WorldWideScience

Sample records for assess solar detoxification

  1. Opportunities for the UK in solar detoxification

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Christensen, P A; Walker, G M

    1997-12-31

    The most investigated approach to the solar detoxification of water involves the use of titanium dioxide, TiO{sub 2}, as the photocatalyst. The involvement of engineers in photocatalytic water detoxification research has been far too low, the research effort in photochemical reactor design has not been sufficient, with the result that a well-defined application for solar, or UV lamp, -driven TiO{sub 2}-based water detoxification technology has not been identified. The most effective and carefully investigated reactor design remains that in which TiO{sub 2} is added as a slurry to the contaminated water, however, the cost implications of the subsequent separation of the slurry from the treated water have not been addressed in any sensible fashion. The poor quantum efficiencies, rate constants and overlap between the solar emission spectrum and the absorption spectrum of TiO{sub 2} has resulted in very low solar detoxification efficiencies. This, in turn, means that very large areas of land will be necessary to accommodate a solar detoxification reactor, however UK industry, and the water companies in particular, have no interest in investing in water and/or wastewater treatment methods which demand increased land usage. In addition both industry and the water companies have little or no knowledge of, or interest in, novel detoxification technologies. From the above, the only conclusion can be that the application of the solar-driven photocatalytic detoxification of high-volume and most low-volume water in the UK is not a commercial option, and so is unlikely to be in the near future. (author)

  2. Opportunities for the UK in solar detoxification

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Christensen, P.A.; Walker, G.M.

    1996-12-31

    The most investigated approach to the solar detoxification of water involves the use of titanium dioxide, TiO{sub 2}, as the photocatalyst. The involvement of engineers in photocatalytic water detoxification research has been far too low, the research effort in photochemical reactor design has not been sufficient, with the result that a well-defined application for solar, or UV lamp, -driven TiO{sub 2}-based water detoxification technology has not been identified. The most effective and carefully investigated reactor design remains that in which TiO{sub 2} is added as a slurry to the contaminated water, however, the cost implications of the subsequent separation of the slurry from the treated water have not been addressed in any sensible fashion. The poor quantum efficiencies, rate constants and overlap between the solar emission spectrum and the absorption spectrum of TiO{sub 2} has resulted in very low solar detoxification efficiencies. This, in turn, means that very large areas of land will be necessary to accommodate a solar detoxification reactor, however UK industry, and the water companies in particular, have no interest in investing in water and/or wastewater treatment methods which demand increased land usage. In addition both industry and the water companies have little or no knowledge of, or interest in, novel detoxification technologies. From the above, the only conclusion can be that the application of the solar-driven photocatalytic detoxification of high-volume and most low-volume water in the UK is not a commercial option, and so is unlikely to be in the near future. (author)

  3. Activated sludge respirometry to assess solar detoxification of a metal finishing effluent

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Santos-Juanes, L.; Amat, A.M.; Arques, A.; Bernabeu, A.; Silvestre, M.; Vicente, R.; Ano, E.

    2008-01-01

    Inhibition of the respiration of activated sludge has been tested as a convenient method to estimate toxicity of aqueous solutions containing copper and cyanide, such as metal finishing effluents; according to this method, an EC 50 of 0.5 mg/l was determined for CN - and 3.0 mg/l for copper. Solar detoxification of cyanide-containing solutions was studied using TiO 2 , but this process was unfavourable because of the inhibitory role that plays the copper ions present in real effluents on the oxidation of cyanide. On the other hand, the oxidative effect of hydrogen peroxide was greatly enhanced by Cu 2+ and solar irradiation, as complete elimination of free and complexed cyanide could be accomplished, together with precipitation of copper, in experiments carried out at pilot plant scale with real metal finishing effluents. Under these conditions, total detoxification was achieved according to respirometric measurements although some remaining toxicity was determined by more sensitive Vibrio fischeri luminescent assay

  4. Activated sludge respirometry to assess solar detoxification of a metal finishing effluent

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Santos-Juanes, L.; Amat, A.M. [Departamento de Ingenieria Textil y Papelera, Escuela Politecnica Superior de Alcoy, Universidad Politecnica de Valencia, Plaza Ferrandiz y Carbonell s/n, E-03801 Alcoy (Spain); Arques, A. [Departamento de Ingenieria Textil y Papelera, Escuela Politecnica Superior de Alcoy, Universidad Politecnica de Valencia, Plaza Ferrandiz y Carbonell s/n, E-03801 Alcoy (Spain)], E-mail: aarques@txp.upv.es; Bernabeu, A.; Silvestre, M.; Vicente, R. [Departamento de Ingenieria Textil y Papelera, Escuela Politecnica Superior de Alcoy, Universidad Politecnica de Valencia, Plaza Ferrandiz y Carbonell s/n, E-03801 Alcoy (Spain); Ano, E. [Departamento de Gestion e Innovacion, Area de producto y desarrollo sostenible, Asociacion de Investigacion de la Industria del Juguete, Conexas y Afines (AIJU), Avda. de la industria, 23, 03440 Ibi (Spain)], E-mail: m.ambiente@aiju.info

    2008-05-30

    Inhibition of the respiration of activated sludge has been tested as a convenient method to estimate toxicity of aqueous solutions containing copper and cyanide, such as metal finishing effluents; according to this method, an EC{sub 50} of 0.5 mg/l was determined for CN{sup -} and 3.0 mg/l for copper. Solar detoxification of cyanide-containing solutions was studied using TiO{sub 2}, but this process was unfavourable because of the inhibitory role that plays the copper ions present in real effluents on the oxidation of cyanide. On the other hand, the oxidative effect of hydrogen peroxide was greatly enhanced by Cu{sup 2+} and solar irradiation, as complete elimination of free and complexed cyanide could be accomplished, together with precipitation of copper, in experiments carried out at pilot plant scale with real metal finishing effluents. Under these conditions, total detoxification was achieved according to respirometric measurements although some remaining toxicity was determined by more sensitive Vibrio fischeri luminescent assay.

  5. Techno-economical assessment of solar detoxification systems with compound parabolic collectors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Blanco, J.; Malato, S.; Milow, B.; Maldonado, M.I. [CIEMAT- Centro de Investigacion Energica Medioambiental y Technologia, Madrid (Spain); Fallmann, H.; Krutzler, T.; Bauer, R. [Institute of Physical Chemistry, TU Vienna (Italy)

    1999-03-01

    This paper is focussed on a techno-economical analysis comparing TiO{sub 2}-Persulfate and Photo-Fenton methods for Solar Detoxification of pesticides from an industrial point of view and considering the photocatalytic system coupled with a pesticide bottles recycling plant. The analysis is based on the experiments performed at PSA Solar Detox facility with 250 L of a mixture of 10 commercial pesticides, which have been treated with both photocatalytic methods in the same CPC-type reactor system. The initial TOC of the pollutants was 100 mg/L (considering not only the active ingredient but also the rest of the commercial formulation components) and the final TOC 10 mg/L (plant design parameters). Different experiments have been performed to optimize both treatments. In the experiments with Photo-Fenton 80% of the initial TOC were removed in 75 to 90 minutes and 90% in approximately 2 hours. In the experiment with TiO{sub 2}-Persulfate, 80% of the TOC was removed in 3 hours and 90% of the TOC after 4 hours. (authors)

  6. Pilot-scale study of the solar detoxification of VOC-contaminated groundwater

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mehos, M.; Turchi, C.; Pacheco, J.; Boegel, A.J.; Merrill, T.; Stanley, R.

    1992-08-01

    The Solar Detoxification Field Experiment was designed to investigate the photocatalytic decomposition of organic contaminants in groundwater at a Superfund site at Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL). The process uses ultraviolet (UV) energy, available in sunlight, in conjunction with the photocatalyst, titanium dioxide, to decompose organic chemicals into nontoxic compounds. The field experiment was developed by three federal laboratories: the National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), Sandia National Laboratory (SNLA), and LLNL. The US Department of Energy funded the experiment. The objectives of the pilot-scale study included the advancement of the solar technology into a nonlaboratory waste-remediation environment the compilation of test data to help guide laboratory research and future demonstrations and the development of safe operational procedures. Results of the pilot study are discussed, emphasizing the effect of several process variables on the system performance. These variables include alkalinity, catalyst loading, flow velocity through the reactor, and incident solar UV radiation. The performance of the solar detoxification process are discussed as it relates to concentrating and nonconcentrating collectors

  7. First steeps in industrial applications of solar photocatalysis in water detoxification. La utilizacion industrial de la fotocatalisis solar en la descontaminacion de aguas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Blanco, J; Malato, S; Romero, M; Herrero, J; Sanchez, M

    1992-01-01

    A solar photocatalytic water detoxification loop for the destruction of toxic organic compounds dissolved in water has been developed at the Plataforma Solar de Almeria using parabolic trough collectors. In this report, the loop and its main design and control parameters are described as a flexible facility ready to be used for testing. (Author)

  8. Solar water detoxification: state of the art of the research in Spain

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Perez Martinez, M.; Cuesta Santianes, J.; Cabrera Jimenez, J. A.; Garcia Garcia, D.; Trevino Sanchez, A. C.; Berges Garcia, A.

    2010-01-01

    The CIEMAT's Foresight and Technology Watch Unit, whose technology watch management system is certified by Aenor as per standards UNE 16006:2006, has developed this study in order to review the state of the art of national research on solar water detoxification. to reach this goal, data bases of scientific publications, research projects and patents have been used. The technology watch information management solution VICUBO, developed by E-intelligent, was used as support tool for the afore-mentioned standard. (Author) 3 refs.

  9. Solar detoxification of fuel-contaminated groundwater using fixed-bed photocatalysts

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Crittenden, J. C. [Michigan Technological University, Houghton, Michigan (United States); Zhang, Y.; Hand, D. W.; Perram, D. L.; Marchand, E. G.

    1996-05-15

    A field test of a solar photocatalytic process for detoxification of water was conducted at Tyndall Air Force Base, Florida, where benzene, toluene, ethylbenzene, and xylene (BTEX) compounds were found in the fuel-contaminated groundwater. Platinized titanium dioxide supported on silica gel is packed in tubular photoreactors and used for single-pass operations. Catalyst fouling, destruction inhibition, and water pretreatment are investigated in addition to BTEX destruction. Ionic species were found to be primarily responsible for photocatalyst fouling and destruction inhibition. A simple pretreatment unit was developed for removing turbidity, adding oxidant, and ionic species. By using pretreatment, the reactor system operated efficiently, and no loss in catalyst photoactivity was found during the month-long test. On a rainy day, BTEX compounds of a total influent concentration of more than 2 mg/L were destroyed within 6.5 minutes of empty-bed contact time. Test results with various flow rates, reactor diameters, influent concentrations, solar irradiances, and weather conditions confirm the application potential of the process.

  10. Solar detoxification of fuel-contaminated groundwater using fixed-bed photocatalysts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Crittenden, J.C.; Zhang, Y.; Hand, D.W.; Perram, D.L.; Marchand, E.G.

    1996-01-01

    A field test of a solar photocatalytic process for detoxification of water was conducted at Tyndall Air Force Base, Florida, where benzene, toluene, ethylbenzene, and xylene (BTEX) compounds were found in the fuel-contaminated groundwater. Platinized titanium dioxide supported on silica gel is packed in tubular photoreactors and used for single-pass operations. Catalyst fouling, destruction inhibition, and water pretreatment are investigated in addition to BTEX destruction. Ionic species were found to be primarily responsible for photocatalyst fouling and destruction inhibition. A simple pretreatment unit was developed for removing turbidity, adding oxidant, and ionic species. By using pretreatment, the reactor system operated efficiently, and no loss in catalyst photoactivity was found during the month-long test. On a rainy day, BTEX compounds of a total influent concentration of more than 2 mg/L were destroyed within 6.5 minutes of empty-bed contact time. Test results with various flow rates, reactor diameters, influent concentrations, solar irradiances, and weather conditions confirm the application potential of the process

  11. Discussion on 'Solar detoxification of fuel-contaminated groundwater using fixed-bed photocatalysts'

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Farrell, Joseph B.

    1997-03-15

    In a discussion of the 1997 paper by J. C. Crittenden et al. on the solar detoxification of fuel-contaminated groundwater using fixed-bed photocatalysts, the writer indicates a number of problems with the interpretation of the data and invites the authors to speculate on the reaction mechanism in the photocatalytic destruction of BTEX compounds in groundwater. In reply, Crittenden points out that it is not easy to speculate on the reaction mechanism because there are many compounds other than BTEX compounds contained in the water matrix, as well as many unknown compounds and by-products.

  12. Solar photocatalytic degradation and detoxification of EU priority substances

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hincapie, M. [Facultad de Ingeniera Ambiental, Universidad de Medellin, Carrera 87 No. 30-65, P.O. Box 1983, Medellin (Colombia); Maldonado, M.I.; Oller, I.; Gernjak, W.; Malato, S. [Plataforma Solar de Almeria-CIEMAT, Carretera Senes km4, 04200 Tabernas (Almeria) (Spain); Sanchez-Perez, J.A.; Ballesteros, M.M. [Departamento de Ingenieria Quimica, Universidad de Almeria Crta de Sacramento s/n, 04120 Almeria (Spain)

    2005-04-15

    Several different pesticides (alachlor, atrazine, chlorfenvinphos, diuron, isoproturon and pentachlorophenol) considered PS (priority substances) by the European Commission and dissolved in water at 50mg/L (or at maximum water solubility) have been degraded at pilot-plant scale using photo-Fenton and TiO{sub 2} photocatalysis driven by solar energy. Two different iron concentrations (2 and 55mg/L) and TiO{sub 2} at 200mg/L have been tested and discussed, using mainly TOC mineralisation for comparison of treatment effectiveness. Vibrio fischeri (Microtox{sup (}R)) toxicity assays were also employed for evaluating the photocatalytic treatments, and comparison between these results and parent compound disappearance, TOC evolution and anion (or ammonia) release were discussed. Almost complete mineralisation and total detoxification were always attained. It has been demonstrated that evolution of chloride could be a key-parameter for predicting toxicity of chlorinated compounds.

  13. Effluents treatment by solar photocatalysis; Tratamiento de efluentes con fotocatalisis solar

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Blanco, J; Malato, S; Richter, C [Plataforma Solar de almeria, Almeria (Spain); Carmona, F; Martinez, F [Deretil, Almeria (Spain)

    1996-12-31

    A solar photocatalytic system is being developed at the Plataforma Solar De Almeria to destroy organic contaminants in water. Test with common water contaminants were conducted at the Solar Detoxification loop with real sun light and large quantities of water flowing through glass tubes were the solar UV light is concentrated. Experiments at this scale provide verification of laboratory studies and allow the design and operation of real preindustrial detoxification systems. (Author)

  14. Water decontamination by solar photocatalysis. Descontaminacion de aguas residuales mediante fotocatalisis solar

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Blanco Galvez, J; Malato Rodriguez, S

    1993-01-01

    A solar photocatalytic system is being developed at the Plataforma Solar de Almeria to destroy organic contaminants in water. Test with common water contaminants were conducted at the Solar Detoxification Loop with real sunlight and large quantities of water flowing through glass tubes were the solar UV light is concentrated. Experiments at this scale provide verification of laboratory studies and allow the design and operation of real preindustrial detoxification systems. (Author)

  15. Solar photocatalyzed process economics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Link, H.

    1990-01-01

    This paper describes the Solar Energy Research Institute (SERI) cost estimates for solar water detoxification systems based on the best available information as of October 1990. Comparative costs are also provided for competitive conventional technologies which are presently applied in the water detoxification market. Although costs for solar photocatalytic systems are presently higher than those of competitive technologies, cost and performance improvements should lead to cost competitiveness by 1995

  16. Solar water detoxification: state of the art of the research in Spain; Detoxificacion solar de aguas residuales y desinfeccion: estado actual de la investigacion en Espana

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Perez Martinez, M.; Cuesta Santianes, J.; Cabrera Jimenez, J. A.; Garcia Garcia, D.; Trevino Sanchez, A. C.; Berges Garcia, A.

    2010-07-01

    The CIEMAT's Foresight and Technology Watch Unit, whose technology watch management system is certified by Aenor as per standards UNE 16006:2006, has developed this study in order to review the state of the art of national research on solar water detoxification. to reach this goal, data bases of scientific publications, research projects and patents have been used. The technology watch information management solution VICUBO, developed by E-intelligent, was used as support tool for the afore-mentioned standard. (Author) 3 refs.

  17. Technical Procedures Management in Gas-Phase Detoxification Laboratory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cardona Garcia, A. I.; Sanchez Cabrero, B.

    2000-01-01

    The natural cycle of Volatile Organic Compounds (VOCs) has been disturbed by the industrial and socioeconomic activities of human beings. This imbalance in the environment has affected the ecosystems and the human health. Initiatives have been planned to mitigate these adverse effects. In order to minimize the hazardous effects, initiatives have been proposed for the treatment of gaseous emissions. The solar photo catalysis appears as a clear and renewable technology in front of the conventional ones.In CIEMAT this line is being investigated as the base of a future implementation at a pre industrial scale.Technical procedures are written in this document for testing Gas-Phase detoxification at lab scale in the Renewable Energy Department (DER) CIEMAT- Madrid to eliminate the VOCs by using the solar photo catalysis technology. (Author) 34 refs

  18. Solar Resource Assessment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Renne, D.; George, R.; Wilcox, S.; Stoffel, T.; Myers, D.; Heimiller, D.

    2008-02-01

    This report covers the solar resource assessment aspects of the Renewable Systems Interconnection study. The status of solar resource assessment in the United States is described, and summaries of the availability of modeled data sets are provided.

  19. Newer approaches to opioid detoxification

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Siddharth Sarkar

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Opioid use disorders present with distressing withdrawal symptoms at the time of detoxification. The pharmacological agents and methods currently in use for detoxification mainly include buprenorphine, methadone, and clonidine. Many other pharmacological agents have been tried for opioid detoxification. This review takes a look at the newer pharmacological options, both opioid agonists and non-agonist medications that have been utilized for detoxification. Peer reviewed articles were identified using PubMed and PsychInfo databases. The keywords included for the search were a combination of ′opioid′ and ′detoxification′ and their synonyms. All the articles published in the last 10 years were screened for. Relevant data was extracted from identified studies. Many newer pharmacological agents have been tried in detoxification of opioids. However, the quest for a safe, efficacious, cost-effective pharmacological option which requires minimal monitoring still continues. The role of non-pharmacological measures and alternative medicine needs further evaluation.

  20. Pb detoxification in Equisetum diffusum

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Deepak Pant

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Current research highlights the use of aquatic macrophyte Equisetum diffusum (Himalayan horsetail for lead detoxification. This plant species can grow in waste cathode ray tube (CRT powder and absorbs its Pb. X-ray fluorescence spectroscopy (XRF analysis of plant ash shows that 68 mg/kg lead concentration in the untreated plant was improved to 7600 mg/kg in CRT powder after 90 days. The role of monosilicic and/or monoplumbic acid as reaction intermediates for Pb detoxification and associated bioaccumulation is proposed. Pb detoxification in E. diffusum is mainly rendering around the iso-electronic nature of Pb and Si and forms similar phytochelatin (PC complexes with available family of peptide ligands. The study focuses on the underlying functions of silicon containing plants in metal detoxification.

  1. The Department of Energy`s Solar Industrial Program: 1995 review

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1996-04-01

    During 1995, the Department of Energy`s Solar Industrial (SI) Program worked to bring the benefits of solar energy to America`s industrial sector. Scientists and engineers within the program continued the basic research, applied engineering, and economic analyses that have been at the heart of the Program`s success since its inception in 1989. In 1995, all three of the SI Program`s primary areas of research and development--solar detoxification, advanced solar processes, and solar process heat--succeeded in increasing the contribution made by renewable and energy-efficient technologies to American industry`s sustainable energy future. The Solar Detoxification Program develops solar-based pollution control technologies for destroying hazardous environmental contaminants. The Advanced Solar Processes Program investigates industrial uses of highly concentrated solar energy. The Solar Process Heat Program conducts the investigations and analyses that help energy planners determine when solar heating technologies--like those that produce industrial-scale quantities of hot water, hot air, and steam--can be applied cost effectively. The remainder of this report highlights the research and development conducted within in each of these subprograms during 1995.

  2. Solar engineering 1995: Proceedings. Volume 1

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stine, W.B.; Tanaka, Tadayoshi; Claridge, D.E.

    1995-01-01

    This is Volume 1 of the papers presented at the 1995 ASME/JSME/JSES International Solar Energy Conference. The topics of the papers include wind energy, heat pump performance, ground source and solar chemical heat pumps, analysis of measured building energy data, thermal storage, system modeling of buildings, evaluation of the Federal Building energy Efficiency program, sustainable projects, bioconversion, solar chemistry, solar detoxification innovative concepts and industrial applications, solar thermal power systems, DISH/engine power systems, power towers, solar thermal power advanced development, and solar thermal process heating and cooling

  3. Solar engineering 1994

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Klett, D.E.; Hogan, R.E.; Tanaka, Tadayoshi

    1994-01-01

    This volume of 83 papers constitutes the Proceedings of the 1994 International Solar Energy Conference held March 27--30, 1994 in San Francisco, California. The Conference was jointly sponsored by the Solar Energy Division of the American Society of Mechanical Engineers, The Japan Society of Mechanical Engineers and the Japan Solar Energy Society. This is the fourth cooperation between ASME, JSME and JSES in cosponsoring the International Solar Energy Conference. The papers cover a wide range of solar technologies from low temperature solar ponds and desalinization to high temperature concentrators for space applications and central receivers for terrestrial power generation. Other topics covered include solar detoxification of hazardous waste, dish Stirling systems, solar cooling, photovoltaics, building energy analysis and conservation, simulation, and testing and measurement techniques. All papers were indexed separately for the data base

  4. Perceived Relapse Risk and Desire for Medication Assisted Treatment among Persons Seeking Inpatient Opiate Detoxification

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bailey, Genie L; Herman, Debra S.; Stein, Michael D.

    2016-01-01

    Most patients with opioid addiction do not receive medication at the time of discharge from brief inpatient detoxification programs despite the high risk of relapse and the availability of three FDA-approved medications. We surveyed 164 inpatient opioid detoxification patients to assess desire for pharmacotherapy following detoxification program discharge. Participants were predominantly male (71.3%) and 80% had detoxed in the past. Reporting on their most recent previous inpatient detoxification, 27% had relapsed the day they were discharged, 65% within a month of discharge, and 90% within a year of discharge. 63% reported they wanted medication-assisted treatment (MAT) after discharge from the current admission. The odds of desiring a treatment medication increased by a factor of 1.02 for every 1% increase in perceived relapse risk (p detox abstinence. PMID:23786852

  5. Detoxification in Abdominal Sepsis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. F. Potapov

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective. To comparatively analyze the efficiency of methods for extracorporeal detoxification (ED of the body in abdominal sepsis (AS and to choose the optimum detoxifying methods in relation to the level of endotoxicosis.Material and methods. 56 patients (41 males and 15 females; mean age 39.4±12.2 years with surgical abdominal infection of various genesis, complicated by the development of sepsis whose treatment included ED methods, were examined. The level of intoxication and the efficiency of detoxification were evaluated by general clinical and biochemical blood parameters, the leukocytic intoxication index, the levels of low and medium molecular-weight substances in the body’s media. Hemosorption, plasmapheresis, hemodialysis, hemodiafiltration, and hemofiltration were used for detoxification.Results. Surgical abdominal infection is accompanied by endotoxemia that has no clear nosological specificity, but it depends on the pattern of a clinical course of the disease and is most pronounced in the septic syndrome. In AS, 80.4% of the patients are observed to have an irreversible decompensation phase and a terminal degree of endotoxicosis, which require detoxification. The use of different ED methods according to the level of intoxication may reduce the level of endotoxicosis and yield a persistent beneficial effect in 85.2% of cases of its application. Conclusion. Filtration and dialysis techniques (hemodialysis, hemofiltration, and hemodiafiltration are the methods of choice in AS. Hemosorption and plasmapheresis may be recommended for use at the early stages of endotoxicosis development and in preserved renal excretory function.

  6. Solar energy: a UK assessment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1976-01-01

    A panel convened by UK-ISES to analyze all aspects of solar energy systems and to assess the potential for solar energy utilization and research and development needs in the UK and for export is reported. Topics covered include: solar energy in relation to other energy sources; international solar energy research and development program; the physical nature of solar energy and its availability in the UK and other countries; thermal collection, storage, and low-temperature applications; solar energy and architecture; solar thermal power systems; solar cells; agricultural and biological systems; photochemical systems; social, legal, and political considerations with particular reference to the UK; and future policy on solar research and development for the UK. (WDM)

  7. Prediction of withdrawal symptoms during opioid detoxification

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dijkstra, Boukje A G; Krabbe, Paul F M; De Jong, Cor A J; van der Staak, Cees P F

    2008-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: The severity of self-reported withdrawal symptoms varies during detoxification of opioid-dependent patients. The aim of this study is to identify subgroups of withdrawal symptoms within the detoxification trajectory and to predict the severity of withdrawal symptoms on the basis of

  8. Prediction of withdrawal symptoms during opioid detoxification

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dijkstra, B.A.G.; Krabbe, P.F.M.; Jong, C.A.J. de; Staak, C.P.F. van der

    2008-01-01

    Objective: The severity of self-reported withdrawal symptoms varies during detoxification of opioid-dependent patients. The aim of this study is to identify subgroups of withdrawal symptoms within the detoxification trajectory and to predict the severity of withdrawal symptoms on the basis of

  9. Negative moods correlate with craving in female methamphetamine users enrolled in compulsory detoxification

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shen Wenwen

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Methamphetamine (METH use, especially in females, has become a growing public health concern in China. In this study, we aimed to characterize the factors that contributed to drug craving in female METH users under isolated compulsory detoxification. We characterized factors contributing to craving such as duration of detoxification, history of drug use and self-reported mood state. Methods Subjects (N=113 undergoing a 1- to 3-year METH detoxification program were recruited from the Zhejiang Compulsory Detoxification Center for Women. The Questionnaire of METH-use Urge (QMU was used to evaluate the level of craving for METH. The Abbreviate Profile of Mood States (A-POMS was applied as an assessment for the negative mood disturbances. Results The participants were at a mean age of 25.2, primarily lowly educated and unemployed, and single. Smoking was the only route of METH administration at an average dose of 0.5 g/day, and 4 times/week. The reported craving level was positively correlated with the negative mood disturbances and the weekly dose of METH, but independent of the duration of detoxification. Furthermore, all five aspects of negative mood disturbances, including fatigue, bewilderment, anxiety, depression and hostility, were shown to positively correlate to the self-reported craving level after controlling for weekly dose of METH. Conclusions The data demonstrate a robust correlation between mood distress and craving for METH. Our results call for close evaluation of mood distress in treatment of METH users in China.

  10. Applied studies in solar photocatalytic detoxification: an overview

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Malato, S.; Blanco, J.; Vidal, A.; Alarcon, D.; Maldonado, M.I.; Caceres, J.; Gernjak, W. [CIEMAT - Plataforma Solar de Almeria, Tabernas (Spain)

    2003-10-01

    The technical feasibility and performance of photocatalytic degradation of four water-soluble pesticides (diuron, imidacloprid, formetanate and methomyl) have been studied at pilot scale in two well-defined systems which are of special interest because natural-solar UV light can be used for them: heterogeneous photocatalysis with titanium dioxide and homogeneous photocatalysis by photo-Fenton. The pilot plant is made up of compound parabolic collectors specially designed for solar photocatalytic applications. The initial concentration tested with imidacloprid, formetanate and methomyl was 50 and 30 mg/l with diuron, and the catalyst concentrations were 200 mg/l and 0.05 mM with TiO{sub 2} and iron, respectively. Total disappearance of the parent compounds, 90% mineralisation and toxicity reduction below the threshold (EC{sub 50}) have been attained with all pesticides tested. All these results have contributed to an evaluation of photocatalytic treatment capacity and comments on the main parameters of TiO{sub 2} and Fe separation from the treated water. (author)

  11. Performance contracting to engage detoxification-only patients into continued rehabilitation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haley, Sean J; Dugosh, Karen Leggett; Lynch, Kevin G

    2011-03-01

    In 2006, only 18.7% of Delaware's detoxification patients were admitted to continuing recovery-oriented treatment within 30 days after discharge. In response, Delaware established financial contingencies to (1) maintain 90% detoxification occupancy, (2) make receipt of 10% of the facility's monthly reimbursement contingent on 25% of patients entering treatment, and (3) provide a $500 bonus for every patient with three or more prior detoxification visits who was retained in treatment. Under the performance contract, the detoxification provider (1) maintained the 90% occupancy requirement, (2) achieved the 25% treatment entry target for 7 of 12 months, and (3) observed only 8% (27/337) of detoxification completions that met the targeted length of stay. Continuation to and retention in treatment was even more constrained for patients with three or more prior detoxifications. Contrary to the policy intent, the number of patients with three or more detoxifications in fiscal year (FY) 2008 is nearly triple that of FY 2006. The modest gain in the transition rate was achieved without changes in patient access; the FY 2008 patient population reported significantly higher rates of homelessness and a younger age of first use than before the performance contract in FY 2006. Performance contracting may offer promise for improving transition to treatment rates. However, the unique needs of detoxification patients, the treatment capacity of each level of care to meet patient needs, and the structure of the performance contract must be carefully considered. Performance contracting efforts may be strengthened when service contracts across the system are tightly synchronized. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  12. Application of Solar radiation to hazardous and toxic wastes destruction. Aplicacion de la radiacion solar a la destruccion de residuos toxicos y peligrosos

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sanchez Gonzalez, M

    1992-01-01

    Solar thermal technology has been recently developing new concentrators and collectors specifically used on environmental applications, like the degradation of hazardous and toxic micropollutants in water and gaseous emissions. This publication gives a scope of some activities undertaken by the Institute for Renewable Energies of CIEMAT within this field in order to adapt the available solar technology to detoxification processes, during 1991. (Author)

  13. Complications related to osteopenia in the thoracic spine on admission chest radiographs of substance abuse detoxification patients

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Haramati, L.B.; Alterman, D.D.; Israel, G.M.; Haramati, N.; Mallavurapu, R.

    1998-01-01

    Objective. To assess the prevalence of complications related to osteopenia in the thoracic spine (anterior wedging and fish vertebrae) of patients admitted for substance abuse detoxification. Design and patients. We retrospectively identified 150 sequential patients admitted to our drug and alcohol detoxification ward in whom posteroanterior and lateral admission chest radiographs and clinical charts were available for review. There were 116 men and 34 women with a mean age of 37 years (range 19-67 years). Thirty-eight patients were admitted for drug detoxification, 37 for alcohol detoxification, and 75 for drug and alcohol detoxification. These patients were compared with 66 age- and sex-matched controls from our hospital's employee health service. Two radiologists reviewed all chest radiographs for the presence of anterior wedging and fish vertebrae in the thoracic spine and other nonspinal fractures. Serum calcium and inorganic phosphorus levels were recorded for the substance abuse detoxification patients. Results. Forty-nine percent (n=73) of detoxification patients had complications of osteopenia in the thoracic spine including: anterior wedging (n=47), fish vertebrae (n=21), or both (n=5). Twenty-four percent (n=36) of patients had an elevated serum inorganic phosphorus level and one patient had an elevated serum calcium level. Patients with anterior wedging or fish vertebrae included: 45% (n=45) of patients below age 40 years, 35% (n=12) of women, 41% (n=15) of drug detoxification patients, 58% (n=22) of alcohol detoxification patients, 48% (n=36) of drug and alcohol detoxification patients, and 47% (n=17) of patients with elevated serum inorganic phosphorus (P=NS). Six percent (n=9) of our study population had nonspinal fractures on their chest radiographs. Twenty-one percent (n=14) of controls had complications of osteopenia in the thoracic spine (all anterior wedging). This prevalence differed significantly (P<0.05, chi-squared) from the study population

  14. Differential spontaneous recovery across cognitive abilities during detoxification period in alcohol-dependence.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Géraldine Petit

    Full Text Available There is a lack of consensus regarding the extent to which cognitive dysfunctions may recover upon cessation of alcohol intake by alcohol-dependents (AD, and the divergent findings are most likely due to methodological differences between the various studies. The present study was aimed at conducting a very strict longitudinal study of cognitive recovery in terms of assessment points, the duration of abstinence, control of age and duration of the addiction, and by use of individual analyses in addition to mean group comparisons. Our study further focused on the 2-3 week phase of alcohol detoxification that is already known to positively affect many biological, emotional, motivational, as well as neural variables, followed by longer-term therapies for which good cognitive functioning is needed.41 AD inpatients undergoing a detoxification program, and 41 matched controls, were evaluated twice in terms of five cognitive functions (i.e., short-term memory, working memory, inhibition, cognitive flexibility, and verbal fluency within a three-week interval [on the first day (T1 and the 18th day (T2 of abstinence for AD patients]. Emotional (positive and negative affectivity and depression and motivational (craving variables were also measured at both evaluation times.Although verbal fluency, short-term memory, and cognitive flexibility did not appear to be affected, the patients exhibited impaired inhibition and working memory at T1. While no recovery of inhibition was found to occur, the average working memory performance of the patients was comparable to that of the controls at T2. Improvements in emotional and motivational dimensions were also observed, although they did not correlate with the ones in working memory. Individual analysis showed that not all participants were impaired or recover the same functions.While inhibition deficits appear to persist after 18 days of detoxification, deficits in working memory, which is a central component of

  15. Technology assessment of solar energy utilization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jaeger, F.

    1985-11-01

    The general objectives and methods of Technology Assessment (TA) are outlined. Typical analysis steps of a TA for solar energy are reviewed: description of the technology and its further development; identification of impact areas; analysis of boundary conditions and definition of scenarios; market penetration of solar technologies; projection of consequences in areas of impact; and assessment of impacts and identification of options for action.

  16. Independent University Study to Assess the Performance of a Humate Amendment for Copper Detoxification at the H-12 Outfall at Savannah River Site

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Looney, B. [Savannah River Site (SRS), Aiken, SC (United States). Savannah River National Lab. (SRNL); Harmon, S. [Savannah River Site (SRS), Aiken, SC (United States). Savannah River National Lab. (SRNL); King, J. [Savannah River Site (SRS), Aiken, SC (United States). Savannah River National Lab. (SRNL)

    2016-09-06

    The overarching objective of this study was to evaluate the effectiveness of the copper detoxification process that is in place at the Savannah River Site H-12 Outfall. The testing was performed in two phases; Phase 1 assessed the safety and potential for intrinsic toxicity of the humate amendment being used at the H-12 Outfall, Borregro HA-1, as well as an alternative amendment sodium humic acid. The second phase assessed the effectiveness of Borregro HA-1 in mitigating and reducing toxic effects of copper.

  17. Current knowledge of detoxification mechanisms of xenobiotic in honey bees.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gong, Youhui; Diao, Qingyun

    2017-01-01

    The western honey bee Apis mellifera is the most important managed pollinator species in the world. Multiple factors have been implicated as potential causes or factors contributing to colony collapse disorder, including honey bee pathogens and nutritional deficiencies as well as exposure to pesticides. Honey bees' genome is characterized by a paucity of genes associated with detoxification, which makes them vulnerable to specific pesticides, especially to combinations of pesticides in real field environments. Many studies have investigated the mechanisms involved in detoxification of xenobiotics/pesticides in honey bees, from primal enzyme assays or toxicity bioassays to characterization of transcript gene expression and protein expression in response to xenobiotics/insecticides by using a global transcriptomic or proteomic approach, and even to functional characterizations. The global transcriptomic and proteomic approach allowed us to learn that detoxification mechanisms in honey bees involve multiple genes and pathways along with changes in energy metabolism and cellular stress response. P450 genes, is highly implicated in the direct detoxification of xenobiotics/insecticides in honey bees and their expression can be regulated by honey/pollen constitutes, resulting in the tolerance of honey bees to other xenobiotics or insecticides. P450s is also a key detoxification enzyme that mediate synergism interaction between acaricides/insecticides and fungicides through inhibition P450 activity by fungicides or competition for detoxification enzymes between acaricides. With the wide use of insecticides in agriculture, understanding the detoxification mechanism of insecticides in honey bees and how honeybees fight with the xenobiotis or insecticides to survive in the changing environment will finally benefit honeybees' management.

  18. New large solar photocatalytic plant: set-up and preliminary results.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malato, S; Blanco, J; Vidal, A; Fernández, P; Cáceres, J; Trincado, P; Oliveira, J C; Vincent, M

    2002-04-01

    A European industrial consortium called SOLARDETOX has been created as the result of an EC-DGXII BRITE-EURAM-III-financed project on solar photocatalytic detoxification of water. The project objective was to develop a simple, efficient and commercially competitive water-treatment technology, based on compound parabolic collectors (CPCs) solar collectors and TiO2 photocatalysis, to make possible easy design and installation. The design, set-up and preliminary results of the main project deliverable, the first European industrial solar detoxification treatment plant, is presented. This plant has been designed for the batch treatment of 2 m3 of water with a 100 m2 collector-aperture area and aqueous aerated suspensions of polycrystalline TiO2 irradiated by sunlight. Fully automatic control reduces operation and maintenance manpower. Plant behaviour has been compared (using dichloroacetic acid and cyanide at 50 mg l(-1) initial concentration as model compounds) with the small CPC pilot plants installed at the Plataforma Solar de Almería several years ago. The first results with high-content cyanide (1 g l(-1)) waste water are presented and plant treatment capacity is calculated.

  19. Cytotoxicity of TiO2 nanoparticles and their detoxification in a freshwater system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dalai, Swayamprava; Pakrashi, Sunandan; Joyce Nirmala, M.; Chaudhri, Apoorvi; Chandrasekaran, N.; Mandal, A.B.; Mukherjee, Amitava

    2013-01-01

    Highlights: •TiO 2 NPs cytotoxicity at low exposure levels (≤1 μg/mL) to freshwater algae. •ROS generation, NP adsorption and internalization contributors to toxicity. •Observational evidence of genotoxicity by nanoparticles in an algal cell. •Reduced bioavailability thus detoxification of NPs by microalgae. •Possible role of EPS in detoxification. -- Abstract: In the current study, two aspects concerning (i) the cytotoxicity potential of TiO 2 nanoparticles (NPs) toward freshwater algal isolate Scenedesmus obliquus and (ii) the potential detoxification of NPs by the microalgae were assessed under light (UV-illumination) and dark conditions at low exposure levels (≤1 μg/mL), using sterile freshwater as the test medium. The statistically significant reduction in cell viability, increase in reactive oxygen species production and membrane permeability (light vs. dark) suggested photo-induced toxicity of TiO 2 NPs. The electron micrographs demonstrated adsorption of the NPs onto the cell surface and substantiated their internalization/uptake. The fluorescence micrographs and the confocal laser scanning (CLSM) images suggested the absence of a definite/intact nucleus in the light treated cells pointing toward the probable genotoxic effects of NPs. In a separate three cycle experiment, a continuous decrease in the cytotoxicity was observed, whereas, at the end of each cycle only fresh algae were added to the supernatant containing NPs from the previous cycle. The decreasing concentrations of the NPs in the subsequent cycles owing to agglomeration–sedimentation processes exacerbated by the algal interactions played a crucial role in the detoxification. In addition, the exo-polymeric substances produced by the cells could have rendered the available NPs less reactive, thereby, enhancing the detoxification effects

  20. Photocatalytic hydrogen production under direct solar light in a CPC based solar reactor: Reactor design and preliminary results

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jing Dengwei; Liu Huan; Zhang Xianghui; Zhao Liang; Guo Liejin

    2009-01-01

    In despite of so many types of solar reactors designed for solar detoxification purposes, few attempts have been made for photocatalytic hydrogen production, which in our option, is one of the most promising approaches for solar to chemical energy conversion. Addressing both the similarity and dissimilarity for these two processes and by fully considering the special requirements for the latter reaction, a Compound Parabolic Concentrator (CPC) based photocatalytic hydrogen production solar reactor has been designed for the first time. The design and optimization of this CPC based solar reactor has been discussed in detail. Preliminary results demonstrated that efficient photocatalytic hydrogen production under direct solar light can be accomplished by coupling tubular reactors with CPC concentrators. It is anticipated that this first demonstration of concentrator-based solar photocatalytic hydrogen production would draw attention for further studies in this promising direction.

  1. Strategies and Methodologies for Developing Microbial Detoxification Systems to Mitigate Mycotoxins

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yan Zhu

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available Mycotoxins, the secondary metabolites of mycotoxigenic fungi, have been found in almost all agricultural commodities worldwide, causing enormous economic losses in livestock production and severe human health problems. Compared to traditional physical adsorption and chemical reactions, interest in biological detoxification methods that are environmentally sound, safe and highly efficient has seen a significant increase in recent years. However, researchers in this field have been facing tremendous unexpected challenges and are eager to find solutions. This review summarizes and assesses the research strategies and methodologies in each phase of the development of microbiological solutions for mycotoxin mitigation. These include screening of functional microbial consortia from natural samples, isolation and identification of single colonies with biotransformation activity, investigation of the physiological characteristics of isolated strains, identification and assessment of the toxicities of biotransformation products, purification of functional enzymes and the application of mycotoxin decontamination to feed/food production. A full understanding and appropriate application of this tool box should be helpful towards the development of novel microbiological solutions on mycotoxin detoxification.

  2. Breaking the 'detox-loop' for alcoholics with social detoxification.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Richman, A; Neumann, B

    1984-01-01

    A significant number of alcoholics do not respond to detoxification as a step on the way to rehabilitation. Instead, they periodically 'dry out' and subsequently return to alcohol abuse. They do not accept the responsibilities inherent in the sick role (cooperation in order to improve status of health by entering and continuing treatment), although they do accept the privileges (care, shelter and asylum). Repeated detoxifications (within medical and non-medical settings) of persons who do not commit themselves to entering rehabilitation, are of minimum benefit to the patient and absorb resources which could be better used by those more amendable to treatment. An appropriate level of care--social detoxification--should be provided for ' detox - loopers '. Such a model can focus on the alcoholic's social welfare needs. Social detoxification provides both respite and basic care. The door to ongoing rehabilitation through professional services, as well as self-help groups, can remain open, without being the main objective of the centre.

  3. Changes in Nutrition-Related Behaviors in Alcohol-Dependent Patients After Outpatient Detoxification: The Role of Chocolate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stickel, Anna; Rohdemann, Maren; Landes, Tom; Engel, Katharina; Banas, Roman; Heinz, Andreas; Müller, Christian A

    2016-01-01

    Previous studies have reported changes in nutrition-related behaviors in alcohol-dependent patients after alcohol detoxification, but prospective studies assessing the effects of these changes on maintaining abstinence are lacking. To assess changes in craving and consumption of chocolate and other sweets over time up to six months after outpatient alcohol detoxification treatment and to detect differences in abstinent versus nonabstinent patients. One hundred and fifty alcohol-dependent patients were included in this prospective observational study. Participants completed self-report questionnaires on nutrition-related behaviors and craving before detoxification treatment (baseline, t1), one week (t2), one month (t3), and six months later (t4). Significant changes in craving for and consumption of chocolate as well as in craving for other sweets were observed over time. Increases were most prominent within the first month. Patients who remained abstinent until t3 consumed three times more chocolate than nonabstainers. One quarter of the patients switched from being rare (t1) to frequent (t3) chocolate eaters, and 84% of these remained abstinent until t3. No significant correlations were found between craving for alcohol and craving for or consumption of chocolate or other sweets. In the first month after outpatient alcohol detoxification treatment, significant changes in nutrition-related behaviors were observed. These changes were not associated with alcohol craving. For a subgroup, increasing the frequency of chocolate consumption might be a temporary protective factor with respect to alcohol relapse.

  4. DEVELOPMENT OF PASSIVE DETOXIFICATION TECHNOLOGY FOR GOLD HEAP LEACH STOCKPILED WASTES

    OpenAIRE

    M.P. Belykh; A.Yu. Chikin; S.V. Petrov; N.L. Belkova

    2017-01-01

    Purpose. The processes of biopassive detoxication are of special interest for the solution of environmental issues of detoxification of gold heap leach cyanide-bearing wastes whose detoxification period is unlimited. These processes are based on spontaneous degradation of cyanides under the influence of natural factors including the action of autochthonous bacterial community. The purpose of the work is to develop a biopassive detoxification technology of heap leach stockpiled wastes. Methods...

  5. Investigation of the detoxification mechanism of formaldehyde-treated tetanus toxin

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thaysen-Andersen, Morten; Jørgensen, Sys Borcher; Wilhelmsen, Ellen Sloth

    2007-01-01

    and properties of the vaccine component, occurs through partly unknown chemical modifications of the toxin. The aim of this study was to gain knowledge of the detoxification mechanism in the generation of the tetanus vaccine. Two approaches were chosen: (i) the effect of changes in the concentrations of lysine...... The tetanus vaccine is based on the extremely potent tetanus neurotoxin (TeNT), which is converted by treatment with formaldehyde and lysine into the non-toxic, but still immunogenic tetanus toxoid (TTd). This formaldehyde-induced detoxification, which to a large extend determines the quality...... and formaldehyde in the detoxification process and (ii) characterisation of the chemically detoxified TTd. (i) We examined a number of TTd components that was produced by varying the concentrations of formaldehyde and lysine during the inactivation. Toxicity tests showed that the detoxification failed when...

  6. Outcomes of adult heroin users v. abstinent users four years after presenting for heroin detoxification treatment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zureida Khan

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Background. There are no studies in South Africa (SA on the outcomes following detoxification and psychosocial rehabilitation of heroin-dependent patients. Objective. To compare the demographic, clinical, forensic and treatment data of active heroin users v. users who were abstinent at the time of interview 4 years after attending the Opioid Detoxification Unit at Stikland Hospital in the Western Cape Province, SA.  Method. Participants included patients above the age of 16 years who had been admitted to the Opioid Detoxification Unit at Stikland Hospital for heroin detoxification between July 2006 and June 2007. Participants were individually interviewed (either in person or tele­phonically using a structured self-report questionnaire to collect demographic, clinical, forensic and treatment data 4 years following heroin detoxification treatment at this unit.  Results. Of the participants, 60% were abstinent and a large portion (34% attributed this to social support. Furthermore, there was a significant (p=0.04 difference in the longest period of abstinence between the past user group and active users, with more participants in the past user group being abstinent for 18 months or longer (n=24, 57% than in the active users group (n=8, 29%. Active users (n=18, 64% had significantly (p=0.03 more legal problems than abstinent users (n=14, 33%. Most participants (n=38, 54% relapsed within 3 months after index detoxification and rehabilitation.  Conclusion. Active users had more legal problems than abstinent users, with social support structures playing a pivotal role in abstinence. Future research should assess the impact of interventions such as post-discharge social support programmes on criminality and heroin use in those that relapse following treatment.

  7. Assessment of the dye-sensitized solar cell

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    McConnell, R. D. [Center for Basic Sciences, National Renewable Energy Laboratory, MIS 3211, 1617 Cole Boulevard, Golden, CO 80401 (United States)

    2002-09-01

    The field of solar electricity, or photovoltaics (PV), is rich in that there are many materials and concepts for converting sunlight into electricity. The technologies accepted as conventional are those well along in the process of commercialization. The dye-sensitized solar cell, developed in the 1990s, is a nonconventional solar electric technology that has attracted much attention, perhaps a result of its record cell efficiency above 10%. This paper reviews the technology, discusses new research results and approaches presented at a recent symposium of many of the world's important dye solar cell researchers, and presents an assessment of the dye-sensitized solar cell in a comparison with current conventional solar electric technologies. It concludes the dye solar cell has potential for becoming a cost-effective means for producing electricity, capable of competing with available solar electric technologies and, eventually, with today's conventional power technologies. But it is a relatively new technology and faces many hurdles on the path to commercialization. Because of its potential, this assessment recommends further funding for research and development (RandD) of the dye-sensitized solar cell technology on the basis of the promising technical characteristics of the technology, a strong US and worldwide research base, positive industry interest, and today's relatively small funding allocation for its RandD. (Author)

  8. Plant mediated detoxification of mercury and lead

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Brajesh Kumar

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available In recent years, the development of efficient green chemistry methods for detoxification of metal poisoning has become a major focus of researchers. They have investigated in order to find an eco-friendly and recyclable technique for the removal of heavy metal (Pb2+, Hg2+ contamination from the natural resources. One of the most considered methods is the removal of Pb2+, Hg2+ metal using green plants and their wastes. Among these plant wastes seem to be the best candidates and they are suitable for detoxification of heavy metals. Biosorption by plants involve complex mechanisms, mainly ion exchange, chelation, adsorption by physical forces and ion entrapment in inter and intra fibrillar capillaries and spaces of the structural polysaccharide cell wall network. The advantages of using green plants and their wastes for detoxification of heavy metal have interested researchers to investigate mechanisms of metal ion uptake, and to understand the possible utilization. In this review, we discuss the role of plants and their wastes for minimizing mercury and lead pollution with their toxic effect on both human beings and plants.

  9. High-power, ultralow-mass solar arrays: FY-77 solar arrays technology readiness assessment report, volume 2

    Science.gov (United States)

    Costogue, E. N.; Young, L. E.; Brandhorst, H. W., Jr.

    1978-01-01

    Development efforts are reported in detail for: (1) a lightweight solar array system for solar electric propulsion; (2) a high efficiency thin silicon solar cell; (3) conceptual design of 200 W/kg solar arrays; (4) fluorocarbon encapsulation for silicon solar cell array; and (5) technology assessment of concentrator solar arrays.

  10. Cytotoxicity of TiO{sub 2} nanoparticles and their detoxification in a freshwater system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dalai, Swayamprava; Pakrashi, Sunandan; Joyce Nirmala, M.; Chaudhri, Apoorvi; Chandrasekaran, N. [Centre for Nanobiotechnology, VIT University, Vellore (India); Mandal, A.B. [Chemical Laboratory, Central Leather Research Institute, Chennai (India); Mukherjee, Amitava, E-mail: amitav@vit.ac.in [Centre for Nanobiotechnology, VIT University, Vellore (India)

    2013-08-15

    Highlights: •TiO{sub 2} NPs cytotoxicity at low exposure levels (≤1 μg/mL) to freshwater algae. •ROS generation, NP adsorption and internalization contributors to toxicity. •Observational evidence of genotoxicity by nanoparticles in an algal cell. •Reduced bioavailability thus detoxification of NPs by microalgae. •Possible role of EPS in detoxification. -- Abstract: In the current study, two aspects concerning (i) the cytotoxicity potential of TiO{sub 2} nanoparticles (NPs) toward freshwater algal isolate Scenedesmus obliquus and (ii) the potential detoxification of NPs by the microalgae were assessed under light (UV-illumination) and dark conditions at low exposure levels (≤1 μg/mL), using sterile freshwater as the test medium. The statistically significant reduction in cell viability, increase in reactive oxygen species production and membrane permeability (light vs. dark) suggested photo-induced toxicity of TiO{sub 2} NPs. The electron micrographs demonstrated adsorption of the NPs onto the cell surface and substantiated their internalization/uptake. The fluorescence micrographs and the confocal laser scanning (CLSM) images suggested the absence of a definite/intact nucleus in the light treated cells pointing toward the probable genotoxic effects of NPs. In a separate three cycle experiment, a continuous decrease in the cytotoxicity was observed, whereas, at the end of each cycle only fresh algae were added to the supernatant containing NPs from the previous cycle. The decreasing concentrations of the NPs in the subsequent cycles owing to agglomeration–sedimentation processes exacerbated by the algal interactions played a crucial role in the detoxification. In addition, the exo-polymeric substances produced by the cells could have rendered the available NPs less reactive, thereby, enhancing the detoxification effects.

  11. Can Chlorella pyrenoidosa be a bioindicator for hazardous solid waste detoxification?

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hu, Li-Fang, E-mail: hulif127@163.com [College of Quality and Safety Engineering, China Jiliang University, Hangzhou 310018 (China); Long, Yu-Yang; Shen, Dong-Sheng [School of Environmental Science and Engineering, Zhejiang Gongshang University, Hangzhou 310012 (China); Jiang, Chen-Jing [The Second Institute of Oceanography, SOA, Hangzhou 310012 (China)

    2012-02-01

    Four kinds of solid waste residue (SWR, S1 to S4) from different stages in a sequential detoxification process were chosen. The biotoxicity of the leachates from S1 to S4 was tested by Chlorella pyrenoidosa. The growth inhibition, the chlorophyll a (chla) and chlorophyll b (chlb) concentrations, and the ultrastructural morphology of cells of C. pyrenoidosa were studied. It shows that the growth inhibition of C. pyrenoidosa significantly increased with increasing leachate concentration when exposed to the leachates from S1, S2, S3, and S4, respectively. It well reflects the toxicity difference of leachate from SWR at different treatment stages, namely S1 > S2 > S3 > S4. Correspondingly, the chla and chlb concentrations of C. pyrenoidosa increased gradually as SWR was treated deeply. Leachate disrupted chlorophyll synthesis and inhibited cell growth. The changing of the ultrastructural morphology of cells under different leachate exposures, such as volume of chloroplasts and quantity of thylakoids reducing, confirmed the toxicity decrease of leachates from different stages. C. pyrenoidosa is a good bioindicator for hazardous solid waste detoxification. The EC{sub 50} at difference scenarios also suggests that it was feasible to estimate ecological toxicity of leachates to C. pyrenoidosa after exposure times of 72 h. C. pyrenoidosa can be introduced to evaluate the effect of hazardous solid waste disposal by biotoxicity assessment. - Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The detoxification process of hazardous solid waste was evaluated by Chlorella pyrenoidosa. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The best exposure time of ecological toxicity assessment of Chlorella pyrenoidosa was presented. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The possible toxicity of the hazardous solid waste at different disposal stage on Chlorella pyrenoidosa was explored from cell tissue.

  12. Sulfide Intrusion and Detoxification in the Seagrass Zostera marina

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hasler-Sheetal, Harald; Holmer, Marianne

    2015-01-01

    Gaseous sulfide intrusion into seagrasses growing in sulfidic sediments causes little or no harm to the plant, indicating the presence of an unknown sulfide tolerance or detoxification mechanism. We assessed such mechanism in the seagrass Zostera marina in the laboratory and in the field...... as sulfate throughout the plant. We conclude that avoidance of sulfide exposure by reoxidation of sulfide in the rhizosphere or aerenchyma and tolerance of sulfide intrusion by incorporation of sulfur in the plant are likely major survival strategies of seagrasses in sulfidic sediments....

  13. Enzymatic Mercury Detoxification: The Regulatory Protein MerR

    CERN Multimedia

    Ctortecka, B; Walsh, C T; Comess, K M

    2002-01-01

    Mercury ions and organomercurial reagents are extremely toxic due to their affinity for thiol groups. Many bacteria contain an elaborate detoxification system for a metabolic conversion of toxic Hg$^{2+}$ or organomercurials to less toxic elemental Hg$^0$. The main components of the enzymatic mercury detoxification (see Fig. 1) are the regulatory protein MerR (mercury responsive genetic switch), the organomercurial lyase MerB (cleavage of carbon mercury bonds), and the mercuric ion reductase MerA (reduction of mercuric ions). In these proteins Hg$^{2+}$ is usually coordinated by the thiol groups of cysteines. We utilize the nuclear quadrupole interaction (NQI) of ${\\rm^{199m}}$Hg detected by time differential perturbed angular correlation (TDPAC) to identify the Hg metal site geometries in these proteins in order to elucidate the molecular origin of the ultrasensitivity, selectivity and reaction mechanism of this detoxification system. The short lived TDPAC probe ${\\rm^{199m}}$Hg ($\\tau_{1/2} =$ 43 min) is su...

  14. High utilization of inpatient detoxification: predictors among US veterans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chang, Grace; Raffi, Edwin; Tang, Michael; Fernando, Gerard I; Zucker, Jarred; Schein, Abigail Z

    2016-05-01

    Readmissions are among the most problematic and expensive problems in the treatment of substance use disorders. To evaluate the characteristics associated with four or more inpatient medically managed detoxification admissions in FY 2012, when all had post-discharge appointments within 7 days. A retrospective case control study. A total of 38 (6.0%) of 623 unique veterans had four or more detoxification admissions (high utilizers). A random sample of 42 was selected from the remaining 585 people (comparison group). In all, 264 detoxification and 70 hospital admissions for other reasons were reviewed. The high utilizers had more alcohol use disorder (AUD, 82% versus 59%, p = 0.03) of significantly longer duration (mean 28.9 years [SD = 17] vs. 19.6 [SD = 13.4], p = 0.01). AUD increased the odds of being a high utilizer three-fold [OR = 3.0, 95% CI 1.1, 8.4], and every additional year of AUD, increased the number of admissions 1.3%, p = 0.0006. The high utilizers did not differ from the comparison group with regards to either number of hospitalizations for other reasons (mean 1.2 [SD = 1.9] vs. 0.57 [SD = 0.8], p = 0.06) or rate of 7 day post discharge appointments kept (46.9% vs. 49.3%, p = 0.82). High utilizers were a small percentage of patients (6.0%) who accounted for a disproportionate number (23%) of 977 detoxification admissions. They had greater disease severity as manifest by more years of AUD. They were not more likely to have hospitalizations for other reasons or less likely to keep post discharge appointments. These patients may warrant different services tailored to prevent hospital readmissions for detoxification.

  15. Detoxification enzymes activities in deltamethrin and bendiocarb ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Detoxification enzymes activities in deltamethrin and bendiocarb resistant and susceptible malarial vectors ( Anopheles gambiae ) breeding in Bichi agricultural and residential sites, Kano state, Nigeria.

  16. Plataforma Solar de Almeria. Annual report 1997-1998. Final report; Plataforma Solar de Almeria. Haushaltsjahre 1997-1998. Abschlussbericht

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1999-10-01

    The performance and yields of thes following units and components are described: (a) Tower focus power plants and their components (TSA; RAS; Large Heliostat technology Program; Volumetric Receivers; REFOS); (b) Solar trough power stations and their components (DISS - Direct solar evaporation; ARDISS/PAREX test facility; EUROTROUGH - development of a cost-optimized European parabolic trough collector); (c) Solar chemistry (photocatalytic detoxification; solar synthesis of fine chemicals); (d) Dish/Stirling systems (HYHPIRE); (e) AP solar thermal technology transfer in the Mediterranean (THESEUS 50 MW{sub el} THErmal Solar European Power Statio at Frangokastello, Crete; SolWin; World-wide market introduction of solar thermal power stations). [German] Der bisher erzielter Erfolg und seine Auswirkungen wird fuer die folgenden Anlagen und Komponenten beschrieben. Diese sind: (a) Turmkraftwerke und deren Komponenten (TSA; RAS; Large Heliostat Technology Program; Volumetrische Receiver; REFOS), (b) Rinnenkraftwerke und deren Komponenten (DISS - Solare Direktverdampfung; ARDISS/PAREX Versuchsanlage; EUROTROUGH - Entwicklung eines kostenoptimierten europaeischen Parabolrinnenkollektors), (c) Solare Chemie (Photokatalytische Detoxifikation; Solare Synthese von Feinchemikalien), (d) Dish/Stirling Systeme (HYHPIRE), (e) AP Solarthermischer Technologietransfer im Mittelmeerraum (THESEUS - 50 MW{sub el} THErmal Solar European Power Station in Frangokastello, Kreta; SolWin; Weltweite Markteinfuehrung solarthermischer Kraftwerkstechnologie). (orig./AKF)

  17. General anaesthesia does not improve outcome in opioid antagonist detoxification treatment : a randomized controlled trial

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    De Jong, Cor A J; Laheij, Robert J F; Krabbe, Paul F M

    AIM: Opioid detoxification by administering opioid-antagonists under general anaesthesia has caused considerable controversy. This study is conducted to determine whether rapid detoxification under general anaesthesia results in higher levels of opioid abstinence than rapid detoxification without

  18. General anaesthesia does not improve outcome in opioid antagonist detoxification treatment: a randomized controlled trial.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jong, C.A.J. de; Laheij, R.J.F.; Krabbe, P.F.M.

    2005-01-01

    AIM: Opioid detoxification by administering opioid-antagonists under general anaesthesia has caused considerable controversy. This study is conducted to determine whether rapid detoxification under general anaesthesia results in higher levels of opioid abstinence than rapid detoxification without

  19. General anaesthesia does not improve outcome in opioid antagonist detoxification treatment: a randomised controlled trial

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jong, C.A.J. de; Laheij, R.J.F.; Krabbe, P.F.M.

    2005-01-01

    Aim  Opioid detoxification by administering opioid-antagonists under general anaesthesia has caused considerable controversy. This study is conducted to determine whether rapid detoxification under general anaesthesia results in higher levels of opioid abstinence than rapid detoxification without

  20. Detoxification with titration and tapering in gamma-hydroxybutyrate (GHB) dependent patients: The Dutch GHB monitor project.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dijkstra, Boukje A G; Kamal, Rama; van Noorden, Martijn S; de Haan, Hein; Loonen, Anton J M; De Jong, Cor A J

    2017-01-01

    Gamma-hydroxybutyrate (GHB) detoxification procedures have been insufficiently studied for effectiveness and safety. Based on case reports, benzodiazepines are generally regarded as first-choice agents in GHB detoxification. Detoxification by titration and tapering (DeTiTap) with pharmaceutical GHB in an open-label consecutive case series of 23 GHB-dependent patients showed to be feasible, effective and safe. This study further explored the feasibility, effectiveness and safety of this detoxification procedure in a large group of patients. A large observational multicenter study was carried out in six addiction treatment centers in the Netherlands. GHB-dependent inpatients (229 unique patients, 274 admissions) were titrated on and tapered off with pharmaceutical GHB. Successful detoxification was achieved in 85% of cases. Detoxification was carried out in 12.5days in most patients. The DeTiTap procedure proved to be feasible and significantly reduced the experienced withdrawal symptoms and craving (p≤0.001). Several symptoms were found to influence the course of subjective withdrawal symptoms. During detoxification, psychological symptoms such as depression, anxiety, and stress decreased (p≤0.05). The main complications were hypertension and anxiety. Six patients were sent to the general hospital for observation, but all six were able to continue detoxification in the addiction treatment centers. Most patients (69%) relapsed within three months after detoxification. The DeTiTap procedure using pharmaceutical GHB seems a safe alternative to benzodiazepines as a GHB detoxification procedure. However, the high relapse rates warrant further investigation. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. Technical Procedures Management in Gas-Phase Detoxification Laboratory; Procedimientos Tecnicos de Ensayo en el Laboratorio de Destoxificacion en Fase Gas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cardona Garcia, A. I.; Sanchez Cabrero, B

    2000-07-01

    The natural cycle of Volatile Organic Compounds (VOCs) has been disturbed by the industrial and socioeconomic activities of human beings. This imbalance in the environment has effects the ecosystems and and the human health. Initiatives have been planned to mitigate these adverse effects. In order to minimize the hazardous effects, initiatives have been proposed for the treatment of gaseous emissions. The solar photocatalysis appears as a clear and renewable technology in front of the conventional ones. In CIEMAT this lines is being investigated as the base of a future implementation at a preindustrial scale. Technical procedures are written in this document for testing Gas-Phase detoxification at lab scale in the Renewable Energy Department (DER) CIEMAT-Madrid to eliminate the VOCs by using the solar photocatalysis technology. (Author) 18 refs.

  2. 75 FR 66078 - Draft Environmental Impact Statement/Staff Assessment for the Solar Reserve LLC Rice Solar Energy...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-27

    ... Assessment for the Solar Reserve LLC Rice Solar Energy Project, Riverside County, CA (DOE/ EIS-0439) and...) Plan Amendment, as a joint environmental analysis document for the proposed Rice Solar Energy Project... two new on-site wells. Rice Solar Energy, LLC (RSE) has applied to Western to interconnect the...

  3. Contributions of ludic care in nursing to chemical detoxification due to the use of crack cocaine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paola Aparecida Pavanatto

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: to understand the contributions of ludic care in nursing by stimulating the acceptance of chemical detoxification from crack on the perception of people in the detoxification process. METHODS: an exploratory, descriptive study with a qualitative approach, performed with five people hospitalized for chemical detoxification from crack, from March to July 2013 in a chemical detox unit of a midsize hospital in the central region of Rio Grande do Sul. Data was collected using a semi-structured interview and was subjected to content analysis. RESULTS: Two categories emerged: Ludic care in nursing as a stimulus to the acceptance of chemical detoxification; Ludic care in nursing in the promotion for healthy living after chemical detoxification. CONCLUSION: ludic care in nursing proved to enhance the acceptance of chemical detoxification from crack in the reality investigated.

  4. Detoxification with titration and tapering in gamma-hydroxybutyrate (GHB) dependent patients : The Dutch GHB monitor project

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dijkstra, Boukje A G; Kamal, Rama; van Noorden, Martijn S; de Haan, Hein; Loonen, Anton J.M.; De Jong, Cor A J

    2016-01-01

    BACKGROUND AND AIMS: Gamma-hydroxybutyrate (GHB) detoxification procedures have been insufficiently studied for effectiveness and safety. Based on case reports, benzodiazepines are generally regarded as first-choice agents in GHB detoxification. Detoxification by titration and tapering (DeTiTap)

  5. Is arsenic biotransformation a detoxification mechanism for microorganisms?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rahman, M. Azizur; Hassler, Christel

    2014-01-01

    Arsenic (As) is extremely toxic to living organisms at high concentration. In aquatic systems, As exists in different chemical forms. The two major inorganic As (iAs) species are As V , which is thermodynamically stable in oxic waters, and As III , which is predominant in anoxic conditions. Photosynthetic microorganisms (e.g., phytoplankton and cyanobacteria) take up As V , biotransform it to As III , then biomethylate it to methylarsenic (MetAs) forms. Although As III is more toxic than As V , As III is much more easily excreted from the cells than As V . Therefore, majority of researchers consider the reduction of As V to As III as a detoxification process. The biomethylation process results in the conversion of toxic iAs to the less toxic pentavalent MetAs forms (monomethylarsonate; MMA V , dimethylarsonate; DMA V , and trimethylarsenic oxide; TMAO V ) and trimethylarsine (TMAO III ). However, biomethylation by microorganisms also produces monomethylarsenite (MMA III ) and dimethylarsenite (DMA III ), which are more toxic than iAs, as a result of biomethylation by the microorganisms, demonstrates the need to reconsider to what extent As biomethylation contributes to a detoxification process. In this review, we focused on the discussion of whether the biotransformation of As species in microorganisms is really a detoxification process with recent data

  6. NREL Solar Radiation Resource Assessment Project: Status and outlook

    Science.gov (United States)

    Renne, D.; Riordan, C.; Maxwell, E.; Stoffel, T.; Marion, B.; Rymes, M.; Wilcox, S.; Myers, D.

    1992-05-01

    This report summarizes the activities and accomplishments of NREL's Solar Radiation Resource Assessment Project during fiscal year 1991. Currently, the primary focus of the SRRAP is to produce a 1961 - 1990 National Solar Radiation Data Base, providing hourly values of global horizontal, diffuse, and direct normal solar radiation at approximately 250 sites around the United States. Because these solar radiation quantities were measured intermittently at only about 50 of these sites, models were developed and applied to the majority of the stations to provide estimates of these parameters. Although approximately 93 percent of the data base consists of modeled data this represents a significant improvement over the SOLMET/ERSATZ 1952 - 1975 data base. The magnitude and importance of this activity are such that the majority of SRRAP human and financial resources were devoted to the data base development. However, in FY 1991 the SRRAP was involved in many other activities, which are reported here. These include the continued maintenance of a solar radiation monitoring network in the southeast United States at six Historically Black Colleges and Universities (HBCU's), the transfer of solar radiation resource assessment technology through a variety of activities, participation in international programs, and the maintenance and operation of NREL's Solar Radiation Research Laboratory.

  7. Detoxification of furfural residues hydrolysate for butanol fermentation by Clostridium saccharobutylicum DSM 13864.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dong, Jin-Jun; Han, Rui-Zhi; Xu, Guo-Chao; Gong, Lei; Xing, Wan-Ru; Ni, Ye

    2018-07-01

    The toxicity of furfural residues (FRs) hydrolysate is a major obstacle in its application. This work focused on the detoxification of FRs hydrolysate and its application in butanol fermentation. Combination of activated carbon and resin 717 was appropriate for the detoxification of hydrolysate. Mixed sterilization of FRs hydrolysate and corn steep liquor (CSL) was better than the separate ones, since proteins in CSL could adsorb and remove toxic components during sterilization. The results further confirmed that simultaneous sterilization of activated carbon + resin and fermentation medium was more efficient for detoxification and butanol production, in which 76.4% of phenolic compounds and 99.3% of Maillard reaction products were removed, 8.48 g/L butanol and 12.61 g/L total solvent were obtained. This study provides feasible and economic approaches for the detoxification of FRs hydrolysate and its application in butanol production. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Is arsenic biotransformation a detoxification mechanism for microorganisms?

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rahman, M. Azizur, E-mail: Mohammad.Rahman@uts.edu.au [Centre for Environmental Sustainability, School of the Environment, Faculty of Science, University of Technology, P.O. Box 123, Broadway, Sydney, NSW 2007 (Australia); Hassler, Christel [Marine and Lake Biogeochemistry, Institute F. A. Forel, University of Geneva, 10 rte de Suisse, Versoix, 1290 Switzerland (Switzerland)

    2014-01-15

    Arsenic (As) is extremely toxic to living organisms at high concentration. In aquatic systems, As exists in different chemical forms. The two major inorganic As (iAs) species are As{sup V}, which is thermodynamically stable in oxic waters, and As{sup III}, which is predominant in anoxic conditions. Photosynthetic microorganisms (e.g., phytoplankton and cyanobacteria) take up As{sup V}, biotransform it to As{sup III}, then biomethylate it to methylarsenic (MetAs) forms. Although As{sup III} is more toxic than As{sup V}, As{sup III} is much more easily excreted from the cells than As{sup V}. Therefore, majority of researchers consider the reduction of As{sup V} to As{sup III} as a detoxification process. The biomethylation process results in the conversion of toxic iAs to the less toxic pentavalent MetAs forms (monomethylarsonate; MMA{sup V}, dimethylarsonate; DMA{sup V}, and trimethylarsenic oxide; TMAO{sup V}) and trimethylarsine (TMAO{sup III}). However, biomethylation by microorganisms also produces monomethylarsenite (MMA{sup III}) and dimethylarsenite (DMA{sup III}), which are more toxic than iAs, as a result of biomethylation by the microorganisms, demonstrates the need to reconsider to what extent As biomethylation contributes to a detoxification process. In this review, we focused on the discussion of whether the biotransformation of As species in microorganisms is really a detoxification process with recent data.

  9. Impairment of cognitive abilities and decision making after chronic use of alcohol: the impact of multiple detoxifications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Loeber, Sabine; Duka, Theodora; Welzel, Helga; Nakovics, Helmut; Heinz, Andreas; Flor, Herta; Mann, Karl

    2009-01-01

    In the present study, the effect of previous detoxifications on prefrontal function and decision making was examined in alcohol-dependent patients. Further, we examined whether the length of abstinence affects cognitive function. Forty-eight alcohol-dependent patients were recruited from an inpatient detoxification treatment facility and cognitive function was compared to a control group of 36 healthy controls. The patient population was then divided into a group of patients with less than two previous detoxifications (LO-detox group, n = 27) and a group of patients with two or more previous detoxifications (HI-detox group, n = 21) and cognitive function was compared. In addition, cognitive function of recently (i.e. less than 16 days; median split) and longer abstinent patients was compared. We assessed prefrontal function, memory function and intelligence. Alcoholics, when compared to healthy controls, performed worse with regard to the performance index Attention/Executive function. Cognitive impairment in these tasks was pronounced in recently abstinent patients. We found no significant differences between HI-detox and LO-detox patients with regard to the Attention/Executive function. However, in the IOWA gambling Task, the HI-detox group seemed to be less able to learn to choose cards from the more advantageous decks over time. Our results provide additional evidence for cognitive impairment of alcohol-dependent patients with regard to tasks sensitive to frontal lobe function and underline the importance of abstinence for these impairments to recover. We found only little evidence for the impairing effects of repeated withdrawal on prefrontal function and we suggest that executive function is affected earlier in dependence.

  10. Benzo(a)pyrene activation and detoxification by human pulmonary alveolar macrophages and lymphocytes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Marshall, M.V.; McLemore, T.L.; Martin, R.R.; Marshall, M.H.; Wray, N.P.; Busbee, D.L.; Cantrell, E.T.; Arnott, M.S.; Griffin, A.C.

    1980-01-01

    Comparisons of pulmonary alveolar macrophages and circulating lymphocytes from five smokers and five nonsmokers for their ability to metabolize benzo(a)pyrene as determined by high pressure liquid chromatography were carried out. Utilizing this approach, further investigation of activation and detoxification by several human cell types could provide the basis for more precise and comprehensive studies of carcinogen and drug metabolism in the human lung, and for a better assessment of cancer risk in selected populations

  11. Disentangling detoxification: gene expression analysis of feeding mountain pine beetle illuminates molecular-level host chemical defense detoxification mechanisms.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jeanne A Robert

    Full Text Available The mountain pine beetle, Dendroctonus ponderosae, is a native species of bark beetle (Coleoptera: Curculionidae that caused unprecedented damage to the pine forests of British Columbia and other parts of western North America and is currently expanding its range into the boreal forests of central and eastern Canada and the USA. We conducted a large-scale gene expression analysis (RNA-seq of mountain pine beetle male and female adults either starved or fed in male-female pairs for 24 hours on lodgepole pine host tree tissues. Our aim was to uncover transcripts involved in coniferophagous mountain pine beetle detoxification systems during early host colonization. Transcripts of members from several gene families significantly increased in insects fed on host tissue including: cytochromes P450, glucosyl transferases and glutathione S-transferases, esterases, and one ABC transporter. Other significantly increasing transcripts with potential roles in detoxification of host defenses included alcohol dehydrogenases and a group of unexpected transcripts whose products may play an, as yet, undiscovered role in host colonization by mountain pine beetle.

  12. Assessment of the solar radiation potential of the Thika and Nairobi ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This assessment seeks to provide information on the solar energy resource potential of the Thika – Nairobi area essential in the dissemination of Renewable Energy Technologies which are essentially solar photovoltaic and thermal systems. To achieve this, solar radiation data for three stations (Dagoretti Corner, Thika and ...

  13. Assessment of solar-assisted gas-fired heat pump systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lansing, F. L.

    1981-01-01

    As a possible application for the Goldstone Energy Project, the performance of a 10 ton heat pump unit using a hybrid solar gas energy source was evaluated in an effort to optimize the solar collector size. The heat pump system is designed to provide all the cooling and/or heating requirements of a selected office building. The system performance is to be augmented in the heating mode by utilizing the waste heat from the power cycle. A simplified system analysis is described to assess and compute interrrelationships of the engine, heat pump, and solar and building performance parameters, and to optimize the solar concentrator/building area ratio for a minimum total system cost. In addition, four alternative heating cooling systems, commonly used for building comfort, are described; their costs are compared, and are found to be less competitive with the gas solar heat pump system at the projected solar equipment costs.

  14. A Low Temperature Detoxification Method for Treatment of Chrysotile-Containing Waste Roofing Slate

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hwanju Jo

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available In this study, we evaluated a two-step process for detoxification of waste roofing slate, involving cement hydrate removal and low temperature detoxification using oxalic acid. These treatments were conducted on raw material and intermediate product, respectively. Cement hydrate removal effectively eliminated most Ca-containing cement hydrate components from the raw material under the following conditions: HCl to solid ratio: 0.456 g/g, reaction time: 2 h, and solid to liquid ratio: 0.124 g/mL. Following low temperature (~100 °C detoxification of intermediate product obtained after cement hydrate removal, chrysotile in waste roofing slate was effectively transformed to Mg-oxalate under conditions of oxalic acid to solid ratio of >0.67 g/g.

  15. Shedding light on solar technologies-A techno-economic assessment and its policy implications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Peters, Michael; Schmidt, Tobias S.; Wiederkehr, David; Schneider, Malte

    2011-01-01

    Solar power technologies will have to become a major pillar in the world's future energy system to combat climate change and resource depletion. However, it is unclear which solar technology is and will prove most viable. Therefore, a comprehensive comparative assessment of solar technologies along the key quantitative and qualitative competitiveness criteria is needed. Based on a literature review and detailed techno-economic modeling for 2010 and 2020 in five locations, we provide such an assessment for the three currently leading large-scale solar technologies. We show that today these technologies cannot yet compete with conventional forms of power generation but approach competitiveness around 2020 in favorable locations. Furthermore, from a global perspective we find that none of the solar technologies emerges as a clear winner and that cost of storing energy differs by technology and can change the order of competitiveness in some instances. Importantly, the competitiveness of the different technologies varies considerably across locations due to differences in, e.g., solar resource and discount rates. Based on this analysis, we discuss policy implications with regard to fostering the diffusion of solar technologies while increasing the efficiency of policy support through an adequate geographical allocation of solar technologies. - Highlights: → We conduct a comprehensive comparative assessment of solar technologies (CSP/PV). → While solar technologies approach competitiveness in 2020, no clear winner emerges. → Solar resource and discount rate heavily impact competitiveness of solar technologies. → Adequate geographical allocation of solar technologies increases policy efficiency. → Focus on key cost down levers and strategic co-benefits of solar technologies needed.

  16. Molecular characterisation of two α-esterase genes involving chlorpyrifos detoxification in the diamondback moth, Plutella xylostella.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xie, Miao; Ren, Na-Na; You, Yan-Chun; Chen, Wei-Jun; Song, Qi-Sheng; You, Min-Sheng

    2017-06-01

    Carboxylesterases (CarEs) are involved in metabolic detoxification of dietary and environmental xenobiotics in insects. However, owing to the complexity of the protein family, the involvement of CarEs in insecticide metabolism in Plutella xylostella has not been fully elucidated. This study aimed to characterise two CarE genes and assess their potential roles in response to chlorpyrifos in P. xylostella. Synergistic tests showed that triphenyl phosphate decreased the resistance of the third-instar larvae to chlorpyrifos. The treatment of the third-instar larvae with chlorpyrifos at the LC 30 dose led to a significant increase in CarE activity. Two CarE cDNAs (Pxae18 and Pxae28) were subsequently sequenced and characterised. Both genes were expressed predominantly in the larval midgut. Most importantly, two CarE genes showed significantly higher expression in the chlorpyrifos-resistant strain than in the susceptible strain. RNAi knockdown of Pxae18 and Pxae28 significantly increased the mortality to chlorpyrifos from 40% in the control to 73.8 and 63.3% respectively. RNAi knockdown of Pxae18 and Pxae28 significantly inhibited detoxification ability and increased the mortality in P. xylostella. The results indicate that these two CarE genes play important roles in the detoxification of chlorpyrifos in P. xylostella. © 2016 Society of Chemical Industry. © 2016 Society of Chemical Industry.

  17. Heroin refusal self-efficacy and preference for medication-assisted treatment after inpatient detoxification.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kenney, Shannon R; Bailey, Genie L; Anderson, Bradley J; Stein, Michael D

    2017-10-01

    An individual's self-efficacy to refuse using heroin in high-risk situations is believed to minimize the likelihood for relapse. However, among individuals completing inpatient heroin detoxification, perceived refusal self-efficacy may also reduce one's perceived need for medication-assisted treatment (MAT), an effective and recommended treatment for opioid use disorder. In the current study, we examined the relationship between heroin refusal self-efficacy and preference for MAT following inpatient detoxification. Participants (N=397) were interviewed at the start of brief inpatient opioid detoxification. Multiple logistic regression was used to estimate the adjusted association of background characteristics, depressed mood, and perceived heroin refusal self-efficacy with preference for MAT. Controlling for other covariates, depressed mood and lower perceived refusal self-efficacy were associated with a significantly greater likelihood of expressing preference for MAT (versus no MAT). Perceived ability to refuse heroin after leaving detox is inversely associated with a heroin user's desire for MAT. An effective continuum of care model may benefit from greater attention to patient's perceived refusal self-efficacy during detoxification which may impact preference for MAT and long-term recovery. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  18. Comparison of efficacy between buprenorphine and tramadol in the detoxification of opioid (heroin)-dependent subjects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chawla, Jatinder Mohan; Pal, Hemraj; Lal, Rakesh; Jain, Raka; Schooler, Nina; Balhara, Yatan Pal Singh

    2013-01-01

    Tramadol is a synthetic opiate and a centrally acting weak m-opioid receptor agonist. The potential advantages of tramadol include ease of administration, low abuse potential, and being nonscheduled. This study compared tramadol and buprenorphine for controlling withdrawal symptoms in patients with opioid dependence syndrome. Consenting male subjects between 20 and 45 years of age who fulfilled the ICD-10-DCR criteria for opiate dependence syndrome were randomly assigned in a double-blind, double-dummy placebo-controlled trial for detoxification. Those with multiple drug dependence, abnormal cardiac, renal and hepatic functions, psychosis, or organic mental illness were excluded. Assessments included Subjective Opiate Withdrawal Scale (SOWS), Objective Opiate Withdrawal Scale (OOWS), Visual Analog Scale (VAS), and Side Effect Check List. Subjects were evaluated daily and study duration was 10 days. Sixty two subjects were enrolled. The mean SOWS and OOWS and VAS were significantly lower in the buprenorphine group on second and third day of detoxification as compared to the tramadol group. Although the retention rate was higher for buprenorphine group throughout the study, when compared with tramadol the difference was not significant on any day. Three subjects in the tramadol group had seizures. Tramadol was found to have limited detoxification efficacy in moderate to severe opioid withdrawal and substantial risk of seizures as compared to buprenorphine. Further studies are warranted to examine its efficacy in mild opioid withdrawal symptoms and its potential use in outpatient settings where its administration advantages may be valuable.

  19. Simultaneous allergen inactivation and detoxification of castor bean cake by treatment with calcium compounds

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fernandes, K.V.; Deus-de-Oliveira, N.; Godoy, M.G.; Guimarães, Z.A.S.; Nascimento, V.V.; Melo, E.J.T. de; Freire, D.M.G.; Dansa-Petretski, M.; Machado, O.L.T.

    2012-01-01

    Ricinus communis L. is of great economic importance due to the oil extracted from its seeds. Castor oil has been used for pharmaceutical and industrial applications, as a lubricant or coating agent, as a component of plastic products, as a fungicide or in the synthesis of biodiesel fuels. After oil extraction, a castor cake with a large amount of protein is obtained. However, this by-product cannot be used as animal feed due to the presence of toxic (ricin) and allergenic (2S albumin) proteins. Here, we propose two processes for detoxification and allergen inactivation of the castor cake. In addition, we establish a biological test to detect ricin and validate these detoxification processes. In this test, Vero cells were treated with ricin, and cell death was assessed by cell counting and measurement of lactate dehydrogenase activity. The limit of detection of the Vero cell assay was 10 ng/mL using a concentration of 1.6 × 10 5 cells/well. Solid-state fermentation (SSF) and treatment with calcium compounds were used as cake detoxification processes. For SSF, Aspergillus niger was grown using a castor cake as a substrate, and this cake was analyzed after 24, 48, 72, and 96 h of SSF. Ricin was eliminated after 24 h of SSF treatment. The cake was treated with 4 or 8% Ca(OH) 2 or CaO, and both the toxicity and the allergenic properties were entirely abolished. A by-product free of toxicity and allergens was obtained

  20. Simultaneous allergen inactivation and detoxification of castor bean cake by treatment with calcium compounds

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K.V. Fernandes

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Ricinus communis L. is of great economic importance due to the oil extracted from its seeds. Castor oil has been used for pharmaceutical and industrial applications, as a lubricant or coating agent, as a component of plastic products, as a fungicide or in the synthesis of biodiesel fuels. After oil extraction, a castor cake with a large amount of protein is obtained. However, this by-product cannot be used as animal feed due to the presence of toxic (ricin and allergenic (2S albumin proteins. Here, we propose two processes for detoxification and allergen inactivation of the castor cake. In addition, we establish a biological test to detect ricin and validate these detoxification processes. In this test, Vero cells were treated with ricin, and cell death was assessed by cell counting and measurement of lactate dehydrogenase activity. The limit of detection of the Vero cell assay was 10 ng/mL using a concentration of 1.6 x 10(5 cells/well. Solid-state fermentation (SSF and treatment with calcium compounds were used as cake detoxification processes. For SSF, Aspergillus niger was grown using a castor cake as a substrate, and this cake was analyzed after 24, 48, 72, and 96 h of SSF. Ricin was eliminated after 24 h of SSF treatment. The cake was treated with 4 or 8% Ca(OH2 or CaO, and both the toxicity and the allergenic properties were entirely abolished. A by-product free of toxicity and allergens was obtained.

  1. Simultaneous allergen inactivation and detoxification of castor bean cake by treatment with calcium compounds

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fernandes, K.V.; Deus-de-Oliveira, N. [Laboratório de Química e Função de Proteínas e Peptídeos, Centro de Biociências e Biotecnologia, Universidade Estadual do Norte Fluminense Darcy Ribeiro, Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil); Godoy, M.G. [Laboratório de Biotecnologia Microbiana, Instituto de Química, Universidade Federal do Rio de Janeiro, Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil); Guimarães, Z.A.S. [Laboratório de Biologia Celular e Tecidual, Centro de Biociências e Biotecnologia, Universidade Estadual do Norte Fluminense Darcy Ribeiro, Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil); Nascimento, V.V. [Laboratório de Química e Função de Proteínas e Peptídeos, Centro de Biociências e Biotecnologia, Universidade Estadual do Norte Fluminense Darcy Ribeiro, Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil); Melo, E.J.T. de [Laboratório de Biologia Celular e Tecidual, Centro de Biociências e Biotecnologia, Universidade Estadual do Norte Fluminense Darcy Ribeiro, Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil); Freire, D.M.G. [Laboratório de Biotecnologia Microbiana, Instituto de Química, Universidade Federal do Rio de Janeiro, Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil); Dansa-Petretski, M.; Machado, O.L.T. [Laboratório de Química e Função de Proteínas e Peptídeos, Centro de Biociências e Biotecnologia, Universidade Estadual do Norte Fluminense Darcy Ribeiro, Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil)

    2012-08-24

    Ricinus communis L. is of great economic importance due to the oil extracted from its seeds. Castor oil has been used for pharmaceutical and industrial applications, as a lubricant or coating agent, as a component of plastic products, as a fungicide or in the synthesis of biodiesel fuels. After oil extraction, a castor cake with a large amount of protein is obtained. However, this by-product cannot be used as animal feed due to the presence of toxic (ricin) and allergenic (2S albumin) proteins. Here, we propose two processes for detoxification and allergen inactivation of the castor cake. In addition, we establish a biological test to detect ricin and validate these detoxification processes. In this test, Vero cells were treated with ricin, and cell death was assessed by cell counting and measurement of lactate dehydrogenase activity. The limit of detection of the Vero cell assay was 10 ng/mL using a concentration of 1.6 × 10{sup 5} cells/well. Solid-state fermentation (SSF) and treatment with calcium compounds were used as cake detoxification processes. For SSF, Aspergillus niger was grown using a castor cake as a substrate, and this cake was analyzed after 24, 48, 72, and 96 h of SSF. Ricin was eliminated after 24 h of SSF treatment. The cake was treated with 4 or 8% Ca(OH){sub 2} or CaO, and both the toxicity and the allergenic properties were entirely abolished. A by-product free of toxicity and allergens was obtained.

  2. Modulation of central sensitisation by detoxification in MOH

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Munksgaard, Signe B; Bendtsen, Lars; Jensen, Rigmor H

    2013-01-01

    detoxification. For baseline comparison, we tested 40 healthy controls. We measured cephalic and extra-cephalic pressure-pain thresholds and supra-threshold pressure-pain scores and extra-cephalic pain thresholds, supra-threshold pain scores and temporal summation for electrical stimulation.ResultsOf the 35...

  3. SERI Solar Radiation Resource Assessment Project: Fiscal Year 1990 Annual Progress Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Riordan, C; Maxwell, E; Stoffel, T; Rymes, M; Wilcox, S

    1991-07-01

    The purpose of the Solar Radiation Resource Project is to help meet the needs of the public, government, industry, and utilities for solar radiation data, models, and assessments as required to develop, design, deploy, and operate solar energy conversion systems. The project scientists produce information on the spatial (geographic), temporal (hourly, daily, and seasonal), and spectral (wavelength distribution) variability of solar radiation at different locations in the United States. Resources committed to the project in FY 1990 supported about four staff members, including part-time administrative support. With these resources, the staff must concentrate on solar radiation resource assessment in the United States; funds do not allow for significant efforts to respond to a common need for improved worldwide data. 34 refs., 21 figs., 6 tabs.

  4. Technical and economic assessment of solar hybrid repowering. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    1978-09-01

    Public Service Company of New Mexico (PNM) has performed a Technical and Economic Assessment of Solar Hybrid Repowering under funding by the Department of Energy (DOE), the Electric Power Research Institute (EPRI), Western Energy Supply and Transmission (WEST) Associates, and a number of southwestern utilities. Solar hybrid repowering involves placement of solar hardware adjacent to and connected to existing gas- and oil-fueled electric generation units to displace some of or all the fossil fuel normally used during daylight hours. The subject study assesses the technical economic viability of the solar hybrid repowering concept within the southwestern United States and the PNM system. This document is a final report on the study and its results. The study was divided into the six primary tasks to allow a systematic investigation of the concept: (1) market survey and cost/benefit analysis, (2) study unit selection, (3) conceptual design and cost estimates, (4) unit economic analysis, (5) program planning, future phases, and (6) program management. Reeves Station No. 2 at Albuquerque, New Mexico, was selected for repowering with a design goal of 50 percent (25 MWe). The solar system design is based on the 10 MW solar central receiver pilot plant preliminary design for Barstow, California. SAN--1608-4-2 contains the technical drawings. (WHK)

  5. Solmap: Project In India's Solar Resource Assessment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Indradip Mitra

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available India launched Jawaharlal Nehru National Solar Mission in 2009, which aims to set up 20 000 MW of grid connected solar power, besides 2 000 MW equivalent of off-grid applications and cumulative growth of solar thermal collector area to 20 million m2 by 2022. Availability of reliable and accurate solar radiation data is crucial to achieve the targets. As a result of this initiative, Ministry of New and Renewable Energy (MNRE of Government of India (GoI has awarded a project to Centre for Wind Energy Technology (C-WET, Chennai in the year 2011 to set up 51 Solar Radiation Resource Assessment (SRRA stations using the state-of-the-art equipment in various parts of the country, especially the sites with high potential for solar power. The GoI project has synergy with SolMap project, which is implemented by the Deutsche GesellschaftfürInternationaleZusammenarbeit (GIZ in cooperation with the MNRE. SolMap project is contributing to SRRA project in establishing quality checks on the data obtained as per International protocols and helping data processing to generate investment grade data. The paper highlights the details of SRRA stations and an attempt has been made to present some of the important results of quality control and data analysis with respect to GHI and DNI. While our analysis of the data over one year finds that intensity and profile of the insolation are not uniform across the geographic regions, the variability in DNI is particularly high. Strong influence of monsoon is also identified. SRRA infrastructure aims to develop investment grade solar radiation resource information to assist project activities under the National Solar Mission of India.

  6. The Leeds Evaluation of Efficacy of Detoxification Study (LEEDS project: An open-label pragmatic randomised control trial comparing the efficacy of differing therapeutic agents for primary care detoxification from either street heroin or methadone [ISRCTN07752728

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sheard Laura

    2004-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Heroin is a synthetic opioid with an extensive illicit market leading to large numbers of people becoming addicted. Heroin users often present to community treatment services requesting detoxification and in the UK various agents are used to control symptoms of withdrawal. Dissatisfaction with methadone detoxification 8 has lead to the use of clonidine, lofexidine, buprenorphine and dihydrocodeine; however, there remains limited evaluative research. In Leeds, a city of 700,000 people in the North of England, dihydrocodeine is the detoxification agent of choice. Sublingual buprenorphine, however, is being introduced. The comparative value of these two drugs for helping people successfully and comfortably withdraw from heroin has never been compared in a randomised trial. Additionally, there is a paucity of research evaluating interventions among drug users in the primary care setting. This study seeks to address this by randomising drug users presenting in primary care to receive either dihydrocodeine or buprenorphine. Methods/design The Leeds Evaluation of Efficacy of Detoxification Study (LEEDS project is a pragmatic randomised trial which will compare the open use of buprenorphine with dihydrocodeine for illicit opiate detoxification, in the UK primary care setting. The LEEDS project will involve consenting adults and will be run in specialist general practice surgeries throughout Leeds. The primary outcome will be the results of a urine opiate screening at the end of the detoxification regimen. Adverse effects and limited data to three and six months will be acquired.

  7. Assessment of integrated solar ultraviolet radiation by PM-355 detectors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Abu-Jarad, F.; Al-Jarallah, M.I.; Elhadidy, M.A.; Shaahid, S.M.; Fazal-ur-Rehman

    2000-01-01

    The increase in environmental solar UV radiation due to depletion of ozone layer is a recent challenge to human health (skin cancer and eye effects) in countries having clear skies. Therefore, applying integrated, passive and inexpensive techniques to assess solar UV radiation is very much essential. Measurements of environmental solar UV radiation in Dhahran, Saudi Arabia area were carried out for a period of two months in the summer period in 1996 using two techniques in parallel namely: passive nuclear track detectors and active solar UV radiometers. Some of the nuclear track detectors were mounted in different conditions such as: under shadow band, on solar tracking mechanism following the solar rays. Others were mounted on perpendicular, tilted and horizontal surfaces in sunlight. All detectors were attached to a wooden background of the same thickness (0.5 cm) to eliminate interference of the heat effect of various support materials and have uniformity of the support materials. The assessment was carried out for different periods extending from two to nine weeks continuously. The investigated period covered the hottest months in Saudi Arabia (July and August) when the sky was clear of clouds. The results indicate linear correlation between alpha track diameters and the integrated exposure to solar UV as measured by the solar UV radiometer for all nuclear track detector positions and orientations. The highest slope has been observed for the detectors placed on solar tracking mechanism following the solar rays and the lowest from detectors oriented under the shadow band on horizontal position (measuring the diffused UV radiation only). The results show that most of the measured UV radiation (60%) were from the diffused UV radiation. The characteristics of the upper layer of the detectors are changed after chemical etching very quickly, with increase in the exposure time to UV solar radiation at certain orientation. The results encourage the use of nuclear track

  8. Assessment of integrated solar ultraviolet radiation by PM-355 detectors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Abu-Jarad, F.; Al-Jarallah, M.I.; Elhadidy, M.A.; Shaahid, S.M.; Fazal-ur-Rehman

    2000-06-01

    The increase in environmental solar UV radiation due to depletion of ozone layer is a recent challenge to human health (skin cancer and eye effects) in countries having clear skies. Therefore, applying integrated, passive and inexpensive techniques to assess solar UV radiation is very much essential. Measurements of environmental solar UV radiation in Dhahran, Saudi Arabia area were carried out for a period of two months in the summer period in 1996 using two techniques in parallel namely: passive nuclear track detectors and active solar UV radiometers. Some of the nuclear track detectors were mounted in different conditions such as: under shadow band, on solar tracking mechanism following the solar rays. Others were mounted on perpendicular, tilted and horizontal surfaces in sunlight. All detectors were attached to a wooden background of the same thickness (0.5 cm) to eliminate interference of the heat effect of various support materials and have uniformity of the support materials. The assessment was carried out for different periods extending from two to nine weeks continuously. The investigated period covered the hottest months in Saudi Arabia (July and August) when the sky was clear of clouds. The results indicate linear correlation between alpha track diameters and the integrated exposure to solar UV as measured by the solar UV radiometer for all nuclear track detector positions and orientations. The highest slope has been observed for the detectors placed on solar tracking mechanism following the solar rays and the lowest from detectors oriented under the shadow band on horizontal position (measuring the diffused UV radiation only). The results show that most of the measured UV radiation (60%) were from the diffused UV radiation. The characteristics of the upper layer of the detectors are changed after chemical etching very quickly, with increase in the exposure time to UV solar radiation at certain orientation. The results encourage the use of nuclear track

  9. Assessment of high penetration of solar photovoltaics in Wisconsin

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Myers, Kevin S.; Klein, Sanford A.; Reindl, Douglas T.

    2010-01-01

    This paper provides an assessment of the large-scale implementation of distributed solar photovoltaics in Wisconsin with regard to its interaction with the utility grid, economics of varying levels of high penetration, and displaced emissions. These assessment factors are quantified using simulations with measured hourly solar radiation and weather data from the National Solar Radiation Database as primary inputs. Hourly utility load data for each electric utility in Wisconsin for a complete year were used in combination with the simulated PV output to quantify the impacts of high penetration of distributed PV on the aggregate Wisconsin electric utility load. As the penetration rate of distributed PV systems increases, both economic and environmental benefits experience diminishing returns. At penetration rates exceeding 15-20% of the aggregate utility load peak, less of the PV-energy is utilized and the contribution of the aggregate electricity generated from PV approaches a practical limit. The limit is not affected by costs, but rather by the time-distribution of available solar radiation and mismatch with the coincidence of aggregate utility electrical loads. The unsubsidized levelized cost of electricity from PV is more than four times greater than the current market price for electricity, based on time-of-use rates, in Wisconsin. At the present time, the investment in solar PV as a cost-effective means to reduce emissions from traditional electricity generation sources is not justified. (author)

  10. Pyrochars from bioenergy residue as novel bio-adsorbents for lignocellulosic hydrolysate detoxification.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Monlau, F; Sambusiti, C; Antoniou, N; Zabaniotou, A; Solhy, A; Barakat, A

    2015-01-01

    The robust supramolecular structure of biomass often requires severe pretreatments conditions to produce soluble sugars. Nonetheless, these processes generate some inhibitory compounds (i.e. furans compounds and aliphatic acids) deriving mainly from sugars degradation. To avoid the inhibition of the biological process and to obtain satisfactory sugars conversion level into biofuels, a detoxification step is required. This study investigates the use of two pyrochars derived from solid anaerobic digestates for the detoxification of lignocellulosic hydrolysates. At a pyrochar concentration of 40gL(-1), more than 94% of 5-HMF and 99% of furfural were removed in the synthetic medium after 24h of contact time, whereas sugars concentration remained unchanged. Furfural was adsorbed faster than 5-HMF by both pyrochars and totally removed after 3h of contact. Finally, the two pyrochars were found efficient in the detoxification of corn stalks and Douglas fir wood chips hydrolysates without affecting the soluble sugars concentrations. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Sensing and detoxification devices in public building spaces

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Traberg-Borup, Steen; Gunnarsen, Lars Bo; Afshari, Alireza

    2008-01-01

    This paper describes commonly used ventilation principles and where sensig and detoxification devices could be integrated in public buidings in an effort to warn and protect citizens against surprise attacks by toxic agents. The release of toxic agents may be outdoors, in a single indoor spot...

  12. The state of solar energy resource assessment in Chile

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ortega, Alberto; Escobar, Rodrigo [Mechanical and Metallurgical Engineering Department, Pontificia Universidad Catolica de Chile, Vicuna Mackenna 4860, Macul, Santiago (Chile); Colle, Sergio [Laboratorios de Engenharia de Processos de Conversao e Tecnologia de Energia - LEPTEN, Mechanical Engineering Department, Universidade Federal de Santa Catarina, Florianopolis (Brazil); de Abreu, Samuel Luna [IFSC - Instituto Federal de Santa Catarina, Campus Sao Jose, Sao Jose - SC (Brazil)

    2010-11-15

    The Chilean government has determined that a renewable energy quota of up to 10% of the electrical energy generated must be met by 2024. This plan has already sparked interest in wind, geothermal, hydro and biomass power plants in order to introduce renewable energy systems to the country. Solar energy is being considered only for demonstration, small-scale CSP plants and for domestic water heating applications. This apparent lack of interest in solar energy is partly due to the absence of a valid solar energy database, adequate for energy system simulation and planning activities. One of the available solar radiation databases is 20-40 years old, with measurements taken by pyranographs and Campbell-Stokes devices. A second database from the Chilean Meteorological Service is composed by pyranometer readings, sparsely distributed along the country and available from 1988, with a number of these stations operating intermittently. The Chilean government through its National Energy Commission (CNE) has contracted the formulation of a simulation model and also the deployment of network of measurement stations in northern Chile. Recent efforts by the authors have resulted in a preliminary assessment by satellite image processing. Here, we compare the existing databases of solar radiation in Chile. Monthly mean solar energy maps are created from ground measurements and satellite estimations and compared. It is found that significant deviation exists between sources, and that all ground-station measurements display unknown uncertainty levels, thus highlighting the need for a proper, country-wide long-term resource assessment initiative. However, the solar energy levels throughout the country can be considered as high, and it is thought that they are adequate for energy planning activities - although not yet for proper power plant design and dimensioning. (author)

  13. Towards a comprehensive climate impacts assessment of solar geoengineering

    Science.gov (United States)

    Irvine, Peter J.; Kravitz, Ben; Lawrence, Mark G.; Gerten, Dieter; Caminade, Cyril; Gosling, Simon N.; Hendy, Erica J.; Kassie, Belay T.; Kissling, W. Daniel; Muri, Helene; Oschlies, Andreas; Smith, Steven J.

    2017-01-01

    Despite a growing literature on the climate response to solar geoengineering—proposals to cool the planet by increasing the planetary albedo—there has been little published on the impacts of solar geoengineering on natural and human systems such as agriculture, health, water resources, and ecosystems. An understanding of the impacts of different scenarios of solar geoengineering deployment will be crucial for informing decisions on whether and how to deploy it. Here we review the current state of knowledge about impacts of a solar-geoengineered climate and identify the major research gaps. We suggest that a thorough assessment of the climate impacts of a range of scenarios of solar geoengineering deployment is needed and can be built upon existing frameworks. However, solar geoengineering poses a novel challenge for climate impacts research as the manner of deployment could be tailored to pursue different objectives making possible a wide range of climate outcomes. We present a number of ideas for approaches to extend the survey of climate impacts beyond standard scenarios of solar geoengineering deployment to address this challenge. Reducing the impacts of climate change is the fundamental motivator for emissions reductions and for considering whether and how to deploy solar geoengineering. This means that the active engagement of the climate impacts research community will be important for improving the overall understanding of the opportunities, challenges, and risks presented by solar geoengineering.

  14. Enhanced degradation of spiro-insecticides and their leacher enol derivatives in soil by solarization and biosolarization techniques.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fenoll, José; Garrido, Isabel; Vela, Nuria; Ros, Caridad; Navarro, Simón

    2017-04-01

    The leaching potential of three insecticides (spirodiclofen, spiromesifen, and spirotetramat) was assessed using disturbed soil columns. Small quantities of spirodiclofen and spiromesifen were detected in leachate fraction, while spirotetramat residues were not found in the leachates. In addition, the transformation products (enol derivatives) are relatively more mobile than the parent compounds and may leach into groundwater. Moreover, the use of disinfection soil techniques (solarization and biosolarization) to enhance their degradation rates in soil was investigated. The results show that both practices achieved a reduction in the number of juvenile nematodes, enhancing in a parallel way degradation rates of the insecticides and their enol derivatives as compared with the non-disinfected soil. This behavior can be mainly attributed to the increase in soil temperature and changes in microbial activity. All insecticides showed similar behavior under solarization and biosolarization conditions. As a consequence, both agronomic techniques could be considered as suitable strategies for detoxification of soils polluted with the studied pesticides.

  15. Predicting client attendance at further treatment following drug and alcohol detoxification: Theory of Planned Behaviour and Implementation Intentions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kelly, Peter J; Leung, Joanne; Deane, Frank P; Lyons, Geoffrey C B

    2016-11-01

    Despite clinical recommendations that further treatment is critical for successful recovery following drug and alcohol detoxification, a large proportion of clients fail to attend treatment after detoxification. In this study, individual factors and constructs based on motivational and volitional models of health behaviour were examined as predictors of post-detoxification treatment attendance. The sample consisted of 220 substance-dependent individuals participating in short-term detoxification programs provided by The Australian Salvation Army. The Theory of Planned Behaviour and Implementation Intentions were used to predict attendance at subsequent treatment. Follow-up data were collected for 177 participants (81%), with 104 (80%) of those participants reporting that they had either attended further formal treatment (e.g. residential rehabilitation programs, outpatient counselling) or mutual support groups in the 2 weeks after leaving the detoxification program. Logistic regression examined the predictors of further treatment attendance. The full model accounted for 21% of the variance in treatment attendance, with attitude and Implementation Intentions contributing significantly to the prediction. Findings from the present study would suggest that assisting clients to develop a specific treatment plan, as well as helping clients to build positive perceptions about subsequent treatment, will promote greater attendance at further treatment following detoxification. [Kelly PJ, Leung J, Deane FP, Lyons GCB. Predicting client attendance at further treatment following drug and alcohol detoxification: Theory of Planned Behaviour and Implementation Intentions. Drug Alcohol Rev 2016;35:678-685]. © 2015 Australasian Professional Society on Alcohol and other Drugs.

  16. Acute detoxification of opioid-addicted patients with naloxone during propofol or methohexital anesthesia: a comparison of withdrawal symptoms, neuroendocrine, metabolic, and cardiovascular patterns

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kienbaum, P.; Scherbaum, N.; Thürauf, N.; Michel, M. C.; Gastpar, M.; Peters, J.

    2000-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: Mu-Opioid receptor blockade during general anesthesia is a new treatment for detoxification of opioid addicted patients. We assessed catecholamine plasma concentrations, oxygen consumption, cardiovascular variables, and withdrawal symptoms after naloxone and tested the hypothesis that

  17. Common ground, not a battle ground. Violence prevention at a detoxification facility.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adamson, Mary A; Vincent, Audrey A; Cundiff, Jeff

    2009-08-01

    This article evaluates the results of a workplace violence prevention program implemented in a Colorado detoxification facility. The program interventions are modeled after federal Occupational Safety and Health Administration guidelines and use theories from both nursing and criminology for philosophy and direction. Serving as its own control, the detoxification facility shares data measured over a 4-year period, demonstrating a sharp decline in assault rates after program implementation. The importance of administrative controls, environmental adjustments, recordkeeping and evaluation, and education and training are emphasized as key components of success. Copyright (c) 2009, SLACK Incorporated.

  18. Transcriptomic and phylogenetic analysis of Culex pipiens quinquefasciatus for three detoxification gene families

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yan Liangzhen

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The genomes of three major mosquito vectors of human diseases, Anopheles gambiae, Aedes aegypti, and Culex pipiens quinquefasciatus, have been previously sequenced. C. p. quinquefasciatus has the largest number of predicted protein-coding genes, which partially results from the expansion of three detoxification gene families: cytochrome P450 monooxygenases (P450, glutathione S-transferases (GST, and carboxyl/cholinesterases (CCE. However, unlike An. gambiae and Ae. aegypti, which have large amounts of gene expression data, C. p. quinquefasciatus has limited transcriptomic resources. Knowledge of complete gene expression information is very important for the exploration of the functions of genes involved in specific biological processes. In the present study, the three detoxification gene families of C. p. quinquefasciatus were analyzed for phylogenetic classification and compared with those of three other dipteran insects. Gene expression during various developmental stages and the differential expression responsible for parathion resistance were profiled using the digital gene expression (DGE technique. Results A total of 302 detoxification genes were found in C. p. quinquefasciatus, including 71 CCE, 196 P450, and 35 cytosolic GST genes. Compared with three other dipteran species, gene expansion in Culex mainly occurred in the CCE and P450 families, where the genes of α-esterases, juvenile hormone esterases, and CYP325 of the CYP4 subfamily showed the most pronounced expansion on the genome. For the five DGE libraries, 3.5-3.8 million raw tags were generated and mapped to 13314 reference genes. Among 302 detoxification genes, 225 (75% were detected for expression in at least one DGE library. One fourth of the CCE and P450 genes were detected uniquely in one stage, indicating potential developmentally regulated expression. A total of 1511 genes showed different expression levels between a parathion-resistant and a

  19. Performance characterization of the SERI High-Flux Solar Furnace

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lewandowski, A.; Bingham, C. (Solar Energy Research Inst., Golden, CO (United States)); O' Gallagher, J.; Winston, R.; Sagie, D. (Univ. of Chicago, IL (United States))

    1991-12-01

    This paper describes a unique, new solar furnace at the Solar Energy Research Institute (SERI) that can generate a wide range of flux concentrations to support research in areas including materials processing, high-temperature detoxification and high-flux optics. The furnace is unique in that it uses a flat, tracking heliostat along with a long focal length-to-diameter (f/D) primary concentrator in an off-axis configuration. The experiments are located inside a building completely outside the beam between the heliostat and primary concentrator. The long f/D ratio of the primary concentrator was designed to take advantage of a nonimaging secondary concentrator to significantly increase the flux concentration capabilities of the system. Results are reported for both the single-stage and two-stage configurations. (orig.).

  20. Ethanol from lignocellulose - Fermentation inhibitors, detoxification and genetic engineering of Saccharomyces cerevisiae for enhanced resistance

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Larsson, Simona

    2000-07-01

    Ethanol can be produced from lignocellulose by first hydrolysing the material to sugars, and then fermenting the hydrolysate with the yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae. Hydrolysis using dilute sulphuric acid has advantages over other methods, however, compounds which inhibit fermentation are generated during this kind of hydrolysis. The inhibitory effect of aliphatic acids, furans, and phenolic compounds was investigated. The generation of inhibitors during hydrolysis was studied using Norway spruce as raw material. It was concluded that the decrease in the fermentability coincided with increasing harshness of the hydrolysis conditions. The decrease in fermentability was not correlated solely to the content of aliphatic acids or furan derivatives. To increase the fermentability, detoxification is often employed. Twelve detoxification methods were compared with respect to the chemical composition of the hydrolysate and the fermentability after treatment. The most efficient detoxification methods were anion-exchange at pH 10.0, overliming and enzymatic detoxification with the phenol-oxidase laccase. Detailed analyses of ion exchange revealed that anion exchange and unspecific hydrophobic interactions greatly contributed to the detoxification effect, while cation exchange did not. The comparison of detoxification methods also showed that phenolic compounds are very important fermentation inhibitors, as their selective removal with laccase had a major positive effect on the fermentability. Selected compounds; aliphatic acids, furans and phenolic compounds, were characterised with respect to their inhibitory effect on ethanolic fermentation by S. cerevisiae. When aliphatic acids or furans were compared, the inhibitory effects were found to be in the same range, but the phenolic compounds displayed widely different inhibitory effects. The possibility of genetically engineering S. cerevisiae to achieve increased inhibitor resistance was explored by heterologous expression of

  1. Detoxification mechanisms of honey bees (Apis mellifera) resulting in tolerance of dietary nicotine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    du Rand, Esther E; Smit, Salome; Beukes, Mervyn; Apostolides, Zeno; Pirk, Christian W W; Nicolson, Susan W

    2015-07-02

    Insecticides are thought to be among the major factors contributing to current declines in bee populations. However, detoxification mechanisms in healthy, unstressed honey bees are poorly characterised. Alkaloids are naturally encountered in pollen and nectar, and we used nicotine as a model compound to identify the mechanisms involved in detoxification processes in honey bees. Nicotine and neonicotinoids have similar modes of action in insects. Our metabolomic and proteomic analyses show active detoxification of nicotine in bees, associated with increased energetic investment and also antioxidant and heat shock responses. The increased energetic investment is significant in view of the interactions of pesticides with diseases such as Nosema spp which cause energetic stress and possible malnutrition. Understanding how healthy honey bees process dietary toxins under unstressed conditions will help clarify how pesticides, alone or in synergy with other stress factors, lead to declines in bee vitality.

  2. Extraction of Vertical Walls from Mobile Laser Scanning Data for Solar Potential Assessment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Martin Rutzinger

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available In recent years there has been an increasing demand among home owners for cost effective sustainable energy production such as solar energy to provide heating and electricity. A lot of research has focused on the assessment of the incoming solar radiation on roof planes acquired by, e.g., Airborne Laser Scanning (ALS. However, solar panels can also be mounted on building facades in order to increase renewable energy supply. Due to limited reflections of points from vertical walls, ALS data is not suitable to perform solar potential assessment of vertical building facades. This paper focuses on a new method for automatic solar radiation modeling of facades acquired by Mobile Laser Scanning (MLS and uses the full 3D information of the point cloud for both the extraction of vertical walls covered by the survey and solar potential analysis. Furthermore, a new method isintroduced determining the interior and exterior face, respectively, of each detected wall in order to calculate its slope and aspect angles that are of crucial importance for solar potential assessment. Shadowing effects of nearby objects are considered by computing the 3D horizon of each point of a facade segment within the 3D point cloud.

  3. Photo-catalysis Plants from basic research to commercial reality; Plantas de tratamiento mediante fotocatalisis solar: de la investigacion basica a una realidad comercial

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Blanco, J.; Malato, S.

    2007-07-01

    The degradation process of nonbiodegradable organic substances by means of photo catalysis techniques allows the effective elimination of pollutants presents in water and air. The development during the last years of the solar photo catalysis technology, commonly called solar detoxification, has allowed that the first commercial plants based on solar collectors for the treatment of waste water containing persistent organic compounds become a reality. CIEMAT has played an essential roll on this process. This technology is based on the application of two different techniques (photo-Fenton and UV/TiO{sub 2} processes) implemented in static solar collectors CPC type (parabolic-compound). (Author)

  4. Methadone detoxification of tramadol dependence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leo, R J; Narendran, R; DeGuiseppe, B

    2000-10-01

    Tramadol hydrochloride is a centrally acting analgesic with a partial affinity for the opiate receptor (mu), having an analgesic potency estimated to be one tenth that of morphine. While preclinical investigations suggested that abuse liability associated with tramadol use is low, there are increasing numbers of cases reported to the U.S. Food and Drug Administration of abuse, dependence, and withdrawal associated with tramadol use. A case of a patient with tramadol dependence requiring detoxification with methadone is presented. Acute management of significant tramadol dependence has not yet been reported in the literature. Long-term treatment issues are also discussed.

  5. Opioid detoxification : from controlled clinical trial to clinical practice

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dijkstra, Boukje A G; De Jong, Cor A J; Wensing, Michel; Krabbe, Paul F M; van der Staak, Cees P F

    2010-01-01

    Controlled clinical trials have high internal validity but suffer from difficulties in external validity. This study evaluates the generalizability of the results of a controlled clinical trial on rapid detoxification in the everyday clinical practice of two addiction treatment centers. The results

  6. Dropout among patients in qualified alcohol detoxification treatment: the effect of treatment motivation is moderated by Trauma Load.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Odenwald, Michael; Semrau, Peter

    2013-03-21

    Motivation to change has been proposed as a prerequisite for behavioral change, although empirical results are contradictory. Traumatic experiences are frequently found amongst patients in alcohol treatment, but this has not been systematically studied in terms of effects on treatment outcomes. This study aimed to clarify whether individual Trauma Load explains some of the inconsistencies between motivation to change and behavioral change. Over the course of two months in 2009, 55 patients admitted to an alcohol detoxification unit of a psychiatric hospital were enrolled in this study. At treatment entry, we assessed lifetime Trauma Load and motivation to change. Mode of discharge was taken from patient files following therapy. We tested whether Trauma Load moderates the effect of motivation to change on dropout from alcohol detoxification using multivariate methods. 55.4% dropped out of detoxification treatment, while 44.6% completed the treatment. Age, gender and days in treatment did not differ between completers and dropouts. Patients who dropped out reported more traumatic event types on average than completers. Treatment completers had higher scores in the URICA subscale Maintenance. Multivariate methods confirmed the moderator effect of Trauma Load: among participants with high Trauma Load, treatment completion was related to higher Maintenance scores at treatment entry; this was not true among patients with low Trauma Load. We found evidence that the effect of motivation to change on detoxification treatment completion is moderated by Trauma Load: among patients with low Trauma Load, motivation to change is not relevant for treatment completion; among highly burdened patients, however, who a priori have a greater risk of dropping out, a high motivation to change might make the difference. This finding justifies targeted and specific interventions for highly burdened alcohol patients to increase their motivation to change.

  7. Ultraviolet and solar photocatalytic ozonation of municipal wastewater: Catalyst reuse, energy requirements and toxicity assessment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mecha, Achisa C; Onyango, Maurice S; Ochieng, Aoyi; Momba, Maggy N B

    2017-11-01

    The present study evaluated the treatment of municipal wastewater containing phenol using solar and ultraviolet (UV) light photocatalytic ozonation processes to explore comparative performance. Important aspects such as catalyst reuse, mineralization of pollutants, energy requirements, and toxicity of treated wastewater which are crucial for practical implementation of the processes were explored. The activity of the photocatalysts did not change significantly even after three consecutive uses despite approximately 2% of the initial quantity of catalyst being lost in each run. Analysis of the change in average oxidation state (AOS) demonstrated the formation of more oxidized degradation products (ΔAOS values of 1.0-1.7) due to mineralization. The energy requirements were determined in terms of electrical energy per order (E EO ) and the collector area per order (A CO ). The E EO (kWh m -3  Order -1 ) values were 26.2 for ozonation, 38-47 for UV photocatalysis and 7-22 for UV photocatalytic ozonation processes. On the other hand, A CO (m 2  m -3  order -1 ) values were 31-69 for solar photocatalysis and 8-13 for solar photocatalytic ozonation. Thus photocatalytic ozonation processes required less energy input compared to the individual processes. The cytotoxicity of the wastewater was analysed using the 3-(4, 5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-2, 5-diphenyltetrazolium bromide (MTT) assay with Vero cells. The cell viability increased from 28.7% in untreated wastewater to 80% in treated wastewater; thus showing that the treated wastewater was less toxic. The effectiveness of photocatalytic ozonation, recovery and reusability of the photocatalysts, as well as detoxification of the wastewater make this low energy consumption process attractive for wastewater remediation. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Assessing the PACE of California residential solar deployment: Impacts of Property Assessed Clean Energy programs on residential solar photovoltaic deployment in California, 2010-2015

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Deason, Jeff; Murphy, Sean

    2018-04-04

    A new study by Berkeley Lab found that residential Property Assessed Clean Energy (R-PACE) programs increased deployment of residential solar photovoltaic (PV) systems in California, raising it by about 7-12% in cities that adopt these programs. R-PACE is a financing mechanism that uses a voluntary property tax assessment, paid off over time, to facilitate energy improvements and, in some jurisdictions, water and resilience measures. While previous studies demonstrated that early, regional R-PACE programs increased solar PV deployment, this new analysis is the first to demonstrate these impacts from the large, statewide R-PACE programs dominating the California market today, which use private capital to fund the upfront costs of the improvements. Berkeley Lab estimated the impacts using econometric techniques on two samples: -Large cities only, allowing annual demographic and economic data as control variables -All California cities, without these annual data Analysis of both samples controls for several factors other than R-PACE that would be expected to drive solar PV deployment. We infer that on average, cities with R-PACE programs were associated with greater solar PV deployment in our study period (2010-2015). In the large cities sample, solar PV deployment in jurisdictions with R-PACE programs was higher by 1.1 watts per owner-occupied household per month, or 12%. Across all cities, solar PV deployment in jurisdictions with R-PACE programs was higher by 0.6 watts per owner-occupied household per month, or 7%. The large cities results are statistically significant at conventional levels; the all-cities results are not. The estimates imply that the majority of solar PV deployment financed by R-PACE programs would likely not have occurred in their absence. Results suggest that R-PACE programs have increased PV deployment in California even in relatively recent years, as R-PACE programs have grown in market share and as alternate approaches for financing solar PV

  9. Detoxification and stress response genes expressed in a western North American bumble bee, Bombus huntii (Hymenoptera: Apidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Junhuan; Strange, James P; Welker, Dennis L; James, Rosalind R

    2013-12-12

    The Hunt bumble bee (Bombus huntii Greene, Hymenoptera: Apidae) is a holometabolous, social insect important as a pollinator in natural and agricultural ecosystems in western North America. Bumble bees spend a significant amount of time foraging on a wide variety of flowering plants, and this activity exposes them to both plant toxins and pesticides, posing a threat to individual and colony survival. Little is known about what detoxification pathways are active in bumble bees, how the expression of detoxification genes changes across life stages, or how the number of detoxification genes expressed in B. huntii compares to other insects. We found B. huntii expressed at least 584 genes associated with detoxification and stress responses. The expression levels of some of these genes, such as those encoding the cytochrome P450s, glutathione S-transferases (GSTs) and glycosidases, vary among different life stages to a greater extent than do other genes. We also found that the number of P450s, GSTs and esterase genes expressed by B. huntii is similar to the number of these genes found in the genomes of other bees, namely Bombus terrestris, Bombus impatiens, Apis mellifera and Megachile rotundata, but many fewer than are found in the fly Drosophila melanogaster. Bombus huntii has transcripts for a large number of detoxification and stress related proteins, including oxidation and reduction enzymes, conjugation enzymes, hydrolytic enzymes, ABC transporters, cadherins, and heat shock proteins. The diversity of genes expressed within some detoxification pathways varies among the life stages and castes, and we typically identified more genes in the adult females than in larvae, pupae, or adult males, for most pathways. Meanwhile, we found the numbers of detoxification and stress genes expressed by B. huntii to be more similar to other bees than to the fruit fly. The low number of detoxification genes, first noted in the honey bee, appears to be a common phenomenon among bees

  10. Modulation of Metabolic Detoxification Pathways Using Foods and Food-Derived Components: A Scientific Review with Clinical Application

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Romilly E. Hodges

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Research into human biotransformation and elimination systems continues to evolve. Various clinical and in vivo studies have been undertaken to evaluate the effects of foods and food-derived components on the activity of detoxification pathways, including phase I cytochrome P450 enzymes, phase II conjugation enzymes, Nrf2 signaling, and metallothionein. This review summarizes the research in this area to date, highlighting the potential for foods and nutrients to support and/or modulate detoxification functions. Clinical applications to alter detoxification pathway activity and improve patient outcomes are considered, drawing on the growing understanding of the relationship between detoxification functions and different disease states, genetic polymorphisms, and drug-nutrient interactions. Some caution is recommended, however, due to the limitations of current research as well as indications that many nutrients exert biphasic, dose-dependent effects and that genetic polymorphisms may alter outcomes. A whole-foods approach may, therefore, be prudent.

  11. Detoxification of Corncob Acid Hydrolysate with SAA Pretreatment and Xylitol Production by Immobilized Candida tropicalis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deng, Li-Hong; Tang, Yong; Liu, Yun

    2014-01-01

    Xylitol fermentation production from corncob acid hydrolysate has become an attractive and promising process. However, corncob acid hydrolysate cannot be directly used as fermentation substrate owing to various inhibitors. In this work, soaking in aqueous ammonia (SAA) pretreatment was employed to reduce the inhibitors in acid hydrolysate. After detoxification, the corncob acid hydrolysate was fermented by immobilized Candida tropicalis cell to produce xylitol. Results revealed that SAA pretreatment showed high delignification and efficient removal of acetyl group compounds without effect on cellulose and xylan content. Acetic acid was completely removed, and the content of phenolic compounds was reduced by 80%. Furthermore, kinetic behaviors of xylitol production by immobilized C. tropicalis cell were elucidated from corncob acid hydrolysate detoxified with SAA pretreatment and two-step adsorption method, respectively. The immobilized C. tropicalis cell showed higher productivity efficiency using the corncob acid hydrolysate as fermentation substrate after detoxification with SAA pretreatment than by two-step adsorption method in the five successive batch fermentation rounds. After the fifth round fermentation, about 60 g xylitol/L fermentation substrate was obtained for SAA pretreatment detoxification, while about 30 g xylitol/L fermentation substrate was obtained for two-step adsorption detoxification. PMID:25133211

  12. Life-Cycle Assessment of Solar Charger with Integrated Organic Photovoltaics

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Benatto, Gisele Alves dos Reis; Espinosa Martinez, Nieves; Krebs, Frederik C

    2017-01-01

    OPV panel, enabling the possibility to be charged from the sun, and not only from the grid. In this paper, two well-established power bank products using amorphous silicon solar panels (a-Si PV) and a regular power bank without any portable solar panel is compared to HeLi-on. The environmental impact...... of the products is quantified with the aim of indicate where eco-design improvements would make a difference and to point out performance of a portable solar panel depending on the context of use (Denmark and China), realistic disposal scenarios and the recycling relevance particularly concerning metals content.......Organic photovoltaics (OPV) applied in a commercial product comprising a solar charged power bank is subjected to a life cycle assessment (LCA) study. Regular power banks harvest electricity from the grid only. The solar power bank (called HeLi-on) is however, a power bank that includes a portable...

  13. Differences in depression severity and frequency of relapses in opiate addicts treated with methadone or opiate blocker after detoxification

    OpenAIRE

    Jovanović Tatjana; Lazarević Dušan; Nikolić Gordana

    2012-01-01

    Background/Aim. Relapse of opiate dependence is a common occurrence after detoxification and introduction of opiate addicts in abstinence from opiates. Clinical evaluation showed that over 90% of opiate addicts exhibit depressive manifestations during detoxification, or develop post-detoxification depression. The aim of this study was to determine differences in the frequency of relapses, severity and course of depression during a of 6-month period, and previous patterns of use of opioi...

  14. [Blood detoxification using superparamagnetic nanoparticles (magnetic hemodialysis)].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ciochină, Al D; Untu, Alina; Iacob, Gh

    2010-01-01

    The authors present an experimental study realized in order to simulate blood detoxification with the help of supermagnetic nanoparticles. The particles used are red oxide nanoparticles which are considered to be equivalent from a magnetic susceptibility and dynamic diameter point of view to the complex structures of magnetite nanoparticles. Two types of custom HGMS matrices have been used--a threaded one and a micro-spheres one. For testing red oxide particles have been purposefully created to have a lower magnetic susceptibility than magnetite or iron-carbon particles used in other experimental studies. Different concentrations of iron oxide, glycerine and water have been prepared, creating a 3.5 cP viscosity (equivalent to the one of the blood); the concentrations of the prepared solutions varied between 0.16 mg/mL and 2 mg/mL, with the background magnetic field value ranging from 0.25 T to 0.9 T, in order to observer the effectiveness of filtering at different intensities. The efficiency of HGMS filtering in experimental conditions was almost completely successful (99.99%) in all experimental conditions, both with the threaded and micro-spheres matrices. The high gradient magnetic separation system of nanoparticles has maximum efficiency and has the potential of being implemented in a medical blood detoxification device.

  15. Detoxification of acidic catalyzed hydrolysate of Kappaphycus alvarezii (cottonii).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meinita, Maria Dyah Nur; Hong, Yong-Ki; Jeong, Gwi-Taek

    2012-01-01

    Red seaweed, Kappaphycus alvarezii, holds great promise for use in biofuel production due to its high carbohydrate content. In this study, we investigated the effect of fermentation inhibitors to the K. alvarezii hydrolysate on cell growth and ethanol fermentation. In addition, detoxification of fermentation inhibitors was performed to decrease the fermentation inhibitory effect. 5-Hydroxymethylfurfural and levulinic acid, which are liberated from acidic hydrolysis, was also observed in the hydrolysate of K. alvarezii. These compounds inhibited ethanol fermentation. In order to remove these inhibitors, activated charcoal and calcium hydroxide were introduced. The efficiency of activated charcoals was examined and over-liming was used to remove the inhibitors. Activated charcoal was found to be more effective than calcium hydroxide to remove the inhibitors. Detoxification by activated charcoal strongly improved the fermentability of dilute acid hydrolysate in the production of bioethanol from K. alvarezii with Saccharomyces cerevisiae. The optimal detoxifying conditions were found to be below an activated charcoal concentration of 5%.

  16. Furfural tolerance and detoxification mechanism in Candida tropicalis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Shizeng; Cheng, Gang; Joshua, Chijioke; He, Zijun; Sun, Xinxiao; Li, Ruimin; Liu, Lexuan; Yuan, Qipeng

    2016-01-01

    Current biomass pretreatment by hydrothermal treatment (including acid hydrolysis, steam explosion, and high-temperature steaming) and ionic liquids generally generate inhibitors to the following fermentation process. Furfural is one of the typical inhibitors generated in hydrothermal treatment of biomass. Furfural could inhibit cell growth rate and decrease biofuel productivity of microbes. Candida tropicalis is a promising microbe for the production of biofuels and value-added chemicals using hemicellulose hydrolysate as carbon source. In this study, C. tropicalis showed a comparable ability of furfural tolerance during fermentation. We investigated the mechanism of C. tropicalis 's robust tolerance to furfural and relevant metabolic responses to obtain more information for metabolic engineering of microbes for efficient lignocellulose fermentation. Candida tropicalis showed comparable intrinsic tolerance to furfural and a fast rate of furfural detoxification. C. tropicalis 's half maximal inhibitory concentration for furfural with xylose as the sole carbon source was 3.69 g/L, which was higher than that of most wild-type microbes reported in the literature to our knowledge. Even though furfural prolonged the lag phase of C. tropicalis , the final biomass in the groups treated with 1 g/L furfural was slightly greater than that in the control groups. By real-time PCR analysis, we found that the expression of ADH1 in C. tropicalis ( ctADH1 ) was induced by furfural and repressed by ethanol after furfural depletion. The expression of ctADH1 could be regulated by both furfural and ethanol. After the disruption of gene ctADH1 , we found that C. tropicalis 's furfural tolerance was weakened. To further confirm the function of ctADH1 and enhance Escherichia coli 's furfural tolerance, ctADH1 was overexpressed in E. coli BL21 (DE3). The rate of furfural degradation in E. coli BL21 (DE3) with pET-ADH1 (high-copy plasmid) and pCS-ADH1 (medium-copy plasmid) was increased

  17. Solar technology assessment project. Volume 6: Photovoltaic technology assessment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Backus, C. E.

    1981-04-01

    Industrial production of photovoltaic systems and volume of sales are reviewed. Low cost silicon production techniques are reviewed, including the Czochralski process, heat exchange method, edge defined film fed growth, dentritic web growth, and silicon on ceramic process. Semicrystalline silicon, amorphous silicon, and low cost poly-silicon are discussed as well as advanced materials and concentrator systems. Balance of system components beyond those needed to manufacture the solar panels are included. Nontechnical factors are assessed. The 1986 system cost goals are briefly reviewed.

  18. Rice Transcriptome Analysis to Identify Possible Herbicide Quinclorac Detoxification Genes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wenying eXu

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Quinclorac is a highly selective auxin-type herbicide, and is widely used in the effective control of barnyard grass in paddy rice fields, improving the world’s rice yield. The herbicide mode of action of quinclorac has been proposed and hormone interactions affect quinclorac signaling. Because of widespread use, quinclorac may be transported outside rice fields with the drainage waters, leading to soil and water pollution and environmental health problems.In this study, we used 57K Affymetrix rice whole-genome array to identify quinclorac signaling response genes to study the molecular mechanisms of action and detoxification of quinclorac in rice plants. Overall, 637 probe sets were identified with differential expression levels under either 6 or 24 h of quinclorac treatment. Auxin-related genes such as GH3 and OsIAAs responded to quinclorac treatment. Gene Ontology analysis showed that genes of detoxification-related family genes were significantly enriched, including cytochrome P450, GST, UGT, and ABC and drug transporter genes. Moreover, real-time RT-PCR analysis showed that top candidate P450 families such as CYP81, CYP709C and CYP72A genes were universally induced by different herbicides. Some Arabidopsis genes for the same P450 family were up-regulated under quinclorac treatment.We conduct rice whole-genome GeneChip analysis and the first global identification of quinclorac response genes. This work may provide potential markers for detoxification of quinclorac and biomonitors of environmental chemical pollution.

  19. Impact of food processing and detoxification treatments on mycotoxin contamination.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karlovsky, Petr; Suman, Michele; Berthiller, Franz; De Meester, Johan; Eisenbrand, Gerhard; Perrin, Irène; Oswald, Isabelle P; Speijers, Gerrit; Chiodini, Alessandro; Recker, Tobias; Dussort, Pierre

    2016-11-01

    Mycotoxins are fungal metabolites commonly occurring in food, which pose a health risk to the consumer. Maximum levels for major mycotoxins allowed in food have been established worldwide. Good agricultural practices, plant disease management, and adequate storage conditions limit mycotoxin levels in the food chain yet do not eliminate mycotoxins completely. Food processing can further reduce mycotoxin levels by physical removal and decontamination by chemical or enzymatic transformation of mycotoxins into less toxic products. Physical removal of mycotoxins is very efficient: manual sorting of grains, nuts, and fruits by farmers as well as automatic sorting by the industry significantly lowers the mean mycotoxin content. Further processing such as milling, steeping, and extrusion can also reduce mycotoxin content. Mycotoxins can be detoxified chemically by reacting with food components and technical aids; these reactions are facilitated by high temperature and alkaline or acidic conditions. Detoxification of mycotoxins can also be achieved enzymatically. Some enzymes able to transform mycotoxins naturally occur in food commodities or are produced during fermentation but more efficient detoxification can be achieved by deliberate introduction of purified enzymes. We recommend integrating evaluation of processing technologies for their impact on mycotoxins into risk management. Processing steps proven to mitigate mycotoxin contamination should be used whenever necessary. Development of detoxification technologies for high-risk commodities should be a priority for research. While physical techniques currently offer the most efficient post-harvest reduction of mycotoxin content in food, biotechnology possesses the largest potential for future developments.

  20. Microbial detoxification of waste rubber material by wood-rotting fungi.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bredberg, Katarina; Andersson, B Erik; Landfors, Eva; Holst, Olle

    2002-07-01

    The extensive use of rubber products, mainly tires, and the difficulties to recycle those products, has resulted in world wide environmental problems. Microbial devulcanisation is a promising way to increase the recycling of rubber materials. One obstacle is that several microorganisms tested for devulcanisation are sensitive to rubber additives. A way to overcome this might be to detoxify the rubber material with fungi prior to the devulcanisation. In this study, 15 species of white-rot and brown-rot fungi have been screened with regard to their capacity to degrade an aromatic model compound in the presence of ground waste tire rubber. The most effective fungus, Resinicium bicolor, was used for detoxification of rubber material. Increase in growth of the desulfurising bacterium Thiobacillus ferrooxidans in presence of the rubber treated with Resinicium bicolor compared to untreated rubber demonstrated that detoxification with fungi is possible.

  1. Ultrasonic process for detoxification of groundwater

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wu, Jiann M.; Huang, H.S.; Livengood, C.D.

    1991-01-01

    In this paper, we present the results of an investigation of the ultrasonic irradiation of carbon tetrachloride at various pH values, temperatures, and power intensities. Kinetic data and selected chemical mechanism are discussed and proposed. To study oxidant efficiency, chemical oxidants, such as hydrogen peroxide, are also considered. This work is part of a project entitled ''Ultrasonic Process for Detoxification of Groundwater and Soil,'' sponsored by the US Department of Energy, Office of Technology Development, to develop an innovative process for the effective destruction of chlorinated organics in soil and groundwater

  2. Growth characteristics of Dayak Borneo yam (Dioscorea hispida and detoxification techniques as alternative food

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    RUDITO

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract. Rudito, Suwarto, Azkiyah L, Witono Y, Saragih B, Arung ET. 2017. Growth characteristics of Dayak Borneo yam (Dioscorea hispida and detoxification techniques as alternative food. Pros Sem Nas Masy Biodiv Indon 3: 99-103. Finding of local food sources to enhance food security areas. This study focuses on the characteristics of growth Dayak Borneo yam observation, toxic substances and detoxification techniques development of non nutritional. The objective of the research was to find out a more concrete picture, as well as comparing it with Java yam non nutritional components as a basis for further exploration of alternative food. Observations indicate that the plant growth of Dayak Borneo yam had specific characteristics, and can be grown in intercropping with other crops. Yam tubers have negative image due to the toxins contained by this commodity, as well as technology management (detoxification and processing of yam products that have not been controlled by the community. But based on the results of physical and chemical detoxification, indicates that the Dayak Borneo yam can be exploited further as food. Dayak Borneo yam need to be developed modification process in raw materials of Dayak Borneo yam as modified starch through fermentation techniques which also intended to obtain intermediate product from which Dayak Borneo yam has a larger functionality as a food ingredient.

  3. Transcription factor DecR (YbaO) controls detoxification of L-cysteine in Escherichia coli.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shimada, Tomohiro; Tanaka, Kan; Ishihama, Akira

    2016-09-01

    YbaO is an uncharacterized AsnC-family transcription factor of Escherichia coli. In both Salmonella enterica and Pantoea ananatis, YbaO homologues were identified to regulate the adjacent gene encoding cysteine desulfhydrase for detoxification of cysteine. Using the genomic SELEX (systematic evolution of ligands by exponential enrichment) screening system, we identified the yhaOM operon, located far from the ybaO gene on the E. coli genome, as a single regulatory target of YbaO. In both gel shift assay in vitro and reporter and Northern blot assays in vivo, YbaO was found to regulate the yhaOM promoter. The growth of mutants lacking either ybaO or its targets yhaOM was delayed in the presence of cysteine, indicating involvement of these genes in cysteine detoxification. In the major pathway of cysteine degradation, hydrogen sulfide is produced in wild-type E. coli, but its production was not observed in each of the ybaO, yhaO and yhaM mutants. The yhaOM promoter was activated in the presence of cysteine, implying the role of cysteine in activation of YbaO. Taken together, we propose that YbaO is the cysteine-sensing transcriptional activator of the yhaOM operon, which is involved in the detoxification of cysteine. We then propose the naming of ybaO as decR (regulator of detoxification of cysteine).

  4. Shortening Anesthesia Duration does not Affect Severity of Withdrawal Syndrome in Patients Undergoing Ultra Rapid Opioid Detoxification

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shoaleh Shami

    2010-02-01

    Full Text Available Ultra rapid opioid detoxification (UROD is one of the new methods of detoxification. This method of detoxification involves putting patients under general anesthesia and actively giving them opioid antagonists. The objective of this study was to evaluate effects of anesthesia duration in UROD on severity of withdrawal syndrome. Sixty addicted patients seeking UROD procedure assigned randomly to one of the 2hr, 4hr or 6hr anesthesia duration groups. Premedication and anesthesia procedure (induction and maintenance were the same for three groups. Detoxification was done for all patients with 50 mg oral naltroxane (prior to induction and 20 mg intravenous naloxane (8 mg/bolus and 12 mg/infusion. Blood pressure, heart rate and respiratory rate were automatically measured and recorded every 5 minutes. The severity of withdrawal syndrome was measured and recorded every one hour during anesthesia, 2hours post-anesthesia, and 12 and 24 hours following the induction of anesthesia according to the Wang Scale modified by Lomier (WSMBL. Patients aged 20-58 in three groups. Three cases experienced delirium after detoxification that lasted 24 hours in one. Severity of withdrawal syndrome in patients of groups 2, 4 and 6 hour were 8.7, 7.4 and 5.1 respectively during anesthesia and 12.3, 11.1 and 13.9 after 18 hours of anesthesia. Results of this study showed that, in standard settings, UROD is a safe method for detoxification and has low complications. The withdrawal symptoms during and after anesthesia are low. Shortening the duration of anesthesia has no affect on severity of withdrawal syndrome during and after anesthesia.

  5. Who needs inpatient detox? Development and implementation of a hospitalist protocol for the evaluation of patients for alcohol detoxification.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stephens, John R; Liles, E Allen; Dancel, Ria; Gilchrist, Michael; Kirsch, Jonathan; DeWalt, Darren A

    2014-04-01

    Clinicians caring for patients seeking alcohol detoxification face many challenges, including lack of evidence-based guidelines for treatment and high recidivism rates. To develop a standardized protocol for determining which alcohol dependent patients seeking detoxification need inpatient versus outpatient treatment, and to study the protocol's implementation. Review of best evidence by ad hoc task force and subsequent creation of standardized protocol. Prospective observational evaluation of initial protocol implementation. Patients presenting for alcohol detoxification. Development and implementation of a protocol for evaluation and treatment of patients requesting alcohol detoxification. Number of admissions per month with primary alcohol related diagnosis (DRG), 30-day readmission rate, and length of stay, all measured before and after protocol implementation. We identified one randomized clinical trial and three cohort studies to inform the choice of inpatient versus outpatient detoxification, along with one prior protocol in this population, and combined that data with clinical experience to create an institutional protocol. After implementation, the average number of alcohol related admissions was 15.9 per month, compared with 18.9 per month before implementation (p = 0.037). There was no difference in readmission rate or length of stay. Creation and utilization of a protocol led to standardization of care for patients requesting detoxification from alcohol. Initial evaluation of protocol implementation showed a decrease in number of admissions.

  6. Northeast regional assessment study for solar electric options in the period 1980-2000

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    1981-04-01

    Opportunities for demonstration and large scale deployment of solar electric facilities are identified and assessed. Technical, economic, and institutional factors that can contribute to an accelerated use of solar energy for electric power generation are defined. The following topics are covered: a description of the Northeast Region and its solar resources, central station applications, a dispersed user analysis, user viewpoints and institutional factors, and market potential for dispersed solar electric systems. (MHR)

  7. Detoxification of Corncob Acid Hydrolysate with SAA Pretreatment and Xylitol Production by Immobilized Candida tropicalis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Li-Hong Deng

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Xylitol fermentation production from corncob acid hydrolysate has become an attractive and promising process. However, corncob acid hydrolysate cannot be directly used as fermentation substrate owing to various inhibitors. In this work, soaking in aqueous ammonia (SAA pretreatment was employed to reduce the inhibitors in acid hydrolysate. After detoxification, the corncob acid hydrolysate was fermented by immobilized Candida tropicalis cell to produce xylitol. Results revealed that SAA pretreatment showed high delignification and efficient removal of acetyl group compounds without effect on cellulose and xylan content. Acetic acid was completely removed, and the content of phenolic compounds was reduced by 80%. Furthermore, kinetic behaviors of xylitol production by immobilized C. tropicalis cell were elucidated from corncob acid hydrolysate detoxified with SAA pretreatment and two-step adsorption method, respectively. The immobilized C. tropicalis cell showed higher productivity efficiency using the corncob acid hydrolysate as fermentation substrate after detoxification with SAA pretreatment than by two-step adsorption method in the five successive batch fermentation rounds. After the fifth round fermentation, about 60 g xylitol/L fermentation substrate was obtained for SAA pretreatment detoxification, while about 30 g xylitol/L fermentation substrate was obtained for two-step adsorption detoxification.

  8. Transcriptome analysis and identification of P450 genes relevant to imidacloprid detoxification in Bradysia odoriphaga.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Chengyu; Wang, Cuicui; Liu, Ying; Shi, Xueyan; Gao, Xiwu

    2018-02-07

    Pesticide tolerance poses many challenges for pest control, particularly for destructive pests such as Bradysia odoriphaga. Imidacloprid has been used to control B. odoriphaga since 2013, however, imidacloprid resistance in B. odoriphaga has developed in recent years. Identifying actual and potential genes involved in detoxification metabolism of imidacloprid could offer solutions for controlling this insect. In this study, RNA-seq was used to explore differentially expressed genes in B. odoriphaga that respond to imidacloprid treatment. Differential expression data between imidacloprid treatment and the control revealed 281 transcripts (176 with annotations) showing upregulation and 394 transcripts (235 with annotations) showing downregulation. Among them, differential expression levels of seven P450 unigenes were associated with imidacloprid detoxification mechanism, with 4 unigenes that were upregulated and 3 unigenes that were downregulated. The qRT-PCR results of the seven differential expression P450 unigenes after imidacloprid treatment were consistent with RNA-Seq data. Furthermore, oral delivery mediated RNA interference of these four upregulated P450 unigenes followed by an insecticide bioassay significantly increased the mortality of imidacloprid-treated B. odoriphaga. This result indicated that the four upregulated P450s are involved in detoxification of imidacloprid. This study provides a genetic basis for further exploring P450 genes for imidacloprid detoxification in B. odoriphaga.

  9. Solar-generated steam for oil recovery: Reservoir simulation, economic analysis, and life cycle assessment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sandler, Joel; Fowler, Garrett; Cheng, Kris; Kovscek, Anthony R.

    2014-01-01

    Highlights: • Integrated assessment of solar thermal enhanced oil recovery (TEOR). • Analyses of reservoir performance, economics, and life cycle factors. • High solar fraction scenarios show economic viability for TEOR. • Continuous variable-rate steam injection meets the benchmarks set by conventional steam flood. - Abstract: The viability of solar thermal steam generation for thermal enhanced oil recovery (TEOR) in heavy-oil sands was evaluated using San Joaquin Valley, CA data. The effectiveness of solar TEOR was quantified through reservoir simulation, economic analysis, and life-cycle assessment. Reservoir simulations with continuous but variable rate steam injection were compared with a base-case Tulare Sand steamflood project. For equivalent average injection rates, comparable breakthrough times and recovery factors of 65% of the original oil in place were predicted, in agreement with simulations in the literature. Daily cyclic fluctuations in steam injection rate do not greatly impact recovery. Oil production rates do, however, show seasonal variation. Economic viability was established using historical prices and injection/production volumes from the Kern River oil field. For comparison, this model assumes that present day steam generation technologies were implemented at TEOR startup in 1980. All natural gas cogeneration and 100% solar fraction scenarios had the largest and nearly equal net present values (NPV) of $12.54 B and $12.55 B, respectively. Solar fraction refers to the steam provided by solar steam generation. Given its large capital cost, the 100% solar case shows the greatest sensitivity to discount rate and no sensitivity to natural gas price. Because there are very little emissions associated with day-to-day operations from the solar thermal system, life-cycle emissions are significantly lower than conventional systems even when the embodied energy of the structure is considered. We estimate that less than 1 g of CO 2 /MJ of refined

  10. A Solar Atlas for Building-Integrated Photovoltaic Electricity Resource Assessment

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Möller, Bernd; Nielsen, Steffen; Sperling, Karl

    While photovoltaic energy gathers momentum as power costs increase and panel costs decrease, the total technical and economic potentials for building integrated solar energy in Denmark remain largely unidentified. The current net metering feed-in scheme is restricted to 6kW plant size, limiting...... large scale application. This paper presents a solar atlas based on a high-resolution digital elevation model (DEM) of all 2.9 million buildings in the country, combined with a building register. The 1.6 m resolution DEM has been processed into global radiation input, solar energy output and production....... The continuous assessment of solar electricity generation potentials by marginal costs, ownership and plant type presented in the paper may be used for defining long term policies for the development of photovoltaic energy, as well as political instruments such as a multi-tier feed-in tariff....

  11. Profits or preferences? Assessing the adoption of residential solar thermal technologies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mills, Bradford F.; Schleich, Joachim

    2009-01-01

    Solar thermal technologies offer the potential to meet a substantial share of residential water and space heating needs in the EU, but current levels of adoption are low. This paper uses data from a large sample of German households to assess the effects of geographic, residence, and household characteristics on the adoption of solar thermal water and space heating technologies. In addition, the impact of solar thermal technology adoption on household energy expenditures is estimated after controlling for observed household heterogeneity in geographic, residential, and household characteristics. While evidence is found of moderate household energy expenditure savings from combined solar water and space heating systems, the findings generally confirm that low in-home energy cost savings and fixed housing stocks limit the diffusion of residential solar thermal technologies. Little evidence is found of differential adoption by distinct socio-economic groups.

  12. Assessment of the labor market experiences of CETA-trained solar workers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Burns, B.A.; Mason, B.; Mikasa, G.Y.

    1980-12-01

    This study assessed solar training offered by CETA-funded programs and labor market experiences of program graduates. The initial research was restricted to programs within California, because the state is involved in a variety of solar-related activities, including development of jobs and training programs in solar energy. Interviews were conducted with 12 CETA solar training programs and graduates in 1979, in cooperation with California's SolarCal Office. Information on graduates includes demographics, educational and work experience, satisfaction with solar training, types of jobs found, wage levels, and job tenure. Program information includes length, types of training, and the number and kinds of solar systems installed. Results show that major programs problems were: limited funding; shortages of trained instructors; insufficient staff; need for local employment information; need for better defined role for unions; and pressures for high placement rates. The curricula involved general skills, skills specific to solar technologies, and basic job behavior and skills. The training involved both classroom and hands-on experience and was mainly tailored to participants and the local job market. Successful placement of program participants was relatively high; over half the initial job placements involved solar energy. Solar jobs appeared to pay more than nonsolar jobs. Participants generally felt that their training had prepared them adequately for their current work.

  13. The evolutionarily conserved mediator subunit MDT-15/MED15 links protective innate immune responses and xenobiotic detoxification.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Read Pukkila-Worley

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available Metazoans protect themselves from environmental toxins and virulent pathogens through detoxification and immune responses. We previously identified a small molecule xenobiotic toxin that extends survival of Caenorhabditis elegans infected with human bacterial pathogens by activating the conserved p38 MAP kinase PMK-1 host defense pathway. Here we investigate the cellular mechanisms that couple activation of a detoxification response to innate immunity. From an RNAi screen of 1,420 genes expressed in the C. elegans intestine, we identified the conserved Mediator subunit MDT-15/MED15 and 28 other gene inactivations that abrogate the induction of PMK-1-dependent immune effectors by this small molecule. We demonstrate that MDT-15/MED15 is required for the xenobiotic-induced expression of p38 MAP kinase PMK-1-dependent immune genes and protection from Pseudomonas aeruginosa infection. We also show that MDT-15 controls the induction of detoxification genes and functions to protect the host from bacteria-derived phenazine toxins. These data define a central role for MDT-15/MED15 in the coordination of xenobiotic detoxification and innate immune responses.

  14. The evolutionarily conserved mediator subunit MDT-15/MED15 links protective innate immune responses and xenobiotic detoxification.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pukkila-Worley, Read; Feinbaum, Rhonda L; McEwan, Deborah L; Conery, Annie L; Ausubel, Frederick M

    2014-05-01

    Metazoans protect themselves from environmental toxins and virulent pathogens through detoxification and immune responses. We previously identified a small molecule xenobiotic toxin that extends survival of Caenorhabditis elegans infected with human bacterial pathogens by activating the conserved p38 MAP kinase PMK-1 host defense pathway. Here we investigate the cellular mechanisms that couple activation of a detoxification response to innate immunity. From an RNAi screen of 1,420 genes expressed in the C. elegans intestine, we identified the conserved Mediator subunit MDT-15/MED15 and 28 other gene inactivations that abrogate the induction of PMK-1-dependent immune effectors by this small molecule. We demonstrate that MDT-15/MED15 is required for the xenobiotic-induced expression of p38 MAP kinase PMK-1-dependent immune genes and protection from Pseudomonas aeruginosa infection. We also show that MDT-15 controls the induction of detoxification genes and functions to protect the host from bacteria-derived phenazine toxins. These data define a central role for MDT-15/MED15 in the coordination of xenobiotic detoxification and innate immune responses.

  15. Effect of organic species on the solar detoxification of water polluted with pesticides

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Soler, J.; Santos-Juanes, L.; Miro, P.; Vicente, R.; Arques, A.; Amat, A.M.

    2011-01-01

    Research highlights: → Aliphatic surfactants inhibit treatment of pesticides by solar photo-Fenton. → Longer irradiation periods are required for pesticides removal and mineralization. → An enhancement of biodegradability can be achieved. - Abstract: The effect of organic species on a solar-driven photo-Fenton treatment of a mixture of pesticides (methyl-oxydemethon, methidathion, carbaryl and dimethoate) has been studied in this paper. Triethoxyisododecyl alcohol, acetophenone and ethylenediaminetetraacetic acid (EDTA) have been used as examples of surfactants, solvents and complexing agents, respectively. An inhibitory effect on mineralization as well as on the elimination of the pesticides was observed in the case of the aliphatic surfactants, most probably due to the competition between the pesticides and the added organic matter for reaction with the relatively unselective hydroxyl radical. A methodology combining chemical analyses and bioassays was tested in order to explore the applicability of coupling a photo-Fenton process with a biological treatment in the presence of the surfactant. Despite the complexity of the mixture under study, a reliable monitoring of the process was accomplished; the biocompatibility of the mixture was enhanced and the optimal irradiation intensity was achieved just after complete removal of the pesticides.

  16. Effect of organic species on the solar detoxification of water polluted with pesticides

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Soler, J.; Santos-Juanes, L. [Grupo de Procesos de Oxidacion Avanzada, Departamento de Ingenieria Textil y Papelera, Universidad Politecnica de Valencia, Campus de Alcoy, Plaza Ferrandiz y Carbonell s/n, 03801 Alcoy (Spain); Miro, P., E-mail: pamimar@eio.upv.es [Departamento de Estadistica e Investigacion Operativa Aplicadas y Calidad, Universidad Politecnica de Valencia, Campus de Alcoy, Plaza Ferrandiz y Carbonell s/n, 03801 Alcoy (Spain); Vicente, R. [Grupo de Procesos de Oxidacion Avanzada, Departamento de Ingenieria Textil y Papelera, Universidad Politecnica de Valencia, Campus de Alcoy, Plaza Ferrandiz y Carbonell s/n, 03801 Alcoy (Spain); Arques, A., E-mail: aarques@txp.upv.es [Grupo de Procesos de Oxidacion Avanzada, Departamento de Ingenieria Textil y Papelera, Universidad Politecnica de Valencia, Campus de Alcoy, Plaza Ferrandiz y Carbonell s/n, 03801 Alcoy (Spain); Amat, A.M. [Grupo de Procesos de Oxidacion Avanzada, Departamento de Ingenieria Textil y Papelera, Universidad Politecnica de Valencia, Campus de Alcoy, Plaza Ferrandiz y Carbonell s/n, 03801 Alcoy (Spain)

    2011-04-15

    Research highlights: {yields} Aliphatic surfactants inhibit treatment of pesticides by solar photo-Fenton. {yields} Longer irradiation periods are required for pesticides removal and mineralization. {yields} An enhancement of biodegradability can be achieved. - Abstract: The effect of organic species on a solar-driven photo-Fenton treatment of a mixture of pesticides (methyl-oxydemethon, methidathion, carbaryl and dimethoate) has been studied in this paper. Triethoxyisododecyl alcohol, acetophenone and ethylenediaminetetraacetic acid (EDTA) have been used as examples of surfactants, solvents and complexing agents, respectively. An inhibitory effect on mineralization as well as on the elimination of the pesticides was observed in the case of the aliphatic surfactants, most probably due to the competition between the pesticides and the added organic matter for reaction with the relatively unselective hydroxyl radical. A methodology combining chemical analyses and bioassays was tested in order to explore the applicability of coupling a photo-Fenton process with a biological treatment in the presence of the surfactant. Despite the complexity of the mixture under study, a reliable monitoring of the process was accomplished; the biocompatibility of the mixture was enhanced and the optimal irradiation intensity was achieved just after complete removal of the pesticides.

  17. Stress-related phenomena and detoxification mechanisms induced by common pharmaceuticals in alfalfa (Medicago sativa L.) plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Christou, Anastasis; Antoniou, Chrystalla; Christodoulou, Charalampia; Hapeshi, Evroula; Stavrou, Ioannis; Michael, Costas; Fatta-Kassinos, Despo; Fotopoulos, Vasileios

    2016-01-01

    Pharmaceutically active compounds (PhACs) have been recently shown to exert phytotoxic effects. The present study explores the uptake, systemic translocation, and abiotic stress responses and detoxification mechanisms induced by the exposure of alfalfa plants grown in sand under greenhouse conditions to four common, individually applied PhACs (10 μg L −1 ) (diclofenac, sulfamethoxazole, trimethoprim, 17a-ethinylestradiol) and their mixture. Stress physiology markers (lipid peroxidation, proline, H 2 O 2 and NO content, antioxidant activity assays) and gene expression levels of key plant detoxification components (including glutathione S-transferases, GST7, GST17; superoxide dismutases, CuZnSOD, FeSOD; proton pump, H + -ATP, and cytochrome c oxidase, CytcOx), were evaluated. PhACs were detected in significantly higher concentrations in roots compared with leaves. Stress related effects, manifested via membrane lipid peroxidation and oxidative burst, were local (roots) rather than systemic (leaves), and exacerbated when the tested PhACs were applied in mixture. Systemic accumulation of H 2 O 2 in leaves suggests its involvement in signal transduction and detoxification responses. Increased antioxidant enzymatic activities, as well as upregulated transcript levels of GST7, GST17, H + -ATPase and CytcOx, propose their role in the detoxification of the selected PhACs in plants. The current findings provide novel biochemical and molecular evidence highlighting the studied PhACs as an emerging abiotic stress factor, and point the need for further research on wastewater flows under natural agricultural environments. - Highlights: • PhACs were detected in higher concentrations in roots compared with leaves. • Stress effects were local and exacerbated when PhACs were applied in mixture. • H 2 O 2 may be involved in signal transduction and detoxification responses. • GSTs, H + -ATPase and CytcOx contribute to the detoxification of PhACs in plants. • Results

  18. Stress-related phenomena and detoxification mechanisms induced by common pharmaceuticals in alfalfa (Medicago sativa L.) plants

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Christou, Anastasis [Agricultural Research Institute, P.O. Box 22016, 1516 Nicosia (Cyprus); Antoniou, Chrystalla; Christodoulou, Charalampia [Department of Agricultural Sciences, Biotechnology and Food Science, Cyprus University of Technology, 3603 Lemesos (Cyprus); Hapeshi, Evroula; Stavrou, Ioannis; Michael, Costas [NIREAS-International Water Research Center, University of Cyprus, P.O. Box 20537, 1678 Nicosia (Cyprus); Fatta-Kassinos, Despo [Department of Civil and Environmental Engineering, University of Cyprus, P.O. Box 20537, 1678 Nicosia (Cyprus); NIREAS-International Water Research Center, University of Cyprus, P.O. Box 20537, 1678 Nicosia (Cyprus); Fotopoulos, Vasileios, E-mail: vassilis.fotopoulos@cut.ac.cy [Department of Agricultural Sciences, Biotechnology and Food Science, Cyprus University of Technology, 3603 Lemesos (Cyprus)

    2016-07-01

    Pharmaceutically active compounds (PhACs) have been recently shown to exert phytotoxic effects. The present study explores the uptake, systemic translocation, and abiotic stress responses and detoxification mechanisms induced by the exposure of alfalfa plants grown in sand under greenhouse conditions to four common, individually applied PhACs (10 μg L{sup −1}) (diclofenac, sulfamethoxazole, trimethoprim, 17a-ethinylestradiol) and their mixture. Stress physiology markers (lipid peroxidation, proline, H{sub 2}O{sub 2} and NO content, antioxidant activity assays) and gene expression levels of key plant detoxification components (including glutathione S-transferases, GST7, GST17; superoxide dismutases, CuZnSOD, FeSOD; proton pump, H{sup +}-ATP, and cytochrome c oxidase, CytcOx), were evaluated. PhACs were detected in significantly higher concentrations in roots compared with leaves. Stress related effects, manifested via membrane lipid peroxidation and oxidative burst, were local (roots) rather than systemic (leaves), and exacerbated when the tested PhACs were applied in mixture. Systemic accumulation of H{sub 2}O{sub 2} in leaves suggests its involvement in signal transduction and detoxification responses. Increased antioxidant enzymatic activities, as well as upregulated transcript levels of GST7, GST17, H{sup +}-ATPase and CytcOx, propose their role in the detoxification of the selected PhACs in plants. The current findings provide novel biochemical and molecular evidence highlighting the studied PhACs as an emerging abiotic stress factor, and point the need for further research on wastewater flows under natural agricultural environments. - Highlights: • PhACs were detected in higher concentrations in roots compared with leaves. • Stress effects were local and exacerbated when PhACs were applied in mixture. • H{sub 2}O{sub 2} may be involved in signal transduction and detoxification responses. • GSTs, H{sup +}-ATPase and CytcOx contribute to the

  19. Quality assessment of solar UV irradiance measured with array spectroradiometers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Egli, Luca; Gröbner, Julian; Hülsen, Gregor; Bachmann, Luciano; Blumthaler, Mario; Dubard, Jimmy; Khazova, Marina; Kift, Richard; Hoogendijk, Kees; Serrano, Antonio; Smedley, Andrew; Vilaplana, José-Manuel

    2016-04-01

    The reliable quantification of ultraviolet (UV) radiation at the earth's surface requires accurate measurements of spectral global solar UV irradiance in order to determine the UV exposure to human skin and to understand long-term trends in this parameter. Array spectroradiometers (ASRMs) are small, light, robust and cost-effective instruments, and are increasingly used for spectral irradiance measurements. Within the European EMRP ENV03 project "Solar UV", new devices, guidelines and characterization methods have been developed to improve solar UV measurements with ASRMs, and support to the end user community has been provided. In order to assess the quality of 14 end user ASRMs, a solar UV intercomparison was held on the measurement platform of the World Radiation Center (PMOD/WRC) in Davos, Switzerland, from 10 to 17 July 2014. The results of the blind intercomparison revealed that ASRMs, currently used for solar UV measurements, show a large variation in the quality of their solar UV measurements. Most of the instruments overestimate the erythema-weighted UV index - in particular at large solar zenith angles - due to stray light contribution in the UV-B range. The spectral analysis of global solar UV irradiance further supported the finding that the uncertainties in the UV-B range are very large due to stray light contribution in this wavelength range. In summary, the UV index may be detected by some commercially available ASRMs within 5 % compared to the world reference spectroradiometer, if well characterized and calibrated, but only for a limited range of solar zenith angles. Generally, the tested instruments are not yet suitable for solar UV measurements for the entire range between 290 and 400 nm under all atmospheric conditions.

  20. Metal accumulation and detoxification mechanisms in mycorrhizal Betula pubescens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fernández-Fuego, D; Bertrand, A; González, A

    2017-12-01

    Metal detoxification in plants is a complex process that involves different mechanisms, such as the retention of metals to the cell wall and their chelation and subsequent compartmentalization in plant vacuoles. In order to identify the mechanisms involved in metal accumulation and tolerance in Betula pubescens, as well as the role of mycorrhization in these processes, mycorrhizal and non-mycorrhizal plants were grown in two industrial soils with contrasting concentrations of heavy metals. Mycorrhization increased metal uptake at low metal concentrations in the soil and reduced it at high metal concentrations, which led to an enhanced growth and biomass production of the host when growing in the most polluted soil. Our results suggest that the sequestration on the cell wall is the main detoxification mechanism in white birch exposed to acute chronic metal-stress, while phytochelatins play a role mitigating metal toxicity inside the cells. Given its high Mn and Zn root-to-shoot translocation rate, Betula pubescens is a very promising species for the phytoremediation of soils polluted with these metals. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. Use of Strychnos Nux-Vomica (Azraqi) Seeds in Unani System of Medicine: Role of Detoxification

    OpenAIRE

    Akbar, Seema; Khan, Shamshad A; Masood, Akbar; Iqbal, M

    2010-01-01

    Some plants used in Unani system of medicine are toxic, even deadly poisonous. The drugs having such plants as their components are detoxified before they are dispensed to the patients. One such drug, capsule Hudar, has Strychnos nux-vomica L. (Azraqi) seeds as one of its components and is very effectively used to elevate blood pressure. Ancient manuscripts describe many methods of its detoxification. It has been found that the detoxification processes studied reduce the strychnine content, a...

  2. Use of Strychnos nux-vomica (Azraqi) seeds in Unani system of medicine: role of detoxification.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akbar, Seema; Khan, Shamshad A; Masood, Akbar; Iqbal, M

    2010-01-01

    Some plants used in Unani system of medicine are toxic, even deadly poisonous. The drugs having such plants as their components are detoxified before they are dispensed to the patients. One such drug, capsule Hudar, has Strychnos nux-vomica L. (Azraqi) seeds as one of its components and is very effectively used to elevate blood pressure. Ancient manuscripts describe many methods of its detoxification. It has been found that the detoxification processes studied reduce the strychnine content, as determined either by using uv-vis spectrophotometer or HPLC, present in Strychnos nux vomica seeds which is responsible for Strychnos nux vomica toxicity. The decrease in strychnine amount was best when the seeds were immersed for detoxification in excess of water for 5 days, in milk for 2 days followed by their boiling in milk. Strychnine in small amounts has been reported to give subjective feeling of stimulation.

  3. Detoxification of cyanides in cassava flour by linamarase of Bacillus ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    enoh

    2012-04-05

    Apr 5, 2012 ... Full Length Research Paper. Detoxification of ... utilizing indigenous bacteria from cyanide rich cassava peel waste and exploited their potential for ... Figure 1. Enzyme catalyzed degradation of cyanogenic glycosides. pains ..... Linamarin - the toxic compound of cassava. J. Venom. Anim. Toxins. 2(1): 6-12.

  4. Complete detoxification is the most effective treatment of medication-overuse headache

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Carlsen, Louise Ninett; Munksgaard, Signe Bruun; Jensen, Rigmor Højland

    2018-01-01

    /month by 46% (95% CI 34-58) compared with 22% (95% CI 11-34) in program-B ( p = 0.005), and 70% in program A versus 42% in program B were reverted to episodic headache ( p = 0.04). Migraine-days/month were reduced by 7.2 in program A ( p 0.001) and 3.6 in program B ( p = 0.002) after 6 months. Conclusion......Background There is lack of evidence on how to detoxify medication-overuse headache. Aim To compare the effect of complete stop of acute medication with restricted intake. Methods Medication-overuse headache patients were included in a prospective, outpatient study and randomized to two months...... Both detoxification programs were very effective. Detoxification without analgesics or acute migraine-medication was the most effective program. Trial registration Clinicaltrials.gov (NCT02903329)....

  5. Characterization of the biodegradation, bioremediation and detoxification capacity of a bacterial consortium able to degrade the fungicide thiabendazole.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perruchon, Chiara; Pantoleon, Anastasios; Veroutis, Dimitrios; Gallego-Blanco, Sara; Martin-Laurent, F; Liadaki, Kalliopi; Karpouzas, Dimitrios G

    2017-12-01

    Thiabendazole (TBZ) is a persistent fungicide used in the post-harvest treatment of fruits. Its application results in the production of contaminated effluents which should be treated before their environmental discharge. In the absence of efficient treatment methods in place, biological systems based on microbial inocula with specialized degrading capacities against TBZ could be a feasible treatment approach. Only recently the first bacterial consortium able to rapidly transform TBZ was isolated. This study aimed to characterize its biodegradation, bioremediation and detoxification potential. The capacity of the consortium to mineralize 14 C-benzyl-ring labelled TBZ was initially assessed. Subsequent tests evaluated its degradation capacity under various conditions (range of pH, temperatures and TBZ concentration levels) and relevant practical scenarios (simultaneous presence of other postharvest compounds) and its bioaugmentation potential in soils contaminated with increasing TBZ levels. Finally cytotoxicity assays explored its detoxification potential. The consortium effectively mineralized the benzoyl ring of the benzimidazole moiety of TBZ and degraded spillage level concentrations of the fungicide in aqueous cultures (750 mg L -1 ) and in soil (500 mg kg -1 ). It maintained its high degradation capacity in a wide range of pH (4.5-7.5) and temperatures (15-37 °C) and in the presence of other pesticides (ortho-phenylphenol and diphenylamine). Toxicity assays using the human liver cancer cell line HepG2 showed a progressive decrease in cytotoxicity, concomitantly with the biodegradation of TBZ, pointing to a detoxification process. Overall, the bacterial consortium showed high potential for future implementation in bioremediation and biodepuration applications.

  6. International conference on comparative assessments of solar power technologies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Roy, A.

    1994-02-01

    Many regions in the world which lack fossil fuel resources but possess ample sunshine seek to identify near-term solar technologies capable of gradually replacing their fuel imports in cost-effective fashion. The conference addresses the following topics: technical and economical studies specifying their underlying basic assumption, methods and rules for evaluation in order to enable meaningful comparison between different technologies and systems. Detailed delineation of numerical and graphical representations, critical analysis and comparison between simulations, and test validity. Generalized performance indicators for systems and subsystems, problems of measuring and evaluating physical parameters, of terminology and conceptual tools for comparative evaluations. Advances in research development, engineering and field performance, including implications pertaining to comparative assessments and definitions of criteria and standards helpful to comparative evaluation. Assessments of the full (and hidden) cost of fossil energies as compared to solar, including environmental costs. Cost/benefit studies for remote versus centralized systems. (ed.)

  7. Decoloration and detoxification of effluents by ionizing radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Borrely, Sueli I.; Morais, Aline V.; Rosa, Jorge M.; Badaró-Pedroso, Cintia; Conceição Pereira, Maria da; Higa, Marcela C.

    2016-01-01

    Three distinct textile samples were investigated for color and toxicity (S1–chemical/textile industry; S2–final textile effluent; S3 - standard textile produced effluent–untreated blue). Radiation processing of these samples were carried out at Dynamitron Electron Beam Accelerator and color and toxicity removal were determined: color removal by radiation was 96% (40 kGy, S1); 55% (2.5 kGy, S2) and 90% (2.5 kGy, S3). Concerning toxicity assays, Vibrio fischeri luminescent bacteria demonstrated higher reduction after radiation than the other systems: removal efficiencies were 33% (20 kGy, S1); 55% (2.5 kGy, S2) and 33% (2.5 kGy, S3). Daphnia similis and Brachionus plicatilis fitted well for S3 effluents. Hard toxic volumes into biological treatment plant may be avoided if radiation would be previously applied in a real plant. Results reveled how indispensable is to run toxicity to more than one living-organism. - Highlights: • 2.5 kGy was enough for decoloration and detoxification of S2 and S3. • S1 effluents were very toxic and required at least 20 kGy for detoxification. • Radiation processing reduced toxicity for 100% of treated samples. • V. fischeri was the best tool for toxicity measurements.

  8. Extracorporeal Detoxification in Victims with Severe Concomitant Injury

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Ye. Khoroshilov

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective: to improve the results of victims with massive crushes of soft tissues in severe concomitant injury (SCI, by applying extracorporeal detoxification techniques as soon as possible. Subjects and methods. The results of examination and treatment were studied in 41 victims with SCI treated at the N. N. Burdenko Main Military Clinical Hospital in 2006 to 2008. In the early posttraumatic period (on days 1—3, all the victims (n=41 were divided into 2 groups. Group 1 victims (n=19 underwent hemodiafiltration (HDF with replacement at 35 ml/kg/hr; Group 2 (n=22 had plasmapheresis. Results. Early HDF applied to Group 1 victims could achieve 32, 44, and 37% reductions in the elevated levels creatine phosphokinase, myoglobin, and middle-sized molecules, respectively. In Group 2, plasmapheresis showed a lower effect (19, 25, and 26% reductions. Furthermore, there was a decrease in total protein in Group 1, which was absent in Group 2. Conclusion. The timely use of extracorporeal detoxification techniques in victims with massive crushes of soft tissues in the early posttraumatic period prevents the development of fatal complications of SCI, at the same time HDF is more effective and safe than plasmapheresis. Key words: severe concomitant injury, rhabdomyolysis, myoglobin, plasmapheresis, hemodiafiltration.

  9. Forager bees (Apis mellifera) highly express immune and detoxification genes in tissues associated with nectar processing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vannette, Rachel L; Mohamed, Abbas; Johnson, Brian R

    2015-11-09

    Pollinators, including honey bees, routinely encounter potentially harmful microorganisms and phytochemicals during foraging. However, the mechanisms by which honey bees manage these potential threats are poorly understood. In this study, we examine the expression of antimicrobial, immune and detoxification genes in Apis mellifera and compare between forager and nurse bees using tissue-specific RNA-seq and qPCR. Our analysis revealed extensive tissue-specific expression of antimicrobial, immune signaling, and detoxification genes. Variation in gene expression between worker stages was pronounced in the mandibular and hypopharyngeal gland (HPG), where foragers were enriched in transcripts that encode antimicrobial peptides (AMPs) and immune response. Additionally, forager HPGs and mandibular glands were enriched in transcripts encoding detoxification enzymes, including some associated with xenobiotic metabolism. Using qPCR on an independent dataset, we verified differential expression of three AMP and three P450 genes between foragers and nurses. High expression of AMP genes in nectar-processing tissues suggests that these peptides may contribute to antimicrobial properties of honey or to honey bee defense against environmentally-acquired microorganisms. Together, these results suggest that worker role and tissue-specific expression of AMPs, and immune and detoxification enzymes may contribute to defense against microorganisms and xenobiotic compounds acquired while foraging.

  10. Environmental assessment of different solar driven advanced oxidation processes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Munoz, Ivan; Rieradevall, Joan [Institut de Ciencia i Tecnologia Ambientals (ICTA), Universitat Autonoma de Barcelona, 08193 Bellaterra (Barcelona) (Spain); Torrades, Francesc [Departament d' Enginyeria Quimica, ETSEI de Terrassa, Universitat Politecnica de Catalunya, 08222 Terrassa (Barcelona) (Spain); Peral, Jose; Domenech, Xavier [Departament de Quimica, Universitat Autonoma de Barcelona, 08193 Bellaterra (Barcelona) (Spain)

    2005-10-01

    In this work a comparative environmental assessment of different advanced oxidation processes (AOP's) is performed. Two energy scenarios have been considered according to the energy source used: solar energy and electricity (UVA lamp). A life cycle assessment (LCA) is carried out in order to quantify the environmental impacts of the AOP's. The treatments considered are heterogenous photocatalysis, photo-Fenton reactions, the coupling of heterogeneous photocatalysis and photo-Fenton, and heterogeneous photocatalysis in combination with hydrogen peroxide. These AOP's are applied to the treatment of kraft mill bleaching wastewaters. The system under study includes the production of the catalysts, reagents as well as the production of electricity; eight environmental impact categories are assessed for each AOP: global warming, ozone depletion, aquatic eutrophication, acidification, human toxicity, freshwater aquatic toxicity, photochemical ozone formation, and abiotic resource depletion. the results of the LCA show that the environmental impact of AOP's is caused mainly by the amount of electricity consumed, whereas the impact of producing the reagents and catalysts is comparatively low. For this reason, the solar energy scenario reduces the impact more than 90% for almost all AOP's and impact categories. None of the solar driven AOP's can be identified as the best in all impact categories, but heterogenous photocatalysis and photo-Fenton reactions obtain better results than the remaining treatments, since these treatments do not consume simultaneously both TiO{sub 2} and H{sub 2}O{sub 2}, the chemicals with highest environmental burdens in the system. (author)

  11. Differential antioxidant defense and detoxification mechanisms in photodynamically stressed rice plants treated with the deregulators of porphyrin biosynthesis, 5-aminolevulinic acid and oxyfluorfen

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Phung, Thu-Ha; Jung, Sunyo, E-mail: sjung@knu.ac.kr

    2015-04-03

    This study focuses on differential molecular mechanisms of antioxidant and detoxification systems in rice plants under two different types of photodynamic stress imposed by porphyrin deregulators, 5-aminolevulinic acid (ALA) and oxyfluorfen (OF). The ALA-treated plants with white necrosis exhibited a greater decrease in photochemical quantum efficiency, F{sub v}/F{sub m}, as well as a greater increase in activity of superoxide dismutase, compared to the OF-treated plants. By contrast, the brown necrosis in OF-treated plants resulted in not only more widely dispersed H{sub 2}O{sub 2} production and greater increases in H{sub 2}O{sub 2}-decomposing enzymes, catalase and peroxidase, but also lower ascorbate redox state. In addition, ALA- and OF-treated plants markedly up-regulated transcript levels of genes involved in detoxification processes including transport and movement, cellular homeostasis, and xenobiotic conjugation, with prominent up-regulation of serine/threonine kinase and chaperone only in ALA-treated plants. Our results demonstrate that different photodynamic stress imposed by ALA and OF developed differential actions of antioxidant enzymes and detoxification. Particularly, detoxification system may play potential roles in plant protection against photodynamic stress imposed by porphyrin deregulators, thereby contributing to alleviation of photodynamic damage. - Highlights: • We employ two different types of photodynamic stress, white and brown necrosis. • We examine molecular mechanisms of antioxidative and detoxification systems. • ALA and OF develop differential actions of antioxidant and detoxification systems. • Coordinated mechanism of antioxidants and detoxification works against toxic ROS. • Detoxification system plays critical roles in protection against photodynamic stress.

  12. Differential antioxidant defense and detoxification mechanisms in photodynamically stressed rice plants treated with the deregulators of porphyrin biosynthesis, 5-aminolevulinic acid and oxyfluorfen

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Phung, Thu-Ha; Jung, Sunyo

    2015-01-01

    This study focuses on differential molecular mechanisms of antioxidant and detoxification systems in rice plants under two different types of photodynamic stress imposed by porphyrin deregulators, 5-aminolevulinic acid (ALA) and oxyfluorfen (OF). The ALA-treated plants with white necrosis exhibited a greater decrease in photochemical quantum efficiency, F v /F m , as well as a greater increase in activity of superoxide dismutase, compared to the OF-treated plants. By contrast, the brown necrosis in OF-treated plants resulted in not only more widely dispersed H 2 O 2 production and greater increases in H 2 O 2 -decomposing enzymes, catalase and peroxidase, but also lower ascorbate redox state. In addition, ALA- and OF-treated plants markedly up-regulated transcript levels of genes involved in detoxification processes including transport and movement, cellular homeostasis, and xenobiotic conjugation, with prominent up-regulation of serine/threonine kinase and chaperone only in ALA-treated plants. Our results demonstrate that different photodynamic stress imposed by ALA and OF developed differential actions of antioxidant enzymes and detoxification. Particularly, detoxification system may play potential roles in plant protection against photodynamic stress imposed by porphyrin deregulators, thereby contributing to alleviation of photodynamic damage. - Highlights: • We employ two different types of photodynamic stress, white and brown necrosis. • We examine molecular mechanisms of antioxidative and detoxification systems. • ALA and OF develop differential actions of antioxidant and detoxification systems. • Coordinated mechanism of antioxidants and detoxification works against toxic ROS. • Detoxification system plays critical roles in protection against photodynamic stress

  13. Natural Detoxification Capacity to Inactivate Nerve Agents Sarin and VX in the Rat Blood

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jiří Bajgar

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Background: The method of continual determination of the rat blood cholinesterase activity was developed to study the changes of the blood cholinesterases following different intervetions. Aims: The aim of this study is registration of cholinesterase activity in the rat blood and its changes to demonstrate detoxification capacity of rats to inactivate sarin or VX in vivo. Methods: The groups of female rats were premedicated (ketamine and xylazine and cannulated to a. femoralis. Continual blood sampling (0.02 ml/min and monitoring of the circulating blood cholinesterase activity were performed. Normal activity was monitored 1–2 min and then the nerve agent was administered i.m. (2× LD50. Using different time intervals of the leg compression and relaxation following the agent injection, cholinesterase activity was monitored and according to the inhibition obtained, detoxification capacity was assessed. Results: Administration of sarin to the leg, then 1 and 5 min compression and 20 min later relaxation showed that further inhibition in the blood was not observed. On the other hand, VX was able to inhibit blood cholinesterases after this intervention. Conclusions: The results demonstrated that sarin can be naturally detoxified on the contrary to VX. Described method can be used as model for other studies dealing with changes of cholinesterases in the blood following different factors.

  14. Desalination with thermal solar systems: technology assessment and perspectives

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ajona, J.I.

    1992-01-01

    Solar desalination is among the most promising alternatives to apply solar energy as solar availability and the load requirements use to be matched. Solar thermal energy offers a full set of alternatives to desalt water, being the main difference among them the temperature range at which the load has to be fed. Solar technologies for the low temperature range (solar stills, plastic collectors,...) are quite suited for small loads in isolated placed or whenever the main constrain is to indigenize technology and to perform the operation and maintenance work with low qualified local labor, such as in less developed countries. The main drawback of this low temperature use of solar energy is that it is not possible to recover neither the heat of condensation of the water vapor, nor from the reject brine, to warm up the feed saline water. Higher temperature collectors, such as flat plate collectors with transparent insulation material and evacuated tubes, allow to work with conventional desalination units fed at 60-90C, as Multiple Effect Units or Multistage Flash Units, which get a performance ratio (quotient between heat required without recovery and with heat recovery) between 5 and 10. To further increase the performance ratio it is necessary to work with vapor in the 200C range. To attain this temperature range the solar option is based on the Parabolic Trough collector. This has been the line we have followed in our STD project in the Plataforma Solar in Almeria (Spain) when we have run a Multiple Effect Unit with an Absorption Heat Pump able to attain a performance ratio of 20. In this report, included within the STD project activities, we assess the potential of the solar thermal technology to desalt water in all the above mentioned temperature ranges. Beside the technology description and some characteristics results, we present a set of tool that, as the final result is dramatically dependent on the technical and economical scenario selected, will allow to

  15. Cost and outcome analysis of two alcohol detoxification services.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parrott, Steve; Godfrey, Christine; Heather, Nick; Clark, Jenny; Ryan, Tony

    2006-01-01

    To examine the relationship between service use and outcomes (individual and wider consequences) using an economic analysis of a direct-access alcohol detoxification service in Manchester (the Smithfield Centre) and an NHS partial hospitalization programme in Newcastle upon Tyne (Newcastle and North Tyneside Drug and Alcohol Service, Plummer Court). A total of 145 direct-access admissions to the Smithfield Centre and 77 admissions to Plummer Court completed a battery of questionnaires shortly after intake and were followed up 6 months after discharge. Full economic data at follow-up were available for 54 Smithfield admissions and 49 Plummer Court admissions. Mean total cost of treatment per patient was pound1113 at the Smithfield Centre and pound1054 at Plummer Court in 2003-04 prices. Comparing the 6 months before treatment with the 6 months before follow-up, social costs fell by pound331 on average for each patient at Plummer Court but rose by pound1047 for each patient at the Smithfield Centre. When treatment costs and wider social costs were combined, the total cost to society at Smithfield was on average pound2159 per patient whilst at Plummer Court it was pound723 per patient. Combining the cost of treatment with drinking outcomes yielded a net cost per unit reduction in alcohol consumption of pound1.79 at Smithfield and pound1.68 at Plummer Court. Both services delivered a flexible needs-based service to very disadvantaged population at a reasonable cost and were associated with statistically significant reductions in drinking. For some patients, there was evidence of public sector resource savings but for others these detoxification services allowed those not previously in contact with services to meet health and social care needs. These patterns of cost through time are more complex than in previous evaluations of less severely dependent patients and difficult to predict from drinking patterns or patient characteristics. More research is required to judge

  16. Impact of Detoxification Techniques on Pulmonary Gas Exchange Function in Patients with Generalized Peritonitis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. A. Mlinnik

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective: to analyze the impact of different detoxification techniques on pulmonary gas exchange function in patients with generalized peritonitis complicated by multiple organ failure. Subjects and methods. One hundred and thirty patients with generalized peritonitis were examined. According to the used detoxification techniques, the patients were divided into 5 groups. All the patients underwent a comprehensive examination, the key element of which was the evaluation of gas exchange parameters. Results. Membrane plasmapheresis and plasmapheresis with sodium hypochlorite infusion to the plasma filter in patients with peritonitis are shown to improve pulmonary blood oxygenation.

  17. Detoxification of wood preserving waste under ambient, enhanced and chemical pretreatment conditions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hong, M.S.; Brown, K.W.; Dale, B.E.; Donnelly, K.C.; He, L.Y.; Markiewicz, K.V. [Texas A and M Univ., College Station, TX (United States)

    1994-12-31

    Detoxification of pentachlorophenol-containing wood preserving waste was monitored under ambient, enhanced and chemical pretreatment conditions for genotoxicity and parent compound removal. Samples were collected throughout the treatment periods and sequentially extracted with dichloromethane and methanol with the Tecator Soxtec apparatus. The organic extracts were analyzed on GC/ECD and GC/MS. The extract mutagenic and genotoxic potentials were evaluated with and without metabolic activation with the Salmonella Microsomal and E. coli Prophage Induction assays. The Salmonella mutagenic responses of extracts from Weswood soil amended with wood preserving waste and treated under ambient conditions were 2.0, 34.6 and 2.4 times greater than the solvent control on days 0, 540 and 1,200 respectively. Organic extracts of soil amended with wood preserving waste and treated under enhanced conditions in a solid-phase rotating drum bioreactor had mutagenic potentials of 3.4, 4.9 and 3.5 on days 0, 14 and 30, respectively. Extracts from wood preserving waste sludge treated with potassium polyethylene glycol were shown to have mutagenic potentials of 2.8, 6.1 and 3.8 at 0, 10 and 30 minutes. The results indicate that the initial products of the wood preserving waste detoxification under all treatment conditions appear to have greater genotoxic potentials than the starting material. The results also suggest that a more rapid detoxification occurs under enhanced and chemical pretreatment conditions.

  18. Lower sulfurtransferase detoxification rates of cyanide in konzo—A tropical spastic paralysis linked to cassava cyanogenic poisoning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kambale, K.J.; Ali, E.R.; Sadiki, N.H.; Kayembe, K.P.; Mvumbi, L.G.; Yandju, D.L.; Boivin, M.J.; Boss, G.R.; Stadler, D.D.; Lambert, W.E.; Lasarev, M.R.; Okitundu, L.A.; Ngoyi, D. Mumba; Banea, J.P.; Tshala-Katumbay, D.D.

    2016-01-01

    Using a matched case-control design, we sought to determine whether the odds of konzo, a distinct spastic paraparesis associated with food (cassava) cyanogenic exposure in the tropics, were associated with lower cyanide detoxification rates (CDR) and malnutrition. Children with konzo (N= 122, 5–17 years of age) were age- and sex-matched with presumably healthy controls (N = 87) and assessed for motor and cognition performances, cyanogenic exposure, nutritional status, and cyanide detoxification rates (CDR). Cyanogenic exposure was ascertained by thiocyanate (SCN) concentrations in plasma (P-SCN) and urine (U-SCN). Children with a height-for-age z-score (HAZNCHS) cyanide to SCN, and expressed as ms/μmol SCN/mg protein or as mmolSCN/ml plasma/min. Mean (SD) U-SCN in children with konzo was 521.9 (353.6) μmol/l and was, significantly higher than 384.6 (223.7) μmol/l in those without konzo. Conditional regression analysis of data for age- and sex- matched case-control pairs showed that konzo was associated with stunting (OR: 5.8; 95% CI: 2.7–12.8; p cyanide in those relying on the cassava as the main source of food. PMID:27246648

  19. Life Cycle Assessment of Titania Perovskite Solar Cell Technology for Sustainable Design and Manufacturing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Jingyi; Gao, Xianfeng; Deng, Yelin; Li, Bingbing; Yuan, Chris

    2015-11-01

    Perovskite solar cells have attracted enormous attention in recent years due to their low cost and superior technical performance. However, the use of toxic metals, such as lead, in the perovskite dye and toxic chemicals in perovskite solar cell manufacturing causes grave concerns for its environmental performance. To understand and facilitate the sustainable development of perovskite solar cell technology from its design to manufacturing, a comprehensive environmental impact assessment has been conducted on titanium dioxide nanotube based perovskite solar cells by using an attributional life cycle assessment approach, from cradle to gate, with manufacturing data from our laboratory-scale experiments and upstream data collected from professional databases and the literature. The results indicate that the perovskite dye is the primary source of environmental impact, associated with 64.77% total embodied energy and 31.38% embodied materials consumption, contributing to more than 50% of the life cycle impact in almost all impact categories, although lead used in the perovskite dye only contributes to about 1.14% of the human toxicity potential. A comparison of perovskite solar cells with commercial silicon and cadmium-tellurium solar cells reveals that perovskite solar cells could be a promising alternative technology for future large-scale industrial applications. © 2015 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  20. Assessment and comparison of methods for solar ultraviolet radiation measurements

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Leszczynski, K

    1995-06-01

    In the study, the different methods to measure the solar ultraviolet radiation are compared. The methods included are spectroradiometric, erythemally weighted broadband and multi-channel measurements. The comparison of the different methods is based on a literature review and assessments of optical characteristics of the spectroradiometer Optronic 742 of the Finnish Centre for Radiation and Nuclear Safety (STUK) and of the erythemally weighted Robertson-Berger type broadband radiometers Solar Light models 500 and 501 of the Finnish Meteorological Institute and STUK. An introduction to the sources of error in solar UV measurements, to methods for radiometric characterization of UV radiometers together with methods for error reduction are presented. Reviews on experiences from world-wide UV monitoring efforts and instrumentation as well as on the results from international UV radiometer intercomparisons are also presented. (62 refs.).

  1. Assessment and comparison of methods for solar ultraviolet radiation measurements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Leszczynski, K.

    1995-06-01

    In the study, the different methods to measure the solar ultraviolet radiation are compared. The methods included are spectroradiometric, erythemally weighted broadband and multi-channel measurements. The comparison of the different methods is based on a literature review and assessments of optical characteristics of the spectroradiometer Optronic 742 of the Finnish Centre for Radiation and Nuclear Safety (STUK) and of the erythemally weighted Robertson-Berger type broadband radiometers Solar Light models 500 and 501 of the Finnish Meteorological Institute and STUK. An introduction to the sources of error in solar UV measurements, to methods for radiometric characterization of UV radiometers together with methods for error reduction are presented. Reviews on experiences from world-wide UV monitoring efforts and instrumentation as well as on the results from international UV radiometer intercomparisons are also presented. (62 refs.)

  2. Advanced solar concentrator mass production, operation, and maintenance cost assessment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Niemeyer, W. A.; Bedard, R. J.; Bell, D. M.

    1981-01-01

    The object of this assessment was to estimate the costs of the preliminary design at: production rates of 100 to 1,000,000 concentrators per year; concentrators per aperture diameters of 5, 10, 11, and 15 meters; and various receiver/power conversion package weights. The design of the cellular glass substrate Advanced Solar Concentrator is presented. The concentrator is an 11 meter diameter, two axis tracking, parabolic dish solar concentrator. The reflective surface of this design consists of inner and outer groups of mirror glass/cellular glass gores.

  3. Detoxification of zearalenone from corn oil by adsorption of functionalized GO systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bai, Xiaojuan; Sun, Changpo; Xu, Jing; Liu, Di; Han, Yangying; Wu, Songling; Luo, Xiaohong

    2018-02-01

    Graphene oxide (GO) and its functionalized systems have very unique structural advantages as excellent adsorbent or substrate material in the removal of organic contaminants. Herein, we reported a strategy to establish functionalized GO system (FGO) using amphiphilic molecules didodecyldimethylammonium bromide (DDAB) as a modifier for the detoxification of zearalenone (ZEN) from corn oil. The adsorption property for the removal of ZEN from edible corn oils under different experimental conditions such as pH, amphiphilic molecules, time and temperature was investigated in detail. The morphology structure, adsorption isotherm, adsorption kinetics and the recyclability of FGO systems have also been researched, systematically. The FGO systems exhibit a higher adsorption efficiency, recyclability and thermostability in comparison with the traditional adsorbent materials. It provides an insight into the detoxification of mycotoxin from edible oils by graphene-based new materials.

  4. Administration of venlafaxine after chronic methadone detoxification blocks post-depression relapse in rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Meysam Fadaei-Kenarsary

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT Relapse is highly prevalent after detoxification and depression. Due to the advantages of venlafaxine compared with other antidepressants, it is expected that venlafaxine administration may reduce relapse after detoxification and depression. This study aimed to evaluate the effects of venlafaxine on depression-induced relapse to morphine dependence after methadone detoxification. Eighty Sprague-Dawley rats were habituated and conditioned with morphine (10 mg/kg, S.C., for 4 days. After that, primary forced swimming and conditioned place preference (CPP were tested. They were followed by methadone (70 mg/kg/day, P.O., for 7 days administration, extinguishing, forced swimming stress (FSS and administration of venlafaxine (80 mg/kg/day, I.P., for 7 days. Finally same tests were performed. Administration of venlafaxine resulted in a decrement in final preference scores associated with a prime morphine injection (PMI compared to the primary scores in methadone treated (MTD+ animals. In a swimming test, venlafaxine increased the amount of final floating and decreased final activity scores compared with the primary scores after administration of methadone. Venlafaxine reduced locomotor activity in MTD+ animals in the final test with PMI. There was a positive correlation between the final activity and preference scores after PMI. In conclusion, venlafaxine improved anxiety and depression-induced relapse on methadone detoxified rats.

  5. Southeast Regional Assessment Study: an assessment of the opportunities of solar electric power generation in the Southeastern United States

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    1980-07-01

    The objective of this study was to identify and assess opportunities for demonstration and large scale deployment of solar electric facilities in the southeast region and to define the technical, economic, and institutional factors that can contribute to an accelerated use of solar energy for electric power generation. Graphs and tables are presented indicating the solar resource potential, siting opportunities, energy generation and use, and socioeconomic factors of the region by state. Solar electric technologies considered include both central station and dispersed solar electric generating facilities. Central stations studied include solar thermal electric, wind, photovoltaic, ocean thermal gradient, and biomass; dispersed facilities include solar thermal total energy systems, wind, and photovoltaic. The value of solar electric facilities is determined in terms of the value of conventional facilities and the use of conventional fuels which the solar facilities can replace. Suitable cost and risk sharing mechanisms to accelerate the commercialization of solar electric technologies in the Southeast are identified. The major regulatory and legal factors which could impact on the commercialization of solar facilities are reviewed. The most important factors which affect market penetration are reviewed, ways to accelerate the implementation of these technologies are identified, and market entry paths are identified. Conclusions and recommendations are presented. (WHK)

  6. Assessment of market possibilities for solar cells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Djukanovic, S. [Advanced School of Business Novi Sad (Czechoslovakia)

    2004-07-01

    Global heating increases profitability of solar energy application in the Balkans. The most important market segments for wider solar cells utilization in Yugoslavia (Serbia and Montenegro) are solar pumps for irrigation in agriculture, traffic lights, lighting of weekend houses, air-conditioning, telecommunications, electric vehicles, solar hydro-electric power plants, sports centers and schools and orthodox monasteries. In addition to these applications of solar modules of relatively high capacity, a wide scope of applications of mini solar modules in consumer goods is given serious consideration (flashlights, bicycle lights, fan caps, beach hats, solar parasols, toys for children, solar watches, minicomputers, walkmans and alike). In this paper is projected gradually increase of solar cells applications in Yugoslavia, from 772 kW in 2006., to 3,901 kW installed photovoltaic power in 2010. year. The largest parts of this projected 3.9 MW in 2010., ought to be solar pumps (498 kW), telecommunications (470 kW) and traffic lights (468 kW). (orig.)

  7. An assessment of the regional potential for solar power generation in EU-28

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Perpiña Castillo, Carolina; Batista e Silva, Filipe; Lavalle, Carlo

    2016-01-01

    In this study we aim at assessing the potential of European regions to solar power generation and its comparison with recent European Union (EU) incentives for the development of this renewable energy source. In this study we use a multi-criteria assessment (MCA) supported by Geographical Information System (GIS) to combine already existing information on solar radiation with other geographical factors such as slope, land use, urban extent and population distribution, as well as proximity to the power grid to generate a suitability map for photovoltaic (PV) power plants across the EU at high spatial resolution. A validation exercise showed that the resulting suitability map is a good predictor of appropriate locations for the deployment of PV power plants. The suitability map was in addition compared to the regional distribution of European funds for development of solar energy from the EU Cohesion policy (2007–2013 programme). Regions were classified according their overall suitability for solar energy power systems and the allocated solar investments by the EU Cohesion policy. This analysis allowed to identify potential mismatches between fund allocations and actual regional suitability for solar energy. It is recommended that future fund allocations take into account suitability criteria for solar energy for optimised results of public policies. - Highlights: • A European suitability map for the solar energy (PV) systems deployment is created. • PV systems can contribute in a sustainable energy production in many regions in EU. • There is no correlation among the EU investment and the suitability in solar energy. • Using marginal lands to place PV systems might avoid the uptake of agricultural land. • Validation of the EU suitability map demonstrated a satisfactory degree of accuracy.

  8. Preferences for Aftercare Among Persons Seeking Short-Term Opioid Detoxification.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stein, Michael D; Anderson, Bradley J; Bailey, Genie L

    2015-12-01

    Without aftercare treatment, the period following discharge from short-term inpatient detoxification for opioid dependence presents a high risk of relapse. Yet the role of patient preference in treatment selection is rarely discussed in the substance-abuse literature. We surveyed 485 persons initiating inpatient opioid detoxification who were predominantly male (71.3%) and had detoxed in the past (73.2%). When asked to choose the one treatment that would work best for them after discharge, 43% of participants selected medication-assisted treatment (MAT), 29% preferred residential, 12% selected drug-free counseling, 12% NA/AA meetings only, and 4% preferred no additional treatment. Residential treatment preference was significantly associated with homelessness, having been in a detox program within the past year, and having pending legal problems, indicating that there is a distinct profile of detox patients who prefer residential treatment despite its limited availability. Detox program staff should work with patients to understand reasons for treatment preferences to optimize aftercare services. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  9. Quantification and detoxification of aflatoxin in food items

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nisa, A. U.; Hina, S.; Ejaz, N. [Pakistan Council of Scientific and Industrial Research Laboratories, Lahore (Pakistan). Dept. of Food and Biotechnology

    2013-07-15

    The present study was conducted to quantify and detoxify the antitoxins in food items. For this purpose, total 30 samples of food were collected. The samples were quantified using thin layer chromatography (TLC) for the presence of aflatoxin level in food items. Out of them aflatoxins were not found in 10 samples. Remaining 20 aflatoxins +ve samples were treated with various chemical solutions i.e. 0.1% HCl, 0.3%HCl, 0.5% HCI, 10% citric acid, 30% citric acid, 50% calcium hydroxide, 0.2 and 0.3% NaOCl, 96% ethanol and 99% acetone for detoxification. The aflatoxins were reduced to 55.1%, 90.9%, 28.08% and 80.0% in Super Sella rice, Super Basmati rice, Brown rice and White rice, respectively. The aflatoxin level was reduced in maize grain, damaged wheat, peanut, figs and dates upto 31.3 %, 64.3 %, 63.6%, 42.7% and 19.8%, respectively. Aflatoxins were detoxified in cereals Dal Chana, Dal Mash, Dal Masoor, turmeric (Haldi) and Nigela seeds (Kalwangi) upto 70.5%, 83.0%, 46.2%, 82.09% and 36.9%, respectively. Reduction of aflatoxins was carried out 39.7 %,7.l % 39.5% 82.0% and 62.0% in red chilli, makhana, corn flakes, desert (Kheer Mix) and pistachio. The significant results (p = 0.042) of detoxification of aflatoxins in food items were obtained from present study. (author)

  10. Quantification and detoxification of aflatoxin in food items

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nisa, A.U.; Hina, S.; Ejaz, N.

    2013-01-01

    The present study was conducted to quantify and detoxify the antitoxins in food items. For this purpose, total 30 samples of food were collected. The samples were quantified using thin layer chromatography (TLC) for the presence of aflatoxin level in food items. Out of them aflatoxins were not found in 10 samples. Remaining 20 aflatoxins +ve samples were treated with various chemical solutions i.e. 0.1% HCl, 0.3%HCl, 0.5% HCI, 10% citric acid, 30% citric acid, 50% calcium hydroxide, 0.2 and 0.3% NaOCl, 96% ethanol and 99% acetone for detoxification. The aflatoxins were reduced to 55.1%, 90.9%, 28.08% and 80.0% in Super Sella rice, Super Basmati rice, Brown rice and White rice, respectively. The aflatoxin level was reduced in maize grain, damaged wheat, peanut, figs and dates upto 31.3 %, 64.3 %, 63.6%, 42.7% and 19.8%, respectively. Aflatoxins were detoxified in cereals Dal Chana, Dal Mash, Dal Masoor, turmeric (Haldi) and Nigela seeds (Kalwangi) upto 70.5%, 83.0%, 46.2%, 82.09% and 36.9%, respectively. Reduction of aflatoxins was carried out 39.7 %,7.l % 39.5% 82.0% and 62.0% in red chilli, makhana, corn flakes, desert (Kheer Mix) and pistachio. The significant results (p = 0.042) of detoxification of aflatoxins in food items were obtained from present study. (author)

  11. Effects of ethanol consumption and alcohol detoxification on the biomechanics and morphology the bone in rat femurs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garcia, J A D; Souza, A L T; Cruz, L H C; Marques, P P; Camilli, J A; Nakagaki, W R; Esteves, A; Rossi-Junior, W C; Fernandes, G J M; Guerra, F D; Soares, E A

    2015-11-01

    The objective of this study was to verify the effects of ethanol consumption and alcohol detoxification on the biomechanics, area and thickness of cortical and trabecular bone in rat femur. This was an experimental study in which 18 male Wistar rats were used, with 40 days of age, weighing 179 ± 2.5 g. The rats were divided into three groups (n=06): CT (control), AC (chronic alcoholic), DT (detoxification). After experimental procedures, the animals were euthanized by an overdose of the anesthetic and their femurs were collected for mechanical testing and histological processing. All animals did not present malnutrition or dehydration during experimentation period. Morphometric analysis of cortical and trabecular bones in rat femurs demonstrated that AC animals showed inferior dimensions and alcohol detoxification (DT) allowed an enhancement in area and thickness of cortical and trabecular bone. Material and structural properties data of AC group highlighted the harmful effects of ethanol on bone mechanical properties. The results of this study demonstrated that chronic alcoholic rats (AC) presented major bone damage in all analyzed variables. Those findings suggested that alcohol detoxification is highly suggested in pre-operative planning and this corroborates to the success of bone surgery and bone tissue repair. Thanks to the financial support offered by PROBIC - UNIFENAS.

  12. Effects of ethanol consumption and alcohol detoxification on the biomechanics and morphology the bone in rat femurs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. A. D. Garcia

    Full Text Available Abstract The objective of this study was to verify the effects of ethanol consumption and alcohol detoxification on the biomechanics, area and thickness of cortical and trabecular bone in rat femur. This was an experimental study in which 18 male Wistar rats were used, with 40 days of age, weighing 179±2.5 g. The rats were divided into three groups (n=06: CT (control, AC (chronic alcoholic, DT (detoxification. After experimental procedures, the animals were euthanized by an overdose of the anesthetic and their femurs were collected for mechanical testing and histological processing. All animals did not present malnutrition or dehydration during experimentation period. Morphometric analysis of cortical and trabecular bones in rat femurs demonstrated that AC animals showed inferior dimensions and alcohol detoxification (DT allowed an enhancement in area and thickness of cortical and trabecular bone. Material and structural properties data of AC group highlighted the harmful effects of ethanol on bone mechanical properties. The results of this study demonstrated that chronic alcoholic rats (AC presented major bone damage in all analyzed variables. Those findings suggested that alcohol detoxification is highly suggested in pre-operative planning and this corroborates to the success of bone surgery and bone tissue repair. Thanks to the financial support offered by PROBIC – UNIFENAS.

  13. Bacterial epimerization as a route for deoxynivalenol detoxification: the influence of growth and environmental conditions.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jian Wei eHe

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Deoxynivalenol (DON is a toxic secondary metabolite produced by several Fusarium species that infest wheat and corn. Food and feed contaminated with DON pose a health risk to both humans and livestock and form a major barrier for international trade. Microbial detoxification represents an alternative approach to the physical and chemical detoxification methods of DON-contaminated grains. The present study details the characterization of a novel bacterium, Devosia mutans 17-2-E-8, that is capable of transforming DON to a non-toxic stereoisomer, 3-epi-deoxynivalenol under aerobic conditions, mild temperature (25-30 oC, and neutral pH. The biotransformation takes place in the presence of rich sources of organic nitrogen and carbon without the need of DON to be the sole carbon source. The process is enzymatic in nature and endures a high detoxification capacity (3 µg DON/h/108 cells. The above conditions collectively suggest the possibility of utilizing the isolated bacterium as a feed treatment to address DON contamination under empirical field conditions.

  14. Outdoor solar UVA dose assessment with EBT2 radiochromic film using spectrophotometer and densitometer measurements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Abukassem, I.; Bero, M.A.

    2015-01-01

    Direct measurements of solar ultraviolet radiations (UVRs) have an important role in the protection of humans against UVR hazard. This work presents simple technique based on the application of EBT2 GAFCHROMIC R film for direct solar UVA dose assessment. It demonstrates the effects of different parts of the solar spectrum (UVB, visible and infrared) on performed UVA field measurements and presents the measurement uncertainty budget. The gradient of sunlight exposure level permitted the authors to establish the mathematical relationships between the measured solar UVA dose and two measured quantities: the first was the changes in spectral absorbance at the wavelength 633 nm (A 633 ) and the second was the optical density (OD). The established standard relations were also applied to calculate the solar UVA dose variations during the whole day; 15 min of exposure each hour between 8:00 and 17:00 was recorded. Results show that both applied experimental methods, spectrophotometer absorbance and densitometer OD, deliver comparable figures for EBT2 solar UVA dose assessment with relative uncertainty of 11 % for spectral absorbance measurements and 15 % for OD measurements. (authors)

  15. Lignocellulosic ethanol production by starch-base industrial yeast under PEG detoxification

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Xiumei; Xu, Wenjuan; Mao, Liaoyuan; Zhang, Chao; Yan, Peifang; Xu, Zhanwei; Zhang, Z. Conrad

    2016-02-01

    Cellulosic ethanol production from lignocellulosic biomass offers a sustainable solution for transition from fossil based fuels to renewable alternatives. However, a few long-standing technical challenges remain to be addressed in the development of an economically viable fermentation process from lignocellulose. Such challenges include the needs to improve yeast tolerance to toxic inhibitory compounds and to achieve high fermentation efficiency with minimum detoxification steps after a simple biomass pretreatment. Here we report an in-situ detoxification strategy by PEG exo-protection of an industrial dry yeast (starch-base). The exo-protected yeast cells displayed remarkably boosted vitality with high tolerance to toxic inhibitory compounds, and with largely improved ethanol productivity from crude hydrolysate derived from a pretreated lignocellulose. The PEG chemical exo-protection makes the industrial S. cerevisiae yeast directly applicable for the production of cellulosic ethanol with substantially improved productivity and yield, without of the need to use genetically modified microorganisms.

  16. Strategies for enzyme saving during saccharification of pretreated lignocellulo-starch biomass: effect of enzyme dosage and detoxification chemicals

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M.G. Mithra

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available Two strategies leading to enzyme saving during saccharification of pretreated lignocellulo-starch biomass (LCSB was investigated which included reducing enzyme dosage by varying their levels in enzyme cocktails and enhancing the fermentable sugar yield in enzyme-reduced systems using detoxification chemicals. Time course release of reducing sugars (RS during 24–120 h was significantly higher when an enzyme cocktail containing full dose of cellulase (16 FPU/g cellulose along with half dose each of xylanase (1.5 mg protein/g hemicelluloses and Stargen (12.5 μl/g biomass was used to saccharify conventional dilute sulphuric acid (DSA pretreated biomass compared to a parallel system where only one-fourth the dose of the latter two enzymes was used. The reduction in RS content in the 120 h saccharified mash to the extent of 3–4 g/L compared to the system saccharified with full complement of the three enzymes could be overcome considerably by supplementing the system (half dose of two enzymes with detoxification chemical mix incorporating Tween 20, PEG 4000 and sodium borohydride. Microwave (MW-assisted DSA pretreated biomass on saccharification with enzyme cocktail having full dose of cellulase and half dose of Stargen along with detoxification chemicals gave significantly higher RS yield than DSA pretreated system saccharified using three enzymes. The study showed that xylanase could be eliminated during saccharification of MW-assisted DSA pretreated biomass without affecting RS yield when detoxification chemicals were also supplemented. The Saccharification Efficiency and Overall Conversion Efficiency were also high for the MW-assisted DSA pretreated biomass. Since whole slurry saccharifcation of pretreated biomass is essential to conserve fermentable sugars in LCSB saccharification, detoxification of soluble inhibitors is equally important as channelling out of insoluble lignin remaining in the residue. As one of the major factors contributing

  17. Social factors and readmission after inpatient detoxification in older alcohol-dependent patients

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van den Berg, Julia F.; van den Brink, Wim; Kist, Nicolien; Hermes, Jolanda S. J.; Kok, Rob M.

    2015-01-01

    Alcohol dependence is often a chronic relapsing disorder with frequent admissions to inpatient facilities. This study in older alcohol-dependent inpatients investigates the role of social factors in readmissions after inpatient detoxification. In a prospective study, 132 older alcohol-dependent

  18. Antinutritional factors and hypocholesterolemic effect of wild apricot kernel (Prunus armeniaca L.) as affected by detoxification.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tanwar, Beenu; Modgil, Rajni; Goyal, Ankit

    2018-04-25

    The present investigation was aimed to study the effect of detoxification on the nutrients and antinutrients of wild apricot kernel followed by its hypocholesterolemic effect in male Wistar albino rats. The results revealed a non-significant (p > 0.05) effect of detoxification on the proximate composition except total carbohydrates and protein content. However, detoxification led to a significant (p acid (76.82%), β-carotene (25.90%), dietary fiber constituents (10.51-28.92%), minerals (4.76-31.08%) and antinutritional factors (23.92-77.05%) (phenolics, tannins, trypsin inhibitor activity, saponins, phytic acid, alkaloids, flavonoids, oxalates) along with the complete removal (100%) of bitter and potentially toxic hydrocyanic acid (HCN). The quality parameters of kernel oil indicated no adverse effects of detoxification on free fatty acids, lipase activity, acid value and peroxide value, which remained well below the maximum permissible limit. Blood lipid profile demonstrated that the detoxified apricot kernel group exhibited significantly (p < 0.05) increased levels of HDL-cholesterol (48.79%) and triglycerides (15.09%), and decreased levels of total blood cholesterol (6.99%), LDL-C (22.95%) and VLDL-C (7.90%) compared to that of the raw (untreated) kernel group. Overall, it can be concluded that wild apricot kernel flour could be detoxified efficiently by employing a simple, safe, domestic and cost-effective method, which further has the potential for formulating protein supplements and value-added food products.

  19. Cadmium transfer and detoxification mechanisms in a soil-mulberry-silkworm system: phytoremediation potential.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Lingyun; Zhao, Ye; Wang, Shuifeng

    2015-11-01

    Phytoremediation has been proven to be an environmentally sound alternative for the recovery of contaminated soils, and the economic profit that comes along with the process might stimulate its field use. This study investigated cadmium (Cd) transfer and detoxification mechanisms in a soil-mulberry-silkworm system to estimate the suitability of the mulberry and silkworm as an alternative method for the remediation of Cd-polluted soil; it also explored the underlying mechanisms regulating the trophic transfer of Cd. The results show that both the mulberry and silkworm have high Cd tolerance. The transfer factor suggests that the mulberry has high potential for Cd extraction from polluted soil. The subcellular distribution and chemical forms of Cd in mulberry leaves show that cell wall deposition and vacuolar compartmentalization play important role in Cd tolerance. In the presence of increasing Cd concentrations in silkworm food, detoxification mechanisms (excretion and homeostasis) were activated so that excess Cd was excreted in fecal balls, and metallothionein levels in the mid-gut, the posterior of the silk gland, and the fat body of silkworms were enhanced. And, the Cd concentrations in silk are at a low level, ranging from 0.02 to 0.21 mg kg(-1). Therefore, these mechanisms of detoxification can regulate Cd trophic transfer, and mulberry planting and silkworm breeding has high phytoremediation potential for Cd-contaminated soil.

  20. Oxidation and detoxification of trivalent arsenic species

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aposhian, H. Vasken; Zakharyan, Robert A.; Avram, Mihaela D.; Kopplin, Michael J.; Wollenberg, Michael L.

    2003-01-01

    Arsenic compounds with a +3 oxidation state are more toxic than analogous compounds with a +5 oxidation state, for example, arsenite versus arsenate, monomethylarsonous acid (MMA III ) versus monomethylarsonic acid (MMA V ), and dimethylarsinous acid (DMA III ) versus dimethylarsinic acid (DMA V ). It is no longer believed that the methylation of arsenite is the beginning of a methylation-mediated detoxication pathway. The oxidation of these +3 compounds to their less toxic +5 analogs by hydrogen peroxide needs investigation and consideration as a potential mechanism for detoxification. Xanthine oxidase uses oxygen to oxidize hypoxanthine to xanthine to uric acid. Hydrogen peroxide and reactive oxygen are also products. The oxidation of +3 arsenicals by the hydrogen peroxide produced in the xanthine oxidase reaction was blocked by catalase or allopurinol but not by scavengers of the hydroxy radical, e.g., mannitol or potassium iodide. Melatonin, the singlet oxygen radical scavenger, did not inhibit the oxidation. The production of H 2 O 2 by xanthine oxidase may be an important route for decreasing the toxicity of trivalent arsenic species by oxidizing them to their less toxic pentavalent analogs. In addition, there are many other reactions that produce hydrogen peroxide in the cell. Although chemists have used hydrogen peroxide for the oxidation of arsenite to arsenate to purify water, we are not aware of any published account of its potential importance in the detoxification of trivalent arsenicals in biological systems. At present, this oxidation of the +3 oxidation state arsenicals is based on evidence from in vitro experiments. In vivo experiments are needed to substantiate the role and importance of H 2 O 2 in arsenic detoxication in mammals

  1. Technical and Economic Assessment of Solar Photovoltaic for Groundwater Extraction on the Hanford Site

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mackley, Rob D. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Anderson, David M. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Thomle, Jonathan N. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Strickland, Christopher E. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States)

    2015-09-01

    The overall goal of environmental remediation is to protect human health and the environment. Implementing renewable energy sources such as solar photovoltaic (PV) in groundwater extraction and pump-and-treat (P&T) systems may help minimize the environmental footprint of remediation efforts. The first step in considering solar PV for powering Hanford groundwater extraction is assessing the technical and economic feasibility and identifying potential target locations where implementation would be most successful. Accordingly, a techno-economic assessment of solar PV for Hanford groundwater extraction was completed in FY15. Multiple solar PV alternatives ranging in size from 1.2 to 22.4 kWp DC were evaluated and compared against traditional grid-powered systems. Results indicate that the degree to which solar PV alternatives are feasible is primarily a function of the distance of avoided power cable costs and the inclusion of an energy storage component. Standalone solar PV systems provide an energy source at the well and avoid the costs and logistics associated with running long lengths of expensive power cable to the well-head. When solar PV systems include a battery storage component, groundwater can be pumped continuously day and night in a year-round schedule. However, due to the high cost premium of the energy storage component, a fully solar-powered solution could not provide an economic direct replacement for line-powered pumping systems. As a result, the most ideal target locations for successful implementation of solar PV on the Hanford Site are remote or distant extraction wells where the primary remedial objective is contaminant mass removal (as opposed to hydraulic containment) and three-season (March through October) intermittent pumping is acceptable (e.g. remediation of hexavalent chromium in 200-UP-1).

  2. Assessment of SEPS solar array technology for orbital service module application

    Science.gov (United States)

    1978-01-01

    Work performed in the following assessment areas on the SEPS solar array is reported: (1) requirements definition, (2) electrical design evaluation, (3) mechanical design evaluation, and (4) design modification analysis. General overall assessment conclusions are summarized. There are no known serious design limitations involved in the implementation of the recommended design modifications. A section of orbiter and array engineering drawings is included.

  3. Assessing the lifecycle greenhouse gas emissions from solar PV and wind energy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nugent, Daniel; Sovacool, Benjamin

    2014-01-01

    This paper critically screens 153 lifecycle studies covering a broad range of wind and solar photovoltaic (PV) electricity generation technologies to identify 41 of the most relevant, recent, rigorous, original, and complete assessments so that the dynamics of their greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions...... profiles can be determined. When viewed in a holistic manner, including initial materials extraction, manufacturing, use and disposal/decommissioning, these 41 studies show that both wind and solar systems are directly tied to and responsible for GHG emissions. They are thus not actually emissions free......, this article uncovers best practices in wind and solar design and deployment that can better inform climate change mitigation efforts in the electricity sector...

  4. PEI detoxification of pretreated spruce for high solids ethanol fermentation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cannella, David; Sveding, Per Viktor; Jørgensen, Henning

    2014-01-01

    Highlights: • High solids (30% dry matter) pretreatment, enzymatic hydrolysis and fermentation. • Horizontal rotary reactor for hydrolysis and fermentation. • In situ hydrolysates detoxification using inhibitors adsorbing PEI polymer. • 50% of inhibitors recovered as by-product, recyclability of PEI polymer up to 5 times. • 76% of maximum theoretical ethanol was fermented at final concentration of 51 g/kg. - Abstract: Performing the bioethanol production process at high solids loading is a requirement for economic feasibility at industrial scale. So far this has successfully been achieved using wheat straw and other agricultural residues at 30% of water insoluble solids (WIS), but for softwood species (i.e. spruce) this has been difficult to reach. The main reason behind this difference is the higher recalcitrance of woody substrates which require harsher pretreatment conditions, thus generating higher amounts of inhibitory compounds, ultimately lowering fermentation performances. In this work we studied ethanol production from spruce performing the whole process, from pretreatment to hydrolysis and fermentation, at 30% dry matter (equivalent to ∼20% WIS). Hydrolysis and fermentation was performed in a horizontal free fall mixing reactor enabling efficient mixing at high solids loadings. In batch simultaneous saccharification and fermentation (SSF), up to 76% cellulose to ethanol conversion was achieved resulting in a concentration of 51 g/kg of ethanol. Key to obtaining this high ethanol yield at these conditions was the use of a detoxification technology based on applying a soluble polyelectrolyte polymer (polyethylenimine, PEI) to absorb inhibitory compounds in the material. On average 50% removal and recovery of the main inhibitors (HMF, furfural, acetic acid and formic acid) was achieved dosing 1.5% w/w of soluble PEI. The use of PEI was compatible with operating the process at high solids loadings and enabled fermentation of hydrolysates, which

  5. Detoxification of furfural in Corynebacterium glutamicum under aerobic and anaerobic conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsuge, Yota; Hori, Yoshimi; Kudou, Motonori; Ishii, Jun; Hasunuma, Tomohisa; Kondo, Akihiko

    2014-10-01

    The toxic fermentation inhibitors in lignocellulosic hydrolysates raise serious problems for the microbial production of fuels and chemicals. Furfural is considered to be one of the most toxic compounds among these inhibitors. Here, we describe the detoxification of furfural in Corynebacterium glutamicum ATCC13032 under both aerobic and anaerobic conditions. Under aerobic culture conditions, furfuryl alcohol and 2-furoic acid were produced as detoxification products of furfural. The ratio of the products varied depending on the initial furfural concentration. Neither furfuryl alcohol nor 2-furoic acid showed any toxic effect on cell growth, and both compounds were determined to be the end products of furfural degradation. Interestingly, unlike under aerobic conditions, most of the furfural was converted to furfuryl alcohol under anaerobic conditions, without affecting the glucose consumption rate. Both the NADH/NAD(+) and NADPH/NADP(+) ratio decreased in the accordance with furfural concentration under both aerobic and anaerobic conditions. These results indicate the presence of a single or multiple endogenous enzymes with broad and high affinity for furfural and co-factors in C. glutamicum ATCC13032.

  6. Glutathione S-Transferases: Role in Combating Abiotic Stresses Including Arsenic Detoxification in Plants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Smita Kumar

    2018-06-01

    Full Text Available Arsenic (As, naturally occurring metalloid and a potential hazardous material, is found in low concentrations in the environment and emerges from natural sources and anthropogenic activities. The presence of As in ground water, which is used for irrigation, is a matter of great concern since it affects crop productivity and contaminates food chain. In plants, As alters various metabolic pathways in cells including the interaction of substrates/enzymes with the sulfhydryl groups of proteins and the replacement of phosphate in ATP for energy. In addition, As stimulates the generation of free radicals and reactive oxygen species (ROS, resulting in oxidative stress. Glutathione S-transferases (GSTs quench reactive molecules with the addition of glutathione (GSH and protect the cell from oxidative damage. GSTs are a multigene family of isozymes, known to catalyze the conjugation of GSH to miscellany of electrophilic and hydrophobic substrates. GSTs have been reported to be associated with plant developmental processes and are responsive to multitude of stressors. In past, several studies suggested involvement of plant GST gene family in As response due to the requirement of sulfur and GSH in the detoxification of this toxic metalloid. This review provides updated information about the role of GSTs in abiotic and biotic stresses with an emphasis on As uptake, metabolism, and detoxification in plants. Further, the genetic manipulations that helped in enhancing the understanding of the function of GSTs in abiotic stress response and heavy metal detoxification has been reviewed.

  7. Lipid peroxidation, detoxification capacity, and genome damage in mice after transplacental exposure to pharmaceutical drugs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. Markovic

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Data on genome damage, lipid peroxidation, and levels of glutathione peroxidase (GPX in newborns after transplacental exposure to xenobiotics are rare and insufficient for risk assessment. The aim of the current study was to analyze, in an animal model, transplacental genotoxicity, lipid peroxidation, and detoxification disturbances caused by the following drugs commonly prescribed to pregnant women: paracetamol, fluconazole, 5-nitrofurantoin, and sodium valproate. Genome damage in dams and their newborn pups transplacentally exposed to these drugs was investigated using the in vivo micronucleus (MN assay. The drugs were administered to dams intraperitoneally in three consecutive daily doses between days 12 and 14 of pregnancy. The results were correlated, with detoxification capacity of the newborn pups measured by the levels of GPX in blood and lipid peroxidation in liver measured by malondialdehyde (HPLC-MDA levels. Sodium valproate and 5-nitrofurantoin significantly increased MN frequency in pregnant dams. A significant increase in the MN frequency of newborn pups was detected for all drugs tested. This paper also provides reference levels of MDA in newborn pups, according to which all drugs tested significantly lowered MDA levels of newborn pups, while blood GPX activity dropped significantly only after exposure to paracetamol. The GPX reduction reflected systemic oxidative stress, which is known to occur with paracetamol treatment. The reduction of MDA in the liver is suggested to be an unspecific metabolic reaction to the drugs that express cytotoxic, in particular hepatotoxic, effects associated with oxidative stress and lipid peroxidation.

  8. Kinetics of Natural Detoxification of Hydrogen Cyanide Contained In Retted Cassava Roots

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available This work presents the kinetics of natural detoxification of hydrogen cyanide contained in retted cassava roots. Retting is traditional fermentation of cassava, performed to soften the roots. During retting, cyanide diffuses into water used for the retting. The fresh cassava roots (bitter and sweet varieties used for this experiment were separately retted at ambient 0 temperature of 30 C. The cyanide content and pH were monitored daily. From the analysis of the experimental results, a first order consecutive rate equation is an adequate tool for explaining the mechanism of HCN reduction (or decay in retted cassava roots. The detoxification constants for the bound cyanide in the bitter and sweet cassava roots were 0.378/day and 0.438/day respectively, while that of the free hydrogen cyanide were 0.63/day and 0.74/day for the bitter and sweet varieties respectively. Cassava tubers from different species cannot be fermented with the same retting condition unless they have same or close functional properties.

  9. Microbial Detoxification of Deoxynivalenol (DON), Assessed via a Lemna minor L. Bioassay, through Biotransformation to 3-epi-DON and 3-epi-DOM-1.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vanhoutte, Ilse; De Mets, Laura; De Boevre, Marthe; Uka, Valdet; Di Mavungu, José Diana; De Saeger, Sarah; De Gelder, Leen; Audenaert, Kris

    2017-02-13

    Mycotoxins are toxic metabolites produced by fungi. To mitigate mycotoxins in food or feed, biotransformation is an emerging technology in which microorganisms degrade toxins into non-toxic metabolites. To monitor deoxynivalenol (DON) biotransformation, analytical tools such as ELISA and liquid chromatography coupled to tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS) are typically used. However, these techniques do not give a decisive answer about the remaining toxicity of possible biotransformation products. Hence, a bioassay using Lemna minor L. was developed. A dose-response analysis revealed significant inhibition in the growth of L. minor exposed to DON concentrations of 0.25 mg/L and higher. Concentrations above 1 mg/L were lethal for the plant. This bioassay is far more sensitive than previously described systems. The bioassay was implemented to screen microbial enrichment cultures, originating from rumen fluid, soil, digestate and activated sludge, on their biotransformation and detoxification capability of DON. The enrichment cultures originating from soil and activated sludge were capable of detoxifying and degrading 5 and 50 mg/L DON. In addition, the metabolites 3-epi-DON and the epimer of de-epoxy-DON (3-epi-DOM-1) were found as biotransformation products of both consortia. Our work provides a new valuable tool to screen microbial cultures for their detoxification capacity.

  10. Microbial Detoxification of Deoxynivalenol (DON, Assessed via a Lemna minor L. Bioassay, through Biotransformation to 3-epi-DON and 3-epi-DOM-1

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ilse Vanhoutte

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available Mycotoxins are toxic metabolites produced by fungi. To mitigate mycotoxins in food or feed, biotransformation is an emerging technology in which microorganisms degrade toxins into non-toxic metabolites. To monitor deoxynivalenol (DON biotransformation, analytical tools such as ELISA and liquid chromatography coupled to tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS are typically used. However, these techniques do not give a decisive answer about the remaining toxicity of possible biotransformation products. Hence, a bioassay using Lemna minor L. was developed. A dose–response analysis revealed significant inhibition in the growth of L. minor exposed to DON concentrations of 0.25 mg/L and higher. Concentrations above 1 mg/L were lethal for the plant. This bioassay is far more sensitive than previously described systems. The bioassay was implemented to screen microbial enrichment cultures, originating from rumen fluid, soil, digestate and activated sludge, on their biotransformation and detoxification capability of DON. The enrichment cultures originating from soil and activated sludge were capable of detoxifying and degrading 5 and 50 mg/L DON. In addition, the metabolites 3-epi-DON and the epimer of de-epoxy-DON (3-epi-DOM-1 were found as biotransformation products of both consortia. Our work provides a new valuable tool to screen microbial cultures for their detoxification capacity.

  11. Rice (Oryza sativa) Laccases Involved in Modification and Detoxification of Herbicides Atrazine and Isoproturon Residues in Plants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Meng Tian; Lu, Yi Chen; Zhang, Shuang; Luo, Fang; Yang, Hong

    2016-08-24

    Atrazine (ATR) and isoproturon (IPU) as herbicides have become serious environmental contaminants due to their overuse in crop production. Although ATR and IPU in soils are easily absorbed by many crops, the mechanisms for their degradation or detoxification in plants are poorly understood. This study identified a group of novel genes encoding laccases (EC 1.10.3.2) that are possibly involved in catabolism or detoxification of ATR and IPU residues in rice. Transcriptome profiling shows at least 22 differentially expressed laccase genes in ATR/IPU-exposed rice. Some of the laccase genes were validated by RT-PCR analysis. The biochemical properties of the laccases were analyzed, and their activities in rice were induced under ATR/IPU exposure. To investigate the roles of laccases in degrading or detoxifying ATR/IPU in rice, transgenic yeast cells (Pichia pastoris X-33) expressing two rice laccase genes (LOC_Os01g63180 and LOC_Os12g15680) were generated. Both transformants were found to accumulate less ATR/IPU compared to the control. The ATR/IPU-degraded products in the transformed yeast cells using UPLC-TOF-MS/MS were further characterized. Two metabolites, hydroxy-dehydrogenated atrazine (HDHA) and 2-OH-isopropyl-IPU, catalyzed by laccases were detected in the eukaryotic cells. These results indicate that the laccase-coding genes identified here could confer degradation or detoxification of the herbicides and suggest that the laccases could be one of the important enzymatic pathways responsible for ATR/IPU degradation/detoxification in rice.

  12. Photocatalysis and radiation absorption in a solar plant

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Curco, D; Gimenez, J [Departamento de Ingenieria Quimica, Facultad de Quimica, Universidad de Barcelona, Barcelona (Spain); Malato, S; Blanco, J [Centro de Investigaciones Energeticas, Medioambientales y Tecnologicas, Plataforma Solar de Almeria, Almeria (Spain)

    1996-11-15

    Recently, many papers have appeared in literature about photocatalytic detoxification. However, progress from laboratory data to the industrial solar reactor is not easy. Kinetic models for heterogeneous catalysis can be used to describe the photocatalytic processes, but luminic steps, related to the radiation, have to be added to the physical and chemical steps considered in heterogeneous catalysis. Thus, the evaluation of the radiation, and its distribution, inside a photocatalytic reactor is essential to extrapolate results from laboratory to outdoor experiments and to compare the efficiency of different installations. This study attempts to validate the experimental set up and theoretical data treatment for this purpose in a Solar Pilot Plant. The procedure consists of the calibration of different sunlight radiometers, the estimation of the radiation inside the reactor, and the validation of the results by actinometric experiments. Finally, a comparison between kinetic constants, for the same reaction in the laboratory (artificial light) and field conditions (sun light), is performed to demonstrate the advantages of knowing the radiation inside a large photochemical reactor

  13. Outdoor solar UVA dose assessment with EBT2 radiochromic film using spectrophotometer and densitometer measurements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abukassem, I; Bero, M A

    2015-04-01

    Direct measurements of solar ultraviolet radiations (UVRs) have an important role in the protection of humans against UVR hazard. This work presents simple technique based on the application of EBT2 GAFCHROMIC(®) film for direct solar UVA dose assessment. It demonstrates the effects of different parts of the solar spectrum (UVB, visible and infrared) on performed UVA field measurements and presents the measurement uncertainty budget. The gradient of sunlight exposure level permitted the authors to establish the mathematical relationships between the measured solar UVA dose and two measured quantities: the first was the changes in spectral absorbance at the wavelength 633 nm (A633) and the second was the optical density (OD). The established standard relations were also applied to calculate the solar UVA dose variations during the whole day; 15 min of exposure each hour between 8:00 and 17:00 was recorded. Results show that both applied experimental methods, spectrophotometer absorbance and densitometer OD, deliver comparable figures for EBT2 solar UVA dose assessment with relative uncertainty of 11% for spectral absorbance measurements and 15% for OD measurements. © The Author 2014. Published by Oxford University Press. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  14. Broad spectrum detoxification: the major longevity assurance process regulated by insulin/IGF-1 signaling?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gems, David; McElwee, Joshua J

    2005-03-01

    Our recent survey of genes regulated by insulin/IGF-1 signaling (IIS) in Caenorhabditis elegans suggests a role for a number of gene classes in longevity assurance. Based on these findings, we propose a model for the biochemistry of longevity assurance and ageing, which is as follows. Ageing results from molecular damage from highly diverse endobiotic toxins. These are stochastic by-products of diverse metabolic processes, of which reactive oxygen species (ROS) are likely to be only one component. Our microarray analysis suggests a major role in longevity assurance of the phase 1, phase 2 detoxification system involving cytochrome P450 (CYP), short-chain dehydrogenase/reductase (SDR) and UDP-glucuronosyltransferase (UGT) enzymes. Unlike superoxide and hydrogen peroxide detoxification, this system is energetically costly, and requires the excretion from the cell of its products. Given such costs, its activity may be selected against, as predicted by the disposable soma theory. CYP and UGT enzymes target lipophilic molecular species; insufficient activity of this system is consistent with age-pigment (lipofuscin) accumulation during ageing. We suggest that IIS-regulated longevity assurance involves: (a) energetically costly detoxification and excretion of molecular rubbish, and (b) conservation of existing proteins via molecular chaperones. Given the emphasis in this theory on investment in cellular waste disposal, and on protein conservation, we have dubbed it the green theory.

  15. Skid row alcoholism--an objective definition for use in detoxification and treatment planning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Halikas, J A; Lyttle, M D; Morse, C L

    1984-05-01

    Objective criteria were used to separate skid row alcoholics from others in a public detoxification program. The two groups thus formed were found to have different characteristics, which could lead to more individualized and effective treatment planning in such settings.

  16. Craving by imagery cue reactivity in opiate dependence following detoxification

    OpenAIRE

    Behera, Debakanta; Goswami, Utpal; Khastgir, Udayan; Kumar, Satindra

    2003-01-01

    Background: Frequent relapses in opioid addiction may be a result of abstinentemergent craving. Exposure to various stimuli associated with drug use (drug cues) may trigger craving as a conditioned response to ?drug cues?. Aims: The present study explored the effects of imagery cue exposure on psychophysiological mechanisms of craving, viz. autonomic arousal, in detoxified opiate addicts. Methodology: Opiate dependent subjects (N=38) following detoxification underwent imagery cue reactivity t...

  17. Overexpression of multiple detoxification genes in deltamethrin resistant Laodelphax striatellus (Hemiptera: Delphacidae in China.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lu Xu

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: The small brown planthopper (SBPH, Laodelphax striatellus (Fallén, is one of the major rice pests in Asia and has developed resistance to multiple classes of insecticides. Understanding resistance mechanisms is essential to the management of this pest. Biochemical and molecular assays were performed in this study to systematically characterize deltamethrin resistance mechanisms with laboratory-selected resistant and susceptible strains of SBPH. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Deltamethrin resistant strains of SBPH (JH-del were derived from a field population by continuously selections (up to 30 generations in the laboratory, while a susceptible strain (JHS was obtained from the same population by removing insecticide pressure for 30 generations. The role of detoxification enzymes in the resistance was investigated using synergism and enzyme activity assays with strains of different resistant levels. Furthermore, 71 cytochrome P450, 93 esterases and 12 glutathione-S-transferases cDNAs were cloned based on transcriptome data of a field collected population. Semi-quantitative RT-PCR screening analysis of 176 identified detoxification genes demonstrated that multiple P450 and esterase genes were overexpressed (>2-fold in JH-del strains (G4 and G30 when compared to that in JHS, and the results of quantitative PCR coincided with the semi-quantitative RT-PCR results. Target mutation at IIS3-IIS6 regions encoded by the voltage-gated sodium channel gene was ruled out for conferring the observed resistance. CONCLUSION/SIGNIFICANCE: As the first attempt to discover genes potentially involved in SBPH pyrethroid resistance, this study putatively identified several candidate genes of detoxification enzymes that were significantly overexpressed in the resistant strain, which matched the synergism and enzyme activity testing. The biochemical and molecular evidences suggest that the high level pyrethroid resistance in L. striatellus could be due to

  18. Rooftop solar photovoltaic potential in cities: how scalable are assessment approaches?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Castellanos, Sergio; Sunter, Deborah A.; Kammen, Daniel M.

    2017-12-01

    Distributed photovoltaics (PV) have played a critical role in the deployment of solar energy, currently making up roughly half of the global PV installed capacity. However, there remains significant unused economically beneficial potential. Estimates of the total technical potential for rooftop PV systems in the United States calculate a generation comparable to approximately 40% of the 2016 total national electric-sector sales. To best take advantage of the rooftop PV potential, effective analytic tools that support deployment strategies and aggressive local, state, and national policies to reduce the soft cost of solar energy are vital. A key step is the low-cost automation of data analysis and business case presentation for structure-integrated solar energy. In this paper, the scalability and resolution of various methods to assess the urban rooftop PV potential are compared, concluding with suggestions for future work in bridging methodologies to better assist policy makers.

  19. Mixed waste treatment using the ChemChar thermolytic detoxification technique

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kuchynka, D. [Mirage Systems, Sunnyvale, CA (United States)

    1995-10-01

    The diversity of mixed waste matrices contained at Department of Energy sites that require treatment preclude a single, universal treatment technology capable of handling sludges, solids, heterogeneous debris, aqueous and organic liquids and soils. This report describes the ChemChar thermolytic detoxification process. The process is a thermal, chemically reductive technology that converts the organic portion of mixed wastes to a synthesis gas, while simultaneously absorbing volatile inorganics on a carbon-based char.

  20. Treatment outcome of alcohol use disorder outpatients with or without medically assisted detoxification

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Merkx, Maarten J. M.; Schippers, Gerard M.; Koeter, Maarten W. J.; de Wildt, Wencke A. J. M.; Vedel, Ellen; Goudriaan, Anna E.; van den Brink, Wim

    2014-01-01

    Little is known about the incremental effects of medically assisted detoxification on outpatient treatment for alcohol use disorders. The objective of this study was to compare drinking outcomes in a psychosocial treatment program between two groups of heavy drinking patients who had an alcohol use

  1. 42 CFR 2.34 - Disclosures to prevent multiple enrollments in detoxification and maintenance treatment programs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... eliminate adverse physiological or psychological effects incident to withdrawal from the sustained use of a... individual for dependence upon heroin or other morphine-like drugs. Member program means a detoxification...

  2. Associations between alcohol, heroin, and cocaine use and high risk sexual behaviors among detoxification patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raj, Anita; Saitz, Richard; Cheng, Debbie M; Winter, Michael; Samet, Jeffrey H

    2007-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to assess associations between substance use (alcohol to intoxication, heroin, and cocaine) and sexual activity, high risk sexual behaviors, and STD among detoxification inpatients (n = 470). Participants were surveyed on past 30 day substance use, past 6 month sexual behaviors, and STD in the past 6 months and/or over 24 months of follow-up. Logistic regression models adjusted for demographics found that cocaine use was significantly associated with being sexually active (OR(adj) = 2.3, 95% CI = 1.1-4.8) and selling sex (OR(adj) = 2.6, 95% CI = 1.3-5.3). Alcohol and heroin were not significantly associated with sexual activity, high risk sexual behaviors or STD in this sample.

  3. Mercury species, selenium, metallothioneins and glutathione in two dolphins from the southeastern Brazilian coast: Mercury detoxification and physiological differences in diving capacity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kehrig, Helena A.; Hauser-Davis, Rachel A.; Seixas, Tercia G.; Pinheiro, Ana Beatriz; Di Beneditto, Ana Paula M.

    2016-01-01

    In the present study, the concentration of trace elements, total mercury (Hg) and selenium (Se) and mercury forms (MeHg, Hg inorg and HgSe) in the vulnerable coastal dolphins Pontoporia blainvillei and Sotalia guianensis were appraised and compared, using metallothioneins (MT) and glutathione (GSH) as biomarkers for trace element exposure. The trace element concentrations varied between muscle and liver tissues, with liver of all dolphin specimens showing higher Hg and Se concentrations than those found in muscle. Hg, MeHg and Hg inorg molar concentrations showed a clear increase with Se molar concentrations in the liver of both dolphins, and Se concentrations were higher than those of Hg on a molar basis. Se plays a relevant role in the detoxification of MeHg in the hepatic tissue of both dolphins, forming Hg-Se amorphous crystals in liver. In contrast, MT were involved in the detoxification process of Hg inorg in liver. GSH levels in P. blainvillei and S. guianensis muscle tissue suggest that these dolphins have different diving capacities. Muscle Hg concentrations were associated to this tripeptide, which protects dolphin cells against Hg stress. - Highlights: • Se aids in MeHg detoxification in dolphin liver, forming Hg-Se amorphous crystals. • MT was involved in liver Hg inorg detoxification and GSH was associated to muscle Hg. • Feeding habits seem to influence muscle GSH, suggesting different diving capacities. • MT, GSH and Se and Hg in different forms were investigated in two dolphin species. • Hepatic Hg, MeHg and Hg inorg increased with higher Se concentrations. - “Coastal dolphins showed Se-mediated detoxification of MeHg and MT-mediated detoxification of Hg inorg , while GSH suggests different diving capacities”.

  4. 38 CFR 1.478 - Disclosures to prevent multiple enrollments in detoxification and maintenance treatment programs...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... psychological effects incident to withdrawal from the sustained use of a narcotic drug. (3) Maintenance... heroin or other morphine-like drugs. (4) Member program means a non-VA detoxification treatment or...

  5. Cross-species and tissue variations in cyanide detoxification rates in rodents and non-human primates on protein-restricted diet.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kimani, S; Moterroso, V; Morales, P; Wagner, J; Kipruto, S; Bukachi, F; Maitai, C; Tshala-Katumbay, D

    2014-04-01

    We sought to elucidate the impact of diet, cyanide or cyanate exposure on mammalian cyanide detoxification capabilities (CDC). Male rats (~8 weeks old) (N=52) on 75% sulfur amino acid (SAA)-deficient diet were treated with NaCN (2.5mg/kg bw) or NaOCN (50mg/kg bw) for 6 weeks. Macaca fascicularis monkeys (~12 years old) (N=12) were exclusively fed cassava for 5 weeks. CDC was assessed in plasma, or spinal cord, or brain. In rats, NaCN induced seizures under SAA-restricted diet whereas NaOCN induced motor deficits. No deficits were observed in non-human primates. Under normal diet, the CDC were up to ~80× faster in the nervous system (14 ms to produce one μmol of thiocyanate from the detoxification of cyanide) relative to plasma. Spinal cord CDC was impaired by NaCN, NaOCN, or SAA deficiency. In M. fascicularis, plasma CDC changed proportionally to total proteins (r=0.43; pcyanide may result from a "multiple hit" by the toxicity of cyanide or its cyanate metabolite, the influences of dietary deficiencies, and the tissue variations in CDC. Chronic dietary reliance on cassava may cause metabolic derangement including poor CDC. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Sulfide intrusion and detoxification in seagrasses ecosystems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hasler-Sheetal, Harald; Holmer, Marianne

    Sulfide intrusion in seagrasses represents a global threat to seagrasses and thereby an important parameter in resilience of seagrass ecosystems. In contrast seegrasses colonize and grow in hostile sediments, where they are constantly exposed to invasion of toxic gaseous sulfide. Remarkably little...... strategies of seagrasses to sustain sulfide intrusion. Using stable isotope tracing, scanning electron microscopy with x-ray analysis, tracing sulfur compounds combined with ecosystem parameters we found different spatial, intraspecific and interspecific strategies to cope with sulfidic sediments. 1...... not present in terrestrial plants at that level. Sulfide is not necessarily toxic but used as sulfur nutrition, presupposing healthy seagrass ecosystems that can support detoxification mechanisms. Presence or absence of those mechanisms determines susceptibility of seagrass ecosystems to sediment sulfide...

  7. Honey constituents up-regulate detoxification and immunity genes in the western honey bee Apis mellifera.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mao, Wenfu; Schuler, Mary A; Berenbaum, May R

    2013-05-28

    As a managed pollinator, the honey bee Apis mellifera is critical to the American agricultural enterprise. Recent colony losses have thus raised concerns; possible explanations for bee decline include nutritional deficiencies and exposures to pesticides and pathogens. We determined that constituents found in honey, including p-coumaric acid, pinocembrin, and pinobanksin 5-methyl ether, specifically induce detoxification genes. These inducers are primarily found not in nectar but in pollen in the case of p-coumaric acid (a monomer of sporopollenin, the principal constituent of pollen cell walls) and propolis, a resinous material gathered and processed by bees to line wax cells. RNA-seq analysis (massively parallel RNA sequencing) revealed that p-coumaric acid specifically up-regulates all classes of detoxification genes as well as select antimicrobial peptide genes. This up-regulation has functional significance in that that adding p-coumaric acid to a diet of sucrose increases midgut metabolism of coumaphos, a widely used in-hive acaricide, by ∼60%. As a major component of pollen grains, p-coumaric acid is ubiquitous in the natural diet of honey bees and may function as a nutraceutical regulating immune and detoxification processes. The widespread apicultural use of honey substitutes, including high-fructose corn syrup, may thus compromise the ability of honey bees to cope with pesticides and pathogens and contribute to colony losses.

  8. Novel metabolic biomarkers related to sulfur-dependent detoxification pathways in autistic patients of Saudi Arabia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Al- Ayadhi Laila Y

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Xenobiotics are neurotoxins that dramatically alter the health of the child. In addition, an inefficient detoxification system leads to oxidative stress, gut dysbiosis, and immune dysfunction. The consensus among physicians who treat autism with a biomedical approach is that those on the spectrum are burdened with oxidative stress and immune problems. In a trial to understand the role of detoxification in the etiology of autism, selected parameters related to sulfur-dependent detoxification mechanisms in plasma of autistic children from Saudi Arabia will be investigated compared to control subjects. Methods 20 males autistic children aged 3-15 years and 20 age and gender matching healthy children as control group were included in this study. Levels of reduced glutathione (GSH, total (GSH+GSSG, glutathione status (GSH/GSSG, glutathione reductase (GR, glutathione- s-transferase (GST, thioredoxin (Trx, thioredoxin reductase (TrxR and peroxidoxins (Prxs I and III were determined. Results Reduced glutathione, total glutathione, GSH/GSSG and activity levels of GST were significantly lower, GR shows non-significant differences, while, Trx, TrxR and both Prx I and III recorded a remarkably higher values in autistics compared to control subjects. Conclusion The impaired glutathione status together with the elevated Trx and TrxR and the remarkable over expression of both Prx I and Prx III, could be used as diagnostic biomarkers of autism.

  9. The role of pH in heavy metal detoxification by biosorption from ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The high level of toxic metal pollution in the environment is a result of increased human activities. The hydrogen ion concentration of solutions has been known to affect reactions in solutions. The role of pH in As(V), Pb(II) and Hg(II) ions detoxification by bio-sorption from aqueous solutions using coconut fiber and sawdust ...

  10. Methadone Detoxification Versus Traditional Gradual Decrease in the Consumed Amount of Refined Opium Dross (Shireh: The Preferred Method for Controlling Withdrawal Syndrome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammadreza Farsinejad

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Background: The aim of this study was to compare the effectiveness of methadone detoxification with traditional method of gradual decrement in the abused amount of the refined opium dross (Shireh to control withdrawal syndrome in Shireh-addicted patients. Methods: In this study, two groups of Shireh addicts were compared. The first group was treated by methadone and the second group by gradual decrement in the amount of consumed Shireh. Those experiencing the adverse effects of the treatment were excluded from the study. Methadone dose was calculated based on the amount of the Shireh consumed and detoxification was performed during a 21-day period. In the second group, the amount of the consumed Shireh was gradually decreased within 21 days and some of the withdrawal symptoms were selected as indicators for patient evaluation. Results: A total of 35 patients (16 versus 19 patients in the first and second groups were evaluated. Their mean age was 43 ± 4 years and all were male. A statistically significant difference was found between these two groups in terms of severity and duration of withdrawal symptoms within the first five days and their duration after the 21st day of the onset of detoxification (P< 0.05. Conclusion: In comparison with methadone detoxification, traditional method of gradually decreasing the consumed amount of Shireh controls the severity and duration of withdrawal symptoms better in the course of detoxification.

  11. Detoxification of acidic biorefinery waste liquor for production of high value amino acid.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Christopher, Meera; Anusree, Murali; Mathew, Anil K; Nampoothiri, K Madhavan; Sukumaran, Rajeev Kumar; Pandey, Ashok

    2016-08-01

    The current study evaluates the detoxification of acid pretreatment liquor (APL) using adsorbent (ADS 400 & ADS 800) or ion-exchange (A-27MP & A-72MP) resins and its potential for amino acid production. The APL is generated as a by-product from the pretreatment of lignocellulosic biomass and is rich monomeric sugars as well as sugar degradation products (fermentation inhibitors) such as furfural and hydroxymethyl furfural (HMF). Of the four resins compared, ADS 800 removed approximately 85% and 60% of furfural and HMF, respectively. ADS 800 could be reused for up to six cycles after regeneration without losing its adsorption properties. The study was further extended by assessing the fermentability of detoxified APL for l-lysine production using wild and mutant strains of Corynebacterium glutamicum. The detoxified APL was superior to APL for l-lysine production. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. GIS methodology and case study regarding assessment of the solar potential at territorial level: PV or thermal?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Loïc Quiquerez

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents a GIS-based methodology for assessing solar photovoltaic (PV and solar thermal potentials in urban environment. The consideration of spatial and temporal dimensions of energy resource and demand allows, for two different territories of the Geneva region, to determine the suitable building roof areas for solar installations, the solar irradiance on these areas and, finally, the electrical and/or thermal energy potentials related to the demand. Results show that the choice of combining PV and solar thermal for domestic hot water (DHW is relevant in both territories. Actually, the installation of properly sized solar thermal collectors doesn’t decrease much the solar PV potential, while allowing significant thermal production. However, solar collectors for combined DHW and space heating (SH require a much larger surface and, therefore, have a more important influence on the PV potential.

  13. Robust cellulosic ethanol production from SPORL-pretreated lodgepole pine using an adapted strain Saccharomyces cerevisiae without detoxification.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tian, S; Luo, X L; Yang, X S; Zhu, J Y

    2010-11-01

    This study reports an ethanol yield of 270L/ton wood from lodgepole pine pretreated with sulfite pretreatment to overcome recalcitrance of lignocellulose (SPORL) using an adapted strain, Saccharomyces cerevisiae Y5, without detoxification. The enzymatic hydrolysate produced from pretreated cellulosic solids substrate was combined with pretreatment hydrolysate before fermentation. Detoxification of the pretreatment hydrolysate using overliming or XAD-4 resin before being combined with enzymatic hydrolysate improved ethanol productivity in the first 4h of fermentation and overall fermentation efficiency. However, detoxification did not improve final ethanol yield because of sugar losses. The Y5 strain showed excellent ethanol productivities of 2.0 and 0.8g/L/h averaged over a period of 4 and 24h, respectively, in the undetoxified run. The furan metabolization rates of the Y5 strain were significantly higher for the undetoxified run than those for the detoxidfied runs, suggesting it can tolerate even higher furan concentrations than those studied. Preliminary mass and energy balances were conducted. SPORL produced an excellent monomeric sugar recovery value of about 85% theoretical and a net energy output of 4.05GJ/ton wood with an ethanol energy production efficiency of 178% before distillation.

  14. 3D laser scanning and open source GIS for solar potential assessment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jochem, A.

    2011-01-01

    There is an increasing demand among home owners and operators of commercial and public facilities to reduce energy costs, the reliance on declining fossil fuel resources and the impact on the environment. Therefore, cost effective sustainable energy production such as biomass, wind power and solar energy must play a major role in the energy supply chain. The latter is in the focus of this thesis. Solar thermal and photovoltaic conversion systems can be mounted on both, roof planes and building facades in order to produce heat and electricity and thus to increase renewable energy supply. The amount of the incoming solar energy on building areas can be assessed by using e.g. solar radiation models that are implemented in Geographical Information Systems (GIS). However, this requires detailed information about the three dimensional representation of the buildings of interest as well as of their surrounding objects that may cast shadows in order to find suitable areas for the installation of solar based renewable energy technologies. In recent years Light Detection and Ranging (LiDAR), also referred to as laser scanning, has established as a standard technology for highly accurate three dimensional data acquisition of object surfaces. The geometrical information of the scanned surface is stored as 3D point cloud (xyz-triples). Each point is tagged with additional information such as strength of backscatter (intensity), timestamp and scan angle. Most solar radiation models that are implemented in standard GIS software operate on 2.5D raster data and cannot be combined with 3D point cloud data. Hence, an aggregation and simplification of the 3D point cloud to 2.5D raster cells is required leading to an irreversible loss of the third dimension. This procedure reduces the amount of point cloud data significantly and processing such simple data models is less time consuming because the complexity of the third dimension has not to be considered anymore. Although 3D shapes

  15. Detoxification and sensing mechanisms are of similar importance for Cd resistance in Caenorhabditis elegans

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sarah A. Winter

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available The present study employed mass spectrometry (ICP-MS to measure the internal cadmium concentrations (Cdint in Caenorhabditis elegans to determine Cd uptake from a Cd-containing environment as well as Cd release under Cd-free conditions. To analyze the functional role of several ATP binding cassette (ABC transporters (e.g., HMT-1 and MRP-1 and phytochelatin synthase (PCS, we compared wild-type (WT and different mutant strains of C. elegans. As a pre-test on selected mutant strains, several time-resolved experiments were performed to determine the survival rate and avoidance behavior of C. elegans under Cd stress, which confirmed the already known Cd sensitivity of the deletion mutants mrp-1Δ, pcs-1Δ, and hmt-1Δ. In addition, these experiments revealed flight reactions under Cd stress to be almost completely absent in mrp-1Δ mutants. The ICP-MS studies showed Cd uptake to be significantly higher in mrp-1Δ and WT than in hmt-1Δ. As Cd is ingested with food, food refusal due to very early Cd stress and its perception was likely the reason for the reduced Cd uptake of hmt-1Δ. Cd release (detoxification was found to be maximal in mrp-1Δ, minimal in hmt-1Δ, and intermediate in WT. High mortality under Cd stress, food refusal, and minimal Cd release in the case of hmt-1Δ suggest a vital importance of the HMT-1/PCS-1 detoxification system for the survival of C. elegans under Cd stress. High mortality under Cd stress, absence of an avoidance behavior, missing food refusal, and maximal Cd release in the case of mrp-1Δ indicate that MRP-1 is less important for Cd detoxification under severe stress, but is probably important for Cd perception. Accordingly, our results suggest that the survival of WT under Cd stress (or possibly other forms of metal stress primarily depends on the function of the HMT-1/PCS-1 detoxification system and the presence of a sensing mechanism to control the uptake of Cd (or other metals, which keeps internal Cd (or metal

  16. Detoxification and sensing mechanisms are of similar importance for Cd resistance in Caenorhabditis elegans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Winter, Sarah A; Dölling, Ramona; Knopf, Burkhard; Mendelski, Martha N; Schäfers, Christoph; Paul, Rüdiger J

    2016-10-01

    The present study employed mass spectrometry (ICP-MS) to measure the internal cadmium concentrations (Cd int ) in Caenorhabditis elegans to determine Cd uptake from a Cd-containing environment as well as Cd release under Cd-free conditions. To analyze the functional role of several ATP binding cassette (ABC) transporters (e.g., HMT-1 and MRP-1) and phytochelatin synthase (PCS), we compared wild-type (WT) and different mutant strains of C. elegans . As a pre-test on selected mutant strains, several time-resolved experiments were performed to determine the survival rate and avoidance behavior of C. elegans under Cd stress, which confirmed the already known Cd sensitivity of the deletion mutants mrp-1 Δ, pcs-1 Δ, and hmt-1 Δ. In addition, these experiments revealed flight reactions under Cd stress to be almost completely absent in mrp-1 Δ mutants. The ICP-MS studies showed Cd uptake to be significantly higher in mrp-1 Δ and WT than in hmt-1 Δ. As Cd is ingested with food, food refusal due to very early Cd stress and its perception was likely the reason for the reduced Cd uptake of hmt-1 Δ. Cd release (detoxification) was found to be maximal in mrp-1 Δ, minimal in hmt-1 Δ, and intermediate in WT. High mortality under Cd stress, food refusal, and minimal Cd release in the case of hmt-1 Δ suggest a vital importance of the HMT-1/PCS-1 detoxification system for the survival of C. elegans under Cd stress. High mortality under Cd stress, absence of an avoidance behavior, missing food refusal, and maximal Cd release in the case of mrp-1 Δ indicate that MRP-1 is less important for Cd detoxification under severe stress, but is probably important for Cd perception. Accordingly, our results suggest that the survival of WT under Cd stress (or possibly other forms of metal stress) primarily depends on the function of the HMT-1/PCS-1 detoxification system and the presence of a sensing mechanism to control the uptake of Cd (or other metals), which keeps internal Cd (or

  17. Assessing the potential of random forest method for estimating solar radiation using air pollution index

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sun, Huaiwei; Gui, Dongwei; Yan, Baowei; Liu, Yi; Liao, Weihong; Zhu, Yan; Lu, Chengwei; Zhao, Na

    2016-01-01

    Highlights: • Models based on random forests for daily solar radiation estimation are proposed. • Three sites within different air pollution index conditions are considered. • Performance of random forests is better than that of empirical methodologies. • Special attention is given to the use of air pollution index. • The potential of air pollution index is assessed by random forest models. - Abstract: Simulations of solar radiation have become increasingly common in recent years because of the rapid global development and deployment of solar energy technologies. The effect of air pollution on solar radiation is well known. However, few studies have attempting to evaluate the potential of the air pollution index in estimating solar radiation. In this study, meteorological data, solar radiation, and air pollution index data from three sites having different air pollution index conditions are used to develop random forest models. We propose different random forest models with and without considering air pollution index data, and then compare their respective performance with that of empirical methodologies. In addition, a variable importance approach based on random forest is applied in order to assess input variables. The results show that the performance of random forest models with air pollution index data is better than that of the empirical methodologies, generating 9.1–17.0% lower values of root-mean-square error in a fitted period and 2.0–17.4% lower values of root-mean-square error in a predicted period. Both the comparative results of different random forest models and variance importance indicate that applying air pollution index data is improves estimation of solar radiation. Also, although the air pollution index values varied largely from season to season, the random forest models appear more robust performances in different seasons than different models. The findings can act as a guide in selecting used variables to estimate daily solar

  18. Evaluation of Solar Photosensitised River Water Treatment in the Caribbean

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K. Tota-Maharaj

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available An economical supply of hygienic potable water is one of the most pressing public health issues facing developing countries in the Caribbean region today. This project investigates the performance of a novel solar photochemical reactor for disinfecting river water. The prototype photochemical reactor was designed, constructed, and tested for the microbiological degradation of faecal coliform present in River Water. The experiments evaluated the efficacy of two photosensitive dyes (malachite green and methylene blue as agents for detoxification with concentrations ranging from 0.5 to 3.0 mg/L. The photochemical reactor operated in a single-pass mode and compared the disinfection rates with direct photolysis. The photosensitizers showed a high efficacy rate using natural sunlight with microbial reduction ranging from 97 to 99% for concentrations as low as 0.5 mg/L of dye. The sensitizers were found to be photobleaching and were very effective at lower concentrations (0.01. Post-solar disinfection included the use of a coconut fiber filter which polished the water removing residual dye concentrations and bacterial contaminants.

  19. The ALMT Family of Organic Acid Transporters in Plants and Their Involvement in Detoxification and Nutrient Security.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharma, Tripti; Dreyer, Ingo; Kochian, Leon; Piñeros, Miguel A

    2016-01-01

    About a decade ago, members of a new protein family of anion channels were discovered on the basis of their ability to confer on plants the tolerance toward toxic aluminum ions in the soil. The efflux of Al 3+ -chelating malate anions through these channels is stimulated by external Al 3+ ions. This feature of a few proteins determined the name of the entire protein family as Aluminum-activated Malate Transporters (ALMT). Meanwhile, after several years of research, it is known that the physiological roles of ALMTs go far beyond Al-detoxification. In this review article we summarize the current knowledge on this transporter family and assess their involvement in diverse physiological processes.

  20. The ALMT family of organic acid transporters in plants and their involvement in detoxification and nutrient security

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tripti Sharma

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available About a decade ago, members of a new protein family of anion channels were discovered on the basis of their ability to confer on plants the tolerance towards toxic aluminum ions in the soil. The efflux of Al3+-chelating malate anions through these channels is stimulated by external Al3+ ions. This feature of a few proteins determined the name of the entire protein family as Aluminum-activated Malate Transporters (ALMT. Meanwhile, after several years of research, it is known that the physiological roles of ALMTs go far beyond Al-detoxification. In this review article we summarize the current knowledge on this transporter family and assess their involvement in diverse physiological processes.

  1. Reinstatement of serum pregnanolone isomers and progesterone during alcohol detoxification therapy in premenopausal women

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Hill, M.; Popov, P.; Havlíková, H.; Kancheva, L.; Vrbíková, J.; Meloun, M.; Kancheva, R.; Cibula, D.; Pouzar, Vladimír; Černý, Ivan; Stárka, L.

    2005-01-01

    Roč. 29, č. 6 (2005), s. 1010-1017 ISSN 0145-6008 R&D Projects: GA MZd(CZ) NB7070 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z4055905 Keywords : pregnanolone * progesterone * detoxification therapy Subject RIV: CC - Organic Chemistry Impact factor: 2.636, year: 2005

  2. Refined life-cycle assessment of polymer solar cells

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lenzmann, F.; Kroon, J.; Andriessen, R.

    2011-01-01

    A refined life-cycle assessment of polymer solar cells is presented with a focus on critical components, i.e. the transparent conductive ITO layer and the encapsulation components. This present analysis gives a comprehensive sketch of the full environmental potential of polymer-OPV in comparison...... with other PV technologies. It is shown that on a m2 basis the environmental characteristics of polymer-OPV are highly beneficial, while on a watt-peak and on a kWh basis, these benefits are - at the current level of the development - still (over-)compensated by low module efficiency and limited lifetime...

  3. Clonidine hydrochloride detoxification from methadone treatment--the value of naltrexone aftercare.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rawson, R A; Washton, A M; Resnick, R B; Tennant, F S

    1984-01-01

    Treatment outcomes were compared for 2 groups of subjects detoxified from methadone using clonidine. One group of 12 subjects was encouraged to continue in treatment with naltrexone, while the other 12 subjects did not have naltrexone treatment available. Results suggested that those subjects who had naltrexone available were more successful at completing the 10 day detoxification treatment and that the relapse rate at 30 days post-treatment was significantly reduced by naltrexone treatment.

  4. Large-scale solar purchasing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1999-01-01

    The principal objective of the project was to participate in the definition of a new IEA task concerning solar procurement (''the Task'') and to assess whether involvement in the task would be in the interest of the UK active solar heating industry. The project also aimed to assess the importance of large scale solar purchasing to UK active solar heating market development and to evaluate the level of interest in large scale solar purchasing amongst potential large scale purchasers (in particular housing associations and housing developers). A further aim of the project was to consider means of stimulating large scale active solar heating purchasing activity within the UK. (author)

  5. Adsorption and photocatalytic detoxification of diazinon using iron and nanotitania modified activated carbons

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Hassan, A F.; Elhadidy, Hassan; Abdel-Mohsen, A. M.

    2017-01-01

    Roč. 75, JUN (2017), s. 299-306 ISSN 1876-1070 R&D Projects: GA MŠk(CZ) LQ1601 Institutional support: RVO:68081723 Keywords : Detoxification * Diazinon * Flamboyant pods * Photocatalyst * Characterization Subject RIV: BM - Solid Matter Physics ; Magnetism OBOR OECD: Condensed matter physics (including formerly solid state physics, supercond.) Impact factor: 4.217, year: 2016

  6. The effect of rapid detoxification method with Naltrexone on drug abuse quitting in drug abusers referred to Khorramabad Psychiatric hospital during the first half of the year 2005

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    hedayat Nazari

    2009-03-01

    Full Text Available Background: About 8 percent of Iranian adult population are illicit drug abusers. Affected persons grow more each day. Ominous consequences such as divorce, prostitution, murder and other crimes and infectious diseases such as AIDS and hepatitis take place following drug abuse, as well as a loss equall to 29% of national income for our country. Traditional treatment methods wasted too much time and cost. professional inpatient clinics are not adequate for admission of all care seekers. Rapid detoxification methods are supposed to be better alternatives. Materials and Methods: 140 male drug abusers in two matched groups were assessed from March to September, 2005. They used heroin or opium. Both groups were scheduled for detoxification and were closely observed for 3 months thereafter. First group received Clonidine, Benzodiazepine and Naltrexone besides symptom relieving modalities in first 4 days of treatment. Naltrexone was continued in maintenance dose for one month. Second group received Methadone for one month. Results: Clients age was between 18 to 73 years, with mean age 34 years old. Their intelligence quotients were above the lower limit of normal range. There was no significant difference according to these parameters between two groups. Success rate in rapid detoxification group was 55 % and in Methadone group was 50 %. Relapse in rapid detoxification method occurred less frequent and slower (45 % vs. 50%. In Naltrexone group, better success rate was due to less duration of drug abuse and heroin dependency. In Methadone group, therapy had better results in patients with longer drug abuse history and opium addiction. There was no significant difference between success rate and either drug kind or job, marital status or education level. The most serious adverse effect in both groups was hypotension (10% in Naltrexone and 5 % in Methadone groups.

  7. Overliming detoxification of pyrolytic sugar syrup for direct fermentation of levoglucosan to ethanol.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chi, Zhanyou; Rover, Marjorie; Jun, Erin; Deaton, Mark; Johnston, Patrick; Brown, Robert C; Wen, Zhiyou; Jarboe, Laura R

    2013-12-01

    The application of pyrolytic sugars for biofuel production through fermentation is challenged by inhibitory contaminant compounds. Inhibition is so severe that only 0.25% sugar syrup can be used. In this study, overliming was tested as a simple detoxification method, using the Escherichia coli KO11+ lgk to directly convert levoglucosan into ethanol. After treatment with at least 14.8 g/L of Ca(OH)2, fermentation with 2% (w/v) pyrolytic sugar syrup was observed with no inhibition of ethanol production. Further investigation of treatment time and temperature showed that 8-16 h of treatment at 20°C, and 1-4 h of treatment at 60°C are necessary to obtain consistent ethanol production. The samples treated with 18.5 g/L Ca(OH)2 at 60°C for 4 h showed no inhibition at 2.5%. Multiple contaminants removed by the overliming treatment were identified. This study demonstrates that overliming is a promising method for detoxification of pyrolytic sugars for fermentation. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Beyond cellular detoxification: a plethora of physiological roles for MDR transporter homologs in plants

    Science.gov (United States)

    Remy, Estelle; Duque, Paula

    2014-01-01

    Higher plants possess a multitude of Multiple Drug Resistance (MDR) transporter homologs that group into three distinct and ubiquitous families—the ATP-Binding Cassette (ABC) superfamily, the Major Facilitator Superfamily (MFS), and the Multidrug And Toxic compound Extrusion (MATE) family. As in other organisms, such as fungi, mammals, and bacteria, MDR transporters make a primary contribution to cellular detoxification processes in plants, mainly through the extrusion of toxic compounds from the cell or their sequestration in the central vacuole. This review aims at summarizing the currently available information on the in vivo roles of MDR transporters in plant systems. Taken together, these data clearly indicate that the biological functions of ABC, MFS, and MATE carriers are not restricted to xenobiotic and metal detoxification. Importantly, the activity of plant MDR transporters also mediates biotic stress resistance and is instrumental in numerous physiological processes essential for optimal plant growth and development, including the regulation of ion homeostasis and polar transport of the phytohormone auxin. PMID:24910617

  9. Assessing the Performance of Global Solar Radiation Empirical ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    In the region where solar radiation data are scarce, the next alternative method is to use solar radiation models to estimate the data needed for some applications such as simulation of crop performance and the design of solar energy conversion devices. In this paper, the validations of fifteen models for estimating monthly ...

  10. Functional characterization of the Hyles euphorbiae hawkmoth transcriptome reveals strong expression of phorbol ester detoxification and seasonal cold hardiness genes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barth, M Benjamin; Buchwalder, Katja; Kawahara, Akito Y; Zhou, Xin; Liu, Shanlin; Krezdorn, Nicolas; Rotter, Björn; Horres, Ralf; Hundsdoerfer, Anna K

    2018-01-01

    The European spurge hawkmoth, Hyles euphorbiae (Lepidoptera, Sphingidae), has been intensively studied as a model organism for insect chemical ecology, cold hardiness and evolution of species delineation. To understand species isolation mechanisms at a molecular level, this study aims at determining genetic factors underlying two adaptive ecological trait candidates, phorbol ester (TPA) detoxification and seasonal cold acclimation. A draft transcriptome of H. euphorbiae was generated using Illumina sequencing, providing the first genomic resource for the hawkmoth subfamily Macroglossinae. RNA expression levels in tissues of experimental TPA feeding larvae and cooled pupae was compared to levels in control larvae and pupae using 26 bp RNA sequence tag libraries (DeepSuperSAGE). Differential gene expression was assessed by homology searches of the tags in the transcriptome. In total, 389 and 605 differentially expressed transcripts for detoxification and cold hardiness, respectively, could be identified and annotated with proteins. The majority (22 of 28) of differentially expressed detox transcripts of the four 'drug metabolism' enzyme groups (cytochrome P450 (CYP), carboxylesterases (CES), glutathione S-transferases (GST) and lipases) are up-regulated. Triacylglycerol lipase was significantly over proportionally annotated among up-regulated detox transcripts. We record several up-regulated lipases, GSTe2, two CESs, CYP9A21, CYP6BD6 and CYP9A17 as candidate genes for further H. euphorbiae TPA detoxification analyses. Differential gene expression of the cold acclimation treatment is marked by metabolic depression with enriched Gene Ontology terms among down-regulated transcripts almost exclusively comprising metabolism, aerobic respiration and dissimilative functions. Down-regulated transcripts include energy expensive respiratory proteins like NADH dehydrogenase, cytochrome oxidase and ATP synthase. Gene expression patterns show shifts in carbohydrate

  11. Life cycle assessment of a conventional and plastic solar collector in alternative air-conditioning

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Algarbi, N. M.

    2006-01-01

    Alternative solar systems include a large number of heat-and mass exchange apparatus (HMTA) with considerable size surfaces. Prequired for realization of the work processes. This result in the increase in the overall dimentions. and cost of the system. The possibility of using the principle of combining the working and auxiliary processes within the (HMTA) has been considred, and the calculation proving the working ability of the alternative system for solving the task of air-condition, obtaining comfort parameters by employing evaporative air-cooling methods only, and a solar system with flat solar collectors to provide for the absorbent regeneration, have been performed. The study shows the importance in using Live Cycle Assessment, study for renewable energy, technologies, where environmental performance is especially important.(Author)

  12. Solar Energy Potential Assessment on Rooftops and Facades in Large Built Environments Based on LiDAR Data, Image Processing, and Cloud Computing. Methodological Background, Application, and Validation in Geneva (Solar Cadaster

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gilles Desthieux

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available The paper presents the core methodology for assessing solar radiation and energy production on building rooftops and vertical facades (still rarely considered of the inner-city. This integrated tool is based on the use of LiDAR, 2D and 3D cadastral data. Together with solar radiation and astronomical models, it calculates the global irradiance for a set of points located on roofs, ground, and facades. Although the tool takes simultaneously roofs, ground, and facades, different methods of shadow casting are applied. Shadow casting on rooftops is based on image processing techniques. On the other hand, the assessment on facade involves first to create and interpolate points along the facades and then to implement a point-by-point shadow casting routine. The paper is structured in five parts: (i state of the art on the use of 3D GIS and automated processes in assessing solar radiation in the built environment, (ii overview on the methodological framework used in the paper, (iii detailed presentation of the method proposed for solar modeling and shadow casting, in particular by introducing an innovative approach for modeling the sky view factor (SVF, (iv demonstration of the solar model introduced in this paper through applications in Geneva’s building roofs (solar cadaster and facades, (v validation of the solar model in some Geneva’s spots, focusing especially on two distinct comparisons: solar model versus fisheye catchments on partially inclined surfaces (roof component; solar model versus photovoltaic simulation tool PVSyst on vertical surfaces (facades. Concerning the roof component, validation results emphasize global sensitivity related to the density of light sources on the sky vault to model the SVF. The low dense sky model with 145 light sources gives satisfying results, especially when processing solar cadasters in large urban areas, thus allowing to save computation time. In the case of building facades, introducing weighting factor

  13. Assessment of Solar Energy Dissemination and Application in Zambia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1997-12-01

    The study report addresses the following issues in the Zambian context: previous studies on solar energy, government policy on renewable energy, system designs, benefits of solar energy technologies, affordable solar energy equipment by target groups, barriers to solar energy technology diffusion, credit schemes for potential users. 13 refs., 5 figs., 22 tabs

  14. Plasma application for detoxification of Jatropha phorbol esters

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kongmany, S; Matsuura, H; Furuta, M; Okuda, S; Imamura, K; Maeda, Y

    2013-01-01

    Atmospheric pressure non-thermal dielectric barrier discharge (DBD) plasma generated by helium gas at high voltage and input power of about 50 W was first applied to detoxification of Jatropha curcas phorbol esters (J. PEs) as well as standard phorbol ester (4β-12-O-tetradecanoyl phorbol-13-acetate, TPA) in water and methanol. Plasma irradiation on the solution sample was conducted for 15 min. In aqueous solution, only 16% of TPA was degraded and complete degradation of J. PEs was observed. On the contrary, complete degradation of both TPA and J. PEs in methanol was achieved by the same plasma irradiation condition. Hydroxyl radical (.OH) generated by plasma irradiation of the solution is expected as the main radical inducing the degradation of PEs.

  15. Heterologous Expression of Aldehyde Dehydrogenase in Lactococcus lactis for Acetaldehyde Detoxification at Low pH.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lyu, Yunbin; LaPointe, Gisèle; Zhong, Lei; Lu, Jing; Zhang, Chong; Lu, Zhaoxin

    2018-02-01

    Aldehyde dehydrogenase (E.C. 1.2.1.x) can catalyze detoxification of acetaldehydes. A novel acetaldehyde dehydrogenase (istALDH) from the non-Saccharomyces yeast Issatchenkia terricola strain XJ-2 has been previously characterized. In this work, Lactococcus lactis with the NIsin Controlled Expression (NICE) System was applied to express the aldehyde dehydrogenase gene (istALDH) in order to catalyze oxidation of acetaldehyde at low pH. A recombinant L. lactis NZ3900 was obtained and applied for the detoxification of acetaldehyde as whole-cell biocatalysts. The activity of IstALDH in L. lactis NZ3900 (pNZ8148-istALDH) reached 36.4 U mL -1 when the recombinant cells were induced with 50 ng mL -1 nisin at 20 °C for 2 h. The IstALDH activity of recombinant L. lactis cells showed higher stability at 37 °C and pH 4.0 compared with the crude enzyme. L. lactis NZ3900 (pNZ8148-istALDH) could convert acetaldehyde at pH 2.0 while the crude enzyme could not. Moreover, the resting cells of L. lactis NZ3900 (pNZ8148-istALDH) showed a 2.5-fold higher activity and better stability in catalyzing oxidation of acetaldehyde at pH 2.0 compared with that of Escherichia coli expressing the IstALDH. Taken together, the L. lactis cells expressing recombinant IstALDH are potential whole-cell biocatalysts that can be applied in the detoxification of aldehydes.

  16. Decolorization and detoxification of reactive industrial dyes by immobilized fungi Trametes pubescens and Pleurotus ostreatus

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Caiseri, L.; Varese, G.C.; Anastasi, A.; Prigione, V.; Svobodová, Kateřina; Marchisio, V.F.; Novotný, Čeněk

    2008-01-01

    Roč. 53, č. 1 (2008), s. 44-52 ISSN 0015-5632 R&D Projects: GA AV ČR IAA6020411 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z50200510 Keywords : decolorization * detoxification * trametes pubescens Subject RIV: EE - Microbiology, Virology Impact factor: 1.172, year: 2008

  17. Wind and Solar Energy Resource Assessment for Navy Installations in the Midwestern US

    Science.gov (United States)

    Darmenova, K.; Apling, D.; Higgins, G. J.; Carnes, J.; Smith, C.

    2012-12-01

    A stable supply of energy is critical for sustainable economic development and the ever-increasing demand for energy resources drives the need for alternative weather-driven renewable energy solutions such as solar and wind-generated power. Recognizing the importance of energy as a strategic resource, the Department of the Navy has focused on energy efficient solutions aiming to increase tactical and shore energy security and reduce greenhouse gas emissions. Implementing alternative energy solutions will alleviate the Navy installations demands on the National power grid, however transitioning to renewable energy sources is a complex multi-stage process that involves initial investment in resource assessment and feasibility of building solar and wind power systems in Navy's facilities. This study focuses on the wind and solar energy resource assessment for Navy installations in the Midwestern US. We use the dynamically downscaled datasets at 12 km resolution over the Continental US generated with the Weather Research and Forecasting (WRF) model to derive the wind climatology in terms of wind speed, direction, and wind power at 20 m above the surface for 65 Navy facilities. In addition, we derived the transmissivity of the atmosphere, diffuse radiation fraction, cloud cover and seasonal energy potential for a zenith facing surface with unobstructed horizon for each installation location based on the results of a broadband radiative transfer model and our cloud database based on 17-years of GOES data. Our analysis was incorporated in a GIS framework in combination with additional infrastructure data that enabled a synergistic resource assessment based on the combination of climatological and engineering factors.

  18. Differences in depression severity and frequency of relapses in opiate addicts treated with methadone or opiate blocker after detoxification

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jovanović Tatjana

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Background/Aim. Relapse of opiate dependence is a common occurrence after detoxification and introduction of opiate addicts in abstinence from opiates. Clinical evaluation showed that over 90% of opiate addicts exhibit depressive manifestations during detoxification, or develop post-detoxification depression. The aim of this study was to determine differences in the frequency of relapses, severity and course of depression during a of 6-month period, and previous patterns of use of opioids in the two groups of opiate addicts treated by two different therapeutic modalities. Methods. The results of the two groups of opiate addicts were compared: the patients on substitution methadone treatment (M and the patients treated with opiate blocker naltrexone (B. In all the patients, clinical and instrumental evaluations confirmed depressive syndrome. Opioid relapses were diagnosed by the panel test for rapid detection of metabolites of opiates in urine. Then they were brought in connection with scores of depression and addiction variables. The Hamilton Depression Scale (HAMD and Zunge Depression Scale were the applied instruments for measuring the level of depression. All the subjects completed a questionnaire Pompidou (short version. Psychological measurements were carried out during a 6-month follow-up on three occasions. The presence of opiate metabolites in urine was controlled every two weeks. Results. Both groups of patients (M and B had high scores on HAMD during the study. The group on methadone had a strong depression in all three measurements. There was a drop in the level of depression in both experimental groups over time, which was accompanied by a decrease in the incidence of recurrence. In both tested groups the frequency of relapses was positively correlated with earlier addiction variables - intravenous application of opioids, the experience of overdose, the absence of immunization against hepatitis C and hepatitis C virus carriers

  19. [Differences in depression severity and frequency of relapses in opiate addicts treated with methadone or opiate blocker after detoxification].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jovanović, Tatjana; Lazarević, Dusan; Nikolić, Gordana

    2012-04-01

    Relapse of opiate dependence is a common occurrence after detoxification and introduction of opiate addicts in abstinence from opiates. Clinical evaluation showed that over 90% of opiate addicts exhibit depressive manifestations during detoxification, or develop post-detoxification depression. The aim of this study was to determine differences in the frequency of relapses, severity and course of depression during a of 6-month period, and previous patterns of use of opioids in the two groups of opiate addicts treated by two different therapeutic modalities. The results of the two groups of opiate addicts were compared: the patients on substitution methadone treatment (M) and the patients treated with opiate blocker naltrexone (B). In all the patients, clinical and instrumental evaluations confirmed depressive syndrome. Opioid relapses were diagnosed by the panel test for rapid detection of metabolites of opiates in urine. Then they were brought in connection with scores of depression and addiction variables. The Hamilton Depression Scale (HAMD) and Zunge Depression Scale were the applied instruments for measuring the level of depression. All the subjects completed a questionnaire Pompidou (short version). Psychological measurements were carried out during a 6-month follow-up on three occasions. The presence of opiate metabolites in urine was controlled every two weeks. Both groups of patients (M and B) had high scores on HAMD during the study. The group on methadone had a strong depression in all three measurements. There was a drop in the level of depression in both experimental groups over time, which was accompanied by a decrease in the incidence of recurrence. In both tested groups the frequency of relapses was positively correlated with earlier addiction variables - intravenous application of opioids, the experience of overdose, the absence of immunization against hepatitis C and hepatitis C virus carriers. The opioid relapse behavior is associated with a

  20. Economic assessment of solar and conventional biomass gasification technologies: Financial and policy implications under feedstock and product gas price uncertainty

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nickerson, Thomas A.; Hathaway, Brandon J.; Smith, Timothy M.; Davidson, Jane H.

    2015-01-01

    Four configurations of a novel solar-heated biomass gasification facility and one configuration of conventional biomass gasification are analyzed through financial and policy scenarios. The purpose of this study is to determine the potential financial position for varying configurations of a novel technology, as compared to the current state-of-the-art gasification technology. Through the use of project finance and policy scenario development, we assess the baseline breakeven syngas price (normalized against natural gas prices and based upon annual feedstock consumption), the sensitivity of major cost components for the novel facilities, and the implications of policy levers on the economic feasibility of the solar facilities. Findings show that certain solar configurations may compete with conventional facilities on a straightforward economic basis. However, with renewable energy policy levers in place the solar technologies become increasingly attractive options. - Highlights: • We model four solar and one conventional biomass gasification systems. • We assess economic feasibility of these systems with and without policy incentives. • Solar facilities compete with the conventional system in certain scenarios. • Feedstock costs are the largest contributor to system cost sensitivity. • Policy incentives create an economically favorable scenario for solar facilities

  1. Differential antioxidant defense and detoxification mechanisms in photodynamically stressed rice plants treated with the deregulators of porphyrin biosynthesis, 5-aminolevulinic acid and oxyfluorfen.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Phung, Thu-Ha; Jung, Sunyo

    2015-04-03

    This study focuses on differential molecular mechanisms of antioxidant and detoxification systems in rice plants under two different types of photodynamic stress imposed by porphyrin deregulators, 5-aminolevulinic acid (ALA) and oxyfluorfen (OF). The ALA-treated plants with white necrosis exhibited a greater decrease in photochemical quantum efficiency, Fv/Fm, as well as a greater increase in activity of superoxide dismutase, compared to the OF-treated plants. By contrast, the brown necrosis in OF-treated plants resulted in not only more widely dispersed H2O2 production and greater increases in H2O2-decomposing enzymes, catalase and peroxidase, but also lower ascorbate redox state. In addition, ALA- and OF-treated plants markedly up-regulated transcript levels of genes involved in detoxification processes including transport and movement, cellular homeostasis, and xenobiotic conjugation, with prominent up-regulation of serine/threonine kinase and chaperone only in ALA-treated plants. Our results demonstrate that different photodynamic stress imposed by ALA and OF developed differential actions of antioxidant enzymes and detoxification. Particularly, detoxification system may play potential roles in plant protection against photodynamic stress imposed by porphyrin deregulators, thereby contributing to alleviation of photodynamic damage. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  2. P-gp expression in brown trout erythrocytes: evidence of a detoxification mechanism in fish erythrocytes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Valton, Emeline; Amblard, Christian; Wawrzyniak, Ivan; Penault-Llorca, Frederique; Bamdad, Mahchid

    2013-12-05

    Blood is a site of physiological transport for a great variety of molecules, including xenobiotics. Blood cells in aquatic vertebrates, such as fish, are directly exposed to aquatic pollution. P-gp are ubiquitous "membrane detoxification proteins" implicated in the cellular efflux of various xenobiotics, such as polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs), which may be pollutants. The existence of this P-gp detoxification system inducible by benzo [a] pyrene (BaP), a highly cytotoxic PAH, was investigated in the nucleated erythrocytes of brown trout. Western blot analysis showed the expression of a 140-kDa P-gp in trout erythrocytes. Primary cultures of erythrocytes exposed to increasing concentrations of BaP showed no evidence of cell toxicity. Yet, in the same BaP-treated erythrocytes, P-gp expression increased significantly in a dose-dependent manner. Brown trout P-gp erythrocytes act as membrane defence mechanism against the pollutant, a property that can be exploited for future biomarker development to monitor water quality.

  3. Solar radiation and thermal performance of solar collectors for Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dragsted, Janne; Furbo, Simon

    This report describes the part of the EUDP project “EUDP 11-l, Solar Resource Assessment in Denmark”, which is carried out at Department of Civil Engineering, Technical University of Denmark.......This report describes the part of the EUDP project “EUDP 11-l, Solar Resource Assessment in Denmark”, which is carried out at Department of Civil Engineering, Technical University of Denmark....

  4. Simultaneous detoxification and bioethanol fermentation of furans-rich synthetic hydrolysate by digestate-based pyrochar.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sambusiti, C; Monlau, F; Antoniou, N; Zabaniotou, A; Barakat, A

    2016-12-01

    Pyrolysis is a sustainable pathway to transform renewable biomasses into both biofuels and advanced carbonaceous materials (i.e. pyrochar) which can be used as adsorbent of furan compounds. In particular, the aim of this study was to: i) evaluate the effect of vibro-ball milling on physical characteristics of pyrochar and its consequent performance on solely detoxification of a synthetic medium, containing furans and soluble sugars; ii) study the simultaneous detoxification and bioethanol fermentation, by adding activated pyrochar into fermentation medium. Results demonstrated that, compared to untreated pyrochar, the use of milled pyrochar increased by 52% furfural removal from the synthetic medium. Furfural removal rate was also increased (adsorption kinetic constant increased from 0.015 min -1 up to 0.215 min -1 ), at a pyrochar loading of 40 g L -1 . Although, the simultaneous addition of pyrochar into the fermentation medium did not improve the bioethanol yield of the synthetic medium, it has significantly increased the bioethanol production rate. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Deficient UDP-glucuronosyltransferase detoxification enzyme activity in the small intestinal mucosa of patients with coeliac disease.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Goerres, M.S.; Roelofs, H.M.J.; Jansen, J.B.M.J.; Peters, W.H.M.

    2006-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Small intestinal malignancies in humans are rare; however, patients with coeliac disease have a relatively high risk for such tumours. Intestinal UDP-glucuronosyltransferases are phase II drug metabolism enzymes also involved in the detoxification of ingested toxins and carcinogens. As

  6. Assessing Rare Metal Availability Challenges for Solar Energy Technologies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leena Grandell

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Solar energy is commonly seen as a future energy source with significant potential. Ruthenium, gallium, indium and several other rare elements are common and vital components of many solar energy technologies, including dye-sensitized solar cells, CIGS cells and various artificial photosynthesis approaches. This study surveys solar energy technologies and their reliance on rare metals such as indium, gallium, and ruthenium. Several of these rare materials do not occur as primary ores, and are found as byproducts associated with primary base metal ores. This will have an impact on future production trends and the availability for various applications. In addition, the geological reserves of many vital metals are scarce and severely limit the potential of certain solar energy technologies. It is the conclusion of this study that certain solar energy concepts are unrealistic in terms of achieving TW scales.

  7. Assessment of global solar radiation to examine the best locations to install a PV system in Tunisia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Belkilani, Kaouther; Ben Othman, Afef; Besbes, Mongi

    2018-02-01

    The study of the solar radiation is the starting point of any investigation for a new energy, to study and search the best location to install a PV system. A very important factor in the assessment of solar potential is the availability of data for global solar radiation that must be coherent and of high quality. In this paper, we analyze the estimation result of the monthly global solar radiation for three different locations, Bizerte in Northern Tunisia, Kairouan in Middle Eastern Tunisia, and Tozeur in Southern Tunisia, measured on the surface by the National Institute of Meteorology and the meteorological year irradiation based on satellite imagery result PVGIS radiation databases. To get the right measurements with minimum error, we propose a numerical model used to calculate the global solar radiation in the indicated three sites. The results show that the model can estimate the global solar radiation (kWh/m²) at a specific station and over most area of Tunisia. The model gives a good estimation for solar radiation where error between the measured values and those calculated are negligible.

  8. Environmental Impacts of Solar Thermal Systems with Life Cycle Assessment

    OpenAIRE

    De Laborderie , Alexis; Puech , Clément; Adra , Nadine; Blanc , Isabelle; Beloin-Saint-Pierre , Didier; Padey , Pierryves; Payet , Jérôme; Sie , Marion; Jacquin , Philippe

    2011-01-01

    Available on: http://www.ep.liu.se/ecp/057/vol14/002/ecp57vol14_002.pdf; International audience; Solar thermal systems are an ecological way of providing domestic hot water. They are experiencing a rapid growth since the beginning of the last decade. This study characterizes the environmental performances of such installations with a life-cycle approach. The methodology is based on the application of the international standards of Life Cycle Assessment. Two types of systems are presented. Fir...

  9. Technical and economic assessment of the integrated solar combined cycle power plants in Iran

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Soltani Hosseini, M.; Hosseini, R.; Valizadeh, G.H.

    2002-01-01

    Thermal efficiency, capacity factor, environmental considerations, investment cost, fuel and O and M costs are the main parameters for technical and economic assessment of solar power plants. This analysis has shown that the Integrated Solar Combined Cycle System with 67 MW e solar field(ISCCS-67) is the most suitable plan for the first solar power plant in Iran. The Levelized Energy Costs of combined cycle and ISCCS-67 power plants would be equal if 49 million dollars of ISCCS-67 capital cost supplied by the international environmental organizations such as Global Environmental Facilities and World Bank. This study shows that an ISCCS-67 saves 59 million dollars in fuel consumption and reduces about 2.4 million ton in CO 2 emission during 30 years operating period. Increasing of steam turbine capacity by 50%, and 4% improvement in overall efficiency are other advantages of iSCCS-67 power plant. The LEC of ISCCS-67 is 10% and so 33% lower than the combined cycle and gas turbine, respectively, at the same capacity factor with consideration of environmental costs

  10. Novel and conventional working fluid mixtures for solar Rankine cycles: Performance assessment and multi-criteria selection

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mavrou, Paschalia; Papadopoulos, Athanasios I.; Stijepovic, Mirko Z.; Seferlis, Panos; Linke, Patrick; Voutetakis, Spyros

    2015-01-01

    This work investigates the performance of working fluid mixtures for use in solar ORC (Organic Rankine Cycle systems) with heat storage employing FPC (Flat Plate Collectors). Several mixtures are considered including conventional choices often utilized in ORC as well as novel mixtures previously designed using advanced computer aided molecular design methods (Papadopoulos et al., 2013). The impact of heat source variability on the ORC performance is assessed for different working fluid mixtures. Solar radiation is represented in detail through actual, hourly averaged data for an entire year. A multi-criteria mixture selection methodology unveils important trade-offs among several important system operating parameters and efficiently highlights optimum operating ranges. Such parameters include the ORC thermal efficiency, the net generated power, the volume ratio across the turbine, the mass flow rate of the ORC working fluid, the evaporator temperature glide, the temperature drop in the storage tank, the ORC total yearly operating duration, the required collector aperture area to generate 1 kW of power and the irreversibility. A mixture of neopentane – 2-fluoromethoxy-2-methylpropane at 70% neopentane is found to be the most efficient in all the considered criteria simultaneously. - Highlights: • Investigation of novel and conventional working fluid mixtures for solar ORCs. • Systematic, multi-criteria assessment methodology for mixture selection. • Simultaneous consideration of multiple important mixture performance criteria. • Effects of year-round solar variability in a solar ORC with heat storage tank

  11. Detoxification of corn stover and corn starch pyrolysis liquors by Pseudomonas putida and Streptomyces setonii suspended cells and plastic compost support biofilms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khiyami, Mohammad A; Pometto Iii, Anthony L; Brown, Robert C

    2005-04-20

    Plant biomass can be liquefied into fermentable sugars (levoglucosan then to glucose) for the production of ethanol, lactic acid, enzymes, and more by a process called pyrolysis. During the process microbial inhibitors are also generated. Pseudomonas putida (ATCC 17484) and Streptomyces setonii75Vi2 (ATCC 39116) were employed to degrade microbial inhibitors in diluted corn stover (Dcs) and diluted corn starch (Dst) pyrolysis liquors. The detoxification process evaluation included measuring total phenols and changes in UV spectra, a GC-MS analysis, and a bioassay, which employed Lactobacillus casei subsp. rhamosus (ATCC 11443) growth as an indicator of detoxification. Suspended-cell cultures illustrated limited detoxification ability of Dcs and Dst. P. putida and S. setoniiplastic compost support (PCS) biofilm continuous-stirred-tank-reactor pure cultures detoxified 10 and 25% (v/v) Dcs and Dst, whereas PCS biofilm mixed culture also partially detoxified 50% (v/v) Dcs and Dst in repeated batch culture. Therefore, PCS biofilm mixed culture is the process of choice to detoxify diluted pyrolysis liquors.

  12. Glutathione S-Transferase (GST Gene Diversity in the Crustacean Calanus finmarchicus--Contributors to Cellular Detoxification.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vittoria Roncalli

    Full Text Available Detoxification is a fundamental cellular stress defense mechanism, which allows an organism to survive or even thrive in the presence of environmental toxins and/or pollutants. The glutathione S-transferase (GST superfamily is a set of enzymes involved in the detoxification process. This highly diverse protein superfamily is characterized by multiple gene duplications, with over 40 GST genes reported in some insects. However, less is known about the GST superfamily in marine organisms, including crustaceans. The availability of two de novo transcriptomes for the copepod, Calanus finmarchicus, provided an opportunity for an in depth study of the GST superfamily in a marine crustacean. The transcriptomes were searched for putative GST-encoding transcripts using known GST proteins from three arthropods as queries. The identified transcripts were then translated into proteins, analyzed for structural domains, and annotated using reciprocal BLAST analysis. Mining the two transcriptomes yielded a total of 41 predicted GST proteins belonging to the cytosolic, mitochondrial or microsomal classes. Phylogenetic analysis of the cytosolic GSTs validated their annotation into six different subclasses. The predicted proteins are likely to represent the products of distinct genes, suggesting that the diversity of GSTs in C. finmarchicus exceeds or rivals that described for insects. Analysis of relative gene expression in different developmental stages indicated low levels of GST expression in embryos, and relatively high expression in late copepodites and adult females for several cytosolic GSTs. A diverse diet and complex life history are factors that might be driving the multiplicity of GSTs in C. finmarchicus, as this copepod is commonly exposed to a variety of natural toxins. Hence, diversity in detoxification pathway proteins may well be key to their survival.

  13. Enzymatic detoxification of jojoba meal and effect of the resulting meal on food intake in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bouali, Abderrahime; Bellirou, Ahmed; Boukhatem, Noureddin; Hamal, Abdellah; Bouammali, Boufelja

    2008-05-10

    When defatted jojoba meal is used as animal food, it causes food-intake reduction and growth retardation. Detoxification procedures by chemical, microbiological, and solvent extraction methods are reported by several authors. Here we report a successful detoxification of jojoba meal using enzymes. We establish reaction conditions that yield new meal which has the same nutritional qualities in proteins as the original meal. The enzymatic reaction gives rise to one major compound to which the structure of an amide is assigned on the basis of IR, 1H and 13C NMR spectra. The effect of the resulting jojoba meal on the food intake in rats is checked. In contrast, the detoxified meal containing the amide derivatives shows no toxicological activity since rats receiving oral administration of the obtained meal show normal growth. Thus, it is expected that this meal could be used as an animal feed ingredient.

  14. The assessment of different models to predict solar module temperature, output power and efficiency for Nis, Serbia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pantic, Lana S.; Pavlović, Tomislav M.; Milosavljević, Dragana D.; Radonjic, Ivana S.; Radovic, Miodrag K.; Sazhko, Galina

    2016-01-01

    Five different models for calculating solar module temperature, output power and efficiency for sunny days with different solar radiation intensities and ambient temperatures are assessed in this paper. Thereafter, modeled values are compared to the experimentally obtained values for the horizontal solar module in Nis, Serbia. The criterion for determining the best model was based on the statistical analysis and the agreement between the calculated and the experimental values. The calculated values of solar module temperature are in good agreement with the experimentally obtained ones, with some variations over and under the measured values. The best agreement between calculated and experimentally obtained values was for summer months with high solar radiation intensity. The nonlinear model for calculating the output power is much better than the linear model and at the same time predicts better the total electrical energy generated by the solar module during the day. The nonlinear model for calculating the solar module efficiency predicts the efficiency higher than the STC (Standard Test Conditions) value of solar module efficiency for all conditions, while the linear model predicts the solar module efficiency very well. This paper provides a simple and efficient guideline to estimate relevant parameters of a monocrystalline silicon solar module under the moderate-continental climate conditions. - Highlights: • Linear model for solar module temperature gives accurate predictions for August. • The nonlinear model better predicts the solar module power than the linear model. • For calculating solar module power for Nis we propose the nonlinear model. • For calculating solar model efficiency for Nis we propose adoption of linear model. • The adopted models can be used for calculations throughout the year.

  15. Computational regulatory model for detoxification of ammonia from urea cycle in liver

    OpenAIRE

    ALI, Rashith Muhammad MUBARAK; GURUSAMY, Poornima Devi; RAMACHANDRAN, Selvakumar

    2015-01-01

    A nondeterministic finite automaton was designed to monitor enzymatic regulation and detoxification of excess ammonia in the urea cycle and its disorders. The designed machine is used for the diagnosis of deficiency and for regulating the expression of any of the enzymes involved with acceptance and rejection states in the urea cycle. The urea cycle is the metabolism of excess nitrogen produced by the breakdown of protein and other nitrogen-containing molecules in liver. Disorder in the urea ...

  16. Isolation and characterization of Bacillus cereus IST105 from electroplating effluent for detoxification of hexavalent chromium.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Naik, Umesh Chandra; Srivastava, Shaili; Thakur, Indu Shekhar

    2011-08-01

    Electroplating industries are the main sources of heavy metals, chromium, nickel, lead, zinc, cadmium and copper. The highest concentrations of chromium (VI) in the effluent cause a direct hazards to human and animals. Therefore, there is a need of an effective and affordable biotechnological solution for removal of chromium from electroplating effluent. Bacterial strains were isolated from electroplating effluent to find out higher tolerant isolate against chromate. The isolate was identified by 16S rDNA sequence analysis. Absorbed chromium level of bacterium was determined by inductively coupled plasma-atomic emission spectrometer (ICP-AES), atomic absorption spectrophotometer (AAS), scanning electron microscope (SEM), transmission electron microscope (TEM) and energy dispersive X-ray analysis (EDX). Removal of metals by bacterium from the electroplating effluent eventually led to the detoxification of effluent confirmed by MTT assay. Conformational changes of functional groups of bacterial cell surface were studied through Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy. The chromate tolerant isolate was identified as Bacillus cereus. Bacterium has potency to remove more than 75% of chromium as measured by ICP-AES and AAS. The study indicated the accumulation of chromium (VI) on bacterial cell surface which was confirmed by the SEM-EDX and TEM analysis. The biosorption of metals from the electroplating effluent eventually led to the detoxification of effluent. The increased survivability of Huh7 cells cultured with treated effluent also confirmed the detoxification as examined by MTT assay. Isolated strain B. cereus was able to remove and detoxify chromium (VI). It would be an efficient tool of the biotechnological approach in mitigating the heavy metal pollutants.

  17. Assessing the impact of a solar eclipse on weather and photovoltaic production

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carmen Köhler

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available With the strong expansion of the installed renewable energy over the last years, the relevance of weather forecasts for operating the German power system has considerably increased. In that context, rare but important events like the solar eclipse on the morning of 20 March 2015 pose an additional challenge when operating the power system, as it affects the photovoltaic (PV power production by inducing strong gradients in the feed-in. In order to maintain grid stability, the uncertainties associated with the eclipse have been estimated in advance for planning necessary precautions. Especially the maximum gradients in PV-power were of importance for the provision of balancing energy. Numerical weather prediction (NWP is very suited for this assessment, as it allows to consider the complex mechanisms occurring in the atmosphere. Thus the impact of the eclipse on meteorological parameters which affect the PV-power generation were evaluated. Sensitivity studies with NWP models have been conducted in order to assess the reduction in short wave radiation and temperature during the total solar eclipse months before the actual event. For this purpose, model simulations with the non-hydrostatic COSMO models from the German Weather Service (DWD have been performed over Germany and Europe. As the weather situation and especially the cloud cover during the eclipse could not be known in advance, a realistic worst case (clear sky conditions and a best case (overcast conditions scenario were simulated over Germany. Thereof the PV-power production has been estimated and analyzed for the different scenarios. The NWP model data from the sensitivity studies are openly distributed (doi:10.1594/PANGAEA.839163. As near real-time NWP simulations considering the solar eclipse were conducted a few days prior to the event, they are herein validated with measurements. Furthermore, the actual PV-power production and actions taken by the TSOs during the solar eclipse are

  18. Solar array technology evaluation program for SEPS (Solar Electrical Propulsion Stage)

    Science.gov (United States)

    1974-01-01

    An evaluation of the technology and the development of a preliminary design for a 25 kilowatt solar array system for solar electric propulsion are discussed. The solar array has a power to weight ratio of 65 watts per kilogram. The solar array system is composed of two wings. Each wing consists of a solar array blanket, a blanket launch storage container, an extension/retraction mast assembly, a blanket tensioning system, an array electrical harness, and hardware for supporting the system for launch and in the operating position. The technology evaluation was performed to assess the applicable solar array state-of-the-art and to define supporting research necessary to achieve technology readiness for meeting the solar electric propulsion system solar array design requirements.

  19. Assessment of the environmental impacts deriving from the life cycle of a typical solar water heater

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. Gaidajis

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available According to life cycle thinking, the environmental burden deriving from different life cycle stages of a product or a system, such as manufacturing, transportation, maintenance and landfilling should be taken into consideration while assessing its environmental performance. In that aspect, the environmental impacts deriving from the life cycle of a typical solar water heater (SWH in Greece are analyzed and assessed with the application of relative life cycle assessment (LCA software in this study. In order to examine various impact categories such as global warming, ozone layer depletion, ecotoxicity and so forth, the IMPACT2002+ method is applied. The aim of this study is to examine the life cycle stages, processes and materials that significantly affect the system under examination and to provide a discussion regarding the environmental friendliness of solar water heaters.

  20. A collection of cytochrome P450 monooxygenase genes involved in modification and detoxification of herbicide atrazine in rice (Oryza sativa) plants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rong Tan, Li; Chen Lu, Yi; Jing Zhang, Jing; Luo, Fang; Yang, Hong

    2015-09-01

    Plant cytochrome P450 monooxygenases constitute one of the largest families of protein genes involved in plant growth, development and acclimation to biotic and abiotic stresses. However, whether these genes respond to organic toxic compounds and their biological functions for detoxifying toxic compounds such as herbicides in rice are poorly understood. The present study identified 201 genes encoding cytochrome P450s from an atrazine-exposed rice transcriptome through high-throughput sequencing. Of these, 69 cytochrome P450 genes were validated by microarray and some of them were confirmed by real time PCR. Activities of NADPH-cytochrome P450 reductase (CPR) and p-nitroanisole O-demethylase (PNOD) related to toxicity were determined and significantly induced by atrazine exposure. To dissect the mechanism underlying atrazine modification and detoxification by P450, metabolites (or derivatives) of atrazine in plants were analyzed by ultra performance liquid chromatography mass spectrometry (UPLC/MS). Major metabolites comprised desmethylatrazine (DMA), desethylatrazine (DEA), desisopropylatrazine (DIA), hydroxyatrazine (HA), hydroxyethylatrazine (HEA) and hydroxyisopropylatrazine (HIA). All of them were chemically modified by P450s. Furthermore, two specific inhibitors of piperonyl butoxide (PBO) and malathion (MAL) were used to assess the correlation between the P450s activity and rice responses including accumulation of atrazine in tissues, shoot and root growth and detoxification. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  1. Glycerol supplementation of the growth medium enhances in situ detoxification of furfural by Clostridium beijerinckii during butanol fermentation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ujor, Victor; Agu, Chidozie Victor; Gopalan, Venkat; Ezeji, Thaddeus Chukwuemeka

    2014-01-01

    Lignocellulose-derived microbial inhibitors such as furfural and 5-hydroxymethyl furfural adversely affect fermentation of lignocellulosic biomass hydrolysates to fuels and chemicals due to their toxicity on fermenting microbes. To harness the potential of lignocellulose as a cheap source of fermentable sugars, in situ detoxification of furfural and other lignocellulose-derived microbial inhibitors is essential. To enhance in situ detoxification and tolerance of furfural by Clostridium beijerinckii NCIMB 8052 during acetone-butanol-ethanol (ABE) fermentation, the effect of glycerol on NADH/NADPH generation and ABE production by furfural (4, 5, and 6 g/L)-challenged cultures was investigated in this study. In all instances, beneficial outcomes were observed. For example, the fermentation medium supplemented with glycerol and subjected to 5 g/L furfural elicited up to 1.8- and 3-fold increases, respectively, in NADH and NADPH levels in C. beijerinckii 8052 relative to the control culture. These critical changes are the likely underpinnings for the glycerol-mediated 2.3-fold increase in the rate of detoxification of 5 g/L furfural, substrate consumption, and ABE production compared to the unsupplemented medium. Collectively, these results demonstrate that increased intracellular NADH/NADPH in C. beijerinckii 8052 due to glycerol utilization engenders favorable effects on many aspects of cellular metabolism, including enhanced furfural reduction and increased ABE production.

  2. Study on Thermal Performance Assessment of Solar Hot Water Systems in Malaysia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sulaiman Shaharin Anwar

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Solar Hot Water Systems (SHWS are gaining popularity in Malaysia due to increasing cost of electricity and also awareness of environmental issues related to the use of fossil fuels. The introduction of solar hot water systems in Malaysia is an indication that it has potential market. However, there is a need for a proper methodology for rating the energy performance of these systems. The main objective of this study is to assess the thermal performance of several SHWS subject to four different locations in Malaysia using combined direct measurement and computer modelling using the TRNSYS simulation program. The results showed distinct differences in performance of the systems as a result of locations and manufacturers. The findings could be used further in developing an acceptable rating system for SHWS in Malaysia.

  3. An Update of the Analytical Groundwater Modeling to Assess Water Resource Impacts at the Afton Solar Energy Zone

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Quinn, John J. [Argonne National Lab. (ANL), Argonne, IL (United States); Greer, Christopher B. [Argonne National Lab. (ANL), Argonne, IL (United States); Carr, Adrianne E. [Argonne National Lab. (ANL), Argonne, IL (United States)

    2014-10-01

    The purpose of this study is to update a one-dimensional analytical groundwater flow model to examine the influence of potential groundwater withdrawal in support of utility-scale solar energy development at the Afton Solar Energy Zone (SEZ) as a part of the Bureau of Land Management’s (BLM’s) Solar Energy Program. This report describes the modeling for assessing the drawdown associated with SEZ groundwater pumping rates for a 20-year duration considering three categories of water demand (high, medium, and low) based on technology-specific considerations. The 2012 modeling effort published in the Final Programmatic Environmental Impact Statement for Solar Energy Development in Six Southwestern States (Solar PEIS; BLM and DOE 2012) has been refined based on additional information described below in an expanded hydrogeologic discussion.

  4. Detoxification of organophosphate nerve agents by bacterial phosphotriesterase

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ghanem, Eman; Raushel, Frank M.

    2005-01-01

    Organophosphates have been widely used as insecticides and chemical warfare agents. The health risks associated with these agents have necessitated the need for better detoxification and bioremediation tools. Bacterial enzymes capable of hydrolyzing the lethal organophosphate nerve agents are of special interest. Phosphotriesterase (PTE) isolated from the soil bacteria Pseudomonas diminuta displays a significant rate enhancement and substrate promiscuity for the hydrolysis of organophosphate triesters. Directed evolution and rational redesign of the active site of PTE have led to the identification of new variants with enhanced catalytic efficiency and stereoselectivity toward the hydrolysis of organophosphate neurotoxins. PTE has been utilized to protect against organophosphate poisoning in vivo. Biotechnological applications of PTE for detection and decontamination of insecticides and chemical warfare agents are developing into useful tools. In this review, the catalytic properties and potential applications of this remarkable enzyme are discussed

  5. Stereochemistry of Furfural Reduction by a Saccharomyces cerevisiae Aldehyde Reductase That Contributes to In Situ Furfural Detoxification

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ari1p from Saccharomyces cerevisiae, recently identified as an intermediate subclass short-chain dehydrogenase/reductase, contributes in situ to the detoxification of furfural. Furfural inhibits efficient ethanol production by the yeast, particularly when the carbon source is acid-treated lignocell...

  6. Accumulation and detoxification dynamics of Chromium and antioxidant responses in juvenile rare minnow, Gobiocypris rarus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yuan, Cong; Li, Meng; Zheng, Yao; Zhou, Ying; Wu, Feili; Wang, Zaizhao

    2017-09-01

    Hexavalent chromium (Cr 6+ ) compounds are hazardous via all exposure routes. To explore the dynamics of Cr accumulation and elimination and to reveal the mechanisms underlying detoxification and antioxidation in juvenile Gobiocypris rarus, one-month old G. rarus larvae were exposed to 0.1mgL -1 Cr 6+ for four weeks for accumulation and subsequently placed to clean water for another week for depuration. The contents of Cr were measured weekly in the whole body of G. rarus juveniles. The activities of catalase (CAT), glutathione peroxidase (GPx), superoxide dismutase (SOD), glutathione S-transferase (GST) and glutathione reductase (GR), and contents of glutathione (GSH) and malonaldehyde (MDA), and transcripts of cat, Cu/Zn-sod, Mn-sod, gpx1, gstpi, gr, mt1, nrf2 and uba52 were determined. The results indicated that G. rarus juveniles had a strong ability to resist the Cr accumulation by Cr 6+ exposure and to remove Cr from the body in clean water. In addition, GST and MT proteins may be involved in the detoxification of Cr 6+ . Moreover, Cr 6+ -induced GST detoxification in G. rarus juveniles might be accomplished through the Nrf2-mediated regulation of gene expressions. The antioxidant enzyme systems exhibited a response mechanism of the protective enzymes in organisms when they are subjected to external environmental stress. Two weeks of Cr 6+ treatments could have led to the damage and consecutive degradation of antioxidant enzymes via ubiquitination, and MT proteins could be involved in protecting the activity of these enzymes. The capability of antioxidant enzyme systems to recover from the Cr 6+ -induced damage was strong in G. rarus juveniles after Cr 6+ was removed from the water. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  7. Dexmedetomidine infusion to facilitate opioid detoxification and withdrawal in a patient with chronic opioid abuse

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Surjya Prasad Upadhyay

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Many patients are admitted to the intensive care unit (ICU for acute intoxication, serious complication of overdose, or withdrawal symptoms of illicit drugs. An acute withdrawal of drugs with addiction potential is associated with a sympathetic overactivity leading to marked psychomimetic disturbances. Acute intoxication or withdrawal of such drugs is often associated with life-threatening complications which require ICU admission and necessitate prolonged sedative analgesic medications, weaning from which is often complicated by withdrawal and other psychomimetic symptoms. Dexmedetomidine, an alpha-2 (α2 agonist, has been used successfully to facilitate withdrawal and detoxification of various drugs and also to control delirium in ICU patients. Herein, we report a case of a chronic opioid abuse (heroin patient admitted with acute overdose complications leading to a prolonged ICU course requiring sedative-analgesic medication; the drug withdrawal-related symptoms further complicated the weaning process. Dexmedetomidine infusion was successfully used as a sedative-analgesic to control the withdrawal-related psychomimetic symptoms and to facilitate smooth detoxification and weaning from opioid and other sedatives.

  8. Omics and biotechnology of arsenic stress and detoxification in plants: current updates and prospective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumar, Smita; Dubey, Rama Shanker; Tripathi, Rudra Deo; Chakrabarty, Debasis; Trivedi, Prabodh Kumar

    2015-01-01

    Arsenic (As), a naturally occurring metallic element, is a dreadful health hazard to millions of people across the globe. Arsenic is present in low amount in the environment and originates from anthropogenic impact and geogenic sources. The presence of As in groundwater used for irrigation is a worldwide problem as it affects crop productivity, accumulates to different tissues and contaminates food chain. The consumption of As contaminated water or food products leads to several diseases and even death. Recently, studies have been carried out to explore the biochemical and molecular mechanisms which contribute to As toxicity, accumulation, detoxification and tolerance acquisition in plants. This information has led to the development of the biotechnological tools for developing plants with modulated As tolerance and detoxification to safeguard cellular and genetic integrity as well as to minimize food chain contamination. This review aims to provide current updates about the biochemical and molecular networks involved in As uptake by plants and the recent developments in the area of functional genomics in terms of developing As tolerant and low As accumulating plants. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Study of the development of solar energy in Rhone-Alpes. Presentation of the photovoltaic sector, Presentation of the solar thermal sector, Sunshine mapping, Assessment of installations by the end 2009, Development potential for solar thermal energy, Development potential for solar photovoltaic energy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2010-12-01

    A first part proposes a wide presentation of the photovoltaic sector with an overview of largest plants, a market analysis (on the 2001-2009 period in the World, Europe and France, per technology, in terms of industrial tissue and R and D activity in France, evolution per region and per technology), a presentation of the different technologies (from the first to the third generation, in terms of costs, and of perspective for the different sectors), an environmental assessment of the different sectors (CO 2 emissions and avoided emissions), a presentation of the main actors of the photovoltaic sector (silicon producers, cell producers, thin layer producers, developers), a presentation of tracking technologies (trackers gains), and a perspective for the photovoltaic sector in Europe and in the World. In a same way, a second part presents the solar thermal sector: market analysis, active and passive technologies, solar concentration technology, environmental assessment, future perspective in Europe and in the World. A sunshine mapping is then proposed for the Rhone-Alpes region. The next part discusses various stakes: regulation for roof-based installations and for ground-based photovoltaic plants with respect to various issues (land planning, environment, biodiversity, agriculture, landscape, cultural heritage, natural risks). The next part proposes an assessment of solar thermal and photovoltaic installations at the end of 2009

  10. Efficient ethanol production from beetle-killed lodgepole pine using SPORL technology and Saccharomyces cerevisiae without detoxification

    Science.gov (United States)

    Junyong Zhu; Xiaolin Luo; Shen Tian; Roland Gleisner; Jose Negron; Eric Horn

    2011-01-01

    This study applied Sulfite Pretreatment to Overcome Recalcitrance of Lignocelluloses (SPORL) to evaluate the potential of mountain pine beetle-killed lodgepole pine for ethanol production using conventional Saccharomyces cerevisiae without hydrolysate detoxification. The results indicate that the beetle-killed trees are more susceptible to SPORL pretreatment than live...

  11. Evaluation of Efficacy and Toxicity of Exfoliated Silicate Nanoclays as a Feed Additive for Fumonisin Detoxification.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yuan, Chiao-Wei; Huang, Jie-Ting; Chen, Ching-Chin; Tang, Pin-Chi; Huang, Jenn-Wen; Lin, Jiang-Jen; Huang, San-Yuan; Chen, Shuen-Ei

    2017-08-09

    The efficacy of nanosilicate clay platelets (NSCP), exfoliated silicates from natural montmorillonites, as a feed additive for ameliorating fumonisin B1 (FB1) toxicosis was evaluated. Toxicological mechanisms by NSCP were examined through proteomic and biochemical analyses. Dietary supplementation with NSCP at a low level of 40 mg/kg of feed improved growth performances in chickens with respect to FB1 toxicosis. Other issues of ameliorated symptoms including serum and/or hepatic aspartate aminotransferase activity, oxidative stress indicators, and sphinganine/sphingosine ratio, a hallmark of FB1 toxicosis, were considered. Chickens with NSCP inclusion alone at 1000 mg/kg of feed exhibited no changes in hepatic histology, oxidative status, and serum parameters and even had a higher feed intake. Proteomic analysis with liver tissues identified 45 distinct proteins differentially affected by FB1 and/or NSCP, in which proteins involved in thiol metabolism and redox regulation, glycolysis, carcinogenesis, and detoxification by glutathione S-transferase were promoted by FB1, whereas NSCP caused differential changes of protein abundances related to methionine/cysteine and choline/glycine interconversion for glutathione synthesis, redox regulation by peroxiredoxin, toxin/metabolite delivery by albumin, glycolysis, tricarboxylic acid cycle, adenosine triphosphate (ATP) synthesis, and chaperon escort for endoplasmic reticulum stress relief. Functional analyses confirmed the enhancement of hepatic metabolic processes for ATP and NAD(P)H production to meet the need for detoxification, antioxidative defense, and toxin/metabolite clearance by FB1 or NSCP ingestion. On the basis of the amelioration of FB1 toxicosis, global profile of hepatic protein expressions, and validated toxicological mechanisms, NSCP were concluded as a safe and effective agent for FB1 detoxification.

  12. Social Life Cycle Assessment of a Concentrated Solar Power Plant in Spain: A Methodological Proposal

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Corona, Blanca; Bozhilova-Kisheva, Kossara Petrova; Olsen, Stig Irving

    2017-01-01

    of sustainability, namely, economy, environment, and society. Social life cycle assessment (S-LCA) is a novel methodology still under development, used to cover the social aspects of sustainability within LCSA. The aim of this article is to provide additional discussion on the practical application of S...... generation in a concentrated solar power plant in Spain. The inventory phase was completed by using the indicators proposed by the United Nations Environment Program/Society for Environmental Toxicology and Chemistry (UNEP/SETAC) Guidelines on S-LCA. The impact assessment phase was approached by developing...... a social performance indicator that builds on performance reference points, an activity variable, and a numeric scale with positive and negative values. The social performance indicator obtained (+0.42 over a range of –2 to +2) shows that the deployment of the solar power plant increases the social welfare...

  13. Solar energy conversion systems

    CERN Document Server

    Brownson, Jeffrey R S

    2013-01-01

    Solar energy conversion requires a different mind-set from traditional energy engineering in order to assess distribution, scales of use, systems design, predictive economic models for fluctuating solar resources, and planning to address transient cycles and social adoption. Solar Energy Conversion Systems examines solar energy conversion as an integrative design process, applying systems thinking methods to a solid knowledge base for creators of solar energy systems. This approach permits different levels of access for the emerging broad audience of scientists, engineers, architects, planners

  14. Storage capacity assessment of liquid fuels production by solar gasification in a packed bed reactor using a dynamic process model

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kaniyal, Ashok A.; Eyk, Philip J. van; Nathan, Graham J.

    2016-01-01

    Highlights: • First analysis to assess storage requirements of a stand-alone packed bed, batch process solar gasifier. • 35 days of storage required for stand-alone solar system, whereas 8 h of storage required for hybrid system. • Sensitivity of storage requirement to reactor operation, solar region and solar multiple evaluated. - Abstract: The first multi-day performance analysis of the feasibility of integrating a packed bed, indirectly irradiated solar gasification reactor with a downstream FT liquids production facility is reported. Two fuel-loading scenarios were assessed. In one, the residual unconverted fuel at the end of a day is reused, while in the second, the residual fuel is discarded. To estimate a full year time-series of operation, a simplified statistical model was developed from short-period simulations of the 1-D heat transfer, devolatilisation and gasification chemistry model of a 150 kW th packed bed reactor (based on the authors’ earlier work). The short time-series cover a variety of solar conditions to represent seasonal, diurnal and cloud-induced solar transience. Also assessed was the influence of increasing the solar flux incident at the emitter plate of the packed bed reactor on syngas production. The combination of the annual time-series and daily model of syngas production was found to represent reasonably the seasonal transience in syngas production. It was then used to estimate the minimum syngas storage volume required to maintain a stable flow-rate and composition of syngas to a FT reactor over a full year of operation. This found that, for an assumed heliostat field collection area of 1000 m 2 , at least 64 days of storage is required, under both the Residual Fuel Re-Use and Discard scenarios. This figure was not sensitive to the two solar sites assessed, Farmington, New Mexico or Tonopah Airport, Nevada. Increasing the heliostat field collection area from 1000 to 1500 m 2 , led to an increase in the calculated daily rate

  15. Pollutant exposure at wastewater treatment works affects the detoxification organs of an urban adapter, the Banana Bat

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Naidoo, Samantha; Vosloo, Dalene; Schoeman, M. Corrie

    2016-01-01

    The Banana Bat, Neoromicia nana, exploits pollution-tolerant chironomids at wastewater treatment works (WWTWs). We investigated how pollutant exposure impacts the detoxification organs, namely the liver and kidney of N. nana. (i) We performed SEM-EDS to quantify metal content and mineral nutrients, and found significant differences in essential metal (Fe and Zn) content in the liver, and significant differences in Cu and one mineral nutrient (K) in the kidneys. (ii) We performed histological analysis and found more histopathological lesions in detoxification organs of WWTW bats. (iii) We calculated hepatosomatic/renalsomatic indices (HSI/RSI) to investigate whole organ effects, and found significant increases in organ size at WWTWs. (iv) We quantified metallothionein 1E (MT1E), using Western Blot immunodetection. Contrary to predictions, we found no significant upregulation of MT1E in bats at WWTWs. Ultimately, N. nana exploiting WWTWs may suffer chronic health problems from sub-lethal damage to organs responsible for detoxifying pollutants. - Highlights: • We measured pollutant exposure effects on detoxification organs in bats. • Iron, zinc, copper and potassium levels were altered in pollutant-exposed bats. • There was no significant upregulation of metallothionein in liver or kidney. • Pollutant-exposed bats had increased organ indices and histopathological lesions. • These organ effects suggest health risks and increased mortality in the long-term. - Wastewater treatment plants provide a short-term benefit of abundant pollution-tolerant prey, but cause long-term physiological damage to the liver and kidneys in urban bats.

  16. Assessment of optical performance of three non-tracking, non-imaging, external compound parabolic concentrators designed for high temperature solar thermal collector units

    OpenAIRE

    Cisneros, Jesus

    2010-01-01

    The objective of this thesis is to perform a preliminary optical assessment of the external compound parabolic concentrator (XCPC) component in three concentrating solar thermal units. Each solar thermal unit consists an optical element (the non-imaging concentrating reflector) and a thermal element (the evacuated glass tube solar absorber). The three concentrating solar thermal units discussed in this work are DEWAR 58, a direct flow all-glass dewar, DEWAR 47 an indirect flow ...

  17. Detoxification and immobilization of chromite ore processing residue in spinel-based glass-ceramic

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Liao, Chang-Zhong [Guangdong Key Laboratory of Agricultural Environment Pollution Integrated Control, Guangdong Institute of Eco-Environmental and Soil Sciences, Guangzhou 510650 (China); Department of Civil Engineering, The University of Hong Kong, Pokfulam Road, Hong Kong Special Administrative Region (China); Tang, Yuanyuan [School of Environmental Science and Engineering, South University of Science and Technology of China, Shenzhen 518055 (China); Lee, Po-Heng [Department of Civil & Environmental Engineering, The Hong Kong Polytechnic University, Hong Kong Special Administrative Region (China); Liu, Chengshuai, E-mail: csliu@soil.gd.cn [Guangdong Key Laboratory of Agricultural Environment Pollution Integrated Control, Guangdong Institute of Eco-Environmental and Soil Sciences, Guangzhou 510650 (China); State Key Laboratory of Environmental Geochemistry, Institute of Geochemistry, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Guiyang 550009 (China); Shih, Kaimin, E-mail: kshih@hku.hk [Department of Civil Engineering, The University of Hong Kong, Pokfulam Road, Hong Kong Special Administrative Region (China); Li, Fangbai [Guangdong Key Laboratory of Agricultural Environment Pollution Integrated Control, Guangdong Institute of Eco-Environmental and Soil Sciences, Guangzhou 510650 (China)

    2017-01-05

    Graphical abstract: Schematic illustration of detoxification and immobilization of chromite ore processing residue in spinel-based glass-ceramic matrix. All Cr(VI) species is reduced to Cr(III) and most chromium contents are incorporated into spinel structure where the residual chromium are resided in the glass networks. - Highlights: • COPR was detoxified and immobilized in a spinel-based glass-ceramic matrix. • Cr-rich crystalline phase was determined to be MgCr{sub 1.32}Fe{sub 0.19}Al{sub 0.49}O{sub 4} spinel. • The partitioning ratio of Cr into spinel in the glass-ceramic can be up to 77%. • No Cr(VI) was observed after conversion of COPR into a glass-ceramic. • TCLP results demonstrate the superiority of the final product in immobilizing Cr. - Abstract: A promising strategy for the detoxification and immobilization of chromite ore processing residue (COPR) in a spinel-based glass-ceramic matrix is reported in this study. In the search for a more chemically durable matrix for COPR, the most critical crystalline phase for Cr immobilization was found to be a spinel solid solution with a chemical composition of MgCr{sub 1.32}Fe{sub 0.19}Al{sub 0.49}O{sub 4}. Using Rietveld quantitative X-ray diffraction analysis, we identified this final product is with the phases of spinel (3.5 wt.%), diopside (5.2 wt.%), and some amorphous contents (91.2 wt.%). The partitioning ratio of Cr reveals that about 77% of the Cr was incorporated into the more chemically durable spinel phase. The results of Cr K-edge X-ray absorption near-edge spectroscopy show that no Cr(VI) was observed after conversion of COPR into a glass-ceramic, which indicates successful detoxification of Cr(VI) into Cr(III) in the COPR-incorporated glass-ceramic. The leaching performances of Cr{sub 2}O{sub 3} and COPR-incorporated glass-ceramic were compared with a prolonged acid-leaching test, and the results demonstrate the superiority of the COPR-incorporated glass-ceramic matrix in the

  18. Detoxification and immobilization of chromite ore processing residue in spinel-based glass-ceramic

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liao, Chang-Zhong; Tang, Yuanyuan; Lee, Po-Heng; Liu, Chengshuai; Shih, Kaimin; Li, Fangbai

    2017-01-01

    Graphical abstract: Schematic illustration of detoxification and immobilization of chromite ore processing residue in spinel-based glass-ceramic matrix. All Cr(VI) species is reduced to Cr(III) and most chromium contents are incorporated into spinel structure where the residual chromium are resided in the glass networks. - Highlights: • COPR was detoxified and immobilized in a spinel-based glass-ceramic matrix. • Cr-rich crystalline phase was determined to be MgCr 1.32 Fe 0.19 Al 0.49 O 4 spinel. • The partitioning ratio of Cr into spinel in the glass-ceramic can be up to 77%. • No Cr(VI) was observed after conversion of COPR into a glass-ceramic. • TCLP results demonstrate the superiority of the final product in immobilizing Cr. - Abstract: A promising strategy for the detoxification and immobilization of chromite ore processing residue (COPR) in a spinel-based glass-ceramic matrix is reported in this study. In the search for a more chemically durable matrix for COPR, the most critical crystalline phase for Cr immobilization was found to be a spinel solid solution with a chemical composition of MgCr 1.32 Fe 0.19 Al 0.49 O 4 . Using Rietveld quantitative X-ray diffraction analysis, we identified this final product is with the phases of spinel (3.5 wt.%), diopside (5.2 wt.%), and some amorphous contents (91.2 wt.%). The partitioning ratio of Cr reveals that about 77% of the Cr was incorporated into the more chemically durable spinel phase. The results of Cr K-edge X-ray absorption near-edge spectroscopy show that no Cr(VI) was observed after conversion of COPR into a glass-ceramic, which indicates successful detoxification of Cr(VI) into Cr(III) in the COPR-incorporated glass-ceramic. The leaching performances of Cr 2 O 3 and COPR-incorporated glass-ceramic were compared with a prolonged acid-leaching test, and the results demonstrate the superiority of the COPR-incorporated glass-ceramic matrix in the immobilization of Cr. The overall results suggest that

  19. Application of probiotics in the xenobiotic detoxification therapy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Urban, P L [Isotope Laboratory, Faculty of Biology, Warsaw University, Warsaw (Poland); Kuthan, R T [2 Plant Pathogenesis Group, Institute of Biochemistry and Biophysics, Polish Academy of Science, Warsaw (Poland)

    2004-07-01

    Many applications of probiotics have been described up to date. In this paper, it is hypothesized that probiotic microorganisms can also be used to decrease the xenobiotics intake in humans. The use of probiotic bacteria (e.g. strains of Lactobacillus sp. and Bifidobacterium Sp.) and Yeasts (Saccharomyces sp.) gives the opportunity for detoxification of various elements and compounds, considered as contaminants, directly in the lumen of human intestine. Some of these microorganisms ar known to accumulate cesium, strontium and heavy metals to a great extent and also bind mycotoxins. Certainly, during the up-coming years, their native or genetically modified strains will be a part of treatment protocols in detoxication therapy. The utilization of probiotics, in the both therapy and nutrition of people living in the countries suffering from high food contamination, could result in the reduction of annual xenobiotic dose to be incorporated in their organisms. (author)

  20. Application of probiotics in the xenobiotic detoxification therapy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Urban, P.L.; Kuthan, R.T.

    2004-01-01

    Many applications of probiotics have been described up to date. In this paper, it is hypothesized that probiotic microorganisms can also be used to decrease the xenobiotics intake in humans. The use of probiotic bacteria (e.g. strains of Lactobacillus sp. and Bifidobacterium Sp.) and Yeasts (Saccharomyces sp.) gives the opportunity for detoxification of various elements and compounds, considered as contaminants, directly in the lumen of human intestine. Some of these microorganisms ar known to accumulate cesium, strontium and heavy metals to a great extent and also bind mycotoxins. Certainly, during the up-coming years, their native or genetically modified strains will be a part of treatment protocols in detoxication therapy. The utilization of probiotics, in the both therapy and nutrition of people living in the countries suffering from high food contamination, could result in the reduction of annual xenobiotic dose to be incorporated in their organisms. (author)

  1. Biodegradation and detoxification of chlorimuron-ethyl by Enterobacter ludwigii sp. CE-1.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pan, Xiong; Wang, Saige; Shi, Nan; Fang, Hua; Yu, Yunlong

    2018-04-15

    The application of the herbicide chlorimuron-ethyl has a lasting toxic effect on some succession crops. Here, a bacterium capable of utilizing chlorimuron-ethyl as the sole source of nitrogen was isolated from the contaminated soil and was identified as Enterobacter ludwigii sp. CE-1, and its detoxification and degradation of the herbicide were then examined. The biodegradation of chlorimuron-ethyl by the isolate CE-1 was significantly accelerated with increasing concentration (1-10mg/l) and temperature (20-40°C). The optimal pH for the degradation of chlorimuron-ethyl by the isolate CE-1 was pH 7.0. A pathway for the biodegradation of chlorimuron-ethyl by the isolate CE-1 was proposed, in which it could be first converted into 2-amino-4-chloro-6-methoxypyrimidine and an intermediate product by the cleavage of the sulfonylurea bridge and then transformed into saccharin via hydrolysis and amidation. The plant height and fresh weight of corn that had been incubated in nutrient solution containing 0.2mg/l of chlorimuron-ethyl significantly recovered to 83.9% and 83.1% compared with those in the uninoculated control, although the root growth inhibition of chlorimuron-ethyl could not be alleviated after inoculation for 14 d. The results indicate that the isolate CE-1 is a promising bacterial resource for the biodegradation and detoxification of chlorimuron-ethyl. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  2. Detoxification of Atrazine by Low Molecular Weight Thiols in Alfalfa (Medicago sativa).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Jing Jing; Xu, Jiang Yan; Lu, Feng Fan; Jin, She Feng; Yang, Hong

    2017-10-16

    Low molecular weight (LMW) thiols in higher plants are a group of sulfur-rich nonprotein compounds and play primary and multiple roles in cellular redox homeostasis, enzyme activities, and xenobiotics detoxification. This study focused on identifying thiols-related protein genes from the legume alfalfa exposed to the herbicide atrazine (ATZ) residues in environment. Using high-throughput RNA-sequencing, a set of ATZ-responsive thiols-related protein genes highly up-regulated and differentially expressed in alfalfa was identified. Most of the differentially expressed genes (DEGs) were involved in regulation of biotic and abiotic stress responses. By analyzing the genes involved in thiols-mediated redox homeostasis, we found that many of them were thiols-synthetic enzymes such as γ-glutamylcysteine synthase (γECS), homoglutathione synthetase (hGSHS), and glutathione synthetase (GSHS). Using liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry/mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS), we further characterized a group of ATZ-thiols conjugates, which are the detoxified forms of ATZ in plants. Cysteine S-conjugate ATZ-HCl+Cys was the most important metabolite detected by MS. Several other ATZ-conjugates were also examined as ATZ-detoxified metabolites. Such results were validated by characterizing their analogs in rice. Our data showed that some conjugates under ATZ stress were detected in both plants, indicating that some detoxified mechanisms and pathways can be shared by the two plant species. Overall, these results indicate that LMW thiols play critical roles in detoxification of ATZ in the plants.

  3. High-Fidelity Solar Power Income Modeling for Solar-Electric UAVs: Development and Flight Test Based Verification

    OpenAIRE

    Oettershagen, Philipp

    2017-01-01

    Solar power models are a crucial element of solar-powered UAV design and performance analysis. During the conceptual design phase, their accuracy directly relates to the accuracy of the predicted performance metrics and thus the final design characteristics of the solar-powered UAV. Likewise, during the operations phase of a solar-powered UAV accurate solar power income models are required to predict and assess the solar power system performance. However, the existing literature on solar-powe...

  4. Socio-technical assessment of solar photovoltaic systems implemented for rural electrification in selected villages of Sundarbans region of India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rashmi Murali

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available The power situation in rural India continues to remain poor with around one-third of the rural population without access to any form of electricity. The consequence of which is kerosene being used as a major source of lighting for un-electrified households as well as households with intermittent access to electricity in rural areas. While grid based electrification has been the most common approach, decentralized renewable energy options especially, solar PV systems have also been adopted as a cost effective mode of electrification. This paper presents the results of socio-technical assessment of solar photovoltaic interventions namely, solar home systems, solar mini-grid and solar AC pico-grids, which have been used to electrify selected villages in Sundarbans region of India. The study is focused on technical, financial, and institutional aspects along with the social impact assessment of PV based electrification in the Sundarbans region. The results of the study elucidate that, in general, the impacts of the solar PV solutions used for electrification have been largely positive, especially benefits of reduced kerosene consumption, ease in studying and cooking and reduced health effects. The study also finds that technology is not the only factor on which the viability of a program depends, but institutional and financial aspects also play a significant role. The need of the hour is to develop a strong institutional framework and enabling policies for achieving higher success rates in PV programs.

  5. Final Report for Annex II--Assessment of Solar Radiation Resources In Saudi Arabia, 1998-2000

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Myers, D. R.; Wilcox, S. M.; Marion, W. F.; Al-Abbadi, N. M.; Mahfoodh, M.; Al-Otaibi, Z.

    2002-04-01

    The Final Report for Annex II - Assessment of Solar Radiation Resources in Saudi Arabia 1998-2000 summarizes the accomplishment of work performed, results achieved, and products produced under Annex II, a project established under the Agreement for Cooperation in the Field of Renewable Energy Research and Development between the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia and the United States. The report covers work and accomplishments from January 1998 to December 2000. A previous progress report, Progress Report for Annex II - Assessment of Solar Radiation Resources in Saudi Arabia 1993-1997, NREL/TP-560-29374, summarizes earlier work and technical transfer of information under the project. The work was performed in at the National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL) in Golden, Colorado, at the King Abdulaziz City for Science and Technology (KACST) in Riyadh, Saudi Arabia, and at selected weather stations of the Saudi Meteorological and Environmental Protection Administration (MEPA).

  6. Treatment of Effluent from a Factory of Paints Using Solar Photo-Fenton Process

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alam Gustavo Trovó

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available We evaluated the use of Fenton reactions induced by solar radiation in the treatment of effluent from a factory of paints for buildings, after prior removal of the suspended solids. The increase of H2O2 concentration from 100 to 2500 mg L−1 for a [Fe2+] = 105 mg L−1 contributed to the reduction of DOC, COD, and toxicity. Our best results were achieved using 1600 mg L−1 H2O2, with 90% of DOC and COD removal and a complete removal of the toxicity with respect to Artemia salina. Additionally, through increasing Fe2+ concentration from 15 to 45 mg L−1, the DOC removal rate increased 11 times, remaining almost constant in the range above 45 until 105 mg L−1. Under our best experimental conditions, 80% of DOC removal was achieved after an accumulated dose of 130 kJ m−2 of UVA radiation (82±17 min of solar irradiation under an average UVA irradiance of 34.1±7.3 W m−2, while 40% of DOC removal was reached after 150 min under only thermal Fenton reactions. The results suggest the effectiveness of implementation of solar photo-Fenton process in the decontamination and detoxification of effluents from factories of paints for buildings.

  7. Oxidation of 2,4-dichlorophenoxyacetic acid by ionizing radiation: degradation, detoxification and mineralization

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zona, Robert; Solar, Sonja E-mail: sonja.solar@univie.ac.at

    2003-02-01

    The gamma-radiation-induced degradation of 2,4-dichlorophenoxyacetic acid (2,4-D) was studied in aerated (A) and in during irradiation air saturated (AS) solutions. Whereas the decomposition rates were not influenced by AS, chloride elimination, detoxification as well as mineralization were significantly enhanced. In the range 50-500 {mu}mol dm{sup -3} 2,4-D, degradation showed proportionality to concentration, while chloride formation was successively retarded. The ratios of the pseudo first-order rate constants for degradation and chloride formation, k{sub de}/k{sub Cl}, increase in AS solutions from 1.4 (50 {mu}mol dm{sup -3}) to 2.7 (500 {mu}mol dm{sup -3}) and in A solutions from 1.4 to 3.3. In AS for total chloride release 0.7 kGy (50 {mu}mol dm{sup -3}) to 10 kGy (500 {mu}mol dm{sup -3}) were required, the reduction of organic carbon at 10 kGy was 95% (50 {mu}mol dm{sup -3}) and 50% (500 {mu}mol dm{sup -3}). Increase and decrease of toxicity during irradiation correlated well with formation and degradation of intermediate phenolic products. The doses for detoxification corresponded to those of total dehalogenation. The oxygen uptake was {approx}1.1 ppm 100 Gy{sup -1}. The presence of the inorganic components of Vienna drinking water affect the degradation parameters insignificantly.

  8. Light-trapping in solar cells by photonic nanostructures. The need for benchmarking and fabrication assessments

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lenzmann, F.O.; Salpakari, J.; Weeber, A.W.; Olson, C.L. [ECN Solar Energy, Petten (Netherlands)

    2013-07-15

    Light-trapping in solar cells by photonic nanostructures, e.g., nano-textured surfaces or metallic and nonmetallic nanoparticles is a research area of great promise. A large multitude of configurations is being explored and there is a rising need for (a set of) assessment elements that help to narrow in on the most viable ones. This paper discusses two examples: benchmark devices and the assessment of fabrication aspects for the nanostructures.

  9. Ibogaine Detoxification Transitions Opioid and Cocaine Abusers Between Dependence and Abstinence: Clinical Observations and Treatment Outcomes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Deborah C. Mash

    2018-06-01

    Full Text Available Ibogaine may be effective for transitioning opioid and cocaine dependent individuals to sobriety. American and European self-help groups provided public testimonials that ibogaine alleviated drug craving and opioid withdrawal symptoms after only a single dose administration. Preclinical studies in animal models of addiction have provided proof-of-concept evidence in support of these claims. However, the purported therapeutic benefits of ibogaine are based on anecdotal reports from a small series of case reports that used retrospective recruitment procedures. We reviewed clinical results from an open label case series (N = 191 of human volunteers seeking to detoxify from opioids or cocaine with medical monitoring during inpatient treatment. Whole blood was assayed to obtain pharmacokinetic measures to determine the metabolism and clearance of ibogaine. Clinical safety data and adverse events (AEs were studied in male and female subjects. There were no significant adverse events following administration of ibogaine in a dose range that was shown to be effective for blocking opioid withdrawal symptoms in this study. We used multi-dimensional craving questionnaires during inpatient detoxification to test if ibogaine was effective in diminishing heroin and cocaine cravings. Participants also completed standardized questionnaires about their health and mood before and after ibogaine treatment, and at program discharge. One-month follow-up data were reviewed where available to determine if ibogaine’s effects on drug craving would persist outside of an inpatient setting. We report here that ibogaine therapy administered in a safe dose range diminishes opioid withdrawal symptoms and reduces drug cravings. Pharmacological treatments for opioid dependence include detoxification, narcotic antagonists and long-term opioid maintenance therapy. Our results support product development of single oral dose administration of ibogaine for the treatment of opioid

  10. Robust cellulosic ethanol production from SPORL-pretreated lodgepole pine using an adapted strain Saccharomyces cervisiae without detoxification

    Science.gov (United States)

    S. Tian; X.L. Luo; X.S. Yang; J.Y. Zhu

    2010-01-01

    This study reports an ethanol yield of 270 L/ton wood from lodgepole pine pretreated with sulfite pretreatment to overcome recalcitrance of lignocellulose (SPORL) using an adapted strain, Saccharomyces cerevisiae Y5, without detoxification. The enzymatic hydrolysate produced from pretreated cellulosic solids substrate was combined with pretreatment hydrolysate before...

  11. Long-term predictive assessments of solar and geomagnetic activities made on the basis of the close similarity between the solar inertial motions in the intervals 1840–1905 and 1980–2045

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Charvátová, Ivanka

    2009-01-01

    Roč. 14, č. 1 (2009), s. 25-30 ISSN 1384-1076 R&D Projects: GA AV ČR(CZ) IAA300120608 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z30120515 Keywords : solar inertial motion * solar activity * geomagnetic activity * long-term predictive assessments Subject RIV: DE - Earth Magnetism, Geodesy, Geography Impact factor: 1.675, year: 2009

  12. Waste acid detoxification and reclamation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brouns, T.M.; Stewart, T.L.

    1988-01-01

    Economically feasible processes that reduce the volume, quantity, and toxicity of metal-bearing waste acids by reclaiming, reusing, and recycling spent acids and metal salts are being developed and demonstrated. The acids used in the demonstrations are generated during metal-finishing operations used in nuclear fuel fabrication; HF-HNO 3 , HNO 3 , and HNO 3 -H 2 SO 4 wastes result from Zr etching, Cu stripping, and chemical milling of U. At discharge, wastes contain high concentrations of acid and one major metal impurity. The waste minimization process used to reclaim acid from these three streams incorporates three processes for acid regeneration and reclamation. Normally, HNO 3 remains in the bottoms when an aqueous acid solution is distilled; however, in the presence of H 2 SO 4 , HNO 3 will distill to the overhead stream. In this process, nitrates and fluorides present as free acid and metal salts can be reclaimed as acid for recycle to the metal-finishing processes. Uranium present in the chemical milling solution can be economically recovered from distillation bottoms and refined. Using acid distillation, the volume of chemical milling solution discharged as waste can be reduced by as much as 60% depending on the H 2 SO 4 concentration. A payback period of 2.2 years has been estimated for this process. The development and demonstration of precipitation and distillation processes for detoxification and reclamation of waste acid is supported by the US Department of Energy's Hazardous Waste Remedial Actions Program (HAZWRAP)

  13. Disability, anxiety and depression associated with medication-overuse headache can be considerably reduced by detoxification and prophylactic treatment

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bendtsen, L; Munksgaard, Sb; Tassorelli, C

    2014-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: The objective of this article is to investigate whether headache-related disability, depression and anxiety can be reduced by detoxification and prophylactic treatment in patients with medication-overuse headache (MOH). METHODS: Patients with MOH were included from six centres in Europ...

  14. Solar resource assessment in complex orography: a comparison of available datasets for the Trentino region

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laiti, Lavinia; Giovannini, Lorenzo; Zardi, Dino

    2015-04-01

    The accurate assessment of the solar radiation available at the Earth's surface is essential for a wide range of energy-related applications, such as the design of solar power plants, water heating systems and energy-efficient buildings, as well as in the fields of climatology, hydrology, ecology and agriculture. The characterization of solar radiation is particularly challenging in complex-orography areas, where topographic shadowing and altitude effects, together with local weather phenomena, greatly increase the spatial and temporal variability of such variable. At present, approaches ranging from surface measurements interpolation to orographic down-scaling of satellite data, to numerical model simulations are adopted for mapping solar radiation. In this contribution a high-resolution (200 m) solar atlas for the Trentino region (Italy) is presented, which was recently developed on the basis of hourly observations of global radiation collected from the local radiometric stations during the period 2004-2012. Monthly and annual climatological irradiation maps were obtained by the combined use of a GIS-based clear-sky model (r.sun module of GRASS GIS) and geostatistical interpolation techniques (kriging). Moreover, satellite radiation data derived by the MeteoSwiss HelioMont algorithm (2 km resolution) were used for missing-data reconstruction and for the final mapping, thus integrating ground-based and remote-sensing information. The results are compared with existing solar resource datasets, such as the PVGIS dataset, produced by the Joint Research Center Institute for Energy and Transport, and the HelioMont dataset, in order to evaluate the accuracy of the different datasets available for the region of interest.

  15. Metabolic pathways leading to detoxification of triptolide, a major active component of the herbal medicine Tripterygium wilfordii.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Du, Fuying; Liu, Zhaohua; Li, Xinxiu; Xing, Jie

    2014-08-01

    Triptolide (TP) shows promising anti-inflammatory and antitumor activity but with severe toxicity. TP is a natural reactive electrophile containing three epoxide groups, which are usually linked to hepatotoxicity via their ability to covalently bind to cellular macromolecules. In this study, metabolic pathways leading to detoxification of TP were evaluated in glutathione (GSH)-depleted (treated with L-buthionine-S,R-sulfoxinine, BSO) and aminobenzotriazole (ABT; a non-specific inhibitor for P450s)-treated mice. The toxicity of TP in mice was evaluated in terms of mortality and levels of serum alanine transaminase (ALT). In incubates with NADPH- and GSH-supplemented liver microsomes, seven GSH conjugates derived from TP were detected. In mice, these hydrolytically unstable GSH conjugates underwent γ-glutamyltranspeptidase/dipeptidases-mediated hydrolysis leading to two major cysteinylglycine conjugates, which underwent further hydrolysis by dipeptidases to form two cysteine conjugates of TP. In ABT-treated mice, the hydroxylated metabolites of TP were found at a lower level than normal mice, and their subsequent conjugated metabolites were not found. The level of cysteinylglycine and cysteine conjugates derived from NADPH-independent metabolism increased in mice treated with both TP and BSO (or ABT), which could be the stress response to toxicity of TP. Compared with normal mice, mortality and ALT levels were significantly higher in TP-treated mice, indicating the toxicity of TP. Pretreatment of ABT increased the toxicity caused by TP, whereas the mortality decreased in GSH-depleted mice. Metabolism by cytochrome P450 enzymes to less reactive metabolites implied a high potential for detoxification of TP. The GSH conjugation pathway also contributed to TP's detoxification in mice. Copyright © 2013 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  16. A mollusk VDR/PXR/CAR-like (NR1J) nuclear receptor provides insight into ancient detoxification mechanisms

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cruzeiro, Catarina, E-mail: catarinarcruzeiro@hotmail.com [ICBAS - Institute of Biomedical Sciences Abel Salazar, U. Porto - University of Porto (Portugal); CIIMAR/CIMAR - Interdisciplinary Center of Marine and Environmental Research, U. Porto (Portugal); Lopes-Marques, Mónica, E-mail: monicaslm@hotmail.com [ICBAS - Institute of Biomedical Sciences Abel Salazar, U. Porto - University of Porto (Portugal); CIIMAR/CIMAR - Interdisciplinary Center of Marine and Environmental Research, U. Porto (Portugal); Ruivo, Raquel, E-mail: ruivo.raquel@gmail.com [CIIMAR/CIMAR - Interdisciplinary Center of Marine and Environmental Research, U. Porto (Portugal); Rodrigues-Oliveira, Nádia, E-mail: nadia.oliveira@ciimar.up.pt [CIIMAR/CIMAR - Interdisciplinary Center of Marine and Environmental Research, U. Porto (Portugal); Santos, Miguel M., E-mail: santos@ciimar.up.pt [CIIMAR/CIMAR - Interdisciplinary Center of Marine and Environmental Research, U. Porto (Portugal); FCUP - Faculty of Sciences, Department of Biology, U. Porto (Portugal); Rocha, Maria João, E-mail: mjsrocha@netcabo.pt [ICBAS - Institute of Biomedical Sciences Abel Salazar, U. Porto - University of Porto (Portugal); CIIMAR/CIMAR - Interdisciplinary Center of Marine and Environmental Research, U. Porto (Portugal); Rocha, Eduardo, E-mail: erocha@icbas.up.pt [ICBAS - Institute of Biomedical Sciences Abel Salazar, U. Porto - University of Porto (Portugal); CIIMAR/CIMAR - Interdisciplinary Center of Marine and Environmental Research, U. Porto (Portugal); Castro, L. Filipe C., E-mail: filipe.castro@ciimar.up.pt [CIIMAR/CIMAR - Interdisciplinary Center of Marine and Environmental Research, U. Porto (Portugal); FCUP - Faculty of Sciences, Department of Biology, U. Porto (Portugal)

    2016-05-15

    Highlights: • A nuclear receptor orthologue of the NR1J group is isolated from a mollusc. • The molluscan NR1J transactivates gene expression upon exposure to okadaic acid but not a pesticide, esfenvarelate and triclosan. • Lineage specific gene duplications and gene loss have occurred in the NR1J of protostomes with likely impacts on detoxification mechanisms. - Abstract: The origin and diversification of the metazoan endocrine systems represents a fundamental research issue in biology. Nuclear receptors are critical components of these systems. A particular group named VDR/PXR/CAR (NR1I/J) is central in the mediation of detoxification responses. While orthologues have been thoroughly characterized in vertebrates, a sparse representation is currently available for invertebrates. Here, we provide the first isolation and characterization of a lophotrochozoan protostome VDR/PXR/CAR nuclear receptor (NR1J), in the estuarine bivalve the peppery furrow shell (Scrobicularia plana). Using a reporter gene assay, we evaluated the xenobiotic receptor plasticity comparing the human PXR with the S. plana NR1Jβ. Our results show that the molluscan receptor responds to a natural toxin (okadaic acid) in a similar fashion to that reported for other invertebrates. In contrast, the pesticide esfenvalerate displayed a unique response, since it down regulated transactivation at higher concentrations, while for triclosan no response was observed. Additionally, we uncovered lineage specific gene duplications and gene loss in the gene group encoding NRs in protostomes with likely impacts on the complexity of detoxification mechanisms across different phyla. Our findings pave the way for the development of multi-specific sensor tools to screen xenobiotic compounds acting via the NR1I/J group.

  17. A mollusk VDR/PXR/CAR-like (NR1J) nuclear receptor provides insight into ancient detoxification mechanisms

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cruzeiro, Catarina; Lopes-Marques, Mónica; Ruivo, Raquel; Rodrigues-Oliveira, Nádia; Santos, Miguel M.; Rocha, Maria João; Rocha, Eduardo; Castro, L. Filipe C.

    2016-01-01

    Highlights: • A nuclear receptor orthologue of the NR1J group is isolated from a mollusc. • The molluscan NR1J transactivates gene expression upon exposure to okadaic acid but not a pesticide, esfenvarelate and triclosan. • Lineage specific gene duplications and gene loss have occurred in the NR1J of protostomes with likely impacts on detoxification mechanisms. - Abstract: The origin and diversification of the metazoan endocrine systems represents a fundamental research issue in biology. Nuclear receptors are critical components of these systems. A particular group named VDR/PXR/CAR (NR1I/J) is central in the mediation of detoxification responses. While orthologues have been thoroughly characterized in vertebrates, a sparse representation is currently available for invertebrates. Here, we provide the first isolation and characterization of a lophotrochozoan protostome VDR/PXR/CAR nuclear receptor (NR1J), in the estuarine bivalve the peppery furrow shell (Scrobicularia plana). Using a reporter gene assay, we evaluated the xenobiotic receptor plasticity comparing the human PXR with the S. plana NR1Jβ. Our results show that the molluscan receptor responds to a natural toxin (okadaic acid) in a similar fashion to that reported for other invertebrates. In contrast, the pesticide esfenvalerate displayed a unique response, since it down regulated transactivation at higher concentrations, while for triclosan no response was observed. Additionally, we uncovered lineage specific gene duplications and gene loss in the gene group encoding NRs in protostomes with likely impacts on the complexity of detoxification mechanisms across different phyla. Our findings pave the way for the development of multi-specific sensor tools to screen xenobiotic compounds acting via the NR1I/J group.

  18. Active Detoxification in the Treatment of Abdominal Sepsis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    O. M. Shevtsova

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective: to evaluate the efficiency of extracorporeal detoxification techniques in patients with abdominal sepsis. Subjects and methods. Three hundred and seventy-nine patients with acute generalized peritonitis were examined. Extracorporeal detoxifying techniques were used during conventional therapy in Group 1 (n=319; the other patients received only traditional therapy (a control group. The time course of changes in the parameters of toxemia, a hemostasiogram, and an immunogram were examined. Results. The study indicated significantly reduced endotoxemia and better blood aggregation resulting from the use of plasmapheresis, cryoplasmasorption, and plasmasorption, as well as stimulated immunity when the above techniques were combined with autoblood photomodification and extracorporeal immunopharmacotherapy in patients with abdominal sepsis. In severe abdominal sepsis and infectious-toxic shock, there was regression of multiple organ dysfunction and lower mortality when venovenous hemofiltration was applied. Conclusion. A differential approach to using active detoxifying techniques is needed, by taking into account the severity of the disease. Key words: abdominal sepsis, detoxifying techniques.

  19. Advanced thermal management of a solar cell by a nano-coated heat pipe plate: A thermal assessment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Du, Yanping

    2017-01-01

    Highlights: • The nano-coated heat pipe plate provides sufficient cooling energy to the solar cell. • The induced solar cell temperature is below 40 °C in normal range of solar irradiance. • The evaporative heat flux is tuneable and varies with the change of operating conditions. • Additional cooling at the condenser is helpful to improve the heat removal of the device. - Abstract: The significant temperature effect on solar cells results in loss of photovoltaic (PV) efficiency by up to 20–25%, which may over-negate the efforts in technology development for promoting PV efficiency. This motivates studies in thermal management for solar cells. This study concerns the thermal assessment of an advanced system composed by a solar cell and a nano-coated heat pipe plate for thermal management. Solar cell temperature and the corresponding evaporative heat flux are evaluated based on a conjugated heat transfer model. It indicates that the solar cell can be cooled down to be below 40 °C and suffers no temperature effect due to the use of the heat pipe plate. The heat pipe plate can provide sufficient cooling to the solar cell under different solar irradiance. The analytical and experimental results show that the maximum evaporative heat flux of the current heat pipe plate is around 450 W/m"2. However, the practical heat removal flux at the condenser is 390 W/m"2. The loss of cooling energy is due to the gathered vapour at the condenser section, which prevents the liquid-vapour circulation inside the vacuum chamber of the device. By using additional cooling strategies (i.e. heat sink, PCMs, water jacket) at the condenser section, the heat removal ability can be further improved.

  20. Solar energy systems: assessment of present and future potential

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kuehne, H.-M.; Aulich, H.

    1992-01-01

    This paper discusses the present state and the future potential of solar thermal and photovoltaic (PV) technologies, and examines both the environmental implications of these technologies and the economics which determine their viability in the energy market. Although some significant cost reductions have been achieved, particularly in PV technology, solar conversion technologies are still not generally competitive against conventional fuels, and future cost reductions may be limited. It is argued that fiscal measures will be necessary if solar conversion technologies are to make a significant global impact. (Author)

  1. TRL Assessment of Solar Sail Technology Development Following the 20-Meter System Ground Demonstrator Hardware Testing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Young, Roy M.; Adams, Charles L.

    2010-01-01

    The NASA In-Space Propulsion Technology (ISPT) Projects Office sponsored two separate, independent solar sail system design and development demonstration activities during 2002-2005. ATK Space Systems of Goleta, CA was the prime contractor for one development team and L' Garde, Inc. of Tustin, CA was the prime contractor for the other development team. The goal of these activities was to advance the technology readiness level (TRL) of solar sail propulsion from 3 towards 6 by the year 2006. Component and subsystem fabrication and testing were completed successfully, including the ground deployment of 10-meter and 20-meter demonstration hardware systems under vacuum conditions. The deployment and structural testing of the 20-meter solar sail systems was conducted in the 30 meter diameter Space Power Facility thermal-vacuum chamber at NASA Glenn Plum Brook in April though August, 2005. This paper will present the results of the TRL assessment following the solar sail technology development activities associated with the design, development, analysis and testing of the 20-meter system ground demonstrators.

  2. Detoxification Treatments of Free Gossypol in Cottonseed Meal by Microbial Treatment of Mixed Cultures and Biochemical Evaluation on Rabbits

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Atia, A.I.; Abdel- Rahim, G.A.

    2009-01-01

    Detoxification of ti-ee gossypol (FG) in cottonseed meal (CSM) by Saccharomyces cerevisiae and Aspergillus niger, as a mixed culture, was carried out in solid state fermentation (SSF). Experiments were adopted to optimize the fermentation conditions. Maximum detoxification efficiency (90.2%) occurred after 48 h of incubation at 30 degree C in a 250 ml conical flask containing 15 g of CSM supplemented with 1 % (w/w) (NH 4 ) 2 SO 4 at the optimal conditions including the initial moisture content 55% (w/w) and inoculum level at 5% (v/w). The detoxification of FG was a growth-associated process, which was highly correlated with the dry matter weight loss. Moreover, high activities of hydrolytic enzymes were also produced in solid state fermentation, which enhanced the nutritive value of the detoxified cottonseed powder. A total number of 48 white New Zealand male rabbits were used to biologically examine the feeding of treated (detoxified) CSM without any adverse effects. Hematological and biochemical relevant parameters of white New Zealand male rabbits as affected by feeding treated meal were in the normal physiological range without no obvious change. No significant changes in liver and kidney functions of the rabbits weight gain, feed conversion and efficiency did not significantly change among experimental groups. The study showed that the feeding of the detoxified CSM by S. cerevisiae and A. niger as a mixed culture in this research without any adverse effects on rabbits

  3. Assessment of the impact of increased solar ultraviolet radiation upon marine ecosystems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Worrest, R. C.; Vandyke, H.

    1978-01-01

    Reduction of the earth's ozone layer, with a resultant increase in transmission of solar ultraviolet radiation in the 290 to 320nm waveband (UV-B), via space shuttle operations through the stratosphere is considered. It is shown that simulated solar ultraviolet radiation can, under experimental conditions, detrimentally affect the marine organisms that form the base of the food web of oceanic and estuarine ecosystems. Whether a small increase in biologically harmful ultraviolet radiation might overwhelm these mechanisms and produce changes that will have damaging consequences to the biosphere is discussed. The potential for irreversible damage to the productivity, structure and/or functioning of a model estuarine ecosystem by increased UV-B radiation and whether these ecosystems are highly stable or amenable to adaptive change is studied. Data are provided to assess the potential impact upon marine ecosystems if space shuttle operations contribute to a reduction of the stratospheric ozone layer and the sensitivity of key community components to increased UV-B radiation is examined.

  4. Degradation of CIGS solar cells

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Theelen, M.J.

    2015-01-01

    Thin film CIGS solar cells and individual layers within these solar cells have been tested in order to assess their long term stability. Alongside with the execution of standard tests, in which elevated temperatures and humidity levels are used, the solar cells have also been exposed to a

  5. Economic and Environmental Assessment of a 1 MW Grid Connected Rooftop Solar PV System for Energy Efficient Building in Bangladesh

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chakraborty, Sanjib; Hosain, Rubayet; Rahman, Toufiqur; Rabbi, Ahmead Fazle

    This paper evaluates the potentiality of a 1 MW grid connected rooftop solar PV system for an Energy Efficient Building in Bangladesh, which was estimated by utilizing NASA SSE solar radiation data, PVsyst simulation software and RETScreen simulation software. Economic and environmental viability for a ten-storied building with roof area of 6,500 m2 in the Capital City of Bangladesh, Dhaka was assessed by using the RETScreen simulation software. The yearly electricity production of the proposed system was 1,581 MWh estimated by PVsyst where the technical prospective of gird-connected solar PV in Bangladesh was calculated as about 50,174 MW. The economic assessments were determined the simple payback in such a way that the generated electricity first fulfills the demand of the building, and then the rest of the energy is supplied to the grid. The result indicates that the roof top solar PV system for an Energy efficient building in Dhaka city has a favorable condition for development both in economic and environmental point of view.

  6. Energy Non-Availability in Distribution Grids with Heavy Penetration of Solar Power: Assessment and Mitigation through Solar Smoother

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tathagata Sarkar

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available Rapid fluctuation of solar irradiance due to cloud passage causes corresponding variations in the power output of solar PV power plants. This leads to rapid voltage instability at the point of common coupling (PCC of the connected grid which may cause temporary shutdown of the plant leading to non-availability of energy in the connected load and distribution grid. An estimate of the duration and frequency of this outage is important for solar energy generators to ensure the generation and performance of the solar power plant. A methodology using PVsyst (6.6.4, University of Geneva, Geneva, Switzerland and PSCAD (4.5, Manitoba HVDC Research Centre, Winnipeg, MB, Canada simulation has been developed to estimate the duration and frequency of power outages due to rapid fluctuation of solar irradiance throughout the year. It is shown that the outage depends not only on the solar irradiance fluctuation, but also on the grid parameters of the connected distribution grid. A practical case study has been done on a 500 kilo Watt peak (kWp solar PV power plant for validation of the proposed methodology. It is observed that the energy non-availability for this plant is about 13% per year. This can be reduced to 8% by incorporating a solar smoother. A financial analysis of this outage and its mitigation has also been carried out.

  7. Summary assessment of solar thermal parabolic dish technology for electrical power generation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Penda, P. L.; Fujita, T.; Lucas, J. W.

    1985-01-01

    An assessment is provided of solar thermal parabolic dish technology for electrical power generation. The assessment is based on the development program undertaken by the Jet Propulsion Laboratory for the U.S. Department of Energy and covers the period from the initiation of the program in 1976 through mid-1984. The program was founded on developing components and subsystems that are integrated into parabolic dish power modules for test and evaluation. The status of the project is summarized in terms of results obtained through testing of modules, and the implications of these findings are assessed in terms of techno-economic projections and market potential. The techno-economic projections are based on continuation of an evolutionary technological development program and are related to the accomplishments of the program as of mid-1984. The accomplishments of the development effort are summarized for each major subsystem including concentrators, receivers, and engines. The ramifications of these accomplishments are assessed in the context of developmental objectives and strategies.

  8. Effect of organic and inorganic supply on Al detoxification and sorghum crop yield in ferralitic soils from Burundi

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Van den Berghe, C.

    1992-01-01

    Full Text Available A methodology has been tested to evaluate the agronomic effectiveness of organic fertilizers in combination or not with chemical fertilizers and lime on a ferralitic soil in Burundi. The experiments have shown that the samples obtained by weighing the mixed organic matter with water to obtain a paste are representative and the method by comparison of the regression coefficients after linear transformation of the response curve can also be applied on organic sources, when freshly applied. There were no significant differences at the 5 % level at 1 or 3 months between the sources for dry matter production of sorghum with and without fertilizer. Only when lime was applied these differences existed. For farmyard manure the effects of farmyard manure and farmyard manure * fertilizer on Al detoxification were significantly different at the 10 % level. All sources showed only differences on Al detoxification at the 5 % level when lime was applied.

  9. Ralstonia solanacearum uses inorganic nitrogen metabolism for virulence, ATP production, and detoxification in the oxygen-limited host xylem environment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dalsing, Beth L; Truchon, Alicia N; Gonzalez-Orta, Enid T; Milling, Annett S; Allen, Caitilyn

    2015-03-17

    Genomic data predict that, in addition to oxygen, the bacterial plant pathogen Ralstonia solanacearum can use nitrate (NO3(-)), nitrite (NO2(-)), nitric oxide (NO), and nitrous oxide (N2O) as terminal electron acceptors (TEAs). Genes encoding inorganic nitrogen reduction were highly expressed during tomato bacterial wilt disease, when the pathogen grows in xylem vessels. Direct measurements found that tomato xylem fluid was low in oxygen, especially in plants infected by R. solanacearum. Xylem fluid contained ~25 mM NO3(-), corresponding to R. solanacearum's optimal NO3(-) concentration for anaerobic growth in vitro. We tested the hypothesis that R. solanacearum uses inorganic nitrogen species to respire and grow during pathogenesis by making deletion mutants that each lacked a step in nitrate respiration (ΔnarG), denitrification (ΔaniA, ΔnorB, and ΔnosZ), or NO detoxification (ΔhmpX). The ΔnarG, ΔaniA, and ΔnorB mutants grew poorly on NO3(-) compared to the wild type, and they had reduced adenylate energy charge levels under anaerobiosis. While NarG-dependent NO3(-) respiration directly enhanced growth, AniA-dependent NO2(-) reduction did not. NO2(-) and NO inhibited growth in culture, and their removal depended on denitrification and NO detoxification. Thus, NO3(-) acts as a TEA, but the resulting NO2(-) and NO likely do not. None of the mutants grew as well as the wild type in planta, and strains lacking AniA (NO2(-) reductase) or HmpX (NO detoxification) had reduced virulence on tomato. Thus, R. solanacearum exploits host NO3(-) to respire, grow, and cause disease. Degradation of NO2(-) and NO is also important for successful infection and depends on denitrification and NO detoxification systems. The plant-pathogenic bacterium Ralstonia solanacearum causes bacterial wilt, one of the world's most destructive crop diseases. This pathogen's explosive growth in plant vascular xylem is poorly understood. We used biochemical and genetic approaches to show

  10. Transcriptome analysis and identification of P450 genes relevant to imidacloprid detoxification in Bradysia odoriphaga

    OpenAIRE

    Chen, Chengyu; Wang, Cuicui; Liu, Ying; Shi, Xueyan; Gao, Xiwu

    2018-01-01

    Pesticide tolerance poses many challenges for pest control, particularly for destructive pests such as Bradysia odoriphaga. Imidacloprid has been used to control B. odoriphaga since 2013, however, imidacloprid resistance in B. odoriphaga has developed in recent years. Identifying actual and potential genes involved in detoxification metabolism of imidacloprid could offer solutions for controlling this insect. In this study, RNA-seq was used to explore differentially expressed genes in B. odor...

  11. Engineered photocatalysts for detoxification of waste water

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Majumder, S.A.; Prairie, M.R.; Shelnutt, J.A. [Sandia National Lab., Albuquerque, NM (United States); Khan, S.U.M. [Duquesne Univ., Pittsburgh, PA (United States). Dept. of Chemistry and Biochemistry] [and others

    1996-12-01

    This report describes progress on the development of engineered photocatalysts for the detoxification of water polluted with toxic organic compounds and heavy metals. We examined a range of different oxide supports (titania, alumina, magnesia and manganese dioxide) for tin uroporphyrin and investigated the efficacy of a few different porphyrins. A water-soluble octaacetic-acid-tetraphenylporphyrin and its derivatives have been synthesized and characterized in an attempt to design a porphyrin catalyst with a larger binding pocket. We have also investigated photocatalytic processes on both single crystal and powder forms of semiconducting SiC with an ultimate goal of developing a dual-semiconductor system combining TiO{sub 2} and SiC. Mathematical modeling was also performed to identify parameters that can improve the efficiency of SiC-based photocatalytic systems. Although the conceptual TiO{sub 2}/SiC photodiode shows some promises for photoreduction processes, SiC itself was found to be an inefficient photocatalyst when combined with TiO{sub 2}. Alternative semiconductors with bandgap and band potentials similar to SiC should be tested in the future for further development and a practical utilization of the dual photodiode concept.

  12. Evolution of the solar system in the presence of a solar companion star

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hut, P.

    1986-01-01

    A review is presented of the dynamical implications of a companion star in a wide orbit around the sun, with a semimajor axis of about half a parsec. The motivation behind the hypothesis of a solar companion star is reviewed briefly along with alternative hypotheses, and the general problem of solar system dynamics with a solar companion star is discussed. Four principal questions are posed and answered concerning the consistency of the solar companion theory in providing the required modulation in comet arrival times: (1) What is the expected lifetime of a solar companion? (2) How stable is the orbital period? (3) Does a single perihelion passage of a solar companion perturb enough comets? (4) Do repeated perihelion passages of a solar companion perturb too many comets? Some applications outside the solar system involving wide binaries, interstellar clouds, and dark matter in the Galactic disk are discussed, and the viability of the solar companion theory is critically assessed

  13. Rapid detoxification from opioid dependence under general anaesthesia versus standard methadone tapering : abstinence rates and withdrawal distress experiences

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Krabbe, Paul F M; Koning, Jeroen P F; Heinen, Nadia; Laheij, Robert J F; van Cauter, R M Victory; De Jong, Cor A J

    The aim of this work was to study abstinence rates and withdrawal effects of rapid detoxification of opioid-dependents under general anaesthesia (RD-GA) compared to standard methadone tapering (SMT) using a prospective clinical trial with a follow-up of 3 months, as a preliminary study at the

  14. Rapid detoxification from opioid dependence under general anaesthesia versus standard methadone tapering: abstinence rates and withdrawal distress experiences.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Krabbe, P.F.M.; Koning, J.P.; Heinen, N.; Laheij, R.J.F.; Cauter, R.M.V. van; Jong, C.A.J. de

    2003-01-01

    The aim of this work was to study abstinence rates and withdrawal effects of rapid detoxification of opioid-dependents under general anaesthesia (RD-GA) compared to standard methadone tapering (SMT) using a prospective clinical trial with a follow-up of 3 months, as a preliminary study at the

  15. Lactococcus lactis is an Efficient Expression System for Mammalian Membrane Proteins Involved in Liver Detoxification, CYP3A4, and MGST1.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bakari, Sana; Lembrouk, Mehdi; Sourd, Laura; Ousalem, Fares; André, François; Orlowski, Stéphane; Delaforge, Marcel; Frelet-Barrand, Annie

    2016-04-01

    Despite the great importance of human membrane proteins involved in detoxification mechanisms, their wide use for biochemical approaches is still hampered by several technical difficulties considering eukaryotic protein expression in order to obtain the large amounts of protein required for functional and/or structural studies. Lactococcus lactis has emerged recently as an alternative heterologous expression system to Escherichia coli for proteins that are difficult to express. The aim of this work was to check its ability to express mammalian membrane proteins involved in liver detoxification, i.e., CYP3A4 and two isoforms of MGST1 (rat and human). Genes were cloned using two different strategies, i.e., classical or Gateway-compatible cloning, and we checked the possible influence of two affinity tags (6×-His-tag and Strep-tag II). Interestingly, all proteins could be successfully expressed in L. lactis at higher yields than those previously obtained for these proteins with classical expression systems (E. coli, Saccharomyces cerevisiae) or those of other eukaryotic membrane proteins expressed in L. lactis. In addition, rMGST1 was fairly active after expression in L. lactis. This study highlights L. lactis as an attractive system for efficient expression of mammalian detoxification membrane proteins at levels compatible with further functional and structural studies.

  16. Effect of ursodeoxycholic acid on bile acid profiles and intestinal detoxification machinery in primary biliary cirrhosis and health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dilger, Karin; Hohenester, Simon; Winkler-Budenhofer, Ursula; Bastiaansen, Barbara A J; Schaap, Frank G; Rust, Christian; Beuers, Ulrich

    2012-07-01

    Ursodeoxycholic acid (UDCA) exerts anticholestatic, antifibrotic and antiproliferative effects in primary biliary cirrhosis (PBC) via mechanisms not yet fully understood. Its adequate biliary enrichment is considered mandatory for therapeutic efficacy. However, precise determination of biliary enrichment of UDCA is not possible in clinical practice. Therefore, we investigated (i) the relationship between biliary enrichment and plasma pharmacokinetics of UDCA, (ii) the effect of UDCA on plasma and biliary bile acid composition and conjugation patterns, and (iii) on the intestinal detoxification machinery in patients with PBC and healthy controls. In 11 PBC patients and 11 matched healthy subjects, cystic bile and duodenal tissue were collected before and after 3 weeks of administration of UDCA (15 mg/kg/day). Extensive pharmacokinetic profiling of bile acids was performed. The effect of UDCA on the intestinal detoxification machinery was studied by quantitative PCR and Western blotting. The relative fraction of UDCA and its conjugates in plasma at trough level[x] correlated with their biliary enrichment[y] (r=0.73, p=0.0001, y=3.65+0.49x). Taurine conjugates of the major hydrophobic bile acid, chenodeoxycholic acid, were more prominent in bile of PBC patients than in that of healthy controls. Biliary bile acid conjugation patterns normalized after treatment with UDCA. UDCA induced duodenal expression of key export pumps, BCRP and P-glycoprotein. Biliary and trough plasma enrichment of UDCA are closely correlated in PBC and health. Taurine conjugation may represent an adaptive mechanism in PBC against chenodeoxycholic acid-mediated bile duct damage. UDCA may stabilize small intestinal detoxification by upregulation of efflux pumps. Copyright © 2012. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  17. Exploring the potential of fungal-bacterial consortium for low-cost biodegradation and detoxification of textile effluent

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lade Harshad

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available In the present study, the enrichment and isolation of textile effluent decolorizing bacteria were carried out in wheat bran (WB medium. The isolated bacterium Providencia rettgeri strain HSL1 was then tested for decolorization of textile effluent in consortium with a dyestuff degrading fungus Aspergillus ochraceus NCIM 1146. Decolorization study suggests that A. ochraceus NCIM 1146 and P. rettgeri strain HSL1 alone re moves only 6 and 32% of textile effluent American Dye Manufacturing Institute respectively in 30 h at 30 ±0.2°C of microaerophilic incubation, while the fungal-bacterial consortium does 92% ADMI removal within the same time period. The fungal-bacterial consortium exhibited enhanced decolorization rate due to the induction in activities of catalytic enzymes laccase (196%, lignin peroxidase (77%, azoreductase (80% and NADH-DCIP reductase (84%. The HPLC analysis confirmed the biodegradation of textile effluent into various metabolites. Detoxification studies of textile effluent before and after treatment with fungal-bacterial consortium revealed reduced toxicity of degradation metabolites. The efficient degradation and detoxification by fungal-bacterial consortium pre-grown in agricultural based medium thus suggest a promising approach in designing low-cost treatment technologies for textile effluent.

  18. PERFORMANCE ASSESSMENT OF SOLAR DRYER WITH INDIRECT HEATING

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Boryana Brashlyanova

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available The performed tests were designed to identify and analyze the parameters of drying in a authors model solar dryer. They to be the basis for constructing of an improved model. Drying was carried out in a pilot model solar dryer with prunes in two cycles. Both samples were run under steady sunshine in outdoor air temperature ranging between 20-22°C in the morning and 33-35°C in the early afternoon hours. Depending on the ambient conditions, the drying temperature was found in the range of 30 to 50°C. The dried samples had a water activity Aw> 0.9, due to which the storage is at -18°C. The duration of the drying process of prunes was inconstant and lasted from 2 to 3 days, depending on the final moisture content of the product and the external temperature, humidity, and intensity of solar radiation. The obtained two products intermediate moisture prunes, in addition to direct human consumption could be used as a base for incorporation into other products. Prunes with intermediate moisture content 40% could be consumed directly at ambient temperature or after freezing and tempering at -6 to -5ºC. Based on the established parameters we are to design and produce an improved solar dryer model that allows better utilization of heat and shortening the process duration.

  19. PEI detoxification of pretreated spruce for high solids ethanol fermentation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Cannella, David; Sveding, Per Viktor; Jørgensen, Henning

    2014-01-01

    .e. spruce) this has been difficult to reach. The main reason behind this difference is the higher recalcitrance of woody substrates which require harsher pretreatment conditions, thus generating higher amounts of inhibitory compounds, ultimately lowering fermentation performances. In this work we studied...... ethanol production from spruce performing the whole process, from pretreatment to hydrolysis and fermentation, at 30% dry matter (equivalent to similar to 20% WIS). Hydrolysis and fermentation was performed in a horizontal free fall mixing reactor enabling efficient mixing at high solids loadings....... In batch simultaneous saccharification and fermentation (SSF), up to 76% cellulose to ethanol conversion was achieved resulting in a concentration of 51 g/kg of ethanol. Key to obtaining this high ethanol yield at these conditions was the use of a detoxification technology based on applying a soluble...

  20. Detecting photovoltaic solar panels using hyperspectral imagery and estimating solar power production

    Science.gov (United States)

    Czirjak, Daniel

    2017-04-01

    Remote sensing platforms have consistently demonstrated the ability to detect, and in some cases identify, specific targets of interest, and photovoltaic solar panels are shown to have a unique spectral signature that is consistent across multiple manufacturers and construction methods. Solar panels are proven to be detectable in hyperspectral imagery using common statistical target detection methods such as the adaptive cosine estimator, and false alarms can be mitigated through the use of a spectral verification process that eliminates pixels that do not have the key spectral features of photovoltaic solar panel reflectance spectrum. The normalized solar panel index is described and is a key component in the false-alarm mitigation process. After spectral verification, these solar panel arrays are confirmed on openly available literal imagery and can be measured using numerous open-source algorithms and tools. The measurements allow for the assessment of overall solar power generation capacity using an equation that accounts for solar insolation, the area of solar panels, and the efficiency of the solar panels conversion of solar energy to power. Using a known location with readily available information, the methods outlined in this paper estimate the power generation capabilities within 6% of the rated power.

  1. Vacuolar zinc transporter Zrc1 is required for detoxification of excess intracellular zinc in the human fungal pathogen Cryptococcus neoformans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cho, Minsu; Hu, Guanggan; Caza, Mélissa; Horianopoulos, Linda C; Kronstad, James W; Jung, Won Hee

    2018-01-01

    Zinc is an important transition metal in all living organisms and is required for numerous biological processes. However, excess zinc can also be toxic to cells and cause cellular stress. In the model fungus Saccharomyces cerevisiae, a vacuolar zinc transporter, Zrc1, plays important roles in the storage and detoxification of excess intracellular zinc to protect the cell. In this study, we identified an ortholog of the S. cerevisiae ZRC1 gene in the human fungal pathogen Cryptococcus neoformans. Zrc1 was localized in the vacuolar membrane in C. neoformans, and a mutant lacking ZRC1 showed significant growth defects under high-zinc conditions. These results suggested a role for Zrc1 in zinc detoxification. However, contrary to our expectation, the expression of Zrc1 was induced in cells grown in zinc-limited conditions and decreased upon the addition of zinc. These expression patterns were similar to those of Zip1, the high-affinity zinc transporter in the plasma membrane of C. neoformans. Furthermore, we used the zrc1 mutant in a murine model of cryptococcosis to examine whether a mammalian host could inhibit the survival of C. neoformans using zinc toxicity. We found that the mutant showed no difference in virulence compared with the wildtype strain. This result suggests that Zrc1-mediated zinc detoxification is not required for the virulence of C. neoformans, and imply that zinc toxicity may not be an important aspect of the host immune response to the fungus.

  2. Assessment of regions priority for implementation of solar projects in Iran: New application of a hybrid multi-criteria decision making approach

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vafaeipour, Majid; Hashemkhani Zolfani, Sarfaraz; Morshed Varzandeh, Mohammad Hossein; Derakhti, Arman; Keshavarz Eshkalag, Mahsa

    2014-01-01

    Highlights: • The economic, environmental, technical, social and risk criteria are considered. • Prioritization of regions for construction of solar power plants in Iran is assessed. • A hybrid MCDM approach ranked 25 scattered cities all around the country. • SWARA ranked the identified criteria, and WASPAS prioritized the alternatives. • Considering the ranked cities, a comprehensive GIS map of the country is provided. - Abstract: One of the promising ways to shift towards sustainable development has been the utilization of solar energy worldwide. Based on its geographical specifications, Iran enjoys high solar potential to implement feasible solar energy projects. However, to obtain the best productivity and payback, identification and prioritization of suitable regions for construction of expensive solar power plants is a delicate issue. In contrast with common assumptions, identifying appropriate geographical regions for implementation of such projects is not only associated with the amount of received solar radiation, but also there are many economic, environmental, technical, social and risk criteria (and their relevant sub-criteria) which must be taken into account. To address the complicated nature of the prioritization challenge caused by existence of various indicators, this paper applies a hybrid Multi-Criteria Decision Making (MCDM) approach and prioritizes 25 scattered cities all around the country for implementation of future solar power plants. For this, both quantitative and qualitative effective indicators are identified to be considered as the inputs to the utilized hybrid model. The Step-wise Weight Assessment Ratio Analysis (SWARA, proposed in 2010) method is employed to rank the identified criteria, and the Weighted Aggregates Sum Product Assessment (WASPAS, proposed in 2012) is applied to evaluate and prioritize the alternatives (cities) where Yazd city ranked first. Eventually via considering the ranked cities, a comprehensive GIS

  3. Dietary resources shape the adaptive changes of cyanide detoxification function in giant panda (Ailuropoda melanoleuca)

    OpenAIRE

    He Huang; Shangmian Yie; Yuliang Liu; Chengdong Wang; Zhigang Cai; Wenping Zhang; Jingchao Lan; Xiangming Huang; Li Luo; Kailai Cai; Rong Hou; Zhihe Zhang

    2016-01-01

    The functional adaptive changes in cyanide detoxification in giant panda appear to be response to dietary transition from typical carnivore to herbivorous bear. We tested the absorption of cyanide contained in bamboo/bamboo shoots with a feeding trial in 20 adult giant pandas. We determined total cyanide content in bamboo shoots and giant panda?s feces, levels of urinary thiocyanate and tissue rhodanese activity using color reactions with a spectrophotometer. Rhodanese expression in liver and...

  4. Employment-based abstinence reinforcement following inpatient detoxification in HIV-positive opioid and/or cocaine-dependent patients

    OpenAIRE

    Dunn, Kelly; Fingerhood, Michael; Wong, Conrad J.; Svikis, Dace S.; Nuzzo, Paul; Silverman, Kenneth

    2014-01-01

    Employment-based reinforcement interventions have been used to promote abstinence from drugs among chronically unemployed injection drug users. The current study utilized an employment-based reinforcement intervention to promote opiate and cocaine abstinence among opioid-dependent, HIV-positive participants who had recently completed a brief inpatient detoxification. Participants (n=46) were randomly assigned to an Abstinence & Work group that was required to provide negative urine samples in...

  5. Life cycle assessment of solar aided coal-fired power system with and without heat storage

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhai, Rongrong; Li, Chao; Chen, Ying; Yang, Yongping; Patchigolla, Kumar; Oakey, John E.

    2016-01-01

    Highlights: • The comprehensive performances of three kinds of different systems were compared through LCA. • The comprehensive results of all systems were evaluated by grey relation theory. • The effects of life span, coal price, and solar collector field cost, among other factors, on the results were explored. - Abstract: Pollutant emissions from coal-fired power system have been receiving increasing attention over the past few years. Integration of solar thermal energy can greatly reduce pollutant emissions from these power stations. The performances of coal-fired power system (S1), solar aided coal-fired power system with thermal storage (S2), and solar aided coal-fired power system without thermal storage (S3) with three capacities of each kind of system (i.e., nine subsystems) were analyzed over the entire life span. The pollutant emissions and primary energy consumptions (PECs) of S1, S2, and S3 were estimated using life cycle assessment (LCA). The evaluation value of global warming potential (GWP), acidification potential (AP), respiratory effects potential (REP) and PEC were obtained based on the LCA results. Furthermore, the system investments were estimated, and grey relation theory was used to evaluate the performance of the three types of systems comprehensively. Finally, in order to find the effect of some main factors on the solar aided coal-fired power system (SACFPS), uncertainty analysis has been carried out. The LCA results show that the pollutant emissions and PEC mainly take place in the fuel processing and operation stages for all three system types, and S2 performs the best among the three systems based on the grey relation analysis results. And the uncertainty analysis shows that with longer life span, the power system have better performance; with higher coal price, the power system will have worse performance; with lower solar collector field cost, the solar aided coal-fired power system will be more profitable than the base

  6. miR395 is involved in detoxification of cadmium in Brassica napus

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang, Liu Wei; Song, Jian Bo; Shu, Xia Xia; Zhang, Yun; Yang, Zhi Min

    2013-01-01

    Highlights: ► Involvement of miR395 in sulfate uptake and assimilation in B. napus. ► miR395 regulation of Cd accumulation and distribution in B. napus. ► Depression of Cd-induced oxidative stress by miR395. -- Abstract: The toxic metal cadmium (Cd) constitutes one of the major inorganic contaminants in environments. microRNAs (miRNAs) are a class of endogenous non-coding small RNAs. miR395 is conserved and regulates sulfate assimilation and distribution in higher plants, but whether it is involved in detoxification of Cd in plants has not been described. In this study, transgenic rapeseed (Brassica napus) over-expressing miR395 was identified under Cd stress. miR395-over-expressing plants showed a lower degree of Cd-induced oxidative stress than wild type. By contrast, chlorophyll, glutathione and non-protein thiols contents were higher in the transformants than wild type. Determination of growth response showed that 35S::MIR395 plants accumulated higher levels of biomass and sulfur than wild type under Cd exposure. miR395 transgenic plants had higher levels of Cd in plants, particularly at the high supply of Cd in the medium, but they tended to repress Cd translocation from roots to shoots. Simultaneously, expression of metal-tolerance genes such as BnPCS1, BnHO1 and Sultr1;1 was up-regulated under Cd stress, and the expression of the genes was more pronounced in 35S::MIR395 plants than in wild type. These results suggest that miR395 would be involved in detoxification of Cd in B. napus

  7. miR395 is involved in detoxification of cadmium in Brassica napus

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhang, Liu Wei; Song, Jian Bo; Shu, Xia Xia; Zhang, Yun [Department of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, College of Life Science, Nanjing Agricultural University, Nanjing 210095 (China); Yang, Zhi Min, E-mail: zmyang@njau.edu.cn [Department of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, College of Life Science, Nanjing Agricultural University, Nanjing 210095 (China)

    2013-04-15

    Highlights: ► Involvement of miR395 in sulfate uptake and assimilation in B. napus. ► miR395 regulation of Cd accumulation and distribution in B. napus. ► Depression of Cd-induced oxidative stress by miR395. -- Abstract: The toxic metal cadmium (Cd) constitutes one of the major inorganic contaminants in environments. microRNAs (miRNAs) are a class of endogenous non-coding small RNAs. miR395 is conserved and regulates sulfate assimilation and distribution in higher plants, but whether it is involved in detoxification of Cd in plants has not been described. In this study, transgenic rapeseed (Brassica napus) over-expressing miR395 was identified under Cd stress. miR395-over-expressing plants showed a lower degree of Cd-induced oxidative stress than wild type. By contrast, chlorophyll, glutathione and non-protein thiols contents were higher in the transformants than wild type. Determination of growth response showed that 35S::MIR395 plants accumulated higher levels of biomass and sulfur than wild type under Cd exposure. miR395 transgenic plants had higher levels of Cd in plants, particularly at the high supply of Cd in the medium, but they tended to repress Cd translocation from roots to shoots. Simultaneously, expression of metal-tolerance genes such as BnPCS1, BnHO1 and Sultr1;1 was up-regulated under Cd stress, and the expression of the genes was more pronounced in 35S::MIR395 plants than in wild type. These results suggest that miR395 would be involved in detoxification of Cd in B. napus.

  8. In situ dynamics of O2, pH and cyanobacterial transcripts associated with CCM, photosynthesis and detoxification of ROS

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Sheila I; Steunou, Anne-Soisig; Bhaya, Devaki

    2011-01-01

    The relative abundance of transcripts encoding proteins involved in inorganic carbon concentrating mechanisms (CCM), detoxification of reactive oxygen species (ROS) and photosynthesis in the thermophilic cyanobacterium Synechococcus OS-B' was measured in hot spring microbial mats over two diel...

  9. Detoxification of Arsenic by Phytochelatins in Plants1

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schmöger, Marcus E.V.; Oven, Matjaz; Grill, Erwin

    2000-01-01

    As is a ubiquitous element present in the atmosphere as well as in the aquatic and terrestrial environments. Arsenite and arsenate are the major forms of As intoxication, and these anions are readily taken up by plants. Both anions efficiently induce the biosynthesis of phytochelatins (PCs) ([γ-glutamate-cysteine]n-glycine) in vivo and in vitro. The rapid induction of the metal-binding PCs has been observed in cell suspension cultures of Rauvolfia serpentina, in seedlings of Arabidopsis, and in enzyme preparations of Silene vulgaris upon challenge to arsenicals. The rate of PC formation in enzyme preparations was lower compared with Cd-induced biosynthesis, but was accompanied by a prolonged induction phase that resulted finally in higher peptide levels. An approximately 3:1 ratio of the sulfhydryl groups from PCs to As is compatible with reported As-glutathione complexes. The identity of the As-induced PCs and of reconstituted metal-peptide complexes has unequivocally been demonstrated by electrospray ionization mass spectroscopy. Gel filtration experiments and inhibitor studies also indicate a complexation and detoxification of As by the induced PCs. PMID:10712543

  10. ROTATION PERIODS AND AGES OF SOLAR ANALOGS AND SOLAR TWINS REVEALED BY THE KEPLER MISSION

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Do Nascimento Jr, J.-D.; Meibom, S.; García, R. A.; Salabert, D.; Ceillier, T.; Mathur, S.; Anthony, F.; Da Costa, J. S.; Castro, M.; Barnes, S. A.

    2014-01-01

    A new sample of solar analogs and twin candidates has been constructed and studied, paying particular attention to their light curves from NASA's Kepler mission. This Letter aims to assess their evolutionary status, derive their rotation and ages, and identify those which are solar analogs or solar twin candidates. We separate out the subgiants that compose a large fraction of the asteroseismic sample, and which show an increase in the average rotation period as the stars ascend the subgiant branch. The rotation periods of the dwarfs, ranging from 6 to 30 days and averaging 19 days, allow us to assess their individual evolutionary states on the main sequence and to derive their ages using gyrochronology. These ages are found to be in agreement with a correlation coefficient of r = 0.79 with independent asteroseismic ages, where available. As a result of this investigation, we are able to identify 34 stars as solar analogs and 22 of them as solar twin candidates

  11. ROTATION PERIODS AND AGES OF SOLAR ANALOGS AND SOLAR TWINS REVEALED BY THE KEPLER MISSION

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Do Nascimento Jr, J.-D.; Meibom, S. [Harvard-Smithsonian Center for Astrophysics, Cambridge, MA 02138 (United States); García, R. A.; Salabert, D.; Ceillier, T. [Laboratoire AIM, CEA/DSM,CNRS, Univ. Paris Diderot-IRFU/SAp, Centre de Saclay, F-91191 Gif-sur-Yvette Cedex (France); Mathur, S. [Space Science Institute, 4750 Walnut Street Suite 205, Boulder CO 80301 (United States); Anthony, F.; Da Costa, J. S.; Castro, M. [Universidade Federal do Rio Grande do Norte, UFRN, Dep. de Física Teórica e Experimental, DFTE, CP 1641, 59072-970 Natal, RN (Brazil); Barnes, S. A., E-mail: jdonascimento@cfa.harvard.edu [Leibniz-Institute for Astrophysics, Potsdam D-14467 (Germany)

    2014-08-01

    A new sample of solar analogs and twin candidates has been constructed and studied, paying particular attention to their light curves from NASA's Kepler mission. This Letter aims to assess their evolutionary status, derive their rotation and ages, and identify those which are solar analogs or solar twin candidates. We separate out the subgiants that compose a large fraction of the asteroseismic sample, and which show an increase in the average rotation period as the stars ascend the subgiant branch. The rotation periods of the dwarfs, ranging from 6 to 30 days and averaging 19 days, allow us to assess their individual evolutionary states on the main sequence and to derive their ages using gyrochronology. These ages are found to be in agreement with a correlation coefficient of r = 0.79 with independent asteroseismic ages, where available. As a result of this investigation, we are able to identify 34 stars as solar analogs and 22 of them as solar twin candidates.

  12. Solar thermal in France

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Letz, T.

    2006-01-01

    This article gives details of Plan Soleil established in 2000 by the French Agency for Environment and Energy Management and its identification of solar hot water systems and combined domestic solar hot water and space heating as promising sectors for development. The setting up of a support scheme for investment by Plan Soleil is discussed along with subsidies and grants, manufacturers and importers, the guarantee of solar results, and the quality of plants, components, and installers. The costs of thermal solar equipment, and results of the French assessment programme are considered. The need for quality standards is stressed

  13. Current Strategies for the Detoxification of Jatropha curcas Seed Cake: A Review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gomes, Taisa G; Hadi, Sámed I I A; Costa Alves, Gabriel S; Mendonça, Simone; De Siqueira, Felix G; Miller, Robert N G

    2018-03-21

    Jatropha curcas is an important oilseed plant, with considerable potential in the development of biodiesel. Although Jatropha seed cake, the byproduct of oil extraction, is a residue rich in nitrogen, phosphorus, potassium, and carbon, with high protein content suitable for application in animal feed, the presence of toxic phorbol esters limits its application in feed supplements and fertilizers. This review summarizes the current methods available for detoxification of this residue, based upon chemical, physical, biological, or combined processes. The advantages and disadvantages of each process are discussed, and future directions involving genomic and proteomic approaches for advancing our understanding of biodegradation processes involving microorganisms are highlighted.

  14. Assessment of greenhouse gas emissions from the full energy chain of solar and wind power and other energy sources. Working material

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1997-01-01

    An international Advisory Group Meeting on Assessment of Greenhouse Gas Emission from the Full Energy Chain of Solar and Wind Power was convened by the IAEA at its Headquarters in Vienna, 21-24 October, 1996. The meeting was attended by 12 experts from 9 countries and two international organizations, and including one consultant to the Agency. The objectives of the workshop were: to define and to analyze the solar and wind power chains in terms of emissions of greenhouse gases from the whole energy chain, i.e., during a plant's operation, and from the construction of the plant to the plant's decommissioning and waste storage; to evaluate existing assessments of full-energy-chain emissions of greenhouse gases from the wind and solar power chains and, where possible, compare these results with such emissions from nuclear power and other energy chains

  15. Design and assessment of solar PV plant for girls hostel (GARGI of MNIT University, Jaipur city: A case study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rahul Khatri

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available In this paper designing and assessment of a solar PV plant for meeting the energy demand of girl’s hostel at MNIT University Jaipur city was analyzed. A solar PV plant was designed with its financial and environmental assessment considering recent market prices. All the aspects related to a solar PV plant were considered for financial feasibility of PV plant near this location. The different financial parameters which affect the financial feasibility of PV plant were considered i.e. discount rate, effective discount rate, rate of escalation of electricity cost, salvage value of the plant etc. The environmental aspect related with the energy generated with PV plant i.e. reduction in carbon emission and carbon credits earned was also considered. Result obtained with the assessment of the proposed plant with different discount rate and current rate of inflation shows that the max IRR 6.85% and NPV of $1,430,834 was obtained with a discount rate of 8% and an inflation rate of 7.23% when no land cost considered and if land cost was considered the maximum IRR was 1.96% and NPV of $630,833. Minimum discounted payback of the plant will be 13.4 years if inflation was considered.

  16. Preparation of Hierarchical BiOBr Microspheres for Visible Light-Induced Photocatalytic Detoxification and Disinfection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ayla Ahmad

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Photocatalytic degradation is a promising alternative to traditional wastewater treatment methods. Recently developed visible light-responsive photocatalyst, BiOBr, has attracted extensive attentions. Hereby, a detailed investigation of application of BiOBr to bacterial inactivation and organic pollutants degradation is reported. Hydrothermal catalyst was prepared using template-free method. While, for solvothermal synthesis, CTAB was used as a template. Results indicate a higher photocatalytic activity by the solvothermally prepared catalyst. Solvothermally prepared BiOBr exhibited high photocatalytic activities in both water detoxification and disinfection.

  17. GHG emission assessment of full energy chain for solar power in China

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li Junfeng

    1997-01-01

    Solar PV technologies have been made a very important role for meeting the energy demand in the remote area and some commercial case in China. The annual PV production is about 1 MW and the total installation of solar PV is about 3 MW in China. However, from the full energy chain point view, during the manufacturing of solar PV, some energy should be used. This paper will focus on the analysis of full energy chain for the solar PV production and utilization. This paper consists two parts: current status of solar PV production and utilization in China and analysis of greenhouse gas emission from the full energy chain of solar PV production. (author)

  18. Wind and Solar Energy Potential Assessment for Development of Renewables Energies Applications in Bucaramanga, Colombia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ordóñez, G; Osma, G; Vergara, P; Rey, J

    2014-01-01

    Currently, the trend of micro-grids and small-scale renewable generation systems implementation in urban environments requires to have historical and detailed information about the energy potential resource in site. In Colombia, this information is limited and do not favor the design of these applications; for this reason, must be made detailed studies of the energy potential in their cities. In this paper is presented the wind and solar energy resource assessment for the city of Bucaramanga, based on the monitoring on four strategic points during the years 2010, 2011 and 2012. According to the analysis, is evidenced a significant solar resource throughout the year ascending on average to 1 734 kWh/m 2 , equivalent to 4.8 kWh/m 2 /day. Also, from a wind statistical study based on the Weibull probability distribution and Wind Power Density (WPD) was established the wind potential as Class 1 according to the scale of the Department of Energy of the United States (DOE), since the average speed is near 1.4 m/s. Due this, it is technically unfeasible the using of micro-turbines in the city, even so their potential for natural ventilation of building was analyzed. Finally, is presented a methodology to analyze solar harvesting by sectors in the city, according to the solar motion and shadowing caused by existing structures

  19. Detoxification Mechanisms of Mercury Toxicity in Plants: A Review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shilpa Shrivastava

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Mercury is one of the most toxic heavy metals present in the earth’s crust. It has been considered as environmental pollutant because of its potent toxicity to plants and humans. In this review, we discuss mercury toxicity responses on plant metabolism and its detoxification mechanism by phytochelatins and antioxidant enzymes. Some light is also shed on selenium antagonistic study with mercury. Due to its potential toxicity, it has attracted attention in fields of soil science and plant nutrition. Mercury has harmful toxic effects on the molecular and physiobiochemical behavior of plants. Mostly research work has been done on seed germination, and shoot, root, and leaf morphology. Enzyme responses with respect to mercury as a result Hg accumulated in food chain is also reviewed here. Hence, this review may provide a compiled data for other researches in this direction, to provide a better mechanism or details about mercury’s noxious effect in the ecosystem.

  20. Using experiments and demographic models to assess rare plant vulnerability to utlity-scale solar energy development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moore, K. A.

    2015-12-01

    Pressing challenges for the implementation of solar energy are the effects of construction and operation on protected animal and plant species. Siting and mitigation of solar energy often requires understanding of basic biology and distributions of rare species that are unknown. How can we rapidly collect the information necessary on species- and site-specific population dynamics to effectively design mitigation and conservation measures? We have developed an integrated approach to assessing the vulnerability of a suite of representative rare plant species in the region. We implemented a prioritized series of demographic and experimental studies over the past four years to identify the types of species, populations, and life stages most vulnerable to impact or prone to conservation efforts. We have found substantial variation in vegetative and sexual reproduction between study populations for several rare plants, including between populations that vary in putative impact by development and/or effects of experimental solar arrays. For a subset of species, we designed population viability analysis and applied them to identify sensitive vital rates and compare quasi-extinction probabilities under different climate and impact scenarios. By utilizing practical experiments to test for the effects of real or simulated impacts, we found differences in vital rates between natural and disturbed populations adjacent to and within solar installations. We draw conclusions from our work to guide the analysis of benefits, permitting, and design of utility-scale solar energy facilities.

  1. Fungal Biosorption, An Innovative Treatment for the Decolourisation and Detoxification of Textile Effluents

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Antonella Pannocchia

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available Textile effluents are among the most difficult-to-treat wastewaters, due to their considerable amount of recalcitrant and toxic substances. Fungal biosorption is viewed as a valuable additional treatment for removing pollutants from textile wastewaters. In this study the efficiency of Cunninghamella elegans biomass in terms of contaminants, COD and toxicity reduction was tested against textile effluents sampled in different points of wastewater treatment plants. The results showed that C. elegans is a promising candidate for the decolourisation and detoxification of textile wastewaters and its versatility makes it very competitive compared with conventional sorbents adopted in industrial processes.

  2. Solar weather monitoring

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J.-F. Hochedez

    2005-11-01

    Full Text Available Space Weather nowcasting and forecasting require solar observations because geoeffective disturbances can arise from three types of solar phenomena: coronal mass ejections (CMEs, flares and coronal holes. For each, we discuss their definition and review their precursors in terms of remote sensing and in-situ observations. The objectives of Space Weather require some specific instrumental features, which we list using the experience gained from the daily operations of the Solar Influences Data analysis Centre (SIDC at the Royal Observatory of Belgium. Nowcasting requires real-time monitoring to assess quickly and reliably the severity of any potentially geoeffective solar event. Both research and forecasting could incorporate more observations in order to feed case studies and data assimilation respectively. Numerical models will result in better predictions of geomagnetic storms and solar energetic particle (SEP events. We review the data types available to monitor solar activity and interplanetary conditions. They come from space missions and ground observatories and range from sequences of dopplergrams, magnetograms, white-light, chromospheric, coronal, coronagraphic and radio images, to irradiance and in-situ time-series. Their role is summarized together with indications about current and future solar monitoring instruments.

  3. Phenobarbital induction and chemical synergism demonstrate the role of UDP-glucuronosyltransferases in detoxification of naphthalophos by Haemonchus contortus larvae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kotze, Andrew C; Ruffell, Angela P; Ingham, Aaron B

    2014-12-01

    We used an enzyme induction approach to study the role of detoxification enzymes in the interaction of the anthelmintic compound naphthalophos with Haemonchus contortus larvae. Larvae were treated with the barbiturate phenobarbital, which is known to induce the activity of a number of detoxification enzymes in mammals and insects, including cytochromes P450 (CYPs), UDP-glucuronosyltransferases (UDPGTs), and glutathione (GSH) S-transferases (GSTs). Cotreatment of larvae with phenobarbital and naphthalophos resulted in a significant increase in the naphthalophos 50% inhibitory concentration (IC50) compared to treatment of larvae with the anthelmintic alone (up to a 28-fold increase). The phenobarbital-induced drug tolerance was reversed by cotreatment with the UDPGT inhibitors 5-nitrouracil, 4,6-dihydroxy-5-nitropyrimidine, probenecid, and sulfinpyrazone. Isobologram analysis of the interaction of 5-nitrouracil with naphthalophos in phenobarbital-treated larvae clearly showed the presence of strong synergism. The UDPGT inhibitors 5-nitrouracil, 4,6-dihydroxy-5-nitropyrimidine, and probenecid also showed synergistic effects with non-phenobarbital-treated worms (synergism ratio up to 3.2-fold). This study indicates that H. contortus larvae possess one or more UDPGT enzymes able to detoxify naphthalophos. In highlighting the protective role of this enzyme group, this study reveals the potential for UDPGT enzymes to act as a resistance mechanism that may develop under drug selection pressure in field isolates of this species. In addition, the data indicate the potential for a chemotherapeutic approach utilizing inhibitors of UDPGT enzymes as synergists to increase the activity of naphthalophos against parasitic worms and to combat detoxification-mediated drug resistance if it arises in the field. Copyright © 2014, American Society for Microbiology. All Rights Reserved.

  4. Identifying genes and gene networks involved in chromium metabolism and detoxification in Crambe abyssinica

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zulfiqar, Asma; Paulose, Bibin; Chhikara, Sudesh; Dhankher, Om Parkash

    2011-01-01

    Chromium pollution is a serious environmental problem with few cost-effective remediation strategies available. Crambe abyssinica (a member of Brassicaseae), a non-food, fast growing high biomass crop, is an ideal candidate for phytoremediation of heavy metals contaminated soils. The present study used a PCR-Select Suppression Subtraction Hybridization approach in C. abyssinica to isolate differentially expressed genes in response to Cr exposure. A total of 72 differentially expressed subtracted cDNAs were sequenced and found to represent 43 genes. The subtracted cDNAs suggest that Cr stress significantly affects pathways related to stress/defense, ion transporters, sulfur assimilation, cell signaling, protein degradation, photosynthesis and cell metabolism. The regulation of these genes in response to Cr exposure was further confirmed by semi-quantitative RT-PCR. Characterization of these differentially expressed genes may enable the engineering of non-food, high-biomass plants, including C. abyssinica, for phytoremediation of Cr-contaminated soils and sediments. - Highlights: → Molecular mechanism of Cr uptake and detoxification in plants is not well known. → We identified differentially regulated genes upon Cr exposure in Crambe abyssinica. → 72 Cr-induced subtracted cDNAs were sequenced and found to represent 43 genes. → Pathways linked to stress, ion transport, and sulfur assimilation were affected. → This is the first Cr transcriptome study in a crop with phytoremediation potential. - This study describes the identification and isolation of differentially expressed genes involved in chromium metabolism and detoxification in a non-food industrial oil crop Crambe abyssinica.

  5. Identifying genes and gene networks involved in chromium metabolism and detoxification in Crambe abyssinica

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zulfiqar, Asma, E-mail: asmazulfiqar08@yahoo.com [Department of Plant, Soil, and Insect Sciences, 270 Stockbridge Road, University of Massachusetts Amherst, MA 01003 (United States); Paulose, Bibin, E-mail: bpaulose@psis.umass.edu [Department of Plant, Soil, and Insect Sciences, 270 Stockbridge Road, University of Massachusetts Amherst, MA 01003 (United States); Chhikara, Sudesh, E-mail: sudesh@psis.umass.edu [Department of Plant, Soil, and Insect Sciences, 270 Stockbridge Road, University of Massachusetts Amherst, MA 01003 (United States); Dhankher, Om Parkash, E-mail: parkash@psis.umass.edu [Department of Plant, Soil, and Insect Sciences, 270 Stockbridge Road, University of Massachusetts Amherst, MA 01003 (United States)

    2011-10-15

    Chromium pollution is a serious environmental problem with few cost-effective remediation strategies available. Crambe abyssinica (a member of Brassicaseae), a non-food, fast growing high biomass crop, is an ideal candidate for phytoremediation of heavy metals contaminated soils. The present study used a PCR-Select Suppression Subtraction Hybridization approach in C. abyssinica to isolate differentially expressed genes in response to Cr exposure. A total of 72 differentially expressed subtracted cDNAs were sequenced and found to represent 43 genes. The subtracted cDNAs suggest that Cr stress significantly affects pathways related to stress/defense, ion transporters, sulfur assimilation, cell signaling, protein degradation, photosynthesis and cell metabolism. The regulation of these genes in response to Cr exposure was further confirmed by semi-quantitative RT-PCR. Characterization of these differentially expressed genes may enable the engineering of non-food, high-biomass plants, including C. abyssinica, for phytoremediation of Cr-contaminated soils and sediments. - Highlights: > Molecular mechanism of Cr uptake and detoxification in plants is not well known. > We identified differentially regulated genes upon Cr exposure in Crambe abyssinica. > 72 Cr-induced subtracted cDNAs were sequenced and found to represent 43 genes. > Pathways linked to stress, ion transport, and sulfur assimilation were affected. > This is the first Cr transcriptome study in a crop with phytoremediation potential. - This study describes the identification and isolation of differentially expressed genes involved in chromium metabolism and detoxification in a non-food industrial oil crop Crambe abyssinica.

  6. The expression of proteins involved in digestion and detoxification are regulated in Helicoverpa armigera to cope up with chlorpyrifos insecticide.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dawkar, Vishal V; Chikate, Yojana R; More, Tushar H; Gupta, Vidya S; Giri, Ashok P

    2016-02-01

    Helicoverpa armigera is a key pest in many vital crops, which is mainly controlled by chemical strategies. To manage this pest is becoming challenging due to its ability and evolution of resistance against insecticides. Further, its subsequent spread on nonhost plant is remarkable in recent times. Hence, decoding resistance mechanism against phytochemicals and synthetic insecticides is a major challenge. The present work describes that the digestion, defense and immunity related enzymes are associated with chlorpyrifos resistance in H. armigera. Proteomic analysis of H. armigera gut tissue upon feeding on chlorpyrifos containing diet (CH) and artificial diet (AD) using nano-liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry identified upregulated 23-proteins in CH fed larvae. Database searches combined with gene ontology analysis revealed that the identified gut proteins engrossed in digestion, proteins crucial for immunity, adaptive responses to stress, and detoxification. Biochemical and quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction analysis of candidate proteins indicated that insects were struggling to get nutrients and energy in presence of CH, while at the same time endeavoring to metabolize chlorpyrifos. Moreover, we proposed a potential processing pathway of chlorpyrifos in H. armigera gut by examining the metabolites using gas chromatography-mass spectrometry. H. armigera exhibit a range of intriguing behavioral, morphological adaptations and resistance to insecticides by regulating expression of proteins involved in digestion and detoxification mechanisms to cope up with chlorpyrifos. In these contexts, as gut is a rich repository of biological information; profound analysis of gut tissues can give clues of detoxification and resistance mechanism in insects. © 2014 Institute of Zoology, Chinese Academy of Sciences.

  7. Assessment of greenhouse gas emissions from the full energy chain of solar and wind power and other energy sources. Working material

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1998-12-31

    An international Advisory Group Meeting on Assessment of Greenhouse Gas Emission from the Full Energy Chain of Solar and Wind Power was convened by the IAEA at its Headquarters in Vienna, 21-24 October, 1996. The meeting was attended by 12 experts from 9 countries and two international organizations, and including one consultant to the Agency. The objectives of the workshop were: to define and to analyze the solar and wind power chains in terms of emissions of greenhouse gases from the whole energy chain, i.e., during a plant`s operation, and from the construction of the plant to the plant`s decommissioning and waste storage; to evaluate existing assessments of full-energy-chain emissions of greenhouse gases from the wind and solar power chains and, where possible, compare these results with such emissions from nuclear power and other energy chains. Refs, figs, tabs.

  8. The SERI solar energy storage program

    Science.gov (United States)

    Copeland, R. J.; Wright, J. D.; Wyman, C. E.

    1980-01-01

    In support of the DOE thermal and chemical energy storage program, the solar energy storage program (SERI) provides research on advanced technologies, systems analyses, and assessments of thermal energy storage for solar applications in support of the Thermal and Chemical Energy Storage Program of the DOE Division of Energy Storage Systems. Currently, research is in progress on direct contact latent heat storage and thermochemical energy storage and transport. Systems analyses are being performed of thermal energy storage for solar thermal applications, and surveys and assessments are being prepared of thermal energy storage in solar applications. A ranking methodology for comparing thermal storage systems (performance and cost) is presented. Research in latent heat storage and thermochemical storage and transport is reported.

  9. Identification and characterization of parasitism genes from the pinewood nematode Bursaphelenchus xylophilus reveals a multilayered detoxification strategy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Espada, Margarida; Silva, Ana Cláudia; Eves van den Akker, Sebastian; Cock, Peter J A; Mota, Manuel; Jones, John T

    2016-02-01

    The migratory endoparasitic nematode Bursaphelenchus xylophilus, which is the causal agent of pine wilt disease, has phytophagous and mycetophagous phases during its life cycle. This highly unusual feature distinguishes it from other plant-parasitic nematodes and requires profound changes in biology between modes. During the phytophagous stage, the nematode migrates within pine trees, feeding on the contents of parenchymal cells. Like other plant pathogens, B. xylophilus secretes effectors from pharyngeal gland cells into the host during infection. We provide the first description of changes in the morphology of these gland cells between juvenile and adult life stages. Using a comparative transcriptomics approach and an effector identification pipeline, we identify numerous novel parasitism genes which may be important for the mediation of interactions of B. xylophilus with its host. In-depth characterization of all parasitism genes using in situ hybridization reveals two major categories of detoxification proteins, those specifically expressed in either the pharyngeal gland cells or the digestive system. These data suggest that B. xylophilus incorporates effectors in a multilayer detoxification strategy in order to protect itself from host defence responses during phytophagy. © 2015 BSPP AND JOHN WILEY & SONS LTD.

  10. Chinese herbal medicine Shenqi Detoxification Granule inhibits fibrosis in adenine induced chronic renal failure rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peng, Min; Cai, Pingping; Ma, Hongbo; Meng, Hongyan; Xu, Yuan; Zhang, Xiaoyi; Si, Guomin

    2014-01-01

    Progressive fibrosis accompanies all chronic renal disease, connective tissue growth factor (CTGF,) and platelet-derived growth factor-B, (PDGF-B,) play important roles in extra-cellular matrix abnormal accumulation, while endothelin-1 (ET-1) nitric oxide (NO,) are related to endothelial dysfunction, which mediates the progression of renal fibrosis. Shenqi Detoxification Granule (SDG), a traditional Chinese herbal formula, has been used for treatment of chronic renal failure in clinic for many years. In order to evaluate the efficacy, and explore the mechanism of SDG to inhibit the progression of renal fibrosis, study was carried out using the adenine-induced Wister rats as the CRF model, and losartan as postive control drug. Levels of serum creatinine [Scr], and blood urea nitrogen (BUN), albumin (ALB), 24hrs, urine protein (24hUP), triacylglycerol (TG), and cholesterol (CHO), together with ET-1, and NO were detected. Pathological changes of renal tissues were observed by HE, staining. In addition, CTGF and PDGF-B expression were analyzed by immuno-histo-chemistry. The results indicated that SDG can effectively reduce Scr, BUN, 24hUP, TG, and CHO levels, increase ALB levels, inhibit renal tissue damage in CRF rats, and the mechanism maybe reduce PDGF-B, CTGF expression and ET-1/NO. Shenqi Detoxification Granule is a beneficial treatment for chronic renal failure.

  11. Lead in the soil-mulberry (Morus alba L.)-silkworm (Bombyx mori) food chain: translocation and detoxification.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Lingyun; Zhao, Ye; Wang, Shuifeng; Han, Shasha; Liu, Jing

    2015-06-01

    The translocation of lead (Pb) in the soil-mulberry-silkworm food chain and the process of Pb detoxification in the mulberry-silkworm chain were investigated. The amount of Pb in mulberry, silkworm, feces and silk increased in a dose-responsive manner to the Pb contents in the soils. Mulberry roots sequestered most of the Pb, ranging from 230.78 to 1209.25 mg kg(-1). Over 92% of the Pb in the mulberry leaves was deposited in the cell wall, and 95.29-95.57% of the Pb in the mulberry leaves was integrated with oxalic acid, pectates and protein, and it had low bioavailability. The Pb concentrations in the silkworm feces were 4.50-4.64 times higher than those in the leaves. The synthesis of metallothioneins in three tissues of the silkworms was induced to achieve Pb homeostasis under Pb stress. These results indicated the mechanism involved in Pb transfer along the food chain was controlled by the detoxification of Pb in different trophic levels. Planting mulberry and rearing silkworm could be a promising approach for the remediation of Pb-polluted soils due to the Pb tolerance of mulberry and silkworm. Copyright © 2015. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  12. Comparative Health Risk Assessment of CdTe Solar PV System and Nuclear Power Plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, Sang Hun; Kang, Hyun Gook

    2014-01-01

    In terms of national energy policy decision-making process, several key factors, including low production cost, negligible risk or impact to environment and population around the facility, must be considered. The purpose of this paper is to assess the public health risk in case of postulated nuclear power plant and CdTe solar PV system accident and compare the estimated public health risk. Both systems release toxic materials to the environment which adversely affect nearby population by exposure from the inhalation and ingestion of the toxic material transported via air. By simulating the airborne transport of released toxic material using Gaussian plume model and modeling exposure pathways to nearby population, average individual health risk is assessed and public health risk per power capacity of each system is compared. The result shows that the average public health risk per power capacity of NPP is less than the case of solar PV system. This implies that NPP has lower risk in terms of public health risk in case of severe accident while it can be used as more reliable energy source than renewable energy source so that NPP would take priority over other renewable energy sources in terms of national energy policy

  13. Summary of solar energy technology characterizations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    D' Alessio, Dr., Gregory J.; Blaunstein, Dr., Robert R.

    1980-09-01

    This report summarizes the design, operating, energy, environmental, and economic characteristics of 38 model solar systems used in the Technology Assessment of Solar Energy Systems Project including solar heating and cooling of buildings, agricultural and industrial process heat, solar electric conversion, and industrial biomass systems. The generic systems designs utilized in this report were based on systems studies and mission analyses performed by the DOE National Laboratories and the MITRE Corporation. The purpose of those studies were to formulate materials and engineering cost data and performance data of solar equipment once mass produced.

  14. Assessment of a Solar System Walk

    Science.gov (United States)

    LoPresto, Michael C.; Murrell, Steven R.; Kirchner, Brian

    2010-01-01

    The idea of sending students and the general public on a walk through a scale model of the solar system in an attempt to instill an appreciation of the relative scales of the sizes of the objects compared to the immense distances between them is certainly not new. A good number of such models exist, including one on the National Mall in…

  15. Techno-Economic Assessment of Heat Transfer Fluid Buffering for Thermal Energy Storage in the Solar Field of Parabolic Trough Solar Thermal Power Plants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jorge M. Llamas

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available Currently, operating parabolic trough (PT solar thermal power plants, either solar-only or with thermal storage block, use the solar field as a heat transfer fluid (HTF thermal storage system to provide extra thermal capacity when it is needed. This is done by circulating heat transfer fluid into the solar field piping in order to create a heat fluid buffer. In the same way, by oversizing the solar field, it can work as an alternative thermal energy storage (TES system to the traditionally applied methods. This paper presents a solar field TES model for a standard solar field from a 50-MWe solar power plant. An oversized solar model is analyzed to increase the capacity storage system (HTF buffering. A mathematical model has been developed and different simulations have been carried out over a cycle of one year with six different solar multiples considered to represent the different oversized solar field configurations. Annual electricity generation and levelized cost of energy (LCOE are calculated to find the solar multiple (SM which makes the highest solar field thermal storage capacity possible within the minimum LCOE.

  16. A Parametric Genetic Algorithm Approach to Assess Complementary Options of Large Scale Wind-solar Coupling

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Tim; Mareda; Ludovic; Gaudard; Franco; Romerio

    2017-01-01

    The transitional path towards a highly renewable power system based on wind and solar energy sources is investigated considering their intermittent and spatially distributed characteristics. Using an extensive weather-driven simulation of hourly power mismatches between generation and load, we explore the interplay between geographical resource complementarity and energy storage strategies. Solar and wind resources are considered at variable spatial scales across Europe and related to the Swiss load curve, which serve as a typical demand side reference. The optimal spatial distribution of renewable units is further assessed through a parameterized optimization method based on a genetic algorithm. It allows us to explore systematically the effective potential of combined integration strategies depending on the sizing of the system, with a focus on how overall performance is affected by the definition of network boundaries. Upper bounds on integration schemes are provided considering both renewable penetration and needed reserve power capacity. The quantitative trade-off between grid extension, storage and optimal wind-solar mix is highlighted.This paper also brings insights on how optimal geographical distribution of renewable units evolves as a function of renewable penetration and grid extent.

  17. Solar power tower commercialization in the Southwest: A market and technical assessment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bradley, J.; DeGroat, K.; Tanner, S.

    1995-01-01

    This market and technical assessment illustrates that the Southwestern power market can support the commercialization needs of Solar Power Tower (SPT) technology over the next 10 to 15 years. Realizing full commercial development during this time is contingent on successful completion of Solar Two and development of an initial follow-on plant around 2000. After 2002, the power market will become increasingly robust, presenting new opportunities for SPT development. The important conclusion of this analysis is that SPT projects can reach a cost level that puts them at or below the expected norm of costs for their main competitor, combined cycle natural gas. This means that with the same competitive focus on minimizing costs and finding opportunities to be more competitive that characterize combined cycle project developers, SPT has a realistic chance of competing and winning market share. The ability of SPT technology to compete in this market will be greatly affected by the rate of cost-reductions and technological improvements, but perhaps as importantly, by the environmental and regulatory climate which will unfold over the next decade and the availability of low cost financing options

  18. Solar Development on Contaminated and Disturbed Lands

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Macknick, Jordan [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Lee, Courtney [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Mosey, Gail [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Melius, Jenny [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States)

    2013-12-01

    Land classified as contaminated and disturbed across the United States has the potential to host developments of utility-scale solar power. This report examines the prospect of developing utility- and commercial-scale concentrated solar power (CSP) and solar photovoltaics (PV) technologies on degraded and environmentally contaminated lands. The potential for solar development on contaminated anddisturbed lands was assessed, and for the largest and highest solar resource sites, the economic impacts and feasibility were evaluated. Developing solar power on contaminated and disturbed lands can help create jobs and revitalize local and state economies, and selecting these sites over greenfield sites can potentially have permitting and environmental mitigation advantages. The U.S.Department of Energy (DOE) SunShot goals call for 632 GW of PV and 83 GW of CSP to be deployed by 2050. Conservative land-use estimates of this study (10 acres per megawatt) show that there are disturbed and environmentally contaminated lands throughout the country that could be suitable for utility-scale solar power, and, that there is sufficient land area to meet SunShot solar deployment goals. The purpose of this assessment is to improve the understanding of these sites and facilitate solar developers' selection of contaminated and disturbed sites for development.

  19. Has India's Solar Mission increased the deployment of domestically produced solar modules?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shrimali, Gireesh; Sahoo, Anshuman

    2014-01-01

    The Jawaharlal Nehru National Solar Mission (JNNSM), India's flagship policy for solar energy deployment, includes an increasingly strict Domestic Content Requirement (DCR) intended to promote the domestic crystalline photovoltaic solar industry. We examine the impact of the JNNSM DCR on the utilization of domestic and domestic crystalline silicon modules. Using a plant-level database of approximately 250 plants, we show that the first, and weaker, version of the policy accomplished its intention of promoting domestic crystalline silicon modules. However, the second, and stricter, version of the policy has not been as effective: it appears to have promoted the use of foreign thin film modules instead. This analysis shows that the tightening of the DCR was associated with leakage to foreign thin film modules. This suggests that DCR policies need to be comprehensive in scope to ensure that they achieve a goal of using only domestic content; however, policymakers should appropriately assess the welfare impacts of such restrictions. - Highlights: • Effectiveness of India's Solar Mission in promoting domestic content is assessed. • The Solar Mission promoted domestic crystalline silicon modules overall. • This effect was not as prominent as the DCR was tightened over time. • Ultimately, the Solar Mission allowed for leakage to foreign thin-film modules. • To be effective, the DCR would need to be comprehensive across module types

  20. Material Technologies Developments for Solar Hydrogen

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Agrafiotis, C.; Pagkoura, C.; Lorentzou, S.; Hoguet, J.C.; Konstandopoulos, A.G.

    2006-01-01

    The present work presents recent activities of our Laboratory in the field of solar-aided hydrogen production materials and reactor technologies that can be fully integrated into solar thermal power plants. Emphasis is given on structured monolithic solar reactors where ceramic supports optimized to absorb solar radiation and develop sufficiently high temperatures, are coated with active materials to perform a variety of 'solar-aided' reactions such as water splitting or natural gas reforming. Particular examples discussed include properties'' assessment of monolithic ceramic honeycombs used as volumetric solar thermal reactors/receivers, synthesis of active water-splitting redox materials for the production of hydrogen and their tailored deposition upon porous supports and design, operation simulation and performance optimization of structured monolithic solar hydrogen production reactors. (authors)

  1. Ontogenic differences in human liver 4-hydroxynonenal detoxification are associated with in vitro injury to fetal hematopoietic stem cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gardner, James L.; Doi, Adriana M.; Pham, Robert T.; Huisden, Christiaan M.; Gallagher, Evan P.

    2003-01-01

    4-hydroxynonenal (4HNE) is a highly mutagenic and cytotoxic α,β-unsaturated aldehyde that can be produced in utero during transplacental exposure to prooxidant compounds. Cellular protection against 4HNE injury is provided by alcohol dehydrogenases (ADH), aldehyde reductases (ALRD), aldehyde dehydrogenases (ALDH), and glutathione S-transferases (GST). In the present study, we examined the comparative detoxification of 4HNE by aldehyde-metabolizing enzymes in a panel of adult and second-trimester prenatal liver tissues and report the toxicological ramifications of ontogenic 4HNE detoxification in vitro. The initial rates of 4HNE oxidation and reduction were two- to fivefold lower in prenatal liver subcellular fractions as compared to adult liver, and the rates of GST conjugation of 4HNE were not detectable in either prenatal or adult cytosolic fractions. GSH-affinity purification of hepatic cytosol yielded detectable and roughly equivalent rates of GST-4HNE conjugation for the two age groups. Consistent with the inefficient oxidative and reductive metabolism of 4HNE in prenatal liver, cytosolic fractions prepared from prenatal liver exhibited a decreased ability to protect against 4HNE-protein adduct formation relative to adults. Prenatal liver hematopoietic stem cells (HSC), which constitute a significant percentage of prenatal liver cell populations, exhibited ALDH activities toward 4HNE, but little reductive or conjugative capacity toward 4HNE through ALRD, ADH, and GST. Cultured HSC exposed to 5 μM 4HNE exhibited a loss in viability and readily formed one or more high molecular weight 4HNE-protein adduct(s). Collectively, our results indicate that second trimester prenatal liver has a lower ability to detoxify 4HNE relative to adults, and that the inefficient detoxification of 4HNE underlies an increased susceptibility to 4HNE injury in sensitive prenatal hepatic cell targets

  2. A comprehensive review on solar cookers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cuce, Erdem; Cuce, Pinar Mert

    2013-01-01

    In this paper, a thorough review of the available literature on solar cookers is presented. The review is performed in a thematic way in order to allow an easier comparison, discussion and evaluation of the findings obtained by researchers, especially on parameters affecting the performance of solar cookers. The review covers a historic overview of solar cooking technology, detailed description of various types of solar cookers, geometry parameters affecting performance of solar cookers such as booster mirrors, glazing, absorber plate, cooking pots, heat storage materials and insulation. Moreover, thermodynamic assessment of solar cooking systems and qualitative evaluation of thermal output offered by solar cookers are analyzed in detail. Complex designs of solar cookers/ovens with and without heat storage material are illustrated and furthermore possible methods to be able to enhance the power outputs of solar cooking systems are presented. Feasibility analysis, environmental impacts and future potential of solar cookers are also considered in the study.

  3. Assessment of the energy performance of the solar space system attached to the CE – INCERC Bucharest experimental house – experimental validation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dan CONSTANTINESCU

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available The INCERC Bucharest experimental house is equipped on the Southern façade with a ventilated solar space. The solar space ensures the ventilation of the entire building at a constant rate of 0.60 exchanges / h during the cold season, by inletting the pre-heated space in the greenhouse space. In the hot season the system ensures the building reversible ventilation by providing the fresh air rate by air suction in the building Northern zone, a consequence of the natural draught effect ensured by the solar space. This report presents the experiments performed in the season 2008-2009 and the experimental validation of the mathematical model used in assessing the solar space energy performance in the heating season.

  4. Detoxification of a lignocellulosic biomass slurry by soluble polyelectrolyte adsorption for improved fermentation efficiency.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carter, Brian; Squillace, Phillip; Gilcrease, Patrick C; Menkhaus, Todd J

    2011-09-01

    This study investigated the detoxification of a dilute acid pretreated Ponderosa pine slurry using the polyelectrolyte polyethyleneimine (PEI). The addition of polyelectrolyte to remove enzymatic and/or fermentation inhibitory compounds, that is, acetic acid, furfural, and 5-hydroxymethylfurfural (HMF), was performed either before or after enzymatic hydrolysis to determine the optimal process sequence. Negligible acetic acid, glucose, and xylose were removed regardless of where in the process the polymer addition was made. Maximum furfural and HMF separation was achieved with the addition of PEI to a clarified pre-enzymatic hydrolysis liquor, which showed that 88.3% of furfural and 66.4% of HMF could be removed. On the other hand, only 23.1% and 13.4% of furfural and HMF, respectively, were removed from a post-enzymatic hydrolysis sample; thus, the effects of enzymes, glucose, and wood solids on inhibitor removal were also investigated. The presence of solid particles >0.2 µm and unknown soluble components <10 kDa reduced inhibitory compound removal, but the presence of elevated glucose levels and enzymes (cellulases) did not affect the separation. The fermentability of detoxified versus undetoxified hydrolysate was also investigated. An ethanol yield of 92.6% of theoretical was achieved with Saccharomyces cerevisiae fermenting the detoxified hydrolyzate, while no significant ethanol was produced in the undetoxified hydrolyzate. These results indicate that PEI may provide a practical alternative for furan removal and detoxification of lignocellolosic hydrolysates, and that application before enzymatic hydrolysis minimizes separation interferences. Copyright © 2011 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  5. Detoxification of gold nanorods by conjugation with thiolated poly(ethylene glycol) and their assessment as SERS-active carriers of Raman tags

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Boca, Sanda C; Astilean, Simion, E-mail: sboca@phys.ubbcluj.ro, E-mail: sastil@phys.ubbcluj.ro [Nanobiophotonics Center, Institute for Interdisciplinary Research in Nanobioscience, Babes-Bolyai University, Treboniu Laurian Street 42, 400271 Cluj-Napoca (Romania)

    2010-06-11

    We present an effective, low cost protocol to reduce the toxicity of gold nanorods induced by the presence of cetyltrimethylammonium bromide (CTAB) on their lateral surface as a result of the synthesis process. Here, we use thiolated methoxy-poly(ethylene) glycol (mPEG-SH) polymer to displace most of the CTAB bilayer cap from the particle surface. The detoxification process, chemical and structural stability of as-prepared mPEG-SH-conjugated gold nanorods were characterized using a number of techniques including localized surface plasmon resonance (LSPR), transmission electron microscopy (TEM) and surface-enhanced Raman spectroscopy (SERS). In view of future applications as near-infrared (NIR) nanoheaters in localized photothermal therapy of cancer, we investigated the thermal behaviour of mPEG-SH-conjugated gold nanorods above room temperature. We found a critical temperature at around 40 deg. C at which the adsorbed polymer layer is susceptible to undergo conformational changes. Additionally, we believe that such plasmonic nanoprobes could act as SERS-active carriers of Raman tags for application in cellular imaging. In this sense we successfully tested them as effective SERS substrates at 785 nm laser line with p-aminothiophenol (pATP) as a tag molecule.

  6. Detoxification of gold nanorods by conjugation with thiolated poly(ethylene glycol) and their assessment as SERS-active carriers of Raman tags

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boca, Sanda C.; Astilean, Simion

    2010-06-01

    We present an effective, low cost protocol to reduce the toxicity of gold nanorods induced by the presence of cetyltrimethylammonium bromide (CTAB) on their lateral surface as a result of the synthesis process. Here, we use thiolated methoxy-poly(ethylene) glycol (mPEG-SH) polymer to displace most of the CTAB bilayer cap from the particle surface. The detoxification process, chemical and structural stability of as-prepared mPEG-SH-conjugated gold nanorods were characterized using a number of techniques including localized surface plasmon resonance (LSPR), transmission electron microscopy (TEM) and surface-enhanced Raman spectroscopy (SERS). In view of future applications as near-infrared (NIR) nanoheaters in localized photothermal therapy of cancer, we investigated the thermal behaviour of mPEG-SH-conjugated gold nanorods above room temperature. We found a critical temperature at around 40 °C at which the adsorbed polymer layer is susceptible to undergo conformational changes. Additionally, we believe that such plasmonic nanoprobes could act as SERS-active carriers of Raman tags for application in cellular imaging. In this sense we successfully tested them as effective SERS substrates at 785 nm laser line with p-aminothiophenol (pATP) as a tag molecule.

  7. Detoxification of gold nanorods by conjugation with thiolated poly(ethylene glycol) and their assessment as SERS-active carriers of Raman tags

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Boca, Sanda C; Astilean, Simion

    2010-01-01

    We present an effective, low cost protocol to reduce the toxicity of gold nanorods induced by the presence of cetyltrimethylammonium bromide (CTAB) on their lateral surface as a result of the synthesis process. Here, we use thiolated methoxy-poly(ethylene) glycol (mPEG-SH) polymer to displace most of the CTAB bilayer cap from the particle surface. The detoxification process, chemical and structural stability of as-prepared mPEG-SH-conjugated gold nanorods were characterized using a number of techniques including localized surface plasmon resonance (LSPR), transmission electron microscopy (TEM) and surface-enhanced Raman spectroscopy (SERS). In view of future applications as near-infrared (NIR) nanoheaters in localized photothermal therapy of cancer, we investigated the thermal behaviour of mPEG-SH-conjugated gold nanorods above room temperature. We found a critical temperature at around 40 deg. C at which the adsorbed polymer layer is susceptible to undergo conformational changes. Additionally, we believe that such plasmonic nanoprobes could act as SERS-active carriers of Raman tags for application in cellular imaging. In this sense we successfully tested them as effective SERS substrates at 785 nm laser line with p-aminothiophenol (pATP) as a tag molecule.

  8. Assessment of global environmental impacts by utilizing methodology of LCA on solar water heater for dwellings; LCA shuho ni yoru taiyonetsu onsuiki no kankyo fuka hyoka

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kamoshida, J [Shibaura Institute of Technology, Tokyo (Japan); Asai, S [Yazaki Corp., Tokyo (Japan)

    1997-11-25

    CO2 emission was quantified through the life cycle of a solar water heater to assess its environment impact. Although LCA (life cycle assessment) originally sums up I/O of all materials and energy through the whole life cycle of a product to examine environment impact, this assessment was carried out for only CO2. Calculation of CO2 emission assumed a natural circulating solar water heater of 200 l in effective hot water capacity, 2.78m{sup 2} in effective collecting area, and 0.5 in average annual collecting efficiency of total solar radiation, and an auxiliary city gas heat source for compensating insufficient heat quantity. The total CO2 emission in the life cycle of a solar water heater was obtained from an industrial association table assuming the life cycles of 10 and 20 years. CO2 emission was estimated to be 5407.1kg-CO2 and 10665.2kg-CO2 for 10 and 20 years, respectively. CO2 emission due to city gas was largest in the total CO2 emission in the life cycle. As a result, for reduction of CO2 emission due to a solar water heater, improvement of equipment efficiency was most important. 6 refs., 5 figs., 3 tabs.

  9. Assessing the impact of waterborne and dietborne cadmium toxicity on susceptibility risk for rainbow trout

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liao, Chung-Min; Ju, Yun-Ru; Chen, Wei-Yu; Chen, Bo-Ching

    2011-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to use a risk-based integrated-scale toxicological model to examine the impact of waterborne and dietborne cadmium (Cd) toxicity on rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss) susceptibility appraised with recent published data. A probabilistic assessment model was performed to estimate Cd susceptibility risk. The dose-response models were constructed based on two endpoints of % Cd in metabolically active pool (MAP) and susceptibility time that causes 50% effect (ST50). We further constructed an elimination-detoxification-recovery scheme to enhance the model predictive ability. We found a 95% probability of % Cd in gill and liver MAP exceeding 47-49% and it was likely (70% probability) to have exceeded 52-55%, but it was unlikely (30% probability) to have exceeded 56-60%. In contrast to gill and liver, gut had a relative lower Cd susceptibility risk (15-17% Cd in MAP) with a longer ST50. We suggested that the proposed probabilistic risk assessment framework can incorporate the elimination-detoxification-recovery scheme to help government based biomonitoring and bioassessment programs to prevent potential aquatic ecosystems and human health consequences. - Research Highlights: → An integrated-scale toxicological model was used to examine the impact of Cd on rainbow trout. → A probabilistic assessment model was performed to estimate Cd susceptibility risk. → An elimination-detoxification-recovery scheme was constructed to enhance the model predictive ability. → Gut had a relative lower Cd susceptibility risk than that in gill and liver.

  10. Assessing the impact of waterborne and dietborne cadmium toxicity on susceptibility risk for rainbow trout

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Liao, Chung-Min, E-mail: cmliao@ntu.edu.tw [Department of Bioenvironmental Systems Engineering, National Taiwan University, Taipei, 10617, Taiwan (China); Ju, Yun-Ru; Chen, Wei-Yu [Department of Bioenvironmental Systems Engineering, National Taiwan University, Taipei, 10617, Taiwan (China); Chen, Bo-Ching [Department of Post-Modern Agriculture, Mingdao University, Changhua, 52345, Taiwan (China)

    2011-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to use a risk-based integrated-scale toxicological model to examine the impact of waterborne and dietborne cadmium (Cd) toxicity on rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss) susceptibility appraised with recent published data. A probabilistic assessment model was performed to estimate Cd susceptibility risk. The dose-response models were constructed based on two endpoints of % Cd in metabolically active pool (MAP) and susceptibility time that causes 50% effect (ST50). We further constructed an elimination-detoxification-recovery scheme to enhance the model predictive ability. We found a 95% probability of % Cd in gill and liver MAP exceeding 47-49% and it was likely (70% probability) to have exceeded 52-55%, but it was unlikely (30% probability) to have exceeded 56-60%. In contrast to gill and liver, gut had a relative lower Cd susceptibility risk (15-17% Cd in MAP) with a longer ST50. We suggested that the proposed probabilistic risk assessment framework can incorporate the elimination-detoxification-recovery scheme to help government based biomonitoring and bioassessment programs to prevent potential aquatic ecosystems and human health consequences. - Research Highlights: {yields} An integrated-scale toxicological model was used to examine the impact of Cd on rainbow trout. {yields} A probabilistic assessment model was performed to estimate Cd susceptibility risk. {yields} An elimination-detoxification-recovery scheme was constructed to enhance the model predictive ability. {yields} Gut had a relative lower Cd susceptibility risk than that in gill and liver.

  11. A multi-model assessment of regional climate disparities caused by solar geoengineering

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kravitz, Ben; Rasch, Philip J; Singh, Balwinder; Yoon, Jin-Ho; MacMartin, Douglas G; Robock, Alan; Ricke, Katharine L; Cole, Jason N S; Curry, Charles L; Irvine, Peter J; Ji, Duoying; Moore, John C; Keith, David W; Egill Kristjánsson, Jón; Muri, Helene; Tilmes, Simone; Watanabe, Shingo; Yang, Shuting

    2014-01-01

    Global-scale solar geoengineering is the deliberate modification of the climate system to offset some amount of anthropogenic climate change by reducing the amount of incident solar radiation at the surface. These changes to the planetary energy budget result in differential regional climate effects. For the first time, we quantitatively evaluate the potential for regional disparities in a multi-model context using results from a model experiment that offsets the forcing from a quadrupling of CO 2 via reduction in solar irradiance. We evaluate temperature and precipitation changes in 22 geographic regions spanning most of Earth's continental area. Moderate amounts of solar reduction (up to 85% of the amount that returns global mean temperatures to preindustrial levels) result in regional temperature values that are closer to preindustrial levels than an un-geoengineered, high CO 2 world for all regions and all models. However, in all but one model, there is at least one region for which no amount of solar reduction can restore precipitation toward its preindustrial value. For most metrics considering simultaneous changes in both variables, temperature and precipitation values in all regions are closer to the preindustrial climate for a moderate amount of solar reduction than for no solar reduction. (letter)

  12. Effective biotransformation and detoxification of anthraquinone dye reactive blue 4 by using aerobic bacterial granules.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chaudhari, Ashvini U; Paul, Dhiraj; Dhotre, Dhiraj; Kodam, Kisan M

    2017-10-01

    Treatment of textile wastewater containing anthraquinone dye is quite a huge challenge due to its complex aromatic structure and toxicity. Present study deals with the degradation and detoxification of anthraquinone dye reactive blue 4 using aerobic bacterial granules. Bacterial granules effectively decolorized reactive blue 4 at wide range of pH (4.0-11.0) and temperature (20-55 °C) as well as decolorized and tolerated high concentration of reactive blue 4 dye upto 1000 mg l -1 with V max 6.16 ± 0.82 mg l -1 h -1 and K m 227 ± 41 mg l -1 . Metagenomics study evaluates important role of Clostridia, Actinobacteria, and Proteobacterial members in biotransformation and tolerance of high concentrations of reactive blue 4 dye. Up-regulation of xenobiotic degradation and environmental information processing pathways during dye exposure signifies their noteworthy role in dye degradation. Biotransformation of dye was confirmed by significant decrease in the values of total suspended solids, biological and chemical oxygen demand. The metabolites formed after biotransformation was characterized by FT-IR and GC-MS analysis. The reactive blue 4 dye was found to be phytotoxic, cytotoxic and genotoxic whereas its biotransformed product were non-toxic. This study comprehensively illustrates that, bacterial aerobic granules can be used for eco-friendly remediation and detoxification of wastewater containing high organic load of anthraquinone dye. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Economical and environmental assessment of an optimized solar cooling system for a medium-sized benchmark office building in Los Angeles, California

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hang, Yin; Qu, Ming [School of Civil Engineering, Purdue University, CIVL G243, 550 Stadium Mall Drive, West Lafayette, IN 47907 (United States); Zhao, Fu [School of Mechanical Engineering, Purdue University (United States)

    2011-02-15

    This paper presents a systematic energetic, economical, and environmental assessment on a solar cooling system for a medium-sized office building in Los Angeles, California by means of system modeling. The studied solar cooling system primarily consists of evacuated tube solar collectors, a hot water storage tank, a single-effect LiBr-H{sub 2}O absorption chiller, and a gas-fired auxiliary heater. System performance optimization and sensitivity analysis were conducted by varying two major parameters (i.e. storage tank volume and collector area). The results suggest that a trade-off exists between economic performance indicated by the equivalent uniform annual cost (EUAC) and the energetic/environmental performance indicated by the solar fraction and CO{sub 2} reduction percentage, respectively. The cost of carbon footprint reduction was defined and served as an indicator for the overall system performance. Based on this indicator, the optimal system design could be found for a solar cooling system. The approach adapted in this study can be applied to other buildings located in different climate zones to reveal the cost and benefits of solar cooling technologies and facilitate decision-making. (author)

  14. Zinc Detoxification Is Required for Full Virulence and Modification of the Host Leaf Ionome by Xylella fastidiosa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Navarrete, Fernando; De La Fuente, Leonardo

    2015-04-01

    Zinc (Zn) is an essential element for all forms of life because it is a structural or catalytic cofactor of many proteins, but it can have toxic effects at high concentrations; thus, microorganisms must tightly regulate its levels. Here, we evaluated the role of Zn homeostasis proteins in the virulence of the xylem-limited bacterium Xylella fastidiosa, causal agent of Pierce's disease of grapevine, among other diseases. Two mutants of X. fastidiosa 'Temecula' affected in genes which regulate Zn homeostasis (zur) and Zn detoxification (czcD) were constructed. Both knockouts showed increased sensitivity to Zn at physiologically relevant concentrations and increased intracellular accumulation of this metal compared with the wild type. Increased Zn sensitivity was correlated with decreased growth in grapevine xylem sap, reduced twitching motility, and downregulation of exopolysaccharide biosynthetic genes. Tobacco plants inoculated with either knockout mutant showed reduced foliar symptoms and a much reduced (czcD) or absent (zur) modification of the leaf ionome (i.e., the mineral nutrient and trace element composition), as well as reduced bacterial populations. The results show that detoxification of Zn is crucial for the virulence of X. fastidiosa and verifies our previous findings that modification of the host leaf ionome correlates with bacterial virulence.

  15. Reductive detoxification of acrolein as a potential role for aldehyde reductase (AKR1A) in mammals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kurahashi, Toshihiro; Kwon, Myoungsu; Homma, Takujiro; Saito, Yuka; Lee, Jaeyong; Takahashi, Motoko; Yamada, Ken-Ichi; Miyata, Satoshi; Fujii, Junichi

    2014-09-12

    Aldehyde reductase (AKR1A), a member of the aldo-keto reductase superfamily, suppresses diabetic complications via a reduction in metabolic intermediates; it also plays a role in ascorbic acid biosynthesis in mice. Because primates cannot synthesize ascorbic acid, a principle role of AKR1A appears to be the reductive detoxification of aldehydes. In this study, we isolated and immortalized mouse embryonic fibroblasts (MEFs) from wild-type (WT) and human Akr1a-transgenic (Tg) mice and used them to investigate the potential roles of AKR1A under culture conditions. Tg MEFs showed higher methylglyoxal- and acrolein-reducing activities than WT MEFs and also were more resistant to cytotoxicity. Enzymatic analyses of purified rat AKR1A showed that the efficiency of the acrolein reduction was about 20% that of glyceraldehyde. Ascorbic acid levels were quite low in the MEFs, and while the administration of ascorbic acid to the cells increased the intracellular levels of ascorbic acid, it had no affect on the resistance to acrolein. Endoplasmic reticulum stress and protein carbonylation induced by acrolein treatment were less evident in Tg MEFs than in WT MEFs. These data collectively indicate that one of the principle roles of AKR1A in primates is the reductive detoxification of aldehydes, notably acrolein, and protection from its detrimental effects. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  16. Structural assessment of a space station solar dynamic heat receiver thermal energy storage canister

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thompson, R. L.; Kerslake, T. W.; Tong, M. T.

    1988-01-01

    The structural performance of a space station thermal energy storage (TES) canister subject to orbital solar flux variation and engine cold start up operating conditions was assessed. The impact of working fluid temperature and salt-void distribution on the canister structure are assessed. Both analytical and experimental studies were conducted to determine the temperature distribution of the canister. Subsequent finite element structural analyses of the canister were performed using both analytically and experimentally obtained temperatures. The Arrhenius creep law was incorporated into the procedure, using secondary creep data for the canister material, Haynes 188 alloy. The predicted cyclic creep strain accumulations at the hot spot were used to assess the structural performance of the canister. In addition, the structural performance of the canister based on the analytically determined temperature was compared with that based on the experimentally measured temperature data.

  17. Dust impact on surface solar irradiance assessed with model simulations, satellite observations and ground-based measurements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kosmopoulos, Panagiotis G.; Kazadzis, Stelios; Taylor, Michael; Athanasopoulou, Eleni; Speyer, Orestis; Raptis, Panagiotis I.; Marinou, Eleni; Proestakis, Emmanouil; Solomos, Stavros; Gerasopoulos, Evangelos; Amiridis, Vassilis; Bais, Alkiviadis; Kontoes, Charalabos

    2017-07-01

    This study assesses the impact of dust on surface solar radiation focussing on an extreme dust event. For this purpose, we exploited the synergy of AERONET measurements and passive and active satellite remote sensing (MODIS and CALIPSO) observations, in conjunction with radiative transfer model (RTM) and chemical transport model (CTM) simulations and the 1-day forecasts from the Copernicus Atmosphere Monitoring Service (CAMS). The area of interest is the eastern Mediterranean where anomalously high aerosol loads were recorded between 30 January and 3 February 2015. The intensity of the event was extremely high, with aerosol optical depth (AOD) reaching 3.5, and optical/microphysical properties suggesting aged dust. RTM and CTM simulations were able to quantify the extent of dust impact on surface irradiances and reveal substantial reduction in solar energy exploitation capacity of PV and CSP installations under this high aerosol load. We found that such an extreme dust event can result in Global Horizontal Irradiance (GHI) attenuation by as much as 40-50 % and a much stronger Direct Normal Irradiance (DNI) decrease (80-90 %), while spectrally this attenuation is distributed to 37 % in the UV region, 33 % in the visible and around 30 % in the infrared. CAMS forecasts provided a reliable available energy assessment (accuracy within 10 % of that obtained from MODIS). Spatially, the dust plume resulted in a zonally averaged reduction of GHI and DNI of the order of 150 W m-2 in southern Greece, and a mean increase of 20 W m-2 in the northern Greece as a result of lower AOD values combined with local atmospheric processes. This analysis of a real-world scenario contributes to the understanding and quantification of the impact range of high aerosol loads on solar energy and the potential for forecasting power generation failures at sunshine-privileged locations where solar power plants exist, are under construction or are being planned.

  18. Dust impact on surface solar irradiance assessed with model simulations, satellite observations and ground-based measurements

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. G. Kosmopoulos

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available This study assesses the impact of dust on surface solar radiation focussing on an extreme dust event. For this purpose, we exploited the synergy of AERONET measurements and passive and active satellite remote sensing (MODIS and CALIPSO observations, in conjunction with radiative transfer model (RTM and chemical transport model (CTM simulations and the 1-day forecasts from the Copernicus Atmosphere Monitoring Service (CAMS. The area of interest is the eastern Mediterranean where anomalously high aerosol loads were recorded between 30 January and 3 February 2015. The intensity of the event was extremely high, with aerosol optical depth (AOD reaching 3.5, and optical/microphysical properties suggesting aged dust. RTM and CTM simulations were able to quantify the extent of dust impact on surface irradiances and reveal substantial reduction in solar energy exploitation capacity of PV and CSP installations under this high aerosol load. We found that such an extreme dust event can result in Global Horizontal Irradiance (GHI attenuation by as much as 40–50 % and a much stronger Direct Normal Irradiance (DNI decrease (80–90 %, while spectrally this attenuation is distributed to 37 % in the UV region, 33 % in the visible and around 30 % in the infrared. CAMS forecasts provided a reliable available energy assessment (accuracy within 10 % of that obtained from MODIS. Spatially, the dust plume resulted in a zonally averaged reduction of GHI and DNI of the order of 150 W m−2 in southern Greece, and a mean increase of 20 W m−2 in the northern Greece as a result of lower AOD values combined with local atmospheric processes. This analysis of a real-world scenario contributes to the understanding and quantification of the impact range of high aerosol loads on solar energy and the potential for forecasting power generation failures at sunshine-privileged locations where solar power plants exist, are under construction or are

  19. Oxidative stress and DNA repair and detoxification gene expression in adolescents exposed to heavy metals living in the Milazzo-Valle del Mela area (Sicily, Italy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gabriele Pizzino

    2014-01-01

    Conclusions: Continuous exposure at relatively low concentrations of heavy metals is associated with increased oxidative DNA damage and impaired expression of DNA repair and detoxification genes in adolescents.

  20. Simultaneous detoxification and decolorization of molasses spent wash by the immobilized white-rot fungus Flavodon flavus isolated from a marine habitat

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Raghukumar, C.; Mohandass, C.; Kamat, S.; Shailaja, M.S.

    of toxicity of the MSW. The concentration of PAH in the MSW decreased by 68% by day 5 on treatment with the fungus. This is the first report where decolorization of MSW is accompanied by simultaneous detoxification and decrease in PAH content of the MSW. A...

  1. ACTIVATION AND DETOXIFICATION OF UICC CROCIDOLITE - THE EFFECT OF CONVERSION OF OXIDATION-STATE OF IRON ON THE TOXICITY OF THE FIBERS

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    GULUMIAN, M; POLLAK, H

    Detoxification of crocidolite, an asbestiform riebeckite with a coating of ferric salt, converted some of the ferrous ions into ferric ions and therefore decreased the activity of the fibres to catalyse the reduction of oxygen and hydrogen peroxide. The H-2-activation of crocidolite fibres on the

  2. Solar nuclear reactions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kocharov, G

    1978-04-01

    The current state of neutrino solar astrophysics is outlined, showing the contradictions between the experimental results of solar neutrino detection and the standard solar models constructed on the basis of the star structure and development theory, which give values for high-energy neutrino fluxes considerably exceeding the upper experimental limit. A number of hypotheses interpreting the experimental results are summarized. The hypotheses are critically assessed and experiments are recommended for refining or verifying experimental data. Also dealt with are nuclear reactions in the Sun, as is the attempt to interpret the anomalous by high /sup 3/He fluxes from the Sun and the relatively small amounts of solar neutrinos and gamma quanta. The importance is emphasized of the simultaneous and complex measurement of the fluxes of neutrons, gamma radiation, and isotopes of hydrogen, helium, and boron from the Sun as indicators of nuclear reactions in the Sun.

  3. ANALYSIS OF MEASURED AND MODELED SOLAR RADIATION AT THE TARS SOLAR HEATING PLANT IN DENMARK

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tian, Zhiyong; Perers, Bengt; Furbo, Simon

    2017-01-01

    , such as solar radiation, inlet and outlet temperature for the solar collector field, flow rate and pressure, ambient temperature, Wind speed and wind direction were measured. Global horizontal radiation, direct normal irradiation (DNI) and total radiation on the tilted collector plane of the flat plate...... collector field have been measured in Tars solar heating plant. To determine the accuracy of modeled and measured solar radiation in Tars solar heating plant, monthly comparisons of measured and calculated radiation using 6 empirical models have been carried out. Comparisons of measured and modeled total......A novel combined solar heating plant with tracking parabolic trough collectors (PTC) and flat plate collectors (FPC) has been constructed and put into operation in Tars, 30 km north of Aalborg, Denmark in August 2015. To assess the operation performance of the plant, detailed parameters...

  4. The Effect of Significant International Sports Events on Qualified Detoxification Treatment Outcome - Do Drop-Out Rates Change during UEFA European Championship?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yvonne Sofin

    Full Text Available No previous studies have evaluated the influence of significant international sports events on qualified detoxification treatment outcome. This prospective study examines the impact of the 2012 UEFA European Football Championship on inpatient treatment outcome of alcohol dependent patients. Hospital admission and premature drop-out rates of consecutively admitted alcohol dependent patients were determined before, during and immediately after the UEFA Championship in the year 2012. The admission rate of male patients increased significantly after the European Football Championship had ended whereas for female patients, no change in admission rate was found. Daily average discharge rate was calculated. No statistically relevant differences between the treatment days before, during and after the UEFA Championship was found for the discharges. During the tournament, exclusively male patients dropped out. Our results are consistent with an interpretation of an association between European Football Championship and detoxification treatment outcome. Further research to replicate and extend our findings is necessary.

  5. Quality Assessment of Roof Planes Extracted from Height Data for Solar Energy Systems by the EAGLE Platform

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Simon Schuffert

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Due to the increasing scarcity of fossil fuels and the upwards trend in energy costs over time, many countries—especially in Europe—have begun to modify their energy policies aiming to increase that percentage obtained from renewable energies. The EAGLE (FP7 program, European Commission has developed a web-based platform to promote renewable energy systems (RES in the public and private sectors, and to deliver a comprehensive information source for all interested users. In this paper, a comprehensive quality assessment of extracted roof planes suitable for solar energy installations (photovoltaic, solar thermal from height data derived automatically from both LiDAR (Light Detection and Ranging and aerial images will be presented. A shadow analysis is performed regarding the daily path of the sun including the shading effects of nearby objects (chimneys, dormers, vegetation, buildings, topography, etc.. A quality assessment was carried out for both LiDAR and aerial images of the same test sites in UK and Germany concerning building outline accuracy, extraction rate of roof planes and the accuracy of their geometric parameters (inclination and aspect angle, size. The benefit is an optimized system to extract roof planes for RES with a high level of detail, accuracy and flexibility (concerning different commonly available data sources including an estimation of quality of the results which is important for individual house owners as well as for regional applications by governments or solar energy companies to judge their usefulness.

  6. Assessment of skin pigmentation by confocal microscopy: Influence of solar exposure and protection habits on cutaneous hyperchromias.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martini, Ana Paula M; Mercurio, Daiane G; Maia Campos, Patrícia M B G

    2017-09-01

    Cutaneous hyperchromias are disorders of skin pigmentation involving an increase of melanin production and its irregular accumulation in skin cells. It is known that the use of sunscreens helps to prevent changes in the skin pigmentation pattern, but the structural and morphological alterations that occur in the different types of hyperpigmentations need better elucidation. To assess the influence of solar exposure and protection habits on the pattern of skin pigmentation using reflectance confocal microscopy (RCM). Forty volunteers aged 18-39 years with skin hyperpigmentation participated in the study. Skin characterization was performed by imaging techniques and by assessing the habits of solar exposure and protection by applying questionnaires to the volunteers. RCM was used to record sequences of confocal sections at areas of interest and to examine cell shape and brightness in the basal cell layer of the lesion and in normal perilesional skin. Furthermore, high-resolution images were obtained for analysis of the spots. Sunlight influences the number and location of spots as the face of volunteers with higher solar exposure was covered with spots, whereas volunteers with less exposure had fewer spots located in the nose and cheeks region due to greater exposure of these areas to the sun. The data showed the importance of sun protection for preventing changes in the pattern of skin pigmentation, and RCM proved to be an important tool for skin characterization. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  7. Solar-assisted low energy dwellings

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Esbensen, T V

    1980-02-01

    The Zero Energy House Group was formed as a subproject of the CCMS Solar Energy Pilot Study in 1974 by seven participating countries experimenting with solar-assisted low-energy dwellings for temperate and northern European climatic conditions. A Zero Energy House is one in which solar energy is used to meet the reduced energy needs of buildings incorporating various thermal energy conservation features. This final report of the Zero Energy House Group includes brief descriptions of 13 major low-energy dwellings in the participating CCMS countries. An overall assessment of the state-of-the-art in solar-assisted low-energy dwellings is also included.

  8. Detoxification of rats subjected to nickel chloride by a biomaterial-based carbonated orthophosphate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boulila, S; El Feki, A; Oudadesse, H; Kallel, C; El Feki, H

    2014-09-01

    Recently, the therapeutic approaches of the detoxification against the metals (nickel) in the body are the use of biomaterials such as carbonated hydroxyapatite. The aim of this study is therefore to analyze the physiological and physicochemical parameters of strain white rats "Wistar" receiving nickel chloride and to study the protective associative of apatite against adverse effects of this metal, and this in comparison with control rats. Our results showed that the nickel induced in rats an oxidative stress objectified by elevated levels of thiobarbituric acid-reactive substances and conjugated dienes associated with inhibition of the activity of the antioxidant defense system such as glutathione peroxidase, superoxide dismutase and catalase in the liver, kidney, spleen and erythrocyte. Disorders balances of ferric, phosphocalcic, a renal failure and a liver toxicity were observed in rats exposed to nickel. As well as a significant increase in the rate of nickel in the bones and microcytic anemia was revealed. However, the implantation of carbonated hydroxyapatite in capsule form protects rats intoxicated by the nickel against the toxic effects of this metal by lowering the levels of markers of lipid peroxidation and improving the activities of defense enzymes. Our implantation technique is effective to correct ferric balance and phosphocalcic equilibrium, to protect liver and kidney function, to reduce the rate of bone nickel and to correct anemia. They clearly explain the beneficial and protective of our biomaterial which aims the detoxification of rats receiving nickel by substituting cationic (Ca(2+) by Ni(2+)) and anionic (OH(-) by Cl(-)) confirmed by physicochemical characterization like the IR spectroscopy and X-ray diffraction. These techniques have shown on the one hand a duplication of OH(-) bands (IR) and on the other hand the increase of the volume of the apatite cell after these substitutions (X-ray diffraction). Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Masson

  9. Structural considerations for solar installers : an approach for small, simplified solar installations or retrofits.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Richards, Elizabeth H.; Schindel, Kay (City of Madison, WI); Bosiljevac, Tom; Dwyer, Stephen F.; Lindau, William (Lindau Companies, Inc., Hudson, WI); Harper, Alan (City of Madison, WI)

    2011-12-01

    Structural Considerations for Solar Installers provides a comprehensive outline of structural considerations associated with simplified solar installations and recommends a set of best practices installers can follow when assessing such considerations. Information in the manual comes from engineering and solar experts as well as case studies. The objectives of the manual are to ensure safety and structural durability for rooftop solar installations and to potentially accelerate the permitting process by identifying and remedying structural issues prior to installation. The purpose of this document is to provide tools and guidelines for installers to help ensure that residential photovoltaic (PV) power systems are properly specified and installed with respect to the continuing structural integrity of the building.

  10. Assessing current and future techno-economic potential of concentrated solar power and photovoltaic electricity generation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Köberle, Alexandre C.; Gernaat, David E.H.J.; Vuuren, Detlef P. van

    2015-01-01

    CSP and PV technologies represent energy sources with large potentials. We present cost-supply curves for both technologies using a consistent methodology for 26 regions, based on geoexplicit information on solar radiation, land cover type and slope, exploring individual potential and interdependencies. For present day, both CSP and PV supply curves start at $0.18/kWh, in North Africa, South America, and Australia. Applying accepted learning rates to official capacity targets, we project prices to drop to $0.11/kWh for both technologies by 2050. In an alternative “fast-learning” scenario, generation costs drop to $0.06–0.07/kWh for CSP, and $0.09/kWh for PV. Competition between them for best areas is explored along with sensitivities of their techno-economic potentials to land use restrictions and land cover type. CSP was found to be more competitive in desert sites with highest direct solar radiation. PV was a clear winner in humid tropical regions, and temperate northern hemisphere. Elsewhere, no clear winner emerged, highlighting the importance of competition in assessments of potentials. Our results show there is ample potential globally for both technologies even accounting for land use restrictions, but stronger support for RD&D and higher investments are needed to make CSP and PV cost-competitive with established power technologies by 2050. - Highlights: • A consistent assessment of global potential for CSP and PV, with cost-supply curves for 26 regions. • Combined global CSP and PV potential below US$0.35/kWh estimated at 135,128 TWh per year. • Competition for same land-based solar resource implies that potentials cannot be added. • Attractive areas are MENA, Northern Chile, Australia, China and Southwestern USA. • Costs are projected to go down over time, reaching US$0.06–0.11/KWh for attractive sites in 2050

  11. Solar cycle variations in the ionosphere of Mars

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sanchez-Cano, B.; Lester, M.; Witasse, Ol; Blelly, P.L.; Cartacci, M.; Radicella, S.M.; Herraiz, M.

    2016-07-01

    Solar cycle variations in solar radiation create notable changes in the Martian ionosphere, which have been analysed with Mars Express plasma datasets in this paper. In general, lower densities and temperatures of the ionosphere are found during the low solar activity phase, while higher densities and temperatures are found during the high solar activity phase. In this paper, we assess the degree of influence of the long term solar flux variations in the ionosphere of Mars. (Author)

  12. Cataract frequency and subtypes involved in workers assessed for their solar radiation exposure: a systematic review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Modenese, Alberto; Gobba, Fabriziomaria

    2018-04-16

    Cataract is currently the primary cause of blindness worldwide, and one of its main risk factors is solar ultraviolet radiation exposure. According to the localization of lens opacities, three main subtypes of cataract are recognized: nuclear, cortical and posterior subcapsular cataract. One of the main determinants of individual long-term solar radiation exposure is outdoor work. We systematically reviewed scientific literature from the last 20 years to update the recent development of research on the risk of cataract in outdoor workers and on the specific subtypes involved, also investigating the methods applied to evaluate the occupational risk. A total of 15 studies were included in the review, of which 12 showed a positive association. The studies confirm the relationship of long-term occupational solar radiation exposure with cortical cataract and give new support for nuclear cataract, although no substantial new data were available to support a relation with the posterior subcapsular subtype. In most of the studies, the exposure assessment was not adequate to support a representative evaluation of the ocular risk; however, outdoor work is clearly a relevant risk factor for cataract. Further research providing a better evaluation of the relation between solar radiation exposure levels and lens damage in workers is needed and aimed to establish adequate occupational exposure limits and better preventive measures, studying also their effectiveness. © 2018 Acta Ophthalmologica Scandinavica Foundation. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  13. Assessment of distributed solar power systems: Issues and impacts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moyle, R. A.; Chernoff, H.; Schweizer, T. C.; Patton, J. B.

    1982-11-01

    The installation of distributed solar-power systems presents electric utilities with a host of questions. Some of the technical and economic impacts of these systems are discussed. Among the technical interconnect issues are isolated operation, power quality, line safety, and metering options. Economic issues include user purchase criteria, structures and installation costs, marketing and product distribution costs, and interconnect costs. An interactive computer program that allows easy calculation of allowable system prices and allowable generation-equipment prices was developed as part of this project. It is concluded that the technical problems raised by distributed solar systems are surmountable, but their resolution may be costly. The stringent purchase criteria likely to be imposed by many potential system users and the economies of large-scale systems make small systems (less than 10 to 20 kW) less attractive than larger systems. Utilities that consider life-cycle costs in making investment decisions and third-party investors who have tax and financial advantages are likely to place the highest value on solar-power systems.

  14. Identification and assessment of environmental benefits from solar hot water production

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Haralambopoulos, D.; Spilanis, I.

    1997-01-01

    The environmental benefits associated with the utilization of solar energy for hot water production are estimated in this work. The case of a particular country, Greece, and its electricity production system is employed to show the direct consequences of substituting electricity with solar energy for hot water production. The amount of conventional fuel saved, i.e. lignite and oil, is estimated, and the reduction in air pollution is calculated. This allows the calculation of reduction emission factors for solar hot water production to be undertaken. Data, with respect to the materials and the amount of energy necessary for the construction of the solar heaters, are also presented. These can serve as inputs to an energy-environment policy framework in order to lead to reduction of air pollutants like SO 2 , NO X and particulates, and the release of the greenhouse gas CO 2 into the atmosphere. (Author)

  15. Investigation of turbidity effect on exergetic performance of solar ponds

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Atiz, Ayhan; Bozkurt, Ismail; Karakilcik, Mehmet; Dincer, Ibrahim

    2014-01-01

    Highlights: • A comprehensive experimental work on a turbidity of the solar pond. • Percentage transmission evaluation of the turbid and clean salty water of the zones. • Exergy analysis of the inner zones for turbid and clean salty water. • Turbidity effect on exergy efficiencies of the solar pond. • The thermal performance assessment by comparing the exergetic efficiencies of the solar pond. - Abstract: The present paper undertakes a study on the exergetic performance assessment of a solar pond and experimental investigation of turbidity effect on the system performance. There are various types of solar energy applications including solar ponds. One of significant parameters to consider in the assessment of solar pond performance is turbidity which is caused by dirty over time (e.g., insects, leaf, dust and wind bringing parts fall down). Thus, the turbidity in the salty water decreases solar energy transmission through the zones. In this study, the samples are taken from the three zones of the solar pond and analyzed using a spectrometer for three months. The transmission aspects of the solar pond are investigated under calm and turbidity currents to help distinguish the efficiencies. Furthermore, the maximum exergy efficiencies are found to be 28.40% for the calm case and 22.27% with turbidity effects for the month of August, respectively. As a result, it is confirmed that the solar pond performance is greatly affected by the turbidity effect

  16. Contrasting silver nanoparticle toxicity and detoxification strategies in Microcystis aeruginosa and Chlorella vulgaris: New insights from proteomic and physiological analyses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qian, Haifeng; Zhu, Kun; Lu, Haiping; Lavoie, Michel; Chen, Si; Zhou, Zhongjing; Deng, Zhiping; Chen, Jun; Fu, Zhengwei

    2016-12-01

    Several studies have shown that AgNPs can be toxic to phytoplankton, but the underlying cellular mechanisms still remain largely unknown. Here we studied the toxicity and detoxification of AgNPs (and ionic silver released by the AgNPs) in a prokaryotic (Microcystis aeruginosa) and a eukaryotic (Chlorella vulgaris) freshwater phytoplankton species using a combination of proteomic, gene transcription, and physiological analyses. We show that AgNPs were more toxic to the growth, photosynthesis, antioxidant systems, and carbohydrate metabolism of M. aeruginosa than of C. vulgaris. C. vulgaris could detoxify efficiently AgNPs-induced ROS species via induction of antioxidant enzymes (superoxide dismutase or SOD, peroxidase or POD, catalase or CAT, and glutamine synthetase), allowing photosynthesis to continue unabated at growth-inhibitory AgNPs concentration. By contrast, the transcription and expression of SOD and POD in M. aeruginosa was inhibited by the same AgNPs exposure. The present study shed new lights on the AgNPs toxicity mechanisms and detoxification strategies in two freshwater algae of contrasting AgNPs sensitivity. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  17. Reducing readmissions to detoxification: an interorganizational network perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spear, Suzanne E

    2014-04-01

    The high cost of detoxification (detox) services and health risks associated with continued substance abuse make readmission to detox an important indicator of poor performance for substance use disorder treatment systems. This study examined the extent to which the structure of local networks available to detox programs affects patients' odds of readmission to detox within 1 year. Administrative data from 32 counties in California in 2008-2009 were used to map network ties between programs based on patient transfers. Social network analysis was employed to measure structural features of detox program networks. Contextual predictors included efficiency (proportion of ties within a network that are non-redundant) and out-degree (number of outgoing ties to other programs). A binary mixed model was used to predict the odds of readmission among detox patients in residential (non-hospital) facilities (N=18,278). After adjusting for patient-level covariates and continuity of service from detox to outpatient or residential treatment, network efficiency was associated with lower odds of readmission. The impact of network structure on detox readmissions suggests that the interorganizational context in which detox programs operate may be important for improving continuity of service within substance use disorder treatment systems. Implications for future research are discussed. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. Can origin of the 2400-year cycle of solar activity be caused by solar inertial motion?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I. Charvátová

    Full Text Available A solar activity cycle of about 2400 years has until now been of uncertain origin. Recent results indicate it is caused by solar inertial motion. First we describe the 178.7-year basic cycle of solar motion. The longer cycle, over an 8000 year interval, is found to average 2402.2 years. This corresponds to the Jupiter/Heliocentre/Barycentre alignments (9.8855 × 243. Within each cycle an exceptional segment of 370 years has been found characterized by a looping pattern by a trefoil or quasitrefoil geometry. Solar activity, evidenced by 14C tree-ring proxies, shows the same pattern. Solar motion is computable in advance, so this provides a basis for future predictive assessments. The next 370-year segment will occur between AD 2240 and 2610.

    Key words: Solar physics (celestial mechanics

  19. Assessment of dye distribution in sensitized solar cells by microprobe techniques

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Barreiros, M.A., E-mail: alexandra.barreiros@lneg.pt [Laboratório Nacional de Energia e Geologia, LEN/UES, Estrada do Paço do Lumiar, 22, 1649-038 Lisboa (Portugal); Corregidor, V. [IPFN, Instituto Superior Técnico, Universidade de Lisboa, E.N. 10, 2686-953 Sacavém (Portugal); Alves, L.C. [C2TN, Campus Tecnológico e Nuclear, Instituto Superior Técnico, Universidade de Lisboa, E.N. 10, 2686-953 Sacavém (Portugal); Guimarães, F. [Laboratório Nacional de Energia e Geologia, LGM/UCTM, Rua da Amieira, Apartado 1089, 4466-901 S. Mamede de Infesta (Portugal); Mascarenhas, J.; Torres, E.; Brites, M.J. [Laboratório Nacional de Energia e Geologia, LEN/UES, Estrada do Paço do Lumiar, 22, 1649-038 Lisboa (Portugal)

    2015-04-01

    Dye sensitized solar cells (DSCs) have received considerable attention once this technology offers economic and environmental advantages over conventional photovoltaic (PV) devices. The PV performance of a DSC relies on the characteristics of its photoanode, which typically consists of a nanocrystalline porous TiO{sub 2} film, enabled with a large adsorptive surface area. Dye molecules that capture photons from light during device operation are attached to the film nanoparticles. The effective loading of the dye in the TiO{sub 2} electrode is of paramount relevance for controlling and optimizing solar cell parameters. Relatively few methods are known today for quantitative evaluation of the total dye adsorbed on the film. In this context, microprobe techniques come out as suitable tools to evaluate the dye surface distribution and depth profile in sensitized films. Electron Probe Microanalysis (EPMA) and Ion Beam Analytical (IBA) techniques using a micro-ion beam were used to quantify and to study the distribution of the Ru organometallic dye in TiO{sub 2} films, making use of the different penetration depth and beam sizes of each technique. Different 1D nanostructured TiO{sub 2} films were prepared, morphologically characterized by SEM, sensitized and analyzed by the referred techniques. Dye load evaluation in different TiO{sub 2} films by three different techniques (PIXE, RBS and EPMA/WDS) provided similar results of Ru/Ti mass fraction ratio. Moreover, it was possible to assess dye surface distribution and its depth profile, by means of Ru signal, and to visualize the dye distribution in sample cross-section through X-ray mapping by EPMA/EDS. PIXE maps of Ru and Ti indicated an homogeneous surface distribution. The assessment of Ru depth profile by RBS showed that some films have homogeneous Ru depth distribution while others present different Ru concentration in the top layer (2 μm thickness). These results are consistent with the EPMA/EDS maps obtained.

  20. Alternatives for the assessment of the solar resource in Argentina

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Grossi Gallegos, H; Righini, R; Raichijk, C

    2005-01-01

    In Argentina, from 1972 on, several maps were presented which reported the distribution of global solar irradiation received on a horizontal plane placed at ground level and which used different time bases and information quality, whether estimates obtained from correlations established with other meteorological variables or direct irradiation measurements.n a paper by Grossi Gallegos (1998) 12 charts were presented with the monthly distribution of the mean value of daily global irradiation and one with their annual distribution, using all available information up to that moment in Argentina, whether from daily irradiation data obtained with Argentina s Solarimetric Network pyrano meters or sunshine hours measured by the National Meteorological Service (SMN) Network; the error due to the inclusion of estimates and interpolations was evaluated as lower than 10%.Argentina's Solarimetric Network underwent a continuous decrease in the number of operational stations due to the lack of resources for supporting them.In view of this situation, different alternatives were gradually evaluated which would make it possible to improve the already mentioned available global solar irradiation charts.In this sense, a statistical survey of the adjustment of satellite irradiation data available in Internet (in the base known as Surface Solar Energy (SSE) Data Set, Version 1.00) to the ground values.The objective was evaluating the possibility of using them as a complement to the data that had already been used and their application in order to obtain contour maps in homogeneous zones such as the Pampa Humeda, using geostatistical methods for drawing the irradiation isolines.Root-mean-square errors (RMSE) range from 3.7% to 24.8% depending on the inhomogeneity of the area. Nevertheless, the available temporal series are limited in time and thus their climatic representativity can be questioned.Given the shortage of solar irradiation measured data accurate enough to fulfill

  1. Techno-Economic Assessment of Concentrating Solar Power and Wind Hybridization in Jordan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Osama Ayadi

    2018-03-01

    A strong complementarity between wind and direct normal solar radiation was observed in the selected location in Jordan, which emphasizes the attractiveness of the selected hybrid system. The optimal configuration of the CSP-wind hybrid system was obtained with a solar field of a 2.6 solar multiple and a 5 hours energy storage. The achieved capacity factor was 94%, and the LCOE is lower than those resulted for standalone CSP plants.

  2. Final Environmental Assessment for a Solar Power System at Davis-Monthan Air Force Tucson, Arizona

    Science.gov (United States)

    2009-09-01

    to the following factors depending on the corresponding years. Year 2005 through 2009: VOCE = .016 * Trips NOxE = .015 * Trips PM10E = .0022...Trips COE = .262 * Trips Year 2010 and beyond: VOCE = .012 * Trips NOxE = .013 * Trips PM10E = .0022 * Trips COE = .262 * Trips FINAL...ENVIRONMENTAL ASSESSMENT B-8 Solar Power System (SPS) at Davis-Monthan AFB To convert from pounds per day to tons per year: VOC (tons/yr) = VOCE * DPYII/2000

  3. Saving assessment using the PERS in solar power towers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rodriguez-Sanchez, M.R.; Sanchez-Gonzalez, A.; Marugan-Cruz, C.; Santana, D.

    2014-01-01

    Highlights: • The lamination of the solar salt is avoided using the PERS and the main energy sink. • The PERS using salt pump as turbine saves 30–50% of the parasitic power. • The most appropriate configuration is a similar turbine three times one salt pump. • The payback period is around two years, and the economical savings from 1 to 4 M$. - Abstract: The improvement of the solar power tower using solar salt is one of the main goals of researchers. Any method or invention to improve the efficiency of this technology contributes to promote the renewable energies. The use of a Potential Energy Recovery System (PERS) in two different solar power tower plants of 20 and 100 MW has been analysed. The PERS is formed, at least, by one turbine, located at the hot salt pipe coming from the receiver. The turbine is engaged to the shaft of the feed pump, which raises the heat transfer fluid from the cold tank to the receiver. It reduces the parasitic power consumption of the plant, and increases its global efficiency. Different PERS configurations have been modelled. Based on an energetic and economic analysis, the optimal configuration is a geometrical similar turbine of three times the volume flow rate of one feed pump. The PERS has been proven to be a cost reductive and clean tool. For a 100 MW power plant of 30-year lifetime the investment cost is 1.26 M$ and the annual cash flow is 0.89 M$, while for a plant of 20 MW these values are 0.26 M$ and 0.19 M$, respectively

  4. Photo stability Assessment in Amorphous-Silicon Solar Cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gandia, J. J.; Carabe, J.; Fabero, F.; Jimenez, R.; Rivero, J. M.

    1999-01-01

    The present status of amorphous-silicon-solar-cell research and development at CIEMAT requires the possibility to characterise the devices prepared from the point of view of their stability against sunlight exposure. Therefore a set of tools providing such a capacity has been developed. Together with an introduction to photovoltaic applications of amorphous silicon and to the photodegradation problem, the present work describes the process of setting up these tools. An indoor controlled photodegradation facility has been designed and built, and a procedure has been developed for the measurement of J-V characterisation in well established conditions. This method is suitable for all kinds of solar cells, even for those for which no model is still available. The photodegradation and characterisation of some cells has allowed to validate both the new testing facility and method. (Author) 14 refs

  5. Effect of benzo[a]pyrene on detoxification and the activity of antioxidant enzymes of marine microalgae

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shen, Chen; Miao, Jingjing; Li, Yun; Pan, Luqing

    2016-04-01

    The objective of this study was to examine the effect of benzo[a]pyrene (BaP) on the detoxification and antioxidant systems of two microalgae, Isochrysis zhanjiangensis and Platymonas subcordiformis. In our study, these two algae were exposed to BaP for 4 days at three different concentrations including 0.5 μg L-1 (low), 3 μg L-1 (mid) and 18 μg L-1 (high). The activity of detoxification enzymes, ethoxyresorufin O-deethylase (EROD) and glutathione S-transferase (GST) increased in P. subcordiformis in all BaP-treated groups. In I. zhanjiangensis, the activity of these two enzymes increased at the beginning of exposure, and then decreased in the groups treated with mid- and high BaP. The activity of antioxidant enzyme superoxide dismutase (SOD) increased in I. zhanjiangensis in all BaP-treated groups, and then decreased in high BaP-treated group, while no significant change was observed in P. subcordiformis. The activity of antioxidant enzyme catalase (CAT) increased in I. zhanjiangensis and P. subcordiformis in all BaPtreated groups. The content of malondialdehyde (MDA) in Isochrysis zhanjiangensis increased first, and then decreased in high BaP-treated group, while no change occurred in P. subcordiformis. These results demonstrated that BaP significantly influenced the activity of detoxifying and antioxidant enzymes in microalgae. The metabolic related enzymes (EROD, GST and CAT) may serve as sensitive biomarkers of measuring the contamination level of BaP in marine water.

  6. Conifer flavonoid compounds inhibit detoxification enzymes and synergize insecticides.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Zhiling; Zhao, Zhong; Cheng, Xiaofei; Liu, Suqi; Wei, Qin; Scott, Ian M

    2016-02-01

    Detoxification by glutathione S-transferases (GSTs) and esterases are important mechanisms associated with insecticide resistance. Discovery of novel GST and esterase inhibitors from phytochemicals could provide potential new insecticide synergists. Conifer tree species contain flavonoids, such as taxifolin, that inhibit in vitro GST activity. The objectives were to test the relative effectiveness of taxifolin as an enzyme inhibitor and as an insecticide synergist in combination with the organophosphorous insecticide, Guthion (50% azinphos-methyl), and the botanical insecticide, pyrethrum, using an insecticide-resistant Colorado potato beetle (CPB) Leptinotarsa decemlineata (Say) strain. Both taxifolin and its isomer, quercetin, increased the mortality of 1(st) instar CPB larvae after 48h when combined with Guthion, but not pyrethrum. Taxifolin had greater in vitro esterase inhibition compared with the commonly used esterase inhibitor, S, S, S-tributyl phosphorotrithioate (DEF). An in vivo esterase and GST inhibition effect after ingestion of taxifolin was measured, however DEF caused a greater suppression of esterase activity. This study demonstrated that flavonoid compounds have both in vitro and in vivo esterase inhibition, which is likely responsible for the insecticide synergism observed in insecticide-resistant CPB. Crown Copyright © 2015. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  7. Cadmium detoxification strategies in two phytoplankton species: Metal binding by newly synthesized thiolated peptides and metal sequestration in granules

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lavoie, Michel; Le Faucheur, Severine; Fortin, Claude; Campbell, Peter G.C.

    2009-01-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate whether intracellular detoxification mechanisms could explain, at least partially, the different sensitivity to Cd of two freshwater green algae, Chlamydomonas reinhardtii and Pseudokirchneriella subcapitata. Subcellular Cd distribution and the synthesis of metal-binding thiolated peptides were thus examined in both algae exposed to a range of free [Cd 2+ ] from 0.7 to 253 nM. Cadmium partitioning among five subcellular fractions (cellular debris, granules, organelles, heat-denaturable proteins - HDP, and heat-stable proteins - HSP) was determined after differential centrifugation of algal homogenates. Thiolated-peptides, phytochelatins (PC n ) and precursors, were analyzed by HPLC with pre-column monobromobimane derivatization. Cadmium accumulation per cell was 2-4 times greater for C. reinhardtii than for P. subcapitata, yet C. reinhardtii was more resistant to Cd with an EC 50 of 273 nM Cd 2+ [244-333 nM Cd 2+ CI 95% ]) compared to 127 nM Cd 2+ [111-143 nM Cd 2+ CI 95% ] for P. subcapitata. Although [Cd] generally increased in the organelle fractions when free [Cd 2+ ] increased in the experimental media, their relative contributions to the total Cd cellular content decreased, suggesting that partial protection of some metal sensitive sites was achieved by the initiation of cellular detoxification mechanisms. An increase in the proportion of Cd in the granules fraction was observed for C. reinhardtii between 6 and 15 nM Cd 2+ (i.e., at [Cd 2+ ] n , but with longer oligomers for C. reinhardtii. Unknown thiolated compounds (X n ), which were not canonical or hydroxymethyl PC n , were also found in both algae but at much higher concentrations for C. reinhardtii than for P. subcapitata. This difference in thiol synthesis could also be involved in the higher Cd resistance of C. reinhardtii with respect to P. subcapitata. This study demonstrates the importance of metal detoxification strategies in explaining the Cd sensitivity of

  8. Exergo-Ecological Assessment of Waste to Energy Plants Supported by Solar Energy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Barbara Mendecka

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available Hybridization of Waste to Energy (WtE plants with solar facilities can take competing energy technologies and make them complementary. However, realizing the benefits of the solar integration requires careful consideration of its efficiency. To analyse such systems from the point of view of resource efficiency, the pure energy analysis is not sufficient since the quality of particular energy carriers is not evaluated. This work applies the exergo-ecological analysis using the concepts of thermoecological cost (TEC and exergy cost for the performance evaluation of an integrated Solar-Waste to Energy plant scheme, where solar energy is used for steam superheating. Different plant layouts, considering several design steam parameters as well as different solar system configurations, in terms of area of heliostats and size of the thermal storage tank, were studied. The results for the solar integrated plant scheme were compared with the scenarios where superheating is performed fully by a non-renewable energy source. The presented results of exergy cost analysis indicate that the most favorable system is the one supported by non-renewable energy. Such an analysis does not consider the advantage of the use of renewable energy sources. By extending the system boundary to the level of natural resource and applying the thermoecological cost analysis, an opposite result was obtained.

  9. Concentrating Solar Power Projects - Planta Solar 20 | Concentrating Solar

    Science.gov (United States)

    Power | NREL 20 This page provides information on Planta Solar 20, a concentrating solar power Solar's Planta Solar 20 (PS20) is a 20-megawatt power tower plant being constructed next to the PS10 tower and increasing incident solar radiation capture will increase net electrical power output by 10

  10. Solar applications of thermal energy storage. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, C.; Taylor, L.; DeVries, J.; Heibein, S.

    1979-01-01

    A technology assessment is presented on solar energy systems which use thermal energy storage. The study includes characterization of the current state-of-the-art of thermal energy storage, an assessment of the energy storage needs of solar energy systems, and the synthesis of this information into preliminary design criteria which would form the basis for detailed designs of thermal energy storage. (MHR)

  11. Organizational Cultural Assessment of the Solar Energy Research Institute

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    1991-06-01

    An Organizational Cultural Assessment (OCA) was performed at the Solar Energy Research Institute (SERI) by administering an Organizational Culture Survey (OCS) that queried employees on the subjects of organizational culture, various aspects of communications, employee commitment, work group cohesion, coordination of work, environmental concerns, hazardous nature of work, safety and overall job satisfaction. The purpose of the OCS is to measure in a quantitative and objective way the notion of culture;'' that is, the values, attitudes, and beliefs of the individuals working within the organization. In addition, through the OCS, a broad simple of individuals can be reached that would probably not be interviewed or observed during the course of a typical assessment. The OCS also provides a descriptive profile of the organization at one point in time that can then be compared to a profile taken at a different point in time to assess changes in the culture of the organization. All data from the OCS is presented in group summaries, by division, supervisory level, and staff classification. Statistically significant differences between groups are identified and discussed. The most notable finding which emerges from the OCA conducted at SERI is that it is a very homogeneous organization as indicated by the few statistically significant differences found between divisions/offices, staff classifications, and supervisory levels. The results also indicate SERI to be an organization which places a large amount of emphasis on those behaviors which are considered constructive'' (i.e., Humanistic-Encouraging, Affiliative, Achievement, Self-Actualizing) and, although to a lesser extent, on those behaviors which could be regarded as passive/defensive'' (i.e., Approval, Conventional, Dependent, Avoidance). 9 refs., 11 figs., 6 tabs.

  12. High protein diet induces pericentral glutamate dehydrogenase and ornithine aminotransferase to provide sufficient glutamate for pericentral detoxification of ammonia in rat liver lobules

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Boon, L.; Geerts, W. J.; Jonker, A.; Lamers, W. H.; van Noorden, C. J.

    1999-01-01

    The liver plays a central role in nitrogen metabolism. Nitrogen enters the liver as free ammonia and as amino acids of which glutamine and alanine are the most important precursors. Detoxification of ammonia to urea involves deamination and transamination, By applying quantitative in situ

  13. Insight on trace element detoxification in the Black-tailed Godwit (Limosa limosa) through genetic, enzymatic and metallothionein analyses

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lucia, Magali, E-mail: m.lucia33@laposte.net [Littoral, Environnement et Societes (LIENSs), UMR 7266 CNRS-Universite de La Rochelle, 2 rue Olympe de Gouges, 17000 La Rochelle (France); Bocher, Pierrick [Littoral, Environnement et Societes (LIENSs), UMR 7266 CNRS-Universite de La Rochelle, 2 rue Olympe de Gouges, 17000 La Rochelle (France); Cosson, Richard P. [Mer Molecules Sante (MMS), Universite de Nantes, EA 2663, 2 rue de la Houssiniere, BP 92208, 44322 Nantes Cedex 3 (France); Churlaud, Carine; Robin, Frederic; Bustamante, Paco [Littoral, Environnement et Societes (LIENSs), UMR 7266 CNRS-Universite de La Rochelle, 2 rue Olympe de Gouges, 17000 La Rochelle (France)

    2012-04-15

    Trace element concentrations (Ag, As, Cd, Co, Cr, Cu, Fe, Hg, Mn, Ni, Pb, Se, Zn) were investigated in the liver, kidneys, muscle and feathers of 31 black-tailed godwits (Limosa limosa) accidentally killed during catches by mist net in the Pertuis Charentais, Atlantic coast of France. Analyses of carbon and nitrogen stable isotope ratios were carried out in liver, muscle and feathers in order to elucidate dietary patterns and to determine whether differences in diet explained the variation in elemental uptake. This study also aimed to have a preliminary assessment of sub-lethal effects triggered by trace elements through the investigation of gene expressions by quantitative real-time PCR, antioxidant enzyme activities (catalase, superoxide dismutase, glutathione peroxidase), and metallothionein (MT) levels. The results showed that Cr and Ni concentrations in tissues of adults were lower than in juveniles in part because adults may have eliminated these trace elements through moulting. Except for Cd and Ni, trace element concentrations were negatively correlated to the body mass of godwits. Ag, As, Hg and Se concentrations were positively linked with the trophic position of birds. The diet could be considered as a fundamental route of exposure for these elements demonstrating therefore the qualitative linkage between dietary habits of godwits and their contaminant concentrations. Our results strongly suggest that even though trace element concentrations were mostly below toxicity threshold level, the elevated concentrations of As, Ag, Cd, Cu, Fe and Se may however trigger sub-lethal effects. Trace elements appear to enhance expression of genes involved in oxidative stress defence, which indicates the production of reactive oxygen species. Moreover, birds with the highest concentrations appeared to have an increased mitochondrial metabolism suggesting that the fight against trace element toxicity requires additional energetic needs notably to produce detoxification

  14. Insight on trace element detoxification in the Black-tailed Godwit (Limosa limosa) through genetic, enzymatic and metallothionein analyses

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lucia, Magali; Bocher, Pierrick; Cosson, Richard P.; Churlaud, Carine; Robin, Frédéric; Bustamante, Paco

    2012-01-01

    Trace element concentrations (Ag, As, Cd, Co, Cr, Cu, Fe, Hg, Mn, Ni, Pb, Se, Zn) were investigated in the liver, kidneys, muscle and feathers of 31 black-tailed godwits (Limosa limosa) accidentally killed during catches by mist net in the Pertuis Charentais, Atlantic coast of France. Analyses of carbon and nitrogen stable isotope ratios were carried out in liver, muscle and feathers in order to elucidate dietary patterns and to determine whether differences in diet explained the variation in elemental uptake. This study also aimed to have a preliminary assessment of sub-lethal effects triggered by trace elements through the investigation of gene expressions by quantitative real-time PCR, antioxidant enzyme activities (catalase, superoxide dismutase, glutathione peroxidase), and metallothionein (MT) levels. The results showed that Cr and Ni concentrations in tissues of adults were lower than in juveniles in part because adults may have eliminated these trace elements through moulting. Except for Cd and Ni, trace element concentrations were negatively correlated to the body mass of godwits. Ag, As, Hg and Se concentrations were positively linked with the trophic position of birds. The diet could be considered as a fundamental route of exposure for these elements demonstrating therefore the qualitative linkage between dietary habits of godwits and their contaminant concentrations. Our results strongly suggest that even though trace element concentrations were mostly below toxicity threshold level, the elevated concentrations of As, Ag, Cd, Cu, Fe and Se may however trigger sub-lethal effects. Trace elements appear to enhance expression of genes involved in oxidative stress defence, which indicates the production of reactive oxygen species. Moreover, birds with the highest concentrations appeared to have an increased mitochondrial metabolism suggesting that the fight against trace element toxicity requires additional energetic needs notably to produce detoxification

  15. Azoreductase and dye detoxification activities of Bacillus velezensis strain AB.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bafana, Amit; Chakrabarti, Tapan; Devi, Sivanesan Saravana

    2008-01-01

    Azo dyes are known to be a very important and widely used class of toxic and carcinogenic compounds. Although lot of research has been carried out for their removal from industrial effluents, very little attention is given to changes in their toxicity and mutagenicity during the treatment processes. Present investigation describes isolation of a Bacillus velezensis culture capable of degrading azo dye Direct Red 28 (DR28). Azoreductase enzyme was isolated from it, and its molecular weight was found to be 60 kDa. The enzyme required NADH as cofactor and was oxygen-insensitive. Toxicity and mutagenicity of the dye during biodegradation was monitored by using a battery of carefully selected in vitro tests. The culture was found to degrade DR28 to benzidine and 4-aminobiphenyl, both of which are potent mutagens. However, on longer incubation, both the compounds were degraded further, resulting in reduction in toxicity and mutagenicity of the dye. Thus, the culture seems to be a suitable candidate for further study for both decolourization and detoxification of azo dyes, resulting in their safe disposal.

  16. Multiple Pesticides Detoxification Function of Maize (Zea mays) GST34.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Dongzhi; Xu, Li; Pang, Sen; Liu, Zhiqian; Zhao, Weisong; Wang, Chengju

    2017-03-08

    ZmGST34 is a maize Tau class GST gene and was found to be differently expressed between two maize cultivars differing in tolerance to herbicide metolachlor. To explore the possible role of ZmGST34 in maize development, the expression pattern and substrate specificity of ZmGST34 were characterized by quantitative RT-PCR and heterologous expression system, respectively. The results indicated that the expression level of ZmGST34 was increased ∼2-5-fold per day during the second-leaf stage of maize seedling. Chloroacetanilide herbicides or phytohormone treatments had no influence on the expression level of ZmGST34, suggesting that ZmGST34 is a constitutively expressed gene in maize seedling. Heterologous expression in Escherichia coli and in Arabidopsis thaliana proved that ZmGST34 can metabolize most chloroacetanilide herbicides and increase tolerance to these herbicides in transgenic Arabidopsis thaliana. The constitutive expression pattern and broad substrate activity of ZmGST34 suggested that this gene may play an important role in maize development in addition to the detoxification of pesticides.

  17. Detoxification of Fusaric Acid by the Soil Microbe Mucor rouxii.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crutcher, Frankie K; Puckhaber, Lorraine S; Bell, Alois A; Liu, Jinggao; Duke, Sara E; Stipanovic, Robert D; Nichols, Robert L

    2017-06-21

    Fusarium oxysporum f. sp. vasinfectum race 4 (VCG0114), which causes root rot and wilt of cotton (Gossypium hirsutum and G. barbadense), has been identified recently for the first time in the western hemisphere in certain fields in the San Joaquin Valley of California. This pathotype produces copious quantities of the plant toxin fusaric acid (5-butyl-2-pyridinecarboxylic acid) compared to other isolates of F. oxysporum f. sp. vasinfectum (Fov) that are indigenous to the United States. Fusaric acid is toxic to cotton plants and may help the pathogen compete with other microbes in the soil. We found that a laboratory strain of the fungus Mucor rouxii converts fusaric acid into a newly identified compound, 8-hydroxyfusaric acid. The latter compound is significantly less phytotoxic to cotton than the parent compound. On the basis of bioassays of hydroxylated analogues of fusaric acid, hydroxylation of the butyl side chain of fusaric acid may affect a general detoxification of fusaric acid. Genes that control this hydroxylation may be useful in developing biocontrol agents to manage Fov.

  18. Solar energy in buildings: Implications for California energy policy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hirshberg, A. S.; Davis, E. S.

    1977-01-01

    An assessment of the potential of active solar energy systems for buildings in California is summarized. The technology used for solar heating, cooling, and water heating in buildings is discussed. The major California weather zones and the solar energy designs are described, as well as the sizing of solar energy systems and their performance. The cost of solar energy systems is given both at current prices and at prices consistent with optimistic estimates for the cost of collectors. The main institutional barriers to the wide spread use of solar energy are summarized.

  19. Assessment of R290 as a possible alternative to R22 in direct expansion solar assisted heat pumps

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paradeshi Lokesh

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, the energy performance of a direct expansion solar assisted heat pump has been experimentally assessed with R290 as an alternative to R22 to meet the requirements of Kigali agreement. The experiments have been performed at Calicut climatic conditions (latitude of 11.15° N, longitude of 75.49° E during the winter climates of 2016. The performance parameters such as, compressor power consumption, condenser heating capacity, energy performance ratio, and solar energy input ratio were evaluated for energy performance comparison. The results showed that, R290 has 6.8% higher energy performance ratio when compared to R22, with 11% reduction in compressor power consumption. Moreover, R290 has negligible global warming impact and zero ozone depletion potential when compared to R22. The effect of wind speed, collector area, ambient temperature, and solar insolation on the system performance found to be with an average value of 0.85%, 12%, 2.5%, and 4.5% for the selected refrigerants, respectively.

  20. Life cycle assessment of roof integrated solar cell systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Van Brummelen, M.; Nieuwlaar, E.

    1994-01-01

    The research protocol, applied in this report, is designed for use within the energy R and D-context: it provides a framework for finding bottlenecks and opportunities for (new) energy technologies in the context of (energy) resource scarcity and environmental issues. Finding and analyzing these bottlenecks and opportunities is a major objective of this study. A derived objective of this study is to gain experience in using the LCA-framework and the research protocol described earlier, and to evaluate the usefulness of these instruments in helping to find and analyze bottlenecks and opportunities in energy technologies. Photovoltaic solar cell systems (PV systems) are comprised of solar cell modules and a Balance-of-System (BOS): a support structure and power conditioning equipment. In this LCA amorphous silicon cells (a-Si) are considered. For the Netherlands roof-integrated, grid-connected systems are assumed to be the major application of PV in the future. Two cases will be studied. In case 1 a system of 30 m 2 of modules which are connected to the grid via a single inverter are studied. The modules are comprised of a-Si cells and have a conversion efficiency of 10%. Integration into the roof is done with aluminium profiles. In case 2 a system of 30 m 2 a-Si cell modules integrated in the roof with plastic 'tiles' is studied. The modules have an efficiency of 15% and connection to the grid is more or less centralized: 25 systems share an inverter which is connected to the grid. The goal and scope of the LCA and the functional unit are described in chapter 2. In chapter 3 the process tree and descriptions of the distinguished processes are given and the inventory table is drawn up. In chapter 4 the impact assessment is dealt with, followed by a discussion of improvement options in chapter 5. Conclusions and recommendations are given in the chapters 6 and 7 only regarding the environmental aspects. 9 figs., 13 tabs., 4 appendices, 13 refs

  1. Mining the enzymes involved in the detoxification of reactive oxygen species (ROS) in sugarcane.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kurama, Eiko E; Fenille, Roseli C; Rosa, Vicente E; Rosa, Daniel D; Ulian, Eugenio C

    2002-07-01

    Summary Adopting the sequencing of expressed sequence tags (ESTs) of a sugarcane database derived from libraries induced and not induced by pathogens, we identified EST clusters homologous to genes corresponding to enzymes involved in the detoxification of reactive oxygen species. The predicted amino acids of these enzymes are superoxide dismutases (SODs), glutathione-S-transferase (GST), glutathione peroxidase (GPX), and catalases. Three MnSOD mitochondrial precursors and 10 CuZnSOD were identified in sugarcane: the MnSOD mitochondrial precursor is 96% similar to the maize MnSOD mitochondrial precursor and, of the 10 CuZnSOD identified, seven were 98% identical to maize cytosolic CuZnSOD4 and one was 67% identical to putative peroxisomal CuZnSOD from Arabidopsis. Three homologues to class Phi GST were 87-88% identical to GST III from maize. Five GPX homologues were identified: three were homologous to cytosolic GPX from barley, one was 88% identical to phospholipid hydroperoxide glutathione peroxidase (PHGPX) from rice, and the last was 71% identical to GPX from A. thaliana. Three enzymes similar to maize catalase were identified in sugarcane: two were similar to catalase isozyme 3 and catalase chain 3 from maize, which are mitochondrial, and one was similar to catalase isozyme 1 from maize, whose location is peroxisomal subcellular. All enzymes were induced in all sugarcane libraries (flower, seed, root, callus, leaves) and also in the pathogen-induced libraries, except for CuZnSOD whose cDNA was detected in none of the libraries induced by pathogens (Acetobacter diazotroficans and Herbaspirillum rubrisubalbicans). The expression of the enzymes SOD, GST, GPX, and catalases involved in the detoxification was examined using reverse transcriptase-polymerase chain reaction in cDNA from leaves of sugarcane under biotic stress conditions, inoculated with Puccinia melanocephala, the causal agent of sugarcane rust disease.

  2. Microcystin assimilation and detoxification by Daphnia spp. in two ecosystems of different cyanotoxin concentrations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adrianna Wojtal-Frankiewicz

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available Microcystins (MCs, the main group of cyanotoxins, can induce oxidative stress in the cells of aquatic animals. This study evaluated the sensitivity of daphniids – from two ecosystems characterised by different trophic states and habitat levels of cyanobacteria abundance – to microcystin toxicity by analysing oxidative stress parameters and MC detoxification ability. As a study site, we chose the eutrophic Sulejow reservoir, which has regular annual toxic cyanobacterial blooms, and the mesotrophic lake Białe, where low abundances of cyanobacteria have only recently appeared. We found much higher accumulations of MCs in tissues of Daphnia spp. in lake Białe, despite low toxin concentrations in this ecosystem compared with the Sulejow reservoir. Simultaneously, high levels of lipid peroxidation (LPO and a significant decrease in glutathione (GSH were observed in daphniid cells in lake Białe, while LPO levels were generally lower and GSH concentration more stable in the Sulejow reservoir. Catalase activity, which reflects more efficient oxidative protection, was always significantly higher in the reservoir than in lake Białe. These results demonstrate that generations of daphniids from the Sulejow reservoir had more effective antioxidant systems protecting them against the accumulation of cyanobacterial toxins; thereby, they are less susceptible to toxic effects than the daphniids from lake Białe. However, the presence of conjugate forms of microcystins (MC-GSH and MC-Cys in tissues of the studied animals indicated the ability for MC detoxification by daphniids from the Sulejow reservoir and lake Białe. Nevertheless, the high effectiveness of antioxidant systems in daphniids coexisting with cyanobacteria for a long time in the Sulejow reservoir indicates the importance of a selective pressure exerted by toxic cyanobacterial strains that favours the most resistant daphniid genotypes.

  3. Midmarket Solar Policies in the United States: A Guide for Midsized Solar Customers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tian, Tian [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Liu, Chang [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); O' Shaughnessy, Eric [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Mathur, Shivani [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Holm, Alison [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Miller, John [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States)

    2016-09-01

    use solar policies in a dynamic policy environment. The second part of this guide provides a complete, state-by-state inventory of midmarket solar policies for potential customers and developers to use as reference when making policy-based decisions. Although solar policies are dynamic, the profiles provide a framework for assessing policies to build the parameters that could be used to determine feasibility and structure of a solar PV system for midmarket customers and developers.

  4. Solar photovoltaic: a better tomorrow

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Signoret, Stephane

    2016-01-01

    This article comments statements and works performed by a professional body (Enerplan) and a think tank (FTS, France Territoire Solaire) which describe a glorious future for solar photovoltaic energy even though the present situation is rather dull. They foresee ground-based solar plants of more than 1 MW, and assess the potential production for very large, medium and small sized roofs, for domestic installations

  5. Inhibition test of heme detoxification (ITHD as an approach for detecting antimalarial agents in medicinal plants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Mosaddegh

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Background and objectives: There are several methods to assess the in vitro capability of heme inhibitory activity of antimalarial compounds; most of them require some specific equipment or toxic substances and sometimes the needed materials are not accessible. Regarding the necessity and importance of optimizing and standardizing experimental conditions, the present study has intended to improve the in vitro assessment conditions of the β-hematin formation inhibitory activity for screening herbal samples. Methods: Hemin, tween 20, and samples (9:9:2 were incubated in different conditions including: hemin concentration (30, 60, and 120 µg/mL, duration (4, 24, 48, and 72 h, pH of buffer (3.6, 4, 4.4, 4.8, and 5, and temperature (37 and 60 °C in 96-well plates. Also, a total of 165 plant extracts and fractions were tested in the most suitable conditions. Results: The reaction time and the incubation temperature were determined as the critical factors. The effective conditions for β-hematin formation were found to be 60 °C after 24 h incubation. In this method, proper correlations with respect to negative (69% and positive (67% predictive values were obtained in comparison with the anti-plasmodial assay. Antimalarial activities of Pistacia atlantica, Myrtus communis, Pterocarya fraxinifolia, and Satureja mutica were found to correlate significantly with inhibition of the heme detoxification assay. Conclusion: These results support a rapid, simple and reliable approach for selecting and identifying a number of herbs for further related antimalaria investigations.

  6. An integrated QSAR-PBK/D modelling approach for predicting detoxification and DNA adduct formation of 18 acyclic food-borne α,β-unsaturated aldehydes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kiwamoto, R., E-mail: reiko.kiwamoto@wur.nl; Spenkelink, A.; Rietjens, I.M.C.M.; Punt, A.

    2015-01-01

    Acyclic α,β-unsaturated aldehydes present in food raise a concern because the α,β-unsaturated aldehyde moiety is considered a structural alert for genotoxicity. However, controversy remains on whether in vivo at realistic dietary exposure DNA adduct formation is significant. The aim of the present study was to develop physiologically based kinetic/dynamic (PBK/D) models to examine dose-dependent detoxification and DNA adduct formation of a group of 18 food-borne acyclic α,β-unsaturated aldehydes without 2- or 3-alkylation, and with no more than one conjugated double bond. Parameters for the PBK/D models were obtained using quantitative structure–activity relationships (QSARs) defined with a training set of six selected aldehydes. Using the QSARs, PBK/D models for the other 12 aldehydes were defined. Results revealed that DNA adduct formation in the liver increases with decreasing bulkiness of the molecule especially due to less efficient detoxification. 2-Propenal (acrolein) was identified to induce the highest DNA adduct levels. At realistic dietary intake, the predicted DNA adduct levels for all aldehydes were two orders of magnitude lower than endogenous background levels observed in disease free human liver, suggesting that for all 18 aldehydes DNA adduct formation is negligible at the relevant levels of dietary intake. The present study provides a proof of principle for the use of QSAR-based PBK/D modelling to facilitate group evaluations and read-across in risk assessment. - Highlights: • Physiologically based in silico models were made for 18 α,β-unsaturated aldehydes. • Kinetic parameters were determined by in vitro incubations and a QSAR approach. • DNA adduct formation was negligible at levels relevant for dietary intake. • The use of QSAR-based PBK/D modelling facilitates group evaluations and read-across.

  7. Bioremediation and detoxification of hydrocarbon pollutants in soil

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang, Xiao Ping.

    1991-01-01

    As a cleanup alterative, the bioremediation potential of soil, contaminated by spills of three medium petroleum distillates, jet fuel heating oil (No. 2 fuel oil) and diesel fuel was evaluated in controlled-temperature laboratory soil columns and in outdoor lysimeters. Solvent extraction followed by gas chromatography (GC) was used routinely for analysis of fuel residues. Occasionally, class separation and GC-mass spectrometry (GC-MS) were also used in residue characterization. The decrease in toxic residues was evaluated by Microtox and Ames tests. Seed germination and plant growth bioassays were also performed. Persistence and toxicity of the fuels increased in the order of jet fuel < heating oil < diesel fuel. Bioremediation consisting of liming, fertilization and tilling decreased the half-lives of the pollutants in soil by a factor of 2-3. Biodegradation was faster at 27C than at 17 or 37C, but hydrocarbon concentration and soil quality had only modest influence on biodegradation rates and did not preclude successful bioremediation of these contaminated soils within one growing season. Microbial activity measurements by the fluorescein diacetate hydrolysis assay confirmed that microbial activity was the principal force in hydrocarbon elimination. Bioremediation was highly effective in eliminating also the polycyclic aromatic components of diesel fuel. The bioremediation and detoxification of fuel-contaminated soil was corroborated by Microtox, Ames and plant growth bioassays

  8. Collective solar hot water: best practices

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Beutin, Philippe; Grouzard, Patrice; Coroller, Francoise

    2005-10-01

    This brochure, edited by ADEME, the French office for energy management and sustainable development, gives a collection of good practices concerning the selection and installation of collective solar water heating systems in France. A first note presents the Garantie de Resultats solaires (GRS - Guarantee of Solar Results), a kind of certification that gives a long term guarantee of the annual solar energy produced quantity as a function of the hot water consumption. An overview of the collective solar market is given, followed by informations on the financial incentives for feasibility studies and installations, the technical design and optimization of a collective solar project, its economic assessment, etc. Numerous examples of collective of solar heating operations in collective buildings are presented, in various regions of France, in the east (Alsace), the center (Auvergne, Ile de France (Paris region)), and the south (Languedoc-Roussillon, Midi-Pyrennes, PACA), giving technical data, financing, partnerships, etc

  9. Improving Assessment of Lifetime Solar Ultraviolet Radiation Exposure in Epidemiologic Studies: Comparison of Ultraviolet Exposure Assessment Methods in a Nationwide United States Occupational Cohort.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Little, Mark P; Tatalovich, Zaria; Linet, Martha S; Fang, Michelle; Kendall, Gerald M; Kimlin, Michael G

    2018-06-13

    Solar ultraviolet radiation is the primary risk factor for skin cancers and sun-related eye disorders. Estimates of individual ambient ultraviolet irradiance derived from ground-based solar measurements and from satellite measurements have rarely been compared. Using self-reported residential history from 67,189 persons in a nationwide occupational US radiologic technologists cohort, we estimated ambient solar irradiance using data from ground-based meters and noontime satellite measurements. The mean distance-moved from city of longest residence in childhood increased from 137.6 km at ages 13-19 to 870.3 km at ages ≥65, with corresponding increases in absolute latitude-difference moved. At ages 20/40/60/80, the Pearson/Spearman correlation coefficients of ground-based and satellite-derived solar potential ultraviolet exposure, using irradiance and cumulative radiant-exposure metrics, were high (=0.87-0.92). There was also moderate correlation (Pearson/Spearman correlation coefficients=0.51-0.60) between irradiance at birth and at last-known address, for ground-based and satellite data. Satellite-based lifetime estimates of ultraviolet radiation were generally 14-15% lower than ground-based estimates, albeit with substantial uncertainties, possibly because ground-based estimates incorporate fluctuations in cloud and ozone, which are incompletely incorporated in the single noontime satellite-overpass ultraviolet value. If confirmed elsewhere, the findings suggest that ground-based estimates may improve exposure-assessment accuracy and potentially provide new insights into ultraviolet-radiation-disease relationships in epidemiologic studies. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.

  10. Hybrids of Solar Sail, Solar Electric, and Solar Thermal Propulsion for Solar-System Exploration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilcox, Brian H.

    2012-01-01

    Solar sails have long been known to be an attractive method of propulsion in the inner solar system if the areal density of the overall spacecraft (S/C) could be reduced to approx.10 g/sq m. It has also long been recognized that the figure (precise shape) of useful solar sails needs to be reasonably good, so that the reflected light goes mostly in the desired direction. If one could make large reflective surfaces with reasonable figure at an areal density of approx.10 g/sq m, then several other attractive options emerge. One is to use such sails as solar concentrators for solar-electric propulsion. Current flight solar arrays have a specific output of approx. 100W/kg at 1 Astronomical Unit (AU) from the sun, and near-term advances promise to significantly increase this figure. A S/C with an areal density of 10 g/sq m could accelerate up to 29 km/s per year as a solar sail at 1 AU. Using the same sail as a concentrator at 30 AU, the same spacecraft could have up to approx. 45 W of electric power per kg of total S/C mass available for electric propulsion (EP). With an EP system that is 50% power-efficient, exhausting 10% of the initial S/C mass per year as propellant, the exhaust velocity is approx. 119 km/s and the acceleration is approx. 12 km/s per year. This hybrid thus opens attractive options for missions to the outer solar system, including sample-return missions. If solar-thermal propulsion were perfected, it would offer an attractive intermediate between solar sailing in the inner solar system and solar electric propulsion for the outer solar system. In the example above, both the solar sail and solar electric systems don't have a specific impulse that is near-optimal for the mission. Solar thermal propulsion, with an exhaust velocity of the order of 10 km/s, is better matched to many solar system exploration missions. This paper derives the basic relationships between these three propulsion options and gives examples of missions that might be enabled by

  11. Application of diffusion research to solar energy policy issues

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Roessner, J. D.; Posner, D.; Shoemaker, F.; Shama, A.

    1979-03-01

    This paper examines two types of information requirements that appear to be basic to DOE solar-energy-policy decisions: (1) how can the future market success of solar energy technologies be estimated, and (2) what factors influence the adoption of solar energy technologies, and what specific programs could promote solar energy adoption most effectively. This paper assesses the ability of a body of research, referred to here as diffusion research, to supply information that could partially satisfy these requirements. This assessment proceeds, first, by defining in greater detail a series of policy issues that face DOE. These are divided into cost reduction and performance improvement issues which include issues confronting the technology development component of the solar energy program, and barriers and incentives issues which are most relevant to problems of solar energy application. Second, these issues are translated into a series of questions that the diffusion approach can help resolve. Third, various elements within diffusion research are assessed in terms of their abilities to answer policy questions. Finally, the strengths and limitations of current knowledge about the diffusion of innovations are summarized, the applicability of both existing knowledge and the diffusion approach to the identified solar-energy-policy issues are discussed, and ways are suggested in which diffusion approaches can be modified and existing knowledge employed to meet short- and long-term goals of DOE. The inquiry covers the field of classical diffusion research, market research and consumer behavior, communication research, and solar-energy market-penetration modeling.

  12. Final Scientific/Technical Report Solar America Initiative: Solar Outreach and Communications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Weissman, Jane M

    2011-09-10

    The purpose of the Solar America Initiative: Solar Outreach and Communications grant was to promote better communications among stakeholders; address infrastructure barriers to solar energy; and coordinate with industry, the U.S. Department of Energy, national laboratories, states, cities and counties. The Interstate Renewable Energy Council (IREC), a non-profit organization formed in 1982, approached this grant project by establishing a wide range of communication and outreach activities including newsletters, workshops, webinars, model practices and publications; by advancing easy and fair hook-up rules to the utility grid; and by upgrading training based on industry competency standards. The Connecting to the Grid project and the Solar Codes and Standards Public Hearings project offered communication coupled with technical assistance to overcome interconnection, net metering and other regulatory and program barriers. The Workforce Development Project tackled building a strong workforce through quality training and competency assessment programs. IREC's web site, the semi-monthly state and stakeholder newsletter and the metrics report resulted in better communications among stakeholders. Workshops and phone seminars offered technical assistance and kept stakeholders up-to-date on key issues. All of these activities resulted in implementing sustainable solutions to institutional and market barriers to solar energy and getting the right information to the right people.

  13. Hybrid Perovskites: Prospects for Concentrator Solar Cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Qianqian; Wang, Zhiping; Snaith, Henry J; Johnston, Michael B; Herz, Laura M

    2018-04-01

    Perovskite solar cells have shown a meteoric rise of power conversion efficiency and a steady pace of improvements in their stability of operation. Such rapid progress has triggered research into approaches that can boost efficiencies beyond the Shockley-Queisser limit stipulated for a single-junction cell under normal solar illumination conditions. The tandem solar cell architecture is one concept here that has recently been successfully implemented. However, the approach of solar concentration has not been sufficiently explored so far for perovskite photovoltaics, despite its frequent use in the area of inorganic semiconductor solar cells. Here, the prospects of hybrid perovskites are assessed for use in concentrator solar cells. Solar cell performance parameters are theoretically predicted as a function of solar concentration levels, based on representative assumptions of charge-carrier recombination and extraction rates in the device. It is demonstrated that perovskite solar cells can fundamentally exhibit appreciably higher energy-conversion efficiencies under solar concentration, where they are able to exceed the Shockley-Queisser limit and exhibit strongly elevated open-circuit voltages. It is therefore concluded that sufficient material and device stability under increased illumination levels will be the only significant challenge to perovskite concentrator solar cell applications.

  14. Oxidative-stress detoxification and signalling in cyanobacteria: the crucial glutathione synthesis pathway supports the production of ergothioneine and ophthalmate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Narainsamy, Kinsley; Farci, Sandrine; Braun, Emilie; Junot, Christophe; Cassier-Chauvat, Corinne; Chauvat, Franck

    2016-04-01

    Using genetics and metabolomics we investigated the synthesis (gshA and gshB genes) and catabolism (ggt) of the conserved antioxidant glutathione in the model cyanobacterium Synechocystis PCC6803. These three genes are crucial to Synechocystis, in agreement with the proposed invention of glutathione by ancient cyanobacteria to protect themselves against the toxicity of oxygen they produced through photosynthesis. Consistent with their indispensability, gshA and gshB also operate in the production of another antioxidant, ergothioneine, as well as of the glutathione analogues ophthalmate and norophthalmate. Furthermore, we show that glutathione, ophthalmate and norophthalmate are accumulated in cells stressed by glucose, and that the two glutathione-dependent glyoxalase enzymes operate in the protection against glucose and its catabolite methylglyoxal. These findings are interesting because ophthalmate and norophthalmate were observed only in mammals so far, where ophthalmate is regarded as a biomarker of glutathione depletion. Instead, our data suggest that ophthalmate and norophthalmate are stress-induced markers of cysteine depletion triggered by its accelerated incorporation into glutathione, to face its increased demand for detoxification purposes. Hence, Synechocystis is an attractive model for the analysis of the role of glutathione, ergothioneine, ophthalmate and norophthalmate, in signalling and detoxification of oxidants and metabolic by-products. © 2015 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  15. Concentrating Solar Power Projects - Khi Solar One | Concentrating Solar

    Science.gov (United States)

    Power | NREL Khi Solar One This page provides information on Khi Solar One, a concentrating solar power (CSP) project, with data organized by background, parcipants and power plant configuration . Status Date: February 8, 2016 Project Overview Project Name: Khi Solar One Country: South Africa Location

  16. Experimental characterization of a solar cooker with thermal energy storage based on solar salt

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coccia, G.; Di Nicola, G.; Tomassetti, S.; Gabrielli, G.; Chieruzzi, M.; Pierantozzi, M.

    2017-11-01

    High temperature solar cooking allows to cook food fast and with good efficiency. An unavoidable drawback of this technology is that it requires nearly clear-sky conditions. In addition, evening cooking is difficult to be accomplished, particularly on the winter season during which solar radiation availability is limited to a few hours in the afternoon in most of countries. These restrictions could be overcome using a cooker thermal storage unit (TSU). In this work, a TSU based on solar salt was studied. The unit consists of two metal concentric cylindrical vessels, connected together to form a double-walled vessel. The volume between walls was filled with a certain amount of nitrate based phase change material (solar salt). In order to characterize the TSU, a test bench used to assess solar cooker performance was adopted. Experimental load tests with the TSU were carried out to evaluate the cooker performance. The obtained preliminary results show that the adoption of the solar salt TSU seems to allow both the opportunity of evening cooking and the possibility to better stabilize the cooker temperature when sky conditions are variable.

  17. Environmental impacts from the solar energy technologies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tsoutsos, Theocharis; Frantzeskaki, Niki; Gekas, Vassilis

    2005-01-01

    Solar energy systems (photovoltaics, solar thermal, solar power) provide significant environmental benefits in comparison to the conventional energy sources, thus contributing, to the sustainable development of human activities. Sometimes however, their wide scale deployment has to face potential negative environmental implications. These potential problems seem to be a strong barrier for a further dissemination of these systems in some consumers. To cope with these problems this paper presents an overview of an Environmental Impact Assessment. We assess the potential environmental intrusions in order to ameliorate them with new technological innovations and good practices in the future power systems. The analysis provides the potential burdens to the environment, which include - during the construction, the installation and the demolition phases, as well as especially in the case of the central solar technologies - noise and visual intrusion, greenhouse gas emissions, water and soil pollution, energy consumption, labour accidents, impact on archaeological sites or on sensitive ecosystems, negative and positive socio-economic effects

  18. Targeting of detoxification potential of microorganisms and plants for cleaning environment polluted by organochlorine pesticides

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M.V. Kurashvili

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available The goal of presented work is the development phytoremediation method targeted to cleaning environment polluted with organochlorine pesticides, based on joint application of specially selected plants and microorganisms. Initial degradation of pesticides carry out by microorganisms; the forming dehalogenated products easily uptake by the plants and undergo oxidative degradation via plant detoxification enzymes. This approach can complete degradation of toxicants and their mineralization into nontoxic compounds. In the presented work the results of using selected strains from genera Pseudomonas and plants phytoremediators in the model experiments are given. It has been shown that the using developed technological approach effectively decreased degree of pollution in artificially polluted soil samples.

  19. Solar Schools Assessment and Implementation Project: Financing Options for Solar Installations on K-12 Schools

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Coughlin, J.; Kandt, A.

    2011-10-01

    This report focuses on financial options developed specifically for renewable energy and energy efficiency projects in three California public school districts. Solar energy systems installed on public schools have a number of benefits that include utility bill savings, reductions in greenhouse gas emissions (GHGs) and other toxic air contaminants, job creation, demonstrating environmental leadership, and creating learning opportunities for students. In the 2011 economic environment, the ability to generate general-fund savings as a result of reducing utility bills has become a primary motivator for school districts trying to cut costs. To achieve meaningful savings, the size of the photovoltaic (PV) systems installed (both individually on any one school and collectively across a district) becomes much more important; larger systems are required to have a material impact on savings. Larger PV systems require a significant financial commitment and financing therefore becomes a critical element in the transaction. In simple terms, school districts can use two primary types of ownership models to obtain solar installations and cost savings across a school district. The PV installations can be financed and owned directly by the districts themselves. Alternatively, there are financing structures whereby another entity, such as a solar developer or its investors, actually own and operate the PV systems on behalf of the school district. This is commonly referred to as the 'third-party ownership model.' Both methods have advantages and disadvantages that should be weighed carefully.

  20. Concentrating Solar Power Projects - Nevada Solar One | Concentrating Solar

    Science.gov (United States)

    Power | NREL Nevada Solar One This page provides information on Nevada Solar One, a concentrating solar power (CSP) project, with data organized by background, participants, and power plant configuration. Acciona Energy's Nevada Solar One is the third largest CSP plant in the world and the first plant

  1. Aesthetic impact assessment of solar power plants. An objective and a subjective approach

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Torres-Sibille, Ana del Carmen; Cloquell-Ballester, Vicente-Agustin; Cloquell-Ballester, Victor-Andres; Artacho Ramirez, Miguel Angel [Dpto. Proyectos de Ingenieria, Valencia University of Technology, Camino de Vera s/n, 46022 Valencia (Spain)

    2009-06-15

    Solar energy for the production of electric energy is one source of renewable energy which is experiencing most development in recent years. In countries with high solar radiation indices, as is the case of Spain, expectations of installation of large solar power plants are increasing. Most solar power plants are located in rural environments, where the landscape has remained practically unaltered ever since extensive agriculture was introduced. Because of this, one of the most significant environmental impacts of this type of installation is the visual impact derived from the alteration of the landscape. In this work, an indicator is proposed for the quantification of the objective aesthetic impact, based on four criteria: visibility, colour, fractality and concurrence between fixed and mobile panels. The relative importance of each variable and the corresponding value functions are calculated using expert contribution. A study of the subjective aesthetic impact is then carried out using the semantic differential method, to obtain the perception of a sample of individuals of the initial landscapes and of the landscapes altered through the installation of a solar power plant. The indicator and the study of public perception are applied to five real solar power plants, to test their reliability. Subsequently, a different group of individuals is used to determine preferences between the five solar power plants. The study proves that the combined use of objective indicator and subjective study, faithfully explains user preferences corresponding to the combined comparisons of the five cases. It is concluded that the tools proposed for the evaluation of the aesthetic impact of solar power plants are useful for the selection of optimal plant location and most adequate use of panel technology, to minimise aesthetic impact. (author)

  2. [A New Way to Look Up. Solar Retinopathy Risks and Methods of Prevention Prior to the 2015 Solar Eclipse].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsatsos, M; MacGregor, C; Gousia, D; Moschos, M; Detorakis, E

    2017-06-01

    A solar eclipse is an impressive natural phenomenon that was last experienced in Europe in 2006. Last year, on March 20th 2015, a solar eclipse was visible in much of Europe. Solar retinopathy is a recognised potentially sight threatening condition that has been associated with direct or unprotected sun gazing. Public education has been shown to improve behaviour and attitudes that could influence the development of solar retinopathy during an eclipse. We have performed a study through newspapers prior to the 2015 solar eclipse in different European countries, in order to determine the level of public health awareness and attitudes to protection. Methods: 31 online editions of national newspapers were reviewed from six countries where the eclipse was most visible. Solar retinopathy, potential warnings, safe methods of viewing an eclipse and assessment of use and dangers of modern technologies were assessed. Results: All 25 newspapers examined mentioned the solar eclipse and risk to eyesight. Safe methods for viewing the eclipse were discussed in all newspapers. Eclipse eyeglasses were mentioned in 29 of the 31 newspapers reviewed. Children were identified as a high-risk group but advice for children viewing the eclipse varied between countries. Conclusion: Since the solar eclipse of 2006, there has been an increase in the level of education available in the media. Although the safe methods for viewing an eclipse have not changed in recent years, emerging technologies, such as camera phones and the "selfie" trend, have potentially increased the risk of eclipse-associated retinopathy. Georg Thieme Verlag KG Stuttgart · New York.

  3. 77 FR 4989 - Turning Point Solar LLC: Notice of Availability of an Environmental Assessment

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-02-01

    ... monocrystalline photovoltaic panels mounted on fixed solar racking equipment and the construction of access roads... DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE Rural Utilities Service Turning Point Solar LLC: Notice of Availability... possible financial assistance for a proposal by Turning Point Solar LCC (TPS). The proposal consists of...

  4. Dye decolorization and detoxification potential of Ca-alginate beads immobilized manganese peroxidase.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bilal, Muhammad; Asgher, Muhammad

    2015-12-10

    In view of compliance with increasingly stringent environmental legislation, an eco-friendly treatment technology of industrial dyes and effluents is a major environmental challenge in the color industry. In present study, a promising and eco-friendly entrapment approach was adopted to immobilize purified manganese peroxidase (MnP) produced from an indigenous strain of Ganoderma lucidum IBL-05 on Ca-alginate beads. The immobilized MnP was subsequently used for enhanced decolorization and detoxification of textile reactive dyes). MnP isolated from solid-state culture of G. lucidum IBL-05, presented highest immobilization yield (83.9 %) using alginate beads prepared at optimized conditions of 4 % (w/v) sodium alginate, 2 % (w/v) Calcium chloride (CaCl2) and 0.5 mg/ml enzyme concentration. Immobilization of MnP enhanced optimum temperature but caused acidic shift in optimum pH of the enzyme. The immobilized MnP showed optimum activity at pH 4.0 and 60 °C as compared to pH 5.0 and 35 °C for free enzyme. The kinetic parameters K(m) and V(max) of MnP were significantly improved by immobilization. The enhanced catalytic potential of immobilized MnP led to 87.5 %, 82.1 %, 89.4 %, 95.7 % and 83 % decolorization of Sandal-fix Red C4BLN, Sandal-fix Turq Blue GWF, Sandal-fix Foron Blue E2BLN, Sandal-fix Black CKF and Sandal-fix Golden Yellow CRL dyes, respectively. The insolubilized MnP was reusable for 7 repeated cycles in dye color removal. Furthermore, immobilized MnP also caused a significant reduction in biochemical oxygen demand (BOD) (94.61-95.47 %), chemical oxygen demand (COD) (91.18-94.85 %), and total organic carbon (TOC) (89.58-95 %) of aqueous dye solutions. G. lucidum MnP was immobilized in Ca-alginate beads by entrapment method to improve its practical effectiveness. Ca-alginate bound MnP was catalytically more vigorous, thermo-stable, reusable and worked over wider ranges of pH and temperature as compared to its free counterpart. Results of cytotoxicity like

  5. Performance assessment of a new solar energy-based multigeneration system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ozlu, Sinan; Dincer, Ibrahim

    2016-01-01

    In this study, a thermodynamic analysis is conducted on a multigeneration energy system based on renewable energy sources. The proposed system is developed for residential applications, including individual- and multi-building complexes, utilizing solar energy to produce useful outputs, namely electricity, heat, fresh water and hydrogen. Hydrogen is used for the purpose of storing energy to offset the mismatch between demand and supply when dealt with renewables, such as solar energy. The system is modeled thermodynamically to obtain the optimal energy and exergy efficiencies, heat and work outputs for the overall system. Moreover, greenhouse gas emissions caused by conventional energy systems utilized for the same outputs are calculated and compared with the studied systems. A solar collector area of 24 m 2 is considered for the present system and its analysis. The maximum energy efficiency is 36% and the maximum exergy efficiency is 44%. The total work output for electricity is 116 kW, and hence the CO 2 reduction achieved by this system is 476 tons per year. It can produce 0.04 kg/s desalinated water. The optimum number of suites, as an application for a building complex, which can be sustained with the proposed system is determined as 106 suites. - Highlights: • A solar energy based multigeneration system is proposed. • Energy, exergy efficiencies, heat, work outputs of the system are determined. • Optimization is done on efficiencies and work output. • Domestic heating, desalination, hydrogen, electricity is obtained. • Overall system energy and exergy efficiency is found to be 36% and 44%.

  6. Solar Energy Prospecting in Remote Alaska: An Economic Analysis of Solar Photovoltaics in the Last Frontier State

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schwabe, Paul [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States)

    2016-02-11

    This report provides a high-level examination of the potential economics of solar energy in rural Alaska across a geographically diverse sample of remote Alaska Native villages throughout the state. It analyzes at a high level what combination of diesel fuel prices, solar resource quality, and photovoltaic (PV) system costs could lead to an economically competitive moderate-scale PV installation at a remote village. The goal of this analysis is to provide a baseline economic assessment to highlight the possible economic opportunities for solar PV in rural Alaska for both the public and private sectors.

  7. A Groundwater Model to Assess Water Resource Impacts at the Brenda Solar Energy Zone

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Quinn, John [Argonne National Lab. (ANL), Argonne, IL (United States); Carr, Adrianne E. [Argonne National Lab. (ANL), Argonne, IL (United States); Greer, Chris [Argonne National Lab. (ANL), Argonne, IL (United States); Bowen, Esther E. [Argonne National Lab. (ANL), Argonne, IL (United States)

    2013-12-01

    The purpose of this study is to develop a groundwater flow model to examine the influence of potential groundwater withdrawal to support utility-scale solar energy development at the Brenda Solar Energy Zone (SEZ), as a part of the Bureau of Land Management’s (BLM’s) Solar Energy Program.

  8. Linkages from DOE's Solar Photovoltaic R&D to Commercial Renewable Power from Solar Energy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ruegg, Rosalie [TIA Consulting Inc., Emerald Isle, NC (United States); Thomas, Patrick [1790 Analytics LLC., Haddonfield, NJ (United States)

    2011-04-01

    DOE's Solar Photovoltaic R&D Subprogram promotes the development of cost-effective systems for directly converting solar energy into electricity for residential, commercial, and industrial applications. This study was commissioned to assess the extent to which the knowledge outputs of R&D funded by the DOE Solar PV subprogram are linked to downstream developments in commercial renewable power. A second purpose was to identify spillovers of the resulting knowledge to other areas of application. A third purpose was to lend support to a parallel benefit-cost study by contributing evidence of attribution of benefits to DOE.

  9. Effects of stratospheric perturbations on the solar radiation budget

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Luther, F.M.

    1978-04-01

    The changes in solar absorption and in local heating rates due to perturbations to O 3 and NO 2 concentrations caused by stratospheric injection of NO/sub x/ and CFM pollutants are assessed. The changes in species concentration profiles are derived from theoretical calculations using a transport-kinetics model. Because of significant changes in our understanding of stratospheric chemistry during the past year, the assessment of the effect of stratospheric perturbations on the solar radiation budget differs from previous assessments. Previously, a reduction in O 3 due to an NO/sub x/ injection caused a net decrease in the gaseous solar absorption;now the same perturbation leads to a net increase. The implication of these changes on the surface temperature is also discussed

  10. Towards Building Reliable, High-Accuracy Solar Irradiance Database For Arid Climates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Munawwar, S.; Ghedira, H.

    2012-12-01

    Middle East's growing interest in renewable energy has led to increased activity in solar technology development with the recent commissioning of several utility-scale solar power projects and many other commercial installations across the Arabian Peninsula. The region, lying in a virtually rainless sunny belt with a typical daily average solar radiation exceeding 6 kWh/m2, is also one of the most promising candidates for solar energy deployment. However, it is not the availability of resource, but its characterization and reasonably accurate assessment that determines the application potential. Solar irradiance, magnitude and variability inclusive, is the key input in assessing the economic feasibility of a solar system. The accuracy of such data is of critical importance for realistic on-site performance estimates. This contribution aims to identify the key stages in developing a robust solar database for desert climate by focusing on the challenges that an arid environment presents to parameterization of solar irradiance attenuating factors. Adjustments are proposed based on the currently available resource assessment tools to produce high quality data for assessing bankability. Establishing and maintaining ground solar irradiance measurements is an expensive affair and fairly limited in time (recently operational) and space (fewer sites) in the Gulf region. Developers within solar technology industry, therefore, rely on solar radiation models and satellite-derived data for prompt resource assessment needs. It is imperative that such estimation tools are as accurate as possible. While purely empirical models have been widely researched and validated in the Arabian Peninsula's solar modeling history, they are known to be intrinsically site-specific. A primal step to modeling is an in-depth understanding of the region's climate, identifying the key players attenuating radiation and their appropriate characterization to determine solar irradiance. Physical approach

  11. The prospects for cost competitive solar PV power

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Reichelstein, Stefan; Yorston, Michael

    2013-01-01

    New solar Photovoltaic (PV) installations have grown globally at a rapid pace in recent years. We provide a comprehensive assessment of the cost competitiveness of this electric power source. Based on data available for the second half of 2011, we conclude that utility-scale PV installations are not yet cost competitive with fossil fuel power plants. In contrast, commercial-scale installations have already attained cost parity in the sense that the generating cost of power from solar PV is comparable to the retail electricity prices that commercial users pay, at least in certain parts of the U.S. This conclusion is shown to depend crucially on both the current federal tax subsidies for solar power and an ideal geographic location for the solar installation. Projecting recent industry trends into the future, we estimate that utility-scale solar PV facilities are on track to become cost competitive by the end of this decade. Furthermore, commercial-scale installations could reach “grid parity” in about ten years, if the current federal tax incentives for solar power were to expire at that point. - Highlights: ► Assessment of the cost competitiveness of new solar Photovoltaic (PV) installations. ► Utility-scale PV installations are not yet cost competitive with fossil fuel power plants. ► Commercial-scale installations have already attained cost parity in certain parts of the U.S. ► Utility-scale solar PV facilities are on track to become cost competitive by the end of this decade

  12. Solar Sail Propulsion Technology Readiness Level Database

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adams, Charles L.

    2004-01-01

    The NASA In-Space Propulsion Technology (ISPT) Projects Office has been sponsoring 2 solar sail system design and development hardware demonstration activities over the past 20 months. Able Engineering Company (AEC) of Goleta, CA is leading one team and L Garde, Inc. of Tustin, CA is leading the other team. Component, subsystem and system fabrication and testing has been completed successfully. The goal of these activities is to advance the technology readiness level (TRL) of solar sail propulsion from 3 towards 6 by 2006. These activities will culminate in the deployment and testing of 20-meter solar sail system ground demonstration hardware in the 30 meter diameter thermal-vacuum chamber at NASA Glenn Plum Brook in 2005. This paper will describe the features of a computer database system that documents the results of the solar sail development activities to-date. Illustrations of the hardware components and systems, test results, analytical models, relevant space environment definition and current TRL assessment, as stored and manipulated within the database are presented. This database could serve as a central repository for all data related to the advancement of solar sail technology sponsored by the ISPT, providing an up-to-date assessment of the TRL of this technology. Current plans are to eventually make the database available to the Solar Sail community through the Space Transportation Information Network (STIN).

  13. Photovoltaic Thermal panels in collective thermal solar systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Elswijk, M.J.; Strootman, K.J.; Jong, M.J.M.; De Lange, E.T.N.; Smit, W.F.

    2003-12-01

    A feasibility study has been carried out to assess the options to apply photovoltaic/thermal panels (PVT-panels) in collective solar thermal systems in urban areas in the Netherlands. The study was focused on the technical (architecture and installations) and the economical feasibility of collective PVT-systems in comparison with conventional solar thermal systems and combinations of photovoltaic (PV) panels and solar collectors. The results of the study also give insight into cost and the market for PVT-panels. Three case studies in which collective solar collector systems were applied are analyzed again by simulating the installation of a PVT-panels system and a separate solar thermal PV system [nl

  14. Solar power satellites: Commercialization and socio-economic impacts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Storelli, V.

    1993-01-01

    Commercialization prospects for solar power satellites are assessed with reference to their possible impacts on the viability of the fossil fuel market and on international energy and environmental policies. The technical aspects which are examined include: solar panel sizing in relation to solar cell efficiency; the development of point-contact solar cell technology; the feasibility of the use of lunar materials; microwave transmission from the moon; optimum satellite positioning; the use of robots for in-space satellite assembly; satellite transmitted power for hydrogen production and storage; marketable product estimated development time

  15. Recipe for success in solar power marketing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Frauenfelder, S.

    2000-01-01

    This article presents the results of a campaign run jointly by the Swiss Federal Office of Energy and the Association of Swiss Electricity Utilities called 'Solar Power from your Utility'. An analysis of solar power marketing efforts made by ten utilities is presented. The results of assessments of these market measures made by solar power customers and non-customers are presented and questions of pricing, product-image and product-confidence are discussed. Finally, suggestions for the optimisation of the marketing measures are made

  16. Life cycle assessment of grid-connected photovoltaic power generation from crystalline silicon solar modules in China

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hou, Guofu; Sun, Honghang; Jiang, Ziying; Pan, Ziqiang; Wang, Yibo; Zhang, Xiaodan; Zhao, Ying; Yao, Qiang

    2016-01-01

    Graphical abstract: Comparison of life cycle GHG emissions of various power sources. - Highlights: • The LCA study of grid-connected PV generation with silicon solar modules in China has been performed. • The energy payback times range from 1.6 to 2.3 years. • The GHG emissions are in the range of 60.1–87.3 g-CO_2,eq/kW h. • The PV manufacturing process occupied about 85% or higher of total energy usage and total GHG emission. • The SoG-Si production process accounted for more than 35% of total energy consumption and GHG emissions. - Abstract: The environmental impacts of grid-connected photovoltaic (PV) power generation from crystalline silicon (c-Si) solar modules in China have been investigated using life cycle assessment (LCA). The life cycle inventory was first analyzed. Then the energy consumption and greenhouse gas (GHG) emission during every process were estimated in detail, and finally the life-cycle value was calculated. The results showed that the energy payback time (T_E_P_B_T) of grid-connected PV power with crystalline silicon solar modules ranges from 1.6 to 2.3 years, while the GHG emissions now range from 60.1 to 87.3 g-CO_2,eq/kW h depending on the installation methods. About 84% or even more of the total energy consumption and total GHG emission occupied during the PV manufacturing process. The solar grade silicon (SoG-Si) production is the most energy-consuming and GHG-emitting process, which accounts for more than 35% of the total energy consumption and the total GHG emission. The results presented in this study are expected to provide useful information to enact reasonable policies, development targets, as well as subsidies for PV technology in China.

  17. Fermentation of lignocellulosic hydrolysates: Inhibition and detoxification

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Palmqvist, E.

    1998-02-01

    The ethanol yield and productivity obtained during fermentation of lignocellulosic hydrolysates is decreased due to the presence of inhibiting compounds, such as weak acids, furans and phenolic compounds produced during hydrolysis. Evaluation of the effect of various biological, physical and chemical detoxification treatments by fermentation assays using Saccharomyces cerevisiae was used to characterise inhibitors. Inhibition of fermentation was decreased after removal of the non-volatile compounds, pre-fermentation by the filamentous fungus Trichoderma reesei, treatment with the lignolytic enzyme laccase, extraction with ether, and treatment with alkali. Yeast growth in lignocellulosic hydrolysates was inhibited below a certain fermentation pH, most likely due to high concentrations of undissociated weak acids. The effect of individual compounds were studied in model fermentations. Furfural is reduced to furfuryl alcohol by yeast dehydrogenases, thereby affecting the intracellular redox balance. As a result, acetaldehyde accumulated during furfural reduction, which most likely contributed to inhibition of growth. Acetic acid (10 g 1{sup -1}) and furfural (3 g 1{sup -1}) interacted antagonistically causing decreased specific growth rate, whereas no significant individual or interaction effects were detected by the lignin-derived compound 4-hydroxybenzoic acid (2 g 1{sup -1}). By maintaining a high cell mass density in the fermentor, the process was less sensitive to inhibitors affecting growth and to fluctuations in fermentation pH, and in addition the depletion rate of bioconvertible inhibitors was increased. A theoretical ethanol yield and high productivity was obtained in continuous fermentation of spruce hydrolysate when the cell mass concentration was maintained at a high level by applying cell recirculation 164 refs, 16 figs, 5 tabs

  18. Global solar radiation: Multiple on-site assessments in Abu Dhabi, UAE

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    El Chaar, Lana; Lamont, Lisa A. [Petroleum Institute, Electrical Engineering Department, P.O. Box 2533, Abu Dhabi (United Arab Emirates)

    2010-07-15

    Renewable energy technology and in particular solar energy is being considered worldwide due to the fluctuations in oil prices, global warming and the growing demand for energy supply. This paper investigates the climate conditions available in the United Arab Emirates (UAE) in particular Abu Dhabi to implement Photovoltaic (PV) technology. Measured solar radiation was analyzed for five different geographical locations to ensure the suitability of this region. Hourly, daily and monthly global horizontal irradiation (GHI) were collected and processed. Statistical methods were used to evaluate the computed GHI and showed high values especially during the summer period. Moreover, clearness index was calculated to investigate the frequency of cloudy sky days and results have shown a high percentage of clear days during the year. This paper highlights a promising future for Abu Dhabi in the solar energy sector and in particular Photovoltaic (PV) technology. (author)

  19. Summary report on the Y-12 Sludge Detoxification Demonstration project

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jolley, R.L.; Hollenbeck, P.E.; Kennerly, J.M.; Singh, S.P.N.

    1994-07-01

    The Y-12 Sludge Detoxification Demonstration was conducted in late 1988 at the Oak Ridge Gaseous Diffusion Plant (subsequently renamed the K-25 Site). The erstwhile Waste Management Technology Center (WMTC) managed the conduct of this waste treatment technology to assist the US Department of Energy/Oak Ridge Operations (DOE/ORO) in implementing the DOE Model. This demonstration was the first project selected by the Hazardous Waste Remedial Actions Program (HAZWRAP)(and funded by DOE) in which a private-sector vendor was contracted to demonstrate an innovative treatment process for treating some of the Oak Ridge Site's radioactive mixed wastes to enable their environmentally compliant disposal. Chem-Nuclear Systems, Inc. (CNSI) was the private-sector vendor selected to demonstrate its X*TRAX trademark process. Briefly, the X*TRAX trademark process consisted of thermally treating the sludge in an inert atmosphere (to remove the volatile components) to yield a dry residue (containing the nonvolatilized sludge components) and condensed liquids. The dry residue can then be immobilized in cementitious matrix for delisting and disposal in an industrial landfill; the condensed liquids can be disposed in, for example, an incinerator

  20. Empirical analysis of the solar incentive policy for Tennessee solar value chain

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sawhney, Rapinder; Thakur, Kaveri; Venkatesan, Bharadwaj; Ji, Shuguang; Upreti, Girish; Sanseverino, John

    2014-01-01

    Highlights: • Tennessee solar value chain (TNSVC) is modeled to analyze effect of policy on demand. • TNSVC model replicates realistic scenarios to gauge the economic impact on state. • Simulation study determines that the TNSVC capacity is greater than demand. • Direct cash incentives have greater impact on demand than indirect incentives. • The model portrays a holistic approach to assist strategic energy policy analysis. - Abstract: The market for solar energy in the US has grown exponentially due to increased consumer demand resulting from price reduction via economies of scale, technological progress, and a variety of incentives from federal and state governments as well as utility companies. The installation of solar power in Tennessee has more than doubled each year from 2009 to 2011. In this paper, we focus on the behavior of the Tennessee Solar Value Chain (TNSVC) to study the factors that influence growth of solar industry in the state. The impact of existing incentives on the TNSVC is analyzed. The TNSVC is simulated based on inputs from on-site survey to estimate economic impact in terms of the number of jobs added and the tax revenue generated in the state. In addition, a sensitivity analysis for the impact on the TNSVC under different policies those may be adopted by the state of Tennessee in the future is conducted. This paper employs a holistic model which can predict PV installation demand, understand solar value chain capacity, and estimate the revenue generation. It should be noted that the method employed in this study is not unique to the solar energy industry in Tennessee. The data utilized in this study is a combination of public domain information and surveys of suppliers, manufacturers, distributors, and installers. This makes the model in this paper flexible enough to be applied to assess the solar value chain in other state or country

  1. Assessment of industry views on international business prospects for solar thermal technology

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Easterling, J.C.

    1984-09-01

    This report contains a review of solar thermal industry viewpoints on their prospects for developing international business. The report documents the industry's current involvement in foreign markets, view of foreign competition in overseas applications, and view of federal R and D and policy requirements to strengthen international business prospects. The report is based on discussions with equipment manufacturers and system integrators who have a product or service with potential international demand. Interviews with manufacturers and system integrators were conducted by using a standard format for interview questions. The use of a standard format for questions provided a basis for aggregating similar views expressed by US companies concerning overseas business prospects. A special effort was made to gather responses from the entire solar thermal industry, including manufacturers of line-focus, point-focus, and central receiver systems. General, technical, economic, institutional, and financial findings are provided in this summary. In addition, Pacific Northwest Laboratory (PNL) recommendations are provided (based upon advice from the Solar Thermal Review Panel) for activities to improve US solar thermal business prospects overseas.

  2. Solar neutrinos and nonradial solar oscillations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zatsepin, G.T.; Gavryuseva, E.A.; Kopysov, Yu.S.

    1980-01-01

    The problem of origin of surface solar oscillations is considered. It is assumed that generation of oscillations is performed by the solar nucleus. The necessary excitation condition for gravitational oscillations of the solar nucleus is a sharp decrease of the oscillation amplitude outside the nucleus, where the nuclear reaction rates are small and only radiation losses are considerable. It is shown that the specific singularities of gravitational wave propagation in solar entrails permit to attain a significant reduction of the oscillation amplitude. The solar entrails can serve as an effective trap for gravitational waves, if the substance of the solar nucleus is close to the state of convectional equilibrium. In order that the g 1 quadrupole mode of the solar nucleus has a period of 2h 40 min and sharply decreases in the solar mantle, it is enough that only the external part of the solar nucleus is close to the state of convectional equilibrium. Closeness of the solar nucleus to the state of convectional equilibrium is an argument in favour of its periodic mixing. Periodic mixing of the solar nucleus can serve as a cause of a low counting rate of solar neutrinos in R.Davis chlorous detector

  3. Concentrating Solar Power Projects - KaXu Solar One | Concentrating Solar

    Science.gov (United States)

    Power | NREL KaXu Solar One This page provides information on KaXu Solar One, a concentrating solar power (CSP) project, with data organized by background, parcipants and power plant configuration . Status Date: April 14, 2015 Project Overview Project Name: KaXu Solar One Country: South Africa Location

  4. Economic Feasibility and Market Readiness of Solar Technologies. Draft Final Report. Volume I.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Flaim, Silvio J.; Buchanan, Deborah L.; Christmas, Susan; Fellhauer, Cheryl; Glenn, Barbara; Ketels, Peter A.; Levary, Arnon; Mourning, Pete; Steggerda, Paul; Trivedi, Harit; Witholder, Robert E.

    1978-09-01

    Systems descriptions, costs, technical and market readiness assessments are reported for ten solar technologies: solar heating and cooling of buildings (SHACOB), passive, agricultural and industrial process heat (A/IPH), biomass, ocean thermal (OTEC), wind (WECS), solar thermal electric, photovoltaics, satellite power station (SPS), and solar total energy systems (STES). Study objectives, scope, and methods. are presented. of Joint Task The cost and market analyses portion 5213/6103 will be used to make commercialization assessments in the conclusions of. the final report.

  5. Predicting Inpatient Detoxification Outcome of Alcohol and Drug Dependent Patients: The Influence of Sociodemographic Environment, Motivation, Impulsivity, and Medical Comorbidities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yvonne Sofin

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Aims. This prospective study aims to identify patient characteristics as predictors for treatment outcome during inpatient detoxification treatment for drug and alcohol dependent patients. Methods. A mixed gender sample of 832 consecutively admitted drug and alcohol dependent patients were interviewed by an experienced physician. The impact of a variety of factors concerning social environment, therapy motivation, impulsivity related variables, medical history, and addiction severity on treatment outcome was examined. Results. 525 (63.1% of the patients completed detoxification treatment whereas 307 (36.9% dropped out prematurely. Being female, living in a partnership, having children, being employed, and having good education were predictive for a positive outcome. Family, health, the fear of losing the job, prosecution, and emergency admission were significant motivational predictors for treatment outcome. Being younger, history of imprisonment, and the number of previous drop-outs were predictive for a negative outcome. Conclusions. Variables concerning social environment and the number of previous drop-outs have been identified as best predictors for treatment outcome. Socially stable patients benefit from the current treatment setting and treatment shall be adapted for patients with negative predictors. Treatment may consequently be tailored with respect to intervention type, duration, and intensity to improve the outcome for those patients that fulfil criteria with negative impact on treatment retention.

  6. Correction: Mesoporous titania thin films as efficient enzyme carriers for paraoxon determination/detoxification: effects of enzyme binding and pore hierarchy on the biocatalyst activity and reusability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frančič, N; Bellino, M G; Soler-Illia, G J A A; Lobnik, A

    2016-07-07

    Correction for 'Mesoporous titania thin films as efficient enzyme carriers for paraoxon determination/detoxification: effects of enzyme binding and pore hierarchy on the biocatalyst activity and reusability' by N. Frančičet al., Analyst, 2014, 139, 3127-3136.

  7. Technology assessment of solar-energy systems. Materials resource and hazardous materials impacts of solar deployment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schiffman, Y. M.; Tahami, J. E.

    1982-04-01

    The materials-resource and hazardous-materials impacts were determined by examining the type and quantity of materials used in the manufacture, construction, installation, operation and maintenance of solar systems. The materials requirements were compared with US materials supply and demand data to determine if potential problems exist in terms of future availability of domestic supply and increased dependence on foreign sources of supply. Hazardous materials were evaluated in terms of public and occupational health hazards and explosive and fire hazards. It is concluded that: although large amounts of materials would be required, the US had sufficient industrial capacity to produce those materials; (2) postulated growth in solar technology deployment during the period 1995-2000 could cause some production shortfalls in the steel and copper industry; the U.S. could increase its import reliance for certain materials such as silver, iron ore, and copper; however, shifts to other materials such as aluminum and polyvinylchloride could alleviate some of these problems.

  8. Solar India - 82: national solar energy convention

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1982-01-01

    This document is the proceedings of the Solar India - 82 conference, which was held 17-19 December 1982. The papers are organized into functional groupings which include: (1) solar radiation, (2) flat plate solar collectors and solar water heaters, (3) solar concentrators, (4) solar air heaters and dryers, (5) solar ponds and energy storage, (6) solar cookers, (7) solar stills, (8) selective coatings, (9) photovoltaics, (10) space heating and cooling, (11) bio-energy, and (12) miscellaneous papers. The vast majority of the papers describe work carried out in India, the vast majority of the papers also contain relatively readable abstracts.

  9. Employment-based abstinence reinforcement following inpatient detoxification in HIV-positive opioid and/or cocaine-dependent patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dunn, Kelly E; Fingerhood, Michael; Wong, Conrad J; Svikis, Dace S; Nuzzo, Paul; Silverman, Kenneth

    2014-02-01

    Employment-based reinforcement interventions have been used to promote abstinence from drugs among chronically unemployed injection drug users. The current study used an employment-based reinforcement intervention to promote opioid and cocaine abstinence among opioid and/or cocaine-dependent, HIV-positive participants who had recently completed a brief inpatient detoxification. Participants (n = 46) were randomly assigned to an abstinence and work group that was required to provide negative urine samples in order to enter the workplace and to earn incentives for work (n = 16), a work-only group that was permitted to enter the workplace and to earn incentives independent of drug use (n = 15), and a no-voucher control group that did not receive any incentives for working (n = 15) over a 26-week period. The primary outcome was urinalysis-confirmed opioid, cocaine, and combined opioid/cocaine abstinence. Participants were 78% male and 89% African American. Results showed no significant between-groups differences in urinalysis-verified drug abstinence or HIV risk behaviors during the 6-month intervention. The work-only group had significantly greater workplace attendance, and worked more minutes per day when compared to the no-voucher group. Several features of the study design, including the lack of an induction period, setting the threshold for entering the workplace too high by requiring immediate abstinence from several drugs, and increasing the risk of relapse by providing a brief detoxification that was not supported by any continued pharmacological intervention, likely prevented the workplace from becoming established as a reinforcer that could be used to promote drug abstinence. However, increases in workplace attendance have important implications for adult training programs.

  10. THE TOTAL SOLAR IRRADIANCE CLIMATE DATA RECORD

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dewitte, Steven; Nevens, Stijn [Royal Meteorological Institute of Belgium, Ringlaan 3, B-1180 Brussels (Belgium)

    2016-10-10

    We present the composite measurements of total solar irradiance (TSI) as measured by an ensemble of space instruments. The measurements of the individual instruments are put on a common absolute scale, and their quality is assessed by intercomparison. The composite time series is the average of all available measurements. From 1984 April to the present the TSI shows a variation in phase with the 11 yr solar cycle and no significant changes of the quiet-Sun level in between the three covered solar minima.

  11. Influence of anthropogenic aerosol on solar radiation in Europe

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ten Brink, H M

    1993-12-01

    Backscatter of solar radiation by aerosol and the cooling thus induced, is the single largest uncertainty factor in assessing the climate effect of the greenhouse gases. The dominant reason for the uncertainty in the aerosol effect is its local nature. Therefore it is only via localized efforts that estimates can be improved. It is the aim of the present study to better assess the amount of solar radiation intercepted by aerosol, especially that of aerosol of anthropogenic origin in Europe. The assessment is realized along three interconnected approaches. First, empirical factors stemming from measurements in the US and used in the present estimates of the reflection of solar radiation by anthropogenic aerosol are checked for their validity in the European domain. Secondly, historical data on solar flux in Europe are related to the historic trend in aerosol loading. Finally, a sophisticated aerosol and cloud (radiation) module is developed for incorporation in a climate model. The radiation module uses aerosol characteristics as measured in the field and is validated via solar radiation measurements. The concerted investigation started in January 1993. The data obtained in the first phase of the study formed the basis for the definite detailed approach and will therefore be reported in this text. 1 fig., 9 refs.

  12. Assessment of potential for small hydro/solar power integration in a mountainous, data sparse region: the role of hydrological prediction accuracy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Borga, Marco; Francois, Baptiste; Creutin, Jean-Dominique; Hingray, Benoit; Zoccatelli, Davide; Tardivo, Gianmarco

    2015-04-01

    In many parts of the world, integration of small hydropower and solar/wind energy sources along river systems is examined as a way to meet pressing renewable energy targets. Depending on the space and time scales considered, hydrometeorological variability may synchronize or desynchronize solar/wind, runoff and the demand opening the possibility to use their complementarity to smooth the intermittency of each individual energy source. Rivers also provide important ecosystem services, including the provision of high quality downstream water supply and the maintenance of in-stream habitats. With future supply and demand of water resources both impacted by environmental change, a good understanding of the potential for the integration among hydropower and solar/wind energy sources in often sparsely gauged catchments is important. In such cases, where complex data-demanding models may be inappropriate, there is a need for simple conceptual modelling approaches that can still capture the main features of runoff generation and artificial regulation processes. In this work we focus on run-of-the-river and solar-power interaction assessment. In order to catch the three key cycles of the load fluctuation - daily, weekly and seasonal, the time step used in the study is the hourly resolution. We examine the performance of a conceptual hydrological model which includes facilities to model dam regulation and diversions and hydrological modules to account for the effect of glaciarised catchments. The model is applied to catchments of the heavily regulated Upper Adige river system (6900 km2), Eastern Italian Alps, which has a long history of hydropower generation. The model is used to characterize and predict the natural flow regime, assess the regulation impacts, and simulate co-fluctuations between run-of- the-river and solar power. The results demonstrates that the simple, conceptual modelling approach developed here can capture the main hydrological and regulation processes

  13. Analysis and optimization of the low-temperature solar organic Rankine cycle (ORC)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Delgado-Torres, Agustin M.; Garcia-Rodriguez, Lourdes

    2010-01-01

    Solar thermal driven reverse osmosis desalination is a promising renewable energy-driven desalination technology. A joint use of the solar thermal powered organic Rankine cycle (ORC) and the desalination technology of less energy consumption, reverse osmosis (RO), makes this combination interesting in some scarce water resource scenarios. However, prior to any practical experience with any new process, a comprehensive and rigorous theoretical study must be done in order to assess the performance of the new technology or combination of existing technologies. The main objective of the present paper is the expansion of the theoretical analysis done by the authors in previous works to the case in which the thermal energy required by a solar ORC is supplied by means of stationary solar collectors. Twelve substances are considered as working fluids of the ORC and four different models of stationary solar collectors (flat plate collectors, compound parabolic collectors and evacuated tube collectors) are also taken into account. Operating conditions of the solar ORC that minimizes the aperture area needed per unit of mechanical power output of the solar cycle are determined for every working fluid and every solar collector. The former is done considering a direct vapour generation configuration of the solar cycle and also the configuration with water as heat transfer fluid flowing inside the solar collector. This work is part of the theoretical analysis of the solar thermal driven seawater and brackish water reverse osmosis desalination technology. Nevertheless, the supplied information can be also used for the assessment of different applications of the solar ORC. In that case, results presented in this paper can be useful in techno-economic analysis, selection of working fluids of the Rankine cycle, sizing of systems and assessment of solar power cycle configuration.

  14. Solar energy research and development: program balance. Annex, Volume I

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    1978-02-01

    An evaluation of federal research, development, and demonstration options on solar energy is presented. This assessment treats seven groups of solar energy technologies: solar heating and cooling of buildings, agricultural and industrial process heat, biomass, photovoltaics, thermal power, wind, and ocean thermal energy conversion. The evaluation methodology is presented in detail. (MHR)

  15. 1,25-Dihydroxyvitamin D3 regulates genes responsible for detoxification in intestine

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kutuzova, Galina D.; DeLuca, Hector F.

    2007-01-01

    1α,25-Dihydroxyvitamin D 3 (1,25-(OH) 2 D 3 ), the biologically active form of vitamin D 3 , not only plays a major role in mammalian calcium and phosphorous homeostasis but also exerts pleiotropic effects on cell proliferation, differentiation and the immune system. Further, vitamin D is believed to play a significant role in the prevention of colon, prostate, and breast cancer and in reducing the risk of autoimmune diseases. To gain insight into the mechanism whereby vitamin D can have such diverse actions, we have employed microarray technology. We studied the effect of a single dose of 1,25-(OH) 2 D 3 on gene expression in the intestine of vitamin D-deficient rats. Within 6 h, 1,25-(OH) 2 D 3 stimulates the expression of several phase I and phase II biotransformation genes. There is also an increased expression of antioxidant genes. These results support the idea that vitamin D is a significant factor in detoxification and protection against environmental toxins

  16. Detoxifying symbiosis: microbe-mediated detoxification of phytotoxins and pesticides in insects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Itoh, Hideomi; Tago, Kanako; Hayatsu, Masahito; Kikuchi, Yoshitomo

    2018-04-12

    Covering: up to 2018Insects live in a world full of toxic compounds such as plant toxins and manmade pesticides. To overcome the effects of these toxins, herbivorous insects have evolved diverse, elaborate mechanisms of resistance, such as toxin avoidance, target-site alteration, and detoxification. These resistance mechanisms are thought to be encoded by the insects' own genomes, and in many cases, this holds true. However, recent omics analyses, in conjunction with classic culture-dependent analyses, have revealed that a number of insects possess specific gut microorganisms, some of which significantly contribute to resistance against phytotoxins and pesticides by degrading such chemical compounds. Here, we review recent advances in our understanding on the symbiont-mediated degradation of natural and artificial toxins, with a special emphasis on their underlying genetic basis, focus on the importance of environmental microbiota as a resource of toxin-degrading microorganisms, and discuss the ecological and evolutionary significance of these symbiotic associations.

  17. Basic aspects of photocatalytic detoxification of organic halogens by TiO2 nanocrystallites. Photolytic and radiolytic investigations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rabani, J.

    1998-01-01

    Various forms of TiO 2 (nanocrystallites in colloid solutions, powders and layers) are considered as promising photocatalysts for detoxification of persistent organic chemicals which are present as pollutants in waste water effluents from industrial manufacturers and even from regular households. Such pollutants penetrate and reach water sources and must be removed or destroyed in order to prevent damage to people or to the environment. Some of the toxins, such as organic halogenated compounds is difficult to remove by moderate chemical redox reactions, but can be mineralized by a free radical mechanism. Pilot plants for detoxification of industrial wastes on TiO 2 surface are currently being tested in several countries. In view of this recent development it is of particular interest to investigate yields of the reactive intermediates and reaction mechanisms of reactions of representative organic substrates. Such work is presently going on in many laboratories. In the present contribution we focus on the nature of the primary oxidizing species and the possible ways to increase photolytic yields, with particular attention to chain reactions in organic halogen compounds. Although the work concerns photocatalysis, radiation chemistry may provide useful results regarding kinetic parameters and comparative tests. Thus, comparison between photocatalytic (TiO 2 ), radiolytic and chemical hydroxylations of phenol provides evidence that the reactive hydroxylation agent is an OH· radical adsorbed to the TiO 2 surface. The initial photochemical products are conduction band electrons and valence band holes in the TiO 2 nanocrystallites, which become 'trapped' within less than 30 ps. (author)

  18. Solar diffusion in California: a pilot study. Consultant report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rogers, E.M.; Leonard-Barton, D.; Avi-Itzhak, T.; Rosa, E.; Adhikarya, R.

    1979-10-01

    Solar system owners and their neighbors in the San Francisco Bay Area were studied. The study determined the level of homeowner awareness about residential solar energy systems, described characteristics of consumers purchasing solar equipment (e.g. whether they represent identifiable market segments), identified major channels of communication through which solar information is effectively used, determined remaining barriers to solar use, identified needed incentives to accelerate commercialization, and assessed public attitudes toward various state and Federal government actions to increase the rate of solar energy use statewide. Issues and questions explored are being used in the development of a statewide survey of 700 homeowners in California to determine if these findings apply to residents throughout the state.

  19. Solar cookers in developing countries—What is their key to success?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Otte, Pia Piroschka

    2013-01-01

    In developing countries households and institutions heavily rely on biomass to satisfy their energy needs. The unsustainable use of biomass is accompanied by several negative health and environmental impacts. As a clean energy source, solar cooking presents one alternative solution. In spite of its multiple benefits; however, solar cookers have experienced little success. Curiously, there has been little discussion about this in academic circles. Most research concerns technical improvements of solar cookers, rather than on the reasons why these cookers are not actually adopted in the field. This paper fills the gap by developing a comprehensive list of variables that influence the adoption of solar cooking: (1) economic, (2) social, (3) cultural, (4) environmental, (5) political and (6) technical. Furthermore, we can see that some solar cooking promoters are able to control for some of the variables (e.g., environmental factors), but not others (e.g. technical, social and cultural factors). The latter can only be captured through a needs assessment of the target group. This sort of assessment is a demanding but necessary step for the successful outcome of a solar cooking project. - Highlights: • The paper elaborates a list of variables influencing the adoption of solar cookers. • The interrelations of the variables are illustrated in a flow chart. • Environmental factors are easiest to control for by solar cooking organizations. • Technical, social and cultural variables can be captured through a needs assessment

  20. Inventory of the solar thermal and photovoltaic energy potential in the Ardennes district

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gal, Henri-Louis

    2010-03-01

    Based on the use of cartographic tool, the objective of this study was to assess the potential production of solar thermal and solar photovoltaic systems, social-economic data, regulatory data, and environmental, heritage-related, and urban constraints, and natural risks. For each type of installation, the possible reachable potential has been assessed while taking these constraints, building typology (housing, industrial, heritage, and so on), building orientation, project construction dynamics into account. The report analyses solar resource, housing characteristics, building typology, regulatory constraints related to the protection of the built environment, exploitation constraints (shade), building orientation constraints. It presents an assessment of net resources for both sectors, an assessment of plausible production potentials by 2030. It also presents and discusses environmental (avoided emissions) and financial indicators related to both solar sectors

  1. ASSESSING THE INFLUENCE OF THE SOLAR ORBIT ON TERRESTRIAL BIODIVERSITY

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Feng, F.; Bailer-Jones, C. A. L.

    2013-01-01

    The terrestrial record shows a significant variation in the extinction and origination rates of species during the past half-billion years. Numerous studies have claimed an association between this variation and the motion of the Sun around the Galaxy, invoking the modulation of cosmic rays, gamma rays, and comet impact frequency as a cause of this biodiversity variation. However, some of these studies exhibit methodological problems, or were based on coarse assumptions (such as a strict periodicity of the solar orbit). Here we investigate this link in more detail, using a model of the Galaxy to reconstruct the solar orbit and thus a predictive model of the temporal variation of the extinction rate due to astronomical mechanisms. We compare these predictions as well as those of various reference models with paleontological data. Our approach involves Bayesian model comparison, which takes into account the uncertainties in the paleontological data as well as the distribution of solar orbits consistent with the uncertainties in the astronomical data. We find that various versions of the orbital model are not favored beyond simpler reference models. In particular, the distribution of mass extinction events can be explained just as well by a uniform random distribution as by any other model tested. Although our negative results on the orbital model are robust to changes in the Galaxy model, the Sun's coordinates, and the errors in the data, we also find that it would be very difficult to positively identify the orbital model even if it were the true one. (In contrast, we do find evidence against simpler periodic models.) Thus, while we cannot rule out there being some connection between solar motion and biodiversity variations on the Earth, we conclude that it is difficult to give convincing positive conclusions of such a connection using current data.

  2. Coupling of Luminescent Solar Concentrators to Plasmonic Solar Cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Shu-Yi

    To make inexpensive solar cells is a continuous goal for solar photovoltaic (PV) energy industry. Thin film solar cells of various materials have been developed and continue to emerge in order to replace bulk silicon solar cells. A thin film solar cell not only uses less material but also requires a less expensive refinery process. In addition, other advantages coming along with small thickness are higher open circuit voltage and higher conversion efficiency. However, thin film solar cells, especially those made of silicon, have significant optical losses. In order to address this problem, this thesis investigates the spectral coupling of thin films PV to luminescent solar concentrators (LSC). LSC are passive devices, consisting of plastic sheets embedded with fluorescent dyes which absorb part of the incoming radiation spectrum and emit at specific wavelength. The emitted light is concentrated by total internal reflection to the edge of the sheet, where the PVs are placed. Since the light emitted from the LSC edge is usually in a narrow spectral range, it is possible to employ diverse strategies to enhance PV absorption at the peak of the emission wavelength. Employing plasmonic nanostructures has been shown to enhance absorption of thin films via forward scattering, diffraction and localized surface plasmon. These two strategies are theoretically investigated here for improving the absorption and elevating the output power of a thin film solar cell. First, the idea of spectral coupling of luminescent solar concentrators to plasmonic solar cells is introduced to assess its potential for increasing the power output. This study is carried out employing P3HT/PC60BM organic solar cells and LSC with Lumogen Red dyes. A simplified spectral coupling analysis is employed to predict the power density, considering the output spectrum of the LSC equivalent to the emission spectrum of the dye and neglecting any angular dependence. Plasmonic tuning is conducted to enhance

  3. Performance and cost assessment of solar driven humidification dehumidification desalination system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zubair, M. Ifras; Al-Sulaiman, Fahad A.; Antar, M.A.; Al-Dini, Salem A.; Ibrahim, Nasiru I.

    2017-01-01

    Highlights: • Optimization of a new HDH system integrated solar evacuated tubes collectors was conducted. • The mathematical models developed for the collector and the HDH system were validated. • A multi-location analysis was then performed for six locations in Saudi Arabia. • Sharurah was found to have the highest annual output and Dhahran the lowest at 19,445 and 16,430 L. • The cost per liter of water produced varies from $0.032 to $0.038, depends on the location. - Abstract: A humidification-dehumidification (HDH) desalination system integrated with solar evacuated tubes was optimized. Then, the optimized system was assessed for the operation in different geographical locations, and the rate of freshwater production and cost per liter were determined in each location. The system design proposed in this paper uses a heat pipe design evacuated tube collector, which performs significantly better based on cost. An HDH desalination system with a closed-air/open-water loop, connected to the collector, was evaluated to determine the optimum operating parameters and the system performance during daytime (from 8 am to 3 pm), as well as the average day of each month for an entire year. The impact of the effectiveness of the humidifier and the dehumidifier, as well as, the number of collectors, were also studied. The analyses were performed for Dhahran, Jeddah, Riyadh, Sharurah, Qassim, and Tabuk to determine the effects of varying the geographical location. Sharurah has the highest calculated productivity of freshwater and Dhahran has the lowest at 19,445 and 16,430 L, respectively. To have a comprehensive study of the system proposed, a cost analysis was also performed to determine the feasibility of the system and the cost of water production. Results show that the price varied from $0.032 to $0.038 per liter for the locations evaluated.

  4. Automatic Residential/Commercial Classification of Parcels with Solar Panel Detections

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    2018-03-25

    A computational method to automatically detect solar panels on rooftops to aid policy and financial assessment of solar distributed generation. The code automatically classifies parcels containing solar panels in the U.S. as residential or commercial. The code allows the user to specify an input dataset containing parcels and detected solar panels, and then uses information about the parcels and solar panels to automatically classify the rooftops as residential or commercial using machine learning techniques. The zip file containing the code includes sample input and output datasets for the Boston and DC areas.

  5. Solar constant values for estimating solar radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li, Huashan; Lian, Yongwang; Wang, Xianlong; Ma, Weibin; Zhao, Liang

    2011-01-01

    There are many solar constant values given and adopted by researchers, leading to confusion in estimating solar radiation. In this study, some solar constant values collected from literature for estimating solar radiation with the Angstroem-Prescott correlation are tested in China using the measured data between 1971 and 2000. According to the ranking method based on the t-statistic, a strategy to select the best solar constant value for estimating the monthly average daily global solar radiation with the Angstroem-Prescott correlation is proposed. -- Research highlights: → The effect of the solar constant on estimating solar radiation is investigated. → The investigation covers a diverse range of climate and geography in China. → A strategy to select the best solar constant for estimating radiation is proposed.

  6. A systematic approach of bottom-up assessment methodology for an optimal design of hybrid solar/wind energy resources – Case study at middle east region

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ifaei, Pouya; Karbassi, Abdolreza; Jacome, Gabriel; Yoo, ChangKyoo

    2017-01-01

    Highlights: • Proposing DaSOSaCa flowchart as a novel hybrid solar/wind assessment approach. • Calculating four key parameters to generate synthetic wind hourly data for Iran. • Proposing technical and economic hybrid solar/wind GIS maps of Iran. • Revising renewable energies management plans of Iran by macroeconomic evaluation. - Abstract: In the current study, an algorithm-based data processing, sizing, optimization, sensitivity analysis and clustering approach (DaSOSaCa) is proposed as an efficient simultaneous solar/wind assessment methodology. Accordingly, data processing is performed to obtain reliable high quality meteorological data among various datasets, which are used for hybrid photovoltaic/wind turbine/storage/converter system optimal design for consequent sites in a large region. The optimal hybrid systems are consequently simulated to meet hourly power demand in various sites. The solar/wind fraction and net present cost of the systems are then used as the technical and economic clustering variables, respectively. The clustering results are finally used as input to obtain novel hybrid solar/wind GIS maps. Iran is selected as the case study to validate the proposed methodology and detail its applicability. Ten minute annual global horizontal radiation, wind speed, and temperature data are analyzed, and the optimal, robust hybrid systems are simulated for various sites in order to classify the country. The generated GIS maps show that Iran can be efficiently clustered into four technical and five economic clusters under optimal conditions. The clustering results prove that Iran is mainly a solar country with approximately 74% solar power fraction under optimum conditions. A macroeconomic evaluation using DaSOSaCa also reveals that the nominal discount rate is recommended to be greater than 20% considering the current economic situation for the renewable energy sector in Iran. An environmental analysis results show that an average 106.68 tonCO 2

  7. Exergoeconomic Assessment of Solar Absorption and Absorption–Compression Hybrid Refrigeration in Building Cooling

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yue Jing

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available The paper mainly deals with the match of solar refrigeration, i.e., solar/natural gas-driven absorption chiller (SNGDAC, solar vapor compression–absorption integrated refrigeration system with parallel configuration (SVCAIRSPC, and solar absorption-subcooled compression hybrid cooling system (SASCHCS, and building cooling based on the exergoeconomics. Three types of building cooling are considered: Type 1 is the single-story building, type 2 includes the two-story and three-story buildings, and type 3 is the multi-story buildings. Besides this, two Chinese cities, Guangzhou and Turpan, are taken into account as well. The product cost flow rate is employed as the primary decision variable. The result exhibits that SNGDAC is considered as a suitable solution for type 1 buildings in Turpan, owing to its negligible natural gas consumption and lowest product cost flow rate. SVCAIRSPC is more applicable for type 2 buildings in Turpan because of its higher actual cooling capacity of absorption subsystem and lower fuel and product cost flow rate. Additionally, SASCHCS shows the most extensive cost-effectiveness, namely, its exergy destruction and product cost flow rate are both the lowest when used in all types of buildings in Guangzhou or type 3 buildings in Turpan. This paper is helpful to promote the application of solar cooling.

  8. Solar Energy Innovation Network | Solar Research | NREL

    Science.gov (United States)

    Energy Innovation Network Solar Energy Innovation Network The Solar Energy Innovation Network grid. Text version The Solar Energy Innovation Network is a collaborative research effort administered (DOE) Solar Energy Technologies Office to develop and demonstrate new ways for solar energy to improve

  9. Assessing the solar potential of low-density urban environments in Andean cities with desert climates: The case of the city of Mendoza, in Argentina

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Arboit, M.; Fernandez Llano, J.C.; Rosa, C. de [Instituto de Ciencias Humanas, Sociales y Ambientales (INCIHUSA -