WorldWideScience

Sample records for assess heavy metals

  1. Human health risk assessment of heavy metals in urban stormwater.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, Yukun; Egodawatta, Prasanna; McGree, James; Liu, An; Goonetilleke, Ashantha

    2016-07-01

    Toxic chemical pollutants such as heavy metals (HMs) are commonly present in urban stormwater. These pollutants can pose a significant risk to human health and hence a significant barrier for urban stormwater reuse. The primary aim of this study was to develop an approach for quantitatively assessing the risk to human health due to the presence of HMs in stormwater. This approach will lead to informed decision making in relation to risk management of urban stormwater reuse, enabling efficient implementation of appropriate treatment strategies. In this study, risks to human health from heavy metals were assessed as hazard index (HI) and quantified as a function of traffic and land use related parameters. Traffic and land use are the primary factors influencing heavy metal loads in the urban environment. The risks posed by heavy metals associated with total solids and fine solids (heavy metal does not pose a significant risk, the presence of multiple heavy metals could be detrimental to human health. These findings suggest that stormwater guidelines should consider the combined risk from multiple heavy metals rather than the threshold concentration of an individual species. Furthermore, it was found that risk to human health from heavy metals in stormwater is significantly influenced by traffic volume and the risk associated with stormwater from industrial areas is generally higher than that from commercial and residential areas.

  2. Assessment of heavy metal removal technologies for biowaste by physico-chemical fractionation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Veeken, A.H.M.; Hamelers, H.V.M.

    2003-01-01

    In the Netherlands, the heavy metal content of biowaste-compost frequently exceeds the legal standards for heavy metals. In order to assess heavy metal removal technologies, a physico-chemical fractionation scheme was developed to gain insight into the distribution of heavy metals (Cd, Cu, Pb and Zn

  3. Assessment of Heavy Metal Pollution in Topsoil around Beijing Metropolis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ranhao Sun

    Full Text Available The topsoil around Beijing metropolis, China, is experiencing impacts of rapid urbanization, intensive farming, and extensive industrial emissions. We analyzed the concentrations of Cu, Ni, Pb, Zn, Cd, and Cr from 87 topsoil samples in the pre-rainy season and 115 samples in the post-rainy season. These samples were attributed to nine land use types: forest, grass, shrub, orchard, wheat, cotton, spring maize, summer maize, and mixed farmland. The pollution index (PI of heavy metals was calculated from the measured and background concentrations. The ecological risk index (RI was assessed based on the PI values and toxic-response parameters. The results showed that the mean PI values of Pb, Cr, and Cd were > 1 while those of Cu, Ni, and Zn were < 1. All the samples had low ecological risk for Cu, Ni, Pb, Zn, and Cr while only 15.35% of samples had low ecological risk for Cd. Atmospheric transport rather than land use factors best explained the seasonal variations in heavy metal concentrations and the impact of atmospheric transport on heavy metal concentrations varied according to the heavy metal types. The concentrations of Cu, Cd, and Cr decreased from the pre- to post-rainy season, while those of Ni, Pb, and Zn increased during this period. Future research should be focused on the underlying atmospheric processes that lead to these spatial and seasonal variations in heavy metals. The policymaking on environmental management should pay close attention to potential ecological risks of Cd as well as identifying the transport pathways of different heavy metals.

  4. Assessing fly ash treatment: Remediation and stabilization of heavy metals

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lima, A.T.; Ottosen, Lisbeth M.; Ribeiro, Alexandra B.

    2012-01-01

    Fly ashes from Municipal Solid Waste (MSW), straw (ST) and co-combustion of wood (CW) are here analyzed with the intent of reusing them. Two techniques are assessed, a remediation technique and a solidification/stabilization one. The removal of heavy metals from fly ashes through...... the electrodialytic process (EDR) has been tried out before. The goal of removing heavy metals has always been the reuse of fly ash, for instance in agricultural fields (BEK). The best removal rates are here summarized and some new results have been added. MSW fly ashes are still too hazardous after treatment to even...... consider application to the soil. ST ash is the only residue that gets concentrations low enough to be reused, but its fertilizing value might be questioned. An alternative reuse for the three ashes is here preliminary tested, the combination of fly ash with mortar. Fly ashes have been substituted...

  5. Review: Assessing potential dietary toxicity of heavy metals in selected vegetables and food crops

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ISLAM Ejaz ul; YANG Xiao-e; HE Zhen-li; MAHMOOD Qaisar

    2007-01-01

    Heavy metals, such as cadmium, copper, lead, chromium and mercury, are important environmental pollutants,particularly in areas with high anthropogenic pressure. Their presence in the atmosphere, soil and water, even in traces can cause serious problems to all organisms, and heavy metal bioaccumulation in the food chain especially can be highly dangerous to human health. Heavy metals enter the human body mainly through two routes namely: inhalation and ingestion, ingestion being the main route of exposure to these elements in human population. Heavy metals intake by human populations through food chain has been reported in many countries. Soil threshold for heavy metal toxicity is an important factor affecting soil environmental capacity of heavy metal and determines heavy metal cumulative loading limits. For soil-plant system, heavy metal toxicity threshold is the highest permissible content in the soil (total or bioavailable concentration) that does not pose any phytotoxic effects or heavy metals in the edible parts of the crops does not exceed food hygiene standards. Factors affecting the thresholds of dietary toxicity of heavy metal in soil-crop system include: soil type which includes soil pH, organic matter content, clay mineral and other soil chemical and biochemical properties; and crop species or cultivars regulated by genetic basis for heavy metal transport and accumulation in plants. In addition, the interactions of soil-plant root-microbes play important roles in regulating heavy metal movement from soil to the edible parts of crops. Agronomic practices such as fertilizer and water managements as well as crop rotation system can affect bioavailability and crop accumulation of heavy metals, thus influencing the thresholds for assessing dietary toxicity of heavy metals in the food chain. This paper reviews the phytotoxic effects and bioaccumulation of heavy metals in vegetables and food crops and assesses soil heavy metal thresholds for potential dietary

  6. Assessing fly ash treatment: Remediation and stabilization of heavy metals

    KAUST Repository

    Lima, A.T.

    2010-12-17

    Fly ashes from Municipal Solid Waste (MSW), straw (ST) and co-combustion of wood (CW) are here analyzed with the intent of reusing them. Two techniques are assessed, a remediation technique and a solidification/stabilization one. The removal of heavy metals from fly ashes through the electrodialytic process (EDR) has been tried out before. The goal of removing heavy metals has always been the reuse of fly ash, for instance in agricultural fields (BEK). The best removal rates are here summarized and some new results have been added. MSW fly ashes are still too hazardous after treatment to even consider application to the soil. ST ash is the only residue that gets concentrations low enough to be reused, but its fertilizing value might be questioned. An alternative reuse for the three ashes is here preliminary tested, the combination of fly ash with mortar. Fly ashes have been substituted by cement fraction or aggregate fraction. Surprisingly, better compressive strengths were obtained by replacing the aggregate fraction. CW ashes presented promising results for the substitution of aggregate in mortar and possibly in concrete. © 2010 Elsevier Ltd.

  7. Assessment of carcinogenic heavy metal levels in Brazilian cigarettes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Viana, Gustavo Freitas de Sousa; Garcia, Karina S; Menezes-Filho, Jose Antonio

    2011-10-01

    Several studies have associated high cancer incidence with smoking habits. According to IARC, lead (Pb), cadmium (Cd), arsenic (As), nickel (Ni), and chromium (Cr) are carcinogenic to humans. These metals are present in cigarettes and their levels vary according to geographical region of tobacco cultivation, fertilizer treatment, plant variety etc. This study aims to assess these metal levels in cigarettes commercialized in Brazil. Three cigarettes of each 20 different brands were individually weighed, the tobacco filling removed, and homogenized. After desiccation, samples were subjected to microwave-assisted digestion. Analyses were performed by graphite furnace atomic absorption spectrometry. Mean levels for Pb, Cd, As, Ni, and Cr were, respectively, 0.27 ± 0.054, 0.65 ± 0.091, 0.09 ± 0.024, 1.26 ± 0.449, and 1.43 ± 0.630, in micrograms per gram of tobacco. No correlation was observed between Cd and any other metal analyzed. A mild correlation (r = 0.483, p < 0.05) was observed between Pb and Cr levels. Strong significant (p < 0.01) correlations were observed between Ni and Cr (r = 0.829), Ni and As (r = 0.799), Ni and Pb (r = 0.637), and between Cr and As (r = 0.621). Chromium and Ni levels were significantly higher in cigarettes from a multinational manufacturer. Our results show a high variability in heavy metal levels in cigarettes, representing an important exposure source of smokers and passive smokers to carcinogenic substances.

  8. Application of synthetic principal component analysis model to mine area farmland heavy metal pollution assessment

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WANG Cong-lu; WU Chao; WANG Wei-jun

    2008-01-01

    Referring to GB5618-1995 about heavy metal pollution, and using statistical analysis SPSS, the major pollutants of mine area farmland heavy metal pollution were identified by variable clustering analysis. Assessment and classification were done to the mine area farmland heavy metal pollution situation by synthetic principal components analysis (PCA). The results show that variable clustering analysis is efficient to identify the principal components of mine area farmland heavy metal pollution. Sort and clustering were done to the synthetic principal components scores of soil sample, which is given by synthetic principal components analysis. Data structure of soil heavy metal contaminations, relationships and pollution level of different soil samples are discovered. The results of mine area farmland heavy metal pollution quality assessed and classified with synthetic component scores reflect the influence of both the major and compound heavy metal pol-lutants. Identification and assessment results of mine area farmland heavy metal pollution can provide reference and guide to propose control measures of mine area farmland heavy metal pollution and focus on the key treatment region.

  9. Content and Ecological Risk Assessment of Heavy Metals in Surface Sediment in Weishan Lake

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2011-01-01

    [Objective] The aim was to analyze the content of heavy metals in surface sediment in Weishan Lake and further assess its ecological risk.[Method] Heavy metal pollution in surface sediment in Weishan Lake was studied,and the pollution indices and potential ecological risk indices of Cu,Zn,Pb,Cd and Cr were calculated to assess the potential ecological risk of heavy metal pollution.[Result] In surface sediment in Weishan Lake,the average contents of Cu,Zn,Pb,Cd,Cr and Ni were 64.78,185.05,78.76,0.17,37.76 an...

  10. Ecological risk assessment and sources of heavy metals in sediment from Daling River basin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Lei; Mi, Dong; Chen, Yifu; Wang, Luo; Sun, Yeqing

    2015-04-01

    To investigate the distribution, source, and ecological risk of heavy metals in Daling River basin, 28 surface sediments collected in this region were analyzed by experimental and theoretical methods. Seven heavy metals, including Pb, Cr, Hg, Cu, As, Cd, and Zn, were detected in all samples. Monte Carlo simulation was used to assess the ecological risks of these heavy metals. It was found that the pollution of Cd was the most serious; the ecological risks in Daling River and Bohai Bay were significantly higher than those in estuary, Bohai Sea, and wetland, but overall, the ecological risks of these heavy metals were low to aquatic organisms in Daling River basin at present. Correlation analysis, principal component analysis, and cluster analysis showed that these heavy metals might originate from the same pollution sources located near Daling River and Bohai Bay.

  11. Assessment of heavy metal pollution in vegetables and relationships with soil heavy metal distribution in Zhejiang province, China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ye, Xuezhu; Xiao, Wendan; Zhang, Yongzhi; Zhao, Shouping; Wang, Gangjun; Zhang, Qi; Wang, Qiang

    2015-06-01

    There are increasing concerns on heavy metal contaminant in soils and vegetables. In this study, we investigated heavy metal pollution in vegetables and the corresponding soils in the main vegetable production regions of Zhejiang province, China. A total of 97 vegetable samples and 202 agricultural soil samples were analyzed for the concentrations of Cd, Pb, As, Hg, and Cr. The average levels of Cd, Pb, and Cr in vegetable samples [Chinese cabbage (Brassica campestris spp. Pekinensis), pakchoi (Brassica chinensis L.), celery (Apium graveolens), tomato (Lycopersicon esculentum), cucumber (Colletotrichum lagenarium), cowpea (Vigna unguiculata), pumpkin (Cucurbita pepo L.), and eggplant (Solanum melongena)] were 0.020, 0.048, and 0.043 mg kg(-1), respectively. The Pb and Cr concentrations in all vegetable samples were below the threshold levels of the Food Quality Standard (0.3 and 0.5 mg kg(-1), respectively), except that two eggplant samples exceeded the threshold levels for Cd concentrations (0.05 mg kg(-1)). As and Hg contents in vegetables were below the detection level (0.005 and 0.002 mg kg(-1), respectively). Soil pollution conditions were assessed in accordance with the Chinese Soil Quality Criterion (GB15618-1995, Grade II); 50 and 68 soil samples from the investigated area exceeded the maximum allowable contents for Cd and Hg, respectively. Simple correlation analysis revealed that there were significantly positive correlations between the metal concentrations in vegetables and the corresponding soils, especially for the leafy and stem vegetables such as pakchoi, cabbage, and celery. Bio-concentration factor values for Cd are higher than those for Pb and Cr, which indicates that Cd is more readily absorbed by vegetables than Pb and Cr. Therefore, more attention should be paid to the possible pollution of heavy metals in vegetables, especially Cd.

  12. Accumulation of Heavy Metals in Vegetable Species Planted in Contaminated Soils and the Health Risk Assessment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Hang; Yang, Wen-Tao; Zhou, Xin; Liu, Li; Gu, Jiao-Feng; Wang, Wen-Lei; Zou, Jia-Ling; Tian, Tao; Peng, Pei-Qin; Liao, Bo-Han

    2016-03-04

    The objectives of the present study were to investigate heavy metal accumulation in 22 vegetable species and to assess the human health risks of vegetable consumption. Six vegetable types were cultivated on farmland contaminated with heavy metals (Pb, Cd, Cu, Zn, and As). The target hazard quotient (THQ) method was used to assess the human health risks posed by heavy metals through vegetable consumption. Clear differences were found in the concentrations of heavy metals in edible parts of the different vegetables. The concentrations of heavy metals decreased in the sequence as leafy vegetables > stalk vegetables/root vegetables/solanaceous vegetables > legume vegetables/melon vegetables. The ability of leafy vegetables to uptake and accumulate heavy metals was the highest, and that of melon vegetables was the lowest. This indicated that the low accumulators (melon vegetables) were suitable for being planted on contaminated soil, while the high accumulators (leafy vegetables) were unsuitable. In Shizhuyuan area, China, the total THQ values of adults and children through consumption of vegetables were 4.12 and 5.41, respectively, suggesting that the residents may be facing health risks due to vegetable consumption, and that children were vulnerable to the adverse effects of heavy metal ingestion.

  13. Application of portable XRF and VNIR sensors for rapid assessment of soil heavy metal pollution

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Bifeng; Chen, Songchao; Hu, Jie; Xia, Fang; Xu, Junfeng; Li, Yan; Shi, Zhou

    2017-01-01

    Rapid heavy metal soil surveys at large scale with high sampling density could not be conducted with traditional laboratory physical and chemical analyses because of the high cost, low efficiency and heavy workload involved. This study explored a rapid approach to assess heavy metals contamination in 301 farmland soils from Fuyang in Zhejiang Province, in the southern Yangtze River Delta, China, using portable proximal soil sensors. Portable X-ray fluorescence spectroscopy (PXRF) was used to determine soil heavy metals total concentrations while soil pH was predicted by portable visible-near infrared spectroscopy (PVNIR). Zn, Cu and Pb were successfully predicted by PXRF (R2 >0.90 and RPD >2.50) while As and Ni were predicted with less accuracy (R2 heavy metal pollution. PMID:28234944

  14. A review of soil heavy metal pollution from mines in China: pollution and health risk assessment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Zhiyuan; Ma, Zongwei; van der Kuijp, Tsering Jan; Yuan, Zengwei; Huang, Lei

    2014-01-15

    Heavy metal pollution has pervaded many parts of the world, especially developing countries such as China. This review summarizes available data in the literature (2005-2012) on heavy metal polluted soils originating from mining areas in China. Based on these obtained data, this paper then evaluates the soil pollution levels of these collected mines and quantifies the risks these pollutants pose to human health. To assess these potential threat levels, the geoaccumulation index was applied, along with the US Environmental Protection Agency (USEPA) recommended method for health risk assessment. The results demonstrate not only the severity of heavy metal pollution from the examined mines, but also the high carcinogenic and non-carcinogenic risks that soil heavy metal pollution poses to the public, especially to children and those living in the vicinity of heavily polluted mining areas. In order to provide key management targets for relevant government agencies, based on the results of the pollution and health risk assessments, Cd, Pb, Cu, Zn, Hg, As, and Ni are selected as the priority control heavy metals; tungsten, manganese, lead-zinc, and antimony mines are selected as the priority control mine categories; and southern provinces and Liaoning province are selected as the priority control provinces. This review, therefore, provides a comprehensive assessment of soil heavy metal pollution derived from mines in China, while identifying policy recommendations for pollution mitigation and environmental management of these mines.

  15. Risk assessment of heavy metals from combustion of pelletized municipal sewage sludge.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xiao, Zhihua; Yuan, Xingzhong; Leng, Lijian; Jiang, Longbo; Chen, Xiaohong; Zhibin, Wu; Xin, Peng; Jiachao, Zhang; Zeng, Guangming

    2016-02-01

    Fly ash and slag are important by-products obtained from combustion of municipal sewage sludge (MSS) after pelletization. The quantitative environmental impact assessment of heavy metals in fly ash and slag, compared to MSS, were performed in accordance with bioavailability and eco-toxicity, geo-accumulation index (GAI), risk assessment code (RAC), and potential ecological risk index (PERI). The results demonstrated that not only direct but also long-term bioavailability and eco-toxicity of heavy metals in fly ash and slag decreased except direct bioavailability and eco-toxicity of Pb in fly ash. The GAI demonstrated that combustion significantly weakened (P heavy metals. PERI indicated that all risks attributed to heavy metals were significantly lowered (P heavy metals had low even no risk to the environments after combustion besides As in slag. The environmental risk of heavy metals in fly ash and slag was decreased compared with MSS. However, the results of PERI showed that fly ash had a moderate risk.

  16. Heavy metal jako subkultura

    OpenAIRE

    KOUTNÁ, Daniela

    2016-01-01

    This bachelor thesis deals with heavy metal subculture. Its aim is to introduce the most important branches and to show broadness of heavy metal. This bachelor thesis describes development and history, briefly shows Czech heavy metal history alongside with the biggest and most popular Czech heavy metal festivals. It shows the most dressing concerns of society against this style.

  17. Environmental assessment of heavy metal transport and transformation in the Hangzhou Bay, China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fang, Hongwei; Huang, Lei; Wang, Jingyu; He, Guojian; Reible, Danny

    2016-01-25

    The environmental impact of heavy metal (Cu, Cd, Zn, Pb, Ni, (90)Sr and (137)Cs) transport and transformation in the Hangzhou Bay (China) was assessed through a comprehensive model that integrates hydrodynamics, sediment and heavy metal transport. A mechanistic surface complexation model was used to estimate the adsorption and desorption of heavy metal by suspended sediment under different aqueous chemistry conditions. The dynamics of metal exchange to and from the seabed was also assessed. The primary processes regulating heavy metal distribution, i.e., convection-diffusion, adsorption-desorption, sedimentation-resuspension, as well as other physical and chemical processes related to mass exchange between adjacent sediment layers, were considered in detail. The accidental discharge of (137)Cs was simulated as an example and results showed that (137)Cs transported along the coast driven by tidal flow. Most (137)Cs distributed near the outfall and accumulated in the seabed sediment. The proposed model can be a useful tool for predicting heavy metal transport and fate and provide a theoretical basis to guide field sampling, assessment of risks and the design of remediation strategies.

  18. Assessment of heavy metal pollution of topsoils and plants in the City of Belgrade

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrejić Gordana

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available In order to assess heavy metal pollution in the city of Belgrade (Serbia concentrations of V, Cr, Mn, Co, Ni, Cu, Zn, Cd and Pb were measured on 18 topsoil samples collected in the proximity to central urban boulevards and in urban parks. In addition, concentrations of specified elements were determined in leaves of three evergreen plant species Buxus sempervirens L., Mahonia aquifolium (Pursh Nutt. and Prunus laurocerasus L. so as to estimate their sensitivity to heavy metal pollution. Even though various types of soils from different quarts of Belgrade were sampled, their heavy metal contents were very similar, with somewhat higher concentrations of almost all elements detected in the proximity to high traffic roads. Generally, concentrations of heavy metals in leaves of investigated plant species paralleled the heavy metal concentrations found in their respective soils and were higher in plants sampled from boulevards then from urban parks. Since investigated plant show no visible injuries induced by detected heavy metal pollution these species are suitable for the successful urban landscaping. [Projekat Ministarstva nauke Republike Srbije, br. 173030

  19. Risk assessment of excessive CO{sub 2} emission on diatom heavy metal consumption

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Liu, Fengjiao; Li, Shunxing, E-mail: shunxing_li@aliyun.com; Zheng, Fengying; Huang, Xuguang

    2016-10-01

    Diatoms are the dominant group of phytoplankton in the modern ocean, accounting for approximately 40% of oceanic primary productivity and critical foundation of coastal food web. Rising dissolution of anthropogenic CO{sub 2} in seawater may directly/indirectly cause ocean acidification and desalination. However, little is known about dietary diatom-associated changes, especially for diatom heavy metal consumption sensitivity to these processes, which is important for seafood safety and nutrition assessment. Here we show some links between ocean acidification/desalination and heavy metal consumption by Thalassiosira weissflogii. Excitingly, under desalination stress, the relationships between Cu, Zn, and Cd were all positively correlated, especially between Cu and Zn (r = 0.989, total intracellular concentration) and between Zn and Cd (r = 0.962, single-cell intracellular concentration). Heavy metal consumption activity in decreasing order was acidification < acidification + desalination < desalination for Zn, acidification < desalination < acidification + desalination for Cu and Cd, i.e., heavy metal uptake (or release) were controlled by environmental stress. Our findings showed that heavy metal uptake (or release) was already responded to ongoing excessive CO{sub 2} emission-driven acidification and desalination, which was important for risk assessment of climate change on diatom heavy metal consumption, food web and then seafood safety in future oceans. - Highlights: • Excessive CO{sub 2} in seawater may causes ocean acidification and desalination. • The relationships between Cu, Zn, and Cd were all positively correlated by desalination. • Significant effects of salinity on intracellular concentration of Cu and Cd • Cu and Cd in marine phytoplankton could be regulated by metal excretion. • Heavy metal consumption was affect by excessive CO{sub 2}.

  20. Risk assessment of excessive CO2 emission on diatom heavy metal consumption.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Fengjiao; Li, Shunxing; Zheng, Fengying; Huang, Xuguang

    2016-10-01

    Diatoms are the dominant group of phytoplankton in the modern ocean, accounting for approximately 40% of oceanic primary productivity and critical foundation of coastal food web. Rising dissolution of anthropogenic CO2 in seawater may directly/indirectly cause ocean acidification and desalination. However, little is known about dietary diatom-associated changes, especially for diatom heavy metal consumption sensitivity to these processes, which is important for seafood safety and nutrition assessment. Here we show some links between ocean acidification/desalination and heavy metal consumption by Thalassiosira weissflogii. Excitingly, under desalination stress, the relationships between Cu, Zn, and Cd were all positively correlated, especially between Cu and Zn (r=0.989, total intracellular concentration) and between Zn and Cd (r=0.962, single-cell intracellular concentration). Heavy metal consumption activity in decreasing order was acidificationheavy metal uptake (or release) were controlled by environmental stress. Our findings showed that heavy metal uptake (or release) was already responded to ongoing excessive CO2 emission-driven acidification and desalination, which was important for risk assessment of climate change on diatom heavy metal consumption, food web and then seafood safety in future oceans.

  1. Heavy metal accumulation in soils, plants, and hair samples: an assessment of heavy metal exposure risks from the consumption of vegetables grown on soils previously irrigated with wastewater.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Massaquoi, Lamin Daddy; Ma, Hui; Liu, Xue Hui; Han, Peng Yu; Zuo, Shu-Mei; Hua, Zhong-Xian; Liu, Dian-Wu

    2015-12-01

    It is common knowledge that soils irrigated with wastewater accumulate heavy metals more than those irrigated with cleaner water sources. However, little is known on metal concentrations in soils and cultivars after the cessation of wastewater use. This study assessed the accumulation and health risk of heavy metals 3 years post-wastewater irrigation in soils, vegetables, and farmers' hair. Soils, vegetables, and hair samples were collected from villages previously irrigating with wastewater (experimental villages) and villages with no history of wastewater irrigation (control villages). Soil samples were digested in a mixture of HCL/HNO3/HCLO4/HF. Plants and hair samples were digested in HNO3/HCLO4 mixture. Inductive coupled plasma-optical emission spectrometer (ICP-OES) was used to determine metal concentrations of digested extracts. Study results indicate a persistence of heavy metal concentration in soils and plants from farms previously irrigated with wastewater. In addition, soils previously irrigated with wastewater were severely contaminated with cadmium. Hair metal concentrations of farmers previously irrigating with wastewater were significantly higher (P hair samples of farmers previously irrigating with wastewater were not associated with current soil metal concentrations. The study concludes that there is a persistence of heavy metals in soils and plants previously irrigated with wastewater, but high metal concentrations in hair samples of farmers cannot be associated with current soil metal concentrations.

  2. Health Risk Assessment using in vitro digestion model in assessing bioavailability of heavy metal in rice: A preliminary study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Omar, N A; Praveena, S M; Aris, A Z; Hashim, Z

    2015-12-01

    Little is known about the bioavailability of heavy metal contamination and its health risks after rice ingestion. This study aimed to determine bioavailability of heavy metal (As, Cd, Cu, Cr, Co, Al, Fe, Zn and Pb) concentrations in cooked rice and human Health Risk Assessment (HRA). The results found Zn was the highest (4.3±0.1 mg/kg), whereas As showed the lowest (0.015±0.001 mg/kg) bioavailability of heavy metal concentration in 22 varieties of cooked rice. For single heavy metal exposure, no potential of non carcinogenic health risks was found, while carcinogenic health risks were found only for As. Combined heavy metal exposures found that total Hazard Quotient (HQtotal) values for adult were higher than the acceptable range (HQTotal1×10(-4)) for both adult and children. This study is done to understand that the inclusion of bioavailability heavy metal into HRA produces a more realistic estimation of human heavy metal exposure.

  3. Distribution, Fraction, and Ecological Assessment of Heavy Metals in Sediment-Plant System in Mangrove Forest, South China Sea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Ruili; Chai, Minwei; Qiu, Guo Yu

    2016-01-01

    Overlying water, sediment, rhizosphere sediment and mangrove seedlings in the Futian mangrove forest were analyzed for heavy metals. The results showed that mangrove plant acidified sediment and increased organic matter contents. Except for chromium (Cr), nickel (Ni) and copper (Cu) in Aegiceras corniculatum sediment, heavy metals in all sediments were higher than in overlying water, rhizosphere sediment and mangrove root. Heavy metals in Avicennia marina sediments were higher than other sediments. The lower heavy metal biological concentration factors (BCFs) and translocation factors (TFs) indicated that mangrove plant adopted exclusion strategy. The geo-accumulation index, potential ecological risk index and risk assessment code (RAC) demonstrated that heavy metals have posed a considerable ecological risk, especially for cadmium (Cd). Heavy metals (Cr, Ni, Cu and Cd) mainly existed in the reducible fractions. These findings provide actual heavy metal accumulations in sediment-plant ecosystems in mangrove forest, being important in designing the long-term management and conservation policies for managers of mangrove forest.

  4. [Pollution evaluation and health risk assessment of heavy metals from atmospheric deposition in Lanzhou].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Ping; Xue, Su-Yin; Wang, Sheng-Li; Nan, Zhong-Ren

    2014-03-01

    In order to evaluate the contamination and health risk of heavy metals from atmospheric deposition in Lanzhou, samples of atmospheric deposition were collected from 11 sampling sites respectively and their concentrations of heavy metals were determined. The results showed that the average contents of Cu, Pb, Cd, Cr, Ni, Zn and Mn were 82.22, 130.31, 4.34, 88.73, 40.64, 369.23 and 501.49 mg x kg(-1), respectively. There was great difference among different functional areas for all elements except Mn. According to the results, the enrichment factor score of Mn was close to 1, while the enrichment of Zn, Ni, Cu and Cr was more serious, and Pb and Cd were extremely enriched. The assessment results of geoaccumulation index of potential ecological risk indicated that the pollution of Cd in the atmospheric deposition of Lanzhou should be classified as extreme degree, and that of Cu, Ni, Zn, Pb as between slight and extreme degrees, and Cr as practically uncontaminated. Contaminations of atmospheric dust by heavy metals in October to the next March were more serious than those from April to August. Health risk assessment indicated that the heavy metals in atmospheric deposition were mainly ingested by human bodies through hand-mouth ingestion. The non-cancer risk was higher for children than for adults. The order of non-cancer hazard indexes of heavy metals was Pb > Cr > Cd > Cu > Ni > Zn. The non-cancer hazard indexes and carcinogen risks of heavy metals were both lower than their threshold values, suggesting that they will not harm the health.

  5. [Characteristics and Risk Assessment of Heavy Metals in Core Sediments from Lakes of Tibet].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guo, Bi-xi; Liu, Yong-qin; Zhang, Fan; Hou, Ju-zhi; Zhang, Hong-bo

    2016-02-15

    To explore the source of heavy metals in lake sediments and their hazard to environment on Tibetan Plateau, China, heavy metal (Cu, Zn, Cd, Pb, Cr, Co, Ni and As) levels in surface sediments of 18 lakes were investigated. Inductively Coupled Plasma Mass Spectrometry (ICP-MS, X-7 series) was used to determine the contents of heavy metals and the concentrations of carbon and nitrogen in sediment samples were analyzed by element analyzer (Vario Max CN, Elementar, Germany). The average concentrations for Cu, Zn, Cd, Pb, Cr, Co, Ni and As were 24.61 mg x kg(-1), 70.14 mg x kg(-1), 0.26 mg x kg(-1), 25.43 mg x kg(-1), 74.12 mg x kg(-1), 7.93 mg x kg(-1), 33.85 mg x kg(-1), 77.69 mg x kg(-1). It was found that heavy-metal concentrations in Tibet sediments were higher than those in Antarctic, but lower than those in the regions affected by anthropogenic activities. The contents of Cu, Zn, Pb, Cr and Co in the samples were lower than the background values of Tibet. Correlation analysis and principal components analysis (PCA) were used to analyze the origins of heavy metals. The result showed that Cu, Zn, Cd, Pb, Co, Ni and As came from soil in drainage basin and atmospheric deposition. Cr was mainly affected by human activities. Assessment on ecological risk of heavy metals was carried out using Hakanson's method and cluster analysis (CA). Assessment on ecological risk indicated that Pumoyum Co, Longmo Co and Bangong Co were at low risks, Bieruoze Co was at high ecological risk level and the other lakes were at different risk levels.

  6. Heavy metal pollution and health risk assessment in the Wei River in China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Xuefu; Duan, Jinming; Wang, Lei; Li, Wei; Guan, Jianling; Beecham, Simon; Mulcahy, Dennis

    2015-03-01

    From data collected monthly at 26 monitoring cross sections in the Wei River in the Shaanxi Region of China during the period 2008-2012, the temporal pollution characteristics of heavy metals (Hg, Cd, Cr(VI), Pb, and As) were analyzed based on a heavy metal pollution index (HPI). The monthly HPI values of the five heavy metals in the river fluctuated greatly in 2008 and then declined gradually with time. This general trend of reduction in HPI appears not to have a seasonal variation and most likely resulted from the continued improvement in heavy metal pollution control strategies implemented by local environmental agencies combined with a significant improvement in wastewater treatment capacities. Among the five heavy metals, Cd and Pb were below 0.1 and 3 μg L(-1), respectively, at all the sampling points in the studied areas in the year 2012. The detection rates of As, Hg, and Cr(VI) were in the order of Hg > Cr(VI) > As. Hg, Cr(VI), and As exceeded, in a month of the dry season in 2012, the standard limits for category III surface waters according to the China Environment Quality Standards for Surface Water (CEQSSW). Based on the assessment using the HPI method, the pollution status of these heavy metals in water of the Wei River in the Shaanxi Region was generally at an acceptable level, but exhibited distinctive characteristics between the main stream river and tributaries. Most of the tributaries were more seriously polluted than the main river. A health risk assessment was conducted based on the Human Health Risk Assessment (HHRA) method recommended by the United States Environmental Protection Agency (USEPA). Apart from As, the health risk for the five heavy metals in the region were at acceptable levels for drinking water sources (hazard quotient (HQ) pollutant of concern among the five heavy metals; both its values of the HQ and CR indicated potentially adverse health risks for the local population.

  7. [Speciation Distribution and Risk Assessment of Heavy Metals in Typical Material Roof Dusts].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Dun-zhu; Guan, Yun-tao; Liu, An; Li, Si-yuan

    2015-09-01

    With the modified BCR sequential extraction procedure, the chemical speciation and risk for 10 heavy metals (Ba, Co, Cr, Cu, Mn, Ni, Pb, Sb, Sr and Zn) in roof dusts were investigated. The subjects of this study were collected from four typical material paved roofs (i. e., ceramic tile, concrete, metal and asphalt) in southeast China. The results indicated that the average contents of heavy metals in roof dust significantly exceeded road dust. The analysis of chemical fraction showed that the acid soluble/exchangeable fraction of Zn was much higher than other elements, the existence of Pb and Cu was mainly in oxidization fraction, while other heavy metals dominated by the residual fraction. The mobility sequence percentages for all roof dust samples decreased in the order of Pb > Zn > Cu >Mn > Co >Sr > Sb > Ni > Ba > Cr, and it should be noted that Pb, Zn, Cu, Mn and Co all have more than 50% proportion in mobility sequence. Based on environmental risk assessment, the highest values of contamination factors (Cf) and risk assessment code (RAC) consistently was observed in Zn, which indicated that Zn had relatively high ecological risk. Health risk assessment showed that the non-carcinogenic hazard indexes (HI) of heavy metals decreased in the order of Pb > Cr > Sb > Zn > Mn > Cu > Ba > Ni > Co > Sr, the HI of heavy metals for adults were lower than safe value while the HI of Pb for children was higher than safe value, suggesting that they will not harm the adult's health except Pb for children. The carcinogenic risk for Cr, Co and Ni were all below the threshold values, which indicated that there was no carcinogenic risk.

  8. Assessment of heavy metals pollution in the gulf of Gabes (Tunisia using four mollusk species

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L. RABAOUI

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Since the establishment of the ‘Tunisian Chemical Group’ in Gabes city, Tunisia, no serious investigations were carried out about the heavy metal pollution in Gabes gulf.  In the present study, the contents of four heavy metals were assessed in four mollusk species (two gastropods, Gibbula ardens and Patella caerulea, and two bivalves, Pinctada radiata and Pinna nobilis, collected from twelve coastal stations. The results obtained showed generally that high concentrations of heavy metals were recorded in the central area of Gabes gulf, nearer to Gabes city; the low concentrations were in contrast found at the edges of this gulf, which is probably due to the chemical pollution generated from the huge industry of phosphoric acid in Gabes city. Comparing the results found with the four examined species, the lowest concentrations were noted with the two bivalve species P. radiata and P. nobilis. The highest heavy metals’ concentrations, noted during this study, are comparable to the findings of other authors in other areas, but they are considerably beyond the standards. A remediation action is necessarily needed either by reducing the amount of heavy metals in the phosphgypums quantities thrown directly in the sea or by stopping completely this harmful industry to protect the marine life in the area. A remediation action is necessarily needed to protect the marine life in the area.

  9. Comparison of partial extraction reagents for assessing potential bioavailability of heavy metals in sediments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brady, James P; Kinaev, Irina; Goonetilleke, Ashantha; Ayoko, Godwin A

    2016-05-15

    Assessment of heavy metal bioavailability in sediments is complex because of the number of partial extraction methods available for the assessment and the general lack of certified reference materials. This study evaluates five different extraction methodologies to ascertain the relative strengths and weaknesses of each method. The results are then compared to previously published work to ascertain the most effective partial extraction technique, which was established to dilute (0.75-1M) nitric acid solutions. These results imply that single reagent; weak acid extractions provide a better assessment of potentially bioavailable metals than the chelating agents used in sequential extraction methods.

  10. Soil heavy metal dynamics and risk assessment under long-term land use and cultivation conversion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Xuelei; Xu, Yiming

    2015-01-01

    Long-term agricultural development and cultivation conversions affect soil heavy metal balance and the regional environmental safety. In this study, heavy metal parameters were used to identify changes in soil properties in response to land use and cultivation conversions. The integrated soil quality index, which involves seven heavy metal indices, was proposed to assess the environmental risk of long-term human activities in Northeast China. We used the remote sensing and geographical data for the four-term land use distribution from 1979 to 2009 to identify the spatial patterns of regional land use conversions. Then, 41 samples from the top 20 cm of the soil at sites corresponding to these seven types of conversions were collected (permanent dry land, dry land converted from wetland, dry land converted from forest, permanent wetland, permanent forest, paddy land converted from dry land, and paddy land converted from wetland). Based on the local soil properties and tillage practices, the following seven heavy metal parameters were employed: Arsenic (As), Cadmium (Cd), Chromium (Cr), Copper (Cu), Nickel (Ni), Lead (Pb), and Zinc (Zn). The conversion of farmland from wetland resulted in an increase in the concentration of Pb and Cr in the soil. In contrast, the concentrations of Zn, Cu, Ni, and Cd decreased when wetland was converted into farmland because the tillage practices washed these heavy metals away. During the conversion of dry land and paddy land to wetland, the levels of Pb increased by approximately 28.6% and 24.7%, respectively. Under the same conditions, the concentration of As increased by 32.5% and 14.1%, respectively. The integrated index also demonstrated that the farmlands were not contaminated by the heavy metals during long-term agricultural development.

  11. Risk and toxicity assessments of heavy metals in sediments and fishes from the Yangtze River and Taihu Lake, China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fu, Jie; Hu, Xin; Tao, Xiancong; Yu, Hongxia; Zhang, Xiaowei

    2013-11-01

    Heavy metal pollution is one of the most serous environmental issues globally. To evaluate the metal pollution in Jiangsu Province of China, the total concentrations of heavy metals in sediments and fishes from the Yangtze River and Taihu Lake were analyzed. Ecological risk of sediments and human health risk of fish consumption were assessed respectively. Furthermore, toxicity of samples on expression of the stress responsive genes was evaluated using microbial live cell-array method. The results showed that the heavy metals concentrations in sediments from the Yangtze River were much higher than those in sediments from the Taihu Lake. However, the fishes from the Taihu Lake had higher concentrations of heavy metals than fishes from the Yangtze River. Ecological risk evaluation showed that the heavy metal contaminants in sediments from the Yangtze River posed higher risk of adverse ecological effects, while sediments from the study areas of Taihu Lake were relatively safe. Health risk assessment suggested that the heavy metals in fishes of both Yangtze River and Taihu Lake might have risk of adverse health effects to human. The toxicity assessment indicated that the heavy metals in these sediments and fishes showed transcriptional effects on the selected 21 stress responsive genes, which were involved in the pathways of DNA damage response, chemical stress, and perturbations of electron transport. Together, this field investigation combined with chemical analysis, risk assessment and toxicity bioassay would provide useful information on the heavy metal pollution in Jiangsu Province.

  12. Rapid ecotoxicological assessment of heavy metal combined polluted soil using canonical analysis

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    CHEN Su-hua; ZHOU Qi-xing; SUN Tie-heng; LI Pei-jun

    2003-01-01

    Quick, simple to perform, and cheap biomarkers were combined in a rapid assessment approach to measure the effects of metal pollutants, Cu, Cd, Pb and Zn in meadow burozem on wheat. Analysis of orthogonal design showed that the significant zinc factor indicated both the inhibition rate of shoot mass and that of root elongation were affected by zinc( P < 0.05 and P < 0.01, respectively). The first toxicity canonical variable (TOXI), formed from the toxicity data set, explained 49% of the total variance in the toxicity data set; the first biological canonical variable(BIOL) explained 42% of the total variation in the biological data set. The correlation between the first canonical variables TOXI and BIOL (canonical correlation) was 0.94 ( P < 0.0001). Therefore, it is reliable and feasible to use the achievement to assess toxicity of heavy metal combined polluted soil using canonical analysis. Toxicity of soil combined polluted by heavy metals to plant community was estimated by comparing the IC50 values describing the concentration needed to cause 50% decrease with grow rate compared to no metal addition. Environmental quality standard for soils prescribe that all these tested concentration of heavy metals in soil should not cause hazard and pollution ultimately, whereas it indicated that the soils in second grade cause more or less than 50% inhibition rates of wheat growth. So environmental quality standard for soils can be modified to include other features.

  13. Ecological risk assessment of heavy metals in sediment and human health risk assessment of heavy metals in fishes in the middle and lower reaches of the Yangtze River basin

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yi Yujun [State Key Laboratory of Water Environment Simulation and Pollution Control, School of Environment, Beijing Normal University, Beijing 100875 (China); Yang Zhifeng, E-mail: zfyang@bnu.edu.cn [State Key Laboratory of Water Environment Simulation and Pollution Control, School of Environment, Beijing Normal University, Beijing 100875 (China); Zhang Shanghong [Renewable Energy School, North China Electric Power University, Beijing 102206 (China)

    2011-10-15

    The concentrations of heavy metals (Cr, Cd, Hg, Cu, Zn, Pb and As) in the water, sediment, and fish were investigated in the middle and lower reaches of the Yangtze River, China. Potential ecological risk analysis of sediment heavy metal concentrations indicated that six sites in the middle reach, half of the sites in the lower reach, and two sites in lakes, posed moderate or considerable ecological risk. Health risk analysis of individual heavy metals in fish tissue indicated safe levels for the general population and for fisherman but, in combination, there was a possible risk in terms of total target hazard quotients. Correlation analysis and PCA found that heavy metals (Hg, Cd, Pb, Cr, Cu, and Zn) may be mainly derived from metal processing, electroplating industries, industrial wastewater, and domestic sewage. Hg may also originate from coal combustion. Significant positive correlations between TN and As were observed. - Highlights: > Field survey, test and relationship of the concentrations of heavy metals in the water, sediment, and fish. > Potential ecological risk assessment of heavy metals in sediment. > Non-cancer health risk assessment of heavy metals in fish tissue. > Possible pollution source of heavy metals analyzed. - Possible ecological risk of sediment and slight non-cancer health risk of eating fish were found in the middle and lower reaches of the Yangtze River.

  14. Seasonal assessment, treatment and removal of heavy metal concentrations in a tropical drinking water reservoir

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mustapha Moshood Keke

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Heavy metals are present in low concentrations in reservoirs, but seasonal anthropogenic activities usually elevate the concentrations to a level that could become a health hazard. The dry season concentrations of cadmium, copper, iron, lead, mercury, nickel and zinc were assessed from three sites for 12 weeks in Oyun reservoir, Offa, Nigeria. Triplicate surface water samples were collected and analysed using atomic absorption spectrophotometry. The trend in the level of concentrations in the three sites is site C > B > A, while the trend in the levels of the concentrations in the reservoir is Ni > Fe > Zn > Pb > Cd > Cu > Hg. Ni, Cd, Pb and Hg were found to be higher than the WHO guidelines for the metals in drinking water. The high concentration of these metals was from anthropogenic watershed run-off of industrial effluents, domestic sewages and agricultural materials into the reservoir coming from several human activities such as washing, bathing, fish smoking, especially in site C. The health effects of high concentration of these metals in the reservoir were highlighted. Methods for the treatment and removal of the heavy metals from the reservoir during water purification such as active carbon adsorption, coagulation-flocculation, oxidation-filtration, softening treatment and reverse osmosis process were highlighted. Other methods that could be used include phytoremediation, rhizofiltration, bisorption and bioremediation. Watershed best management practices (BMP remains the best solution to reduce the intrusion of the heavy metals from the watershed into the reservoir.

  15. Risk assessment of mineral and heavy metal content of selected tea products from the Ghanaian market.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nkansah, Marian Asantewah; Opoku, Francis; Ackumey, Abiathar Abraham

    2016-06-01

    Food consumption is the most likely route of human exposure to metals. Tea (Camellia sinensis L.) is among the most widely consumed non-alcoholic beverages. Concentrations of heavy metals and minerals in tea from 15 different brands in Kumasi, Ghana were measured to assess the health risk associated with their consumption. The mineral and metal contents (Fe, Cu, Zn, Pb, As, Cd) were analyzed using atomic absorption spectrophotometer (Z-8100 polarized Zeeman). The results revealed that the mean concentrations were in the order: Ca > Fe > As > Cd > Zn > Pb. The average contents of Ca, Fe, Zn, Pb, Cd, and As in the samples were 94.08, 6.15, 0.20, 0.16, 0.36, and 1.66 mg/kg, respectively. All the minerals and heavy metals were below the maximum permissible limits stipulated by the World Health Organization (WHO) and US Pharmacopeia (USP). Metal-to-metal correlation indicated strong correlations between As/Zn, Cd/Zn, Cd/As, and Pb/As pairs. Factor analysis demonstrated a clear separation between minerals, grouped on one side, and heavy metals, clustered on another side. Both the target hazard quotient (THQ) and hazard index (HI) levels in green tea were far below 1, suggesting that consumption of green tea should pose no potential risk to human health. However, carcinogenic risk levels for arsenic were high; R > 10(-6). The results showed that residents in Kumasi consume tea could be at risk from exposure to these heavy metals and minerals.

  16. Assessment of heavy metal contamination of road dusts from industrial areas of Hyderabad, India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mathur, Ramavati; Balaram, V; Satyanarayanan, M; Sawant, S S

    2016-09-01

    Road dust in industrial areas carries high levels of toxic heavy metals. Exposure to such polluted dust significantly affects the health of people residing in these areas, which is of major concern. The present study was taken up with an aim to highlight the magnitude and potential sources of accumulation of heavy metals in 32 road dust samples collected from six industrial areas of Hyderabad. Acid-digested sample solutions were analyzed by ICP-MS for Cu, Zn, Cr, Co, Pb, Ni, V, Zr, Ce, Y, and Hf. The road dusts exhibit significantly high mean metal levels which are much above their crustal abundances. The relative ordering of mean metal contents is Zr > Zn > Pb > Cr > Ce > Cu > V > Ni > Y > Co > Hf. Elevated pollution indices (I geo, EF, C (i) f, and C deg) reveal that the road dusts are pollution impacted showing varying degree of heavy metal contamination. Strong positive correlations exhibited by metal pairs Cu-Zn, Cr-Ni, Ce-V, Y-Ce, and Hf-Zr imply their origin from common anthropogenic sources. Principal component analysis grouped the metals according to the sources which contributed to their accumulation. The present study confirms to an intensive anthropogenic impact on the accumulation of heavy metals in the studied road dusts attributable mainly to strong influences of vehicular and industrial activity and partly to domestic and natural processes. The results obtained imply the need for further investigations to assess their ecological implications and human health risks.

  17. Assessment of bioavailability of heavy metal pollutants using soil isolates of Chlorella sp.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krishnamurti, Gummuluru S R; Subashchandrabose, Suresh R; Megharaj, Mallavarapu; Naidu, Ravi

    2015-06-01

    Biotests conducted with plants are presently used to estimate metal bioavailability in contaminated soils. But when plants are grown in soils, especially the plants with fine roots, root collection is easily biased and tedious. Indeed, at harvest, small amounts of soil can adhere to roots, resulting in overestimation of root metal content, and the finest roots are often discarded from the analysis because of their difficult and almost impossible recovery. This report presents a novel method for assessing the bioavailability of heavy metals in soils using microalgae. Two species of green unicellular microalgae were isolated from two highly contaminated soils and identified by phylogenetic and molecular evolutionary analyses as Chlorella sp. RBM and Chlorella sp. RHM. These two cultures were used to determine the metal uptake from metal-contaminated soils of South Australia as a novel, cost-effective, simple and rapid method for assessing the bioavailability of heavy metals in soils. The suggested method is an attempt to achieve a realistic estimate of bioavailability which overcomes the inherent drawback of root metal contamination in the bioavailability indices so far reported.

  18. Pollution Characteristics and Health Risk Assessment of Airborne Heavy Metals Collected from Beijing Bus Stations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zheng, Xiaoxia; Zhao, Wenji; Yan, Xing; Shu, Tongtong; Xiong, Qiulin; Chen, Fantao

    2015-08-17

    Airborne dust, which contains high levels of toxic metals, is recognized as one of the most harmful environment component. The purpose of this study was to evaluate heavy metals pollution in dustfall from bus stations in Beijing, and to perform a risk assessment analysis for adult passengers. The concentrations of Cd, Co, Cr, Cu, Mo, Ni, Pb, V and Zn were determined by inductively coupled plasma mass spectroscopy (ICP-MS). The spatial distribution, pollution level and potential health risk of heavy metals were analyzed by Geographic Information System (GIS) mapping technology, geo-accumulation index and health risk assessment model, respectively. The results indicate that dust samples have elevated metal concentrations, especially for Cd, Cu, Pb and Zn. The nine metals can be divided into two categories in terms of spatial distribution and pollution level. Cd, Cr, Cu, Mo, Pb and Zn reach contaminated level and have similar spatial patterns with hotspots distributed within the Fifth Ring Road. While the hot spot areas of Co and V are always out of the Fifth Ring Road. Health risk assessment shows that both carcinogenic and non-carcinogenic risks of selected metals were within the safe range.

  19. An experimental assessment of toxic potential of nanoparticle preparation of heavy metals in streptozotocin induced diabetes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gandhi, Sonia; Srinivasan, B P; Akarte, Atul Sureshrao

    2013-11-01

    Nanoparticle preparations of heavy metals have attracted enormous scientific and technological interest. Biologically produced nanoparticle preparations of heavy metals are elaborately described in traditional texts and being widely prescribed. The underlying interactions of nano preparations within the physiological fluids are key feature to understand their biological impact. In this perspective, we performed an experimental assessment of the toxicity potential of a marketed metallic preparation named Vasant Kusumakar Ras (VKR), wherein different heavy metals in composite form are reduced to nanoparticle size to produce the desired effect in diabetes and its complications. VKR (50mg/kg) was administered to Albino Wistar rats rendered diabetic using streptozotocin (90mg/kg) in 2 days old neonates. Anti-hyperglycemic effect was observed with VKR along with increased levels of plasma insulin. Renal variables including total proteins and albumin along with glomerular filtration rate were found to improve biochemically. The results were supplemented by effects on different inflammatory and growth factors like TNF-α, nitric oxide, TGF-β and VEGF. However, the results observed in kidney histopathology were not in accordance with the biochemical parameters. Inflammation observed in kidney was confirmed by immunostaining metallothionein, which was due to the accumulation of heavy metals. Furthermore, mercury accumulation in kidney further confirmed by autometallography, which activated mononuclear phagocyte system, which generated an immune response. This was further supported by increase in the extent of apoptosis in kidney tissues. In conclusion, nanoparticle preparations of heavy metals can be toxic to kidney if it is not regulated with respect to its surface chemistry and dosage.

  20. Potential ecological risk assessment and prediction of soil heavy metal pollution around coal gangue dump

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    X. Jiang

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Aim of the present study is to evaluate the potential ecological risk and predict the trend of soil heavy metal pollution around a~coal gangue dump in Jilin Province (Northeast China. The concentrations of Cd, Pb, Cu, Cr and Zn were monitored by inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (ICP-MS. The potential ecological risk index method developed by Hakanson (1980 was employed to assess the potential risk of heavy metal pollution. The potential ecological risk in an order of E(Cd > E(Pb > E(Cu > E(Cr > E(Zn have been obtained, which showed that Cd was the most important factor led to risk. Based on the Cd pollution history, the cumulative acceleration and cumulative rate of Cd were estimated, and the fixed number of years exceeding standard prediction model was established, which was used to predict the pollution trend of Cd under the accelerated accumulation mode and the uniform mode. Pearson correlation analysis and correspondence analysis are employed to identify the sources of heavy metal, and the relationship between sampling points and variables. These findings provide some useful insights for making appropriate management strategies to prevent and decrease heavy metal pollution around coal gangue dump in Yangcaogou coal mine and other similar areas elsewhere.

  1. Assessment of Heavy Metal Pollution in Sediments of Inflow Rivers to Lake Taihu, China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Niu, Yong; Niu, Yuan; Pang, Yong; Yu, Hui

    2015-11-01

    Lake Taihu, the third-largest freshwater body in China, has many functions, including drinking water supply, flood control, cultivation, navigation, and tourism. In this study, sediment samples were collected at 31 sites from 11 inflow rivers in 2012, to investigate the distribution and concentration of heavy metals copper (Cu), zinc (Zn), lead (Pb), nickel (Ni), and chromium (Cr), and to assess their potential ecological risk. The highest mean concentration was found for Zn, followed by Cu, Cr, Pb, and Ni. Generally, heavy metal pollution was more serious in Wu Jingang River and Caoqiao River, probably because they receive large amounts of wastewater from various local industrial enterprises. The potential ecological risk values of the heavy metals were larger than 120 in more than 25.8% of the sediment samples, indicating a very high risk. The largest ecological risk was due to copper. Furthermore, the results of a principal component analysis and subsequent analysis of variance showed that heavy metal concentrations in the sediment of inflow rivers were higher than those of the lake, which created a large hazard for the aquatic ecosystems of Lake Taihu.

  2. Assessing the Heavy Metal Transfer and Translocation by Sida Acuta and Pennisetum Purpureum for Phytoremediation Purposes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    CLEMENT O. OGUNKUNLE

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Field sampling of two prevalent weeds (Sida acuta and Pennisetum purpureum growing on cement-polluted soil was carried out seasonally to assess the root and leaf contents of Pb, Cu, Cr, Cd and Zn. Concentrations of heavy metal in corresponding soils (total and bioavailable were also determined and data generated were used to calculate the respective transfer factors (TFs and translocation indices (Tis of metals in the weed species. The results of the TFs and Tis were used to evaluate the potential ability of these weed species to accumulate heavy metals in their tissues and suitability or phytoremediation. Findings indicated that S. acuta and P. purpureum are suitable for phytostabilization of Cr, Cd and Zn in cement-polluted soil while Cr and Cd can be phytoextracted by these two weed species from cement-polluted soil.

  3. Assessment of ammonium, nitrate, phosphate, and heavy metal pollution in groundwater from Amik Plain, southern Turkey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ağca, Necat; Karanlık, Sema; Ödemiş, Berkant

    2014-09-01

    Amik Plain is one of the most important agricultural areas of Turkey. Because the groundwater resources have been used not only for irrigation but also for drinking purpose, groundwater resources play a vital role in this area. However, there exist no or a very limited number of studies on groundwater quality and its physicochemical and heavy metal composition for Amik Plain. This study aimed to assess groundwater of Amik Plain in terms of human health and suitability for irrigation based on physicochemical variables, heavy metals, and their spatial distribution. A total of 92 groundwater samples were collected from wells and were analyzed for temperature (T), salt content (SC), dissolved oxygen (DO), ammonium (NH4(+)), nitrate (NO3(-)), and phosphorus (P) and such heavy metals as cadmium (Cd), cobalt (Co), chromium (Cr), copper (Cu), iron (Fe), manganese (Mn), nickel (Ni), lead (Pb), and zinc (Zn). The temperature, SC, DO, NH4(+), and NO3(-) parameters were measured in situ immediately with YSI Professional plus instrument (Pro Plus). Water depth was taken from owner of the wells. Heavy metal analyses were carried out in triplicate using inductively coupled atomic emission spectrometer (ICP-AES). The ICP-AES was calibrated for all the metals by running different concentrations of standard solutions. Descriptive statistical analyses were calculated to characterize distribution of physicochemical properties and heavy metal contents of groundwater. Correlation analysis was used to assess the possible relationships among heavy metals and physicochemical properties of the groundwater. Spatial variability in groundwater parameters were determined by geostatistical methods. Result shows that the highest and lowest coefficient of variation occurred for NO3(-) and T, respectively. Mean water table depth was 92.1 m, and only 12 of all the samples exceeded the desirable limit of 50 mg/L for NO3(-) content. The metal concentrations showed a dominance in the order of Fe >

  4. Distribution and pollution assessment of heavy metals in surface sediments in the Yellow Sea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiang, Xin; Teng, Ankang; Xu, Wenzhe; Liu, Xiaoshou

    2014-06-15

    Heavy metal concentrations in surface sediments at 56 stations during two cruises in the Yellow Sea in summer and winter, 2011 were analyzed by inductively coupled plasma-mass spectrometry. The pollution status was assessed via the Geoaccumulation index and Hankanson potential ecological risk index. Higher concentrations of heavy metals (except for Mn) were found in the central Southern Yellow Sea and the western Northern Yellow Sea. The higher contents of Mn were much closer to Shandong Peninsula. Correlation analyses indicated that Pb, Cu, Fe, Ni, Zn and Co probably had the same origin and were controlled by grain size and total organic carbon. Pollution assessment showed that most areas of the Yellow Sea were not or lowly contaminated with the exception of the northwest and south parts of the Southern Yellow Sea showing Cd-contamination. The pollution status of the Yellow Sea in summer was worse than that in winter.

  5. Integrated approach to assessing the effects of soils polluted with heavy metals on a plant population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gutiérrez-Ginés, M J; Pastor, J; Hernández, A J

    2012-10-01

    This study addresses the effects of soil polluted with more than one heavy metal in a grass species. A 16-week bioassay with Avena sativa L. was conducted in microcosms using soils from two abandoned mines in central Spain that contained levels above World Health Organization (WHO) reference limits for soils of more than three heavy metals. Pollution effects were examined at cell, tissue, organ, plant and population levels. For this purpose, dry weight, maximum height and number of leaves were determined; leaf tissues were observed by low temperature scanning electron microscopy; the metal contents of roots and shoots were determined by plasma emission spectroscopy and their distribution in different tissues was analyzed by X-ray microanalysis using an environmental scanning electron microscope. The results explain the accumulation and translocation of soil metals by this plant species; their effects in cells, tissues and growth of plants; and allow inference on population effects. The discussion of the methodological approach leads us to propose a valid protocol to assess the effects of a set of heavy metals present in the topsoil of polluted sites on a plant population. We recommend its use for an ecotoxicological diagnosis and risk analysis of similarly polluted sites.

  6. Seasonal assessment, treatment and removal of heavy metal concentrations in a tropical drinking water reservoir

    OpenAIRE

    Mustapha Moshood Keke; Ewulum Joy Chinenye

    2016-01-01

    Heavy metals are present in low concentrations in reservoirs, but seasonal anthropogenic activities usually elevate the concentrations to a level that could become a health hazard. The dry season concentrations of cadmium, copper, iron, lead, mercury, nickel and zinc were assessed from three sites for 12 weeks in Oyun reservoir, Offa, Nigeria. Triplicate surface water samples were collected and analysed using atomic absorption spectrophotometry. The trend in the level of concentrations in the...

  7. Soil heavy metals

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sherameti, Irena [Jena Univ. (Germany). Inst. fuer Allgemeine Botanik und Pflanzenphysiologie; Varma, Ajit (eds.) [Amity Univ., Uttar Pradesh (India). Amity Inst. of Microbial Technology; Amity Science, Technology and Innovation Foundation, Noida, UP (India)

    2010-07-01

    Human activities have dramatically changed the composition and organisation of soils. Industrial and urban wastes, agricultural application and also mining activities resulted in an increased concentration of heavy metals in soils. How plants and soil microorganisms cope with this situation and the sophisticated techniques developed for survival in contaminated soils is discussed in this volume. The topics presented include: the general role of heavy metals in biological soil systems; the relation of inorganic and organic pollutions; heavy metal, salt tolerance and combined effects with salinity; effects on abuscular mycorrhizal and on saprophytic soil fungi; heavy metal resistance by streptomycetes; trace element determination of environmental samples; the use of microbiological communities as indicators; phytostabilization of lead polluted sites by native plants; effects of soil earthworms on removal of heavy metals and the remediation of heavy metal contaminated tropical land. (orig.)

  8. [Particle Size Distribution, Seasonal Variation Characteristics and Human Exposure Assessment of Heavy Metals in Typical Settled Dust from Beijing].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cao, Zhi-guo; Yu, Gang; Lü, Xiang-ying; Wang, Meng-lei; Li, Qi-lu; Feng, Jing-lan; Yan, Guang-xuan; Yu, Hao; Sun, Jian-hui

    2016-04-15

    Four types of dust from dormitories, offices, hotels and roads in Beijing were collected and fractionated into 9 fractions, respectively. Totally 36 samples were obtained and analyzed for heavy metals including Cu, Zn, Cr, Pb, Cd and Ni. Particle size distributions of those heavy metals in these four types of dust were investigated and the influencing mechanisms were discussed. Distribution patterns of the same heavy metal in different types of dust showed various characteristics. Also different metals in the same type of dust represented different distribution patterns. Heavy metals in road dust tended to concentrate in finer particles. Two offices from the same building, located in Beijing, China, were selected to study the seasonality of heavy metals in dust. Dust sampling from Office A was conducted at weekly intervals between March 2012 and August 2012, while dust from Office B was sampled fortnightly from March 2012 to December 2012. Generally, levels of all heavy metals remained stable among different seasons, however, Cr and Pb represented more significant fluctuations than other four heavy metals. Based on the geo-accumulation index method, the pollution of Zn, Cu and Pb was more serious in the investigated samples, and dust from offices and hotels were moderately polluted by Zn. According to the risk assessment results, the carcinogenic health risks of the six heavy metals in the four types of dust were negligible.

  9. ASSESSMENT OF HEAVY METALS POLLUTION IN ABIOTIC COMPONENT OF ECOSYSTEM OF VYRLYTSA LAKE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tetiana Bilyk

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract. The main task was to investigate the pollution by heavy metals of abiotic component in theVyrlytsa Lake. Was determined the amount of movable form of heavy metals in the water and bottomsediments by the method of atomic absorption spectroscopy. Anthropogenic pollution of the lake is connectedwith discharges of waste waters from enterprises that situated in the industrial zone.Keywords: abiotic component, heavy metals, migration, mobile form.

  10. Contamination and risk assessment of heavy metals in bottom sediments from Lake Valencia, Venezuela

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    González A.

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available The contamination and risk assessment of heavy metals in the bottom sediments of the Lake Valencia, Venezuela, was performed by determining the Enrichment Factor (EF, the Geoaccumulation Factor (Igeo, the availability of metals and the Risk Index Code (RAC. The sediments were anthropogenic ally enriched with Pb, Zn, Cu and Cr and classified as uncontaminated to moderately contaminated, with a medium risk of Zn, Co, Ni and Cr, and low risk of Cu, Pb and Cd. Analysis of correlations and PCA showed temporal variations in the concentration of metals in the sediments during the rainy season, and spatial variations, where the depth and anthropogenic inputs are the main variables. The contamination of sediments was located on the axis connecting the mouths of the river Guayos, which crosses the city of Valencia, and the river Güey which crosses the city of Maracay, both highly industrialized. Although the concentration of dissolved heavy metals into the waters was within the regulations, important concentrations of Pb and Hg and the bioaccumulation of Hg and Cr, determined by the Bioconcentration Factor (BCF, were found in the fish tissues which indicate that the metal enrichment of the lake sediments is affecting the biota.

  11. Heavy Metal Contamination Assessment and Partition for Industrial and Mining Gathering Areas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yang Guan

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Industrial and mining activities have been recognized as the major sources of soil heavy metal contamination. This study introduced an improved Nemerow index method based on the Nemerow and geo-accumulation index. Taking a typical industrial and mining gathering area in Tianjin (China as example, this study then analyzed the contamination sources as well as the ecological and integrated risks. The spatial distribution of the contamination level and ecological risk were determined using Geographic Information Systems. The results are as follows: (1 Zinc showed the highest contaminant level in the study area; the contamination levels of the other seven heavy metals assessed were relatively lower. (2 The combustion of fossil fuels and emissions from industrial and mining activities were the main sources of contamination in the study area. (3 The overall contamination level of heavy metals in the study area ranged from heavily contaminated to extremely contaminated and showed an uneven distribution. (4 The potential ecological risk showed an uneven distribution, and the overall ecological risk level ranged from low to moderate. This study also emphasized the importance of partition in industrial and mining areas, the extensive application of spatial analysis methods, and the consideration of human health risks in future studies.

  12. Heavy metals bioconcentration from soil to vegetables and assessment of health risk caused by their ingestion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garg, V K; Yadav, Poonam; Mor, Suman; Singh, Balvinder; Pulhani, Vandana

    2014-03-01

    The present study was undertaken to assess the non-carcinogenic human health risk of heavy metals through the ingestion of locally grown and commonly used vegetables viz. Raphanus sativus (root vegetable), Daucus carota (root vegetable), Benincasa hispida (fruit vegetable) and Brassica campestris leaves (leafy vegetable) in a semi-urbanized area of Haryana state, India. Heavy metal quantification of soil and vegetable samples was done using flame atomic absorption spectrophotometer. Lead, cadmium and nickel concentration in vegetable samples varied in range of 0.12-6.54 mg kg(-1), 0.02-0.67 mg kg(-1) and vegetable samples exceeded maximum permissible limit given by World Health Organization/Food and Agriculture Organization and Indian standards. Much higher concentrations of Pb (40-190.5 mg kg(-1)), Cd (0.56-9.85 mg kg(-1)) and Ni (3.21-45.87 mg kg(-1)) were reported in corresponding vegetable fields' soils. Correlation analysis revealed the formation of three primary clusters, i.e. Cu-Cd, Cd-Pb and Ni-Zn in vegetable fields' soils further supported by cluster analysis and principal component analysis. Bioconcentration factor revealed that heavy metals' uptake was more by leafy vegetable than root and fruit vegetables. Hazard index of all the vegetables was less than unity; thus, the ingestion of these vegetables is unlikely to pose health risks to the target population.

  13. Assessment of Ecological Risk of Heavy Metal Contamination in Coastal Municipalities of Montenegro

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mugoša, Boban; Đurović, Dijana; Nedović-Vuković, Mirjana; Barjaktarović-Labović, Snežana; Vrvić, Miroslav

    2016-01-01

    Assessment of heavy metal concentrations in the soil samples of urban parks and playgrounds is very important for the evaluation of potential risks for residents, especially children. Until recently, there has been very little data about urban parks pollution in Montenegro. To evaluate the sources of potential contamination and concentration of heavy metals, soil samples from coastal urban parks and kindergartens of Montenegro were collected. Based on the heavy metal concentrations, multivariate analysis combined with geochemical approaches showed that soil samples in coastal areas of Montenegro had mean Pb and Cd concentrations that were over two times higher than the background values, respectively. Based on principal component analysis (PCA), soil pollution with Pb, Cd, Cu, and Zn is contributed by anthropogenic sources. Results for Cr in the surface soils were primarily derived from natural sources. Calculation of different ecological contamination factors showed that Cd is the primary contribution to ecological risk index (RI) origins from anthropogenic, industry, and urbanization sources. This data provides evidence about soil pollution in coastal municipalities of Montenegro. Special attention should be paid to this problem in order to continue further research and to consider possible ways of remediation of the sites where contamination has been observed. PMID:27043601

  14. Assessment of Ecological Risk of Heavy Metal Contamination in Coastal Municipalities of Montenegro

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Boban Mugoša

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Assessment of heavy metal concentrations in the soil samples of urban parks and playgrounds is very important for the evaluation of potential risks for residents, especially children. Until recently, there has been very little data about urban parks pollution in Montenegro. To evaluate the sources of potential contamination and concentration of heavy metals, soil samples from coastal urban parks and kindergartens of Montenegro were collected. Based on the heavy metal concentrations, multivariate analysis combined with geochemical approaches showed that soil samples in coastal areas of Montenegro had mean Pb and Cd concentrations that were over two times higher than the background values, respectively. Based on principal component analysis (PCA, soil pollution with Pb, Cd, Cu, and Zn is contributed by anthropogenic sources. Results for Cr in the surface soils were primarily derived from natural sources. Calculation of different ecological contamination factors showed that Cd is the primary contribution to ecological risk index (RI origins from anthropogenic, industry, and urbanization sources. This data provides evidence about soil pollution in coastal municipalities of Montenegro. Special attention should be paid to this problem in order to continue further research and to consider possible ways of remediation of the sites where contamination has been observed.

  15. Risk assessment using ICP-MS of heavy metals in groundwater in Upper Egypt

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ghada Bassioni

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available It is of great importance to assess the pollution of groundwater as it makes up about twenty percent of the world’s freshwater supply. Environmental laws in Egypt are correlated with protecting water resources from contamination and generally set the maximum limits for the concentration of different hazardous components in wastewater before it is discharged to sea water, rivers, groundwater and the public sewer system. Groundwater from Samalout, Al Minya governorate, Egypt, is studied by analysing its heavy metal content using Inductively Coupled Plasma Mass Spectrometry (ICP-MS. Furthermore, the obtained heavy metal concentrations are compared with permissible limits set by environmental organizations such as the World Health Organization (WHO and the United States Environmental Protection Agency (US-EPA. Comparing the heavy metal concentrations with the groundwater in question clearly demonstrated that the water in this resource should not be directly used for drinking and requires some degree of treatment before usage. For example, concentrations of chromium and lead are far above the maximum permissible limit. The consequent health risks due to the usage of contaminated water are identified in this study as well.

  16. Accumulation of Heavy Metals in Freshwater Organisms: Assessment of Toxic Interactions

    OpenAIRE

    2001-01-01

    Heavy metals are continuously released into the terrestrial environment by natural sources and human activities. The uptake and accumulation of heavy metals by plants promotes a mechanistic understanding of the biological significance of particular metal concentrations and distributions in biota. The toxicity of chromium, zinc, copper and cobalt ions and their binary mixtures are studied at varying test levels using duckweed as the test organism. The accumulation of metal ions ar...

  17. Ecological risk assessment on heavy metals in soils: Use of soil diffuse reflectance mid-infrared Fourier-transform spectroscopy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Cheng; Li, Wei; Guo, Mingxing; Ji, Junfeng

    2017-02-01

    The bioavailability of heavy metals in soil is controlled by their concentrations and soil properties. Diffuse reflectance mid-infrared Fourier-transform spectroscopy (DRIFTS) is capable of detecting specific organic and inorganic bonds in metal complexes and minerals and therefore, has been employed to predict soil composition and heavy metal contents. The present study explored the potential of DRIFTS for estimating soil heavy metal bioavailability. Soil and corresponding wheat grain samples from the Yangtze River Delta region were analyzed by DRIFTS and chemical methods. Statistical regression analyses were conducted to correlate the soil spectral information to the concentrations of Cd, Cr, Cu, Zn, Pb, Ni, Hg and Fe in wheat grains. The principal components in the spectra influencing soil heavy metal bioavailability were identified and used in prediction model construction. The established soil DRIFTS-based prediction models were applied to estimate the heavy metal concentrations in wheat grains in the mid-Yangtze River Delta area. The predicted heavy metal concentrations of wheat grain were highly consistent with the measured levels by chemical analysis, showing a significant correlation (r2 > 0.72) with acceptable root mean square error RMSE. In conclusion, DRIFTS is a promising technique for assessing the bioavailability of soil heavy metals and related ecological risk.

  18. Ecological risk assessment on heavy metals in soils: Use of soil diffuse reflectance mid-infrared Fourier-transform spectroscopy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Cheng; Li, Wei; Guo, Mingxing; Ji, Junfeng

    2017-01-01

    The bioavailability of heavy metals in soil is controlled by their concentrations and soil properties. Diffuse reflectance mid-infrared Fourier-transform spectroscopy (DRIFTS) is capable of detecting specific organic and inorganic bonds in metal complexes and minerals and therefore, has been employed to predict soil composition and heavy metal contents. The present study explored the potential of DRIFTS for estimating soil heavy metal bioavailability. Soil and corresponding wheat grain samples from the Yangtze River Delta region were analyzed by DRIFTS and chemical methods. Statistical regression analyses were conducted to correlate the soil spectral information to the concentrations of Cd, Cr, Cu, Zn, Pb, Ni, Hg and Fe in wheat grains. The principal components in the spectra influencing soil heavy metal bioavailability were identified and used in prediction model construction. The established soil DRIFTS-based prediction models were applied to estimate the heavy metal concentrations in wheat grains in the mid-Yangtze River Delta area. The predicted heavy metal concentrations of wheat grain were highly consistent with the measured levels by chemical analysis, showing a significant correlation (r2 > 0.72) with acceptable root mean square error RMSE. In conclusion, DRIFTS is a promising technique for assessing the bioavailability of soil heavy metals and related ecological risk. PMID:28198802

  19. Assessment of heavy metal pollution risks in Yonki Reservoir environmental matrices affected by gold mining activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kapia, Samuel; Rao, B K Rajashekhar; Sakulas, Harry

    2016-10-01

    This study reports the heavy metal (Hg, Cd, Cr, Cu, and Pb) contamination risks to and safety of two species of fresh water fish (tilapia, Oreochromis mossambicus and carp, Cyprinus carpio) that are farmed in the Yonki Reservoir in the Eastern Highlands of Papua New Guinea (PNG). The upper reaches of the reservoir are affected by alluvial and large-scale gold mining activities. We also assessed heavy metal levels in the surface waters and sediments and in selected aquatic plant species from the reservoir and streams that intersect the gold mining areas. The water quality was acceptable, except for the Cr concentration, which exceeded the World Health Organization (WHO) standard for water contamination. The sediments were contaminated with Cd and Cu in most of the sampling stations along the upstream waters and the reservoir. The Cd concentration in the sediments exceeded the US Environmental Protection Agency's Sediment Quality Guideline (SQG) values, and the geoaccumulation index (Igeo) values indicated heavy to extreme pollution. In addition, the Cd, Cu, and Pb concentrations in aquatic plants exceeded the WHO guidelines for these contaminants. Between the fish species, tilapia accumulated significantly higher (P < 0.05) Cu in their organ tissues than carp, confirming the bioaccumulation of some metals in the aquatic fauna. The edible muscles of the fish specimens had metal concentrations below the maximum permissible levels established by statutory guidelines. In addition, a human health risk assessment, performed using the estimated weekly intake (EWI) values, indicated that farmed fish from the Yonki Reservoir are safe for human consumption.

  20. Risk assessment of heavy metal pollution in alluvial soils and sediments of the Grote Beek river (Belgium)

    OpenAIRE

    Cappuyns, Valérie; Swennen, Rudy

    2003-01-01

    Consoil 2003 RISK ASSESSMENT OF HEAVY METAL POLLUTION IN ALLUVIAL SOILS AND SEDIMENTS OF THE GROTE BEEK RIVER (BELGIUM) Valérie Cappuyns, Rudy Swennen and Katrien De Nil Katholieke Universiteit Leuven, Fysico-chemische Geologie, Celestijnenlaan 200C, 3001 Heverlee, Belgium Tel. +3216327297, Fax. +3216327981, e-mail: 1. Introduction Wastewater discharge from the processing of phosphate ores has contributed to pollution by heavy metals ...

  1. Assessment of PM10 and heavy metals concentration in a Ceramic Cluster (NE Spain)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Belen Vicente, Ana; Pardo, Francisco; Sanfeliu, Teofilo; Bech, Joan

    2013-04-01

    Environmental pollution control is one of the most important goals in pollution risk assessment today. The aim of this study is conducting a retrospective view of the evolution of particulate matter (PM10) and heavy metals (As, Cd, Ni and Pb) at different localities in the Spanish cluster ceramic in the period between January 2007 and December 2011. The study area is in the province of Castellón. This province is a strategical area in the framework of European Union Pollution control. Approximately 80% of European ceramic tiles and ceramic frits manufacturers are concentrated in two areas, forming the so-called "Ceramics Clusters"; one is in Modena (Italy) and the other in Castellón (Spain). In this kind of areas, there are a lot of pollutants from this industry that represent an important contribution to soil contamination so it is necessary to control the air quality in them. These atmospheric particles are deposited in the ground through both dry and wet deposition. Soil is a major sink for heavy metals released into the environment. The level of pollution of soils by heavy metals depends on the retention capacity of the soil, especially on physical-chemical properties (mineralogy, grain size, organic matter) affecting soil particle surfaces and also on the chemical properties of the metal. The most direct consequences on the ground of air pollutants are acidification, salinization and the pollutions that can cause heavy metals as components of suspended particulate matter. For this purpose the levels of PM10 in ambient air and the corresponding annual and weekly trend were calculated. The results of the study show that the PM10 and heavy metals concentrations are below the limit values recommended by European Union Legislation for the protection of human health and ecosystems in the study period. There is an important reduction of them from 2009 in all control stations due to the economic crisis. References Moral, R., Gilkes, R.J., Jordán, M.M., 2005

  2. Informal e-waste recycling: environmental risk assessment of heavy metal contamination in Mandoli industrial area, Delhi, India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pradhan, Jatindra Kumar; Kumar, Sudhir

    2014-01-01

    Nowadays, e-waste is a major source of environmental problems and opportunities due to presence of hazardous elements and precious metals. This study was aimed to evaluate the pollution risk of heavy metal contamination by informal recycling of e-waste. Environmental risk assessment was determined using multivariate statistical analysis, index of geoaccumulation, enrichment factor, contamination factor, degree of contamination and pollution load index by analysing heavy metals in surface soils, plants and groundwater samples collected from and around informal recycling workshops in Mandoli industrial area, Delhi, India. Concentrations of heavy metals like As (17.08 mg/kg), Cd (1.29 mg/kg), Cu (115.50 mg/kg), Pb (2,645.31 mg/kg), Se (12.67 mg/kg) and Zn (776.84 mg/kg) were higher in surface soils of e-waste recycling areas compared to those in reference site. Level exceeded the values suggested by the US Environmental Protection Agency (EPA). High accumulations of heavy metals were also observed in the native plant samples (Cynodon dactylon) of e-waste recycling areas. The groundwater samples collected form recycling area had high heavy metal concentrations as compared to permissible limit of Indian Standards and maximum allowable limit of WHO guidelines for drinking water. Multivariate analysis and risk assessment studies based on total metal content explains the clear-cut differences among sampling sites and a strong evidence of heavy metal pollution because of informal recycling of e-waste. This study put forward that prolonged informal recycling of e-waste may accumulate high concentration of heavy metals in surface soils, plants and groundwater, which will be a matter of concern for both environmental and occupational hazards. This warrants an immediate need of remedial measures to reduce the heavy metal contamination of e-waste recycling sites.

  3. Assessment of heavy metals contamination in roadside topsoil along Qinghai-Tibetan highway, China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zeng, C.; Zhang, F.; Yan, X.; Gao, D.

    2012-12-01

    With the rapid development of road construction and increase of vehicles on the Qinghai-Tibetan Plateau over last few decades, traffic source heavy metals have been continuously emitted into roadside soils and caused a growing concern on potential pollution of soils. In this study, a soil survey was conducted along the Qinghai-Tibet highway (Xining-Maduo-Budongquan-Naqu-Lhasa), China, to investigate the status and influence factors of heavy metals (Cu, Cd, Pb and Zn) in roadside topsoil. A total of 32 sampling sites, 144 topsoil (0~2 cm) samples were collected at different distances to the highway edge (0 m, 10 m, 30 m, 50 m and 100m). Vehicle volume, soil types and road types have significantly impacts on concentrations of the four heavy metals. On the whole, heavy metal concentrations were higher in Budongquan-Naqu-Lhasa (BNL) segment with higher traffic volume than Xining-Maduo-Budongquan (XMB) segment with lower traffic volume. The heavy metals concentrations also show higher levels for asphalt roads than gravel roads, and a sequence of severely degraded meadow soil (MS) > slightly degraded MS > desert soil > non-degraded MS. Besides, concentrations of all the four heavy metals show exponentially decreasing relationships with roadside distances. Compared to the background values of heavy metals in the soils of Qinghai-Tibet Plateau, traffic source heavy metals pollution only exists within 10 m to the road edge in most segments. However, the maximum polluted distance can reach 30 m along the TMP segment. It should be noted that heavy metals pollution was more harmful to this high-altitude segment with fragile ecology. Keywords: Heavy Metal (Cu, Cd, Pb, Zn); Roadside soil; Qinghai-Tibet highway; Qinghai-Tibetan Plateau.

  4. Combine the soil water assessment tool (SWAT) with sediment geochemistry to evaluate diffuse heavy metal loadings at watershed scale.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiao, Wei; Ouyang, Wei; Hao, Fanghua; Huang, Haobo; Shan, Yushu; Geng, Xiaojun

    2014-09-15

    Assessing the diffuse pollutant loadings at watershed scale has become increasingly important when formulating effective watershed water management strategies, but the process was seldom achieved for heavy metals. In this study, the overall temporal-spatial variability of particulate Pb, Cu, Cr and Ni losses within an agricultural watershed was quantitatively evaluated by combining SWAT with sediment geochemistry. Results showed that the watershed particulate heavy metal loadings displayed strong variability in the simulation period 1981-2010, with an obvious increasing trend in recent years. The simulated annual average loadings were 20.21 g/ha, 21.75 g/ha, 47.35 g/ha and 21.27 g/ha for Pb, Cu, Cr and Ni, respectively. By comparison, these annual average values generally matched the estimated particulate heavy metal loadings at field scale. With spatial interpolation of field loadings, it was found that the diffuse heavy metal pollution mainly came from the sub-basins dominated with cultivated lands, accounting for over 70% of total watershed loadings. The watershed distribution of particulate heavy metal losses was very similar to that of soil loss but contrary to that of heavy metal concentrations in soil, highlighting the important role of sediment yield in controlling the diffuse heavy metal loadings.

  5. Risk Assessment of Heavy Metals Contamination in Paddy Soil, Plants, and Grains (Oryza sativa L.) at the East Coast of India

    OpenAIRE

    Deepmala Satpathy; M. Vikram Reddy; Soumya Prakash Dhal

    2014-01-01

    Heavy metals known to be accumulated in plants adversely affect human health. This study aims to assess the effects of agrochemicals especially chemical fertilizers applied in paddy fields, which release potential toxic heavy metals into soil. Those heavy metals get accumulated in different parts of paddy plant (Oryza sativa L.) including the grains. Concentrations of nonessential toxic heavy metals (Cd, Cr, and Pb) and the micronutrients (Cu, Mn, and Zn) were measured in the paddy field soil...

  6. The Assessment of Sediment Heavy Metal Pollution in Begej Canal (Serbia)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krčmar, Dejan; Trickovic, Jelena; Grba, Nenad; Becelic Tomin, Milena; Pesic, Vesna; Varga, Natasa; Dalmacija, Bozo

    2016-04-01

    Accumulation of heavy metals in aquatic systems has received huge concern due to their toxicity, persistence and subsequent accumulation in aquatic sediments. One of the most crucial properties of the metals, which differentiate them from organic pollutants, is that they are not biodegradable in the environment. Metals are part of biogeochemical cycles with aquatic sediments acting as their ultimate sinks for longer periods of time. However, when environmental conditions change (pH, redox potential, etc.) sediments act as secondary sources of metal pollution. The toxicity and mobility of metals depend strongly on the way they are associated with sediments. Therefore, information on the total concentrations of metals in sediment alone should not be used to assess the environmental impact of polluted sediments. The Begej Canal is navigation canal between Romania and Serbia and it is a part of Danube-Tisa-Danube hydrosystem in Vojvodina (Northern Province of Serbia). Approximately, 500,000 m3 of sediment is accumulated in Begej canal which currently prevents canal's primary function - navigability. The objective of the present study was to assess the chemical quality of Begej canal sediments regarding heavy metals content. The concentrations of heavy metals were as follows: Cd - 2.4-4.9 mg/kg, Cr - 125-349 mg/kg, Cu - 65-124 mg/kg, Pb - 47-113 mg/kg, Ni - 45-88 mg/kg and Zn - 362-602 mg/kg. According to Serbian legislation (Official gazette, no. 50/12), sediment of Begej canal is the third class sediment which means that special measures should be taken in case of its removal from watercourse and final disposal in order to prevent contamination of other environmental compartments (soil, ground waters, surface waters, wildlife). Therefore, determination of third class has important economic and social implications. Additional tests to assess sediment quality included determination of contamination factor (CF), pollution load index (PLI) and enrichment factor (EF). In

  7. Heavy metal speciation and risk assessment in dry land and paddy soils near mining areas at Southern China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Guannan; Wang, Juan; Zhang, Erxi; Hou, Jing; Liu, Xinhui

    2016-05-01

    Heavy metal contamination of soils has been a long-standing environmental problem in many parts of the world, and poses enormous threats to ecosystem and human health. Speciation of heavy metals in soils is crucial to assessing environmental risks from contaminated soils. In this study, total concentrations and speciation of As, Cd, Cr, Cu, Mn, Ni, Pb, and Zn were measured for agricultural soils near mines along the Diaojiang River in Guangxi Zhuang Autonomy Region, China. The sources of heavy metals in soils also were identified to assess their effect on speciation distribution of soil heavy metals. Furthermore, the speciation distribution of Cd and Zn, main soil heavy metal pollutants, in dry land and paddy soils were compared. Results showed that there were two severely polluted regions near mine area reaching alarming pollution level. As, Cd, Pb, and Zn were more affected by mining activities, showing very strong pollution level in soils. The mean percentage of exchangeable and carbonate fraction was highest and up to 46.8 % for Cd, indicating a high environmental risk. Greater bioavailable fractions of As, Cd, Cu, Mn, Pb, and Zn were found in soils heavily polluted by mining activities, whereas Cr and Ni as geogenic elements in the stable residual fraction. In addition, in the dry land soils, reducible fraction proportion of Cd was higher than that in the paddy soils, whereas exchangeable and carbonate fraction of Cd was lower than that in the paddy soils. Oxidizable fraction of Zn was higher in the paddy soils than that in the dry land soils. The results indicate that the sources of soil heavy metals and land types affect heavy metal speciation in the soil and are significant for environmental risk assessment of soil heavy metal pollutions.

  8. Risk Assessment of Contamination by Heavy Metals in Zanjan of Iran using SAW method

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Khodadadi A.

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Heavy metals are stable and persistent pollutants of the environment, and can cause both natural and anthropogenic pollution in the environment. Therefore, they are regarded as a serious risk for survival of living organisms. In order to reduce environmental problems of these metals, we need to identify natural and anthropogenic resources of them. Indeed, identifying the risk factors and awareness of the amount and effects of pollutants on the one hand, and accurate ranking of the polluting units on the other are essential steps for proper evaluation and timely and appropriate response to these risks, resulting in reduced damage due to them. The purpose of this study is to identify potential pollution sources of heavy metals of mercury, arsenic, lead, cadmium and chromium in Zanjan Province of Iran and their sampling, in order to present an index for ranking polluting units using appropriate scientific approaches like multi criteria decision making for a more accurate and quantitative assessment of risks and planning response to them in due time. The results of this study indicate that among 26 sites sampled, Mineral Processing Corporation of Iran is the most critical place of environmental risk in Zanjan province.

  9. Ecological risk assessment of heavy metals in soils surrounding oil waste disposal areas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Jianling; Wang, Hanxi; Liu, Yuanyuan; Ma, Mengchao; Zhang, Tian; Zheng, Xiaoxue; Zong, Meihan

    2016-02-01

    More attention is being devoted to heavy metal pollution because heavy metals can concentrate in higher animals through the food chain, harm human health and threaten the stability of the ecological environment. In this study, the effects of heavy metals (Cu, Cr, Zn, Pb, Cd, Ni and Hg) emanating from oil waste disposal on surrounding soil in Jilin Province, China, were investigated. A potential ecological risk index was used to evaluate the damage of heavy metals and concluded that the degree of potential ecological damage of heavy metals can be ranked as follows: Hg > Cd > Pb > Cu > Ni > Cr > Zn. The average value of the potential ecological harm index (Ri) is 71.93, thereby indicating light pollution. In addition, this study researched the spatial distribution of soil heavy metals by means of ArcGIS (geographic information system) spatial analysis software. The results showed that the potential ecological risk index (R) of the large value was close to the distance from the oil waste disposal area; it is relatively between the degree of heavy metals in soil and the distance from the waste disposal area.

  10. Assessment of heavy metals in Averrhoa bilimbi and A. carambola fruit samples at two developmental stages.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soumya, S L; Nair, Bindu R

    2016-05-01

    Though the fruits of Averrhoa bilimbi and A. carambola are economically and medicinally important, they remain underutilized. The present study reports heavy metal quantitation in the fruit samples of A. bilimbi and A. carambola (Oxalidaceae), collected at two stages of maturity. Heavy metals are known to interfere with the functioning of vital cellular components. Although toxic, some elements are considered essential for human health, in trace quantities. Heavy metals such as Cr, Mn, Co, Cu, Zn, As, Se, Pb, and Cd were analyzed by atomic absorption spectroscopy (AAS). The samples under investigation included, A. bilimbi unripe (BU) and ripe (BR), A. carambola sour unripe (CSU) and ripe (CSR), and A. carambola sweet unripe (CTU) and ripe (CTR). Heavy metal analysis showed that relatively higher level of heavy metals was present in BR samples compared to the rest of the samples. The highest amount of As and Se were recorded in BU samples while Mn content was highest in CSU samples and Co in CSR. Least amounts of Cr, Zn, Se, Cd, and Pb were noted in CTU while, Mn, Cu, and As were least in CTR. Thus, the sweet types of A. carambola (CTU, CTR) had comparatively lower heavy metal content. There appears to be no reason for concern since different fruit samples of Averrhoa studied presently showed the presence of various heavy metals in trace quantities.

  11. Characterizing the risk assessment of heavy metals and sampling uncertainty analysis in paddy field by geostatistics and GIS.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Xingmei; Wu, Jianjun; Xu, Jianming

    2006-05-01

    For many practical problems in environmental management, information about soil heavy metals, relative to threshold values that may be of practical importance is needed at unsampled sites. The Hangzhou-Jiaxing-Huzhou (HJH) Plain has always been one of the most important rice production areas in Zhejiang province, China, and the soil heavy metal concentration is directly related to the crop quality and ultimately the health of people. Four hundred and fifty soil samples were selected in topsoil in HJH Plain to characterize the spatial variability of Cu, Zn, Pb, Cr and Cd. Ordinary kriging and lognormal kriging were carried out to map the spatial patterns of heavy metals and disjunctive kriging was used to quantify the probability of heavy metal concentrations higher than their guide value. Cokriging method was used to minimize the sampling density for Cu, Zn and Cr. The results of this study could give insight into risk assessment of environmental pollution and decision-making for agriculture.

  12. Safety Assessment of Heavy Metal in Tea Garden Soil: A Case Study of Specialized Tea Towns in Guangdong

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Qiushuang; WANG; Caijin; LING; Shumei; LIU; Junxi; CAO; Jinsong; ZHANG; Chaoyi; ZHAO

    2013-01-01

    More than 20 soil samples were collected from tea gardens of specialized tea towns in Guangdong,including Fenglang Town and Fengshun Town in Meizhou City,Changshan Town in Lianjiang City,Fenghuang Town in Chaozhou City.Content of 6 types of heavy metal (Cr,Cu,Pb,As,Cd,Hg) in tea garden soil was measured.On the basis of these,the safety was assessed.Results show that the comprehensive pollution index of these 6 types of heavy metal is lower than 0.7.According to Soil Pollution Grading Standard formulated by China Green Food Development Center,the soil is not polluted by heavy metal and remains at safety level.It proves that overall soil condition of specialized tea gardens in Guangdong Province is not polluted by heavy metal.

  13. Speciation, distribution, and potential ecological risk assessment of heavy metals in Xiamen Bay surface sediment

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LIN Cai; LIU Yang; LI Wenquan; SUN Xiuwu; JI Weidong

    2014-01-01

    Based on the survey of surface sediment in Xiamen Bay in October 2011, the speciation, distribution, and potential ecological risk assessment of heavy metals (Cu, Pb, Zn, Cd, and Cr) in this area were studied us-ing the sequential extraction method and ecological risk assessment method. The results indicated:(1) the total concentrations of these heavy metals were influenced by runoff, industrial wastewater, and sewage, and were all higher in the coastal area than the offshore area while the highest area of Pb was a little far-ther away from the coastal water due to atmosphere deposition;(2) sequential extractions suggested that Cu was mainly composed with residual and Fe/Mn-oxide bound fractions, Pb was bound to Fe/Mn-oxide, Zn and Cr were dominated by residual, and Cd bound to exchangeable and carbonate fractions; (3) the order of migration and transformation sequence was Cd>Pb>Cu>Zn>Cr and the degree of pollution was Cd>Pb>Cu>Zn>Cr;and (4) the ratios of the secondary and primary phases showed that Zn and Cr were both clean, Cu may be polluted, Pb was moderately polluted, while Cd was heavily polluted.

  14. Assessment of heavy metals remobilization by fractionation: comparison of leaching tests applied to roadside sediments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pérez, Gustavo; López-Mesas, Montserrat; Valiente, Manuel

    2008-04-01

    The pollution emitted by traffic activities and road maintenance is an area of great interest as contaminants can be transported to roadside sediments and pose a risk to environmental and human health. In the presentwork, deposited pollution in roadside sediments has been assessed by sampling along a highly traveled highway in Barcelona and the surrounding area. The available amounts of the heavy metals was determined by applying different leaching tests and calculating the concentration enrichment ratio (CER) and the environmental concentration guideline values (ECG). To gain information on the heavy metals (HMs) fractionation, the sequential extraction scheme (SES), established by the Standard Measurement and Testing (SM&T), was implemented, and the results were compared with those obtained by single leaching tests. An anthropogenic enhancement of certain metals was observed after considering both the CER and ECG values. However, if only ECG values were considered, an overestimation of the anthropogenically enhanced pollutants was obtained due to disregarding geochemical and particle size variability. CER values provide a more realistic assessment by determining different levels of anthropogenic impact. Thus, CER values suggest a minimum anthropogenic apportion for metals such as Cd, Cr, and Ni, whereas different situations from significant to extreme anthropogenic contribution were observed for Zn, Pb, and Cu. These results have been complemented by other leaching tests that minimize the time-consuming environmental evaluation. In this study, HCI extraction produces suitable results for a quick screening since they correlate well with the corresponding SES: Cu(r2 = 0.798), Pb(r2 = 0.958) and Zn(r2 = 0.901). Mild extractants have been observed to be limited to highly polluted samples due to their low leaching power. The information obtained following this procedure helps to identify hazardous areas that need a remedial strategy.

  15. Assessment of Heavy Metal in Surface Sediments of Day River at Beni-Mellal Region, Morocco

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    A. Barakat

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available The Day River receives domestic and industrial untreated wastewaters from Beni-Mellal city and surrounding villages during the last decades. The present study was to obtain a preliminary assessment about the level and distribution of six heavy metals (Cd, Cr, Cu, Pb, Zn and Fe in its surface sediment collected from 13 stations. The metal concentrations (in mg/kg ranged: Cd, 0.6-6.27; Cr, 52.34-311.69; Cu, 32.69-740.75; Pb, 72.93- 140.36; Zn, 49.84-149.19; and Fe, 15670-36010. Significant spatial variation in concentrations was observed for all metals. Correlation analyses showed that metal content of sediment was controlled by organic matter and Fe contents. Pollution status was evaluated using the enrichment factor, geo-accumulation index and pollution load index and sediment quality guidelines. Based on geoaccumulation index and enrichment factors, Day sediment was treated as unpolluted to moderately polluted with Zn, Fe, Cr and Cu and moderate to considerable with Pb and Cd. Pollution load index and sediment quality guidelines showed that the metal levels exceed local and regional background concentrations, indicating contamination is high enough to be of risk to human health and ecosystem.

  16. ASSESSMENT OF HEAVY METALS CONTENTS IN BOTTOM SEDIMENTS OF BUG RIVER

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    Elżbieta Skorbiłowicz

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available The development of industry, agriculture, and transport contributes to an increased environmental pollution by heavy metals. The aim of the study was preliminary assessment of the contents of selected metals (lead, cobalt, copper, chromium, cadmium and nickel in the sediments of Bug river. The study comprised part of the river flowing through Poland. It was found that the Bug river sediments are not contaminated in respect to the content of tested metals. Based on the analysis of the study results, these metals can be lined up in the following order: Cr > Pb > Cu > Ni > Co > Cd. Statistical analysis showed that copper and chromium occur in Bug river sediments in forms bindings with organic matter in majority of cases. The granulometric analysis of sediments from Bug river revealed the largest percentage of two fractions: 1.0–0.2 mm with average of 47.7 ± 19.77% and 0.2–0.1 mm with average of 20.6 ± 7.7%. These are the dominant fractions with the accumulation of metals in river sediments, which has been confirmed by statistical analysis.

  17. [Fraction distribution and risk assessment of heavy metals in stream sediments from a typical nonferrous metals mining city].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Ru-Zhong; Jiang, Yan-Min; Pan, Cheng-Rong; Chen, Jing; Xu, Jing-Jing

    2013-03-01

    A modified Tessier's sequential extraction procedure was used to investigate the fraction of seven types of heavy metals (Cd, Cr, Cu, Zn, Ni, Pb, As) in the surface sediments from Huixi Stream in Tongling City, a typical nonferrous metals mining city, China. Based on speciation distribution analysis of these metals, contamination degree and ecological risk assessment of heavy metals were conducted by means of risk assessment code (RAC) and mean sediment quality guideline quotient (SQG-Q). The results show that: (1) Cr and As are major composed with residual fractions, Zn, Ni and Pb are mainly constituted of residual and bound to iron and manganese oxides fractions, and Cu is dominated by bounding to organic matter, while Cd exists in approximate mass fractions of exchangeable, bound to carbonates, bound to iron and manganese oxides, and residue. (2) Carbonate and exchangeable mass fractions of Cd, Cr, Cu, Zn, Ni, Pb and As reach 46.48%, 4.62%, 4.05%, 4.12%, 9.17%, 0.97% and 0.03%, respectively. According to the RAC, Cd is of high risk to the environment, Cr, Cu, Zn and Ni are of low risk to the environment, while Pb and As pose extreme low risk to the environment. (3) The SQG index, calculated with SQG-Q, is 10.42, which is far higher than the threshold value 1.0, indicating that the sediment in Huixi Stream has a very high potential for biological toxicity effect. The PEL-Q indexes corresponding to Cd, Cr, Cu, Zn, Ni, Pb and As approach 4.23, 1.14, 20.75, 6.04, 2.33, 4.58 and 41.71, respectively, suggesting that all these metals have great potentials for biological toxicity and the adverse effects will frequently occur.

  18. Distributions and pollution assessment of heavy metals Pb, Cd and Cr in the water system of Kendari Bay, Indonesia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Armid, A.; Shinjo, R.; Ruslan, R.; Fahmiati

    2017-02-01

    The concentrations of heavy metals Pb, Cd and Cr in the coastal waters of Kendari Bay were analyzed to assess their pollution status. Water samples from 32 sampling points were analyzed for dissolved heavy metals concentrations by using inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (ICP-MS). The RSD(%) of each metal was accounted to analyze the diversity of the heavy metals among 32 sampling points. The results demonstrate that the dissolved heavy metal Pb had the highest concentrations (0.009 to 0.549 μg/L, average = 0.210 μg/L) followed by Cr (0.085 to 0.386 μg/L, average = 0.149 μg/L), and Cd (0.001 to 0.015 μg/L, average = 0.008 μg/L). Based on the the RSD values (Pb = 87.8%, Cd = 45.2% and Cr = 41.3%), it is suggested that the antropogenic activities controls the high diversity of concentrations for heavy metal Pb relative to those of Cd and Cr. Comparing the data with the mean oceanic concentrations, only the concentrations of Pb exceed the mean oceanic level (210 folds). Therefore, the water system of Kendari Bay is severely polluted with heavy metal Pb. More management and treatment should be introduced to protect the marine environment in the study area, especially from Pb pollution.

  19. Tracing Sources and Contamination Assessments of Heavy Metals in Road and Foliar Dusts in a Typical Mining City, China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Jie; Teng, Yanguo; Song, Liuting; Zuo, Rui

    2016-01-01

    Road and foliar dust samples from four land-use districts of Panzhihua City, a famous V-Ti magnetite production area of China, were collected to investigate the sources and distribution characteristics of 9 heavy metals (V, Pb, Cd, Cu, Zn, Ni, Cr, Fe, and Mn). The results suggest that foliar samples had smaller particle size and higher heavy metal contents than road dusts. The contamination assessments of heavy metals were as follows: Pb and V (significant enrichment) > Zn, Ni, Cr, Fe, and Mn (moderate enrichment) > Cd and Ni (minimal enrichment). Statistical analyses showed Pb, as the primary pollution element, originated from waste incineration and lead-fuel combustion. The sources of Zn, Ni, Cr, Fe, V, and Mn were fugitive dust and traffic activities. Potential origins of Cu were corrosion of alloys used in vehicle components, vehicle covers, or other metallic surfaces and materials. The sources of Cd were different from any other heavy metals. Traffic and industrial activities were the main anthropogenic origins of heavy metals in dusts of Panzhihua, and more attention should be paid to heavy metal pollution in agricultural area. PMID:27992518

  20. Assessment of relative bioavailability of heavy metals in soil using in vivo mouse model and its implication for risk assessment compared with bioaccessibility using in vitro assay.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kang, Yuan; Pan, Weijian; Liang, Siyun; Li, Ning; Zeng, Lixuan; Zhang, Qiuyun; Luo, Jiwen

    2016-10-01

    There is limited study to simultaneously determine the relative bioavailability of heavy metals such as Cd, Pb, Cu, Cr(VI), and Ni in soil samples. In the present study, the bioaccessibility of heavy metals using in vitro assay was compared with the relative bioavailability of heavy metals using in vivo mouse model. The bioaccessibility of heavy metals ranged from 9.05 ± 0.97 % (Cr) to 42.8 ± 3.52 % (Cd). The uptake profile of heavy metals in soil and solution samples in mouse revealed that the uptake kinetics could be fitted to a two-compartment model. The relative bioavailability of heavy meals ranged from 34.8 ± 7.0 % (Ni) to 131 ± 20.3 % (Cu). Poor correlation between bioaccessibility and relative bioavailability of heavy metals was observed (r (2) = 0.11, p > 0.05). The relative bioavailability of heavy metals was significantly higher than the bioaccessibility of heavy metals (p < 0.05). The present study indicated that the in vitro digestion method should be carefully employed in risk assessment.

  1. Assessment of heavy metals exposure, noise and thermal safety in the ambiance of a vacuum metallurgy separation system for recycling heavy metals from crushed e-wastes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhan, Lu; Xu, Zhenming

    2014-12-01

    Vacuum metallurgy separation (VMS) is a technically feasible method to recover Pb, Cd and other heavy metals from crushed e-wastes. To further determine the environmental impacts and safety of this method, heavy metals exposure, noise and thermal safety in the ambiance of a vacuum metallurgy separation system are evaluated in this article. The mass concentrations of total suspended particulate (TSP) and PM10 are 0.1503 and 0.0973 mg m(-3) near the facilities. The concentrations of Pb, Cd and Sn in TSP samples are 0.0104, 0.1283 and 0.0961 μg m(-3), respectively. Health risk assessments show that the hazard index of Pb is 3.25 × 10(-1) and that of Cd is 1.09 × 10(-1). Carcinogenic risk of Cd through inhalation is 1.08 × 10(-5). The values of the hazard index and risk indicate that Pb and Cd will not cause non-cancerous effects or carcinogenic risk on workers. The noise sources are mainly the mechanical vacuum pump and the water cooling pump. Both of them have the noise levels below 80 dB (A). The thermal safety assessment shows that the temperatures of the vacuum metallurgy separation system surface are all below 303 K after adopting the circulated water cooling and heat insulation measures. This study provides the environmental information of the vacuum metallurgy separation system, which is of assistance to promote the industrialisation of vacuum metallurgy separation for recovering heavy metals from e-wastes.

  2. [Spatial Distribution and Potential Ecological Risk Assessment of Heavy Metals in Soils and Sediments in Shunde Waterway, Southern China].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cai, Yi-min; Chen, Wei-ping; Peng, Chi; Wang, Tie-yu; Xiao, Rong-bo

    2016-05-15

    Environmental quality of soils and sediments around water source area can influence the safety of potable water of rivers. In order to study the pollution characteristics, the sources and ecological risks of heavy metals Zn, Cr, Pb, Cu, Ni and Cd in water source area, surface soils around the waterway and sediments in the estuary of main tributaries were collected in Shunde, and ecological risks of heavy metals were assessed by two methods of potential ecological risk assessment. The mean contents of Zn, Cr, Pb, Cu, Ni and Cd in the surface soils were 186.80, 65.88, 54.56, 32.47, 22.65 and 0.86 mg · kg⁻¹ respectively, and they were higher than their soil background values except those of Cu and Ni. The mean concentrations of Zn, Cr, Pb, Cu, Ni and Cd in the sediments were 312.11, 111.41, 97.87, 92.32, 29.89 and 1.72 mg · kg⁻¹ respectively, and they were higher than their soil background values except that of Ni. The results of principal component analysis illustrated that the main source of Cr and Ni in soils was soil parent materials, and Zn, Pb, Cu and Cd in soils mainly came from wastewater discharge of local manufacturing industry. The six heavy metals in sediments mainly originated from industry emissions around the Shunde waterway. The results of potential ecological risk assessment integrating environmental bioavailability of heavy metals showed that Zn, Cu, Pb and Ni had a slight potential ecological risk. Cd had a slight potential ecological risk in surface soils, but a moderate potential ecological risk in surfaces sediments. Because the potential ecological risk assessment integrating environmental bioavailability of heavy metals took the soil properties and heavy metal forms into account, its results of risks were lower than those of Hakanson methods, and it could avoid overestimating the potential risks of heavy metals.

  3. Soil heavy metal contamination and risk assessment around the Fenhe Reservoir, China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Hong; Liu, Guanglei; Shi, Wei; Li, Jinchang

    2014-08-01

    Heavy metal contamination in the soil around a water source is a particularly serious issue, because these heavy metals can be transferred into the water source and can pose significant human health risks through the contamination of drinking water or farmland irrigation water. In this paper, we collected surface soil samples from the area surrounding the Fenhe Reservoir. The concentrations of As, Cd, Cr, Cu, Hg, Ni, and Zn were determined and the potential ecological risks posed by the heavy metals were quantitatively evaluated. The primary inputs for As, Ni, and Zn were natural sources, whereas the other elements were derived from mainly anthropogenic sources. Hg displays more serious environmental impacts than the other heavy metals. The upper reaches of the reservoir, located in the northwest, display a higher potential ecological risk.

  4. a Simple Interpretation of the Rice Spectral Indices Space for Assessment of Heavy Metal Stress

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, P.; Huang, F.; Liu, X. N.

    2016-06-01

    Heavy metal stress will induce the change of the bio-parameters like chlorophyll, nitrogen and water content of rice. In this paper, we analyzed the traditional spectral index which has strong relationship in general with the three bio-parameters using hyperspectral data acquired by ASD. It is found that some indies do not work well when the heavy metal stress exists, however, some indies still has ability to estimate the above three bio-parameters. A new interpretation is proposed to classify the stress level based on both the physical mechanism analysis and the statistic model after we describe and discuss studies on the expression of spectral indices of rice under heavy metal stress. The 3-axes spectral indices spaces, which are constructed of 3 spectral indices sensitive to rice's chlorophyll concentration, nitrogen concentration and water concentration respectively, are used to visualize the linkage between heavy metal stress and spectrum of rice canopy.

  5. Assessment of heavy metals leaching from (biochar obtained from industrial sewage sludge

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Julija Pečkytė

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Biochar can be produced from many various feedstock including biomass residues such as straw, branches, sawdust and other agricultural and forestry waste. One of the alternatives is to obtain biochar from industrial sewage sludge, however, the use of such a product could be limited due to high quantities of heavy metals in the biochar as a product. Total concentration of heavy metals provides only limited information on the behavior of heavy metals, therefore, batch leaching and up-flow percolation leaching tests were applied to study the leaching of heavy metals (Cd, Pb, Cr, Ni, Zn, Cu from (biochar produced from two types of sewage sludge: from paper mill and leather industries.

  6. Contamination and comprehensive risk assessment of heavy metals in Liangtan River, Chongqing, China

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    Lei Wang

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Distribution and fraction of heavy metals (Pb, Cr, Zn, and Mn in water and sediment in Liangtan River, Chongqing was analyzed using the atomic absorption spectrometry method. Pearson correlation coefficient, bioavailability index, geoaccumulation index and potential ecological risk index were introduced to classify the source and assess the environmental risk of the heavy metal. Pb, Cr, and Zn mainly existed in residual fraction and fraction bounded to Fe–Mn oxides while Mn mainly existed in the fraction bounded to carbonates and the residual fraction. Mn and Pb, Zn and Cr in the sediment were confirmed originating from, separate common sources. Igeo and $E_\\text{r}^{i}$ were both in the order of Pb > Zn > Cr > Mn. Geoaccumulation indexes demonstrated that the Liangtan River has been heavily polluted by Pb and Zn with the class of 2–4 and 2–3, independently. From viewpoint of the whole Liangtan River, the mean RI (45.1 belonged to low risk level.

  7. Distribution and ecological risk assessment of some heavy metals in coastal surface sediments along the Red Sea, Egypt

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Ahmed El Nemr; Ghada F. El-Said; Azza Khaled; Safaa Ragab

    2016-01-01

    The ecological risk assessment for Al, Zn, Cu, Ni, V, Pb, Cd, and Hg in surface sediment collected from the Egyptian Red Sea coast was evaluated using the Geo-accumulation Index (Igeo), Sediment Enrichment Factor (SEF) and Potential Ecological Risk Index (PERI) methods. The predominant heavy metal, aluminum, showed high concentrations along both of Aqaba Gulf (4378.8 ± 2554.1μg/g) and southern part of the Red Sea (2972.8 ± 1527.5μg/g), while it recorded the lowest concentration in Suez Gulf (829.7 ± 398.2μg/g). The determined heavy metal concentrations had the order of Al>Zn>-Ni>V>Pb>Cu>Cd>Hg. The statistical analyses showed some correlations among the heavy metals contents. Several international sediment quality guidelines were used to estimate the quality of the collected sediments. Interestingly, the recorded average heavy metals concentrations were lower than those of the permissible contents for sediment quality guidelines. The Geo-accumulation index calculations (Igeo) proved that the investigated region could be classified as an unpolluted area. Sediment Enrichment Factor (KSEF) study showed high values in Suez Gulf region. The single pollution index analysis of heavy metals in the sediments (Cif ) indicated that Al, Zn, V, and Pb were of natural origin, while Ni, Cd and Hg were seriously affected by human activities. Interestingly, amongst, all the determined heavy metals, Cd and Hg gave moderate ecological risk indicators.

  8. Assessing the concentration and potential health risk of heavy metals in China’s main deciduous fruits

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    NIE Ji-yun; ZHAO Duo-yong; WU Yong-long; CHENG Yang; KUANG Li-xue; LI Zhi-xia; XU Wei-hua; WANG Cheng; CHEN Qiu-sheng; LI An; ZHAO Xu-bo; XIE Han-zhong

    2016-01-01

    To assess levels of contamination and human health risk, we analyzed the concentrations of the heavy metals lead (Pb), cadmium (Cd), chromium (Cr), and nickel (Ni) in China’s main deciduous fruits-apple, pear, peach, grape, and jujube. The concentration order of the heavy metals was Ni>Cr>Pb>Cd. In 97.5% of the samples, heavy metal concentrations were within the maximum permissible limits. Among the fruits studied, the heavy metal concentrations in jujube and peach proved to be the highest, and those in grape proved to be the lowest. Only 2.2% of the samples were poluted by Ni, only 0.4% of the samples were poluted by Pb, and no samples were poluted by Cd or Cr. Compared with the other fruits, the combined heavy metal polution was signiifcantly higher (PCr>Pb>Cd. The highest DIR came from apple, while the lowest DIR came from grape. For each of the heavy metals, the total DIR from ifve studied fruits corresponded to no more than 1.1% of the tolerable daily intake, indicating that no signiifcant adverse health effects are expected from the heavy metals and the fruits studied. The target hazard quotients and the total target hazard quotients demonstrated that none of the analyzed heavy metals may pose risk to consumers through the fruits studied. The highest risk was posed by apple, folowed in decreasing order by peach and pear, jujube, and grape. We suggest that the main deciduous fruits (apple, pear, peach, grape, and jujube) of China’s main producing areas are safe to eat.

  9. Health Risk-Based Assessment and Management of Heavy Metals-Contaminated Soil Sites in Taiwan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zueng-Sang Chen

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available Risk-based assessment is a way to evaluate the potential hazards of contaminated sites and is based on considering linkages between pollution sources, pathways, and receptors. These linkages can be broken by source reduction, pathway management, and modifying exposure of the receptors. In Taiwan, the Soil and Groundwater Pollution Remediation Act (SGWPR Act uses one target regulation to evaluate the contamination status of soil and groundwater pollution. More than 600 sites contaminated with heavy metals (HMs have been remediated and the costs of this process are always high. Besides using soil remediation techniques to remove contaminants from these sites, the selection of possible remediation methods to obtain rapid risk reduction is permissible and of increasing interest. This paper discusses previous soil remediation techniques applied to different sites in Taiwan and also clarified the differences of risk assessment before and after soil remediation obtained by applying different risk assessment models. This paper also includes many case studies on: (1 food safety risk assessment for brown rice growing in a HMs-contaminated site; (2 a tiered approach to health risk assessment for a contaminated site; (3 risk assessment for phytoremediation techniques applied in HMs-contaminated sites; and (4 soil remediation cost analysis for contaminated sites in Taiwan.

  10. Health Risk-Based Assessment and Management of Heavy Metals-Contaminated Soil Sites in Taiwan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lai, Hung-Yu; Hseu, Zeng-Yei; Chen, Ting-Chien; Chen, Bo-Ching; Guo, Horng-Yuh; Chen, Zueng-Sang

    2010-01-01

    Risk-based assessment is a way to evaluate the potential hazards of contaminated sites and is based on considering linkages between pollution sources, pathways, and receptors. These linkages can be broken by source reduction, pathway management, and modifying exposure of the receptors. In Taiwan, the Soil and Groundwater Pollution Remediation Act (SGWPR Act) uses one target regulation to evaluate the contamination status of soil and groundwater pollution. More than 600 sites contaminated with heavy metals (HMs) have been remediated and the costs of this process are always high. Besides using soil remediation techniques to remove contaminants from these sites, the selection of possible remediation methods to obtain rapid risk reduction is permissible and of increasing interest. This paper discusses previous soil remediation techniques applied to different sites in Taiwan and also clarified the differences of risk assessment before and after soil remediation obtained by applying different risk assessment models. This paper also includes many case studies on: (1) food safety risk assessment for brown rice growing in a HMs-contaminated site; (2) a tiered approach to health risk assessment for a contaminated site; (3) risk assessment for phytoremediation techniques applied in HMs-contaminated sites; and (4) soil remediation cost analysis for contaminated sites in Taiwan. PMID:21139851

  11. Spatial assessment of soil contamination by heavy metals from informal electronic waste recycling in Agbogbloshie, Ghana

    Science.gov (United States)

    Greve, Klaus; Atiemo, Sampson M.

    2016-01-01

    Objectives This study examined the spatial distribution and the extent of soil contamination by heavy metals resulting from primitive, unconventional informal electronic waste recycling in the Agbogbloshie e-waste processing site (AEPS) in Ghana. Methods A total of 132 samples were collected at 100 m intervals, with a handheld global position system used in taking the location data of the soil sample points. Observing all procedural and quality assurance measures, the samples were analyzed for barium (Ba), cadmium (Cd), cobalt (Co), chromium (Cr), copper (Cu), mercury (Hg), nickel (Ni), lead (Pb), and zinc (Zn), using X-ray fluorescence. Using environmental risk indices of contamination factor and degree of contamination (Cdeg), we analyzed the individual contribution of each heavy metal contamination and the overall Cdeg. We further used geostatistical techniques of spatial autocorrelation and variability to examine spatial distribution and extent of heavy metal contamination. Results Results from soil analysis showed that heavy metal concentrations were significantly higher than the Canadian Environmental Protection Agency and Dutch environmental standards. In an increasing order, Pb>Cd>Hg>Cu>Zn>Cr>Co>Ba>Ni contributed significantly to the overall Cdeg. Contamination was highest in the main working areas of burning and dismantling sites, indicating the influence of recycling activities. Geostatistical analysis also revealed that heavy metal contamination spreads beyond the main working areas to residential, recreational, farming, and commercial areas. Conclusions Our results show that the studied heavy metals are ubiquitous within AEPS and the significantly high concentration of these metals reflect the contamination factor and Cdeg, indicating soil contamination in AEPS with the nine heavy metals studied. PMID:26987962

  12. The Heavy Metal Subculture and Suicide.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stack, Steven; And Others

    1994-01-01

    Assessed relationship between heavy metal music and suicide with data on heavy metal magazine subscriptions and youth suicide in 50 states. Found that, controlling for other predictors of suicide, greater strength of metal subculture, higher youth suicide rate, suggests that music perhaps nurtures suicidal tendencies already present in subculture.…

  13. [Distribution of heavy metals in waters and pollution assessment in thallium contaminated area of Yunfu, Guangdong].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Xiang-ping; Qi, Jian-ying; Wang, Chun-lin; Chen, Yong-heng

    2011-05-01

    Distribution of Thallium(T1), Cadmium( Cd), Chromium (Cr), Lead (Pb), Nickel (Ni), Arsenic (As), Copper (Cu), Zinc (Zn) in water and sediments of Yunfu pyrite mine area was studied. The environmental risk assessment was conducted systematically using Sediment Quality Guidelines (SQGs) and Hakanson potential ecological risk index. The results indicated that concentration range of Tl in stream water was 0.19-65.25 microg/L, which is higher than the environmental quality standards for surface water. Concentration ranges of Tl, Zn, As, Cd, Pb in sediments were 5.89-63.0 mg/kg, 1215-5754 mg/kg, 208.4-1327 mg/kg, 4.20-17.5 mg/kg, 282-13,770 mg/kg. According to Sediments Quality Guidelines, sediments was moderately to severe level of pollution since concentrations of Tl, Cd, Cr, Pb, Ni, As, Cu, Zn were much higher than LEL (lowest effect level) values, and the concentrations of Pb, As, Zn were higher than SEL (severe effect level) values, the others were partly higher than SEL values, which may result in severe negative biota effects in the watersheds. Compared to soil background values of Guangdong province, the metals in stream sediment showed strong to severe strong ecological risk, and the ecological risk of heavy metals in the descending order of Tl, Cd, As, Pb, Cr, Ni, Zn and Cu. Besides, the sediments were severe contained by toxic element thallium and cadmium. Besides, the mainly ecological risk of heavy metal is thallium. More emphasis should be placed on thallium and cadmium control and disposal in

  14. Assessment of Heavy Metals in Water Samples of Certain Locations Situated Around Tumkur, Karnataka, India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C. Vijaya Bhaskar

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Surface water and groundwater samples of certain locations namely Kallambella, Bugudanahalli, Maidala, Honnudike, Kunigal, Kadaba and Hebbur, situated around Tumkur were assessed in the month of September 2008 for pH, EC and heavy metals Cd, Cu, Fe, Hg, Mn, Zn and Ni. The pH vales of surface waters were in alkaline range of 7.8-8.2 and are well within safe limits for crop production. The pH of ground- water was in the range of 7.6-8.4. The conductivity was in the range of 0.20-0.68 mS/cm and 0.34-2.44 mS/cm for surface and groundwaters respectively. High EC value of Kallambella groundwater accounts for its salinity. All surface waters except Honnudike and Hebbur samples contain low concentrations of these metals and are ideal for irrigation. Though the samples from Honnudike, Kadaba and Hebbur have high iron concentration, only Honnudike and Hebbur samples have exceeded the limit of 5 mg/L required for irrigation. In groundwaters the concentrations of all these heavy metals except copper are also well in permissible limits and suitable for drinking. Cu, Fe, Ni and Zn were detected in all the samples and found in the range of 0.094-0.131, 0.958-12.537, 0.020-0.036 and 0.082-1.139 mg/L respectively in surface waters and these are in the range of 0.132-0.142, 0.125-1.014, 0.028-0.036 and 0.003-0.037 mg/L in ground- waters. The elements cadmium, mercury and manganese are absent in all the samples.

  15. Human health risk assessment of heavy metals in soil–vegetable system: A multi-medium analysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Liu, Xingmei; Song, Qiujin; Tang, Yu; Li, Wanlu [College of Environmental and Natural Resource Sciences, Zhejiang Provincial Key Laboratory of Subtropical Soil and Plant Nutrition, Zhejiang University, Hangzhou 310058 (China); Xu, Jianming, E-mail: jmxu@zju.edu.cn [College of Environmental and Natural Resource Sciences, Zhejiang Provincial Key Laboratory of Subtropical Soil and Plant Nutrition, Zhejiang University, Hangzhou 310058 (China); Wu, Jianjun, E-mail: wujianjun@zju.edu.cn [College of Environmental and Natural Resource Sciences, Zhejiang Provincial Key Laboratory of Subtropical Soil and Plant Nutrition, Zhejiang University, Hangzhou 310058 (China); Wang, Fan [College of Life and Environmental Sciences, Hangzhou Normal University, Hangzhou 310036 (China); Brookes, Philip Charles [College of Environmental and Natural Resource Sciences, Zhejiang Provincial Key Laboratory of Subtropical Soil and Plant Nutrition, Zhejiang University, Hangzhou 310058 (China)

    2013-10-01

    Vegetable fields near villages in China are suffering increasing heavy metal damages from various pollution sources including agriculture, traffic, mining and Chinese typical local private family-sized industry. 268 vegetable samples which included rape, celery, cabbages, carrots, asparagus lettuces, cowpeas, tomatoes and cayenne pepper and their corresponding soils in three economically developed areas of Zhejiang Province, China were collected, and the concentrations of five heavy metals (Pb, Cd, Cr, Hg and As) in all the samples were determined. The health risk assessment methods developed by the United States Environmental Protection Agency (US EPA) were employed to explore the potential health hazards of heavy metals in soils growing vegetables. Results showed that heavy metal contaminations in investigated vegetables and corresponding soils were significant. Pollution levels varied with metals and vegetable types. The highest mean soil concentrations of heavy metals were 70.36 mg kg{sup −1} Pb, 47.49 mg kg{sup −1} Cr, 13.51 mg kg{sup −1} As, 0.73 mg kg{sup −1} for Cd and 0.67 mg kg{sup −1} Hg, respectively, while the metal concentrations in vegetables and corresponding soils were poorly correlated. The health risk assessment results indicated that diet dominated the exposure pathways, so heavy metals in soil samples might cause potential harm through food-chain transfer. The total non-cancer and cancer risk results indicated that the investigated arable fields near industrial and waste mining sites were unsuitable for growing leaf and root vegetables in view of the risk of elevated intakes of heavy metals adversely affecting food safety for local residents. Chromium and Pb were the primary heavy metals posing non-cancer risks while Cd caused the greatest cancer risk. It was concluded that more effective controls should be focused on Cd and Cr to reduce pollution in this study area. - Highlights: • Flourishing private economy caused increasing

  16. Health risk assessments of heavy metal exposure via consumption of marine mussels collected from anthropogenic sites

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yap, Chee Kong, E-mail: yapckong@hotmail.com [Department of Biology, Faculty of Science, Universiti Putra Malaysia (UPM), 43400 Serdang, Selangor (Malaysia); Cheng, Wan Hee [Inti International University, Persiaran Perdana BBN, 71800 Nilai, Negeri Sembilan (Malaysia); Karami, Ali [Laboratory of Aquatic Toxicology, Faculty of Medicine and Health Sciences, Universiti Putra Malaysia (UPM), 43400 Serdang, Selangor (Malaysia); Ismail, Ahmad [Department of Biology, Faculty of Science, Universiti Putra Malaysia (UPM), 43400 Serdang, Selangor (Malaysia)

    2016-05-15

    A total of 40 marine mussel Perna viridis populations collected (2002–2009) from 20 geographical sites located in two busy shipping lanes namely the Straits of Malacca (10 sites; 16 populations) and the Straits of Johore (8 sites; 21 populations) and three populations (2 sites) on the east coast of Peninsular Malaysia, was determined for Cd, Cu, Fe, Ni, Pb and Zn concentrations. In comparison with the maximum permissible limits (MPLs) set by existing food safety guidelines, all metal concentrations found in all the mussel populations were lower than the prescribed MPLs. In terms of the provisional tolerable weekly intake prescribed by the Joint FAO/WHO Expert Committee on Food Additives (JECFA) and oral reference doses (ORDs) by the USEPA, all the studied metals (except for Pb) were unlikely to become the limiting factors or unlikely to pose a risk for the consumption of the mussel populations. The estimated daily intake (EDI) for average level mussel (ALM) and high level mussel (HLM) consumers of mussels was found to be lower than the ORD guidelines for Cd, Cu, Fe, Ni and Zn. Furthermore, the target hazard quotient (THQ) was found to be less than 1 for ALM consumers but higher than 1 for HLM consumers in some sites. Therefore, there were no potential human health risks to the ALM consumers of the mussels. However, for Pb THQ values, the Pb levels in some mussel populations could create a health risk problem. Present results indicate that the consumption amounts of mussels should be limited for minimizing potential health risks of heavy metals to the HLM consumers. - Highlights: • Human health risk assessments of heavy metals in Perna viridis were investigated. • All metals in the mussels were below the established seafood safety guidelines. • Pb in mussels could easily reach the percentage of prescribed PTWI value of Pb. • Potential health risk with Pb exposure was found for the mussel consumers. • Consumption rate of mussels should be limited to

  17. Heavy Metal Fluoride Glasses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1987-04-01

    i 2N E ihhhhh1112h MEmhhhhEEEohhhhE I.’....momo 111111111’-20 LA ’Ll2. AFWL-TR-86-37 AFWL-TR- 86-37 oT C ,l C ’-’ N HEAVY METAL FLUORIDE GLASSES 0nI...Secwrit CkasmfcationJ HEAVY METAL FLUORIDE GLASSES 12. PERSONAL AUTHOR(S) Reisfield, Renata; and Eyal, Mrek 13. TYPE OF REPORT 113b. TIME COVERED 114...glasses containing about 50 mole% of ZrF4 [which can be replaced by HfF 4 or TIF 4 (Refs. 1-3) or heavy metal fluorides based on PbF2 and on 3d-group

  18. Toxicity Assessment of Sediments with Natural Anomalous Concentrations in Heavy Metals by the Use of Bioassay

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Francisco Martín

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available The potential toxicity in riverbed sediments was assessed with a bioassay using the bioluminescent bacteria Vibrio fischeri. The selected area was characterized by the presence of ultramafic rocks (peridotites, and the sediments had high values in Ni, Cr, and Co. For the toxicity bioassay with Vibrio fischeri, water-soluble forms were used. The results indicated that most of the samples had a very low degree of toxicity, with 10% of reduction in luminescence in relation to the control; meanwhile 25% of the samples had a moderate degree of toxicity with a reduction in luminescence between 13 and 21% in relation to the control. The toxicity index correlated significantly with the concentrations of Ni and Cr in the water extracts. This toxicity bioassay was proved to be a sensitive and useful tool to detect potential toxicity in solutions, even with anomalous concentrations in heavy metals of natural origin.

  19. Assessment of locomotion behavioral defects induced by acute toxicity from heavy metal exposure in nematode Caenorhabditis elegans

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WANG Dayong; XING Xiaojuan

    2008-01-01

    Locomotion behaviors are susceptible to disruption by a broad spectrum of chemicals and environmental stresses. However, no systematic testing of locomotion behavior defects induced by metal exposure has been conducted in the model organism of nematode Caenorhabditis elegans. In this study, the acute toxicity from heavy metal exposure on the locomotion behaviors was analyzed in nematodes. Endpoints of head thrash, body bend, forward turn, backward turn, and Omega/U turn were chosen to evaluate the locomotion behavioral defects. Our data suggest that the endpoints of head thrash, body bend, and forward turn will be useful for the evaluation of heavy metal toxicity in nematodes. The endpoint of head thrash could detect the toxicity from Cd, Co, Cr, Cu, Hg, and Pb exposures at a low concentration (2.5 μmol/L). The endpoint of body bend could be explored to evaluate the toxicity from all assayed heavy metal exposures at different concentrations, whereas the endpoint of forward turn will be more useful for the evaluation of heavy metal toxicity at high concentrations. Thus, endpoints of these locomotion behaviors establish a fast and economic way to assess the presence of acute toxicity from heavy metal exposure in nematode C. elegans.

  20. Preliminary assessment of heavy metal contamination in surface water and sediments from Honghu Lake,East Central China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Ying HU; Shihua QI; Chenxi WU; Yanping KE; Jing CHEN; Wei CHEN; Xiangyi GONG

    2012-01-01

    Heavy metal concentrations in surface water and sediments collected from Honghu Lake in Hubei Province,China were analyzed,and ecological risks were evaluated according to the sediment quality guidelines.The results showed that the average concentrations of heavy metals in surface water were ranked as:As > Zn >Cu > Cr > Pb > Ni > Cd > Hg.In comparison with results reported in other rivers and the background values,The Honghu Lake was polluted by As,Cr,Pb,Cu and Ni.Most of metals might be mainly from fertilizers,industrial effluent and domestic wastewater around the lake.Heavy metals concentrations were relatively higher in the inlet area than in other areas.Negative correlations were observed between most heavy metals and pH,while a significant positive correlation was present between Zn,Cd and Pb.In the sediment core,Cu,Zn,Cr and Ni showed a decreasing trend while Cd present an increasing trend.The decrease of As,Cu,Zn,Cr and Ni in the 1990s might due to the flood event in 1998.The analysis of ecological risk assessment based on sediment quality guidelines suggested that heavy metals in most sediments from the Honghu Lake had moderate toxicity,with Cr being the highest priority pollutant.

  1. An ecological risk assessment for heavy metals of the lead-zinc ore tailings

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Peng Huibing; Liu Yunguo; Li Jun; Liu Meiying

    2007-01-01

    The structure of Pb,Zn,Cu and Cd in lead zinc ore tailing soils in Yongzhou,Hunan is analyzed by the optimized BCR sequential extraction procedure.The content and proportion of heavy metals of the mine are measured.Meanwhile,the ecological risks are evaluated with the Lars Hakanson's potential ecological risk exponential method.The analysis shows that the content of heavy metals is very high,reaching the level of serious pollution.The order of metal pollution degrees are Cd>Pb>Cu>Zn.On the other hand,it is very possible that the heavy metals may combine together as compounds or cling to the crystal form of clay.Since the form of soluble acid and free metals are very little,it is not an easy job for metal elating or restoration of plants.Yet it is possible to take out those heavy metals adopting the chemical extraction technology.DTPA and EDTA,indicated by a research,both have iterative value and strong conformity effect.So they are effective elutriants to restore the polluted soil.A chemical extraction method is put forward in this paper.

  2. The Risk Assessment of Sediment Heavy Metal Pollution in the East Dongting Lake Wetland

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cong Hu

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Total concentrations of cadmium (Cd, lead (Pb, chrome (Cr, and nickel (Ni in surface sediment (0–10 cm from the East Dongting Lake wetlands were determined and the spatial distribution of heavy metals was mapped. The results showed that the single risk indices (Eri of heavy metals were ranked in the order of Cd > Pb > Ni > Cr. The content of Cd and Pb was gradually reduced from the east (Xiangjiang River to the west, while the Cr and Ni content had a patchy distribution pattern in the East Dongting Lake wetlands. Cd and Pb contents were correlated with soil pH significantly, while Cr and Ni contents were correlated with soil organic carbon (SOC and total nitrogen (TN. The origination of heavy metal (Cd, Cr, Ni, and Pb could be divided into two groups: Cd and Pb from anthropogenic source and Cr and Ni from parent material weathering. Our results indicated that Cd posed a high risk to local ecosystem. The relatively lower pH and higher soil organic carbon (SOC and total nitrogen (TN in sediment may inhibit the fixation of heavy metals, which in turn increased the concentration of heavy metal in sediment.

  3. Health risk assessment of heavy metals in soil-plant system amended with biogas slurry in Taihu basin, China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bian, Bo; Lin, Cheng; Lv, Lin

    2016-09-01

    Biogas slurry is a product of anaerobic digestion of manure that has been widely used as a soil fertilizer. Although the use for soil fertilizer is a cost-effective solution, it has been found that repeated use of biogas slurry that contains high heavy metal contents can cause pollution to the soil-plant system and risk to human health. The objective of this study was to investigate effects of biogas slurry on the soil-plant system and the human health. We analyzed the heavy metal concentrations (including As, Pb, Cu, Zn, Cr and Cd) in 106 soil samples and 58 plant samples in a farmland amended with biogas slurry in Taihu basin, China. Based on the test results, we assessed the potential human health risk when biogas slurry containing heavy metals was used as a soil fertilizer. The test results indicated that the Cd and Pb concentrations in soils exceeded the contamination limits and Cd exhibited the highest soil-to-root migration potential. Among the 11 plants analyzed, Kalimeris indica had the highest heavy metal absorption capacity. The leafy vegetables showed higher uptake of heavy metals than non-leafy vegetables. The non-carcinogenic risks mainly resulted from As, Pb, Cd, Cu and Zn through plant ingestion exposure. The integrated carcinogenic risks were associated with Cr, As and Cd in which Cr showed the highest risk while Cd showed the lowest risk. Among all the heavy metals analyzed, As and Cd appeared to have a lifetime health threat, which thus should be attenuated during production of biogas slurry to mitigate the heavy metal contamination.

  4. Bioaccumulative and conchological assessment of heavy metal transfer in a soil-plant-snail food chain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nica Dragos V

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Copper (Cu, zinc (Zn, cadmium (Cd, and lead (Pb can pose serious threats to environmental health because they tend to bioaccumulate in terrestrial ecosystems. We investigated under field conditions the transfer of these heavy metals in a soil-plant-snail food chain in Banat area, Romania. The main goal of this paper was to assess the Roman snail (Helix pomatia usefulness in environmental monitoring as bioindicator of heavy metal accumulation. Eight sampling sites, selected by different history of heavy metal (HM exposure, were chosen to be sampled for soil, nettle leaves, and newly matured snails. This study also aimed to identify the putative effects of HM accumulation in the environment on phenotypic variability in selected shell features, which included shell height (SH, relative shell height (RSH, and whorl number (WN. Results Significantly higher amounts of HMs were accumulated in snail hepatopancreas and not in foot. Cu, Zn, and Cd have biomagnified in the snail body, particularly in the hepatopancreas. In contrast, Pb decreased when going up into the food chain. Zn, Cd, and Pb correlated highly with each other at all levels of the investigated food chain. Zn and Pb exhibited an effective soil–plant transfer, whereas in the snail body only foot Cu concentration was correlated with that in soil. There were significant differences among sampling sites for WN, SH, and RSH when compared with reference snails. WN was strongly correlated with Cd and Pb concentrations in nettle leaves but not with Cu and Zn. SH was independent of HM concentrations in soil, snail hepatopancreas, and foot. However, SH correlated negatively with nettle leaves concentrations for each HM except Cu. In contrast, RSH correlated significantly only with Pb concentration in hepatopancreas. Conclusions The snail hepatopancreas accumulates high amounts of HMs, and therefore, this organ can function as a reliable biomarker for tracking HM bioavailability

  5. [Distribution and potential ecological risk assessment of heavy metals in sediments of Zhalong Wetland].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ye, Hua-Xiang; Zang, Shu-Ying; Zhang, Li-Juan; Zhang, Yu-Hong

    2013-04-01

    This study investigated the concentrations of heavy metals in the sediments of the Zhalong Wetland using ICP-MS, analyzed their spatial distributions, evaluated the potential ecological risk, and explored the pollution sources and environmental influencing factors. The results can be summarized as the followings: (1) The concentrations of Hg, Cd, As, Cu, Pb, Zn and Cr were 0.065, 0.155, 10.26, 18.20, 21.35, 52.08 and 46.47 mg x kg(-1), respectively, which were all above the soil background values of the Songnen Plain. Their spatial distributions were distinctly different. The concentration of heavy metals in the north was higher than that in the south, and the east was higher than the west. Particularly in the eastern region, the concentrations of Hg and Cd were 20.8 and 32.4 times the minimum values of the whole area. And in the core zone, the concentration was relatively low. (2) The sequence of the potential ecological risk posed by the metals was Hg > Cd > As > Pb > Cu > Cr > Zn. The average potential ecological risk index (RI) of the Zhalong Wetland was 171.9 (ranged from 76.9-473.5), suggesting a moderate ecological risk. However, the potential ecological risk was extremely high in the east which should be treated as the major heavy metal pollution prevention site in the future. (3) Except for Hg and Pb, the concentrations of all heavy metals were significantly correlated to each other, indicating that those heavy metals had homology. (4) Organic matter was the major environmental influencing factor. However, the trend of land salinization in the Zhalong Wetland has been intensified, indicating a higher risk of heavy metal releasing from the sediments, to which the local authorities should pay enough attention.

  6. Investigation and risk assessment modeling of As and other heavy metals contamination around five abandoned metal mines in Korea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Ju-Yong; Kim, Kyoung-Woong; Ahn, Joo Sung; Ko, Ilwon; Lee, Cheol-Hyo

    2005-04-01

    Tailings, agricultural soils, vegetables and groundwater samples were collected from abandoned metal mines (Duckum, Dongil, Dongjung, Myoungbong and Songchun mines) in Korea. Total concentrations of arsenic (As) and heavy metals (Cd, Cu, Pb and Zn) were analyzed to investigate the contamination level. Several digestion methods (Toxicity characteristics leaching procedure (TCLP), synthetic precipitation leaching procedure (SPLP), 0.1 N/1 N HCl) and sequential extraction analysis for mine tailings were conducted to examine the potential leachability of As and heavy metals from the tailings. The order of urgent remediation for the studied mines based on the risk assessment and remedial goals was suggested. The Songchun mine tailings were most severely contaminated by As and heavy metals. Total concentrations of As and Pb in the tailings were 38,600-58,700 mg/kg (av. 47,400 mg/kg) and 11,800-16,800 mg/kg (av. 14,600 mg/kg), respectively. Agricultural soils having high As concentrations were found at the all mines. Average concentrations of Cd in the vegetables exceeded the normal value at all mines areas, while As only at the Dongjung, Myoungbong, and Songchun mine area. One groundwater sample each from the Dongil and Myoungbong mines, and 4 groundwater samples from the Songchun mine had values above 10 mug/L of As concentration. The TCLP method revealed that only Pb in the Songchun tailings, 6.49 mg/L, exceeded the regulatory level (5 mg/L). Employing the 1-N HCl digestion method, the concentration of As in the Songchun mine tailings, 4,250 mg/kg, was up to 3,000 times higher than its Korean countermeasure standard. Results from the sequential extraction of As in the tailings showed that the easily releasable fraction in the Myoungbong and Songchun mine tailings was more than 30% and the residual fraction was less than 40%. Based on results showing the exposure health risk employing the hazard quotient and cancer risk of As, Cd and Zn, the Dongil mine needs the most

  7. ASSESSMENT OF HEAVY METALS UPTAKE AND TRANSLOCATION BY AQUILARIA MALACCENSIS PLANTED IN SOILS CONTAINING SEWAGE SLUDGE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Keeren Sundara Rajoo

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Increase in human population has resulted in an enormous growth in the volume of wastewater. The conventional methods of sewage sludge disposal, that is the by-product of wastewater treatment, are costly and not environment-friendly. An ideal way for sewage sludge management is by using it as a soil amendment in agricultural land due to sewage sludge’s high organic matter content. However, sewage sludge contains high levels of heavy metals that can be harmful to both plants and the environment. Hence, these metals need to be removed before the sewage sludge is to be used as a soil amendment. The objective of this study was to assess the potential of Aquilaria malaccensis to uptake and translocate heavy metals found in sewage sludge. A.malaccensis seedlings were planted on six different planting media: T0/Control (100% soil, T1 (80% soil and 20% sewage sludge, T2 (60% soil and 40% sewage sludge, T3 (40% soil and 60% sewage sludge, T4 (20% soil and 80% sewage sludge and T5 (100% sewage sludge for the duration of 16 weeks. The growth performance of height and basal diameter was measured using diameter tape and venier caliper every two weeks, respectively. The average dry weight biomass of A.malaccensis was measured using destructive sampling at 16 weeks after planting. Plant samples were collected after harvest and soil samples were collected before planting and after harvesting. Atomic Absorbtion Spectrophotometer (AAS was used to determine the concentration of heavy metals in the planting media and the plant parts (leaves, stem and roots. The highest growth of A.malaccensis was recorded for the T5 growth media. The highest concentration of Fe in the roots of the A.malaccensis plant was in the T5 growth media (2770.75 ppm. The highest accumulation of Zn (95.62 ppm was recorded in the roots of A.malaccensis in the T5 growth media, whereas the stem of the A.malaccensis in T5 recorded the highest Cd accumulation (3.75 ppm. The highest Pb uptake

  8. Assessment of heavy metal levels in surface sediments of estuaries and adjacent coastal areas in China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Xianbin; Li, Deliang; Song, Guisheng

    2017-03-01

    This article investigates the variations of contamination levels of heavy metals such as copper, lead, chromium, cadmium, zinc, arsenic, and mercury over time in surface sediments of the Changjiang River Estuary (CRE), Yellow River Estuary (YRE), Pearl River Estuary (PRE), and their adjacent coastal areas in China. The contamination factor (CF), pollution load index (PLI), and geoaccumulation index ( I geo) are used to evaluate the quality of the surface sediments in the study areas. The results showed that the CRE, YRE, and their adjacent coastal areas were at a low risk of contamination in terms of heavy metals, while the PRE and its adjacent coastal area were at a moderate level. By comparison, the concentrations of heavy metals in the surface sediments of the YRE and its adjacent coastal area were relatively lower than those in the CRE, PRE, and their adjacent coastal areas.

  9. Health risk assessment of heavy metals in soils and vegetables from wastewater irrigated area, Beijing-Tianjin city cluster, China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Yanchun Wang; Min Qiao; Yunxia Liu; Yongguan Zhu

    2012-01-01

    The possible health risks of heavy metals contamination to local population through food chain were evaluated in Beijing and Tianjin city cluster,China,where have a long history of sewage irrigation.The transfer factors (TF) for heavy metals from soil to vegetables for six elements including Cu,Zn,Pb,Cr,As and Cd were calculated and the pollution load indexes (PLI) were also assessed.Results indicate that only Cd exceeded the maximum acceptable limit in these sites.So far,the heavy metal concentrations in soils and vegetables were all below the permissible limits set by the Ministry of Environmental Protection of China and World Health Organization.The transfer factors of six heavy metals showed the trend as Cd > Zn > Cu > Pb > As > Cr,which were dependent on the vegetable species.The estimated dietary intakes of Cu,Zn,Pb,Cr,As and Cd were far below the tolerable limits and the target hazard quotient (THQ) values were less than 1,which suggested that the health risks of heavy metals exposure through consuming vegetables were generally assumed to be safe.

  10. Assessment of arsenic and heavy metal contents in cockles (Anadara granosa) using multivariate statistical techniques.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abbas Alkarkhi, F M; Ismail, Norli; Easa, Azhar Mat

    2008-02-11

    Cockles (Anadara granosa) sample obtained from two rivers in the Penang State of Malaysia were analyzed for the content of arsenic (As) and heavy metals (Cr, Cd, Zn, Cu, Pb, and Hg) using a graphite flame atomic absorption spectrometer (GF-AAS) for Cr, Cd, Zn, Cu, Pb, As and cold vapor atomic absorption spectrometer (CV-AAS) for Hg. The two locations of interest with 20 sampling points of each location were Kuala Juru (Juru River) and Bukit Tambun (Jejawi River). Multivariate statistical techniques such as multivariate analysis of variance (MANOVA) and discriminant analysis (DA) were applied for analyzing the data. MANOVA showed a strong significant difference between the two rivers in term of As and heavy metals contents in cockles. DA gave the best result to identify the relative contribution for all parameters in discriminating (distinguishing) the two rivers. It provided an important data reduction as it used only two parameters (Zn and Cd) affording more than 72% correct assignations. Results indicated that the two rivers were different in terms of As and heavy metal contents in cockle, and the major difference was due to the contribution of Zn and Cd. A positive correlation was found between discriminate functions (DF) and Zn, Cd and Cr, whereas negative correlation was exhibited with other heavy metals. Therefore, DA allowed a reduction in the dimensionality of the data set, delineating a few indicator parameters responsible for large variations in heavy metals and arsenic content. Taking into account of these results, it can be suggested that a continuous monitoring of As and heavy metals in cockles be performed in these two rivers.

  11. Analysis and assessment on heavy metal sources in the coastal soils developed from alluvial deposits using multivariate statistical methods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Jinling; He, Ming; Han, Wei; Gu, Yifan

    2009-05-30

    An investigation on heavy metal sources, i.e., Cu, Zn, Ni, Pb, Cr, and Cd in the coastal soils of Shanghai, China, was conducted using multivariate statistical methods (principal component analysis, clustering analysis, and correlation analysis). All the results of the multivariate analysis showed that: (i) Cu, Ni, Pb, and Cd had anthropogenic sources (e.g., overuse of chemical fertilizers and pesticides, industrial and municipal discharges, animal wastes, sewage irrigation, etc.); (ii) Zn and Cr were associated with parent materials and therefore had natural sources (e.g., the weathering process of parent materials and subsequent pedo-genesis due to the alluvial deposits). The effect of heavy metals in the soils was greatly affected by soil formation, atmospheric deposition, and human activities. These findings provided essential information on the possible sources of heavy metals, which would contribute to the monitoring and assessment process of agricultural soils in worldwide regions.

  12. Human health risk assessment of heavy metals in cosmetics in Nigeria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nduka, John K; Odiba; Orisakwe, Orish E; Ukaebgu, Linda D; Sokaibe, Chinwetuto; Udowelle, Nnaemeka A

    2015-01-01

    Forty two different cosmetics were purchased from supermarkets and cosmetic shops within Unitsha Main Market and Eke-Awka markets in Anambra, Nigeria. Of the cosmetics, 16% were locally manufactured in Nigeria while 83.33% were imported into Nigeria. The cosmetics were ashed before digestion and filtration. The filtrates were assayed for lead, cadmium, manganese, nickel, chromium, mercury, and arsenic with atomic absorption spectrophotometry at 205 Å. The health risk assessment methods developed by the United States Environmental Protection Agency were employed to explore the potential human health risk of heavy metals in cosmetics. About 61.91% of the cosmetic samples contained lead with concentration in the range of 0.10-42.12 mg/kg. Cadmium levels of the cosmetics ranged from 0.01 to 1.32 mg/kg, manganese from 0.02 to 67.65 mg/kg, nickel from 0.05 to 17.34 mg/kg, chromium from 0.11 to 9.81 mg/kg, mercury from 0.003 to 0.07 mg/kg, and arsenic from 0.002 to 0.005 mg/kg. Although the target hazard quotients and the hazard indices suggest a measure of safety, cosmetics may add to the body burden of potential toxic metals after chronic exposure.

  13. Integrated assessment of heavy metal contamination in sediments from a coastal industrial basin, NE China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Xiaoyu; Liu, Lijuan; Wang, Yugang; Luo, Geping; Chen, Xi; Yang, Xiaoliang; Gao, Bin; He, Xingyuan

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to investigate the current status of metal pollution of the sediments from urban-stream, estuary and Jinzhou Bay of the coastal industrial city, NE China. Forty surface sediment samples from river, estuary and bay and one sediment core from Jinzhou bay were collected and analyzed for heavy metal concentrations of Cu, Zn, Pb, Cd, Ni and Mn. The data reveals that there was a remarkable change in the contents of heavy metals among the sampling sediments, and all the mean values of heavy metal concentration were higher than the national guideline values of marine sediment quality of China (GB 18668-2002). This is one of the most polluted of the world's impacted coastal systems. Both the correlation analyses and geostatistical analyses showed that Cu, Zn, Pb and Cd have a very similar spatial pattern and come from the industrial activities, and the concentration of Mn mainly caused by natural factors. The estuary is the most polluted area with extremely high potential ecological risk; however the contamination decreased with distance seaward of the river estuary. This study clearly highlights the urgent need to make great efforts to control the industrial emission and the exceptionally severe heavy metal pollution in the coastal area, and the immediate measures should be carried out to minimize the rate of contamination, and extent of future pollution problems.

  14. Integrated assessment of heavy metal contamination in sediments from a coastal industrial basin, NE China.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiaoyu Li

    Full Text Available The purpose of this study is to investigate the current status of metal pollution of the sediments from urban-stream, estuary and Jinzhou Bay of the coastal industrial city, NE China. Forty surface sediment samples from river, estuary and bay and one sediment core from Jinzhou bay were collected and analyzed for heavy metal concentrations of Cu, Zn, Pb, Cd, Ni and Mn. The data reveals that there was a remarkable change in the contents of heavy metals among the sampling sediments, and all the mean values of heavy metal concentration were higher than the national guideline values of marine sediment quality of China (GB 18668-2002. This is one of the most polluted of the world's impacted coastal systems. Both the correlation analyses and geostatistical analyses showed that Cu, Zn, Pb and Cd have a very similar spatial pattern and come from the industrial activities, and the concentration of Mn mainly caused by natural factors. The estuary is the most polluted area with extremely high potential ecological risk; however the contamination decreased with distance seaward of the river estuary. This study clearly highlights the urgent need to make great efforts to control the industrial emission and the exceptionally severe heavy metal pollution in the coastal area, and the immediate measures should be carried out to minimize the rate of contamination, and extent of future pollution problems.

  15. Subcritical water treatment of explosive and heavy metals co-contaminated soil: Removal of the explosive, and immobilization and risk assessment of heavy metals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Islam, Mohammad Nazrul; Jung, Ho-Young; Park, Jeong-Hun

    2015-11-01

    Co-contamination of explosives and heavy metals (HMs) in soil, particularly army shooting range soil, has received increasing environmental concern due to toxicity and risks to ecological systems. In this study, a subcritical water (SCW) extraction process was used to remediate the explosives-plus-HMs-co-contaminated soil. A quantitative evaluation of explosives in the treated soil, compared with untreated soil, was applied to assess explosive removal. The immobilization of HMs was assessed by toxicity characteristic leaching procedure tests, and by investigating the migration of HMs fractions. The environmental risk of HMs in the soil residue was assessed according to the risk assessment code (RAC) and ecological risk indices (Er and RI). The results indicated that SCW treatment could eliminate the explosives, >99%, during the remediation, while the HM was effectively immobilized. The effect of water temperature on reducing the explosives and the risk of HMs in soil was observed. A marked increase in the non-bioavailable concentration of each HM was observed, and the leaching rate of HMs was decreased by 70-97% after SCW treatment at 250 °C, showing the effective immobilization of HMs. According to the RAC or RI, each tested HM showed no or low risk to the environment after treatment.

  16. Pollution distribution and health risk assessment of heavy metals in indoor dust in Anhui rural, China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Yuesheng; Fang, Fengman; Wang, Fei; Xu, Minglu

    2015-09-01

    Zn, Pb, Cu, Cr, V, Ni, Co, and As concentrations of indoor dust in Anhui rural were determined by inductively coupled plasma-optical emission spectroscopy (ICP-OES). The degrees of metal pollution in indoor dust ranked as follows: Zn > Pb > Cr > Cu > V > Ni > Co > As, on average. The arithmetic means of Zn, Pb, Cu, Cr, V, Ni, Co, and As were 427.17, 348.73, 107.05, 113.68, 52.64, 38.93, 10.29, and 4.46 mg/kg, respectively. These were higher than background values of Anhui soil for Zn, Pb, Cu, Cr, and Ni, especially for Pb with the mean value of 13.21 times the background value. Heavy metal concentrations of indoor dust were different from different rural areas. House type (bungalows or storied house), sweeping frequency, and external environment around the house (such as the road grade) affected heavy metal concentrations in indoor dust. The results of factor analysis and correlation analysis indicated that Cu, Cr, Ni, Zn, and Co concentrations were mainly due to interior paint, metal objects, and building materials. Pb and As concentrations were due to vehicle emissions. V concentration was mainly of natural source. Average daily doses for the exposure pathway of the studied heavy metals decreased in children in the following order: hand-to-mouth ingestion > dermal contact > inhalation. The non-carcinogenic risks of heavy metals ranked as Pb > V > Cr > Cu > Zn > As > Co > Ni, and the carcinogenic risks of metals decreased in the order of Cr > Co > As > Ni. The non-carcinogenic hazard indexes and carcinogenic risks of metals in indoor dust were both lower than the safe values.

  17. [Pollution Assessment and Spatial Distribution Characteristics of Heavy Metals in Soils of Coal Mining Area in Longkou City].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Shuo; Wu, Quan-yuan; Cao, Xue-jiang; Wang, Ji-ning; Zhang, Long-long; Cai, Dong-quan; Zhou, Li-yuan; Liu, Na

    2016-01-15

    The present paper takes the coal mining area of Longkou City as the research area. Thirty-six topsoil (0-20 cm) samples were collected and the contents of 5 kinds of heavy metals were determined, including Cd, As, Ni, Ph, Cr. Geo-statistics analysis was used to analyze the spatial distribution of heavy metals. Principal component analysis (PCA) was used to explore the pollution sources of heavy metals and the degree of heavy metals pollution was evaluated by weighted average comprehensive pollution evaluation method. The results showed that enrichment phenomenon was significant for the 5 kinds of heavy metals. Taking secondary standard of National Environment Quality Standard for Soil as the background value, their exceed standard rates were 72.22%, 100%, 100%, 91.67%, 100%, respectively. Average contents of heavy metals in the soil samples were all over the national standard level two and were 1.53, 11.86, 2.40, 1.31, 4.09 times of the background value. In addition, the average contents were much higher than the background value of the topsoil in the eastern part of Shandong Province and were 9.85, 39.98, 8.85, 4.29, 12.71 times of the background value. According to the semivariogram model, we obtained the nugget-effects of 5 kinds of heavy metals and their values were in the order of As (0.644) > Cd (0.627) > Cr (0.538) > Ni (0.411) > Pb (0.294), all belonging to moderate spatial correlation. On the whole, the central part of the Sangyuan Coal Mine and its surrounding areas were the most seriously polluted, while the pollution of heavy metals in the east and west of the study area was relatively light. Principal component analysis suggested that the enrichment of Cd, As, Ni, Cr was due to irrigation of wastewater, the discharge of industry and enterprise, and the industrial activity. Automobile exhaust and coal combustion were the main pollution sources of Pb. The single-factor assessment of heavy metals pollution showed that the degree of different heavy metals

  18. [Assessment of heavy metal pollution and potential ecological risks of urban soils in Kaifeng City, China].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Yi-Meng; Ma, Jian-Hua; Liu, De-Xin; Sun, Yan-Li; Chen, Yan-Fang

    2015-03-01

    Ninety-nine topsoil (0-15 cm) samples were collected from Kaifeng City, China using the grid method, and then the concentrations of As, Cd, Cr, Cu, Ni, Pb and Zn in the samples were measured by standard methods. Soil pollution levels and potential ecological risks of the heavy metals were assessed using the pollution load index (PLI) and potential ecological risk index (RI), respectively. Ordinary Kriging interpolation technique was employed to investigate the spatial distribution of PLI and RI of the city. The results showed that high pollution of Cd occurred in Kaifeng urban soils, and there was moderate pollution of Zn, slight pollution of Pb and Cu, and no pollution of Ni, Cr and As. Very high ecological risk was posed by Cd and low risk by other metals. The mean PLI of the 7 metals from all sample points was 2.53, which was categorized as moderate pollution. The average RI was 344.58 which represented a considerable ecological risk. PLI and RI shared a similar spatial distribution with high values centralized in the old industrial area in the southeast and railway stations for passengers and goods in the south of the city, followed by the old town within the ancient city wall, and low values located in the north and west areas. Cadmium was the main factor for both soil pollution and potential ecological risk primarily due to farmland topsoil in the eastern suburb of Kaifeng City with high Cd concentrations resulted from sewage irrigation deposited in the urban area by wind, human activities such as soot discharged from the chemical fertilizer plant of Kaifeng, transportation and coal combustion.

  19. Delayed geochemical hazard: a tool for risk assessment of heavy metal polluted sites and case study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zheng, Mingxia; Feng, Liu; He, Juanni; Chen, Ming; Zhang, Jiawen; Zhang, Minying; Wang, Jing

    2015-04-28

    A concept of delayed geochemical hazard (DGH) was proposed instead of chemical time bomb to represent an ecological and environmental hazard caused by sudden reactivation and release of long-term accumulated pollutants in soil/sediment system due to the change of physicochemical conditions or the decrease of environmental capacity. A DGH model was also established to provide a quantitative tool to assess and predict potential environmental risk caused by heavy metals and especially its dynamic evolutions. A case study of DGH was carried out for a mercury-polluted area in southern China. Results of soil column experiment showed that DGH was directly resulted from the transformation and release of pollutant from the releasable species to the active ones through a mechanism of chain reaction. The most possible chain reaction was summarized as HgE+C+F+O+R→HgE+C+F+O→HgE+C+F→HgE+C→HgE. Although 8.3% of the studied area with the total releasable content of mercury (TRCPHg) exceeded the DGH critical point value of 16.667mg/kg, with the possibility of DGH burst, the area was classified as low-risk of DGH. This confirmed that DGH model could contribute to the risk assessment and early warning of soil/sediment pollution.

  20. Heavy metals assessment in Oum Er Rbia bassin using WD-XRF and ICP-AES

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zahry, F.; Labraimi, M.; Bilal, E.; Gruffat, J. J.; Moutte, J.; Garcia, D.; Bounakhla, M.

    2003-05-01

    The analysis of water, suspended particulate matter (SPM) and sediment collected from Oum er Rbia Moroccan basin for the content of six elements has been performed utilizing ICP-AES and WD-XRF methods. Sediment have been analyzed by WD-XRF; Water and MPS by ICP-AES. The detection limits are sufficient for most of the elements to be determined. Results were assessed for the accuracy by the analysis of a multi-elemental standards. The results for most of the elements obtained were accurate to about 2 15%. The objective of the analysis were to determine the geochemical areas on this bassin, to explain the mechanisms of sediment transport and nevertheless, to assess the pollution of the bassin by heavy metals generated by human activities. This work interests only the last aspect. It has done one 30samples of water and SPM, and about 80 sediments. Samples were collected along the river, between its source in meddle Atlas and the Atlantic ocean at Azemour city. The results obtained on the basin were normalized to the international norms.

  1. Assessment of toxicity of heavy metal contaminated soils for Collembola in the field and laboratory

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Xu, Jie; Krogh, Paul Henning; Luo, Yongming

    2008-01-01

    We present a field and laboratory investigation of effects of increasing levels of heavy metal contamination on the biodiversity and performance of collembolans. A 40 year old pollution with Cu, Zn, Pb and Cd pollution due to Cu smelting over 40 years was investigated in a paddy field area of Zhe...

  2. Assessment of heavy metal pollution in Córdoba (Spain) by biomonitoring foraging honeybee

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gutiérrez, Miriam; Molero, Rafael; Gaju, Miquel; Steen, van der Sjef; Porrini, Claudio; Ruiz, José Antonio

    2015-01-01

    Due to features that make them outstanding environmental bioindicator, colonies of Apis mellifera are being used to study environmental pollution. The primary objective of this research was to use honeybee colonies to identify heavy metals and determine their utility for environmental management.

  3. Soil heavy metal pollution and risk assessment in Shenyang industrial district, Northeast China.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xudong Jiao

    Full Text Available To investigate the soil heavy metal pollution characteristics and ecological risk factors, 42 samples and six typical soil profiles were collected from the Shenyang industrial district in northeast China and were analyzed for contents of titanium (Ti, copper (Cu, lead (Pb, zinc (Zn, cobalt (Co, nickel (Ni, chromium (Cr and arsenic (As. Through statistical analysis, it was found that the mean concentrations were higher than their background values (Ti = 4.77>3.8g/kg, Cu = 33.75>22.6 mg/kg, Pb = 45.95>26 mg/kg, Zn = 81.54>74.2 mg/kg, Co = 12.91>12.7 mg/kg, Ni = 32.26>26.9 mg/kg, Cr = 83.36>61 mg/kg and As = 13.69>11.2 mg/kg but did not exceed their corresponding pollution limits for the Chinese Environmental Quality Standard for Soils (State Environmental Protection Administration of China, 1995. There were contamination hotspots that may be caused by human activities such as smelting plants and sewage irrigation. The Enrichment Factor and Ecological Risk Index were used to identify the anthropogenic contamination and ecological risks of heavy metals. Soil in the study area could be considered lightly or partially polluted by heavy metals. According to clustering analysis, distinct groups of heavy metals were discriminated between natural or anthropogenic sources.

  4. Heavy metals contamination and human health risk assessment around Obuasi gold mine in Ghana.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bempah, Crentsil Kofi; Ewusi, Anthony

    2016-05-01

    Gold mining has increased the prevalence and occurrence of heavy metals contamination at the Earth's surface and is causing major concern due to the potential risk involved. This study investigated the impact of gold mine on heavy metals (As, Cd, Cr, Cu, Pb, Hg, Ni, Fe, Mn, and Zn) pollution and evaluated the potential health risks to local residents via consumption of polluted groundwater, agricultural soils, and vegetable crops grown at three community farms surrounding the mine at Obuasi municipality of Ghana. The results showed levels of As, Cd, Cr, Hg, Fe, and Mn higher than the allowable drinking water standards. The vegetable samples analyzed showed high accumulation of As and Ni above the normal value. Bioaccumulation factors of heavy metals were significantly higher for vegetables grown in the Sanso soils. Estimated average daily intake and hazard quotient for As in drinking water as well as As, Pb, and Hg in vegetable samples exceeded permissible limit. Unacceptable non-cancer health risk levels were found in vegetable samples analyzed for As, Pb, and Hg. An unacceptable cancer risk was found via drinking of groundwater, in consumption of vegetables, and in soil. The hazard index for vegetables was higher than 1, indicating very high health risk to heavy metals contamination through consumption of vegetables grown around the sampling sites. The results recommend the need for regular monitoring of groundwater and food crops to protect consumers' health.

  5. Assessment of Heavy Metals in the Fish Collected from the River Ravi, Pakistan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ghazala Jabeen*, Muhammad Javed and Hamda Azmat

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The toxicity of heavy metals viz. aluminium (Al, arsenic (As, barium (Ba, chromium (Cr, nickel (Ni and zinc (Zn in fish at three main public fishing sites of the river Ravi viz. Shahdara bridge, Baloki headworks and Sidhnai barrage has been studied from June, 2009 to May, 2010. The concentrations of heavy metals in the body organs (gills, liver, kidney, intestine, reproductive organs, skin, muscle, fins, scales, bones, fats of three fish species viz. Catla catla, Labeo rohita and Cirrhina mrigala were determined. The present results reveal that the toxicity of metals fluctuated significantly in fish at all the three sampling stations with season. The fish samples collected from all the three sampling stations had significantly higher aluminium and zinc. However, the fish at Sidhnai barrage showed significantly lower metallic toxicity, followed by that at Baloki headworks and Shahdara bridge. Significantly higher metals were observed in fish liver, followed by that of kidney, gills, intestine, reproductive organs, skin, scales, fins, bones, muscle and fats. The accumulation of metals in carnivorous fish body organs showed significantly direct dependence on the metallic toxicity of herbivorous cyprinids. Fish liver and kidney showed significantly higher abilities for the accumulation of all metals while accumulations were lowest in fish muscle and fats. The health status of river Ravi at three main public fishing sites viz. Shahdara bridge, Baloki headworks and Sidhnai barrage, with respect to eco-toxicity of Al, As, Ba, Cr, Ni and Zn was above the recommended permissible standards.

  6. Risk assessment of Butrinti lagoon: spatial and temporal distribution of heavy metals in different pools

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Teuta Topi

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available Heavy metals enter in lagoons from pedo-geological background as well as from man-made sources through several pathways. Heavy metals released into the water are eventually accumulated in the sediments and in the lagoon’s aquatic organisms, especially in mussels, which act as recorders of heavy metals pollution event. This study aims to contribute in (i quantifying the origin and degree of heavy metals pollution in the sediments, water lagoon and mussels, (ii exploring the concentrations of heavy metals in mussels widely cultivated in this Lagoon. The water samples were taken at the surface and bottom of the lake between May 2010 and January 2011. The results showed that the concentrations of Cd (2.9 mg kg-1 were higher in soils formed over lime in the north of the Lagoon. Hg was nearly 234.89 µg kg-1, which is also considered of medium values for these types of soil. The maximum values of Cr content were 237.38 mg kg-1, or much higher than the average of soils over lime in Albania. The highest concentrations in sediment samples (mg kg-1 for Pb (346, Cd (4.14, Cr (171.9 and Hg (36.4 were found in the eastern and southern area of the Lagoon where there have been intensive agricultural activities. The results showed that the concentration (µg L-1 of Pb (10.78 at the lake bottom in May was higher than at the surface of water but it was generally low when compared to the WHO standard. On the other hand Cr was high with mean values of 56.6 µg L-1 at the bottom of the lake water in August. The data also indicated that mussels’samples which was collected in May in the southern area of the Lagoon showed higher levels (mg kg-1 of Pb (0.49 and Hg (0.14. However, the highest concentrations of Cd (0.36, Cr (0.50 were recorded in August. There is a correlation between the heavy metals and their sources. We hold that some precautions should be taken against the heavy metal pollution around Butrinti Lake considering the ecological, agricultural and

  7. Heavy metal contamination, sources, and pollution assessment of surface water in the Tianshan Mountains of China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhaoyong, Zhang; Abuduwaili, Jilili; Fengqing, Jiang

    2015-02-01

    In order to gain insight into heavy metal contamination occurring in the surface water of the Tianshan Mountains in northwest China, we collected surface water samples from there, tested heavy metals Pb, Ni, Cd, Co, Hg, As, Cu, Mn, Zn, and Cr, and then we analyzed the data using typical analysis, multivariate statistical, and pollution index methods. Results showed that (1) the order of the average values of the ten kinds of heavy metals in all the water samples was as follows: Zn > Mn > Cu > Co > Ni > Pb > Cr > As > Hg > Cd. The maximum variation coefficients of Zn and Pb were 138.96 and 145.86 %, respectively, indicating that these heavy metal concentrations varied largely between different sampling locations. (2) Research showed the average concentrations of Pb, Cd, As, Cu, Zn, and Cr were all within the national surface water standard of class IV and those of As, Cu, Mn, and Cr were all within the range of the Drinking Water Guidelines from the WHO, indicating the surface water of the Tianshan Mountains is clean. (3) Multivariate statistical analysis showed that Cu, Cd, Mn, Hg, Zn, and Pb have close correlations, and they mainly came from artificial sources; while Ni, As, Co, Cu, and Cr mainly came from natural sources. The results of correlation analysis, principal component analysis, and cluster analysis are consistent. (4) Pollution evaluation showed the values of comprehensive pollution index (WQI) of ten kinds of heavy metals in three sections were all lower than 2, suggesting the low levels of pollution, while the over-limit ratios of Pb and Zn in water samples of the middle Urumqi-Akesu section, As in the western Zhaosu-Tekesi section, and Pb, Hg, and Zn in the eastern Balikun-Yiwu section were all above 10 %. This research shows that recent economic development of the Tianshan Mountains has negatively influenced the heavy metal concentrations in the surface water, although the concentrations of the ten kinds of tested

  8. Risk assessment of heavy metal contaminated soil in the vicinity of a lead/zinc mine

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LI Jing; XIE Zheng-miao; ZHU Yong-guan; Ravi Naidu

    2005-01-01

    Heavy metal contamination of soils through anthropogenic activities is a widespread and serious problem confronting scientists and regulators throughout the world. In this study we investigated the distribution, chemical species and availability of lead, zinc, cadmium and copper in nine surface(0 to 20 cm) soils from near an abandoned lead/zinc mine tailings located in Shaoxing, Zhejiang, China. Total heavy metal contents ranged from 5271 to 16369 mg/kg for Pb, 387 to 1221 mg/kg for Zn, 3.0 to 9.3 mg/kg for Cd and 65 to 206 mg/kg for Cu. In general, all heavy metals exceeded China National Standards for Soil Environmental Quality of Heavy Metals by a factor of 3-65times. Comparison of the heavy metal concentrations( Pb, Zn, Cd and Cu) with clay content revealed a strongly significant relationship while significant relationship( P organically complexed-Fe-Mn oxides occluded >carbonate bound > exchangeable > water soluble. In the organic matter fraction, the ratio of Pb(29.1% ) to its total concentration in the soils was higher than those of Zn(4.70% ), Cd(3.16%) and Cu(9.50% ). The percentages of the water soluble and the exchangeable fractions of Pb(1.80% ) and Cd(2.74% ) were markedly greater than those of Zn(0.10% ) and Cu(0.15 % ), suggesting that Pb and Cd are relatively more mobile and hence more toxic in the contaminated soils. Strongly significant relationships between H2O-Pb, H2O-Zn and H2O-Cu, strong positive correlations between H2 O-Pb, H2O-Zn, H2 O-Cu and organic matter in soil were found. The content of H2 O-Pb,H2O-Zn, H2O-Cu was negatively correlated with pH values. The similar negative relationships between pH values and exchangeable heavy metals were also recorded. It is suggested that increasing soil pH or liming the soil could decrease bioavailability of heavy metals in the soil.

  9. Drinking water studies: a review on heavy metal, application of biomarker and health risk assessment (a special focus in Malaysia).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ab Razak, Nurul Hafiza; Praveena, Sarva Mangala; Aris, Ahmad Zaharin; Hashim, Zailina

    2015-12-01

    Malaysia has abundant sources of drinking water from river and groundwater. However, rapid developments have deteriorated quality of drinking water sources in Malaysia. Heavy metal studies in terms of drinking water, applications of health risk assessment and bio-monitoring in Malaysia were reviewed from 2003 to 2013. Studies on heavy metal in drinking water showed the levels are under the permissible limits as suggested by World Health Organization and Malaysian Ministry of Health. Future studies on the applications of health risk assessment are crucial in order to understand the risk of heavy metal exposure through drinking water to Malaysian population. Among the biomarkers that have been reviewed, toenail is the most useful tool to evaluate body burden of heavy metal. Toenails are easy to collect, store, transport and analysed. This review will give a clear guidance for future studies of Malaysian drinking water. In this way, it will help risk managers to minimize the exposure at optimum level as well as the government to formulate policies in safe guarding the population.

  10. Water Quality Assessment Using Physico-Chemical Parameters and Heavy Metals of Gobind Sagar Lake, Himachal Pradesh (India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vandana Sharma

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Today the environment has become harmful for the health of living organisms due to excessive pollution and contamination of natural resources. The present investigation has been carried out with the objective to assess the water quality of the Gobind Sagar Lake, Bilaspur, Himachal Pradesh (India using physico-chemical parameters with heavy metals of the lake. For this study, three sampling sites were identified and samples from different sites were collected in summer season and important parameters [Water Temperature , pH, Total Hardness, Dissolved Carbon Dioxide (CO2, Dissolved Oxygen (DO, Chemical Oxygen Demand (COD, Biological Oxygen Demand (BOD, Chloride, Total Alkalinity, Total Dissolved Solid (TDS] with heavy metals [ Lead (P, Copper (Co, Iron (Fe, Cadmium (Cd, Nickel (Ni and Manganese (Mn, Chromium (Cr were analyzed. The results revealed that the different conditions of Gobind Sagar Lake in different sampling stations showed fluctuations in some physico-chemical parameters and also in heavy metals. These result depicted that water of lake was polluted in the form of nutrient enrichment which is due to agricultural activities and its runoff in and around catchment area of the lake. There are other many ways that things can end up in the lake as the free style way of disposal of industrial and domestic effluents etc. Results of studies on heavy metals in pollution are well documented revealing the toxic effects of these metals on aquatic organisms.

  11. Hard rock, heavy metal, metal

    OpenAIRE

    Hein, Fabien

    2011-01-01

    Le terme générique metal désigne une multitude de genres et de sous-genres musicaux issus de l’appariement du hard rock et du heavy metal. Il résulte d’une agrégation sémantique consécutive de l’érosion et de l’interpénétration de ces termes au cours des années 1980. Leurs modèles canoniques, respectivement représentés par les groupes Led Zeppelin et Black Sabbath, se sont progressivement dilués sous l’effet d’une filiation particulièrement effervescente et féconde : black, thrash, doom, prog...

  12. Human health risk assessment: heavy metals contamination of vegetables in Bahawalpur, Pakistan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hafiza Hira Iqbal

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Dietary exposure of toxic metals is of vital concern for human health through vegetable consumption, especially in developing countries. Aim of the current study was to determine the health risk associated with vegetables contamination by heavy metals being irrigated with sewage and turbine water. The water sources, soils and vegetables were analyzed for selected metals viz: Pb, Cd, Cr and Ni. Heavy metals in water samples are found to be lower than the international norms except Cd in sewage water. By contrast, concentration of heavy metals in soil and vegetables irrigated with turbine water were lower than the safe limits. In case of vegetables irrigated with sewage water, Cd was higher in soil while Pb, Cd and Cr were higher in most of the vegetables. Furthermore, health risk index values for Cd, Pb and Ni were exceeded the permissible limits (European Union, 2002. Bio-concentration factor (BCF was found to be maximum (16.4 mg/kg in Coriandrum sativum, cultivated with sewage water. Raphanus caudatus, Coriandrum sativum, Daucus carota, Allium sativum and Solanum tuberosum showed Health Risk Index of Cd > 1 in adults and children. Allium sativum also showed HRI of Pb > 1 in children. We conclude that the quality of vegetables irrigated with sewage water is poor and not fit for human health, evident from the high concentration of Pb, Cd and Cr. Urgent measures are required to prevent consumption and production vegetables irrigated with of sewage water in the study area.

  13. Risk Assessment of Heavy Metals in Abandoned Mine Lands as Signifcant Contamination Problem in Romania

    Science.gov (United States)

    Horvath, E.; Jordan, G.; Fugedi, U.; Bartha, A.; Kuti, L.; Heltai, G.; Kalmar, J.; Waldmann, I.; Napradean, I.; Damian, G.

    2009-04-01

    INTRODUCTION Wide-spread environmental contamination associated with historic mining in Europe has triggered social responses to improve related environmental legislation, the environmental assessment and management methods for the mining industry. Pollution by acid mine drainage (AMD) from ore and coal mining is the outstanding and most important source of mining-induced environmental pollution. Younger et al. (2002) estimates that watercourses polluted by coal mine drainage could be in the order of 2,000 to 3,000 km, and 1,000 to 1,500 km polluted by metal mine discharges for the EU 15 Member States (Younger et al. 2002). Significance of contamination risk posed by mining is also highlighted by mine accidents such as those in Baia Mare, Romania in 2002 and in Aznalcollar, Spain in 1999 (Jordan and D'Alessandro 2004). The new EU Mine Waste Directive (Directive 2006/21/EC) requires the risk-based inventory of abandoned mines in the EU. The cost-effective implementation of the inventory is especially demanding in countries with extensive historic mining and great number of abandoned mine sites, like Romania. The problem is further complicated in areas with trans-boundary effects. The objective of this investigation to carry out the risk-based contamination assessment of a mine site with possible trans-boundary effects in Romania. Assessment follows the source-pathway-receptor chain with a special attention to heavy metal leaching from waste dumps as sources and to transport modelling along surface water pathways. STUDY AREA In this paper the Baiut mine catchment located in the Gutai Mts., Romania, close to the Hungarian border is studied. The polymetallic deposites in the Tertiary Inner-Carpathian Volcanic Arc are exposed by a series of abandoned Zn and Pb mines first operated in the 14th century. Elevation in the high relief catchment ranges from 449m to 1044m. Geology is characterised by andesites hosting the ore deposits and paleogene sediments dominating at the

  14. Assessment of heavy metal pollution and human health risk in urban soils of steel industrial city (Anshan), Liaoning, Northeast China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qing, Xiao; Yutong, Zong; Shenggao, Lu

    2015-10-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine the concentrations and health risk of heavy metals in urban soils from a steel industrial district in China. A total of 115 topsoil samples from Anshan city, Liaoning, Northeast China were collected and analyzed for Cr, Cd, Pb, Zn, Cu, and Ni. The geoaccumulation index (Igeo), pollution index (PI), and potential ecological risk index (PER) were calculated to assess the pollution level in soils. The hazard index (HI) and carcinogenic risk (RI) were used to assess human health risk of heavy metals. The average concentration of Cr, Cd, Pb, Zn, Cu, and Ni were 69.9, 0.86, 45.1, 213, 52.3, and 33.5mg/kg, respectively. The Igeo and PI values of heavy metals were in the descending order of Cd>Zn>Cu>Pb>Ni>Cr. Higher Igeo value for Cd in soil indicated that Cd pollution was moderate. Pollution index indicated that urban soils were moderate to highly polluted by Cd, Zn, Cu, and Pb. The spatial distribution maps of heavy metals revealed that steel industrial district was the contamination hotspots. Principal component analysis (PCA) and matrix cluster analysis classified heavy metals into two groups, indicating common industrial sources for Cu, Zn, Pb, and Cd. Matrix cluster analysis classified the sampling sites into four groups. Sampling sites within steel industrial district showed much higher concentrations of heavy metals compared to the rest of sampling sites, indicating significant contamination introduced by steel industry on soils. The health risk assessment indicated that non-carcinogenic values were below the threshold values. The hazard index (HI) for children and adult has a descending order of Cr>Pb>Cd>Cu>Ni>Zn. Carcinogenic risks due to Cr, Cd, and Ni in urban soils were within acceptable range for adult. Carcinogenic risk value of Cr for children is slightly higher than the threshold value, indicating that children are facing slight threat of Cr. These results provide basic information of heavy metal pollution control

  15. Assessment and modelling of heavy metal contamination from Madneuli open-pit mine, Georgia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tchelidze, T.; Melikadze, G.; Leveinen, J.; Kaija, J.; Kumpalainen, S.

    2003-04-01

    Acid mine drainage from banked waste rocks (150 million m^3) and sulfide ore tailings of the Madneuli Cu-Au open-pit mine have created major environmental pollution problem in Bolnisi district, Georgia. Intensive leaching of exposed rocks and direct discharge of mine waters to nearby watercourses have lead to strong heavy metal pollution of groundwater and Rivers Kazretula, Poladauri and Mashavera. Increased concentrations of Cu, Zn, Pb, Ni, Mn, Cr, Cd and Hg exceeding maximum permissible values by 3-2000 times, are registered almost everywhere. Polluted surface waters are used intensively for irrigation. Besides, contaminated groundwater is pumped for irrigation and drinking water supply in alluvial deposits along the rivers. Because the spread of contamination is a slow process, the adverse health effects may not yet have emerged in the investigation area. The transport modelling was used in the framework of risk assessment to estimate the direction, rate and extent of chemical migration in the contaminated site in order to support environmental management and decisionmaking involving identification of high-risk areas, protection from pollutants, and planning of remediation work. Geochemical and contamination transport modelling conducted in this study suggest that the present contamination levels will eventually reach the total investigation area causing serious health risks to the local population in long terms. Mineral lifetime estimates suggest that the contamination might continue for centuries with current pollution loads. Furthermore, geochemical modelling showed that there is no reason to expect the natural attenuation of the contamination. The potential impacts of preventive actions were studied by preparing a model scenario where the present heavy metal contamination level was lowered to 0.1 mg/l in two streams entering the model area. The model results suggest that within 5 years, already significant reduction of concentrations can be reached. The

  16. Heavy metals in surface sediments along the Weihai coast, China: Distribution, sources and contamination assessment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Hongmei; Kang, Xuming; Li, Xiaomin; Li, Qiang; Song, Jinming; Jiao, Nianzhi; Zhang, Yongyu

    2017-02-15

    The Weihai coast is a representative zone with fifty-year history of mariculture in China. Algae and shellfish are the main cultured species, other species including fish and sea cucumber are also cultivated. In this study, heavy metals in surface sediments, sampled along the Weihai coast during May yearly between 2009 and 2013 were investigated in terms of their contents and spatiotemporal variation. The contents of Zn, Cr, Cu, Cd, Pb and As showed different spatiotemporal variations and ranged between 11.6 and 115.9, 4.15-51.3, 5.2-21.9, 0.02-0.33, 6.0-54.2, and 2.9-18.7μgg(-1), respectively. Among them, Zn, Cu and As declined during the five years. Ecological risk assessment revealed that Cd posed a moderate risk, as compared to other five elements, which were relatively low risks in surface sediments. Source analysis revealed that Zn, Cr and Cd were mainly from lithogenic contribution, while As was likely from anthropogenic discharges.

  17. Distribution of heavy metals in muscles and internal organs of Korean cephalopods and crustaceans: risk assessment for human health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mok, Jong Soo; Kwon, Ji Young; Son, Kwang Tae; Choi, Woo Seok; Shim, Kil Bo; Lee, Tae Seek; Kim, Ji Hoe

    2014-12-01

    Samples of seven species of cephalopods and crustaceans were collected from major fish markets on the Korean coast and analyzed for mercury (Hg) using a direct Hg analyzer and for the metals cadmium (Cd), lead (Pb), chromium, silver, nickel, copper, and zinc using inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry. The distributions of heavy metals in muscles, internal organs, and whole tissues were determined, and a risk assessment was conducted to provide information concerning consumer safety. The heavy metals accumulated to higher levels (P organs than in muscles for all species. The mean concentrations of Cd, which had the highest concentrations of the three hazardous metals (Cd, Pb, and Hg), in all internal organs (except those of blue crab) exceeded the regulatory limits set by Korea and the European Union. The Cd concentrations in all whole tissues of squid and octopus (relatively large cephalopods), red snow crab, and snow crab exceeded the European Union limits. The estimated dietary intake of Cd, Pb, and Hg for each part of all species accounted for 1.73 to 130.57%, 0.03 to 0.39%, and 0.93 to 1.67%, respectively, of the provisional tolerable daily intake adopted by the Joint Food and Agriculture Organization and World Health Organization Expert Committee on Food Additives; the highest values were found in internal organs. The hazard index (HI) is recognized as a reasonable parameter for assessing the risk of heavy metal consumption associated with contaminated food. Because of the high HI (>1.0) of the internal organs of cephalopods and the maximum HI for whole tissue of 0.424, consumers eating internal organs or whole tissues of cephalopods could be at risk of high heavy metal exposure. Therefore, the internal organs of relatively large cephalopods and crabs (except blue crab) are unfit for consumption. However, consumption of flesh after removing internal organs is a suitable approach for decreasing exposure to harmful metals.

  18. Comparative assessment of button cells using a normalized index for potential pollution by heavy metals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moreno-Merino, Luis; Jiménez-Hernández, Maria Emilia; de la Losa, Almudena; Huerta-Muñoz, Virginia

    2015-09-01

    Many household batteries worldwide still end up in landfills or are incinerated due to inefficient collection and recycling schemes. Toxic heavy metals from improperly discarded button cells pose a serious risk to human health and the environment, as they can pollute air, soil and water. This paper analyses a series of button cells selected from batteries available on the retail market, and compares their polluting potential. A total of 64 batteries were subjected to chemical analyses of 19 elements - including metals and metalloids - , and energy density measurements. The samples were from four different brands of each of the four most common button cell technologies (alkaline, zinc-air, silver oxide and lithium). An energy-normalized index - the Weighted Potential Pollution Index (WPPI) - was proposed to compare the polluting potential of the different batteries. The higher the battery WPPI score, the greater the content in toxic elements and the lower the energy output. The results of the chemical composition and energy density varied depending on the construction technology of the button cells. However, significant differences in both variables were also found when comparing different brands within the same technology. The differences in WPPI values confirmed the existence of a significant margin to reduce the environmental impact of discarded button cells simply by avoiding the most polluting options. The choice of the battery with the most favourable WPPI produced a reduction in potential pollution of 3-53% for silver oxide batteries, 4-39% for alkaline, 20-28% for zinc-air and 12-26% for lithium. Comparative potential pollution could be assessed when selecting batteries using an energy-normalized index such as WPPI to reduce the environmental impact of improperly disposed button cells.

  19. Assessment of heavy metal pollution in Córdoba (Spain) by biomonitoring foraging honeybee.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gutiérrez, Miriam; Molero, Rafael; Gaju, Miquel; van der Steen, Josef; Porrini, Claudio; Ruiz, José Antonio

    2015-10-01

    Due to features that make them outstanding environmental bioindicator, colonies of Apis mellifera are being used to study environmental pollution. The primary objective of this research was to use honeybee colonies to identify heavy metals and determine their utility for environmental management. Five stations each with two A. mellifera hives were strategically located in urban, industrial, agricultural and forested areas within the municipality of Córdoba (Spain), and foraging bees were collected from April to December in 2007, 2009 and 2010 to analyse spatial and temporal variation in Pb, Cr, Ni and Cd pollution. Metal concentrations, in milligram per kilogram of honeybee, were determined by inductively coupled plasma-atomic emission spectrometry and graphite furnace atomic absorption spectrophotometry. Significant differences in concentrations were found among the various locations and periods. The highest number of values exceeding the upper reference thresholds proposed for this study (Pb, 0.7 mg/kg; Cr, 0.12 mg/kg; Ni, 0.3 mg/kg; and Cd, 0.1 mg/kg) was observed for Pb and Cr (6.25% respectively), station S4 (13.22%), year 2007 (20.83%) and in months of May and July (11.90% each). Regarding the Cd, which was analysed only in 2010, the highest number of values exceeding the upper reference thresholds was 40%. Biomonitoring with colonies of A. mellifera could contribute to improved surveillance and control systems for atmospheric pollution by integrating qualitative and quantitative assessments, thus facilitating prevention and readiness in the event of environmental crises.

  20. Assessment of airborne heavy metal pollution in soil and lichen in the Meric-Ergene Basin, Turkey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hanedar, Asude

    2015-01-01

    In the present study, accumulations of airborne heavy metals in lichen and soil samples were determined on the basis of pollutant source groups by conducting Zinc (Zn), Lead (Pb), Iron (Fe), Copper (Cu), Chromium (Cr), Cadmium (Cd), Arsenic (As), Cobalt (Co) and Manganese (Mn) analyses on a total of 48 samples collected in the periods of May 2014 and August 2014 from 12 sampling points in a heavily industrialized area, a mixed industrial and residential area, an agricultural area and a background area in the Meric-Ergene Basin, and pH and total organic carbon determination was carried out on soil samples. With the obtained data, heavy metal levels were statistically assessed in detail by being associated with each other and with their probable sources; the accumulations found in soil and lichen samples were compared and spatial variances were set forth. Based on the results, it was observed that heavy metal pollution is at high levels particularly in industrialized areas, and that the differences between the cleanest and most polluted levels determined from soil samples for As, Cr, Cd and Pb reach 10 folds. The highest levels of all heavy metals were determined in both the soil and lichen samples collected from the areas in the south-east part of the region, where industrial activities and particularly leather and chemical industries are concentrated. With the comparison of the indication properties of soil and lichen, it was determined that significant and comparable results can be observed in both matrices.

  1. Assessment of Ecological and Human Health Risks of Heavy Metal Contamination in Agriculture Soils Disturbed by Pipeline Construction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shi, Peng; Xiao, Jun; Wang, Yafeng; Chen, Liding

    2014-01-01

    The construction of large-scale infrastructures such as nature gas/oil pipelines involves extensive disturbance to regional ecosystems. Few studies have documented the soil degradation and heavy metal contamination caused by pipeline construction. In this study, chromium (Cr), cadmium (Cd), copper (Cu), nickel (Ni), lead (Pb) and zinc (Zn) levels were evaluated using Index of Geo-accumulation (Igeo) and Potential Ecological Risk Index (RI) values, and human health risk assessments were used to elucidate the level and spatial variation of heavy metal pollution risks. The results showed that the impact zone of pipeline installation on soil heavy metal contamination was restricted to pipeline right-of-way (RoW), which had higher Igeo of Cd, Cu, Ni and Pb than that of 20 m and 50 m. RI showed a declining tendency in different zones as follows: trench > working zone > piling area > 20 m > 50 m. Pipeline RoW resulted in higher human health risks than that of 20 m and 50 m, and children were more susceptible to non-carcinogenic hazard risk. Cluster analysis showed that Cu, Ni, Pb and Cd had similar sources, drawing attention to the anthropogenic activity. The findings in this study should help better understand the type, degree, scope and sources of heavy metal pollution from pipeline construction to reduce pollutant emissions, and are helpful in providing a scientific basis for future risk management. PMID:24590049

  2. Distribution, source identification, and ecological risk assessment of heavy metals in wetland soils of a river-reservoir system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiang, Xiaoliang; Xiong, Ziqian; Liu, Hui; Liu, Guihua; Liu, Wenzhi

    2017-01-01

    The majority of rivers in the world have been dammed, and over 45,000 large reservoirs have been constructed for multiple purposes. Riparian and reservoir shorelines are the two most important wetland types in a dammed river. To date, few studies have concerned the heavy metal pollution in wetland soils of these river-reservoir systems. In this study, we measured the concentrations of ten heavy metals (Ba, Cd, Co, Cr, Cu, Mn, Ni, Pb, Sr, and Zn) in surface soils collected from riparian and reservoir shorelines along the Han River in different seasons. Our results found that the Co, Cu, and Ni concentrations in riparian wetlands were significantly lower than those in reservoir shorelines. In riparian wetlands, only soil Sr concentration significantly increased after summer and autumn submergence. Multivariate statistical analyses demonstrated that Ba and Cd might originate from industrial and mining sources, whereas Sr and Mn predominantly originated from natural rock weathering. The ecological risk assessment analysis indicated that both riparian and reservoir shorelines along the Han River in China exhibited a moderate ecological risk in soil heavy metals. The upper Han River basin is the water resource area of China's Middle Route of the South-to-North Water Transfer Project. Therefore, to control the contamination of heavy metals in wetland soils, more efforts should be focused on reducing the discharge of mining and industrial pollutants into the riparian and reservoir shorelines.

  3. Assessment of ecological and human health risks of heavy metal contamination in agriculture soils disturbed by pipeline construction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shi, Peng; Xiao, Jun; Wang, Yafeng; Chen, Liding

    2014-02-28

    The construction of large-scale infrastructures such as nature gas/oil pipelines involves extensive disturbance to regional ecosystems. Few studies have documented the soil degradation and heavy metal contamination caused by pipeline construction. In this study, chromium (Cr), cadmium (Cd), copper (Cu), nickel (Ni), lead (Pb) and zinc (Zn) levels were evaluated using Index of Geo-accumulation (Igeo) and Potential Ecological Risk Index (RI) values, and human health risk assessments were used to elucidate the level and spatial variation of heavy metal pollution risks. The results showed that the impact zone of pipeline installation on soil heavy metal contamination was restricted to pipeline right-of-way (RoW), which had higher Igeo of Cd, Cu, Ni and Pb than that of 20 m and 50 m. RI showed a declining tendency in different zones as follows: trench > working zone > piling area > 20 m > 50 m. Pipeline RoW resulted in higher human health risks than that of 20 m and 50 m, and children were more susceptible to non-carcinogenic hazard risk. Cluster analysis showed that Cu, Ni, Pb and Cd had similar sources, drawing attention to the anthropogenic activity. The findings in this study should help better understand the type, degree, scope and sources of heavy metal pollution from pipeline construction to reduce pollutant emissions, and are helpful in providing a scientific basis for future risk management.

  4. Assessment of Ecological and Human Health Risks of Heavy Metal Contamination in Agriculture Soils Disturbed by Pipeline Construction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peng Shi

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available The construction of large-scale infrastructures such as nature gas/oil pipelines involves extensive disturbance to regional ecosystems. Few studies have documented the soil degradation and heavy metal contamination caused by pipeline construction. In this study, chromium (Cr, cadmium (Cd, copper (Cu, nickel (Ni, lead (Pb and zinc (Zn levels were evaluated using Index of Geo-accumulation (Igeo and Potential Ecological Risk Index (RI values, and human health risk assessments were used to elucidate the level and spatial variation of heavy metal pollution risks. The results showed that the impact zone of pipeline installation on soil heavy metal contamination was restricted to pipeline right-of-way (RoW, which had higher Igeo of Cd, Cu, Ni and Pb than that of 20 m and 50 m. RI showed a declining tendency in different zones as follows: trench > working zone > piling area > 20 m > 50 m. Pipeline RoW resulted in higher human health risks than that of 20 m and 50 m, and children were more susceptible to non-carcinogenic hazard risk. Cluster analysis showed that Cu, Ni, Pb and Cd had similar sources, drawing attention to the anthropogenic activity. The findings in this study should help better understand the type, degree, scope and sources of heavy metal pollution from pipeline construction to reduce pollutant emissions, and are helpful in providing a scientific basis for future risk management.

  5. Assessing soil heavy metal pollution in the water-level-fluctuation zone of the Three Gorges Reservoir, China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ye, Chen; Li, Siyue; Zhang, Yulong; Zhang, Quanfa

    2011-07-15

    The water-level-fluctuation zone (WLFZ) between the elevations of 145-175 m in China's Three Gorges Reservoir has experienced a novel hydrological regime with half a year (May-September) exposed in summer and another half (October-April) submerged in winter. In September 2008 (before submergence) and June 2009 (after submergence), soil samples were collected in 12 sites in the WLFZ and heavy metals (Hg, As, Cr, Cd, Pb, Cu, Zn, Fe, and Mn) were determined. Enrichment factor (EF), factor analysis (FA), and factor analysis-multiple linear regression (FA-MLR) were employed for heavy metal pollution assessment, source identification, and source apportionment, respectively. Results demonstrate spatial variability in heavy metals before and after submergence and elements of As, Cd, Pb, Cu, and Zn are higher in the upper and low reaches. FA and FA-MLR reveal that As and Cd are the primary pollutants before submergence, and over 45% of As originates from domestic sewage and 59% of Cd from industrial wastes. After submergence, the major contaminants are Hg, Cd, and Pb, and traffic exhaust contributes approximately 81% to Hg and industrial effluent accounts about 36% and 73% for Cd and Pb, respectively. Our results suggest that increased shipping and industrial wastes have deposited large amounts of heavy metals which have been accumulated in the WLFZ during submergence period.

  6. Relationship between heavy metal contents and clay mineral properties in surface sediments: Implications for metal pollution assessment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Yueh-Min; Gao, Jin-bo; Yuan, Yong-Qiang; Ma, Jun; Yu, Shen

    2016-08-01

    Clay minerals in surface sediments can affect the adsorption of heavy metals. However, few historical studies have focused on the influence of fine clay mineral characteristics on metal sorption. Since the reactions between heavy metals and fine clay minerals in sediments remain obscure, this study investigates the influence of fine clay mineral characteristics on metal sorption in a typical urbanizing small watershed. Clay minerals, including nanoparticles with various size fractions ranging from 1000 to 2000 (clay), 450-1000 (fine clay), and 220-450 (very fine clay) nm were used to demonstrate their transformation from well crystalline to poorly crystalline. The nanoparticles were collected and evaluated by determination of their surface area, X-ray diffraction, scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and chemical analyses. The relationship between metal content and properties of the surface sediments was also revealed by canonical correlation analysis. With smaller particle sizes, nanoparticles (very fine clay) were observed to be poorly crystalline, possibly indicating few repetitions of unit cells as a result of preferential structural disruption of other crystal planes caused by pressure-induced phase transition in the fine-size fractions. The first canonical matrix (M) variables of metal contents can be predicted by both surface area and pore volume, followed by kaolinite and illite contents. On the other hand, the category of metal, i.e., Cu, Cr, Zn, or Pb, was significantly correlated with the first 'M' canonical variables. The data obtained in the present study are of fundamental significance in advancing our understanding of the reactions between heavy metals and fine clay minerals in the terrestrial ecosystem.

  7. Assessment of radionuclides and heavy metals in marine sediments along the Upper Gulf of Thailand

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khuntong, S.; Phaophang, C.; Sudprasert, W.

    2015-05-01

    Due to the Fukushima Daiichi nuclear disaster in 2011 and the development of nuclear power plant in neighboring countries such as Vietnam in the near future, radionuclide assessment in marine sediment during 2010 - 2011 may be useful as background levels for radiation protection in Thailand. Marine sediments (10 samples) were collected approximately 1 km away from the coastline along Chonburi to Pattaya, Chonburi Province. The sediments were ground and sieved through 2-mm test sieve after air drying. Radionuclides were measured with a gamma spectrometer equipped with a well-calibrated HPGe detector. The samples were prepared in the same geometry as the reference material. The optimal counting time was 60,000 - 80,000 s for statistical evaluation and uncertainties. No contamination of 137Cs as an artificial radionuclide was found. Naturally-occurring radionuclides including 238U, 232Th and 40K were found. The mean specific activities of 238U, 232Th and 40K were 44 ± 10, 59 ± 17 and 463 ± 94 Bq/kg in the rainy season (2010); 41 ± 6, 50 ± 9 and 484 ± 83 Bq/kg in the winter (2010), and 39 ± 6, 41 ± 7 and 472 ± 81 Bq/kg in the summer (2011), respectively. The mean specific activities were higher than the values in the UNSCEAR report of 35, 30 and 400 Bq/kg for 238U, 232Th and 40K, respectively. From the measured specific activities, the absorbed dose rate, radium equivalent activity, external hazard index and annual external effective dose rate were calculated in order to assess the health risk. No radiation hazards related to the radioactivity in the sediment were expected. The accumulation of radionuclides varied with the particle size and the organic matter content in the sediment. The accumulation of heavy metals showed similar results to that of the radionuclides in the sediment.

  8. Assessment of Heavy Metals in Municipal Sewage Sludge: A Case Study of Limpopo Province, South Africa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kudakwashe K. Shamuyarira

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Heavy metals in high concentrations can cause health and environmental damage. Nanosilver is an emerging heavy metal which has a bright future of use in many applications. Here we report on the levels of silver and other heavy metals in municipal sewage sludge. Five towns in Limpopo province of South Africa were selected and the sludge from their wastewater treatment plants (WWTPs was collected and analysed. The acid digested sewage sludge samples were analysed using Inductively Coupled Plasma-Optical Emission Spectroscopy (ICP-OES and Inductively Coupled Plasma-Mass Spectrometry (ICP-MS methods. The concentrations of silver found were low, but significant, in the range 0.22 to 21.93 mg/kg dry mass. The highest concentration of silver was found in Louis Trichardt town with a concentration of 21.93 ± 0.38 mg/kg dry mass while the lowest was Thohoyandou with a concentration of 6.13 ± 0.12 mg/kg dry mass. A control sludge sample from a pit latrine had trace levels of silver at 0.22 ± 0.01 mg/kg dry mass. The result showed that silver was indeed present in the wastewater sewage sludge and at present there is no DWAF guideline standard. The average Cd concentration was 3.10 mg/kg dry mass for Polokwane municipality. Polokwane and Louis Trichardt municipalities exhibited high levels of Pb, in excess DWAF guidelines, in sludge at 102.83 and 171.87 mg/kg respectfully. In all the WWTPs the zinc and copper concentrations were in excess of DWAF guidelines. The presence of heavy metals in the sewage sludge in excess of DWAF guidelines presents environmental hazards should the sludge be applied as a soil ameliorant.

  9. Assessment of spectral characteristics of rodents in conditions of effect of heavy metals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Timchenko, Elena V.; Timchenko, Pavel E.; Simak, Sergey V.; Selezneva, Ekaterina A.; Kadayb, Asel D.; Kornilin, Dmitriy V.

    2016-09-01

    The results of studies of effect of heavy metals (HM) on small mammals' bone tissue using Raman spectroscopy method are presented. The characteristics of Raman spectra of small mammals' bone tissue, living in conditions of content HM gradient, were obtained. The main changes were detected at 960 cm-1 and 1247 cm-1 wavenumbers, corresponding to phosphate and amide III. Optical criteria determining the impact of HM on bone tissue were introduced.

  10. Assessment of heavy metals in seawater and fish tissues at Pulau Indah, Selangor, Malaysia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Md Yunus, Sabarina, E-mail: sabarina2020@salam.uitm.edu.m; Hamzah, Zaini; Wood, Ab. Khalik; Ahmad [Faculty of Applied Sciences, Universiti Teknologi MARA, 40450 Shah Alam, Selangor (Malaysia)

    2015-04-29

    This study focuses on the levels of heavy metals in seawater and selected fish tissue at Pulau Indah, Selangor, Malaysia. Pulau Indah primarily contains Westport (Malaysia’s major port), and a host of full scales factories. Therefore, it is important to monitor the levels of pollution in this water body and the aquatic organisms in the long term effects, due to the human activities in this area. Water samples in this study were taken from 8 locations along the coastal area. The water samples were collected using water sampler and sampling locations were determined using a Global Positioning system (GPS). Similarly, in situ water quality parameters including temperature, dissolve oxygen (DO), salinity, total suspended solid (TSS), pH and turbidity were measured by using portable multi probes meter. Then, the samples were acidified until pH 2 and filtered. Fish samples were purchased from local fisherman along the Pulau Indah coastal area and samples were digested using concentrated nitric acid in wet digestion method. The levels of selected heavy metals in four species of fish and seawater from Pulau Indah coastal area were determined using Inductive Coupled Plasma Mass Spectrometer (ICPMS) after dilution to the samples. In general, the quality of water at Pulau Indah is lower than Malaysia Marine Water Quality Standard except for few locations were higher than the maximum permissible levels. The concentration of heavy metals which are lead (Pb), copper (Cu), zinc (Zn) and uranium (U) in water samples are in the range of 0.36-5.43 µg/L, 75.20-621.58 µg/L, 11.92-30.52 µg/L, and 4.00-4.65 µg/L respectively. While the results of the four selected fish showed the following order of abundance Zn> U> Cu> Pb. Transfer factor (TF) of heavy metals in fish tissue of selected fish species from the water was discussed. However, the observed metal concentration in the sample tissue did not exceed the allowable limit of Malaysian Food Act (1983) and Regulation (1985

  11. Multivariate statistical assessment of heavy metal pollution sources of groundwater around a lead and zinc plant

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zamani Abbas Ali

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract The contamination of groundwater by heavy metal ions around a lead and zinc plant has been studied. As a case study groundwater contamination in Bonab Industrial Estate (Zanjan-Iran for iron, cobalt, nickel, copper, zinc, cadmium and lead content was investigated using differential pulse polarography (DPP. Although, cobalt, copper and zinc were found correspondingly in 47.8%, 100.0%, and 100.0% of the samples, they did not contain these metals above their maximum contaminant levels (MCLs. Cadmium was detected in 65.2% of the samples and 17.4% of them were polluted by this metal. All samples contained detectable levels of lead and iron with 8.7% and 13.0% of the samples higher than their MCLs. Nickel was also found in 78.3% of the samples, out of which 8.7% were polluted. In general, the results revealed the contamination of groundwater sources in the studied zone. The higher health risks are related to lead, nickel, and cadmium ions. Multivariate statistical techniques were applied for interpreting the experimental data and giving a description for the sources. The data analysis showed correlations and similarities between investigated heavy metals and helps to classify these ion groups. Cluster analysis identified five clusters among the studied heavy metals. Cluster 1 consisted of Pb, Cu, and cluster 3 included Cd, Fe; also each of the elements Zn, Co and Ni was located in groups with single member. The same results were obtained by factor analysis. Statistical investigations revealed that anthropogenic factors and notably lead and zinc plant and pedo-geochemical pollution sources are influencing water quality in the studied area.

  12. Multivariate statistical assessment of heavy metal pollution sources of groundwater around a lead and zinc plant.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zamani, Abbas Ali; Yaftian, Mohammad Reza; Parizanganeh, Abdolhossein

    2012-12-17

    The contamination of groundwater by heavy metal ions around a lead and zinc plant has been studied. As a case study groundwater contamination in Bonab Industrial Estate (Zanjan-Iran) for iron, cobalt, nickel, copper, zinc, cadmium and lead content was investigated using differential pulse polarography (DPP). Although, cobalt, copper and zinc were found correspondingly in 47.8%, 100.0%, and 100.0% of the samples, they did not contain these metals above their maximum contaminant levels (MCLs). Cadmium was detected in 65.2% of the samples and 17.4% of them were polluted by this metal. All samples contained detectable levels of lead and iron with 8.7% and 13.0% of the samples higher than their MCLs. Nickel was also found in 78.3% of the samples, out of which 8.7% were polluted. In general, the results revealed the contamination of groundwater sources in the studied zone. The higher health risks are related to lead, nickel, and cadmium ions. Multivariate statistical techniques were applied for interpreting the experimental data and giving a description for the sources. The data analysis showed correlations and similarities between investigated heavy metals and helps to classify these ion groups. Cluster analysis identified five clusters among the studied heavy metals. Cluster 1 consisted of Pb, Cu, and cluster 3 included Cd, Fe; also each of the elements Zn, Co and Ni was located in groups with single member. The same results were obtained by factor analysis. Statistical investigations revealed that anthropogenic factors and notably lead and zinc plant and pedo-geochemical pollution sources are influencing water quality in the studied area.

  13. Interactions of a pesticide/heavy metal mixture in marine bivalves: a transcriptomic assessment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Boatti Lara

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Mixtures of chemicals present in aquatic environments may elicit toxicity due to additive or synergistic effects among the constituents or, vice versa, the adverse outcome may be reduced by antagonistic interactions. Deviations from additivity should be explained either by the perturbations of toxicokinetic parameters and/or chemical toxicodynamics. We addressed this important question in marine mussels exposed subchronically to a binary mixture made of two wide-spread pollutants: the heavy metal nickel and the organic phosphorus pesticide Chlorpyrifos. To this aim, we carried out in tissues of Mytius galloprovincialis (Lam a systems approach based on the evaluation and integration of different disciplines, i.e. high throughput gene expression profiling, functional genomics, stress biomakers and toxicokinetics. Results Cellular and tissue biomarkers, viz. digestive gland lysosomal membrane stability, lysosomal/cytosol volume ratio, neutral lipid content and gill acetylcholinesterase activity were, in general, altered by either the exposure to nickel and Chlorpyrifos. However, their joint action rendered (i an overall decrease of the stress syndrome level, as evaluated through an expert system integrating biomarkers and (ii statistically significant antagonistic deviations from the reference model systems to predict mixture toxicity. While toxicokinetic modeling did not explain mixture interactions, gene expression profiling and further Gene Ontology-based functional genomics analysis provided clues that the decrement of toxicity may arise from the development of specific toxicodynamics. Multivariate statistics of microarray data (238 genes in total, representing about 14% of the whole microarray catalogue showed two separate patterns for the single chemicals: the one belonging to the heavy metal -135 differentially expressed genes (DEGs was characterized by the modulation of transcript levels involved in nucleic acid

  14. Heavy metal pollution and ecological risk assessment of the paddy soils near a zinc-lead mining area in Hunan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lu, Sijin; Wang, Yeyao; Teng, Yanguo; Yu, Xuan

    2015-10-01

    Soil pollution by Cd, Hg, As, Pb, Cr, Cu, and Zn was characterized in the area of the mining and smelting of metal ores at Guiyang, northeast of Hunan Province. A total of 150 topsoil (0-20 cm) samples were collected in May 2012 with a nominal density of one sample per 4 km(2). High concentrations of heavy metals especially, Cd, Zn, and Pb were found in many of the samples taken from surrounding paddy soil, indicating a certain extent of spreading of heavy metal pollution. Sequential extraction technique and risk assessment code (RAC) were used to study the mobility of chemical forms of heavy metals in the soils and their ecological risk. The results reveal that Cd represents a high ecological risk due to its highest percentage of the exchangeable and carbonate fractions. The metals of Zn and Cu pose a medium risk, and the rest of the metals represent a low environmental risk. The range of the potential ecological risk of soil calculated by risk index (RI) was 123.5~2791.2 and revealed a considerable-high ecological risk in study area especially in the neighboring and surrounding the mining activities area. Additionally, cluster analyses suggested that metals such as Pb, As, Hg, Zn, and Cd could be from the same sources probably related to the acidic drainage and wind transport of dust. Cluster analysis also clearly distinguishes the samples with similar characteristics according to their spatial distribution. The results could be used during the ecological risk screening stage, in conjunction with total concentrations and metal fractionation values to better estimate ecological risk.

  15. [Application of ICP-mS in the health risk assessment of heavy metals for drinking water sources in reservoirs].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gao, Bo; Li, Qiang; Zhou, Huai-Dong; Gao, Ji-Jun; Zou, Xiao-Wen; Yong, Huang

    2014-05-01

    The six heavy metal concentrations (Cr, Cr, As, Cd, Cu, Zn and Pb) in water samples collected from five reservoirs of Liao River Basin were studied. The health risk assessment for heavy metals pollution in reservoirs was conducted based on the environmental health risk assessment model recommended by U. S. Environmental Protection Agency. The results showed that the average concentrations of Cr, Cu, Zn, As, Cd and Pb in five reservoirs of Liao River Basin were 3.36, 1.03, 2. 70, 1.23, 0. 02 and 0. 03 microg L-1, respectively. In fact, these heavy metals concentrations were obviously lower than the Standard of National Drinking Water in China (GB 5749-2006). The results also showed that the metal carcinogenic risk was relatively high in this region. The order of the risk level of carcinogenic metals was Cr>As>Cd. The highest carcinogenic risk was from Cr, with the risk for adults ranging from 4. 50 X 10(-5) approximately 7. 53 X 10(-5) a-1' and the risk for children ranging from 6. 29 X 10(-5) to 1. 05 X 10(-4) a-1. The health risk levels caused by non-carcinogenic metals ranging from 10-13 to 10(-10) a-1 were lower than the acceptable range suggested by International Commission on Radiological Protection (ICRP) and the order of the risk level of non-carcinogenic metals was Cu>Zn>Pb. The total health risk of heavy metals for adults ranging from 1. 07X 10(-4) to 1. 72X 10(-4) a-1 and for children ranging from 1. 49 X 10(-4) to 2. 40 X 10(-4) a-1 exceeded the accepted level of 5 X 10(-5) a-1 as suggested by ICRP. The health risk levels of carcinogenic metals were significantly higher than those of non-carcinogenic metals in the reservoirs for Liao River Basin.

  16. Comparative assessment of button cells using a normalized index for potential pollution by heavy metals

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Moreno-Merino, Luis, E-mail: l.moreno@igme.es [Geological Survey of Spain, Environmental Geology Research Group, C/ Ríos Rosas 23, 28003 Madrid (Spain); Jiménez-Hernández, Maria Emilia; Losa, Almudena de la [Geological Survey of Spain, Environmental Geology Research Group, C/ Ríos Rosas 23, 28003 Madrid (Spain); Huerta-Muñoz, Virginia [Universidad Complutense de Madrid, Departamento de Geodinámica Externa, C/ José Antonio Novais, 12, Ciudad Universitaria, 28040 Madrid (Spain)

    2015-09-01

    Many household batteries worldwide still end up in landfills or are incinerated due to inefficient collection and recycling schemes. Toxic heavy metals from improperly discarded button cells pose a serious risk to human health and the environment, as they can pollute air, soil and water. This paper analyses a series of button cells selected from batteries available on the retail market, and compares their polluting potential. A total of 64 batteries were subjected to chemical analyses of 19 elements — including metals and metalloids — , and energy density measurements. The samples were from four different brands of each of the four most common button cell technologies (alkaline, zinc-air, silver oxide and lithium). An energy-normalized index — the Weighted Potential Pollution Index (WPPI) — was proposed to compare the polluting potential of the different batteries. The higher the battery WPPI score, the greater the content in toxic elements and the lower the energy output. The results of the chemical composition and energy density varied depending on the construction technology of the button cells. However, significant differences in both variables were also found when comparing different brands within the same technology. The differences in WPPI values confirmed the existence of a significant margin to reduce the environmental impact of discarded button cells simply by avoiding the most polluting options. The choice of the battery with the most favourable WPPI produced a reduction in potential pollution of 3–53% for silver oxide batteries, 4–39% for alkaline, 20–28% for zinc-air and 12–26% for lithium. Comparative potential pollution could be assessed when selecting batteries using an energy-normalized index such as WPPI to reduce the environmental impact of improperly disposed button cells. - Highlights: • We compare the polluting potential of button cells using an energy-normalized index. • This battery index considers both chemical

  17. Assessment of heavy metal pollution, spatial distribution and origin in agricultural soils along the Sinú River Basin, Colombia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marrugo-Negrete, José; Pinedo-Hernández, José; Díez, Sergi

    2017-04-01

    The presence of metals in agricultural soils from anthropogenic activities such as mining and agricultural use of metals and metal-containing compounds is a potential threat for human health through the food chain. In this study, the concentration of heavy metals in 83 agricultural soils irrigated by the Sinú River, in northern Colombia, affected by mining areas upstream and inundated during seasonal floods events were determined to evaluate their sources and levels of pollution. The average concentrations of Cu, Ni, Pb, Cd, Hg and Zn were 1149, 661, 0.071, 0.040, 0.159 and 1365mg/kg respectively and exceeded the world normal averages, with the exception of Pb and Cd. Moreover, all values surpassed the background levels of soils in the same region. Soil pollution assessment was carried out using contamination factor (CF), enrichment factor (EF), geoaccumulation index (Igeo) and a risk assessment code (RAC). According to these indexes, the soils show a high degree of pollution of Ni and a moderate to high contamination of Zn and Cu; whereas, Pb, Cd and Hg present moderate pollution. However, based on the RAC index, a low environmental risk is found for all the analysed heavy metals. Multivariate statistical analyses, principal component and cluster analyses, suggest that soil contamination was mainly derived from agricultural practices, except for Hg, which was caused probably by atmospheric and river flow transport from upstream gold mining. Finally, high concentrations of Ni indicate a mixed pollution source from agricultural and ferronickel mining activities.

  18. Assessing the Heavy Metal Content in Forest Dormouse (Dryomys nitedula Pallas, 1778 from an Agricultural Region in Bulgaria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Georgi G. Markov

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available The heavy metals load in the forest dormouse (Dryomys nitedula, inhabiting in forest shelter belts in the agricultural region was assessed. The concentrations of Cd, Co, Cu, Ni, Pb and Zn (expressed in mg/kg of dry tissue were established in the liver, using an atomic-absorption analysis. The fact that the highly toxic metals (Cd and Pb were found in considerable concentrations together with other metals with concentration dependent toxic effect (Cu, Ni, Zn and Co in the liver of forest dormice, suggests that it is necessary to carry out regular assessment and forecasting of accumulation of these metals in species, which are not direct targets of cultivation and control activities in agricultural ecosystems. The obtained values were used to create a baseline for estimation of heavy metal accumulation in the internal organs of the forest dormouse, both in anthropogenically transformed habitats and natural biotopes, as well as for using this species as a monitor of environmental status.

  19. Application of geoaccumulation index and enrichment factors on the assessment of heavy metal pollution in the sediments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shafie, Nur Aliaa; Aris, Ahmad Zaharin; Zakaria, Mohamad Pauzi; Haris, Hazzeman; Lim, Wan Ying; Isa, Noorain Mohd

    2013-01-01

    An investigative study was carried out in Langat River to determine the heavy metal pollution in the sediment with 22 sampling stations selected for the collection of sediment samples. The sediment samples were digested and analyzed for extractable metal ((48)Cd, (29)Cu, (30)Zn, (33)As, (82)Pb) using the Inductively Coupled Plasma-Mass Spectrometry (ICP-MS). Parameters, such as pH, Eh, electrical conductivity (EC), salinity, cation exchange capacity (CEC) and loss on ignition (LOI) were also determined. The assessment of heavy metal pollution was derived using the enrichment factors (EF) and geoaccumulation index (I(geo)). This study revealed that the sediment is predominantly by As > Cd > Pb > Zn > Cu. As recorded the highest EF value at 187.45 followed by Cd (100.59), Pb (20.32), Zn (12.42) and Cu (3.46). This is similar to the I(geo), which indicates that the highest level goes to As (2.2), exhibits moderately polluted. Meanwhile, Cd recorded 1.8 and Pb (0.23), which illustrates that both of these elements vary from unpolluted to moderately polluted. The Cu and Zn levels are below 0, which demonstrates background concentrations. The findings are expected to update the current status of the heavy metal pollution as well as creating awareness concerning the security of the river water as a drinking water source.

  20. [Pollution by heavy metals in the petrochemical sewage waters of the sea area of Daya Bay and assessment on potential ecological risks].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Shan-Nan; Li, Chun-Hou; Xu, Jiao-Jiao; Xiao, Ya-Yuan; Lin, Lin; Huang, Xiao-Ping

    2014-06-01

    offshore waters were higher than those of inshore waters, and were higher in the bay-mouth than in the bay-head. However, the distributions of potential ERIs showed reversed trend during dry season. The comprehensive assessment results showed that Hg was the primary heavy metal with a high ecological risk whereas the potential ERIs for the other six heavy metals in the petrochemical sewage waters in Daya Bay were relatively low.

  1. [Distribution patterns of heavy metals in surface sediments of the Quanzhou Bay and environmental quality assessment].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Yun-hai; Chen, Jian; Huang, Cai-bin; Wang, Ai-jun; Li, Dong-yi

    2010-04-01

    The concentrations of 7 heavy metals were determined in 48 surface sediments in the Quanzhou Bay by an inductively coupled plasma mass spectroscopy (ICP-MS). The average contents of Cr, Ni, Cu, Zn, As, Cd and Pb are 47.66, 52.2, 30.86, 111.6, 5.29, 0.399 and 50.3 microg x g(-1), respectively. The Cd, Pb, Zn and As were mainly discharged into the Quanzhou Bay by Jinjiang River, while the materials near the Bay might supply a considerable amount of Cr, Ni and Cu. The result of the multi-analysis ecological risk index analyses revealed that Cr, Ni, Cu, Zn, Pb and As were moderately contaminated and presented low potential ecological risk, while Cd was heavily contaminated and raised high potential ecological risk. In general, moderately contaminated and potential ecological risk were occurred in whole Quanzhou Bay with the dominated polluted metals were Ni and Cd. The heavily contaminated area was corresponded to the high potential ecological risk area, which located at the confluent area of Jinjiang River and Luoyangjiang River. From the results of this study, we conclude that the Quanzhou Bay has been heavily polluted by heavy metals, therefore much environmental control should be continued and strengthen to Quanzhou Bay and its adjacent areas.

  2. Comparison of pollution indices for the assessment of heavy metal in Brisbane River sediment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duodu, Godfred Odame; Goonetilleke, Ashantha; Ayoko, Godwin A

    2016-12-01

    Estuarine environment is complex and receives different contaminants from numerous sources that are persistent, bioaccumulative and toxic. The distribution, source, contamination and ecological risk status of heavy metals in sediment of Brisbane River, Australia were investigated. Sediment samples were analysed for major and minor elements using LA-ICP-MS. Principal component analysis and cluster analysis identified three main sources of metals in the samples: marine sand intrusion, mixed lithogenic and sand intrusion as well as transport related. To overcome inherent deficiencies in using a single index, a range of sediment quality indices, including contamination factor, enrichment factor, index of geo-accumulation, modified degree of contamination, pollution index and modified pollution index were utilised to ascertain the sediment quality. Generally, the sediment is deemed to be "slightly" to "heavily" polluted. A further comparison with the Australian Sediment Quality Guidelines indicated that Ag, Cr, Cu, Ni, Pb and Zn had the potential to rarely cause biological effects while Hg could frequently cause biological effects. Application of potential ecological risk index (RI) revealed that the sediment poses moderate to considerable ecological risk. However, RI could not account for the complex sediment behaviour because it uses a simple contamination factor. Consequently, a modified ecological risk index (MRI) employing enrichment factor is proposed. This provides a more reliable understanding of whole sediment behaviour and classified the ecological risk of the sediment as moderate to very high. The results demonstrate the need for further investigation into heavy metal speciation and bioavailability in the sediment to ascertain the degree of toxicity.

  3. Assessment of Sediment Heavy Metals Pollution Using Screening Methods (XRF, TGA/MS, XRPD and Earthworms Bioassay)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Findoráková, Lenka; Šestinová, Ol'ga; Hančul'ák, Jozef; Fedorová, Erika; Zorkovská, Anna

    2016-10-01

    The aim of this study is focused on the use of screening methods (TG/DTA coupled with MS, XRF, AAS, XRPD and earthworm bioassay) for sediments pollution assessing by heavy metals (Cu, Zn, Pb, Hg) coming from the former mining workloads in the central Spis, Eastern Slovakia. The screening methods (XRF, AAS) indicated pollution of studied sediments by Cu, Zn, Pb, Hg. The earthworms Dendrobaena veneta caused in some studied samples decrease of heavy metals concentration after their 7 days’ exposure in sediments. The other screening methods such as thermal analysis and XRPD analysis, does not confirm the specifically changes in physicochemical properties comparing the properties before and after 7 days’ earthworm's exposure.

  4. Ecological risk assessment of heavy metals in surface seawater and sediment near the outlet of a zinc factory in Huludao City, Liaoning Province, China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feng, Yongliang; Chen, Yanzhen; Wang, Jing; Gong, Yufeng; Liu, Xigang; Mu, Gang; Tian, Hua

    2016-11-01

    At present, the methods widely applied to assess ecological risk of heavy metals are essentially single-point estimates in which exposure and toxicity data cannot be fully used and probabilities of adverse biological eff ects cannot be achieved. In this study, based on investigation of concentrations of six heavy metals (As, Hg, Pb, Cd, Cu, and Zn) in the surface seawater and sediment near the outlet of a zinc factory, located in Huludao City, Liaoning Province, China, a tiered approach consisting of several probabilistic options was used to refine ecological risk assessment for the individuals. A mixture of various heavy metals was detected in the surface seawater, and potential ecological risk index (PERI) was adopted to assess the potential ecological risk of heavy metals in the surface sediment. The results from all levels of aquatic ecological risk assessment in the tiered framework, ranging from comparison of single eff ects and exposure values to the use of distribution-based Hazard Quotient obtained through Monte Carlo simulation, are consistent with each other. Briefly, aquatic Zn and Cu posed a clear ecological risk, while Cd, Pb, Hg, and As in the water column posed potential risk. As expected, combined ecological risk of heavy metal mixture in the surface seawater was proved significantly higher than the risk caused by any individual heavy metal, calculated using the concept of total equivalent concentration. According to PERI, the severity of pollution by the six heavy metals in the surface sediment decreased in the following sequence: Cd>Hg>As>Pb>Cu>Zn, and the total heavy metals in the sediment posed a very high risk to the marine environment. This study provides a useful mathematical framework for ecological risk assessment of heavy metals.

  5. Assessment of heavy metal contamination in roadside surface soil and vegetation from the West Bank.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Swaileh, K M; Hussein, R M; Abu-Elhaj, S

    2004-07-01

    Concentrations of heavy metals (Pb, Cd, Cu, Zn, Fe, Mn, Ni, and Cr) were investigated in roadside surface soil and the common perennial herb inula (Inula viscosa L., Compositae). Samples were collected at different distances (0-200 m) perpendicular to a main road that connects two main cities in the West Bank. Average concentrations of metals in soil samples were: Pb, 87.4; Cd, 0.27; Cu, 60.4; Zn, 82.2; Fe, 15,700; Mn, 224; Ni, 18.9; and Cr, 42.4 microg x g(-1). In plant leaves, concentrations were: Pb, 7.25; Cd, 0.10; Cu, 10.6; Zn, 47.6; Fe, 730; Mn, 140; Ni, 4.87; and Cr, 7.03 microg x g(-1). Roadside contamination was obvious by the significant negative correlations between concentrations of metals in soil and plant samples and distance from road edge. Only cadmium concentrations in soil and plant samples were not associated with roadside pollution. Roadside contamination in plants and soil did not extend much beyond a 20 m distance from road. I. viscosa reflected roadside contamination better than soil and their metal concentrations showed much less fluctuations than those in soil samples. Washing plant leaves decreased Pb and Fe concentrations significantly, indicating a significant aerial deposition of both. I. viscosa can be considered as a good biomonitor for roadside metal pollution.

  6. Particulate Matter Assessment in the Air Based on the Heavy Metals Presence

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jandačka Dušan

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available Particulate matters are the result of various processes in the atmosphere that are part of everyday life. The chemical composition of these particles is mainly influenced by their origin. Their behavior is also dependent on meteorological conditions and other factors as well. The aim of this paper was to identify sources of particulate matters by means of statistical methods due to the presence of 17 heavy metals. The problem solving assumes the knowledge of multivariate statistical data analysis methods as principal components analysis (PCA, factor analysis (FA and multivariate regression and vector algebra. For the application of methodology suitable software may prove appropriate.

  7. Assessing the resistance and bioremediation ability of selected bacterial and protozoan species to heavy metals in metal-rich industrial wastewater

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kamika Ilunga

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Heavy-metals exert considerable stress on the environment worldwide. This study assessed the resistance to and bioremediation of heavy-metals by selected protozoan and bacterial species in highly polluted industrial-wastewater. Specific variables (i.e. chemical oxygen demand, pH, dissolved oxygen and the growth/die-off-rates of test organisms were measured using standard methods. Heavy-metal removals were determined in biomass and supernatant by the Inductively Couple Plasma Optical Emission Spectrometer. A parallel experiment was performed with dead microbial cells to assess the biosorption ability of test isolates. Results The results revealed that the industrial-wastewater samples were highly polluted with heavy-metal concentrations exceeding by far the maximum limits (in mg/l of 0.05-Co, 0.2-Ni, 0.1-Mn, 0.1-V, 0.01-Pb, 0.01-Cu, 0.1-Zn and 0.005-Cd, prescribed by the UN-FAO. Industrial-wastewater had no major effects on Pseudomonas putida, Bacillus licheniformis and Peranema sp. (growth rates up to 1.81, 1.45 and 1.43 d-1, respectively compared to other test isolates. This was also revealed with significant COD increases (p Pseudomonas putida demonstrated the highest removal rates of heavy metals (Co-71%, Ni-51%, Mn-45%, V-83%, Pb-96%, Ti-100% and Cu-49% followed by Bacillus licheniformis (Al-23% and Zn-53% and Peranema sp. (Cd-42%. None of the dead cells were able to remove more than 25% of the heavy metals. Bacterial isolates contained the genes copC, chrB, cnrA3 and nccA encoding the resistance to Cu, Cr, Co-Ni and Cd-Ni-Co, respectively. Protozoan isolates contained only the genes encoding Cu and Cr resistance (copC and chrB genes. Peranema sp. was the only protozoan isolate which had an additional resistant gene cnrA3 encoding Co-Ni resistance. Conclusion Significant differences (p Peranema sp. as a potential candidate for the bioremediation of heavy-metals in wastewater treatment, in addition to Pseudomonas

  8. Assessment of heavy metals in the industrial effluents, tube-wells and municipal supplied water of Dehradun, India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kulshrestha, Shail; Awasthi, Alok; Dabral, S K

    2013-07-01

    The bio-geochemical cycles of metals involve the lands, rivers, oceans and the atmosphere. Although a large number of metals are introduced to the water bodies during their mining and extraction processes and geochemical weathering of rocks, but the role of domestic and industrial wastes is predominant and of much concern. Increased industrial activities has increased the incidence of percolation of toxic metal ions to the soil and water bodies and presently their presence in ecosystem, have reached to an alarming level that environmentalists are finding it difficult to enforce control measures. Human activities and large number of small and big industrial units are increasingly discharging deleterious metals present in the effluents and wastes, to the environment and aquatic systems and have contaminated heavily even the ground water. The toxic metals have a great tendency of bioaccumulation through which they enter the food chain system and ultimately affect adversely the life on this planet Earth in various ways. Further, due to contamination of irrigation system by the harmful Chemicals and toxic metals, the farm products, vegetables, fruits, potable water and even milk is not spared. This paper describes the assessment of the heavy metal concentration in various industrial effluents of the surrounding area. Various physico-chemical characteristics of the effluents collected from various sites are also reported. To assess the status of ground water quality, water samples from four tube wells of different localities of the area and four drinking water samples supplied by Municipal Distribution System were also analyzed.

  9. Risk Assessment of Heavy Metals in Imported Frozen Fish Scomber scombrus Species Sold in Nigeria: A Case Study in Zaria Metropolis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abdullahi Abubakar

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available This study assesses the likely health risks to human contamination of heavy metals from fish consumption. The analysis of the idea of fish destination and status (fishing area for heavy metals was determined by the assessment of its risk limits (daily intake of metal and health risk index. Variations in the accumulation of heavy metals concentrations were between various tissues/organs (skin, muscle, gills, liver, intestine, kidneys, brain, and bones across the batches of two fishing origins. Post hoc (Duncan multicomparison shows that there are significant differences (PHg>Pb>Cd>Ni and were above the recommended safety limits outlined by FAO/WHO. However, the consumer’s health risk with the consumption of fish muscles tissues shows that there are greater tendencies for cadmium, lead, and mercury exposure. Also consumption of Scomber scombrus species above the recommended daily intake (stated in this study might lead to ingestion of heavy metals at unacceptable concentrations.

  10. Geochemical speciation and risk assessment of heavy metals in the surface sediments of Jemberau Lake, Tasik Chini, Malaysia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krishnankutty, Nimisha; Idris, Mushrifah; Hamzah, Firdaus Mohamad; Vijayan, Neethu

    2016-11-01

    The mine tailings from the iron ore mining in Jemberau catchment, Tasik Chini is directly seeping into Laut Jemberau. The caustic red sludge which consists of trace amounts of heavy metals from the mining site is also being washed and ultimately gets accumulated in the lake sediment. Under favorable conditions, the heavy metals are remobilized to the aquatic system, causing danger to the benthic organisms. Hence, a risk assessment study of surface sediment was conducted at Laut Jemberau, Tasik Chini. The results suggested that Mn, Co, and Cd are the most easily exchangeable metals in the sediment. Among these metals, the concentration of Mn (mean value = 12.04 ppm ± 13.25) is higher and it has adverse effect on aquatic biota. The risk assessment code (RAC) results also identified that the risk associated with Co, Cd, Mn are highly dangerous due to its high bioavailability and labiality in Jemberau aquatic system. The closer vicinity of mining site poses higher risk in comparative to other sampling stations. The geoaccumulation index (Igeo) shows that level of contamination in surface sediment due to anthropogenic activities is extremely higher especially in S2- near to mining site.

  11. Disorders of heavy metals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Woimant, France; Trocello, Jean-Marc

    2014-01-01

    Heavy metals and trace elements play an important role in relation to the physiology and pathology of the nervous system. Neurologic diseases related to disorders of metabolism of copper and iron are reviewed. Copper disorders are divided into two classes: ATP7A- or ATP7B-related inherited copper transport disorders (Menkes disease, occipital horn syndrome, ATP7A-related distal motor neuropathy, and Wilson disease) and acquired diseases associated with copper deficiency or copper excess. Iron brain disorders are divided into genetic neurodegeneration with brain iron accumulation (NBIA, neuroferritinopathy, and aceruloplasminemia), genetic systemic iron accumulation with neurologic features (hemochromatosis), and acquired diseases associated with iron excess (superficial siderosis) or iron deficiency (restless leg syndrome). The main features of cadmium, lead, aluminum, mercury, and manganese toxicity are summarized.

  12. Health Risk Assessment of Heavy Metals in Soils from Witwatersrand Gold Mining Basin, South Africa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kamunda, Caspah; Mathuthu, Manny; Madhuku, Morgan

    2016-01-01

    The study evaluates the health risk caused by heavy metals to the inhabitants of a gold mining area. In this study, 56 soil samples from five mine tailings and 17 from two mine villages were collected and analyzed for Asernic (As), Lead (Pb), Mercury (Hg), Cadmium (Cd), Chromium (Cr), Cobalt (Co), Nickel (Ni), Copper (Cu) and Zinc (Zn) using ICP-MS. Measured concentrations of these heavy metals were then used to calculate the health risk for adults and children. Their concentrations were such that Cr > Ni > As > Zn > Cu > Co > Pb > Hg > Cd, with As, Cr and Ni higher than permissible levels. For the adult population, the Hazard Index value for all pathways was found to be 2.13, making non-carcinogenic effects significant to the adult population. For children, the Hazard Index value was 43.80, a value >1, which poses serious non-carcinogenic effect to children living in the gold mining area. The carcinogenic risk was found to be 1.7 × 10(-4) implying that 1 person in every 5882 adults may be affected. In addition, for children, in every 2725 individuals, 1 child may be affected (3.67 × 10(-4)). These carcinogenic risk values were both higher than acceptable values.

  13. ASSESSMENTS OF HEAVY METALS IN SURFACE URBAN SOILS: A STUDY FROM ELBASANI, ALBANIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fatbardh Sallaku

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Soil is a complex and heterogeneous mixture of organic and inorganic matter, as well as different components that determine the physical, chemical and biological properties of the soil. There are at least 68 trace elements in soil, representing only about 0.6% of their total composition, while 12 minor and major elements —Si, Al, O, Ca, Fe, K, Ti, Mg, Mn, Na, Cr, Ni— account for the rest. However, significant local or regional imbalances (relative to gross pedological averages may occur in the soil composition. In contrast to soils in agricultural areas, soils in urban environments, particularly in parks and gardens, have a direct influence on public health that is unrelated to production of food because they easily come into contact with humans and are transferred to them, either as suspended dust or by direct contact. Furthermore, even though urban soils are rarely used for food production, they receive higher than normal loads of contaminants from traffic and industrial activities in heavily industrialized cities. Heavy metals in soils can also generate airborne particles and dusts, which may affect the environmental air quality. Heavy metal enrichment factors have been proposed as indicators for diffuse soil contamination.

  14. Failure Engineered Heavy Metal Penetrators

    Science.gov (United States)

    1992-12-01

    ARMY RESEARCH LABORATORY Failure Engineered Heavy Metal Penetrators, Phase I, SBIR ARL-CR-5· R. Cavalieri, W. Tiarn, and D. Nicholson prepared...REPORT DATE S. REPORT TYPE AND DATES COVERED December 1992 Final Report-1/1/92 - 7/31/92 4. TITLE AND SUBTITLE FAILURE ENGINEERED HEAVY METAL PENETRATORS

  15. Heavy metals and soil microbes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Giller, K.E.; Witter, E.; McGrath, S.

    2009-01-01

    The discovery in the early 1980s that soil microorganisms, and in particular the symbiotic bacteria Rhizobium, were highly sensitive to heavy metals initiated a new line of research. This has given us important insights into a range of topics: ecotoxicology, bioavailability of heavy metals, the role

  16. Contamination and risk assessment of heavy metals in soils irrigated with biogas slurry: a case study of Taihu basin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bian, Bo; Wu, Hai suo; Zhou, Ling jun

    2015-04-01

    The accumulation of heavy metals in different soils resulting from irrigation with biogas slurry obtained from Taihu basin may create a potential public health risk. We quantified the concentration of heavy metals (Zn, Pb, Cu, Cr, As, and Cd.) in soils. Results indicated that the concentrations of Ni, Zn, Cd, and Pb in soil exceeded the maximum permitted levels set by Chinese Soil Environmental Quality Standard (GB15618-2008). The highest mean level in the soil was noted for Zn, followed by Zn, Pb, Cu, Cr, As, and Cd, while maximum geoaccumulation index (Igeo) was found for Cd in all soil samples which ranged from strongly polluted to extremely polluted. Pollution levels varied with metals and soil types. Moreover, the concentrations of Mn, Co, Ni, Cu, Zn, As, and Pb in soils showed significant correlations with OM; pH showed positive correlations with Cd, Cu, As, and Cr; pH and OM were the most important factors controlling the uptake of heavy metals by soils. Multivariate principal component analysis showed anthropogenic contributions of Zn, Pb, Cu, As, and Cd in the different kinds of soils. The target hazard quotient (HQ) values of six metals in soils were less than 1, which suggested that non-carcinogenic risks of metal exposure to soils were generally assumed to be safe. The assessment results of carcinogenic risks in soils showed higher risks than an acceptable range of 1E-06 to 1E-04 that would pose potential cancer risks to the farmers due to the work of leafy and root vegetables grown locally.

  17. Assessment of bioaccumulation of heavy metals by different plant species grown on fly ash dump.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jambhulkar, Hemlata P; Juwarkar, Asha A

    2009-05-01

    A field experiment was conducted on a 10-hectare area on fly ash dump at Khaperkheda Thermal Power Plant, Nagpur, India, where different ecologically and economically important plant species were planted using bioremediation technology. The technology involves the use of organic amendment and selection of suitable plant species along with site-specific nitrogen-fixing strains of biofertilizers. The study was conducted to find out the metal accumulation potential of different plant species. The total heavy metal contents in fly ash were determined and their relative abundance was found in the order of Fe>Mn>Zn>Cu>Ni>Cr>Pb>Cd. Fly ash samples had acidic pH, low electrical conductivity, low level of organic carbon and trace amounts of N and P. Plantation of divergent species was done on fly ash dump using the bioremediation technique. After 3 years of plantation, luxuriant growth of these species was found covering almost the entire fly ash dump. The results of the metal analysis of these species indicated that iron accumulated to the greatest extent in vegetation followed by Mn, Ni, Zn, Cu, Cr and Pb. Cassia siamea was found to accumulate all metals at higher concentrations compared to other species. The experimental study revealed that C. siamea could be used as a hyper-accumulator plant for bioremediation of fly ash dump.

  18. Toxicity assessment of heavy metals and organic compounds using CellSense biosensor with E.coli

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Hong Wang; Xue Jiang Wang; Jian Fu Zhao; Ling Chen

    2008-01-01

    A new strategy using an amperometric biosensor with Escherichia coli(E.coli)that provides a rapid toxicity determination of chemical compounds is described.The CellSense biosensor system comprises a biological component immobilized in intimate contact with a transducer which converts the biochemical signal into a quantifiable electrical signal.Toxicity assessment of heavy metals using E.coli biosensors could be finished within 30 min and the 50% effective concentrations(EC50)values of four heavy metals were determined.The results shows that inhibitory effects of four heavy metals to E.coli can be ranked in a decreasing order of Hg2+>Cu2+>Zn2+>Ni2+,which accords to the results of conventional bacterial counting method.The toxicity test of organic compounds by using CellSense biosensor was also demonstrated.The CellSense biosensor with E.coli shows a good,reproducible behavior and can be used for reproducible measurements.

  19. Health Risk Assessment Research on Heavy Metals Ingestion Through Groundwater Drinking Pathway for the Residents in Baotou, China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bai, Liping; Wang, Yeyao; Guo, Yongli; Zhou, Youya; Liu, Li; Yan, Zengguang; Li, Fasheng; Xie, Xuefeng

    2016-01-01

    Drinking groundwater is a significant pathway for human exposure to heavy metals. To evaluate the health effect of some heavy metals ingestion through the groundwater drinking pathway, the authors collected 35 groundwater samples from the drinking water wells of local residents and the exploitation wells of waterworks in Baotou, China. The monitoring results indicate that the groundwater had been polluted by heavy metals in some regions of the study area. A health risk assessment model derived from the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency was used to determine the noncarcinogenic and carcinogenic effects to residents who drink groundwater. All the respondents in the study area were at potential risk of carcinogenic health effects from arsenic when using the lowest safe standard for carcinogenic risk (1E-06). The hazard quotient values for noncarcinogenic health risk of arsenic exceeded 1 in 14.3% of the sampling wells in the study area. The research results could provide baseline data for groundwater utilization and supervision in the Baotou plain area.

  20. Heavy Metal Contamination and Assessment of Roadside and Foliar Dust along the Outer-Ring Highway of Shanghai, China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yin, Ruijuan; Wang, Dongqi; Deng, Huanguang; Shi, Runhe; Chen, Zhenlou

    2013-11-01

    Foliar and roadside dust samples were collected from five sites along the outer-ring highway of Shanghai, one of the biggest metropolitan areas of China, to assess heavy/toxic metal contamination. Concentrations of Zn, Cu, Ni, As, and Hg in foliar dust were higher than in roadside dust, whereas concentrations of Pb and Cd were higher in roadside dust. In the roadside dust, average concentrations of all metals except As in foliar and roadside dust samples were significantly above the background values of soil in Shanghai: the ratios between the average of samples and background values of Shanghai were in the order: Cd (25.1) > Zn (12.2) > Cu (6.16) > Pb (5.74) > Ni (5.50) > Hg (5.18) > As (1.05). By using the geo-accumulation index, the pollution grades of seven heavy metals at five sampling sites were calculated. Roadside dust was heavily to extremely contaminated with Cd; moderately to heavily contaminated with Zn; and moderately contaminated with Cu, Hg, Pb, and Ni. Foliar dust was heavily contaminated with Cd; moderately to heavily contaminated with Zn and Cu; and moderately contaminated with Hg, Pb, and Ni. The contamination level of heavy metals in the Puxi area was greater than that in the Pudong area, which might be related to the industrial distribution and land use. Combined with correlation analysis, hierarchical cluster analysis indicated that atmospheric deposition is the main source of Cd, Hg, As, and Pb in dust and that Cu and Zn in dust are mainly from heavy traffic on the highway. A portion of Ni in dust also comes from the parent soil.

  1. [Transportation and risk assessment of heavy metal pollution in water-soil from the Riparian Zone of Daye Lake, China].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Jia-quan; Li, Xiu; Zhang, Quan-fa; Li, Qiong; Xiao, Wen-sheng; Wang, Yong-kui; Zhang, Jian-chun; Gai, Xi-guang

    2015-01-01

    Each 20 water samples and soil samples (0-10 cm, 10-20 cm) were collected from the riparian zone of Daye Lake in dry season during March 2013. Heavy metals (Cu, Ph, Cd, Zn) have been detected by flame atomic absorption spectrometric (FAAS). The results showed that the average concentrations of Cu, Pb, Cd, Zn in the water were 7.14, 25.94, 15.72 and 37.58 microg x L(-1), respectively. The concentration of Cu was higher than the five degree of the surface water environment quality standard. The average concentrations of Cu, Pb, Cd, Zn in soil(0-10 cm) were 108.38, 53.92, 3.55, 139.26 mg x kg(-1) in soil (10-20 cm) were 93.00, 51.72, 2.08, 171.00 mg x kg(-1), respectively. The Cd concentrations were higher than the three grade value of the national soil environment quality standard. The transportation of Pb from soil to water was relatively stable, and Zn was greatly influenced by soil property and the surrounding environment from soil to water. The transformation of heavy metal in west riparian zone was higher than that of east riparian zone. The potential environmental risk was relatively high. Cu, Pb, Cd, Zn were dominated by residue fraction of the modified BCR sequential extraction method. The overall migration order of heavy metal element was: Pb > Cu > Cd > Zn. There were stronger transformation and higher environmental pollution risk of Cu, Pb. The index of assessment and potential ecological risk coefficient indicated that heavy metal pollution in soil (0-10 cm) was higher than the soil (10-20 cm), Cd was particularly serious.

  2. Study on heavy metals and ecological risk assessment from Gansu, Ningxia and Inner Mongolia sections of the Yellow River, China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Jing-Jun; Liu, Ying

    2013-12-01

    The Yellow River is the most important resource of water supply in northern China. The purpose of this work are to investigate the concentrations and potential ecological risk of heavy metals in the upper reaches of the Yellow River, the concentrations of eight heavy metals including As, Hg, Cd, Pb, Cr, Ni, Cu and Zn in filtered water and suspended particles from 12 sampling sites of Gansu, Ningxia and Inner Mongolia sections of the Yellow River of China were studied by atomic fluorescence spectrometry (AFS) and high resolution inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometer (HR-ICP-MS) in this paper. The results implied that all heavy metals in filtered water were lower than the limit standards for drinking water except for Cr (56.9 approximately 71. 5 microg L-1 ). Water quality parameters such as total nitrogen (TN), total phosphorus (TP) and pH were also determined and the contents were low along the river except for TN at S1 (2.48) and S9 (2.38), which exceeded the maximum permitted concentration of Class V for the protection of surface water. In suspended particles, the concentrations of Hg, Cd, Pb and Zn were much higher than those in the background value of soil from local section. Cluster analysis (CA) indicated that same sources for Ni, Cu, Cr, Zn and Pb could be stainless steel and petrochemical industrial activities, while As, Cd and Hg derived from agrochemicals, fertilizers, mining, fuel and coal combustion, respectively. Ecological risk assessment was undertaken using risk index (RI) for sampling sites and ecological risk factor (Er) for heavy metals. Eleven suspension samples existed considerable ecological risk (300.6high ecological risk in Inner Mongolia section, while very high ecological risk for Cd at S11 (396.0), S9 (384. 0) and S5 (373. 3), respectively, implied a high pollution in these sampling sites. The results could provide reliable experimental data and theoretical basis for the relevant departments.

  3. [Contamination Assessment and Sources Analysis of Soil Heavy Metals in Opencast Mine of East Junggar Basin in Xinjiang].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Wei; Yang, Jian-jun; Wang, Jun; Wang, Guo; Cao, Yue-e

    2016-05-15

    The opencast mine of East Junggar Basin in Xinjiang is the largest self-contained coalfield in China, and the ecological environment of the opencast is very fragile because of its arid climate and poor soil. In this study, 50 soil samples (from 0 to 30 cm depth soil at intervals of 10 cm) in opencast Mine of East Junggar Basin in Xinjiang were collected in order to explore the heavy metals contamination of the coal mining. The contents of zinc (Zn), copper (Cu), cadmium (Cr), lead (Pb), mercury (Hg) and arsenic (As) were measured and the degree of pollution was assessed by Nemerow index, geo-accumulation (Igeo) index and potential ecological risk index. In addition, the layered comparison, dust fall and the distance between coal mine and samples location were used to analyze the source of heavy metals contamination. The results showed that value of As surpassed the Chinese soil quality standard class I (GB 15618-1995) mostly severely, followed by Cr, a relatively lower surpass was obtained by Hg and Cu, while Zn and Pb did not surpass the standard. According to the standard, the soil heavy metals content of research region was in light pollution status and the pollution index for each heavy metal followed the order of As (2.07) > Cr (0.95) > Cu (0.55) > Zn (0.48) > Hg (0.45) > Pb (0.38), which demonstrated a heavy pollution of As and clean status of others. Additionally, an Igeo value of 1.14 for Hg reflected a moderated pollution. The major contribution factor was Hg with a risk index of 251.40. The source analysis showed that the content of Pb in the surface soil (10-20 cm) was different from that in the deep layer (20-30 cm), which may be caused by coal combustion and other human activities. The sources of Hg and As were similar and may come from coal combustion. The distance to the mining area was not the major factor affecting the diffusion of heavy metals, other candidate factors included terrain, aspect and wind direction, etc.

  4. Risk Assessment of Heavy Metals Contamination in Paddy Soil, Plants, and Grains (Oryza sativa L. at the East Coast of India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Deepmala Satpathy

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Heavy metals known to be accumulated in plants adversely affect human health. This study aims to assess the effects of agrochemicals especially chemical fertilizers applied in paddy fields, which release potential toxic heavy metals into soil. Those heavy metals get accumulated in different parts of paddy plant (Oryza sativa L. including the grains. Concentrations of nonessential toxic heavy metals (Cd, Cr, and Pb and the micronutrients (Cu, Mn, and Zn were measured in the paddy field soil and plant parts. Mn and Cd are found to be accumulated more in shoot than in root. The metal transfer factors from soil to rice plant were significant for Pb, Cd, Cu, Cr, Mn, and Zn. The ranking order of bioaccumulation factor (BAF for heavy metals was Zn > Mn > Cd > Cu > Cr > Pb indicating that the accumulation of micronutrients was more than that of nonessential toxic heavy metals. The concentrations of heavy metals were found to be higher in paddy field soils than that of the nearby control soil but below permissible limits. The higher Health Index (HI values of rice consuming adults (1.561 and children (1.360 suggest their adverse health effects in the near future.

  5. Risk Assessment of Heavy Metal Contamination on Vegetables Grown in Long-term Wastewater Irrigated Urban Farming Sites in Accra, Ghana

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lente, I.; Keraita, Bernard; Drechsel, P.

    2012-01-01

    Assessment was done of heavy-metal contamination and its related health risks in urban vegetable farming in Accra. Samples of irrigation water (n = 120), soil (n = 144) and five different kinds of vegetable (n = 240) were collected and analyzed for copper, zinc, lead, cadmium, chromium, nickel...... and cobalt. All water, soil and vegetable samples contained detectable concentrations of each of the seven heavy metals except for irrigation water which had no detectable chromium, cadmium and cobalt. All heavy-metal levels were below permissible limits except lead on vegetables which was 1.8–3.5 times...

  6. Heavy metals and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons: pollution and ecological risk assessment in street dust of Tehran.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saeedi, Mohsen; Li, Loretta Y; Salmanzadeh, Mahdiyeh

    2012-08-15

    50 street dust samples from four major streets in eastern and southern Tehran, the capital of Iran, were analyzed for metal pollution (Cu, Cr, Pb, Ni, Cd, Zn, Fe, Mn and Li). Hakanson's method was used to determine the Risk Index (RI) and ecological risks. Amongst these samples, 21 were also analyzed for polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs). Correlation, cluster and principal component analyses identified probable natural and anthropogenic sources of contaminants. The dust had elevated concentrations of Pb, Cd, Cu, Cr, Ni, Zn, Fe and PAHs. Enrichment factors of Cu, Pb, Cd and Zn showed that the dust is extremely enriched in these metals. Multivariate statistical analyses revealed that Cu, Pb, Zn, Fe and PAHs and, to a lesser extent, Cr and Ni have common anthropogenic sources. While Mn and Li were identified to have natural sources, Cd may have different anthropogenic origins. All samples demonstrated high ecological risk. Traffic and related activities, petrogenic and pyrogenic sources are likely to be the main anthropogenic sources of heavy metals and PAHs in Tehran dust.

  7. Assessment of heavy metal pollution in surface soils and plant material in the post-industrial city of Katowice, Poland.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Steindor, Karolina A; Franiel, Izabella J; Bierza, Wojciech M; Pawlak, Beata; Palowski, Bernard F

    2016-01-01

    This investigation was undertaken to assess the level of environment pollution by biological monitoring. The leaves and bark of popular ornamental trees Acer pseudoplatanus L. and Acer platanoides L. and soil from the sampling sites were used to perform heavy metals pollution monitoring in urban areas with different pollution sources, as well to investigate the suitability of the leaves and bark as bioindicators of Pb, Zn, Cd and Cu pollution. Plant samples were collected at nine locations classified into three pollution groups based on metal content in the soils. The chosen pollution indices were used to assess the level of contamination according to background values. Soils in the Katowice area are found to be relatively heavily contaminated with Pb, Zn and Cd. Both of the maple tree species did not statistically differ in terms of the investigated elements' concentration in leaves or bark. Only bark samples reflected the pollution level, showing differences between the sampling points, and therefore are recommended for biomonitoring purposes.

  8. Calculating Pollution Indices by Heavy Metals in Ecological Geochemistry Assessment and a Case Study in Parks of Beijing

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Gong Qingjie; Deng Jun; Xiang Yunchuan; Wang Qingfei; Yang Liqiang

    2008-01-01

    Pollution index is a powerful tool for ecological geochemistry assessment. The commonly used pollution indices by heavy metals in soils and sediments were classified as two types of single index and integrated index in an algorithm point of view. Four single indices of contamination factor (or concentration factor), ecological risk factor, enrichment factor, and index of geo-accumulation were illustrated, and the reference values for calculating single indices were distinguished into background levels and threshold pollution values. Eight integrated indices were divided into two groups. One group is suitable for the normal distribution single indices including the sum, average, weighted average,vector modulus, and Nemerow pollution indices, and the other for log-normal distribution including the product, root of product, and weighted power product pollution indices. Using background levels as reference values, five contamination classes were divided, and the terminologies are suggested for the single and integrated indices to unify the assessment results. Software of EGAPI was developed in a single document interface to calculate the four single and eight integrated indices by heavy metals to assess the quality of soil and sediment ecological geochemistry. Pollution indices by heavy metals of Cu,Pb, and Zn in soils in parks of Beijing were calculated using EGAPI software, and these five contamination classes and terminologies suggested in this study were evaluated and used. Results ofintegrated indices of Cu, Pb, and Zn in soils indicated that the soil qualities are unpolluted as a whole and varied from low polluted to unpolluted status from the center to the outskirts of Beijing City.

  9. Distribution and Risk Assessment of Heavy Metals in Surface Water from Pristine Environments and Major Mining Areas in Ghana

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    George Yaw Hadzi

    2015-01-01

    Conclusions. The concentrations of heavy metals in the Nyam, Subri, Bonsa and Birim Rivers from the mining sites and the Atiwa Range, Oda, Ankasa and Bosomkese Rivers from the pristine sites were found to be either below or within the USEPA and WHO's recommended limits for surface water. The health risk assessment values for the hazard quotient for ingestion of water (HQing, dermal contact (HQderm and chronic daily intake (CDI indicated no adverse effects as a result of ingestion or dermal contact from the rivers. However, arsenic (As in both the pristine and mining sites and chromium (Cr in the pristine sites pose a carcinogenic threat to the local residents.

  10. Combined Heavy Metal Pollution in Red Soil

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    CHENHUAIMAN; ZHENGCHNURONG

    1996-01-01

    The effects of combined heavy metal pollution of red soil on the growth of wetland rice and the transfer of Pb,Cd,Cu and Zn from soil into plants were sudied by greenhouse pot experiment,The results showed that the plantyields were markedly affected by heavy metals,with the exception of Pb,in soils under the experimental conditions,without taking into consideration all the interactions among the elements.The concentrations of the elemets in plants were mainly affected by the specific element added to the soil.The effect of interactions among the heavy metals was very significant either on plant yields or on the concentration of the elements in plants.The risk assessment of a combined pollution by heavy metals in the soil is discussed preliminarily in terms of the relative pollution equivalent.

  11. Assessment of heavy metal pollution from a Fe-smelting plant in urban river sediments using environmental magnetic and geochemical methods

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhang Chunxia, E-mail: cxzhang@mail.iggcas.ac.cn [State Key Laboratory of Lithospheric Evolution, Institute of Geology and Geophysics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, No. 19 Bei Tucheng Xilu, Chaoyang Dist., Beijing 100029 (China); Qiao Qingqing [State Key Laboratory of Lithospheric Evolution, Institute of Geology and Geophysics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, No. 19 Bei Tucheng Xilu, Chaoyang Dist., Beijing 100029 (China); Piper, John D.A. [Geomagnetism Laboratory, Department of Earth and Ocean Science, University of Liverpool, Liverpool L69 7ZE (United Kingdom); Huang, Baochun [State Key Laboratory of Lithospheric Evolution, Institute of Geology and Geophysics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, No. 19 Bei Tucheng Xilu, Chaoyang Dist., Beijing 100029 (China)

    2011-10-15

    Environmental magnetic proxies provide a rapid means of assessing the degree of industrial heavy metal pollution in soils and sediments. To test the efficiency of magnetic methods for detecting contaminates from a Fe-smelting plant in Loudi City, Hunan Province (China) we investigated river sediments from Lianshui River. Both magnetic and non-magnetic (microscopic, chemical and statistical) methods were used to characterize these sediments. Anthropogenic heavy metals coexist with coarse-grained magnetic spherules. It can be demonstrated that the Pollution Load Index of industrial heavy metals (Fe, V, Cr, Mo, Zn, Pb, Cd, Cu) and the logarithm of saturation isothermal remanent magnetization, a proxy for magnetic concentration, are significantly correlated. The distribution heavy metal pollution in the Lianshui River is controlled by surface water transport and deposition. Our findings demonstrate that magnetic methods have a useful and practical application for detecting and mapping pollution in and around modern industrial cities. - Highlights: > Assessment of heavy metal (HM) pollution in river sediment using magnetic and chemical methods. > HMs from an Fe-smelting plant coexist with coarse-grained magnetic spherules. > A linear correlation between the Pollution Load Index (PLI) of industrial HMs and a magnetic concentration parameter is demonstrated. > The distribution of HM pollution in river sediments is controlled by surface water flow and deposition. - Heavy metal (HM) contamination of river sediments from industrial input by surface water transport and deposition can be detected by using magnetic methods providing a convenient assessment of HM pollution in industrialized cities.

  12. Assessment of heavy metals in some wild edible mushrooms collected from Yunnan Province, China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Fangkun; Qu, Li; Fan, Wenxiu; Qiao, Meiying; Hao, Hailing; Wang, Xuejing

    2011-08-01

    Eight heavy metals (Cu, Zn, Fe, Mn, Cd, Cr, Ni, and Pb) in 14 different wild-growing edible mushroom species (Coprinus comatus, Voluariella volvacea, Pleurotus nebrodensis, Hypsizigus marmoreus, Hericium erinaceus, Agrocybe aegerita, Lenfinus edodes, Collybia velutipes, Agaricus bisporus, Russula albida, Clitocybe conglobata, Pleurotus eryngii, Lepista sordida, and Pleurotus ostreatus) collected from Yunnan province, China, were determined by inductively coupled plasma-atomic emission spectrometry after microwave digestion. All element concentrations were determined on a dry weight basis. The ranges of element concentrations for copper, zinc, iron, manganese, cadmium, chromium, nickel, and lead were 6.8-31.9, 42.9-94.3, 67.5-843, 13.5-113, 0.06-0.58, 10.7-42.7, 0.76-5.1, and 0.67-12.9 mg/kg, respectively. In general, iron content was higher than other metals in all mushroom species. The levels of zinc, cadmium, and lead in some edible mushroom samples were found to be higher than legal limits. The relative standard deviations were found below 10%. The accuracy of procedure was confirmed by certified reference material.

  13. Effects of three heavy metals on the bacteria growth kinetics. A bivariate model for toxicological assessment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rial, Diego; Vazquez, Jose Antonio; Murado, Miguel Anxo [Instituto de Investigacions Marinas (CSIC), Vigo (ES). Grupo de Reciclado y Valorizacion de Materiales Residuales (REVAL)

    2011-05-15

    The effects of three heavy metals (Co, Ni and Cd) on the growth kinetics of five bacterial strains with different characteristics (Pseudomonas sp., Phaeobacter sp. strain 27-4, Listonella anguillarum, Carnobacterium piscicola and Leuconostoc mesenteroides subsp. lysis) were studied in a batch system. A bivariate model, function of time and dose, is proposed to describe simultaneously all the kinetic profiles obtained by incubating a microorganism at increasing concentrations of individual metals. This model combines the logistic equation for describing growth, with a modification of the cumulative Weibull's function for describing the dose-dependent variations of growth parameters. The comprehensive model thus obtained - which minimizes the effects of the experimental error - was statistically significant in all the studied cases, and it raises doubts about toxicological evaluations that are based on a single growth parameter, especially if it is not obtained from a kinetic equation. In lactic acid bacteria cultures (C. piscicola and L. mesenteroides), Cd induced remarkable differences in yield and time course of characteristic metabolites. A global parameter is defined (ED{sub 50,{tau}}: dose of toxic chemical that reduces the biomass of a culture by 50% compared to that produced by the control at the time corresponding to its semi maximum biomass) that allows comparing toxic effects on growth kinetics using a single value. (orig.)

  14. Assessment and management of heavy metal pollution in the marine environment of the Arabian Gulf: a review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Naser, Humood A

    2013-07-15

    The Arabian Gulf is considered among the highest anthropogenically impacted regions in the world. Heavy metals contamination in coastal and marine environments is becoming an increasingly serious threat to both the naturally stressed marine ecosystems and humans that rely on marine resources for food, industry and recreation. Heavy metals are introduced to coastal and marine environments through a variety of sources and activities including sewage and industrial effluents, brine discharges, coastal modifications and oil pollution. The present paper reviews heavy metal contamination in a variety of marine organisms, and sediments, and suggests measures for environmental management of heavy metal pollution in the Arabian Gulf. Most of the reviewed literature confirmed that heavy metal concentrations in marine organisms were generally within allowable concentrations and pose no threat to public health. Likewise, studies suggested that levels of heavy metals in marine sediments are similar or lower compared to other regions. However, localized hotspots of chronic metal pollution in areas influenced by industrial facilities, desalination plants, and oil refineries have been reported. Holistic spatial and temporal monitoring and comprehensive national and regional strategies are critical to combat and manage heavy metal pollution in the Arabian Gulf.

  15. Seafood consumption among Chinese coastal residents and health risk assessment of heavy metals in seafood.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Ran; Yan, Shuangshuang; Liu, Min; Wang, Bi; Hu, Dong; Guo, Dongbei; Wang, Juan; Xu, Wanting; Fan, Chun

    2016-08-01

    The aims of the present study were to obtain the seafood dietary patterns of coastal residents, to determine the concentrations of heavy metals, and to evaluate the possible health risks caused by seafood intake. The daily food intakes of 24 types of seafood were collected from 738 participants from Xiamen, a southern Chinese coastal city, using food frequency questionnaire (FFQ) and dietary history method. One hundred and fifty-six samples of 14 types of highest intake seafood were collected from local markets for lead (Pb), cadmium (Cd), chromium (Cr), mercury (Hg), and arsenic (As) determination. Health risks via seafood consumption were evaluated by calculating the target hazard quotient (THQ) and the total hazard index (HI) for carcinogenic and non-carcinogenic effects recommended by the US Environmental Protection Agency. The results showed that the seafood daily intake of Xiamen residents was 61.5 (2.14, 115) g/day. The concentrations of Pb, Cd, Cr, Hg, and As in seafood were ND-0.45 mg/kg, ND-0.19 mg/kg, ND-0.80 mg/kg, ND-0.70 mg/kg, and 0.32-16.9 mg/kg, respectively. Concentrations of Cd and As in some samples were higher than national limitation standards. Consumption of 14 common types of seafood would not pose non-carcinogenic risk. However, some types, such as sparuslatus, oyster, and porphyra tenera, would form a carcinogenic risk. Regardless of a carcinogenic or non-carcinogenic risk, As posed the highest risk on humans. The observed HI value for non-carcinogenic effect of all metals in all seafood reached 0.69-2.20, and the metal orders of risk can be listed as As > Hg > Cr > Cd > Pb, reiterating the risk of As is a matter of concern in seafood from Xiamen markets.

  16. The risk assessment of heavy metals in Futian mangrove forest sediment in Shenzhen Bay (South China) based on SEM-AVS analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chai, Minwei; Shen, Xiaoxue; Li, Ruili; Qiu, Guoyu

    2015-08-15

    The risks of heavy metal in Futian mangrove forest sediment were assessed using the acid-volatile sulfide (AVS) and simultaneously extracted metals (SEM) methods. The results indicated that AVS distributions were more variable than the SEM distributions at all 16 sampling sites. The positive correlation between AVS and SEM indicated that their similar formative and existing conditions and that AVS acted as an important carrier for SEM. The major SEM component was Zn (69.7.3-94.2%), whereas the Cd contribution (the most toxic metal present) to SEM was no more than 1%. The possible adverse effects caused by heavy metals at ten sampling sites may be due to higher levels of SEMs, rather than AVSs. The total organic carbon (TOC) was an important metal-binding phase in the sediments. Taking into account the TOC concentration, there were no adverse effects due to heavy metals in any of the Futian mangrove forest sediments.

  17. Assessment of released heavy metals from electrical and electronic equipment (EEE) existing in shipwrecks through laboratory-scale simulation reactor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hahladakis, John N; Stylianos, Michailakis; Gidarakos, Evangelos

    2013-04-15

    In a passenger ship, the existence of EEE is obvious. In time, under shipwreck's conditions, all these materials will undergo an accelerated severe corrosion, due to salt water, releasing, consequently, heavy metals and other hazardous substances in the aquatic environment. In this study, a laboratory-scale reactor was manufactured in order to simulate the conditions under which the "Sea Diamond" shipwreck lies (14 bars of pressure and 16°C of temperature) and remotely observe and assess any heavy metal release that would occur, from part of the EEE present in the ship, into the sea. Ten metals were examined and the results showed that zinc, mercury and copper were abundant in the water samples taken from the reactor and in significantly higher concentrations compared to the US EPA CMC (criterion maximum concentration) criterion. Moreover, nickel and lead were found in concentrations higher than the CCC (criterion constant concentration) criterion set by the US EPA for clean seawater. The rest of the elements were measured in concentrations within the permissible limits. It is therefore of environmental benefit to salvage the wreck and recycle all the WEEE found in it.

  18. Geochemical cartography as a tool for assessing the degree of soil contamination with heavy metals in Poland

    Science.gov (United States)

    Szymon Borkowski, Andrzej; Kwiatkowska-Malina, Jolanta

    2016-04-01

    Spatial disposition of chemical elements including heavy metals in the soil environment is a very important information during preparation of the thematic maps for the environmental protection and/or spatial planning. This knowledge is also essential for the earth's surface and soil's monitoring, designation of areas requiring improvement including remediation. The main source of anthropogenic pollution of soil with heavy metals are industry related to the mining coal and liquid fuels, mining and metallurgy, chemical industry, energy production, waste management, agriculture and transport. The geochemical maps as a kind of specific thematic maps made on the basis of datasets obtained from the Polish Geological Institute's resources allow to get to know the spatial distribution of different chemical elements including heavy metals in soil. The results of the research carried out by the Polish Geological Institute showed strong contamination in some regions in Poland mainly with arsenic, cadmium, lead and nickel. For this reason it was the point to prepare geochemical maps showing contamination of soil with heavy metals, and determine main sources of contamination and zones where heavy metals concentration was higher than acceptable contents. It was also presented a summary map of soil contamination with heavy metals. Additionally, location of highly contaminated zones was compiled with predominant in those areas types of arable soils and then results were thoroughly analyzed. This information can provide a base for further detailed studies on the soil contamination with heavy metals.

  19. Assessment of heavy metals contamination in surface layers of Roztocze National Park forest soils (SE Poland) by indices of pollution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mazurek, Ryszard; Kowalska, Joanna; Gąsiorek, Michał; Zadrożny, Paweł; Józefowska, Agnieszka; Zaleski, Tomasz; Kępka, Wojciech; Tymczuk, Maryla; Orłowska, Kalina

    2017-02-01

    In most cases, in soils exposed to heavy metals accumulation, the highest content of heavy metals was noted in the surface layers of the soil profile. Accumulation of heavy metals may occur both as a result of natural processes as well as anthropogenic activities. The quality of the soil exposed to heavy metal contamination can be evaluated by indices of pollution. On the basis of determined heavy metals (Pb, Zn, Cu, Mn, Ni and Cr) in the soils of Roztocze National Park the following indices of pollution were calculated: Enrichment Factor (EF), Geoaccumulation Index (Igeo), Nemerow Pollution Index (PINemerow) and Potential Ecological Risk (RI). Additionally, we introduced and calculated the Biogeochemical Index (BGI), which supports determination of the ability of the organic horizon to accumulate heavy metals. A tens of times higher content of Pb, Zn, Cu and Mn was found in the surface layers compared to their content in the parent material. This distribution of heavy metals in the studied soils was related to the influence of anthropogenic pollution (both local and distant sources of emission), as well as soil properties such as pH, organic carbon and total nitrogen content.

  20. Heavy metal content in vegetables and fruits cultivated in Baia Mare mining area (Romania) and health risk assessment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roba, Carmen; Roşu, Cristina; Piştea, Ioana; Ozunu, Alexandru; Baciu, Călin

    2016-04-01

    Information about heavy metal concentrations in food products and their dietary intake are essential for assessing the health risk of local inhabitants. The main purposes of the present study were (1) to investigate the concentrations of Zn, Cu, Pb, and Cd in several vegetables and fruits cultivated in Baia Mare mining area (Romania); (2) to assess the human health risk associated with the ingestion of contaminated vegetables and fruits by calculating the daily intake rate (DIR) and the target hazard quotient (THQ); and (3) to establish some recommendations on human diet in order to assure an improvement in food safety. The concentration order of heavy metals in the analyzed vegetable and fruit samples was Zn > Cu > Pb > Cd. The results showed the heavy metals are more likely to accumulate in vegetables (10.8-630.6 mg/kg dw for Zn, 1.4-196.6 mg/kg dw for Cu, 0.2-155.7 mg/kg dw for Pb, and 0.03-6.61 mg/kg dw for Cd) than in fruits (4.9-55.9 mg/kg dw for Zn, 1.9-24.7 mg/kg dw for Cu, 0.04-8.82 mg/kg dw for Pb, and 0.01-0.81 mg/kg dw for Cd). Parsley, kohlrabi, and lettuce proved to be high heavy metal accumulators. By calculating DIR and THQ, the data indicated that consumption of parsley, kohlrabi, and lettuce from the area on a regular basis may pose high potential health risks to local inhabitants, especially in the area located close to non-ferrous metallurgical plants (Romplumb SA and Cuprom SA) and close to Tăuții de Sus tailings ponds. The DIR for Zn (85.3-231.6 μg/day kg body weight) and Cu (25.0-44.6 μg/day kg body weight) were higher in rural areas, while for Pb (0.6-3.1 μg/day kg body weight) and Cd (0.22-0.82 μg/day kg body weight), the DIR were higher in urban areas, close to the non-ferrous metallurgical plants SC Romplumb SA and SC Cuprom SA. The THQ for Zn, Cu, Pb, and Cd was higher than 5 for health risks.

  1. [Spatial distribution and pollution assessment of heavy metals in the tidal reach and its adjacent sea estuary of Daliaohe area, China ].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Lei; Qin, Yan-wen; Ma, Ying-qun; Zhao, Yan-min; Shi, Yao

    2014-09-01

    The aim of this article was to explore the pollution level of heavy metals in the tidal reach and its adjacent sea estuary of Daliaohe area. The contents and spatial distribution of As, Cd, Cr, Cu, Ph and Zn in surface water, suspended solids and surface sediments were analyzed respectively. The integrated pollution index and geoaccumulation index were used to evaluate the contamination degree of heavy metals in surface water and surface sediments respectively. The results indicated that the contents of heavy metals in surface water was in the order of Pb sea. Compared with the contents of heavy metals in surface water of the typical domestic estuary in China, the overall contents of heavy metals in surface water were at a higher level. The contents of heavy metals in suspended solids was in the order of Cd pollution index assessment showed that the water quality was good except individual stations. The geoaccumulation index assessment showed that As was the major pollution element in surface sediments.

  2. Comprehensive assessment of heavy metal pollution in topsoil of historical urban park on an example of the Planty Park in Krakow (Poland).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gąsiorek, Michał; Kowalska, Joanna; Mazurek, Ryszard; Pająk, Marek

    2017-03-27

    The Historic Centre of Krakow is on the UNESCO World Heritage List and includes the Main Market Square, which is surrounded by the historical Planty Park. Soils in the Planty Park are an example of a green area in an urban environment that is particularly exposed to heavy metal-rich pollution. To assess the relative content of heavy metals and evaluate the sources of the contamination, pollution indices were used: Enrichment Factor (EF), Geoaccumulation Index (Igeo), Nemerow Pollution Index (PINemerow), Potential Ecological Risk (RI), and Contamination Security Index (CSI). Pollution indices were calculated on the base of both reference and local geochemical backgrounds. Sources of heavy metals in soils of Planty Park are related to its historic role as a metallurgy centre, as well as the more recent urban and industrial development of Krakow centre and neighbouring areas. It is concluded that increased accumulation of heavy metals is an effect of growing numbers of emission sources. The variation of each element may not unambiguously reflect the natural or anthropogenic effect on the Planty Park soil cover. In general, the present and historical emission of pollutants and heavy metal-rich contamination has led to a mixed origin of Cd, Cu, Pb, and Zn. Moreover, it can be assumed that the content of Cr and Ni is derived from natural sources. Furthermore, a comparison of the quality of the Planty Park topsoil with the heavy metal content assessment in other urban parks in the world has been presented.

  3. Bioaccumulation of heavy metals in mollusca species and assessment of potential risks to human health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abdallah, Maha Ahmed Mohamed

    2013-05-01

    Along the Alexandria coast of the Egyptian Mediterranean Sea, five edible species of bivalve molluscs and one gastropoda species (Mactra coralline, Ruditapes decussates, Paphia undulate, Venerupis rhomboids, Crista pectinata and Coralliophila meyendorffi) were analyzed for content of metals (Cadmium, Chromium, Lead, Cobalt and Nickel) in the muscle and in the sediments where they live. The potential health risks of metals to humans via consumption of seafood were assessed by estimated daily intake and target hazard quotient. Significant positive correlations (p < 0.05) were obtained between tissue concentrations for all pairs of metals, with the exception of Cadmium. Significant positive correlations were also obtained for the concentrations of Cd and Ni in tissues of all studied species relative to their concentrations in surface sediments. However, correlations between tissue and sediment concentrations for Chromium, Lead and Cobalt were negative. Ruditapes decussates and C. meyendorffi had the highest values for the summed target hazard quotient and may pose a potential risk to local inhabitants through their consumption in the diet. The potential risk would arise from exposure to high tissue concentrations of Cd and Pb, which exceeded published guidelines for safety of seafood products in some cases. Chromium contributed a considerable fraction of the total target hazard quotient for all metals combined, but did not exceed the published guidelines. Cobalt and Ni did not contribute greatly overall to the target hazard quotient, except in the case of Ni in V. rhomboids.

  4. Assessment of human exposure to environmental heavy metals in soils and bryophytes of the central region of Portugal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reis, Amélia Paula; Patinha, Carla; Ferreira da Silva, Eduardo; Sousa, António; Figueira, Rui; Sérgio, Cecilia; Novais, Vera

    2010-04-01

    This study intends to identify the spatial patterns of variation for some metals and metalloids, in soils and mosses, in the central region of Portugal. The purposes were: (i) to identify relationships amongst five elements (Cu, Pb, Zn, Cr and As) in three different media (topsoil, bottom soil and bryophytes) and with some site-specific characteristics, using Multiple Correspondence Analysis; (ii) to define spatial patterns of variation for the associations identified by Multiple Correspondence Analysis using Variography and Ordinary Kriging; and (iii) to assess atmospheric deposition as a source of heavy metals to the topsoil by crossing results with the biomonitors. The results indicated relatively low metal concentrations in soils and mosses. Some metal associations and dissociations were identified. The spatial patterns of variation of bottom and topsoil are distinct. There is some evidence that different site-specific characteristics control the spatial distribution of different elements. The areas within the central region of Portugal with a higher vulnerability to metal contamination were identified.

  5. Heavy metals phyto-assessment in commonly grown vegetables: water spinach (I. aquatica) and okra (A. esculentus).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ng, Chuck Chuan; Rahman, Md Motior; Boyce, Amru Nasrulhaq; Abas, Mhd Radzi

    2016-01-01

    The growth response, metal tolerance and phytoaccumulation properties of water spinach (Ipomoea aquatica) and okra (Abelmoschus esculentus) were assessed under different contaminated spiked metals: control, 50 mg Pb/kg soil, 50 mg Zn/kg soil and 50 mg Cu/kg soil. The availability of Pb, Zn and Cu metals in both soil and plants were detected using flame atomic absorption spectrometry. The concentration and accumulation of heavy metals from soil to roots and shoots (edible parts) were evaluated in terms of translocation factor, accumulation factor and tolerance index. Okra recorded the highest accumulation of Pb (80.20 mg/kg) in its root followed by Zn in roots (35.70 mg/kg) and shoots (34.80 mg/kg) of water spinach, respectively. Different accumulation trends were observed with, Pb > Zn > Cu in okra and Zn > Pb > Cu in water spinach. Significant differences (p < 0.01) of Pb, Zn and Cu accumulation were found in both water spinach and okra cultivated among tested treatments. However, only the accumulation of Pb metal in the shoots of water spinach and okra exceeded the maximum permissible levels of the national Malaysian Food Act 1983 and Food Regulations 1985 (2006) as well as the international Codex Alimentarius Commission limits. This study has shown that both water spinach and okra have good potential as Pb and Zn phytoremediators.

  6. Assessment of heavy metals pollution using AVS-SEM and fractionation techniques in Edku Lagoon sediments, Mediterranean Sea, Egypt.

    Science.gov (United States)

    El Zokm, Gehan M; Okbah, Mohamed A; Younis, Alaa M

    2015-01-01

    A method is presented to evaluate the fractionation of metals (Fe, Zn, Cu, Pb, Cd and Ni), acid volatile sulfide (AVS) and simultaneously extracted metals (SEM) in Edku lagoon sediments. Thirteen sediment samples were collected from the study area in the period of 2010-2011 to assess the potential bioavailability and toxicity of the selected metals. According to classification of the Interim Sediment Quality Quidelines (ISQG), five stations near the drains exhibited 10% toxic probability. The high AVS and low ∑SEM ranges in Summer were identified as 6-138 and 0.86-3.3 µmol g(-1) dry wet, respectively which are referring to the low mobility of heavy metals in this season and vice versa for winter (2.5-23.9 and 1.16-3.82 µmol g(-1) dry wet, respectively). According to the evaluation of USEPA, all sediment samples showed ∑SEM/AVS < 1 and ΣSEM-AVS < 0 and this indicates that Edku lagoon sediments didn't cause any adverse effects. Meanwhile, the calculations of the global contamination factor (GCF) and the individual contamination factors (ICF) using fractionation technique gave values of 111.644 and 84.555 in El Bosily drain and station 1 near the cages of fish farm, respectively due to possible contamination. Interestingly, the collected data refer that the mobility and bioavailability of heavy metals in Edku lagoon sediments posed a low risk of adverse biological effects due to cadmium, copper, lead, nickel and zinc in all evaluated stations.

  7. Assessment of heavy metals in sediment in a heavily polluted urban river in the Chaohu Basin, China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shao, Shiguang; Xue, Lianqing; Liu, Cheng; Shang, Jingge; Wang, Zhaode; He, Xiang; Fan, Chengxin

    2016-05-01

    The Nanfei River (Anhui Province, China) is a severely polluted urban river that flows into Chaohu Lake. In the present study, sediments were collected from the river and analyzed for their heavy metal contents. Multivariate statistics and the fuzzy comprehensive assessment method were used to determine the sources of pollution, the current pollution status, and spatial and temporal variations in heavy metal pollution in sediments. The concentrations of arsenic (As), cadmium (Cd), chromium (Cr), copper (Cu), mercury (Hg), nickel (Ni), lead (Pb), and zinc (Zn) in sediments ranged from 5.67-113, 0.08-40.2, 41.6-524, 15.5-460, 0.03-4.84, 13.5-180, 18.8-250, and 47.9-1 996 mg/kg, and the average concentrations of each metal were 1.7, 38.7, 1.8, 5.5, 18.8, 1.3, 2.5, and 11.1 times greater than the background values, respectively. Multivariate statistical analysis demonstrated that Hg, Cu, Cr, Cd, and Ni may have originated from industrial activities, whereas As and Pb came from agricultural activities. The fuzzy comprehensive assessment method, based on the fuzzy mathematics theory, was used to obtain a detailed assessment of the sediment quality in the Nanfei River watershed. The results indicated that the pollution was moderate in the downstream tributaries of the Nianbu and Dianbu Rivers, but was severe in the main channel of the Nanfei River and in the upstream tributaries of the Sili and Banqiao Rivers. Therefore, sediments in the Nanfei River watershed are heavily polluted and urgent measures should be taken to remedy the status.

  8. Efficiency of stepwise magnetic-chemical site assessment for fly ash derived heavy metal pollution

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cao, Liwan; Appel, Erwin; Rösler, Wolfgang; Magiera, Tadeusz

    2015-11-01

    Previous works revealed a close relationship between magnetic susceptibility (MS) and heavy metal (HM) contents originating from industrial sources. However, despite general statements on the usefulness of magnetic mapping, the benefit of this procedure for geochemistry was not quantified yet. We present a study on fly ash pollution in soil around a coal-burning power plant complex and simulate a stepwise approach of magnetic pre-screening and subsequent targeted sampling for chemical analysis. The aim of this study is not to discuss correlations between MS and HM, but to show that a combined stepwise magnetic-chemical approach is the most efficient way for outlining HM contamination. In order to provide quantitative evidence, we explored map similarities of spatial HM distributions based on magnetochemical data and chemical data only. We determined 3-D triangular planes defined by categorized HM values at the sampling coordinates and calculated the average dihedral angle of the normal vectors as a similarity result. The study shows that the `Targeted' HM map (selection of 30 sites based magnetic pre-screening) has a higher similarity with the `True' Pollution HM map (85 sites) than HM maps resulting from site selections (30 sites) without using magnetic pre-screening information.

  9. Fraction Distribution and Risk Assessment of Heavy Metals in Soils around the Mining Area in Zhijin

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Yaqi JIA; Zhen YANG; Dan GENG; Qin DENG; Di WU

    2015-01-01

    The pollution characteristics of Cd,Cr,Cu,Zn,Ni and Hg in agricultural soil around coal mining area were studied. After longterm mining activity,the soil around mining area was polluted by 6 elements to different degrees. Especially for Cd,its concentration was 3. 2times that of the National Soil Environmental Quality Standard Ⅱ. The values suggest that the contamination degree from strong to weak in soil is in the order of Hg > Cu > Cr > Zn > Ni > Cd. BCR sequential extraction results show that the order of average percentage about weak acid soluble fraction( F1) is that Cd > Ni > Zn > Cu > Hg > Cr,the order of 6 heavy metals available fraction( F1 + F2 + F3) is that Cu( 56. 89) > Cd( 50. 95) > Ni( 41. 52) > Zn( 35. 06) > Hg( 23. 04) > Cr( 4. 88). The RAC results indicate that soils were in a moderate potential ecological risk by pollution of Cd,and at the same time,Cu,Zn,Ni,Hg should be noted.

  10. HEAVY METALS IN PRODUCTIVE PARTS OF AGRICULTURAL PLANTS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Július Árvay

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available The contents of heavy metals in plants were not in relation to contents of heavy metals in soil. Increased content of heavy metals in soils was not in consistency with content in plants. Usually content of heavy metals in plants according to our results were lower than their content in soil. Only the over limit contents of copper and cadmium were assessed in grain of barley and oat. The results of heavy metals content showed that dominant part on content of elements in plants have their mobile forms what depends on pH, content of organic matter in soil and portion of clay parts.

  11. HEAVY METALS IN PRODUCTIVE PARTS OF AGRICULTURAL PLANTS

    OpenAIRE

    Július Árvay; Ján Tomáš; Tomáš Tóth

    2012-01-01

    The contents of heavy metals in plants were not in relation to contents of heavy metals in soil. Increased content of heavy metals in soils was not in consistency with content in plants. Usually content of heavy metals in plants according to our results were lower than their content in soil. Only the over limit contents of copper and cadmium were assessed in grain of barley and oat. The results of heavy metals content showed that dominant part on content of elements in plants have their mobil...

  12. An advanced field experimental design to assess plant tolerance to heavy metal pollution

    Science.gov (United States)

    Łopata, Barbara; Szarek-Łukaszewska, Grażyna; Babst-Kostecka, Alicja

    2016-04-01

    Only a limited number of vascular plant species can survive and reproduce in toxic metalliferous environments. Among these species, pseudometallophytes are particularly interesting, as their metallicolous (M) populations on metalliferous soils and non-metallicolous (NM) populations on non-metalliferous soils show very pronounced ecological differences. Pseudometallophytes thus provide excellent opportunities for multidisciplinary research to improve phytoremediation and phytomining. Numerous methods have been developed to investigate plant adaptation to metal pollution, the majority of which has been conducted under controlled laboratory conditions. Although these efforts have significantly advanced our understanding of mechanisms underlying metal tolerance in plants, populations must be reciprocally transplanted to clearly identify natural selection. Only then is it possible to test, whether the fitness of native plants is higher than that of nonnative populations and thereby prove local adaptation. Here, we present an enhanced field experimental design aimed at verification of local adaptation to habitats with different levels of heavy metal soil contamination. At two M and two NM sites, we established a total of 12 plots (4 sites x 3 plots each), removed the existing local vegetation, and collected soil samples for chemical analyses (5 samples per plot). Plant collection (N= 480) from all four selected populations was established under laboratory conditions prior to the transplant experiment. Genotypes were randomly distributed within each plot (240 x 270 cm) and planted along a regulary spaced grid (30x30cm cell size) in spring 2015. Measurements will start in spring 2016, by which time plants are expected to have acclimatized to the local conditions. For the two subsiquent years, growth, survival, fitness, life cycle and herbivory consumption will be monitored for each transplant. On a weekly basis, we will record: 1) pictures of each transplant to determine

  13. Assessment of heavy metal accumulation in macrophyte, agricultural soil, and crop plants adjacent to discharge zone of sponge iron factory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gupta, S.; Nayek, S.; Saha, R. N.; Satpati, S.

    2008-08-01

    The present study deals with the characterization of effluent released from sponge iron industries and distribution of heavy metals in soil and macrophytes near to effluent discharge channel. Apart from this, accumulation of heavy metals in nearby soil and vegetation system irrigated with effluent-contaminated water is also the subject of this study. Physico-chemical analysis of effluent reveals that the concentration of total suspended solids (TSS), total hardness (TH), iron (Fe2+), and oil and grease are greater than the IS (1981) norms for discharge of water into inland water body. The soil along the sides of the effluent channel also shows higher concentration of heavy metals than the background soil. The enrichment of the heavy metals are in the order of Chromium (Cr) > Iron (Fe) > Manganese (Mn) > Zinc (Zn) > Copper (Cu) > Cadmium (Cd). Macrophytes growing along the sides of the effluent channel also show significant accumulation of heavy metals almost in the same order as accumulated in soil. Higher uptake of heavy metals by these varieties reveals that these species can be used for future phytoremediation. The effluent as well as contaminated water is extensively used for irrigation for growing vegetables like tomato ( Lycopersicon esculatum) in the surrounding areas. Heavy metal accumulation in this agricultural soil are in the sequence of Cr > Fe > Mn > Zn > Cu > Cd. More or less similar type of accumulation pattern are also found in tomato plants except Fe and Zn exceeding Cr and Mn. Transfer Factor of heavy metals from soil to tomato plants (TFS) shows average value of <1, suggesting less uptake of heavy metals from soil. Among the plant parts studied, fruit shows least accumulation. Although tomato plants show some phenotypic changes, the survival of tomato plants as well as least accumulation of metals in fruit reveals their tolerance to heavy metals. Therefore it may be suggested that this plant can be grown successfully in the heavy metal

  14. Heavy metals levels in fish from aquaculture farms and risk assessment in Lhasa, Tibetan Autonomous Region of China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiang, Dongsheng; Hu, Zhenzhen; Liu, Feng; Zhang, Rongfei; Duo, Bu; Fu, Jianjie; Cui, Yibin; Li, Mei

    2014-05-01

    Fish is consumed as a common food by humans due to its nutritional and therapeutic benefits. However, they can accumulate toxic chemicals (such as heavy metals, persistent organic pollutants) from water and food chain. Very few studies have been investigated on heavy metal contents in fish from Tibetan Autonomous Region of China. In order to study heavy metals levels in fish from aquaculture farms and evaluate the risk that human consume fish in this area, we collected four types of aquaculture fish species (6 big-head carps, 5 grass carps, 5 carps and 5 tilapias) from fisheries around Lhasa city in this study. 9 heavy metals (Cr, As, Cd, Pb, Cu, Ba, Co, Mn and V) in different tissues of fish were determined by an inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometer. Cr, Ba, Co, Mn and V could easily accumulate in the gill, and Cu was detected in the hearts of all the fishes. Toxic metal (As, Cd and Pb) contents were higher in the liver than those in other tissues, heavy metal levels were the lowest in the muscle among all tissues. Most of heavy metal concentrations in the tilapia tissues were higher than those in other fish tissues, especially arsenic. Arsenic content in the tilapia samples was ~2-4 times higher than the maximum levels (MLs) of contaminants in the national standard, and other metals were all lower than the MLs. Compared the estimated daily intake of heavy metals through fish consumption with tolerable daily intakes recommended by FAO, the metals daily intake of As, Cd and Pb from fish consumption might not pose serious health risk to the local inhabitants. It is therefore necessary to determine the dose level for human, which is considered to be taken daily over a lifetime without adverse effects.

  15. Monitoring of heavy metal levels in the major rivers and in residents' blood in Zhenjiang City, China, and assessment of heavy metal elimination via urine and sweat in humans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sheng, Jianguo; Qiu, Wenhui; Xu, Bentuo; Xu, Hui; Tang, Chong

    2016-06-01

    The coastal areas of China face great challenges, owing to heavy metal contamination caused by rapid industrialization and urbanization. To our knowledge, this study is the first report of the levels of heavy metals in the major rivers of Zhenjiang, one of the most important cities of the Yangtze River Delta in China. In addition, we measured heavy metal levels in the blood of 76 residents of Zhenjiang. The results suggest that the presence of heavy metals in the blood may threaten human health and the distribution appeared to correspond to most highly populated areas and/or areas with high traffic. We also found that the concentration of heavy metals in human blood showed an accumulation effect with increase in age. Moreover, the levels of most heavy metals were lower in participants who regularly exercised than in those who did not. We studied heavy metal levels in the urine and sweat of another 17 volunteers to monitor the elimination of bioaccumulated heavy metal. Heavy metals were found in the urine and sweat of all the 17 participants and were more concentrated in sweat. Induced micturition and sweating appear to be potential methods for the elimination of heavy metals from the human body.

  16. Geostatistical assessment of the impact of World War I on the spatial occurrence of soil heavy metals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meerschman, Eef; Cockx, Liesbet; Islam, Mohammad Monirul; Meeuws, Fun; Van Meirvenne, Marc

    2011-06-01

    Previous research showed a regional Cu enrichment of 6 mg kg(-1) in the top soil of the Ypres war zone (Belgium), caused by corrosion of WWI shell fragments. Further research was required since in addition to Cu, also As, Pb, and Zn were used during the manufacturing of ammunition. Therefore, an additional data collection was conducted in which the initial Cu data set was tripled to 731 data points and extended to eight heavy metals (As, Cd, Cr, Cu, Hg, Ni, Pb, and Zn) which permitted (1) to evaluate the environmental impact of the heavy metals at a regional scale and (2) to assess their regional spatial occurrence by performing an optimized geostatistical modeling. The results showed no pollution at a regional scale, but sometimes locally concentrations exceeded the soil sanitation threshold, especially for Cu, Pb, and Zn. The spatial patterns of Ni and Cr were related to variations in soil texture whereas the occurrences of Cu and Pb were clearly linked to WWI activities. This difference in spatial behavior was confirmed by an analysis of coregionalization.

  17. Assessment of Heavy Metal Contamination and Calculation of Its Pollution Index for Uglješnica River, Serbia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Milivojević, Jelena; Krstić, Dragana; Šmit, Biljana; Djekić, Vera

    2016-11-01

    The aim of the study was to assess the water pollution in terms of total content of heavy metals by parameter called Heavy metal pollution index (HPI). The water samples were collected from four different locations along the course of the river during spring and the autumn seasons. The concentrations of lead (Pb), cadmium (Cd), iron (Fe), zinc (Zn), manganese (Mn), copper (Cu), arsenic (As) and mercury (Hg) were determined using atomic absorption spectroscopy. The data were used to evaluate HPI of the river water. The mean value of HPI was 67.487 for the spring season, and 80.676 for the autumn season. The average for both seasons and all sampling sites is 74.082. The maximum value of 112.722 found at one sampling site is above the critical index limit of 100. Also, from the values of mean HPI for each sampling site could be concluded that the pollution load at sampling site-4 is the most significant (HPI 89.575).

  18. Comparative Assessment of Heavy Metals in Drinking Water Sources in Two Small-Scale Mining Communities in Northern Ghana

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Samuel J. Cobbina

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available The study assessed levels of heavy metals in drinking water sources in two small-scale mining communities (Nangodi and Tinga in northern Ghana. Seventy-two (72 water samples were collected from boreholes, hand dug wells, dug-out, and a stream in the two mining communities. The levels of mercury (Hg, arsenic (As, lead (Pb, zinc (Zn, and cadmium (Cd were determined using an atomic absorption spectrophotometer (AAS. Mean levels (mg/l of heavy metals in water samples from Nangodi and Tinga communities were 0.038 and 0.064 (Hg, 0.031 and 0.002 (As, 0.250 and 0.031 (Pb, 0.034 and 0.002 (Zn, and 0.534 and 0.023 (Cd, respectively, for each community. Generally, levels of Hg, As, Pb, Zn, and Cd in water from Nangodi exceeded the World Health Organisation (WHO stipulated limits of 0.010 for Hg, As, and Pb, 3.0 for Zn and 0.003 for Cd for drinking water, and levels of Hg, Pb, and Cd recorded in Tinga, exceeded the stipulated WHO limits. Ingestion of water, containing elevated levels of Hg, As, and Cd by residents in these mining communities may pose significant health risks. Continuous monitoring of the quality of drinking water sources in these two communities is recommended.

  19. [Analysis and assessment of atmospheric pollution based on accumulation characterization of heavy metals in Platanus acerifolia leaves].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Ling; Fang, Yan-Ming; Wang, Shun-Chang; Xie, Ying; Wang, Cheng-Run

    2014-03-01

    The present work was aimed to evaluate the heavy metal pollution in the atmosphere of Huainan City. We measured and clustered the accumulation of six heavy metals in Platanus acerifolia leaves in 20 sampling fields with six types of environmental conditions, and analyzed the EF value of heavy metal enrichment in the leaves. The results showed that the accumulations in Platanus acerifolia leaves varied according to different types of metals, following the order of Zn > Cu > Cr > Ni > Pb > Cd. Environmental conditions also had great influence on the accumulation of heavy metals. Cd and Cu were mostly found in cement plant and mine, respectively, and Cr, Ni, Pb and Zn were significant higher in main road, compared with other environmental conditions. The average values of EF for all the metals expect Cr in scenic and village area were over 1. The average values of EF for all the metals in mine, power plant, main road and cement plant were above 3. The overall pollution condition of heavy metals in Huainan City followed the order of Cd > Cu > Zn > Ni > Pb > Cr.

  20. [Distribution and Potential Ecological Risk Assessment of Heavy Metals in Surface Sediments of Inflow Rivers to Northeastern Lake Tanganyika].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Cheng; Chen, Shuang; Zhang, Lu

    2016-02-15

    As the second deepest lake in Africa, Lake Tanganyika plays an important role in supplying fish protein for citizens in the catchment. However, the lake is increasingly threatened by environmental pollution with the development of social economy and expanding of population. In order to reveal the external source of heavy metals in Lake Tanganyika, 16 surface sediment samples from the rivers which flow into the northeast of the lake were collected and analyzed. Besides the contents, the potential ecological risk indices (RI) of each heavy metal were also analyzed. Furthermore, the relationship, between land use and the spatial distribution of heavy metals was also discussed. The average contents of Cu, Zn, Cd, Pb and Hg were 18. 4, 21.2, 0.05, 6.6 mg x kg(-1) and 8.4 ng x g(-1), respectively, with the maximum values of Zn, Pb and Cd located in Bujumbura urban rivers. The data indicated that all the inflow rivers were at low potential ecological risk. RI of heavy metals ranked as the following order: Cd > Hg > Cu > Pb > Zn, as Cd being the key element contributing to the risk. The relationship between land use and heavy metals showed that the contents of heavy metals were highest in urban areas, followed by estuarine wetlands, and woodlands were least polluted by heavy metals. This distribution type implied that human activities could cause the heavy metal accumulation in the surface sediments of nearby rivers. The urban areas and estuarine wetlands need to be concerned in the further study.

  1. Assessment of field portable X-ray fluorescence spectrometry for the in situ determination of heavy metals in soils and plants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gutiérrez-Ginés, María Jesús; Pastor, Jesús; Hernández, Ana Jesús

    2013-08-01

    In soil pollution studies, large numbers of soil samples collected at random need to be processed and analyzed to determine their heavy metal contents. This study was designed to assess the use of a field portable X-ray fluorescence (FPXRF) spectrometry system for the in situ determination of heavy metal levels in both soil and plant samples. First, we optimised the method using 84 reference soil standards and soil samples from known polluted sites. The optimised method was then used to determine heavy metals at three abandoned mine sites and two sealed landfills in central Spain. Given that knowledge of heavy metal levels in plants is important for the ecotoxicological study of these sites, the FPXRF device was also used to determine heavy metals in plants. Our results indicate the acceptable to high quality of the data provided by the system especially for soil samples. The cost-benefits and sustainability of this instrument in relation to other techniques were also examined. The use of the FPXRF system for the study of potentially polluted sites was found to save on costs, time and materials. Results indicate its suitable use for the preliminary screening of heavy-metal polluted sites.

  2. [Concentrations and pollution assessment of soil heavy metals at different water-level altitudes in the draw-down areas of the Three Gorges Reservoir].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Ye-Chun; Lei, Bo; Yang, San-Ming; Zhang, Sheng

    2012-02-01

    To investigate the effect of 175 m trial impounding (2008 and 2009) of the Three Gorges Reservoir on soil heavy metals, three draw-down areas with similar geological environment and history of land-use in Zhongxian County were chosen. Altogether 36 surface soil samples (including 0-10 cm and 10-20 cm soil layer) from water-level altitude of 160 m and 170 m were obtained, and their heavy metals concentrations (As, Cd, Cr, Cu, Ni, Pb and Zn) were measured by the X-ray fluorescence spectrometric method. Geoaccumulation index (I(geo)) and Håkanson potential ecological risk index were applied to assess the heavy metals pollution status and potential ecological risk, respectively. Results indicated that although the inundation period of 160 m was 224 d longer than that of 170 m, significant difference in concentrations of heavy metals were not found between the two water-level altitudes. Except for Cd, most of the heavy metals highly related with each other positively. According to the geoaccumulation index, the pollution extent of the heavy metals followed the order: As > Cd > Cu > Ni > Zn = Pb > Cr. The I(geo) value of As, Cd and Cu were 0.45, 0.39 and 0.06, respectively, indicating that the soil was only lightly polluted by these heavy metals. Håkanson single potential ecological risk index followed the order: Cd > As > Cu > Pb > Ni > Cr > Zn. Cd with E(i) values of 59.10, had a medium potential for ecological risk,while As, Cr, Cu, Pb, Ni and Zn only had a light potential. Consequently, although As, Cd and Cu were the major heavy metals with potential ecological risk for surface soil pollution in the draw-down areas in Zhongxian County, the Three Gorges Reservoir.

  3. Distribution and health risk assessment of dissolved heavy metals in the Three Gorges Reservoir, China (section in the main urban area of Chongqing).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Xin; Li, Ting-Yong; Zhang, Tao-Tao; Luo, Wei-Jun; Li, Jun-Yun

    2017-01-01

    The Three Gorges Project (TGP) is the largest hydropower station ever built in the world. A better understanding of the concentrations of heavy metals in the aquatic environment of the Three Gorges Reservoir (TGR) is crucial for national drinking water security and sustainable ecosystem development. To thoroughly investigate the impact of heavy metals on water quality after the impoundment to the maximum level of 175 m in the TGR, the concentrations of the dissolved heavy metals (Cr, Cu, Zn, Cd, Pb, As) were measured in April and August 2015, by inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (ICP-MS). (1) Except Zn and Pb, most of the heavy metal concentrations in the water of the TGR reached the level of the National Surface Water Environmental Quality Standards (GB3838-2002) I of China, revealing that the water quality of the TGR was good overall. (2) There were significant positive correlations among the concentrations of Cu, As, and Cd, revealing that they may exhibit similar geochemical behaviors. (3) The spatial distribution of the heavy metal concentrations was diverse and complex. The Zn concentration obviously increased in the rainy season from upstream to downstream in the Yangtze River, while the other heavy metals exhibited no significant changes in their concentrations. The distribution characteristics of the heavy metal concentrations on both sides and the middle of the river were different at different sites. (4) The health risk of the six elements was assessed through a human health risk assessment (HHRA), and the assessment results were lower than the maximum acceptable risk level designed by the US EPA and International Commission on Radiological Protection (ICRP). The HHRA model in the aquatic environment revealed that the risk of non-carcinogenic heavy metals (Cu, Zn, and Pb) was at a negligible risk level of 10(-11)∼10(-9) a(-1). At all the study sites, the risk of carcinogenic heavy metals (Cr, Cd, and As) was higher than the risk of non

  4. Risk assessment and seasonal variations of dissolved trace elements and heavy metals in the Upper Han River, China

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Li Siyue, E-mail: lisiyue@wbgcas.cn [Key Laboratory of Aquatic Botany and Watershed Ecology, Wuhan Botanical Garden, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Wuhan 430074 (China); Zhang Quanfa, E-mail: qzhang@wbgcas.cn [Key Laboratory of Aquatic Botany and Watershed Ecology, Wuhan Botanical Garden, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Wuhan 430074 (China)

    2010-09-15

    Surface water samples were collected from 42 sampling sites throughout the upper Han River during the time period of 2005-2006. The concentrations of trace metals were determined using inductively coupled plasma-atomic emission spectrometry (ICP-AES) for the seasonal variability and preliminary risk assessment. The results demonstrated that concentrations of 11 heavy metals showed significant seasonality and most variables exhibited higher levels in the rainy season. Principal component analysis (PCA) and factor analysis (FA) revealed that variables governing water quality in one season may not be important in another season. Risk of metals on human health was then evaluated using Hazard Quotient (HQ) and carcinogenic risk, and indicated that As with HQ >1 and carcinogenic risk >10{sup -4}, was the most important pollutant leading to non-carcinogenic and carcinogenic concerns, in particular for children. The first five largest elements to chronic risks were As, Pb, V, Se and Sb, in the dry season, while they were As, V, Co, Pb and Sb in the rainy season. This assessment would help establish pollutant loading reduction goal and the total maximum daily loads, and consequently contribute to preserve public health in the Han River basin and develop water conservation strategy for the interbasin water transfer project.

  5. [Health risk assessment of heavy metals in typical township water sources in DongjianG River basin].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Ruo-Shi; Xu, Qiu-Jin; Zhang, Xian; Wei, Qun-Shan; Yan, Chang-Zhou

    2012-09-01

    In order to clarify the distribution characteristics and risk levels of heavy metals in typical drinking water sources of towns in Dongjiang River Basin, several regular water quality indexes as well as concentrations of Fe, Cu, Mn, Zn, As, Cr, Hg, Pb and Cd were analyzed in the 45 random water samples of 9 towns in the study area. The risk assessment was conducted according to different drinking water types using the environmental health risk assessment model recommended by U. S. EPA. The results indicated that the metal carcinogenic risk is relatively high in this area. The highest carcinogenic risk was from Cr in reservoir water, with the risk for adult people reaching 1.14 x 10(-4) x(-1) and the risk of children reaching 2.14 x 10(-4) x a(-1). Total carcinogenic risk of reservoir, river and underground water exceeded the accepted level of 5.0 x 10(5) x a(-1) as suggested by ICRP while all the non-carcinogenic risk levels were within the acceptable range. The primary control sequence of metal pollution in this area was Cr > As > Pb > Fe > Zn; the risk value of different drinking water sources descended in this order: reservoir > river > underground water > mountain spring.

  6. Soil heavy metal(loid)s and risk assessment in vicinity of a coal mining area from southwest Guizhou, China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    秦樊鑫; 魏朝富; 钟守琴; 黄先飞; 庞文品; 姜鑫

    2016-01-01

    Total concentrations of arsenic, lead, cadmium, mercury, nickel, chromium, and copper in the soils from near a coal mine area in southwest Guizhou, China, were measured to evaluate the level of contamination, and the potential ecological risks posed by the heavy metals were quantitatively estimated. Results reveal that all heavy metals/metalloid exceeded the background values for soil environmental quality of heavy metals in Guizhou area. Geo-accumulation index (Igeo) showed that arsenic had the highest contamination level (Igeo=4) among the seven heavy metals/metalloid, and the contamination levels of mercury and lead were also relatively high (Igeo=3). Pearson correlation and cluster analysis identified that mercury, copper and arsenic had a relationship, and their presence might be mainly related to mining activity, coal and oil combustion, and vehicle emissions. Improved Nemerow index indicated that the overall level of heavy metal contamination in the studied area ranged from moderately–heavily contaminated to heavily contaminated level. Potential ecological risk index (RI) analysis manifested that the whole ecological risk level ranged from high degree to very high degree (325.30≤RI≤801.02) in the studied soil samples, and the potential ecological risk factors(Eri)of heavy metals/metalloid were as follows: Hg > As > Cd > Pb > Cu > Ni > Cr, and theEriof Hg and As reached very high risk grade.

  7. Application of reconstructed background in assessing heavy metal pollution of soils near Jilin Section of the Songhua River, China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hao, Libo; Tian, Mi; Zhao, Xinyun; Wang, Tong

    2017-01-01

    The distinguishing and evaluation of natural and anthropogenic sources of heavy metals in soils have always been the important issues in the field of environmental science. In this research, natural sources of heavy metals in soils are calculated according to the relationships between major oxides and heavy metals. The individual sample has independent backgrounds of heavy metals, which is more reasonable. If the single environmental background is used as baseline, anomalies in regions with low background might be decreased or hided and those in regions with high background will be overstated. In this study, enrichment factor is defined as the ratio of measured concentration and reconstructed background of heavy metals, which is of specific significance in practical applications with no assumptions. The agricultural soils near Jilin section of the Songhua River are polluted by Hg seriously with more than half samples polluted greatly. And the soils are polluted by Cd moderately. A few samples are polluted by Zn moderately. The other heavy metals in soils are almost in the level of background with little human disturbance.

  8. Research on Distribution Pattern of Heavy Metals in Yanzhou Coalfield

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHOU Guang-zhu; YANG Feng-jie; CHENG Jian-guang; Wang Cui-zhen

    2005-01-01

    Heavy metal pollution brings extensive concerns since 1940s. In order to assess the heavy metal pollution on the farmland of Yanzhou coalfield, 216 soil samples and 54 combined samples were collected. Lead, cadmium, chromium, copper, zinc, and nickel contained in both topsoil and deep soil were analyzed using atomic absorbent spectrometry analyzer (AAS). Fuzzy clustering method was used in data processing. And fuzzy synthetic assessment was applied to assess the soil contamination by heavy metals. The result shows that Yanzhou coalfield has been polluted by the heavy metals to some extent.

  9. Occurrence and distribution of selected heavy metals in the surface sediments of South Brittany coastal waters: An assessment using pollution indicators

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ong, M. C.; Menier, D.; Noor Azhar, M. S.; Dupont, V.; Révillon, S.

    2012-04-01

    In order to avoid the pollution of heavy metals in South Brittany water, it is necessary to establish the data and understand the mechanisms influencing the distribution of heavy metals of the area. One of the aims of this work was to assess heavy metals contamination in Gulf of Morbihan and Quiberon Bay. Another aim was to use interpolation surfaces per metals to assess the contamination separately per metal. A total of 196 bottom sediment samples were collected from the coastal waters in order to determine the spatial concentration of Cr, Mn, Co, Cu, Zn, Cd and Pb by Inductively Coupled Plasma Mass Spectrometry (ICPMS) after acid digestion. The average heavy metal concentrations are ranked as follows: Mn>Zn>Cr>Pb>Cu>Cu>Cd. In the gulf, metal enrichments observed compared to the bay environment may due river run-off from three major river (Auray, Le Marle and Novalo rivers) which carried municipal waste and maritime activities along the coastal area within the gulf. Beside those factors, the natural factors such as the sheltered basin morphology itself, fine sediment and low hydrodynamic regime which favour the in situ accumulation of pollutants. The level of pollution levels attributed to heavy metals was evaluated using several pollution indicators in order to determine anthropogenically derived sediment contamination. Comparison to sediment quality guidelines (SQGs), enrichment factors (EFs), index of geoaccumulation (Igeo) and contamination factors (CF) based on reference element and background value to compensate for the influence of the natural variability in sediment mineralogy and to assess whether the concentration observed in surface sediment represent background and contaminated levels and visualize using ArcGIS software. These analyses validated that the bottom sediment only enriched in Pb and the other metals in most sample are not due to artificial contamination. Overall, geochemistry of the samples show the effect of both natural and anthropogenic

  10. Regional probabilistic risk assessment of heavy metals in different environmental media and land uses: An urbanization-affected drinking water supply area

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peng, Chi; Cai, Yimin; Wang, Tieyu; Xiao, Rongbo; Chen, Weiping

    2016-11-01

    In this study, we proposed a Regional Probabilistic Risk Assessment (RPRA) to estimate the health risks of exposing residents to heavy metals in different environmental media and land uses. The mean and ranges of heavy metal concentrations were measured in water, sediments, soil profiles and surface soils under four land uses along the Shunde Waterway, a drinking water supply area in China. Hazard quotients (HQs) were estimated for various exposure routes and heavy metal species. Riverbank vegetable plots and private vegetable plots had 95th percentiles of total HQs greater than 3 and 1, respectively, indicating high risks of cultivation on the flooded riverbank. Vegetable uptake and leaching to groundwater were the two transfer routes of soil metals causing high health risks. Exposure risks during outdoor recreation, farming and swimming along the Shunde Waterway are theoretically safe. Arsenic and cadmium were identified as the priority pollutants that contribute the most risk among the heavy metals. Sensitivity analysis showed that the exposure route, variations in exposure parameters, mobility of heavy metals in soil, and metal concentrations all influenced the risk estimates.

  11. Radical formation by heavy metals

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Beuter, W.

    1982-09-01

    Certain reduced heavy metal ions can convert oxygen to a ''reactive oxygen species'' by donation of an electron. The reactive oxygen then attacks structures susceptible to oxidation, in particular unsaturated fatty acids, and peroxidizes them in a radical reaction. This process is inhibited by the presence of vitamin E and by other means. Peroxidized lipids decay forming free radicals in the process which themselves can peroxidise neighbouring lipids in a radical chain reaction. This decay is, moreover, catalysed by reduced heavy metal ions but on the other hand retarded by selenium-containing glutathione peroxidase. Radical formation by heavy metals is considerably involved in (i) the production of parenteral iron poisoning of the piglet (ii) haemolytic crisis occurring in ruminants through chronic copper poisoning (iii) the production of lead poisoning in ruminants and other animals. These types of poisonings are made worse by a deficiency of vitamin E and/or selenium. Factors which increase the bio-availability of the free heavy metal ion or reduce the redox potential thereof can aid radical formation as well as factors which lead to a reduction of the heavy metal ion e.g. cysteine, ascorbic acid or glucose.

  12. [GIS Spatial Distribution and Ecological Risk Assessment of Heavy Metals in Surface Sediments of Shallow Lakes in Jiangsu Province].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Ying-jie; Zhang, Lie-yu; Wu, Yi-wen; Li, Cao-le; Yang, Tian-xue; Tang, Jun

    2016-04-15

    To understand pollution of heavy metals in surface sediments of shallow lakes, surface sediments samples of 11 lakes in Jiangsu province were collected to determine the content of six heavy metals including As, Cr, Cu, Pb, Zn and Ni. GIS was used to analyze the spatial distribution of heavy metals, and geological accumulation index (Igeo), modified contamination index (mCd) pollution load index (PLI) and potential ecological risk index (RI) were used to evaluate heavy metal contamination in the sediments. The results showed that: in the lakes' surface sediments, the average content of As, Cu, Zn, Cr, Pb, Ni in multiples of soil background of Jiangsu province were 1.74-3.85, 0.65-2.66, 0.48-3.56, 0.43-1.52, 0.02-1.49 and 0.12-1.42. According to the evaluation results of Igeo and RI, As, which had high degree of enrichment and great potential ecological risk, was the main pollutant, followed by Cu, and pollution of the rest of heavy metals was relatively light. Combining the results of several evaluation methods, in surface sediments of Sanjiu Lake, Gaoyou Lake and Shaobo Lake, these heavy metals had the most serious pollution, the maximum pollution loading and moderate potential ecological risk; in surface sediments of Gehu Lake, Baima Lake and Hongze Lake, some regions were polluted by certain metals, the overall trend of pollution was aggravating, the pollution loading was large, and the potential ecological risk reached moderate; in the other 5 lakes, the risk of sediments polluted by heavy metals, as well as the pollution loading, was small, and the overall was not polluted.

  13. Heavy-metal-contaminated industrial soil: Uptake assessment in native plant species from Brazilian Cerrado.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meyer, Sylvia Therese; Castro, Samuel Rodrigues; Fernandes, Marcus Manoel; Soares, Aylton Carlos; de Souza Freitas, Guilherme Augusto; Ribeiro, Edvan

    2016-08-02

    Plants of the Cerrado have shown some potential for restoration and/or phytoremediation projects due to their ability to grow in and tolerate acidic soils rich in metals. The aim of this study is to evaluate the tolerance and accumulation of metals (Cd, Cu, Pb, and Zn) in five native tree species of the Brazilian Cerrado (Copaifera langsdorffii, Eugenia dysenterica, Inga laurina, Cedrela fissilis, Handroanthus impetiginosus) subjected to three experiments with contaminated soils obtained from a zinc processing industry (S1, S2, S3) and control soil (S0). The experimental design was completely randomized (factorial 5 × 4 × 3) and conducted in a greenhouse environment during a 90-day experimentation time. The plant species behavior was assessed by visual symptoms of toxicity, tolerance index (TI), translocation factor (TF), and bioaccumulation factor (BF). C. fissilis has performed as a Zn accumulator by the higher BFs obtained in the experiments, equal to 3.72, 0.88, and 0.41 for S1, S2, and S3 respectively. This species had some ability of uptake control as a defense mechanism in high stress conditions with the best behavior for phytoremediation and high tolerance to contamination. With economical and technical benefits, this study may support a preliminary analysis necessary for using native tree species in environmental projects.

  14. Assessment of heavy metal and pesticide levels in soil and plant products from agricultural area of Belgrade, Serbia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marković, Mirjana; Cupać, Svjetlana; Durović, Rada; Milinović, Jelena; Kljajić, Petar

    2010-02-01

    This study was aimed to assess the levels of selected heavy metals and pesticides in soil and plant products from an agricultural area of Belgrade, Serbia and to indicate possible sources and risks of contamination. Soil, vegetable, and fruit samples from the most important agricultural city areas were collected from July to November of 2006. Metal contents were determined by atomic absorption spectrometry, whereas pesticide residues were analyzed by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry after extraction performed using solid-phase microextraction technique. Soil characterization based on the determination of selected physical and chemical properties revealed heterogeneous soils belonging to different soil groups. The concentrations of lead, cadmium, copper, and zinc in soil samples do not exceed the limits established by national and international regulations. Residues of the herbicide atrazine were detected in three soil samples, with levels lower than the relevant limit. The presence of other herbicides, namely prometryn, chloridazon, acetochlor, flurochloridone, and napropamide, was registered in some soil samples as well. Among the insecticides investigated in the soil, fenitrothion and chlorpyrifos were the only ones detected. In most of the investigated vegetable samples from the Obrenovac area, Pb and Cd contents are higher in comparison with the maximum levels, indicating the emission of coal combustion products from local thermal power plants as a possible source of contamination. Residue levels of some herbicides and insecticides (metribuzin, trifluralin, pendimethalin, bifenthrin, chlorpyrifos, and cypermethrin) determined in tomato, pepper, potato, and onion samples from Slanci, Ovca, and Obrenovac areas are even several times higher than the maximum residue levels. Inappropriate use of these plant protection products is considered to be the most probable reason of contamination. Because increased levels of heavy metals and pesticide residues found in

  15. Heavy metals health risk assessment for population via consumption of food crops and fruits in Owerri, South Eastern, Nigeria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Orisakwe Orish

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background This study assessed lead, cadmium, and nickel level in food crops, fruits and soil samples from Ohaji and Umuagwo and Owerri in South Eastern Nigeria and estimated the potential health risks of metals. Samples were washed, oven-dried at 70–80°C for 24 h and powdered. Samples were digested with perchloric acid and nitric acid. Metals were analysed with Unicam Atomic Absorption Spectrophotometer. Result The concentration of Pb, Cd, and Ni in Ohaji exceeded the maximum allowable concentrations for agricultural soil as recommended by EU. Lead, Cd, and Ni in the food crops were highest in Oryza sativa, Glycine max, and Pentabacta microfila respectively. Highest levels of Pb, Cd, and Ni, in fruits were detected in Canarium schweinfurthii, Citrus reticulata, Ananas comosus respectively. The true lead and cadmium intake for the rice based meal were 3.53 and 0.034 g/kg respectively. Whereas the true intake of lead and cadmium for the cassava based meal were 19.42 and 0.049 g/kg respectively. Conclusion Local food stuff commonly available in South Eastern Nigeria villages may contribute to the body burden of heavy metal. This is of public health importance.

  16. Evaluation of surface water quality indices and ecological risk assessment for heavy metals in scrap yard neighbourhood.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ojekunle, Olusheyi Z; Ojekunle, Olurotimi V; Adeyemi, Azeem A; Taiwo, Abayomi G; Sangowusi, Opeyemi R; Taiwo, Adewale M; Adekitan, Adetoun A

    2016-01-01

    Pollution of surface water with heavy metals from industrial activities especially those from scrap yard has caused a major threat to human life exposing man to series of hazard, diseases, disability and consequently death. This study focuses on water quality indices of Owode-Onirin and Lafenwa scrap yard with respect to its physicochemical parameters and heavy metal concentrations by evaluating Heavy Metal Pollution Index (HPI), Metal Index (MI) and Potential Ecological Risk Index (PERI). Fifteen water samples were selected randomly from two locations by purposive sampling methods. Five heavy metals which includes Nickel (Ni), Zinc (Zn), Copper (Cu), Cadmium (Cd), Lead (Pb) were analyzed using Atomic Absorption Spectroscopy and standard analytical procedure were follow to ensure accuracy. One way analysis of variance was carried out to analyse the data. The concentrations of the heavy metals were significantly different between sampling locations. However, the mean concentrations of Cd (0.0121 mg/L) were found to be above the highest permissible value of Standard Organization of Nigeria standards for drinking water (SON 2007) and WHO (Guidelines for drinking water quality: incorporating 1st and 2nd Addlenda. World Health Organization, Geneva, 2004) for drinking water. Although Pb was present in two out of the fifteen water samples with a mean value of (0.0324 mg/L) which was also above the highest permissible value. The mean concentrations of Zn (0.2149 mg/L) and Cu (0.0341 mg/L) are found to be below the highest permissible value of the mentioned guideline while no trace of Ni was found in the water samples across the two sampling locations. The mean HPI 518.55 is far above the critical value of 100, indicates that selected water samples are critically polluted with heavy metals. MI revealed low quality water with mean value 4.83, suggests that the selected water is seriously affected with the present of heavy metal. The Hakanson PERI indicated that of the

  17. Heavy metal hazards of Nigerian herbal remedies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Obi, E. [Toxicology Unit, Department of Pharmacology, College of Health Sciences, Nnamdi Azikiwe University, Nnewi (Nigeria); Akunyili, Dora N. [National Agency of Food and Drug Administration and Control (NAFDAC), Lagos (Nigeria); Ekpo, B. [Department of Biochemistry, College of Medical Sciences, Abia State University, Uturu (Nigeria); Orisakwe, Orish E. [Toxicology Unit, Department of Pharmacology, College of Health Sciences, Nnamdi Azikiwe University, Nnewi (Nigeria)]. E-mail: eorish@yahoo.com

    2006-10-01

    The uses of herbal products are not regulated in Nigeria and in many low-income countries and are freely available to everyone. The safety of these herbal medicines is poorly understood. This study characterizes the content of cadmium, copper, iron, nickel, selenium, zinc, lead and mercury in a random sample of Nigerian traditional products. Ready-to-use herbal products were purchased from the open market and digested using HNO{sub 3}.The heavy metal content of the digested filtrate was determined by atomic absorption spectrometry Uni-cam Model 929. The result showed that 100% of the samples contained elevated amounts of heavy metals. These data alert us to the possibility of heavy metal toxicity from herbal products in Nigeria. The public health hazards from ingestion of herbal medicines should be identified and disclosed by in-depth risk assessment studies.

  18. Marine Environmental Risk Assessment of Sungai Kilim, Langkawi, Malaysia: Heavy Metal Enrichment Factors in Sediments as Assessment Indexes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jamil Tajam

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Concentrations of Cd, Co, Pb, and Zn in riverbed sediments from six sampling stations along the Sungai Kilim, Langkawi, Malaysia, were determined by using the Teflon Bomb Digestion. From this study, the concentrations of heavy metals in riverbed sediments were found ranging between 6.10 and 8.87 μg/g dry weight for Co, 0.03 and 0.45 μg/g dry weight for Cd, 59.8 and 74.9 μg/g dry weight for Zn, and 1.06 and 11.69 μg/g dry weight for Pb. From the observation, these areas were polluted by domestic waste, aquaculture, and tourism activities. For clarity, enrichment factor index was used to determine the level of sediment contamination in the study area. From this study, the average EF value is a bit high for Cd (2.15±1.17 followed by Zn (1.12±0.09, Pb (0.44±0.32, and lastly, Co (0.36±0.04. Based on the contamination categories, Cd was categorised as moderately enriched, while the rest of the metals studied were in deficient-to-minimally enriched by the anthropogenic sources.

  19. [Distribution Characteristics and Potential Ecological Hazards Assessment of Soil Heavy Metals in Typical Soil Profiles in Southeast Suburb of Beijing].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Qian; Ma, Lin; Liu, Yi-fei; He, Jiang-tao; Li, Guang-he

    2016-05-15

    To investigate the distribution characteristics and the potential ecology risk of different types of heavy metals, soil samples were collected from various stratigraphic sections in the southeastern suburb of Beijing, where soil heavy metal (Cu, Pb, Cr, As) contents were measured and analyzed using multivariate statistical analysis and the potential ecological risk index method. The results showed that the concentrations of the four heavy metals followed the order of Cr > Cu > As > Pb with variable coefficients ranging from 59.60% to 159.33% at 3-6 m stratum, which all displayed a high degree of variability. The concentrations of Cu and Pb were positively correlated with soil organic matter (SOM), cation exchange capacity (CEC), etc, with higher eigenvalues in Factor 1 and 2, demonstrating the impact of organic colloid on the occurrence of heavy metals. The risk level of the specific heavy metal followed the order of As > Cu > Pb > Cr, where As already showed a medium potential ecological risk in the studied area.

  20. Spatial distribution and risk assessment of heavy metals and As pollution in the sediments of a shallow lake.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deng, Jiancai; Wang, Yuansheng; Liu, Xin; Hu, Weiping; Zhu, Jinge; Zhu, Lin

    2016-05-01

    The concentrations and spatial distributions of eight heavy metals in surface sediments and sediment core samples from a shallow lake in China were investigated to evaluate the extent of the contamination and potential ecological risks. The results showed that the heavy metal concentrations were higher in the northern and southwestern lake zones than those in the other lake zones, with lower levels of As, Hg, Zn, Cu, Pb, Cr, and Ni primarily observed in the central and eastern lake regions and Cd primarily confined to areas surrounding the lake. The concentrations of the eight heavy metals in the sediment profiles tended to decrease with increasing sediment depth. The contents of Ni, Cu, Zn, Pb, and Cd in the surface sediment were approximately 1.23-18.41-fold higher than their background values (BVs), whereas the contents of Cr, As, and Hg were nearly identical to their BVs. The calculated pollution load index (PLI) suggested that the surface sediments of this lake were heavily polluted by these heavy metals and indicated that Cd was a predominant contamination factor. The comprehensive potential ecological risk index (PERI) in the surface sediments ranged from 99.2 to 2882.1, with an average of 606.1. Cd contributed 78.7 % to the PERI, and Hg contributed 8.4 %. Multivariate statistical analyses revealed that the surface sediment pollution with heavy metals mainly originated from industrial wastewater discharged by rivers located in the western and northwestern portion of the lake.

  1. Assessment of different methods to estimate heavy metal bioavailability in 30 contrasting Spanish and New Zealand soils

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soriano-Disla, J. M.; Speir, T. W.; Gómez, I.; Clucas, L. M.; McLaren, R. G.; Navarro-Pedreño, J.

    2009-04-01

    The accumulation of heavy metals in soil from different sources (atmospheric deposition, agricultural practices, urban-industrial activities, etc.) is of a great environmental concern because of metal persistence and toxicity. In this sense, there is a consensus in the literature that the estimation of the bioavailable heavy metals in soil is a preferable tool to determine potential risks from soil contamination than the total contents. However, controversy exists around the definition of an accurate and universal bioavailability estimator that is useful for soils with different properties, since many factors control this parameter. Thus, the main objective of this work was to compare the effectiveness of different methods to predict heavy metals plant uptake from soils with different properties and heavy metal contents. For the development of the present work, 30 contrasting soils from New Zealand and Spain were selected. Apart from the analysis of the basic soil properties, different methods to estimate heavy metal bioavailability were performed: total heavy metals, DTPA-extractable soil metals, diffusive gradient technique (DGT), and total heavy metals in soil solution. In these soils, a bioassay using wheat (Triticum aestivum) was carried out in a constant environment room for 25 days (12 hours photoperiod, day and night temperature of 20°C and 15°C respectively). After this time, the plants were divided in roots and shoots and heavy metal content was analysed in each part. Simple correlations were performed comparing the phytoavailable contents with the bioavailability estimated by the different methods. As expected, higher heavy metal concentrations were found in roots compared with shoots. Comparing the theoretical available heavy metals estimated by the different methods with the root and shoot uptake, better correlations were found with the root contents, thus, the discussion is based in the comparisons with the uptake by this part of the plant

  2. Spatial distribution and ecological risk assessment of heavy metal on surface sediment in west part of Java Sea

    Science.gov (United States)

    Effendi, Hefni; Wardiatno, Yusli; Kawaroe, Mujizat; Mursalin; Fauzia Lestari, Dea

    2017-01-01

    The surface sediments were identified from west part of Java Sea to evaluate spatial distribution and ecological risk potential of heavy metals (Hg, As, Cd, Cr, Cu, Pb, Zn and Ni). The samples were taken from surface sediment (Hg>Pb>Ni>Cu>As>Zn>Cr. Furthermore, the result of multivariate statistical analysis shows that correlation among heavy metals (As/Ni, Cd/Ni, and Cu/Zn) and heavy metals with Risk Index (Cd/Ri and Ni/Ri) had positive correlation in significance level p1). On the cluster analysis, Cd, Ni, Pb were identified as fairly high contaminations level (cluster 1), Hg as moderate contamination level (cluster 2) and Cu, Zn, Cr with lower contamination level (cluster 3).

  3. Sedimentology, geochemistry, pollution status and ecological risk assessment of some heavy metals in surficial sediments of an Egyptian lagoon connecting to the Mediterranean Sea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    El-Said, Ghada F; Draz, Suzanne E O; El-Sadaawy, Manal M; Moneer, Abeer A

    2014-01-01

    Spatial distribution of heavy metals (Co, Cu, Ni, Cr, Mn, Zn and Fe) was studied on Lake Edku's surface sediments in relation to sedimentology and geochemistry characteristics and their contamination status on the ecological system. Lake Edku's sediments were dominated by sandy silt and silty sand textures and were enriched with carbonate content (9.83-58.46%). Iron and manganese were the most abundant heavy metals with ranges of 1.69 to 8.06 mg g(-1) and 0.88 to 3.27 mg g(-1), respectively. Cobalt and nickel showed a harmonic distribution along the studied sediments. The results were interpreted by the statistical means. The heavy metal pollution status and their ecological risk in Lake Edku was evaluated using the sediment quality guidelines and the contamination assessment methods (geoaccumulation, pollution load and potential ecological risk indices, enrichment factor, contamination degree as well as effect range median (ERM) and probable effect level (PEL) quotients). Amongst the determined heavy metals, zinc had the most ecological risk. Overall, the heavy metals in surface sediments showed ecological effect range from moderate to considerable risk, specially, in the stations in front of the seawater and in drain sources that had the highest toxic priority.

  4. Risk Assessment and Prediction of Heavy Metal Pollution in Groundwater and River Sediment: A Case Study of a Typical Agricultural Irrigation Area in Northeast China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhong, Shuang; Geng, Hui; Zhang, Fengjun; Liu, Zhaoying; Wang, Tianye; Song, Boyu

    2015-01-01

    The areas with typical municipal sewage discharge river and irrigation water function were selected as study sites in northeast China. The samples from groundwater and river sediment in this area were collected for the concentrations and forms of heavy metals (Cr(VI), Cd, As, and Pb) analysis. The risk assessment of heavy metal pollution was conducted based on single-factor pollution index (I) and Nemerow pollution index (NI). The results showed that only one groundwater sampling site reached a polluted level of heavy metals. There was a high potential ecological risk of Cd on the N21-2 sampling site in river sediment. The morphological analysis results of heavy metals in sediment showed that the release of heavy metals can be inferred as one of the main pollution sources of groundwater. In addition, the changes in the concentration and migration scope of As were predicted by using the Groundwater Modeling System (GMS). The predicted results showed that As will migrate downstream in the next decade, and the changing trend of As polluted areas was changed with As content districts because of some pump wells downstream to form groundwater depression cone, which made the solute transfer upstream.

  5. Risk Assessment and Prediction of Heavy Metal Pollution in Groundwater and River Sediment: A Case Study of a Typical Agricultural Irrigation Area in Northeast China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shuang Zhong

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The areas with typical municipal sewage discharge river and irrigation water function were selected as study sites in northeast China. The samples from groundwater and river sediment in this area were collected for the concentrations and forms of heavy metals (Cr(VI, Cd, As, and Pb analysis. The risk assessment of heavy metal pollution was conducted based on single-factor pollution index (I and Nemerow pollution index (NI. The results showed that only one groundwater sampling site reached a polluted level of heavy metals. There was a high potential ecological risk of Cd on the N21-2 sampling site in river sediment. The morphological analysis results of heavy metals in sediment showed that the release of heavy metals can be inferred as one of the main pollution sources of groundwater. In addition, the changes in the concentration and migration scope of As were predicted by using the Groundwater Modeling System (GMS. The predicted results showed that As will migrate downstream in the next decade, and the changing trend of As polluted areas was changed with As content districts because of some pump wells downstream to form groundwater depression cone, which made the solute transfer upstream.

  6. Sources and the distribution of heavy metals in the particle size of soil polluted by gold mining upstream of Miyun Reservoir, Beijing: implications for assessing the potential risks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Qian; Ji, Hongbing; Qin, Fei; Tang, Lei; Guo, Xinyue; Feng, Jinguo

    2014-10-01

    Mining has been carried out upstream of Miyun Reservoir, Beijing, for several decades, and has caused metal emissions to the environment, threatening human health. We conducted a soil survey to assess metal contamination in this area and to determine distribution of heavy metals in the particle size. We attempted to determine the possible sources of the metals and the significance of metals in the fine particle fractions to soil risk assessments. Thirty-four soil samples were collected, and eight samples were partitioned into seven size fractions. Most of the metal concentrations in the soils were higher than the background levels in Beijing, and the metal concentrations and total organic matter (TOC) contents generally increased as the particle size decreased. Each metal except Hg significantly positively correlated with the TOC. The metals in the coarse-grained soils were mainly derived from parent materials, but the metals in the fine fractions were mostly anthropogenic. Statistical analyses showed that there were three metal sources: Cd, Cu, Hg, Pb, and Zn had anthropogenic sources; Co, Cr, Ni, and V had mixed anthropogenic and natural sources; and As and Be had natural sources. The trace metals were primarily in the clay and fine silt fractions, and they might pose health risks through the inhalation of resuspended soil particles (PM10 and PM2.5). The elevated accumulation factors, enrichment factors, and ecological risk indices for the metals in the fine fractions suggest that risk assessments should be based on the fine particle size.

  7. NON-CANCER HUMAN HEALTH RISK ASSESSMENT FROM EXPOSURE TO HEAVY METALS IN SURFACE AND GROUNDWATER IN IGUN IJESHA, SOUTHWEST NIGERIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    O. O. Ayantobo

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Non-cancer hazard index for inhabitants exposed to heavy metals in surface and groundwater of the abandoned metal mine in Igun-Ijesha area were evaluated. A total of thirty-eight water samples were collected from surface and ground water sources in the study area between September 2012 and February 2013 and the concentrations of heavy metals were determined using Atomic Absorption Spectrophotometer. Non-cancer risk assessments from possible exposure to heavy metals were evaluated using the United States Environmental Protection Agency’s human health risk assessment guidelines. Simple random sampling was used to administer questionnaires to investigate demographic characteristics and public health status of residents. Data obtained were subjected to descriptive statistics and ANOVA using SPSS for Windows version 16. Results indicated elevated levels of Cadmium (Cd, Chromium (Cr, Copper (Cu, lead (Pb, Manganese (Mn, Nickel (Ni and Zinc (Zn ranging from 0.01-1.20, 0.05-0.52, 0.80-34.80, 0.09-4.30, 0.09-8.30, 0.05-3.94, 0.05-19.60 and 1.80-29.90 mg L-1 respectively which exceeded national recommended limits with few exceptions. Hazard Quotients (HQ and Hazard Index (HI of heavy metals were calculated and results greater than 1 indicate non-carcinogenic adverse health effects of the observed metals. A daily intake of water by the local residents could pose a potential health threat from long-term heavy-metal exposure. The risk assessment provided by this study can be beneficially used and applied for risk communication to avoid negative public health impact. Similarly, Water Safety quality assurance strategic plan should be developed to safeguard source, water and public health within the mining community.

  8. Assessment of Radiation and Heavy Metals Risk due to the Dietary Intake of Marine Fishes (Rastrelliger kanagurta) from the Straits of Malacca.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khandaker, M U; Asaduzzaman, Kh; Nawi, S M; Usman, A R; Amin, Y M; Daar, E; Bradley, D A; Ahmed, H; Okhunov, A A

    2015-01-01

    The environment of the Straits of Malacca receives pollution as a result of various industrial and anthropogenic sources, making systematic studies crucial in determining the prevailing water quality. Present study concerns concentrations of natural radionuclides and heavy metals in marine fish (Rastrelliger kanagurta) collected from the Straits of Malacca, since aquatic stock form an important source of the daily diet of the surrounding populace. Assessment was made of the concentrations of key indicator radionuclides (226Ra, 232Th, 40K) and heavy metals (As, Mn, Fe, Cr, Ni, Zn, Cu, Co, Sr, Al, Hg and Pb) together with various radiation indices linked to the consumption of seafish. The annual effective dose for all detected radionuclides for all study locations has been found to be within UNSCEAR acceptable limits as has the associated life-time cancer risk. The overall contamination of the sampled fish from heavy metals was also found to be within limits of tolerance.

  9. Assessment of Radiation and Heavy Metals Risk due to the Dietary Intake of Marine Fishes (Rastrelliger kanagurta from the Straits of Malacca.

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    M U Khandaker

    Full Text Available The environment of the Straits of Malacca receives pollution as a result of various industrial and anthropogenic sources, making systematic studies crucial in determining the prevailing water quality. Present study concerns concentrations of natural radionuclides and heavy metals in marine fish (Rastrelliger kanagurta collected from the Straits of Malacca, since aquatic stock form an important source of the daily diet of the surrounding populace. Assessment was made of the concentrations of key indicator radionuclides (226Ra, 232Th, 40K and heavy metals (As, Mn, Fe, Cr, Ni, Zn, Cu, Co, Sr, Al, Hg and Pb together with various radiation indices linked to the consumption of seafish. The annual effective dose for all detected radionuclides for all study locations has been found to be within UNSCEAR acceptable limits as has the associated life-time cancer risk. The overall contamination of the sampled fish from heavy metals was also found to be within limits of tolerance.

  10. Distribution and ecological risk assessment of heavy metals in surface sediments of a typical restored mangrove-aquaculture wetland in Shenzhen, China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feng, Jianxiang; Zhu, Xiaoshan; Wu, Hao; Ning, Cunxin; Lin, Guanghui

    2017-01-07

    The restoration of wetlands has attracted the attention in different countries. Restored coastal wetlands, especially urban wetlands, are sensitive to external pressures. Thus, it is necessary to evaluate the efficiency of the restoration of coastal wetlands, which benefits their management and functional maintenance. In this study, a restored mangrove-aquaculture system in Waterlands Resort at Shenzhen was selected for analysis. The distribution and ecological risk assessment of heavy metals in surface sediments were investigated. The results showed that restoration could effectively decrease the heavy metal concentrations in the sediment, while the restored mangrove posed a moderate ecological risk. Most of the heavy metal concentrations were higher during the dry season compared with the wet season. In addition, during the whole investigation, the sediment quality remained failed to achieve the marine sediment criteria required for aquaculture in China.

  11. Near-Surface Sensing of Vegetative Heavy Metal Stress: Method Development for an Accelerated Assessment of Mine Tailing Waste and Remediation Efforts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, M. T.; Gottfried, M.; Berglund, E.; Rodriguez, G.; Ceckanowicz, D. J.; Cutter, N.; Badgeley, J.

    2014-12-01

    The boom and bust history of mineral extraction in the American southwest is visible today in tens of thousands of abandoned and slowly decaying mine installations that scar the landscape. Mine tailing piles, mounds of crushed mineral ore, often contain significant quantities of heavy metal elements which may leach into surrounding soils, surface water and ground water. Chemical analysis of contaminated soils is a tedious and time-consuming process. Regional assessment of heavy metal contamination for treatment prioritization would be greatly accelerated by the development of near-surface imaging indices of heavy-metal vegetative stress in western grasslands. Further, the method would assist in measuring the ongoing effectiveness of phytoremedatian and phytostabilization efforts. To test feasibility we ground truthed nine phytoremediated and two control sites sites along the mine-impacted Kerber Creek watershed in Saguache County, Colorado. Total metal concentration was determined by XRF for both plant and soil samples. Leachable metals were extracted from soil samples following US EPA method 1312. Plants were identified, sorted into roots, shoots and leaves, and digested via microwave acid extraction. Metal concentrations were determined with high accuracy by ICP-OES analysis. Plants were found to contain significantly higher concentrations of heavy metals than surrounding soils, particularly for manganese (Mn), iron (Fe), copper (Cu), zinc (Zn), barium (Ba), and lead (Pb). Plant species accumulated and distributed metals differently, yet most showed translocation of metals from roots to above ground structures. Ground analysis was followed by near surface imaging using an unmanned aerial vehicle equipped with visible/near and shortwave infrared (0.7 to 1.5 μm) cameras. Images were assessed for spectral shifts indicative of plant stress and attempts made to correlate results with measured soil and plant metal concentrations.

  12. Assessment of Heavy Metals in Water, Sediment, and Fishes of a Large Tropical Hydroelectric Dam in Sarawak, Malaysia

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    Siong Fong Sim

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Bakun Hydroelectric Dam in Sarawak is one of the world highest concrete rock filled dams. This paper reports the heavy metals concentrations in water, sediment, and fishes of Bakun Dam. Water and sediment samples were collected from 11 stations and 6 fish species were caught. The samples were digested with open acid digestion and the metals contents were analysed using an atomic absorption spectrophotometer and mercury analyser. The method was validated based on certified reference materials. A higher concentration of Fe and Mn was detected in downstream water with significant longitudinal variation. Cu, Zn, and Hg were present in trace amount. All elements analysed were consistently found in sediment with no risk of contamination. For fish, Hemibagrus planiceps was characterised by higher affinity for Hg accumulation. The concentrations detected in all fish species were within the permissible guideline of 0.5 mg/kg. The health risk assessment suggested that Barbonymus schwanenfeldii, Puntioplites waandersii, Cyclocheilichthys apogon, and Hemibagrus planiceps were characterised by hazard index > 1 implying possible adverse effects. The amount of fish recommended for adults and children was in the range of 500–775 g/week and 33–135 g/week, respectively.

  13. Multiple exposure and effects assessment of heavy metals in the population near mining area in South China.

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    Ping Zhuang

    Full Text Available The objective of this study was to investigate the levels of Cd, Pb, Cu and Zn in the environment and several important food sources grown and consumed in the vicinity of Dabaoshan mine in Southern China, and evaluate potential health risks among local residents. The Cd, Pb, Cu and Zn concentrations of arable soils and well water near the mines exceeded the quality standard values. The concentrations of Cd and Pb in some food crops (rice grain, vegetable and soybean samples were significantly higher than the maximum permissible level. The Cd and Pb concentrations in half of the chicken and fish meat samples were higher than the national standard. The residents living near Dabaoshan mine had higher Cd and Pb levels in hair than those of a non-exposed population. The intake of rice was identified as a major contributor to the estimated daily intake of these metals by the residents. The hazard index values for adults and children were 10.25 and 11.11, respectively, with most of the estimated risks coming from the intake of home-grown rice and vegetables. This study highlights the importance of multiple pathways in studying health risk assessment of heavy metal exposure in China.

  14. Arsenic and heavy metals contamination, risk assessment and their source in drinking water of the Mardan District, Khyber Pakhtunkhwa, Pakistan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gul, Nida; Shah, Mohammad Tahir; Khan, Sardar; Khattak, Nimat Ullah; Muhammad, Said

    2015-12-01

    The present study was conducted to investigate the physico-chemical characteristics in drinking water of Mardan District, Pakistan. Furthermore, water quality was evaluated for the risk assessment of arsenic and heavy metals (HMs) and their contamination sources. Representative groundwater samples of shallow and deep sources were collected in the study area. These samples were analyzed for physical parameters, anions, light metals (LMs) and HMs. Results were compared with the drinking water guideline values set by the World Health Organization and the US Environmental Protection Agency. Average concentrations of anions, LMs and HMs were found within the maximum allowable contaminant levels except for bicarbonates, Fe, Cu, and Pb. Results revealed that hazard quotients >1 were observed for shallow groundwater for 10% samples only, suggesting potential health risk from water consumption. Correlation analysis and principal component analysis showed a relationship among various physico-chemical parameters in both shallow and deep groundwater. Statistical analyses suggested the geogenic and anthropogenic sources for possible enhancement of various physico-chemical parameters in the aquifer system of the study area.

  15. Geochemistry of dissolved trace elements and heavy metals in the Dan River Drainage (China): distribution, sources, and water quality assessment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meng, Qingpeng; Zhang, Jing; Zhang, Zhaoyu; Wu, Tairan

    2016-04-01

    Dissolved trace elements and heavy metals in the Dan River drainage basin, which is the drinking water source area of South-to-North Water Transfer Project (China), affect large numbers of people and should therefore be carefully monitored. To investigate the distribution, sources, and quality of river water, this study integrating catchment geology and multivariate statistical techniques was carried out in the Dan River drainage from 99 river water samples collected in 2013. The distribution of trace metal concentrations in the Dan River drainage was similar to that in the Danjiangkou Reservoir, indicating that the reservoir was significantly affected by the Dan River drainage. Moreover, our results suggested that As, Sb, Cd, Mn, and Ni were the major pollutants. We revealed extremely high concentrations of As and Sb in the Laoguan River, Cd in the Qingyou River, Mn, Ni, and Cd in the Yinhua River, As and Sb in the Laojun River, and Sb in the Dan River. According to the water quality index, water in the Dan River drainage was suitable for drinking; however, an exposure risk assessment model suggests that As and Sb in the Laojun and Laoguan rivers could pose a high risk to humans in terms of adverse health and potential non-carcinogenic effects.

  16. Heavy Metals Concentrations and Human Health Risk Assessment for Three Common Species of Fish from Karkheh River, Iran

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    Habib Janadeleh

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Background: The concentrations of heavy metals in the tissues and organs of fishes indicate the concentrations of heavy metals in water and their accumulation in food chains. In the present study, the concentrations of Zn, Cu, Cd, Ni, V and Pb in three common species of fish and the potential health risks to local residents via consumption of the fishes were estimated. Methods: The concentrations of heavy metals (Zn, Cu, Cd, Ni, V and Pb in the muscles, heart, liver, and gills of Liza abu, Barbus grypus and Cyprinus carpio, collected from Karkheh River, Southern Iran were measured. Associated human health risk was also evaluated by hazard quotient (HQ and hazard index (HI of muscle tissues. Results: Bioaccumulation of heavy metals was the highest in the livers followed by gills, heart and muscle. Zn was the most accumulated metal in liver of C. Carpio while Cd had the lowest concentration in the muscle of L. abu. There were significant differences in metal concentration among different fish and different tissues (P<0.05.Zinc showed the highest concentrations in different tissues of all analyzed fish, while Cd had the lowest concentration in all tissue samples. The hazard quotients from consumption of the collected fish did not exceed the limit of 1.0. Conclusion: The present study was a large-scale investigation of heavy metals in three common species of fish in Karkheh River. Occasional consumption of these fish is not likely to cause adverse effects. However, hazard indices for C. carpio and Liza abu were 1.751 and 1.21, respectively, which implies that continuous and excessive intake of these fish could result in chronic non-carcinogenic adverse effects.

  17. [Source identification and potential ecological hazards assessment of trace metalloid/heavy metals in the soil of Tianshan Mountains, Xinjiang, China].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Zhao-Yong; Jilili, Abuduwailil; Jiang, Feng-Qing

    2014-11-01

    In this study, the contents of ten metalloid/heavy metals (As, Pb, Ni, Cd, Co, Hg, Cu, Mn, Zn and Cr) in soil samples collected from three sections including the central Urumqi-Akesu, eastern Blikun-Yiwu and western Zhaosu-Tekesi in Tianshan Mountains were determined, and their sources were identified by using typical statistical and multivariate statistical methods. The potential ecological risks of these heavy metals were assessed by employing pollution index method, potential ecological risk index and the background values of Tianshan Mountains, and Xinjiang, and also the Second National Standard of the Soil Qualities of China. The results showed that the contents of the heavy metals (Pb, Ni, Cd, Co, Hg, Cu, Mn Zn and Cr) and metalloid As were all higher than the soil background values of the Tianshan Mountain or Xinjiang, and their variation co- efficients belonged to the medium variation. In general, the contents of the ten metalloid/heavy metals in the soil of Tianshan Mountains were low. Principal component analysis showed that the ten metalloid/heavy metals could be identified as two principal components, among which PC1 (Cd, Pb, Hg, Mn and Zn) could be seen as 'human influence sources factor', PC2 (Cu, Ni, Cr, Co and As) as 'natural sources factor'. Mn and As had larger loads both in PC1 and PC2, and they could be co-influenced by human and natural sources. The pollution assessment showed that Hg and Cd in central Urumuqi-Akesu section and As in western Zhaosu-Tekesi section were all at alert level, while the other heavy metals in other sections were all at security level. From the comprehensive pollution indices (P(z)) of heavy metals, it was found that the ten metalloid/heavy metals in the soils of central Urumqi-Akesu section were at low pollution level, but those in the other two sections were at clean level. The potential ecological risk assessment showed that the potential ecological risk coefficient (E(i)r) and the ecological damage index (RI) of Hg

  18. Pollution characteristics and ecological risk assessment of heavy metals in the surface sediments from a source water reservoir

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    Changming Yang

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Surface sediment samples were collected from a source water reservoir in Zhejiang Province, East of China to investigate pollution characteristics and potential ecological risk of heavy metals. The BCR sequential extraction method was used to determine the four chemical fractions of heavy metals such as acid soluble, easily reducible, easily oxidizable and residual fractions. The heavy metals pollution and potential ecological risk were evaluated systematically using geoaccumulation index (Igeo and Hakanson potential ecological risk index (H′. The results showed that the sampling sites from the estuaries of tributary flowing through downtowns and heavy industrial parks showed significantly (p < 0.05 higher average concentrations of heavy metals in the surface sediments, as compared to the other sampling sites. Chemical fractionation showed that Mn existed mainly in acid extractable fraction, Cu and Pb were mainly in reducible fraction, and As existed mainly in residual fraction in the surface sediments despite sampling sites. The sampling sites from the estuary of tributary flowing through downtown showed significantly (p < 0.05 higher proportions of acid extractable and reducible fractions than the other sampling sites, which would pose a potential toxic risk to aquatic organisms as well as a potential threat to drinking water safety. As, Pb, Ni and Cu were at relatively high potential ecological risk with high Igeo values for some sampling locations. Hakanson potential ecological risk index (H′ showed the surface sediments from the tributary estuaries with high population density and rapid industrial development showed significantly (p < 0.05 higher heavy metal pollution levels and potential ecological risk in the surface sediments, as compared to the other sampling sites.

  19. Heavy metal pollution assessment in relation to sediment properties in the coastal sediments of the southern Caspian Sea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bastami, Kazem Darvish; Neyestani, Mahmoud Reza; Shemirani, Farzaneh; Soltani, Farzaneh; Haghparast, Sarah; Akbari, Atefeh

    2015-03-15

    This study aimed to evaluate major elements and heavy metal concentrations of Arsenic (As), Copper (Cu), Chromium (Cr), Cobalt (Co), Vanadium (V), Nickel (Ni), lead (Pb) and Zinc (Zn) in surface sediments of the southern Caspian Sea. Metal contents in the sediment were observed in the order of: V>Cr>Zn>Ni>Co>Cu>Pb>As. Correlations between elements showed that sediment TOM, grain size and chemical composition are the main factors that influence the distribution of heavy metals. According to the pollution load index (PLI), sediments from some sampling sites were polluted. Concentrations of Ni, As, Cr and Cu were higher than sediment quality guidelines at some sampling sites, implying potential adverse impacts of these metals.

  20. Assessing heavy metal pollution using Great Tits (Parus major): feathers and excrements from nestlings and adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Costa, R A; Eeva, T; Eira, C; Vaqueiro, J; Vingada, J V

    2013-06-01

    Passerine species have been increasingly used as bioindicators of metal bioaccumulation especially by taking benefit of non-invasive procedures, such as collecting feathers and excrements. In 2009, metal (As, Cd, Cu, Hg, Ni, Pb, Se and Zn) concentrations were determined in feathers and excrements of nestling and adult female great tits (Parus major) in industrial (a paper mill) and rural sites in maritime pine forests on the west coast of Portugal. The aim of this study was to compare the levels of metals between the areas but also between sampling methods (feather vs. excrement) and age classes (nestling vs. adult). Although excrements and feathers of nestling great tits showed different concentrations, similar patterns of accumulation were detected in both study areas. There was a significantly higher concentration of mercury in the industrial area and significantly higher concentrations of arsenic in the rural area in both sample types. Metal levels in adult females had quite different results when compared to nestlings, and only nickel presented significantly higher levels near the paper mill. Since metal levels showed a consistent pattern in feathers and excrements of nestling great tits, we conclude that both represent good and non-invasive methods for the evaluation of these elements in polluted areas.

  1. Assessment of Heavy Metals in Bivalves Molluscs of Apulian Region: a 3-years control activity of a EU Laboratory

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    Miedico O.

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available The bivalve molluscs represent an important matrix to be studied for several reasons. Their nutritional properties make them valuable to the consumers, so that their consumption and commercial value has risen worldwide. Simultaneously, their significant water-filtering capability and their persistence in the same place make them good bio-indicators of marine ecosystems. The presence of the heavy metal contaminants, as Cd, Pb and Hg, was investigated in bivalve molluscs such as mussels (Mytilus galloprovincialis, clams (Venus gallina and oysters (Ostrea edulis. In the present study, a survey was carried out on 334 samples addressed to the Istituto Zooprofilattico Sperimentale – Puglia e Basilicata, Foggia (ITALY between 2009-2011, and collected by official authorities along the coasts of Apulia Region. The conformity of heavy metal content in bivalve molluscs was verified, in according to EC Reg. 1881/2006. The compliance was found for the total amount of samples. The obtained data on heavy metals concentration in bivalve molluscs were compared with data found in monitoring studies on the incidence of heavy metals in 1981 in North-Western Mediterranean Sea, in 2003 in Tyrrhenian Sea and in 2010 in Pacific Ocean (Chile, reported in literature. The information obtained from this work offer an essential database, not only for the authorities involved in food control, but also for the official institutions responsible of a constant control of the marine ecosystem pollution.

  2. Lithological and land-use based assessment of heavy metal pollution in soils surrounding a cement plant in SW Europe.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cutillas-Barreiro, Laura; Pérez-Rodríguez, Paula; Gómez-Armesto, Antía; Fernández-Sanjurjo, María José; Álvarez-Rodríguez, Esperanza; Núñez-Delgado, Avelino; Arias-Estévez, Manuel; Nóvoa-Muñoz, Juan Carlos

    2016-08-15

    We study the influence of phasing out a cement plant on the heavy metal (Hg, Pb and Cr) content in the surrounding soils, taking into account factors often neglected, such as contributions due to local lithology or land use. The range of total Hg was 10-144µg kg(-1), reaching up to 41 and 145mgkg(-1) for total contents of Pb and Cr, respectively. Forest soils showed higher concentration of Hg than prairie soils, indicating the importance of land use on the accumulation of volatile heavy metals in soils. In forest soils, total Hg showed a trend to decrease with soil depth, whereas in prairie soils the vertical pattern of heavy metal concentrations was quite homogeneous. In most cases, the distance to the cement plant was not a factor of influence in the soils content of the analyzed heavy metals. Total Pb and Cr contents in soils nearby the cement plant were quite similar to those found in the local lithology, resulting in enrichment factor values (EF's) below 2. This suggests that soil parent material is the main source of these heavy metals in the studied soils, while the contribution of the cement plant to Pb and Cr soil pollution was almost negligible. On the contrary, the soils surrounding the cement plant accumulate a significant amount of Hg, compared to the underlying lithology. This was especially noticeable in forest soils, where Hg EF achieved values up to 36. These results are of relevance, bearing in mind that Hg accumulation in soils may be an issue of environmental concern, particularly in prairie soils, where temporal flooding can favor Hg transformation to highly toxic methyl-Hg. In addition, the concurrence of acid soils and total-Cr concentrations in the range of those considered phytotoxic should be also stressed.

  3. Assessment of Water Quality and Heavy Metal Levels in Water and Bottom Sediment Samples from Mokwé Lagoon, Accra, Ghana

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    M.A. Addo

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available The current study deals with the physicochemical characteristics of water samples from the Mokwé Lagoon in addition to trace heavy metals (Cd, Cr, Ni, Pb and Zn in the lagoon water and bottom sediments. The results indicated relatively high ionic content which was reflected in high conductivity, total dissolved Solids, alkalinity, hardness and chloride levels; and low nutrient content. The trace heavy metal levels in the lagoon water were found within good range of international guideline limits for natural waters. In contrast, the metallic levels in the sediment were high. The levels of metal contamination and distribution in the sediment samples were assessed using geoaccumulation index, enrichment factor, contamination factor and pollution load factor. The metal index analysis indicated high enrichment of the metals (especially Cr and Ni which reflected anthropogenic effects of contamination attributable to several sources. The study calls for constant environmental monitoring to forestall any heavy metal hazard which could be detrimental to the aquatic ecosystem of the lagoon.

  4. Assessment of heavy metal contamination levels and toxicity in sediments and fishes from the Mediterranean Sea (southern coast of Sfax, Tunisia).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zohra, Ben Salem; Habib, Ayadi

    2016-07-01

    Contamination of heavy metals in sediment is regarded as a global crisis with a large share in industrializing cities like Sfax (Tunisia). Seven heavy metals such as Cadmium (Cd), Copper (Cu), Iron (Fe), Mercury (Hg), Nickel (Ni), Lead (Pb), and Zinc (Zn), and one metalloid such as Arsenic (As) in sediments and fish (D. annularis, L. aurata, and S. vulgaris) were investigated from the Southern coast of Sfax in Tunisia. The range of metals in sediments were 13.11-36; 4.42-7.92; 8.23-28.56; 50,564-11,956; 2.9-6.8; 9.13-30.51; 65.06-151.50, and 47-546 kg(-1) DW for As, Cd, Cu, Fe, Hg, Ni, Pb, and Zn. The level of studied metals in sediment samples exceeded the limits of the quality assessment guidelines (SQGs). The potential ecological risk index (PERI) proved that the investigated region could pose moderate risk for the aquatic biota. Metal bioaccumulation in the fish muscles varied significantly among species. Indeed, S. vulgaris and D. annularis accumulated higher amount of metal than L. aurata. The target hazard quotients (THQ) of individual heavy metals in fish, except for As and Hg, revealed safe levels for human consumption. Nevertheless, the total THQ indexes exceeded 1 suggesting the combined effects on muscles fish, which may constitute a risk to population's health.

  5. Assessment of heavy metal contamination in Hediste diversicolor (O.F. Müller, 1776), Mugil cephalus (Linnaeus, 1758), and surface sediments of Bafa Lake (Eastern Aegean).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aydin-Onen, S; Kucuksezgin, F; Kocak, F; Açik, S

    2015-06-01

    In the present study, the bioaccumulation of six heavy metals (Cd, Cr, Cu, Hg, Pb, and Zn) in Hediste (Nereis) diversicolor (O.F. Müller, 1776) and also in the muscle and liver of Mugil cephalus (Linnaeus, 1758) collected from seven stations in the Bafa Lake was investigated. Sediment samples were also collected in each site to assess heavy metal levels and to provide additional information on pollution of the lake. The mean concentrations of heavy metals in sediment, H. diversicolor, and muscle and liver of the fish were found to be in the magnitude of Cr>Pb>Zn>Cu>Cd>Hg, Zn>Cu>Cr>Pb>Hg>Cd, Zn>Cu>Pb>Cr >Hg>Cd, and Cu>Zn>Cr>Cd>Pb>Hg, respectively. Hg, Cu, and Zn in H. diversicolor and Hg and Zn in muscle and also Hg, Cd, Cu, and Zn in liver of fish accumulated in a higher degree than in sediment. There was no clear relationship between metal concentrations in sediments, polychaetes, and fish, except Cr. According to international criteria and Turkish regulations, Pb and Zn values in edible muscle of the fish collected from stations S6 and S5 exceeded the food safety limits, respectively. The results of this study suggest that these sentinel species can be considered as good anthropogenic biological indicators for heavy metal pollution along the Bafa Lake.

  6. Problems in the assessment of heavy-metal levels in estuaries and the formation of a pollution index

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tomlinson, D. L.; Wilson, J. G.; Harris, C. R.; Jeffrey, D. W.

    1980-03-01

    Most estuaries receive a high heavy-metal input from industries. This is reflected in the relatively high levels found in numerous estuarine organisms and in sediments. Many indicators have been suggested for facilitating the detection of heavy-metal pollution, but the problems in using these indicators to evaluate the metal loading of estuaries are considerable. Variations in species composition, and conditions at different sites, differences in season of sampling, and age of organism, as well as different metal levels in different parts of the organism, make the interpretation of results difficult. The levels reported here, similar to those in other unpolluted estuaries, have been used to suggest a baseline concentration for heavy metals in estuaries. The concept of a baseline is fundamental to the formation of a “Biological Quality Index” and “Pollution Load Index,” and a formula for such an index is suggested and tested at a preliminary level against published data for an English and a European estuary.

  7. Human health risk assessment of heavy metals in tropical fish and shellfish collected from the river Buriganga, Bangladesh.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahmed, Md Kawser; Baki, Mohammad Abdul; Islam, Md Saiful; Kundu, Goutam Kumar; Habibullah-Al-Mamun, Md; Sarkar, Santosh Kumar; Hossain, Md Muzammel

    2015-10-01

    Although fish, crustacean, and shellfish are significant sources of protein, they are currently affected by rapid industrialization, resulting in increased concentrations of heavy metals. Accumulation of heavy metals (V, Cr, Mn, Ni, Cu, Zn, As, Se, Mo, Ag, Cd, Sb, Ba, and Pb) and associated human health risk were investigated in three fish species, namely Ailia coila, Gagata youssoufi, and Mastacembelus pancalus; one crustacean (prawn), Macrobrachium rosenbergii; and one Gastropoda, Indoplanorbis exustus, collected from the Buriganga River, Bangladesh. Samples were collected from the professional fishermen. Cu was the most accumulated metal in M. rosenbergii. Ni, As, Ag, and Sb were in relatively lower concentrations, whereas relatively higher accumulation of Cr, Mn, Zn, and Se were recorded. Mn, Zn, and Pb were present in higher concentrations than the guidelines of various authorities. There were significant differences in metal accumulation among different fish, prawn, or shellfish species. Target hazard quotient (THQ) and target cancer risk (TR) were calculated to estimate the non-carcinogenic and carcinogenic health risks, respectively. The THQ for individual heavy metals were below 1 suggesting no potential health risk. But combined impact, estimated by hazard index (HI), suggested health risk for M. pancalus consumption. Although consumption of fish at current accumulation level is safe but continuous and excess consumption for a life time of more than 70 years has probability of target cancer risk.

  8. The effectiveness of spent coffee grounds and its biochar on the amelioration of heavy metals-contaminated water and soil using chemical and biological assessments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Min-Suk; Min, Hyun-Gi; Koo, Namin; Park, Jeongsik; Lee, Sang-Hwan; Bak, Gwan-In; Kim, Jeong-Gyu

    2014-12-15

    Spent coffee grounds (SCG) and charred spent coffee grounds (SCG-char) have been widely used to adsorb or to amend heavy metals that contaminate water or soil and their success is usually assessed by chemical analysis. In this work, the effects of SCG and SCG-char on metal-contaminated water and soil were evaluated using chemical and biological assessments; a phytotoxicity test using bok choy (Brassica campestris L. ssp. chinensis Jusl.) was conducted for the biological assessment. When SCG and SCG-char were applied to acid mine drainage, the heavy metal concentrations were decreased and the pH was increased. However, for SCG, the phytotoxicity increased because a massive amount of dissolved organic carbon was released from SCG. In contrast, SCG-char did not exhibit this phenomenon because any easily released organic matter was removed during pyrolysis. While the bioavailable heavy metal content decreased in soils treated with SCG or SCG-char, the phytotoxicity only rose after SCG treatment. According to our statistical methodology, bioavailable Pb, Cu and As, as well as the electrical conductivity representing an increase in organic content, affected the phytotoxicity of soil. Therefore, applying SCG during environment remediation requires careful biological assessments and evaluations of the efficiency of this remediation technology.

  9. Assessment and heavy metal behaviors of industrial waste water: A case study of Riyadh city, Saudi Arabia

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    Abdullah S. Al-Farraj

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available This study focuses on the temporal monitoring and chemical analysis of two pathways, unpadded and open drain canal, of the surface industrials effluent on industrial city of Riyadh city, Saudi Arabia. The distribution of the chemical constituents (Major, Minor, and Heavy metals is determined and compared with Saudi Arabia and USEPA standards. The obtained results indicated that most collected water samples exceeded the acceptable limits set by standards used for most parameters determined. The concentrations of total suspended solids, Fe, Mn, Zn, Cd, Ni, Pb, Mo, As, B, NO3-, and NH4+ in industrial effluents decreases away from the point source of pollutions. On the other hand, the SAR , RSC, total hardness, and soluble ions (Ca2+, Mg2+,Na+, K+, Cl-, CO3 2-, HCO3-, and SO4 2-, remained constant. Most heavy metals on wastewater effulent were above permissible limits. On the other hand, the filtration of wastewater decreases the heavy metal concentrations to permissible levels. The highest average metals concentration in digested effluents for deferent locations and sampling periods were Fe (17.1 mg/L followed by Mo (11.6 mg/L, then Co (0.03 mg/L. However the Mo recorded the highest value in filtrated effluents (23.2 ug/L followed by Fe (21.6 ug/L, and then Cd (8.02 ug/L. The monitoring of wastewater heavy metals concentrations (determined on filtrate for both pathway recorded that the concentration of Fe, Mo, Zn, Cd, Pb, As, Ni, and Mn decreased from (60-100 ug/L at point sources to be (5-10 ug/L at 1000 m from point sources, however no clear behavior was recorded for Cu and Co. Moreover the concentrations of all heavy metals by the last sampling point on downstream were remained at 10 ug/L or less. The study emphasis that continuous application of industrial wastewater on Riyadh environment will lead to more accumulation of heavy metals in the soil and natural plants, and also high possibilities of groundwater contamination by nitrate.

  10. Leachability of heavy metals from solidified sludge

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHANG HuYuan; WANG Bao; DONG XingLing; FENG Lei; FAN ZhiMing

    2009-01-01

    Solidified sludge undergoes progressive depletion of the alkalinity materials under natural weathering condition and releases out of heavy metals. The leaching of heavy metals from solidified sewage sludge was studied by acid neutralization capacity (ANC) test and flow-through leaching test. The results of ANC test showed that heavy metals release at high concentration when the pH of extract lowers than 6. The disintegration of solidified sludge and the transformation of heavy metals are the main reasons for the resolubilisation of contaminants. Flow-through leaching test indicated that leaching of heavy metals from solidified sludge occurs in a slow way. A mathematical model has been developed to predict the stabilization time of heavy metals in solidified sludge. The research results showed that decreasing hydraulic conductivity is more important than cement addition for controlling the release of heavy metals from solidified sludge.

  11. Heavy metals precipitation in sewage sludge

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Marchioretto, M.M.; Rulkens, W.H.; Bruning, H.

    2005-01-01

    There is a great need for heavy metal removal from strongly metal-polluted sewage sludges. One of the advantages of heavy metal removal from this type of sludge is the possibility of the sludge disposal to landfill with reduced risk of metals being leached to the surface and groundwater. Another adv

  12. Assessment of physico-chemical qualities and heavy metal concentrations of Umgeni and Umdloti Rivers in Durban, South Africa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olaniran, Ademola O; Naicker, Kovashnee; Pillay, Balakrishna

    2014-04-01

    We assessed the effects of seasonal dynamics on the physico-chemical qualities and heavy metals concentrations of the Umgeni and Umdloti Rivers in Durban, South Africa. Water samples were taken from nine different sampling points and analysed for the following parameters; temperature, pH, turbidity, electrical conductivity (EC), biological oxygen demand (BOD5), chemical oxygen demand (COD), phosphate (PO4(2-)), nitrate (NO3(2-)), ammonium (NH4(+)), sulphate (SO4(2-)), lead (Pb(2+)), mercury (Hg(2+)), cadmium (Cd(2+)), aluminium (Al(3+)), and copper (Cu(2+)) using standard methods. The data showed variations it terms of the seasonal fluctuations and sampling regime as follows: temperature 12-26.5 °C; pH 5.96-8.45; turbidity 0.53-18.8 NTU; EC 15.8-5180 mS m(-1); BOD5 0.60-7.32 mg L(-1); COD 10.5-72.9 mg L(-1); PO4 (2-) South African Guidelines and World Health Organization tolerance limits for freshwater quality. We conclude that these water bodies are potentially hazardous to public health and this highlights the need for implementation of improved management strategies of these river catchments for continued sustainability.

  13. Water Quality Pollution Indices to Assess the Heavy Metal Contamination, Case Study: Groundwater Resources of Asadabad Plain In 2012

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Soheil Sobhan Ardakani

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Background & Aims of the Study: Due to the increasing pollution of water resources, tow documented methods: the Heavy metal potential index (HPI and the Heavy metal evaluation index (HEI were evaluated for their suitability for contamination monitoring of heavy metals (As, Zn, Pb, Cd and Cu contamination in groundwater resources of Asadabad Plain during spring and summer in 2012. Materials & Methods: In this analytical observational study, concentrations of heavy metals have been evaluated at 30 important groundwater sampling stations. For this purpose, collect samples in pre-cleaned, acid-soaked polyethylene bottles. Add 2 mL conc HNO3/L sample and mix well. Cap tightly and store in refrigerator until ready for analysis. Metal concentrations were determined using inductively coupled plasma- optical emission spectrometry (ICP-OES. Results: The results showed that mean concentrations of As, Zn, Pb, Cd and Cu in groundwater samples in spring season were 52.53±13.62, 15.51±23.45, 10.10±2.80, 4.48±1.80 and 8.63±10.87 μg l−1, respectively and in summer season were 57.60±16.90, 14.99±17.66, 9.28±2.46, 4.57±1.73 and 10.45±10.30 μg l−1, respectively. Therefore the mean values of indices in samples from spring and summer seasons were 25.61 and 27.28 respectively for HPI and were 9.29 and 8.88 respectively for HEI, and indicates low contamination levels. Comparing the mean concentrations of the evaluated metals with WHO permissible limits showed a significant difference (P<0.05. Thus, the mean concentrations of the metals were significantly lower than the permissible limits. Conclusions: Despite of the heavy metal pollution of the groundwater resources in Asadabad Plain is lower than WHO permissible limits, but the irregular and long-term usage of agricultural inputs, use of wastewater and sewage sludge in agriculture, over use of organic fertilizers and establishment of pollutant industries can threaten the groundwater resources of this

  14. COMPARATIVE ANALYSIS OF APPROACHES TO ECOLOGICAL ASSESSMENT OF POLYELEMENT CONTAMINATION SOIL OF URBAN ECOSYSTEM BY HEAVY METALS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    YAKOVYSHYNA T. F.

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Raising of problem. In modern conditions, anthropogenic impact to the soil urban ecosystems is fairly stable over time and space, is manifested in various forms, as the transformation of the soil profile, the change in direction of the soil-forming processes, contamination of the various pollutants, and, above all, heavy metals (HM – elements of the first class of the danger. Their sources of the income to the urban environment are industrial enterprises, transport, housing and communal services. Determination of the anthropogenic pressure to the urban soil is carried out by the environmental assessment of the HM polyelement contamination, which allows to establish not only the fact of pollution, but also limits of the possible load with considering regional background or sanitary standards – MPC. However, until now discussions arise regarding the index which will be carried out the valuation – the cornerstone of any methodological approach to the environmental assessment of the soil polyelement contamination by the HM of the urban ecosystems, which allows to establish not only the fact of contamination, but also limits the possible load, taking into account the regional background or sanitary norm – MPC. Purpose. Lies in the grounded selection of the environmental assessment indexes of the soil contamination by the HM of the urban ecosystems through a comparative analysis of the existing approaches, such as the determination of the summary contamination index (SCI, the index of the soil contamination (ISC, factor imbalance (Sd, taking into account environmental safety standards and binding to the specific conditions territory. Conclusion. In summary it should be noted that it is necessary to use a set of integrated indexes, including the SCI to determine the violation of the metals content with respect to the geochemical background of zonal soil, ISC – link the contamination level with health indexes of the environmental safety

  15. Health risk assessment of eight heavy metals in nine varieties of edible vegetable oils consumed in China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Fangkun; Fan, Wenxiu; Wang, Xuejing; Qu, Li; Yao, Shuwen

    2011-12-01

    Eight heavy metals, namely Cu, Zn, Fe, Mn, Cd, Ni, Pb and As, in nine varieties of edible vegetable oils collected from China were determined by inductively coupled plasma atomic emission spectrometry (ICP-AES) and graphite furnace atomic absorption spectrometry (GF-AAS) after microwave digestion. The accuracy of procedure was confirmed by certified reference materials (GBW10018 and GBW08551). The relative standard deviations were found below 10%. The concentrations for copper, zinc, iron, manganese, nickel, lead and arsenic were observed in the range of 0.214-0.875, 0.742-2.56, 16.2-45.3, 0.113-0.556, 0.026-0.075, 0.009-0.018 and 0.009-0.019 μg g(-1), respectively. Cadmium was found to be 2.64-8.43 μg/kg. In general, iron content was higher than other metals in the investigated edible vegetable oils. Comparing with safety intake levels for these heavy metals recommended by Institute of Medicine of the National Academies (IOM), US Environmental Protection Agency (US EPA) and Joint FAO/WHO Expert Committee on Food Additives (JECFA), the dietary intakes of the eight heavy metals from weekly consumption of 175 g of edible vegetable oils or daily consumption 25 g of edible vegetable oils for a 70 kg individual should pose no risk to human health.

  16. Semivolatile organic compounds, organochlorine pesticides and heavy metals in sediments and risk assessment in Huaihe River of China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2006-01-01

    The concentrations of semivolatile organic compounds, organochlorine pesticides and heavy metals in sediments from Jiangsu reach of Huaihe River, China, were presented. The organic compounds were extracted by acetone: n-hexane using a Soxhlet apparatus and concentrations were performed using HP6890 gas chromatography coupled by FID and ECD detector. The total contents of 8 heavy metals by inductively coupled plasma atomic emission spectrometry or cold-vapor/atomic absorption spectrometry were developed. 30 semivolatile organic compounds were detected, including substituted benzenes, phenols, phthalates and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons, from 0.01 to 3.01 mg/kg. 16 organochlorine pesticides were almost detected and from 0.010 to 2.339 μg/kg.Concentrations of major metals were 50 mg/kg or less, mean level of mercury was only 0.055 mg/kg. Compared to sediment quality guidelines (SQGs), concentrations of some semivolatile organic compounds were high enough to cause possible toxic effects to living resources. The organochlorine pesticides presented relatively low, lower than threshold effect concentrations (TECs), harmful effects on sediment-dwelling organisms were not expected. Chromium posed probable toxic effects to the living resources, other heavy metals had no threat temporarily according to SQGs.

  17. Heavy metal research in lacustrine sediment: a review

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2007-01-01

    Heavy metals are released into environment from a wide range of natural and anthropogenic sources. Aquatic ecosystems are normally at the receiving end and in many cases, with lakes as intermediaries.Lacustrine sediments are important sinks for heavy metals and play a significant role in enrichment and remobilization of heavy metals in aquatic systems. Therefore, characteristics of heavy metal in lacustrine sediments become one of the important issues in environmental sciences. Progress in heavy metal research of lake sediments since late 1980s is reviewed comprehensively in this paper from over 100. The Highlights are placed on the establishment of aquatic sediment quality guidelines, references chemical speciation of heavy metals, heavy metal transport mechanisms in lakes, and high-resolution study of lake borehole cores.Meanwhile, suggestions for heavy metal research in lacustrine sediment in the future are proposed, including such issues as using integrated approaches to assess aquatic ecosystem, modern lake dynamic process,high-resolution evolutionary sequence and spatial differentiation of environments and international lake database, which should be referential to the promotion of research on heavy metal in aquatic system.

  18. Levels of heavy metals in wetland and marine vascular plants and their biomonitoring potential: A comparative assessment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bonanno, Giuseppe; Borg, Joseph A; Di Martino, Vincenzo

    2017-01-15

    The present study investigated the levels of As, Cd, Cr, Cu, Hg, Mn, Ni, Pb and Zn in the seagrasses Posidonia oceanica and Cymodocea nodosa, and in the wetland macrophytes Phragmites australis, Arundo donax, Typha domingensis, Apium nodiflorum, and Nasturtium officinale. Results showed that the bioaccumulation capacity from sediments, translocation, total levels in plant tissues, and bioindication of metals in sediments, are generally species-specific. In particular, the patterns of metals in the aquatic plants studied were overall independent of ecology (coasts vs wetlands), biomass, anatomy (rhizomatous vs non rhizomatous plants), and life form (hemicrytophytes vs hydrophytes). However, marine phanerogams and wetland macrophytes shared some characteristics such as high levels of heavy metals in their below-ground organs, similar capacity of element translocation in the rhizosphere, compartmentalization of metals in the different plant organs, and potential as bioindicators of Cu, Mn and Zn levels in the substratum. In particular, the present findings indicate that, despite ecological and morphological similarities, different plant species tend to respond differently to exposure to heavy metals. Furthermore, this seems to result from the species individual ability to accumulate and detoxify the various metals rather than being attributed to differences in their ecological and morpho-anatomical characteristics.

  19. Heavy metals bioaccumulation by edible saprophytic mushrooms

    OpenAIRE

    ŠIRIĆ, Ivan; KOS, Ivica; Ante KASAP; Fran PETKOVIĆ; Držaić, Valentino

    2016-01-01

    The aim of this study was to determine the concentration of heavy metals Fe, Zn, Cu, Ni, Pb i Cd in certain edible species of saprophytic fungi and the substrate on three area of sampling, and to assess the role of individual species as biological indicators of environmental pollution. In this study were used three species of wild edible mushrooms (Agaricus macroarpus Bohus, Clitocybe inversa (Scop. ex Fr.) Pat. and Macrolepiota procera (Scop. ex Fr.) Sing.,). Completely developed and mature ...

  20. Heavy metals and health risk assessment of arable soils and food crops around Pb-Zn mining localities in Enyigba, southeastern Nigeria

    Science.gov (United States)

    Obiora, Smart C.; Chukwu, Anthony; Davies, Theophilus C.

    2016-04-01

    This study determined the heavy metals concentration in arable soils and associated food crops around the Pb-Zn mines in Enyigba, Nigeria, and metal transfer factors were calculated. Air-dried samples of the soils and food crops were analyzed for 8 known nutritional and toxic heavy metals by Inductively Coupled Plasma - Mass Spectrometer (ICP-MS) method. Eighty seven percent of all the 20 sampled soils contain Pb in excess of the maximum allowable concentration (MAC) set by Canadian Environmental Quality Guideline (CCME) and European Union (EU) Standard, while Zn in thirty-one percent of the samples exceeded the CCME for MAC of 200 mg/kg. All the food crops, with the exception of yam tuber, contain Pb which exceeded the 0.43 mg/kg and 0.3 mg/kg MAC standards of EU and WHO/FAO respectively, with the leafy vegetables accumulating more Pb than the tubers. The metal transfer factors in the tubers and the leafy vegetables were in the order: Mo > Cu > Zn > Mn > As > Cd > Cr > Ni > Pb and Cd > Cu > Zn > Mn > Mo > As > Ni > Pb > Cr, respectively. Risk assessment studies revealed no health risk in surrounding populations for most of the heavy metals. However, Pb had a high health risk index (HRI) of 1.1 and 1.3, in adults and children, respectively for cassava tuber; Pb had HRI > 1 in lemon grass while Mn also had HRI > 1 in all the leafy vegetables for both adult and children. This high level of HRI for Pb and Mn is an indication that consumers of the food crops contaminated by these metals are at risk of health problems such as Alzheimers' disease and Manganism, associated with excessive intake of these metals. Further systematic monitoring of heavy metal fluxes in cultivable soils around the area of these mines is recommended.

  1. Assessment of clam ruditapes philippinarum as Heavy metal bioindicators using NMR-based metabolomics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Liu, Xiaoli; Zhang, Linbao; You, Liping [Key Laboratory of Coastal Zone Environment Processes, CAS, Shandong Provincial Key Laboratory of Coastal Zone Environment Processes, Yantai Institute of Coastal Zone Research, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Yantai (China); The Graduate School of Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing (China); Yu, Junbao; Cong, Ming; Wang, Qing; Li, Fei; Li, Lianzhen; Zhao, Jianmin; Li, Chenghua; Wu, Huifeng [Key Laboratory of Coastal Zone Environment Processes, CAS, Shandong Provincial Key Laboratory of Coastal Zone Environment Processes, Yantai Institute of Coastal Zone Research, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Yantai (China)

    2011-08-15

    There are mainly distributed three pedigrees (White, Liangdao Red, and Zebra) of Manila clam Ruditapes philippinarum in Yantai population along the Bohai marine and coast. However, the biological differences to environmental stressors have been ignored in toxicology studies, which could lead to the distortion of biological interpretations of toxicological effects induced by environmental contaminants. In this study, we applied a system biology approach, metabolomics to compare the metabolic profiles in digestive gland from three pedigrees of clam and characterize and compare the metabolic responses induced by mercury in clam digestive gland tissues to determine a sensitive pedigree of clam as a preferable bioindicator for metal pollution monitoring and toxicology research. The most abundant metabolites, respectively, included branched-chain amino acids, alanine, and arginine in White samples, glutamate, dimethylglycine, and glycine in Zebra clams and acetylcholine, betaine, glucose, and glycogen in Liangdao Red clams. After 48 h exposure of 20 {mu}g L{sup -1} Hg{sup 2+}, the metabolic profiles from the three pedigrees of clams showed differentially significant changes in alanine, glutamate, succinate, taurine, hypotaurine, glycine, arginine, glucose, etc. Our findings indicate the toxicological effects of mercury exposure in Manila clams including the neurotoxicity, disturbances in energetic metabolisms and osmoregulation in the digestive glands and suggest that Liangdao Red pedigree of clam could be a preferable bioindicator for the metal pollution monitoring based on the more sensitive classes of metabolic changes from digestive glands compared with other two (White and Zebra) pedigrees of clams. (Copyright copyright 2011 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH and Co. KGaA, Weinheim)

  2. Modelling assessment of regional groundwater contamination due to historic smelter emissions of heavy metals

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Grift, B. van der; Griffioen, J.

    2008-01-01

    Historic emissions from ore smelters typically cause regional soil contamination. We developed a modelling approach to assess the impact of such contamination on groundwater and surface water load, coupling unsaturated zone leaching modelling with 3D groundwater transport modelling. Both historic an

  3. Toxicity assessment due to sub-chronic exposure to individual and mixtures of four toxic heavy metals

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cobbina, Samuel J.; Chen, Yao [School of the Environment, Jiangsu University, Xuefu Rd. 301, Zhenjiang 212013, Jiangsu (China); Zhou, Zhaoxiang; Wu, Xueshan; Zhao, Ting [School of Chemistry and Chemical Engineering, Jiangsu University, Xuefu Rd. 301, Zhenjiang 212013 (China); Zhang, Zhen [School of the Environment, Jiangsu University, Xuefu Rd. 301, Zhenjiang 212013, Jiangsu (China); Feng, Weiwei; Wang, Wei [School of Food and Biological Engineering, Jiangsu University, Xuefu Rd. 301, Zhenjiang 212013, Jiangsu (China); Li, Qian [School of Pharmacy, Jiangsu University, Xuefu Rd. 301, Zhenjiang 212013, Jiangsu (China); Wu, Xiangyang, E-mail: wuxy@ujs.edu.cn [School of the Environment, Jiangsu University, Xuefu Rd. 301, Zhenjiang 212013, Jiangsu (China); Yang, Liuqing, E-mail: yangliuqing@ujs.edu.cn [School of Chemistry and Chemical Engineering, Jiangsu University, Xuefu Rd. 301, Zhenjiang 212013 (China)

    2015-08-30

    Highlights: • Low dose single and mixtures of toxic metals had adverse effect on mice. • Metal mixtures exhibited higher toxicities compared to individual metals. • Mixtures of low dose Pb + Hg + Cd induced neuronal degeneration in brain of mice. • Exposure to Pb + Hg + As + Cd showed renal tubular necrosis in kidney. - Abstract: Humans are exposed to a cocktail of heavy metal toxicants in the environment. Though heavy metals are deleterious, there is a paucity of information on toxicity of low dose mixtures. In this study, lead (Pb) (0.01 mg/L), mercury (Hg) (0.001 mg/L), cadmium (Cd) (0.005 mg/L) and arsenic (As) (0.01 mg/L) were administered individually and as mixtures to 10 groups of 40 three-week old mice (20 males and 20 females), for 120 days. The study established that low dose exposures induced toxicity to the brain, liver, and kidney of mice. Metal mixtures showed higher toxicities compared to individual metals, as exposure to low dose Pb + Hg + Cd reduced brain weight and induced structural lesions, such as neuronal degeneration in 30-days. Pb + Hg + Cd and Pb + Hg + As + Cd exposure induced hepatocellular injury to mice evidenced by decreased antioxidant activities with marginal increases in MDA. These were accentuated by increases in ALT, AST and ALP. Interactions in metal mixtures were basically synergistic in nature and exposure to Pb + Hg + As + Cd induced renal tubular necrosis in kidneys of mice. This study underlines the importance of elucidating the toxicity of low dose metal mixtures so as to protect public health.

  4. Biosolids and heavy metals in soils

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Silveira Maria Lucia Azevedo

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available The application of sewage sludge or biosolids on soils has been widespread in agricultural areas. However, depending on their characteristics, they may cause increase in heavy metal concentration of treated soils. In general, domestic biosolids have lower heavy metal contents than industrial ones. Origin and treatment method of biosolids may markedly influence their characteristics. The legislation that controls the levels of heavy metal contents in biosolids and the maximum concentrations in soils is still controversial. In the long-term, heavy metal behavior after the and of biosolid application is still unknown. In soils, heavy metals may be adsorbed via specific or non-specific adsorption reactions. Iron oxides and organic matter are the most important soil constituents retaining heavy metals. The pH, CEC and the presence of competing ions also affect heavy metal adsorption and speciation in soils. In solution, heavy metals can be present either as free-ions or complexed with organic and inorganic ligands. Generally, free-ions are more relevant in environmental pollution studies since they are readily bioavailable. Some computer models can estimate heavy metal activity in solution and their ionic speciation. Thermodynamic data (thermodynamic stability constant, total metal and ligand concentrations are used by the GEOCHEM-PC program. This program allows studying heavy metal behavior in solution and the effect of changes in the conditions, such as pH and ionic strength and the application of organic and inorganic ligands caused by soil fertilization.

  5. A Comparative Analysis of Environmental Quality Assessment Methods for Heavy Metal-Contaminated Soils

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LI Wei-Xin; ZHANG Xu-Xiang; WU Bing; SUN Shi-Lei; CHEN Yan-Song; PAN Wen-Yang; ZHAO Da-Yong; CHENG Shu-Pei

    2008-01-01

    Four assessment methods (two pollution indexes and two fuzzy mathematical models) were employed to investigate the environmental quality of four soils around a ferroalloy plant in Nanjing City.Environmental quality was assessed as class Ⅳ (moderately polluted) for each soil with single-factor index method,and was identified to be classes Ⅳ,Ⅲ(slightly polluted),Ⅲ,and Ⅲ for soils A,B,C,and D,respectively,with the comprehensive index model.In comparison with the single-factor index method,the comprehensive index model concerned both dominant parameter and average contribution of all factors to the integrated environmental quality.Using the two fuzzy mathematical methods (single-factor deciding and weighted average models),the environmental risks were determined to be classes Ⅳ,Ⅲ,Ⅱ(clean),and Ⅱ for soils A,B,C,and D,respectively.However,divergence of the membership degree to each pollution class still occurred between the two methods.In fuzzy mathematical methods,membership functions were used to describe the limits between different pollution degrees,and different weights were allocated for the factors according to pollution contribution.Introduction of membership degree and weight of each factor to fuzzy mathematical models made the methods more reasonable in the field of environmental risk assessment.

  6. Assessment of Heavy Metals in Street Dust in Kathmandu Metropolitan City and their Possible Impacts on the Environment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pawan Raj Shakya

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Street dust often contains elevated concentrations of heavy metals and can influence on environment and human health. Therefore, a study on the characteristics of heavy metals in street dusts at different localities was carried out in the metropolitan city of Kathmandu of Nepal. A total of 20 street dusts have been sampled from four sampling sites with various activities or characteristics such as mechanical workshops (MWK, motor parks (MPK, market areas (MKA and residential areas (RDA and analyzed for Zn, Pb, Ni, Cr and Cd using the atomic absorption spectrophotometric method. Results showed that street dust samples contained significant levels of the metals studied compared to the values from the control site. The variation in concentration of most of the heavy metals determined decreased in an order represented as MWK>MPK>MKA>RDA>Control. While the RDA and MKA give the same element abundance order as Zn > Pb > Ni > Cr > Cd, the MPK and MWK show different abundance order in some elemental contents. In all the street dusts, zinc is the most available and labile element followed by lead. From the place of low activity (RDA to the place of high activity (MWK, the metal concentrations in street dusts varied from 55.4-419.3 μg g-1 for Zn, 12.3-116.8 μg g-1 for Pb, 4.9-86.3 μg g-1 for Ni, 1.4-14.3 μg g-1 for Cr and 0.3-39.6 μg g-1 for Cd respectively. Results indicate that the metal pollutants in street dusts could significantly contribute to deteriorate the environmental status of the city of Kathmandu metropolis.

  7. Assessment of heavy metals contamination in sediments from three adjacent regions of the Yellow River using metal chemical fractions and multivariate analysis techniques.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, Xiaoling; Zuo, Hang; Tian, Mengjing; Zhang, Liyang; Meng, Jia; Zhou, Xuening; Min, Na; Chang, Xinyuan; Liu, Ying

    2016-02-01

    Metal chemical fractions obtained by optimized BCR three-stage extraction procedure and multivariate analysis techniques were exploited for assessing 7 heavy metals (Cr, Pb, Cd, Co, Cu, Zn and Ni) in sediments from Gansu province, Ningxia and Inner Mongolia Autonomous Regions of the Yellow River in Northern China. The results indicated that higher susceptibility and bioavailability of Cr and Cd with a strong anthropogenic source were due to their higher availability in the exchangeable fraction. A portion of Pb, Cd, Co, Zn, and Ni in reducible fraction may be due to the fact that they can form stable complexes with Fe and Mn oxides. Substantial amount of Pb, Co, Ni and Cu was observed as oxidizable fraction because of their strong affinity to the organic matters so that they can complex with humic substances in sediments. The high geo-accumulation indexes (I(geo)) for Cr and Cd showed their higher environmental risk to the aquatic biota. Principal component analysis (PCA) revealed that high toxic Cr and Cd in polluted sites (Cd in S10, S11 and Cr in S13) may be contributed to anthropogenic sources, it was consistent with the results of dual hierarchical clustering analysis (DHCA), which could give more details about contributing sources.

  8. Heavy metal contaminations in the groundwater of Brahmaputra flood plain: an assessment of water quality in Barpeta District, Assam (India).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haloi, Nabanita; Sarma, H P

    2012-10-01

    A study was conducted to evaluate the heavy metal contamination status of groundwater in Brahmaputra flood plain Barpeta District, Assam, India. The Brahmaputra River flows from the southern part of the district and its many tributaries flow from north to south. Cd, Fe, Mn, Pb, and Zn are estimated by using atomic absorption spectrometer, Perkin Elmer AA 200. The quantity of heavy metals in drinking water should be checked time to time; as heavy metal accumulation will cause numerous problems to living being. Forty groundwater samples were collected mainly from tube wells from the flood plain area. As there is very little information available about the heavy metal contamination status in the heavily populated study area, the present work will help to be acquainted with the suitability of groundwater for drinking applications as well as it will enhance the database. The concentration of iron exceeds the WHO recommended levels of 0.3 mg/L in about 80% of the samples, manganese values exceed 0.4 mg/L in about 22.5% of the samples, and lead values also exceed limit in 22.5% of the samples. Cd is reported in only four sampling locations and three of them exceed the WHO permissible limit (0.003 mg/L). Zinc concentrations were found to be within the prescribed WHO limits. Therefore, pressing awareness is needed for the betterment of water quality; for the sake of safe drinking water. Statistical analysis of the data was carried out using Special Package for Social Sciences (SPSS 16).

  9. Assessment of willow (Salix sp.) as a woody heavy metal accumulator: field survey and in vivo X-ray analyses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harada, Emiko; Hokura, Akiko; Nakai, Izumi; Terada, Yasuko; Baba, Kei'ichi; Yazaki, Kazufumi; Shiono, Masamichi; Mizuno, Naoharu; Mizuno, Takafumi

    2011-12-01

    Trees that accumulate metals are important plants for restoring contaminated soil because of their high biomass. In our previous study, we discovered that Salix miyabeana has the capability to take up high levels of Cd, and identified the several accumulation sites of the endogenous metals in the leaf parts of plants. To analyze the detailed localization of Cd in apoplastic and symplastic compartments in S. miyabeana, synchrotron radiation-based micro X-ray fluorescence (SR-μ-XRF) analysis and micro X-ray absorption near edge structure (μ-XANES) measurements were performed on beam line 37XU of the SPring-8 (Hyogo, Japan). The two-dimensional metal distribution of segments of young stems was obtained by μ-XRF with approximately 2 μm(2) X-ray beams and showed the predominant localization of Cd in the apoplastic region. μ-XANES analyses suggest that the apoplastic detoxification of Cd in willow depends on Cd-oxygen, but not on Cd-sulfur, interaction. S. miyabeana growing near an old mining site in Japan was then examined to evaluate the metal accumulating ability of this plant in the field. The metal concentration in the leaves of the plants was compared to that in the soil and enrichment factors (EFs) were calculated for Cu, Zn, Cd and Pb. Results showed efficient removal of Cd and Zn from the contaminated sites by the willow plants. In order to discuss the combined and long-term effect of multiple heavy metals on S. miyabeana grown in soil, variable-pressure scanning electron microscopy fitted with energy dispersive X-ray analysis (VPSEM-EDX) and SR-μ-XRF was used to characterize the serration of leaves. The combination of 2D elemental images revealed metal accumulation in the tip cells in serrations without any exudation of heavy metals from the hydathodes.

  10. Assessment of heavy metals contamination in soil profiles of roadside Suaeda salsa wetlands in a Chinese delta

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wen, Xiaojun; Wang, Qinggai; Zhang, Guangliang; Bai, Junhong; Wang, Wei; Zhang, Shuai

    2017-02-01

    Five sampling sites (Sites A, B, C, D and E) were selected along a 250 m sampling zone covered by Suaeda salsa, which is perpendicular to a road, in the Yellow River Delta of China. Soil samples were collected to a depth of 40cm in these five sampling sites to investigate the profile distributions and toxic risks of heavy metals. Concentrations of heavy metals (As, Cd, Cr, Cu, Ni, Pb and Zn) were determined using inductively coupled plasma atomic absorption spectrometry (ICP-AAS). The results showed that in each sampling site, Cd, Cu, Pb and Zn have approximately constant concentrations along soil profiles and did not show high contamination compared with the values of probable effect levels (PELs). All soils exhibited As and Ni contamination at all sampling sites compared with other heavy metals. The index of geo-accumulation (Igeo) values for As in the 20-30 cm soil layer at Site B was grouped into Class Ⅳ(2 grouped into Class Ⅳ(2 contribution ratios to the ∑TUs in Suaeda salsa wetlands. Correlation analysis (CA) and principal components analysis (PCA) revealed that Cr, Cu, Ni, Pb and Zn might derive from the common sources, Cd might originate from another, while As might have more complex sources in this study area.

  11. A permeable reactive barrier (PRB) media sequence for the remediation of heavy metal and hydrocarbon contaminated water: A field assessment at Casey Station, Antarctica.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Statham, Tom M; Stark, Scott C; Snape, Ian; Stevens, Geoffrey W; Mumford, Kathryn A

    2016-03-01

    A field trial was conducted at Casey Station, Antarctica to assess the suitability of a permeable reactive barrier (PRB) media sequence for the remediation of sites containing both hydrocarbon and heavy metal contamination. An existing PRB was modified to assess a sequence consisting of three sections: (i) Nutrient release/hydrocarbon sorption using ZeoPro™ and granular activated carbon; (ii) Phosphorus and heavy metal capture by granular iron and sand; (iii) Nutrient and excess iron capture by zeolite. The media sequence achieved a greater phosphorus removal capacity than previous Antarctic PRB configurations installed on site. Phosphorus concentrations were reduced during flow through the iron/sand section and iron concentrations were reduced within the zeolite section. However, non-ideal flow was detected during a tracer test and supported by analysis of media and liquid samples from the second summer of operation. Results indicate that the PRB media sequence trialled might be appropriate for other locations, especially less environmentally challenging contaminated sites.

  12. Risk assessment of heavy metals in soils and vegetables around non-ferrous metals mining and smelting sites, Baiyin, China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LI Yu; WANG Yan-bin; GOU Xin; SU Yi-bing; WANG Gang

    2006-01-01

    A field survey was conducted to investigate the metal and arsenic contamination in soils and vegetables on four villages (Shuichuan (SCH), Beiwan (BWA), Dongwan (DWA) and Wufe (WFE)) located along, Baiyin, China, and to evaluate the possible health risks to local population through foodchain. Results show that the most significantly contaminated soils occurred upstream at SCH where Cd, Cu and As concentrations exceeded maximum allowable concentrations for Chinese agricultural soil. Further downstream the degree of contamination semi-systematically decreased in concentrations of metal. Generally, the leafy vegetables were more heavily contaminated than non-leafy vegetables. Chinese cabbage is the most severely contaminated, the concentrations of Cd exceeded the maximum permit levels (0.05 mg/kg) by 4.5 times. Bio-accumulate factor also shows that an entry of Cd to food chain plants is the greatest potential. Furthermore, the estimated daily intake amounts of the considered toxic elements (Cd, Pb and Cu) from the vegetables grown at SCH and BWA and DWA have exceeded the recommended dietary allowance levels. Thus, the vegetables grown in three villages above, which affected by Baiyin mining and smelting have a health hazard for human consumption.

  13. Assessing heavy metal pollution in the water level fluctuation zone of China's Three Gorges Reservoir using geochemical and soil microbial approaches.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ye, Chen; Li, Siyue; Zhang, Yulong; Tong, Xunzhang; Zhang, Quanfa

    2013-01-01

    The water level fluctuation zone (WLFZ) in the Three Gorges Reservoir is located in the intersection of terrestrial and aquatic ecosystems, and assessing heavy metal pollution in the drown zone is critical for ecological remediation and water conservation. In this study, soils were collected in June and September 2009 in natural recovery area and revegetation area of the WLFZ, and geochemical approaches including geoaccumulation index (I (geo)) and factor analysis and soil microbial community structure were applied to assess the spatial variability and evaluate the influence of revegetation on metals in the WLFZ. Geochemical approaches demonstrated the moderate pollutant of Cd, the slight pollutant of Hg, and four types of pollutant sources including industrial and domestic wastewater, natural rock weathering, traffic exhaust, and crustal materials in the WLFZ. Our results also demonstrated significantly lower concentrations for elements of As, Cd, Pb, Zn, and Mn in the revegetation area. Moreover, soil microbial community structure failed to monitor the heavy metal pollution in such a relatively clean area. Our results suggest that revegetation plays an important role in controlling heavy metal pollution in the WLFZ of the Three Gorges Reservoir, China.

  14. Concentrations, spatial distribution, and risk assessment of soil heavy metals in a Zn-Pb mine district in southern China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qi, Jianying; Zhang, Hailong; Li, Xiangping; Lu, Jian; Zhang, Gaosheng

    2016-07-01

    China is one of the largest producers and consumers of lead and zinc in the world. Lead and zinc mining and smelting can release hazardous heavy metals such as Cd, Pb, Zn, and As into soils, exerting health risks to human by chronic exposure. The concentrations of Cd, Zn, Pb, and As in soil samples collected from a Pb-Zn mining area with exploitation history of 60 years were investigated. Health risks of the heavy metals in soil were evaluated using US Environmental Protection Agency (US EPA) recommended method. A geo-statistical technique (Kriging) was used for the interpolation of heavy metals pollution and Hazard Index (HI). The results indicated that the long-term Pb/Zn mining activities caused the serious pollution in the local soil. The concentrations of Cd, As, Pb, and Zn in topsoil were 40.3 ± 6.3, 103.7 ± 37.3, 3518.4 ± 896.1, and 10,413 ± 2973.2 mg/kg dry weight, respectively. The spatial distribution of the four metals possessed similar patterns, with higher concentrations around Aayiken (AYK), Maseka (MSK), and Kuangshan (KS) area and more rapidly dropped concentrations at upwind direction than those at downwind direction. The main pollutions of Cd and Zn were found in the upper 60 cm, the Pb was found in the upper 40 cm, and the As was in the upper 20 cm. The mobility of metals in soil profile of study area was classed as Cd > Zn ≫ Pb > As. Results indicated that there was a higher health risk (child higher than adult) in the study area. Pb contributed to the highest Hazard Quotient (57.0 ~ 73.9 %) for the Hazard Index.

  15. Assessment of toxic interactions of heavy metals in binary mixtures: A statistical approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ince; Dirilgen; Apikyan; Tezcanli; Ustun

    1999-05-01

    Toxicity of zinc, copper, cobalt, and chromium ions and their binary interactions were studied at varying test levels by using a battery of two tests, Microtox and duckweed with Vibrio fisheri and Lemna minor as test organisms, respectively. The type of toxic interaction at each test combination was assessed by a statistical approach based on testing the null hypothesis of "additive toxicity" at 95% confidence level. The interactions were called "antagonistic," "additive," or "synergistic" in accordance with the statistical significance and the sign of the difference between the tested hypothesis and the value of the observed toxicity at the binary test level concerned. In the majority of the combinations studied by the two bioassays, the interactions were of antagonistic nature. Additive toxicity was the next frequently predicted interaction in both test results, the frequency being much higher in Microtox responses than in those of duckweed. Finally, synergism was found to be a rare interaction in Microtox results, but totally unlikely in duckweed within the selected test combinations.

  16. Heavy Metal Contamination of Popular Nail Polishes in Iran

    OpenAIRE

    Golnaz Karimi; Parisa Ziarati

    2015-01-01

    Background: Toxic and hazardous heavy metals like arsenic, lead, mercury, zinc, chromium and iron are found in a variety of personal care products, e.g. lipstick, whitening toothpaste, eyeliner and nail color. The nails absorb the pigments of nail polishes and vaporized or soluble metals can easily pass it. The goal of this survey was to assess whether the different colors of nail polishes comply with maximum concentrations of heavy metals in the EPA’s guidelines. Methods: 150 samples of d...

  17. Human health risk assessment of heavy metals via consumption of contaminated vegetables collected from different irrigation sources in Lahore, Pakistan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adeel Mahmood

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Soil pollution with heavy metals due to discharge of untreated urban and industrial wastewater is a major threat to ecological integrity and human well-being. The presenting study aimed to determine human health risks associated via food chain contamination of heavy metals routing from irrigation of urban and industrial wastewater. Irrigated water, soil and vegetables were analyzed for Cr2+, Co2+, Ni2+, Cu2+, Pb2+, Cd2+, Mn2+ and Zn2+; transfer factor (TF, daily intake of metals (DIM and health risk index (HRI were also calculated. Cr2+, Pb2+ and Cd2+ in vegetables cultivated by wastewater exceeded the permissible limits (European Union, 2002 while TF was lower for all metals except Co2+ and HRI was found to be maximum for Spinacia oleracea (2.42 mg/kg and Brassica campestris (2.22 mg/kg cultivated by wastewater. S. oleracea, B. campestris, Coriandrum sativum posed a severe health risk with respect to Cd and Mn.

  18. Risk Assessment of Heavy Metals Pollution in Agricultural Soils of Siling Reservoir Watershed in Zhejiang Province, China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Naveedullah

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Presence of heavy metals in agriculture soils above the permissible limit poses threats to public health. In this study, concentrations of seven metals were determined in agricultural soils from Yuhang county, Zhejiang, China. Multivariate statistical approaches were used to study the variation of metals in soils during summer and winter seasons. Contamination of soils was evaluated on the basis of enrichment factor (EF, geoaccumulation index (Igeo, contamination factor (Cf, and degree of contamination (Cdeg. Heavy metal concentrations were observed higher in winter as compared to summer season. Cr and Cd revealed random distribution with diverse correlations in both seasons. Principal component analysis and cluster analysis showed significant anthropogenic intrusions of Zn, Cd, Pb, Cr, and Cu in the soils. Enrichment factor revealed significant enrichment (EF>5 of Zn, Cd, and Pb, whereas geoaccumulation index and contamination factor exhibited moderate to high contamination for Zn, Cr, Cd, and Pb. In light of the studied parameters, permissible limit to very high degree of contamination (Cdeg>16 was observed in both seasons.

  19. Sources of heavy metals in surface sediments and an ecological risk assessment from two adjacent Plateau reservoirs.

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    Binbin Wu

    Full Text Available The concentrations of heavy metals (mercury (Hg, cadmium (Cd, lead (Pb, chromium (Cr, copper (Cu and arsenic (As in surface water and sediments were investigated in two adjacent drinking water reservoirs (Hongfeng and Baihua Reservoirs on the Yunnan-Guizhou Plateau in Southwest China. Possible pollution sources were identified by spatial and statistical analyses. For both reservoirs, Cd was most likely from industrial activities, and As was from lithogenic sources. For the Hongfeng Reservoir, Pb, Cr and Cu might have originated from mixed sources (traffic pollution and residual effect of former industrial practices, and the sources of Hg included the inflows, which were different for the North (industrial activities and South (lithogenic origin Lakes, and atmospheric deposition resulting from coal combustion. For the Baihua Reservoir, the Hg, Cr and Cu were primarily derived from industrial activities, and the Pb originated from traffic pollution. The Hg in the Baihua Reservoir might also have been associated with coal combustion pollution. An analysis of ecological risk using sediment quality guidelines showed that there were moderate toxicological risks for sediment-dwelling organisms in both reservoirs, mainly from Hg and Cr. Ecological risk analysis using the Hakanson index suggested that there was a potential moderate to very high ecological risk to humans from fish in both reservoirs, mainly because of elevated levels of Hg and Cd. The upstream Hongfeng Reservoir acts as a buffer, but remains an important source of Cd, Cu and Pb and a moderately important source of Cr, for the downstream Baihua Reservoir. This study provides a replicable method for assessing aquatic ecosystem health in adjacent plateau reservoirs.

  20. Poisoning of domestic animals with heavy metals

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    Velev Romel

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available The term heavy metal refers to a metal that has a relatively high density and is toxic for animal and human organism at low concentrations. Heavy metals are natural components of the Earth's crust. They cannot be degraded or destroyed. To a small extent they enter animal organism via food, drinking water and air. Some heavy metals (e.g cooper, iron, chromium, zinc are essential in very low concentrations for the survival of all forms of life. These are described as essential trace elements. However, when they are present in greater quantities, like the heavy metals lead, cadmium and mercury which are already toxic in very low concentrations, they can cause metabolic anomalies or poisoning. Heavy metal poisoning of domestic animals could result, for instance, from drinking-water contamination, high ambient air concentrations near emission sources, or intake via the food chain. Heavy metals are dangerous because they tend to bioaccumulate in a biological organism over time. Manifestation of toxicity of individual heavy metals varies considerably, depending on dose and time of exposure, species, gender and environmental and nutritional factors. Large differences exist between the effects of a single exposure to a high concentration, and chronic exposures to lower doses. The aim of this work is to present the source of poisoning and toxicity of some heavy metals (lead, mercury, cadmium, thallium, arsenic, as well as new data about effects of those heavy metals on the health of domestic animals. .

  1. Biomolecules for removal of heavy metal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, Namita Ashish

    2017-02-23

    Heavy metals are natural constituents of the earth's crust, but some heavy metals like cadmium, lead, mercury, arsenic etc. are injurious to living organisms at higher concentration. Nowadays, anthropogenic activities have altered geochemical cycles and biochemical balance of heavy metals. Biomolecules are used nowadays for removal of heavy metals compared to other synthetic biosorbents due to their environmental friendly nature and cost effectiveness. The goal of this work is to review research work and patents related to adsorption through biomolecules like polysaccharides, polypeptides, lignin etc. and bio-sorption by biological material that are used for heavy metal removal. Biomolecules are cost effective and there have been significant progresses in the remediation of heavy metals but, still there are some problems that need to be rectified for its application at industrial processes.

  2. Assessment of Heavy-Metal Pollution in Sediments and Tilapia Fish Species in Kafue River of Zambia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mbewe, Gezile; Mutondo, Moola; Maseka, Kenneth; Sichilongo, Kwenga

    2016-10-01

    We report results from an evaluation of the levels of heavy metals, i.e., copper (Cu), cadmium (Cd), lead (Pb), nickel (Ni), manganese (Mn), chromium (Cr), and iron (Fe) in sediment and tilapia fish samples from a wide stretch of the Kafue river of Zambia. In sediment samples, the highest Pb and Fe concentrations were recorded at Hippo Dam, i.e., 36.2 ± 0.1 mg/kg dw and 733 ± 37 mg/kg dw at Kafue Town, respectively. Other notably high metal concentrations in sediment were Cr at Kafue Bridge (42.5 ± 0.1 mg/kg dw [dw]), Cu at Mpongwe (233 ± 5 mg/kg dw), and Mn at Kafue Town (133 ± 1 mg/kg dw); it was highest at Ithezi Tezhi Dam at 166 ± 1 mg/kg d. Three fish species, i.e., three-spot bream Tilapia andersonii, red-breasted bream T. rendalli, and nile tilapia Oreochromis niloticus were evaluated for levels of the seven metals. The concentrations of the metals in these fish species afforded estimation of the biota sediment-accumulation factor, which is the ratio of the concentration of the metal in liver to that in the sediment. The coefficients of condition (K) values, which give an indication of the health of the fish, were also estimated. The K values ranged from 2.5 ± 0.5 to 5.1 ± 0.6 in all of the three fish species. Partial least squares analysis showed that heavy metals are generally sequestered evenly in all of the parts of all of the three fish species except for elevated levels of Mn, Cd, and Pb in the liver samples.

  3. Heavy Metals Accumulation Characteristics of Vegetables in Hangzhou City, China

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    GU Yan-qing

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available A field survey of heavy metal concentrations in soils and vegetables grown in 30 vegetable farmlands of Hangzhou City were carried out. Through calculating the bioconcentration factor(BCFand transfer factor(TFfor different heavy metals(Cu, Zn, Cd, Cr and Pbin 27 kinds of different vegetables which belong to leafy vegetables, root vegetables or eggplant fruit vegetables, assessing their accumulation characteristics of heavy metals according to the differences of the bio-concentration factor, the reasonable proposals were put forward to optimize the planting structure of vegetables in mild and middle-level heavy metal contamination soils. The experimental results were as follows: In soils with mild and middle-level heavy metal contamination, leafy vegetables, such as crown daisy, cabbage, celery and Chinese long cabbage, had relatively low enrichment ability of heavy metals, so as the root and fruit vegetables like white radish, carrot, tomatoes, hence these vegetables could be planted preferentially. In contrast, some kinds of vegetables, including white amaranth, red amaranth, tatsoi, broccoli, gynura, brassica juncea and lettuce of leafy vegetables, lactuca sativa, taro, red radish and cherry radish of rhizome vegetables and sweet pepper of fruit vegetables, had relatively high accumulation ability of heavy metal, which should be avoided to be planted in soils with mild and middle-level heavy metal contamination.

  4. Bioremediation of heavy metals using biostimulation in laboratory bioreactor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fulekar, M H; Sharma, Jaya; Tendulkar, Akalpita

    2012-12-01

    The present research study investigates bioremediation potential of biostimulated microbial culture isolated from heavy metals waste disposal contaminated site located at Bhayander (east), Mumbai, India. The physicochemical and microbial characterization including heavy metal contaminants have been studied at waste disposal site. The microorganisms adapted at heavy metal-contaminated environment were isolated, cultured, and biostimulated in minimal salt medium under aerobic conditions in a designed and developed laboratory bioreactor. Heavy metals such as Fe, Cu, and Cd at a selected concentration of 25, 50, and 100 μg/ml were taken in bioreactor wherein biostimulated microbial culture was added for bioremediation of heavy metals under aerobic conditions. The remediation of heavy metals was studied at an interval of 24 h for a period of 21 days. The biostimulated microbial consortium has been found effective for remediation of Cd, Cu, and Fe at higher concentration, i.e., 100 mg/l up to 98.5%, 99.6%, and 100%, respectively. Fe being a micronutrient was remediated completely compared to Cu and Cd. During the bioaccumulation of heavy metals by microorganisms, environmental parameters such as pH, total alkalinity, electronic conductivity, biological oxygen demand, chemical oxygen demand, etc. were monitored and assessed. The pilot scale study would be applicable to remediate heavy metals from waste disposal contaminated site to clean up the environment.

  5. Comparison of single extraction procedures and the application of an index for the assessment of heavy metal bioavailability in river sediments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sakan, Sanja; Popović, Aleksandar; Škrivanj, Sandra; Sakan, Nenad; Đorđević, Dragana

    2016-11-01

    Metals in sediments are present in different chemical forms which affect their ability to transfer. The objective of this body of work was to compare different extraction methods for the bioavailability evaluation of some elements, such as Ba, Cd, Co, Cr, Cu, Fe, K, Mg, Mn, Ni, Pb, V and Zn from Serbian river sediments. A bioavailability risk assessment index (BRAI) was used for the quantification of heavy metal bioavailability in the sediments. Actual and potential element availability was assessed by single extractions with mild (CaCl2 and CH3COONH4) and acidic (CH3COOH) extractants and complexing agents (EDTA). Aqua regia extraction was used for the determination of the pseudo-total element content in river sediments. In different single extraction tests, higher extraction of Cd, Cu, Zn and Pb was observed than for the other elements. The results of the single extraction tests revealed that there is a considerable chance of metal leaching from the sediments assessed in this study. When the BRAI was applied, the results showed a high risk of heavy metal bioavailability in Serbian river sediments.

  6. Assessment of heavy metal flows in animal husbandry and development of a stategy to reduce heavy metal inputs into agro-ecosystems by animal manures; Erfassung von Schwermetallstroemen in landwirtschaftlichen Tierproduktionsbetrieben und Erarbeitung einer Konzeption zur Verringerung der Schwermetalleintraege durch Wirtschaftsduenger tierischer Herkunft in Agraroekosysteme

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schultheiss, U.; Doehler, H.; Roth, U.; Eckel, H.; Goldbach, H.; Kuehnen, V.; Wilcke, W.; Uihlein, A.; Fruechtenicht, K.; Steffens, G.

    2004-07-01

    The overall objectives of the project were to assess heavy metal flows on livestock farms and to develop a strategy to reduce heavy metal inputs into animal manures. For the experiments 20 farms with animal husbandry in various regions of Germany were selected. On the farms the inputs and outputs of the elements copper and zinc, as well as lead, cadmium, chromium and nickel were balanced at the stable level. The effect of abatement measures was evaluated using a calculation tool for stable balances. It is shown, the main input pathways for heavy metals into animal manures are, apart from copper disinfectants, feeding stuffs and feed supplements. Home grown feeds are the major source of heavy metal input into the stable because they are fed in large quantities. However, the heavy metal content of the home grown feeds in particular of roughages for ruminants is low. Purchased feed stuffs (supplementary feeding stuffs and complete feeding stuffs) were found to have a higher content of heavy metals (due to supplementation with trace elements) compared to home grown feeds. Thus, pig and poultry husbandry rather than ruminant husbandry is susceptible to heavy metal accumulation of manures. Heavy metals are cycling within the farm which is of importance when discussing the environmental impact. The turnover within the farm can hardly be controlled by the farmer. Thus, effective strategies have to be targeted at the inputs, e. g. the purchased feed stuffs. A main option to reduce the heavy metal input is to lower the trace element concentrations in supplementary feed stuffs either by legislation of maximum threshold values (e. g. EG 1334/2003) or by volunteer agreements of the feed industry and agriculture. In addition, the absorption of copper and zinc by the animals should be improved using better absorbable trace element compounds and phytase. (orig.)

  7. Total and available heavy metal concentrations in soils of the Thriassio plain (Greece) and assessment of soil pollution indexes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Massas, Ioannis; Kalivas, Dionisios; Ehaliotis, Constantions; Gasparatos, Dionisios

    2013-08-01

    The Thriassio plain is located 25 km west of Athens city, the capital of Greece. Two major towns (Elefsina and Aspropyrgos), heavy industry plants, medium to large-scale manufacturing, logistics plants, and agriculture comprise the main land uses of the studied area. The aim of the present study was to measure the total and available concentrations of Cr, Zn, Ni, Pb, Co, Mn, Ba, Cu, and Fe in the top soils of the plain, and to asses soil contamination by these metals by using the geoaccumulation index (I geo), the enrichment factor (EF), and the availability ratio (AR) as soil pollution indexes. Soil samples were collected from 90 sampling sites, and aqua regia and DTPA extractions were carried out to determine total and available metal forms, respectively. Median total Cr, Zn, Ni, Pb, Co, Mn, Ba, Cu, and Fe concentrations were 78, 155, 81, 112, 24, 321, 834, 38, and 16 × 10(3) mg kg(-1), respectively. The available fractions showed much lower values with medians of 0.4, 5.6, 1.7, 6.9, 0.8, 5.7, 19.8, 2.1, and 2.9 mg kg(-1). Though median total metal concentrations are not considered as particularly high, the I geo and the EF values indicate moderate to heavy soil enrichment. For certain metals such as Cr, Ni, Cu, and Ba, the different distribution patterns between the EFs and the ARs suggest different origin of the total and the available metal forms. The evaluation of the EF and AR data sets for the soils of the two towns further supports the argument that the EFs can well demonstrate the long-term history of soil pollution and that the ARs can adequately portray the recent history of soil pollution.

  8. Reducing hazardous heavy metal ions using mangium bark waste.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khabibi, Jauhar; Syafii, Wasrin; Sari, Rita Kartika

    2016-08-01

    The objective of this study was to evaluate the characteristics of mangium bark and its biosorbent ability to reduce heavy metal ions in standard solutions and wastewater and to assess changes in bark characteristics after heavy metal absorption. The experiments were conducted to determine heavy metal absorption from solutions of heavy metals alone and in mixtures as well as from wastewater. The results show that mangium bark can absorb heavy metals. Absorption percentages and capacities from single heavy metal solutions showed that Cu(2+) > Ni(2+) > Pb(2+) > Hg(2+), while those from mixture solutions showed that Hg(2+) > Cu(2+) > Pb(2+) > Ni(2+). Wastewater from gold mining only contained Cu, with an absorption percentage and capacity of 42.87 % and 0.75 mg/g, respectively. The highest absorption percentage and capacity of 92.77 % and 5.18 mg/g, respectively, were found for Hg(2+) in a mixture solution and Cu(2+) in single-metal solution. The Cu(2+) absorption process in a single-metal solution changed the biosorbent characteristics of the mangium bark, yielding a decreased crystalline fraction; changed transmittance on hydroxyl, carboxyl, and carbonyl groups; and increased the presence of Cu. In conclusion, mangium bark biosorbent can reduce hazardous heavy metal ions in both standard solutions and wastewater.

  9. Assessment of radioactive materials and heavy metals in the surface soil around uranium mining area of Tongliao, China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haribala; Hu, Bitao; Wang, Chengguo; Gerilemandahu; Xu, Xiao; Zhang, Shuai; Bao, Shanhu; Li, Yuhong

    2016-08-01

    Natural and artificial radionuclides and heavy metals in the surface soil of the uranium mining area of Tongliao, China, were measured using gamma spectrometry, flame atomic absorption spectrophotometry, graphite furnace atomic absorption spectrophotometry and microwave dissolution atomic fluorescence spectrometry respectively. The estimated average activity concentrations of (238)U, (232)Th, (226)Ra, (40)K and (137)Cs are 27.53±16.01, 15.89±5.20, 12.64±4.27, 746.84±38.24 and 4.23±4.76Bq/kg respectively. The estimated average absorbed dose rate in the air and annual effective dose rate are 46.58±5.26nGy/h and 57.13±6.45μSv, respectively. The radium equivalent activity, external and internal hazard indices were also calculated and their mean values are within the acceptable limits. The heavy metal concentrations of Pb, Cd, Cu, Zn, Hg and As from the surface soil were measured and their health risks were then determined. Although the content of Cd is much higher than the average background in China, its non-cancer and cancer risk indices are all within the acceptable ranges. These calculated hazard indices to estimate the potential radiological health risk in soil and the dose rate are well below their permissible limit. In addition the correlations between the radioactivity concentrations of the radionuclides and the heavy metals in soil were determined by the Pearson linear coefficient.

  10. An Assessment of Water Quality of Gomati River Particular Relevant To Physicochemical Characteristics, Pesticide And Heavy Metal

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    Purushottam Trivedi,

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available The study was carried out to determine physicochemical characteristics, residues of pesticide and heavy metals in water of Gomati River in Lucknow to understand its ecology. In this study the water samples were collected from 5 different locations from upstream to downstream of Lucknow from all three sites i.e, right, middle and left. Analyte including organochlorine pesticide (OCP’s and herbicides (H α-HCH, β-HCH, γ-HCH, δ-HCH, op-DDT, pp-DDT, pp-DDE, op-DDE, op-DDD, pp-DDD, α- endosulfan, β-endosulfan, endosulfan SO4, dicofol, heptachlor, alachlor, atrazine, butachlor, pendimethalin and heavy metals Pb, Cu, Cd, Cr, Fe, Mn, Zn, Ni were analysed. The method for pesticide residues was based on d-SPE. The quantification was done by GC-ECD and confirmation by GC-MS/MS. Heavy metals were analysed by AAS.The results revealed that river water was contaminated with HCH, DDT, alachlor, heptachlor and butachlor at hanuman sethu and gomati bairaj which may contribute to toxicity in the ecosystem of the river. The recovery ranged from 76.6 to 96.2 %, with relative standard deviations below 14%. The results revealed that river water was contaminated with ∑HCH (ND - 0.024 μg/ml, endosulfan (ND - 0.127 μg/ml, dicofol (ND - 0.041 μg/ml, alachlor (ND - 0.035 μg/ml, heptachlor (ND - 0.107 μg/ml and butachlor (ND - 0.135 μg/ml which may contribute to toxicity in the ecosystem of river. The heavy metals found in river water were in range: Cu (0.004 - 0.016 μg/ml; Fe (0.554 - 1.179 μg/ml; Mn (0.044 - 0.112 μg/ml; Pb (0.167 - 0.327 μg/ml and Zn (0.046 - 0.168 μg/ml. The physicochemical parameter; pH (6.8 - 7.5, electrical conductivity (0.533 - 0.764 ms/cm, total dissolved solids (202 - 388 mg/l, chloride (17.99 - 35.98 mg/l were recorded. The water quality has been found unsafe for civil consumption. The higher level of pollutants polluting water quality of river are disturbing the ecology of river and affecting human health directly and

  11. Quantification of map similarity to magnetic pre-screening for heavy metal pollution assessment in top soil

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cao, L.; Appel, E.; Roesler, W.; Ojha, G.

    2013-12-01

    From numerous published results, the link between magnetic concentration and heavy metal (HM) concentrations is well established. However, bivariate correlation analysis does not imply causality, and if there are extreme values, which often appear in magnetic data, they can lead to seemingly excellent correlation. It seems clear that site selection for chemical sampling based on magnetic pre-screening can deliver a superior result for outlining HM pollution, but this conclusion has only been drawn from qualitative evaluation so far. In this study, we use map similarity comparison techniques to demonstrate the usefulness of a combined magnetic-chemical approach quantitatively. We chose available data around the 'Schwarze Pumpe', a large coal burning power plant complex located in eastern Germany. The site of 'Schwarze Pumpe' is suitable for a demonstration study as soil in its surrounding is heavy fly-ash polluted, the magnetic natural background is very low, and magnetic investigations can be done in undisturbed forest soil. Magnetic susceptibility (MS) of top soil was measured by a Bartington MS2D surface sensor at 180 locations and by a SM400 downhole device in ~0.5m deep vertical sections at 90 locations. Cores from the 90 downhole sites were also studied for HM analysis. From these results 85 sites could be used to determine a spatial distribution map of HM contents reflecting the 'True' situation of pollution. Different sets comprising 30 sites were chosen by arbitrarily selection from the above 85 sample sites (we refer to four such maps here: S1-4). Additionally, we determined a 'Targeted' map from 30 sites selected on the basis of the pre-screening MS results. The map comparison process is as follows: (1) categorization of all absolute values into five classes by the Natural Breaks classification method; (2) use Delaunay triangulation for connecting the sample locations in the x-y plane; (3) determination of a distribution map of triangular planes with

  12. MICROBIAL REMOVAL OF HEAVY METALS FROM WASTEWATER

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    Justyna Koc-Jurczyk

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Industrialization and urbanization result in increase of heavy metals released into the environment (soil, lakes, rivers, seas, oceans, groundwater. Studies on biosorption of heavy metals are aimed to specify types of microorganisms which could efficiently bind metals. This approach has a very important significance for both slowing down metals exploitation by recovery, and also reduction of environmental pollution by decrease of their excessive concentration. Recent studies have reported about the capabilities of fungi, algae, yeasts, bacteria, waste and agricultural residues or materials containing chitosan derived from crustacean shells as a biosorbents. Biohydrometallurgy could be considered as a new “green” technology of heavy metals removal from wastewater.

  13. Heavy metal adsorption of Streptomyces chromofuscus K101

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Said Mohamed Daboor; Amany Mohamed Haroon; Neven Abd Elfatah Esmael; Slah Ibrahem Hanona

    2014-01-01

    Objective:To find the best actinomycete that has potential application value in the heavy metal remediation due to its special morphological and physiological metabolism. Methods: In some areas of River Nile, Egypt, a total of 67 actinomycete isolates (17 isolates from surface water and 50 from sediment) were identified. In addition, the studied area was characterized by a large amount of submerged macrophyte species Ceratophyllum demersum, one free floating species Eichhornia crassipes and two emergent species Polygonum tomentosum and Saccharum spontaneum with the highest biomass production values. Many methods are used in this research like qualitative evaluation of heavy metals, minimum inhibitory concentration of heavy metal determination, metal binding assay, heavy metal assessment, etc. Results: Many actinomycetes isolates were isolated from River Nile, Egypt, the absorbent efficiency of one isolate Streptomyces chromofuscusK101 showed the most efficient metal binding activity. The adsorption process of Zn2+, Pb2+and Fe2+single or mixture metal ions was investigated, where the order of adsorption potential ( Zn2+>Pb2+>Fe2+ ) was observed in single metal reaction. The adsorption in mixed metal reactions was the same order as in single-metal ion with a significant decrease in Fe2+and Pb2+adsorption. Conclusions: In conclusion the metal adsorption reactions were very fast, pH dependent and culture age-independent, suggestive of a physicochemical reaction between cell wall components and heavy metal ions. The absorbent removal efficiency was determined as a function of ion concentration, pH and temperature.

  14. Differential responses of sweetpotato peroxidases to heavy metals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Yun-Hee; Lee, Haeng-Soon; Kwak, Sang-Soo

    2010-09-01

    Oxidative stress is one of the major causes of damage in plants exposed to different types of environmental stress, including heavy metals. Accumulation of heavy metals in plants can disrupt many cellular functions and plant growth. To assess the contribution of oxidative stress to heavy metal toxicity in plants, young sweetpotato plants (Ipomoea batatas) were treated with increasing concentrations of Cd, Cu and Zn, and grown in half Murashige and Skoog nutrient solution culture. Plant growth was significantly inhibited and internal metal content was increased in a dose-dependent manner for each metal. The generation of H(2)O(2) in leaves and fibrous roots correlated positively with metal dose. The specific activity of peroxidases (PODs) in fibrous roots was markedly enhanced by metal treatment, whereas in leaves, activity was low and only slightly affected by metal treatment. Analysis of 13 POD genes revealed differential expression of PODs in response to heavy metals. Several genes for acidic PODs (swpa2, swpa3 and swpa4) and basic PODs (swpb1, swpb3 and swpab4) were strongly expressed under all metal treatment conditions in leaves or fibrous roots. The expression of swpa1 was increased in leaves and fibrous roots by Cd and Cu treatment, whereas swpb5 expression was reduced by all metals in fibrous roots. These results indicate that increased H(2)O(2) levels in response to heavy metal stress are closely linked to an improved antioxidant defense capability mediated by POD.

  15. Biomarkers of oxidative stress in rat for assessing toxicological effects of heavy metal pollution in river water.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reddy, Utkarsh A; Prabhakar, P V; Rao, G Sankara; Rao, Pasham Rajasekhar; Sandeep, K; Rahman, M F; Kumari, S Indu; Grover, Paramjit; Khan, Haseeb A; Mahboob, M

    2015-09-01

    Increasing use of heavy metals in various fields, their environmental persistency, and poor regulatory efforts have significantly increased their fraction in river water. We studied the effect of Musi river water pollution on oxidative stress biomarkers and histopathology in rat after 28 days repeated oral treatment. River water analysis showed the presence of Zn and Pb at mg/l concentration and Ag, As, Ba, Cd, Co, Cr, Cu, Mn, Mo, Ni, Sn, and Sb at μg/l concentration. River water treatment resulted in a dose-dependent accumulation of metals in rat organs, being more in liver followed by kidney and brain. Metal content in both control and low-dose group rat organs was below limit of detection. However, metal bioaccumulation in high- and medium-dose group organs as follows: liver-Zn (21.4 & 14.5 μg/g), Cu (8.3 & 3.6 μg/g), and Pb (8.2 & 0.4 μg/g); kidney-Zn (16.2 & 7.9 μg/g), Cu (3.5 & 1.4 μg/g), Mn (2.9 & 0.5 μg/g), and Pb (2.6 & 0.5 μg/g); and brain-Zn (2.4 & 1.1 μg/g), and Ni (1 & 0.3 μg/g). These metals were present at high concentrations in respective organs than other metals. The increased heavy metal concentration in treated rat resulted significant increase in superoxide dismutase, glutathione peroxidase, glutathione reductase, glutathione S transferase enzymes activity, and lipid peroxidation in a dose-dependent manner. However, glutathione content and catalase activity were significantly decreased in treated rat organs. Histopathological examination also confirmed morphological changes in rat organs due to polluted river water treatment. In conclusion, the findings of this study clearly indicate the oxidative stress condition in rat organs due to repeated oral treatment of polluted Musi river water.

  16. Contamination level, distribution and health risk assessment of heavy and toxic metallic and metalloid elements in a cultivated mushroom Pleurotus florida (Mont.) singer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khani, Rouhollah; Moudi, Maryam; Khojeh, Vahid

    2016-12-15

    There are great concentrations of toxic metallic and metalloid elements such as lead, arsenic, mercury, cadmium or silver in many species of mushrooms comparative to other fruits and vegetables. In this study, contamination with heavy and toxic metallic and metalloid elements in the cultivated mushroom of (Pleurotus florida (Mont.) Singer) is investigated. P. florida was cultivated on different substrates; wheat straw (as blank), wheat straw + pine cone, wheat straw + soybean straw and wheat straw + urea and the effects of these substrates on contamination levels of Mn, Fe, Cu, Zn, As, Cd, and Pb were analyzed. The results showed that the concentrations of essential elements (Mn, Fe, Cu, and Zn) in the target mushroom are at the typical levels. The estimated daily intakes of studied metallic and metalloid elements were below their oral reference dosage mentioned by the international regulatory bodies. Health risk index (HRI) was calculated to evaluate the consumer's health risk assessment from the metal intake that contaminated in the cultivated mushroom of P. florida on the different nutrient sources. In this study, the individual HRIs were less than 1, which indicates insignificant potential health risk associated with the consumption of target mushroom from the studied substrates. Based on the HRIs values among the toxic metallic and metalloid elements, As in the target mushroom in the substrate of the wheat straw + pine cone is the main sources of risk, and it may cause severe health problems. Thus, this study suggests that the concentrations of heavy and toxic elements should be periodically monitored in cultivated mushrooms.

  17. Assessment of heavy metal pollution in sediments from Xiangjiang River (China) using sequential extraction and lead isotope analysis

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    蒋博峰; 孙卫玲

    2014-01-01

    The heavy metal (such as Cr, Ni, Cu, Cd, Pb, and Zn) concentration, speciation, and pollution source in 43 sediment samples from the Xiangjiang River were investigated using sequential extraction combined with Pb isotope analysis. Cu, Cd, Pb, and Zn concentrations are higher than their background values, while Cr and Ni concentrations are close to those. Sequential extraction demonstrates that heavy metals have different fractions, showing different bioavailabilities. Thew(206Pb)/w(207Pb) ratio increases with decreasing bioavailability in the order of exchangeable

  18. Assessment of human health risk for heavy metals in fish and shrimp collected from Subarnarekha river, India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giri, Soma; Singh, Abhay Kumar

    2014-01-01

    Five fish species and one shrimp species from the Subarnarekha river were analyzed for heavy metals using inductively coupled plasma-mass spectrometry. The geometric mean concentration of As, Cd, Cu, Fe, Pb, Ni, Zn, Cr, Co, and Sr for all the samples was found to be 0.248, 0.031, 5.16, 104.9, 0.121, 4.68, 52.2, 0.784, 0.207, and 42.86 mg kg(-1)fresh, respectively. The concentrations of metals in the fish and shrimp exceed the limits of Indian and FAO standards for food for As, Cu, Ni, Cd, and Zn in many samples. The mean target hazard quotient (THQ) values for the 10 metals were below one for all the samples; however, the maximum THQ was more than one for shrimp in case of As, Cu, and Cr. The results indicate that the concentration of metals in some species, especially shrimp, at some locations is alarming and do present an appreciable hazard risk on human health.

  19. Use of Sediment Quality Guidelines and pollution indicators for the assessment of heavy metal and PAH contamination in Greek surficial sea and lake sediments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hahladakis, John; Smaragdaki, Eleftheria; Vasilaki, Georgia; Gidarakos, Evangelos

    2013-03-01

    Eight different surface sediment samples (K1-K8) were collected from two separate areas of Lake Koumoundourou and two samples (E1 and E2) from one area of Elefsis Bay, Athens, Greece. The level of pollution attributed to heavy metals was evaluated using several pollution indicators. Degree of Contamination, Modified Contamination Degree and Geoaccumulation Indexes were applied in order to determine and assess the anthropogenic contribution of the selected six elements (Cr, Ni, Cu, Zn, As and Pb). Moreover, the adverse effects of the sediments to aquatic organisms, from both heavy metals and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs), were determined by using Sediment Quality Guidelines. The results indicated that Lake Koumoundourou is contaminated with heavy metals in a moderate degree and almost 50 % of the sediments are associated with frequent observation of adverse effects, when it comes to Ni and occasional observation of adverse effects, when it comes to Cu, Zn and Pb. As far as PAHs are concerned, around 60 % of the samples can be occasionally associated to toxic biological effects according to the effect-range classification for phenanthrene, benzo(a)anthracene, chrysene and pyrene. Finally, samples taken from the north side of the lake are more contaminated with PAHs than the ones taken from the east side probably due to the existence of the water barrier which acts as a reservoir of PAHs.

  20. Heavy Metal, Religiosity, and Suicide Acceptability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stack, Steven

    1998-01-01

    Reports on data taken from the General Social Survey that found a link between "heavy metal" rock fanship and suicide acceptability. Finds that relationship becomes nonsignificant once level of religiosity is controlled. Heavy metal fans are low in religiosity, which contributes to greater suicide acceptability. (Author/JDM)

  1. Heavy Metal Music and Adolescent Suicidal Risk.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lacourse, Eric; Claes, Michel; Villeneuve, Martine

    2001-01-01

    Studied differentiating characteristics of youth who prefer heavy metal music, worship music, and use music for vicarious release. Data for 275 secondary school students suggest that heavy metal music preference and worshipping is not related to suicidal risk when controlling for other suicide factors. Discusses findings in the context of…

  2. Behaviour of heavy metals in soils

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Harmsen, K.

    1977-01-01

    Fractions of Zn, Cd, Cu, Pb, Fe and Mn extractable with water, a salt solution and dilute acid, and residual fractions were determined in soils with raised contents of heavy metals, near zinc smelters, along a river formerly discharging heavy metals, and in a sewage farm. Special attention was paid

  3. Heavy metals in packaging : a literature survey

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Putten EM; IMG

    2011-01-01

    The use of the heavy metals cadmium, mercury, chromium and lead in packaging is forbidden internationally for some years because these substances are harmful to the environment. In 2002 the Dutch national Inspectorate for the Environment determined the presence of heavy metals in packaging for consu

  4. Assessment o f Heavy Metal Contamination i n t he Abandoned Coal Wastes a t Okpara Mines i n Enugu, Southeastern Nigeria

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    Ezemokwe, D. E

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Twenty (20 samples taken from four large coal dumps from Okpara coal mines and twenty four (24 Soil samples from coal mine surroundings were used for this research. Impact of the coal dumps on soils and the environment were assessed by determination of the heavy metal concentrations such as Cadmium, Iron, Zinc, Copper, nickel, chromium, lead, arsenic, cobalt and manganese. Results revealed that all the heavy metals analyzed were present in all the samples. The heavy metal concentration sequence in coal wastes follows the order Fe > Ni > Cu> Mn > Cd > Pb > Co > Cr > Zn> As whereas the Enrichment Factor (EF shows Cd> Pb > Ni > Cu > As > Co > Zn > Cr> Fe > Mn. Results in this medium indicate high level of pollution by Cd and Pb with Health Risk Level (HRL of 3. Ni, Cu, Co and As moderately contaminated the environment. In the underlying Soil medium, the heavy metal concentration trend is in order Fe > Ni > Zn> Cd > Pb > Cr> Cu> Mn > Co > As and the (EF equivalent is in the order Cd > Pb > Ni > As > Zn > Co > Cr > Fe > Mn. Soil medium indicted high level of pollution by Cd and Pb with HRL of 5 and 4 respectively. Ni, As, Cu and Zn moderately polluted the environment. Co and Cu showed low level of pollution with HRL of 2.Soil PH ranged from 4.5 – 6.5 and averaged 5.01 indicating an acid nature. Generally, crops cannot grow or flourish in a polluted soil. Where some manage to grow, they may be poisonous enough to cause health problems to people consuming them.

  5. Assessing heavy metal pollution in the surface soils of a region that had undergone three decades of intense industrialization and urbanization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Yuanan; Liu, Xueping; Bai, Jinmei; Shih, Kaimin; Zeng, Eddy Y; Cheng, Hefa

    2013-09-01

    Heavy metals in the surface soils from lands of six different use types in one of the world's most densely populated regions, which is also a major global manufacturing base, were analyzed to assess the impact of urbanization and industrialization on soil pollution. A total of 227 surface soil samples were collected and analyzed for major heavy metals (As, Cd, Co, Cr, Cu, Fe, Hg, Mn, Ni, Pb, and Zn) by using microwave-assisted acid digestion and inductively coupled plasma-mass spectrometry (ICP-MS). Multivariate analysis combined with enrichment factors showed that surface soils from the region (>7.2 × 10(4) km(2)) had mean Cd, Cu, Zn, and As concentrations that were over two times higher than the background values, with Cd, Cu, and Zn clearly contributed by anthropogenic sources. Soil pollution by Pb was more widespread than the other heavy metals, which was contributed mostly by anthropogenic sources. The results also indicate that Mn, Co, Fe, Cr, and Ni in the surface soils were primarily derived from lithogenic sources, while Hg and As contents in the surface soils were controlled by both natural and anthropogenic sources. The pollution level and potential ecological risk of the surface soils both decreased in the order of: urban areas > waste disposal/treatment sites ∼ industrial areas > agricultural lands ∼ forest lands > water source protection areas. These results indicate the significant need for the development of pollution prevention and reduction strategies to reduce heavy metal pollution for regions undergoing fast industrialization and urbanization.

  6. Effect of heavy metals on soil fungi

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sosak-Świderska, Bożena

    2010-05-01

    Fungi constitute a high proportion of the microbial biomass in soil.Being widespread in soil their large surface-to-volume ratio and high metabolic activity, fungi can contribute significantly to heavy metal dynamics in soil. At neutral pH heavy metals in soils tend to be immobilized to precipitation and/or absorption to cation exchange sites of clay minerals. In the acidic soils, metals are more mobile and enter food webs easier. Microbial production of acids and chelating agents can mobilize to toxic metals. Mobilization is often by uptake and intracellular accumulation of the heavy metlas, and in this way, the bioavailability of metals towards other organisms can be more reduced. Fungi were isolated from soils from Upper Silesia in Poland and belonged to widespread genera: Aspergillus, Cladosporium, Penicillium and Trichoderma. Fungi from different taxonomic groups differ greatly in their tolerance to heavy metals. This could be related to their wall structure and chemistry as well as biochemical and physiological characteristics of fungi. Localization of metals in fungal cells was studied using electron microscopy analysis. Metal biosorption in the cell wall can be complex as melanin granules. Fungal vacuoles have an important role in the regulation of the cytosolic concentration of metal ions, and may contribute to heavy metal tolerance.In polluted soils with heavy metals, fungal species composition can be changed and their physiological activity can be changed, too.

  7. Public Health Risk Assessment of Heavy Metal Uptake by Vegetables Grown at a Waste-water-Irrigated Site in Dhaka, Bangladesh

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    Mohammad Shakhaoat Hossain

    2015-01-01

    Conclusions. Higher values in the metal pollution index and health risk index indicate heavy metal contamination in wastewater-irrigated soils that present the potential for a significant negative impact on human health.

  8. Assessment of some heavy metals in the tissues (gills, liver and muscle) of Clarias gariepinus from Calabar River, Cross River State, South-eastern Nigeria

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Akaninyene Paul Joseph; Victor Oscar Eyo; Andem BasseyAndem; Joseph Udo Idung

    2016-01-01

    Objective: To assess the pollution status of Calabar River in relation to the levels of heavy metal in the tissue of the African catfish [Clarias gariepinus (C. gariepinus)]. Methods: A total of 45 samples of C. gariepinus were purchased from fishermen on landing at Nsidung beach along Calabar River within three months (15 samples monthly) from June to August, 2014. The samples were then put into a cold box containing ice blocks immediately after buying from the fishermen. The fish samples were transported immediately to the Chemistry Laboratory, University of Calabar for digestion and heavy metal analysis. Portions of the muscle, gills and liver were removed from the fresh samples and oven dried at temperature of 120 °C to constant weight and digested using standard methods. The digested tissue portions were analyzed for lead, iron, manganese, cobalt, chromium and cadmium concentrations using atomic absorption spectrophotometer. Results: Mercury was not detected at all in the muscle, liver and gills of C. gariepinus. The mean ± SD of metals in liver of C. gariepinus were: (0.080 ± 0.014), (0.110 ± 0.014), (6.480 ± 1.279) and (0.295 ± 0.021) mg/kg for Cd, Cr, Fe and Mn, respectively. In the gills, heavy metals values were: (0.065 ± 0.021), (0.115 ± 0.035), (5.843 ± 0.558), and (0.345 ± 0.007) mg/kg for Cd, Cr, Fe and Mn, respectively. In the muscles, heavy metals values were (0.045 ± 0.021), (0.115 ± 0.353), (5.150 ± 1.075), and (0.187 ± 0.045) mg/kg for Cd, Cr, Fe and Mn, respectively. The general trend of metals accumulation in tissues of C. gariepinus showed a decreasing trend of Fe > Mn > Cr > Cd. Also, the metal accumulation in the three tissues showed a decreasing trend of liver > gills > muscle. Conclusions: The metal concentrations in the muscle, gills and liver of C. gariepinus were all below the World Health Organization acceptable range, and as such fishery resources from Calabar River are safe for consumption.

  9. Assessment of some heavy metals in the tissues (gills, liver and muscle of Clarias gariepinus from Calabar River, Cross River State, South-eastern Nigeria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Akaninyene Paul Joseph

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To assess the pollution status of Calabar River in relation to the levels of heavy metal in the tissue of the African catfish [Clarias gariepinus (C. gariepinus]. Methods: A total of 45 samples of C. gariepinus were purchased from fishermen on landing at Nsidung beach along Calabar River within three months (15 samples monthly from June to August, 2014. The samples were then put into a cold box containing ice blocks immediately after buying from the fishermen. The fish samples were transported immediately to the Chemistry Laboratory, University of Calabar for digestion and heavy metal analysis. Portions of the muscle, gills and liver were removed from the fresh samples and oven dried at temperature of 120 °C to constant weight and digested using standard methods. The digested tissue portions were analyzed for lead, iron, manganese, cobalt, chromium and cadmium concentrations using atomic absorption spectrophotometer. Results: Mercury was not detected at all in the muscle, liver and gills of C. gariepinus. The mean ± SD of metals in liver of C. gariepinus were: (0.080 ± 0.014, (0.110 ± 0.014, (6.480 ± 1.279 and (0.295 ± 0.021 mg/kg for Cd, Cr, Fe and Mn, respectively. In the gills, heavy metals values were: (0.065 ± 0.021, (0.115 ± 0.035, (5.843 ± 0.558, and (0.345 ± 0.007 mg/kg for Cd, Cr, Fe and Mn, respectively. In the muscles, heavy metals values were (0.045 ± 0.021, (0.115 ± 0.353, (5.150 ± 1.075, and (0.187 ± 0.045 mg/kg for Cd, Cr, Fe and Mn, respectively. The general trend of metals accumulation in tissues of C. gariepinus showed a decreasing trend of Fe > Mn > Cr > Cd. Also, the metal accumulation in the three tissues showed a decreasing trend of liver > gills > muscle. Conclusions: The metal concentrations in the muscle, gills and liver of C. gariepinus were all below the World Health Organization acceptable range, and as such fishery resources from Calabar River are safe for consumption.

  10. Study of Concentrations and Risk Assessment of Heavy Metals Resulting From the Consumption of Agriculture Product in Different Farms of Dayyer City, Bushehr

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    Hosein Arfaeinia

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Background: Accumulation of heavy metals and increasing their concentration and reaching them to the danger range can threaten human health by entering to food chain. Thus, continuous monitoring of pollutants consentration in agricultural products is important. So, the aim of this study was to investigate the heavy metals concentration and risk assessment resulting from them in agriculture product with two types of irrigation in farms of Dayyer city which is one of the counties in Boushehr province. Material and Methods: Samples of agriculture product were harvested in three in three categories vegetables included: leafy (lettuce, spinach, cabbage, tuber (onion, potato, and fruit (tomato, green pepper from farms of Dayyer city with two types of irrigation included River Water Irrigation (RWI( and Ground Water Irrigation (GWI. Totally 320 samples were analyzed by using (ICP-OES -Spectrum Arcos after acidic digestion steps and extraction of heavy metals from samples. Then, the obtained results were analyzed by diffrent equations and statistic softwares. Results: results showed that the concentrations of metals were 68.75 (47.71, 277.62 (196.12, 32.68 (18.31, 42.19 (17.09, 1.76 (0.87 and 12.04 (5.83 mg kg-1 for Zn, Mn, Cu, Cr, Cd and Pb in RWI (and GWI, respectively in irrigated farms with river water (farms irrigated by ground water. The concentration of heavy metals was significantly higher in the soil of farms which irrigated with river water than those which irrigated with ground water (P<0.05. Also, results showed that in farms which irrigated by ground water, the highest Target hazard quotient (THQ have been reported in spinach with mentioned values; Zn (0.1150, Cd (1.2846, Cu (0.2030 and Pb (1.9141. Conclusion: The findings of this study showed that the concentration of heavy metals in soil and agricultural products which irrigated with contaminated water with urban and industrial sewage was higher than soil and agricultural productswhich

  11. Microalgae - A promising tool for heavy metal remediation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suresh Kumar, K; Dahms, Hans-Uwe; Won, Eun-Ji; Lee, Jae-Seong; Shin, Kyung-Hoon

    2015-03-01

    Biotechnology of microalgae has gained popularity due to the growing need for novel environmental technologies and the development of innovative mass-production. Inexpensive growth requirements (solar light and CO2), and, the advantage of being utilized simultaneously for multiple technologies (e.g. carbon mitigation, biofuel production, and bioremediation) make microalgae suitable candidates for several ecofriendly technologies. Microalgae have developed an extensive spectrum of mechanisms (extracellular and intracellular) to cope with heavy metal toxicity. Their wide-spread occurrence along with their ability to grow and concentrate heavy metals, ascertains their suitability in practical applications of waste-water bioremediation. Heavy metal uptake by microalgae is affirmed to be superior to the prevalent physicochemical processes employed in the removal of toxic heavy metals. In order to evaluate their potential and to fill in the loopholes, it is essential to carry out a critical assessment of the existing microalgal technologies, and realize the need for development of commercially viable technologies involving strategic multidisciplinary approaches. This review summarizes several areas of heavy metal remediation from a microalgal perspective and provides an overview of various practical avenues of this technology. It particularly details heavy metals and microalgae which have been extensively studied, and provides a schematic representation of the mechanisms of heavy metal remediation in microalgae.

  12. Assessing heavy metal pollution in the recent bottom sediments of Mabahiss Bay, North Hurghada, Red Sea, Egypt.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Attia, Osama E A; Ghrefat, Habes

    2013-12-01

    Thirty-nine samples of recent bottom sediments were collected from Mabahiss Bay, north of Hurghada City, Red Sea, Egypt. The collected samples were subjected to a total digestion technique and analyzed by absorption spectrometer for metals including Pb, Zn, Cd, Ni, Co, Cu, and Mn. Concentration data were processed using correlation analysis, principal component analysis, and hierarchical cluster analysis. Multivariate statistical analysis classified heavy metals in the study area into different groups. The pollution level attributed to these metals was evaluated using geoaccumulation index and contamination factor in order to determine anthropogenically derived sediment contamination. The results of both geoaccumulation index and contamination factor results reveal that the study area is not contaminated with respect to Zn, Ni, Cu, and Mn; uncontaminated to moderately contaminate with Pb; and moderately to strongly contaminate with Cd. The high contents of Pb, Cd, and Co in the study area result from various anthropogenic activities including dredging, land filling, localized oil pollution, using of antifouling and anticorrosive paints from fishing and tourist boats, and sewage discharging from various sources within the study area.

  13. Seasonal assessment of biological indices, bioaccumulation and bioavailability of heavy metals in mussels Mytilus galloprovincialis from Algerian west coast, applied to environmental monitoring

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    Omar Rouane-Hacene

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the present work is to broaden our knowledge on the variability of trace metals in mussel tissues, focusing on seasonal fluctuations in the three different sampling sites of Algerian west coast (Oran Harbor (S1, Ain Defla (S2 and Hadjaj (S3. For this purpose, the bioavailability (metal indices and bioaccumulation (metal concentrations in soft tissues of heavy metals (Zn, Cu, Pb, and Cd, and the physiological characteristics (e.g. biological indices such as condition index (CI of mussels Mytilus galloprovincialis have been assessed and related to seasons and sites. In S1, the highest levels of metal concentrations and indices were obtained in mussels sampled in winter for Zn, Cu and Cd, but in summer for Pb. The biological indices significantly decreased in winter. In S2, the levels of concentrations and indices of all metals varied whatever the seasons, excepting in summer where the values were the lowest. In summer and spring, the biological indices were lower than in autumn and winter. The low growth of organisms in spring and summer might be correlated to the reproductive period and the low trophic level known in S2. S3, considered as a “pristine” area, showed low metal concentrations and indices, and high biological indices, reflecting the favorable physiological conditions for the mussel growth. This approach might be used in the monitoring of the quality of coastal waters and the present work provided a useful data set for Mediterranean monitoring network.

  14. Accumulation of heavy metals in selected medicinal plants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sarma, Hemen; Deka, Suresh; Deka, Hemen; Saikia, Rashmi Rekha

    2011-01-01

    In this review, we evaluate the reports published between 1993 and 2011 that address the heavy metal accumulation in 88 medicinal plant species. We compare the safe limits for heavy metals set by governmental agencies vs. the levels at which such metals actually exist in selected medicinal plants. We also evaluate the uses and effectiveness of medicinal plants in health care, and assess the hazards of medicinal plant uses, in view of the growing worldwide use of medicinal plants. From our extensive review of the literature, we discovered that a maximum permissible level (MPL) of Pb is exceeded in 21 plant medicine species, Cd in 44 species, and Hg in 10 species. Vetiveria zizanioides a potential candidate species for the treatment of cardiovascular diseases absorb a wide range of heavy metals from metal-contaminated soils. We believe that this species is the single most impressive example of a potentially hazardous medicinal plant. Based on our review, we endorse the hypothesis that heavy metal accumulation by medicinal plants is mainly caused by extraction of soluble metals from contaminated soil, sediments and air. One continuing problem in protecting consumers of plant-based medicines is that permissible levels of all heavy metals in herbal medicine have not yet been standardized by regulating governmental entities. Moreover, there are few limit tests that exist for heavy metal content of medicinal plants, or permissible limits for essential dietary minerals, in most medicinal plants. The dearth of such limits hamstrings development of medicinal plant research and delays the release of either new or improved versions of medicinal plants or their components. In the present review, we emphasize that medicinal plants are often subjected to heavy metal contamination and that the levels at which these heavy metals sometimes occur exceeds permissible levels for some species. Therefore, collecting medicinal plants from areas that are, or may be, contaminated should be

  15. Heavy metals health risk assessment for population via consumption of vegetables grown in old mining area; a case study: Banat County, Romania

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    Gogoasa Ioan

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The aim of this study is to measure the levels of heavy metals (Fe, Mn, Zn, Cu, Ni, Cd and Pb found in common vegetables (parsley, carrot, onion, lettuce, cucumber and green beans grown in contaminated mining areas compared with those grown in reference clear area and to determine their potential detrimental effects via calculation of the daily metal intake (DImetal and Target Hazard Quotients (THQ for normal daily consumption of these vegetables, for male and female gender. Results Compared with the reference in contaminated areas, soil and plant contents of all analyzed metals are higher, usually over normally content for Mn, Zn, Cu, Cd and Pb. Particularly, in soil, higher values than intervention threshold values (ITV were found for Cu and Pb and higher than maximum allowable limits (MAL for Zn, Cu, Cd and Pb for parsley roots and leaves, carrot roots, cabbage, lettuce and cucumber. DImetal and THQ values for male and female were calculated for each vegetable and metal and for which oral reference doses exist. The combined THQ values calculated are concerning in that they are usually below the safe level of THQ Conclusion The results of this study regarding metal contents in soils, vegetables, DImetal and THQ suggest that the consumption of some vegetables (especially parsley, carrot and cabbage and less for lettuce, cucumber and green beans is not free of risks in these areas. The complex THQ parameter use in health risk assessment of heavy metals provides a better image than using only a simple parameter (contents of metals in soils and vegetables.

  16. Assessment of pollution and identification of sources of heavy metals in the sediments of Changshou Lake in a branch of the Three Gorges Reservoir.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liang, Ao; Wang, Yechun; Guo, Hongtao; Bo, Lei; Zhang, Sheng; Bai, Yili

    2015-10-01

    To assess the heavy metal pollution in Changshou Lake, sediments were collected from nine sites at three periods (dry, normal, and wet) in 2013. The Hg, As, Cr, Cd, Pb, Cu, and Zn levels were then determined. The index of geoaccumulation (I geo) and the sediment pollution index (SPI) were applied to the sediment assessment, and Pearson's correlation analysis and factor analysis (FA) were performed to identify common pollution sources in the basin. The results showed that heavy metals presented significant spatial variations with Cr, Cd, Pb, Cu, Zn, Hg, and As concentrations of 29.66~42.58, 0.62~0.91, 24.91~37.96, 21.18~74.91, 41.65~86.86, 0.079~0.152, and 20.17~36.88 mg kg(-1), respectively, and no obvious variations were found among the different periods. The average contents of the metals followed the order Zn > Cu > Cr > Pb > As > Cd > Hg, which showed a high pollution in the sediments collected from open water and at the river mouth. The assessment results indicated that toxic heavy metals presented obvious pollution with I Hg of 0.64~1.36 (moderately polluted), I Cd of 1.66~2.22 (moderately to heavily polluted), and I As of 1.21~2.07 (moderately to heavily polluted). The heavy metal pollution states followed the order Cd > As > Hg > Cu > Pb > Zn > Cr, and the SPI showed that the sediment collected from open water area was more polluted than those obtained from the tributaries and the river mouth. Cr, Cd, Hg, Pb, Cu, As, and Zn were mainly attributed to sediment weathering with Hg, Pb, and Cu and partially due to domestic sewage from the upper reaches. These results indicate that the more attention should be paid to the inner loads of sediment in order to achieve improvements in reservoir water quality after the control of external pollution.

  17. Assessing Heavy Metal and PCB Exposure from Tap Water by Measuring Levels in Plasma from Sporadic Breast Cancer Patients, a Pilot Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zimeri, Anne Marie; Robb, Sara Wagner; Hassan, Sayed M; Hire, Rupali R; Davis, Melissa B

    2015-12-01

    Breast cancer (BrCA) is the most common cancer affecting women around the world. However, it does not arise from the same causative agent among all women. Genetic markers have been associated with heritable or familial breast cancers, which may or may not be confounded by environmental factors, whereas sporadic breast cancer cases are more likely attributable to environmental exposures. Approximately 85% of women diagnosed with BrCA have no family history of the disease. Given this overwhelming bias, more plausible etiologic mechanisms should be investigated to accurately assess a woman's risk of acquiring breast cancer. It is known that breast cancer risk is highly influenced by exogenous environmental cues altering cancer genes either by genotoxic mechanisms (DNA mutations) or otherwise. Risk assessment should comprehensively incorporate exposures to exogenous factors that are linked to a woman's individual susceptibility. However, the exact role that some environmental agents (EA) play in tumor formation and/or cancer gene regulation is unclear. In this pilot project, we begin a multi-disciplinary approach to investigate the intersection of environmental exposures, cancer gene response, and BrCA risk. Here, we present data that show environmental exposure to heavy metals and PCBs in drinking water, heavy metal presence in plasma of nine patients with sporadic BrCA, and Toxic Release Inventory and geological data for a metal of concern, uranium, in Northeast Georgia.

  18. Assessment on the Contamination Status of Heavy Metals in Some Vegetables Growing Areas of Guangdong Province, China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    WANG Fo-jiao

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available We detected lead and cadmium in 1 465 vegetable samples of 18 vegetable species collected from 516 vegetable planting bases in Guangdong Province. The results showed that the highest average contents of lead from water spinach(Ipomoeaaquaticswas 0.11 mg·kg -1 in all species of vegetable samples. The highest average contents of cadmium from water cress(Nasturtium officinale R.Br.was 0.060 mg·kg -1 in all species of vegetable samples. The qualified rate of lead in all samples was 97.0%. The qualified rate of cadmium in all samples was 98.9%.The average pollution indexes of lead and cadmium in these species of vegetable were less than 0.7. The heavy metal security status of all veg-etables from these bases in Guangdong Province were at the excellent level.

  19. Heavy metals bioaccumulation by edible saprophytic mushrooms

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ivan ŠIRIĆ

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to determine the concentration of heavy metals Fe, Zn, Cu, Ni, Pb i Cd in certain edible species of saprophytic fungi and the substrate on three area of sampling, and to assess the role of individual species as biological indicators of environmental pollution. In this study were used three species of wild edible mushrooms (Agaricus macroarpus Bohus, Clitocybe inversa (Scop. ex Fr. Pat. and Macrolepiota procera (Scop. ex Fr. Sing.,. Completely developed and mature fruiting bodies were collected at random selection in localities of Trakošćan, Jaska and Petrova gora. At the same time, the substrate soil samples were collected from the upper horizon (0-10. Determination of heavy metals in mushrooms and the substrate soil were carried out by X-ray Fluorescence Spectrometry. The data obtained were analysed by means of the statistical program SAS V9.2. Significant differences were found in the concentrations of Fe, Zn, Cu, Ni, Pb and Cd between analysed species of mushrooms and localities of sampling (P 1. The consumption of investigated mushrooms poses no toxicological risk to human health due to low concentrations analysed metals.

  20. Simultaneous removal of nitrate and heavy metals by iron metal*

    OpenAIRE

    Hao, Zhi-wei; Xu, Xin-hua; Jin, Jian; He, Ping; Liu, Yong; Wang, Da-hui

    2005-01-01

    Great attention should be paid now to simultaneously removing common pollutants, especially inorganic pollutants such as nitrate and heavy metals, as individual removal has been investigated extensively. Removing common pollutants simultaneously by iron metal is a very effective alternative method. Near neutral pH, heavy metals, such as copper and nickel, can be removed rapidly by iron metal, while nitrate removal very much slower than that of copper and nickel, and copper can accelerate nitr...

  1. Modelling heavy metal and phosphorus balances for farming systems

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Keller, A.N.; Schulin, R.

    2003-01-01

    Accounting for agricultural activities such as P fertilization in regional models of heavy metal accumulation provides suitable sustainable management strategies to reduce nutrient surpluses and metal inputs in agricultural soils. Using the balance model PROTERRA-S, we assessed the phosphorus ( P),

  2. Heavy metals in municipal solid waste deposits

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Flyhammar, P.

    1997-12-01

    Extensive use of heavy metals in modern society influences routes followed by fluxes on the surface of the Earth. The changed flow paths may be harmful for the balance of biological systems at different levels, micro-organisms, human beings and whole ecosystems, since the toxicity of heavy metals is determined by their concentrations and chemical forms. Despite the low mobility of heavy metals (Zn, Cu, Pb, Cr, Ni and Cd) in municipal landfills, it was found that extensive transformations of the binding forms of heavy metal take place within the waste mass during the degradation of the waste. These changes appear to be closely related to the development of early diagenetic solid phases, i.e. new secondary solid phases formed in the waste. The heavy metals often constitute a minor part of these phases and the bindings include several forms such as adsorption, complexation, coprecipitation, precipitation, etc. It was also found that the associations between heavy metals and solid phases are dominated by several binding forms to one specific substrate rather than bindings to various solid phases. The mobility of iron and manganese seems to increase during the processes involved in waste degradation due to the solution of oxide/hydroxide phases, while the heavy metals appear to become less mobile due to their binding to organic compounds and sulphides. However, one exception in this case may be nickel. Another aspect of the transformation of heavy metals is the accumulation of pools of heavy metals which can become susceptible to environmental changes, such as oxidation or acidification. However, the risk of increased mobilization caused by lower pH values seem to be limited since municipal solid waste has a large buffer capacity. 66 refs, 9 figs, 3 tabs 66 refs, 9 figs, 3 tabs

  3. Physico-chemical assessment of paper mill effluent and its heavy metal remediation using aquatic macrophytes--a case study at JK Paper mill, Rayagada, India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mishra, Swayamprabha; Mohanty, Monalisa; Pradhan, Chinmay; Patra, Hemanta Kumar; Das, Ritarani; Sahoo, Santilata

    2013-05-01

    The present investigation aims to assess the phytoremediation potential of six aquatic macrophytes, viz. Eichhornia crassipes, Hydrilla verticillata, Jussiaea repens, Lemna minor, Pistia stratiotes and Trapa natans grown in paper mill effluent of JK Paper mill of Rayagada, Orissa, for remediation of heavy metals. The experiment was designed in pot culture experiments. Assessment of physico-chemical parameters of paper mill effluent showed significant decrease in pH, conductivity, total dissolved solids, total suspended solids, chlorine, sulphur, biological and chemical oxygen demand after growth of macrophytes for 20 days. Phytoremediation ability of these aquatic macrophytic species for copper (Cu) and mercury (Hg) was indicated by assessing the decrease in the levels of heavy metals from effluent water. Maximum reduction (66.5 %) in Hg content of untreated paper mill effluent was observed using L. minor followed by T. natans (64.8 %). L. minor showed highest reduction (71.4 %) of Cu content from effluent water followed by E. crassipes (63.6 %). Phytoextraction potential of L. minor was remarkable for Hg and Cu, and bioaccumulation was evident from bioconcentration factor values, i.e. 0.59 and 0.70, respectively. The present phytoremediation approach was considered more effective than conventional chemical treatment method for removing toxic contaminants from paper mill effluent.

  4. Cellular stress reactions assessed by gender and species in spiders from areas variously polluted with heavy metals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilczek, Grazyna; Babczyńska, Agnieszka; Wilczek, Piotr; Dolezych, Bogdan; Migula, Paweł; Młyńska, Hanna

    2008-05-01

    In the funnel web spider Agelena labyrinthica (Agelenidae; A. l.), sheet web spider Linyphia triangularis (Linyphiidae; L. t.) and wolf spider Xerolycosa nemoralis (Lycosidae; X. n.) from two differently polluted meadow sites in southern Poland, we studied the relations between antioxidant parameters (glutathione, GSH; glutathione peroxidases, GPOX, GSTPx; catalase, CAT; stress proteins-Hsp70, metallothioneins Mts), the intensity of apoptosis and necrosis, and heavy metal burdens of the midgut gland. Cellular reactions against stress caused by pollutants seemed to be sex-dependent. The concentrations of Zn and Cu in the midgut glands of male A. l. and X. n. were more than double that of the females, from both study sites. In male spiders from the heavily polluted site, both negative correlations (activity of caspase-3-like proteins vs Cu, Zn concentration; number of depolarized mitochondria vs Cu concentration) and positive correlations (number of necrotic cells vs Cu concentrations; activity of CAT vs Zn ) were noted. The defense of males against high metal content and its prooxidative effects is based mainly on GSH and CAT. In females the antioxidative reactions are species-specific and depend mainly on high peroxidase activity and on stress protein level. The increase in the number of apoptotic cells in the midgut gland of female spiders from the heavily polluted site suggests the defensive role of this process in maintaining the proper functioning of this organ.

  5. Trace element distributions in surficial sediments of the northern Tyrrhenian Sea: Contribution to heavy-metal pollution assessment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leoni, Leonardo; Sartori, Franco; Damiani, Vincenzo; Ferretti, Ornella; Viel, Monique

    1991-03-01

    The trace element distributions in surficial sediment of Tyrrhenian Sea have been investigated as a part of a series of studies on the environmental quality of the area off the Tuscany coast (west-central Italy). This research has focused on the presence of possible contaminated zones; it also provides data for the identification and future monitoring and control of pollution sources. The study of numerous surface sediments and core samples has made it possible to distinguish between heavy-metal enrichments related to natural sources and other anomalies caused by anthropogenic contamination. Over much of the basin, the surface Pb, Cu, Zn, and As contents appear considerably enriched relative to those below 15 cm; among these metals, Pb shows the highest and most widespread enrichment. Only in the case of some coarse-grained sediments close to the mouth of Cecina River it is possible to relate anomalously high Zn contents to natural sources. In all other sampling stations, the enrichments of Pb, Cu, Zn, and As are ascribed to man's influence. The sediment distributions of Co, Cr, and Ni do not seem to be related to anthropogenic activities; rather they mirror influx of materials derived from sources of ophiolitic rock. The distribution of barium shows only two significant positive anomalies, and both are related to natural causes. Concentrations of vanadium are high in a zone close to an important smelting plant; these are thought to be of anthropogenic origin.

  6. Trace element distributions in surficial sediments of the northern Tyrrhenian Sea: Contribution to heavy-metal pollution assessment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Leoni, L.; Sartori, F. (Univ. of Pisa, (Italy)); Damiani, V.; Ferretti, O.; Viel, M. (ENEA, La Spezia (Italy))

    The trace element distributions in surficial sediments of Tyrrhenian Sea have been investigated as a part of a series of studies on the environmental quality of the area off the Tuscany coast (west-central Italy). This research has focused on the presence of possible contaminated zones; it also provides data for the identification and future monitoring and control of pollution sources. The study of numerous surface sediments and core samples has made it possible to distinguish between heavy-metal enrichments related to natural sources and other anomalies caused by anthropogenic contamination. Over much of the basin, the surface Pb, Cu, Zn, and As contents appear considerably enriched relative to the those below 15 cm; among these metals. Pb shows the highest and most widespread enrichment. Only in the case of some coarse-grained sediments close to the mouth of Cecina River it is possible to relate anomalously high Zn contents to natural sources. In all other sampling stations, the enrichments of Pb, Cu, Zn, and As are ascribed to man's influence. The sediment distributions of Co, Cr, and Ni do not seem to be related to anthropogenic activities; rather they mirror influx of materials derived from sources of ophiolitic rock. The distribution of barium shows only two significant positive anomalies, and both are related to natural causes. Concentrations of vanadium are high in a zone close to an important smelting plant; these are thought to be of anthropogenic origin.

  7. Assessment of spatial variability of heavy metals in Metropolitan Zone of Toluca Valley, Mexico, using the biomonitoring technique in mosses and TXRF analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zarazúa-Ortega, Graciela; Poblano-Bata, Josefina; Tejeda-Vega, Samuel; Ávila-Pérez, Pedro; Zepeda-Gómez, Carmen; Ortiz-Oliveros, Huemantzin; Macedo-Miranda, Guadalupe

    2013-01-01

    This study is aimed at assessing atmospheric deposition of heavy metals using the epiphytic moss genera Fabronia ciliaris collected from six urban sites in the Metropolitan Zone of the Toluca Valley in Mexico. The concentrations of K, Ca, Ti, V, Cr, Mn, Fe, Ni, Cu, Zn, Rb, Sr, and Pb were determined by total reflection X-ray fluorescence technique. Results show that the average metal concentration decrease in the following order: Fe (8207 mg/Kg) > Ca (7315 mg/Kg) > K (3842 mg/Kg) > Ti (387 mg/Kg) > Mn, Zn (191 mg/Kg) > Sr (71 mg/Kg) > Pb (59 mg/Kg) > Cu, V (32 mg/Kg) > Cr (24 mg/Kg) > Rb (13 mg/Kg) > Ni (10 mg/Kg). Enrichment factors show a high enrichment for Cr, Cu, Zn, and Pb which provides an evidence of anthropogenic impact in the industrial and urban areas, mainly due to the intense vehicular traffic and the fossil fuel combustion. Monitoring techniques in mosses have proved to be a powerful tool for determining the deposition of heavy metals coming from diverse point sources of pollution.

  8. Assessment of Spatial Variability of Heavy Metals in Metropolitan Zone of Toluca Valley, Mexico, Using the Biomonitoring Technique in Mosses and TXRF Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zarazúa-Ortega, Graciela; Poblano-Bata, Josefina; Tejeda-Vega, Samuel; Ávila-Pérez, Pedro; Zepeda-Gómez, Carmen; Ortiz-Oliveros, Huemantzin; Macedo-Miranda, Guadalupe

    2013-01-01

    This study is aimed at assessing atmospheric deposition of heavy metals using the epiphytic moss genera Fabronia ciliaris collected from six urban sites in the Metropolitan Zone of the Toluca Valley in Mexico. The concentrations of K, Ca, Ti, V, Cr, Mn, Fe, Ni, Cu, Zn, Rb, Sr, and Pb were determined by total reflection X-ray fluorescence technique. Results show that the average metal concentration decrease in the following order: Fe (8207 mg/Kg) > Ca (7315 mg/Kg) > K (3842 mg/Kg) > Ti (387 mg/Kg) > Mn, Zn (191 mg/Kg) > Sr (71 mg/Kg) > Pb (59 mg/Kg) > Cu, V (32 mg/Kg) > Cr (24 mg/Kg) > Rb (13 mg/Kg) > Ni (10 mg/Kg). Enrichment factors show a high enrichment for Cr, Cu, Zn, and Pb which provides an evidence of anthropogenic impact in the industrial and urban areas, mainly due to the intense vehicular traffic and the fossil fuel combustion. Monitoring techniques in mosses have proved to be a powerful tool for determining the deposition of heavy metals coming from diverse point sources of pollution. PMID:23853536

  9. Assessment of Spatial Variability of Heavy Metals in Metropolitan Zone of Toluca Valley, Mexico, Using the Biomonitoring Technique in Mosses and TXRF Analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Graciela Zarazúa-Ortega

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available This study is aimed at assessing atmospheric deposition of heavy metals using the epiphytic moss genera Fabronia ciliaris collected from six urban sites in the Metropolitan Zone of the Toluca Valley in Mexico. The concentrations of K, Ca, Ti, V, Cr, Mn, Fe, Ni, Cu, Zn, Rb, Sr, and Pb were determined by total reflection X-ray fluorescence technique. Results show that the average metal concentration decrease in the following order: Fe (8207 mg/Kg > Ca (7315 mg/Kg > K (3842 mg/Kg > Ti (387 mg/Kg > Mn, Zn (191 mg/Kg > Sr (71 mg/Kg > Pb (59 mg/Kg > Cu, V (32 mg/Kg > Cr (24 mg/Kg > Rb (13 mg/Kg > Ni (10 mg/Kg. Enrichment factors show a high enrichment for Cr, Cu, Zn, and Pb which provides an evidence of anthropogenic impact in the industrial and urban areas, mainly due to the intense vehicular traffic and the fossil fuel combustion. Monitoring techniques in mosses have proved to be a powerful tool for determining the deposition of heavy metals coming from diverse point sources of pollution.

  10. Identifying Sources and Assessing Potential Risk of Exposure to Heavy Metals and Hazardous Materials in Mining Areas: The Case Study of Panasqueira Mine (Central Portugal as an Example

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carla Candeias

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available The Sn-W Panasqueira mine, in activity since the mid-1890s, is one of the most important economic deposits in the world. Arsenopyrite is the main mineral present as well as rejected waste sulphide. The long history is testified by the presence of a huge amount of tailings, which release considerable quantities of heavy metal(loids into the environment. This work assesses soil contamination and evaluates the ecological and human health risks due to exposure to hazardous materials. The metal assemblage identified in soil (Ag-As-Bi-Cd-Cu-W-Zn; potentially toxic elements (PTEs reflects the influence of the tailings, due to several agents including aerial dispersion. PTEs and pH display a positive correlation confirming that heavy metal mobility is directly related to pH and, therefore, affects their availability. The estimated contamination factor classified 92.6% of soil samples as moderately to ultra-highly polluted. The spatial distribution of the potential ecological risk index classified the topsoil as being of a very high ecological risk, consistent with wind direction. Non-carcinogenic hazard of topsoil, for children (1–6 years, showed that for As the non-carcinogenic hazard represents a high health risk. The carcinogenic risks, both for children and adult alike, reveal a very high cancer risk mostly due to As ingestion.

  11. Assessment of heavy metals phytotoxicity using seed germination and root elongation tests: a comparison of two growth substrates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Di Salvatore, M; Carafa, A M; Carratù, G

    2008-11-01

    Seed germination and root elongation test is used to evaluate hazardous waste sites and to assess toxicity of organic and inorganic compounds. Paper substrate, especially circular filter paper placed inside a Petri dish has long been used for this test. Same reports indicate that filter paper might interfere with the toxicity of inorganic substances, especially metal cations. This study evaluate toxicity of Cd, Pb, Ni, Cu on lettuce, broccoli, tomato and radish seed using two bed material: agar and filter paper. The results show that percent germination is not affected by substrates; vice versa, as for root elongation, the test in agar showed to be more sensible than that the one on filter paper. The radical growth inhibition depends on the metal, on the tested concentration and on the species; among the tested metals, cadmium was the one determining the highest toxic effects on different species and lettuce was the plant that suffered more. From the comparison, it is clearly evident the greater sensibility of the test in agar; on the other hand, the lower sensibility of the test on the filter paper might be caused by the partial and not homogeneous exposition of the root to metal cations.

  12. A comparative assessment of heavy metal accumulation in soft parts and byssus of mussels from subarctic, temperate, subtropical and tropical marine environments

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Szefer, P. [Department of Food Sciences, Medical University of Gdansk, Al. Gen. J. Hallera 107, PL 80-416 Gdansk (Poland)]. E-mail: pszef@amg.gda.pl; Fowler, S.W. [IAEA Marine Environment Laboratory, 4 Quai Antoine 1er, MC-98000 (Monaco); Ikuta, K. [Laboratory of Aquatic Environment and Ecology, Department of Fisheries, Faculty of Agriculture, Miyazaki University, 889-21 Miyazaki (Japan); Osuna, F. Paez [Institute of Marine Sciences and Limnology, Mazatlan Station, National Autonomous University of Mexico, Mazatlan 82000, Sinaloa (Mexico); Ali, A.A. [Faculty of Science, Arts and Education, University of Aden, PO Box 6014, Khormaksar, Aden (Yemen); Kim, B.-S. [School of Earth and Environmental Science, Seoul National University, 56-1 Shillimdong, 151-742 (Korea, Republic of); Fernandes, H.M. [Instituto de Radioprotecao e Dosimetria, Cz. Postal 37 750 - CEP: 22642-970, Rio de Janeiro (Brazil); Belzunce, M.-J. [Instituto Tecnnologico Pesquero y Alimentario, Dpto de Oceanografia y Medio Ambiente Marino, Herrera Kaia, Portualdea z/g, 20110 Pasaia (Gipuzkoa) (Spain); Guterstam, B. [Stensund Ecological Center, 61991 Trosa, Sweden and Global Water Partnership Secretariat, Hantverkargatan 5, SE-112 21 Stockholm (Sweden); Kunzendorf, H. [Gamma Dating Center (GDC), Institute of Geography, University of Copenhagen, Oster Voldgage 10 DK-1350 Copenhagen K (Denmark); Wolowicz, M. [Laboratory of Estuarine Ecology, Institute of Oceanography, University of Gdansk, Al. Pilsudskiego 46, 81-378, Gdynia (Poland); Hummel, H. [Centre for Estuarine and Marine Ecology, Netherlands Institute of Ecology, Korringaweg 7, 4401 NT Yerseke (Netherlands); Deslous-Paoli, M. [IFREMER, Unite Ecologie Conchylicole, 1, rue Jean Vilar, 34200 Sete (France)

    2006-01-15

    Existing data on metal concentrations in mussels from subarctic, temperate, subtropical and tropical waters were analyzed using multivariate statistics in order to assess regional variations in metal contamination. Potential errors were reduced by only analyzing data from surveys that employed the same protocols, analytical methodologies and analysts. Factor analysis demonstrated that mussels inhabiting extremely contaminated areas (e.g. from Japanese and Swedish metallurgy sources) could be separated from mussels from other contaminated areas, and that metals such as Cd, Pb, Cu and Zn could be used to identify heavily contaminated samples while Co, Fe, Cr and Ni concentrations were good markers for exposure to inputs from different industrial sources. Furthermore byssus, like soft tissue, selectively and sensitively reflects variations of certain metal concentrations in ambient waters and thus serves as a reliable biomonitor for these contaminants in a variety of coastal and estuarine areas. - Byssus of mytilids, like soft tissues can be used as efficient biomonitor for heavy metals in the marine environment.

  13. Heavy metals and living systems: An overview

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Reena Singh

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Heavy metals are natural constituents of the earth′s crust, but indiscriminate human activities have drastically altered their geochemical cycles and biochemical balance. This results in accumulation of metals in plant parts having secondary metabolites, which is responsible for a particular pharmacological activity. Prolonged exposure to heavy metals such as cadmium, copper, lead, nickel, and zinc can cause deleterious health effects in humans. Molecular understanding of plant metal accumulation has numerous biotechnological implications also, the long term effects of which might not be yet known.

  14. Combined toxicity of heavy metal mixtures in liver cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Xialu; Gu, Yuanliang; Zhou, Qi; Mao, Guochuan; Zou, Baobo; Zhao, Jinshun

    2016-09-01

    With rapid industrialization, China is now facing great challenges in heavy metal contamination in the environment. Human exposure to heavy metals through air, water and food commonly involves a mixture consisting of multiple heavy metals. In this study, eight common heavy metals (Pb, Cd, Hg, Cu, Zn, Mn, Cr, Ni) that cause environmental contamination were selected to investigate the combined toxicity of different heavy metal mixtures in HL7702 cells. Toxicity (24 h LC50 ) of each individual metal on the cells ranked Hg > Cr = Cd > Cu > Zn > Ni > Mn > Pb; toxicity of the different mixtures ranked: M5 > M3PbHgCd > M5+Mn > M5+Cu > M2CdNi > M4A > M8-Mn > M8 > M5+Zn > M4B > M8-Cr > M8-Zn > M8-Cu > M8-Pb > M8-Cd > M8-Hg > M8-Ni > M3PbHgNi > M3CuZnMn. The cytotoxicity data of individual metals were successfully used to build the additive models of two- to eight-component metal mixtures. The comparison between additive model and combination model or partly additive model was useful to evaluate the combined effects in mixture. Synergistic, antagonistic or additive effects of the toxicity were observed in different mixtures. These results suggest that the combined effects should be considered in the risk assessment of heavy metal co-exposure, and more comprehensive investigations on the combined effects of different heavy metal mixtures are needed in the future. Copyright © 2016 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  15. Heavy metal removal and recovery using microorganisms

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wilde, E.W. (Westinghouse Savannah River Co., Aiken, SC (United States)); Benemann, J.R. (Benemann (J.R.), Pinole, CA (United States))

    1991-02-01

    Microorganisms -- bacteria, fungi, and microalgae -- can accumulate relatively large amounts of toxic heavy metals and radionuclides from the environment. These organisms often exhibit specificity for particular metals. The metal content of microbial biomass can be a substantial fraction of total dry weight with concentration factors (metal in dry biomass to metal in solution) exceeding one million in some cases. Both living and inert (dead) microbial biomass can be used to reduce heavy metal concentrations in contaminated waters to very low levels -- parts per billion and even lower. In many respects (e.g. specificity, residual metal concentrations, accumulation factors, and economics) microbial bioremoval processes can be superior to conventional processes, such as ion exchange and caustic (lime or hydroxide) precipitation for heavy metals removal from waste and contaminated waters. Thus, bioremoval could be developed to contribute to the clean-up of wastes at the Savannah River Site (SRS) and other DOE facilities. However, the potential advantages of bioremoval processes must still be developed into practical operating systems. A detailed review of the literature suggests that appropriate bioremoval processes could be developed for the SRS. There is great variability from one biomass source to another in bioremoval capabilities. Bioremoval is affected by pH, other ions, temperature, and many other factors. The biological (living vs. dead) and physical (immobilized vs. dispersed) characteristics of the biomass also greatly affect metal binding. Even subtle differences in the microbial biomass, such as the conditions under which it was cultivated, can have major effects on heavy metal binding.

  16. Analysis and assessment of the nutrients, biochemical indexes and heavy metals in the Three Gorges Reservoir, China, from 2008 to 2013.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gao, Qiang; Li, Yi; Cheng, Qingyuan; Yu, Mingxia; Hu, Bo; Wang, Zhigang; Yu, Zhiqiang

    2016-04-01

    The Three Gorges Reservoir, the world's largest hydropower project, has operated stably for more than five years. To understand its water quality status, the nutrient and biochemical indexes, the total nitrogen (TN), the total phosphorus (TP), the potassium permanganate index (CODMn), the five-day biochemical oxygen demand (BOD5) and fecal coliform (F. coli), as well as the heavy metals (Cu, Hg, As, Cd, Zn and Pb) of samples collected from 10 sites during the time period of 2008-2013 were studied via using multiple analysis approaches. For each parameter, pictures of the spatial and temporal distributions were presented, and the reasons behind their variation trends were elaborated. Principal component analysis (PCA) was applied to identify the types of pollution. The Canadian Council of Ministers of the Environment Water Quality Index (CCME-WQI) was calculated to concisely mark the water quality. In addition, a human health risk assessment of the heavy metals in a representative site was conducted. The results showed that the water quality state in the Three Gorges Reservoir was intricate but stable and acceptable from 2008 to 2013. The TN, TP and Pb were considered to be the key pollution indexes. Enforcements to alleviate industrial and urban pollution, along with ship management, have worked. The decrease in heavy metal concentrations from upstream to downstream was associated with the self-purification of the reservoir. However, rural pollution became worse in those years. Improper agricultural activity was an important reason for this trend. For local residents, drinking water was generally safe, but cancer caused by As and Pb is a potential issue.

  17. Assessment of heavy metal tolerance and hexavalent chromium reducing potential of Corynebacterium paurometabolum SKPD 1204 isolated from chromite mine seepage

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amal Kanti Paul

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Corynebacterium paurometabolum SKPD 1204 (MTCC 8730, a heavy metal tolerant and chromate reducing bacterium isolated from chromite mine seepage of Odisha, India has been evaluated for chromate reduction under batch culture. The isolate was found to tolerate metals like Co(II, Cu(II, Ni(II, Mn(II, Zn(II, Fe(III and Hg(II along with Cr(VI and was resistant to different antibiotics as evaluated by disc-diffusion method. The isolate, SKPD 1204 was found to reduce 62.5% of 2 mM Cr(VI in Vogel Bonner broth within 8 days of incubation. Chromate reduction capability of SKPD 1204 decreased with increase in Cr(VI concentration, but increased with increase in cell density and attained its maximum at 1010 cells/mL. Chromate reducing efficiency of SKPD 1204 was promoted in the presence of glycerol and glucose, while the highest reduction was recorded at pH 7.0 and 35 °C. The reduction process was inhibited by divalent cations Zn(II, Cd(II, Cu(II, and Ni(II, but not by Mn(II. Anions like nitrate, phosphate, sulphate and sulphite was found to be inhibitory to the process of Cr(VI reduction. Similarly, sodium fluoride, carbonyl cyanide m-chlorophenylhydrazone, sodium azide and N, N,-Di cyclohexyl carboiimide were inhibitory to chromate reduction, while 2,4-dinitrophenol appeared to be neither promotive nor inhibitory to the process.

  18. Radiological safety assessment and determination of heavy metals in soil samples from some waste dumpsites in Lagos and Ogun state, south-western, Nigeria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Augustine Kolapo Ademola

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Assessment of naturally occurring radionuclides and heavy metals in 5 major dumpsites around Lagos and Ogun State, Nigeria, was carried-out to determine the natural radionuclide and heavy metals in the dumpsites and to evaluate the hazards these may have on the public. Radionuclide concentrations were determined using gamma-ray spectrometry with NaI (Tl detector. The mean activity concentrations of 226Ra, 232Th and 40K in the soil samples were 23.1 ± 2.5, 35.1 ± 2.1 and 318.9 ± 27.4 Bq kg−1, respectively in Ojota, 32.1 ± 6.1, 44.2 ± 16.0 and 377.4 ± 9.0 Bq kg−1 in Ojo, 18.2 ± 4.8, 28.4 ± 3.1 and 340.9 ± 12.1 in Igando, 26.3 ± 9.0, 38.1 ± 1.1 and 531.1 ± 23.0 in Agbara and 15.3 ± 3.6, 22.3 ± 1.7 and 840.9 ± 42.0 in Ogijo, respectively. The results of 226Ra and 232Th are lower than the world average but higher for 40K (UNSCEAR, 2000. The analysis of the heavy metal concentrations indicated that there is presence of Cadmium, Zinc and Copper in high proportion. These metals are toxic and may cause severe problem with prolonged exposure. Monitoring the accumulation of these metals in soil samples is very important and the practice of cultivating the land for planting vegetables and legumes by farmers around the dumpsites must be discouraged to prevent the transportation of these toxic metals into human system.

  19. Solubility of deposited airborne heavy metals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cizmecioglu, Sibel C.; Muezzinoglu, Aysen

    2008-09-01

    Toxic effects of heavy metals in water and soil environments are important. Quantifying the heavy metal concentrations and their solubilities in dry and wet deposition samples is part of atmospheric research. Soluble fractions of the deposited air pollutants are important in food chain mechanisms as heavy metals may cause ecotoxic impacts. In this study, the solubilities of Cr, Cd, Pb, Cu, Zn, and Ni were investigated in deposition samples for total, dissolved, and suspended fractions after collection in a surrogate, water-surface sampler in Izmir, Turkey, during October 2003 to June 2004. To find overall solubility of each metal in dry and wet deposition samples, concentrations in soluble and suspended phases of aqueous solutions were analyzed separately. Ratios between total and dissolved forms and the metals in the same forms were analyzed and evaluated statistically. It was found that the deposited metal fluxes were significantly correlated in wet deposition with the highest correlation between Cd and Pb in the soluble and total forms. Comparatively smaller correlations were found between these metal fluxes in dry deposition samples. Results of this study showed the importance of metal pollution, especially ecotoxic properties of heavy metals in wet deposition far more than dry deposition.

  20. Assessment of heavy metals in tilapia fish (Oreochromis niloticus) from the Langat River and Engineering Lake in Bangi, Malaysia, and evaluation of the health risk from tilapia consumption.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taweel, Abdulali; Shuhaimi-Othman, M; Ahmad, A K

    2013-07-01

    Concentrations of the heavy metals copper (Cu), cadmium (Cd), zinc (Zn), lead (Pb) and nickel (Ni) were determined in the liver, gills and muscles of tilapia fish from the Langat River and Engineering Lake, Bangi, Selangor, Malaysia. There were differences in the concentrations of the studied heavy metals between different organs and between sites. In the liver samples, Cu>Zn>Ni>Pb>Cd, and in the gills and muscle, Zn>Ni>Cu>Pb>Cd. Levels of Cu, Cd, Zn and Pb in the liver samples from Engineering Lake were higher than in those from the Langat River, whereas the Ni levels in the liver samples from the Langat River were greater than in those from Engineering Lake. Cd levels in the fish muscle from Engineering Lake were lower than in that from the Langat River. Meanwhile, the Cd, Zn and Pb levels in the fish muscle from the Langat River were lower than in that from Engineering Lake, and the Ni levels were almost the same in the fish muscle samples from the two sites. The health risks associated with Cu, Cd, Zn, Pb and Ni were assessed based on the target hazard quotients. In the Langat River, the risk from Cu is minimal compared to the other studied elements, and the concentrations of Pb and Ni were determined to pose the greatest risk. The maximum allowable fish consumption rates (kg/d) based on Cu in Engineering Lake and the Langat River were 2.27 and 1.51 in December and 2.53 and 1.75 in February, respectively. The Cu concentrations resulted in the highest maximum allowable fish consumption rates compared with the other studied heavy metals, whereas those based on Pb were the lowest. A health risk analysis of the heavy metals measured in the fish muscle samples indicated that the fish can be classified at one of the safest levels for the general population and that there are no possible risks pertaining to tilapia fish consumption.

  1. Heavy metals in road dust from Xiandao District, Changsha City, China: characteristics, health risk assessment, and integrated source identification.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Fei; Zhang, Jingdong; Huang, Jinhui; Huang, Dawei; Yang, Jun; Song, Yongwei; Zeng, Guangming

    2016-07-01

    The physicochemical properties and the contents of metals (Cu, Zn, Pb, Cd, Cr, and Fe) in 51 road dust samples from Xiandao District (XDD) were investigated. Enrichment factor (EF), multivariate statistics, geostatistics, and health risk assessment model were adopted to study the spatial pollution pattern and to identify the priority pollutants and regions of concern and sources of studied metals. The mean EFs revealed the following order: Cd > Zn ≈ Pb ≈ Cu > Cr. For non-carcinogenic effects, the exposure pathway which resulted in the highest levels of exposure risk for children and adults was ingestion, followed by dermal contact and inhalation. Hazard index (HI) values for the studied metals at each site were within the safe level of 1 except maximum HI Cr (1.08) for children. The carcinogenic risk (CR) for Cd and Cr at each site was within the acceptable risk level (1E-06) except CR Cr (1.08E-06) for children in the road intersection between the Changchang highway and the Yuelin highway. Cr was identified as the priority pollutant followed by Pb and Cd with consideration of the local population distribution. Spatially, northwest and northeast of XDD were regarded as the priority regions of concern. Results based on the proposed integrated source identification method indicated that Pb was probably sourced from traffic-related sources, Cd was associated with the dust organic material mainly originated from industrial sources, and Cr was mainly derived from both sources.

  2. Plant transporters involved in heavy metal homeostasis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dorina Podar

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Transition metal ions (predominately manganese, iron, cobalt, nickel, copper and zinc havean array of catalytic and regulatory roles in the growth and development of all living organisms.However, an excess of these metal ions can also be toxic to any life form and therefore every cell andwhole organism needs to maintain the concentration of these essential nutrient metals within a narrowrange: a process known as metal homeostasis. Heavy metal ions are taken up into cells by selectivetransporters and as they cannot be degraded, the “desired” levels of metal ions are achieved by anumber of strategies that involve: chelation, sequestration and export out of the cell. Cation DiffusionFacilitators (CDF is a large family of transporters involved in maintaining the cytosolic metalconcentration. They transport different heavy metal divalent ions, but exhibit main affinity for zinc, ironand manganese. Metal Tolerance Proteins (MTPs are a subfamily of the Cation Diffusion Facilitator (CDFfamily found in plants. There has been much interest in these heavy metal transporters in order toprovide an insight into plant metal homeostasis, which has significant implications in human health andphytoremediation. Although data regarding the CDFs/MTPs mechanism is gathering there is still littleinformation with respect to metal selectivity determinants.

  3. Assessments of natural radioactivity and determination of heavy metals in soil around industrial dumpsites in Sango-Ota, Ogun state, Nigeria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Augustine Kolapo Ademola

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The activity concentration of natural radionuclides in soil samples from industrial dumpsites in Sango-Ota were determined using gamma-ray spectrometry with NaI(Tl detector. The mean activity concentration of 226 Ra, 232 Th and 40 K was 3.0 ± 1.2, 33.3 ± 9.8 and 122.1 ± 20.6 Bqkg−1 , respectively. Radium equivalent activities were calculated to assess the hazards arising from the use of the soil sample in agriculture. All the calculated values were lower than the world average. The mean concentration of heavy metals in the soil samples were 33.6, 2.9, 3.8, 2.7, 48.9, 1,5, 34.5 and 0.8 mg l -1 for Cu, Mg, Ca, P, Fe, Pb, Zn and Cd, respectively. The concentrations of Cd, Cu and Pb were higher than the natural permissible range in soil. Therefore, the government should discourage the use of the soil around dumpsites for planting because of the presence of heavy metals in the sites.

  4. Assessment of heavy metal contamination in water and sediments of Trepça and Sitnica rivers, Kosovo, using pollution indicators and multivariate cluster analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferati, Flora; Kerolli-Mustafa, Mihone; Kraja-Ylli, Arjana

    2015-06-01

    The concentrations of As, Cd, Cr, Co, Cu, Ni, Pb, and Zn in water and sediment samples from Trepça and Sitnica rivers were determined to assess the level of contamination. Six water and sediment samples were collected during the period from April to July 2014. Most of the water samples was found within the European and Kosovo permissible limits. The highest concentration of As, Cd, Pb, and Zn originates primarily from anthropogenic sources such discharge of industrial water from mining flotation and from the mine waste eroded from the river banks. Sediment contamination assessment was carried out using the pollution indicators such as contamination factor (CF), degree of contamination (Cd), modified degree of contamination (mCd), pollution load index (PLI), and geo-accumulation index (Igeo). The CF values for the investigated metals indicated a high contaminated nature of sediments, while the Cd values indicated a very high contamination degree of sediments. The mCd values indicate a high degree of contamination of Sitnica river sediment to ultrahigh degree of contamination of Trepça river sediment. The PLI values ranged from 1.89 to 14.1 which indicate that the heavy metal concentration levels in all investigated sites exceeded the background values and sediment quality guidelines. The average values of Igeo revealed the following ranking of intensity of heavy metal contamination of the Trepça and Sitnica river sediments: Cd > As > Pb > Zn > Cu > Co > Cr > Ni. Cluster analysis suggests that As, Cd, Cr, Co, Cu, Ni, Pb, and Zn are derived from anthropogenic sources, particularly discharges from mining flotation and erosion form waste from a zinc mine plant. In order to protect the sediments from further contamination, the designing of a monitoring network and reducing the anthropogenic discharges are suggested.

  5. Heavy metal adsorption of Streptomyces chromofuscus K101

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Said Mohamed Daboor

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To find the best actinomycete that has potential application value in the heavy metal remediation due to its special morphological and physiological metabolism. Methods: In some areas of River Nile, Egypt, a total of 67 actinomycete isolates (17 isolates from surface water and 50 from sediment were identified. In addition, the studied area was characterized by a large amount of submerged macrophyte species Ceratophyllum demersum, one free floating species Eichhornia crassipes and two emergent species Polygonum tomentosum and Saccharum spontaneum with the highest biomass production values. Many methods are used in this research like qualitative evaluation of heavy metals, minimum inhibitory concentration of heavy metal determination, metal binding assay, heavy metal assessment, etc. Results: Many actinomycetes isolates were isolated from River Nile, Egypt, the absorbent efficiency of one isolate Streptomyces chromofuscusK101 showed the most efficient metal binding activity. The adsorption process of Zn2+ , Pb2+ and Fe 2+ single or mixture metal ions was investigated, where the order of adsorption potential ( Zn2+ >Pb2+ >Fe 2+ was observed in single metal reaction. The adsorption in mixed metal reactions was the same order as in single-metal ion with a significant decrease in Fe 2+ and Pb2+ adsorption. Conclusions: In conclusion the metal adsorption reactions were very fast, pH dependent and culture age-independent, suggestive of a physicochemical reaction between cell wall components and heavy metal ions. The absorbent removal efficiency was determined as a function of ion concentration, pH and temperature.

  6. Chemical speciation, human health risk assessment and pollution level of selected heavy metals in urban street dust of Shiraz, Iran

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keshavarzi, Behnam; Tazarvi, Zahra; Rajabzadeh, Mohammad Ali; Najmeddin, Ali

    2015-10-01

    The distribution, pollution level, sources and health risk of Hg, As, Cd, Cu, Cr, Ni, Mn, Fe, Pb, Sb and Zn in urban street dust were investigated. X-ray diffraction analysis of dust samples shows that the mineralogy of airborne dusts is dominated by calcite, dolomite and quartz. The total concentration of trace elements across the sampling sites ranged from 36.8 to 234.3 mg kg-1 for Pb, 0.004-4.504 mg kg-1 for Hg, 160.9-778.3 mg kg-1 for Zn, 245-652 mg kg-1 for Mn, 39.4-117.9 mg kg-1 for Ni, 31.6-105.9 mg kg-1 for Cr, 49.8-232.5 mg kg-1 for Cu, 5.3-8.6 mg kg-1 for As, 0.31-0.85 mg kg-1 for Cd, 0.76-9.45 mg kg-1 for Sb, and 16,300-24,900 mg kg-1 for Fe. The enrichment factor results reveal the following order: Cu > Hg > Sb > Zn > Pb > Ni > Cr > As > Mn > Cd > Fe. Among the measured elements, the highest mobility factor belongs to Pb (79.2%), Hg (74.6%), Zn (64.1%) and Mn (56.4%). According to the calculated Hazard Quotient (HQ) and Hazard Index (HI), special attention should be paid to Hg, Pb, Zn, and Mn in the street dusts of Shiraz. Multivariate statistics indicate that traffic, natural soil particles and industrial activities are likely to be the main sources of heavy metals in Shiraz street dusts.

  7. Phytochelatins: peptides involved in heavy metal detoxification.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pal, Rama; Rai, J P N

    2010-03-01

    Phytochelatins (PCs) are enzymatically synthesized peptides known to involve in heavy metal detoxification and accumulation, which have been measured in plants grown at high heavy metal concentrations, but few studies have examined the response of plants even at lower environmentally relevant metal concentrations. Recently, genes encoding the enzyme PC synthase have been identified in plants and other species enabling molecular biological studies to untangle the mechanisms underlying PC synthesis and its regulation. The present paper embodies review on recent advances in structure of PCs, their biosynthetic regulation, roles in heavy metal detoxification and/or accumulation, and PC synthase gene expression for better understanding of mechanism involved and to improve phytoremediation efficiency of plants for wider application.

  8. Removal of heavy metals from biowaste: modelling of heavy metal behaviour and development of removal technologies.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Veeken, A.

    1998-01-01

    In the Netherlands, recycling of solid organic waste streams as compost only becomes possible if the compost complies with the heavy metals standards of the BOOM decree. This dissertation focuses on the removal of heavy metals from biowaste, i.e. the source separated organic fraction of municipal so

  9. Heavy Metal Poisoning and Cardiovascular Disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eman M. Alissa

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Cardiovascular disease (CVD is an increasing world health problem. Traditional risk factors fail to account for all deaths from CVD. It is mainly the environmental, dietary and lifestyle behavioral factors that are the control keys in the progress of this disease. The potential association between chronic heavy metal exposure, like arsenic, lead, cadmium, mercury, and CVD has been less well defined. The mechanism through which heavy metals act to increase cardiovascular risk factors may act still remains unknown, although impaired antioxidants metabolism and oxidative stress may play a role. However, the exact mechanism of CVD induced by heavy metals deserves further investigation either through animal experiments or through molecular and cellular studies. Furthermore, large-scale prospective studies with follow up on general populations using appropriate biomarkers and cardiovascular endpoints might be recommended to identify the factors that predispose to heavy metals toxicity in CVD. In this review, we will give a brief summary of heavy metals homeostasis, followed by a description of the available evidence for their link with CVD and the proposed mechanisms of action by which their toxic effects might be explained. Finally, suspected interactions between genetic, nutritional and environmental factors are discussed.

  10. Heavy metal contamination and human health risk assessment in drinking water from shallow groundwater wells in an agricultural area in Ubon Ratchathani province, Thailand.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wongsasuluk, Pokkate; Chotpantarat, Srilert; Siriwong, Wattasit; Robson, Mark

    2014-02-01

    Most local people in the agricultural areas of Hua-ruea sub-district, Ubon Ratchathani province (Thailand), generally consume shallow groundwater from farm wells. This study aimed to assess the health risk related to heavy metal contamination in that groundwater. Samples were randomly collected from 12 wells twice in each of the rainy and the dry seasons and were analyzed by inductive coupled plasma spectrometry-mass spectrometry (ICP-MS). The concentration of detected metals in each well and the overall mean were below the acceptable groundwater standard limits for As, Cd, Cr, Cu, Hg, Ni and Zn, but Pb levels were higher in four wells with an overall average Pb concentration of 16.66 ± 18.52 μg/l. Exposure questionnaires, completed by face-to-face interviews with 100 local people who drink groundwater from farm wells, were used to evaluate the hazard quotients (HQs) and hazard indices (HIs). The HQs for non-carcinogenic risk for As, Cu, Zn and Pb, with a range of 0.004-2.901, 0.053-54.818, 0.003-6.399 and 0.007-26.80, respectively, and the HI values (range from 0.10 to 88.21) exceeded acceptable limits in 58 % of the wells. The HI results were higher than one for groundwater wells located in intensively cultivated chili fields. The highest cancer risk found was 2.6 × 10(-6) for As in well no. 11. This study suggested that people living in warmer climates are more susceptible to and at greater risk of groundwater contamination because of their increased daily drinking water intake. This may lead to an increased number of cases of non-carcinogenic and carcinogenic health defects among local people exposed to heavy metals by drinking the groundwater.

  11. Characterization and environmental risk assessment of heavy metals found in fly ashes from waste filter bags obtained from a Chinese steel plant.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Yun; Ning, Xun-an; Liao, Xikai; Lin, Meiqing; Liu, Jingyong; Wang, Jianghui

    2013-09-01

    The environmental risk of exposure to six heavy metals (Cu, Pb, Zn, Cr, Ni, and Cd) found in fly ashes from waste filter bags obtained from a steel plant was estimated based on the mineralogical compositions, total concentrations and speciation of the metals in the fly ashes. The results indicated that the fly ashes mainly consisted of hematite, magnetite, cyanite, spinel, coesite and amorphous materials. The concentrations of Zn and Pb were much higher than that of other materials. After Zn and Pb, Ni was present in the highest concentration, followed by Cu, Cr and Cd. Each heavy metal was distributed differently in fly ashes. The levels of Zn, Cd and Pb in the active fraction were very high, and ranged from 64.83 to 81.96%, 34.48 to 82.4% and 6.92 to 79.65% respectively, while Cu, Cr and Ni were mainly present in the residual fraction. The risk assessment code (RAC) values of fly ashes showed that the Zn and Cd present in the H3 sample presented a very high risk, with RAC values greater than 50%. The Cu present in the H3 sample, Cd in the H2 sample and Zn in the H4 and H5 samples presented a high risk. The Pb present in the H2 sample, Cd in the H4 sample, Ni in the H1 and H5 samples, and Zn in the H1 sample presented a medium risk. A low risk was presented by the Cu present in the H1, H2, H4 and H5 samples, the Pb in the H1, H3 and H5 samples, the Cd in the H1 and H5 samples, and the Ni in the H2 sample. No risk was presented by Cr in any sample.

  12. 关中地区农业土壤重金属污染评价%Assessment on heavy metals pollution of agricultural soil in Guanzhong District

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    郑国璋; 岳乐平; 李智佩

    2006-01-01

    The monitored soil samples were collected from Heihui irrigated area, Jiaokou irrigated area, Qianhe river valley and Jinghe river valley (hereafter Heihui, Jiaokou, Qianhe and Jinghe for short respectively) of Guanzhong District. According to the Environment Quality Standard for Soil (GB15618-1995II), we evaluated the pollution status of heavy metals (Cd, As, Cr and Pb) that could seriously endanger soil environment and human health by using single-factor index and synthetic pollution index methods. The results indicate that the synthetic pollution indices P of soil heavy metals are less than 0.7 in Heihui, Jiaokou, Qianhe and Jinghe of Guanzhong, the single-factor indices Pi of soil heavy metals of most soil samples are less than 0.7, so the soil environmental quality is in a good condition in Guanzhong on the whole; the enrichment degree of soil heavy metals is in the order of Heihui, Jinghe, Qianhe and Jiaokou; the contaminated degree of soil heavy metals has the feature of Cd > As > Cr > Pb; heavy metals contents in the cultivated horizon soil are generally higher than those in its underlayer soil, heavy metals contents of soil have the characteristic of enriching towards the cultivated horizon; Cd exceeds standard in the soil samples HS07a, b and HS08a, b at the Yangtao orchard in Heihui and in the soil sample QHS01a at the suburban vegetable plot in Qianhe, which was mainly caused by the long-term irrational use of chemical fertilizer and pesticide.

  13. Electrodialytic remediation of heavy metal polluted soil

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ottosen, Lisbeth M.; Jensen, Pernille Erland; Kirkelund, Gunvor Marie;

    2012-01-01

    Electrodialytic soil remediation is a method for removal of heavy metals. Good results have previously been obtained with both treatment of a stationary, water saturated soil matrix and with remediation of a stirred suspension of soil in water. The two different setups have different uses...... without a short distance between the membranes. The acidification of the suspended soil was fastest and following the mobilization of heavy metals. This may indicate that water splitting at the anion exchange membrane is used more efficiently in the stirred setup........ The first as in-situ or on-site treatment when there is no requirement for fast remediation, as the removal rate of the heavy metals are dependent on the distance between the electrodes (everything else equal) and in such application the electrode spacing must have a certain distance (often meters...

  14. Use of geostatistics for assessing the concentration of heavy metals in a stretch of the River Apodi-Mossoro (Rio Grande do Norte State, Brazil).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bezerra, J. M.; Siqueira, G. M.; Montenegro, A. A. A.; Silva, P. C. M.; Batista, R. O.

    2012-04-01

    The objective of this study was to assess the environmental changes with respect to the concentration of heavy metals in the sediment contained a stretch of the River Apodi-Mossoró (Rio Grande do Norte State, Brazil), considering changes in land use and soil. The sediment samples were collected at 30 points in the bed Apodi- Mossoró River in a section with features urban-rural town of Mossoró. The concentration of heavy metals in the sediment was determined using composite samples of surface sediments from the bottom with a depth of 20 cm, according to the methodology of APHAAWWA-WPCF (1998), where he subsequently held to determine the presence and quantity of metal concentration total by the technique of atomic absorption spectrometry, and analyzed the following heavy metals: aluminum(Al), cádmium (Cd), chromium (Cr), copper (Cu), iron (Fe), manganese (Mn), nickel (Ni), lead (Pb) and zinc (Zn). Data were analyzed using statistical and geostatistical. The geostatistical analysiswas performed by the construction of experimental semivariogramas self-assessment and adjustment by using the technique of Jack-kinifing. The elemento Cd was absent in the samples, which reduces the possibility of environmental contamination events. The average concentrations of the elements under study are within the limits proposed by the environmental legislation (National Environmental Council). However, for the elements Fe, Al and Mn no threshold values, because these are associated with the rocky material of geochemical origin. The elemento Fe had the highest range of values than the other, and all elements except for Zn and Cd showed the presence of outliers, suggesting the possibility that these points are listed as points liable to contribution by human activities. It was verified the presence of human influence, because the elements undergo an increase of concentration values from the point 11, which is located downstream of the urban bus consolidated. The experimental

  15. HEAVY METALS CONTENT IN SHEEP PRODUCTS FROM MIDLE SPIŠ

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Slávik Marek

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available In this work, we evaluated the risk of contamination of animal products by heavy metals. Samples of animal raw materials were obtained in 2013 in the municipalities of Porac and Matejovce nad Hornádom. Samples of muscle and internal organs were collected from domestic sheep (Ovis aries reared in the village of Rudnianska burdened area where mercury along with other heavy metals contamination is above the limit value of agricultural soil. Measuring the concentration of heavy metals in the samples was performed in accordance with the general requirements set out in the tenth chapter of the Food Code of the Slovak Republic. Mercury content in biological materials were assessed by total mercury as on the AMA 254 in fresh samples. The other heavy metal content, was determined after wet mineralization (HNO3: H2O - 1: 1 using the device AAS Varian 240 FS. The contamination of the environment showed increased accumulation of heavy metals in the - studiet sheep tissues intended for consumption. Such as Hg content in the kidneys of domestic sheep exceed the limit value by 1.3 times, whereas, in the case of cadmium 3 times exceeding the limit value in meat was recordered. Exceed limit was recorded in the case of lead and copper in the liver.

  16. Novel modified pectin for heavy metal adsorption

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Feng Ting Li; Hong Yang; Yan Zhao; Ran Xu

    2007-01-01

    Modified pectin cross-linked with adipic acid, was synthesized and used for heavy metal removal from wastewater. SEM and FrIR were used to investigate its structure and morphology. The modified pectin had a rough, porous phase covered with carboxy groups, resulting a high adsorption capacity. And at the room temperature, the saturated loading capacity for Pb2+, Cu2+ and Zn2+ reached 1.82 mmol/g, 1.794 mmol/g and 0.964 mmol/g, respectively. The results proved its potential application to remove of the heavy metal.

  17. Critical loads of heavy metals for soils

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vries, de W.; Groenenberg, J.E.; Lofts, S.; Tipping, E.; Posch, M.

    2012-01-01

    To enable a precautionary risk assessment for future inputs of metals, steady-state methods have been developed to assess critical loads of metals avoiding long-term risks to food quality and eco-toxicological effects on organisms in soils and surface waters. A critical load for metals equals the lo

  18. Heavy metal pollutant tolerance of Azolla pinnata

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sarkar, A.; Jana, S.

    1986-01-01

    The effects of Hg, As, Pb, Cu, Cd, and Cr (1,2 and 5 mg L/sup -1/ each) on Azolla pinnata R. Br. were analyzed. The treatments (2 and 5 mg L/sup -1/) of the heavy metal pollutants decreased Hill activity, chlorophyll, protein and dry wt, and increased tissue permeability over control values. The effects were most pronounced with the treatment of 5 mg L/sup -1/. The harmful effects of the metals were, in general, found by the treatments in the order: Cd > Hg > Cu > As > Pb > Cr. There was no significant change in these parameters at 1 mg L/sup -1/ of the metals over control. Thus Azolla pinnata shows tolerance to the heavy metals tested up to 1 mg L/sup -1/ each.

  19. Esterase resistant to inactivation by heavy metals

    KAUST Repository

    El, Dorry Hamza

    2014-09-25

    EstATII is an esterase that a halotolerant, thermophilic and resistant to a spectrum of heavy metals including toxic concentration of metals. It was isolated from the lowest convective layer of the Atlantis II Red Sea brine pool. The Atlantis II brine pool is an extreme environment that possesses multiple harsh conditions such as; high temperature, salinity, pH and high concentration of metals, including toxic heavy metals. A fosmid metagenomic library using DNA isolated from the lowest convective layer this pool was used to identify EstATII. Polynucleotides encoding EstATII and similar esterases are disclosed and can be used to make EstATII. EstATII or compositions or apparatuses that contain it may be used in various processes employing lipases/esterases especially when these processes are performed under harsh conditions that inactivate other kinds of lipases or esterases.

  20. Heavy metals in hair of residents in an e-waste recycling area, south China: contents and assessment of bodily state.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zheng, Jing; Luo, Xiao-Jun; Yuan, Jian-Gang; He, Luo-Yiyi; Zhou, Yi-Hui; Luo, Yong; Chen, She-Jun; Mai, Bi-Xian; Yang, Zhong-Yi

    2011-11-01

    Heavy metals were measured in hair from occupationally and nonoccupationally exposed populations in an e-waste recycling area and from residents from a control rural town. The levels of five heavy metals were in the following order of Zn > Pb, Cu > Cd > Ni, with the highest levels found in the occupationally exposed workers. The levels of Cd, Pb, and Cu were significantly higher in residents from the e-waste recycling area than in the control area. Elevated Cd, Pb, and Cu contents along with significant positive correlations between them in hair from the e-waste recycling area indicated that these metals were likely to have originated from the e-waste recycling activities. The similarity in heavy metal pattern between children and occupationally exposed workers indicated that children are particularly vulnerable to heavy metal pollution caused by e-waste recycling activities. The increased Cu exposure might be a benefit for the insufficient intake of Cu in the studied area. However, the elevated hair Cd and Pb levels implied that the residents in the e-waste area might be at high risk of toxic metal, especially for children and occupationally exposed workers.

  1. The environmental impact of gold mines: pollution by heavy metals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abdul-Wahab, Sabah; Marikar, Fouzul

    2012-06-01

    The gold mining plant of Oman was studied to assess the contribution of gold mining on the degree of heavy metals into different environmental media. Samples were collected from the gold mining plant area in tailings, stream waters, soils and crop plants. The collected samples were analyzed for 13 heavy metals including vanadium (V), chromium (Cr), manganese (Mn), nickel (Ni), copper (Cu), cadmium (Cd), cobalt (Co), lead (Pb), zinc (Zn), aluminium (Al), strontium (Sr), iron (Fe) and barium (Ba). The water in the acid evaporation pond showed a high concentration of Fe as well as residual quantities of Zn, V, and Al, whereas water from the citizens well showed concentrations of Al above those of Omani and WHO standards. The desert plant species growing closed to the gold pit indicated high concentrations of heavy metals (Mn, Al, Ni, Fe, Cr, and V), while the similar plant species used as a control indicated lesser concentrations of all heavy metals. The surface water (blue) indicated very high concentrations of copper and significant concentrations of Mn, Ni, Al, Fe, Zn, lead, Co and Cd. The results revealed that some of the toxic metals absorbed by plants indicated significant metal immobilization.

  2. Quantitative assessment of atmospheric emissions of toxic heavy metals from anthropogenic sources in China: historical trend, spatial variation distribution, uncertainties and control policies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H. Z. Tian

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Anthropogenic atmospheric emissions of typical toxic heavy metals have received worldwide concerns due to their adverse effects on human health and the ecosystem. By determining the best available representation of time-varying emission factors with S-shape curves, we established the multiyear comprehensive atmospheric emission inventories of 12 typical toxic heavy metals (Hg, As, Se, Pb, Cd, Cr, Ni, Sb, Mn, Co, Cu and Zn from primary anthropogenic activities in China for the period of 1949–2012 for the first time. Further, we allocated the annual emissions of these heavy metals in 2010 at a high spatial resolution of 0.5° × 0.5° grid with ArcGIS methodology and surrogate indexes, such as regional population and gross domestic product (GDP. Our results show that the historical emissions of Hg, As, Se, Cd, Cr, Ni, Sb, Mn, Co, Cu and Zn during the period of 1949–2012, have been increased by about 22–128 times at an annual average growth rate of 5.1–8.0%, amounting to about 79 570 t in 2012. Nonferrous metal smelting, coal combustion of industrial boilers, brake and tyre wear, and ferrous metals smelting represent the dominant sources for Hg / Cd, As / Se / Pb / Cr / Ni / Mn / Co, Sb / Cu, and Zn, respectively. In terms of spatial variation, the majority of emissions were concentrated in relatively developed regions, especially for the northern, eastern and southern coastal regions. In addition, because of the flourishing nonferrous metals smelting industry, several southwestern and central-southern provinces play a prominent role in some specific toxic heavy metals emissions, like Hg in Guizhou and As in Yunnan. Finally, integrated countermeasures are proposed to minimize the final toxic heavy metals discharge on accounting of the current and future demand of energy-saving and pollution reduction in China.

  3. Assessment of heavy metal (Cu, Ni, Fe, Co, Mn, Cr, Zn) pollution in effluent dominated rivulet water and their effect on glycogen metabolism and histology of Mastacembelus armatus

    OpenAIRE

    Javed, Mehjbeen; Usmani, Nazura

    2013-01-01

    The present study was conducted to examine the contamination of rivulet situated at Kasimpur, Aligarh (27.218° N; 79.378° E). It receives the wastewater of Harduaganj Thermal Power Plant (HTPS) containing fly ash and heavy metals. Among the heavy metals estimated in the rivulet water, Fe (8.71 mgL-1) was present in the highest concentration followed by Cu (0.86 mgL-1), Zn (0.30 mgL-1) Mn (0.21 mgL-1), Ni (0.12 mgL-1), Co (0.11 mgL-1) and Cr (0.10 mgL-1). The values for the heavy metals such a...

  4. Assessment of the levels of some heavy metals in water in Alahsa Oasis farms, Saudi Arabia, with analysis by atomic absorption spectrophotometry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fahad N. Assubaie

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available For the first time, the levels of some heavy metals in water in Alahsa farms, Saudi Arabia were examined. Three types of water were analyzed including groundwater, mixed water and wastewater. The total contents of Mn, Fe, Cu, Zn, Cd and Pb were determined using graphite-furnace atomic absorption spectrophotometry. The results obtained were verified through the analysis of a certified reference material, the results of which are in good agreement with the certified consensus values. As recommended by the Food and Agriculture Organization, the level of heavy metals in groundwater and mixed water have been found to be suitable for irrigation purpose. However, the occurrence of some heavy metals that discharged directly from man-made activities without treatment could result in some environmental problems in the future. On the other hand, the spatial distribution of Mn and Fe has been found to increase from southeast to northwest.

  5. Electrokinetic removal of heavy metals from soil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Puvvadi Venkata Sivapullaiah

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Removal of heavy metal ions from soils by electrokinetic treatment has several advantages. The extent of removal, however, is both soil specific and ion specific. The conditions to be maintained have to be established based on laboratory studies. With a view to maximize the removal of metal ions the trends of removal of heavy metal ions such as iron, nickel and cadmium form a natural Indian kaolinitic red earth during different conditions maintained in the electrokinetic extraction process are studied. A laboratory electrokinetic extraction apparatus was assembled for this purpose. Attempts are also made to elucidate the mechanism of removal of the metal ions from soil. The composition of the flushing fluid, voltage and duration of extraction are varied. While dilute acetic acid has been used to neutralize the alkalinity that develops at the cathode, EDTA solution has been used to desorb heavy metals from clay surface. Generally the extent of removal was proportional to the osmotic flow. Nickel and Cadmium are more effectively removed than iron. The percentage removal of Ni is generally proportional to the osmotic flow but shows sensitivity to the pH of the system. There is an optimum voltage for removal of metal ions from soil. The removal of iron was negligible under different conditions studied.

  6. Heavy Metal Distribution in Opportunistic Beach Nourishment: A Case Study in Greece

    OpenAIRE

    Spyros Foteinis; Kallithrakas-Kontos, Nikolaos G.; Costas Synolakis

    2013-01-01

    The existence and distribution of persistent pollutants, such as heavy metals, in coastal sediment used for opportunistic beach nourishment, is a problem that has not received much attention. Here, we assessed the coastal sediments in one restoration project for the occurrence and distribution of heavy metals, by utilizing an Energy Dispersive X-Ray Fluorescence (EDXRF) system. Heavy metal point sources included (i) the effluents of small industries (tanneries), (ii) wastewater treatment plan...

  7. Hydroponics reducing effluent's heavy metals discharge.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rababah, Abdellah; Al-Shuha, Ahmad

    2009-01-01

    This paper investigates the capacity of Nutrient Film Technique (NFT) to control effluent's heavy metals discharge. A commercial hydroponic system was adapted to irrigate lettuces with primary treated wastewater for studying the potential heavy metals removal. A second commercial hydroponic system was used to irrigate the same type of lettuces with nutrient solution and this system was used as a control. Results showed that lettuces grew well when irrigated with primary treated effluent in the commercial hydroponic system. The NFT-plant system heavy metals removal efficiency varied amongst the different elements, The system's removal efficiency for Cr was more than 92%, Ni more than 85%, in addition to more than 60% reduction of B, Pb, and Zn. Nonetheless, the NFT-plants system removal efficiencies for As, Cd and Cu were lower than 30%. Results show that lettuces accumulated heavy metals in leaves at concentrations higher than the maximum acceptable European and Australian levels. Therefore, non-edible plants such as flowers or pyrethrum are recommended as value added crops for the proposed NFT.

  8. Heavy metals extraction from anaerobically digested sludge

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Marchioretto, M.M.; Bruning, H.; Loan, N.T.P.; Rulkens, W.H.

    2002-01-01

    This paper reports on the chemical extraction efficiency in the removal of heavy metals from sludge from an activated-sludge system, which receives as influent both industrial and municipal wastewater. Utilizing a series of chemical extractants in a sequential order comprised the first phase of the

  9. Heavy metal contamination in TIMS Branch sediments

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pickett, J.B.

    1990-06-25

    The objective of this memorandum is to summarize results of previous sediment studies on Tims Branch and Steed's Pond conducted by Health Protection (HP) and by the Savannah River Laboratory (SRL) in conjunction with Reactor Materials Engineering Technology (RMET). The results for other heavy metals, such as lead, nickel, copper, mercury, chromium, cadmium, zinc, and thorium are also summarized.

  10. Heavy metal contamination in TIMS Branch sediments

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pickett, J.B.

    1990-06-25

    The objective of this memorandum is to summarize results of previous sediment studies on Tims Branch and Steed`s Pond conducted by Health Protection (HP) and by the Savannah River Laboratory (SRL) in conjunction with Reactor Materials Engineering & Technology (RMET). The results for other heavy metals, such as lead, nickel, copper, mercury, chromium, cadmium, zinc, and thorium are also summarized.

  11. BIOACCUMULATION OF HEAVY METALS IN FORAGE GRASSES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adam Łukowski

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was estimation of bioaccumulation of heavy metals (Pb, Ni, Cu, Zn, Cd in forage grasses from the area of Podlasie Province based on the bioaccumulation factor. In the soil samples the pH, organic carbon content and CEC were determined. Determination of heavy metals contents in plant and soil material was carried out by flame atomic absorption spectrometry. Soils were characterized mainly by acidic reaction, high cation exchange capacity and organic carbon content. The content of heavy metals in studied forage grasses did not exceed the polish regulations related to plant usage for feeding purposes, except the lead content in seven samples. Coefficients of variation for particular heavy metals content in studied forage grasses were as follows: Pb - 37%, Ni - 63%, Cu - 30%, Zn - 34%, Cd - 48%. The highest bioaccumulation factor was found for nickel and grass from the village Remieńkiń (11.54, while the lowest for cadmium and grass from the village Jemieliste (0.04.

  12. Heavy metals in MSW incineration fly ashes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ferreira, Celia; Ribeiro, Alexandra B.; Ottosen, Lisbeth M.

    2003-01-01

    Incineration is a common solution for dealing with the increasing amount of municipal solid waste (MSW). During the process, the heavy metals initially present in the waste go through several transformations, ending up in combustion products, such as fly ash. This article deals with some issues r...

  13. Electrodialytic decontamination of heavy metal polluted soil

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ottosen, Lisbeth M.; Hansen, Henrik K.; Karlsmose, Bodil

    1996-01-01

    Electrodialytic remediation of heavy metal polluted soil is a newly developed method, which combines the electrokinetic mevement of ions in soil with the principle of electrodialytis. The method has been proven to work in laboratory scale and at present two types of pilot plant tests are made....

  14. A Plasmid Containing the Human Metallothionein II Gene Can Function as an Antibody-assisted Electrophoretic Biosensor for Heavy Metals

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-01-16

    plants and natural and artificial bodies of water) and for heavy metal debris shed from medical and dental metal implants . Materials and methods All...based method may be useful in medical/ dental implant testing to determine if forms of heavy metals that may be released from metal implants are capable of...them potentially effective tools for assessment of heavy metal bioavailability in aqueous solutions and fluid obtained from metal implant sites. 15

  15. Metabolic Demands of Heavy Metal Drumming

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bryan Romero

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Background: The drum set involves dynamic movement of all four limbs. Motor control studies have been done on drum set playing, yet not much is known about the physiological responses to this activity. Even less is known about heavy metal drumming. Aims: The purpose of this study was to determine metabolic responses and demands of heavy metal drumming. Methods: Five semi-professional male drummers (mean ± SD age = 27.4 ± 2.6 y, height = 177.2 ± 3.8 cm, body mass = 85.1 ± 17.8 kg performed four prescribed and four self-selected heavy metal songs. Oxygen consumption (VO2, minute ventilation (VE and respiratory exchange ratio (RER were measured using a metabolic cart.  Heart rate (HR was measured using a heart rate monitor. VO2max was determined using a graded cycle ergometer test. Results: The results indicated a metabolic cost of 6.3 ± 1.4 METs and heart rate of 145.1 ± 15.7 beats·min-1 (75.4 ± 8.3% of age-predicted HRmax. VO2 peak values reached approximately 90% of the drummer’s VO2max when performing at the fastest speeds. According to these results, heavy metal drumming may be considered vigorous intensity activity (≥ 6.0 METs. The relative VO2max of 40.2 ± 9.5 mL·kg·min-1 leads to an aerobic fitness classification of “average” for adult males. Conclusions: The metabolic demands required during heavy metal drumming meet the American College of Sports Medicine guidelines for the development of health related fitness.  Keywords: Drum set, Exercise physiology, VO2, Music

  16. Using microbiological leaching method to remove heavy metals from sludge

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhuyu Gu

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Microbial leaching is one of the most effective methods to remove heavy metals from sludge. In the conducted researches, the sludge samples were processed with Thiobacillus ferrooxidans and Thiobacillus thiooxidans obtained via cultivation, extraction and purification processes. Heavy metals such as Pb, Cd, Cu and Ni were leached from sludge by Thiobacillus ferrooxidans and Thiobacillus thiooxidans within different substrate concentration and pH value conditions. It is defined that from the point of view of economy and efficiency the optimal concentration of FeSO4.7H2O and sulfur for bio-leaching process was 0.2 g. The leaching rates of heavy metals such as Pb, Cd, Cu and Ni of the same concentration were 74.72%, 81.54%, 70.46% and 77.35% respectively. However, no significant differences depending on the pH value among the leaching rates were defined, even for the pH value of 1.5. Along with the removal of heavy metals from sludge, the organic matter, N, P, K were also leached to some extent. The losing rate of phosphorus was the highest and reached 38.44%. However, the content of organic matter, N, P, K in the processed sludge were higher in comparison with level I of the National Soil Quality Standards of China. Ecological risk of heavy metals in sludge before and after leaching was assessed by Index of Geo-accumulation (Igeo and comprehensive potential risk (RI. The results of research defined that the content of heavy metals in sludge meets the level of low ecological risk after leaching and their contents is lower in comparison with the National Agricultural Sludge Standard of China. Sludge leached by biological methods is possible to use for treatment for increasing soil fertility.

  17. Kinetics of heavy metal inhibition of 1,2-dichloroethane biodegradation in co-contaminated water.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arjoon, Ashmita; Olaniran, Ademola Olufolahan; Pillay, Balakrishna

    2015-03-01

    Sites co-contaminated with heavy metals and 1,2-DCA may pose a greater challenge for bioremediation, as the heavy metals could inhibit the activities of microbes involved in biodegradation. Therefore, this study was undertaken to quantitatively assess the effects of heavy metals (arsenic, cadmium, mercury, and lead) on 1,2-DCA biodegradation in co-contaminated water. The minimum inhibitory concentrations (MICs) and concentrations of the heavy metals that caused half-life doubling (HLDs) of 1,2-DCA as well as the degradation rate coefficient (k(1)) and half-life (t(½)) of 1,2-DCA were measured and used to predict the toxicity of the heavy metals in the water microcosms. An increase in heavy metal concentration resulted in a progressive increase in the t(½) and relative t(½) and a decrease in k(1). The MICs and HLDs of the heavy metals were found to vary, depending on the heavy metals type. In addition, the presence of heavy metals was shown to inhibit 1,2-DCA biodegradation in a dose-dependent manner, with the following order of decreasing inhibitory effect: Hg(2+)  > As(3+)  > Cd(2+)  > Pb(2+). Findings from this study have significant implications for the development of bioremediation strategies for effective degradation of 1,2-DCA and other related compounds in wastewater co-contaminated with heavy metals.

  18. Leaching of heavy metals from steelmaking slags

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gomez, J. F. P.; Pino, C. G.

    2006-07-01

    Leaching tests with EAF and Ladle slags were performed, using a flow through tests and the standard batch test DIN 38414-S4. The previous method was used to simulate the leaching behaviour of steel slags under landfill. the chemical analysis of the leachates during this period shows, in general, for both types of slag, and increase of heavy metal releases with ageing. Standard test method DIN 38414-S4 was used to evaluate leachability of heavy metals by water in unprocessed slags. After more than one year of trials, slang samples submitted to these trials presented very low total leaching levels. The most extracted elements are calcium and magnesium. Nevertheless, in flow-though test, calcium and magnesium leached from solid slags are below 0.5% and all other metals below 0.1%. Leachates obtained with DIN 38414-S4 present, as expected, higher leaching values; however, these are inferior to 5% (Ca) and 1% (other elements). (Author) 12 refs.

  19. Accumulation of Heavy Metals in Vegetables from Agricultural Soils

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    ELJAN KASA

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available This study analyzed the heavy metals in vegetables cultivated in private gardens in Bregu i Matit, an important agricultural area in the NW Albania.The plant and soil samples taken from irrigated and non-irrigated fields in this area were analyzed for the concentrations of Cd, Cu, Zn, Pb and Ni using atomic absorption spectroscopy (AAS, after extraction by HNO3 and H2O2.The transfer factors (TF were used to evaluate the risk of metal transfer from soil to plant and the FAO/WHO safe limits to assess the potential hazards of heavy metals to human health. The ranges of heavy metal concentrations ± standard deviation in vegetable samples were (mg kg- 1: Cu 2.98-12.90 (±3.08, Ni 4.82-35.79 (±7.68, Zn Zn > Cu > Ni > Pb. The TF values indicate that only Cd was accumulated in plants.The contents of Cd in three vegetable samples, Pb in four samples, and Cu in one sample were above the safe limits set by the FAO/WHO for heavy metals in foods and vegetables indicating that consumption of vegetables grown in the studied soils could be dangerous to human health.

  20. Heavy metal characterization of circulating fluidized bed derived biomass ash.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Lianming; Yu, Chunjiang; Bai, Jisong; Wang, Qinhui; Luo, Zhongyang

    2012-09-30

    Although the direct combustion of biomass for energy that applies circulating fluidized bed (CFB) technology is steadily expanding worldwide, only few studies have conducted an environmental assessment of biomass ash thus far. Therefore, this study aims to integrate information on the environmental effects of biomass ash. We investigated the concentration of heavy metal in biomass ash samples (bottom ash, cyclone ash, and filter ash) derived from a CFB boiler that combusted agricultural and forest residues at a biomass power plant (2×12 MW) in China. Ash samples were gathered for the digestion and leaching test. The heavy metal content in the solution and the leachate was studied via an inductively coupled plasma-mass spectrometer and a Malvern Mastersizer 2000 mercury analyzer. Measurements for the chemical composition, particle size distribution, and the surface morphology were carried out. Most of the metals in cyclone ash particles were enriched, whereas Ti and Hg were enriched in filter ash. Residence time contributed most to heavy metal enrichment. Under HJ/T 300 conditions, the heavy metals showed serious leaching characteristics. Under EN 12457-2 conditions, leaching behavior was hardly detected.

  1. Theory and Analysis of Classic Heavy Metal Harmony

    OpenAIRE

    Lilja, Esa

    2009-01-01

    This thesis explores melodic and harmonic features of heavy metal, and while doing so, explores various methods of music analysis; their applicability and limitations regarding the study of heavy metal music. The study is built on three general hypotheses according to which 1) acoustic characteristics play a significant role for chord constructing in heavy metal, 2) heavy metal has strong ties and similarities with other Western musical styles, and 3) theories and analytical methods of Wester...

  2. Plants Role in Reducing Heavy Metals from Polluted Soil Leachate

    OpenAIRE

    Amouei A.1 PhD,; Tashakkorian H.1 PhD,; Naghipour D.2 PhD,; Mohammadi P.3 MSc

    2015-01-01

    Aims In the past few decades, more attention has been paid to clean up soils polluted with heavy metals by plants. A serious problem in this way is the amount of heavy metals uptake by plants. This study was conducted to evaluate the effectiveness of 3 local plants of Mazandaran province, Iran, in reducing and controlling the soil’s heavy metals. Instrument & Methods The removal amount of three heavy metals (lead, zinc and cadmium) by native plants (maize, velvetleaf and wild a...

  3. Heavy metal fates in laboratory bioretention systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Xueli; Davis, Allen P

    2007-01-01

    Key to managing heavy metals in bioretention is to understand their fates in bioretention facilities. In this study, pot prototypes filled with bioretention media were built to simulate the conditions of natural growth of plants. Synthetic runoff with different heavy metal loadings (copper, cadmium, lead, and zinc) was periodically applied. Metal accumulations in tissues of grasses -Panicum virgatum, Kentucky-31, and Bromus ciliatus, were investigated after 230d of growth and multiple runoff treatment events. After 183d of periodic runoff application, the concentrations of Zn, Cu, Pb and Cd with low and high loadings had the same trends in the plant tissues, Zn>Cu>Pb>Cd, following the trend of the input metal concentrations. The fates of input metals were 88-97% captured in soil media, 2.0-11.6% not captured by bioretention media, and 0.5-3.3% accumulated in plants. Compared to the metals retained by the soil, the percentages of input metals taken up by plants were relatively low due to the low plant biomass produced in this study. Greater biomass density would be required for the vegetation to have a valuable impact in prolonging the lifetime of a bioretention cell.

  4. Heavy metal removal from sediments by biosurfactants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mulligan, C N; Yong, R N; Gibbs, B F

    2001-07-30

    Batch washing experiments were used to evaluate the feasibility of using biosurfactants for the removal of heavy metals from sediments. Surfactin from Bacillus subtilis, rhamnolipids from Pseudomonas aeruginosa and sophorolipid from Torulopsis bombicola were evaluated using a metal-contaminated sediment (110mg/kg copper and 3300mg/kg zinc). A single washing with 0.5% rhamnolipid removed 65% of the copper and 18% of the zinc, whereas 4% sophorolipid removed 25% of the copper and 60% of the zinc. Surfactin was less effective, removing 15% of the copper and 6% of the zinc. The technique of ultrafiltration and zeta potential measurements were used to determine the mechanism of metal removal by the surfactants. It was then postulated that metal removal by the biosurfactants occurs through sorption of the surfactant on to the soil surface and complexation with the metal, detachment of the metal from the soil into the soil solution and hence association with surfactant micelles. Sequential extraction procedures were used on the sediment to determine the speciation of the heavy metals before and after surfactant washing. The carbonate and oxide fractions accounted for over 90% of the zinc present in the sediments. The organic fraction constituted over 70% of the copper. Sequential extraction of the sediments after washing with the various surfactants indicated that the biosurfactants, rhamnolipid and surfactin could remove the organically-bound copper and that the sophorolipid could remove the carbonate and oxide-bound zinc. Therefore, heavy metal removal from sediments is feasible and further research will be conducted.

  5. Effect of Heavy Metal Pollution on Cucumber POD Isoenzyme

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2003-01-01

    The Experiment was carried out to study heavy metal pollution effect on cucumber POD isozyme in our experiment.The results showed that:the activities of POD in cucumber seeds increased in low concentration treatment,and decreased in high concentration treatment after being treated with heavy metal.The critical band patterns of POD isoenzyme was changed by heavy metal pollution.

  6. Arbuscular Mycorrhizal Fungi Can Benefit Heavy Metal Tolerance and Phytoremediation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Forgy, David

    2012-01-01

    Sites contaminated by heavy metals, such as industrial waste sites, create unwelcoming environments for plant growth. Heavy metals can have a wide range of toxic effects such as replacing essential elements or disrupting enzyme function. While some heavy metals are essential to plant nutrition at low concentrations, high concentrations of any…

  7. Heavy Metal Concentrations in Maltese Potable Water

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roberta Bugeja

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available This study evaluates the levels of aluminum (Al, cadmium (Cd, chromium (Cr, copper (Cu, iron (Fe, lead (Pb, nickel (Ni and zinc (Zn in tap water samples of forty localities from around the Maltese Islands together with their corresponding service supply reservoirs. The heavy metal concentrations obtained indicated that concentrations of the elements were generally below the maximum allowed concentration established by the Maltese legislation. In terms of the Maltese and EU water quality regulations, 17.5% of the localities sampled yielded water that failed the acceptance criteria for a single metal in drinking water. Higher concentrations of some metals were observed in samples obtained at the end of the distribution network, when compared to the concentrations at the source. The observed changes in metal concentrations between the localities’ samples and the corresponding supply reservoirs were significant. The higher metal concentrations obtained in the samples from the localities can be attributed to leaching in the distribution network.

  8. Changes in total concentrations and assessed background concentrations of heavy metals in moss in Lithuania and the Czech Republic between 1995 and 2005.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sakalys, J; Kvietkus, K; Sucharová, J; Suchara, I; Valiulis, D

    2009-06-01

    Data on concentrations of heavy metals (As, Cd, Cr, Cu, Fe, Hg, Mn, Ni, Pb, V and Zn) in moss collected on the lightly industrialized territory of Lithuania and on the highly industrialized territory of the Czech Republic in 1995, 2000 and 2005 is used to separate the background and anthropogenic contributions to heavy metal concentrations in moss. The distribution of the concentration logarithms allowed us to determine a background mode, and to estimate the background concentration of heavy metals from this mode. The method was then applied for an estimation of the contribution of local sources to the total pollution level in both countries. The average concentrations and the background modes of heavy metals in Lithuania and in the Czech Republic were very similar, except in the case of vanadium, where the background concentration was higher in Lithuania than in the Czech Republic. For most elements, the background concentration in moss had a decreasing tendency in Lithuania and in the Czech Republic between 1995 and 2005, though the concentration of Cu and Hg increased in Lithuania. The variability of chromium concentration in moss differed from the remaining investigated elements in the Czech Republic, and it was expressed as a bimodal lognormal distribution. This variability may be due to simultaneous contamination of moss by chromium from soil and from industrial sources of pollution.

  9. Risk assessment due to intake of heavy metals through the ingestion of groundwater around two proposed uranium mining areas in Jharkhand, India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giri, Soma; Mahato, Mukesh K; Singh, Gurdeep; Jha, V N

    2012-03-01

    Heavy metal pollution of water resources can be apprehended in East Singhbhum region which is a highly mineralised zone with extensive mining of copper, uranium and other minerals. Ten groundwater samples were collected from each site and the heavy metal analysis was done by atomic absorption spectrophotometer. Analysis of the results of the study reveals that the concentration of iron, manganese, zinc, lead, copper and nickel in groundwater of Bagjata mining area ranged 0.06-5.3 mg l(-1), 0.01-1.3 mg l(-1), 0.02-8.2 mg l(-1), 1.4-28.4 μg l(-1), 0.78-20.0 μg l(-1) and 1.05-20.1 μg l(-1), respectively. In case of Banduhurang mining area, the range was 0.04-2.93 mg l(-1), 0.02-1.1 mg l(-1), 0.01-4.68 mg l(-1), 1.04-33.21 μg l(-1), 1.24-18.7 μg l(-1) and 1.06-14.58 μg l(-1), respectively. The heavy metals were found to be below the drinking water standards (IS:10500 1993) except iron (0.3 mg l(-1)) and manganese (0.1 mg l(-1)). The hazard quotients of the heavy metals for drinking water were below 1 posing no threat due to intake of water to the people for both the areas.

  10. Considering bioavailability in the remediation of heavy metal contaminated sites

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leita L.

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available Many years of research have demonstrated that instead of the total concentration of metals in soil, bioavailability is the key to understand the environmental risk derived by metals, since adverse effects are related only to the biologically available forms of these elements. The knowledge of bioavailability can decrease the uncertainties in evaluating exposure in human and ecological risk assessment. At the same time, the efficiency of remediation treatments could be greatly influenced by availability of the contaminants. Consideration of the bioavailability processes at contaminated sites could be useful in site-specific risk assessment: the fraction of mobile metals, instead of total content should be provided as estimates of metal exposure. Moreover, knowledge of the chemical forms of heavy metals in soils is a critical component in the evaluation of applicability of different remediation technologies such as phytoremdiation or soil washing.

  11. Distribution and pollution, toxicity and risk assessment of heavy metals in sediments from urban and rural rivers of the Pearl River delta in southern China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xiao, Rong; Bai, Junhong; Huang, Laibin; Zhang, Honggang; Cui, Baoshan; Liu, Xinhui

    2013-12-01

    Sediments were collected from the upper, middle and lower reaches of both urban and rural rivers in a typical urbanization zone of the Pearl River delta. Six heavy metals (Cd, Cr, Cu, Ni, Pb and Zn) were analyzed in all sediment samples, and their spatial distribution, pollution levels, toxicity and ecological risk levels were evaluated to compare the characteristics of heavy metal pollution between the two rivers. Our results indicated that the total contents of the six metals in all samples exceeded the soil background value in Guangdong province. Based on the soil quality thresholds of the China SEPA, Cd levels at all sites exceeded class III criteria, and other metals exhibited pollution levels exceeding class II or III criteria at both river sites. According to the sediment quality guidelines of the US EPA, all samples were moderately to heavily polluted by Cr, Cu, Ni, Pb and Zn. Compared to rural river sites, urban river sites exhibited heavier pollution. Almost all sediment samples from both rivers exhibited moderate to serious toxicity to the environment, with higher contributions from Cr and Ni. A "hot area" of heavy metal pollution being observed in the upper and middle reaches of the urban river area, whereas a "hot spot" was identified at a specific site in the middle reach of the rural river. Contrary metal distribution patterns were also observed along typical sediment profiles from urban and rural rivers. However, the potential ecological risk indices of rural river sediments in this study were equal to those of urban river sediments, implying that the ecological health issues of the rivers in the undeveloped rural area should also be addressed. Sediment organic matter and grain size might be important factors influencing the distribution profiles of these heavy metals.

  12. Customizable Biopolymers for Heavy Metal Remediation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kostal, Jan; Prabhukumar, Giridhar; Lao, U. Loi; Chen Alin; Matsumoto, Mark; Mulchandani, Ashok; Chen, Wilfred [University of California, Department of Chemical and Environmental Engineering (United States)], E-mail: wilfred@engr.ucr.edu

    2005-10-15

    Nanoscale materials have been gaining increasing interest in the area of environmental remediation because of their unique physical, chemical and biological properties. One emerging area of research has been the development of novel materials with increased affinity, capacity, and selectivity for heavy metals because conventional technologies are often inadequate to reduce concentrations in wastewater to acceptable regulatory standards. Genetic and protein engineering have emerged as the latest tools for the construction of nanoscale materials that can be controlled precisely at the molecular level. With the advent of recombinant DNA techniques, it is now possible to create 'artificial' protein polymers with fundamentally new molecular organization. The most significant feature of these nanoscale biopolymers is that they are specifically pre-programmed within a synthetic gene template and can be controlled precisely in terms of sizes, compositions and functions at the molecular level. In this review, the use of specifically designed protein-based nano-biomaterials with both metal-binding and tunable properties for heavy metal removal is summarized. Several different strategies for the selective removal of heavy metals such as cadmium and mercury are highlighted.

  13. Effects of Heavy Metals on Activated Sludge Microorganism

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    XIE Bing; XI Dan-li; CHEN Ji-hua

    2002-01-01

    The efforts of heavy metals on activated sludge microorganisms are reviewed. Although some heavy metals play an important role in the life of microorganism, heavy metals concentrations above toxic levels inhibit biological processes. Copper, zinc, nickel,cadmium and chromium were mostly studied because of their toxicity and widely used, regardless of single or combination. The microorganism response to these heavy metals varied with species and concentrations of metals,factors such as pH, sludge age, MLSS etc. also affect toxicity on the microorganism. The acclimation could extend the microorganism tolerance of heavy metals. The effects of heavy metals on sludge microorganisms could be described with different models, such as Sigmoidal and Monod equation. The kinetic constants are the useful indexes to estimate the heavy metals inhibition on activated sludge system. Methods to measure the toxicity and effects on microorganism community were also reviewed.

  14. Use of cestodes as indicator of heavy-metal pollution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yen Nhi, Tran Thi; Mohd Shazili, Noor Azhar; Shaharom-Harrison, Faizah

    2013-01-01

    Thirty snakehead fish, Channa micropeltes (Cuvier, 1831) were collected at Lake Kenyir, Malaysia. Muscle, liver, intestine and kidney tissues were removed from each fish and the intestine was opened to reveal cestodes. In order to assess the concentration of heavy metal in the environment, samples of water in the surface layer and sediment were also collected. Tissues were digested and the concentrations of manganese (Mn), zinc (Zn), copper (Cu), cadmium (Cd) and lead (Pb) were analysed by using inductively-coupled plasma mass-spectrometry (ICP-MS) equipment. The results demonstrated that the cestode Senga parva (Fernando and Furtado, 1964) from fish hosts accumulated some heavy metals to a greater extent than the water and some fish tissues, but less than the sediment. In three (Pb, Zn and Mn) of the five elements measured, cestodes accumulated the highest metal concentrations, and in remaining two (Cu and Cd), the second highest metal accumulation was recorded in the cestodes when compared to host tissues. Therefore, the present study indicated that Senga parva accumulated metals and might have potential as a bioindicator of heavy-metal pollution.

  15. Optimization of heavy metals total emission, case study: Bor (Serbia)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ilić, Ivana; Bogdanović, Dejan; Živković, Dragana; Milošević, Novica; Todorović, Boban

    2011-07-01

    The town of Bor (Serbia) is one of the most polluted towns in southeastern Europe. The copper smelter which is situated in the centre of the town is the main pollutant, mostly because of its old technology, which leads to environmental pollution caused by higher concentrations of SO 2 and PM 10. These facts show that the word is about a very polluted region in Europe which, apart from harming human health in the region itself, poses a particular danger for wider area of southeastern Europe. Optimization of heavy metal's total emission was undertaken because years of long contamination of the soil with heavy metals of anthropogenic origin created a danger that those heavy metals may enter the food chains of animals and people, which can lead to disastrous consequences. This work represents the usage of Geographic Information System (GIS) for establishing a multifactor assessment model to quantitatively divide polluted zones and for selecting control sites in a linear programming model, combined with PROMETHEE/GAIA method, Screen View modeling system, and linear programming model. The results show that emissions at some control sites need to be cut for about 40%. In order to control the background of heavy metal pollution in Bor, the ecological environment must be improved.

  16. Electrodialytic remediation of heavy metal polluted soil

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ottosen, Lisbeth M.; Jensen, Pernille Erland; Kirkelund, Gunvor Marie

    2012-01-01

    Electrodialytic soil remediation is a method for removal of heavy metals. Good results have previously been obtained with both treatment of a stationary, water saturated soil matrix and with remediation of a stirred suspension of soil in water. The two different setups have different uses......). In the stirred setup it is possible to shorten the transport route to few mm and to have a faster and continuous process. The present paper for the first time reports a direct comparison of the two options. The remediation of the stirred suspension showed faster than remediation of the water saturated soil even...... without a short distance between the membranes. The acidification of the suspended soil was fastest and following the mobilization of heavy metals. This may indicate that water splitting at the anion exchange membrane is used more efficiently in the stirred setup....

  17. Multiple heavy metal removal using an entomopathogenic fungi Beauveria bassiana.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gola, Deepak; Dey, Priyadarshini; Bhattacharya, Arghya; Mishra, Abhishek; Malik, Anushree; Namburath, Maneesh; Ahammad, Shaikh Ziauddin

    2016-10-01

    Towards the development of a potential remediation technology for multiple heavy metals [Zn(II), Cu(II), Cd(II), Cr(VI) and Ni(II)] from contaminated water, present study examined the growth kinetics and heavy metal removal ability of Beauveria bassiana in individual and multi metals. The specific growth rate of B. bassiana varied from 0.025h(-1) to 0.039h(-1) in presence of individual/multi heavy metals. FTIR analysis indicated the involvement of different surface functional groups in biosorption of different metals, while cellular changes in fungus was reflected by various microscopic (SEM, AFM and TEM) analysis. TEM studies proved removal of heavy metals via sorption and accumulation processes, whereas AFM studies revealed increase in cell surface roughness in fungal cells exposed to heavy metals. Present study delivers first report on the mechanism of bioremediation of heavy metals when present individually as well as multi metal mixture by entomopathogenic fungi.

  18. Heavy metals in carabids (Coleoptera, Carabidae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ruslan Butovsky

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available Carabid beetles (Coleoptera, Carabidae are one of the most studied soil groups in relation to heavy metal (HM accumulation and use for bioindication of environmental pollution. Accumulation of Zn and Cu in carabid beetles was species-, sex- and trophic group-specific. No differences were found in HM contents between omnivorous and carnivorous species. The use of carabid beetles as indicators of HM accumulation appears to be rather limited.

  19. Modeling Heavy Metal Removal in Wetlands.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1992-05-01

    1976 a,b,c) and Pettersson (1976) treated heavy metals uptake according to Michaelis-Menten kinetics ( Lehninger , 1975), discussed later in detail...copper kinetics equation as used in this modeling effort is presented below, after Lehninger (1975): dv_ dV, Ca (5) dt dt C.+K, where: v = rate of copper...the bulk solution, Cb, using either the Lineweaver-Burk double reciprocal or Eadie-Hofstee graphical methods ( Lehninger , 1975). Nielsen (1976 b) used

  20. Assessment of heavy metal accumulation in Mytilus galloprovincialis and Tapes decussatus (Bivalvia distributed in the Homa Lagoon (Izmir Bay.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mustafa Bilgin

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Bu çalışma kapsamında Gediz Deltasında yer alan Kırdeniz, Homa ve Çilazmak Dalyanları ile Çamaltı Tuzlası kıyılarından alınan yüzey sedimentlerinde ağır metal konsantrasyonları saptanmıştır. Zenginleşme faktörleri(EF hesap edilerek, metal kirliliğinin muhtemel kaynakları belirlenmiş ve sediment kalite kriterlerine (SQG göre sediment kalitesi ve kirlilik düzeyleri tespit edilmiştir. En yüksek metal konsantrasyonları, Çamlatı Tuzlası, Kırdeniz ve Çilazmak Dalyanlarında saptanmıştır. Tüm çalışma bölgesi için Pb, Cr, Ni’ nin yansıra özellikle Çilazmak ve Çamaltı Tuzlası alanlarında Hg kirlilikleri antropojenik kaynaklıdır. Çalışma alanının tümünde Ni konsantrasyonları PEL değerinin, Pb ve Cr seviyeleri ise TEL değerinin üstündedir. SOQ kriterlerine göre tüm istasyonlar Ni ve Cr açısından aşırı kirli; Pb için ise kısmen kirli olarak sınıflandırılmıştır. En yüksek kirlilik dereceleri Kırdeniz ve Çilazmak Dalyanlarında tespit edilmiştir.

  1. Spatial Patterns and Risk Assessment of Heavy Metals in Soils in a Resource-Exhausted City, Northeast China.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hongwei Chen

    Full Text Available Northeast China is an intensive area of resource-exhausted city, which is facing the challenges of industry conversion and sustainable development. In order to evaluate the soil environmental quality influenced by mining activities over decades, the concentration and spatial distribution of arsenic (As, cadmium (Cd, chromium (Cr, copper (Cu, nickel (Ni, lead (Pb, and Zinc (Zn in surface soils (0-20cm of a typical resource-exhausted city were investigated by analyzing 306 soil samples. The results showed that the average concentrations in the samples were 6.17 mg/kg for As, 0.19 mg/kg for Cd, 51.08 mg/kg for Cr, 23.27 mg/kg for Cu, 31.15 mg/kg for Ni, 22.17 mg/kg for Pb, and 54.21 mg/kg for Zn. Metals distribution maps produced by using the inverse distance weighted interpolation method and results revealed that all investigated metals showed distinct geographical patterns, and the concentrations were higher in urban and industrial areas than in farmland. Pearson correlation and principal component analysis showed that there were significant positive correlations (p<0.05 between all of the metals, and As, Cd, Cr, Mn, Ni, Pb, and Zn were closely associated with the first principal component (PC1, which explained 39.81% of the total variance. Cu and As were mainly associated with the second component (PC2. Based on the calculated Nemerow pollution index, percentage for slightly polluted (1

  2. Assessment of the risk of pollution by sulfur compounds and heavy metals in soils located in the proximity of a disused for 20 years sulfur mine (SE Poland).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sołek-Podwika, Katarzyna; Ciarkowska, Krystyna; Kaleta, Dorota

    2016-09-15

    The study assessed the long-term effects of anthropogenic pressure of the sulfur industry on turf-covered soils located in the vicinity of the sulfur mine Grzybów. The study assumes that 20 years which elapsed since the end of the exploitation of sulfur is a period sufficiently long for the content of sulfur compounds in soils not to exceed the permissible level and that soil of the region can be classified as not contaminated. A part of the study involved identification of changes in the contents Stot. and SSO4(2-) in soils collected in the 1970s and early twenty-first century. It was also traced the relationship between the content of sulfur compounds and selected soil properties and estimated risk of soil environment pollution by heavy metals. Mean contents of trace elements studied amounted to 10.2-10.8 mg kg(-1) for Pb, 14.3-39.4 mg kg(-1) for Zn, 0.2-0.4 mg kg(-1) for Cd, 3.8-32.2 mg kg(-1) for Cr, 2.7-15.1 mg kg(-1) for Cu and 2.9-18.7 mg kg(-1) for Ni. Based on the results of SSO4(2-) content in soils collected at a distance of 1 km from the mine, it was found out that despite the passage of years, the amount of this type of sulfur still is increased and exceeds 0.14 g kg(-1). As the distance from the mine grew lower (from 0.017 to 0.03 g kg(-1)) average content of the sulfur form was observed. In the studied soil material we found generally positive, strong correlation between the Stot. and SSO4(2-) content and analyzed trace elements. The degree of contamination of examined soils with heavy metals was estimated on the basis of the integrated pollution index, which pointed to a moderate and low level of antropogenization of this area. In addition, the relationship between the determined characteristics of soils (Corg. contents, the fraction soils do not occur in mobile forms in the soil solution.

  3. Heavy Metals Acting as Endocrine Disrupters

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bogdan Georgescu

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available Last years researches focused on several natural and synthetic compounds that may interfere with the major functionsof the endocrine system and were termed endocrine disrupters. Endocrine disrupters are defined as chemicalsubstances with either agonist or antagonist endocrine effects in human and animals. These effects may be achievedby interferences with the biosynthesis or activity of several endogenous hormones. Recently, it was demonstratedthat heavy metals such as cadmium (Cd, arsen (As, mercury (Hg, nickel (Ni, lead (Pb and zinc (Zn may exhibitendocrine-disrupting activity in animal experiments. Emerging evidence of the intimate mechanisms of action ofthese heavy metals is accumulating. It was revealed, for example, that the Zn atom from the Zn fingers of theestrogen receptor can be replaced by several heavy metal molecules such as copper, cobalt, Ni and Cd. By replacingthe Zn atom with Ni or copper, binding of the estrogen receptor to the DNA hormone responsive elements in the cellnucleus is prevented. In both males and females, low-level exposure to Cd interferes with the biological effects ofsteroid hormones in reproductive organs. Arsen has the property to bind to the glucocorticoid receptor thusdisturbing glucocorticoids biological effects. With regard to Hg, this may induce alterations in male and femalefertility, may affect the function of the hypothalamo-pituitary-thyroid axis or the hypothalamo-pituitary-adrenal axis,and disrupt biosynthesis of steroid hormones.

  4. Heavy metal emissions for Danish road transport

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Winther, M.; Slentoe, E.

    2010-04-15

    This report presents new heavy metal emission factors for cars, vans, trucks, buses, mopeds and motorcycles for each of the emission sources fuel consumption, engine oil, tyre wear, brake wear and road abrasion. The emission components covered are Arsenic (As), Cadmium (Cd), Chromium (Cr), Copper (Cu), Mercury (Hg), Nickel (Ni), Lead (Pb), Selenium (Se) and Zinc (Zn), all of them relevant for emission reporting to the UNECE CLRTAP (United Nations Economic Commission for Europe Convention on Long Range Transboundary Pollutants) convention. The report also presents a new Danish inventory for the year 2007. The following emissions in total TSP (in brackets) are calculated for the year 2007: As (8 kg), Cd (48 kg), Cr (197 kg), Cu (51 779 kg), Hg (28 kg), Ni (158 kg), Pb (6 989 kg), Se (33 kg) and Zn (28 556 kg). Per vehicle type cars are the most important source of emission for all heavy metal species, followed by vans, trucks, buses and 2-wheelers. By using the detailed emission factors and inventory calculation methods established in the present project, estimates of heavy metal emissions can be made for other years than 2007. (author)

  5. Removal of heavy metals using waste eggshell

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2007-01-01

    The removal capacity of toxic heavy metals by the reused eggshell was studied. As a pretreatment process for the preparation of reused material from waste eggshell, calcination was performed in the furnace at 800℃ for 2 h after crushing the dried waste eggshell. Calcination behavior, qualitative and quantitative elemental information, mineral type and surface characteristics before and after calcination of eggshell were examined by thermal gravimetric analysis (TGA), X-ray fluorescence (XRF), X-ray diffraction (XRD) and scanning electron microscopy (SEM), respectively. After calcination, the major inorganic composition was identified as Ca (lime, 99.63%) and K, P and Sr were identified as minor components. When calcined eggshell was applied in the treatment of synthetic wastewater containing heavy metals, a complete removal of Cd as well as above 99% removal of Cr was observed after 10 min. Although the natural eggshell had some removal capacity of Cd and Cr, a complete removal was not accomplished even after 60 min due to quite slower removal rate. However, in contrast to Cd and Cr, an efficient removal of Pb was observed with the natural eggshell rather than the calcined eggshell. From the application of the calcined eggshell in the treatment of real electroplating wastewater, the calcined eggshell showed a promising removal capacity of heavy metal ions as well as had a good neutralization capacity in the treatment of strong acidic wastewater.

  6. Heavy metal contamination in a vulnerable mangrove swamp in South China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Yutao; Qiu, Qiu; Xin, Guorong; Yang, Zhongyi; Zheng, Jing; Ye, Zhihong; Li, Shaoshan

    2013-07-01

    Concentrations of six heavy metals (Cu, Ni, Zn, Cd, Cr, and Pb) in sediments and fine roots, thick roots, branches, and leaves of six mangrove plant species collected from the Futian mangrove forest, South China were measured. The results show that both the sediments and plants in Futian mangrove ecosystem are moderately contaminated by heavy metals, with the main contaminants being Zn and Cu. All investigated metals showed very similar distribution patterns in the sediments, implying that they had the same anthropogenic source(s). High accumulations of the heavy metals were observed in the root tissues, especially the fine roots, and much lower concentrations in the other organs. This indicates that the roots strongly immobilize the heavy metals and (hence) that mangrove plants possess mechanisms that limit the upward transport of heavy metals and exclude them from sensitive tissues. The growth performance of propagules and 6-month-old seedlings of Bruguiera gymnorhiza in the presence of contaminating Cu and Cd was also examined. The results show that this plant is not sufficiently sensitive to heavy metals after its propagule stage for its regeneration and growth to be significantly affected by heavy metal contamination in the Futian mangrove ecosystem. However, older mangrove seedlings appeared to be more metal-tolerant than the younger seedlings due to their more efficient exclusion mechanism. Thus, the effects of metal contamination on young seedlings should be assessed when evaluating the risks posed by heavy metals in an ecosystem.

  7. Heavy metal and trace element contents in edible muscle of three commercial fish species, and assessment of possible risks associated with their human consumption in Saudi Arabia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sabry Mohamed El-Bahr

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Three different highly consumed fish species from Al-Ahsa market, Saudi Arabia namely Spangled emporer (Lethriuns nebulosus, Red striped seabream (Pagrus major and Black seabream (Spondyliosoma cantharus were evaluated for their muscle contents of heavy metals (e.g., Cd and Pb and trace elements (e.g., Cu, Zn, Fe and Mn. The possible risks associated with their human consumption were also studied. A total of 60 fresh fish samples comprising of 20 samples from each above mentioned fish were collected, and were subjected for determination of heavy metal and trace element contents by Atomic Absorption Spectrophotometry after Microwave Wet Digestion. The results showed that, accumulation patterns of the heavy metals and trace elements followed the order: Fe > Zn > Cu > Mn > Pb > Cd. There were variations among metal contents in the muscles of the three fish species; S. cantharus accumulated the highest levels of Cu, Zn and Mn, while the highest level of Fe could be detected in the muscles of P. major. The concentration of Cd and Pb remained comparable in the muscles of all three fish species. The calculated maximum daily intake (MDI values were found as 0.0003, 0.0009, 0.0035, 0.0001, 0.0000, 0.0000 mg/day/person for Cu, Zn, Fe, Mn, Cd and Pb, respectively. Conclusively, the present study indicated that, fish muscles contain relatively less burden of heavy metals and trace elements, and no health problem can be raised from human consumption of the examined commercial fishes at Al-Ahsa market, Saudi Arabia. [J Adv Vet Anim Res 2015; 2(3.000: 271-278

  8. Assessment of heavy metal (Cu, Ni, Fe, Co, Mn, Cr, Zn) pollution in effluent dominated rivulet water and their effect on glycogen metabolism and histology of Mastacembelus armatus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Javed, Mehjbeen; Usmani, Nazura

    2013-01-01

    The present study was conducted to examine the contamination of rivulet situated at Kasimpur, Aligarh (27.218° N; 79.378° E). It receives the wastewater of Harduaganj Thermal Power Plant (HTPS) containing fly ash and heavy metals. Among the heavy metals estimated in the rivulet water, Fe (8.71 mgL(-1)) was present in the highest concentration followed by Cu (0.86 mgL(-1)), Zn (0.30 mgL(-1)) Mn (0.21 mgL(-1)), Ni (0.12 mgL(-1)), Co (0.11 mgL(-1)) and Cr (0.10 mgL(-1)). The values for the heavy metals such as Fe, Ni and Mn were beyond the limits set by UNEPGEMS. Bioaccumulation of these heavy metals was detected in tissues such as gills, liver, kidney, muscle and integument of the fish Mastacembelus armatus. Accumulation of Fe (213.29 - 2601.49 mgkg(-1).dw) was highest in all the organs. Liver was the most influenced organ and integument had the least metal load. The accumulation of Fe, Zn, Cu and Mn, observed in the tissues were above the values recommended by FAO/WHO. Biochemical estimation related to blood glucose, liver and muscle glycogen conducted showed significant (p < 0.01) elevation in blood glucose content over control (17.73%), whereas liver glycogen dropped significantly (p < 0.01) over control (-89.83%), and similarly muscle glycogen also decreased significantly (p < 0.05) over control (-71.95%), suggesting enhanced glycolytic capacity to fuel hepatic metabolism. Histopathological alterations were also observed in selected organs (gills, liver and kidney) of Mastacembelus armatus.

  9. Heavy metal levels in dune sands from Matanzas urban resorts and Varadero beach (Cuba): Assessment of contamination and ecological risks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Díaz Rizo, Oscar; Buzón González, Fran; Arado López, Juana O; Denis Alpízar, Otoniel

    2015-12-30

    Concentrations of chromium (Cr), nickel (Ni), copper (Cu), zinc (Zn) and lead (Pb) in dune sands from six urban and suburban Matanzas (Cuba) resorts and Varadero beach were estimated by X-ray fluorescence analysis. Ranges of metal contents in dune sands show a strong variation across the studied locations (in mg/kg(-1)): 20-2964 for Cr, 17-183 for Ni, 17-51 for Cu, 18-88 for Zn and 5-29 for Pb. The values of contamination factors and contamination degrees how that two of the studied Matanzas's resorts (Judio and Chirry) are strongly polluted. The comparison with Sediment Quality Guidelines shows that dune sands from Judio resort represent a serious risk for humans, due to polluted Cr and Ni levels, while sands from the rest of the studied resorts, including Varadero beach, do not represent any risk for public use.

  10. CHARACTERIZATION OF HEAVY METALS ATMOSPHERIC DEPOSITION FOR ASSESSMENT OF URBAN ENVIRONMENTAL QUALITY IN THE BOLOGNA CITY (ITALY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Livia Vittori Antisari

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available The suburban area of Bologna city in southeast portion of Po Valley (Northern Italy is characterized by high emission from industrial, urban, agriculture and traffic sources. The presence of an urban waste incinerator get inhabitants to require answers about impact of its emissions on the environmental quality related to human health. The concentrations of some pollutants (Ba, Cd, Co, Cr, Cu, Ni, Pb, V and Zn were determined in topsoil, plants and mosses tissues sampled in sites selected according to different falling out conditions, due to the incinerator and other sources of atmospheric emissions that affect the monitoring area. No correlation was found between metal content and the distance of the incinerator plant. The pollution load index (PLI calculated for soil and moss indicated a low environmental pollution, while highest values in sites downwind of incinerator and in craft area indicate a moderate pollution.

  11. Diazotrophs-assisted phytoremediation of heavy metals: a novel approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ullah, Abid; Mushtaq, Hafsa; Ali, Hazrat; Munis, Muhammad Farooq Hussain; Javed, Muhammad Tariq; Chaudhary, Hassan Javed

    2015-02-01

    Heavy metals, which have severe toxic effects on plants, animals, and human health, are serious pollutants of the modern world. Remediation of heavy metal pollution is utmost necessary. Among different approaches used for such remediation, phytoremediation is an emerging technology. Research is in progress to enhance the efficiency of this plant-based technology. In this regard, the role of rhizospheric and symbiotic microorganisms is important. It was assessed by enumeration of data from the current studies that efficiency of phytoremediation can be enhanced by assisting with diazotrophs. These bacteria are very beneficial because they bring metals to more bioavailable form by the processes of methylation, chelation, leaching, and redox reactions and the production of siderophores. Diazotrophs also posses growth-promoting traits including nitrogen fixation, phosphorous solubilization, phytohormones synthesis, siderophore production, and synthesis of ACC-deaminase which may facilitate plant growth and increase plant biomass, in turn facilitating phytoremediation technology. Thus, the aim of this review is to highlight the potential of diazotrophs in assisting phytoremediation of heavy metals in contaminated soils. The novel current assessment of literature suggests the winning combination of diazotroph with phytoremediation technology.

  12. GEOCHEMICAL CHARACTERISTICS AND RISK ASSESSMENT OF HEAVY METALS IN SEDIMENTS FROM HONGFENG LAKE%红枫湖沉积物重金属元素地球化学特征及风险评价

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    田林锋; 胡继伟; 秦樊鑫; 黄先飞; 刘峰; 罗桂林; 金梅

    2011-01-01

    Eight heavy metals(Cd,Pb,As,Hg,Cu,Zn,Fe and Mn) in 13 surface sediment samples collected from Hongfeng Lake in the karstic area of Guizhou Province,were analyzed to study contamination characteristics of heavy metals,and the potential ecological risk index(RI) method was employed to assess the potential risk induced by these heavy metals.The results obtained in this study indicate that the concentrations of these heavy metals follow the order: Fe Mn Zn Cu As Pb Cd Hg.Levels of the heavy metals in the north part of the lake were generally higher than those in the south part.Statistical analysis suggests correlations among Al,K,Ca,Na,P and the eight heavy metals,demonstrating the complex factors affecting the distribution characteristics of heavy metals in sediments.Ca showed significant negative correlation with most of the heavy metals,while the rest of the elements had positive correlations with the heavy metals.According to the ecological risk assessment,Hongfeng Lake might face a regional water pollution,and the ecological risk caused by the heavy metals in the north part of the lake was generally higher than that in the south part.Cd and Hg were the major contributors to potential ecological risk index among these heavy metals,and exerted a direct influence of ecological risk on the lake.%为了研究喀斯特高原深水湖泊沉积物中重金属元素的地球化学特征,以贵州红枫湖为研究对象,分析了该湖13个采样点表层沉积物中的Cd、Pb、As、Hg、Cu、Zn、Fe、Mn 8种重金属的含量分布特征,并采用潜在生态危害指数法(R I)与地统计分析对其表层沉积物中重金属生态风险性进行了评价与分析.结果表明,红枫湖沉积物中的重金属浓度分布特征为:Fe〉Mn〉Zn〉Cu〉As〉Pb〉Cd〉Hg;以花鱼洞-花鱼洞大桥为界,北湖沉积物中重金属含量普遍高于南湖湖区.相关性分析表明,A、lK、Ca、Na、P与这8种重金属表现出一定的相关性,其

  13. Heavy Metal Contamination of Popular Nail Polishes in Iran

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Golnaz Karimi

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Background: Toxic and hazardous heavy metals like arsenic, lead, mercury, zinc, chromium and iron are found in a variety of personal care products, e.g. lipstick, whitening toothpaste, eyeliner and nail color. The nails absorb the pigments of nail polishes and vaporized or soluble metals can easily pass it. The goal of this survey was to assess whether the different colors of nail polishes comply with maximum concentrations of heavy metals in the EPA’s guidelines. Methods: 150 samples of different popular brands of nail polishes in 13 colors (yellow, beige, silver, pink, white, violet, brown, golden, green, black, colorless, red and blue were randomly purchased from beauty shops in Tehran City, Iran, in 2014. Microwave digestion EPA method 3051 was used by a microwave oven to determine the amount of 5 heavy metals; Nickel, Chromium, Lead, Arsenic and Cadmium. One-way ANOVA, Two-way ANOVA, hierarchical cluster, and principal component analyses were applied by Statistica 7.0 software. Results: The concentrations of chrome, lead, nickel and arsenic showed significant differences between the colors (p<0.05. In all studied samples, the level of cadmium was beyond the safe maximum permissible limit (MPS, but no significance difference in the cadmium content was identified. Conclusion: Due to the high concentrations of toxic metals in many brands of nail polishes, meticulous quality control is recommended for these beauty products.

  14. Phytoremediation of Heavy Metals in Aqueous Solutions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Felix Aibuedefe AISIEN

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available One of the major environmental problems is the pollution of water and soil by toxic heavy metals. This study investigated the phytoremediation potential of water hyacinth, for the removal of cadmium (Cd, lead (Pb and zinc (Zn. Water hyacinths were cultured in bore-hole water, supplemented with 5mg/l of Zn and Pb and 1mg/l of Cd at pH 4.5, 6.8 and 8.5. The plants were separately harvested each week for six weeks. The results showed that removal of these metals from solution was fast especially in the first two weeks, after which it became gradual till saturation point was reached. The accumulation of Cd and Zn in leaves and roots increased with increase in pH. The highest accumulation was in the roots with metal concentration of 4870mg/kg, 4150mg/kg and 710mg/kg for Zn, Pb and Cd respectively at pH 8.5. The maximum values of bioconcentration factor (BCF for Zn, Pb and Cd were 1674, 1531 and 1479 respectively, suggesting that water hyacinth was good accumulator of Zn, Pb and Cd, and could be used to treat industrial wastewater contaminated with heavy metals such as Zn, Pb and Cd.

  15. Assessment of heavy metals and estimation of human health risk in Tilapia fish from Naik lake of Nagpur, India

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Giripunje, M.D.; Fulke, A.B.; Meshram, P.U.

    trace elements in fish and other seafood from the French market. Food Chem. 127:934-942. ICMR (Indian Council of Medical Research) (2009). Nutrient requirements and recommended dietary allowances for Indians, A Report of the Expert Group... of the Indian Council of Medical Giripunje et al. 29 Research. Final draft. National Institute of Nutrition P 3. Ikem A, Egiebor NO (2005). Assessment of trace elements in canned fishes (mackerel, tuna, salmon, sardines and herrings) marketed...

  16. Bioaccumulation and ecological risk assessment of heavy metals in the sediments and mullet Liza klunzingeri in the northern part of the Persian Gulf.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bastami, Kazem Darvish; Afkhami, Majid; Mohammadizadeh, Maria; Ehsanpour, Maryam; Chambari, Shahrokh; Aghaei, Sina; Esmaeilzadeh, Marjan; Neyestani, Mahmoud Reza; Lagzaee, Farahnaz; Baniamam, Mehrnaz

    2015-05-15

    The concentrations of some heavy metals (Cu, Zn, Pb and Cd) were investigated in the sediments and in the mullet Liza klunzingeri from the northern part of the Persian Gulf. The levels of Cu, Zn and Pb in the sediment varied significantly among the sampling sites (P<0.05). Sediments from the northern part of the Persian Gulf had serious ecological risk when considering PER. The ranges of the average concentrations of Cu, Zn, Pb, and Cd in the tissue of L. klunzingeri were 10.00-16.66 mg/kg, 18.75-32.50 mg/kg, 3.25-14.16 mg/kg and 0.37-3.33 mg/kg, respectively. The health risk analysis of individual heavy metals in the fish tissue indicated dangerous levels of Pb and Cd for the general population at some sampling sites.

  17. Using Heavy Metal Content and Lipid Peroxidation Indicators in the Tissues of the Mussel Crenomytilus grayanus for Pollution Assessment After Marine Environmental Remediation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Belcheva, Nina; Istomina, Alexandra; Dovzhenko, Nadezhda; Lishavskaya, Tatiana; Chelomin, Victor

    2015-10-01

    We examined the effects of environmental remediation on the heavy metal concentration and lipid peroxidation activity in the digestive gland and gills of the marine mussel Crenomytilus grayanus. Changes in heavy metal concentrations and lipid peroxidation biomarkers in the tissues of mussels collected at a contaminated site were compared with those obtained from a reference site. Prior to remediation the concentration of Pb, Cu, Cd, Fe and Zn and the levels of malondialdehyde, conjugated dienes and lipofuscin in mussels collected from the contaminated site were significantly increased compared with those obtained from the reference site. Three years after remediation, these parameters did not significantly exceed the reference site parameters, except Pb, whose concentration, though markedly decreased, yet was much higher than in tissues of mussels from the reference site.

  18. Assessment of the environmental significance of nutrients and heavy metal pollution in the river network of Serbia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dević, Gordana; Sakan, Sanja; Đorđević, Dragana

    2016-01-01

    In this paper, the data for ten water quality variables collected during 2009 at 75 monitoring sites along the river network of Serbia are considered. The results are alarming because 48% of the studied sites were contaminated by Ni, Mn, Pb, As, and nutrients, which are key factors impairing the water quality of the rivers in Serbia. Special attention should be paid to Zn and Cu, listed in the priority toxic pollutants of US EPA for aquatic life protection. The employed Q-model cluster analysis grouped the data into three major pollution zones (low, moderate, and high). Most sites classified as "low pollution zones" (LP) were in the main rivers, whereas those classified as "moderate and high pollution zones" (MP and HP, respectively) were in the large and small tributaries/hydro-system. Principal component analysis/factor analysis (PCA/FA) showed that the dissolved metals and nutrients in the Serbian rivers varied depending on the river, the heterogeneity of the anthropogenic activities in the basins (influenced primarily by industrial wastewater, agricultural activities, and urban runoff pollution), and natural environmental variability, such as geological characteristics. In LP dominated non-point source pollution, such as agricultural and urban runoff, whereas mixed source pollution dominated in the MP and HP zones. These results provide information to be used for developing better pollution control strategies for the river network of Serbia.

  19. Assessment of contamination of soil due to heavy metals around coal fired thermal power plants at Singrauli region of India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Agrawal, Prashant; Mittal, Anugya; Prakash, Rajiv; Kumar, Manoj; Singh, T B; Tripathi, S K

    2010-08-01

    In the present study, an attempt was made to measure contamination of soil around four large coal-based Thermal Power Plants. The concentration of Cadmium, Lead, Arsenic and Nickel was estimated in all four directions from Thermal Power Plants. The soil in the study area was found to be contaminated to varying degrees from coal combustion byproducts. The soil drawn from various selected sites in each direction was largely contaminated by metals, predominantly higher within 2-4 km distance from Thermal Power Plant. Within 2-4 km, the mean maximum concentration of Cadmium, Lead, Arsenic and Nickel was 0.69, 13.69, 17.76, and 3.51 mg/kg, respectively. It was also observed that concentration was maximum in the prevalent wind direction. The concentration of Cadmium, Lead, Arsenic and Nickel was highest 0.69, 13.23, 17.29 and 3.56 mg/kg, respectively in west direction where wind was prevalent.

  20. Batch leaching tests of motherboards to assess environmental contamination by bromine, platinum group elements and other selected heavy metals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Almeida, César; Grosselli, Melina; González, Patricia; Martínez, Dante; Gil, Raúl

    2016-02-01

    In this study, a batch leaching test was executed to evaluate the toxicity associated with chemicals contained in motherboards. The leaching solutions used were distilled water, nitric acid, acetic acid and synthetic acid rain solution. A total of 21 elements including Ag, As, Au, Br, Cd, Co, Cr, Cu, Hf, Ir, Mn, Ni, Os, Pb, Pd, Pt, Rd, Rh, Se, U and Zn were analyzed. In this study, the pH values of all the leachates fell within the range of 2.33-4.88. The highest concentrations of metals were obtained from the acid rain solution, whilst the maximum value of bromine was achieved with solution of acetic acid. Appreciable concentrations of platinum group elements were detected with concentrations around 3.45, 1.43, 1.21 and 22.19 µg L(-1) for Ir, Pd, Pt and Rh, respectively. The different leaching of the motherboards revealed the predominant presence of the toxic substances in the leached from the e-waste.