7044294

  11. Anti-Stigma HIV-Related Social Advertising: No Evidence for Side Effects on Condom Use.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arendt, Florian; Hauck, Patricia; Mayr, Johanna; Negwer, Flavia

    2017-10-17

    Recent campaigns try to reduce social stigma associated with persons living with HIV. For example, a German campaign raised awareness that infection is unlikely in low-risk day-to-day interactions. Research has yet to show that there are no harmful side effects. This is essential because such messages promote a less threatening picture of HIV and thus may unintentionally increase complacency. We tested the possible side effects on the willingness to have sex without condoms. An experiment was conducted in which participants were exposed to anti-stigma messages or not. Anti-stigma messages did not elicit an increase in the willingness to have sex without condoms.

  12. The Association between Insomnia and Insomnia Treatment Side Effects on Health Status, Work Productivity, and Healthcare Resource Use.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marco DiBonaventura

    Full Text Available The aims of this study were (1 to compare health outcomes (i.e., health-related quality of life [HRQoL], productivity at work, and healthcare resource use visits between those with insomnia and non-insomnia controls, (2 to compare health outcomes between those treated for insomnia and non-insomnia controls, and (3 to assess the prevalence of side effects of insomnia medications and their relationship with health outcomes. Data from the 2013 US (N = 75,000 and 5EU (N = 62,000 National Health and Wellness Survey (NHWS were used. The NHWS is a patient-reported survey administered to a demographically representative sample of adults. Those who met DSM-V criteria for insomnia and, separately, those treated for insomnia were compared with equivalently sized control groups who were identified using a propensity score matching method. Outcomes included HRQoL (Short Form 36v2, productivity at work (Work Productivity and Activity Impairment-General Health questionnaire, and healthcare resource use visits in the past 6 months and were analyzed using one-way ANOVAs. Among those with treated insomnia, those with and without side effects were compared on health outcomes using general linear models controlling for confounding variables. Patients with insomnia (n = 4147 and treated insomnia (n = 2860 in the 5EU reported significantly worse HRQoL than controls (health utilities: 0.60 vs. 0.74; 0.60 vs. 0.74, respectively, greater overall work impairment (38.74% vs. 14.86%; 39.50% vs. 15.66%, and more physician visits in the past 6 months (9.10 vs. 4.08; 9.58 vs. 4.11. Similar findings were observed in the US. Among those treated for insomnia, 13.56% and 24.55% in the US and 5EU, respectively, were non-adherent due to side effects. In the US, non-adherence was associated with significantly worse HRQoL (health utilities: 0.60 vs. 0.64, p <.05 and greater overall work impairment (37.71% vs. 29.08%, p <.05, among other significant differences. These relationships

  13. ITPA Polymorphisms Are Associated with Hematological Side Effects during Antiviral Therapy for Chronic HCV Infection.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Raoel Maan

    Full Text Available Genetic polymorphisms in the inosine triphosphatase (ITPA gene have been associated with the protection from early ribavirin(RBV-induced hemolytic anemia among patients with chronic hepatitis C virus (HCV infection. The aim of the present study was to investigate the association between the functional ITPA variants and hematological side effects during antiviral therapy with pegylated interferon (PegIFN and RBV.This cohort study included all consecutive Caucasian patients treated for chronic HCV infection with PegIFN and RBV between 2000 and 2009 for whom a serum sample was available for genetic testing. The predicted inosine triphosphate pyrophosphatase (ITPase activity was based on the genotypes of the SNPs rs1127354 and rs7270101. Decline in hemoglobin (Hb during antiviral therapy, as well as dose reductions, blood transfusions and use of erythropoietin were assessed.In total, 213 patients were included. The predicted ITPase activity was normal among 152 (71% patients; 61 (29% patients had ITPase deficiency. By multivariable linear regression, RBV dose in mg per kilogram (Beta 0.09, 95%CI 0.04-0.13, p<0.001 and normal ITPase activity (Beta 0.89, 95%CI 0.64-1.14, p<0.001 were associated with more Hb decline at week 4 of treatment. Patients with normal ITPase activity underwent more dose adjustments of RBV than patients with ITPase deficiency (19(13% vs 1(2%,p = 0.014 and received erythropoietin more frequently (12 (8% vs 0 (0%,p = 0.024.Genetic variants in the ITPA gene protected against RBV treatment-induced anemia among Caucasian patients with chronic HCV infection. Patients with normal ITPase activity underwent more dose reductions of RBV and received erythropoietin more frequently.

  14. Human erythrocytes as drug carriers: loading efficiency and side effects of hypotonic dialysis, chlorpromazine treatment and fusion with liposomes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Favretto, M E; Cluitmans, J C A; Bosman, G J C G M; Brock, R

    2013-09-28

    Human red blood cells (RBCs) are emerging as a highly biocompatible microparticulate drug delivery system. So far, drugs have commonly been loaded into freshly isolated RBCs using rather disruptive methods based on hypotonic shock, and assessment of damage was restricted to hemolysis. Here, we investigated loading of RBCs from blood bank units with enzymes of various molecular weights using hypotonic dialysis (HD), pretreatment with chlorpromazine (CPZ) and fusion with liposomes. The latter two techniques have received little attention in RBC loading so far. Along with loading efficiency, all methods were tested for the induction of side effects. Very importantly, next to hemolysis, we also addressed morphological changes and phosphatidyl serine (PS) exposure, which has been recognized as a critical parameter associated with premature RBC removal and induction of transfusion-related pathologies. The efficiency of loading using hypotonic dialysis decreased with the molecular weight of the enzyme. For liposomes and chlorpromazine, loading efficiencies were higher and independent of enzyme molecular weights. While hypotonic dialysis always induced a high degree of hemolysis, irreversible modifications in the morphology of the cells and PS exposure, the side effects that were induced by loading using CPZ and liposomes were limited. In particular, PS exposure, although high immediately after treatment, returned to physiological levels after recovery. Retention and deformability studies using a spleen-mimicking device showed that RBCs treated with CPZ and liposomes behave like physiological RBCs, while HD led to very fragile and poorly deformable RBCs. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  15. Systematic review and metaanalysis of statins for heterozygous familial hypercholesterolemia in children: evaluation of cholesterol changes and side effects.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    O'Gorman, Clodagh S

    2012-02-01

    Heterozygous familial hypercholesterolemia (heFH) affects 1 in 500 individuals. Evidence supports the low-density lipoprotein (LDL)-lowering effect of statins for adults with heFH. However, there are concerns regarding the treatment children with heFH. By performing a systematic review and metaanalysis of the published literature, this study aimed to evaluate the efficacy and safety of statins used for children with heFH. A systematic review was performed by searching multiple medical databases and citations to identify reports of randomized controlled trials of statins used to treat children with heFH. The trials were retrieved, reviewed, and subjected to metaanalysis. The search yielded 2,174 titles. Of the 63 studies retrieved and reviewed, 56 were excluded, 7 were included in the systematic review, and 4 were included in the metaanalysis. Significant heterogeneity was detected. The metaanalysis showed significant LDL lowering, high-density lipoprotein (HDL) cholesterol elevation, and increases in height and weight with statins. The metaanalysis could not be performed for many side effects of statins, but individual trials showed no significant side effects. Quality assessment showed methodologic concerns, with potential for bias. For example, six trials analyzed statin effects without intention to treat despite such a stated intention. Metaanalysis shows significant LDL lowering with statin treatment. Further studies, including epidemiologic and multicenter studies, are required.

  16. side-effects of oral misoprostol in the third stage of labour

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    RANDOMISED PLACEBO-. CONTROLLED TRIAL. G Justus Hofmeyr, V Cheryl Nikodem, Marinda de Jager,. Andrew Drakely. Background. Misoprostol, an irlexpensive, stable, orally active prostaglandirl analogue, has been suggested for use ir1 the prevention of postpartum haemorrhage. Potential side-effects, however ...

  17. Benzodiazepine Behavioral Side Effects: Review and Implications for Individuals with Mental Retardation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kalachnik, John E.; Hanzel, Thomas E.; Sevenich, Robert; Harder, Stuart R.

    2002-01-01

    A literature review found behavioral side effects occurred for 13% of 446 individuals with mental retardation who were prescribed benzodiazepine for either behavioral or psychiatric conditions (n=138, 17.4%), epilepsy (n=20, 15.4%), or other medical conditions such as myoclonus or cerebral palsy (n=100, 2%). Implications of nonrecognition are…

  18. Pharmacokinetic-pharmacodynamic modeling of severity levels of extrapyramidal side effects with markov elements

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Pilla Reddy, V; Petersson, K J; Suleiman, A A; Vermeulen, An; Proost, J H; Friberg, L E

    2012-01-01

    A major problem in the treatment of schizophrenic patients with current antipsychotic drugs, mainly acting as dopamine-2 receptor antagonists, is the occurrence of side effects such as extrapyramidal symptoms (EPS). Meta-analyses of summary data of EPS occurrence, and receptor occupancies inferred

  19. Does contraceptive treatment in wildlife result in side effects? A review of quantitative and anecdotal evidence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gray, Meeghan E; Cameron, Elissa Z

    2010-01-01

    The efficacy of contraceptive treatments has been extensively tested, and several formulations are effective at reducing fertility in a range of species. However, these formulations should minimally impact the behavior of individuals and populations before a contraceptive is used for population manipulation, but these effects have received less attention. Potential side effects have been identified theoretically and we reviewed published studies that have investigated side effects on behavior and physiology of individuals or population-level effects, which provided mixed results. Physiological side effects were most prevalent. Most studies reported a lack of secondary effects, but were usually based on qualitative data or anecdotes. A meta-analysis on quantitative studies of side effects showed that secondary effects consistently occur across all categories and all contraceptive types. This contrasts with the qualitative studies, suggesting that anecdotal reports are insufficient to investigate secondary impacts of contraceptive treatment. We conclude that more research is needed to address fundamental questions about secondary effects of contraceptive treatment and experiments are fundamental to conclusions. In addition, researchers are missing a vital opportunity to use contraceptives as an experimental tool to test the influence of reproduction, sex and fertility on the behavior of wildlife species.

  20. Pharmacy customers' knowledge of side effects of purchased medicines in Mexico

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wirtz, Veronika J.; Taxis, Katja; Dreser, Anahi

    To analyse pharmacy customers' knowledge and information sources about side effects of medicines they purchased and factors associated with this knowledge. Cross-sectional survey and semi-structured interviews with customers of 52 randomly selected community pharmacies in Morelos state, Mexico.

  1. Compliance and side effects of prophylactic oseltamivir treatment in a school in South West England.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wallensten, A; Oliver, I; Lewis, D; Harrison, S

    2009-07-30

    School closure along with mass prophylactic oseltamivir treatment of pupils have been used in England and elsewhere to contain school outbreaks of influenza A(H1N1)v. We evaluated the protective effect, compliance with and side effects of oseltamivir chemoprophylactic treatment with a ten-day course of 1x 75mg given to 11-12-year-old pupils in one school year in a secondary school in South West England closed for ten days in response to a symptomatic laboratory-confirmed pupil. We distributed a questionnaire to pupils in the affected school year in class after the school had re-opened. Questions included symptoms of flu-like illness, compliance with chemoprophylaxis and side effects. All present on the day, 248 (93.2%) participated. Compliance with chemoprophylaxis was high, 77% took the full course, 91% took at least seven days. Fifty-one percent experienced symptoms such as feeling sick (31.2%), headaches (24.3%) and stomach ache (21.1%). Although some children were ill with flu-like symptoms, those tested did not have A(H1N1)v infection. Compliance with oseltamivir chemoprophylaxis was high, although likely side effects were common. The burden of side effects needs to be considered when deciding on mass oseltamivir chemoprophylaxis in children especially given that the symptoms of A(H1N1)v influenza are generally mild.

  2. Side-effects of cowpea treatment with botanical insecticides on two parasitoids of Callosobruchus maculatus

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Boeke, S.J.; Sinzogan, A.A.C.; Almeida, de R.P.; Boer, de P.W.M.; Jeong, G.S.; Kossou, D.K.; Loon, van J.J.A.

    2003-01-01

    Studies on the protective effect of botanical products against pest insects have infrequently been extended to side-effects on natural enemies. Indirect effects of botanicals on the storability of seeds could occur through their possible negative impact on biological control agents. Four plant

  3. Supplementation with Vitamin B6 Reduces Side Effects in Cambodian Women Using Oral Contraception

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chivorn Var

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Hormonal contraceptives may produce side effects that deter women from their use as a method of family planning. In nutritionally vulnerable populations these effects may be more pronounced due to micronutrient deficiencies and health status. Previous studies have been unable to resolve whether micronutrient supplementation may reduce such side effects. Aim: In a longitudinal study, 1011 women obtaining oral contraception through the public health system in rural Cambodia were allocated to either intervention or control groups, receiving either daily Vitamin B6 supplement or care as usual (without placebo. Results: The intervention participants (n = 577 reported fewer side effects in three categories: nausea/no appetite, headache, and depression compared with control group participants (n = 434. Conclusion: Women taking Vitamin B6 supplement were less likely to report side effects in a nutritionally vulnerable population. Underlying nutrition status should be considered by clinicians and reproductive health policy makers in the context of providing contraceptive services. Further investigation into micronutrient supplementation, particularly with B6, in reproductive-aged women using hormonal contraception should be conducted in other settings to determine the potential for widespread adoption.

  4. Local therapeutic efficacy with reduced systemic side effects by rapamycin-loaded subcapsular microspheres

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Falke, Lucas L.; van Vuuren, Stefan H.; Kazazi-Hyseni, Filis; Ramazani, Farshad; Nguyan, Tri Q.; Veldhuis, Gert J.; Maarseveen, Erik M.; Zandstra, Jurjen; Zuidema, Johan; Duque, Luisa F.; Steendam, Rob; Popa, Eliane R.; Kok, Robbert Jan; Goldschmeding, Roe

    Kidney injury triggers fibrosis, the final common pathway of chronic kidney disease (CKD). The increase of CKD prevalence worldwide urgently calls for new therapies. Available systemic treatment such as rapamycin are associated with serious side effects. To study the potential of local antifibrotic

  5. The incidence, management, and evolution of rapamycin-related side effects in kidney transplant recipients

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Verhave, J.C.; Boucher, A.; Dandavino, R.; Collette, S.; Senecal, L.; Hebert, M.J.; Girardin, C.; Cardinal, H.

    2014-01-01

    Conversion from a calcineurin-inhibitor-based immunosuppression to a rapamycin-based immunosuppression may preserve kidney graft function. The side effects of rapamycin can limit its usefulness, but their management and evolution are rarely reported in clinical trials. We performed a retrospective

  6. Impact of brand or generic labeling on medication effectiveness and side effects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Faasse, Kate; Martin, Leslie R; Grey, Andrew; Gamble, Greg; Petrie, Keith J

    2016-02-01

    Branding medication with a known pharmaceutical company name or product name bestows on the drug an added assurance of authenticity and effectiveness compared to a generic preparation. This study examined the impact of brand name and generic labeling on medication effectiveness and side effects. 87 undergraduate students with frequent headaches took part in the study. Using a within-subjects counterbalanced design, each participant took tablets labeled either as brand name "Nurofen" or "Generic Ibuprofen" to treat each of 4 headaches. In reality, half of the tablets were placebos, and half were active ibuprofen (400 mg). Participants recorded their headache pain on a verbal descriptor and visual analogue scale prior to taking the tablets, and again 1 hour afterward. Medication side effects were also reported. Pain reduction following the use of brand name labeled tablets was similar in active ibuprofen or a placebo. However, if the tablets had a generic label, placebo tablets were significantly less effective compared to active ibuprofen. Fewer side effects were attributed to placebo tablets with brand name labeling compared to the same placebo tablets with a generic label. Branding of a tablet appears to have conferred a treatment benefit in the absence of an active ingredient, while generic labeled tablets were substantially less effective if they contained no active ingredient. Branding is also associated with reduced attribution of side effects to placebo tablets. Future interventions to improve perceptions of generics may have utility in improving treatment outcomes from generic drugs. (c) 2016 APA, all rights reserved).

  7. Of ants and men the unexpected side effects of complexity in society

    CERN Document Server

    Green, David G

    2014-01-01

    Why do things go wrong? Why, despite all the planning and care in the world, do things go from bad to worse? This book argues that it is because we are like the ants. Just as ants create an anthill without being aware of it, unintended side effects of human activity create all manner of social trends and crises. The book traces the way these trends emerge and the role they play in some of the major issues of our time. One of the greatest challenges today is the complexity of our social and economic systems. Every action has side effects that people often ignore or fail to see. The book examines the ways in which limitations in our thinking and behaviour lead to unintended side effects. It looks at the role played by complex networks of interactions. Finally, it looks at the way side effects of new technologies, especially computers and communication, have created an Information Revolution, the full repercussions of which are yet to be seen. In our race to create new technologies and sustain indefinite economi...

  8. Sexual side effects in patients using long-acting depot antipsychotics

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Swart, Marte; De Boer, M.K.; Wiersma, Durk; Schoevers, Robert; Knegtering, Henderikus

    2014-01-01

    Background: Sexual dysfunction in patients with schizophrenia may be related to the disease itself, as well as to psychosocial factors, physical health and the use of psychotropic medications. Sexual side effects have a considerable impact on quality of life and are a major factor in non-adherence

  9. Monitoring Metabolic Side Effects of Atypical Antipsychotics in People with an Intellectual Disability

    Science.gov (United States)

    Teeluckdharry, Sadira; Sharma, Sujit; O'Rourke, Elizabeth; Tharian, Priyanka; Gondalekar, Anjali; Nainar, Feroz; Roy, Meera

    2013-01-01

    This audit was undertaken prospectively to examine the compliance of a group of psychiatrists against guidelines they developed for monitoring the onset of metabolic syndrome, a potential side effect of antipsychotic medication, especially second generation or atypical ones. Phase 1 of the audit was to set standards by a questionnaire survey of…

  10. Side effects after radiotherapy of age-related macular degeneration with the Nijmegen technique.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hoyng, C.B.; Tromp, A.I.; Meulendijks, C.F.M.; Leys, A.; Maazen, R.W.M. van der; Deutman, A.F.; Vingerling, J.R.

    2002-01-01

    BACKGROUND: In a randomized trial concerning radiotherapy for age-related macular degeneration, fluorescein angiograms were taken of controls and patients. In this study the frequency of side effects in eyes receiving radiotherapy with the Nijmegen technique is compared with the findings in the eyes

  11. Side Effects of Radiation in Bone and Cartilage: An FT-IR Analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mavrogenis, Andreas F; Megaloikonomos, Panayiotis D; Panagopoulos, George N; Papagelopoulos, Panayiotis J; Theophanides, Theofilos; Anastassopoulou, Jane

    2015-01-01

    Although radiation therapy is an essential treatment of cancers, it is associated with unwanted complications. The purpose of this review is to summarize the current knowledge regarding the side effects of radiation in bone and articular cartilage and to recommend Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy to monitor the differences in infrared spectra between healthy and irradiated bone and cartilage.

  12. Age-related differences in renal side-effects of radiation and chemotherapy in the rat

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    M.H.T.M. Jongejan (Mieke)

    1988-01-01

    textabstractThe improved life-expectancy of cancer patient has brought to light late sequelae of oncology therapy. This is especially true for pediatric patients. Renal damage is one of the adverse side-effects of anti-tumor therapy that may occur. Studies conceming damaging effects of

  13. Psychotropic Drug Efficacy and Side Effects for Persons with Autism Spectrum Disorders

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matson, Johnny L.; Hess, Julie A.

    2011-01-01

    Pharmacotherapy is a frequently employed treatment option in the area of autism spectrum disorders (ASD). A considerable literature base has developed indicating when these medications should or could be administered. However, research on the potential side effects and cost benefit analysis of these treatments is not well understood at this time.…

  14. Positive Side Effects of a Job-Related Training Program for Older Adults in South Korea

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Minhong; Choi, Jae-Sung

    2012-01-01

    The objective of the current study was to evaluate empirically positive side effects of a job-related training program on older adults' self-esteem, depression, and social networks. A total of 70 older adults participated in the study after completing the Older Paraprofessional Training Program developed and provided by the Continuing Education…

  15. The role of hypothalamic pathways in the metabolic side effects of Olanzapine

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Girault, E.M.

    2013-01-01

    Atypical antipsychotic drugs such as Olanzapine (Ola) induce weight gain and metabolic changes associated with the development of type 2 diabetes. The mechanisms underlying these undesired side effects are currently unknown. In this thesis, we showed that both acute and chronic administration of Ola

  16. Hexafluorenium : a clinically useful anticholinesterase to extend the action of succinylcholine without muscarinic side-effects

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Scaf, Arnoldus Henricus Joseph

    1974-01-01

    The study presented here was meant to give a decisive explanation for the synergism between hexafluorenium and succinylcho line. However, if inhibition of cholinesterase plays an important part, then the mildness or even the absence of muscarinic side-effects as reported by many authors is

  17. Clinical management of clozapine patients in relation to efficacy and side-effects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Naber, D; Holzbach, R; Perro, C; Hippius, H

    1992-05-01

    Medical charts of 480 schizophrenic in-patients (581 treatments) were analysed to evaluate the efficacy and side-effects of clozapine. Clozapine treatment lasted for mean 49 (s.d. 38) days. Of the sample, 11.0% showed worsening or no change, 31.5% slight improvement, 53.0% marked improvement and 4.5% almost total reduction of symptoms. At least one major side-effect occurred in 68.0% of patients. A combination of clozapine with classical neuroleptics, antidepressants, benzodiazepines or lithium is tolerated by most patients, but increases the incidence of some side-effects. Clozapine treatment had to be discontinued because of severe side-effects in 8.6% of patients. In 81 schizophrenic out-patients, clozapine significantly reduced the days of in-patient treatment and number of hospital readmissions. Two patients developed leucopenia but had no complications after clozapine withdrawal. This study indicates a satisfactory benefit/risk ratio and compliance in most of the patients.

  18. Chemotherapy-Related Side Effects in Childhood Acute Lymphoblastic Leukemia in Indonesia: Parental Perceptions

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sitaresmi, M.N.; Mostert, S.; Purwanto, I.; Gundy, C.; Sutaryo, N.N.; Veerman, A.J.P.

    2009-01-01

    Noncompliance with prescribed medication has been associated with increased chance of relapse and poor outcome. Side effects may be an important cause of noncompliance. Fifty-one parents of children with acute lymphoblastic leukemia in a tertiary care hospital in Indonesia were interviewed about

  19. Tremor side effects of salbutamol, quantified by a laser pointer technique.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Nizet, T.A.C.; Broeders, M.E.A.C.; Folgering, H.T.M.

    2004-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To study tremor side effects of salbutamol an easily applicable, quick and low-priced method is needed. A new method using a commercially available, pen-shaped laser pointer was developed. Aim of the study was to determine sensitivity, reproducibility, reference values and the agreement

  20. Side-effects of oral misoprostol in the third stage of labour – a ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background. Misoprostol, an irlexpensive, stable, orally active prostaglandirl analogue, has been suggested for use in the prevention of postpartum haemorrhage. Potential side-effects, however, need to be quantified. Objective. To compare the rate of postpartum shivering and pyrexia following oral misoprostol 600 pg and ...

  1. Impact of duration of therapy on side effect profile of anti- HCV protocol

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Purpose: To evaluate the plausible risks and adverse effects related to the duration of therapy in hepatitis C (HCV) patients in ... Results: Patients who underwent treatment for ≤ 6 months frequently encountered side-effects such as. GIT disturbance (23.77 .... in both the arms include, respiratory tract infection (≤ 6 months ...

  2. A review of safety, side-effects and subjective reactions to intranasal oxytocin in human research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    MacDonald, Elayne; Dadds, Mark R; Brennan, John L; Williams, Katrina; Levy, Florence; Cauchi, Avril J

    2011-09-01

    Human research investigating the impact of intranasal oxytocin on psychological processes has accelerated over the last two decades. No review of side effects, subjective reactions and safety is available. A systematic review of 38 randomised controlled trials conducted between 1990 and 2010 that investigated the central effects of intranasal oxytocin was undertaken. A systematic search for reports of adverse reactions involving intranasal oxytocin was also completed. Since 1990, research trials have reported on N=1529 (79% male) of which 8% were participants with developmental or mental health difficulties. Dosages ranged from 18 to 40 IU, mainly in single doses but ranged up to 182 administrations. Diverse methods have been used to screen and exclude participants, monitor side effects and subject reactions. Side effects are not different between oxytocin and placebo and participants are unable to accurately report on whether they have received oxytocin and placebo. Three case reports of adverse reactions due to misuse and longer-term use of intranasal oxytocin were reported. The evidence shows that intranasal oxytocin: (1) produces no detectable subjective changes in recipients, (2) produces no reliable side-effects, and (3) is not associated with adverse outcomes when delivered in doses of 18-40 IU for short term use in controlled research settings. Future research directions should include a focus on the dosage and duration of use, and application with younger age groups, vulnerable populations, and with females. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Side Effects of Minocycline Treatment in Patients with Fragile X Syndrome and Exploration of Outcome Measures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Utari, Agustini; Chonchaiya, Weerasak; Rivera, Susan M.; Schneider, Andrea; Hagerman, Randi J.; Faradz, Sultana M. H.; Ethell, Iryna M.; Nguyen, Danh V.

    2010-01-01

    Minocycline can rescue the dendritic spine and synaptic structural abnormalities in the fragile X knock-out mouse. This is a review and preliminary survey to document side effects and potential outcome measures for minocycline use in the treatment of individuals with fragile X syndrome. We surveyed 50 patients with fragile X syndrome who received…

  4. Treatment side effects and follow-up of malignant melanoma; Therapienebenwirkungen und Nachsorge bei malignem Melanom

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stahl, T. [Klinikum der Stadt Ludwigshafen gGmbH, Zentralinstitut fuer diagnostische und interventionelle Radiologie, Ludwigshafen (Germany); Loquai, C. [Universitaetsmedizin der Johannes-Gutenberg Universitaet Mainz, Hautklinik und Poliklinik, Mainz (Germany)

    2015-01-30

    Side effects in the therapy of malignant melanoma are primarily of importance for radiologists in advanced tumor stages. The available treatment options and their respective side effect profiles have undergone a profound change in recent years after the introduction of modern oncological therapies (e.g. immunotherapy and targeted therapy) with an increasing focus on individual tumor biology and differ significantly from those of classical chemotherapy. The immunotherapeutic agents, in particular ipilimumab, take on a special position because of their specific immune-mediated mechanisms of action and the associated side effects, so-called immune-related adverse events (irAE). The majority of the treatment effects are manifested on the skin (> 50 %) and are generally not detectable by diagnostic radiology. Only a comparatively small proportion of treatment side effects is detectable with diagnostic imaging (15-20 %) but as in the example of therapy-induced colitis with ipilimumab, may be rapidly fatal. In addition to colitis (10-20 %) further therapy side effects apparent in diagnostic imaging are hypophysitis (1.8-17 %), thyroiditis (0.8 %), myositis (1.7 %), fasciitis and sarcoid-like lymph node alterations (6.8 %). To detect radiologically detectable side effects early on and to delineate them especially from tumor progression and (opportunistic) infections, detailed knowledge of the therapeutic methods for melanoma, the mechanisms of action and in particular the sometimes very specific side effects is imperative for radiologists. (orig.) [German] Nebenwirkungen der Therapie des malignen Melanoms sind fuer den Radiologen primaer in fortgeschrittenen Tumorstadien von Bedeutung. Die zur Verfuegung stehenden Therapieoptionen und ihre jeweiligen Nebenwirkungsprofile haben sich in den letzten Jahren nach Einfuehrung moderner onkologischer Therapieoptionen, die sich zunehmend an der individuellen Tumorbiologie orientieren (zielgerichtete Therapie, Immuntherapie), einem

  5. An Internet-based survey on characteristics of laser tattoo removal and associated side effects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klein, Annette; Rittmann, Ines; Hiller, Karl-Anton; Landthaler, Michael; Bäumler, Wolfgang

    2014-03-01

    Tattoo removal by laser therapy is a frequently performed procedure in dermatological practices. Quality-switched ruby, alexandrite, or Nd:YAG lasers are the most suitable treatment devices. Although these techniques are regarded as safe, both temporary and permanent side effects might occur. Little has been published on the frequency of complications associated with laser tattoo removal. We performed an Internet survey in German-speaking countries on characteristics of laser tattoo removal and associated side effects. A total number of 157 questionnaires entered the final analysis. Motivations for laser tattoo removal were mainly considering the tattoo as youthful folly (29%), esthetic reasons (28%), and 6% indicated medical problems. One third of participants were unsatisfied with the result of laser tattoo removal, and a complete removal of the tattoo pigment was obtained in 38% only. Local transient side effects occurred in nearly all participants, but an important rate of slightly visible scars (24%) or even important scarring (8%) was reported. Every fourth participant described mild or intense tan when the laser treatment was performed, and the same number of people indicated UV exposure following laser therapy, which should normally be avoided in these circumstances. As reported in the literature, nearly half of the participants experienced hypopigmentation in the treated area. Our results show that from the patients' point of view there is an important rate of side effects occurring after laser tattoo removal. Appropriate pretreatment counseling with regard to realistic expectations, possible side effects, and the application of test spots is mandatory to ensure patient satisfaction. Laser treatment should be performed by appropriately trained personnel only.

  6. PREVENTION OF CUTANEOUS SIDE EFFECTS OF TOPICAL TRETINOIN: USE OF ORAL VITAMINE E

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G FAGHIHI

    2001-03-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Acne vulgaris is an inflammatory disease of pilosebaceous folicles. Tretinoin is used as one of the topical treatments for acne vulgaris. It has different cutaneous side effects such as erythema, scaling, irritation and photosensitivity. The aim of this study was to evaluate the efficacy of oral Vitamine E in preventing the cutaneous side effects of topical tretinoin in acne patients.
    Methods: A clinical trial was performed in AI-Zahra Hospital in Isfahan for six months in 2000. 80 patients with mild to moderate facial acne were randomized into 2 groups. Group 1 (controls received topical solution of tretinoin 0.05 percent nightly and group 2 (cases received daily oral 100mg of Vit. E in addition. All patients were followed at 1, 4 and 6 weeks after initiation of treatment. Children under 12 years old, pregnant or lactating women were excluded.
    Results: At the end of one week, no cutaneous side effects were observed in 25 percent (10 of group 1 and 15 percent (6 of group 2 (P > 0.05. At the end of 4 weeks, 25 percent (10 of group 1 and 60 percent (24 of group 2 were without any cutaneous complications, while at the end of 6 weeks, 35 percent (14 of group 1 in comparison to 75 percent (30 of group 2 were free of any cutaneous side effects (P < 0.05. The most common side effect in both groups was exfoliation.
    Discussion: Daily oral 100 mg of Vit. E has been effective in preventing cutaneous complications of topical tretinoin in acne management, but there is a delay of one week in its onset of action. Meanwhile, Vitamine E is a safe modality with no undesirable effects in acne patients.

  7. Balancing opioid-induced gastrointestinal side effects with pain management: Insights from the online community.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Whitman, Cynthia B; Reid, Mark W; Arnold, Corey; Patel, Haridarshan; Ursos, Lyann; Sa'adon, Roee; Pourmorady, Jonathan; Spiegel, Brennan M R

    2015-01-01

    Opioids cause gastrointestinal (GI) symptoms such as nausea, vomiting, pain, and (in 40 percent) constipation that diminish patients' quality of life. Outside traditional surveys, little is known about the opioid-induced constipation (OIC) patient experience and its impact on pain management. The purpose of this study was to use data from social media platforms to qualitatively examine patient beliefs about OIC and other prominent GI side effects, their impact on effective pain management and doctor-patient interaction. The authors collected Tweets from March 25 to July 31, 2014, and e-forum posts from health-related social networking sites regardless of timestamp. The authors identified specific keywords related to opioids and GI side effects to locate relevant content in the dataset, which was then manually coded using ATLAS.ti software. The authors examined 2,519,868 Tweets and more than 1.8 billion e-forum posts, of which, 88,586 Tweets and 9,767 posts satisfied the search criteria. Three thousand three individuals experienced opioidinduced GI side effects, mostly related to phenanthrenes (n = 1,589), and 1,274 (42.4 percent) individuals described constipation. Over-the-counter medications and nonevidence-based natural approaches were most commonly used to alleviate constipation. Many individuals questioned, rotated, reduced, or stopped their opioid treatments as a result of their GI side effects. Investigation of social media reveals a struggle to balance pain management with opioid-induced GI side effects, especially constipation. Individuals are often unprepared to treat OIC, to modify opioid regiments without medical advice, and to resort to using natural remedies and treatments lacking scientific evidence of effectiveness. These results identify opportunities to improve physician-patient communication and explore effective treatment alternatives.

  8. Vascular Age as a Predictor of Side Effects After Facial Lipofilling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tepavcevic, Brakica; Radak, Djordje; Jovanovic, Milan; Radak, Sandra; Tepavcevic, Darija Kisic

    2017-06-01

    Vascular age (VA) represents chronological age adjusted for an individual's atherosclerotic burden. Keeping in mind the fact that facial vascularization could influence the success of esthetic interventions, we aimed to investigate the predictive value of VA in development of side effects following facial lipofilling. In the period from October 1, 2014, to October 1, 2015, 106 consecutive subjects who underwent a facial lipofilling were included in the study. The VA was calculated using two approaches: Systematic Coronary Risk Evaluation (SCORE) project equations and means of vascular parameters assessed by color duplex sonographic examinations. The data regarding facial lipofilling-related complications (pain, edema and/or hematoma) have been collected during the regular checkups over 2 weeks after intervention. The average chronological age of the participants was 50.9 ± 9.4 years. Estimation of VA using vascular sonographic parameters revealed the value of 45.4 ± 29.1 years, whereas the assessment of VA using SCORE equations showed that the mean age was 53.7 ± 12.7 (p = 0.006). The total frequency of these complications was as follows: 6.6% for hematoma, 15.1% for edema (13.2% mild edema and 1.9% severe edema) and 20.8% for local facial pain (17.0% mild pain and 3.8% severe pain). The multivariate logistic regression models showed that VA had statistically significant (p < 0.01) independent prognostic value for facial lipofilling-related appearance of hematoma and pain. The results of our study revealed that advanced VA has an independent predictive role in the appearance of complications following facial plastic surgery. This journal requires that authors assign a level of evidence to each article. For a full description of these Evidence-Based Medicine ratings, please refer to the Table of Contents or the online Instructions to Authors www.springer.com/00266 .

  9. Coping with side effects from cancer treatment in daily life from the perspective of cancer patients: A qualitative empirical study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, Birgith; Koktved, Dorte Pallesen; Nielsen, Lene Lyngø

    their identity but the side effects can control the daily life. Patients do not always possess the knowledge of how to handle the side effects and adaptation to the institutional efficiency can lead to lack of confidence and feelings of responsibility and guilt concerning coping with these side effects......Aim The aim of this paper is to deepen our understanding of how patients cope with side effects from cancer treatment in daily life. Background Patients receiving cancer treatment experience acute side effects and need individualized information and guidance in order to manage treatment......-related adverse events in everyday life. However development in cancer treatment and the societal demands for efficiency may limit the possibility for individualized support. Methods Nine patients were interviewed from March to July 2009 to explore the patients’ experience of coping with side effects in daily...

  10. Fractionation Spares Mice From Radiation-Induced Reductions in Weight Gain But Does Not Prevent Late Oligodendrocyte Lineage Side Effects

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Begolly, Sage [Department of Environmental Medicine, University of Rochester School of Medicine and Dentistry, Rochester, New York (United States); Shrager, Peter G. [Department of Neuroscience, University of Rochester School of Medicine and Dentistry, Rochester, New York (United States); Department of Pharmacology and Physiology, University of Rochester School of Medicine and Dentistry, Rochester, New York (United States); Olschowka, John A. [Department of Neuroscience, University of Rochester School of Medicine and Dentistry, Rochester, New York (United States); Williams, Jacqueline P. [Department of Environmental Medicine, University of Rochester School of Medicine and Dentistry, Rochester, New York (United States); Department of Radiation Oncology, University of Rochester School of Medicine and Dentistry, Rochester, New York (United States); O' Banion, M. Kerry, E-mail: Kerry_OBanion@URMC.Rochester.edu [Department of Neuroscience, University of Rochester School of Medicine and Dentistry, Rochester, New York (United States); Department of Neurology, University of Rochester School of Medicine and Dentistry, Rochester, New York (United States)

    2016-10-01

    Purpose: To determine the late effects of fractionated versus single-dose cranial radiation on murine white matter. Methods and Materials: Mice were exposed to 0 Gy, 6 × 6 Gy, or 1 × 20 Gy cranial irradiation at 10 to 12 weeks of age. Endpoints were assessed through 18 months from exposure using immunohistochemistry, electron microscopy, and electrophysiology. Results: Weight gain was temporarily reduced after irradiation; greater loss was seen after single versus fractionated doses. Oligodendrocyte progenitor cells were reduced early and late after both single and fractionated irradiation. Both protocols also increased myelin g-ratio, reduced the number of nodes of Ranvier, and promoted a shift in the proportion of small, unmyelinated versus large, myelinated axon fibers. Conclusions: Fractionation does not adequately spare normal white matter from late radiation side effects.

  11. Consumption of energy drinks among lebanese youth: a pilot study on the prevalence and side effects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Itany, Manal; Diab, Batoul; Rachidi, Samar; Awada, Sanaa; Al Hajje, Amal; Bawab, Wafaa; Salameh, Pascale

    2014-09-01

    The new millennium has been together with a variety of synthetic and caffeinated high-energy drinks targeting the youth market. Energy drinks raise the level of energy and their consumption has been increased significantly worldwide. This research aimed to determine patterns of energy drink consumption and to assess the prevalence of adverse side effects among energy drink users. A pilot cross-sectional study survey was undertaken on students aged between 13 and 30 years in private and public schools and universities in Lebanon over 5 months. A self-administered questionnaire was used inquiring about sociodemographic characteristics, consumption patterns, attitudes and beliefs about energy drinks. Bivariate and multivariate analyses were conducted. Data was analyzed using SPSS 17. We studied 1500 students (mean age: 18.92 ± 1.85; 51.3% were males). The overall prevalence of energy drinks consumption was 63.6% (60.5% were males), among which 50.5% used alcoholic energy drinks. Respondents indicated that most consumed energy drinks were "Red Bull" and "Boom Boom" (70.9% and 51.5% respectively). In total, 64.5% of participants believed the effect of these drinks in energizing the body, and 72.7% believed that they can stimulate intellectual capacities. In addition, 29.6% of consumers experienced at least one adverse effect, where tachycardia was reported in 21.1% of cases. On the other hand, desired effects felt after consumption were mostly pleasure (33.8%). Males had a 3-time more risk of consuming such drinks compared to females (OR: 0.381, P energy drinks consumption and regions outside Beirut (OR: 1.401, P: 0.006; 95% CI: 1.103-1.781), medical field of work (OR: 0.376, P: 0.010; 95% CI: 0.179-0.790) and higher personal income (OR: 1.317, P energy drinks consumption among youth. The current results highlight the importance of education to prevent the consumption of energy drinks in excessive quantities and modifying some wrong perceptions regarding the benefits

  12. Side effects of pharmacotherapy on bone with long-acting gonadorelin agonist triptorelin for paraphilia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoogeveen, John; Van der Veer, Eveline

    2008-03-01

    There have been limited research studies concerning the use of libido inhibitors for the treatment of patients with a paraphilia. Observational studies suggest that agents that lower testosterone are an effective treatment for paraphilia. We report a case of hormonal treatment of paraphilia that was associated with side effects. A 35-year-old man with a paraphilia was treated with long-acting gonadorelin. The desired result was reduced preoccupation with sexuality, but there were various side effects including a serious amount of bone loss. We believe that more attention should be given to the adverse effects of long-term treatment with triptorelin. In our view the drug regime needs to be revised.

  13. Herbal Medicines for the Treatment of Cancer Chemotherapy-Induced Side Effects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shunsuke eOhnishi

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Accumulating evidence suggests that Japanese herbal medicines, called Kampo, have beneficial effects on cancer chemotherapy-induced side effects. Rikkunshito ameliorates cisplatin-induced anorexia through an antagonistic effect on the 5-HT receptors and by increasing the serum ghrelin levels. Hangeshashinto improves irinotecan-induced diarrhea and chemotherapy-induced mucositis by inhibiting the activity of β-glucuronidase as well as the synthesis of prostaglandin E2. Goshajinkigan prevents oxaliplatin-induced neurotoxicity, possibly through suppressing functional alterations of the transient receptor potential (TRP channels. In this review, we will summarize the currently available literature regarding the clinical efficacy and potential mechanisms of Kampo medicines in the treatment of cancer chemotherapy-induced side effects.

  14. Pesticide Side Effects in an Agricultural Soil Ecosystem as Measured by amoA Expression Quantification and Bacterial Diversity Changes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feld, Louise; Hjelmsø, Mathis Hjort; Nielsen, Morten Schostag; Jacobsen, Anne Dorthe; Rønn, Regin; Ekelund, Flemming; Krogh, Paul Henning; Strobel, Bjarne Westergaard; Jacobsen, Carsten Suhr

    2015-01-01

    Assessing the effects of pesticide hazards on microbiological processes in the soil is currently based on analyses that provide limited insight into the ongoing processes. This study proposes a more comprehensive approach. The side effects of pesticides may appear as changes in the expression of specific microbial genes or as changes in diversity. To assess the impact of pesticides on gene expression, we focused on the amoA gene, which is involved in ammonia oxidation. We prepared soil microcosms and exposed them to dazomet, mancozeb or no pesticide. We hypothesized that the amount of amoA transcript decreases upon pesticide application, and to test this hypothesis, we used reverse-transcription qPCR. We also hypothesized that bacterial diversity is affected by pesticides. This hypothesis was investigated via 454 sequencing and diversity analysis of the 16S ribosomal RNA and RNA genes, representing the active and total soil bacterial communities, respectively. Treatment with dazomet reduced both the bacterial and archaeal amoA transcript numbers by more than two log units and produced long-term effects for more than 28 days. Mancozeb also inhibited the numbers of amoA transcripts, but only transiently. The bacterial and archaeal amoA transcripts were both sensitive bioindicators of pesticide side effects. Additionally, the numbers of bacterial amoA transcripts correlated with nitrate production in N-amended microcosms. Dazomet reduced the total bacterial numbers by one log unit, but the population size was restored after twelve days. The diversity of the active soil bacteria also seemed to be re-established after twelve days. However, the total bacterial diversity as reflected in the 16S ribosomal RNA gene sequences was largely dominated by Firmicutes and Proteobacteria at day twelve, likely reflecting a halt in the growth of early opportunists and the re-establishment of a more diverse population. We observed no effects of mancozeb on diversity.

  15. Pesticide Side Effects in an Agricultural Soil Ecosystem as Measured by amoA Expression Quantification and Bacterial Diversity Changes.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Louise Feld

    Full Text Available Assessing the effects of pesticide hazards on microbiological processes in the soil is currently based on analyses that provide limited insight into the ongoing processes. This study proposes a more comprehensive approach. The side effects of pesticides may appear as changes in the expression of specific microbial genes or as changes in diversity. To assess the impact of pesticides on gene expression, we focused on the amoA gene, which is involved in ammonia oxidation. We prepared soil microcosms and exposed them to dazomet, mancozeb or no pesticide. We hypothesized that the amount of amoA transcript decreases upon pesticide application, and to test this hypothesis, we used reverse-transcription qPCR. We also hypothesized that bacterial diversity is affected by pesticides. This hypothesis was investigated via 454 sequencing and diversity analysis of the 16S ribosomal RNA and RNA genes, representing the active and total soil bacterial communities, respectively.Treatment with dazomet reduced both the bacterial and archaeal amoA transcript numbers by more than two log units and produced long-term effects for more than 28 days. Mancozeb also inhibited the numbers of amoA transcripts, but only transiently. The bacterial and archaeal amoA transcripts were both sensitive bioindicators of pesticide side effects. Additionally, the numbers of bacterial amoA transcripts correlated with nitrate production in N-amended microcosms. Dazomet reduced the total bacterial numbers by one log unit, but the population size was restored after twelve days. The diversity of the active soil bacteria also seemed to be re-established after twelve days. However, the total bacterial diversity as reflected in the 16S ribosomal RNA gene sequences was largely dominated by Firmicutes and Proteobacteria at day twelve, likely reflecting a halt in the growth of early opportunists and the re-establishment of a more diverse population. We observed no effects of mancozeb on diversity.

  16. Minimizing quality deteriorations of refrigerated foodstuffs as a side effect of defrosting

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Cai, Junping; Stoustrup, Jakob

    2008-01-01

    This paper proposes an optimization scheme for traditional refrigeration systems with hysteresis controllers and scheduled defrosts. It aims at minimizing the side effect of defrost cycles on the storage quality of refrigerated foodstuffs in supermarkets. By utilizing the thermal mass of air...... and products inside a display cabinet, this optimization scheme forces the compressor to work harder and cool down more prior to the scheduled defrosts, thus guaranteeing the product temperature after defrost cycles still to be within a controlled safe level....

  17. R-ketamine: a rapid-onset and sustained antidepressant without psychotomimetic side effects

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, C; Shirayama, Y; Zhang, J-c; Ren, Q; Yao, W; Ma, M; Dong, C; Hashimoto, K

    2015-01-01

    Although the efficacy of racemate ketamine, a rapid onset and sustained antidepressant, for patients with treatment-resistant depression was a serendipitous finding, clinical use of ketamine is limited, due to psychotomimetic side effects and abuse liability. Behavioral and side-effect evaluation tests were applied to compare the two stereoisomers of ketamine. To elucidate their potential therapeutic mechanisms, we examined the effects of these stereoisomers on brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF)–TrkB signaling, and synaptogenesis in selected brain regions. In the social defeat stress and learned helplessness models of depression, R-ketamine showed a greater potency and longer-lasting antidepressant effect than S-ketamine (esketamine). Furthermore, R-ketamine induced a more potent beneficial effect on decreased dendritic spine density, BDNF–TrkB signaling and synaptogenesis in the prefrontal cortex (PFC), CA3 and dentate gyrus (DG) of the hippocampus from depressed mice compared with S-ketamine. However, neither stereoisomer affected these alterations in the nucleus accumbens of depressed mice. In behavioral tests for side effects, S-ketamine, but not R-ketamine, precipitated behavioral abnormalities, such as hyperlocomotion, prepulse inhibition deficits and rewarding effects. In addition, a single dose of S-ketamine, but not R-ketamine, caused a loss of parvalbumin (PV)-positive cells in the prelimbic region of the medial PFC and DG. These findings suggest that, unlike S-ketamine, R-ketamine can elicit a sustained antidepressant effect, mediated by increased BDNF–TrkB signaling and synaptogenesis in the PFC, DG and CA3. R-ketamine appears to be a potent, long-lasting and safe antidepressant, relative to S-ketamine, as R-ketamine appears to be free of psychotomimetic side effects and abuse liability. PMID:26327690

  18. Lung function response and side effects to rapamycin for lymphangioleiomyomatosis: a prospective national cohort study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bee, Janet; Fuller, Sharon; Miller, Suzanne; Johnson, Simon R

    2017-10-09

    Mechanistic target of rapamycin inhibitors reduce loss of lung function in lymphangioleiomyomatosis (LAM), although their benefit varies between individuals. We examined lung function response and side effects to rapamycin in a national cohort. Subjects were receiving rapamycin for progressive lung disease. Clinical evaluation, detailed phenotyping, serial lung function, rapamycin and safety monitoring were performed according to a clinical protocol. Lung function change, measured as FEV1 slope (ΔFEV1), was reported for those treated for 1 year or longer. Rapamycin was associated with improved ΔFEV1 in 21 individuals where pretreatment data were available (p<0.0001). In 47 treated for a mean duration of 35.8 months, mean ΔFEV1 was +11 (SD 75) mL/year, although it varied from +254 to -148 mL/year. The quartile with the highest positive ΔFEV1 had greater pretreatment FEV1 (p=0.02) and shorter disease durations (p=0.02) than the lowest quartile. Serum rapamycin level was positively associated with side effects (p=0.02) but not ΔFEV1 over 1 year. Within the first month of therapy, apthous ulcers, nausea and diarrhoea were associated with higher rapamycin levels. Acne, oedema and menstrual irregularities tended to increase over the first year of therapy. At the end of observation, the prevalence of side effects was 5% or less. Rapamycin reduces lung function loss in LAM, although in some, ΔFEV1 continues to fall at an accelerated rate. Poor response to rapamycin was associated with lower pretreatment lung function and longer disease duration but not serum level. Early intervention with low-dose rapamycin may preserve lung function and reduce side effects. © Article author(s) (or their employer(s) unless otherwise stated in the text of the article) 2017. All rights reserved. No commercial use is permitted unless otherwise expressly granted.

  19. Beliefs regarding medication and side effects influence treatment adherence in adolescents with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Emilsson, Maria; Gustafsson, Per A; Öhnström, Gisela; Marteinsdottir, Ina

    2017-05-01

    Adherence to attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) treatment is important because, when untreated, it may have serious consequences with lifelong effects. In the case of adolescents on long-term medicine prescription, more knowledge is needed regarding adherence and factors influencing adherence, which was the purpose of this study. Adolescents (n = 101) on ADHD medication ≥6 months were administrated questionnaires at a monitoring appointment: Medication Adherence Report Scale (MARS), beliefs about medicines (BMQ) and the Brief Illness Perception Questionnaire (B-IPQ). Adherence was high, the mean value was 88% of the maximum MARS score, and correlated positively with the "BMQ-necessity-concerns differential" but negatively with "BMQ-concerns" and "BMQ-side effects". Adolescents with more belief in the necessity of the medication, less concerns and less experience of side effects tended to be more adherent to medication prescription ("intentional non-adherence"), while "unintentional non-adherence" (forgetfulness) was associated with how much they perceived that their ADHD affected their lives. In a multiple regression model, the variance of MARS total (R 2  = 0.21) and "intentional non-adherence" (R 2  = 0.24) was explained by the "BMQ-necessity-concern differential" and "BMQ-experienced side effects". The variance of "unintentional non-adherence" (R 2  = 0.12) was explained by the "BMQ-necessity-concern differential" and "B-IPQ-consequences of ADHD". In conclusion, adolescents on long-term medication reported good adherence, mainly influenced by more beliefs in the necessity versus concerns of the medications, less experienced side effects and more perceived consequences of ADHD. BMQ could be useful to identify risks of low adherence, which should be counteracted by partially gender-specific interventions.

  20. Potential climate engineering effectiveness and side effects during a high CO2-emissions scenario

    OpenAIRE

    Keller, David; Feng, Yuming; Oschlies, Andreas

    2014-01-01

    The realization that mitigation efforts to reduce carbon dioxide emissions have, until now, been relatively ineffective has led to an increasing interest in climate engineering as a possible means of preventing the potentially catastrophic consequences of climate change. While many studies have addressed the potential effectiveness of individual methods there have been few attempts to compare them. Here we use an Earth system model to compare the effectiveness and side effects of afforestatio...

  1. Usage and Perceived Side Effects of Personal Protective Measures against Mosquitoes among Current Users in Delhi

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Charu Kohli

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. Mosquito-borne diseases constitute an important cause of morbidity and mortality. The use of personal protective measures (PPM like mats, bednets, screening, repellents, liquid vaporizers, mosquito coils, and so forth has been advocated as an effective tool in control of mosquito-borne diseases, but data about the safety profile of personal protective measures is still scarce. Objective. To study the usage and side effects of personal protective measures against mosquitoes among current users in Delhi. Materials and Methods. A community-based cross-sectional study among 350 adult individuals selected by systematic sampling method. Data was collected using pretested semistructured questionnaire after taking written informed consent. Data was analysed using SPSS version 17. Chi-square/Fisher’s Exact test was used for qualitative variables to find association and P value <0.05 was considered significant. Results. Out of 350 families selected, 210 belonged to rural area and 140 to urban area. Personal protective measures were used by 219 (62.5% subjects. Liquid vaporizer was the most preferred method (41.4%. Most common perceived side effect of personal protective measures was headache (7.7%. Other perceived side effects were cough (3.2%, sore throat (2.7%, allergy (1.3%, and eye irritation (0.9% predominantly among coil users. Conclusion. There is a need to have a close watch for side effects of personal protective measures among users. Further research is also needed to develop safe and effective personal protective measures against mosquitoes.

  2. Side effects in the neonate from psychotropic agents excreted through breast-feeding.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ananth, J

    1978-07-01

    Neuroleptics, antidepressants, lithium, anxiolytics, and hypnotics may be excreted in breast milk. Because of the danger to the neonate, drugs such as diazepam, lithium, bromides, reserpine, and opium alkaloids should not be given to lactating women, and barbiturates, haloperidol, and penfluridol should be administered with caution. The side effects produced as a result of breast-feeding of the infant by mothers consuming psychotropic drugs are reviewed and possible preventive measures are discussed.

  3. Side-effects of pesticides on the generalist endoparasitoid Palmistichus elaeisis (Hymenoptera: Eulophidae)

    OpenAIRE

    Alc?ntara-de la Cruz, Ricardo; Zanuncio, Jos? Cola; Lacerda,Mabio Chrisley; Wilcken, Carlos Frederico; Fernandes, Fl?vio Lemes; Tavares, Wagner de Souza; Soares, Marcus Alvarenga; Sediyama,Carlos Sigueyuki

    2017-01-01

    New plant protection strategies focus on minimizing chemical pesticide use and increasing their compatibility with biological control agents. The objective was to evaluate the side-effects of glyphosate, diflubenzuron, malathion, tebuconazole and triflumuron (at 720, 45, 400, 150 and 20?g ai ha?1, respectively), pesticides authorized for soybean crops in Brazil, on the parasitoid Palmistichus elaeisis (Hymenoptera: Eulophidae) reared on Anticarsia gemmatalis (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae). The emer...

  4. THE USE OF AMIODARONE IN CLINICAL PRACTICE: THE PROBLEM OF SIDE EFFECTS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    O. V. Gaisenok

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Characteristics of amiodarone in clinical practice are focused on. Amiodarone pharmacological mode of action and its pro-arrhythmic effect is presented. As well as various side effects that can happen in clinical practice. Special attention is paid to the problem of amiodarone-induced thyrotoxicosis, its classification, diagnosis and treatment. Prospects of new anti-arrhythmic drugs class III, in particular dronedaron are also discussed.

  5. Ciclesonide: A Pro-Soft Drug Approach for Mitigation of Side Effects of Inhaled Corticosteroids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mukker, Jatinder Kaur; Singh, Ravi Shankar Prasad; Derendorf, Hartmut

    2016-09-01

    Inhaled corticosteroids are used as one of the first-line drug therapy in patients with asthma. However, their long-term use is associated with various oropharyngeal and systemic side and adverse effects. Design of pro-soft drug is one of the strategies, which was adopted in the design of ciclesonide for mitigation of side effects usually observed with the use of inhaled corticosteroids. Ciclesonide, a pro-soft drug, is converted to an active metabolite desisobutyryl-ciclesonide in the lungs. The anti-inflammatory effect of desisobutyryl-ciclesonide is much higher than ciclesonide, and therefore, the local effect of the metabolite is higher with lower systemic side effects. Ciclesonide has favorable pharmacokinetic and pharmacodynamic properties as inhaled corticosteroid including low oral bioavailability, high plasma protein binding and rapid systemic clearance, high pulmonary deposition and distribution and long pulmonary residence duration. These advantageous properties make ciclesonide a very effective treatment option with low side effects. Various clinical studies support safety and efficacy of ciclesonide use in mild, moderate, and severe asthma patients. Copyright © 2016 American Pharmacists Association®. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  6. A Rare Side Effect due to TNF-Alpha Blocking Agent: Acute Pleuropericarditis with Adalimumab

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hakan Ozkan

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Tumor necrosis factor-alpha antagonism is an important treatment strategy in patients with rheumatoid arthritis, psoriatic arthritis, vasculitis, and ankylosing spondylitis. Adalimumab is one of the well-known tumor necrosis factor-alpha blocking agents. There are several side effects reported in patients with adalimumab therapy. Cardiac side effects of adalimumab are rare. Only a few cardiac side effects were reported. A 61-year-old man treated with adalimumab for the last 6 months due to psoriatic arthritis presented with typically acute pleuropericarditis. Chest X-ray and echocardiography demonstrated marked pericardial effusion. Patient was successfully evaluated for the etiology of acute pleuro-pericarditis. Every etiology was excluded except the usage of adalimumab. Adalimumab was discontinued, and patient was treated with 1200 mg of ibuprofen daily. Control chest X-ray and echocardiography after three weeks demonstrated complete resolution of both pleural and pericardial effusions. This case clearly demonstrated the acute onset of pericarditis with adalimumab usage. Acute pericarditis and pericardial effusion should be kept in mind in patients with adalimumab treatment.

  7. Psychiatric predisposition to autonomic and abnormal perception side-effects of ziconotide: a case series study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Poli, Paolo; Ciaramella, Antonella

    2011-01-01

      Ziconotide is a reversible blocker of the N-type neuronal voltage-sensitive calcium channels with analgesic effects. The main adverse effects of ziconotide are ataxia, dizziness, gait disorder, confusion, hallucinations, and gastrointestinal symptoms.   Eighteen chronic pain patients with intrathecal ziconotide treatment were investigated using the Mini International Neuropsychiatric Interview for psychiatric disorders according to the DSM IV.   Ten patients showed good pain relief (ΔVAS ≥ 50%) after one year of treatment. Patients without psychiatric comorbidity exhibited better outcomes, without autonomic side-effects. Eight patients with panic disorder (always comorbid with other psychiatric disorders) showed the greatest number of side-effects during treatment with ziconotide.   Emotional and cognitive symptoms of panic disorder are associated with autonomic symptoms resulting from parasympathetic activation. Dysfunction of both cholinergic and N-type calcium channel activity was found.   A psychiatric disorder with cholinergic-noradrenergic system impairment could increase some side-effects of treatment with N-type calcium channel blockers. © 2011 International Neuromodulation Society.

  8. A comparison study of the efficacy and side effects of different light sources in hair removal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Toosi, Parviz; Sadighha, Afshin; Sharifian, Ali; Razavi, Gita Meshkat

    2006-04-01

    Unwanted hairs are a common problem in which different light sources were developed as the treatment of choice. Alexandrite laser, diode laser, and intense pulsed light (IPL) were clinically used for this purpose with long-term scarce comparative results. The objective of the study was to compare the clinical efficacy, complications, and long-term hair reduction of alexandrite laser, diode laser, and IPL. Clinical trials on 232 persons using diode, alexandrite, laser and IPL were conducted. The number of sessions to reach optimal result varied between 3 and 7. Then the side effects were evaluated. Six months after the last session, optimal hair reduction was observed with no significant differences between the light sources, but a hair reduction was found to be higher using the diode laser. Side effects were observed with all light sources but more frequently with diode. Our findings indicate that all three light sources tested have similar effects on hair removal and in Iranian patients, using lower wavelengths minimizes the side effects.

  9. Combined use of alcohol and energy drinks: Dose relationship with self-reported physiological stimulation and sedation side effects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Droste, Nicolas; Peacock, Amy; Bruno, Raimondo; Pennay, Amy; Zinkiewicz, Lucy; Lubman, Dan I; Miller, Peter

    2017-08-01

    Negative physiological stimulation and sedation side effects are experienced by a significant proportion of consumers who consume alcohol mixed with energy drinks (AmED). Few studies have compared the frequency of side effects between sessions of AmED and sessions of alcohol only within-subject, and none have explored a dose relationship. Explore the occurrence of self-reported physiological stimulant and sedative side effects between sessions of AmED and alcohol only, and at varying ED dosage levels within AmED sessions. A convenience sample of 2953 residents of New South Wales, Australia completed an online survey. N=731 AmED users reported daily caffeine intake, typical alcohol and AmED consumption, and past 12-month experience of physiological stimulation and sedation side effects during AmED and alcohol only sessions. Within-subject analyses compared occurrence of side effects between session types. Hierarchical binary logistic regression analyses explored the association of ED dose during AmED sessions with the experience of physiological side effects. There were greater odds of most stimulant side effects, and lower odds of sedation side effects, during AmED sessions compared to alcohol only sessions. Compared to one ED, consumption of three or more EDs was significantly associated with the majority of both stimulant and alcohol intoxication side effects after controlling for demographics and consumption covariates. AmED is associated with perceived changes in physiological stimulant and sedation side effects of alcohol. Experience of side effects is positively associated with ED dosage. Future research should account for varying ED dosage, and reflect real world consumption levels. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Neonicotinoids in bees: a review on concentrations, side-effects and risk assessment

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Blacquière, T.; Smagghe, G.; Gestel, van C.A.M.; Mommaerts, V.

    2012-01-01

    Neonicotinoid insecticides are successfully applied to control pests in a variety of agricultural crops; however, they may not only affect pest insects but also non-target organisms such as pollinators. This review summarizes, for the first time, 15 years of research on the hazards of neonicotinoids

  11. Neonicotinoids in bees: a review on concentrations, side-effects and risk assessment. ERRATUM

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Blacquiere, T.; Smagghe, G.; van Gestel, C.A.M.; Mommaerts, V.

    2012-01-01

    Neonicotinoid insecticides are successfully applied to control pests in a variety of agricultural crops; however, they may not only affect pest insects but also non-target organisms such as pollinators. This review summarizes, for the first time, 15 years of research on the hazards of neonicotinoids

  12. [The allergic and other side effects of non-steroid antiinflammatory drugs and gold salts].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Réthy, Lajos Attila; Baló-Banga, J Mátyás

    2004-09-19

    The wider usage of non steroid antiinflammatory drugs (NSAIDs) raises the significance of their side effects. The discovery of the two different cyclo-oxygenases (COX 1 and COX-2) led to the incorporation of more selective enzyme inhibitors into the therapeutic tools against disorders with pain and inflammation, in order to minimize the frequency of the side effects. Selective COX-2 inhibitors are well tolerated by most of the patients with a history of sensitivity against classical NSAIDs. The well-known gastrointestinal side effects (ulcers, bleedings) are much less frequent in the case of selective COX-2 inhibitors in comparison with non-selective COX inhibitors. However, the lack of "healing" prostaglandins as an effect of COX-2 antagonism may prevent the improvement of existing ulcers. In addition almost all other organs have been found to be affected in COX-2 knockout mice (COX-2 paradoxon). Hepatotoxicity is usually rare, its reason is most probably idiosyncrasy. Persistent nephropathy can be worsened by the inhibition of COX-2, however normal renal functions have not been changed in humans using selective COX-2 inhibitors. Authors' registry consists of 1000 patients with a history of suspected drug-allergy, during a 15 years' period. Approximately 30% of the cases have been connected with NSAIDs and with antirheumatic drugs. Because of functional similarities gold salts, proved suitable for the treatment of juvenile rheumatoid arthritis (JRA) and of osteoarthritis (OA) were included as well. Besides rheumatologic applications the second most common indication for these drugs was pain and/or fever. Among cutaneous symptoms intolerance was present at a relatively low frequency--as salicylates had not been taken into consideration. Next to salicylates the most frequent side effects were caused by pyrazolon derivates. Urticaria and angioedema were the most frequently observed symptoms on the skin--our observations are in accordance with other publications. Non

  13. Tumor parameters predict the risk of side effects after ruthenium-106 plaque brachytherapy of uveal melanomas.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lisa Tarmann

    Full Text Available To report on radiation-related side effects and complications after ruthenium-106 plaque brachytherapy of uveal melanomas.Medical records of 143 eyes with uveal melanoma, treated by ruthenium-106 brachytherapy between 1997 and 2012 at a single center, were analyzed. We evaluated the occurrence of radiation-related side effects on the anterior and posterior segment of the eye. The influence of patient, tumor and treatment parameters on outcome was analyzed by multivariate time to event analysis considering competing risks.The median overall follow-up was 37.9 months. After treatment, the estimated risk at 12, 24 and 48 months for developing anterior segment complications was 25.3%, 37.5% and 50.3% for cataract formation and 5.4%, 6.4% and 8.1% for secondary glaucoma, respectively. The estimated risk for the occurrence of posterior segment complications 12, 24 and 48 months after treatment was 3.1%, 6.7% and 18.3% for radiation retinopathy, 18.3%, 27.1% and 42.6% for radiation maculopathy and 16.5%, 21.0% and 32.8% for radiation neuropathy, respectively. The risk of an increase in retinal detachment after treatment was 14.7%, 14.7% and 17.4% at 12, 24 and 48 months, respectively. The risk of vitreous hemorrhage occurring after treatment was 6.2%, 8.1% and 12.7%, and the risk of tumor vasculopathy was 15.4%, 17.4% and 19.0%. Scleral necrosis was observed in one patient.Radiation-related side effects and complications are common among patients treated with ruthenium brachytherapy for uveal melanoma. However, the risk for those largely depends on individual tumor parameters. Before treatment, patients should be informed of their specific risks to develop various side effects. Patient information before treatment should cover not only general information about the treatment and possible complications and side effects but should also give details on the specific risks of the patient in her individual situation. This also includes elucidating the

  14. Symptom response and side-effects of olanzapine and risperidone in young adults with recent onset schizophrenia

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Bruggen, Johanna; Tijssen, Jans; Dingemans, Petrus; Gersons, Berthold; Linszen, Donald

    2003-01-01

    The symptom response and side-effects of olanzapine and risperidone were compared in patients with recent onset schizophrenia. Actively symptomatic patients n=44) randomly, received olanzapine 15 mg (median dose) or risperidone 4 mg (median dose). Symptom response and side-effects were measured

  15. The evaluation-mediation hypothesis: does the specification of potential side effects influence the perceived risk of medication?

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Reimer, T. [Universitaet Potsdam, Institut fur Psychologie, Abteilung Sozialpsychologi, Potsdam (Germany)

    1998-07-01

    Full text of publication follows: starting from the assumptions of support theory, this project analyzed the extent to which the specification of potential side effects influences the perceived risk associated, with a particular medication. Respondents were presented with an instruction leaflet for a medication which indicated (a) the overall probability that a side effect will occur or (b) the probability of occurrence of several specific side effects. Support theory predicts that the cognitive availability of potential side effects and therefore the perceived risk increases as a function of the specificity with which the side effects are presented. In contrast the evaluation-mediation hypothesis predicts that a more detailed presentation of potential side effects enhances the perceived quality of the information leaflet and thereby leads to a reduction of perceived risk. Support for the evaluation-mediation hypothesis was found in a series of studies which included the editing hypothesis and the elaboration likelihood model as additional explanations: the more detailed the information about potential side effects, the lower the estimated risk of suffering a side effect on taking the medication. As predicted, the influence of presentation specificity on perceived risk was mediated almost exclusively by the perceived quality of the information leaflet. A current series of studies seeks to support the evaluation-mediation hypothesis in a completely different domain, the perceived risk of environmental pollution by motor vehicles. (author)

  16. Observational Study of Prevalence of Long-term Raynaud-Like Phenomena and Neurological Side Effects in Testicular Cancer Survivors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oldenburg, Jan; Klepp, Olbjørn; Bremnes, Roy M.; Wist, Erik A.; Wentzel-Larsen, Tore; Hauge, Erik R.; Dahl, Olav; Fosså, Sophie D.

    2009-01-01

    Background Sensory neuropathy (paresthesias), tinnitus, hearing impairment, and Raynaud phenomena are side effects of cisplatin-based chemotherapy used to treat testicular cancer patients. We assessed the long-term occurrence of these side effects among testicular cancer survivors according to the treatment they received. Methods A total of 1814 men who were treated for unilateral testicular cancer in Norway during 1980–1994 were invited to participate in a national multicenter follow-up survey conducted during 1998–2002. The men were allocated to six groups according to the treatment they had received. Self-reported symptoms were assessed by a mailed questionnaire that included the Scale for Chemotherapy-Induced Neurotoxicity. A total of 1409 participants who responded to the questionnaire and/or underwent audiometry were assessable in this study. Respondents to the questionnaire (n = 1402) scored the relevant symptoms according to how troubled they were by each (not at all, a little, quite a bit, or very much). Hearing impairment was objectively assessed by audiometry at 4000 Hz in 755 men (seven of whom did not respond to the questionnaire). Group comparisons of symptom assessments were performed with χ2 or Kruskal–Wallis tests. Associations between relevant factors and self-reported symptoms or hearing impairment measured by audiometry were assessed using proportional odds ordinal logistic regression models and linear regression models, respectively. All statistical tests were two-sided. Results The median follow-up for the 1409 assessable men was 10.7 years (range = 4–21 years). All chemotherapy groups had statistically significantly higher odds for increasing severity of all assessed symptoms and inferior audiometric results compared with men who did not receive chemotherapy. Among chemotherapy-treated men, 39% (95% confidence interval [CI] = 35% to 43%) reported Raynaud-like phenomena (defined as white or cold hands or fingers [or feet or toes] on

  17. Increasing efficacy and reducing side effects in treatment of chronic anal fissures: A study of topical diazepam therapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hang, Minh Tuan H; Smith, Betsy E; Keck, Carson; Keshavarzian, Ali; Sedghi, Shahriar

    2017-05-01

    This is a single institution nonexperimental study intended to analyze the therapeutic efficacy of topical diazepam in treating symptoms of chronic anal fissures.Anal fissures are a common cause of anal pain. Conventional treatments include nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs, topical creams, such as nitroglycerin and nifedipine, and surgery. However, these treatments are usually suboptimally efficacious or have deterring side effects.Patients at an outpatient community center with a diagnosis of a chronic anal fissure were prescribed either topical 2% (n = 19) or 4% (n = 18) diazepam cream between January 2013 and February 2015. We retrospectively analyzed their responses to treatment.All 19 patients using 2% diazepam cream experienced a positive response in pain, whereas 47.4% experienced a complete response, with a numerical rating scale (NRS) score of 0 (0-10). Eighty-eight percent of patients using 4% dose had a positive response in pain, whereas 23.5% experienced a complete response. Ninety-four percent of patients using 2% dose had a positive response in anal bleeding, whereas 68.8% experienced a complete response with an anal bleeding score (ABS) of 2 (2-9). Ninety-four percent of patients using 4% dose had a positive response in anal bleeding, whereas 64.7% experienced a complete response. Only 1 patient reported a side effect from diazepam cream-perianal pruritus.Both 2% and 4% topical diazepam provided significant pain and bleeding relief from chronic anal fissures that were refractory to conventional therapies. There were insignificant differences when assessing independent comparisons for pain and bleeding between the doses.

  18. Investigating Efficacy and Side Effects of Oral Melatonin in Drug Induced Sleep Electroencephalography of Children

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    R Fallah

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Electroencephalography (EEG is useful in seizure diagnosis. It needs cooperation and immobility of the person and if a child does not naturally sleep, pharmacological agents will be used to induce sleeping. The purpose of this study was to investigate efficacy and side effects of oral melatonin in sedation induction for EEG of children. Methods: In a quasi- experimental study, efficacy of single dose of 0.3mg/kg melatonin in achieving adequate sedation (Ramsay sedation score of four as well as its success in recording of EEG and its side effects in 40 children were investigated from September 2011 to March 2012. The participants aged 1-8 years who referred to EEG Unit of Shahid Sadoughi Hospital, Yazd, Iran and did not naturally sleep and immobilize. Results: Sixteen girls (40% and 24 boys(60% with mean age of 2.82 ±1.91 years were investigated. Adequate sedation and recording of EEG was achieved in 29 (72.5 % children. The drug was more effective in success of recording of EEG in less than two year old children (70.6% vs. 30.4% in two years old and more and pvalue= 0.04 as well as in those with developmental delay (93.3% vs. 60% in normal developmental status and pvalue =0.02. No serious side effects were seen in the patients. Conclusion: Melatonin is a safe and effective drug in sedation induction for EEG in children especially in those less than two years old and in children with developmental delay.

  19. Anterior Uveitis Caused by Ocular Side Effects of Afatinib: A Case Report

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    Daisuke Todokoro

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Afatinib is a second-generation epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR inhibitor that has been shown to be effective against EGFR-mutated non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC resistant to conventional EGFR inhibitors such as gefitinib and erlotinib. Although ocular side effects of gefitinib and erlotinib have been reported, those for afatinib have yet to be definitively established. This report presents details on the first case of unilateral iridocyclitis associated with the side effects of afatinib therapy. A 75-year-old Japanese male ex-smoker with EGFR-mutated NSCLC underwent afatinib therapy for multiple metastases. At 2 weeks, bilateral conjunctivitis developed. Topical medication and a 1-week afatinib washout period resulted in the improvement of the conjunctivitis. However, 3 days after the resumption of afatinib, the patient developed unilateral granulomatous anterior uveitis in his right eye. Best-corrected visual acuity (BCVA measurement indicated a decimal visual acuity of 0.2, while the slit-lamp findings were characterized by granulomatous inflammation, keratic precipitates, Koeppe nodules and posterior synechiae. There was no evidence suggesting other intraocular inflammatory disease or metastatic tumor. The left eye was intact. The use of topical medication including steroids and a washout of afatinib resulted in a gradual subsiding of the anterior uveitis. After resolution of the anterior uveitis, oral afatinib was resumed. BCVA of the right eye finally recovered to a decimal acuity of 1.0. Ophthalmologists should be aware of the possibility that side effects associated with afatinib could cause granulomatous anterior uveitis.

  20. A jaundiced bodybuilder Cholestatic hepatitis as side effect of injectable anabolic-androgenic steroids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boks, Marije N; Tiebosch, Anton T; van der Waaij, Laurens A

    2017-11-01

    The use of anabolic steroids is prevalent in recreational athletes. This case report describes a young amateur bodybuilder who was referred to our outpatient clinic with jaundice and loss of appetite due to cholestatic hepatitis. Additional tests including a liver biopsy made it likely that the hepatitis was caused by the injectable anabolic steroid trenbolone enanthate. Cholestatic hepatitis may not be limited to the use of oral anabolic-androgenic steroids, as is widely assumed. Therefore, and because of other side effects, the recreational use of all forms of anabolic steroids should be discouraged.

  1. A review of nicotinamide: treatment of skin diseases and potential side effects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rolfe, Heidi M

    2014-12-01

    Nicotinamide, also known as niacinamide, is the amide form of vitamin B3. It is a precursor of essential coenzymes for numerous reactions in the body including adenosine triphosphate (ATP) production. Nicotinic acid, also known as niacin, is converted into nicotinamide in the body. The use of topical nicotinamide in the treatment of acne vulgaris; melasma; atopic dermatitis; rosacea; and oral nicotinamide in preventing nonmelanoma skin cancer is discussed. The possible side effects and consequences of excessive nicotinamide exposure are reviewed, including suggestions nicotinamide might have a role in the development of diabetes, Parkinson's disease, and liver damage. © 2014 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  2. A Fundamental Step in IPM on Grapevine: Evaluating the Side Effects of Pesticides on Predatory Mites

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    Alberto Pozzebon

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Knowledge on side effects of pesticides on non-target beneficial arthropods is a key point in Integrated Pest Management (IPM. Here we present the results of four experiments conducted in vineyards where the effects of chlorpyrifos, thiamethoxam, indoxacarb, flufenoxuron, and tebufenozide were evaluated on the generalist predatory mites Typhlodromus pyri Scheuten and Amblyseius andersoni (Chant, key biocontrol agents of herbivorous mites on grapevines. Results show that indoxacarb and tebufenozide had a low impact on the predatory mites considered here, while a significant impact was observed for chlorpyrifos, flufenoxuron, and thiamethoxam. The information obtained here should be considered in the design of IPM strategies on grapevine.

  3. Nonlinear side effects of fs pulses inside corneal tissue during photodisruption

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heisterkamp, A.; Ripken, T.; Mamom, T.; Drommer, W.; Welling, H.; Ertmer, W.; Lubatschowski, H.

    In order to evaluate the potential for refractive surgery, fs laser pulses of 150-fs pulse duration were used to process corneal tissue of dead and living animal eyes. By focusing the laser radiation down to spot sizes of several microns, very precise cuts could be achieved inside the treated cornea, accompanied with minimum collateral damage to the tissue by thermal or mechanical effects. During histo-pathological analysis by light and transmission electron microscopy considerable side effects of fs photodisruption were found. Due to the high intensities at the focal region several nonlinear effects occurred. Self-focusing, photodissociation, UV-light production were observed, leading to streak formation inside the cornea.

  4. FREQUENCY OF SIDE EFFECTS OF ANTIVIRUS THERAPY FOR CHRONIC VIRUS HEPATITIS IN CHILDHOOD

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    S.V. Romanova

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available In pediatrics, the issue of using antivirus therapy for chronic virus hepatitis is not sufficiently studied, there is search for rational combinations, schemes, doses and length of treatment. The article demonstrates results of using a combined antivirus therapy with alpha interferon medications, interferon inducers, systemic enzymotherapy in children with chronic virus hepatitis B and C. Including systemic enzymotherapy medications in the combined treatment made it possible to reduce the number and severity of side effects of parenteral interferons. Key words: chronic hepatitis, antivirus therapy, alpha interferon, interferon inducers, children. (Pediatric Pharmacology. – 2010; 7(2:73-77

  5. Adenosine AA Receptor Antagonists Do Not Disrupt Rodent Prepulse Inhibition: An Improved Side Effect Profile in the Treatment of Parkinson's Disease

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    Carina J. Bleickardt

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Parkinson's disease (PD is characterized by loss of dopaminergic neurons in the substantia nigra. Current treatments for PD focus on dopaminergic therapies, including L-dopa and dopamine receptor agonists. However, these treatments induce neuropsychiatric side effects. Psychosis, characterized by delusions and hallucinations, is one of the most serious such side effects. Adenosine A2A receptor antagonism is a nondopaminergic treatment for PD with clinical and preclinical efficacy. The present studies assessed A2A antagonists SCH 412348 and istradefylline in rodent prepulse inhibition (PPI, a model of psychosis. Dopamine receptor agonists pramipexole (0.3–3 mg/kg, pergolide (0.3–3 mg/kg, and apomorphine (0.3–3 mg/kg significantly disrupted PPI; ropinirole (1–30 mg/kg had no effect; L-dopa (100–300 mg/kg disrupted rat but not mouse PPI. SCH 412348 (0.3–3 mg/kg did not disrupt rodent PPI; istradefylline (0.1–1 mg/kg marginally disrupted mouse but not rat PPI. These results suggest that A2A antagonists, unlike dopamine agonists, have an improved neuropsychiatric side effect profile.

  6. Relationships between patient knowledge and the severity of side effects, daily nutrient intake, psychological status, and performance status in lung cancer patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tian, J; Jia, L N; Cheng, Z C

    2015-08-01

    We aimed to assess the relationships of patient education with the severity of treatment-induced side effects, daily calorie and protein intake, psychological status, and performance status in patients with lung cancer. The study patients were divided into an intervention (n = 62) and a control group (n = 110). The patients in the intervention group were provided with information about treatment, diet, and rehabilitation during chemotherapy. The patients in the control group were not specially provided with that information. We observed significant differences between the intervention and control groups with respect to low daily protein intake (54.84% vs. 70.00%, p = 0.046), prevalence of depression (51.61% vs. 70.91%, p = 0.011), prevalence of severe side effects of treatment (14.52% vs. 37.27%, p = 0.002), and good performance status (75.81% vs. 55.45%, p = 0.008). Our results suggest that educating patients about cancer treatment and rehabilitation can lead to increased protein intake, a lower prevalence of depression, lesser side effects from cancer treatments, and improved performance status.

  7. Nicotine Withdrawal, Relapse of Mental Illness, or Medication Side-Effect? Implementing a Monitoring Tool for People With Mental Illness Into Quitline Counseling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Segan, Catherine J; Baker, Amanda L; Turner, Alyna; Williams, Jill M

    2017-01-01

    Smokers with mental illness and their health care providers are often concerned that smoking cessation will worsen mental health. Smokers with mental illness tend to be more nicotine-dependent and experience more severe symptoms of nicotine withdrawal, some of which are difficult to distinguish from psychiatric symptoms. In addition, smoking cessation can increase the blood levels and hence side effects of some psychotropic medications. Improved monitoring of nicotine withdrawal and medication side effects may help distinguish temporary withdrawal symptoms from psychiatric symptoms and facilitate targeted treatment to help smokers with mental illness manage the acute phase of nicotine withdrawal. The aim of this research was to examine the acceptability and feasibility to quitline counselors of implementing structured assessments of nicotine withdrawal and common medication side effects in people with mental illness who are quitting smoking using a telephone smoking cessation service. Monitoring involves administering (once pre-cessation and at each contact post-cessation) (1) the Minnesota Nicotine Withdrawal Scale, assessing eight symptoms: anger, anxiety, depression, cravings, difficulty concentrating, increased appetite, insomnia, and restlessness and (2) an adverse side effects checklist of 5 to 10 symptoms, for example, dry mouth and increased thirst. Following a 1-day update training in mental health, quitline counselors were asked to offer these assessments to callers disclosing mental illness in addition to usual counseling. Group interviews with counselors were conducted 2 months later to examine implementation barriers and benefits. Barriers included awkwardness in integrating a new structured practice into counseling, difficulty in limiting some callers to only the content of new items, and initial anxieties about how to respond to changes in some symptoms. Benefits included the ability to provide objective feedback on changes in symptoms, as this

  8. Choreatic Side Effects of Deep Brain Stimulation of the Anteromedial Subthalamic Nucleus for Treatment-Resistant Obsessive-Compulsive disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mulders, Anne E P; Leentjens, Albert F G; Schruers, Koen; Duits, Annelien; Ackermans, Linda; Temel, Yasin

    2017-08-01

    Patients with treatment-resistant obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD) are potential candidates for deep brain stimulation (DBS). The anteromedial subthalamic nucleus (STN) is among the most commonly used targets for DBS in OCD. We present a patient with a 30-year history of treatment-resistant OCD who underwent anteromedial STN-DBS. Despite a clear mood-enhancing effect, stimulation caused motor side effects, including bilateral hyperkinesia, dyskinesias, and sudden large amplitude choreatic movements of arms and legs when stimulating at voltages greater than approximately 1.5 V. DBS at lower amplitudes and at other contact points failed to result in a significant reduction of obsessions and compulsions without inducing motor side effects. Because of this limitation in programming options, we decided to reoperate and target the ventral capsule/ventral striatum (VC/VS), which resulted in a substantial reduction in key obsessive and compulsive symptoms without serious side effects. Choreatic movements and hemiballismus have previously been linked to STN dysfunction and have been incidentally reported as side effects of DBS of the dorsolateral STN in Parkinson disease (PD). However, in PD, these side effects were usually transient, and they rarely interfered with DBS programming. In our patient, the motor side effects were persistent, and they made optimal DBS programming impossible. To our knowledge, such severe and persistent motor side effects have not been described previously for anteromedial STN-DBS. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  9. Coping with side effects from cancer treatment in daily life from the perspective of cancer patients: A qualitative empirical study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, Birgith; Koktved, Dorte Pallesen; Nielsen, Lene Lyngø

    Aim The aim of this paper is to deepen our understanding of how patients cope with side effects from cancer treatment in daily life. Background Patients receiving cancer treatment experience acute side effects and need individualized information and guidance in order to manage treatment......-related adverse events in everyday life. However development in cancer treatment and the societal demands for efficiency may limit the possibility for individualized support. Methods Nine patients were interviewed from March to July 2009 to explore the patients’ experience of coping with side effects in daily...

  10. The side effect profile of nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs for rheumatic

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    T A Raskina

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Objective: to study the side effect profile of nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs in patients with rheumatic diseases (RD. Subjects and methods. The study enrolled 373 patients (301 women and 72 men with RD, the mean age of whom was 58.9±1.3 years; the duration of the disease was 6.1±0.7 years. This study was cross-sectional and randomized, by applying a questionnaire for the estimation of the NSAID side effect profile, developed at the Research Institute of Rheumatology, Russian Academy of Medical Sciences. Results and discussion. NSAIDs are an effective agent for the symptomatic treatment of pain and inflammation in most RDs. More than 50% of the patients with RD reported unpleasant sensations in the digestive system. Dyspepsia was present in the absolute majority of RD patients (77.7% of the patients with rheumatoid arthritis; 100% of those with ankylosing spondylitis; 47.8% of those with osteoarthosis who had taken for more than a year

  11. FoodWiki: a Mobile App Examines Side Effects of Food Additives Via Semantic Web.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Çelik Ertuğrul, Duygu

    2016-02-01

    In this article, a research project on mobile safe food consumption system (FoodWiki) is discussed that performs its own inferencing rules in its own knowledge base. Currently, the developed rules examines the side effects that are causing some health risks: heart disease, diabetes, allergy, and asthma as initial. There are thousands compounds added to the processed food by food producers with numerous effects on the food: to add color, stabilize, texturize, preserve, sweeten, thicken, add flavor, soften, emulsify, and so forth. Those commonly used ingredients or compounds in manufactured foods may have many side effects that cause several health risks such as heart disease, hypertension, cholesterol, asthma, diabetes, allergies, alzheimer etc. according to World Health Organization. Safety in food consumption, especially by patients in these risk groups, has become crucial, given that such health problems are ranked in the top ten health risks around the world. It is needed personal e-health knowledge base systems to help patients take control of their safe food consumption. The systems with advanced semantic knowledge base can provide recommendations of appropriate foods before consumption by individuals. The proposed FoodWiki system is using a concept based search mechanism that performs on thousands food compounds to provide more relevant information.

  12. Sensory Processing Disorders are Associated with Duration of Current Episode and Severity of Side Effects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Serafini, Gianluca; Engel-Yeger, Batya; Vazquez, Gustavo H; Pompili, Maurizio; Amore, Mario

    2017-01-01

    Longer duration of untreated illness, longer duration of current episode, and the severity of medication side effects may negatively impact on the perceived disability and psychosocial impairment of patients with major affective and anxiety disorders. Studies also suggested the involvement of sensory perception in emotional and psychopathological processes. The present study aimed to examine the relationship between Sensory Processing Disorders (SPD), duration of untreated illness and current illness episode, and the severity of side effects related to psychoactive medications. The sample included 178 participants with an age ranging from 17 to 85 years (mean=53.84±15.55). Participants were diagnosed with unipolar Major Depressive Disorder (MDD) (50%), Bipolar Disorder (BD) (33.7%), and Anxiety disorders (16.3%). They completed a socio-demographic questionnaire, the Udvalg for Kliniske Undersøgelser (UKU), and Adolescent/Adult Sensory Profile (AASP) questionnaire. Longer duration of current episode correlated with greater registration of sensory input and lower avoidance from sensory input among unipolar patients; with lower registration of sensory input, and higher tendency for sensory sensitivity/avoidance among bipolar participants; with lower sensory sensitivity/avoidance among anxiety participants, respectively. Also, mean UKU total scores correlated with lower sensory sensitivity among bipolar individuals. SPD expressed in either hypo/hyper sensitivity may serve to clinically characterize subjects with major affective and anxiety disorders.

  13. Stem cells as anticancer drug carrier to reduce the chemotherapy side effect

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salehi, Hamideh; Al-Arag, Siham; Middendorp, Elodie; Gergley, Csilla; Cuisinier, Frederic

    2017-02-01

    Chemotherapy used for cancer treatment, due to the lack of specificity of drugs, is associated to various damaging side effects that have severe impact on patients' quality of life. Over the past 30 years, increasing efforts have been placed on optimizing chemotherapy dosing with the main goal of increasing antitumor efficacy while reducing drug-associated toxicity. A novel research shows that stem cells may act as a reservoir for the anticancer agent, which will subsequently release some of the drug's metabolites, or even the drug in its original form, in vicinity of the cancer cells. These cells may play a dual role in controlling drug toxicity depending on their capacity to uptake and release the chemotherapeutic drug. In our study, we show that Dental Pulp Stem Cells DPSCs are able to rapidly uptake Paclitaxel PTX, and to release it in the culture medium in a time-dependent manner. This resulting conditioned culture medium is to be transferred to breast cancer cells, the MCF-7. By applying Confocal Raman Microscopy, the anticancer drug uptake by the MCF-7 was measured. Surprisingly, the cancer cells -without any direct contact with PTX- showed a drug uptake. This proves that the stem cells carried and delivered the anticancer drug without its modification. It could be a revolution in chemotherapy to avoid the drug's side effects and increase its efficacy.

  14. Nutritional intervention using nutrition care process in a malnourished patient with chemotherapy side effects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Hye-Ok; Lee, Jung-Joo

    2015-01-01

    In this case study, the process of nutritional diagnosis and intervention conducted at a hospital on a malnourished patient who underwent treatment for a chronic illness (chemotherapy for cancer treatment) was recorded. The patient received his first round of chemotherapy for colorectal cancer, and then a second round after the cancer metastasized to the liver. The patient was malnourished and had experienced weight loss (17% loss in the most recent 3 months) due to side effects of chemotherapy including stomatitis, nausea, and vomiting. Nutritional diagnosis and intervention via the nutrition care process were implemented through two screening rounds, and the quantity of oral intake increased from 28% to 62% of the recommended daily intake. The patient required continuous monitoring and outpatient care after hospital discharge. It is speculated that if a more active patient education and dietary regimen with respect to chemotherapy side effects had been offered after the patient's first chemotherapy cycle, it might have been possible to treat ingestion problems due to stomatitis during the second cycle of chemotherapy and prevent the weight loss. Henceforth, patients receiving chemotherapy should be educated about nutrition management methods and monitored continuously to prevent malnutrition.

  15. Contemporary Patterns of Anabolic Steroids Abuse and Associated Short Term Side Effects in Athletes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thomas A. Pagonis

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available INTRODUCTION: Anabolic steroids (AS are synthetic derivatives of the testosterone molecule. In recent years, AS abuse by athletes of different levels has become more prevalent and circumspect. The objectives of this study were: Recognition of AS abusers, verification of individual biostatistic and demographic parameters, stratification, recognition and evaluation of the AS abuse patterns. METHODS: We constructed specialized questionnaires used to identify users and collect data. In a time period of 12 years, 5074 people were evaluated and the relevant questionnaires were filled, 4146 (81.7% by amateur and 928 (18.3% by recreational athletes. The data provided by the evaluation of the questionnaires were categorized and elaborated. Studied parameters included: types of AS used, percentage of AS abusers in athletic populations, gender percentage, stratification according to severity of abuse, AS used and use parameters, observed side effects. RESULTS: Categorization of the results has four directions: 1. Separation of users according to sex and athletic category, 2. Stratification of users according to AS abuse severity by use of the Abuse Stratification System (AbuStraS. Categorization of AS regimens (AS frequencies, duration, type and doses used by the cohort and 4. The immediate results of AS abuse to the users' organism and the long term influence in a four years time interval. CONCLUSIONS: Contemporary AS users consistently practice overdose polypharmacy. Knowledge of this type of abuse can be beneficial for the treatment of the side effects.

  16. Antipsychotic drugs: From receptor-binding profiles to metabolic side effects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Siafis, Spyridon; Tzachanis, Dimitrios; Samara, Myrto; Papazisis, Georgios

    2017-06-30

    Antipsychotic-induced metabolic side effects are major concerns in psychopharmacology and clinical psychiatry. Their pathogenetic mechanisms are still not elucidated. Antipsychotic drugs seem to interfere with feeding behaviors and energy balance processes that control metabolic regulation. Reward and energy balance centers in central nervous system constitute the central level of metabolic regulation. The peripheral level consists of skeletal muscles, the liver, the pancreas, the adipose tissue and neuroendocrine connections. Neurotransmitter receptors have crucial roles in metabolic regulation and they are also targets of antipsychotic drugs. Interaction of antipsychotics with neurotransmitters could have both protective and harmful effects on metabolism. Emerging evidence suggests that antipsychotics have different liabilities to induce obesity, diabetes and dyslipidemia. However, this diversity cannot be explained merely by drugs' pharmacodynamic profiles, highlighting the need for further research. Herein, we review the impact of neurotransmitters on metabolic regulation, providing insights into antipsychotic-induced metabolic side effects. Copyright© Bentham Science Publishers; For any queries, please email at epub@benthamscience.org.

  17. Prevalence, side effects and awareness about energy drinks among the female university students in Saudi Arabia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rahamathulla, Mohamudha Parveen

    2017-01-01

    To evaluate the consumption, prevalence, side effects and awareness of energy drinks among female university students in Saudi Arabia. A quantitative research design was implied with sample size of 358 female students, recruited from Prince Sattam bin Abdulaziz University. The data, gathered through self-administered questionnaire, was analyzed through SPSS version 20.0 with p value energy drink consumers. The reasons for increased consumption of energy drinks mainly include giving company to friends (59.4%), better performance in exams (41.2%), and better concentration in studies (39.4%). The most common side effect was headache (32.3%), and the least was identified as allergy (2%). Only 39.4% and 29.9% of students acquired awareness regarding the harmful effects of energy drink consumption during pregnancy and breast feeding respectively. A significant proportion of female students at Prince Sattam bin Abdulaziz have reported to consume energy drinks regularly with several adverse effects. The government of Saudi Arabia should take serious initiatives towards organizing effective awareness programs specifically in universities and colleges to control the consumption of energy drinks and educate on the adverse effects.

  18. Should Side Effects Influence the Selection of Antidiabetic Therapies in Type 2 Diabetes?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grunberger, George

    2017-04-01

    There are currently over 40 different drugs in 12 distinct classes approved in the USA to treat patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus. This review summarizes our current knowledge about potential side effects of antidiabetic therapy and attempts to apply it to a clinical practice setting. Given the heterogeneity of both the patients and the disease, it is mathematically impossible to test every available drug combination in long-term outcome, prospective, randomized blinded fashion before a clinician decides which agent(s) to prescribe to a specific patient in a given situation. To complicate the clinician's dilemma, there is lack of available tests to predict an individual's response or propensity to side effects. Further, the data available are derived from small, short-term registration trials and typically focus on relative rather than absolute risks of any given drug and do not address the potential adverse outcomes if a patient's diabetes remains untreated. Clinicians have to personalize their choice of antidiabetic therapy based both on the specific characteristics of the patient in front of them (stage of diabetes and its complications, overall health status, socioeconomic situation, other medications present, desire to improve control of diabetes, etc.) and the current knowledge about the relative and absolute balance of benefits and risks of any individual medication in that specific patient. It has to be recognized that this requires constant re-evaluation as database of our experience with antidiabetic therapy expands.

  19. Side Effects of Nitrification Inhibitors on Non Target Microbial Processes in Soils

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Johannes Carl Gottlieb Ottow

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Agricultural chemicals have been used extensively in modern agriculture and toxicological studies suggest a great potential for inducing undesirable effects on non target organisms. A model experiment was conducted in order to determine side effects of three nitrification inhibitors (NIs, 3,4dimethylpyrazolephosphate = DMPP, 4-Chlor-methylpyrazole phosphate = ClMPP and dicyandiamide = DCD on non target microbial processes in soils. Side effects and dose response curve of three NIs were quantified under laboratory conditions using silty clay, loam and a sandy soils. Dehydrogenase, dimethylsulfoxide reductase as well as nitrogenase activity (NA and potential denitrification capacity were measured as common and specific non target microbial processes. The influence of 5-1000 times the base concentration, dose response curves were examined, and no observable effect level = NOEL, as well as effective dose ED10 and ED50 (10% and 50% inhibition were calculated. The NOEL for microbial non target processes were about 30–70 times higher than base concentration in all investigated soils. The potential denitrification capacity revealed to be the most sensitive parameter. ClMPP exhibited the strongest influence on the non target microbial processes in the three soils. The NOEL, ED10 and ED50 values were higher in clay than in loamy or sandy soil. The NIs was the most effective in sandy soils.

  20. ["I will do laparoscopy somewhere else" : Total, highly immersive virtual reality without side effects?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huber, T; Paschold, M; Hansen, C; Lang, H; Kneist, W

    2017-06-28

    For virtual reality laparosopic simulation we developed a new, highly immersive simulation mode. The goal of the current pilot study was to investigate if kinetosis or other negative vegetative side effects can be caused by a total virtual training set-up (TVRL). In this study 20 participants with varying degrees of expertise in laparoscopy performed 3 tasks (i.e. ring exchange, fine dissection and cholecystectomy) in regular (VRL) and immersive mode (TVRL) with a head-mounted display (HMD) on a laparoscopic simulator. Aside from performance scores, the heart rate was recorded and the occurrence of vertigo was investigated. Surgical performance was independent of the VR mode (VRL or TVRL). Participants' heart rate was higher in TVRL without reaching statistical significance. Kinetosis occurred in two participants (10%) with a history of motion sickness. Laparoscopic training can take place in a total virtual environment with limited nagative vegetative side effects. Special attention should be paid to participants with a history of motion sickness. The development of TVRL enables new perspectives for surgical training.

  1. Efavirenz: A review of the epidemiology, severity and management of neuropsychiatric side-effects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Razia Gaida

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available South Africa has the highest proportion of HIV-positive people in the world. HIV cannot be cured; however, there are several major classes of drugs used in its management. Efavirenz is one such agent of the class non-nucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitors which inhibits the replication of the virus. Efavirenz is associated with causing neuropsychiatric side-effects (NPSEs, with almost 50% of patients experiencing at least one NPSE while on treatment. The NPSEs tend to occur within the first few days of initiation of therapy and resolve spontaneously within the first 4 - 6 weeks, with the most commonly reported being dizziness, insomnia, headache, abnormal dreams and impaired concentration. The plasma level of efavirenz and genetic polymorphisms are thought to play a role in the development of such NPSEs. NPSEs need to be treated according to severity. If necessary, efavirenz may be replaced with nevirapine or lopinavir/ritonavir. It should be remembered that nevirapine may also produce some severe side-effects such as skin abnormalities and hepatotoxicity. The monitoring of patients receiving efavirenz therapy should be ongoing, with those with a history of mental illness requiring closer monitoring than others.

  2. Irrigation with isoproterenol during ureterorenoscopy causes no systemic side-effects

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jung, Helene U; Jakobsen, Joern S; Frimodt-Moeller, Poul C

    2007-01-01

    Objective. Ureterorenoscopy causes complications that may be related to high intrarenal pressures generated during irrigation. Endoluminal isoproterenol administration has been shown to reduce pelvic pressure in pigs. The objective of this study was to investigate possible systemic side-effects o......Objective. Ureterorenoscopy causes complications that may be related to high intrarenal pressures generated during irrigation. Endoluminal isoproterenol administration has been shown to reduce pelvic pressure in pigs. The objective of this study was to investigate possible systemic side......-effects of isoproterenol irrigation during ureterorenoscopy in humans. Material and methods. Seven patients undergoing ureterorenoscopy due to renal stone disease were included. A 5-Fr catheter was retrogradely placed in the renal pelvis for pressure measurements. Prior to irrigation with isoproterenol (0.1 microg....../ml), ureterorenoscopy was performed with saline irrigation. Renal pelvic pressure, blood pressure and heart rate were measured before and after isoproterenol irrigation. Venous blood was drawn for isoproterenol measurements. Results. Endoluminal isoproterenol irrigation produced no changes in mean heart rate (HR...

  3. Short-Term Side Effects after Radioiodine Treatment in Patients with Differentiated Thyroid Cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Liyan Lu

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Objectives. I-131 therapy for differentiated thyroid cancer (DTC could induce adverse effects. The purpose of this study was to report and analyze symptoms after I-131 treatment within the hospitalization and present relevant medical intervention. Methods. I-131 doses ranging from 3.7 to 9.25 GBq (100–250 mCi were administrated for thyroid remnant ablation or treating DTC metastases. 117 patients with DTC for I-131 therapy were monitored through the video and intercommunicating with standardized questionnaire at different time points after I-131 oral administration. Adverse effects were recorded and relevant clinical factors were analyzed. Results. Among all the 117 patients, 55 cases complained of neck’s pain or swelling and 79 cases presented with gastrointestinal symptoms. Pain or swelling of salivary gland occurred in 15 patients, headache and vertigo in 10, insomnia in 9, vocal cord paralysis in 6, fatigue or general malaise in 6, and foreign body sensation in 5. Body numbness and urinary symptoms were observed in only 1 case, respectively. Those side effects were related with sex, pre-I-131 treatment TSH levels, frequency of I-131 therapy, and lymph node metastases. Conclusions. Short-term side effects after I-131 therapy for DTC patients varied individually; severe symptoms were not uncommon but generally did not need emergent medical intervention.

  4. TESTING SIDE-EFFECTS OF COMMON PESTICIDES ON A. SWIRSKII UNDER GREENHOUSE CIRCUMSTANCES.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Audenaert, J; Vissers, M; Gobin, B

    2014-01-01

    If a grower uses predatory mites, and should use chemical compounds, he needs to be very careful in his choice of products. The selected products have to be efficient against the target pest and at the same time compatible with the present beneficial's. Useful tools for such product selection under greenhouse circumstances are side effects lists. These lists are freely available on the websites of producing companies of biological control agents. But not all products (e.g. newly developed ones) have been tested for side effects. Moreover the information already available in these tables is not based on field tests. For this reason, we have developed a protocol for quick screening of side effects of chemical plant protection products under field conditions. For these experiments we have chosen the predatory mite Amblyseius swirskii as test organism, because this is an often used phytoseiid mite, which is very sensitive to pesticides. Hibiscus rosa sinensis is the standard reference plant in our side effects trials because the chosen predatory mite has shown very good control of pests on this plant species. The experimental design consists of eight test objects in 4 replications. Test object 1 is a positive reference (water spray) and test object 2 a negative reference (deltamethrin spray, a product with long residual activity against beneficial organisms). The plot size is 0,68 m2 and each plot contains 32 Hibiscus plants. The greenhouse temperature is set at 20±2°C. The test strategy has the following sequence: introduction of an overdose of Amblyseius swirskii mites 14 days before spraying the pesticides > precount of predatory mites 4 days before application (4DBA) > spray application (A) for the 6 test products and for the 2 references > counting's after application (1, 2, 4, 8 en 12 weeks after application = 1 till 12WAA). The counting's of the number of predatory mites are performed on 20 Hibiscus leaves/plot under a binocular. Because of the absence of any

  5. Patients' perception of chemotherapy side effects: Expectations, doctor-patient communication and impact on quality of life - An Italian survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lorusso, Domenica; Bria, Emilio; Costantini, Anna; Di Maio, Massimo; Rosti, Giovanni; Mancuso, Annamaria

    2017-03-01

    Chemotherapy side effects (CSE) have a strong impact on patients' quality of life (QOL). To assess patient perceptions of CSE, their impact on QOL and doctor-patient communication regarding these aspects, a survey was conducted among Italian cancer patients. Patients at least 18 years of age, who received chemotherapy, were administered a dedicated questionnaire to assess their point of view on five domains: expectations about CSE and impact on QOL; doctor-patient communication about CSE; treatments to reduce the impact of CSE; sexual life; family relationships/activities and employment. A total of 761 patients participated. CSE had a considerable impact on patient QOL. Nausea/vomiting was the most feared adverse effect before initiating chemotherapy and the one most commonly experienced during treatment. Patients generally reported good doctor-patient communication regarding information about CSE. In almost all cases, the oncologists prescribed an antiemetic treatment, but the incidence of nausea/vomiting was high. Cancer and CSE severely affected sexual life, daily activities and employment. CSE had a strong negative impact on QOL. Good doctor-patient communication is essential. Improving antiemetic strategies may improve QOL. Doctors' ability to inform patients about delicate issues, such as the impact of CSE on sexual life, needs to be improved. © 2016 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  6. Comparative study of adverse effects of Olanzapine and Risperidone on blood suger, lipid and other side effects in psychotic disorders

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    mitra safa

    2008-10-01

    Full Text Available Safa M1, Mohammadi MR2, Saki M3, Delfan B4, Tarrahi MJ5, Rouhandeh M6 1. Assistant Professor, Department of psychiatry, Faculty of Medicine, Lorestan University of Medical Sciences, Khorramabad, Iran 2. GP, Khorramabad, Iran 3. Instructor, Department of Nursing, Faculty of Nursing and Midwifery, Lorestan University of Medical Sciences, Khorramabad, Iran 4. Associate Professor, Department of Pharmacology, Faculty of Medicine, Lorestan University of Medical Sciences, Khorramabad, Iran 5. Instructor, Department of Epidemiology, Faculty of Health, Lorestan University of Medical Sciences, Khorramabad, Iran 6. BSc in Nursing, Khorramabad, Iran Abstract Background: Chronic mental disorders are among the problems in psychiatrics. Atypical anti psychotic drugs are new effective medications to treat these disorders. Unfortunately these drugs lead to side effects such as increase in blood glocuse, weight gain and edema. This study aims to investigate adverse effects of Olanzapine and Rispridone on lipid level and blood glocuse and other complications in patients with psychotic disorders. Materials and methods: This clinical trial-double blinded study, patients with psychotic disorders were randomly categorized into two groups. Group one treated with Olanzapine and other with Rispridone. All the subjects were initially assessed for blood sugar and lipids, and in the case of normal, they were randomly assigned to two groups in a double- blinded method to be treated with Olanzapine or Risperidone. Blood sugar and lipids tests were performed for all subjects at the 1st week and 3 months after initiation of therapy. Other complications were assessed too, then the data were analyzed using SPSS software. Results: The results of the study indicated that the levels of cholesterol, triglycerides and blood suger rose significantly at the 1st week and third month after beginning the treatment. Increase of cholesterol and triglyceride in the Olanzapine and Risperidone

  7. Antipsychotic Medication in Children and Adolescents : A Descriptive Review of the Effects on Prolactin Level and Associated Side Effects

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Roke, Yvette; van Harten, Peter N.; Boot, Annemieke M.; Buitelaar, Jan K.

    Objective: This review reports the incidence of hyperprolactinemia, its relationship with genotype, and prolactin-related side effects in children and adolescents treated with antipsychotics. Method: Data on prolactin levels were available for haloperidol, pimozide, risperidone, olanzapine,

  8. Influenza vaccination in healthcare workers : comparison of side effects and preferred route of administration of intradermal versus intramuscular administration

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Meijer, W. J.; Wensing, A. M. J.; Bos, A. A.; Kuiphuis, J. C. F.; Hagelen, E. M. M.; Wilschut, J. C.; de Vries, M. J. T.; Riezebos-Brilman, A.

    2017-01-01

    Objective: To explore the nature and severity of side effects and future preference of intradermal versus intramuscular influenza vaccination in healthcare workers. Design: Prospective cohort study. Setting: Two University Medical Centers in The Netherlands. Participants: Healthcare workers

  9. Long Lasting Impairment of Taste and Smell as Side Effect of Lithium Carbonate in a Cluster Headache Patient.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Coo, Ilse F; Haan, Joost

    2016-07-01

    Preventive treatment with lithium carbonate is a therapeutic option for chronic cluster headache. Lithium can lead to a broad spectrum of severe side effects, many of which are generally unknown. One week after starting treatment with lithium, a 55-year-old man with chronic cluster headache noticed a strange and unpleasant taste of various foods and a diminished smell. After 4 weeks, he decided to stop the therapy because of these complaints, but 9 months later both taste and smell still had not returned to normal. We present the first description of long-lasting dysgeusia and hyposmia as a side effect of lithium therapy in cluster headache. Dysgeusia has only rarely been reported as a side effect of lithium in other conditions and hyposmia has not previously been reported. Physicians should be aware of this rare, but severe, side effect when prescribing lithium. © 2016 American Headache Society.

  10. Reduction of side effects in aortofemoral angiography: low-osmolar contrast medium compared with conventional contrast medium plus local anaesthetic

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Straub, H.; Wiebe, V.

    1981-04-01

    Ioglicinate plus lidocaine and ioxaglate were used for aortofemoral angiography in 15 patients. Side effects of the two contrast media were compared in a double blind study. Injection of ioxaglate caused significantly less vascular pain. With both contrast agents sensation of heat and increase of heart rate were equal. Unlike ioglicinate plus lidocaine ioxaglate did not induce a significant drop of blood pressure. Angiography using low osmolar contrast media causes less side effects than conventional medium plus local anesthetic.

  11. Underreporting of side effects of standard first-line ART in the routine setting in Blantyre, Malawi.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tapsfield, Julia; Mathews, Teena; Lungu, Molly; van Oosterhout, Joep J

    2011-12-01

    In the Malawi ART programme, 92% of 250,000 patients are using the standard first-line regime of stavudine-lamivudine-nevaripine. National ART reports indicate side effects, much less than expected from literature. We interviewed adult patients on standard first-line ART for at least one year, after routine visits to an urban clinic in Blantyre, Malawi. We determined the prevalence of symptoms that are common side-effects, described discrepancies between symptoms that patients reported to us and those that had been recorded by attending staff as side-effects in the point-of-care electronic monitoring system, and studied factors associated with such discrepancies. Of 170 participants, 75 (44%) reported at least one symptom, most common were symptoms suggesting peripheral neuropathy (n=57) and lipodystrophy (n=16). Forty-six (66%) symptomatic patients said they reported symptoms to attending ART staff. Side-effects were recorded in the clinic database for just 4 patients. Toxicity recording was too low for meaningful analysis of factors associated with discrepancies between reporting and recording of side-effects. The prevalence of symptoms indicating characteristic side-effects of the standard first-line regimen was 39% based on interviews, and 2% in the electronic monitoring system. There was gross under-recording of side-effects in this setting, mainly due to not recording by ART staff. Pressure of work and insufficient perceived benefit of side-effect recording are suspected causes. Local and national ART reports do not reflect the true toxicity of the standard first line regimen.

  12. Patient perceptions of glucocorticoid side effects: a cross-sectional survey of users in an online health community.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Costello, Ruth; Patel, Rikesh; Humphreys, Jennifer; McBeth, John; Dixon, William G

    2017-04-03

    To identify the side effects most important to glucocorticoid (GC) users through a survey of a UK online health community (Healthunlocked.com). Online cross-sectional survey. Participants were recruited through Healthunlocked.com, an online social network for health. Adults who were currently taking GCs, or had taken GCs in the past month. Responders scored the importance of listed side effects from 1 to 10, with 10 being of high importance to them. For each side effect, histograms were plotted, and the median rating and IQR were determined. Side effects were ranked by median ranking (largest to smallest) and then IQR (smallest to largest). The scores were categorised as low (scores 1-3), medium (scores 4-7) and high (scores 8-10) importance. 604 responders completed the survey. Histograms of side effect scores showed a skew towards high importance for weight gain, a U-shaped distribution for cardiovascular disease (CVD), diabetes, eye disease and infections, and a skew towards low importance for acne. When ranked, the side effect of most importance to responders was weight gain (median score=9, IQR 6-10) followed by insomnia and moon face with equal median score (8) and IQR (5-10). Three serious side effects, CVD, diabetes and infections, were ranked of lower importance overall but had wide ranging scores (median score=8, IQR 1-10). The three most highly rated side effects were not clinically serious but remained important to patients, perhaps reflecting their impact on quality of life and high prevalence. This should be taken into consideration when discussing treatment options and planning future GC safety studies. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://www.bmj.com/company/products-services/rights-and-licensing/.

  13. Antiplatelet Drugs and Its Gastrointestinal Side Effects among Ischemic Stroke Patients in Dr. Hasan Sadikin General Hospital 2011

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ananthakrishnan A/L Rajendram

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Background: Antiplatelet drugs with known side effects are given in long term therapies to prevent secondary ischemic stroke. Gastrointestinal side effect is the most prevalent issue. The aim of this study was to identify which antiplatelet drugs have the most gastrointestinal side effects and the duration of administration. Methods: Seven hundred twenty six medical records were obtained from the Medical Record Department of Dr.Hasan Sadikin General Hospital Bandung from August to December 2011. Inclusion criteria were >18 years old and treated by long term antiplatelet drugs with complete medical records. Data analyzed descriptively consist of antiplatelet type, gastrointestinal effects, and drug administration duration. Results: Of 726 medical records only 246 were enrolled this study. Aspirin 80 mg was the most frequent drug given to ischemic stroke patients (65.9%. Gastrointestinal (GI bleeding and nausea were the two side effects mostly found in aspirin >80 mg group (90%; 95% respectively. The side effects was found after less than 3 months in the aspirin >80 mg group, while it took longer to appear in clopidogrel 75 mg group. Conclusions: Aspirin (>80 mg presents the most frequent gastrointestinal side effect compared to low dose aspirin 80 mg , clopidogrel, and combination of clopidogrel and aspirin.

  14. Viekira Pak Induced Fatal Lactic Acidosis: A Case Report of an Unusual Side Effect

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Molham Abdulsamad

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Viekira Pak is a new direct-acting antiviral agent that has an excellent efficacy in treating patients with chronic HCV. FDA released a safety warning that Viekira Pak can cause serious liver injury mostly in patients with underlying advanced liver disease. We report the first case of fatal lactic acidosis presenting 3 days after initiating therapy with Viekira Pak. Although it is very hard to precisely determine the cause of lactic acidosis, our case highlights an unusual side effect that ensued after starting the medication. Given the complexity of drug-drug interactions that can happen with the new direct-acting antiviral agents and the paucity of data regarding coadministration and methods of monitoring, a thorough review should be pursued prior to initiating these medications.

  15. Matrix changes and side effects induced by electrokinetic treatment of porous and particulate materials

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Skibsted, Gry

    of porous stone materials to hinder decay. However, in addition to the removal of target ions in these systems, matrix changes may occur during the electrochemical treatment. For a broader implementation of the electrokinetic methods it is important to understand changes in the matrix composition......Transport of ions in an applied electric field holds many applications within both civil and environmental engineering, e.g. for removal of chlorides from concrete to hinder reinforcement corrosion, remediation of heavy metals from soils and other waste materials and recently for desalination...... for different types of materials. The overall aim of this PhD-project is to evaluate matrix changes and side effects induced by electrokinetic treatment of porous and particulate materials.During electro-remediation protons are produced at the anode and hydroxyl ions are produced at the cathode. The consequent...

  16. Side effects of Bacillus thuringiensis var. kurstaki on the hymenopterous parasitic wasp Trichogramma chilonis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amichot, Marcel; Curty, Christine; Benguettat-Magliano, Olivia; Gallet, Armel; Wajnberg, Eric

    2016-02-01

    Most of the detrimental effects of using conventional insecticides to control crop pests are now well identified and are nowadays major arguments for replacing such compounds by the use of biological control agents. In this respect, the bacterium Bacillus thuringiensis var. kurstaki and Trichogramma (Hymenoptera: Trichogrammatidae) parasitic wasp species are both effective against lepidopterous pests and can actually be used concomitantly. In this work, we studied the potential side effects of B. thuringiensis var. kurstaki on Trichogramma chilonis females. We first evidenced an acute toxicity of B. thuringiensis on T. chilonis. Then, after ingestion of B. thuringiensis at sublethal doses, we focused on life history traits of T. chilonis such as longevity, reproductive success and the time spent on host eggs patches. The reproductive success of T. chilonis was not modified by B. thuringiensis while a significant effect was observed on longevity and the time spent on host eggs patches. The physiological and ecological meanings of the results obtained are discussed.

  17. Adult growth hormone deficiency – benefits, side effects, and risks of growth hormone replacement

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mary Lim Reed

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Deficiency of growth hormone (GH in adults results in a syndrome characterized by decreased muscle mass and exercise capacity, increased visceral fat, impaired quality of life, unfavorable alterations in lipid profile and markers of cardiovascular risk, decrease in bone mass and integrity and increased mortality. When dosed appropriately, GH replacement therapy (GHRT is well tolerated, with a low incidence of side effects, and improves most of the alterations observed in GH deficiency (GHD; beneficial effects on mortality, cardiovascular events and fracture rates, however, remain to be conclusively demonstrated. The potential of GH to act as a mitogen has resulted in concern over the possibility of increased de novo tumors or recurrence of pre-existing malignancies in individuals treated with GH. Though studies of adults who received GHRT in childhood have produced conflicting reports in this regard, long term surveillance of adult GHRT has not demonstrated increased cancer risk or mortality.

  18. [Side effects and contrast medium resorption of iopamidol and iocarmate in lumbar myelography].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stoeter, P; Bergleiter, R; Schneider, I; Kubina, F G

    1982-12-01

    Lumbar myelographies were carried out with lopamidol and locarmat of identical concentrations of iodine in 2 groups of 20 patients each. In about one-third of the cases, clinical side effects and EEG changes were found after the examination without difference with the exception of one seizure and one state of confusion which occurred only after locarmat. Resorption of the contrast media was judged by CT examinations of the lumbar spine and the head. There was a more rapid decrease of lumbar contrast density in patients with a narrow lumbar sac which was accompanied by a more rapid intracranial accumulation of the contrast medium. This may be due to a more active transport of cerebrospinal fluid in this group of patients.

  19. Sympathomimetic Activity of a Hoodia gordonii Product: A Possible Mechanism of Cardiovascular Side Effects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Orsolya Roza

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Hoodia gordonii, a popular appetite suppressant, is widely used as an ingredient in many food supplements despite the fact that supporting scientific evidence is scarce. Recently alarming side effects of H. gordonii products (increased blood pressure and elevated pulse rate have been reported. The aim of our study was to elucidate the underlying mechanism of these symptoms. A H. gordonii-containing product was tested for sympathomimetic activity. Isolated organ experiments on rat uterine rings revealed smooth muscle relaxant effect with a substantial component mediated through β-adrenergic receptors. Chromatographic comparison of the analyzed product and authentic plant material confirmed that the herbal product contained Hoodia spp. extract, and its cardiovascular effects may be linked to the compounds of the plant.

  20. Norms inform mental state ascriptions: A rational explanation for the side-effect effect.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Uttich, Kevin; Lombrozo, Tania

    2010-07-01

    Theory of mind, the capacity to understand and ascribe mental states, has traditionally been conceptualized as analogous to a scientific theory. However, recent work in philosophy and psychology has documented a "side-effect effect" suggesting that moral evaluations influence mental state ascriptions, and in particular whether a behavior is described as having been performed 'intentionally.' This evidence challenges the idea that theory of mind is analogous to scientific psychology in serving the function of predicting and explaining, rather than evaluating, behavior. In three experiments, we demonstrate that moral evaluations do inform ascriptions of intentional action, but that this relationship arises because behavior that conforms to norms (moral or otherwise) is less informative about underlying mental states than is behavior that violates norms. This analysis preserves the traditional understanding of theory of mind as a tool for predicting and explaining behavior, but also suggests the importance of normative considerations in social cognition. 2010 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  1. An interesting uncommon side effect of topical corticosteroids-hidradenitis suppurativa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yugandar Inakanti

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available There are many local and systemic side-effects of topical corticosteroids. To the best of our Knowledge, Hidradenitis Supportive (HS due to topical corticosteroids has not been reported previously. We report a 39-year old, male patient who started himself a topical corticosteroid Pander Plus cream because of itching, scaly lesions over groins and buttocks since 6 months. After 4 months of topical treatment, he developed pus discharging sinuses over both groins and buttocks. Based on patient history, clinical and laboratory findings and the exclusion of other diagnoses, HS points out the use of topical corticosteroids. The case well highlights this unusual condition and represents the first case reported in India to our best of the knowledge. Having performed thorough literature search I would like to discuss in this report the evidence for this relation and stress the importance of appropriate usage of topical corticosteroids.

  2. Lowering side effects of NSAID usage in osteoarthritis: recent attempts at minimizing dosage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maniar, Kevin H; Jones, Ian A; Gopalakrishna, Rayudu; Vangsness, C Thomas

    2018-02-01

    Osteoarthritis is a burdensome disease that causes progressive damage to articular cartilage. Non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs) are one of the preferred treatments for symptomatic relief. However, NSAIDs can cause serious dose-dependent side effects, which has prompted experts to recommend the minimization of NSAID dosage. Areas covered: This review focuses on three broad strategies that are currently being investigated or implemented to minimize NSAID dosage: nano-formulation, encapsulation, and topical delivery. The benefits, challenges and current status of these methods are discussed. Expert opinion: Multiple strategies are under investigation to lower NSAID dosage. There is great potential in developing formulations that utilize more than one of these strategies together. However, there are challenges to developing these lower dose preparations. In order to maximize the clinical potential of the abundance of NSAIDs that are both available and being developed, there is a major need for additional clinical studies directly comparing safety and efficacy of different preparations.

  3. Palmar psoriasis, a rare side effect of beta-blocker theraphy: a case report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Refiker Ege, Meltem; Güray, Yeşim; Güray, Umit; Demirkan, Burcu

    2012-09-01

    A 45-year-old woman presented to our outpatient clinic with reddish eruptions in both palms. We have learned that she was prescribed metoprolol at another medical center to treat new onset hypertension. On her physical examination there were no associated lesions on the body. All other physical findings, as well as blood chemistry, urine analysis, and complete blood count, were found to be normal. After her consultation with the dermatology department, palmar psoriasis due to metoprolol therapy was diagnosed. The personal and family history of the patient yielded no history for psoriasis. Metoprolol therapy was withdrawn and topical treatment with corticosteroid was recommended. The patient has returned to the clinic subsequently, with no recurrence of the lesions. Psoriazis is one of the rare side effects of beta-blocker therapy.

  4. Dimethyl fumarate for treatment of multiple sclerosis: mechanism of action, effectiveness, and side effects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Linker, Ralf A; Gold, Ralf

    2013-11-01

    Dimethyl fumarate is an orally available treatment option for relapsing-remitting multiple sclerosis (MS) in a new formulation with improved gastroenteric coating. The mode of action comprises immunomodulatory effects and an activation of nuclear (erythroid-derived 2) related factor mediated antioxidative response pathways leading to additional cytoprotective effects. In two pivotal phase III trials, dimethyl fumarate, 240 mg twice daily, reduced relapse rates by about 50 % as compared with placebo. In the DEFINE trial, progression of disability was also significantly reduced. Both trials demonstrated a significant reduction of gadolinium-enhanced lesions as well as T2 lesions on cranial MRI. The studies revealed a beneficial safety profile of dimethyl fumarate. The most prevalent side effects were transient flushing and gastrointestinal tract irritation. Dimethyl fumarate has recently been approved in the USA for the treatment of relapsing-remitting MS. The compound is a welcome addition to the immunomodulatory treatment armamentarium for MS patients and physicians alike.

  5. Bisphosphonate-related osteonecrosis of jaw (BRONJ: an anti-angiogenic side-effect?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Petcu Eugen B

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Bisphosphonates are recommended in the treatment of osteoporosis and some cancers, in which case they prevent the appearance of bone metastasis. The patients taking bisphosphonates are at increased risk of developing bisphosphonate-related osteonecrosis of jaw (BRONJ which is characterised by the presence of an un-healing wound after dental surgery. BRONJ might represent an anti-angiogenic side effect. However, the real number of patients with BRONJ might be higher than currently recorded. Considering the differential diagnosis which includes various primary and secondary cancers, a correct histopathological diagnosis is very important. The morphological criteria for diagnosis of BRONJ are highlighted in this material. Virtual Slides The virtual slide(s for this article can be found here: http://www.diagnosticpathology.diagnomx.eu/vs/1813972972323288

  6. Pattern of statin use changes following media coverage of its side effects

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kriegbaum, Margit; Liisberg, Kasper Bering; Wallach-Kildemoes, Helle

    2017-01-01

    BACKGROUND: The media plays a role in shaping opinions about medical decisions, for example, whether to initiate or stop treatment. An association between negative media attention and statin discontinuation has been demonstrated, but it may differ depending on the reason for prescription...... and whether the user is new (incident) or long term (prevalent). AIM: The aim of this study is to explore whether a Danish newspaper article featuring the side effects of statins affects statin discontinuation in incident versus prevalent users, with the reason for prescription also taken into account...... discontinuation in all statin users in Denmark in 2007 before the media event (n=343,438) and after it in 2008 (n=404,052). RESULTS: Compared to 2007, statin discontinuation among prevalent users in 2008 increased by 2.97 percentage points (pp). The change in discontinuation varied with the indication for statin...

  7. Potential climate engineering effectiveness and side effects during a high carbon dioxide-emission scenario

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keller, David P.; Feng, Ellias Y.; Oschlies, Andreas

    2014-02-01

    The realization that mitigation efforts to reduce carbon dioxide emissions have, until now, been relatively ineffective has led to an increasing interest in climate engineering as a possible means of preventing the potentially catastrophic consequences of climate change. While many studies have addressed the potential effectiveness of individual methods there have been few attempts to compare them. Here we use an Earth system model to compare the effectiveness and side effects of afforestation, artificial ocean upwelling, ocean iron fertilization, ocean alkalinization and solar radiation management during a high carbon dioxide-emission scenario. We find that even when applied continuously and at scales as large as currently deemed possible, all methods are, individually, either relatively ineffective with limited (stopped without causing rapid climate change. Our simulations suggest that the potential for these types of climate engineering to make up for failed mitigation may be very limited.

  8. The protective effects of trace elements against side effects induced by ionizing radiation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hosseinimehr, Seyed Jaial [Dept. of Radiopharmacy, Faculty of Pharmacy, Pharmaceutical Sciences Research Center, Mazandaran University of Medical Sciences, Sari (Iran, Islamic Republic of)

    2015-06-15

    Trace elements play crucial role in the maintenance of genome stability in the cells. Many endogenous defense enzymes are containing trace elements such as superoxide dismutase and metalloproteins. These enzymes are contributing in the detoxification of reactive oxidative species (ROS) induced by ionizing radiation in the cells. Zinc, copper, manganese, and selenium are main trace elements that have protective roles against radiation-induced DNA damages. Trace elements in the free salt forms have protective effect against cell toxicity induced by oxidative stress, metal-complex are more active in the attenuation of ROS particularly through superoxide dismutase mimetic activity. Manganese-complexes in protection of normal cell against radiation without any protective effect on cancer cells are more interesting compounds in this topic. The aim of this paper to review the role of trace elements in protection cells against genotoxicity and side effects induced by ionizing radiation.

  9. Side effects of extra tRNA supplied in a typical bacterial protein production scenario

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Søgaard, Karina Marie; Nørholm, Morten H. H.

    2016-01-01

    Recombinant protein production is at the core of biotechnology and numerous molecular tools and bacterial strains have been developed to make the process more efficient. One commonly used generic solution is to supply extra copies of low-abundance tRNAs to compensate for the presence of complemen...... on the same plasmid and not the tRNAs per se. These phenomena seem to have been largely overlooked despite the huge popularity of the T7/pET-based systems for bacterial protein production....... of complementary rare codons in genes-of-interest. Here we show that such extra tRNA, supplied by the commonly used pLysSRARE2 plasmid, can cause two side effects: (1) growth and gene expression can be impaired, and (2) apparent positive effects can be caused by differential expression of the lysozyme gene encoded...

  10. Uncaria tomentosa for Reducing Side Effects Caused by Chemotherapy in CRC Patients: Clinical Trial

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I. L. G. Farias

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available To evaluate the effectiveness of Uncaria tomentosa in minimizing the side effects of chemotherapy and improving the antioxidant status of colorectal cancer (CRC patients, a randomized clinical trial was conducted. Patients (43 undergoing adjuvant/palliative chemotherapy with 5-Fluorouracil/leucovorin + oxaliplatin (FOLFOX4 were split into two groups: the UT group received chemotherapy plus 300 mg of Uncaria tomentosa daily and the C group received only FOLFOX4 and served as a control. Blood samples were collected before each of the 6 cycles of chemotherapy, and hemograms, oxidative stress, enzymes antioxidants, immunologic parameters, and adverse events were analyzed. The use of 300 mg of Uncaria tomentosa daily during 6 cycles of FOLFOX4 did not change the analyzed parameters, and no toxic effects were observed.

  11. Thyroid side effects prophylaxis in front of nuclear power plant accidents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Agopiantz, Mikaël; Elhanbali, Ouifak; Demore, Béatrice; Cuny, Thomas; Demarquet, Léa; Ndiaye, Cumba; Barbe, Françoise; Brunaud, Laurent; Weryha, Georges; Klein, Marc

    2016-02-01

    The better knowledge of the mechanisms of nuclear incidents and lessons learned from accidents in the recent past to improve the effectiveness of measures taken following a nuclear accident exposure to fallout of radioactive iodine isotopes. Thus, immediate, passive measures, such as containment, and stopping consumption of contaminated products are paramount. The earliest possible administration of stable iodine as potassium iodide (KI) reduces significantly (up to 90% if taken at the same time of the accident) thyroid radioactive contamination. These tablets should be given in priority to children and pregnant women. The side effects are minor. KI is not recommended for persons aged over 60 years, or for adults suffering from cardiovascular disorders. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  12. Can melatonin prevent or improve metabolic side effects during antipsychotic treatments?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Porfirio, Maria-Cristina; Gomes de Almeida, Juliana Paula; Stornelli, Maddalena; Giovinazzo, Silvia; Purper-Ouakil, Diane; Masi, Gabriele

    2017-01-01

    In the last two decades, second-generation antipsychotics (SGAs) were more frequently used than typical antipsychotics for treating both psychotic and nonpsychotic psychiatric disorders in both children and adolescents, because of their lower risk of adverse neurological effects, that is, extrapyramidal symptoms. Recent studies have pointed out their effect on weight gain and increased visceral adiposity as they induce metabolic syndrome. Patients receiving SGAs often need to be treated with other substances to counteract metabolic side effects. In this paper, we point out the possible protective effect of add-on melatonin treatment in preventing, mitigating, or even reversing SGAs metabolic effects, improving quality of life and providing safer long-term treatments in pediatric patients. Melatonin is an endogenous indolamine secreted during darkness by the pineal gland; it plays a key role in regulating the circadian rhythm, generated by the suprachiasmatic nuclei (SCN) of the hypothalamus, and has many other biological functions, including chronobiotic, antioxidant and neuroprotective properties, anti-inflammatory and free radical scavenging effects, and diminishing oxidative injury and fat distribution. It has been hypothesized that SGAs cause adverse metabolic effects that may be restored by nightly administration of melatonin because of its influence on autonomic and hormonal outputs. Interestingly, atypical anti-psychotics (AAPs) can cause several sleep disorders, and circadian misalignment can influence hormones involved in the metabolic regulation, such as insulin, leptin, and ghrelin; furthermore, a relationship between obesity and sleep curtailment has been demonstrated, as well as sleep deprivation in rats has been associated with hyperphagia. Metabolic effects of melatonin, both central and peripheral, direct and indirect, target most metabolic disorders reported during and after SGA treatment in children, adolescents, and adults. Further systematic

  13. Side-Effects of Glyphosate to the Parasitoid Telenomus remus Nixon (Hymenoptera: Platygastridae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stecca, C S; Bueno, A F; Pasini, A; Silva, D M; Andrade, K; Filho, D M Z

    2016-04-01

    The aim of this study was to compare the side-effects of glyphosate to the parasitoid Telenomus remus Nixon (Hymenoptera: Platygastridae) when parasitoids were exposed to this chemical at the pupal (inside host eggs) and adult stages. Bioassays were conducted under laboratory conditions according to the International Organization for Biological Control (IOBC) standard methods for testing side-effects of pesticides to egg parasitoids. Different glyphosate-based pesticides (Roundup Original®, Roundup Ready®, Roundup Transorb®, Roundup WG®, and Zapp Qi®) were tested at the same acid equivalent concentration. Treatments were classified following the IOBC toxicity categories as (1) harmless, (2) slightly harmful, (3) moderately harmful, and (4) harmful. When tested against T. remus adults, Roundup Original®, Roundup Ready®, Roundup Transorb®, and Roundup WG® reduced parasitism 2 days after parasitoid emergence, being classified as slightly harmful. Differently, when tested against T. remus pupae, all tested glyphosate-based products did not differ in their lethal effect and therefore did not reduce T. remus adult emergence or parasitism capacity, being classified as harmless. However, differences on sublethal toxicity were found. Parasitism of individuals emerging from parasitized eggs sprayed at the pupal stage of T. remus with Zapp Qi® was lower compared to control, but parasitism was still higher than 66%, and therefore, Zapp Qi® was still classified as harmless. In conclusion, all tested glyphosate-based products can be used in agriculture without negative impact to T. remus as none was classified as harmful or moderately harmful to this parasitoid when exposure occurred at the pupal or adult stages.

  14. Proton Minibeam Radiation Therapy Reduces Side Effects in an In Vivo Mouse Ear Model

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Girst, Stefanie, E-mail: stefanie.girst@unibw.de [Institut für Angewandte Physik und Messtechnik (LRT2), Universität der Bundeswehr München, Neubiberg (Germany); Greubel, Christoph; Reindl, Judith [Institut für Angewandte Physik und Messtechnik (LRT2), Universität der Bundeswehr München, Neubiberg (Germany); Siebenwirth, Christian [Institut für Angewandte Physik und Messtechnik (LRT2), Universität der Bundeswehr München, Neubiberg (Germany); Department of Radiation Oncology, Klinikum rechts der Isar, Technische Universität München, Munich (Germany); Zlobinskaya, Olga [Department of Radiation Oncology, Klinikum rechts der Isar, Technische Universität München, Munich (Germany); Walsh, Dietrich W.M. [Institut für Angewandte Physik und Messtechnik (LRT2), Universität der Bundeswehr München, Neubiberg (Germany); Department of Radiation Oncology, Klinikum rechts der Isar, Technische Universität München, Munich (Germany); Ilicic, Katarina [Department of Radiation Oncology, Klinikum rechts der Isar, Technische Universität München, Munich (Germany); Aichler, Michaela; Walch, Axel [Research Unit Analytical Pathology, Helmholtz Zentrum München, German Research Center for Environmental Health, Oberschleißheim (Germany); and others

    2016-05-01

    Purpose: Proton minibeam radiation therapy is a novel approach to minimize normal tissue damage in the entrance channel by spatial fractionation while keeping tumor control through a homogeneous tumor dose using beam widening with an increasing track length. In the present study, the dose distributions for homogeneous broad beam and minibeam irradiation sessions were simulated. Also, in an animal study, acute normal tissue side effects of proton minibeam irradiation were compared with homogeneous irradiation in a tumor-free mouse ear model to account for the complex effects on the immune system and vasculature in an in vivo normal tissue model. Methods and Materials: At the ion microprobe SNAKE, 20-MeV protons were administered to the central part (7.2 × 7.2 mm{sup 2}) of the ear of BALB/c mice, using either a homogeneous field with a dose of 60 Gy or 16 minibeams with a nominal 6000 Gy (4 × 4 minibeams, size 0.18 × 0.18 mm{sup 2}, with a distance of 1.8 mm). The same average dose was used over the irradiated area. Results: No ear swelling or other skin reactions were observed at any point after minibeam irradiation. In contrast, significant ear swelling (up to fourfold), erythema, and desquamation developed in homogeneously irradiated ears 3 to 4 weeks after irradiation. Hair loss and the disappearance of sebaceous glands were only detected in the homogeneously irradiated fields. Conclusions: These results show that proton minibeam radiation therapy results in reduced adverse effects compared with conventional homogeneous broad-beam irradiation and, therefore, might have the potential to decrease the incidence of side effects resulting from clinical proton and/or heavy ion therapy.

  15. Characteristics, Perceived Side Effects and Benefits of Electronic Cigarette Use: A Worldwide Survey of More than 19,000 Consumers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Konstantinos E. Farsalinos

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Background: Electronic cigarette (EC use has grown exponentially over the past few years. The purpose of this survey was to assess the characteristics and experiences of a large sample of EC users and examine the differences between those who partially and completely substituted smoking with EC use. Methods: A questionnaire was prepared, translated into 10 different languages and uploaded in an online survey tool. EC users were asked to participate irrespective of their current smoking status. Participants were divided according to their smoking status at the time of participation in two subgroups: former smokers and current smokers. Results: In total, 19,414 participants were included in the analysis, with 88 of them (0.5% reported not being smokers at the time of EC use initiation. Complete substitution of smoking was reported by 81.0% of participants (former smokers while current smokers had reduced smoking consumption from 20 to 4 cigarettes per day. They were using ECs for a median of 10 months. They initiated EC use with a median of 18 mg/mL nicotine-concentration liquids; 21.5% used higher than 20 mg/mL. Only 3.5% of participants were using 0-nicotine liquids at the time of the survey. Former smokers were highly dependent (Fagerström Test for Cigarette Dependence = 7 and were heavier smokers (21 cigarettes per day when smoking compared to current smokers. The most important reasons for initiating EC use for both subgroups was to reduce the harm associated with smoking and to reduce exposure of family members to second-hand smoking. Most considered ECs as less harmful than tobacco cigarettes, while 11.0% considered them absolutely harmless. Side effects were reported by more than half of the participants (59.8%, with the most common being sore/dry mouth and throat; side effects were mild and in most cases were subsequently resolved (partially or completely. Participants experienced significant benefits in physical status and improvements

  16. Late side effects of short-course preoperative radiotherapy combined with total mesorectal excision for rectal cancer : Increased bowel dysfunction in irradiated patients - A dutch colorectal cancer group study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Peeters, KCMJ; van de Velde, CJH; Leer, JWH; Martijn, H; Junggeburt, JMC; Kranenbarg, EK; Steup, WH; Wiggers, T; Rutten, HJ; Marijnen, CAM

    2005-01-01

    Purpose Preoperative short-term radiotherapy improves local control in patients treated with total mesorectal excision (TME). This study was performed to assess the presence and magnitude of long-term side effects of preoperative 5 x 5 Gy radiotherapy and TME. Also, hospital treatment was recorded

  17. Late side effects of short-course preoperative radiotherapy combined with total mesorectal excision for rectal cancer: increased bowel dysfunction in irradiated patients--a Dutch colorectal cancer group study.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Peeters, K.C.; Velde, C.J. van de; Leer, J.W.H.; Martijn, H.; Junggeburt, J.M.; Kranenbarg, E.K.; Steup, W.H.; Wiggers, T.; Rutten, H.J.; Marijnen, C.A.M.

    2005-01-01

    PURPOSE: Preoperative short-term radiotherapy improves local control in patients treated with total mesorectal excision (TME). This study was performed to assess the presence and magnitude of long-term side effects of preoperative 5 x 5 Gy radiotherapy and TME. Also, hospital treatment was recorded

  18. Are there side effects to watching 3D movies? A prospective crossover observational study on visually induced motion sickness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Solimini, Angelo G

    2013-01-01

    The increasing popularity of commercial movies showing three dimensional (3D) images has raised concern about possible adverse side effects on viewers. A prospective carryover observational study was designed to assess the effect of exposure (3D vs. 2D movie views) on self reported symptoms of visually induced motion sickness. The standardized Simulator Sickness Questionnaire (SSQ) was self administered on a convenience sample of 497 healthy adult volunteers before and after the vision of 2D and 3D movies. Viewers reporting some sickness (SSQ total score>15) were 54.8% of the total sample after the 3D movie compared to 14.1% of total sample after the 2D movie. Symptom intensity was 8.8 times higher than baseline after exposure to 3D movie (compared to the increase of 2 times the baseline after the 2D movie). Multivariate modeling of visually induced motion sickness as response variables pointed out the significant effects of exposure to 3D movie, history of car sickness and headache, after adjusting for gender, age, self reported anxiety level, attention to the movie and show time. Seeing 3D movies can increase rating of symptoms of nausea, oculomotor and disorientation, especially in women with susceptible visual-vestibular system. Confirmatory studies which include examination of clinical signs on viewers are needed to pursue a conclusive evidence on the 3D vision effects on spectators.

  19. Are there side effects to watching 3D movies? A prospective crossover observational study on visually induced motion sickness.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Angelo G Solimini

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: The increasing popularity of commercial movies showing three dimensional (3D images has raised concern about possible adverse side effects on viewers. METHODS AND FINDINGS: A prospective carryover observational study was designed to assess the effect of exposure (3D vs. 2D movie views on self reported symptoms of visually induced motion sickness. The standardized Simulator Sickness Questionnaire (SSQ was self administered on a convenience sample of 497 healthy adult volunteers before and after the vision of 2D and 3D movies. Viewers reporting some sickness (SSQ total score>15 were 54.8% of the total sample after the 3D movie compared to 14.1% of total sample after the 2D movie. Symptom intensity was 8.8 times higher than baseline after exposure to 3D movie (compared to the increase of 2 times the baseline after the 2D movie. Multivariate modeling of visually induced motion sickness as response variables pointed out the significant effects of exposure to 3D movie, history of car sickness and headache, after adjusting for gender, age, self reported anxiety level, attention to the movie and show time. CONCLUSIONS: Seeing 3D movies can increase rating of symptoms of nausea, oculomotor and disorientation, especially in women with susceptible visual-vestibular system. Confirmatory studies which include examination of clinical signs on viewers are needed to pursue a conclusive evidence on the 3D vision effects on spectators.

  20. Capacity of Albit® Plant Growth Stimulator for Mitigating Side-effects of Pesticides on Soil Microbial Respiration

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Natalia N. Karpun

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available Microorganisms give an early and integrated measure of soil functioning. In particular, soil microbial respiration is recommended for monitoring soil quality. The present study aims to determine the capacity of Albit® (poly-β-hydroxybutyrate, PHB to reduce the detrimental effects of pesticides on soil microbial respiration. The effects of three conventional pesticides (deltamethrin, dithianon, and difenoconazole on basal respiration (BR and substrate-induced respiration (SIR were assessed in the presence and absence of Albit®. The studied pesticides caused negative impacts on soil functioning, reducing BR and SIR. Applications of Albit® increased BR and SIR, and both BR and SIR were kept similar to the control when pesticides were applied with Albit®. PHB, an active ingredient of Albit®, is known to increase beneficial microflora in the rhizosphere due to its regulatory activity on indigenous microorganisms. Thus, more studies should be carried out under different edaphoclimatic conditions to study the benefits of Albit® applications along with pesticides in order to mitigate their side effects on soil microbial functioning.

  1. Economic study on the impact of side effects in patients taking oxycodone controlled-release for noncancer pain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anastassopoulos, Kathryn P; Chow, Wing; Tapia, Crisanta I; Baik, Rebecca; Ackerman, Stacey J; Biondi, David; Kim, Myoung S

    2012-10-01

    Chronic pain is a prevalent condition in the United States. Musculoskeletal pain, including joint and back pain, is the most common type of chronic pain, and many patients with back pain have a neuropathic component. Pain has direct economic consequences. While oxycodone controlled-release (CR) is one of the most widely used oral long-acting opioids for pain, including pain with a neuropathic component, it is often associated with bothersome side effects, resulting in additional medical resource use (MRU) and costs. To examine the impact on MRU and costs to payers of side effects in patients taking oxycodone CR alone or in combination with other pain medications for noncancer pain (including those with neuropathic pain symptoms). A nationwide convenience sample of adults in the United States, who participated in a survey research panel and reported current use of oxycodone CR for noncancer pain, completed an online survey between November 2, 2010, and December 13, 2010. Respondents were excluded if they reported current use of other extended-release or long-acting opioid prescription medications. The survey consisted of questions on demographics, clinical characteristics, pain characteristics, experience with pain medication, and MRU associated with side effects. Payer costs were calculated based on the MRU reported by the respondents multiplied by Medicare reimbursement rates for hospitalizations and outpatient visits and average wholesale price (AWP) minus 20% for medications. A subgroup of patients who reported neuropathic pain symptoms also was examined. After applying the exclusion criteria, 432 respondents completed the survey. Approximately half of the respondents (n = 219; 50.7%) reported neuropathic pain symptoms. The majority of respondents were Caucasian (88.4%) and female (63.7%) with an average age of 41.8 years (14.89). Respondents most frequently reported low back pain (41.2%), followed by osteoarthritis/rheumatoid arthritis (20.4%), neuropathic pain

  2. Large-scale automatic extraction of side effects associated with targeted anticancer drugs from full-text oncological articles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Rong; Wang, QuanQiu

    2015-06-01

    Targeted anticancer drugs such as imatinib, trastuzumab and erlotinib dramatically improved treatment outcomes in cancer patients, however, these innovative agents are often associated with unexpected side effects. The pathophysiological mechanisms underlying these side effects are not well understood. The availability of a comprehensive knowledge base of side effects associated with targeted anticancer drugs has the potential to illuminate complex pathways underlying toxicities induced by these innovative drugs. While side effect association knowledge for targeted drugs exists in multiple heterogeneous data sources, published full-text oncological articles represent an important source of pivotal, investigational, and even failed trials in a variety of patient populations. In this study, we present an automatic process to extract targeted anticancer drug-associated side effects (drug-SE pairs) from a large number of high profile full-text oncological articles. We downloaded 13,855 full-text articles from the Journal of Oncology (JCO) published between 1983 and 2013. We developed text classification, relationship extraction, signaling filtering, and signal prioritization algorithms to extract drug-SE pairs from downloaded articles. We extracted a total of 26,264 drug-SE pairs with an average precision of 0.405, a recall of 0.899, and an F1 score of 0.465. We show that side effect knowledge from JCO articles is largely complementary to that from the US Food and Drug Administration (FDA) drug labels. Through integrative correlation analysis, we show that targeted drug-associated side effects positively correlate with their gene targets and disease indications. In conclusion, this unique database that we built from a large number of high-profile oncological articles could facilitate the development of computational models to understand toxic effects associated with targeted anticancer drugs. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  3. The relationship between patient activation, confidence to self-manage side effects, and adherence to oral oncolytics: a pilot study with Michigan oncology practices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salgado, Teresa M; Mackler, Emily; Severson, Jane A; Lindsay, Jamie; Batra, Peter; Petersen, Laura; Farris, Karen B

    2017-06-01

    The Michigan Oncology Quality Consortium (MOQC) is a continuous quality improvement collaborative seeking to improve oncology care in Michigan, including for patients taking oral chemotherapy. The aim of this study was to assess the relationship between patient activation, confidence to self-manage side effects, and adherence to oral oncolytics to inform future oncology care. A multicenter cross-sectional observational study was conducted using an online survey to examine patient activation (patient activation measure, PAM), health literacy, symptom burden (Edmonton Symptom Assessment System, ESAS), confidence to self-manage side effects (fatigue, nausea, and diarrhea), and adherence to oral oncolytics. Inclusion criteria were patients taking an oral oncolytic for at least 1 month. Bivariate analyses and logistic regression were performed to evaluate relationships between the variables. A total of 125 respondents, mean (SD) age 66.2 (13.6), 57.7% female, and 95.1% Caucasian completed the survey. The mean (SD) PAM score was 65.0 (18.0). Confidence to manage fatigue, nausea, and diarrhea was associated with higher activation, and confidence to self-manage fatigue and diarrhea were associated with higher health literacy. About 30% of participants reported some level of non-adherence to oral oncolytics, and those who experienced side effects (Fisher's exact test p = 0.033) and with shorter length of therapy (t test p = 0.027) were significantly more likely to be non-adherent. These findings show that there is room for improvement across practices involved with MOQC with regard to supporting patients taking oral oncolytics. Patients will need to improve their activation levels, and oncology clinics will need to create new workflows in order to enhance self-care management ability for patients taking oral oncolytics.

  4. A survey of post-discharge side effects of conscious sedation using chloral hydrate in pediatric CT and MR imaging

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kao, S.C.; Adamson, S.D.; Tatman, L.H.; Berbaum, K.S. [Department of Radiology, Univ. of Iowa College of Medicine, Iowa City, IA (United States)

    1999-04-01

    Background. Limited information is available on post-discharge side effects of chloral hydrate sedation in pediatric imaging. Objective. To prospectively study the post-discharge side effects of chloral hydrate sedation in pediatric CT and MR imaging. Materials and methods. A total of 119 children undergoing CT and MRI were sedated using chloral hydrate with 89 % success (mean initial dose, 72 mg/kg body weight) and 98 % success after augmentation (mean total, 78 mg/kg body weight). The frequency of each post-discharge side effect was correlated with other side effects and 12 patient/technical parameters. Results. The survey was completed in 80 children. Sleepiness lasted for > 4 h in 28 %. Unsteadiness occurred in 68 % and hyperactivity in 29 %. Appetite became poor in 14 % and vomiting occurred in 15 %. Normal activity was resumed after > 4 h in 54 %. Sleep deprivation did not result in increased success or earlier onset of sedation and might be associated with hyperactivity. A higher dose did not result in an increased success rate or earlier onset of sedation within the dose range used in this study. Conclusion. Data on the post-discharge side effects of chloral hydrate sedation will be useful to radiologists, technologists, and nurses explaining to parents about sedation using this agent. (orig.) With 2 tabs., 24 refs.

  5. The use of growth factors to manage the hematologic side effects of PEG-interferon alfa and ribavirin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Collantes, Rochelle S; Younossi, Zobair M

    2005-01-01

    Hematologic side effects (anemia, neutropenia, and thrombocytopenia) of combination therapy with pegylated (PEG)-interferon alfa and ribavirin are commonly encountered during antiviral therapy for chronic hepatitis C (HCV). An important consequence of these side effects is dose modification of PEG-interferon alfa, ribavirin, or both. Dose modification (including discontinuation) diminishes the efficacy of optimal treatment regimen for HCV and may have a negative impact on sustained virologic response. Additionally, fatigue associated with anemia may impair patients' quality of life. The clinical implications of neutropenia or thrombocytopenia are less clear than for anemia; nevertheless, severe infection and bleeding are uncommon. Dose adjustments effectively treat these hematologic side effects, but the resulting suboptimal dosing and potential impact on virologic response are major concerns. Recent attempts to maximize adherence to the optimal treatment regimen have used hematopoietic growth factors rather than dose adjustment to treat side effects. Research on growth factor support has focused on anemia and neutropenia. Epoetin alfa and darbepoetin alfa are erythropoietic growth factors that effectively increase hemoglobin while maintaining the optimal ribavirin dose and improving patients' quality of life. Preliminary work suggests that filgrastim, granulocyte colony stimulating factors, may be an effective treatment of interferon-induced neutropenia. Although this early work shows tremendous promise for managing hematologic side effects of combination therapy for HCV, and potentially enhancing adherence, further research is needed to clarify the efficacy, safety, and cost-effectiveness of growth factors in the management of patients with chronic HCV.

  6. Efficacy and side effect of ritodrine and magnesium sulfate in threatened preterm labor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Min Kyoung; Lee, Seung Mi; Oh, Jung Won; Kim, So Yeon; Jeong, Hye Gyeong; Kim, Sun Min; Park, Chan Wook; Jun, Jong Kwan; Hahn, Seo-Kyung; Park, Joong Shin

    2018-01-01

    In terms of efficacy, several previous studies have shown that the success rate in inhibiting preterm labor was not different between magnesium sulfate and ritodrine. However, there is a paucity of information regarding the efficacy of both medications after consideration of intra-amniotic infection, which is one of the most important prognostic factors in patients of threatened preterm birth. The objective of this study was to compare the efficacy and safety of magnesium sulfate with that of ritodrine in preterm labor. In this retrospective cohort study, we included patients who were admitted and treated with either ritodrine or magnesium sulfate with the diagnosis of preterm labor at 24-33.6 weeks of gestational age between January 2005 to April 2015. Patients were divided into 2 groups according to the first-used tocolytics (ritodrine group and magnesium sulfate group). We compared the efficacy and prevalence of side effect in each group. The efficacy of both tocolytics was evaluated in terms of preterm delivery within 48 hours, 7 days, or 37 weeks of gestation and need for 2nd line therapy. A total number of 201 patients were enrolled including 177 cases in ritodrine group and 24 cases in magnesium sulfate group. The efficacy of both tocolytics (preterm delivery within 48 hours, 7 days, or 37 weeks of gestation and need for 2nd line therapy) was not different between the 2 groups of cases. In multivariate analysis, gestational age at treatment, twin gestation, intra-amniotic infection and maternal C-reactive protein (CRP) was associated with treatment failure (preterm delivery within 48 hours), but the type of tocolytics was not significantly associated with treatment failure. The type of side effect was different in the 2 groups, but the frequency of total adverse effect, need for discontinuation of therapy because of maternal adverse effect, and severe adverse effect were not different between the two groups of cases. The efficacy and safety of magnesium

  7. Efficacy and side effect of ritodrine and magnesium sulfate in threatened preterm labor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Min Kyoung; Lee, Seung Mi; Oh, Jung Won; Kim, So Yeon; Jeong, Hye Gyeong; Kim, Sun Min; Park, Chan Wook; Jun, Jong Kwan; Hahn, Seo-kyung

    2018-01-01

    Objective In terms of efficacy, several previous studies have shown that the success rate in inhibiting preterm labor was not different between magnesium sulfate and ritodrine. However, there is a paucity of information regarding the efficacy of both medications after consideration of intra-amniotic infection, which is one of the most important prognostic factors in patients of threatened preterm birth. The objective of this study was to compare the efficacy and safety of magnesium sulfate with that of ritodrine in preterm labor. Methods In this retrospective cohort study, we included patients who were admitted and treated with either ritodrine or magnesium sulfate with the diagnosis of preterm labor at 24–33.6 weeks of gestational age between January 2005 to April 2015. Patients were divided into 2 groups according to the first-used tocolytics (ritodrine group and magnesium sulfate group). We compared the efficacy and prevalence of side effect in each group. The efficacy of both tocolytics was evaluated in terms of preterm delivery within 48 hours, 7 days, or 37 weeks of gestation and need for 2nd line therapy. Results A total number of 201 patients were enrolled including 177 cases in ritodrine group and 24 cases in magnesium sulfate group. The efficacy of both tocolytics (preterm delivery within 48 hours, 7 days, or 37 weeks of gestation and need for 2nd line therapy) was not different between the 2 groups of cases. In multivariate analysis, gestational age at treatment, twin gestation, intra-amniotic infection and maternal C-reactive protein (CRP) was associated with treatment failure (preterm delivery within 48 hours), but the type of tocolytics was not significantly associated with treatment failure. The type of side effect was different in the 2 groups, but the frequency of total adverse effect, need for discontinuation of therapy because of maternal adverse effect, and severe adverse effect were not different between the two groups of cases. Conclusion

  8. Side effects and accounting aspects of hypothetical large-scale Southern Ocean iron fertilization

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Oschlies

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Recent suggestions to slow down the increase in atmospheric carbon dioxide have included ocean fertilization by addition of the micronutrient iron to Southern Ocean surface waters, where a number of natural and artificial iron fertilization experiments have shown that low ambient iron concentrations limit phytoplankton growth. Using a coupled carbon-climate model with the marine biology's response to iron addition calibrated against data from natural iron fertilization experiments, we examine biogeochemical side effects of a hypothetical large-scale Southern Ocean Iron Fertilization (OIF that need to be considered when attempting to account for possible OIF-induced carbon offsets. In agreement with earlier studies our model simulates an OIF-induced increase in local air-sea CO2 fluxes by about 73 GtC over a 100-year period, which amounts to about 48% of the OIF-induced increase in organic carbon export out of the fertilized area. Offsetting CO2 return fluxes outside the region and after stopping the fertilization at 1, 7, 10, 50, and 100 years are quantified for a typical accounting period of 100 years. For continuous Southern Ocean iron fertilization, the CO2 return flux outside the fertilized area cancels about 20% of the fertilization-induced CO2 air-sea flux within the fertilized area on a 100-yr timescale. This "leakage" effect has a radiative impact more than twice as large as the simulated enhancement of marine N2O emissions. Other side effects not yet discussed in terms of accounting schemes include a decrease in Southern Ocean oxygen levels and a simultaneous shrinking of tropical suboxic areas, and accelerated ocean acidification in the entire water column in the Southern Ocean at the expense of reduced globally-averaged surface-water acidification. A prudent approach to account for the OIF-induced carbon sequestration would account for global air-sea CO2 fluxes rather

  9. Can melatonin prevent or improve metabolic side effects during antipsychotic treatments?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Porfirio MC

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available Maria-Cristina Porfirio,1 Juliana Paula Gomes de Almeida,2 Maddalena Stornelli,1 Silvia Giovinazzo,1 Diane Purper-Ouakil,3 Gabriele Masi4 1Unit of Child Neurology and Psychiatry, “Tor Vergata” University of Rome, Italy; 2Unit of Child Neurology, Irmandade Santa Casa de Misericordia Hospital São Paulo, Brazil; 3Unit of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry, Saint Eloi Hospital, Montpellier, France; 4IRCCS Stella Maris, Scientific Institute of Child Neurology and Psychiatry, Calambrone, Pisa, Italy Abstract: In the last two decades, second-generation antipsychotics (SGAs were more frequently used than typical antipsychotics for treating both psychotic and nonpsychotic psychiatric disorders in both children and adolescents, because of their lower risk of adverse neurological effects, that is, extrapyramidal symptoms. Recent studies have pointed out their effect on weight gain and increased visceral adiposity as they induce metabolic syndrome. Patients receiving SGAs often need to be treated with other substances to counteract metabolic side effects. In this paper, we point out the possible protective effect of add-on melatonin treatment in preventing, mitigating, or even reversing SGAs metabolic effects, improving quality of life and providing safer long-term treatments in pediatric patients. Melatonin is an endogenous indolamine secreted during darkness by the pineal gland; it plays a key role in regulating the circadian rhythm, generated by the suprachiasmatic nuclei (SCN of the hypothalamus, and has many other biological functions, including chronobiotic, antioxidant and neuroprotective properties, anti-inflammatory and free radical scavenging effects, and diminishing oxidative injury and fat distribution. It has been hypothesized that SGAs cause adverse metabolic effects that may be restored by nightly administration of melatonin because of its influence on autonomic and hormonal outputs. Interestingly, atypical anti-psychotics (AAPs can cause

  10. Side effects and accounting aspects of hypothetical large-scale Southern Ocean iron fertilization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oschlies, A.; Koeve, W.; Rickels, W.; Rehdanz, K.

    2010-12-01

    Recent suggestions to slow down the increase in atmospheric carbon dioxide have included ocean fertilization by addition of the micronutrient iron to Southern Ocean surface waters, where a number of natural and artificial iron fertilization experiments have shown that low ambient iron concentrations limit phytoplankton growth. Using a coupled carbon-climate model with the marine biology's response to iron addition calibrated against data from natural iron fertilization experiments, we examine biogeochemical side effects of a hypothetical large-scale Southern Ocean Iron Fertilization (OIF) that need to be considered when attempting to account for possible OIF-induced carbon offsets. In agreement with earlier studies our model simulates an OIF-induced increase in local air-sea CO2 fluxes by about 73 GtC over a 100-year period, which amounts to about 48% of the OIF-induced increase in organic carbon export out of the fertilized area. Offsetting CO2 return fluxes outside the region and after stopping the fertilization at 1, 7, 10, 50, and 100 years are quantified for a typical accounting period of 100 years. For continuous Southern Ocean iron fertilization, the CO2 return flux outside the fertilized area cancels about 20% of the fertilization-induced CO2 air-sea flux within the fertilized area on a 100-yr timescale. This "leakage" effect has a radiative impact more than twice as large as the simulated enhancement of marine N2O emissions. Other side effects not yet discussed in terms of accounting schemes include a decrease in Southern Ocean oxygen levels and a simultaneous shrinking of tropical suboxic areas, and accelerated ocean acidification in the entire water column in the Southern Ocean at the expense of reduced globally-averaged surface-water acidification. A prudent approach to account for the OIF-induced carbon sequestration would account for global air-sea CO2 fluxes rather than for local fluxes into the fertilized area only. However, according to our model

  11. Frequency of sexual dysfunction and other reproductive side-effects in patients with schizophrenia treated with risperidone, olanzapine, quetiapine, or haloperidol: the results of the EIRE study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bobes, J; Garc A-Portilla, M P; Rejas, J; Hern Ndez, G; Garcia-Garcia, M; Rico-Villademoros, F; Porras, A

    2003-01-01

    Atypical antipsychotics seem to differ mainly in their tolerability profile. The aim of this cross-sectional study, the Estudio de Investigaci n de Resultados en Esquizofrenia (Outcomes Research Study in Schizophrenia; EIRE study), was to assess in a clinical setting the frequency of several side-effects related to haloperidol, risperidone, olanzapine, and quetiapine. This article addresses sexual dysfunction and other reproductive side-effects (gynecomastia, menorrhage, amenorrhea, and galactorrhea). We recruited outpatients diagnosed with schizophrenia according to Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (DSM-IV; American Psychiatric Association, 1994) criteria and who had received a single antipsychotic (risperidone, olanzapine, quetiapine, or haloperidol) for at least 4 weeks. During a single visit, we collected data, including demographic and clinical characteristics, current antipsychotic and concomitant treatment, and adverse effects listed in a modified version of the UKU Scale. We used a Chi-squared test to determine pairs comparisons of the frequency of adverse reactions between treatments. To estimate risk of a given adverse reaction with a given treatment, we used a logistic regression method. We assessed 636 evaluable patients out of 669 recruited. Frequency of sexual dysfunction was high with haloperidol (38.1%) and also with olanzapine (35.3%), quetiapine (18.2%), and risperidone (43.2%). We found the frequency of other reproductive side-effects to be relatively low with all four drugs: haloperidol (6.9%), olanzapine (6.4%), quetiapine (2.7%), and risperidone (11.7%). Sexual dysfunction appeared to be dose-related with haloperidol, risperidone, and olanzapine. Risperidone and olanzapine showed a higher risk of sexual dysfunction and other reproductive sideeffects than haloperidol. Quetiapine showed a lower risk of sexual dysfunction during short-term treatment ( 12 weeks) are lacking. Our results suggest that none of the atypical

  12. Modulation of antipsychotic-induced extrapyramidal side effects by medications for mood disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tatara, Ayaka; Shimizu, Saki; Shin, Noriyuki; Sato, Maho; Sugiuchi, Tomone; Imaki, Junta; Ohno, Yukihiro

    2012-08-07

    Antipsychotic drugs are widely used not only for schizophrenia, but also for mood disorders such as bipolar disorder and depression. To evaluate the interactions between antipsychotics and drugs for mood disorders in modulating extrapyramidal side effects (EPS), we examined the effects of antidepressants and mood-stabilizing drugs on haloperidol (HAL)-induced bradykinesia and catalepsy in mice and rats. The selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors (SSRIs), fluoxetine and paroxetine, and the tricyclic antidepressant (TCA) clomipramine, which showed no EPS by themselves, significantly potentiated HAL-induced bradykinesia and catalepsy in a dose-dependent manner. In contrast, the noradrenergic and specific serotonergic antidepressant (NaSSA) mirtazapine failed to augment, but rather attenuated HAL-induced bradykinesia and catalepsy. Mianserin also tended to reduce the EPS induction. In addition, neither treatment with lithium, sodium valproate nor carbamazepine potentiated HAL-induced EPS. Furthermore, treatment of animals with ritanserin (5-HT2A/2C antagonist), ondansetron (5-HT3 antagonist), and SB-258585 (5-HT6 antagonist) significantly antagonized the EPS augmentation by fluoxetine. Intrastriatal injection of ritanserin or SB-258585, but not ondansetron, also attenuated the EPS induction. The present study suggests that NaSSAs are superior to SSRIs or TCAs in combined therapy for mood disorders with antipsychotics in terms of EPS induction. In addition, 5-HT2A/2C, 5-HT3 and 5-HT6 receptors seem to be responsible for the augmentation of antipsychotic-induced EPS by serotonin reuptake inhibitors. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  13. Drug combinatorics and side effect estimation on the signed human drug-target network.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Torres, Núria Ballber; Altafini, Claudio

    2016-08-15

    The mode of action of a drug on its targets can often be classified as being positive (activator, potentiator, agonist, etc.) or negative (inhibitor, blocker, antagonist, etc.). The signed edges of a drug-target network can be used to investigate the combined mechanisms of action of multiple drugs on the ensemble of common targets. In this paper it is shown that for the signed human drug-target network the majority of drug pairs tend to have synergistic effects on the common targets, i.e., drug pairs tend to have modes of action with the same sign on most of the shared targets, especially for the principal pharmacological targets of a drug. Methods are proposed to compute this synergism, as well as to estimate the influence of the drugs on the side effect of another drug. Enriching a drug-target network with information of functional nature like the sign of the interactions allows to explore in a systematic way a series of network properties of key importance in the context of computational drug combinatorics.

  14. Relationships among morphine metabolism, pain and side effects during long-term treatment

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Gertrud; Christrup, Lona Louring; Sjøgren, Per

    2003-01-01

    The two metabolites of morphine, morphine-3-glucuronide (M3G) and morphine-6-glucuronide (M6G), have been studied intensively in animals and humans during the past 30 years in order to elucidate their precise action and possible contribution to the desired effects and side effects seen after...... morphine administration. M3G and M6G are formed by morphine glucuronidation, mainly in the liver, and are excreted by the kidneys. The metabolites are found in the cerebrospinal fluid after single as well as multiple doses of morphine. M6G binds to opioid receptors, and animal studies have demonstrated...... of the studies have used lower doses of M6G than of morphine. M3G displays very low affinity for opioid receptors and has no analgesic activity. Animal studies have shown that M3G may antagonize the analgesic effect of morphine and M6G, but no human studies have demonstrated this. M3G has also been connected...

  15. Finasteride Side Effects and Post-Finasteride Syndrome in Male Androgenic Alopecia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Manea Mirela

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Finasteride is in present a relatively frequent prescribed drug for male androgenic alopecia. The adverse effects reported by some patients seem to be notable, consisting of various (physical, mental/ neurological, sexual, etc. manifestations which are encountered both during Finasteride administration and after treatment cessation (in the form of `post-Finasteride syndrome`. The pharmacological action and the corresponding adverse effects related to Finasteride administration were investigated and published in literature through several and successive studies. In respect to psychiatric disorders, the most notable concern is related to depressive symptoms and suicidal thoughts among former users of finasteride with persistent adverse effects. Regarding genito-urinary symptoms, these are usually represented by gynecomastia, decreased interest in sexual intercourse/ low level of sexual desire and erectile dysfunction. Finally, we viewed Finasteride side effects and post-Finasteride syndrome as distinct physiopathologic entities, thus requiring possible distinct therapeutic approaches. Additional studies will be necessary, in order to further investigate the cerebral neuromodulation of the two relational (cognitive and sexual functions, both of which may be interfered by administration of hormones or by the corresponding compounds such as Finasteride.

  16. Psoriasis patients' willingness to accept side-effect risks for improved treatment efficacy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kauf, Teresa L; Yang, Jui-Chen; Kimball, Alexa B; Sundaram, Murali; Bao, Yanjun; Okun, Martin; Mulani, Parvez; Hauber, A Brett; Johnson, F Reed

    2015-01-01

    Previous studies suggest that efficacy is more important than side-effect risks to psoriasis patients. However, those studies did not consider potentially fatal risks of biologic treatments. To quantify the risks patients are willing to accept for improvements in psoriasis symptoms. Adults with a self-reported physician diagnosis of psoriasis were recruited through the National Psoriasis Foundation. Using a discrete-choice experiment, patients completed a series of nine choice questions, each including a pair of hypothetical treatments. Treatments were defined by severity of plaques, body surface area (BSA), and 10-year risks of tuberculosis, serious infection and lymphoma. For complete clearance of 25% BSA with mild plaques, respondents (n = 1608) were willing to accept a 20% (95% confidence interval: 9-26%) risk of serious infection, 10% (5-15%) risk of tuberculosis and 2% (1-3%) risk of lymphoma. For complete clearance of 25% BSA with severe plaques, respondents were willing to accept a 54% (48-62%) risk of serious infection, 36% (28-49%) risk of tuberculosis and 8% (7-9%) risk of lymphoma. Respondents were asked to evaluate hypothetical scenarios. Actual treatment choices may differ. Respondents were willing to accept risks above likely clinical exposures for improvements in psoriasis symptoms. Individual risk tolerances may vary.

  17. Natural Products Useful in Respiratory Disorders: Focus on Side-Effect Neutralizing Combinations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khan, Arif-Ullah; Gilani, Anwarul-Hassan

    2015-06-10

    This review summarizes literature related to medicinal plants reputed in traditional medical systems for treatment of asthma and coughs. The plants that are pharmacologically investigated for their effectiveness in such conditions, along with respective experimental protocol details, are also discussed. Some of plant origin compounds, which are considered useful as antitussive and antiasthmatic agents, are described as well. Chrysoeriol, a constituent of Aspalathus linearis (Fabaceae) was observed to be selective for relaxant effect in airways (through K + channel activation), compared with other smooth muscles. We reported that Hypericum perforatum (Hyperieaceae), Andropogon muricatus (Poaceae), Juniper excelsa (Coniferae) and Nepeta cataria (Lamiaceae) exhibit bronchodilatory action, mediated through combination of Ca ++ antagonist and phospohodiesrase inhibitory mechanisms, which scientifically explains their medicinal use in asthma. Hyocyamus niger (Solanaceae), Artemisia vulgaris (Compositae), Fumaria parviflora (Fumariaceae) and Terminalia bellerica (Combretaceae) caused bronchodilation via dual blockade of muscarinic receptors and Ca ++ influx. Acorus calamus (Araceae), Carum roxburghianum (Apiaceae), Lens culinaris (Fabaceae) and Lepidium sativum (Cruciferae) mediate bronchodilatation through multiple pathways: anticholinergic and inhibition of Ca ++ channels and PDE enzyme(s). In conclusion, this review presents an analysis of different novel combinations of pharmacological activities in medicinal plants with side effect-neutralizing/synergistic potential, setting new trends in the therapeutic options for hyperactive respiratory disorders such as asthma and cough. Copyright © 2015 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. Copyright © 2015 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  18. Side-effects of fenazaquin on a cellular model of Paramecium.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benbouzid, Houneïda; Berrebbah, Houria; Djebar, Mohammed-Réda; Smagghe, Guy

    2009-01-01

    Our biodiversity has long been preserved, but the main constituents of our environment have been particularly affected by the addition of molecules resulting from agricultural and industrial activities. It is well accepted that these changes may stress some species, making them more vulnerable. In this project, we determined the disruptive side-effects of a pesticide on several biochemical endpoints and the behaviour of a microorganism as the ciliate protist Paramecium sp. Here we used fenazaquin [4-(4-tert-butylphenethoxy)quinazoline] that belongs to the quinazoline class of chemicals and that is a pesticide intended to control mites and insects; its route of exposure is ingestion and dermal, and its mode of action is the disruption of the biochemistry of insect mitochondria. In our experiments with fenazaquin at 40, 60 and 80 nM, we recorded disturbances in protein and glutathione, in glutathione S-transferase, and a decrease in consumption of oxygen. The results are discussed in relation to potential risks and mechanisms of action. In addition, the data can be used as reference values in further testing with other pesticides and chemistries.

  19. PARALYTIC ILEUS AS A SIDE EFFECT OF VINCRISTINE AND ITRACONAZOLE TREATMENT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Samo Zver

    2003-09-01

    Full Text Available Background. Vincristin is an important and frequently used chemoterapeutic drug in the treatment of malignant lymphoproliferative disease. Among its side effects are well known bone marrow supression and polyneuropathia. But common physicians are not familiar with vincristine bowel peristaltics inhibitory effect.Patient and methods. This study presents 64-years old patient with acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL who was treated with chemotherapy which included vincristine. Two weeks after the treatment started paralytic ileus developed which was later sucessfully treated with laxatives and prokynetic drugs. Secondary causes for ileus development were excluded. Literature data was reviewed and a higher incidence of paralytic ileus in vincristine treated patients was found, especially when they are given concomitant itraconazole. Our patient received concommitant itraconazole as a part of antifungal prophylaxis against invasive aspergillosis which is a perceived routine on hematological departments.Conclusions. Vincristine treated patients should be carefully observed regarding bowel peristaltics and obstipation. If obstipation or even paralytic ileus developes, we must stop vincristine therapy. All patients receiving vincristine must receive fluconazol instead of itraconazol as a part of antifungal prophylaxis.

  20. Side Effects of Radiographic Contrast Media: Pathogenesis, Risk Factors, and Prevention

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tasanarong, Adis

    2014-01-01

    Radiocontrast media (RCM) are medical drugs used to improve the visibility of internal organs and structures in X-ray based imaging techniques. They may have side effects ranging from itching to a life-threatening emergency, known as contrast-induced nephropathy (CIN). We define CIN as acute renal failure occurring within 24–72 hrs of exposure to RCM that cannot be attributed to other causes. It usually occurs in patients with preexisting renal impairment and diabetes. The mechanisms underlying CIN include reduction in medullary blood flow leading to hypoxia and direct tubule cell damage and the formation of reactive oxygen species. Identification of patients at high risk for CIN is important. We have reviewed the risk factors and procedures for prevention, providing a long list of references enabling readers a deep evaluation of them both. The first rule to follow in patients at risk of CIN undergoing radiographic procedure is monitoring renal function by measuring serum creatinine and calculating the eGFR before and once daily for 5 days after the procedure. It is advised to discontinue potentially nephrotoxic medications, to choose radiocontrast media at lowest dosage, and to encourage oral or intravenous hydration. In high-risk patients N-acetylcysteine may also be given. PMID:24895606

  1. Bisphosphonate-Related Osteonecrosis of the Jaws. A Severe Side Effect of Bisphosphonate Therapy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zuzana Janovská

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Bisphosphonates (BP are potent inhibitors of bone resorption used mainly in the treatment of metastatic bone disease and osteoporosis. By inhibiting bone resorption, they prevent complications as pathological fracture, pain, tumor-induced hypercalcemia. Even though patient’s benefit of BP therapy is huge, various side effects may develop. Bisphosphonate-related osteonecrosis of the jaws (BRONJ is among the most serious ones. Oncologic patients receiving high doses of BP intravenously are at high risk of BRONJ development. BPs impair bone turnover leading to compromised bone healing which may result in the exposure of necrotic bone in the oral cavity frequently following tooth extraction or trauma of the oral mucosa. Frank bone exposure may be complicated by secondary infection leading to osteomyelitis development with various symptoms and radiological findings. In the management of BRONJ, conservative therapy aiming to reduce the symptoms plays the main role. In patients with extensive bone involvement resective surgery may lead to complete recovery, provided that the procedure is correctly indicated. Since the treatment of BRONJ is difficult, prevention is the main goal. Therefore in high risk patients dental preventive measures should be taken prior to bisphosphonate administration. This requires adequate communication between the prescribing physician, the patient and the dentist.

  2. MYOPATHY AS A SIDE EFFECT OF STATIN THERAPY: MECHANISMS OF DEVELOPMENT AND PROSPECTS FOR TREATMENT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    O. M. Drapkina

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Statins are lipid-lowering drugs with proven efficacy that reduce cardiovascular risk and are well tolerated by most patients. Myopathy as a side effect of statin therapy is one of the most common reasons for their withdrawal. Its severity can range from asymptomatic increase of serum CPK to life-threatening rhabdomyolysis. Therefore it is necessary to remember about the possibility of its occurrence.The exact molecular mechanisms of muscle damage by statins are still unknown. Various hypotheses are suggested in this respect: fatty acid oxidation disorders, mitochondrial dysfunction, increased protein degradation in myocytes due to changes in atrogin-1 and ubiquitin activity, activation of autoimmune processes, intracellular depletion of essential metabolites, destabilization of cell membranes, impaired expression of genes involved in apoptosis and protein degradation. The theory that the reduction of intramuscular CoQ10 level is the cause of myopathy prevails. Additional intake of CoQ10 seems promising, but is not evidence-based.

  3. The side effects of the THPS (tetrakis hydroxymethyl phosphonium sulfate) treatment in oil pipelines

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Andrade, Cynthia de A.; Lopes, Eduardo Gullo M.; Paiva, Eva M.de O. [PETROBRAS S.A., Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil). Centro de Pesquisas (CENPES). Tecnologia de Materiais e Controle de Corrosao; Penna, Monica de O. [PETROBRAS S.A., Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil). Centro de Pesquisas (CENPES). Biotecnologia e Tratamentos Ambientais

    2009-07-01

    PETROBRAS has been using THPS biocide since 2000 to control sulphate reducing bacteria (SRB) and H{sub 2}S generation in FPSO's tanks, storage tanks, seawater injection systems, produced water systems and hydrostatic testings. The advantage of this product over other biocides is to be effective against sessile SRB and to have low environmental impact and low risk to operators' health. Since 2005 the use of THPS was also extended to oil pipelines and has being demonstrating high efficacy in controlling sessile SRB and sulfide formation, even in fluids with very low water cut (BSW < 1%). However, some deleterious effects were observed when THPS (formulated with 75% of active ingredient) was dosed continuously in the produced fluids, in high concentration and/or for long periods. This paper presents the results of THPS treatment in two PETROBRAS' oil pipelines and describes the side effects that were detected during the biocide injection. The actions taken to minimize these harmful effects, without losing the good biocide efficiency were also presented. (author)

  4. The study to reduce the hemolysis side effect of puerarin by a submicron emulsion delivery system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yue, Peng-Fei; Hai-Long Yuan, Hai-Long; Zhu, Wei-Feng; Cong, Long-Bo; Xie, Huan; Liu, Zhi-Guo; Wang, Lu-Jun; Xiao, Xiao-He

    2008-01-01

    A safe and effective delivery system with a submicron emulsion for puerarin was studied. Puerarin submicron emulsion was prepared by a novel complex-phase inversion-high press homogenization technology. The mechanism to reduce the hemolysis side effect of puerarin was studied by blood cell counts in rabbits. The average diameter, zeta potential and entrapment efficiency of the emulsion prepared was 198.14+/-8.61 nm, -29.45+/-1.47 mV, 87.32+/-0.34%, respectively. Compared with control group, the red blood cell values, packed cell volume, plasma hemoglobin level, haptoglobin level and osmotic fragility of puerarin i.v. group was significantly different (pemulsion group were not significantly different (p>0.05) in contrast to control group. Such observations indicated that the intravascular hemolysis occurred at 42, 43 d in puerarin i.v. group rabbits, the hemolysis did not occur for puerarin emulsion group rabbits. As an explanation for these results, it was proposed that the puerarin was either incorporated into the lipophilic core or intercalated between the phospholipid molecules at the interface. It could be concluded that puerarin submicron emulsions prepared markedly reduced the hemolysis effect of puerarin.

  5. [Adverse side-effect on sexual function caused by psychotropic drugs and psychotropic substances].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cohen, S; Kühn, K U; Sträter, B; Scherbaum, N; Weig, W

    2010-09-01

    Unhindered sexuality plays an important role in the quality of life and this also holds true for patients with psychiatric illnesses. Knowledge concerning the complex neuronal and endocrine control mechanisms of sexual function reveals areas of possible dysfunction caused by the interactions between the control system, psychiatric drugs and addictive psychoactive substances. The differentiation of the cause of the dysfunction between being caused by the underlying illness and caused by other factors is difficult in practice. Both classical tri-cyclic antidepressants and selective serotonin uptake inhibitors can frequently cause adverse effects in multiple dimensions of sexual function. This same is true for neuroleptics, whereby the differentiation between symptoms of schizophrenia and side-effects from the medication can make an evaluation difficult. The medication-based strategy used to treat opiate dependency by administration of methadone causes sexual dysfunction in many cases. The consideration of medication-induced sexual dysfunction has a great importance with regard to compliance. Possible solutions can be modification of the medication regime, additional medication, e.g. partial antagonists and PD5 inhibitors, as well as dysfunction-specific psychotherapy and psychoeducation.

  6. [Incidence, pathoetiology and treatment of interferon-alpha induced neuro-psychiatric side effects].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schäfer, M; Schwaiger, M

    2003-09-01

    Interferon alpha (IFN-alpha), an immunomodulatory cytokine, is used for the treatment of several disorders including chronic hepatitis or malignant melanoma. During the therapy IFN-alpha may cause severe neuropsychiatric syndromes including depression with suicidal ideation, paranoid psychoses or confusional states. The reasons and management of these side effects are widely unknown. The underlying pathogenetic mechanisms include various effects on neuroendocrine, cytokine and neurotransmitter systems. This review summarizes therapeutic strategies against IFN-alpha associated psychiatric syndromes. Zolpidem or Zopiclon can be used for the treatment of sleeping disturbances. Serotonin-reuptake-inhibitors including citalopram or paroxetine were shown to be effective for acute treatment of IFN-alpha associated depression. The efficacy of prophylactic treatment for prevention of IFN-alpha induced depression has to be proven in future trials. In an interdisciplinary setting, psychiatric disorders and drug addiction should not prevent patients from interferon-alpha treatment. Furthermore, interdisciplinary care should improve quality of life, adherence and therapeutic outcome of interferon-alpha treated patients.

  7. Isoniazid-induced flu-like syndrome: A rare side effect

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sudipta Pandit

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Drug-induced flu-like syndrome is very rare. It is mainly produced by rifampicin. We report a case of pulmonary tuberculosis (PTB that developed isoniazid-induced flu-like syndrome, but could be cured with a modified regimen replacing isoniazid with levofloxacin. A 10-year-old girl with PTB was treated with isoniazid (H, rifampicin (R, ethambutol (E, and pyrazinamide (Z. She developed features of flu from the sixth day. Symptoms recurred everyday within 1 h of drug ingestion and subsided automatically by next 12 h. After admission, HREZ were continued. She developed symptoms of flu after 1 h of drug ingestion. Antitubercular therapy (ATT was stopped and symptoms subsided automatically. Individual drug was started one by one after three days. Severe symptoms of flu developed after taking isoniazid, while other drugs were tolerated well. Levofloxacin was used as an alternative to isoniazid. She was cured after 6 months of chemotherapy. Isoniazid can possibly cause flu-like syndrome and the treating physician should be aware of this possible side effect when using ATT.

  8. Variations: Darwin's finches, sea barnacles and the side effects of antidepressants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lieb, Julian

    2008-01-01

    "It may metaphorically be said," Darwin wrote, "that natural selection is daily and hourly scrutinizing, throughout the world, the slightest variations; rejecting those that are bad, preserving and adding up all that are good; silently and insensibly working, whenever and wherever opportunity offers..." Variation is a principle of nature, without which natural selection could not operate, and life exist. Darwin believed that natural selection would make nature "more and more diversified." Variation occurs in the clutch sizes of birds, the color of hair and skin, the annual temperature, in language and speech, the direction of local Magnetic North and True North, and the variation of pathogens (antigenic variation). Antidepressants act as probes, burrowing into the deepest recesses of cells, and signaling physiological and pathological information to observers. They have at least forty side effects that are not only variations, but often paradoxes that would have fascinated Charles Darwin, who had the keenest interest in the variation of the beaks of finches and in sea barnacles.

  9. Canagliflozin-induced pancreatitis: a rare side effect of a new drug

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chowdhary M

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Mudit Chowdhary,1 Ahmad A Kabbani,1 Akansha Chhabra21Department of Internal Medicine, Mercer University School of Medicine, Macon, GA, USA; 2Department of Internal Medicine, New York University Langone Medical Center, New York, NY, USAAbstract: Acute pancreatitis is most commonly attributed to gallstones, alcohol abuse, and metabolic disorders such as hyperlipidemia and hypercalcemia. Medications are an infrequent yet commonly overlooked etiology of pancreatitis. Although several drugs have been implicated, antidiabetic agents are a rare cause for drug-induced pancreatitis. Canagliflozin is a new drug in the class of SGLT-2 inhibitors used for the treatment of type 2 diabetes mellitus. Serious reported side effects include renal impairment, hyperkalemia, and hypotension. Pancreatitis as a result of canagliflozin, however, is exceedingly rare. Here we describe a case of a 33-year old female who presented with severe acute pancreatitis in the setting of recent initiation of canagliflozin. Given the timing of her presentation and after excluding all other possible etiologies, it was determined that canagliflozin was the likely source of her illness. This case highlights the importance of identifying drug-induced pancreatitis, especially in novel drugs, as it is commonly neglected in patients with multiple medical comorbidities and those taking numerous medications. Prompt identification of drug-induced pancreatitis can improve management as well as decrease morbidity and mortality in these individuals.Keywords: canagliflozin, Invokana, pancreatitis, drug-induced pancreatitis, SGLT-2 inhibitor

  10. New insights into dietary supplements used in sport: active substances, pharmacological and side effects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koncic, Marijana Zovko; Tomczyk, Michal

    2013-08-01

    As a society we are increasingly concerned about our physical appearance. For example, as much as 24% of people in developed countries admittedly exercise to improve their performance. Professional sportsmen and amateurs alike are in a constant search for new means that will enable them better sport results in shorter time. Among those means, a prominent place belongs to dietary supplements. However, the producers often advertise products whose use in sports is neither scientifically founded nor safe. This brings on an irrational use of herbal supplements which sometimes leads to unwanted side effects, but is more often of little use. Thus, the aim of this review will be to systematically evaluate some of the herbal supplements that are used as adaptogenic and ergogenic aids in sport. The review will include available data on Rhodiola rosea, Withania somnifera, Schisandra chinensis, Tribulus terrestris, Vitis vinifera, Citrus aurantium, and others. Their effects, active ingredients as well as possible adverse effects will be discussed with special focus on clinical studies.

  11. Efeitos colaterais e desacertos na terapeutica antiepiletica Side effects and oversight in the antiepileptic treatment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eneida Baptistete Matarazzo

    1975-12-01

    Full Text Available Relatando 6 casos de pacientes que apresentaram numerosos sintomas da esfera somática e psíquica em conseqüência de tratamento feito com diferentes drogas antiepiléticas, os autores procuraram demonstrar que o remanejamento cuidadoso da terapêutica pode evitar esses inconvenientes sem prejuízo do controle dos sintomas comiciais. Os autores acentuam a necessidade dos médicos estarem atentos para a eventualidade de surgirem efeitos colaterais durante o tratamento antiepilético e, baseados em sua experiência, sugerem algumas normas de conduta para detectar precoecmente e evitar esses inconvenientes.Reporting 6 cases of patients who presented many psychiatric and somatic symptoms consequently to different antiepilectic treatments, the authors demonstrate that the careful changing of the therapeutic avoided these inconvenients, without jeopardizing the control of the epileptic seizures. The necessity for the specialists to be attentive to these side effects is emphasized. Based on their own experience the authors suggest a few rules to prevent and correct these inconvenients.

  12. Efficiency and detrimental side effects of denitrifying bioreactors for nitrate reduction in drainage water.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weigelhofer, Gabriele; Hein, Thomas

    2015-09-01

    A laboratory column experiment was conducted to test the efficiency of denitrifying bioreactors for the nitrate (NO3-N) removal in drainage waters at different flow rates and after desiccation. In addition, we investigated detrimental side effects in terms of the release of nitrite (NO2-N), ammonium (NH4-N), phosphate (PO4-P), dissolved organic carbon (DOC), methane (CH4), and dinitrogen oxide (N2O). The NO3-N removal efficiency decreased with increasing NO3-N concentrations, increasing flow rates, and after desiccation. Bioreactors with purely organic fillings showed higher NO3-N removal rates (42.6-55.7 g NO3-N m(-3) day(-1)) than those with organic and inorganic fillings (6.5-21.4 g NO3-N m(-3) day(-1)). The release of NO2-N and DOC was considerable and resulted in concentrations of up to 800 μg NO2-N L(-1)and 25 mg DOC L(-1) in the effluent water. N2O concentrations increased by 4.0 to 15.3 μg N2O-N L(-1) between the influent and the effluent, while CH4 production rates were low. Our study confirms the high potential of denitrifying bioreactors to mitigate NO3-N pollution in drainage waters, but highlights also the potential risks for the environment.

  13. Meta-tyrosine: A powerful anti-metastatic factor with undetectable toxic-side effects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Damián Machuca

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Concomitant tumor resistance (CR is a phenomenon in which a tumor-bearing host is resistant to the growth of secondary tumor implants and metastasis. While former studies have indicated that T-cell dependent processes mediate CR in hosts bearing immunogenic small tumors, the most universal manifestation of CR induced by immunogenic and non-immunogenic large tumors had been associated with an antitumor serum factor that remained an enigma for many years. In a recent paper, we identified that elusive factor(s as an equi-molar mixture of meta-tyrosine and ortho-tyrosine, two isomers of tyrosine that are not present in normal proteins and that proved to be responsible for 90% and 10%, respectively, of the total serum anti-tumor activity. In this work, we have extended our previous findings demonstrating that a periodic intravenous administration of meta-tyrosine induced a dramatic reduction of lung and hepatic metastases generated in mice bearing two different metastatic murine tumors and decreased the rate of death from 100% up to 25% in tumor-excised mice that already exhibited established metastases at the time of surgery. These anti-metastatic effects were achieved even at very low concentrations and without displaying any detectable toxic-side effects, suggesting that the use of meta-tyrosine may help to develop new and less harmful means of managing malignant diseases, especially those aimed to control the growth of metastases that is the most serious problem in cancer pathology.

  14. MYOPATHY AS A SIDE EFFECT OF STATIN THERAPY: MECHANISMS OF DEVELOPMENT AND PROSPECTS FOR TREATMENT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    O. M. Drapkina

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Statins are lipid-lowering drugs with proven efficacy that reduce cardiovascular risk and are well tolerated by most patients. Myopathy as a side effect of statin therapy is one of the most common reasons for their withdrawal. Its severity can range from asymptomatic increase of serum CPK to life-threatening rhabdomyolysis. Therefore it is necessary to remember about the possibility of its occurrence.The exact molecular mechanisms of muscle damage by statins are still unknown. Various hypotheses are suggested in this respect: fatty acid oxidation disorders, mitochondrial dysfunction, increased protein degradation in myocytes due to changes in atrogin-1 and ubiquitin activity, activation of autoimmune processes, intracellular depletion of essential metabolites, destabilization of cell membranes, impaired expression of genes involved in apoptosis and protein degradation. The theory that the reduction of intramuscular CoQ10 level is the cause of myopathy prevails. Additional intake of CoQ10 seems promising, but is not evidence-based.

  15. A psychosocial perspective of medication side effects, experiences, coping approaches and implications for adherence in hypertension management.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kretchy, Irene A; Owusu-Daaku, Frances T; Danquah, Samuel A; Asampong, Emmanuel

    2015-01-01

    This study examined whether psychosocial variables influenced patients' perception and experience of side effects of their medicines, how they coped with these experiences and the impact on medication adherence behaviour. A hospital-based mixed methods study using quantitative and qualitative approaches was conducted with hypertensive patients. Participants were asked about side effects, medication adherence, common psychological symptoms and coping mechanisms with the aid of standard questionnaires and an interview guide. The experiences of side effects-such as palpitations, frequent urination, recurrent bouts of hunger, erectile dysfunction, dizziness, cough, physical exhaustion-were categorized as no/low (39.75 %), moderate (53.0 %) and high (7.25 %). Significant relationships between depression (x (2) = 24.21, p effects were observed. A logistic regression model using the adjusted results for this association is reported-depression [OR = 1.9 (1.03-3.57), p = 0.04], anxiety [OR = 1.5 (1.22-1.77), p ≤ 0.001] and stress [OR = 1.3 (1.02-1.71), p = 0.04]. Side effects significantly increased the probability of individuals to be non-adherent [OR = 4.84 (95 % CI 1.07-1.85), p = 0.04] with social factors, media influences and attitudes of primary care givers further explaining this relationship. Personal adoption of medication modifying strategies, espousing the use of complementary and alternative treatments and interventions made by clinicians were the main forms of coping with side effects. Results from this study show that, in addition to a biomedical approach, the experience of side effects has biological, social and psychological interrelations. The results offer more support for the need for a multi-disciplinary approach to healthcare where all forms of expertise are incorporated into health provision and patient care.

  16. The Role of Evidence Based Nursing in Prevention of Gastrointestinal Side Effects of Chemotherapy in Children with Cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Z Pouresmail

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Today, due to the broad spectrum of pediatric cancers are treated by the chemotherapy drugs, but these drugs have side effects and gastrointestinal toxicity is the most prevalent. One of the main roles of nurses is to better health through patient education and care for him. Evidence-based nursing is a process during which the nurse can use the available research evidence, their clinical expertise and the patient has to take appropriate decisions. This study reviews the role of evidence-based nursing in the prevention of gastrointestinal side effects of chemotherapy in children with cancer was conducted.   Materials and Methods: Seeking information was performing through databases PubMed, SID, Since Direct, magiran, Ovid and etc. Within the years 2014-2002, the key issues in terms of evidence-based nursing, gastrointestinal side effect, chemotherapy was performed and 20 were studied English equivalents.   Results: The most common gastrointestinal side effects in children undergoing chemotherapy are oral ulcers, vomiting, diarrhea, and dysphagia. Different strategies for prevention studies suggest that these effects need to perform their roles in teaching and nursing care. Nurses can use the results of studies such as music, ginger, semi sitting positions during chemotherapy, use of ice and etc. To prevent vomiting, the use of  Persica for oral wound healing, hygiene perform especially hand washing for preventing diarrhea. The most important roles of nursing are recommended, Education on prevention of chemotherapy complications, adverse effects of proper nutrition and etc.   Conclusion: Nurses can play an effective role in the education and care to relieve symptoms and prevent progression of gastrointestinal side effects of chemotherapy.   Key words: Evidence-based nursing, Gastrointestinal side effects, Chemotherapy, Cancer  

  17. What matters when judging intentionality-moral content or normative status? Testing the rational scientist model of the side-effect.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Papadopoulos, C; Hayes, B K

    2017-05-15

    Previous work has demonstrated a "side-effect effect," such that intentionality is more likely to be attributed to agents who bring about negatively valenced as opposed to positively valenced side effects. The rational-scientist model explains this by suggesting that norm-violating side effects are more informative for inferring intentionality than norm-conforming side effects. In the present study we reexamined this account, addressing limitations of previous empirical tests (e.g., Uttich & Lombrozo, Cognition 116: 87-100, 2010). Side-effect valence and norm status were manipulated factorially, enabling an examination of the impact of norm status on intentionality judgments in both positively and negatively valenced side effects. Additionally, the impact of side-effect norm status on the perceived valences of side effects and agents was examined. Effects of norm status were found for both positive and negative side effects. Violation of an ostensibly neutral norm led to negative perceptions of the side effect. However, a norm status effect on intentionality judgments persisted when these effects were controlled. These results support the view that the side-effect effect is the result of the rational use of social-cognitive evidence.

  18. The effect of a multidimensional exercise programme on symptoms and side-effects in cancer patients undergoing chemotherapy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Christina; Adamsen, Lis; Møller, Tom

    2006-01-01

    /side-effects than patients with no evidence of disease (n=28) (P=0.027). The results indicate that a six weeks multidimensional exercise intervention undertaken by cancer patients with or without residual disease while undergoing chemotherapy can lead to a reduction in treatment-related symptoms.......The aim of this study was to evaluate the effects of a 6-week intervention with structured physical activity, relaxation, body-awareness techniques and massage on the symptoms/side-effects of cancer patients undergoing chemotherapy. The study was prospective and exploratory, and 54 patients...

  19. Immunohistochemical evaluation of androgen receptor and nerve structure density in human prepuce from patients with persistent sexual side effects after finasteride use for androgenetic alopecia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Di Loreto, Carla; La Marra, Francesco; Mazzon, Giorgio; Belgrano, Emanuele; Trombetta, Carlo; Cauci, Sabina

    2014-01-01

    Finasteride is an inhibitor of 5-α-reductase used against male androgenetic alopecia (AGA). Reported side effects of finasteride comprise sexual dysfunction including erectile dysfunction, male infertility, and loss of libido. Recently these effects were described as persistent in some subjects. Molecular events inducing persistent adverse sexual symptoms are unexplored. This study was designed as a retrospective case-control study to assess if androgen receptor (AR) and nerve density in foreskin prepuce specimens were associated with persistent sexual side effects including loss of sensitivity in the genital area due to former finasteride use against AGA. Cases were 8 males (aged 29-43 years) reporting sexual side effects including loss of penis sensitivity over 6 months after discontinuation of finasteride who were interviewed and clinically visited. After informed consent they were invited to undergo a small excision of skin from prepuce. Controls were 11 otherwise healthy matched men (aged 23-49 years) who undergone circumcision for phimosis, and who never took finasteride or analogues. Differences in AR expression and nerve density in different portions of dermal prepuce were evaluated in the 2 groups. Density of nuclear AR in stromal and epithelial cells was higher in cases (mean 40.0%, and 80.6% of positive cells, respectively) than controls (mean 23.4%, and 65.0% of positive cells, respectively), P = 0.023 and P = 0.043, respectively. Conversely, percentage of vessel smooth muscle cells positive for AR and density of nerves were similar in the 2 groups. The ratio of AR positive stromal cells % to serum testosterone concentrations was 2-fold higher in cases than in controls (P = 0.001). Our findings revealed that modulation of local AR levels might be implicated in long-term side effects of finasteride use. This provides the first evidence of a molecular objective difference between patients with long-term adverse sexual effects after

  20. Immunohistochemical evaluation of androgen receptor and nerve structure density in human prepuce from patients with persistent sexual side effects after finasteride use for androgenetic alopecia.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carla Di Loreto

    Full Text Available Finasteride is an inhibitor of 5-α-reductase used against male androgenetic alopecia (AGA. Reported side effects of finasteride comprise sexual dysfunction including erectile dysfunction, male infertility, and loss of libido. Recently these effects were described as persistent in some subjects. Molecular events inducing persistent adverse sexual symptoms are unexplored. This study was designed as a retrospective case-control study to assess if androgen receptor (AR and nerve density in foreskin prepuce specimens were associated with persistent sexual side effects including loss of sensitivity in the genital area due to former finasteride use against AGA. Cases were 8 males (aged 29-43 years reporting sexual side effects including loss of penis sensitivity over 6 months after discontinuation of finasteride who were interviewed and clinically visited. After informed consent they were invited to undergo a small excision of skin from prepuce. Controls were 11 otherwise healthy matched men (aged 23-49 years who undergone circumcision for phimosis, and who never took finasteride or analogues. Differences in AR expression and nerve density in different portions of dermal prepuce were evaluated in the 2 groups. Density of nuclear AR in stromal and epithelial cells was higher in cases (mean 40.0%, and 80.6% of positive cells, respectively than controls (mean 23.4%, and 65.0% of positive cells, respectively, P = 0.023 and P = 0.043, respectively. Conversely, percentage of vessel smooth muscle cells positive for AR and density of nerves were similar in the 2 groups. The ratio of AR positive stromal cells % to serum testosterone concentrations was 2-fold higher in cases than in controls (P = 0.001. Our findings revealed that modulation of local AR levels might be implicated in long-term side effects of finasteride use. This provides the first evidence of a molecular objective difference between patients with long-term adverse sexual effects

  1. Potential Side Effects of the Entomopathogenic Fungus Metarhizium anisopliae on the Egg Parasitoid Trichogramma pretiosum (Hymenoptera: Trichogrammatidae) Under Controlled Conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Potrich, M; Alves, L F A; Lozano, E R; Bonini, A K; Neves, P M O J

    2017-10-06

    The purpose was to evaluate the side effects of strains Metarhizium anisopliae (Metsch.) Sorokin sensu lato Unioeste 43 and M. anisopliae sensu stricto ESALQ 1641 on Trichogramma pretiosum Riley (Hymenoptera: Trichogrammatidae) under controlled conditions. A free-choice test for parasitism was performed, with the confinement of T. pretiosum females mated with cards (1 × 5 cm) containing age-standardized Anagasta kuehniella Zeller eggs, either sprayed with a fungal strain (109 conidia/ml) or 0.01% v/v Tween 80 (control). For the no-choice tests, T. pretiosum females mated were confined with cards sprayed with fungal strains before or after parasitism, and cards with fungal applications at different times. The number of parasitized eggs, percentage of emergence, longevity, egg-to-adult period, sex ratio, total and confirmed mortality by the fungus, and longevity of females that parasitized previously sprayed eggs, were assessed. Histological analysis of immature phases was also performed. The fungus was repellent to T. pretiosum in the free-choice test, while in the no-choice test, fungal applications before and after parasitism did not affect the number of eggs parasitized by T. pretiosum or the sex ratio of emerging adults. However, both strains affected adult emergence rates, the egg-to-adult period, and longevity. Overall, both M. anisopliae strains had minor effects on these biological parameters of T. pretiosum under controlled conditions. Hyphae were not detected in histological observations of immature stages of the parasitoid. © The Authors 2017. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of Entomological Society of America. All rights reserved. For permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  2. Fixed Drug Eruption to Supplement Containing Ginkgo Biloba and Vinpocetine: A Case Report and Review of Related Cutaneous Side Effects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cohen, Philip R

    2017-10-01

    BACKGROUND: Fixed drug eruption is a cutaneous reaction to a systemic agent that typically presents as an annular or oval erythematous patch or blister and subsequently resolves with postinflammatory hyperpigmentation at the site. Ginkgo biloba leaf extract and vinpocetine are nutritional supplements used to enhance memory in patients with dementia and age-related memory impairment conditions such as Alzheimer's disease. PURPOSE: To describe a fixed drug eruption in a man who repeatedly developed pruritus and macular erythema on his distal penile shaft after ingesting a natural product containing Ginkgo biloba and vinpocetine. METHODS: The medical literature was retrospectively reviewed using PubMed, searching specifically for the terms cutaneous/skin adverse/side effects, fixed drug eruption, Ginkgo biloba, and vinpocetine. Patient reports and previous reviews of the subject were critically assessed, and the salient features of cutaneous adverse effects in patients receiving either Ginkgo biloba or vinpocetine are presented. RESULTS: Cutaneous adverse effects from Ginkgo biloba and vinpocetine are infrequent. Ginkgo biloba fruit can result in contact dermatitis (following topical exposure) and mucosal symptoms of the mouth and anus (following oral exposure); in addition, an erythematous maculopapular generalized eruption or possibly Steven-Johnson syndrome can occur after oral ingestion of the Ginkgo biloba leaf extract. Facial erythema has been associated with vinpocetine ingestion. Pruritus and an annular erythema localized to the distal penile shaft developed after initial and repeat ingestion of a Ginkgo biloba/vinpocetine product. CONCLUSION: Ginkgo biloba and vinpocetine should be added to the agents that can potentially cause a fixed drug eruption.

  3. No Neuromuscular Side-Effects of Scopolamine in Sensorimotor Control and Force-Generating Capacity Among Parabolic Fliers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ritzmann, Ramona; Freyler, Kathrin; Krause, Anne; Gollhofer, Albert

    2016-10-01

    Scopolamine is used to counteract motion sickness in parabolic flight (PF) experiments. Although the drug's anticholinergic properties effectively impede vomiting, recent studies document other sensory side-effects in the central nervous system that may considerably influence sensorimotor performance. This study aimed to quantify such effects in order to determine if they are of methodological and operational significance for sensorimotor control. Ten subjects of a PF campaign received a weight-sex-based dose of a subcutaneous scopolamine injection. Sensorimotor performance was recorded before medication, 20min, 2h and 4h after injection in four space-relevant paradigms: balance control in one-leg stance with eyes open (protocol 1) and closed as well as force-generating capacity in countermovement jumps and hops (protocol 2). Postural sway, forces and joint angles were recorded. Neuromuscular control was assessed by electromyography and peripheral nerve stimulation; H-reflexes and M-waves were used to monitor spinal excitability of the Ia afferent reflex circuitry and maximal motor output. (1) H-reflex amplitudes, latencies and functional reflexes remained unchanged after scopolamine injection. (2) M-waves, neuromuscular activation intensities and antagonistic muscle coordination did not change with scopolamine administration. (3) Balance performance and force-generating capacity were not impeded by scopolamine. We found no evidence for changes in sensorimotor control in response to scopolamine injection. Sensory processing of daily relevant reflexes, spinal excitability, maximal motor output and performance parameters were not sensitive to the medication. We conclude that scopolamine administration can be used to counteract motion sickness in PF without methodological and operational concerns or interference regarding sensorimotor skills associated with neuromuscular control.

  4. Depo Provera. Position paper on clinical use, effectiveness and side effects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bigrigg, A; Evans, M; Gbolade, B; Newton, J; Pollard, L; Szarewski, A; Thomas, C; Walling, M

    1999-07-01

    has an advantage over the combined oral contraceptive pill, and provides a simple, effective alternative for women who cannot use the pill for these reasons. Similarly, it has been suggested that women who suffer from focal migraine and are therefore advised against use of the combined oral contraceptive pill can still use progestogen-only contraceptives. Although the POP is medically safe in these circumstances, in young women it is less effective, and involves strict time keeping, which will be disadvantageous for some women. Side effects, long term use and schedules of administration are also discussed. The use of local protocols to allow nurse administration is to be supported both in general practice and the clinic situation. Perhaps the most important issue surrounding the use of DMPA is that of patient information. The method has had a particularly bad public image, which naturally makes potential users anxious and subject to misinformation from poorly informed or biased sources. Also, it is temporarily irreversible during its three months duration, so the duration of any problems or anxieties resulting from side effects may be longer than for other methods. It is of paramount importance that easily understood, accurate patient information leaflets are available, since biased and inaccurate information is readily available from women's magazines, perpetuating the myths surrounding the method.

  5. Evaluation of the side effects of poly(epsilon-caprolactone) nanocapsules containing atrazine towards maize plants

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oliveira, Halley; Stolf-Moreira, Renata; Martinez, Cláudia; Sousa, Gustavo; Grillo, Renato; de Jesus, Marcelo; Fraceto, Leonardo

    2015-10-01

    Poly(epsilon-caprolactone) (PCL) nanocapsules have been used as a carrier system for the herbicide atrazine, which is commonly applied to maize. We demonstrated previously that these atrazine containing polymeric nanocapsules were ten-fold more effective in the control of mustard plants (a target species), as compared to a commercial atrazine formulation. Since atrazine can have adverse effects on non-target crops, here we analyzed the effect of encapsulated atrazine on growth, physiological and oxidative stress parameters of soil-grown maize plants (Zea mays L.). One day after the post-emergence treatment with PCL nanocapsules containing atrazine (1 mg mL-1), maize plants presented 15 and 21 % decreases in maximum quantum yield of photosystem II and in net CO2 assimilation rate, respectively, as compared to water-sprayed plants. The same treatment led to a 1.8-fold increase in leaf lipid peroxidation in comparison with control plants. However, all of these parameters were unaffected four and eight days after the application of encapsulated atrazine. These results suggested that the negative effects of atrazine were transient, probably due to the ability of maize plants to detoxify the herbicide. When encapsulated atrazine was applied at a ten-fold lower concentration (0.1 mg mL-1), a dosage that is still effective for weed control, no effects were detected even shortly after application. Regardless of the herbicide concentration, neither pre- nor post-emergence treatment with the PCL nanocapsules carrying atrazine resulted in the development of any macroscopic symptoms in maize leaves, and there were no impacts on shoot growth. Additionally, no effects were observed when plants were sprayed with PCL nanocapsules without atrazine. Overall, these results suggested that the use of PCL nanocapsules containing atrazine did not lead to persistent side effects in maize plants, and that the technique could offer a safe tool for weed control without affecting crop growth.

  6. Use of sedative drugs at reducing the side effects of voiding cystourethrography in children

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anahita Alizadeh

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Imaging of the kidneys and urinary tract has a significant and critical role for diagnosis of genitourinary system diseases. Although technological progress goes toward less invasive approaches, some of the current methods are still invasive and annoying. Voiding cystourethrography (VCUG is the best and most accurate method for diagnosis and grading of vesicoureteral reflux. VCUG is a distressful procedure that gives serious anxiety and pain in a large proportion of children and fear for parents; therefore, using effective sedative drugs with the least side effects is necessary and should be considered. Materials and Methods: In this review article, importance and efficacy of different drugs before catheterization VCUG be compared in the base of literature survey on EMBASE, PubMed, and Cochrane source. Results: We found that the treatment should be based on nonpharmacological and pharmacological methods; nonpharmacological treatment includes the psychological preparation before procedures as a safety precaution with little or no risk modality, as well as reassuring support. The presence of parents during painful procedures cannot alleviate children distress. Pharmacological methods include oral midazolam (0.5 mg/kg and intranasal use (0.2 mg/kg that had been used 10 min before the procedure can effect on anterograde amnesia and sedation without considerable effect on accuracy and grade of reflux. Nitric oxide has a shorter recovery time versus midazolam but has a potential risk for deep sedation and may interfere with the child's voiding phase. Conclusion: In summary, oral midazolam of 0.5–0.6 mg/kg or 0.2 mg/kg intranasal is acceptable drug that can be used before VCUG.

  7. Significant differences in pediatric psychotropic side effects: Implications for school performance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kubiszyn, Thomas; Mire, Sarah; Dutt, Sonia; Papathopoulos, Katina; Burridge, Andrea Backsheider

    2012-03-01

    Some side effects (SEs) of increasingly prescribed psychotropic medications can impact student performance in school. SE risk varies, even among drugs from the same class (e.g., antidepressants). Knowing which SEs occur significantly more often than others may enable school psychologists to enhance collaborative risk-benefit analysis, medication monitoring, data-based decision-making, and inform mitigation efforts. SE data from Full Prescribing Information (PI) on the FDA website for ADHD drugs, atypical antipsychotics, and antidepressants with pediatric indications were analyzed. Risk ratios (RR) are reported for each drug within a category compared with placebo. RR tables and graphs inform the reader about SE incidence differences for each drug and provide clear evidence of the wide variability in SE incidence in the FDA data. Breslow-Day and Cochran Mantel-Haenszel methods were used to test for drug-placebo SE differences and to test for significance across drugs within each category based on odds ratios (ORs). Significant drug-placebo differences were found for each drug compared with placebo, when odds were pooled across all drugs in a category compared with placebo, and between some drugs within categories. Unexpectedly, many large RR differences did not reach significance. Potential explanations are offered, including limitations of the FDA data sets and statistical and methodological issues. Future research directions are offered. The potential impact of certain SEs on school performance, mitigation strategies, and the potential role of the school psychologist is discussed, with consideration for ethical and legal limitations. (c) 2012 APA, all rights reserved.

  8. METABOLIC SIDE EFFECTS OF HALOPERIDOL AND RISPERIDONE- A SIX MONTHS FOLLOWUP STUDY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kalaimathi B

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND To compare and analyse the metabolic side effects of Risperidone and Haloperidol in newly diagnosed drug-naive schizophrenic disorder patients attending Govt. Stanley Medical College Hospital during initial 6 months of therapy. MATERIALS AND METHODS Newly diagnosed drug-naïve Schizophrenic Patients (n = 60 aged between 18 - 45 years are recruited and randomly allocated into Group A (Risperidone 4 - 6 mg daily and Group B (Haloperidol 5 - 10 mg daily after getting informed consent from the patient’s family members. Patients are followed up monthly for the occurrence of metabolic abnormalities like weight gain, rise in blood pressure, elevated fasting, post-prandial blood sugar level, dyslipidaemia for a period of 6 months. RESULTS Risperidone group showed the mean body weight increase from 64.40 to 69.27, SBP/DBP increase from 123.80/79 to 129.90/83.13; FBS/PPBS increase from 100.20/129.30 to 135.40/185.00; TC increase from 177.23 to 206.23; LDL from 124.30 to 158.30; HDL 48.83 to 50.07; TG 133.47 to 197.83: Haloperidol group showed the mean body weight increase from 64.07 to 68.48, SBP/DBP increase from 123.80/79.00 to 124.27/81.67; FBS/PPBS increase from 100.20/129.30 to 119.87/167.10; TC increase from 177.23 to 197.40; LDL from 119.77 to 139.00; HDL remained 48.83; TG 133.47 to 171.40. CONCLUSION This study showed that patients in both the groups had weight gain, rise in blood sugar, LDL cholesterol and Triglycerides level, but the rise was significant in patients on Risperidone when compared to those on Haloperidol during the 6-month followup.

  9. Risperidone and escitalopram co-administration: A potential treatment of schizophrenia symptoms with less side effects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kamińska, Katarzyna; Noworyta-Sokołowska, Karolina; Jurczak, Alexandra; Górska, Anna; Rogóż, Zofia; Gołembiowska, Krystyna

    2017-02-01

    Schizophrenia is a psychiatric disorder characterized by positive and negative symptoms often accompanied by depression and cognitive deficits. Positive symptoms, like delusions and hallucinations are caused by an excess of dopamine (DA) signaling and are treated with the second generation antipsychotic drugs. Negative symptoms of schizophrenia are represented by social withdrawal, apathy and blunted emotional response. It was demonstrated that co-administration of risperidone and selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors alleviated depressive symptoms and cognitive dysfunction in animal models of schizophrenia. Moreover, combination of fluoxetine or mirtazapine with risperidone increased DA and 5-hydroxytryptamine (5-HT) release in the rat frontal cortex more potently than either drug given separately. The present study aimed to investigate whether combination of risperidone and escitalopram is effective in increasing DA and 5-HT release. The extracellular level of neurotransmitters in the rat frontal cortex and nucleus accumbens was examined using microdialysis in freely moving animals. The dialysate concentration of DA and 5-HT was assayed by HPLC. It was found that risperidone (0.2 and 1mg/kg) and escitalopram (5 and 10mg/kg) given together significantly increased cortical DA and 5-HT levels and were more efficient in enhancing neurotransmitter concentrations than any single-drug treatment. A similar effect on DA and 5-HT release was observed in the nucleus accumbens after administration of risperidone (1mg/kg) and escitalopram (5mg/kg). The present study demonstrates that co-administration of risperidone and escitalopram may be used to treat positive and negative symptoms of schizophrenia and will allow to minimize the drugs' side effects. Copyright © 2016. Published by Elsevier Urban & Partner Sp. z o.o.

  10. Study on side effects of iron-based amendments on soil structure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gargiulo, Laura; Mele, Giacomo; Di Matteo, Bruno; Terribile, Fabio

    2013-04-01

    Recent trends in green and sustainable remediation require an increased attention on the environmental side effects. Among them the physical consequences of soil remediation practices on soil structure are very rarely investigated, although such physical property largely influences the soil quality. The use of in situ elemental immobilization by means iron-based technologies is rapidly developing in contaminated land and groundwater remediation. Iron-rich soil amendments may be applied as part of "assisted natural remediation" schemes at metal/metalloid contaminated sites to immobilize contaminants and then improve vegetation growth and microbial diversity, and reduce offsite metal transport. The current approach is to evaluate the mobility of heavy metals in soil and their translocation to plants rather than to verify also the extent of modifications occurred to some key characteristics of soil structure after the remediation practices. The aim of this work was to focus on the direct quantification of the effects of iron-rich soil amendments on soil pore system and on the understanding of the underlying physical mechanisms. A laboratory experiment was carried out by adding iron grit to three different soils subjected to several wetting-drying cycles. The physical effects of the treatment on soil pore system were identified and quantified combining soil micromorphology and pore image analysis. The impact of iron grit on soil structure resulted strongly influenced by some soil physical properties. In high shrinkage-swelling soils was observed a porosity increase, more evident in the less plastic soil, while in the very low shrinking-swelling soil the porosity decreased. The obtained results showed overall the high potential of soil micromorphology and pore image analysis in order to evaluate the environmental impact of soil remediation practices.

  11. Psychiatric and behavioral side effects of anti-epileptic drugs in adolescents and children with epilepsy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, B; Detyniecki, K; Choi, H; Hirsch, L; Katz, A; Legge, A; Wong, R; Jiang, A; Buchsbaum, R; Farooque, P

    2017-05-01

    The objective of the study was to compare the psychiatric and behavioral side effect (PBSE) profiles of both older and newer antiepileptic drugs (AEDs) in children and adolescent patients with epilepsy. We used logistic regression analysis to test the correlation between 83 non-AED/patient related potential predictor variables and the rate of PBSE. We then compared for each AED the rate of PBSEs and the rate of PBSEs that led to intolerability (IPBSE) while controlling for non-AED predictors of PBSEs. 922 patients (≤18 years old) were included in our study. PBSEs and IPBSEs occurred in 13.8% and 11.2% of patients, respectively. Overall, a history of psychiatric condition, absence seizures, intractable epilepsy, and frontal lobe epilepsy were significantly associated with increased PBSE rates. Levetiracetam (LEV) had the greatest PBSE rate (16.2%). This was significantly higher compared to other AEDs. LEV was also significantly associated with a high rate of IPBSEs (13.4%) and dose-decrease rates due to IPBSE (6.7%). Zonisamide (ZNS) was associated with significantly higher cessation rate due to IPBSE (9.1%) compared to other AEDs. Patients with a history of psychiatric condition, absence seizures, intractable epilepsy, or frontal lobe epilepsy are more likely to develop PBSE. PBSEs appear to occur more frequently in adolescent and children patients taking LEV compared to other AEDs. LEV-attributed PBSEs are more likely to be associated with intolerability and subsequent decrease in dose. The rate of ZNS-attributed IPBSEs is more likely to be associated with complete cessation of AED. Copyright © 2017 European Paediatric Neurology Society. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Arthropod Pest Control for UK Oilseed Rape - Comparing Insecticide Efficacies, Side Effects and Alternatives.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Han Zhang

    Full Text Available Oilseed rape (Brassica napus is an important combinable break crop in the UK, which is largely protected from arthropod pests by insecticidal chemicals. Despite ongoing debate regarding the use of neonicotinoids, the dominant seed treatment ingredients used for this crop, there is little publicly available data comparing the efficacy of insecticides in controlling key arthropod pests or comparing the impacts on non-target species and the wider environment. To provide an insight into these matters, a UK-wide expert survey targeting agronomists and entomologists was conducted from March to June 2015. Based on the opinions of 90 respondents, an average of 20% yield loss caused by the key arthropod pests was expected to have occurred in the absence of insecticide treatments. Relatively older chemical groups were perceived to have lower efficacy for target pests than newer ones, partly due to the development of insecticide resistance. Without neonicotinoid seed treatments, a lack of good control for cabbage stem flea beetle was perceived. Wide spectrum foliar insecticide sprays were perceived to have significantly greater negative impacts than seed treatments on users' health, natural enemies, pollinators, soil and water, and many foliar active ingredients have had potential risks for non-target arthropod species in UK oilseed rape fields for the past 25 years. Overall, 72% of respondents opposed the neonicotinoid restriction, while 10% supported it. Opposition and support of the restriction were largely based on concerns for pollinators and the wider environment, highlighting the uncertainty over the side effects of neonicotinoid use. More people from the government and research institutes leaned towards neutrality over the issue, compared to those directly involved in growing the crop. Neonicotinoid restriction was expected to result in greater effort and expenditure on pest control and lower production (0-1 t/ha less. Alternatives for future

  13. Long-term side effects in irradiated patients with Hodgkin's disease. [Gamma radiation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Slanina, J.; Musshoff, K.; Rahner, T.; Stiasny, R.

    1977-01-01

    One hundred and thirty-five out of 168 patients with Hodgkin's disease in complete remission who had received radiotherapy with tumor doses between 3000 and 5000 rad in the years 1948 to 1974 were investigated with regard to long-term side effects. The results obtained so far are as follows: catamnestic results: Deteriorated general condition and reduced performance in 23% and 28%, spontaneous restriction of the daily routine in 45% and increase in susceptibility to infections (common cold) in 15% of the patients; hematological investigations, peripheral blood: no indication of severe anemia. Granulocytopenia with less than 3000 cells/mm/sup 3/ in 18.5%, lymphocytopenia with less than 2000 cells/mm/sup 3/ in 37%, no incidence of thrombocytopenia with less than 100,000 platelets/mm/sup 3/ or leukemia. Sternal marrow cytology (locally irradiated): aplasia in 76%, hypoplasia in 18%, no signs of leukemia, iliac crest cytology (not directly irradiated): slight hypoplasia in 38%, severe hypoplasia in 8%, no signs of leukemia; pulmonary investigations: slight paramediastinal fibrosis in 44%, distinct in 36% and severe in 9%. Restrictive ventilation disorder in 84%, increase in residual volume in 61%, O/sub 2/-diffusion disorder in 18% and obstructive ventilation disorder in 7% of the patients; cardiological investigations: Under stress pulmonary hypertension in 18%, right ventricular function disorder in 9%, left ventricular function disorder in 9%, cardiac insufficiency2%, restriction of the maximum ergometer cycling exercise capacity in 53% of the patients; thyroid function investigations: hypothyroidal or latent hypothyroidal thyroid insufficiency in 16.5%; neurological symptomatology (excluding herpes zoster): slight to moderately severe double-sided cross section symptomatology in 3 of 122 patients (2.5%), bilateral or unilateral plexus paresis in 4 of 122 patients (3.5%); genito-urinary tract (male) investigations.

  14. Temporal Lobe Resective Surgery for Medically Intractable Epilepsy: A Review of Complications and Side Effects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Iordanis Georgiadis

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Object. It is widely accepted that temporal resective surgery represents an efficacious treatment option for patients with epilepsy of temporal origin. The meticulous knowledge of the potential complications, associated with temporal resective procedures, is of paramount importance. In our current study, we attempt to review the pertinent literature for summating the complications of temporal resective procedures for epilepsy. Method. A PubMed search was performed with the following terms: “behavioral,” “cognitive,” “complication,” “deficit,” “disorder,” “epilepsy,” “hemianopia,” “hemianopsia,” “hemorrhage,” “lobectomy,” “medial,” “memory,” “mesial,” “neurobehavioral,” “neurocognitive,” “neuropsychological,” “psychological,” “psychiatric,” “quadranopia,” “quadranopsia,” “resective,” “side effect,” “surgery,” “temporal,” “temporal lobe,” and “visual field.” Results. There were six pediatric, three mixed-population, and eleven adult surgical series examining the incidence rates of procedure-related complications. The reported mortality rates varied between 0% and 3.5%, although the vast majority of the published series reported no mortality. The cumulative morbidity rates ranged between 3.2% and 88%. Conclusions. Temporal resective surgery for epilepsy is a safe treatment modality. The reported morbidity rates demonstrate a wide variation. Accurate detection and frank reporting of any surgical, neurological, cognitive, and/or psychological complications are of paramount importance for maximizing the safety and improving the patients’ overall outcome.

  15. Evaluation of the side effects of poly(epsilon-caprolactone nanocapsules containing atrazine towards maize plants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Halley Caixeta Oliveira

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Poly(epsilon-caprolactone (PCL nanocapsules have been used as a carrier system for the herbicide atrazine, which is commonly applied to maize. We demonstrated previously that these atrazine containing polymeric nanocapsules were ten-fold more effective in the control of mustard plants (a target species, as compared to a commercial atrazine formulation. Since atrazine can have adverse effects on non-target crops, here we analyzed the effect of encapsulated atrazine on growth, physiological and oxidative stress parameters of soil-grown maize plants (Zea mays L.. One day after the post-emergence treatment with PCL nanocapsules containing atrazine (1 mg mL-1, maize plants presented 15 and 21 % decreases in maximum quantum yield of photosystem II and in net CO2 assimilation rate, respectively, as compared to water-sprayed plants. The same treatment led to a 1.8-fold increase in leaf lipid peroxidation in comparison with control plants. However, all of these parameters were unaffected four and eight days after the application of encapsulated atrazine. These results suggested that the negative effects of atrazine were transient, probably due to the ability of maize plants to detoxify the herbicide. When encapsulated atrazine was applied at a ten-fold lower concentration (0.1 mg mL-1, a dosage that is still effective for weed control, no effects were detected even shortly after application. Regardless of the herbicide concentration, neither pre- nor post-emergence treatment with the PCL nanocapsules carrying atrazine resulted in the development of any macroscopic symptoms in maize leaves, and there were no impacts on shoot growth. Additionally, no effects were observed when plants were sprayed with PCL nanocapsules without atrazine. Overall, these results suggested that the use of PCL nanocapsules containing atrazine did not lead to persistent side effects in maize plants, and that the technique could offer a safe tool for weed control without affecting

  16. Side-Effects of Non-Steroidal Anti-Inflammatory Drugs on the Liver in Dogs and Hepatoprotective Effect of Plant Remedies

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    Szweda Magdalena

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Hepatoprotective effect of plant drugs against hepatic tissue injury induced by non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs was assessed on Beagle dogs. The adverse effects of carprofen and robenacoxib on the hepatic tissue were evaluated on the basis of histopathological examination of liver sections. It was demonstrated that the use of NSAIDs with liquorice and composed plant remedy Pectosol¯ caused a reduction of hepatic adverse effects induced by the administration of NSAIDs. This fact indicates a hepatoprotective effect of the tested plant remedies during the treatment with NSAIDs. However, the results require further studies on a larger group of animals. Liquorice and Pectosol¯ reduce the hepatic side effects, which develop after the treatment with carprofen and, to a lesser extent, robenacoxib in young Beagles. Such studies allow to investigate the negative and positive effects of using robenacoxib and carprofen in dogs and, therefore, help to limit the NSAID-induced side effects on the liver in these animals.

  17. Children Living with Violence against Their Mothers: The Side Effects on Their Behaviour, Self-Image and School Performance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koutselini, Mary; Valanidou, Floria

    2014-01-01

    This paper discusses the effects of children's exposure to violence against their mothers. It particularly considers the sided-effects of this violence on the children's behaviour, self-image and school performance. The research indicates that (1) violence against women victimises not only the mothers but also their children, even if the children…

  18. Selection of patients for radiotherapy with protons aiming at reduction of side effects : The model-based approach

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Langendijk, Johannes A.; Lambin, Philippe; De Ruysscher, Dirk; Widder, Joachim; Bos, Mike; Verheij, Marcel

    Most new radiation techniques, have been introduced primarily to reduce the dose to normal tissues in order to prevent radiation-induced side effects. Radiotherapy with protons is such a radiation technique that due to its superior beam properties compared to photons enables better sparing of normal

  19. An Update on Safety and Side Effects of Cannabidiol: A Review of Clinical Data and Relevant Animal Studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iffland, Kerstin; Grotenhermen, Franjo

    2017-01-01

    Introduction: This literature survey aims to extend the comprehensive survey performed by Bergamaschi et al. in 2011 on cannabidiol (CBD) safety and side effects. Apart from updating the literature, this article focuses on clinical studies and CBD potential interactions with other drugs. Results: In general, the often described favorable safety profile of CBD in humans was confirmed and extended by the reviewed research. The majority of studies were performed for treatment of epilepsy and psychotic disorders. Here, the most commonly reported side effects were tiredness, diarrhea, and changes of appetite/weight. In comparison with other drugs, used for the treatment of these medical conditions, CBD has a better side effect profile. This could improve patients' compliance and adherence to treatment. CBD is often used as adjunct therapy. Therefore, more clinical research is warranted on CBD action on hepatic enzymes, drug transporters, and interactions with other drugs and to see if this mainly leads to positive or negative effects, for example, reducing the needed clobazam doses in epilepsy and therefore clobazam's side effects. Conclusion: This review also illustrates that some important toxicological parameters are yet to be studied, for example, if CBD has an effect on hormones. Additionally, more clinical trials with a greater number of participants and longer chronic CBD administration are still lacking.

  20. Mediators of a Brief Hypnosis Intervention to Control Side Effects in Breast Surgery Patients: Response Expectancies and Emotional Distress

    Science.gov (United States)

    Montgomery, Guy H.; Hallquist, Michael N.; Schnur, Julie B.; David, Daniel; Silverstein, Jeffrey H.; Bovbjerg, Dana H.

    2010-01-01

    Objective: The present study was designed to test the hypotheses that response expectancies and emotional distress mediate the effects of an empirically validated presurgical hypnosis intervention on postsurgical side effects (i.e., pain, nausea, and fatigue). Method: Women (n = 200) undergoing breast-conserving surgery (mean age = 48.50 years;…

  1. Chronic treatment with olanzapine increases adiposity by changing fuel substrate and causes desensitization of the acute metabolic side effects

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Girault, E.M.; Guigas, B.; Alkemade, A.; Foppen, E.; Ackermans, M.T.; la Fleur, S.E.; Fliers, E.; Kalsbeek, A.

    2014-01-01

    Atypical antipsychotic drugs such as olanzapine induce weight gain and metabolic changes associated with the development of type 2 diabetes. The mechanisms underlying these metabolic side-effects are unknown at the moment. In this study, we investigated the metabolic changes induced by a chronic

  2. Chronic treatment with olanzapine increases adiposity by changing fuel substrate and causes desensitization of the acute metabolic side effects

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Girault, Elodie M; Guigas, Bruno; Alkemade, Anneke; Foppen, Ewout; Ackermans, Mariëtte T; la Fleur, Susanne E; Fliers, Eric; Kalsbeek, A.

    Atypical antipsychotic drugs such as olanzapine induce weight gain and metabolic changes associated with the development of type 2 diabetes. The mechanisms underlying these metabolic side-effects are unknown at the moment. In this study, we investigated the metabolic changes induced by a chronic

  3. Fasting protects against the side effects of irinotecan treatment but does not affect anti-tumour activity in mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huisman, Sander A; de Bruijn, Peter; Ghobadi Moghaddam-Helmantel, Inge M; IJzermans, Jan N M; Wiemer, Erik A C; Mathijssen, Ron H J; de Bruin, Ron W F

    2016-03-01

    The main limitation to the use of irinotecan in the treatment of colorectal cancer is the severity of side effects, including neutropaenia and diarrhoea. Here, we explored the effects of 3 days of fasting on irinotecan-induced toxicities, on plasma, liver and tumour pharmacokinetics and on anti-tumour activity in mice. Male BALB/c mice received C26 colon carcinoma cells subcutaneously. They were randomized 1:1 into equally sized ad libitum fed and fasted groups after which they were treated with irinotecan. Weight and adverse side effects were recorded daily. At the end of the experiment, tumours were resected and weighed, and concentrations of irinotecan and its active metabolite SN-38 were determined in plasma and tumour. Fasting prevented the diarrhoea and visible signs of discomfort induced by irinotecan. Ad libitum fed animals developed leucopenia compared with untreated controls, whereas fasted mice did not. Irinotecan suppressed tumour growth equally in both treated groups, compared with untreated controls. Levels of the active irinotecan metabolite SN-38 9 (calculated as AUC values) were significantly lower in fasted mice in both plasma and liver, but not in tumour tissue. Fasting protected against irinotecan-induced side effects without interfering with its anti-tumour efficacy. Fasting induced a lower systemic exposure to SN-38, which may explain the absence of adverse side effects, while tumour levels of SN-38 remained unchanged. These data offer important new approaches to improve treatment with irinotecan in patients. © 2015 The British Pharmacological Society.

  4. Nausea and vomiting side effects with opioid analgesics during treatment of chronic pain: mechanisms, implications, and management options.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Porreca, Frank; Ossipov, Michael H

    2009-01-01

    Gastrointestinal (GI) side effects such as nausea and vomiting are common following opioid analgesia and represent a significant cause of patient discomfort and treatment dissatisfaction. This review examines the mechanisms that produce these side effects, their impact on treatment outcomes in chronic pain patients, and counteractive strategies. A number of mechanisms by which opioids produce nausea and vomiting have been identified. These involve both central and peripheral sites including the vomiting center, chemoreceptor trigger zones, cerebral cortex, and the vestibular apparatus of the brain, as well as the GI tract itself. Nausea and vomiting have a negative impact on treatment efficacy and successful patient management because they limit the effective analgesic dosage that can be achieved and are frequently reported as the reason for discontinuation of opioid pain medication or missed doses. While various strategies such as antiemetic agents or opioid switching can be employed to control these side effects, neither option is ideal because they are not always effective and incur additional costs and inconvenience. Opioid-sparing analgesic agents may provide a further alternative to avoid nausea and vomiting due to their reduced reliance on mu-opioid signalling pathways to induce analgesia. Nausea and vomiting side effects limit the analgesic efficiency of current opioid therapies. There is a clear need for the development of improved opioid-based analgesics that mitigate these intolerable effects.

  5. CYP2D6 genotype predicts antipsychotic side effects in schizophrenia inpatients: a retrospective matched case-control study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kobylecki, Camilla J; Jakobsen, Klaus D; Hansen, Thomas

    2009-01-01

    PM patient was carefully matched on age, gender and diagnosis with an intermediate metabolizer (IM) and an extensive metabolizer (EM) from the same database to generate 18 triplets. Clinical data, primarily on side effects of treatment, were obtained from medical records by an experienced research...

  6. Efficacy, side-effects and patients' acceptance of different bleaching techniques (OTC, in-office, at-home).

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Auschill, T.M.; Hellwig, E.; Schmidale, S.; Sculean, A.; Arweiler, N.B.

    2005-01-01

    This clinical study compared the efficacy of three different bleaching techniques with respect to the bleaching times required in order to achieve six grades of whitening in human teeth. Any side effects that were noted and the patients' acceptance of the method were recorded by a visual analog

  7. COMPARISON OF SIDE EFFECTS OF MISOPROSTOL BY ORAL AND RECTAL ROUTES IN ACTIVE MANAGEMENT OF THIRD STAGE OF LABOUR

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ratna Bulusu

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND Every year, there are 14 million cases of PPH. It accounts for about 25% of maternal deaths worldwide. This can be reduced by active management of third stage of labour. Administration of misoprostol after delivery of neonate has been shown to be effective in reducing amount of blood loss during delivery. The aim of the study is to compare the side effects of misoprostol in terms of distribution, frequency and severity by oral and rectal route for active management of third stage of labour. MATERIALS AND METHODS A prospective randomised study conducted on 100 women in labour in Department of OBG in MVJMC and RH. They were divided into 2 groups of 50 parturient mothers each group receiving misoprostol (600 µg by oral route (Group 1 and rectal route (Group 2. Outcome of these women were noted in terms of blood loss, duration of 3 rd stage of labour and side effects like shivering, fever, diarrhoea, nausea and vomiting. RESULTS There was not much difference in amount of blood loss and duration of third stage among the two groups. However, side effects were more in the group receiving misoprostol orally (32% as compared to that receiving by rectal route (14%. CONCLUSION In the present study, both oral and rectal routes are effective in active management of third stage of labour. However, rectal route has lesser side effects.

  8. A Comparison of Psychotropic Drug Side Effect Profiles in Adults Diagnosed with Intellectual Disabilities and Autism Spectrum Disorders

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hess, Julie; Matson, Johnny; Neal, Daniene; Mahan, Sara; Fodstad, Jill; Bamburg, Jay; Holloway, Jodie

    2010-01-01

    Forty-eight adults diagnosed with intellectual disabilities and Autistic Disorder or Pervasive Developmental Disorder-Not Otherwise Specified were examined with regard to psychotropic medication side effects. Participants were divided into 4 groups: no psychotropic medication group (n = 9); atypical antipsychotic medication group (n = 13);…

  9. Effects and side-effects of integrating care: the case of mental health care in the Netherlands

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hutschemaekers, Giel J.M.; Tiemens, Bea G.; Winter, M. de

    2007-01-01

    Purpose Description and analysis of the effects and side-effects of integrated mental health care in the Netherlands. Context of case Due to a number of large-scale mergers, Dutch mental health care has become an illustration of integration and coherence of care services. This process of

  10. Effects and side-effects of integrating care: The case of mental health care in the Netherlands

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hutschemaekers, G.J.M.; Tiemens, B.G.; Winter, M. de

    2007-01-01

    Purpose: Description and analysis of the effects and side-effects of integrated mental health care in the Netherlands. Context of case: Due to a number of large-scale mergers, Dutch mental health care has become an illustration of integration and coherence of care services. This process of

  11. Polymorphisms of the drug transporter gene ABCB1 predict side effects of treatment with cabergoline in patients with PRL adenomas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Athanasoulia, A P; Sievers, C; Ising, M; Brockhaus, A C; Yassouridis, A; Stalla, G K; Uhr, M

    2012-09-01

    Treatment with dopamine agonists in patients with prolactin (PRL) adenomas and Parkinson's disease is associated with central side effects. Central side effects may depend on a substance's ability to pass the blood-brain barrier, which can be actively controlled by transporter molecules such as the P-glycoprotein (P-gp) encoded by the ABCB1 gene. We aimed to determine whether cabergoline is transported by the P-gp and whether polymorphisms of its encoding ABCB1 gene predict central side effects of cabergoline therapy in patients with PRL adenomas. i) In an experimental mouse model lacking the homologues of the human ABCB1 gene (Abcb1ab double knockout mouse model), we examined whether cabergoline is a substrate of the P-gp using eight mutant and eight wild-type mice. ii) In a human case-control study including 79 patients with PRL adenomas treated with cabergoline at the Max Planck Institute of Psychiatry in Munich, we investigated the association of four selected ABCB1 gene single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) (rs1045642, rs2032582, rs2032583 and rs2235015), with the occurrence of central side effects under cabergoline therapy. i) In the experimental mouse model, we observed that brain concentrations of cabergoline were tenfold higher in the mutant mice compared with their wild-type littermates, implying that cabergoline is indeed a substrate of the transporter P-gp at the blood-brain barrier level. ii) In the human study, we observed significant negative associations under cabergoline for the C-carriers and heterozygous CT individuals of SNP rs1045642 with two central side effects (frequency of fatigue and sleep disorders) and for the G-carriers of SNP rs2032582 with the enhancement of dizziness. For the SNPs rs2235015 and rs2032583, no associations with central side effects under cabergoline were found. This is the first study demonstrating that individual ABCB1 gene polymorphisms, reflecting a different expression and function of the P-gp, could predict the

  12. Ferrous sulfate supplementation causes significant gastrointestinal side-effects in adults: a systematic review and meta-analysis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zoe Tolkien

    Full Text Available The tolerability of oral iron supplementation for the treatment of iron deficiency anemia is disputed.Our aim was to quantify the odds of GI side-effects in adults related to current gold standard oral iron therapy, namely ferrous sulfate.Systematic review and meta-analysis of randomized controlled trials (RCTs evaluating GI side-effects that included ferrous sulfate and a comparator that was either placebo or intravenous (i.v. iron. Random effects meta-analysis modelling was undertaken and study heterogeneity was summarised using I2 statistics.Forty three trials comprising 6831 adult participants were included. Twenty trials (n = 3168 had a placebo arm and twenty three trials (n = 3663 had an active comparator arm of i.v. iron. Ferrous sulfate supplementation significantly increased risk of GI side-effects versus placebo with an odds ratio (OR of 2.32 [95% CI 1.74-3.08, p<0.0001, I2 = 53.6%] and versus i.v. iron with an OR of 3.05 [95% CI 2.07-4.48, p<0.0001, I2 = 41.6%]. Subgroup analysis in IBD patients showed a similar effect versus i.v. iron (OR = 3.14, 95% CI 1.34-7.36, p = 0.008, I2 = 0%. Likewise, subgroup analysis of pooled data from 7 RCTs in pregnant women (n = 1028 showed a statistically significant increased risk of GI side-effects for ferrous sulfate although there was marked heterogeneity in the data (OR = 3.33, 95% CI 1.19-9.28, p = 0.02, I2 = 66.1%. Meta-regression did not provide significant evidence of an association between the study OR and the iron dose.Our meta-analysis confirms that ferrous sulfate is associated with a significant increase in gastrointestinal-specific side-effects but does not find a relationship with dose.

  13. Ferrous sulfate supplementation causes significant gastrointestinal side-effects in adults: a systematic review and meta-analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tolkien, Zoe; Stecher, Lynne; Mander, Adrian P; Pereira, Dora I A; Powell, Jonathan J

    2015-01-01

    The tolerability of oral iron supplementation for the treatment of iron deficiency anemia is disputed. Our aim was to quantify the odds of GI side-effects in adults related to current gold standard oral iron therapy, namely ferrous sulfate. Systematic review and meta-analysis of randomized controlled trials (RCTs) evaluating GI side-effects that included ferrous sulfate and a comparator that was either placebo or intravenous (i.v.) iron. Random effects meta-analysis modelling was undertaken and study heterogeneity was summarised using I2 statistics. Forty three trials comprising 6831 adult participants were included. Twenty trials (n = 3168) had a placebo arm and twenty three trials (n = 3663) had an active comparator arm of i.v. iron. Ferrous sulfate supplementation significantly increased risk of GI side-effects versus placebo with an odds ratio (OR) of 2.32 [95% CI 1.74-3.08, p<0.0001, I2 = 53.6%] and versus i.v. iron with an OR of 3.05 [95% CI 2.07-4.48, p<0.0001, I2 = 41.6%]. Subgroup analysis in IBD patients showed a similar effect versus i.v. iron (OR = 3.14, 95% CI 1.34-7.36, p = 0.008, I2 = 0%). Likewise, subgroup analysis of pooled data from 7 RCTs in pregnant women (n = 1028) showed a statistically significant increased risk of GI side-effects for ferrous sulfate although there was marked heterogeneity in the data (OR = 3.33, 95% CI 1.19-9.28, p = 0.02, I2 = 66.1%). Meta-regression did not provide significant evidence of an association between the study OR and the iron dose. Our meta-analysis confirms that ferrous sulfate is associated with a significant increase in gastrointestinal-specific side-effects but does not find a relationship with dose.

  14. "Every method seems to have its problems"- Perspectives on side effects of hormonal contraceptives in Morogoro Region, Tanzania.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chebet, Joy J; McMahon, Shannon A; Greenspan, Jesse A; Mosha, Idda H; Callaghan-Koru, Jennifer A; Killewo, Japhet; Baqui, Abdullah H; Winch, Peter J

    2015-11-03

    Family planning has been shown to be an effective intervention for promoting maternal, newborn and child health. Despite family planning's multiple benefits, women's experiences of - or concerns related to - side effects present a formidable barrier to the sustained use of contraceptives, particularly in the postpartum period. This paper presents perspectives of postpartum, rural, Tanzanian women, their partners, public opinion leaders and community and health facility providers related to side effects associated with contraceptive use. Qualitative interviews were conducted with postpartum women (n = 34), their partners (n = 23), community leaders (n = 12) and health providers based in both facilities (n = 12) and communities (n = 19) across Morogoro Region, Tanzania. Following data collection, digitally recorded data were transcribed, translated and coded using thematic analysis. Respondents described family planning positively due to the health and economic benefits associated with limiting and spacing births. However, side effects were consistently cited as a reason that women and their partners choose to forgo family planning altogether, discontinue methods, switch methods or use methods in an intermittent (and ineffective) manner. Respondents detailed side effects including excessive menstrual bleeding, missed menses, weight gain and fatigue. Women, their partners and community leaders also described concerns that contraceptives could induce sterility in women, or harm breastfeeding children via contamination of breast milk. Use of family planning during the postpartum period was viewed as particularly detrimental to a newborn's health in the first months of life. To meet Tanzania's national target of increasing contraceptive use from 34 to 60 % by 2015, appropriate counseling and dialogue on contraceptive side effects that speaks to pressing concerns outlined by women, their partners, communities and service providers are needed.

  15. Benefits and side effects of bandage soft contact lens application after LASIK: a prospective randomized study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sekundo, Walter; Dick, H Burkhard; Meyer, Carsten H

    2005-12-01

    To evaluate benefits and side effects of bandage soft contact lens (BSCL) insertion after LASIK in relation to patients' characteristics. Prospective, randomized, bicenter comparative investigational trial. One hundred patients (200 eyes) with myopia and/or myopic astigmatism. Each patient underwent consecutive (Marburg, Germany) or simultaneous (Mainz, Germany) bilateral LASIK. At the end of the procedure, the first treated eye received a drop of ofloxacin and dexamethasone, patch, and transparent protective shield for 2 to 4 hours. The fellow eye received in addition a BSCL, soaked in the same eyedrops for 20 to 24 hours. Schirmer II test results, first-day uncorrected visual acuity (UCVA), and tolerance of contact lens wear (poor, moderate, good) were recorded. Patients' subjective preference for the BSCL on the first postoperative day was graded as more comfortable than fellow eye, no difference, or less comfortable. Three months after surgery, the corneal flap was photographed in retroillumination for objective evaluation of microstriae. Statistical significance was determined using the Kruskal-Wallis 1-way analysis of variance on ranks test. Fifty-four percent of patients felt discomfort in the eye that had the BSCL (contra-BSCL subgroup), whereas 27% enjoyed having a BSCL (pro-BSCL subgroup). The remaining 19% felt no difference. The average Schirmer II value was 16.6 mm (+/-7.7) in the pro-BSCL subgroup, 14.9 mm (+/-6.4) in the no difference subgroup, and 12.3 mm (+/-7.7) in the contra-BSCL subgroup. There was a female preponderance in the contra-BSCL (39:15) and no difference (15:6) subgroups. A preoperative history of poor contact lens tolerance was recorded in 50% of the contra-BSCL subgroup patients; 41%, no difference; and 33%, pro-BSCL. Postoperative parameters such as first-day UCVA, number of eyes with microstriae, folds requiring stretching, or cases of diffuse lamellar keratitis did not differ significantly. Eyes with flap microstriae had a

  16. [Annual monitoring of side effects of administering sitagliptin in patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andel, Michal; Skrha, Pavel; Kraml, Pavel; Potockova, Jana; Hoffmanova, Iva; Silhova, Elena; Fontana, Josef; Richterova, Anna; Gadiredi, Martin; Busek, Petr; Sromova, Lucie; Šedo, Aleksi

    the sitagliptin and control group. Marginally significant decrease was observed in the intervened group. sitagliptin - type 2 diabetes mellitus - side effects.

  17. Pituitary insufficiency as a side effect after radiosurgery for pituitary adenomas: the role of the hypothalamus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feigl, Guenther Christian; Pistracher, Karin; Berghold, Andrea; Mokry, Michael

    2010-12-01

    Causes of pituitary insufficiencies as a side effect of Gamma Knife surgery (GKS) following irradiation of the hypothalamopituitary axis are still under debate. In an investigation of pituitary insufficiencies after GKS, the authors' main focus is on what role can be attributed to the hypothalamus with regard to endocrinological changes in hypothalamopituitary function following GKS. A total of 108 patients consecutively treated between April 1992 and July 2003 were included in this retrospective study. All patients had undergone either transsphenoidal or transcranial surgery prior to GKS. The spot dosimetry method was used to determine doses delivered to structures of the hypothalamopituitary axis. For statistical analyses, endocrine insufficiency and deterioration in pituitary function were defined as a decrease in hormonal blood levels below the normal range for 1 or more anterior pituitary lobe hormones. Additionally, an analysis of the rate of patients requiring hormone replacement therapy after GKS due to new endocrinopathies was performed. Complete patient records of 61 male and 47 female patients with a mean age of 51.9 years (range 9.1–81.2 years) were available for our investigation. The overall tumor control rate was 97% and the endocrinological cure rate was 61.2%. Mean treatment doses in patients with and without new endocrine insufficiencies (shown as with/without insufficiencies and followed by probability values) were as follows: 1.3/0.8 Gy to the hypothalamus(p = 0.2); 2.2/1.6 Gy to the median eminence (p = 0.1); 6.5/4.1 Gy to the pituitary stalk (p = 0.004); and 12.4/9.5Gy to the pituitary gland (p = 0.05). The median overall duration of follow-up after GKS was 6.7 years, with 84 patients(77.7%) whose follow-up was longer than 12 months. The median follow-up time after GKS in patients who developed a new pituitary dysfunction was 79.5 months (6.6 years, SD 3.8 years), and the median follow-up time inpatients with no new insufficiencies was 78

  18. Treatment response in psychotic patients classified according to social and clinical needs, drug side effects, and previous treatment; a method to identify functional remission

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Alenius, Malin; Hammarlund-Udenaes, Margareta; Honoré, Per Gustaf Hartvig

    2009-01-01

    history (PT), was used to group the patients according to treatment response. CANSEPT was evaluated by comparison of expected and observed results. RESULTS: In the patient population (n = 123), the patients in functional remission, as defined by CANSEPT, had higher quality of life, fewer hospitalizations......BACKGROUND: Various approaches have been made over the years to classify psychotic patients according to inadequate treatment response, using terms such as treatment resistant or treatment refractory. Existing classifications have been criticized for overestimating positive symptoms......, cross-sectional study was performed using patient interviews and information from patient files. The new classification method CANSEPT, which combines the Camberwell Assessment of Need rating scale, the Udvalg for Kliniske Undersøgelser side effect rating scale (SE), and the patient's previous treatment...

  19. Travoprost with sofZia® preservative system lowered intraocular pressure of Japanese normal tension glaucoma with minimal side effects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mizoue S

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available Shiro Mizoue,1 Tadashi Nakano,2 Nobuo Fuse,3 Aiko Iwase,4 Shun Matsumoto,5 Keiji Yoshikawa6 On behalf of the IOP CHANGE Study Group7 1Department of Ophthalmology, Ehime University Graduate School of Medicine, Ehime, Japan; 2Department of Ophthalmology, Jikei University School of Medicine, Tokyo, Japan; 3Department of Integrative Genomics, Tohoku Medical Megabank Organization, Miyagi, Japan; 4Tajimi Iwase Eye Clinic, Gifu, Japan; 5Department of Ophthalmology, Tokyo Teishin Hospital, 6Yoshikawa Eye Clinic, Tokyo, Japan; 7IOP CHecked and Assessed in Normal tension Glaucoma by Exceptional Glaucomatologists Study Group, Japan Background: This study aimed to evaluate the effect of travoprost with sofZia® preservative system for lowering the intraocular pressure (IOP of Japanese normal tension glaucoma (NTG patients. Methods: In this prospective, multicenter, open-label study, Japanese NTG patients with baseline IOPs <20 mmHg were enrolled after three consecutive time measurements taken at screening and baseline visits. Travoprost with sofZia® was instilled once daily. Lowering effect on IOP, conjunctival hyperemia, superficial punctate keratopathy, and adverse events were examined at week 4, 8, and 12 after drug instillation. Results: One-hundred and three of the 107 enrolled patients (baseline IOP =15.2±2.0 mmHg [mean ± standard deviation] completed the study. The mean IOP value as well as percent reduction was significantly reduced at each visit after travoprost with sofZia® initiation (P<0.0001. The conjunctival hyperemia score was 1 or less throughout the study, though it increased significantly over time. No significant change was observed in superficial punctate keratopathy. The cumulative incidence of side effects such as eyelash changes, eyelid pigmentation, and deepening of the upper lid was 47.6%, 27.2%, and 16.5%, respectively. Conclusion: Travoprost preserved with sofZia® effectively lowered the IOP of Japanese NTG patients. It was

  20. Steroid-associated side effects in patients with multiple myeloma: consensus statement of the IMF Nurse Leadership Board.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Faiman, Beth; Bilotti, Elizabeth; Mangan, Patricia A; Rogers, Kathryn

    2008-06-01

    Steroids have been the foundation of multiple myeloma therapy for more than 30 years and continue to be prescribed as single agents and in combination with other antimyeloma drugs, including novel therapies. Steroids cause a wide range of side effects that affect almost every system of the body. Identification and prompt management of the toxicities contribute to the success of steroid-containing antimyeloma regimens. By following patients carefully and educating them and their caregivers, nurses can promote adherence to therapy and improve quality of life. The International Myeloma Foundation's Nurse Leadership Board developed this consensus statement for the management of steroid-associated side effects to be used by healthcare providers in any medical setting.

  1. Conventional and conformal technique of external beam radiotherapy in locally advanced cervical cancer: Dose distribution, tumor response, and side effects

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mutrikah, N.; Winarno, H.; Amalia, T.; Djakaria, M.

    2017-08-01

    The objective of this study was to compare conventional and conformal techniques of external beam radiotherapy (EBRT) in terms of the dose distribution, tumor response, and side effects in the treatment of locally advanced cervical cancer patients. A retrospective cohort study was conducted on cervical cancer patients who underwent EBRT before brachytherapy in the Radiotherapy Department of Cipto Mangunkusumo Hospital. The prescribed dose distribution, tumor response, and acute side effects of EBRT using conventional and conformal techniques were investigated. In total, 51 patients who underwent EBRT using conventional techniques (25 cases using Cobalt-60 and 26 cases using a linear accelerator (LINAC)) and 29 patients who underwent EBRT using conformal techniques were included in the study. The distribution of the prescribed dose in the target had an impact on the patient’s final response to EBRT. The complete response rate of patients to conformal techniques was significantly greater (58%) than that of patients to conventional techniques (42%). No severe acute local side effects were seen in any of the patients (Radiation Therapy Oncology Group (RTOG) grades 3-4). The distribution of the dose and volume to the gastrointestinal tract affected the proportion of mild acute side effects (RTOG grades 1-2). The urinary bladder was significantly greater using conventional techniques (Cobalt-60/LINAC) than using conformal techniques at 72% and 78% compared to 28% and 22%, respectively. The use of conformal techniques in pelvic radiation therapy is suggested in radiotherapy centers with CT simulators and 3D Radiotherapy Treatment Planning Systems (RTPSs) to decrease some uncertainties in radiotherapy planning. The use of AP/PA pelvic radiation techniques with Cobalt-60 should be limited in body thicknesses equal to or less than 18 cm. When using conformal techniques, delineation should be applied in the small bowel, as it is considered a critical organ according to RTOG

  2. Identifying p53 Transactivation Domain 1-Specific Inhibitors to Alleviate the Side Effects of Prostate Cancer Therapy

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-12-01

    screens to identify specific inhibitor of p53 TAD1 that may be administered as adjuvants of chemotherapy and radiotherapy in the context of prostate...inhibitors that can be used as radiotherapy and chemotherapy adjuvants to reduce these side effects. It would be ideal to identify p53 inhibitors that...compounds with a history of use in human clinical trials. The Enzo Life Sciences ICCB Known Bioactives (296 unique compounds) and FDA v2.0 (175 unique

  3. Plasmapheresis reverses all side-effects of a cisplatin overdose – a case report and treatment recommendation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ploner Ferdinand

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Cisplatin is widely used as an antineoplastic agent since it is effective against a broad spectrum of different tumours. Nevertheless, it has several potential side effects affecting different organ systems and an overdose may lead to life-threatening complications and even death. Case presentation We report on a 46-year old woman with non-small cell lung cancer who accidentally received 225 mg/m2 of cisplatin, which was threefold the dose as scheduled, within a 3-day period. Two days later, the patient presented with hearing loss, severe nausea and vomiting, acute renal failure as well as elevated liver enzymes. In addition, she developed a severe myelodepression. After plasmapheresis on two consecutive days and vigorous supportive treatment, the toxicity-related symptoms improved and the patient recovered without any sequelae. Conclusion To date, no general accepted guidelines for the treatment of cisplatin overdoses are available. Along with the experience from other published cases, our report shows that plasmapheresis is capable of lowering cisplatin plasma and serum levels efficiently. Therefore, plasma exchange performed as soon as possible can ameliorate all side effects of a cisplatin overdose and be a potential tool for clinicians for treatment. However, additional intensive supportive treatment-modalities are necessary to control all occurring side effects.

  4. Commercial Online Social Network Data and Statin Side-Effect Surveillance: A Pilot Observational Study of Aggregate Mentions on Facebook.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huesch, Marco D

    2017-12-01

    Surveillance of the safety of prescribed drugs after marketing approval has been secured remains fraught with complications. Formal ascertainment by providers and reporting to adverse-event registries, formal surveys by manufacturers, and mining of electronic medical records are all well-known approaches with varying degrees of difficulty, cost, and success. Novel approaches may be a useful adjunct, especially approaches that mine or sample internet-based methods such as online social networks. A novel commercial software-as-a-service data-mining product supplied by Sysomos from Datasift/Facebook was used to mine all mentions on Facebook of statins and stain-related side effects in the US in the 1-month period 9 January 2017 through 8 February 2017. A total of 4.3% of all 25,700 mentions of statins also mentioned typical stain-related side effects. Multiple methodological weaknesses stymie interpretation of this percentage, which is however not inconsistent with estimates that 5-20% of patients taking statins will experience typical side effects at some time. Future work on pharmacovigilance may be informed by this novel commercial tool, but the inability to mine the full text of a posting poses serious challenges to content categorization.

  5. SREBP activation by antipsychotic- and antidepressant-drugs in cultured human liver cells: relevance for metabolic side-effects?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raeder, Maria B; Fernø, Johan; Vik-Mo, Audun O; Steen, Vidar M

    2006-09-01

    Drug-induced weight gain is a major problem in the treatment of psychiatric disorders, especially with some antipsychotic- and antidepressant drugs. We have recently demonstrated that antipsychotic- and antidepressant drugs activate the SREBP (sterol regulatory element-binding proteins) transcription factors in human- and rat glial cells, with subsequent up-regulation of downstream genes involved in cholesterol- and fatty acid biosynthesis. Since stimulation of cellular lipogenesis in the liver could be of relevance for the metabolic side effects of these drugs, we have now investigated the effects of antidepressants, antipsychotic- and mood-stabilizing drugs on cell cultures of human liver cells. For several of the drugs being strongly associated with weight gain (clozapine, imipramine, and amitriptyline), we observed a very pronounced activation of SREBP. Ziprasidone and buproprion, however, which are not associated with weight gain, did hardly stimulate the SREBP system. For haloperidol, olanzapine and mirtazapine, the correspondence between metabolic side effects and SREBP stimulation in liver cells was less obvious. The mood-stabilizers did not increase SREBP activation. The results indicate a relationship between drug-induced activation of SREBP in cultured human liver cells and weight gain side-effects of antidepressant and antipsychotic drugs.

  6. Treatment of febrile seizures: the influence of treatment efficacy and side-effect profile on value to parents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gordon, K E; Dooley, J M; Camfield, P R; Camfield, C S; MacSween, J

    2001-11-01

    We examined parents' perception of the value of treatments designed to reduce the risk of febrile seizure recurrence. The families of 42 children with febrile seizures were recruited after pediatric or neuropediatric consultation. A mail questionnaire addressed the family's willingness to pay for a hypothetical treatment for febrile seizures with risk reductions for future febrile seizures of 25%, 50%, 75%, and 100%. The hypothetical clinical scenario was then modified to include the side- effect profiles of either daily phenobarbital or valproic acid, or intermittent diazepam prophylaxis. Covariates included the nature of the child's febrile seizure(s), parents' familiarity with febrile seizures, experiences at the time of febrile seizures or with medication side effects, education and income, and mastery and trait anxiety. Thirty-eight parents, representing 22 of 42 families, completed questionnaires. There was a dramatic inflection in parents' willingness to pay for 100% risk reduction as opposed to 75% or lower risk reductions. Introduction of side effects dramatically reduced the value attached to each level of treatment benefit. Nevertheless, a few parents (3/38) would pay "as much as it takes" to be rid of their child's recurrence risk. Given the range of value assigned to prophylactic medication for febrile seizures, management strategies for children with febrile seizures must be responsive to the needs and values of individual families.

  7. Practice Patterns Compared with Evidence-based Strategies for the Management of Androgen Deprivation Therapy-Induced Side Effects in Prostate Cancer Patients: Results of a European Web-based Survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bultijnck, Renée; Surcel, Cristian; Ploussard, Guillaume; Briganti, Alberto; De Visschere, Pieter; Fütterer, Jurgen; Ghadjar, Pirus; Giannarini, Gianluca; Isbarn, Hendrik; Massard, Christophe; Sooriakumaran, Prasanna; Valerio, Massimo; van den Bergh, Roderick; Ost, Piet

    2016-12-01

    Evidence-based recommendations are available for the management of androgen deprivation therapy (ADT)-induced side effects; however, there are no data on the implementation of the recommendations into daily practice patterns. To compare practice patterns in the management of ADT-induced side effects with evidence-based strategies. A European Web-based survey was conducted from January 16, 2015, to June 24, 2015. The 25-item questionnaire was designed with the aid of expert opinion and covered general respondent information, ADT preference per disease stage, patient communication on ADT-induced side effects, and strategies to mitigate side effects. All questions referred to patients with long-term ADT use. Reported practice patterns were compared with available evidence-based strategies. Following data collection, descriptive statistics were used for analysis. Frequency distributions were compiled and compared using a generalised chi-square test. In total, 489 eligible respondents completed the survey. Luteinising hormone-releasing hormone-agonist with or without an antiandrogen was the preferred method of ADT in different settings. Patients were well informed about loss of libido (90%), hot flushes (85%), fatigue (67%), and osteoporosis (63%). An osteoporotic and metabolic risk assessment prior to commencing ADT was done by one-quarter of physicians. The majority (85%) took preventive measures and applied at least one evidence-based strategy. Exercise was recommended by three-quarters of physicians who advocate its positive effects; however, only 25% of physicians had access to exercise programmes. Although the minimum sample size was set at 400 participants, the current survey remains susceptible to volunteer and nonresponder bias. Patients were well informed about several ADT-induced complications but uncommonly underwent an osteoporotic and metabolic risk assessment. Nevertheless, physicians partially provided evidence-based strategies for the management of the

  8. Selective estrogen receptor alpha agonist GTx-758 decreases testosterone with reduced side effects of androgen deprivation therapy in men with advanced prostate cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Evan Y; Getzenberg, Robert H; Coss, Christopher C; Gittelman, Marc M; Keane, Thomas; Tutrone, Ronald; Belkoff, Laurence; Given, Robert; Bass, Joel; Chu, Franklin; Gambla, Michael; Gaylis, Franklin; Bailen, James; Hancock, Michael L; Smith, Jordan; Dalton, James T; Steiner, Mitchell S

    2015-02-01

    A need remains for new therapeutic approaches for men with advanced prostate cancer, particularly earlier in the disease course. To assess the ability of an oral selective estrogen receptor α agonist (GTx-758) to lower testosterone concentrations compared with leuprolide while minimizing estrogen deficiency-related side effects of androgen-deprivation therapy. Hormone-naive advanced prostate cancer patients were randomized to oral GTx-758 1000 mg/d, 2000 mg/d, or leuprolide depot. GTx-758 and leuprolide. The primary end point was the proportion of patients achieving total testosterone ≤ 50 ng/dl by day 60. Secondary end points included serum free testosterone, prostate-specific antigen (PSA), sex hormone-binding globulin, hot flashes, bone turnover markers, and insulin-like growth factor (IGF)-1 levels. Of 159 randomized patients, leuprolide reduced total testosterone to ≤ 50 ng/dl in a greater proportion of patients than GTx-758 by day 60 (43.4%, 63.6%, and 88.2% of subjects receiving GTx-758 1000 mg [pfree testosterone and PSA earlier and to a greater degree than leuprolide. GTx-758 led to fewer hot flashes, decreases in bone turnover markers, and alterations in IGF-1 compared with leuprolide. A higher incidence of venous thromboembolic events (VTEs) was seen with GTx-758 (4.1%) compared with leuprolide (0.0%). Although leuprolide reduced total testosterone to ≤ 50 ng/dl in a greater proportion of patients compared with GTx-758, GTx-758 was superior in lowering free testosterone and PSA. GTx-758 reduced estrogen deficiency side effects of hot flashes, bone loss, and insulin resistance but with a higher incidence of VTEs. This paper reports findings that leuprolide lowered total testosterone more than GTx-758 but that GTx-758 lowered free testosterone and prostate-specific antigen more than leuprolide. GTx-758 also reduced estrogen deficiency side effects, albeit at a higher rate of vascular events. Clinicaltrials.gov identifier NCT01615120. Copyright

  9. Emergency Contraception Pill Awareness and Knowledge in Uninsured Adolescents: High Rates of Misconceptions Concerning Indications for Use, Side Effects, and Access.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yen, Sophia; Parmar, Deepika D; Lin, Emily L; Ammerman, Seth

    2015-10-01

    To determine the awareness of, access to, and knowledge of the proper use of emergency contraception pills (ECPs) among uninsured adolescents. Anonymous surveys were used to assess awareness of, knowledge of, and access to ECPs. From 2010 to 2012 at mobile primary care clinic in the San Francisco Bay Area. Patients were uninsured adolescents aged 13 to 25; 40% of the participants were currently or had been homeless in the past year. Ethnicity was 50% Asian, 22% Hispanic, 17% Pacific Islanders, 5.5% white, and 5.5% other/mixed ethnicity. Post survey completion, patients received one-on-one 15-minute dedicated ECP education. Awareness of, knowledge of, and access to ECPs. Of the study population of 439, 30% of the participants were 13-16 years old and 70% were 17-25 years old (mean age 17.8 years); 66% were women. Young women (86%) reported higher rates of "hearing about emergency contraception" than did young men (70%) (P pill (40%) or could be used as regular birth control (40%) or to prevent sexually transmitted infections (19%). Only 40% of women and 43% of men aged 17 and older correctly answered that they could obtain EC over the counter; 72% did not know that males could receive EC for use by their partner; 12% incorrectly selected that infertility was a side effect; 44% were under the false impression that EC had to be taken within 1 day of unprotected sex. Uninsured adolescents have high rates of ECP awareness but low ECP knowledge. These adolescents need more ECP education to alleviate misconceptions and increase practical knowledge, specifically, education about male access, side effects, over-the-counter availability for young men and women, and the 120-hour window of use. Copyright © 2015 North American Society for Pediatric and Adolescent Gynecology. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  10. Gender differences in side effects and attitudes regarding statin use in the Understanding Statin Use in America and Gaps in Patient Education (USAGE) study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karalis, Dean G; Wild, Robert A; Maki, Kevin C; Gaskins, Ray; Jacobson, Terry A; Sponseller, Craig A; Cohen, Jerome D

    2016-01-01

    Statin therapy has been shown to reduce cardiovascular morbidity and mortality, and the benefits of statin therapy are similar for men and women. Recent studies have shown that women are less likely to be treated with statin therapy, to be on higher doses of more potent statins, and to achieve their lipid goals as compared with men. To analyze results from the Understanding Statin Use in America and Gaps in Patient Education (USAGE) survey and to assess whether women differ from men with regard to reported side effects associated with statin use, clinician and patient interactions, as well as general attitudes and preferences regarding statin use. The study population was derived from participants in the USAGE survey, a self-administered, Internet-based questionnaire. More women reported switching or stopping a statin because of side effects compared with men. New or worsening muscle symptoms were reported in 31% of women compared with 26% of men (P < .01). More women, including high-risk women reported that their doctor did not give them information about their risk for heart disease compared with men. Women were more likely to try 3 or more statins, but less likely to use alternative low-density lipoprotein cholesterol-lowering drugs. Women were more likely to be dissatisfied with their statin, with how their clinician explained their cholesterol treatment, and less adherent to their statin than men. Women are more likely to stop or switch their statin than men, and the main reason for this was new or worsening muscle symptoms. Improved communication between the clinician and the patient about the benefits and risks of statin therapy will improve adherence, lipid goal attainment, and outcomes in women with or at risk for cardiovascular disease. Copyright © 2016 National Lipid Association. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  11. Presence of the CYP2B6 516G> T polymorphism, increased plasma Efavirenz concentrations and early neuropsychiatric side effects in South African HIV-infected patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gounden Verena

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The 516G > T polymorphism in exon 4 of the CYP2B6 gene has been associated with increased plasma Efavirenz (EFV concentrations. EFV concentrations greater than the recommended therapeutic range have been associated with the increased likelihood of developing adverse CNS effects. The aims of this study were to a determine the presence of the 516G > T and other CYP2B6 exon 4 polymorphisms in a South African group of HIV-infected individuals b investigate the relationship between the EFV plasma concentrations, the CYP2B6 516G > T polymorphism and the occurrence of CNS related side effects in this group of patients and c develop and validate a rapid method for determination of EFV in plasma. Method Data from 80 patients is presented. Genetic polymorphisms in exon 4 of the CYP2B6 gene were identified using PCR amplification of this region followed by sequencing of the amplification products. EFV concentrations were analysed by UPLC-MS/MS. Assessment of the presence of CNS related side effects following EFV initiation were elicited with the use of a questionnaire together with physical examination. Results Plasma EFV concentrations displayed high inter-individual variability amongst subjects with concentrations ranging from 94 μg/l to 23227 μg/l at 2 weeks post initiation of treatment. For the 516G > T polymorphism the following frequencies were observed 23% of patients were TT homozygous, 36% GG and 41% GT. The TT homozygous patients had significantly higher EFV concentrations vs. those with the wild (GG genotype (p Conclusion The significant association between the 516G > T polymorphism and plasma EFV concentrations has been demonstrated in this study. A rapid and sensitive method for the measurement of plasma EFV concentration was developed and validated.

  12. Could yoga practice improve treatment-related side effects and quality of life for women with breast cancer? A systematic review and meta-analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pan, Yuanqing; Yang, Kehu; Wang, Yuliang; Zhang, Laiping; Liang, Haiqing

    2017-04-01

    To determine if yoga as a complementary and alternative therapy was associated with enhanced health and treatment-related side effects in patients with breast cancer. This systematic review examines whether yoga practice provides any measurable benefit, both physically and psychologically, for women with breast cancer. PubMed, EMBASE and the Cochrane Library for randomized controlled trials (RCTs) throughout June 2013. We evaluated the quality of the included studies by the Cochrane Handbook 5.2 standards and analyzed the data using the Stata software, version 10.0. Meta-regression and subgroup analysis were also performed to identify additional predictors of outcome and to assess heterogeneity. Sixteen RCTs with a total of 930 participants were included. Comparing yoga groups to control groups, there was a statistically significant difference in overall health-related quality of life, depression, anxiety and gastrointestinal symptoms. Meta-regression analyses revealed that the duration of yoga practice and type of control group partly explained the heterogeneity. Subgroup analyses revealed that yoga had a positive effect on anxiety only when it had been practiced for longer than 3 months. Only the wait-list control group showed an effect of yoga on physical well-being. The current evidence demonstrates that yoga practice could be effective in enhancing health and managing some treatment-related side effects for patients recovering from breast cancer. In future clinical studies, clinicians should consider the patient's wishes along with the current best evidence of the effects of yoga practice in their clinical decision-making. © 2015 Wiley Publishing Asia Pty Ltd.

  13. Melatonin decreases olanzapine induced metabolic side-effects in adolescents with bipolar disorder: a randomized double-blind placebo-controlled trial.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ali Mostafavi

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Olanzapine is the frequently prescribed drug in children and adolescents with bipolar disorder, but unfortunately it has metabolic side-effects. On the other hand, in a number of melatonin studies on sleep cycle, regulation of metabolic abnormalities has been reported. Therefore, we aimed to study effects of melatonin in reducing metabolic side-effects of olanzapine in 11-17 year-old patients with bipolar disorder. Seventy-seven 11-17 year-old outpatients entered into the study after their initial diagnosis of bipolar mood disorder by a psychiatrist. After assessing inclusion and exclusion criteria, 48 patients consented to participate in the study. Of this number, 24 patients were allocated to olanzapine, lithium carbonate, and melatonin and 24 patients were allocated to olanzapine, lithium carbonate, and placebo. Young mania rating scale was performed at baseline. Before treatment initiation and at sixth and twelfth weeks after treatment, Lipid profile, Fasting Blood Sugar (FBS, Systolic Blood Pressure (SBP and Diastolic Blood Pressure (DBP were measured. ANOVA with repeated measure and independent sample t-test were used for data analysis. Nineteen patients in each group completed the study and yielded data for analysis.  ANOVA with repeated measure showed that FBS and Triglyceride (TG (especially in boys demonstrated greater increase in the placebo group compared to the melatonin group but the differences were not statistically significant. Melatonin significantly inhibited the rise in Total Cholesterol levels compared to placebo (P=0.032. Mean SBP rose more slowly in the melatonin group (1.05mmHg compared to placebo (6.36 mmHg (P=0.023. The trends in DBP did not show any significant pattern. Administration of melatonin along with olanzapine and lithium carbonate could significantly inhibit the rise in cholesterol level and SBP compared to placebo. The effect of melatonin on TG was more obvious in boys. Melatonin was more effective in

  14. Predicting acute side effects of stimulant medication in pediatric attention deficit/hyperactivity disorder: data from quantitative electroencephalography, event-related potentials, and a continuous-performance test.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ogrim, Geir; Hestad, Knut A; Brunner, Jan Ferenc; Kropotov, Juri

    2013-01-01

    The aim of this study was to search for predictors of acute side effects of stimulant medication in pediatric attention deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD), emphasizing variables from quantitative electroencephalography (QEEG), event-related potentials (ERPs), and behavior data from a visual continuous-performance test (VCPT). Seventy medication-naïve ADHD patients aged 7-16 years were tested with QEEG, including a go/no-go task condition (VCPT) from which behavior data and ERPs were extracted, followed by a systematic trial on stimulant medication lasting at least 4 weeks. Based on data from rating scales and interviews, two psychologists who were blind to the QEEG/ERP test results independently rated the patients as having no or small side effects (n = 37) or troublesome side effects (n = 33). We determined if the side effects were related to sex, age, IQ, ADHD subtype, comorbidities, clinical outcome, and variables in QEEG, ERPs, and VCPT. There was a moderate negative correlation between clinical outcome and side effects. Three variables were significantly associated with side effects in a multivariate logistic regression analysis. In the ERP independent component - contingent negative variation - which reflected action preparation and time evaluation, patients with high amplitudes (close to normal values) experienced more side effects than patients with lower amplitudes. A faster-than-normal reaction time in VCPT was associated with side effects, as was a high amplitude in an early ERP component (early visual independent component), reported to be influenced by attention, perceptual sensitivity, and anxiety. The group with troublesome side effects had normal action-preparation electrical brain activity, a faster-than-normal reaction time, and an increased level of anxiety (measured by ERP) compared with the no side-effects group.

  15. Psychiatric side effects induced by supraphysiological doses of combinations of anabolic steroids correlate to the severity of abuse.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pagonis, Thomas A; Angelopoulos, Nikiforos V; Koukoulis, George N; Hadjichristodoulou, Christos S

    2006-12-01

    The objective of our study was to evaluate the psychological consequences of real-world AAS use in athletes abusing such agents, in comparison with a placebo and control group of comparable athletes, while correlating the severity of abuse with the side effects observed. The hypothesis tested by the study was that the use of AAS induces a wide range of psychological side effects whose impact and emergence is dependent upon the severity of the abuse. The study includes a substantial group of AAS abusing athletes and two more groups demographically similar to the first, one composed of athletes not using any substance and a placebo group. All athletes were stratified according to the severity of AAS abuse. Psychometric instruments were applied to all athletes in specific time intervals, dependent to the AAS abusers' regimens, providing us with a final psychological profile that was to be compared to the pre-study profile. All results were comparable (within and between groups) for statistically significant differences and correlated to the severity of the abuse. Homogeneity of all groups was safeguarded by random doping controls, monitoring of drug levels and analysis of all self obtained drugs by method of liquid chromatography/mass spectrometry. All athletes were provided with a common exercise and dietary regime, so common training and nutritional conditions were achieved. We studied a cohort of 320 body-building, amateur and recreational athletes, of whom 160 were active users of AAS (group C), 80 users administering placebo drugs (group B) and 80 not abusing any substance (Group A). Group C athletes were stratified according to AAS abuse parameters, thus providing us with three subgroups of "light, medium and heavy abuse". Athletes of groups A and B were included in a "no abuse" subgroup. The psychometric instruments used were the Symptoms Check List-90 (SCL-90) and the Hostility and Direction of Hostility Questionnaire (HDHQ). The psychometric evaluations took

  16. RITED (Registro Italiano Test Eco-Dobutamina): side effects and complications of echo-dobutamine stress test in 3041 examinations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pezzano, A; Gentile, F; Mantero, A; Morabito, A; Ravizza, P

    1998-02-01

    The aim of the study was to report the incidence and clinical meaning of side-effects caused by echo-dobutamine testing in a large population and to evaluate any possible correlation between dobutamine dose and side-effects. The study population consisted of 3041 patients enrolled from January 1994 to August 1995 at 63 centers participating in the Italian Register of Echo-Dobutamine Testing (Registro Italiano Test Eco-Dobutamina, RITED). The four major indications were myocardial infarction older than one month (40.4%), recent myocardial infarction (22.7%), coronary artery disease without a history of myocardial infarction (10.8%) and suspected coronary artery disease (19.3%). Dobutamine was administered in a peripheral vein at 5, 10, 20, 30, 40 micrograms/kg/minute + atropine 1 mg in four divided doses of 0.25 mg/minute. Severe complications were asystole, which went as high as 6" in one patient, and ventricular fibrillation in two patients. The clinical side-effects were headache (2.5%), hypotension (2.2%), nausea (1.7%), bradycardia (1.4%), palpitations (0.5%), tremors (0.3%), dyspnea (0.2%), paresthesia (0.2%) and hypertension (0.2%). Atrial arrhythmia was recorded in 10.6% of patients, while ventricular arrhythmia was recorded in 26.5%. The percentage of supraventricular and ventricular repetitive arrhythmia did not increase with dosage. The cumulative incidence of supraventricular and ventricular repetitive arrhythmia, considered as an interruption criteria, was 6.6% and 5.9%, respectively. Echo-dobutamine stress test seems to be a very safe and reliable test for unmasking myocardial ischemia or viability in known or suspected coronary artery disease. It has been shown to be widely applicable in clinical practice for outpatients as well, as long as a protected environment is available.

  17. The efficacy and side effects of oral Centella asiatica extract for wound healing promotion in diabetic wound patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paocharoen, Veeraya

    2010-12-01

    To study clinical efficacy and side effects of the oral Centella asiatica extract capsule in the diabetic wound healing. And to study the side effects of Centella asiatica extract capsule. This prospective randomized control study enrolled two hundred diabetic patients in the department of Surgery, Thammasat University Hospital. The exclusion criterion were low immune patients, oral steroid intake, age more than 80 year and less than 18 yeas, serum albumin less than 3.0 gm/dl, uncorrected peripheral arterial diseased patients, and uncontrolled infective wound. The termination criterion were patient refusal, wound infection, delayed primary sutured wound secondary healing wound. The patients were divided into two groups randomly, groupA was Centella asiatica extract capsule group and group B was placebo group. Centella asiatica extract capsule and placebo were prescribed in each group under the random sheet. The administration was 2 capsules after meal, three times a day (50 mg of extracted asiaticoside / capsule in group A). The general symptoms, wound characteristics, wound size and depth were examined at day 7, day 14 and day 21 by the same investigator. The demographic data of the sample were analyzed by student t test and comparative wound characteristics were analyzed by Pearson Chi-Square test. Wound contraction in the study group is better than placebo group but granulation tissue forming is better in the placebo group. No serious adverse reaction in both groups. Centella asiatica extract capsule is the Thai herb preparation capsule that effective in the wound healing promotion and also suppress the scar in diabetic wound patients. There was no demonstrable serious side effect of the Centella asiatica extract capsule group. Centella asiatica extract capsule can shorten the course of diabetic wound and can be prescribed to the diabetic patients safely.

  18. More Dose-dependent Side Effects with Mercaptopurine over Azathioprine in IBD Treatment Due to Relatively Higher Dosing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Broekman, Mark M T J; Coenen, Marieke J H; van Marrewijk, Corine J; Wanten, Geert J A; Wong, Dennis R; Verbeek, Andre L M; Klungel, Olaf H; Hooymans, Piet M; Guchelaar, Henk-Jan; Scheffer, Hans; Derijks, Luc J J; de Jong, Dirk J

    2017-10-01

    There are substantial global differences in the preference for mercaptopurine (MP) or its prodrug azathioprine (AZA) as first-choice thiopurine to treat inflammatory bowel diseases. Studies comparing both agents are scarce. Our aim was to compare AZA and MP in thiopurine-naive patients with inflammatory bowel disease for the frequency of side effects and efficacy. Post hoc analysis of the "Thiopurine response Optimization by Pharmacogenetic testing in Inflammatory bowel disease Clinics" (TOPIC) trial, in which thiopurine-naive patients with inflammatory bowel disease with an indication for a thiopurine were randomized for a genotype-based dose versus standard of care. For this study, Cox proportional hazard ratios (HRs) were calculated to compare AZA and MP for discontinuation rates within 5 months, incidence of hepatotoxicity, leukopenia, and gastrointestinal side effects. Treatment efficacy was compared by logistic regression. Patient characteristics were similar for patients treated with AZA (n = 494, 64.4%) and MP (n = 273, 35.6%), yet patients with MP were relatively higher dosed compared with those on AZA. Discontinuation rates within 5 months were not different, 39.3% (AZA) and 38.1% (MP), HR 0.92 (95% confidence interval, 0.72-1.17; P = 0.50); however, patients on MP were more often subjected to dose reductions (30% versus 14%, P < 0.01). Higher rates of hepatotoxicity, HR 1.93 (95% confidence interval, 1.35-2.76; P < 0.01) and leukopenia, HR 2.55 (95% confidence interval, 1.51-4.30; P < 0.01) were observed with MP, which annulled in a secondary analysis with adjustment for the higher dose and metabolite levels. Patients treated with MP were relatively higher dosed, which resulted in more dose-dependent side effects and a higher rate of dose reductions.

  19. Influence of body mass index and type of low-level exercise on the side effect profile of regadenoson

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Salgado-Garcia, Carlos; Jimenez-Heffernan, Amelia; Lopez-Martin, Juana; Molina-Mora, Manuela; Aroui, Tarik; Sanchez de Mora, Elena; Ramos-Font, Carlos [Hospital Juan Ramon Jimenez, Complejo Hospitalario Universitario de Huelva, Department of Nuclear Medicine, Huelva (Spain); Rivera de los Santos, Francisco [University of Seville, Area of Methodology of Behavioural Sciences, Seville (Spain); Ruiz-Frutos, Carlos [University of Huelva, Department of Environmental and Public Health, Huelva (Spain)

    2017-10-15

    Regadenoson, an A{sub 2A} adenosine receptor pharmacologic stress agent for radionuclide myocardial perfusion imaging (MPI), is administered as a single, fixed dose. We studied the side effect profile of regadenoson combined with two types of low-level exercise, according to body mass index (BMI). Three hundred and fifty-six patients (46.1% men, mean age 67.7±10.7 years, range 31-90 years) underwent regadenoson stress testing combined with low-level exercise. Subjects were classified according to BMI as normal, overweight, or obese, and the type of low-level exercise performed as walking on the treadmill (TE group, n=190) or forcefully swinging legs while sitting (SS group, n=166). Patients' demographics, medical history, clinical symptoms during stress, changes in ECG, oxygen saturation (SatO{sub 2}), systolic blood pressure (SBP), and heart rate (HR) were evaluated. Groups were comparable (p=ns) with regard to cardiovascular risks factors. The incidence of side effects was similar across BMI (p=ns), although the TE patients showed improved profiles over those with SS exercise, with a significantly lower incidence of flushing, dizziness and nausea/gastrointestinal discomfort (12.9% vs. 28.4%; 19.9% vs. 33.4%; 11.4% vs. 19.2%, respectively; all p<0.05). Regarding the hemodynamic response, we did not observe significant changes in SBP and HR after regadenoson administration across BMI categories. Comparing the TE and SS groups, no significant changes were observed in SBP, but there was a higher increase in HR in the TE group (p<0.05). Regadenoson in combination with low-level exercise is safe and well tolerated over a wide range of BMI, with TE exercise showing a better side effect profile than SS. (orig.)

  20. Analysis of optical side-effects of fs-laser therapy in human presbyopic lens simulated with modified contact lenses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peter, Monika; Kammel, Robert; Ackermann, Roland; Schramm, Stefan; Seifert, Bernd-Ulrich; Frey, Katharina; Blum, Marcus; Nolte, Stefan; Kunert, Kathleen S

    2012-12-01

    In a single-blinded study, optical side-effects of a potential femtosecond (fs)-laser therapy in presbyopic human lenses were tested. Simulation of this therapy was carried out by applying fs-laser patterns into standard contact lenses (CL). In the first part of the study, the influence of the numerical aperture on optical side-effects was investigated by comparing a typical fs-LASIK configuration to a fs-presbyopia treatment (n = 11). The second part focused on a possible improvement of visual performance by comparing a regular grid pattern to a randomly chosen spacing of the laser spots (n = 16). Visual acuity was measured with ETDRS charts, contrast sensitivity with F.A.C.T. charts and mesopic vision with Mesotest II. Forward scattered light was measured with the C-Quant (both instruments: Oculus Optikgeräte GmbH, Germany). A questionnaire detected subjective quality of vision. Differences between laser-treated and untreated CL and among the modifications were analyzed. The laser-treated and standard CL indicated no significant difference in visual acuity, contrast sensitivity and mesopic vision without glare. While wearing modified lenses with a regular grid, quality of vision decreased significantly by means of mesopic vision with glare and subjective straylight. These modifications also caused an impairment of subjective quality of vision. In contrast, there was no significant difference between the random pattern and standard CL. The increase of optical side-effects was reproducibly dependent on the geometry of the laser-structure. A randomized grid induced the least limitation. The study results are useful for planning possible laser-patterns in fs-laser therapy of the presbyopic lens.

  1. Influence of body mass index and type of low-level exercise on the side effect profile of regadenoson.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salgado-Garcia, Carlos; Jimenez-Heffernan, Amelia; Lopez-Martin, Juana; Molina-Mora, Manuela; Aroui, Tarik; Sanchez de Mora, Elena; Ramos-Font, Carlos; Rivera de Los Santos, Francisco; Ruiz-Frutos, Carlos

    2017-10-01

    Regadenoson, an A 2A adenosine receptor pharmacologic stress agent for radionuclide myocardial perfusion imaging (MPI), is administered as a single, fixed dose. We studied the side effect profile of regadenoson combined with two types of low-level exercise, according to body mass index (BMI). Three hundred and fifty-six patients (46.1% men, mean age 67.7±10.7 years, range 31-90 years) underwent regadenoson stress testing combined with low-level exercise. Subjects were classified according to BMI as normal, overweight, or obese, and the type of low-level exercise performed as walking on the treadmill (TE group, n=190) or forcefully swinging legs while sitting (SS group, n=166). Patients' demographics, medical history, clinical symptoms during stress, changes in ECG, oxygen saturation (SatO 2 ), systolic blood pressure (SBP), and heart rate (HR) were evaluated. Groups were comparable (p=ns) with regard to cardiovascular risks factors. The incidence of side effects was similar across BMI (p=ns), although the TE patients showed improved profiles over those with SS exercise, with a significantly lower incidence of flushing, dizziness and nausea/gastrointestinal discomfort (12.9% vs. 28.4%; 19.9% vs. 33.4%; 11.4% vs. 19.2%, respectively; all pregadenoson administration across BMI categories. Comparing the TE and SS groups, no significant changes were observed in SBP, but there was a higher increase in HR in the TE group (pRegadenoson in combination with low-level exercise is safe and well tolerated over a wide range of BMI, with TE exercise showing a better side effect profile than SS.

  2. The psychiatric side-effects of rimonabant Os efeitos-colaterais psiquiátricos do rimonabanto

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fabrício A. Moreira

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: Experimental evidence has suggested that drugs that enhance cannabinoid type-1 (CB1 receptor activity may induce anxiolytic and antidepressant effects, whilst the opposite has been reported with antagonists. Thus, the objective of the present review is to discuss the potential psychiatric side-effects of CB1 receptor antagonists, such as rimonabant, which has been recently marketed in several countries for the treatment of smoking cessation, obesity and associated metabolic disorders. METHOD: Literature searches were performed in PubMed and SciELO databases up to February 2009. The terms searched were "obesity", "rimonabant", "cannabinoids", "unwanted effects", "diabetes", "smoking cessation" and "side-effects". RESULTS: Clinical trials have revealed that rimonabant may promote weight loss in obese patients, although it may also induce symptoms of anxiety and depression. DISCUSSION: Patients taking CB1 receptor antagonists should be carefully investigated for psychiatric side-effects. These drugs should not be prescribed for those already suffering from mental disorders. Nevertheless, the development of new compounds targeting the endocannabinoid system for the treatment of several conditions would be necessary and opportune.OBJETIVO: Evidência experimental sugere que drogas que aumentam a atividade dos receptores canabinóides tipo 1 (CB1 podem induzir efeitos ansiolíticos ou antidepressivos, enquanto que o oposto tem sido relatado com antagonistas. Assim, o objetivo da presente revisão é discutir os potenciais efeitos-colaterais psiquiátricos de antagonistas do receptor CB1, como o rimonabanto, que foi recentemente liberado para comercialização em diversos países para o tratamento do tabagismo, obesidade e de desordens metabólicas associadas. MÉTODO: Foi realizada uma busca na literatura no PubMed e Scielo até fevereiro de 2009, com os termos "obesity", "rimonabant", "cannabinoids", "unwanted effects", "diabetes

  3. Placebo-controlled evaluation of amphetamine mixture-dextroamphetamine salts and amphetamine salts (Adderall): efficacy rate and side effects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahmann, P A; Theye, F W; Berg, R; Linquist, A J; Van Erem, A J; Campbell, L R

    2001-01-01

    The primary objective of this study was to determine the efficacy rate of Adderall in children newly diagnosed with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD). A secondary objective was to address the severity of side effects associated with Adderall treatment in children with ADHD using the Barkley Side Effects Questionnaire (BSEQ). Randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled crossover trial. A large rural tertiary care clinic. Participants were prospectively recruited from children 5 to 18 years of age referred for academic and/or attention problems; 154 children who met the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, Fourth Edition criteria for ADHD were enrolled. Interventions. Two doses of Adderall (0.15 mg/kg/dose and 0.3 mg/kg/dose) were compared with placebo in separate 2-week trials. Participants received each dosage regimen twice daily for 7 consecutive days. Efficacy rates were determined by comparing Adderall with placebo during the low-dose crossover sequence and also during the high-dose crossover sequence. The criteria that defined a positive response to Adderall relative to placebo (with each patient serving as their own control) included an indication of response by at least 1 of 2 parent measures of children's behavior or at least 2 of 5 teacher measures of children's behavior. The Adderall efficacy rate was determined based on parent criteria alone, teacher criteria alone, and by a more stringent definition of response that required concurrence between parent and teacher criteria. The Adderall response rate in this study ranged from 59% when requiring concurrence between parent and teacher observers, to 82% when based on parent criteria alone. Overall, 137 of 154 participants (89%) showed a positive response by either the parent or teacher response criteria. Parents completed a modified version of the BSEQ during each week of the trial. Appetite, stomachaches, and insomnia were rated as worse by parents while children were

  4. A phase III clinical trial of exercise modalities on treatment side-effects in men receiving therapy for prostate cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wall Bradley

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Androgen deprivation therapy (ADT is accompanied by a number of adverse side effects including reduced bone mass and increased risk for fracture, reduced lean mass and muscle strength, mood disturbance and increased fat mass compromising physical functioning, independence, and quality of life. The purpose of this investigation is to examine the effects of long term exercise on reversing musculoskeletal-related side effects, and cardiovascular and diabetes risk factors in men receiving androgen deprivation for their prostate cancer. Specifically, we aim to investigate the effects of a 12-month exercise program designed to load the musculoskeletal system and reduce cardiovascular and diabetes disease progression on the following primary endpoints: 1 bone mineral density; 2 cardiorespiratory function and maximal oxygen capacity; 3 body composition (lean mass and fat mass; 4 blood pressure and cardiovascular function; 5 lipids and glycemic control; and 6 quality of life and psychological distress. Methods/Design Multi-site randomized controlled trial of 195 men (65 subjects per arm undergoing treatment for prostate cancer involving ADT in the cities of Perth and Brisbane in Australia. Participants will be randomized to (1 resistance/impact loading exercise, (2 resistance/cardiovascular exercise groups and (3 usual care/delayed exercise. Participants will then undergo progressive training for 12 months. Measurements for primary and secondary endpoints will take place at baseline, 6 and 12 months (end of the intervention. Discussion The principal outcome of this project will be the determination of the strength of effect of exercise on the well established musculoskeletal, cardiovascular and insulin metabolism side effects of androgen deprivation in prostate cancer patients. As this project is much longer term than previous investigations in the area of exercise and cancer, we will gain knowledge as to the continuing effects of

  5. Side-effects of plant domestication: ecosystem impacts of changes in litter quality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    García-Palacios, Pablo; Milla, Rubén; Delgado-Baquerizo, Manuel; Martín-Robles, Nieves; Alvaro-Sánchez, Mónica; Wall, Diana H

    2013-04-01

    Domestication took plants from natural environments to agro-ecosystems, where resources are generally plentiful and plant life is better buffered against environmental risks such as drought or pathogens. We hypothesized that predictions derived from the comparison of low vs high resource ecosystems (faster-growing plants promoting faster nutrient cycling in the latter) extrapolate to the process of domestication. We conducted the first comprehensive assessment of the consequences of domestication on litter quality and key biogeochemical processes by comparing 24 domesticated crops against their closest wild ancestors. Twelve litter chemistry traits, litter decomposability and indicators of soil carbon (C) and nitrogen (N) cycling were assessed in each domesticated vs wild ancestor pair. These assessments were done in microbial-poor and microbial-rich soils to exemplify intensively and extensively managed agricultural soils, respectively. Plant domestication has increased litter quality, encouraging litter decomposability (36% and 44% increase in the microbial-rich and microbial-poor soils, respectively), higher soil NO3 - availability and lower soil C : N ratios. These effects held true for the majority of the crops surveyed and for soils with different microbial communities. Our results support ecological theory predictions derived from the comparison of low- and high-resource ecosystems, suggesting a parallelism between ecosystem-level impacts of natural and artificial selection. © 2013 The Authors. New Phytologist © 2013 New Phytologist Trust.

  6. Effectiveness and side-effect profile of stimulant therapy as monotherapy and in combination in the central hypersomnias in clinical practice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thakrar, Chiraag; Patel, Kishankumar; D'ancona, Grainne; Kent, Brian D; Nesbitt, Alexander; Selsick, Hugh; Steier, Joerg; Rosenzweig, Ivana; Williams, Adrian J; Leschziner, Guy D; Drakatos, Panagis

    2017-10-19

    Effectiveness and side-effect profile data on pharmacotherapy for daytime sleepiness in central hypersomnias are based largely upon randomized controlled trials. Evidence regarding the use of combination therapy is scant. The aim of this study was to examine the effectiveness and occurrence of drug-related side effects of these drugs in routine clinical practice. Adult patients diagnosed with a central hypersomnia during a 54-month period at a tertiary sleep disorders centre were identified retrospectively. Side effects were recorded at every follow-up visit. A total of 126 patients, with 3275 patient-months of drug exposure, were categorized into narcolepsy type 1 (n = 70), narcolepsy type 2 (n = 47) and idiopathic hypersomnia (n = 9). Modafinil was the most common drug used as a first-line treatment (93%) and in combination therapy (70%). Thirty-nine per cent of the patients demonstrated a complete, 25% partial and 36% a poor response to treatment. Combination treatment improved daytime sleepiness in 55% of the patients with residual symptoms despite monotherapy. Sixty per cent of patients reported side effects, and 30% reported treatment-limiting side effects. Drugs had similar side-effect incidence (P = 0.363) and their side-effect profile met those reported in the literature. Twenty-seven per cent of the patients received combination treatment and had fewer side effects compared to monotherapy (29.4% versus 60%, respectively, P = 0.001). Monotherapy appears to achieve satisfactory symptom control in most patients with central hypersomnia, but significant side effects are common. Combination therapy appears to be a useful and safe option in patients with refractory symptoms. © 2017 European Sleep Research Society.

  7. Long-term complications and side effects of bariatric surgery: a systematic review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alfonso Enrique Martínez-Núñez

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Background and objective: Bariatric surgery is a procedure that has gained popularity in the last decades as a treatment for obesity and is generally regarded as safe and effective in the short term, though the complications on the long term have been poorly described. We aim to review studies with long term follow-up reporting complications after a bariatric procedure. Method: A search was conducted on the data bases MEDLINE, EBSCO, Cochrane Library, and Google Scholar, and also scanning through references list in publications. We included cohort studies and clinical trials published from January 1st 2014 to April 15th 2017 with a follow up ≥ 5 years, retention rate above 50%, written in the following languages; English, Spanish, or Portuguese. We conducted qualitative bias assessment and analysis of heterogeneity. Result: Only four studies met the inclusion criteria, all of them were conducted with different bariatric procedures (vertical sleeve gastrectomy, laparoscopic sleeve gastrectomy, laparoscopic adjustable gastric banding, and billiopancreatic diversion with or without duodenal shift. Study design, outcome assessment, and complication definition were highly heterogeneous. The most frequent long term complications were gastroesophageal reflux disease, several nutritional deficits, incisional hernias, and failure to weight loss. Conclusions: There is insufficient evidence to ensure the quantity and severity of long-term complications of bariatric surgery.

  8. MINIMIZING ECT COGNITIVE SIDE EFFECTS: CURRENT CLINICAL REALITY AND FUTURE PERSPECTIVES (A REVIEW OF THE LITERATURE WITH AUTHOR COMMENTS AND RECOMMENDATIONS PART II (PRACTICAL

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yuriy Vitalevich Bykov

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Electroconvulsive therapy (ECT is a safe and highly effective method of treatment for the most severe psychiatric disorders, especially affective ones. But its clinical use is associated with cognitive side effects, which sometimes can be severe and disabling. This limits the efficacy of ECT and undermines the patient’s compliance with ECT. Due to this, minimizing ECT cognitive side effects continues to be an important clinical task. In this review, we thoroughly discuss various hypotheses about the pathophysiology of ECT’s cognitive side effects, and ways to prevent their development.

  9. Promoting wellness for patients on androgen deprivation therapy: why using numerous drugs for drug side effects should not be first-line treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moyad, Mark A; Roach, Mack

    2011-08-01

    The controversy over androgen deprivation therapy (ADT) for prostate cancer seems to have shifted over the past decade. The issue of adverse events or side effects now seems to dominate over that of clinical efficacy. However, this article provides evidence that questions the treatment of these side effects with numerous prescription medications that have their own unique toxicity profile in patients with nonmetastatic disease. The hope is that patients will no longer be considered passive participants in the prevention and treatment of ADT side effects, now that information is available to help mitigate many of these effects. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  10. Sustained-release microspheres of amifostine for improved radio-protection, patient compliance, and reduced side effects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Hong-Yu; Hu, Zhen-Hua; Jin, Tuo

    2016-11-01

    A biweekly administration of sustained-release microsphere dosage form of amifostine, a radioprotective drug used in radiotherapy, was performed to examine the feasibility to minimize injection frequency and blood concentration-associated side effects. Model animal trials indicated that this subcutaneously injecting microspheres, 50-100 μm in diameter, achieved bi-weekly prolonged radio-protective efficacy and, at the same time, significantly reduced skin irritation than the solution form of amifostine given by the same administration route. In addition, the hypertension associated with blood concentration of amifostine was not observed in the drug-treated rats. The animals given the amifostine microspheres and amifostine showed significantly differences in white blood cell, red blood cell, hematocrit, hemoglobin and spleen tissue histopathology after exposed under a cobalt-60 γ-radiation at a dose rate of 1.0 Gy/min for 6 min. The in vitro release profile of amifostine from the micropsheres showed a minor initial burst (less than 20% of total drug loading in the first day of administration), consisting with the side effects observations. The results suggest that amifostine encapsulated in sustained-release microspheres may be an ideal dosage form for prolonged radio-protective efficacy and improved patient compliance.

  11. USE OF HEMATOPOIETIC GROWTH FACTOR IN THE MANAGEMENT OF HEMATOLOGICAL SIDE EFFECTS ASSOCIATED TO ANTIVIRAL TREATMENT FOR HCV HEPATITIS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paola Mancino

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available Haematological abnormalities are common during combination antiviral therapy for chronic hepatitis C. Although dose reduction or discontinuation can easily treat these side effects, they can adversely affect the efficacy of combination antiviral therapy reducing the likelihood of a sustained viral response (SVR. To avoid potentially diminishing a patient’s chance of response, many physicians have begun using growth factors off-label to manage anaemia and neutropenia in hepatitis C. Haematopoietic growth factors are generally well tolerated and they may be useful for managing haematological side effects of anti-HCV therapy improving patients’ quality of life. To date, the role and benefit of these agents during anti-HCV therapy and their positive impact on SVR have not conclusively determined in the published studies. However, the possibility of a benefit to individual outpatients remains, and an individualized approach is recommended. This review explores the incidence, clinical significance, and management of anaemia, neutropenia and thrombocytopenia associated with combination therapy for HCV infection.

  12. Decreased alcohol consumption among former male users of finasteride with persistent sexual side effects: a preliminary report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Irwig, Michael S

    2013-11-01

    There is a robust literature in rodents, but not in humans, on the interaction between finasteride and alcohol, particularly as it relates to neurosteroids. Finasteride has been shown to reduce alcohol intake and suppress alcohol preference in male mice. This study examines the role of finasteride in alcohol consumption in humans with male pattern hair loss. The subjects were 83 otherwise healthy men who developed persistent sexual side effects associated with finasteride, despite the cessation of this medication for at least 3 months. Information from standardized interviews was collected regarding medical histories, sexual function, and alcohol consumption before and after finasteride use. Of the 63 men who consumed at least 1 alcoholic beverage/wk prior to starting finasteride, 41 (65%) noted a decrease in their alcohol consumption after stopping finasteride. This reduction typically began before discontinuing finasteride. Twenty men (32%) reported no change in their alcohol consumption, and 2 men (3%) reported an increase in their alcohol consumption. For the 63 consumers of alcohol, the mean number (± SE) of alcoholic beverages/wk declined from 5.2 ± 0.7 before finasteride to 2.0 ± 0.3 after finasteride (p finasteride who developed persistent sexual side effects, 65% noticed a decline in their alcohol consumption as compared to baseline. This finding is consistent with finasteride's ability to modulate alcohol intake in rodents. Further research is needed on the central nervous system effects of finasteride in humans. Copyright © 2013 by the Research Society on Alcoholism.

  13. Osteonecrosis of the jaw as a possible rare side effect of annual bisphosphonate administration for osteoporosis: A case report

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    Ehrenfeld Michael

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Introduction Osteonecrosis of the jaw is a serious side effect in patients receiving nitrogen-containing bisphosphonates intravenously due to malignant diseases. Albeit far less frequently, osteonecrosis of the jaw has also been reported to occur due to the oral administration of nitrogen-containing bisphosphonates due to osteoporosis. Annual infusions of zoledronic acid have been recommended in order to improve patient compliance, to optimize therapeutic effects and to minimize side effects. To date, osteonecrosis of the jaw has not been linked to the annual administration of bisphosphonates. Case presentation We report the case of a 65-year-old Caucasian woman suffering from osteoporosis who developed early stage osteonecrosis of the jaw in two locations, with chronic infections, after two months of oral bisphosphonate treatment and three annual administrations of zoledronic acid. Our patient was treated by fluorescence-guided resection of the necrotic jaw bone areas; local inflammation was treated by removal of a wisdom tooth and repeat root resections. Histopathology revealed typical hallmarks of osteonecrosis of the jaw. Conclusion Osteonecrosis of the jaw may occur as a consequence of annual administrations of zoledronic acid. It is conceivable that, due to the pharmacological properties of bisphosphonates, a jaw bone that encounters frequent local inflammations is more likely to develop osteonecrosis.

  14. Prevalence and significance of electrocardiographic changes and side effect profile of regadenoson compared with adenosine during myocardial perfusion imaging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zahid, Maliha; Kapila, Aaysha; Eagan, Cecelia E; Yusko, David A; Miller, Edwin D; Missenda, Cheryl D

    2013-03-01

    Significance of electrocardiogram (EKG) changes associated with regadenoson as well as side effects compared to adenosine in a real world, unselected population is unknown. Three hundred ninety six consecutive patients undergoing either adenosine or regadenoson-based single-isotope (Technetium 99c) nuclear images were evaluated. A standard form documenting side effects was filled immediately following administration. The EKGs and nuclear scans were reviewed in a blinded-fashion. Commonest symptoms reported were flushing (64%), chest pain (36%) and dyspnea (36%). Flushing and chest pain were significantly more common with adenosine (73% vs. 57%, P regadenoson (40% vs. 31%, P = 0.05). Sixty (29%) patients carried a diagnosis of chronic bronchitis or asthma but only 4 (2 with each) required aminophylline. There was no significant correlation between chest pain induced by either agent or ischemia on nuclear imaging. EKG changes occurred infrequently (16% with regadenoson and 10% with adenosine), and had low sensitivity for detecting ischemia (7% for regadenoson and 11% for adenosine). EKG changes with adenosine and regadenoson occur infrequently and have low sensitivity for detecting ischemia. Chest pain is frequently induced by both, and is not predictive of ischemia on nuclear imaging.

  15. Side-effects of formulations of permethrin and fenvalerate insecticides on frost resistance and field performance of Picea abies seedlings

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kohmann, Ketil [Norwegian Forest Research Inst., Aas (Norway)

    1999-10-01

    Side-effects of the permethrin formulations Gori 920 and Gori 920 L, the fenvalerate formulation Sumicidin 10 FW and the emulsifier of the Gori formulations were studied in seedlings of Norway spruce [Picea abies (L.) Karst.]. Whole plant treatment with the Gori formulations in early autumn resulted in a 5-10 deg C poorer frost tolerance (TDI) later in the autumn. Moreover, this treatment increased mortality by 30% within 2 yrs of testing in field trials. In contrast, a basal part treatment with the Gori formulations and whole plant treatment with Sumicidin 10 FW containing 10% fenvalerate had no negative effects during 2 yrs of field testing. Late autumn treatment with Gori 920 and Gori 920 L, followed by cold storage for 6 months, revealed poorer frost tolerance (3-4 deg C) in the spring than that in the control. These treatments also reduced leader shoot growth in the first year and increased the frequency of seedlings lacking a dominant leader after 2 yrs by 20-40%. The detrimental agent in Gori 920 L was found to be the emulsifier, ethoxylated nonylphenol, alone and in combination with the dispersal agent, linseed oil. The linseed oil had no significant additional negative effect on frost resistance and growth after the cold storage during the winter. The investigation demonstrates the necessity of testing for possible side-effects before practical use of any commercial pesticide formulation 12 refs, 4 figs, 2 tabs

  16. Short-term side-effects of brain MR examination at 7 T: a single-centre experience