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Sample records for assess fungal metabolic

  1. The Evolution of Fungal Metabolic Pathways

    OpenAIRE

    Wisecaver, Jennifer H.; Slot, Jason C.; Rokas, Antonis

    2014-01-01

    Fungi contain a remarkable range of metabolic pathways, sometimes encoded by gene clusters, enabling them to digest most organic matter and synthesize an array of potent small molecules. Although metabolism is fundamental to the fungal lifestyle, we still know little about how major evolutionary processes, such as gene duplication (GD) and horizontal gene transfer (HGT), have interacted with clustered and non-clustered fungal metabolic pathways to give rise to this metabolic versatility. We e...

  2. Transcriptional Regulatory Elements in Fungal Secondary Metabolism

    OpenAIRE

    Yin, Wenbing; Keller, Nancy P.

    2011-01-01

    Filamentous fungi produce a variety of secondary metabolites of diverse beneficial and detrimental activities to humankind. The genes encoding the enzymatic machinery required to make these metabolites are typically clustered in fungal genomes. There is considerable evidence that secondary metabolite gene regulation is, in part, by transcriptional control through hierarchical levels of transcriptional regulatory elements involved in secondary metabolite cluster regulation. Identification of s...

  3. Metabolically Engineered Fungal Cells With Increased Content Of Polyunsaturated Fatty Acids

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    2008-01-01

    This invention relates to the production of fatty acids and particularly to the production of the polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs) arachidonic acid (ARA) and eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA) in genetically engineered fungal cells, in particular, to metabolically engineered Saccharomyces cerevisiae...

  4. Fungal metabolic gene clusters – caravans traveling across genomes and environments

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jennifer Hughes Wisecaver

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Metabolic gene clusters (MGCs, physically co-localized genes participating in the same metabolic pathway, are signature features of fungal genomes. MGCs are most often observed in specialized metabolism, having evolved in individual fungal lineages in response to specific ecological needs, such as the utilization of uncommon nutrients (e.g., galactose and allantoin or the production of secondary metabolic antimicrobial compounds and virulence factors (e.g., aflatoxin and melanin. A flurry of recent studies has shown that several MGCs, whose functions are often associated with fungal virulence as well as with the evolutionary arms race between fungi and their competitors, have experienced horizontal gene transfer (HGT. In this minireview, after briefly introducing HGT as a source of gene innovation, we examine the evidence for HGT’s involvement on the evolution of MGCs and, more generally of fungal metabolism, enumerate the molecular mechanisms that mediate such transfers and the ecological circumstances that favor them, as well as discuss the types of evidence required for inferring the presence of HGT in MGCs. The currently available examples indicate that transfers of entire MGCs have taken place between closely related fungal species as well as distant ones and that they sometimes involve large chromosomal segments. These results suggest that the HGT-mediated acquisition of novel metabolism is an ongoing and successful ecological strategy for many fungal species.

  5. Fungal Community Associated with Dactylopius (Hemiptera: Coccoidea: Dactylopiidae) and Its Role in Uric Acid Metabolism

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vera-Ponce de León, Arturo; Sanchez-Flores, Alejandro; Rosenblueth, Mónica; Martínez-Romero, Esperanza

    2016-01-01

    We studied fungal species associated with the carmine cochineal Dactylopius coccus and other non-domesticated Dactylopius species using culture-dependent and -independent methods. Thirty seven fungi were isolated in various culture media from insect males and females from different developmental stages and Dactylopius species. 26S rRNA genes and ITS sequences, from cultured fungal isolates revealed different species of Cryptococcus, Rhodotorula, Debaryomyces, Trametes, and Penicillium, which are genera newly associated with Dactylopius. Uric acid (UA) and uricase activity were detected in tissues extracts from different insect developmental stages. However, accumulation of high UA levels and low uricase activities were found only after antifungal treatments, suggesting an important role of fungal species in its metabolism. Additionally, uricolytic fungal isolates were identified and characterized that presumably are involved in nitrogen recycling metabolism. After metagenomic analyses from D. coccus gut and hemolymph DNA and from two published data sets, we confirmed the presence of fungal genes involved in UA catabolism, suggesting that fungi help in the nitrogen recycling process in Dactylopius by uricolysis. All these results show the importance of fungal communities in scale insects such as Dactylopius. PMID:27446001

  6. Fungal Community Associated with Dactylopius (Hemiptera: Coccoidea: Dactylopiidae) and Its Role in Uric Acid Metabolism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vera-Ponce de León, Arturo; Sanchez-Flores, Alejandro; Rosenblueth, Mónica; Martínez-Romero, Esperanza

    2016-01-01

    We studied fungal species associated with the carmine cochineal Dactylopius coccus and other non-domesticated Dactylopius species using culture-dependent and -independent methods. Thirty seven fungi were isolated in various culture media from insect males and females from different developmental stages and Dactylopius species. 26S rRNA genes and ITS sequences, from cultured fungal isolates revealed different species of Cryptococcus, Rhodotorula, Debaryomyces, Trametes, and Penicillium, which are genera newly associated with Dactylopius. Uric acid (UA) and uricase activity were detected in tissues extracts from different insect developmental stages. However, accumulation of high UA levels and low uricase activities were found only after antifungal treatments, suggesting an important role of fungal species in its metabolism. Additionally, uricolytic fungal isolates were identified and characterized that presumably are involved in nitrogen recycling metabolism. After metagenomic analyses from D. coccus gut and hemolymph DNA and from two published data sets, we confirmed the presence of fungal genes involved in UA catabolism, suggesting that fungi help in the nitrogen recycling process in Dactylopius by uricolysis. All these results show the importance of fungal communities in scale insects such as Dactylopius. PMID:27446001

  7. Column leaching of uranium ore with fungal metabolic products and uranium recovery by ion exchange

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    To verifying the feasibility of uranium recovery with fungal metabolic products in large-scale applications, column leaching and ion exchange of uranium was carried out. The uranium recovery reached 81.76 % in 14 days. The ion exchange curve for the leach solution obtained with the metabolic products of Aspergillus niger was in the shape of a wave. The elution curve was similar to that of leaching with H2SO4. The results indicate that leaching with the metabolic products of A. niger is a promising and environmentally friendly method for exploitation of low grade uranium ores in large-scale applications. (author)

  8. Intracellular Acetyl Unit Transport in Fungal Carbon Metabolism

    OpenAIRE

    Strijbis, K.; Distel, B.

    2010-01-01

    Acetyl coenzyme A (acetyl-CoA) is a central metabolite in carbon and energy metabolism. Because of its amphiphilic nature and bulkiness, acetyl-CoA cannot readily traverse biological membranes. In fungi, two systems for acetyl unit transport have been identified: a shuttle dependent on the carrier carnitine and a (peroxisomal) citrate synthase-dependent pathway. In the carnitine-dependent pathway, carnitine acetyltransferases exchange the CoA group of acetyl-CoA for carnitine, thereby forming...

  9. Moonlighting transcriptional activation function of a fungal sulfur metabolism enzyme.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Levati, Elisabetta; Sartini, Sara; Bolchi, Angelo; Ottonello, Simone; Montanini, Barbara

    2016-01-01

    Moonlighting proteins, including metabolic enzymes acting as transcription factors (TF), are present in a variety of organisms but have not been described in higher fungi so far. In a previous genome-wide analysis of the TF repertoire of the plant-symbiotic fungus Tuber melanosporum, we identified various enzymes, including the sulfur-assimilation enzyme phosphoadenosine-phosphosulfate reductase (PAPS-red), as potential transcriptional activators. A functional analysis performed in the yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae, now demonstrates that a specific variant of this enzyme, PAPS-red A, localizes to the nucleus and is capable of transcriptional activation. TF moonlighting, which is not present in the other enzyme variant (PAPS-red B) encoded by the T. melanosporum genome, relies on a transplantable C-terminal polypeptide containing an alternating hydrophobic/hydrophilic amino acid motif. A similar moonlighting activity was demonstrated for six additional proteins, suggesting that multitasking is a relatively frequent event. PAPS-red A is sulfur-state-responsive and highly expressed, especially in fruitbodies, and likely acts as a recruiter of transcription components involved in S-metabolism gene network activation. PAPS-red B, instead, is expressed at low levels and localizes to a highly methylated and silenced region of the genome, hinting at an evolutionary mechanism based on gene duplication, followed by epigenetic silencing of this non-moonlighting gene variant. PMID:27121330

  10. Assessment of fungal diversity in deep-sea sediments by multiple primer approach

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Singh, P.; Raghukumar, C.; Verma, P.; Shouche, Y.

    Increasing evidence of the fungal diversity in deep-sea sediments has come from amplification of environmental DNA with fungal specific or eukaryote primer sets. In order to assess the fungal diversity in deep-sea sediments of the Central Indian...

  11. Slaughterhouses Fungal Burden Assessment: A Contribution for the Pursuit of a Better Assessment Strategy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Viegas, Carla; Faria, Tiago; Dos Santos, Mateus; Carolino, Elisabete; Sabino, Raquel; Quintal Gomes, Anita; Viegas, Susana

    2016-01-01

    In slaughterhouses, the biological risk is present not only from the direct or indirect contact with animal matter, but also from the exposure to bioaerosols. Fungal contamination was already reported from the floors and walls of slaughterhouses. This study intends to assess fungal contamination by cultural and molecular methods in poultry, swine/bovine and large animal slaughterhouses. Air samples were collected through an impaction method, while surface samples were collected by the swabbing method and subjected to further macro- and micro-scopic observations. In addition, we collected air samples using the impinger method in order to perform real-time quantitative PCR (qPCR) amplification of genes from specific fungal species, namely A. flavus, A. fumigatus and A. ochraceus complexes. Poultry and swine/bovine slaughterhouses presented each two sampling sites that surpass the guideline of 150 CFU/m³. Scopulariopsis candida was the most frequently isolated (59.5%) in poultry slaughterhouse air; Cladosporium sp. (45.7%) in the swine/bovine slaughterhouse; and Penicillium sp. (80.8%) in the large animal slaughterhouse. Molecular tools successfully amplified DNA from the A. fumigatus complex in six sampling sites where the presence of this fungal species was not identified by conventional methods. This study besides suggesting the indicators that are representative of harmful fungal contamination, also indicates a strategy as a protocol to ensure a proper characterization of fungal occupational exposure. PMID:27005642

  12. Slaughterhouses Fungal Burden Assessment: A Contribution for the Pursuit of a Better Assessment Strategy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carla Viegas

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available In slaughterhouses, the biological risk is present not only from the direct or indirect contact with animal matter, but also from the exposure to bioaerosols. Fungal contamination was already reported from the floors and walls of slaughterhouses. This study intends to assess fungal contamination by cultural and molecular methods in poultry, swine/bovine and large animal slaughterhouses. Air samples were collected through an impaction method, while surface samples were collected by the swabbing method and subjected to further macro- and micro-scopic observations. In addition, we collected air samples using the impinger method in order to perform real-time quantitative PCR (qPCR amplification of genes from specific fungal species, namely A. flavus, A. fumigatus and A. ochraceus complexes. Poultry and swine/bovine slaughterhouses presented each two sampling sites that surpass the guideline of 150 CFU/m3. Scopulariopsis candida was the most frequently isolated (59.5% in poultry slaughterhouse air; Cladosporium sp. (45.7% in the swine/bovine slaughterhouse; and Penicillium sp. (80.8% in the large animal slaughterhouse. Molecular tools successfully amplified DNA from the A. fumigatus complex in six sampling sites where the presence of this fungal species was not identified by conventional methods. This study besides suggesting the indicators that are representative of harmful fungal contamination, also indicates a strategy as a protocol to ensure a proper characterization of fungal occupational exposure.

  13. Deciphering Metabolic Traits of the Fungal Pathogen Aspergillus fumigatus: Redundancy vs. Essentiality

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jorge eAmich

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Incidence rates of infections caused by environmental opportunistic fungi have risen over recent decades. Aspergillus species have emerged as serious threat for the immune-compromised, and detailed knowledge about virulence-determining traits is crucial for drug target identification. As a prime saprobe, A. fumigatus has evolved to efficiently adapt to various stresses and to sustain nutritional supply by osmotrophy, which is characterized by extracellular substrate digestion followed by efficient uptake of breakdown products that are then fed into the fungal primary metabolism. These intrinsic metabolic features are believed to be related with its virulence ability. The plethora of genes that encode underlying effectors has hampered their in-depth analysis with respect to pathogenesis. Recent developments in Aspergillus molecular biology allow conditional gene expression or comprehensive targeting of gene families to cope with redundancy. Furthermore, identification of essential genes that are intrinsically connected to virulence opens accurate perspectives for novel targets in antifungal therapy.

  14. Comparison of Six DNA Extraction Methods for Recovery of Fungal DNA as Assessed by Quantitative PCR

    OpenAIRE

    Fredricks, David N.; Smith, Caitlin; Meier, Amalia

    2005-01-01

    The detection of fungal pathogens in clinical samples by PCR requires the use of extraction methods that efficiently lyse fungal cells and recover DNA suitable for amplification. We used quantitative PCR assays to measure the recovery of DNA from two important fungal pathogens subjected to six DNA extraction methods. Aspergillus fumigatus conidia or Candida albicans yeast cells were added to bronchoalveolar lavage fluid and subjected to DNA extraction in order to assess the recovery of DNA fr...

  15. Host habitat assessment by a parasitoid using fungal volatiles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Steidle Johannes LM

    2007-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The preference – performance hypothesis predicts that oviposition preference of insects should correlate with host suitability for offspring development. Therefore, insect females have to be able to assess not only the quality of a given host but also the environmental conditions of the respective host habitat. Chemical cues are a major source of information used by insects for this purpose. Primary infestation of stored grain by stored product pests often favors the intense growth of mold. This can lead to distinct sites of extreme environmental conditions (hot-spots with increased insect mortality. We studied the influence of mold on chemical orientation, host recognition, and fitness of Lariophagus distinguendus, a parasitoid of beetle larvae developing in stored grain. Results Volatiles of wheat infested by Aspergillus sydowii and A. versicolor repelled female parasitoids in an olfactometer. Foraging L. distinguendus females are known to be strongly attracted to the odor of larval host feces from the granary weevil Sitophilus granarius, which may adhere in remarkable amounts to the surface of the grains. Feces from moldy weevil cultures elicited neutral responses but parasitoids clearly avoided moldy feces when non-moldy feces were offered simultaneously. The common fungal volatile 1-octen-3-ol was the major component of the odor of larval feces from moldy weevil cultures and repelled female parasitoids at naturally occurring doses. In bioassays investigating host recognition behavior of L. distinguendus, females spent less time on grains containing hosts from moldy weevil cultures and showed less drumming and drilling behavior than on non-moldy controls. L. distinguendus had a clearly reduced fitness on hosts from moldy weevil cultures. Conclusion We conclude that L. distinguendus females use 1-octen-3-ol for host habitat assessment to avoid negative fitness consequences due to secondary mold infestation of host

  16. Effects of the fungal endophyte Acremonium coenophialum on nitrogen accumulation and metabolism in tall fescue

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Infection by the fungal endophyte Acremonium coenophialum affected the accumulation of inorganic and organic N in leaf blades and leaf sheaths of KY31 tall fescue (Festuca arundinacea Schreb.) grown under greenhouse conditions. Total soluble amino acid concentrations were increased in either the blade or sheath of the leaf from infected plants. A number of amino acids were significantly increased in the sheath, but only asparagine increased in the blade. Infection resulted in higher sheath NH4+ concentrations, whereas NO3- concentrations decreased in both leaf parts. The effects on amino acid, NO3-, and NH4+ concentrations were dependent upon the level of N fertilization and were usually apparent only at the high rate (10 millimolar) of application. Administration of 14CO2 to the leaf blades increased the accumulation of 14C in their amino acid fraction but not in the sheaths of infected plants. This may indicate that infection increased amino acid synthesis in the blade but that translocation to the sheath, which is the site of fungal colonization, was not affected. Glutamine synthetase activity was greater in leaf blades of infected plants at high and low N rates of fertilization, but nitrate reductase activity was not affected in either part of the leaf. Increased activities of glutamine synthetase together with the other observed changes in N accumulation and metabolism in endophyte-infected tall fescue suggest that NH4+ reassimilation could also be affected in the leaf blade

  17. Effects of the fungal endophyte Acremonium coenophialum on nitrogen accumulation and metabolism in tall fescue

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lyons, P.C. (Univ. of Georgia, Athens (USA)); Evans, J.J.; Bacon, C.W. (Department of Agriculture, Athens, GA (USA))

    1990-03-01

    Infection by the fungal endophyte Acremonium coenophialum affected the accumulation of inorganic and organic N in leaf blades and leaf sheaths of KY31 tall fescue (Festuca arundinacea Schreb.) grown under greenhouse conditions. Total soluble amino acid concentrations were increased in either the blade or sheath of the leaf from infected plants. A number of amino acids were significantly increased in the sheath, but only asparagine increased in the blade. Infection resulted in higher sheath NH{sub 4}{sup +} concentrations, whereas NO{sub 3}{sup {minus}} concentrations decreased in both leaf parts. The effects on amino acid, NO{sub 3}{sup {minus}}, and NH{sub 4}{sup +} concentrations were dependent upon the level of N fertilization and were usually apparent only at the high rate (10 millimolar) of application. Administration of {sup 14}CO{sub 2} to the leaf blades increased the accumulation of {sup 14}C in their amino acid fraction but not in the sheaths of infected plants. This may indicate that infection increased amino acid synthesis in the blade but that translocation to the sheath, which is the site of fungal colonization, was not affected. Glutamine synthetase activity was greater in leaf blades of infected plants at high and low N rates of fertilization, but nitrate reductase activity was not affected in either part of the leaf. Increased activities of glutamine synthetase together with the other observed changes in N accumulation and metabolism in endophyte-infected tall fescue suggest that NH{sub 4}{sup +} reassimilation could also be affected in the leaf blade.

  18. Specific antibiotics and nematode trophic groups agree in assessing fungal:bacterial activity in agricultural soil

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christensen, S; Dam, M; Vestergaard, M;

    2012-01-01

    -induced respiration (SIR) inhibition approach. Here we compare fungal contribution to the microbial active biomass assessed by the SIR inhibition method with the contribution of fungal-feeding nematodes to the microbial-feeding nematode community. Four cultivation systems on the same soil that differ in carbon inputs...... with a factor two ranked exactly the same with the two methods. A conventionally farmed rotation with low organic input had the lowest fungal fraction, while three organically farmed soils ranked higher.......There are no methods at hand with a long and proven record for assessing the relative contribution of fungi and bacteria to decomposer activity in soil. Whereas a multitude of methods to determine fungal and bacterial biomass are available, activity assays traditionally relied on the substrate...

  19. Fungal and mycotoxin assessment of dried edible mushroom in Nigeria

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ezekiel, C.N.; Sulyok, M.; Frisvad, Jens Christian;

    2013-01-01

    In order to determine whether dried mushrooms are a foodstuff that may be less susceptible to infection by toxigenic molds and consequently to mycotoxin contamination, 34 dried market samples were analyzed. Fungal population was determined in the samples by conventional mycological techniques......-precursors, bis-anthraquinone derivatives from Talaromyces islandicus, emerging toxins (e.g. enniatins) and other Fusarium metabolites, and clavine alkaloids. Although little is known on the toxicology of these substances, the absence of aflatoxins and other primary mycotoxins suggests that dried mushrooms may...

  20. Insights into molecular and metabolic events associated with fruit response to post-harvest fungal pathogens

    OpenAIRE

    Alkan, Noam; Fortes, Ana M

    2015-01-01

    Due to post-harvest losses more than 30% of harvested fruits will not reach the consumers’ plate. Fungal pathogens play a key role in those losses, as they cause most of the fruit rots and the customer complaints. Many of the fungal pathogens are already present in the unripe fruit but remain quiescent during fruit growth until a particular phase of fruit ripening and senescence. The pathogens sense the developmental change and switch into the devastating necrotrophic life style that causes f...

  1. ASSESSMENT OF A CRUDE FUNGAL (METARHIZIUM ANISOPLIAE) EXTRACT AND IT'S COMPONENTS FOR ALLERGENICITY

    Science.gov (United States)

    ASSESSMENT OF A CRUDE FUNGAL (METARHIZIUM ANISOPLIAE) EXTRACT AND IT'S COMPONENTS FOR ALLERGENICITY. M D W Ward1, M E Viana2, L B Copeland1, and MJ K Selgrade1. 1US EPA, ORD, NHEERL, RTP, NC, USA. 2NCSU, College of Veterinary Medicine, Raleigh, NC, USA. Metarhizium anisopli...

  2. Assessment and selection of fungal antagonists against Rhizoctonia solani

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Grosch R; Faltin F; Lottmann J; Kofoet A; Berg G

    2004-01-01

    @@ The soil-borne pathogen Rhizoctonia solani Kuhn (teleomorph, Thanatephorus cucumeris [A. B.Frank] Donk) is worldwide responsible for serious damage of many economically important agricultural and horticultural crops. Control of Rhizoctonia diseases is difficult because this pathogen survives for many years as sclerotia in soil or as mycelium in organic matter under numerous environmental conditions. Furthermore, the pathogen has an extremely wide host range. To date, no effective control strategies against Rhizoctonia diseases are available in either organic farming or horticulture.In integrated pest management systems (IPM), mainly fungicides are used as control method.However, the European Union has decided that 60 % of the chemical pesticides that were allowed in 1996 should be banned from 2003. Hence, new strategies to control one of the most important soilborne pathogen R. solani are urgently needed. It is well-documented that an environmentally friendly alternative to protect plants against soil borne pathogens is biological control. Our work is concentrated on the development of a fungal biological control agent (BCA) especially selected against diseases caused by R. solani.

  3. Comparison of Air Impaction and Electrostatic Dust Collector Sampling Methods to Assess Airborne Fungal Contamination in Public Buildings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Normand, Anne-Cécile; Ranque, Stéphane; Cassagne, Carole; Gaudart, Jean; Sallah, Kankoé; Charpin, Denis-André; Piarroux, Renaud

    2016-03-01

    Many ailments can be linked to exposure to indoor airborne fungus. However, obtaining a precise measurement of airborne fungal levels is complicated partly due to indoor air fluctuations and non-standardized techniques. Electrostatic dust collector (EDC) sampling devices have been used to measure a wide range of airborne analytes, including endotoxins, allergens, β-glucans, and microbial DNA in various indoor environments. In contrast, viable mold contamination has only been assessed in highly contaminated environments such as farms and archive buildings. This study aimed to assess the use of EDCs, compared with repeated air-impactor measurements, to assess airborne viable fungal flora in moderately contaminated indoor environments. Indoor airborne fungal flora was cultured from EDCs and daily air-impaction samples collected in an office building and a daycare center. The quantitative fungal measurements obtained using a single EDC significantly correlated with the cumulative measurement of nine daily air impactions. Both methods enabled the assessment of fungal exposure, although a few differences were observed between the detected fungal species and the relative quantity of each species. EDCs were also used over a 32-month period to monitor indoor airborne fungal flora in a hospital office building, which enabled us to assess the impact of outdoor events (e.g. ground excavations) on the fungal flora levels on the indoor environment. In conclusion, EDC-based measurements provided a relatively accurate profile of the viable airborne flora present during a sampling period. In particular, EDCs provided a more representative assessment of fungal levels compared with single air-impactor sampling. The EDC technique is also simpler than performing repetitive air-impaction measures over the course of several consecutive days. EDC is a versatile tool for collecting airborne samples and was efficient for measuring mold levels in indoor environments. PMID:26491105

  4. The Fungal Pathogen Aspergillus fumigatus Regulates Growth, Metabolism, and Stress Resistance in Response to Light

    OpenAIRE

    Fuller, Kevin K.; Ringelberg, Carol S.; Loros, Jennifer J.; Dunlap, Jay C

    2013-01-01

    ABSTRACT Light is a pervasive environmental factor that regulates development, stress resistance, and even virulence in numerous fungal species. Though much research has focused on signaling pathways in Aspergillus fumigatus, an understanding of how this pathogen responds to light is lacking. In this report, we demonstrate that the fungus does indeed respond to both blue and red portions of the visible spectrum. Included in the A. fumigatus light response is a reduction in conidial germinatio...

  5. Horizontal Transfer and Death of a Fungal Secondary Metabolic Gene Cluster

    OpenAIRE

    Campbell, Matthew A; Rokas, Antonis; Slot, Jason C.

    2012-01-01

    A cluster composed of four structural and two regulatory genes found in several species of the fungal genus Fusarium (class Sordariomycetes) is responsible for the production of the red pigment bikaverin. We discovered that the unrelated fungus Botrytis cinerea (class Leotiomycetes) contains a cluster of five genes that is highly similar in sequence and gene order to the Fusarium bikaverin cluster. Synteny conservation, nucleotide composition, and phylogenetic analyses of the cluster genes in...

  6. Metabolic assessment of elderly men with urolithiasis

    OpenAIRE

    Celso Heitor Freitas Junior; Eduardo Mazzucchi; Alexandre Danilovic; Artur Henrique Brito; Miguel Srougi

    2012-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To assess the presence of metabolic disorders in elderly men with urolithiasis. METHODS: We performed a case-control study. The inclusion criteria were as follows: (1) men older than 60 years of age and either (2) antecedent renal colic or an incidental diagnosis of urinary lithiasis after age 60 (case arm) or (3) no antecedent renal colic or incidental diagnosis of urolithiasis (control arm). Each individual underwent an interview, and those who were selected underwent all clinica...

  7. Fungal metabolic plasticity and sexual development mediate induced resistance to arthropod fungivory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Döll, Katharina; Chatterjee, Subhankar; Scheu, Stefan; Karlovsky, Petr; Rohlfs, Marko

    2013-11-22

    Prey organisms do not tolerate predator attack passively but react with a multitude of inducible defensive strategies. Although inducible defence strategies are well known in plants attacked by herbivorous insects, induced resistance of fungi against fungivorous animals is largely unknown. Resistance to fungivory is thought to be mediated by chemical properties of fungal tissue, i.e. by production of toxic secondary metabolites. However, whether fungi change their secondary metabolite composition to increase resistance against arthropod fungivory is unknown. We demonstrate that grazing by a soil arthropod, Folsomia candida, on the filamentous fungus Aspergillus nidulans induces a phenotype that repels future fungivores and retards fungivore growth. Arthropod-exposed colonies produced significantly higher amounts of toxic secondary metabolites and invested more in sexual reproduction relative to unchallenged fungi. Compared with vegetative tissue and asexual conidiospores, sexual fruiting bodies turned out to be highly resistant against fungivory in facultative sexual A. nidulans. This indicates that fungivore grazing triggers co-regulated allocation of resources to sexual reproduction and chemical defence in A. nidulans. Plastic investment in facultative sex and chemical defence may have evolved as a fungal strategy to escape from predation. PMID:24068353

  8. Metabolic engineering of the fungal D-galacturonate pathway for L-ascorbic acid production

    OpenAIRE

    Kuivanen, Joosu

    2015-01-01

    Industrial biotechnology is one of the enabling technologies for biorefineries, where biomass is converted into value-added products. In addition to biofuels, several platform and fine chemicals can be produced from biomass using biotechnological routes taking advantage of metabolic pathways in the cell. Some of these metabolic pathways exist naturally in the cells that are used as production hosts. However, many of the desired chemical products are not naturally produced by the cellular meta...

  9. A Metabolic Profiling Strategy for the Dissection of Plant Defense against Fungal Pathogens

    OpenAIRE

    Aliferis, Konstantinos A.; Faubert, Denis; Jabaji, Suha

    2014-01-01

    Here we present a metabolic profiling strategy employing direct infusion Orbitrap mass spectrometry (MS) and gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC/MS) for the monitoring of soybean's (Glycine max L.) global metabolism regulation in response to Rhizoctonia solani infection in a time-course. Key elements in the approach are the construction of a comprehensive metabolite library for soybean, which accelerates the steps of metabolite identification and biological interpretation of results, and...

  10. Fungal arthritis

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... and irritation (inflammation) of a joint by a fungal infection. It is also called mycotic arthritis. Causes Fungal ... symptoms of fungal arthritis. Prevention Thorough treatment of fungal infections elsewhere in the body may help prevent fungal ...

  11. Antifungal and Cytotoxic Assessment of Lapachol Derivatives Produced by Fungal Biotransformation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silva, Eliane O; Ruano-González, Antonio; dos Santos, Raquel A; Sánchez-Maestre, Rosario; Furtado, Niege A J C; Collado, Isidro G; Aleu, Josefina

    2016-01-01

    In the screening for biological active compounds, the biotransformation processes catalyzed by filamentous fungi are useful because they can provide information about the possible appearance of toxic metabolites after oral administration and also generate new leads. In this paper, biotransformation of lapachol (1) by three fungal strains, Mucor circinelloides NRRL3631, Botrytis cinerea UCA992 and Botrytis cinerea 2100, has been investigated for the first time. Lapachol (1) was biotransformed into avicequinone-A (2) by M circinelloides, 3'-hydroxylapachol (3) by B. cinerea, and into dehydro-α-lapachone (4) by both fungi. All these compounds were evaluated for their cytotoxic activities. The metabolite 2 displayed non-selective cytotoxicity against tumor and normal cell lines, 3 did not show cytotoxicity against the same cells, while 4 showed higher cytotoxicity against cancer cell lines than lapachol (1). The transformation of 1 into harmless and reactive metabolites evidences the importance of the evaluation of drug metabolism in the drug discovery process. Antifungal potential of lapachol (1) and its metabolites 2 and 4 against B. cinerea has also been evaluated. Dehydro-α-lapachone (4) has been shown to be less toxic to fungal growth than lapachol (1), which indicates a detoxification mechanism of the phytopathogen. PMID:26996030

  12. Metabolic assessment of elderly men with urolithiasis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Freitas, Celso Heitor; Mazzucchi, Eduardo; Danilovic, Alexandre; Brito, Artur Henrique; Srougi, Miguel

    2012-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To assess the presence of metabolic disorders in elderly men with urolithiasis. METHODS: We performed a case-control study. The inclusion criteria were as follows: (1) men older than 60 years of age and either (2) antecedent renal colic or an incidental diagnosis of urinary lithiasis after age 60 (case arm) or (3) no antecedent renal colic or incidental diagnosis of urolithiasis (control arm). Each individual underwent an interview, and those who were selected underwent all clinical protocol examinations: serum levels of total and ionized calcium, uric acid, phosphorus, glucose, urea, creatinine and parathyroid hormone, urine culture, and analysis of 24-hour urine samples (levels of calcium, citrate, creatinine, uric acid and sodium, pH and urine volume). Each case arm patient underwent two complete metabolic urinary investigations, whereas each control arm individual underwent one examination. ClinicalTrials.gov: NCT01246531. RESULTS: A total of 51 subjects completed the clinical investigation: 25 in the case arm and 26 in the control arm. In total, 56% of the case arm patients had hypocitraturia (vs. 15.4% in the control arm; p = 0.002). Hypernatriuria was detected in 64% of the case arm patients and in 30.8% of the controls (p = 0.017). CONCLUSION: Hypocitraturia and hypernatriuria are the main metabolic disorders in elderly men with urolithiasis. PMID:22666789

  13. Metabolic assessment of elderly men with urolithiasis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Celso Heitor Freitas Junior

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: To assess the presence of metabolic disorders in elderly men with urolithiasis. METHODS: We performed a case-control study. The inclusion criteria were as follows: (1 men older than 60 years of age and either (2 antecedent renal colic or an incidental diagnosis of urinary lithiasis after age 60 (case arm or (3 no antecedent renal colic or incidental diagnosis of urolithiasis (control arm. Each individual underwent an interview, and those who were selected underwent all clinical protocol examinations: serum levels of total and ionized calcium, uric acid, phosphorus, glucose, urea, creatinine and parathyroid hormone, urine culture, and analysis of 24-hour urine samples (levels of calcium, citrate, creatinine, uric acid and sodium, pH and urine volume. Each case arm patient underwent two complete metabolic urinary investigations, whereas each control arm individual underwent one examination. ClinicalTrials.gov: NCT01246531. RESULTS: A total of 51 subjects completed the clinical investigation: 25 in the case arm and 26 in the control arm. In total, 56% of the case arm patients had hypocitraturia (vs. 15.4% in the control arm; p = 0.002. Hypernatriuria was detected in 64% of the case arm patients and in 30.8% of the controls (p = 0.017. CONCLUSION: Hypocitraturia and hypernatriuria are the main metabolic disorders in elderly men with urolithiasis.

  14. Electrochemical simulation of metabolic reactions of the secondary fungal metabolites alternariol and alternariol methyl ether.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simon, Hannah; Hoffmann, Grete; Hübner, Florian; Humpf, Hans-Ulrich; Karst, Uwe

    2016-04-01

    Mycotoxins are secondary plant metabolites that have been found to cause severe diseases in humans and livestock. Exposure can take place on a daily basis since mycotoxins can be found not only in food, animal food, and dietary supplements but also in materials used in buildings. For this work, the Alternaria toxins alternariol (AOH) and alternariol methyl ether (AME) are chosen as representatives for this relevant compound class and are investigated regarding their oxidative phase I metabolism using a combination of electrochemical (EC) oxidation and high-resolution electrospray ionization mass spectrometry (HR-ESI-MS). This previously established method has been proven to be a valuable tool for the electrochemical simulation of certain phase I metabolic reactions. A comparison of the electrochemically generated products with those formed during microsomal incubation demonstrates the potential of the method for the successful prediction of the main phase I metabolic reactions of mycotoxins. It can thus find use as a supportive method in the elucidation of the metabolic pathways of various mycotoxins. Graphical Abstract On-line set-up used for the electrochemical simulation of metabolism reactions of Alternaria toxins. (a) Electrochemical oxidation is coupled directly to the ESI interface of the MS for the generation of mass voltammograms. (b) Implementation of an HPLC system allows a chromatographic separation of previously generated oxidation products. PMID:26869346

  15. A metabolic profiling strategy for the dissection of plant defense against fungal pathogens.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Konstantinos A Aliferis

    Full Text Available Here we present a metabolic profiling strategy employing direct infusion Orbitrap mass spectrometry (MS and gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC/MS for the monitoring of soybean's (Glycine max L. global metabolism regulation in response to Rhizoctonia solani infection in a time-course. Key elements in the approach are the construction of a comprehensive metabolite library for soybean, which accelerates the steps of metabolite identification and biological interpretation of results, and bioinformatics tools for the visualization and analysis of its metabolome. The study of metabolic networks revealed that infection results in the mobilization of carbohydrates, disturbance of the amino acid pool, and activation of isoflavonoid, α-linolenate, and phenylpropanoid biosynthetic pathways of the plant. Components of these pathways include phytoalexins, coumarins, flavonoids, signaling molecules, and hormones, many of which exhibit antioxidant properties and bioactivity helping the plant to counterattack the pathogen's invasion. Unraveling the biochemical mechanism operating during soybean-Rhizoctonia interaction, in addition to its significance towards the understanding of the plant's metabolism regulation under biotic stress, provides valuable insights with potential for applications in biotechnology, crop breeding, and agrochemical and food industries.

  16. A metabolic profiling strategy for the dissection of plant defense against fungal pathogens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aliferis, Konstantinos A; Faubert, Denis; Jabaji, Suha

    2014-01-01

    Here we present a metabolic profiling strategy employing direct infusion Orbitrap mass spectrometry (MS) and gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC/MS) for the monitoring of soybean's (Glycine max L.) global metabolism regulation in response to Rhizoctonia solani infection in a time-course. Key elements in the approach are the construction of a comprehensive metabolite library for soybean, which accelerates the steps of metabolite identification and biological interpretation of results, and bioinformatics tools for the visualization and analysis of its metabolome. The study of metabolic networks revealed that infection results in the mobilization of carbohydrates, disturbance of the amino acid pool, and activation of isoflavonoid, α-linolenate, and phenylpropanoid biosynthetic pathways of the plant. Components of these pathways include phytoalexins, coumarins, flavonoids, signaling molecules, and hormones, many of which exhibit antioxidant properties and bioactivity helping the plant to counterattack the pathogen's invasion. Unraveling the biochemical mechanism operating during soybean-Rhizoctonia interaction, in addition to its significance towards the understanding of the plant's metabolism regulation under biotic stress, provides valuable insights with potential for applications in biotechnology, crop breeding, and agrochemical and food industries. PMID:25369450

  17. Search for fungi-specific metabolites of four model drugs in postmortem blood as potential indicators of postmortem fungal metabolism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martínez-Ramírez, Jorge A; Strien, Juliane; Walther, Grit; Peters, Frank T

    2016-05-01

    Fungi colonizing cadavers are capable of drug metabolism and may thus change the metabolite pattern or concentration of drugs in forensic postmortem samples. The purpose of this study was to check for the presence of such changes by searching fungi-specific metabolites of four model drugs (amitriptyline, metoprolol, mirtazapine, and zolpidem) in decomposed postmortem blood samples from 33 cases involving these drugs. After isolation and identification of fungal strains present in the samples, each isolate was incubated in Sabouraud medium at 25°C for up to 120h with each model drug. One part of the supernatants was directly analyzed by liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS), another after liquid-liquid extraction with chlorobutane and concentration. From 21 out of 33 decomposed postmortem blood samples (64%) a total of 30 different strains could be isolated, one from the class of Ascomycete and the rest belonging to 15 species from 8 different genera (number of species): Aspergillus (2), Botrytis (1), Candida (8), Fusarium (1), Mucor (1), Penicillium (1), and Rodothorula (1). In the in vitro studies, these microorganisms were found capable of N-demethylation and N-oxidation of amitriptyline and mirtazapine, O-demethylation followed by side chain oxidation of metoprolol as well as hydroxylation of all four-model drugs. In two of the postmortem blood samples, from which the fungi Aspergillus jensenii, Candida parapsilosis. and Mucor circinelloides had been isolated, a fungi-specific hydroxy zolpidem metabolite was detected. The presence of this metabolite in postmortem samples likely indicates postmortem fungal biodegradation. PMID:27022860

  18. Niche-specific regulation of central metabolic pathways in a fungal pathogen

    OpenAIRE

    Barelle, Caroline J; Priest, Claire L; MacCallum, Donna M.; Gow, Neil AR; Odds, Frank C; Brown, Alistair JP

    2006-01-01

    Summary To establish an infection, the pathogen Candida albicans must assimilate carbon and grow in its mammalian host. This fungus assimilates six-carbon compounds via the glycolytic pathway, and two-carbon compounds via the glyoxylate cycle and gluconeogenesis. We address a paradox regarding the roles of these central metabolic pathways in C. albicans pathogenesis: the glyoxylate cycle is apparently required for virulence although glyoxylate cycle genes are repressed by glucose at concentra...

  19. Macrophage Interaction with Paracoccidioides brasiliensis Yeast Cells Modulates Fungal Metabolism and Generates a Response to Oxidative Stress.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juliana Alves Parente-Rocha

    Full Text Available Macrophages are key players during Paracoccidioides brasiliensis infection. However, the relative contribution of the fungal response to counteracting macrophage activity remains poorly understood. In this work, we evaluated the P. brasiliensis proteomic response to macrophage internalization. A total of 308 differentially expressed proteins were detected in P. brasiliensis during infection. The positively regulated proteins included those involved in alternative carbon metabolism, such as enzymes involved in gluconeogenesis, beta-oxidation of fatty acids and amino acids catabolism. The down-regulated proteins during P. brasiliensis internalization in macrophages included those related to glycolysis and protein synthesis. Proteins involved in the oxidative stress response in P. brasiliensis yeast cells were also up-regulated during macrophage infection, including superoxide dismutases (SOD, thioredoxins (THX and cytochrome c peroxidase (CCP. Antisense knockdown mutants evaluated the importance of CCP during macrophage infection. The results suggested that CCP is involved in a complex system of protection against oxidative stress and that gene silencing of this component of the antioxidant system diminished the survival of P. brasiliensis in macrophages and in a murine model of infection.

  20. The fungal leaf endophyte Paraconiothyrium variabile specifically metabolizes the host-plant metabolome for its own benefit.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tian, Yuan; Amand, Séverine; Buisson, Didier; Kunz, Caroline; Hachette, François; Dupont, Joëlle; Nay, Bastien; Prado, Soizic

    2014-12-01

    Fungal endophytes live inside plant tissues and some have been found to provide benefits to their host. Nevertheless, their ecological impact is not adequately understood. Considering the fact that endophytes are continuously interacting with their hosts, it is conceivable that both partners have substantial influence on each other's metabolic processes. In this context, we have investigated the action of the endophytic fungus Paraconiothyrium variabile, isolated from the leaves of Cephalotaxus harringtonia, on the secondary metabolome of the host-plant. The alteration of the leaf compounds by the fungus was monitored through metabolomic approaches followed by structural characterization of the altered products. Out of more than a thousand molecules present in the crude extract of the plant leaf, we have observed a specific biotransformation of glycosylated flavonoids by the endophyte. In all cases it led to the production of the corresponding aglycone via deglycosylation. The deglycosylated flavonoids turned out to display significant beneficial effects on the hyphal growth of germinated spores. Our finding, along with the known allelopathic role of flavonoids, illustrates the chemical cooperation underlying the mutualistic relationship between the plant and the endophyte. PMID:25446235

  1. Unexpected Metabolic Versatility in a Combined Fungal Fomannoxin/Vibralactone Biosynthesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schwenk, Daniel; Brandt, Philip; Blanchette, Robert A; Nett, Markus; Hoffmeister, Dirk

    2016-05-27

    The secondary metabolome of an undescribed stereaceous basidiomycete (BY1) was investigated for bioactive compounds. Along with a known fomannoxin derivative and two known vibralactones, we here describe three new compounds of these natural product families, whose structures were elucidated using 1D and 2D NMR spectroscopy and high-resolution mass spectrometry. The new compound vibralactone S (4) shows a 3,6-substituted oxepin-2(7H)-one ring system, which is unprecedented for the vibralactone/fomannoxin class of compounds. Stable isotope labeling established a biosynthetic route that is dissimilar to the two published cascades of oxepinone formation. Another new compound, the antifungal methyl seco-fomannoxinate (6), features a 2-methylprop-1-enyl ether moiety, which is only rarely observed with natural products. The structure of 6 was confirmed by total synthesis. (13)C-labeling experiments revealed that the unusual 2-methylprop-1-enyl ether residue derives from an isoprene unit. The diversity of BY1's combined fomannoxin/vibralactone metabolism is remarkable in that these compound families, although biosynthetically related, usually occur in different organisms. PMID:27104866

  2. Temporal changes in fungal communities from buckwheat seeds and their effects on seed germination and seedling secondary metabolism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kovačec, Eva; Likar, Matevž; Regvar, Marjana

    2016-05-01

    Seed-associated fungal communities affect multiple parameters of seed quality at all stages of production, from seed development to post-harvest storage and germination. We therefore investigated the diversity and dynamics of fungal communities in the seeds of common buckwheat (Fagopyrum esculentum) and Tartary buckwheat (F. tataricum) from harvest to 1 y of storage. Fungal populations in seeds were relatively stable, comprised mainly of field fungi. Incidence of fungi was most likely determined by fungal interspecies direct interactions, as well as by their synthesis of volatile organic compounds. Most prominent antagonistic interactions were seen for two plant pathogens, Alternaria alternata on Botrytis cinerea. Detrimental effects of the fungi on seed germination and seedling development were related to fungal extracellular enzyme activity, and in particular to amylase, cellulase and, polyphenol oxidase. Polyphenol and tannin concentrations in buckwheat seedlings were related to fungal growth rate and intensity of fungal cellulase activity, respectively, which suggests that physical penetration of the fungi through the host tissues is probably the stimulus for the activation of plant defence reactions in these seedlings. PMID:27109364

  3. Assessment of the fungal diversity and succession of ligninolytic endophytes in Camellia japonica leaves using clone library analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hirose, Dai; Matsuoka, Shunsuke; Osono, Takashi

    2013-01-01

    Fungal assemblages in live, newly shed and partly decomposed leaves of Camellia japonica were investigated with a clone library analysis to assess the fungal diversity and succession in a subtropical forest in southern Japan. Partly decomposed leaves were divided into bleached and adjacent nonbleached portions to estimate the fungi functionally associated with lignin decomposition in the bleached portions, with an emphasis on Coccomyces sinensis (Rhytismataceae, Ascomycota). From 144 cloned 28S ribosomal DNA (rDNA) sequences, 48 operational taxonomic units (OTUs) were defined based on a sequence similarity threshold of 98%. Forty-one (85%) of the 48 OTUs belonged to the Ascomycota and seven OTUs (15%) to the Basidiomycota. Twenty-six OTUs (54%) were detected only once (singletons). The number of OTUs and the diversity indices of the fungal assemblages in the different leaves were in this order: live leaves > newly shed leaves > bleached portions > nonbleached portions of partly decomposed leaves. The fungal assemblages were similar in newly shed leaves and the bleached portions of partly decomposed leaves. Ligninolytic fungi of the genera Coccomyces, Lophodermium and Xylaria were frequently detected in the bleached portions. OTU3, identified as Coccomyces sinensis, was detected in live and newly shed leaves and the bleached portions of partly decomposed leaves, suggesting that this fungus latently infects live leaves, persists after leaf fall and takes part in lignin decomposition. PMID:23709486

  4. Changes in Plant Metabolism and Accumulation of Fungal Metabolites in Response to Esca Proper and Apoplexy Expression in the Whole Grapevine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Magnin-Robert, Maryline; Spagnolo, Alessandro; Boulanger, Anna; Joyeux, Cécile; Clément, Christophe; Abou-Mansour, Eliane; Fontaine, Florence

    2016-06-01

    Trunk diseases have become among the most important grapevine diseases worldwide. They are caused by fungal pathogens that attack the permanent woody structure of the vines and cause various symptoms in woody and annual organs. This study examined modifications of plant responses in green stem, cordon, and trunk of grapevines expressing Esca proper (E) or apoplexy (A) event, which are the most frequent grapevine trunk disease symptoms observed in Europe. Transcript expression of a set of plant defense- and stress-related genes was monitored by quantitative reverse-transcription polymerase chain reaction while plant phytoalexins and fungal metabolites were quantified by high-performance liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry in order to characterize the interaction between the grapevine and trunk disease agents. Expression of genes encoding enzymes of the phenylpropanoid pathway and trans-resveratrol content were altered in the three organs of diseased plants, especially in the young tissues of A plants. Pathogenesis-related proteins and the antioxidant system were severely modulated in A plants, which indicates a drastic stress effect. In the meantime, fungal polyketides 6-MSA, (R)-mellein, and (3R,4R)-4-hydroxymellein, were accumulated in A plants, which suggests their potential effect on plant metabolism during the appearance of foliar symptoms. PMID:26882851

  5. Environmental sustainability assessment of urban systems applying coupled urban metabolism and life cycle assessment

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Birkved, Morten; Goldstein, Benjamin Paul

    2013-01-01

    urban metabolism (UM) and life cycle assessment (LCA) can be applied to assess the sustainability of urban system, taking into account up- and downstream activities directly or indirectly linked to the metabolism of urban systems. Further we apply the fused UM-LCA approach to assess the absolute...

  6. Assessment of ectomycorrhizal fungal communities in the natural habitats of Tuber magnatum (Ascomycota, Pezizales).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leonardi, M; Iotti, M; Oddis, M; Lalli, G; Pacioni, G; Leonardi, P; Maccherini, S; Perini, C; Salerni, E; Zambonelli, A

    2013-07-01

    The ectomycorrhizal (ECM) fungal communities of four natural Tuber magnatum truffle grounds, located in different Italian regions (Abruzzo, Emilia-Romagna, Molise, and Tuscany), were studied. The main objective of this study was to characterize and compare the ECM fungal communities in the different regions and in productive (where T. magnatum ascomata were found) and nonproductive points. More than 8,000 (8,100) colonized root tips were counted in 73 soil cores, and 129 operational taxonomic units were identified using morphological and molecular methods. Although the composition of the ECM fungal communities studied varied, we were able to highlight some common characteristics. The most plentiful ECM fungal taxa belong to the Thelephoraceae and Sebacinaceae families followed by Inocybaceae and Russulaceae. Although several ectomycorrhizas belonging to Tuber genus were identified, no T. magnatum ectomycorrhizas were found. The putative ecological significance of some species is discussed. PMID:23299664

  7. Computed tomographic assessment of noninvasive intranasal infusions in dogs with fungal rhinitis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The distribution of infusate administered to 12 dogs with fungal rhinitis, using a noninvasive, intranasal technique, was evaluated by computed tomography (CT). In every dog, contrast medium was identified on the postinfusion CT images, within the frontal sinuses, and throughout all areas of the nasal cavity. Adverse effects were transient and mild. The results of this study indicate that intranasal infusion may be a viable alternative to trephination of the frontal sinuses to administer antifungal medications in dogs with fungal rhinitis

  8. Microbial observatory of Spanish caves: assessing the origin of fungal outbreaks

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Hermosin, B.; Nováková, Alena; Jurado, V.; Laiz, L.; Porca, E.; Rogerio, M.A.; Sanchez-Moral, S.; Saiz-Jimenez, C.

    Postojna: Inštitut za raziskovanje krasa ZRC SAZU, 2010. s. 101. ISBN 978-961-269-286-5. [International Conference on Subterranean Biology /20./. 29.08.2010-03.09.2010, Postojna] Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z60660521 Keywords : microbial observatory * Spanish caves * fungal outbreaks Subject RIV: EH - Ecology, Behaviour

  9. Significance and challenges of stereoselectivity assessing methods in drug metabolism

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhuowei Shen

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Stereoselectivity in drug metabolism can not only influence the pharmacological activities, tolerability, safety, and bioavailability of drugs directly, but also cause different kinds of drug–drug interactions. Thus, assessing stereoselectivity in drug metabolism is of great significance for pharmaceutical research and development (R&D and rational use in clinic. Although there are various methods available for assessing stereoselectivity in drug metabolism, many of them have shortcomings. The indirect method of chromatographic methods can only be applicable to specific samples with functional groups to be derivatized or form complex with a chiral selector, while the direct method achieved by chiral stationary phases (CSPs is expensive. As a detector of chromatographic methods, mass spectrometry (MS is highly sensitive and specific, whereas the matrix interference is still a challenge to overcome. In addition, the use of nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR and immunoassay in chiral analysis are worth noting. This review presents several typical examples of drug stereoselective metabolism and provides a literature-based evaluation on current chiral analytical techniques to show the significance and challenges of stereoselectivity assessing methods in drug metabolism.

  10. Assessing compartmentalized flux in lipid metabolism with isotopes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Allen, Doug K

    2016-09-01

    Metabolism in plants takes place across multiple cell types and within distinct organelles. The distributions equate to spatial heterogeneity; though the limited means to experimentally assess metabolism frequently involve homogenizing tissues and mixing metabolites from different locations. Most current isotope investigations of metabolism therefore lack the ability to resolve spatially distinct events. Recognition of this limitation has resulted in inspired efforts to advance metabolic flux analysis and isotopic labeling techniques. Though a number of these efforts have been applied to studies in central metabolism; recent advances in instrumentation and techniques present an untapped opportunity to make similar progress in lipid metabolism where the use of stable isotopes has been more limited. These efforts will benefit from sophisticated radiolabeling reports that continue to enrich our knowledge on lipid biosynthetic pathways and provide some direction for stable isotope experimental design and extension of MFA. Evidence for this assertion is presented through the review of several elegant stable isotope studies and by taking stock of what has been learned from radioisotope investigations when spatial aspects of metabolism were considered. The studies emphasize that glycerolipid production occurs across several locations with assembly of lipids in the ER or plastid, fatty acid biosynthesis occurring in the plastid, and the generation of acetyl-CoA and glycerol-3-phosphate taking place at multiple sites. Considering metabolism in this context underscores the cellular and subcellular organization that is important to enhanced production of glycerolipids in plants. An attempt is made to unify salient features from a number of reports into a diagrammatic model of lipid metabolism and propose where stable isotope labeling experiments and further flux analysis may help address questions in the field. This article is part of a Special Issue entitled: Plant Lipid

  11. Fungal Meningitis

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Schedules Preteen & Teen Vaccines Meningococcal Disease Sepsis Fungal Meningitis Language: English Español (Spanish) Recommend on Facebook Tweet ... the brain or spinal cord. Investigation of Fungal Meningitis, 2012 In September 2012, the Centers for Disease ...

  12. The contribution of DNA metabarcoding to fungal conservation: diversity assessment, habitat partitioning and mapping red-listed fungi in protected coastal Salix repens communities in the Netherlands.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Geml, József; Gravendeel, Barbara; van der Gaag, Kristiaan J; Neilen, Manon; Lammers, Youri; Raes, Niels; Semenova, Tatiana A; de Knijff, Peter; Noordeloos, Machiel E

    2014-01-01

    Western European coastal sand dunes are highly important for nature conservation. Communities of the creeping willow (Salix repens) represent one of the most characteristic and diverse vegetation types in the dunes. We report here the results of the first kingdom-wide fungal diversity assessment in S. repens coastal dune vegetation. We carried out massively parallel pyrosequencing of ITS rDNA from soil samples taken at ten sites in an extended area of joined nature reserves located along the North Sea coast of the Netherlands, representing habitats with varying soil pH and moisture levels. Fungal communities in Salix repens beds are highly diverse and we detected 1211 non-singleton fungal 97% sequence similarity OTUs after analyzing 688,434 ITS2 rDNA sequences. Our comparison along a north-south transect indicated strong correlation between soil pH and fungal community composition. The total fungal richness and the number OTUs of most fungal taxonomic groups negatively correlated with higher soil pH, with some exceptions. With regard to ecological groups, dark-septate endophytic fungi were more diverse in acidic soils, ectomycorrhizal fungi were represented by more OTUs in calcareous sites, while detected arbuscular mycorrhizal genera fungi showed opposing trends regarding pH. Furthermore, we detected numerous red listed species in our samples often from previously unknown locations, indicating that some of the fungal species currently considered rare may be more abundant in Dutch S. repens communities than previously thought. PMID:24937200

  13. The contribution of DNA metabarcoding to fungal conservation: diversity assessment, habitat partitioning and mapping red-listed fungi in protected coastal Salix repens communities in the Netherlands.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    József Geml

    Full Text Available Western European coastal sand dunes are highly important for nature conservation. Communities of the creeping willow (Salix repens represent one of the most characteristic and diverse vegetation types in the dunes. We report here the results of the first kingdom-wide fungal diversity assessment in S. repens coastal dune vegetation. We carried out massively parallel pyrosequencing of ITS rDNA from soil samples taken at ten sites in an extended area of joined nature reserves located along the North Sea coast of the Netherlands, representing habitats with varying soil pH and moisture levels. Fungal communities in Salix repens beds are highly diverse and we detected 1211 non-singleton fungal 97% sequence similarity OTUs after analyzing 688,434 ITS2 rDNA sequences. Our comparison along a north-south transect indicated strong correlation between soil pH and fungal community composition. The total fungal richness and the number OTUs of most fungal taxonomic groups negatively correlated with higher soil pH, with some exceptions. With regard to ecological groups, dark-septate endophytic fungi were more diverse in acidic soils, ectomycorrhizal fungi were represented by more OTUs in calcareous sites, while detected arbuscular mycorrhizal genera fungi showed opposing trends regarding pH. Furthermore, we detected numerous red listed species in our samples often from previously unknown locations, indicating that some of the fungal species currently considered rare may be more abundant in Dutch S. repens communities than previously thought.

  14. Continuous fungal treatment of non-sterile veterinary hospital effluent: pharmaceuticals removal and microbial community assessment

    OpenAIRE

    Badia-Fabregat, Marina; Lucas, Daniel; M. A. PEREIRA; Alves, M. M.; Pennanen, Taina; Fritze, Hannu; Rodríguez-Mozaz, Sara; Barceló, Damià; Vicent, Teresa; Caminal, Glòria

    2016-01-01

    Source point treatment of effluents with a high load of pharmaceutical active compounds (PhACs), such as hospital wastewater, is a matter of discussion among the scientific community. Fungal treatments have been reported to be successful in degrading this type of pollutants and, therefore, the white-rot fungus Trametes versicolor was applied for the removal of PhACs from veterinary hospital wastewater. Sixty-six percent removal was achieved in a non-sterile batch bioreactor inoculated with T....

  15. Fungal community structure in disease suppressive soils assessed by 28S LSU gene sequencing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Penton, C Ryan; Gupta, V V S R; Tiedje, James M; Neate, Stephen M; Ophel-Keller, Kathy; Gillings, Michael; Harvey, Paul; Pham, Amanda; Roget, David K

    2014-01-01

    Natural biological suppression of soil-borne diseases is a function of the activity and composition of soil microbial communities. Soil microbe and phytopathogen interactions can occur prior to crop sowing and/or in the rhizosphere, subsequently influencing both plant growth and productivity. Research on suppressive microbial communities has concentrated on bacteria although fungi can also influence soil-borne disease. Fungi were analyzed in co-located soils 'suppressive' or 'non-suppressive' for disease caused by Rhizoctonia solani AG 8 at two sites in South Australia using 454 pyrosequencing targeting the fungal 28S LSU rRNA gene. DNA was extracted from a minimum of 125 g of soil per replicate to reduce the micro-scale community variability, and from soil samples taken at sowing and from the rhizosphere at 7 weeks to cover the peak Rhizoctonia infection period. A total of ∼ 994,000 reads were classified into 917 genera covering 54% of the RDP Fungal Classifier database, a high diversity for an alkaline, low organic matter soil. Statistical analyses and community ordinations revealed significant differences in fungal community composition between suppressive and non-suppressive soil and between soil type/location. The majority of differences associated with suppressive soils were attributed to less than 40 genera including a number of endophytic species with plant pathogen suppression potentials and mycoparasites such as Xylaria spp. Non-suppressive soils were dominated by Alternaria, Gibberella and Penicillum. Pyrosequencing generated a detailed description of fungal community structure and identified candidate taxa that may influence pathogen-plant interactions in stable disease suppression. PMID:24699870

  16. Fungal community structure in disease suppressive soils assessed by 28S LSU gene sequencing.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C Ryan Penton

    Full Text Available Natural biological suppression of soil-borne diseases is a function of the activity and composition of soil microbial communities. Soil microbe and phytopathogen interactions can occur prior to crop sowing and/or in the rhizosphere, subsequently influencing both plant growth and productivity. Research on suppressive microbial communities has concentrated on bacteria although fungi can also influence soil-borne disease. Fungi were analyzed in co-located soils 'suppressive' or 'non-suppressive' for disease caused by Rhizoctonia solani AG 8 at two sites in South Australia using 454 pyrosequencing targeting the fungal 28S LSU rRNA gene. DNA was extracted from a minimum of 125 g of soil per replicate to reduce the micro-scale community variability, and from soil samples taken at sowing and from the rhizosphere at 7 weeks to cover the peak Rhizoctonia infection period. A total of ∼ 994,000 reads were classified into 917 genera covering 54% of the RDP Fungal Classifier database, a high diversity for an alkaline, low organic matter soil. Statistical analyses and community ordinations revealed significant differences in fungal community composition between suppressive and non-suppressive soil and between soil type/location. The majority of differences associated with suppressive soils were attributed to less than 40 genera including a number of endophytic species with plant pathogen suppression potentials and mycoparasites such as Xylaria spp. Non-suppressive soils were dominated by Alternaria, Gibberella and Penicillum. Pyrosequencing generated a detailed description of fungal community structure and identified candidate taxa that may influence pathogen-plant interactions in stable disease suppression.

  17. Assessing the Effect of Leaf Litter Diversity on the Decomposition and Associated Diversity of Fungal Assemblages

    OpenAIRE

    Jing Gao; Fengfeng Kang; Tianyu Li; Xiaoshuai Song; Weihong Zhao; Xiaowen Yu; Hairong Han

    2015-01-01

    Although the effect of litter mixture on decomposition has been well documented, few studies have examined the relationships between richness and relative abundance of leaf species in litter mixture and changes in universal fungal communities during the decomposition process in temperate forests. In this study, we used the litterbag method and included three leaf litter species, i.e., aspen (Populus davidiana Dode), birch (Betula platyphylla Sukaczev) and oak (Quercus mongolica Fischer ex Led...

  18. Using skin to assess iron accumulation in human metabolic disorders

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guinote, I.; Fleming, R.; Silva, R.; Filipe, P.; Silva, J. N.; Veríssimo, A.; Napoleão, P.; Alves, L. C.; Pinheiro, T.

    2006-08-01

    The distribution of Fe in skin was assessed to monitor body Fe status in human hereditary hemochromatosis. The paper reports on data from nine patients with hemochromatosis that were studied along the therapeutic programme. Systemic evaluation of Fe metabolism was carried out by measuring with PIXE technique the Fe concentration in plasma and blood cells, and by determining with biochemical methods the indicators of Fe transport in serum (ferritin and transferrin). The Fe distribution and concentration in skin was assessed by nuclear microscopy and Fe deposits in liver estimated through nuclear magnetic resonance. Elevated Fe concentrations in skin were related to increased plasma Fe (p serum ferritin content (p < 0.01) and Fe deposits in liver (p < 0.004). The relationship of Fe deposits in organs and metabolism markers may help to better understand Fe pools mobilisation and to establish the quality of skin as a marker for the disease progression and therapy efficacy.

  19. Using skin to assess iron accumulation in human metabolic disorders

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Guinote, I. [Laboratorio de Feixes de Ioes, Instituto Tecnologico e Nuclear, E.N. 10, 2685-953 Sacavem (Portugal); Fleming, R. [Imunohaemotherapy Department, Hospital de St. Maria, Lisbon (Portugal); Silva, R. [Dermatology Department, Hospital de St. Maria, Lisbon (Portugal); Filipe, P. [Dermatology Department, Hospital de St. Maria, Lisbon (Portugal); Silva, J.N. [Dermatology Department, Hospital de St. Maria, Lisbon (Portugal); Verissimo, A. [Laboratorio de Feixes de Ioes, Instituto Tecnologico e Nuclear, E.N. 10, 2685-953 Sacavem (Portugal); Napoleao, P. [Laboratorio de Feixes de Ioes, Instituto Tecnologico e Nuclear, E.N. 10, 2685-953 Sacavem (Portugal); Centro de Fisica Nuclear, Universidade de Lisbon (Portugal); Alves, L.C. [Laboratorio de Feixes de Ioes, Instituto Tecnologico e Nuclear, E.N. 10, 2685-953 Sacavem (Portugal); Centro de Fisica Nuclear, Universidade de Lisbon (Portugal); Pinheiro, T. [Laboratorio de Feixes de Ioes, Instituto Tecnologico e Nuclear, E.N. 10, 2685-953 Sacavem (Portugal) and Centro de Fisica Nuclear, Universidade de Lisbon (Portugal)]. E-mail: murmur@itn.pt

    2006-08-15

    The distribution of Fe in skin was assessed to monitor body Fe status in human hereditary hemochromatosis. The paper reports on data from nine patients with hemochromatosis that were studied along the therapeutic programme. Systemic evaluation of Fe metabolism was carried out by measuring with PIXE technique the Fe concentration in plasma and blood cells, and by determining with biochemical methods the indicators of Fe transport in serum (ferritin and transferrin). The Fe distribution and concentration in skin was assessed by nuclear microscopy and Fe deposits in liver estimated through nuclear magnetic resonance. Elevated Fe concentrations in skin were related to increased plasma Fe (p < 0.004), serum ferritin content (p < 0.01) and Fe deposits in liver (p < 0.004). The relationship of Fe deposits in organs and metabolism markers may help to better understand Fe pools mobilisation and to establish the quality of skin as a marker for the disease progression and therapy efficacy.

  20. Using skin to assess iron accumulation in human metabolic disorders

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The distribution of Fe in skin was assessed to monitor body Fe status in human hereditary hemochromatosis. The paper reports on data from nine patients with hemochromatosis that were studied along the therapeutic programme. Systemic evaluation of Fe metabolism was carried out by measuring with PIXE technique the Fe concentration in plasma and blood cells, and by determining with biochemical methods the indicators of Fe transport in serum (ferritin and transferrin). The Fe distribution and concentration in skin was assessed by nuclear microscopy and Fe deposits in liver estimated through nuclear magnetic resonance. Elevated Fe concentrations in skin were related to increased plasma Fe (p < 0.004), serum ferritin content (p < 0.01) and Fe deposits in liver (p < 0.004). The relationship of Fe deposits in organs and metabolism markers may help to better understand Fe pools mobilisation and to establish the quality of skin as a marker for the disease progression and therapy efficacy

  1. Bacterial and Fungal Assessment of Top Soil Cultivated with Oil Palm Seedlings.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    UDOH ME

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available The fungal and bacterial populations in soil waste dumping site (WDS and oil palm ecosystem (OPE cultivated with oil palm seedlings have been studied. The month of April had the highest occurrence with 20.1 x 105 cfu/g from WDS. This was followed by May with 12.8 x 105 cfu/g (WDS, July 10.1 x 105 cfu/g (OPE and August showed the lowest occurrence with 7.1 x105 cfu/g (OPE. The mean bacterial counts for the month of July recorded the highest occurrence with 8.42 x 103 from OPE. This was followed by May with 5.98 x 103 cfu/g (WDS, April 4.45 x 103 cfu/g (WDS and August showed the lowest with 1.60 x 103 (OPE. The biochemical tests revealed the occurrence of eleven isolates. The Bacillus subtilis was the most occurred while Flavobacteria devorans was the least occurred. The frequency of occurrence of fungi isolated revealed that Penicillium expansium had the highest occurrence with 11.7%. The least occurrence was Trichoderma polysporum with 1.1%. The high counts of fungi and bacteria obtained in soil from WDS were an indication that the soil was influenced by the degrading matters at the sites. The soil from waste dumping sites best supported high fungal and bacterial populations while soil from oil palm ecosystem less supported the populations.

  2. Metabolic changes in carrot cells in response to simultaneous treatment with ultraviolet light and a fungal elicitor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ultraviolet light induces anthocyanin biosynthesis in cell cultures of an Afghan cultivar of Daucus carota (Daucus carota L. ssp. sativus). Simultaneous treatment with a fungal elicitor from Pythium aphanidermatum results in an inhibition of the catalytic activity of chalcone synthase (CHS), which in turn correlates with an inhibition of anthocyanin biosynthesis. On immunoblots, one isoenzyme (40 kDa) of CHS disappears upon elicitor treatment. On an mRNA level, only the mRNA for the 40-kDa-CHS is active after treatment with ultraviolet light. After inhibition of anthocyanin biosynthesis by the elicitor the enzyme protein disappears and the CHS mRNA is strongly diminished. This inhibition depends on the concentration of the elicitor. In addition, elicitor treatment leads to an induction of the general phenylpropanoid pathway as well as to the accumulation of 4-hydroxybenzoic acid which is covalently bound to wall polysaccharides of the carrot cells. The possible function of phenylalanine ammonia-lyase in providing precursors for 4-hydroxybenzoic acid is discussed

  3. The COP9 signalosome mediates transcriptional and metabolic response to hormones, oxidative stress protection and cell wall rearrangement during fungal development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nahlik, Krystyna; Dumkow, Marc; Bayram, Ozgür; Helmstaedt, Kerstin; Busch, Silke; Valerius, Oliver; Gerke, Jennifer; Hoppert, Michael; Schwier, Elke; Opitz, Lennart; Westermann, Mieke; Grond, Stephanie; Feussner, Kirstin; Goebel, Cornelia; Kaever, Alexander; Meinicke, Peter; Feussner, Ivo; Braus, Gerhard H

    2010-11-01

    The COP9 signalosome complex (CSN) is a crucial regulator of ubiquitin ligases. Defects in CSN result in embryonic impairment and death in higher eukaryotes, whereas the filamentous fungus Aspergillus nidulans survives without CSN, but is unable to complete sexual development. We investigated overall impact of CSN activity on A. nidulans cells by combined transcriptome, proteome and metabolome analysis. Absence of csn5/csnE affects transcription of at least 15% of genes during development, including numerous oxidoreductases. csnE deletion leads to changes in the fungal proteome indicating impaired redox regulation and hypersensitivity to oxidative stress. CSN promotes the formation of asexual spores by regulating developmental hormones produced by PpoA and PpoC dioxygenases. We identify more than 100 metabolites, including orsellinic acid derivatives, accumulating preferentially in the csnE mutant. We also show that CSN is required to activate glucanases and other cell wall recycling enzymes during development. These findings suggest a dual role for CSN during development: it is required early for protection against oxidative stress and hormone regulation and is later essential for control of the secondary metabolism and cell wall rearrangement. PMID:21062371

  4. Assessment of hydrogen metabolism in commercial anaerobic digesters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kern, Tobias; Theiss, Juliane; Röske, Kerstin; Rother, Michael

    2016-05-01

    Degradation of biomass in the absence of exogenous electron acceptors via anaerobic digestion involves a syntrophic association of a plethora of anaerobic microorganisms. The commercial application of this process is the large-scale production of biogas from renewable feedstock as an alternative to fossil fuels. After hydrolysis of polymers, monomers are fermented to short-chain fatty acids and alcohols, which are further oxidized to acetate. Carbon dioxide, molecular hydrogen (H2), and acetate generated during the process are converted to methane by methanogenic archaea. Since many of the metabolic pathways as well as the syntrophic interactions and dependencies during anaerobic digestion involve formation, utilization, or transfer of H2, its metabolism and the methanogenic population were assessed in various samples from three commercial biogas plants. Addition of H2 significantly increased the rate of methane formation, which suggested that hydrogenotrophic methanogenesis is not a rate-limiting step during biogas formation. Methanoculleus and Methanosarcina appeared to numerically dominate the archaeal population of the three digesters, but their proportion and the Bacteria-to-Archaea ratio did not correlate with the methane productivity. Instead, hydrogenase activity in cell-free extracts from digester sludge correlated with methane productivity in a positive fashion. Since most microorganisms involved in biogas formation contain this activity, it approximates the overall anaerobic metabolic activity and may, thus, be suitable for monitoring biogas reactor performance. PMID:26995607

  5. The Sensitivity and Specificity of Potassium Hydroxide Smear and Fungal Culture Relative to Clinical Assessment in the Evaluation of Tinea Pedis: A Pooled Analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jacob Oren Levitt

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. There are relatively few studies published examining the sensitivity and specificity of potassium hydroxide (KOH smear and fungal culture examination of tinea pedis. Objective. To evaluate the sensitivity and specificity of KOH smear and fungal culture for diagnosing tinea pedis. Methods. A pooled analysis of data from five similarly conducted bioequivalence trials for antifungal drugs was performed. Data from 460 patients enrolled in the vehicle arms of these studies with clinical diagnosis of tinea pedis supported by positive fungal culture were analyzed 6 weeks after initiation of the study to determine the sensitivity and specificity of KOH smear and fungal culture. Results. Using clinical assessment as the gold standard, the sensitivities for KOH smear and culture were 73.3% (95% CI: 66.3 to 79.5% and 41.7% (34.6 to 49.1%, respectively. The respective specificities for culture and KOH smear were 77.7% (72.2 to 82.5% and 42.5% (36.6 to 48.6%. Conclusion. KOH smear and fungal culture are complementary diagnostic tests for tinea pedis, with the former being the more sensitive test of the two, and the latter being more specific.

  6. Fungal Tests

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... or Calcofluor white stain): in general, if fungal elements are seen, then a fungus is the likely the cause of symptoms. These tests, however, do not identify the fungus. Culture: care must be taken when interpreting culture results. ...

  7. Fungal allergens.

    OpenAIRE

    Horner, W E; Helbling, A; Salvaggio, J E; Lehrer, S B

    1995-01-01

    Airborne fungal spores occur widely and often in far greater concentrations than pollen grains. Immunoglobulin E-specific antigens (allergens) on airborne fungal spores induce type I hypersensitivity (allergic) respiratory reactions in sensitized atopic subjects, causing rhinitis and/or asthma. The prevalence of respiratory allergy to fungi is imprecisely known but is estimated at 20 to 30% of atopic (allergy-predisposed) individuals or up to 6% of the general population. Diagnosis and immuno...

  8. Fungal Antagonism Assessment of Predatory Species and Producers Metabolites and Their Effectiveness on Haemonchus contortus Infective Larvae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Manoel Eduardo Silva

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this study was to assess antagonism of nematophagous fungi and species producers metabolites and their effectiveness on Haemonchus contortus infective larvae (L3. Assay A assesses the synergistic, additive, or antagonistic effect on the production of spores of fungal isolates of the species Duddingtonia flagrans, Clonostachys rosea, Trichoderma esau, and Arthrobotrys musiformis; Assay B evaluates in vitro the effect of intercropping of these isolates grown in 2% water-agar (2% WA on L3 of H. contortus. D. flagrans (Assay A produced 5.3 × 106 spores and associated with T. esau, A. musiformis, or C. rosea reduced its production by 60.37, 45.28, and 49.05%, respectively. T. esau produced 7.9 × 107 conidia and associated with D. flagrans, A. musiformis, or C. rosea reduced its production by 39.24, 82.27, and 96.96%, respectively. A. musiformis produced 7.3 × 109 spores and associated with D. flagrans, T. esau, or C. rosea reduced its production by 99.98, 99.99, and 99.98%, respectively. C. rosea produced 7.3 × 108 conidia and associated with D. flagrans, T. esau, or A. musiformis reduced its production by 95.20, 96.84, and 93.56%, respectively. These results show evidence of antagonism in the production of spores between predators fungi.

  9. Assessment and determinants of airborne bacterial and fungal concentrations in different indoor environments: Homes, child day-care centres, primary schools and elderly care centres

    Science.gov (United States)

    Madureira, Joana; Paciência, Inês; Rufo, João Cavaleiro; Pereira, Cristiana; Teixeira, João Paulo; de Oliveira Fernandes, Eduardo

    2015-05-01

    Until now the influence of risk factors resulting from exposure to biological agents in indoor air has been far less studied than outdoor pollution; therefore the uncertainty of health risks, and how to effectively prevent these, remains. This study aimed (i) to quantify airborne cultivable bacterial and fungal concentrations in four different types of indoor environment as well as to identify the recovered fungi; (ii) to assess the impact of outdoor bacterial and fungal concentrations on indoor air; (iii) to investigate the influence of carbon dioxide (CO2), temperature and relative humidity on bacterial and fungal concentrations; and (iv) to estimate bacterial and fungal dose rate for children (3-5 years old and 8-10 years old) in comparison with the elderly. Air samples were collected in 68 homes, 9 child day-care centres, 20 primary schools and 22 elderly care centres, in a total of 264 rooms with a microbiological air sampler and using tryptic soy agar and malt extract agar culture media for bacteria and fungi growth, respectively. For each building, one outdoor representative location were identified and simultaneously studied. The results showed that child day-care centres were the indoor microenvironment with the highest median bacterial and fungal concentrations (3870 CFU/m3 and 415 CFU/m3, respectively), whereas the lowest median concentrations were observed in elderly care centres (222 CFU/m3 and 180 CFU/m3, respectively). Indoor bacterial concentrations were significantly higher than outdoor concentrations (p < 0.05); whereas the indoor/outdoor ratios for the obtained fungal concentrations were approximately around the unit. Indoor CO2 levels were associated with the bacterial concentration, probably due to occupancy and insufficient ventilation. Penicillium and Cladosporium were the most frequently occurring fungi. Children's had two times higher dose rate to biological pollutants when compared to adult individuals. Thus, due to children

  10. Fungal nail infection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nails - fungal infection; Onychomycosis; Infection - fungal - nails; Tinea unguium ... the hair, nails, and outer skin layers. Common fungal infections include: Athlete's foot Jock itch Ringworm on the ...

  11. Pulmonary fungal infections.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Jeannina A; Kauffman, Carol A

    2012-08-01

    This review details some of the advances that have been made in the recent decade in the diagnosis, treatment and epidemiology of pulmonary fungal infections. These advances have occurred because of increasing knowledge regarding the fungal genome, better understanding of the structures of the fungal cell wall and cell membrane and the use of molecular epidemiological techniques. The clinical implications of these advances are more rapid diagnosis and more effective and less toxic antifungal agents. For example, the diagnosis of invasive pulmonary aspergillosis, as well as histoplasmosis and blastomycosis, has improved with the use of easily performed antigen detection systems in serum and bronchoalveolar lavage fluid. Treatment of angioinvasive moulds has improved with the introduction of the new azoles, voriconazole and posaconazole that have broad antifungal activity. Amphotericin B is less frequently used, and when used is often given as lipid formulation to decrease toxicity. The newest agents, the echinocandins, are especially safe as they interfere with the metabolism of the fungal cell wall, a structure not shared with humans cells. Epidemiological advances include the description of the emergence of Cryptococcus gattii in North America and the increase in pulmonary mucormycosis and pneumonia due to Fusarium and Scedosporium species in transplant recipients and patients with haematological malignancies. The emergence of azole resistance among Aspergillus species is especially worrisome and is likely related to increased azole use for treatment of patients, but also to agricultural use of azoles as fungicides in certain countries. PMID:22335254

  12. Detection and assessment of chemical hormesis on the radial growth in vitro of oomycetes and fungal plant pathogens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Flores, Francisco J; Garzon, Carla D

    2012-01-01

    Although plant diseases can be caused by bacteria, viruses, and protists, most are caused by fungi and fungus-like oomycetes. Intensive use of fungicides with the same mode of action can lead to selection of resistant strains increasing the risk of unmanageable epidemics. In spite of the integrated use of nonchemical plant disease management strategies, agricultural productivity relies heavily on the use of chemical pesticides and biocides for disease prevention and treatment and sanitation of tools and substrates. Despite the prominent use of fungi in early hormesis studies and the continuous use of yeast as a research model, the relevance of hormesis in agricultural systems has not been investigated by plant pathologists, until recently. A protocol was standardized for detection and assessment of chemical hormesis in fungi and oomycetes using radial growth as endpoint. Biphasic dose-responses were observed in Pythium aphanidermatum exposed to sub-inhibitory doses of ethanol, cyazofamid, and propamocarb, and in Rhizoctonia zeae exposed to ethanol. This report provides an update on chemical hormesis in fungal plant pathogens and a perspective on the potential risks it poses to crop productivity and global food supply. PMID:23983664

  13. Fungal keratitis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sonal S Tuli

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available Sonal S TuliUniversity of Florida, Gainesville, FL, USA  Clinical question: What is the most appropriate management of fungal keratitis?Results: Traditionally, topical Natamycin is the most commonly used medication for filamentous fungi while Amphotericin B is most commonly used for yeast. Voriconazole is rapidly becoming the drug of choice for all fungal keratitis because of its wide spectrum of coverage and increased penetration into the cornea.Implementation: Repeated debridement of the ulcer is recommended for the penetration of topical medications. While small, peripheral ulcers may be treated in the community, larger or central ulcers, especially if associated with signs suggestive of anterior chamber penetration should be referred to a tertiary center. Prolonged therapy for approximately four weeks is usually necessary.Keywords: fungal keratitis, keratomycosis, antifungal medications, debridement

  14. Assessment of microbiological air quality in hemato-oncology units and its relationship with the occurrence of invasive fungal infections: an integrative review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mayra Goncalves Menegueti

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available Worldwide aging of the human population has promoted an increase in the incidence of neoplasia, including hematological cancers, which render patients particularly vulnerable to invasive fungal infections. For this reason, air filtration in hemato-oncology units has been recommended. However, scarce literature has assessed the impact of microbiological air quality on the occurrence of fungal infections in this population. We performed an integrative review of studies in the MEDLINE database that were published between January 1980 and October 2012, using the following combinations of keywords: air × quality × HEPA, air × quality × hematology, and airborne fungal infections. The search yielded only 13 articles, suggesting that high-efficiency filtering of the ambient air in hemato-oncology units can prevent the incidence of invasive fungal infections. However, no randomized clinical trial was found to confirm this suggestion. Currently, there is no consensus about the maximum allowable count of fungi in the air, which complicates filtration monitoring, including filter maintenance and replacement, and needs to be addressed in future studies.

  15. Use and cost-effectiveness of intraoperative acid-fast bacilli and fungal cultures in assessing infection of joint arthroplasties.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wadey, Veronica M; Huddleston, James I; Goodman, Stuart B; Schurman, David J; Maloney, William J; Baron, Ellen J

    2010-12-01

    The objective of this study is to determine a protocol for collecting acid-fast bacilli (AFB) and fungal intraoperative cultures during orthopedic procedures. An observational study was undertaken. Four hundred forty-six AFB cultures and 486 fungal cultures were processed over a 2-year period. The number of positive cultures was determined. A protocol specific to handling these types of specimens was developed. Cost analysis was completed to determine both the time and money saved if the new protocol was implemented. The infrequency of positive AFB and fungal cultures in this study suggests that it is only necessary to routinely request AFB and fungal cultures on 1 of 5 samples. Implementation of this protocol has potential to lead to substantial cost reduction and resource savings without diminishing patient outcomes. PMID:19879728

  16. The Contribution of DNA Metabarcoding to Fungal Conservation: Diversity Assessment, Habitat Partitioning and Mapping Red-Listed Fungi in Protected Coastal Salix repens Communities in the Netherlands

    OpenAIRE

    Geml, József; Gravendeel, Barbara; van der Gaag, Kristiaan J.; Neilen, Manon; Lammers, Youri; Raes, Niels; Semenova, Tatiana A; de Knijff, Peter; Noordeloos, Machiel E.

    2014-01-01

    Western European coastal sand dunes are highly important for nature conservation. Communities of the creeping willow (Salix repens) represent one of the most characteristic and diverse vegetation types in the dunes. We report here the results of the first kingdom-wide fungal diversity assessment in S. repens coastal dune vegetation. We carried out massively parallel pyrosequencing of ITS rDNA from soil samples taken at ten sites in an extended area of joined nature reserves located along the ...

  17. Metabolism

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... also influenced by body composition — people with more muscle and less fat generally have higher BMRs. previous continue Things That Can Go Wrong With Metabolism Most of the time your metabolism works effectively ...

  18. Assessment and Screening of the Risk Factors in Metabolic Syndrome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jaspinder Kaur

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Metabolic syndrome (MetS is chronic inflammatory epidemic state contributing to total and cardiovascular mortality. The current study planned to assess and screen risk factors for MetS and its components. A cross-sectional study conducted to assess age, gender, social status, employment, education, family history, physical activity, dietary habits, alcohol, sleep, body mass index and stress as determinants of MetS. The results were analyzed by Chi Square test with statistical significance of p value <0.05. The frequency of MetS was 17.38% as per modified National Cholesterol Education Program–Adult Treatment Panel III criteria. Females (57.38%, age >50 years (86.90%; p < 0.05, middle socioeconomic status (70.50%, illiteracy (39.35%, and unemployment (81.97%; p < 0.05 were found contributing though to different extents. Subjects with a sedentary lifestyle (72.14%, positive family history (42.63%, omnivore diet (47.55%, stress (78.69%; p < 0.05, insomnia (29.51% and increased BMI (83.62%; p < 0.001 had shown predisposition to MetS. However, the protective role of alcohol (38.28%, an active lifestyle (36.21%, vegetarian diet (62.07% and adequate sleep (73.11% was observed. A significant hypertension (98.37%; p < 0.001, dyslipidemia (77.05%; p < 0.001, dysglycemia (75.41%; p < 0.001 and obesity (59.02%; p < 0.001 was reported in MetS. Common concerns of female gender, increasing age and BMI, sedentary lifestyle, stress and positive family history should be considered for early identification and appropriate intervention to fight the growing MetS epidemic.

  19. Metabolism

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2008-01-01

    2008255 Serum adiponectin level declines in the elderly with metabolic syndrome.WU Xiaoyan(吴晓琰),et al.Dept Geriatr,Huashan Hosp,Fudan UnivShanghai200040.Chin J Geriatr2008;27(3):164-167.Objective To investigate the correlation between ser-um adiponectin level and metabolic syndrome in the elderly·Methods Sixty-one subjects with metabolic syndrome and140age matched subjects without metabolic

  20. Assessment of (patho)physiologic alterations in equine muscle metabolism

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Westermann, C.M.

    2008-01-01

    This thesis focussed on the diagnostic use of metabolic products and enzymes found in plasma, urine and muscle of the horse, the identification of which can reveal physiological or pathological changes in muscle metabolism. In this thesis analyses of carbohydrate-, lipid- and protein metabolites hav

  1. Visible fungi growth and dampness assessed using a questionnaire versus airborne fungi, (1→3-β-d-glucan and fungal spore concentrations in flats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Małgorzata Sowiak

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Introduction The study aimed at determination of the usefulness of the subjective assessment of selected signs of fungi growth in flats and microclimate parameters to indicate the actual air contamination with culturable fungi, (1→3-β-D-glucans and fungal spores. Material and methods This analysis covered 22 flats, the inhabitants of which declared in a questionnaire interview the presence of the developed mycelium on solid surfaces in the flat. Air samples for determination of the culturable fungi, (1→3-β-D-glucans and (viable and non-viable fungal spores concentrations indoor and outdoor the flats during the heating period were collected. During bioaerosol sampling microclimate parameters were measured. Predictive models for concentrations of the tested biological agents with regard to various ways to assess fungal contamination of air in a flat (on the basis of a questionnaire or a questionnaire and microclimate measurements were built. Results The arithmetic means of temperature, relative humidity, CO2 concentration and air flow velocity in the flats were respectively: 20.5°C, 53%, 1431.6 ppm and 0 m/s. The geometric mean concentrations of airborne fungi, (1→3-β-D-glucans and fungal spores in these premises amounted to 2.9×102 cfu/m3, 1.6 ng/m3 and 5.7×103 spores/m3, respectively. The subjective assessment of fungi growth signs and microclimate characteristics were moderately useful for evaluation of the actual airborne fungi and (1→3-β-D-glucan concentrations (maximum percent of explained variance (VE = 61% and 67%, respectively, and less useful in evaluation of the actual fungal spore concentrations (VE < 29%. In the case of fungi, higher usefulness was indicated of the questionnaire evaluation supported by microclimate measurements (VE = 61.2%, as compared to the evaluation only by means of a questionnaire (VE = 46.9%. Conclusions Subjective evaluation of fungi growth signs in flats, separately or combined with microclimate

  2. Non-invasive Assessment of Neonatal Brain Oxygen Metabolism: A Review of Newly Available Techniques

    OpenAIRE

    Liu, Peiying; Chalak, Lina F.; Lu, Hanzhang

    2014-01-01

    Because oxidative metabolism is the primary form of energy production in the brain, the amount of oxygen consumed by the brain, denoted by a physiological parameter termed cerebral metabolic rate of oxygen (CMRO2), represents a key marker for tissue viability and brain function. Quantitative assessment of cerebral oxygen metabolism in the neonate may provide an important marker in better understanding normal brain development and in making diagnosis and treatment decisions in neonatal brain i...

  3. Temperature thresholds for Arctic plankton community metabolism: an experimental assessment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. M. Holding

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available Climate warming is especially severe in the Arctic, where the average temperature is increasing 0.4 °C per decade, two to three times higher than the global average rate. Furthermore, the Arctic has lost more than half its summer ice extent since 1980 and predictions suggest that the Arctic will be ice free in the summer as early as 2050, which could increase rate of warming. Predictions based on the metabolic theory of ecology assume that temperature increase will enhance metabolic rates and thus both the rate of primary production and respiration will increase. However, these predictions do not consider the specific metabolic balance of the communities. We tested experimentally the response of Arctic plankton communities to seawater temperature spanning from 1 °C to 10 °C. Two types of communities were tested, open-ocean Arctic communities from water collected in the Barents Sea and Atlantic influenced fjord communities from water collected in the Svalbard fjord system. Metabolic rates did indeed increase as suggested by metabolic theory, however these results suggest a temperature threshold of 5 °C, beyond which the metabolism of plankton communities shifts from autotrophic to heterotrophic. Barents Sea communities showed a much clearer threshold response to temperature manipulations than fjord communities.

  4. Assessing the Metabolic Effects of Aromatherapy in Human Volunteers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yinan Zhang

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Aromatherapy, a form of complementary and alternative medicine (CAM that uses essential oils through inhalation, is believed to enhance physical and spiritual conditions. Although clinical studies suggest that the use of essential oils may have therapeutic potential, evidence for the efficacy of aromatherapy in treating medical conditions remains poor, with a particular lack of studies employing rigorous analytical methods that capture its identifiable impact on human biology. Here, we report a comprehensive metabolomics study that reveals metabolic changes in people after exposed to aroma inhalation for 10 continuous days. In this study, the metabolic alterations in urine of 31 females with mild anxiety symptoms exposed to aerial diffusion of aromas were measured by GC-TOF-MS and UPLC-Q-TOF-MS analyses. A significant alteration of metabolic profile in subjects responsive to essential oil was found, which is characterized by the increased levels of arginine, homocysteine, and betaine, as well as decreased levels of alcohols, carbohydrates, and organic acids in urine. Notably, the metabolites from tricarboxylic acid (TCA cycle and gut microbial metabolism were significantly altered. This study demonstrates that the metabolomics approach can capture the subtle metabolic changes resulting from exposure to essential oils, which may lead to an improved mechanistic understanding of aromatherapy.

  5. A laboratory assessment of the Waveband Integrated Bioaerosol Sensor (WIBS-4) using individual samples of pollen and fungal spore material

    Science.gov (United States)

    Healy, David A.; O'Connor, David J.; Burke, Aoife M.; Sodeau, John R.

    2012-12-01

    A Bioaerosol sensing instrument referred to as WIBS-4, designed to continuously monitor ambient bioaerosols on-line, has been used to record a multiparameter “signature” from each of a number of Primary Biological Aerosol Particulate (PBAP) samples found in air. These signatures were obtained in a controlled laboratory environment and are based on the size, asymmetry (“shape”) and auto-fluorescence of the particles. Fifteen samples from two separate taxonomic ranks (kingdoms), Plantae (×8) and Fungi (×7) were individually introduced to the WIBS-4 for measurement along with two non-fluorescing chemical solids, common salt and chalk. Over 2000 individual-particle measurements were recorded for each sample type and the ability of the WIBS spectroscopic technique to distinguish between chemicals, pollen and fungal spore material was examined by identifying individual PBAP signatures. The results obtained show that WIBS-4 could potentially be a very useful analytical tool for distinguishing between natural airborne PBAP samples, such as the fungal spores and may potentially play an important role in detecting and discriminating the toxic fungal spore, Aspergillus fumigatus, from others in real-time. If the sizing range of the commercial instrument was customarily increased and permitted to operate simultaneously in its two sizing ranges, pollen and spores could potentially be discriminated between. The data also suggest that the gain setting sensitivity on the detector would also have to be reduced by a factor >5, to routinely detect, in-range fluorescence measurements for pollen samples.

  6. Assessing mineral metabolism in children using stable isotopes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mineral metabolism may be altered in children with acute or chronic illnesses. The effects may be short term, such as hypomagnesemia associated with chemotherapy, or long-term, such as loss of bone mineral mass after steroid use. Understanding the causes, consequences, and potential therapies for mi...

  7. Metabolic Assessment of Suited Mobility Using Functional Tasks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Norcross, J. R.; McFarland, S. M.; Ploutz-Snyder, Robert

    2016-01-01

    Existing methods for evaluating extravehicular activity (EVA) suit mobility have typically focused on isolated joint range of motion or torque, but these techniques have little to do with how well a crewmember functionally performs in an EVA suit. To evaluate suited mobility at the system level through measuring metabolic cost (MC) of functional tasks.

  8. Metabolism

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... a particular food provides to the body. A chocolate bar has more calories than an apple, so ... More Common in People With Type 1 Diabetes Metabolic Syndrome Your Child's Weight Healthy Eating Endocrine System Blood ...

  9. Isolation of the Entomopathogenic Fungal Strain Cod-MK1201 from a Cicada Nymph and Assessment of Its Antibacterial Activities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sangdee, Kusavadee; Nakbanpote, Woranan; Sangdee, Aphidech

    2015-01-01

    The entomopathogenic fungus Cod-MK1201 was isolated from a dead cicada nymph. Three regions of ribosomal nuclear DNA, the internal transcribed spacers of nuclear ribosomal DNA repeats (ITS), the partial small subunit of rDNA (nrSSU) , and the partial large subunit of rDNA (nrLSU), and two protein-coding regions, the elongation factor 1α (EF-1α), and the largest subunit of the RNA polymerase II (rpb1) gene, were sequenced and used for fungal identification. The phylogenetic analysis of the ITS and the combined data set of the five genes indicated that the fungal isolate Cod-MK1201 is a new strain of Cordyceps sp. that is closely related to Cordyceps nipponica and C. kanzashiana. Crude extracts of mycelium-cultured Cod-MK1201 were obtained using distilled water and 50% (v/v) ethanol, and the antibacterial activity of each was determined. Both extracts had activity against Gram-positive and Gram-negative bacteria, but the ethanol extract was the more potent of the two. The antibacterial activity of the protein fractions of these extracts was also determined. The protein fraction from the ethanol extract was more antibacterial than the protein fraction from the aqueous extract. Three antibacterial constituents including adenosine, the total phenolic content (TPC), and the total flavonoid content (TFC) was also determined. The results showed that the adenosine content, the TPC, and the TFC of the ethanol extract were more active than those of the aqueous extract. Moreover, synergism was detected between these antibacterial constituents. In conclusion, the entomopathogenic fungal isolate Cod-MK1201 represents a natural source of antibacterial agents. PMID:25746406

  10. Assessment of oxidative metabolism in Brown Fat using PET imaging

    OpenAIRE

    Otto eMuzik; Mangner, Thomas J.; Granneman, James G.

    2012-01-01

    Objective: Although it has been believed that brown adipose tissue (BAT) depots disappear shortly after the perinatal period in humans, PET imaging using the glucose analog FDG has shown unequivocally the existence of functional BAT in humans. The objective of this study was to determine, using dynamic oxygen-15 (15O) PET imaging, to what extent BAT thermogenesis is activated in adults during cold stress and to establish the relationship between BAT oxidative metabolism and FDG tracer uptake....

  11. Assessment of vitamin A metabolism with a multiple dose technique

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A rat model has been developed to study vitamin A turnover and metabolism during physiological conditions. Body pools of vitamin A of young adult male rats were replaced with radioactive vitamin A. The effect of daily ingestion and withdrawal of 20 μg of tritiated retinyl acetate was examined on the excretion of radioactivity in urine and feces. During conditions of constant excretion, 35% of dose radioactivity was excreted daily in urine and feces, feces representing the major route of excretion. After discontinuation of daily oral administration of vitamin A, proportionally smaller amounts of radioactivity were excreted both in urine and feces on each subsequent day. Urinary excretion of radioactivity decreased at a constant rate of 0.08 micrograms per day of labeled metabolites, while fecal excretion decreased more rapidly (0.22 μg/d). Significant fecal radioactivity is associated with the processing of daily dietary vitamin A and represents the metabolism of newly absorbed and unabsorbed vitamin A. Radioactivity excreted in urine is not greatly affected by elimination of daily ingestion of vitamin A and appears to reflect the functional metabolism of this vitamin in tissues. The s.a. of circulatory retinol was similar to that of the dose, while that of liver retinyl esters was 10-30% that of the dose during the 8 day period subsequent to removal of dietary vitamin A

  12. Graded Maximal Exercise Testing to Assess Mouse Cardio-Metabolic Phenotypes.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jennifer M Petrosino

    Full Text Available Functional assessments of cardiovascular fitness (CVF are needed to establish animal models of dysfunction, test the effects of novel therapeutics, and establish the cardio-metabolic phenotype of mice. In humans, the graded maximal exercise test (GXT is a standardized diagnostic for assessing CVF and mortality risk. These tests, which consist of concurrent staged increases in running speed and inclination, provide diagnostic cardio-metabolic parameters, such as, VO2max, anaerobic threshold, and metabolic crossover. Unlike the human-GXT, published mouse treadmill tests have set, not staged, increases in inclination as speed progress until exhaustion (PXT. Additionally, they often lack multiple cardio-metabolic parameters. Here, we developed a mouse-GXT with the intent of improving mouse-exercise testing sensitivity and developing translatable parameters to assess CVF in healthy and dysfunctional mice. The mouse-GXT, like the human-GXT, incorporated staged increases in inclination, speed, and intensity; and, was designed by considering imitations of the PXT and differences between human and mouse physiology. The mouse-GXT and PXTs were both tested in healthy mice (C57BL/6J, FVBN/J to determine their ability to identify cardio-metabolic parameters (anaerobic threshold, VO2max, metabolic crossover observed in human-GXTs. Next, theses assays were tested on established diet-induced (obese-C57BL/6J and genetic (cardiac isoform Casq2-/- models of cardiovascular dysfunction. Results showed that both tests reported VO2max and provided reproducible data about performance. Only the mouse-GXT reproducibly identified anaerobic threshold, metabolic crossover, and detected impaired CVF in dysfunctional models. Our findings demonstrated that the mouse-GXT is a sensitive, non-invasive, and cost-effective method for assessing CVF in mice. This new test can be used as a functional assessment to determine the cardio-metabolic phenotype of various animal models or

  13. Assessing the prevalence of the Metabolic Syndrome according to NCEP ATP III in Germany

    OpenAIRE

    Moebus, S; Hanisch, JU; Neuhäuser, M.; Aidelsburger, P.; Wasem, J; Jöckel, KH

    2006-01-01

    Objective: Metabolic Syndrome (MetSyn) describes a cluster of metabolic disorders and is considered a risk factor for development of cardiovascular disease. Although a high prevalence is commonly assumed in Germany data about the degree of its occurrence in the population and in subgroups are still missing. The aim of this study was to assess the prevalence of the MetSyn according to the NCEP ATP-III (National Cholesterol Education Program Adult Treatment Panel III) criteria in persons aged ...

  14. Assessment of college students’ awareness and knowledge about conditions relevant to metabolic syndrome

    OpenAIRE

    Yahia, Najat; Brown, Carrie; Rapley, Melyssa; Chung, Mei

    2014-01-01

    Background Despite the increasing prevalence of metabolic syndrome among young adults, little is known about the awareness level of college students about this condition. The purpose of this study was to assess students’ level of awareness and knowledge about conditions relevant to metabolic syndrome (MetS). Methods A self-reported online questionnaire was administered to 243 students attending Central Michigan University. Questions were divided into seven conditions: diabetes, adiposity, hyp...

  15. Assessment of oxidative metabolism in Brown Fat using PET imaging

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Otto eMuzik

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available Objective: Although it has been believed that brown adipose tissue (BAT depots disappear shortly after the perinatal period in humans, PET imaging using the glucose analog FDG has shown unequivocally the existence of functional BAT in humans. The objective of this study was to determine, using dynamic oxygen-15 (15O PET imaging, to what extent BAT thermogenesis is activated in adults during cold stress and to establish the relationship between BAT oxidative metabolism and FDG tracer uptake.Methods: Fourteen adult normal subjects (9F/5M, 30+7 years underwent triple oxygen scans (H215O, C15O, 15O2 as well as indirect calorimetric measurements at rest and following exposure to mild cold (60F. Subjects were divided into two groups (BAT+ and BAT- based on the presence or absence of FDG tracer uptake (SUV > 2 in supraclavicular BAT. Blood flow (BF and oxygen extraction fraction (OEF was calculated from dynamic PET scans at the location of BAT, muscle and white adipose tissue (WAT. The metabolic rate of oxygen (MRO2 in BAT was determined and used to calculate the contribution of activated BAT to daily energy expenditure (DEE.Results: The median mass of activated BAT in the BAT+ group (5F, 31+8yrs was 52.4 g (14-68g and was 1.7 g (0-6.3g in the BAT- group (5M/4F, 29+6yrs. SUV values were significantly higher in the BAT+ as compared to the BAT- group (7.4+3.7 vs 1.9+0.9; p=0.03. BF values in BAT were significantly higher in the BAT+ as compared to the BAT- group (13.1+4.4 vs 5.7+1.1 ml/100g/min, p=0.03, but were similar in WAT (4.1+1.6 vs 4.2+1.8 ml/100g/min and muscle (3.7+0.8 vs 3.3+1.2 ml/100g/min. Calculated MRO2 values in BAT increased from 0.95+0.74 to 1.62+0.82 ml/100g/min in the BAT+ group and were significantly higher than those determined in the BAT- group (0.43+0.27 vs 0.56+0.24; p=0.67. The DEE associated with BAT oxidative metabolism was highly variable in the BAT+ group, with an average of 5.5+6.4 kcal/day (range 0.57–15.3 kcal/day.

  16. MR measurement of visceral fat. Assessment of metabolic syndrome

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    One diagnostic criterion for metabolic syndrome is obesity from the accumulation of visceral fat; others include abdominal circumference and area of visceral fat as measured by computed tomography (CT) at the umbilical level. We evaluated visceral fat using frequency-selective excitation magnetic resonance (MR) imaging SPAIR (spectral attenuation with inversion recovery) water suppression THRIVE (3D T1-high resolution isotropic volume examination). Fifty of 70 slices with 2-mm interval were used to render and measure volume of visceral fat ranging within 10 cm of the umbilicus; the area of visceral fat at the umbilical level was also measured. Imaging was completed using breath hold within 14 s. Image processing was easier than using CT. (author)

  17. Assessment of Metabolic Parameters For Autism Spectrum Disorders

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ananth N Rao

    2009-05-01

    Full Text Available Autism is a brain development disorder that first appears during infancy or childhood, and generally follows a steady course without remission. Impairments result from maturation-related changes in various systems of the brain. Autism is one of the five pervasive developmental disorders (PDD, which are characterized by widespread abnormalities of social interactions and communication, and severely restricted interests and highly repetitive behavior. The reported incidence of autism spectrum disorders (ASDs has increased markedly over the past decade. The Centre for Disease Control and Prevention has recently estimated the prevalence of ASDs in the United States at approximately 5.6 per 1000 (1 of 155 to 1 of 160 children. Several metabolic defects, such as phenylketonuria, are associated with autistic symptoms. In deciding upon the appropriate evaluation scheme a clinician must consider a host of different factors. The guidelines in this article have been developed to assist the clinician in the consideration of these factors.

  18. Assessing the effects of microbial metabolism and metabolities on reservoir pore structure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Udegbunam, E.O.; Adkins, J.P.; Knapp, R.M.; McInerney, M.J.; Tanner, R.S.

    1991-01-01

    The effect of microbial treatment on pore structure of sandstone and carbonatereservoirs was determined. Understanding how different bacterial strains and their metabolic bioproducts affect reservoir pore structure will permit the prudent application of microorganisms for enhanced oil recovery. The microbial strains tested included Clostridium acetobutylicum, a polymer-producing Bacillus strain, and an unidentified halophilic anaerobe that mainly produced acids and gases. Electrical conductivity, absolute permeability, porosity and centrifuge capillary pressure were used to examine rock pore structures. Modifications of the pore structure observed in the laboratory cores included pore enlargement due to acid dissolution of carbonates and poare throat reduction due to biomass plugging. This paper shows that careful selection of microbes based on proper understanding of the reservoir petrophysical characteristics is necessary for applications of microbially enhanced oil recovery. These methods and results can be useful to field operators and laboratory researchers involved in design and screening of reservoirs for MEOR. The methods are also applicable in evaluation of formation damage caused by drilling, injection or completion fluids or stimulation caused by acids.

  19. An urban metabolism and ecological footprint assessment of Metro Vancouver.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moore, Jennie; Kissinger, Meidad; Rees, William E

    2013-07-30

    As the world urbanizes, the role of cities in determining sustainability outcomes grows in importance. Cities are the dominant form of human habitat, and most of the world's resources are either directly or indirectly consumed in cities. Sustainable city analysis and management requires understanding the demands a city places on a wider geographical area and its ecological resource base. We present a detailed, integrated urban metabolism of residential consumption and ecological footprint analysis of the Vancouver metropolitan region for the year 2006. Our overall goal is to demonstrate the application of a bottom-up ecological footprint analysis using an urban metabolism framework at a metropolitan, regional scale. Our specific objectives are: a) to quantify energy and material consumption using locally generated data and b) to relate these data to global ecological carrying capacity. Although water is the largest material flow through Metro Vancouver (424,860,000 m(3)), it has the smallest ecological footprint (23,100 gha). Food (2,636,850 tonnes) contributes the largest component to the ecological footprint (4,514,400 gha) which includes crop and grazing land as well as carbon sinks required to sequester emissions from food production and distribution. Transportation fuels (3,339,000 m(3)) associated with motor vehicle operation and passenger air travel comprises the second largest material flow through the region and the largest source of carbon dioxide emissions (7,577,000 tonnes). Transportation also accounts for the second largest component of the EF (2,323,200 gha). Buildings account for the largest electricity flow (17,515,150 MWh) and constitute the third largest component of the EF (1,779,240 gha). Consumables (2,400,000 tonnes) comprise the fourth largest component of the EF (1,414,440 gha). Metro Vancouver's total Ecological Footprint in 2006 was 10,071,670 gha, an area approximately 36 times larger than the region itself. The EFA reveals that

  20. Iatrogenic hyperadrenocorticism during topical steroid therapy: assessment of systemic effects by metabolic criteria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cook, L J; Freinkel, R K; Zugerman, C; Levin, D L; Radtke, R

    1982-06-01

    Systemic absorption of topically applied glucocorticoids in quantities sufficient to replace endogenous production is not uncommon. However, iatrogenic Cushing's syndrome resulting from the use of topical corticosteroids is very rare. Thus the possibility that systemic absorption may cause hyperglucocorticism has been deemphasized and examined only sporadically. We have studied changes in carbohydrate metabolism induced by topical glucocorticoids in a psoriatic patient who had developed Cushing's syndrome from topical desoximetasone (Topicort). The results indicated that (1) fasting hyperglycemia and increased insulin-glucose ratios could be induced within 24 hours of administration of topical glucocorticoids, (2) insulin resistance accompanied abnormal carbohydrate tolerance, and (3) fluctuations in circulating leukocytes paralleled the changes in carbohydrate metabolism. The findings suggest that metabolic indexes of glucocorticoid action action may provide useful parameters for assessing systemic absorption of topical glucocorticoids. glucose relationship as one such index to assess the risk of treatment of extensive chronic skin disease with potent topical glucocorticoids. PMID:7047591

  1. Fungal genome sequencing: basic biology to biotechnology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharma, Krishna Kant

    2016-08-01

    The genome sequences provide a first glimpse into the genomic basis of the biological diversity of filamentous fungi and yeast. The genome sequence of the budding yeast, Saccharomyces cerevisiae, with a small genome size, unicellular growth, and rich history of genetic and molecular analyses was a milestone of early genomics in the 1990s. The subsequent completion of fission yeast, Schizosaccharomyces pombe and genetic model, Neurospora crassa initiated a revolution in the genomics of the fungal kingdom. In due course of time, a substantial number of fungal genomes have been sequenced and publicly released, representing the widest sampling of genomes from any eukaryotic kingdom. An ambitious genome-sequencing program provides a wealth of data on metabolic diversity within the fungal kingdom, thereby enhancing research into medical science, agriculture science, ecology, bioremediation, bioenergy, and the biotechnology industry. Fungal genomics have higher potential to positively affect human health, environmental health, and the planet's stored energy. With a significant increase in sequenced fungal genomes, the known diversity of genes encoding organic acids, antibiotics, enzymes, and their pathways has increased exponentially. Currently, over a hundred fungal genome sequences are publicly available; however, no inclusive review has been published. This review is an initiative to address the significance of the fungal genome-sequencing program and provides the road map for basic and applied research. PMID:25721271

  2. Metabolic Syndrome and Inflammation: A Critical Review of In Vitro and Clinical Approaches for Benefit Assessment of Plant Food Supplements

    OpenAIRE

    Chiara Di Lorenzo; Mario Dell'Agli; Elisa Colombo; Enrico Sangiovanni; Patrizia Restani

    2013-01-01

    Metabolic syndrome is defined as the clustering in an individual of several metabolic abnormalities associated with insulin resistance, type 2 diabetes, and obesity, in which low-grade chronic inflammatory activity is commonly observed. Part of the European Project PlantLIBRA is concerned with methods to assess the benefits of plant food supplements (PFSs) in countering inflammatory activity and metabolic syndrome. This paper summarizes the current methods used for benefit assessment of PFS, ...

  3. Neurocognitive clinical outcome assessments for inborn errors of metabolism and other rare conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shapiro, Elsa; Bernstein, Jessica; Adams, Heather R; Barbier, Ann J; Buracchio, Teresa; Como, Peter; Delaney, Kathleen A; Eichler, Florian; Goldsmith, Jonathan C; Hogan, Melissa; Kovacs, Sarrit; Mink, Jonathan W; Odenkirchen, Joanne; Parisi, Melissa A; Skrinar, Alison; Waisbren, Susan E; Mulberg, Andrew E

    2016-06-01

    Well-defined and reliable clinical outcome assessments are essential for determining whether a drug provides clinically meaningful treatment benefit for patients. In 2015, FDA convened a workshop, "Assessing Neurocognitive Outcomes in Inborn Errors of Metabolism." Topics covered included special challenges of clinical studies of inborn errors of metabolism (IEMs) and other rare diseases; complexities of identifying treatment effects in the context of the dynamic processes of child development and disease progression; and the importance of natural history studies. Clinicians, parents/caregivers, and participants from industry, academia, and government discussed factors to consider when developing measures to assess treatment outcomes, as well as tools and methods that may contribute to standardizing measures. Many issues examined are relevant to the broader field of rare diseases in addition to specifics of IEMs. PMID:27132782

  4. Fungal communities in mycorrhizal roots of conifer seedlings in forest nurseries under different cultivation systems, assessed by morphotyping, direct sequencing and mycelial isolation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Menkis, Audrius; Vasiliauskas, Rimvydas; Taylor, Andrew F S; Stenlid, Jan; Finlay, Roger

    2005-12-01

    Fungi colonising root tips of Pinus sylvestris and Picea abies grown under four different seedling cultivation systems were assessed by morphotyping, direct sequencing and isolation methods. Roots were morphotyped using two approaches: (1) 10% of the whole root system from 30 seedlings of each species and (2) 20 randomly selected tips per plant from 300 seedlings of each species. The first approach yielded 15 morphotypes, the second yielded 27, including 18 new morphotypes. The overall community consisted of 33 morphotypes. The level of mycorrhizal colonisation of roots determined by each approach was about 50%. The cultivation system had a marked effect on the level of mycorrhizal colonisation. In pine, the highest level of colonisation (48%) was observed in bare-root systems, while in spruce, colonisation was highest in polyethylene rolls (71%). Direct internal transcribed spacer ribosomal DNA sequencing and isolation detected a total of 93 fungal taxa, including 27 mycorrhizal. A total of 71 (76.3%) fungi were identified at least to a genus level. The overlap between the two methods was low. Only 13 (13.9%) of taxa were both sequenced and isolated, 47 (50.5%) were detected exclusively by sequencing and 33 (35.5%) exclusively by isolation. All isolated mycorrhizal fungi were also detected by direct sequencing. Characteristic mycorrhizas were Phialophora finlandia, Amphinema byssoides, Rhizopogon rubescens, Suillus luteus and Thelephora terrestris. There was a moderate similarity in mycorrhizal communities between pine and spruce and among different cultivation systems. PMID:16177926

  5. Developments in Fungal Taxonomy

    OpenAIRE

    Guarro, Josep; Gené, Josepa; Stchigel, Alberto M.

    1999-01-01

    Fungal infections, especially those caused by opportunistic species, have become substantially more common in recent decades. Numerous species cause human infections, and several new human pathogens are discovered yearly. This situation has created an increasing interest in fungal taxonomy and has led to the development of new methods and approaches to fungal biosystematics which have promoted important practical advances in identification procedures. However, the significance of some data pr...

  6. The effect of gluten on the host-microbial metabolism assessed by urinary metabolomics

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Roager, Henrik Munch; Frandsen, Henrik Lauritz; Gøbel, Rikke Juul;

    A gluten-free diet clearly improves the life of patients with celiac disease, but the scientific evidence supporting possible health benefits of a gluten-free diet for non-celiac adults is limited. Therefore, as urine reflects the host and gut microbial metabolism, the study aimed to assess the l...... of the affected metabolites as well as integration of the metabolomics data with gut microbiota metagenomics data is ongoing hereby understanding how the metabolite changes are related to the gut microbiota....

  7. Assessment of Cardio-Metabolic Risk Factors among Young Adult Females

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Swati Dhruv

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Problem statement: Over the past two decades there has been a striking increase in the number of people with metabolic syndrome in developing countries. The current study was thus undertaken to map the prevalence of Metabolic Syndrome (MS and to assess the cardio-metabolic risk factors among young adult females (n = 1303 aged 18-26y from four girls hostel of the Maharaja Sayajirao University of Baroda. Approach: The anthropometric analysis showed a high prevalence of overweight/obesity (20.8%, abdominal obesity (12.7% among the subjects. The clinical profile revealed that 12.1% were hypertensives. The prevalence of dyslipidemia revealed that no one had hypercholesterolemia and 4.1% had hypertriglyceridemia, 12.1% had elevated LDL-C and 40.3% had low levels of HDL-C. The prevalence of metabolic syndrome was 2.4 and 4.1% according to the International Diabetes Federation (IDF and World Health Organization (WHO criteria respectively. Lipid profile in relation to metabolic syndrome showed that VLDL-C and Triglyceride (TG values were non-significantly higher among the young adult females and HDL-C values were significantly (pResults: The three common and predominant risk factors (>80% identified were lower intake of fruits (81.5%, vegetables (96% and physical inactivity (88.7%. The other risk factors which were present between 30-50% were hypertension, lower HDL-C, Body Mass Index (BMI and Waist Circumference (WC. Among the non-modifiable factor heredity component was present in 34% of the subjects. Conclusion: The study highlights that lifestyle factors had equivalent risk for overweight and metabolic syndrome. Multiple risk factor scenario calls for lifestyle management to avert later consequences.

  8. Fungal community analysis in the deep-sea sediments of the Pacific Ocean assessed by comparison of ITS, 18S and 28S ribosomal DNA regions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Wei; Luo, Zhu-Hua; Guo, Shuangshuang; Pang, Ka-Lai

    2016-03-01

    We investigated the diversity of fungal communities in 6 different deep-sea sediment samples of the Pacific Ocean based on three different types of clone libraries, including internal transcribed spacer (ITS), 18S rDNA, and 28S rDNA regions. A total of 1978 clones were generated from 18 environmental clone libraries, resulting in 140 fungal operational taxonomic units (OTUs), including 18 OTUs from ITS, 44 OTUs from 18S rDNA, and 78 OTUs from 28S rDNA gene primer sets. The majority of the recovered sequences belonged to diverse phylotypes of the Ascomycota and Basidiomycota. Additionally, our study revealed a total of 46 novel fungal phylotypes, which showed low similarities (<97%) with available fungal sequences in the GenBank, including a novel Zygomycete lineage, suggesting possible new fungal taxa occurring in the deep-sea sediments. The results suggested that 28S rDNA is an efficient target gene to describe fungal community in deep-sea environment.

  9. Assessment of Nutritional Status in Patients with Metabolic Syndrome and Chronic Hepatitis C

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Drăguț Ramona Maria

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Background and Aims: The aim of the study was to assess nutritional status in patients with chronic hepatitis C and metabolic syndrome by different methods and to evaluate predictors of malnutrition. Material and Methods: This cross-sectional study was held in three centers from Bucharest and included 171 patients with chronic hepatitis C, divided into two groups according to the presence of metabolic syndrome (MetS. Anthropometric and biochemical parameters (including fasting plasma glucose, glycosylated hemoglobin, lipid profile, liver profile, complete blood count, and cytokines were recorded. Nutritional status was assessed using Body Mass Index (BMI, Mini-nutritional assessment (MNA, Instant Nutritional Assessment (INA and Nutritional Risk Index (NRI. We also recorded a malnutrition combined score. We considered patients to be malnourished according to the combined score if any score indicate malnutrition. Hepatic fibrosis was assessed using Forns index. Results: The average age was 53.14±8.3 years and 52% (n=89 were women. Using the combined score, malnutrition was present in 18 patients (10.5%. Multivariate logistic regression analysis showed that diabetes, hepatic fibrosis and IL-6 were independent risk factors for malnutrition (all p <0.05. Conclusions: Prevalence of malnutrition was high in patients with chronic hepatitis C (10.5%. In these patients diabetes, hepatic fibrosis and IL-6 were independent predictors for malnutrition.

  10. Fungal endophytes of sorghum in Burkina Faso

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zida, E P; Thio, I G; Néya, B J;

    2014-01-01

    A survey was conducted to assess the natural occurrence and distribution of fungal endophytes in sorghum in relation to plant performance in two distinct agro-ecological zones in Burkina Faso. Sorghum farm-saved seeds were sown in 48 farmers’ fields in Sahelian and North Sudanian zones to produce...... sorghum plants. In each field, leaf samples were collected from five well-developed (performing) and five less-developed (non-performing) plants at 3-5 leaf stage, while at plant maturity leaf, stem and root samples were collected from the same plants and fungal endophytes were isolated. A total of 39...... and the fungal community in sorghum, and the first report attempts to document endophytic fungal presence in Burkina Faso....

  11. Comparative assessment of fungal augmentation treatments of a fine-textured and historically oil-contaminated soil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Covino, Stefano; Stella, Tatiana; D'Annibale, Alessandro; Lladó, Salvador; Baldrian, Petr; Čvančarová, Monika; Cajthaml, Tomas; Petruccioli, Maurizio

    2016-10-01

    The removal of aged hydrophobic contaminants from fine-textured soils is a challenging issue in remediation. The objective of this study was to compare the efficacy of augmentation treatments to that of biostimulation in terms of total aliphatic hydrocarbon (TAH) and toxicity removal from a historically contaminated clay soil and to assess their impact on the resident microbial community. To this aim, Pleurotus ostreatus, Botryosphaeria rhodina and a combination of both were used as the inoculants while the addition of a sterilized lignocellulose mixture to soil (1:5, w/w) was used as a biostimulation approach. As opposed to the non-amended control soil, where no changes in TAH concentration and residual toxicity were observed after 60days, the activation of specialized bacteria was found in the biostimulated microcosms resulting in significant TAH removal (79.8%). The bacterial community structure in B. rhodina-augmented microcosms did not differ from the biostimulated microcosms due to the inability of the fungus to be retained within the resident microbiota. Best TAH removals were observed in microcosms inoculated with P. ostreatus alone (Po) and in binary consortium with B. rhodina (BC) (86.8 and 88.2%, respectively). In these microcosms, contaminant degradation exceeded their bioavailability thresholds determined by sequential supercritical CO2 extraction. Illumina metabarcoding of 16S rRNA gene showed that the augmentation with Po and BC led to lower relative abundances of Gram(+) taxa, Actinobacteria in particular, than those in biostimulated microcosms. Best detoxification, with respect to the non-amended incubation control, was found in Po microcosms where a drop in collembola mortality (from 90 to 22%) occurred. At the end of incubation, in both Po and BC, the relative abundances of P. ostreatus sequences were higher than 60% thus showing the suitability of this fungus in bioaugmentation-based remediation applications. PMID:27220102

  12. Insulin resistance determined by Homeostasis Model Assessment (HOMA) and associations with metabolic syndrome among Chinese children and teenagers

    OpenAIRE

    Yin, Jinhua; Li, Ming; Xu, Lu; Wang, Ying; Cheng, Hong; Zhao, Xiaoyuan; Mi, Jie

    2013-01-01

    Objective The aim of this study is to assess the association between the degree of insulin resistance and the different components of the metabolic syndrome among Chinese children and adolescents. Moreover, to determine the cut-off values for homeostasis model assessment of insulin resistance (HOMA-IR) at MS risk. Methods 3203 Chinese children aged 6 to 18 years were recruited. Anthropometric and biochemical parameters were measured. Metabolic syndrome (MS) was identified by a modified Adult ...

  13. Who's getting around? Assessing species diversity and phylogeography in the widely distributed lichen-forming fungal genus Montanelia (Parmeliaceae, Ascomycota).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leavitt, Steven D; Divakar, Pradeep K; Ohmura, Yoshihito; Wang, Li-Song; Esslinger, Theodore L; Lumbsch, H Thorsten

    2015-09-01

    Brown parmelioid lichens comprise a number of distinct genera in one of the most species-rich families of lichen-forming fungi, Parmeliaceae (Ascomycota). In spite of their superficial similarity, a number of studies of brown parmelioids have provided important insight into diversification in lichen-forming fungi with cosmopolitan distributions. In this study we assess species diversity, biogeography and diversification of the genus Montanelia, which includes alpine to temperate saxicolous species. We sampled each of the five known species, four of which are known from broad, intercontinental distributions. In order to identify potential biogeographical patterns, each broadly distributed species was represented by individuals collected across their intercontinental distributions. Molecular sequence data were generated for six loci, including three nuclear protein-coding markers (MCM7, RPB1, and RPB2), two nuclear ribosomal markers (ITS and nrLSU), and a fragment of the mitochondrial small subunit. We used three sequence-based species delimitations methods to validate traditional, phenotype-based species and circumscribe previously unrecognized species-level lineages in Montanelia. Relationships among putative lineages and divergence times were estimated within a coalescent-based multi-locus species tree framework. Based on the results of the species delimitation analyses, we propose that the genus Montanelia is likely comprised of six to nine species-level lineages, including previously unrecognized species-level diversity in the nominal taxa M. panniformis and M. tominii. In contrast, molecular sequence data suggest that M. predisjuncta may be conspecific with the widespread taxon M. disjuncta in spite of distinct morphological differences. The rate-based age estimation of the most recent common ancestor of Montanelia (ca. 23.1Ma) was similar to previous estimates based on the fossil record. Furthermore, our data suggest that diversification in Montanelia occurred

  14. Fungal Genomics Program

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Grigoriev, Igor

    2012-03-12

    The JGI Fungal Genomics Program aims to scale up sequencing and analysis of fungal genomes to explore the diversity of fungi important for energy and the environment, and to promote functional studies on a system level. Combining new sequencing technologies and comparative genomics tools, JGI is now leading the world in fungal genome sequencing and analysis. Over 120 sequenced fungal genomes with analytical tools are available via MycoCosm (www.jgi.doe.gov/fungi), a web-portal for fungal biologists. Our model of interacting with user communities, unique among other sequencing centers, helps organize these communities, improves genome annotation and analysis work, and facilitates new larger-scale genomic projects. This resulted in 20 high-profile papers published in 2011 alone and contributing to the Genomics Encyclopedia of Fungi, which targets fungi related to plant health (symbionts, pathogens, and biocontrol agents) and biorefinery processes (cellulose degradation, sugar fermentation, industrial hosts). Our next grand challenges include larger scale exploration of fungal diversity (1000 fungal genomes), developing molecular tools for DOE-relevant model organisms, and analysis of complex systems and metagenomes.

  15. Personal Metabolism (PM) coupled with Life Cycle Assessment (LCA) model: Danish Case Study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kalbar, Pradip; Birkved, Morten; Kabins, Simon;

    2016-01-01

    Metabolism (PM) patterns of residents living in urbanized areas of Denmark. Extending the PM analysis with Life Cycle Assessment (LCA) provided a clear picture of the per capita environmental and human health burdens, as well as resource consumptions, and the exact origin hereof. A generic PM-LCA Model......,followed by transport. The PIPs further revealed that behavioral factors (e.g. different diets, use of cars, household size) affect the profiles. Hence, behavioral changes are one means out of many that humanity will most likely have to rely on during the sustainable development process. The results of this study...

  16. Gender Differences in Musculoskeletal Lipid Metabolism as Assessed by Localized Two-Dimensional Correlation Spectroscopy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Sendhil Velan; Department of Exercise Physiology, West Virginia University School of Medicine, Morgantown, West Virginia, U.S.A.

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Gender differences in lipid metabolism are poorly understood and difficult to study using conventional approaches. Magnetic resonance spectroscopy (MRS permits non-invasive investigation of lipid metabolism. We employed novel two- dimensional MRS techniques to quantify intramyocellular (IMCL and extramyocellular (EMCL lipid compartments and their degree of unsaturation in normal weight adult male and female subjects. Using muscle creatine (Cr for normalization, a statistically significant (p 0.05 increase in IMCL/Cr (7.8 ± 1.6 and EMCL/Cr (22.5 ± 3.6 for female subjects was observed (n = 8, as compared to IMCL/Cr (5.9 ± 1.7 and EMCL/Cr (18.4 ± 2.64 for male subjects. The degree of unsaturation within IMCL and EMCL was lower in female subjects, 1.3 ± 0.075 and 1.04 ± 0.06, respectively, as compared to that observed in males (n = 8, 1.5 ± 0.08 and 1.12 ± 0.03, respectively (p 0.05 male vs female for both comparisons. We conclude that certain salient gender differences in lipid metabolism can be assessed noninvasively by advanced MRS approaches.

  17. An in vitro assessment of the effect of Athrixia phylicoides DC. aqueous extract on glucose metabolism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chellan, N; Muller, C J F; de Beer, D; Joubert, E; Page, B J; Louw, J

    2012-06-15

    Athrixia phylicoides DC. is an aromatic shrub indigenous to the eastern parts of Southern Africa. Indigenous communities brew "bush tea" from dried twigs and leaves of A. phylicoides, which is consumed as a beverage and used for its medicinal properties. Plant polyphenols have been shown to be beneficial to Type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2D) and obesity. Aqueous extracts of the plant have been shown to be rich in polyphenols, in particular phenolic acids, which may enhance glucose uptake and metabolism. The aim of this study was to determine the phenolic composition of a hot water A. phylicoides extract and assess its in vitro effect on cellular glucose utilisation. The most abundant phenolic compounds in the extract were 6-hydroxyluteolin-7-O-glucoside, chlorogenic acid, protocatechuic acid, a di-caffeoylquinic acid and a methoxy-flavonol derivative. The extract increased glucose uptake in C2C12, Chang and 3T3-L1 cells, respectively. Intracellular glucose was utilised by both oxidation (C2C12 myocytes and Chang cells; p < 0.01 and p < 0.05, respectively) and by increased glycogen storage (Chang cells; p < 0.05). No cytotoxicity was observed in Chang cells at the concentrations tested. The effects of the extract were not dose-dependent. A. phylicoides aqueous extract stimulated in vitro glucose uptake and metabolism, suggesting that consumption of this phenolic-rich extract could potentially ameliorate metabolic disorders related to obesity and T2D. PMID:22516895

  18. Spermine and citrate as metabolic biomarkers for assessing prostate cancer aggressiveness.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guro F Giskeødegård

    Full Text Available Separating indolent from aggressive prostate cancer is an important clinical challenge for identifying patients eligible for active surveillance, thereby reducing the risk of overtreatment. The purpose of this study was to assess prostate cancer aggressiveness by metabolic profiling of prostatectomy tissue and to identify specific metabolites as biomarkers for aggressiveness. Prostate tissue samples (n = 158, 48 patients with a high cancer content (mean: 61.8% were obtained using a new harvesting method, and metabolic profiles of samples representing different Gleason scores (GS were acquired by high resolution magic angle spinning magnetic resonance spectroscopy (HR-MAS. Multivariate analysis (PLS, PLS-DA and absolute quantification (LCModel were used to examine the ability to predict cancer aggressiveness by comparing low grade (GS = 6, n = 30 and high grade (GS≥7, n = 81 cancer with normal adjacent tissue (n = 47. High grade cancer tissue was distinguished from low grade cancer tissue by decreased concentrations of spermine (p = 0.0044 and citrate (p = 7.73·10(-4, and an increase in the clinically applied (total choline+creatine+polyamines/citrate (CCP/C ratio (p = 2.17·10(-4. The metabolic profiles were significantly correlated to the GS obtained from each tissue sample (r = 0.71, and cancer tissue could be distinguished from normal tissue with sensitivity 86.9% and specificity 85.2%. Overall, our findings show that metabolic profiling can separate aggressive from indolent prostate cancer. This holds promise for the benefit of applying in vivo magnetic resonance spectroscopy (MRS within clinical MR imaging investigations, and HR-MAS analysis of transrectal ultrasound-guided biopsies has a potential as an additional diagnostic tool.

  19. Anaerobic fungal populations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The development of molecular techniques has greatly broadened our view of microbial diversity and enabled a more complete detection and description of microbial communities. The application of these techniques provides a simple means of following community changes, for example, Ishii et al. described transient and more stable inhabitants in another dynamic microbial system, compost. Our present knowledge of anaerobic gut fungal population diversity within the gastrointestinal tract is based upon isolation, cultivation and observations in vivo. It is likely that there are many species yet to be described, some of which may be non-culturable. We have observed a distinct difference in the ease of cultivation between the different genera, for example, Caecomyes isolates are especially difficult to isolate and maintain in vitro, a feature that is likely to result in the under representation of this genera in culture-based enumerations. The anaerobic gut fungi are the only known obligately anaerobic fungi. For the majority of their life cycles, they are found tightly associated with solid digesta in the rumen and/or hindgut. They produce potent fibrolytic enzymes and grow invasively on and into the plant material they are digesting making them important contributors to fibre digestion. This close association with intestinal digesta has made it difficult to accurately determine the amount of fungal biomass present in the rumen, with Orpin suggesting 8% contribution to the total microbial biomass, whereas Rezaeian et al. more recently gave a value of approximately 20%. It is clear that the rumen microbial complement is affected by dietary changes, and that the fungi are more important in digestion in the rumens of animals fed with high-fibre diets. It seems likely that the gut fungi play an important role within the rumen as primary colonizers of plant fibre, and so we are particularly interested in being able to measure the appearance and diversity of fungi on the plant

  20. Impact of invasive fungal disease on the chemotherapy schedule and event-free survival in acute leukemia patients who survived fungal disease: a case-control study

    OpenAIRE

    Even, Caroline; Bastuji-Garin, Sylvie; Hicheri, Yosr; Pautas, Cécile; Botterel, Francoise; Maury, Sébastien; Cabanne, Ludovic; Bretagne, Stéphane; Cordonnier, Catherine

    2010-01-01

    Patients with acute leukemia who initially survive invasive fungal disease must receive chemotherapy or go on to transplant. Many centers change subsequent chemotherapy to decrease the risk of fungal reactivation. This case-control study compared acute leukemia patients (n=28) who developed a proven or probable fungal disease and survived four weeks later, to patients who did not (n=78), and assessed the impact of fungal disease on the chemotherapy regimens, and overall and event-free survival.

  1. Fungal Eye Infections

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Zoonotic Infectious Disease Division of Foodborne, Waterborne, and Environmental Diseases Mycotic Diseases Branch Fungal Eye Infections Recommend on ... Zoonotic Infectious Disease Division of Foodborne, Waterborne, and Environmental Diseases Mycotic Diseases Branch File Formats Help: How do ...

  2. JGI Fungal Genomics Program

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Grigoriev, Igor V.

    2011-03-14

    Genomes of energy and environment fungi are in focus of the Fungal Genomic Program at the US Department of Energy Joint Genome Institute (JGI). Its key project, the Genomics Encyclopedia of Fungi, targets fungi related to plant health (symbionts, pathogens, and biocontrol agents) and biorefinery processes (cellulose degradation, sugar fermentation, industrial hosts), and explores fungal diversity by means of genome sequencing and analysis. Over 50 fungal genomes have been sequenced by JGI to date and released through MycoCosm (www.jgi.doe.gov/fungi), a fungal web-portal, which integrates sequence and functional data with genome analysis tools for user community. Sequence analysis supported by functional genomics leads to developing parts list for complex systems ranging from ecosystems of biofuel crops to biorefineries. Recent examples of such 'parts' suggested by comparative genomics and functional analysis in these areas are presented here

  3. Fungal toenail infections

    OpenAIRE

    Ferrari, Jill

    2008-01-01

    Fungal toenail infection (onychomycosis) is characterised as infection of part or all of the toenail unit, which includes the nail plate, the nail bed, and the nail matrix. Over time, the infection causes discoloration and distortion of part or all of the nail unit. Fungal infections are reported to cause 23% of foot diseases and 50% of nail conditions in people seen by dermatologists, but are less common in the general population, affecting 3% to 12% of people.Infection can cause discomfo...

  4. Imaging of opportunistic fungal infections in immunocompromised patient

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Opportunistic fungal infection is a common cause of serious morbidity and mortality in the immunocompromised host. Combination of pattern recognition with knowledge of the clinical setting is the best approach to pulmonary infectious processes. The aim of this article is to assess the chest radiographs and CT imaging features of different opportunistic fungal infections in immunocompromised patients

  5. Comparison of PET metabolic indices for the early assessment of tumour response in metastatic colorectal cancer patients treated by polychemotherapy

    OpenAIRE

    Maisonobe, Jacques-Antoine; Garcia, Camilo A.; Necib, Hatem; Vanderlinden, Bruno; Hendlisz, Alain; Flamen, Patrick; Buvat, Irène

    2012-01-01

    Purpose To compare the performance of eight metabolic indices for the early assessment of tumour response in patients with metastatic colorectal cancer (mCRC) treated with chemotherapy. Methods Forty patients with advanced mCRC underwent two FDG PET/CT scans, at baseline and on day 14 after chemotherapy initiation. For each lesion, eight metabolic indices were calculated: four standardized uptake values (SUV) without correction for the partial volume effect (PVE), two SUV with correction for ...

  6. An acetone bio-sniffer (gas phase biosensor) enabling assessment of lipid metabolism from exhaled breath.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ye, Ming; Chien, Po-Jen; Toma, Koji; Arakawa, Takahiro; Mitsubayashi, Kohji

    2015-11-15

    Several volatile organic compounds (VOCs) are released from human breath or skin. Like chemical substances in blood or urine, some of these vapors can provide valuable information regarding the state of the human body. A highly sensitive acetone biochemical gas sensor (bio-sniffer) was developed and used to measure exhaled breath acetone concentration, and assess lipid metabolism based on breath acetone analysis. A fiber-optic biochemical gas sensing system was constructed by attaching a flow-cell with nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide (NADH)-dependent secondary alcohol dehydrogenase (S-ADH) immobilized membrane onto a fiber-optic NADH measurement system. The NADH measurement system utilizes an ultraviolet-light emitting diode with peak emission of 335 nm as an excitation light source. NADH is consumed by the enzymatic reaction of S-ADH, and the consumption is proportional to the concentration of acetone vapor. Phosphate buffer which contained NADH was circulated into the flow-cell to rinse products and the excessive substrates from the optode. The change of fluorescent emitted from NADH is analyzed by the PMT. Hence, fluorescence intensity decreased as the acetone concentration increased. The relationship between fluorescence intensity and acetone concentration was identified from 20 ppb to 5300 ppb. This interval included the concentration of acetone vapor in the breath of healthy people and those suffering from disorders of carbohydrate metabolism. Finally, the acetone bio-sniffer was used to measure breath acetone during an exercise stress test on an ergometer after a period of fasting. The concentration of acetone in breath was shown to significantly increase after exercise. This biosensor allows rapid, highly sensitive and selective measurement of lipid metabolism. PMID:26079672

  7. Large-scale fungal diversity assessment in the Andean Yungas forests reveals strong community turnover among forest types along an altitudinal gradient.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Geml, József; Pastor, Nicolás; Fernandez, Lisandro; Pacheco, Silvia; Semenova, Tatiana A; Becerra, Alejandra G; Wicaksono, Christian Y; Nouhra, Eduardo R

    2014-05-01

    The Yungas, a system of tropical and subtropical montane forests on the eastern slopes of the Andes, are extremely diverse and severely threatened by anthropogenic pressure and climate change. Previous mycological works focused on macrofungi (e.g. agarics, polypores) and mycorrhizae in Alnus acuminata forests, while fungal diversity in other parts of the Yungas has remained mostly unexplored. We carried out Ion Torrent sequencing of ITS2 rDNA from soil samples taken at 24 sites along the entire latitudinal extent of the Yungas in Argentina. The sampled sites represent the three altitudinal forest types: the piedmont (400-700 m a.s.l.), montane (700-1500 m a.s.l.) and montane cloud (1500-3000 m a.s.l.) forests. The deep sequence data presented here (i.e. 4 108 126 quality-filtered sequences) indicate that fungal community composition correlates most strongly with elevation, with many fungi showing preference for a certain altitudinal forest type. For example, ectomycorrhizal and root endophytic fungi were most diverse in the montane cloud forests, particularly at sites dominated by Alnus acuminata, while the diversity values of various saprobic groups were highest at lower elevations. Despite the strong altitudinal community turnover, fungal diversity was comparable across the different zonal forest types. Besides elevation, soil pH, N, P, and organic matter contents correlated with fungal community structure as well, although most of these variables were co-correlated with elevation. Our data provide an unprecedented insight into the high diversity and spatial distribution of fungi in the Yungas forests. PMID:24762095

  8. Radionuclide assessment of stunned myocardium by alterations in perfusion, metabolism and function

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A method for the diagnosis of stunned myocardium has not yet been established, although it has been retrospectively demonstrated in patients after intracoronary thrombolysis, unstable angina, and coronary revascularization. In this study, radionuclide cardiac imaging was carried out to evaluate the existence of stunned myocardium. Gated blood pool scanning was performed in patients undergoing intracoronary thrombolysis both at the time of reperfusion (Rp) and 10 days later. In the Rp4 h and control groups. In patients with acute myocardial ischemia, the correlation between thallium perfusion and regional wall motion was assessed semiquantitatively. In unstable angina, 5.8% of the ventricular wall segments showed dissociation between perfusion and wall motion (well-perfused asynergy). These segments had abnormal wall motion although perfusion was maintained, and were thought to be areas of stunned myocardium. Fourteen dogs were studied using thallium and 123I-β-methyl-iodophenyl pentadecanoic acid (BMIPP) fatty acid imaging to evaluate the relationship of perfusion to metabolism. In the reperfusion model, mismatching of the pattern of thallium and BMIPP uptake was observed. Reperfused myocardium probably has an increased triglyceride content, which is related to the degree of myocardial viability. In conclusion, stunned myocardium may be correctly diagnosed acutely on the basis of alterations in its perfusion, metabolism, and function by using radionuclide cardiac imaging. (author)

  9. Assessing the effect of litter species on the dynamic of bacterial and fungal communities during leaf decomposition in microcosm by molecular techniques.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wenjing Xu

    Full Text Available Although bacteria and fungi are well-known to be decomposers of leaf litter, few studies have examined their compositions and diversities during the decomposition process in tropical stream water. Xishuangbanna is a tropical region preserving one of the highest floristic diversity areas in China. In this study, leaf litter of four dominant plant species in Xishuangbanna was incubated in stream water for 42 days during which samples were taken regularly. Following DNA extraction, PCR-DGGE (denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis and clone-sequencing analyses were performed using bacterial and fungal specific primers. Leaf species have slightly influences on bacterial community rather than fungal community. The richness and diversity of bacteria was higher than that of fungi, which increased towards the end of the 42-day-incubation. The bacterial community was initially more specific upon the type of leaves and gradually became similar at the later stage of decomposition with alpha-proteobacteria as major component. Sequences affiliated to methanotrophs were obtained that indicates potentially occurrence of methane oxidation and methanogenesis. For the fungal community, sequences affiliated to Aspergillus were predominant at the beginning and then shifted to Pleosporales. Our results suggest that the microorganisms colonizing leaf biofilm in tropical stream water were mostly generalists that could exploit the resources of leaves of various species equally well.

  10. Metabonomics Approach to Assessing the Metabolism Variation and Endoexogenous Metabolic Interaction of Ginsenosides in Cold Stress Rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Zhihao; Wang, Xiaoyan; Wang, Jingcheng; Jia, Zhiying; Liu, Yumin; Xie, Xie; Wang, Chongchong; Jia, Wei

    2016-06-01

    Metabolic profiling technology, a massive information provider, has promoted the understanding of the metabolism of multicomponent medicines and its interactions with endogenous metabolites, which was previously a challenge in clarification. In this study, an untargeted GC/MS-based approach was employed to investigate the urinary metabolite profile in rats with oral administration of ginsenosides and the control group. Significant changes of urinary metabolites contents were observed in the total ginsenosides group, revealing the impact of ginsenosides as indicated by the up- or down-regulation of several pathways involving neurotransmitter-related metabolites, tricarboxylic acid (TCA) cycle, fatty acids β-oxidation, and intestinal microflora metabolites. Meanwhile, a targeted UPLC-QQQ/MS-based metabonomic approach was developed to investigate the changes of urinary ginsenoside metabolites during the process of acute cold stress. Metabolic analysis indicated that upstream ginsenosides (rg1, re, and rf) increased significantly, whereas downstream ginsenosides (ck, ppd, and ppt) decreased correspondingly after cold exposure. Finally, the relationships between ginsenosides and significantly changed metabolites were investigated by correlation analysis. PMID:27150950

  11. Expanding Fungal Diets Through Synthetic Algal-Fungal Mutualism

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharma, Alaisha; Galazka, Jonathan (Editor)

    2015-01-01

    Fungi can synthesize numerous molecules with important properties, and could be valuable production platforms for space exploration and colonization. However, as heterotrophs, fungi require reduced carbon. This limits their efficiency in locations such as Mars, where reduced carbon is scarce. We propose a system to induce mutualistic symbiosis between the green algae Chlamydomonas reinhardtii and the filamentous fungi Neurospora crassa. This arrangement would mimic natural algal-fungal relationships found in lichens, but have added advantages including increased growth rate and genetic tractability. N. crassa would metabolize citrate (C6H5O7 (sup -3)) and release carbon dioxide (CO2) that C. reinhardtii would assimilate into organic sugars during photosynthesis. C. reinhardtii would metabolize nitrate (NO3-) and release ammonia (NH3) as a nitrogen source for N. crassa. A N. crassa mutant incapable of reducing nitrate will be used to force this interaction. This system eliminates the need to directly supply its participants with carbon dioxide and ammonia. Furthermore, the release of oxygen by C. reinhardtii via photosynthesis would enable N. crassa to respire. We hope to eventually create a system closer to lichen, in which the algae transfers not only nitrogen but reduced carbon, as organic sugars, to the fungus for growth and production of valuable compounds.

  12. Characterization of active and total fungal communities in the atmosphere over the Amazon rainforest

    OpenAIRE

    Womack, A. M.; P. E. Artaxo; F. Y. Ishida; Mueller, R. C.; S. R. Saleska; Wiedemann, K.T.; Bohannan, B. J. M.; Green, J L

    2015-01-01

    Fungi are ubiquitous in the atmosphere and may play an important role in atmospheric processes. We investigated the composition and diversity of fungal communities over the Amazon rainforest canopy and compared these communities to fungal communities found in terrestrial environments. We characterized the total fungal community and the metabolically active portion of the community using high-throughput DNA and RNA sequencing and compared these data to predictions generated b...

  13. Characterization of active and total fungal communities in the atmosphere over the Amazon rainforest

    OpenAIRE

    Womack, A. M.; P. E. Artaxo; F. Y. Ishida; Mueller, R. C.; S. R. Saleska; Wiedemann, K.T.; Bohannan, B. J. M.; Green, J L

    2015-01-01

    Fungi are ubiquitous in the atmosphere and may play an important role in atmospheric processes. We investigated the composition and diversity of fungal communities over the Amazon rainforest canopy and compared these communities to fungal communities found in terrestrial environments. We characterized the total fungal community and the metabolically active portion of the community using high-throughout DNA and RNA sequencing and compared these data to predic...

  14. Fungal Involvement in Patients with Paranasal Sinusitis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P Kordbacheh

    2004-08-01

    Full Text Available Fungal involvement of the paranasal sinuses is frequently observed in the immunocompromised host and it can become lifethreatening if it is not diagnosed. Definitive diagnosis is made by tissue biopsy and culture. In this study biopsy materials of maxillary, ethmoidal and frontal sinuses of 60 patients with clinical manifestation of sinusitis and no response to medical therapy were assessed by mycological and pathological methods for the presence of fungi. Invasive fungal sinusitis was diagnosed in 3 patients and etiologic agents were Candida albicans, Rhizopus sp. and Aspergillus fumigatus. Predisposing factors in these patients were leukemia, diabetes mellitus and previous sinus and polyp surgery, respectively. Allergic fungal sinusitis also was seen in one patient and Alternaria sp. isolated from the biopsy material. Only the patient with allergic form of disease survived but all the patients with invasive form of fungal infection were expired. This clearly underscores the need of early recognition of fungal sinusitis in at risk population in order to start urgent treatment. In this study Nocardia asteroids also was isolated from the biopsy sample in a patient with sinunasal adenocarcinoma.

  15. Identified metabolic signature for assessing red blood cell unit quality is associated with endothelial damage markers and clinical outcomes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bordbar, Aarash; Johansson, Pär I.; Paglia, Giuseppe;

    2016-01-01

    multivariate statistics, we identified a nonlinear decay process exhibiting three distinct metabolic states (Days 0-10, 10-17, and 17-42). Hematologic variables traditionally measured in the transfusion setting (e.g., pH, hemolysis, RBC indices) did not distinguish these three states. Systemic changes in...... were profiled using quantitative metabolomics over 42 days of storage in SAGM with 3- to 4-day time intervals. Metabolic pathway usage during storage was assessed using systems biology methods. The detected time intervals of the metabolic states were compared to clinical outcomes. RESULTS: Using...... years and endothelial damage markers in healthy volunteers undergoing autologous transfusions. CONCLUSION: The state of RBC metabolism may be a better indicator of cellular quality than traditional hematologic variables....

  16. Organ Transplant Patients and Fungal Infections

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Diseases Mycotic Diseases Branch Organ Transplant Patients and Fungal Infections Recommend on Facebook Tweet Share Compartir As an ... fungal infections. What you need to know about fungal infections Fungal infections can range from mild to life- ...

  17. Novel use of proton magnetic resonance spectroscopy (1HMRS to non-invasively assess placental metabolism.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fiona C Denison

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Placental insufficiency is a major cause of antepartum stillbirth and fetal growth restriction (FGR. In affected pregnancies, delivery is expedited when the risks of ongoing pregnancy outweigh those of prematurity. Current tests are unable to assess placental function and determine optimal timing for delivery. An accurate, non-invasive test that clearly defines the failing placenta would address a major unmet clinical need. Proton magnetic resonance spectroscopy ((1H MRS can be used to assess the metabolic profile of tissue in-vivo. In FGR pregnancies, a reduction in N-acetylaspartate (NAA/choline ratio and detection of lactate methyl are emerging as biomarkers of impaired neuronal metabolism and fetal hypoxia, respectively. However, fetal brain hypoxia is a late and sometimes fatal event in placental compromise, limiting clinical utility of brain (1H MRS to prevent stillbirth. We hypothesised that abnormal placental (1H MRS may be an earlier biomarker of intrauterine hypoxia, affording the opportunity to optimise timing of delivery in at-risk fetuses. METHODS AND FINDINGS: We recruited three women with severe placental insufficiency/FGR and three matched controls. Using a 3T MR system and a combination of phased-array coils, a 20×20×40 mm(1H MRS voxel was selected along the 'long-axis' of the placenta with saturation bands placed around the voxel to prevent contaminant signals. A significant choline peak (choline/lipid ratio 1.35-1.79 was detected in all healthy placentae. In contrast, in pregnancies complicated by FGR, the choline/lipid ratio was ≤0.02 in all placentae, despite preservation of the lipid peak (p<0.001. CONCLUSIONS: This novel proof-of-concept study suggests that in severe placental insufficiency/FGR, the observed 60-fold reduction in the choline/lipid ratio by (1H MRS may represent an early biomarker of critical placental insufficiency. Further studies will determine performance of this test and the potential

  18. Labeling the human skeleton with 41Ca to assess changes in bone calcium metabolism

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bone research is limited by the methods available for detecting changes in bone metabolism. While dual X-ray absorptiometry is rather insensitive, biochemical markers are subject to significant intra-individual variation. In the study presented here, we evaluated the isotopic labeling of bone using 41Ca, a long-lived radiotracer, as an alternative approach. After successful labeling of the skeleton, changes in the systematics of urinary 41Ca excretion are expected to directly reflect changes in bone Ca metabolism. A minute amount of 41Ca (100 nCi) was administered orally to 22 postmenopausal women. Kinetics of tracer excretion were assessed by monitoring changes in urinary 41Ca/40Ca isotope ratios up to 700 days post-dosing using accelerator mass spectrometry and resonance ionization mass spectrometry. Isotopic labeling of the skeleton was evaluated by two different approaches: (i) urinary 41Ca data were fitted to an established function consisting of an exponential term and a power law term for each individual; (ii) 41Ca data were analyzed by population pharmacokinetic (NONMEM) analysis to identify a compartmental model that describes urinary 41Ca tracer kinetics. A linear three-compartment model with a central compartment and two sequential peripheral compartments was found to best fit the 41Ca data. Fits based on the use of the combined exponential/power law function describing urinary tracer excretion showed substantially higher deviations between predicted and measured values than fits based on the compartmental modeling approach. By establishing the urinary 41Ca excretion pattern using data points up to day 500 and extrapolating these curves up to day 700, it was found that the calculated 41Ca/40Ca isotope ratios in urine were significantly lower than the observed 41Ca/40Ca isotope ratios for both techniques. Compartmental analysis can overcome this limitation. By identifying relative changes in transfer rates between compartments in response to an

  19. Fungal invasion of the rhizosphere microbiome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chapelle, Emilie; Mendes, Rodrigo; Bakker, Peter A H M; Raaijmakers, Jos M

    2016-01-01

    The rhizosphere is the infection court where soil-borne pathogens establish a parasitic relationship with the plant. To infect root tissue, pathogens have to compete with members of the rhizosphere microbiome for available nutrients and microsites. In disease-suppressive soils, pathogens are strongly restricted in growth by the activities of specific rhizosphere microorganisms. Here, we sequenced metagenomic DNA and RNA of the rhizosphere microbiome of sugar beet seedlings grown in a soil suppressive to the fungal pathogen Rhizoctonia solani. rRNA-based analyses showed that Oxalobacteraceae, Burkholderiaceae, Sphingobacteriaceae and Sphingomonadaceae were significantly more abundant in the rhizosphere upon fungal invasion. Metatranscriptomics revealed that stress-related genes (ppGpp metabolism and oxidative stress) were upregulated in these bacterial families. We postulate that the invading pathogenic fungus induces, directly or via the plant, stress responses in the rhizobacterial community that lead to shifts in microbiome composition and to activation of antagonistic traits that restrict pathogen infection. PMID:26023875

  20. PREVALENCE OF ALLERGIC FUNGAL SINUSITIS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rajlaxmi

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available Allergic fungal sinusitis (AFS is a disease of young immune competent adults. Nasal obstruction, nasal discharge, nasal allergy and proptosis were the most common presentations. Initial diagnosis of allergic fungal sinusitis requires high index of suspicion in patients presenting with chronic rhino sinusitis, such cases should be properly evaluated. Differentiation from invasive forms of fungal sinus disease is crucial

  1. Fungal Wound Infection

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts

    2016-01-28

    Dr. David Tribble, acting director of the infectious disease clinical research program at Uniformed Services University of the Health Sciences, discusses fungal wound infections after combat trauma.  Created: 1/28/2016 by National Center for Emerging and Zoonotic Infectious Diseases (NCEZID).   Date Released: 1/28/2016.

  2. Bilateral endogenous fungal endophthalmitis

    OpenAIRE

    Michal, Wilczynski; Olena, Wilczynska; Wojciech, Omulecki

    2013-01-01

    Endogenous endophthalmitis is a rare and severe intraocular infection which can be vision-threatening. We describe a case of bilateral fungal endogenous endophthalmitis in a 64-year-old male which was successfully treated with systemic administration of fluconazole followed by pars plana vitrectomy with an intravitreous injection of amphotericin B.

  3. Assessing the Potential for Expression of Metabolically Diverse Genes in Subseafloor Sediments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dick, J. M.; Shock, E.

    2009-12-01

    A combination of geochemical and biochemical processes defines the transition between sulfate reduction and methanogenesis in subseafloor sediments. One line of investigation that promises to help elucidate this transition is metagenomic characterization of the subseafloor sediment column. Analysis of metagenomic data from sediment at the Peru Margin reveals that sequences homologous to known genes in the methanogenic and sulfate reductive pathways can be identified at different depths below the seafloor [1]. However, without metatranscriptomic or metaprotoeomic data it is unclear whether the presence of these genes implies that these metabolic pathways are being utilized. In this study, we describe a theoretical method for assessing the potential for gene expression. Constructing a thermodynamic model for the relative stabilities of proteins depends on knowing the amino acid sequences of the proteins and defining model environments, which can then be compared and refined using geochemical observations. We report the results of a series of stability calculations that are consistent with a greater overall energetic potential for the expression of enzymes for sulfate reduction and methanogenesis at shallow and deep horizons, respectively. The results are also consistent with a decrease in the oxidation state of the pore fluid with depth, which is mirrored in the chemical compositions of the proteins involved in methanogenesis. At sediment near the seafloor, where genes for both sulfate reduction and methanogenesis were identified [1], fluctuations in oxidation state could be responsible for differing levels of expression of these proteins and therefore contribute to a shift to a different metabolic strategy. [1] J. F. Biddle, S. Fitz-Gibbon, S. C. Schuster, J. E. Brenchley and C. H. House. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A., 105:10583, 2008. Relative stabilities of sulfite reductases ("sulf") and methylene-5,6,7,8-tetrahydromethanopterin dehydrogenases ("meth") that are

  4. Metabolic syndrome risk assessment in children: use of a single score

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Julia Khéde Dourado Villa

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: To calculate a score of metabolic syndrome (MetS in children and set a cutoff point of this score for the prediction of MetS risk. METHODS: The study included a random sample of 348 children aged 8 and 9 years of Viçosa, Southeast Brazil. Factor analysis by principal components (PCA was used to determine, among various risk factors, those with higher degrees of intercorrelation. The chosen variables were: waist circumference (PC, homeostatic model assessment of insulin resistance (HOMA, high density lipoprotein (HDL, triglycerides (TAG and mean arterial pressure (MAP. Z-scores were created for each one of these parameters and the sum of these z-scores constituted the MetS score. The receiver operating characteristic (ROC curve was used to identify the cutoff of MetS score, using as gold standard the presence or absence of MetS determined according to criteria age-modified. RESULTS: The prevalence of MetS in the sample was 8.9% by adopting specific criteria for age, and 24% when considering the cutoff of MetS score. The selected cutoff point of 1.86 was accurate to predict the MetS risk in this sample due to its high sensitivity (96.7%, specificity (82.7% and AUC of 0.96. CONCLUSIONS: This original Brazilian study presents the MetS score as a suitable alternative for the study of Metabolic Syndrome in children, given the lack of consensus for the definition of this syndrome in childhood.

  5. Interplay of metabolism and transport in determining oral drug absorption and gut wall metabolism: a simulation assessment using the "Advanced Dissolution, Absorption, Metabolism (ADAM)" model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Darwich, A S; Neuhoff, S; Jamei, M; Rostami-Hodjegan, A

    2010-11-01

    Bioavailability of orally administered drugs can be influenced by a number of factors including release from the formulation, dissolution, stability in the gastrointestinal (GI) environment, permeability through the gut wall and first-pass gut wall and hepatic metabolism. Although there are various enzymes in the gut wall which may contribute to gut first pass metabolism, Cytochrome P450 (CYP) 3A has been shown to play a major role. The efflux transporter P-glycoprotein (P-gp; MDR1/ABCB1) is the most extensively studied drug efflux transporter in the gut and might have a significant role in the regulation of GI absorption. Although not every CYP3A substrate will have a high extent of gut wall first-pass extraction, being a substrate for the enzyme increases the likelihood of a higher first-pass extraction. Similarly, being a P-gp substrate does not necessarily pose a problem with the gut wall absorption however it may reduce bioavailability in some cases (e.g. when drug has low passive permeability). An on-going debate has focused on the issue of the interplay between CYP3A and P-gp such that high affinity to P-gp increases the exposure of drug to CYP3A through repeated cycling via passive diffusion and active efflux, decreasing the fraction of drug that escapes first pass gut metabolism (F(G)). The presence of P-gp in the gut wall and the high affinity of some CYP3A substrates to this transporter are postulated to reduce the potential for saturating the enzymes, thus increasing gut wall first-pass metabolism for compounds which otherwise would have saturated CYP3A. Such inferences are based on assumptions in the modelling of oral drug absorption. These models should be as mechanistic as possible and tractable using available in vitro and in vivo information. We review, through simulation, this subject and examine the interplay between gut wall metabolism and efflux transporters by studying the fraction of dose absorbed into enterocytes (F(a)) and F(G) via

  6. Guidelines for specialized nutritional and metabolic support in the critically-ill patient: Update. Consensus SEMICYUC-SENPE: Nutritional assessment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Ruiz-Santana

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available Current parameters to assess nutritional status in critically-ill patients are useful to evaluate nutritional status prior to admission to the intensive care unit. However, these parameters are of little utility once the patient's nutritional status has been altered by the acute process and its treatment. Changes in water distribution affect anthropometric variables and biochemical biomarkers, which in turn are affected by synthesis and degradation processes. Increased plasma levels of prealbumin and retinol -proteins with a short half-life- can indicate adequate response to nutritional support, while reduced levels of these proteins indicate further metabolic stress. The parameters used in functional assessment, such as those employed to assess muscular or immune function, are often altered by drugs or the presence of infection or polyneuropathy. However, some parameters can be used to monitor metabolic response and refeeding or can aid prognostic evaluation.

  7. A kinetic approach to assess oxidative metabolism related features in the bivalve Mya arenaria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    González, Paula Mariela; Abele, Doris; Puntarulo, Susana

    2012-12-01

    Electron paramagnetic resonance uses the resonant microwave radiation absorption of paramagnetic substances to detect highly reactive and, therefore, short-lived oxygen and nitrogen centered radicals. Previously, steady state concentrations of nitric oxide, ascorbyl radical (A·) and the labile iron pool (LIP) were determined in digestive gland of freshly collected animals from the North Sea bivalve Mya arenaria. The application of a simple kinetic analysis of these data based on elemental reactions allowed us to estimate the steady state concentrations of superoxide anion, the rate of A· disappearance and the content of unsaturated lipids. This analysis applied to a marine invertebrate opens the possibility of a mechanistic understanding of the complexity of free radical and LIP interactions in a metabolically slow, cold water organism under unstressed conditions. This data can be further used as a basis to assess the cellular response to stress in a simple system as the bivalve M. arenaria that can then be compared to cells of higher organisms. PMID:22829190

  8. Personal Metabolism (PM) coupled with Life Cycle Assessment (LCA) model: Danish Case Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kalbar, Pradip P; Birkved, Morten; Kabins, Simon; Nygaard, Simon Elsborg

    2016-05-01

    Sustainable and informed resource consumption is the key to make everyday living sustainable for entire populations. An intelligent and strategic way of addressing the challenges related with sustainable development of the everyday living of consumers is to identify consumption-determined hotspots in terms of environmental and health burdens, as well as resource consumptions. Analyzing consumer life styles in terms of consumption patterns in order to identify hotspots is hence the focus of this study. This is achieved by taking into account the entire value chain of the commodities consumed in the context of environmental and human health burdens, as well as resource consumptions. A systematic commodity consumption, commodity disposal, and life style survey of 1281 persons living in urbanized Danish areas was conducted. The findings of the survey showed new impact dimensions in terms of Personal Metabolism (PM) patterns of residents living in urbanized areas of Denmark. Extending the PM analysis with Life Cycle Assessment (LCA) provided a clear picture of the per capita environmental and human health burdens, as well as resource consumptions, and the exact origin hereof. A generic PM-LCA Model for all the 1281 persons was set-up in Gabi 6. The assessment results obtained applying the model on all 1281 personal consumption scenarios yielded the 1281 Personal Impact Profiles (PIPs). Consumption of food and energy (electricity and thermal energy) proved to be the primary impact sources of PM, followed by transport. The PIPs further revealed that behavioral factors (e.g. different diets, use of cars, household size) affect the profiles. Hence, behavioral changes are one means out of many that humanity will most likely have to rely on during the sustainable development process. The results of this study will help the Danish and other comparable populations to identify and prioritize the steps towards reducing their environmental, human health, and resource consumption

  9. Fungal photobiology: a synopsis

    OpenAIRE

    Corrochano, Luis M.

    2011-01-01

    Fungi respond and adapt to many environmental signals including light. The photobiology of fungi has been extensively investigated, but in recent years the identification of the first fungal photoreceptor, WC-1 in the ascomycete Neurospora crassa, and the discovery that similar photoreceptors are required for photoreception in other ascomycete, basidiomycete and zygomycete fungi has allowed the molecular characterization of light reception and the early steps of signal transduction in a numbe...

  10. Human Skin Fungal Diversity

    OpenAIRE

    Findley, Keisha; OH, JULIA; Yang, Joy; Conlan, Sean; Deming, Clayton; Meyer, Jennifer A.; Schoenfeld, Deborah; Nomicos, Effie; Park, Morgan; ,; Kong, Heidi H.; Segre, Julia A

    2013-01-01

    Traditional culture-based methods have incompletely defined the etiology of common recalcitrant human fungal skin diseases including athlete’s foot and toenail infections. Skin protects humans from invasion by pathogenic microorganisms, while providing a home for diverse commensal microbiota 1 . Bacterial genomic sequence data have generated novel hypotheses about species and community structures underlying human disorders 2,3,4 . However, microbial diversity is not limited to bacteria; micro...

  11. Impact of 4 different definitions used for the assessment of the prevalence of the Metabolic Syndrome in primary healthcare:The German Metabolic and Cardiovascular Risk Project (GEMCAS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wasem Jürgen

    2007-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The metabolic syndrome (MetSyn places individuals at increased risk for type 2 diabetes and cardiovascular disease. Prevalence rates of the population of the MetSyn are still scarce. Moreover, the impact of different definitions of the MetSyn on the prevalence is unclear. Aim here is to assess the prevalence of the MetSyn in primary health care and to investigate the impact of four different definitions of the MetSyn on the determined prevalence with regard to age, gender and socio-economic status. Methods The German-wide cross-sectional study was conducted during two weeks in October 2005 in 1.511 randomly selected general practices. Blood samples were analyzed, blood pressure and waist circumference assessed, data on lifestyle, medication, chronic disorders, and socio-demographic characteristics collected. MetSyn prevalence was estimated according to the definitions of NCEP ATP III (2001, AHA/NHLBI (2004, 2005, and IDF (2005. Descriptive statistics and prevalence rate ratios using the PROG GENMOD procedure, were calculated. Cohen's kappa was used as measure for interreliability between the different prevalence estimates. Results Data of 35,869 patients (age range: 18–99, women 61.1% were included. The prevalence was lowest using the NCEP ATP III- (all: 19.8%, men 22.7%, women: 18.0%, highest according to the IDF-definition (32.7%, 40.3%, 28.0%. The increase in prevalence with recent definitions was more pronounced for men than for women, and was particularly high for men and women aged 60–79 years. The IDF-definition resulted in a higher prevalence especially in those with the highest educational status. Agreement (kappa between the NCEP ATP III- and IDF-definition was 0.68 (men 0.61, women 0.74, between the updated the AHA/NHLBI- (2005 and IDF-definition 0.85 (men 0.79, women 0.89. Conclusion The prevalence of metabolic syndrome is associated with age, gender, and educational status and increases considerably with each

  12. Fungal ABC transporter deletion and localization analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kovalchuk, Andriy; Weber, Stefan S; Nijland, Jeroen G; Bovenberg, Roel A L; Driessen, Arnold J M

    2012-01-01

    Fungal cells are highly complex as their metabolism is compartmentalized harboring various types of subcellular organelles that are bordered by one or more membranes. Knowledge about the intracellular localization of transporter proteins is often required for the understanding of their biological function. Among different approaches available, the localization analysis based on the expression of GFP fusions is commonly used as a relatively fast and cost-efficient method that allows visualization of proteins of interest in both live and fixed cells. In addition, inactivation of transporter genes is an important tool to resolve their specific function. Here we provide a detailed protocol for the deletion and localization analysis of ABC transporters in the filamentous fungus Penicillium chrysogenum. It includes construction of expression plasmids, their transformation into fungal strains, cultivation of transformants, microscopy analysis, as well as additional protocols on staining of fungal cells with organelle-specific dyes like Hoechst 33342, MitoTracker DeepRed, and FM4-64. PMID:22183644

  13. Selection of Infective Arbuscular Mycorrhizal Fungal Isolates for Field Inoculation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elisa Pellegrino

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available Arbuscular mycorrhizal (AM fungi play a key role in host plant growth and health, nutrient and water uptake, plant community diversity and dynamics. AM fungi differ in their symbiotic performance, which is the result of the interaction of two fungal characters, infectivity and efficiency. Infectivity is the ability of a fungal isolate to establish rapidly an extensive mycorrhizal symbiosis and is correlated with pre-symbiotic steps of fungal life cycle, such as spore germination and hyphal growth. Here, different AM fungal isolates were tested, with the aim of selecting infective endophytes for field inoculation. Greenhouse and microcosm experiments were performed in order to assess the ability of 12 AM fungal isolates to produce spores, colonize host roots and to perform initial steps of symbiosis establishment, such as spore germination and hyphal growth. AM fungal spore production and root colonization were significantly different among AM fungal isolates. Spore and sporocarp densities ranged from 0.8 to 7.4 and from 0.6 to 2.0 per gram of soil, respectively, whereas root colonization ranged from 2.9 to 72.2%. Percentage of spore or sporocarp germination ranged from 5.8 to 53.3% and hyphal length from 4.7 to 79.8 mm. The ordination analysis (Redundancy Analysis, RDA showed that environmental factors explained about 60% of the whole variance and their effect on fungal infectivity variables was significant (P = 0.002. The biplot clearly showed that variables which might be used to detect infective AM fungal isolates were hyphal length and root colonization. Such analysis may allow the detection of the best parameters to select efficient AM fungal isolates to be used in agriculture.

  14. Simple quantification of in planta fungal biomass.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ayliffe, Michael; Periyannan, Sambasivam K; Feechan, Angela; Dry, Ian; Schumann, Ulrike; Lagudah, Evans; Pryor, Anthony

    2014-01-01

    An accurate assessment of the disease resistance status of plants to fungal pathogens is an essential requirement for the development of resistant crop plants. Many disease resistance phenotypes are partial rather than obvious immunity and are frequently scored using subjective qualitative estimates of pathogen development or plant disease symptoms. Here we report a method for the accurate comparison of total fungal biomass in plant tissues. This method, called the WAC assay, is based upon the specific binding of the plant lectin wheat germ agglutinin to fungal chitin. The assay is simple, high-throughput, and sensitive enough to discriminate between single Puccinia graminis f.sp tritici infection sites on a wheat leaf segment. It greatly lends itself to replication as large volumes of tissue can be pooled from independent experiments and assayed to provide truly representative quantification, or, alternatively, fungal growth on a single, small leaf segment can be quantified. In addition, as the assay is based upon a microscopic technique, pathogen infection sites can also be examined at high magnification prior to quantification if desired and average infection site areas are determined. Previously, we have demonstrated the application of the WAC assay for quantifying the growth of several different pathogen species in both glasshouse grown material and large-scale field plots. Details of this method are provided within. PMID:24643560

  15. Airborne fungal cell fragments in homes in relation to total fungal biomass.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adhikari, A; Reponen, T; Rylander, R

    2013-04-01

    Fungal exposure may induce respiratory symptoms. The causative agents are compounds in the fungal cell wall. Fragments of microbes may be present in air samples but are not measurable using conventional spore counting or by the determination of viable organisms. This study assesses the proportion of fungal cell biomass and endotoxin in different particle size fractions in air samples from homes. Air samples were collected from 15 homes using a cyclone sampler, collecting particles in three aerodynamic size fractions: 1.8 μm. N-Acetylhexosaminidase (NAHA) was determined as a marker of fungal cell biomass. Endotoxin was determined using the Limulus amebocyte lysate method. NAHA and endotoxin in the size range endotoxin in the total amount and in the size fraction >1.8 μm but not in the smaller fractions. The results demonstrate significant amounts of fungal cell biomass and endotoxin in particles airborne exposure for diagnostic and preventive purposes, measurement techniques that include this fraction should be considered. PMID:22804753

  16. Strategies of assessing and quantifying radiation treatment metabolic tumor response using F18 FDG Positron Emission Tomography (PET)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The use of positron emission tomography (PET) using F-18 labeled fluorodeoxyglucose (FDG) for both oncology disease staging and radiation therapy target volume delineation has steadily increased over the last decade, and FDG-PET is today readily available in all major medical centers. The goal of anti tumor treatment, including chemotherapy and/or radiation therapy is to diminish a tumor cell population, ideally to the state of total eradication. Reducing the number of viable tumor cells can lead to a reduction in anatomical tumor size, and may also be correlated with decreased FDG uptake. Efforts to assess tumor response to therapy have attempted to describe and quantify changes in glucose utilization, also referred to as metabolic tumor response. In this review, an attempt is made to present and discuss methodologies to assess and quantify tumor metabolic response to radiation therapy or chemoradiation treatment courses.

  17. Understanding the metabolic fate and assessing the biosafety of MnO nanoparticles by metabonomic analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Recently, some types of MnO nanoparticle (Mn-NP) with favorable imaging capacity have been developed to improve the biocompatible profile of the existing Mn-based MRI contrast agent Mn-DPDP; however, the overall bio-effects and potential toxicity remain largely unknown. In this study, 1H NMR-based metabolic profiling, integrated with traditional biochemical analysis and histopathological examinations, was used to investigate the absorption, distribution, metabolism, excretion and toxicity of Mn-NPs as candidates for MRI contrast agent. The metabolic responses in biofluids (plasma and urine) and tissues (liver, spleen, kidney, lung and brain) from rats could be divided into four classes following Mn-NP administration: Mn biodistribution-dependent, time-dependent, dose-dependent and complicated metabolic variations. The variations of these metabolites involved in lipid, energy, amino acid and other nutrient metabolism, which disclosed the metabolic fate and biological effects of Mn-NPs in rats. The changes of metabolic profile implied that the disturbance and impairment of biological functions induced by Mn-NP exposure were correlated with the particle size and the surface chemistry of nanoparticles. Integration of metabonomic technology with traditional methods provides a promising tool to understand the toxicological behavior of biomedical nanomaterials and will result in informed decision-making during drug development. (paper)

  18. Understanding the metabolic fate and assessing the biosafety of MnO nanoparticles by metabonomic analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Jinquan; Zhao, Zhenghuan; Feng, Jianghua; Gao, Jinhao; Chen, Zhong

    2013-11-01

    Recently, some types of MnO nanoparticle (Mn-NP) with favorable imaging capacity have been developed to improve the biocompatible profile of the existing Mn-based MRI contrast agent Mn-DPDP; however, the overall bio-effects and potential toxicity remain largely unknown. In this study, 1H NMR-based metabolic profiling, integrated with traditional biochemical analysis and histopathological examinations, was used to investigate the absorption, distribution, metabolism, excretion and toxicity of Mn-NPs as candidates for MRI contrast agent. The metabolic responses in biofluids (plasma and urine) and tissues (liver, spleen, kidney, lung and brain) from rats could be divided into four classes following Mn-NP administration: Mn biodistribution-dependent, time-dependent, dose-dependent and complicated metabolic variations. The variations of these metabolites involved in lipid, energy, amino acid and other nutrient metabolism, which disclosed the metabolic fate and biological effects of Mn-NPs in rats. The changes of metabolic profile implied that the disturbance and impairment of biological functions induced by Mn-NP exposure were correlated with the particle size and the surface chemistry of nanoparticles. Integration of metabonomic technology with traditional methods provides a promising tool to understand the toxicological behavior of biomedical nanomaterials and will result in informed decision-making during drug development.

  19. Systems Biology of Fungal Infection

    OpenAIRE

    FabianHorn; ThorstenHeinekamp; JohannesPollmächer; AxelABrakhage

    2012-01-01

    Elucidation of pathogenicity mechanisms of the most important human pathogenic fungi, Aspergillus fumigatus and Candida albicans, has gained great interest in the light of the steadily increasing number of cases of invasive fungal infections. A key feature of these infections is the interaction of the different fungal morphotypes with epithelial and immune effector cells in the human host. Because of the high level of complexity, it is necessary to describe and understand invasive fungal i...

  20. Saponin-permeabilization is not a viable alternative to isolated mitochondria for assessing oxidative metabolism in hibernation

    OpenAIRE

    Katherine E. Mathers; James F. Staples

    2015-01-01

    ABSTRACT Saponin permeabilization of tissue slices is increasingly popular for characterizing mitochondrial function largely because it is fast, easy, requires little tissue and leaves much of the cell intact. This technique is well described for mammalian muscle and brain, but not for liver. We sought to evaluate how saponin permeabilization reflects aspects of liver energy metabolism typically assessed in isolated mitochondria. We studied the ground squirrel (Ictidomys tridecemlineatus Mitc...

  1. Use of metabolic profiles and body condition scoring for the assessment of energy status of dairy cows

    OpenAIRE

    Prodanović R.; Sladojević Ž.; Kirovski D.; Vujanac I.; Ivetić V.; Savić B.; Kureljušić B.; Stevančević M.

    2012-01-01

    The aim of this study was to assess the significance of body condition scoring and metabolic profile test for estimation of energy status of healthy high-yielding dairy cows. Twenty one healthy cows (primiparous and secundiparous) were divided into three groups: dry cows, early puerperal cows and early lactating cows. Cow’s energy status was estimated by the analysis of blood samples for beta-hydroxybutirate (BHBA) and glucose. Additionally, urea, total bil...

  2. Sensing technologies to measure metabolic activities in soil and assess its health conditions

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Cesare, Fabrizio; Macagnano, Antonella

    2013-04-01

    (olfactory fingerprint) typical of the analysed air sample. Due to these features, we decided to apply such a sensing technology to the analyses of soil atmospheres, because several processes in soil, both abiotic and biotic, result in gas and/or volatile production and the dynamics of such releases may also be affected by several additional environmental factors, such as soil moisture, temperature, gas exchange rates with outer atmosphere, adsorption/desorption processes, etc. Then, the analysis of soil atmosphere may provide information about global soil conditions (e.g. soil quality and health), according to a holistic approach, where several factors are contemporarily taken into account. At the same time, the use of such a technology, if adequately trained on purpose, can supply information about a single or a pool of processes sharing similar features, which occur in soil over a certain period of time and mostly affecting soil atmosphere. According to these premises and hypotheses, we demonstrated that EN is an useful technology to measure soil microbial activity, through its correlation to specific metabolic activities occurring in soil (i.e. global and specific respiration and some enzyme activities), but also soil microbial biomass. On the basis of such evidences, we also were able to use this technology to assess the quality and health conditions of soil ecosystems in terms of metabolic indices previously identified, according to some metabolic parameters and biomass quantification of microbial populations. In other studies, we also applied EN technology, despite using a different set of sensors in the array, to analyse the atmosphere of soil ecosystems in order to assess their environmental conditions after contamination with polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) (i.e. semivolatile - SVOCs - organic pollutants). In this case, EN technology resulted capable of distinguishing between contaminated and uncontaminated soils, according to the differences in a list of

  3. Assessment of regional glucose metabolism in aging brain and dementia with positron-emission tomography

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Reivich, M.; Alavi, A.; Ferris, S.; Christman, D.; Fowler, J.; MacGregor, R.; Farkas, T.; Greenberg, J.; Dann, R.; Wolf, A.

    1981-01-01

    This paper explores the alterations in regional glucose metabolism that occur in elderly subjects and those with senile dementia compared to normal young volunteers. Results showed a tendency for the frontal regions to have a lower metabolic rate in patients with dementia although this did not reach the level of significance when compared to the elderly control subjects. The changes in glucose metabolism were symmetrical in both the left and right hemispheres. There was a lack of correlation between the mean cortical metabolic rates for glucose and the global mental function in the patients with senile dementia. This is at variance with most of the regional cerebral blood flow data that has been collected. This may be partly related to the use of substrates other than glucose by the brain in elderly and demented subjects. (PSB)

  4. Regional cerebral glucose metabolic rate in human sleep assessed by positron emission tomography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The cerebral metabolic rate of glucose was measured during nighttime sleep in 36 normal volunteers using positron emission tomography and fluorine-18-labeled 2-deoxyglucose (FDG). In comparison to waking controls, subjects given FDG during non-rapid eye movement (NREM) sleep showed about a 23% reduction in metabolic rate across the entire brain. This decrease was greater for the frontal than temporal or occipital lobes, and greater for basal ganglia and thalamus than cortex. Subjects in rapid eye movement (REM) sleep tended to have higher cortical metabolic rates than walking subjects. The cingulate gyrus was the only cortical structure to show a significant increase in glucose metabolic rate in REM sleep in comparison to waking. The basal ganglia were relatively more active on the right in REM sleep and symmetrical in NREM sleep

  5. Regional cerebral glucose metabolic rate in human sleep assessed by positron emission tomography

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Buchsbaum, M.S.; Wu, J.; Hazlett, E.; Sicotte, N.; Bunney, W.E. Jr. (Univ. of California, Irvine (USA)); Gillin, J.C. (Univ. of California, San Diego (USA))

    1989-01-01

    The cerebral metabolic rate of glucose was measured during nighttime sleep in 36 normal volunteers using positron emission tomography and fluorine-18-labeled 2-deoxyglucose (FDG). In comparison to waking controls, subjects given FDG during non-rapid eye movement (NREM) sleep showed about a 23% reduction in metabolic rate across the entire brain. This decrease was greater for the frontal than temporal or occipital lobes, and greater for basal ganglia and thalamus than cortex. Subjects in rapid eye movement (REM) sleep tended to have higher cortical metabolic rates than walking subjects. The cingulate gyrus was the only cortical structure to show a significant increase in glucose metabolic rate in REM sleep in comparison to waking. The basal ganglia were relatively more active on the right in REM sleep and symmetrical in NREM sleep.

  6. Assessment of High Molecular Weight Adiponectin and Interleukin-6 in Metabolic Syndrome

    OpenAIRE

    Delia Lupu; Dumitraşcu, Dan L.

    2014-01-01

    Background. Subclinical inflammation can represent a risk factor associated with the metabolic syndrome. Measurement of systemic inflammatory markers can improve early diagnosis in this disease. In the last decade different biomarkers have been suggested for the evaluation of inflammation in metabolic syndrome: high-sensitive C-reactive protein, leptin, tumor necrosis factor-alpha, total adiponectin.Aim. The aim of this study was to investigate a possible relationship between high molecular w...

  7. A comparison of ultrasound and magnetic resonance imaging to assess visceral fat in the metabolic syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gong, Weikun; Ren, Huilong; Tong, Hongzhang; Shen, Xiaoyin; Luo, Jianping; Chen, Shuting; Lai, Jingbo; Chen, Xinyi; Chen, Hongwei; Yu, Wanjun

    2007-01-01

    Visceral adipose tissue (VAT) plays a key role in the metabolic syndrome. Easy detection of VAT could be an important tool to increase understanding of the metabolic syndrome. To study the relationship between the area of the inferior part of the perirenal fat (AIPPF) and anthropometric, imaging and cardiovascular risk factors of metabolic syndrome, seventy two subjects with metabolic syndrome were recruited including 44 men and 28 women (age: 26-68 yr). Each subject underwent ultrasound detection of AIPPF, intraabdominal fat thickness and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) to calculate abdominal VAT (MRI VAT). Anthropometric and cardiovascular risk factors were also evaluated. AIPPF measured by ultrasonography demonstrated excellent reproducibility. Receiver operating characteristic analysis revealed that AIPPF has the best sensitivity for women, specificity for men and accuracy of the various measures to predict visceral obesity (MRI VAT value > or = 110 cm2) for both genders. AIPPF was related to MRI VAT, ultrasound measured intraabdominal fat, waist circumference, the ratio of waist and hip circumferences (of men), body mass index and the main cardiovascular risk factors of metabolic syndrome. Multiple stepwise linear regression analysis suggested that MRI VAT affected AIPPF independent of other investigated obesity indices. This study showed that AIPPF could be applied as an easy and reliable imaging indicator of visceral obesity and cardiovascular risk factors in the metabolic syndrome. PMID:17392130

  8. Hospitalized Patients and Fungal Infections

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Care Med 1998;24:206-16. Alangaden GJ. Nosocomial Fungal Infections: Epidemiology, Infection Control, and Prevention. Infectious Disease Clinics ... 25:201-25. Zilberberg MD, Shorr AF. Fungal infections in the ICU. Infect Dis ... D. Nosocomial aspergillosis and building construction. Med Mycol 2009;47 ...

  9. Greater left cerebral hemispheric metabolism in bulimia assessed by positron emission tomography

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wu, J.C.; Hagman, J.; Buchsbaum, M.S.; Blinder, B.; Derrfler, M.; Tai, W.Y.; Hazlett, E.; Sicotte, N. (Univ. of California, Irvine (USA))

    1990-03-01

    Eight women with bulimia and eight age- and sex-matched normal control subjects were studied with positron emission tomography using (18F)-fluorodeoxyglucose (FDG) as a tracer of brain metabolic rate. Subjects performed a visual vigilance task during FDG uptake. In control subjects, the metabolic rate was higher in the right hemisphere than in the left, but patients with bulimia did not have this normal asymmetry. Lower metabolic rates in the basal ganglia, found in studies of depressed subjects, and higher rates in the basal ganglia, reported in a study of anorexia nervosa, were not found. This is consistent with the suggestion that bulimia is a diagnostic grouping distinct from these disorders.

  10. Critical assessment of human metabolic pathway databases: a stepping stone for future integration

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stobbe Miranda D

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Multiple pathway databases are available that describe the human metabolic network and have proven their usefulness in many applications, ranging from the analysis and interpretation of high-throughput data to their use as a reference repository. However, so far the various human metabolic networks described by these databases have not been systematically compared and contrasted, nor has the extent to which they differ been quantified. For a researcher using these databases for particular analyses of human metabolism, it is crucial to know the extent of the differences in content and their underlying causes. Moreover, the outcomes of such a comparison are important for ongoing integration efforts. Results We compared the genes, EC numbers and reactions of five frequently used human metabolic pathway databases. The overlap is surprisingly low, especially on reaction level, where the databases agree on 3% of the 6968 reactions they have combined. Even for the well-established tricarboxylic acid cycle the databases agree on only 5 out of the 30 reactions in total. We identified the main causes for the lack of overlap. Importantly, the databases are partly complementary. Other explanations include the number of steps a conversion is described in and the number of possible alternative substrates listed. Missing metabolite identifiers and ambiguous names for metabolites also affect the comparison. Conclusions Our results show that each of the five networks compared provides us with a valuable piece of the puzzle of the complete reconstruction of the human metabolic network. To enable integration of the networks, next to a need for standardizing the metabolite names and identifiers, the conceptual differences between the databases should be resolved. Considerable manual intervention is required to reach the ultimate goal of a unified and biologically accurate model for studying the systems biology of human metabolism. Our comparison

  11. Spatial characteristics of newly diagnosed grade 3 glioma assessed by magnetic resonance metabolic and diffusion tensor imaging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ozturk-Isik, Esin; Pirzkall, Andrea; Lamborn, Kathleen R; Cha, Soonmee; Chang, Susan M; Nelson, Sarah J

    2012-02-01

    The spatial heterogeneity in magnetic resonance (MR) metabolic and diffusion parameters and their relationship were studied for patients with treatment-naive grade 3 gliomas. MR data were evaluated from 51 patients with newly diagnosed grade 3 gliomas. Anatomic, diffusion, and metabolic imaging data were considered. Variations in metabolite levels, apparent diffusion coefficient (ADC), and fractional anisotropy (FA) were evaluated in regions of gadolinium enhancement and T2 hyperintensity as well as regions with abnormal metabolic signatures. Contrast enhancement was present in only 21 of the 51 patients. When present, the enhancing component of the lesion had higher choline-to-N-acetylaspartate index (CNI), higher choline, lower N-acetylaspartate, similar creatine, similar ADC and FA, and higher lactate/lipid than the nonenhancing lesion. Regions with CNI ≥ 4 had higher choline, lower N-acetylaspartate, higher lactate/lipid, higher ADC, and lower FA than normal-appearing white matter and regions with intermediate CNI values. For lesions that exhibited gadolinium enhancement, the metabolite levels and diffusion parameters in the region of enhancement were consistent with it corresponding to the most abnormal portion of the tumor. For nonenhancing lesions, areas with CNI ≥ 4 were the most abnormal in metabolic and diffusion parameters. This suggests that the region with the highest CNI might provide a good target for biopsies for nonenhancing lesions to obtain a representative histologic diagnosis of its degree of malignancy. Metabolic and diffusion parameter levels may be of interest not only for directing tissue sampling but also for defining the targets for focal therapy and assessing response to therapy. PMID:22348171

  12. Spatial Characteristics of Newly Diagnosed Grade 3 Glioma Assessed by Magnetic Resonance Metabolic and Diffusion Tensor Imaging1

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ozturk-Isik, Esin; Pirzkall, Andrea; Lamborn, Kathleen R; Cha, Soonmee; Chang, Susan M; Nelson, Sarah J

    2012-01-01

    The spatial heterogeneity in magnetic resonance (MR) metabolic and diffusion parameters and their relationship were studied for patients with treatment-naive grade 3 gliomas. MR data were evaluated from 51 patients with newly diagnosed grade 3 gliomas. Anatomic, diffusion, and metabolic imaging data were considered. Variations in metabolite levels, apparent diffusion coefficient (ADC), and fractional anisotropy (FA) were evaluated in regions of gadolinium enhancement and T2 hyperintensity as well as regions with abnormal metabolic signatures. Contrast enhancement was present in only 21 of the 51 patients. When present, the enhancing component of the lesion had higher choline-to-N-acetylaspartate index (CNI), higher choline, lower N-acetylaspartate, similar creatine, similar ADC and FA, and higher lactate/lipid than the nonenhancing lesion. Regions with CNI ≥ 4 had higher choline, lower N-acetylaspartate, higher lactate/lipid, higher ADC, and lower FA than normal-appearing white matter and regions with intermediate CNI values. For lesions that exhibited gadolinium enhancement, the metabolite levels and diffusion parameters in the region of enhancement were consistent with it corresponding to the most abnormal portion of the tumor. For nonenhancing lesions, areas with CNI ≥ 4 were the most abnormal in metabolic and diffusion parameters. This suggests that the region with the highest CNI might provide a good target for biopsies for nonenhancing lesions to obtain a representative histologic diagnosis of its degree of malignancy. Metabolic and diffusion parameter levels may be of interest not only for directing tissue sampling but also for defining the targets for focal therapy and assessing response to therapy. PMID:22348171

  13. Extrapolation of systemic bioavailability assessing skin absorption and epidermal and hepatic metabolism of aromatic amine hair dyes in vitro.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manwaring, John; Rothe, Helga; Obringer, Cindy; Foltz, David J; Baker, Timothy R; Troutman, John A; Hewitt, Nicola J; Goebel, Carsten

    2015-09-01

    Approaches to assess the role of absorption, metabolism and excretion of cosmetic ingredients that are based on the integration of different in vitro data are important for their safety assessment, specifically as it offers an opportunity to refine that safety assessment. In order to estimate systemic exposure (AUC) to aromatic amine hair dyes following typical product application conditions, skin penetration and epidermal and systemic metabolic conversion of the parent compound was assessed in human skin explants and human keratinocyte (HaCaT) and hepatocyte cultures. To estimate the amount of the aromatic amine that can reach the general circulation unchanged after passage through the skin the following toxicokinetically relevant parameters were applied: a) Michaelis-Menten kinetics to quantify the epidermal metabolism; b) the estimated keratinocyte cell abundance in the viable epidermis; c) the skin penetration rate; d) the calculated Mean Residence Time in the viable epidermis; e) the viable epidermis thickness and f) the skin permeability coefficient. In a next step, in vitro hepatocyte Km and Vmax values and whole liver mass and cell abundance were used to calculate the scaled intrinsic clearance, which was combined with liver blood flow and fraction of compound unbound in the blood to give hepatic clearance. The systemic exposure in the general circulation (AUC) was extrapolated using internal dose and hepatic clearance, and Cmax was extrapolated (conservative overestimation) using internal dose and volume of distribution, indicating that appropriate toxicokinetic information can be generated based solely on in vitro data. For the hair dye, p-phenylenediamine, these data were found to be in the same order of magnitude as those published for human volunteers. PMID:26028483

  14. Seagrass community metabolism: assessing the carbon sink capacity of seagrass meadows

    OpenAIRE

    Duarte, Carlos M.; Marbà, Núria; Gacia, Esperança; Fourqurean, James W.; Beggins, Jeff; Barrón, Cristina; Apostolaki, Eugenia T.

    2010-01-01

    The metabolic rates of seagrass communities were synthesized on the basis of a data set on seagrass community metabolism containing 403 individual estimates derived from a total of 155 different sites. Gross primary production (GPP) rates (mean ± SE = 224.9 ± 11.1 mmol O2 m−2 d−1) tended to be significantly higher than the corresponding respiration (R) rates (mean ± SE = 187.6 ± 10.1 mmol O2 m−2 d−1), indicating that seagrass meadows tend to be autotrophic ecosystems, reflected in a positive ...

  15. Fungal keratitis: A review

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Keratomycosis is a vision-threatening fungal corneal infection. The dramatic increase in the number of cases over the past three decades is attributable not only to better diagnostic recognition, improved laboratory techniques and greater awareness by the ophthalmic society as a whole, but is also due to a true increase in the incidence of keratitis related to the indiscriminate use of topical broad-spectrum antibiotics, corticosteroids and immunosuppressive drugs, as well as surgical trauma. Corneal trauma has remained the main predisposing factor over the years, though in recent years HIV-positive cases and AIDS are taking lead in certain areas. Aspergillus, Fusarium and Candida species remains the commonest 'organisms' isolated worldwide. Although the approach to this form of keratitis is similar to other types of microbial keratitis, it remains the most difficult in terms of diagnosis and management. Early recognition, prevention, prompt treatment and timely keratoplasty are crucial for a better outcome. (author)

  16. Extrapolation of systemic bioavailability assessing skin absorption and epidermal and hepatic metabolism of aromatic amine hair dyes in vitro

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Manwaring, John, E-mail: manwaring.jd@pg.com [Procter & Gamble Inc., Mason Business Center, Mason, OH 45040 (United States); Rothe, Helga [Procter & Gamble Service GmbH, Sulzbacher Str. 40, 65823 Schwalbach am Taunus (Germany); Obringer, Cindy; Foltz, David J.; Baker, Timothy R.; Troutman, John A. [Procter & Gamble Inc., Mason Business Center, Mason, OH 45040 (United States); Hewitt, Nicola J. [SWS, Erzhausen (Germany); Goebel, Carsten [Procter & Gamble Service GmbH, Sulzbacher Str. 40, 65823 Schwalbach am Taunus (Germany)

    2015-09-01

    Approaches to assess the role of absorption, metabolism and excretion of cosmetic ingredients that are based on the integration of different in vitro data are important for their safety assessment, specifically as it offers an opportunity to refine that safety assessment. In order to estimate systemic exposure (AUC) to aromatic amine hair dyes following typical product application conditions, skin penetration and epidermal and systemic metabolic conversion of the parent compound was assessed in human skin explants and human keratinocyte (HaCaT) and hepatocyte cultures. To estimate the amount of the aromatic amine that can reach the general circulation unchanged after passage through the skin the following toxicokinetically relevant parameters were applied: a) Michaelis–Menten kinetics to quantify the epidermal metabolism; b) the estimated keratinocyte cell abundance in the viable epidermis; c) the skin penetration rate; d) the calculated Mean Residence Time in the viable epidermis; e) the viable epidermis thickness and f) the skin permeability coefficient. In a next step, in vitro hepatocyte K{sub m} and V{sub max} values and whole liver mass and cell abundance were used to calculate the scaled intrinsic clearance, which was combined with liver blood flow and fraction of compound unbound in the blood to give hepatic clearance. The systemic exposure in the general circulation (AUC) was extrapolated using internal dose and hepatic clearance, and C{sub max} was extrapolated (conservative overestimation) using internal dose and volume of distribution, indicating that appropriate toxicokinetic information can be generated based solely on in vitro data. For the hair dye, p-phenylenediamine, these data were found to be in the same order of magnitude as those published for human volunteers. - Highlights: • An entirely in silico/in vitro approach to predict in vivo exposure to dermally applied hair dyes • Skin penetration and epidermal conversion assessed in human

  17. Extrapolation of systemic bioavailability assessing skin absorption and epidermal and hepatic metabolism of aromatic amine hair dyes in vitro

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Approaches to assess the role of absorption, metabolism and excretion of cosmetic ingredients that are based on the integration of different in vitro data are important for their safety assessment, specifically as it offers an opportunity to refine that safety assessment. In order to estimate systemic exposure (AUC) to aromatic amine hair dyes following typical product application conditions, skin penetration and epidermal and systemic metabolic conversion of the parent compound was assessed in human skin explants and human keratinocyte (HaCaT) and hepatocyte cultures. To estimate the amount of the aromatic amine that can reach the general circulation unchanged after passage through the skin the following toxicokinetically relevant parameters were applied: a) Michaelis–Menten kinetics to quantify the epidermal metabolism; b) the estimated keratinocyte cell abundance in the viable epidermis; c) the skin penetration rate; d) the calculated Mean Residence Time in the viable epidermis; e) the viable epidermis thickness and f) the skin permeability coefficient. In a next step, in vitro hepatocyte Km and Vmax values and whole liver mass and cell abundance were used to calculate the scaled intrinsic clearance, which was combined with liver blood flow and fraction of compound unbound in the blood to give hepatic clearance. The systemic exposure in the general circulation (AUC) was extrapolated using internal dose and hepatic clearance, and Cmax was extrapolated (conservative overestimation) using internal dose and volume of distribution, indicating that appropriate toxicokinetic information can be generated based solely on in vitro data. For the hair dye, p-phenylenediamine, these data were found to be in the same order of magnitude as those published for human volunteers. - Highlights: • An entirely in silico/in vitro approach to predict in vivo exposure to dermally applied hair dyes • Skin penetration and epidermal conversion assessed in human skin explants and Ha

  18. Energy metabolism of overweight women before, during and after weight reduction assessed by indirect calorimetry.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Groot, de C.P.G.M.

    1988-01-01

    Previous studies had suggested that periods of low energy intake evoke compensatory adaptations in energy metabolism, which retard weight loss, and promote weight regain when energy intake returns to normal. The aim of this thesis was to investigate whether a slimming (low-energy) diet based on alte

  19. Scalp blood lactate for intra-partum assessment of fetal metabolic acidosis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Heinis, A.M.; Spaanderman, M.E.A.; Gunnewiek, J.M.; Lotgering, F.K.

    2011-01-01

    Objective. To study to what extent the fetal scalp blood lactate concentration during labor correlates with fetal scalp pH and base deficit, and metabolic acidosis at birth, and to suggest lactate cut-off values to serve as indicators for either reassurance or immediate intervention. Design. A retro

  20. Microsome biocolloids for rapid drug metabolism and inhibition assessment by LC-MS

    OpenAIRE

    Bajrami, Besnik; Krishnan, Sadagopan; Rusling, James F.

    2008-01-01

    Rat liver microsomes attached to nanoparticles were used for LC-MS studies of CYP3A and 2E1 enzymes in metabolism of N-nitroso compounds. Using these biocolloids, turnover rates were measured within 2 min. Inhibitor IC50 values for ketoconazole (KET) and 4-methylpyrazole (4-MEP) were estimated.

  1. Microsome biocolloids for rapid drug metabolism and inhibition assessment by LC-MS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bajrami, Besnik; Krishnan, Sadagopan; Rusling, James F.

    2012-01-01

    Rat liver microsomes attached to nanoparticles were used for LC-MS studies of CYP3A and 2E1 enzymes in metabolism of N-nitroso compounds. Using these biocolloids, turnover rates were measured within 2 min. Inhibitor IC50 values for ketoconazole (KET) and 4-methylpyrazole (4-MEP) were estimated. PMID:19356087

  2. Metabolism impacts upon Candida immunogenicity and pathogenicity at multiple levels

    OpenAIRE

    Alistair J P Brown; Brown, Gordon D.; Netea, Mihai G.; Gow, Neil A R

    2014-01-01

    Metabolism is integral to the pathogenicity of Candida albicans, a major fungal pathogen of humans. As well as providing the platform for nutrient assimilation and growth in diverse host niches, metabolic adaptation affects the susceptibility of C. albicans to host-imposed stresses and antifungal drugs, the expression of key virulence factors, and fungal vulnerability to innate immune defences. These effects, which are driven by complex regulatory networks linking metabolism, morphogenesis, s...

  3. Experimental assessment of the effect of UVB radiation on plankton community metabolism along the Southeastern Pacific off Chile

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N. Godoy

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available The potential effects of UV on community metabolism (NCP, GPP and R were assessed along the Southeast Pacific off the Chilean coast during the Humbold-2009 cruise (54.80° S–23.85° S on board R/V Hespérides from 5 to 15 March 2009. Estimates of community metabolism were performed at eight stations, including three stations on Patagonian fjords and five stations on the Humboldt Current System. The effect of UVB radiation on net community production (NCP was evaluated at the stations in the Humboldt Current system by comparing metabolic rates derived using quartz bottles, largely transparent to UVB, and borosilicate glass, which is opaque to UVB and part of UVA, incubated under the ambient solar radiation. Autotrophic planktonic communities with variable NCP prevailed along the area, with the highest NCP rates (7.1–11.1 mmol O2 m−3 d−1 observed in the Patagonian fjords and the northernmost station. All five experiments showed significantly different NCP rates between communities incubated under the full ambient radiation and those incubated under reduced UVB. One of the experiments showed elevated NCP when the community was exposed to the full solar radiation, while four experiments showed a significantly lower NCP in the presence of UVB. These results suggest that the intense UVB radiation in this area, partly inhibits NCP in the Southwest Pacific off Chile.

  4. Sublingual Immunotherapy for Allergic Fungal Sinusitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Melzer, Jonathan M; Driskill, Brent R; Clenney, Timothy L; Gessler, Eric M

    2015-10-01

    Allergic fungal sinusitis (AFS) is a condition that has an allergic basis caused by exposure to fungi in the sinonasal tract leading to chronic inflammation. Despite standard treatment modalities, which typically include surgery and medical management of allergies, patients still have a high rate of recurrence. Subcutaneous immunotherapy (SCIT) has been used as adjuvant treatment for AFS. Evidence exists to support the use of sublingual immunotherapy (SLIT) as a safe and efficacious method of treating allergies, but no studies have assessed the utility of SLIT in the management of allergic fungal sinusitis. A record review of cases of AFS that are currently or previously treated with sublingual immunotherapy from 2007 to 2011 was performed. Parameters of interest included serum IgE levels, changes in symptoms, Lund-McKay scores, decreased sensitization to fungal allergens associated with AFS, and serum IgE levels. Ten patients with diagnosed AFS were treated with SLIT. No adverse effects related to the use of SLIT therapy were identified. Decreases in subjective complaints, exam findings, Lund-McKay scores, and serum IgE levels were observed. Thus, sublingual immunotherapy appears to be a safe adjunct to the management of AFS that may improve patient outcomes. PMID:25902841

  5. EBPR using crude glycerol: assessing process resiliency and exploring metabolic anomalies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coats, Erik R; Dobroth, Zachary T; Brinkman, Cynthia K

    2015-01-01

    Enhanced biological phosphorus removal (EBPR) is predicated on exposing bacteria to cyclical anaerobic/aerobic environments while providing volatile fatty acids (VFAs). Combined, this environment enriches for phosphorus accumulating organisms (PAOs) and induces metabolisms to ensure excess phosphorus removal. Crude glycerol (CG), a byproduct of biodiesel manufacturing, is an alternate waste stream that could be substituted to achieve excess phosphorus removal; research into the use of CG yielded unexpected findings. While CG was an excellent substrate to accomplish and/or help achieve excess phosphorus removal, CG-fed bacteria did not consistently exhibit theoretical EBPR metabolisms. Specifically, anaerobic phosphorus release was not required for successful EBPR; however, carbon cycling patterns were consistent with theory. Analysis of results suggests that PAOs will first leverage carbon to generate energy anaerobically; only as needed will the bacteria utilize polyphosphate reserves anaerobically. Results also demonstrated that excess phosphorus removal can be achieved with a small fraction of PAOs. PMID:25630129

  6. Development of a UHPLC method for the assessment of the metabolic profile of cinitapride.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marquez, Helena; Albertí, Joan; Salvà, Miquel; Saurina, Javier; Sentellas, Sonia

    2011-12-01

    An ultra high-performance liquid chromatographic method was developed to study the cinitapride metabolism. Metabolites were generated from the incubation of cinitapride with human liver microsomes. Cinitapride and its metabolites were separated by reversed-phase mode using a formate aqueous solution (pH 6.5) and acetonitrile as the components of the mobile phase. Chromatographic conditions, including the establishment of an elution gradient, were optimized for obtaining the maximum number of resolved components in the minimum analysis time. Experimental design and multicriteria decision-making strategies were utilized to facilitate the optimization of chromatographic conditions. Figures of merit were evaluated with cinitapride standards and incubated samples. Limits of detection are about 0.03 μmol/L, and repeatabilities are better than 0.06% for retention times and better than 3.5% for concentrations. The method was applied to characterize the in vitro cinitapride metabolism with human liver microsomes. PMID:21695682

  7. Fungal quorum sensing molecules: Role in fungal morphogenesis and pathogenicity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wongsuk, Thanwa; Pumeesat, Potjaman; Luplertlop, Natthanej

    2016-05-01

    When microorganisms live together in high numbers, they need to communicate with each other. To achieve cell-cell communication, microorganisms secrete molecules called quorum-sensing molecules (QSMs) that control their biological activities and behaviors. Fungi secrete QSMs such as farnesol, tyrosol, phenylethanol, and tryptophol. The role of QSMs in fungi has been widely studied in both yeasts and filamentous fungi, for example in Candida albicans, C. dubliniensis, Aspergillus niger, A. nidulans, and Fusarium graminearum. QSMs impact fungal morphogenesis (yeast-to-hypha formation) and also play a role in the germination of macroconidia. QSMs cause fungal cells to initiate programmed cell death, or apoptosis, and play a role in fungal pathogenicity. Several types of QSMs are produced during stages of biofilm development to control cell population or morphology in biofilm communities. This review article emphasizes the role of fungal QSMs, especially in fungal morphogenesis, biofilm formation, and pathogenicity. Information about QSMs may lead to improved measures for controlling fungal infection. PMID:26972663

  8. Assessment of metabolic status in young Japanese females using postprandial glucose and insulin levels

    OpenAIRE

    Sakuma, Masae; Sasaki, Megumi; Katsuda, Sayaka; Kobayashi, Kana; Takaya, Chiaki; Umeda, Minako; Arai, Hidekazu

    2014-01-01

    Lifestyle-related diseases develop through the accumulation of undesirable lifestyle habits both prior to the onset of disease as well as during normal healthy life. Accordingly, early detection of, and intervention in, metabolic disorders is desirable, but is hampered by the lack of an established evaluation index for young individuals. The purpose of this study was to investigate the utility of a biomarker of health in young female subjects. The subjects were young healthy Japanese females ...

  9. Use of 14CO2 ratios in metabolic assessment of human spermatozoa

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Comparison of 14CO2 production for [1-14C], [2-14C] and [3-14C] pyruvate indicates the metabolic fate of pyruvate. Assuming that all pyruvate oxidized enters the TCA cycle via pyruvate dehydrogenase, the ratio of steady state 14CO2 production, [2-14C] pyruvate: [3-14C] pyruvate, determines the probability that specific citrate carbons will complete a turn of the TCA cycle. Comparing this probability and the 14CO2 production from [1-14C] pyruvate estimates the flux pyruvate to products derived from acetate that do not enter the TCA cycle. Data was collected for human sperm metabolizing glutamine and pyruvate over a four-hour period. The ratio of 14CO2 production, [2-14C] pyruvate: [3-14C] pyruvate even when correction was made for the fact that not all carbon derived from [2-14C] pyruvate that enters the TCA cycle is converted to CO2. 14CO2 production from [U-14C] glutamine was linear for glutamine concentration below 0.5 mM. In conclusion, CO2 ratios methods are applicable in metabolic analysis of small samples of human sperm where metabolite measurements are impractical

  10. Quantitative Assessment of Heterogeneity in Tumor Metabolism Using FDG-PET

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Purpose: [18F]-fluorodeoxyglucose-positron emission tomography (FDG-PET) images are usually quantitatively analyzed in “whole-tumor” volumes of interest. Also parameters determined with dynamic PET acquisitions, such as the Patlak glucose metabolic rate (MRglc) and pharmacokinetic rate constants of two-tissue compartment modeling, are most often derived per lesion. We propose segmentation of tumors to determine tumor heterogeneity, potentially useful for dose-painting in radiotherapy and elucidating mechanisms of FDG uptake. Methods and Materials: In 41 patients with 104 lesions, dynamic FDG-PET was performed. On MRglc images, tumors were segmented in quartiles of background subtracted maximum MRglc (0%–25%, 25%–50%, 50%–75%, and 75%–100%). Pharmacokinetic analysis was performed using an irreversible two-tissue compartment model in the three segments with highest MRglc to determine the rate constants of FDG metabolism. Results: From the highest to the lowest quartile, significant decreases of uptake (K1), washout (k2), and phosphorylation (k3) rate constants were seen with significant increases in tissue blood volume fraction (Vb). Conclusions: Tumor regions with highest MRglc are characterized by high cellular uptake and phosphorylation rate constants with relatively low blood volume fractions. In regions with less metabolic activity, the blood volume fraction increases and cellular uptake, washout, and phosphorylation rate constants decrease. These results support the hypothesis that regional tumor glucose phosphorylation rate is not dependent on the transport of nutrients (i.e., FDG) to the tumor.

  11. CO(2) acts as a signalling molecule in populations of the fungal pathogen Candida albicans

    OpenAIRE

    Hall, Rebecca A.; De Sordi, Luisa; MacCallum, Donna M.; Topal, Husnu; Eaton, Rebecca; Bloor, James W.; Robinson, Gary K.; Levin, Lonny R.; Buck, Jochen; Wang, Yue; Gow, Neil A R; Steegborn, Clemens; Mühlschlegel, Fritz A.

    2010-01-01

    When colonising host-niches or non-animated medical devices, individual cells of the fungal pathogen Candida albicans expand into significant biomasses. Here we show that within such biomasses, fungal metabolically generated CO(2) acts as a communication molecule promoting the switch from yeast to filamentous growth essential for C. albicans pathology. We find that CO(2)-mediated intra-colony signalling involves the adenylyl cyclase protein (Cyr1p), a multi-sensor recently found to coordinate...

  12. Assessment of the Efficacy of Cardio-Metabolic Pathology Treatment and of the Medical Recommendations Adherence in a Military Population

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lăcrămioara Ana MOLDOVAN

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available Aim: To assess the efficacy of cardio-metabolic diseases treatment, the compliance to treatment, and to evaluate the obtained results compared to the previous published ones.Methods: A screening was conducted in the military population, including male and female with age at least 20 years, with of without: diabetes, impaired fasting glucose, obesity, hypertension, dyslipidemia. The anthropometrics parameters, body fat percent, and blood pressure were evaluated. The following data were collected: glycemia, lipid profile, renal and hepatic function, level of physical activity, smoking status, personal associated diseases. The compliance to treatment was noted in percentages declared by patient in a survey. The IRIS 2 score of insulin resistance and cardiovascular risk using EURO’98 charts, Framingham Score and SCORE system were calculated. The metabolic syndrome diagnosis was performed using the International Diabetes Federation 2005 criteria. Results: 338 persons were investigated; the majority were males, 192 with normal glycemia. The objectives of the treatment were reached in < 50% cases for each pathological aspect. A negative correlation was found between anthropometric parameters and the compliance to diet and physical exercise, and positive correlation between bodyweight, high cardiovascular risk and medication. The study showed the same pattern of the treatment as in other studies, with a low compliance to medical nutrition therapy and with low percentage in witch the objective for cardio-metabolic pathology are reached. Conclusions: An active and sustained attitude is necessary to promote a healthy lifestyle in the respect of improvement of treatment and prevention of metabolic and cardiovascular morbidity and mortality.

  13. Learning-oriented assessment increases performance and written skills in a second year metabolic biochemistry course.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vanderlelie, Jessica J; Alexander, Heather G

    2016-07-01

    Assessment plays a critical role in learning and teaching and its power to enhance engagement and student outcomes is still underestimated in tertiary education. The current project considers the impact of a staged redesign of an assessment strategy that emphasized relevance of learning, formative assessment, student engagement, and feedback on student performance, failure rates and overall engagement in the course. Significant improvements in final grades (p importance of an integrated approach to assessment that includes well developed formative tasks and a continuous summative assessment strategy. © 2016 by The International Union of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, 44(4):412-420, 2016. PMID:27006292

  14. Fungal Biotransformation of Tetracycline Antibiotics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shang, Zhuo; Salim, Angela A; Khalil, Zeinab; Bernhardt, Paul V; Capon, Robert J

    2016-08-01

    The commercial antibiotics tetracycline (3), minocycline (4), chlortetracycline (5), oxytetracycline (6), and doxycycline (7) were biotransformed by a marine-derived fungus Paecilomyces sp. to yield seco-cyclines A-H (9-14, 18 and 19) and hemi-cyclines A-E (20-24). Structures were assigned by detailed spectroscopic analysis, and in the case of 10 X-ray crystallography. Parallel mechanisms account for substrate-product specificity, where 3-5 yield seco-cyclines and 6 and 7 yield hemi-cyclines. The susceptibility of 3-7 to fungal biotransformation is indicative of an unexpected potential for tetracycline "degradation" (i.e., antibiotic resistance) in fungal genomes. Significantly, the fungal-derived tetracycline-like viridicatumtoxins are resistant to fungal biotransformation, providing chemical insights that could inform the development of new tetracycline antibiotics resistant to enzymatic degradation. PMID:27419475

  15. Cancer Patients and Fungal Infections

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... site. Top of Page Preventing fungal infections in cancer patients Fungi are difficult to avoid because they are a natural part of the environment. Fungi live outdoors in soil, on plants, trees, and other vegetation. They are also on ...

  16. Phylogenetic Distribution of Fungal Sterols

    OpenAIRE

    Weete, John D.; Abril, Maritza; Blackwell, Meredith

    2010-01-01

    Background Ergosterol has been considered the “fungal sterol” for almost 125 years; however, additional sterol data superimposed on a recent molecular phylogeny of kingdom Fungi reveals a different and more complex situation. Methodology/Principal Findings The interpretation of sterol distribution data in a modern phylogenetic context indicates that there is a clear trend from cholesterol and other Δ5 sterols in the earliest diverging fungal species to ergosterol in later diverging fungi. The...

  17. Structural Analysis of Fungal Cerebrosides

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eliana eBarreto-Bergter

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Of the ceramide monohexosides (CMHs, gluco- and galactosylceramides are the main neutral glycosphingolipids expressed in fungal cells. Their structural determination is greatly dependent on the use of mass spectrometric techniques, including fast atom bombardment-mass spectrometry (FAB-MS, electrospray ionization (ESI-MS, and energy collision-induced dissociation mass spectrometry (ESI-MS/CID-MS. Nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR has also been used successfully. Such a combination of techniques, combined with classical analytical separation, such as HPTLC and column chromatography, has led to the structural elucidation of a great number of fungal CMHs. The structure of fungal CMH is conserved among fungal species and consists of a glucose or galactose residue attached to a ceramide moiety containing 9-methyl-4,8-sphingadienine with an amidic linkage to hydroxylated fatty acids, most commonly having 16 or 18 carbon atoms and unsaturation between C-3 and C-4. Along with their unique structural characteristics, fungal CMHs have a peculiar subcellular distribution and striking biological properties. Fungal cerebrosides were also characterized as antigenic molecules directly or indirectly involved in cell growth or differentiation in Schizophyllum commune, Cryptococcus neoformans, Pseudallescheria boydii, Candida albicans, Aspergillus nidulans, A.fumigatus and Colletotrichum gloeosporioides. Besides classical techniques for cerebroside (CMH analysis, we now describe new approaches, combining conventional TLC and mass spectrometry, as well as emerging technologies for subcellular localization and distribution of glycosphingolipids by SIMS and imaging MALDI TOF .

  18. Pest Risk Assessment of Wheat Grains Import from Pakistan Contaminated with the Fungal Tilletia indica as Pest Quarantine A1: (A Novel of Academic Investigation)

    OpenAIRE

    Nur Amin1

    2014-01-01

    The aims of the academic investigation are to give information about the necessity of holistic approaches in doing pest risk assessment, to collaborate among stakeholders in order to prevent dispersal of pest and disease quarantine in new areas, and to recommend strongly stakeholders related to case of wheat grains import in South Sulawesi. According to the Indonesian Government Regulation No.14 of 2002 about ???plant quarantine??? that every carrier media, whose contamination wit...

  19. The spatiotemporal distributions and determinants of ambient fungal spores in the Greater Taipei area

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Airborne fungal spores, a type of bioaerosols, are significant air pollutants. We conducted a study to determine the spatiotemporal distributions of ambient fungi in the Greater Taipei area and develop land use regression (LUR) models for total and major fungal taxa. Four seasonal sampling campaigns were conducted over a year at 44 representative sites. Multiple regressions were performed to construct the LUR models. Ascospores were the most prevalent category, followed by Aspergillus/Penicillium, basidiospores, and Cladosporium. The highest fungal concentrations were found in spring. According to the LUR models, higher concentrations of Aspergillus/Penicillium and basidiospores were respectively present in residential/commercial areas and in areas with shorter road lengths. Various meteorological factors, particulates with aerodynamic diameters of ≤10 μm, and elevation also had significant relationships with fungal concentrations. The LUR models developed in this study can be used to assess spatiotemporal fungal distribution in the Greater Taipei area. - Highlights: • Spatiotemporal distributions of ambient fungal spores were evaluated. • Land-use regression models for ambient fungal spores were developed. • The major predictors were meteorological factors and particulates. • Commercial and residential areas are predictor of Aspergillus/Penicillium levels. • Road length is predictor of basidiospores levels. - The first land-use regression models of ambient fungal spores were developed which can be used to assess spatiotemporal fungal distributions in the Greater Taipei area

  20. Myocardial glucose metabolism in patients with hypertrophic cardiomyopathy. Assessment by F-18-FDG PET study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In an investigation of myocardial metabolic abnormalities in hypertrophic myocardium, the myocardial glucose metabolism was evaluated with F-18-fluorodeoxyglucose (FDG) positron emission tomography (PET) in 32 patients with hypertrophic cardiomyopathy, and the results were compared with those in 9 patients with hypertensive heart disease. F-18-FDG PET study was performed in the fasting and glucose-loading states. The myocardial regional %dose uptake was calculated quantitatively. The average regional %dose uptake in the fasting state in the patients with asymmetric septal hypertrophy and dilated-phase hypertrophic cardiomyopathy was significantly higher than that in the patients with hypertensive heart disease (0.75±0.34%, 0.65±0.25%, and 0.43±0.22%/100 g myocardium, respectively). In contrast, the average %dose uptake in the glucose-loading state in the patients with asymmetric septal hypertrophy and dilated-phase hypertrophic cardiomyopathy was not significantly different from that in patients with hypertensive heart disease (1.17±0.49%, 0.80±0.44% and 0.99±0.45%, respectively). The patients with apical hypertrophy had also low %dose uptake in the fasting state (0.38±0.21%) as in the hypertensive heart disease patients, so that the characteristics of asymmetric septal hypertrophy and dilated-phase hypertrophic cardiomyopathy are considered to be high FDG uptake throughout the myocardium in the fasting state. Patients with apical hypertrophy are considered to belong to other disease categories metabolically. F-18-FDG PET study is useful in the evaluation of the pathophysiologic diagnosis of patients with hypertrophic cardiomyopathy. (author)

  1. The Assessment of Relation Between Lipids Metabolism Disorder and Periodontal Diseases in Cardiovascular Patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    AK.Khoshkhoo Nejad

    2005-02-01

    Full Text Available Statement of Problem: There are many risk factor for periodontal diseases and from this point the disorders of lipid metabolism also may be a risk factor for pcriodononlal diseases.Purpose: The purpose of this study was to evaluate the relation of periodontal disease and disorder of lipids metabolism in cardio vascular patients.Materials and Methods: In this sectional study, 45 patients who were hospitalized in shahid rajaee hospital divided and studied in two group, (included test group with 27 patents and control group with 18 patient. In both group the level of serum lipids including triglycerid, total cholesterol and LDL cholesterol were determined and periodontal status were estimated by CPITN index. Then statistical result processed by Mann-Whiney U test and spearman- correlation.Results: The results showed thai CPITN index in high lipid group was more than low lipid group and spearman correlation between triglycerid and CPITN was 0.2S3 between cholesterol and CPITN was 0.372 and between LDL and CPITN was 0.230.Conclusion: In this study we found that there is a specific and significant relation between periodontal disease and serum lipids in cardio vascular patients.

  2. Assessment of myocardial metabolism by positron emission tomography; Stoffwechseluntersuchungen des Herzens mit der Positronenemissionstomographie

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bengel, F.M.; Schwaiger, M. [Technische Univ. Muenchen (Germany). Nuklearmedizinische Klinik und Poliklinik

    1999-06-01

    In combination with a variety of tracers, positron emission tomography does provide noninvasive quantitative information not only about myocardial utilisation of substrates such as glucose or free fatty acids, but also about overall oxidative metabolism. PET studies of myocardial metabolism have substantially contributed to an improved understanding of regulatory mechanism as well as interaction between different substrates under normal conditions as well as under pathologic conditions such as ischemia, heart failure or diabetes mellitus, and will continue to do so in the future. (orig.) [German] Fuer die Positronenemissionstomographie stehen verschiedene Tracer zur Verfuegung, die am menschlichen Herzen nichtinvasive Quantifizierung der Utilisation von Substraten wie Glukose oder freien Fettsaeuren, aber auch des gesamten sauerstoffabhaengigen Metabolismus ermoeglichen. Stoffwechseluntersuchungen des Herzens mit der PET haben zu einem genaueren Verstaendnis von Regulationsmechanismen und Interaktionen zwischen verschiedenen Substraten sowohl im Normalzustand als auch unter pathologischen Bedingungen wie etwa bei ischaemischen Syndromen, Herzinsuffizienz oder Diabetis mellitus beigetragen. Insbesondere durch Untersuchungen von metabolischen Auswirkungen verschiedener Therapieansaetze bei Herzerkrankungen und zur Vorhersage der Effektivitaet solcher therapeutischer Strategien kann die PET auch in Zukunft einen Beitrag zur Weiterentwicklung der Kardiologie leisten. (orig.)

  3. Fungal-Fungal Interactions in Leaf-Cutting Ant Agriculture

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sunshine A. Van Bael

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Many organisms participate in symbiotic relationships with other organisms, yet studies of symbioses typically have focused on the reciprocal costs and benefits within a particular host-symbiont pair. Recent studies indicate that many ecological interactions involve alliances of symbionts acting together as mutualistic consortia against other consortia. Such interacting consortia are likely to be widespread in nature, even if the interactions often occur in a cryptic fashion. Little theory and empirical data exist concerning how these complex interactions shape ecological outcomes in nature. Here, we review recent work on fungal-fungal interactions between two consortia: (i leaf-cutting ants and their symbiotic fungi (the latter grown as a food crop by the former and (ii tropical plants and their foliar endophytes (the cryptic symbiotic fungi within leaves of the former. Plant characteristics (e.g., secondary compounds or leaf physical properties of leaves are involved in leaf-cutting ant preferences, and a synthesis of published information suggests that these plant traits could be modified by fungal presence. We discuss potential mechanisms for how fungal-fungal interactions proceed in the leaf-cutting ant agriculture and suggest themes for future research.

  4. Methods of Assessing Human Tendon Metabolism and Tissue Properties in Response to Changes in Mechanical Loading.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heinemeier, Katja M; Kjaer, Michael; Magnusson, S Peter

    2016-01-01

    In recent years a number of methodological developments have improved the opportunities to study human tendon. Microdialysis enables sampling of interstitial fluid in the peritendon tissue, while sampling of human tendon biopsies allows direct analysis of tendon tissue for gene- and protein expression as well as protein synthesis rate. Further the (14)C bomb-pulse method has provided data on long-term tissue turnover in human tendon. Non-invasive techniques allow measurement of tendon metabolism (positron emission tomography (PET)), tendon morphology (magnetic resonance imaging (MRI)), and tendon mechanical properties (ultrasonography combined with force measurement during movement). Finally, 3D cell cultures of human tendon cells provide the opportunity to investigate cell-matrix interactions in response to various interventions. PMID:27535251

  5. Metabolism of human gliomas: Assessment with H-1 MR spectroscopy and F-18 fluorodeoxyglucose PET

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Localized hydrogen-1 magnetic resonance (MR) spectroscopy and fluorine-18 fluorodeoxyglucose (FDG) positron emission tomography (PET) were employed to obtain metabolic information from intracranial gliomas. Advantages and difficulties associated with comparison of results from the two modalities were realized. Forty patients were studied with H-1 MR spectroscopy. MR signal intensities from lactate, N-acetylaspartate (NAA), choline, and creatine from a volume of interest containing the tumor and a contralateral volume were obtained and evaluated. NAA signal intensities were generally decreased in the tumor spectra, and choline signal intensities were elevated. H-1 MR spectroscopy was unsuccessful in eight patients, and FDG PET scans were not obtained in four of the patients with successful MR spectroscopic examinations. Lactate signal intensity was detected in 10 of the 28 patients who had successful H-1 MR spectroscopic and FDG PET studies. Lactate signal intensities were observed in lesions shown at FDG PET to be hypermetabolic, as well as in lesions found to be hypometabolic

  6. Standardized added metabolic activity (SAM) IN {sup 18}F-FDG PET assessment of treatment response in colorectal liver metastases

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mertens, Jeroen; Goethals, I.; Wiele, C.V. de [Ghent University Hospital, Department of Nuclear Medicine, Ghent (Belgium); Bruyne, S. de [Ghent University Hospital, Department of Respiratory Medicine, Ghent (Belgium); Damme, N. van; Ceelen, W. [Ghent University Hospital, Department of Surgery, Ghent (Belgium); Smeets, P. [Ghent University Hospital, Department of Radiology, Ghent (Belgium); Troisi, R. [Ghent University Hospital, Department of General and Hepato-Biliary Surgery, Liver Transplantation Service, Ghent (Belgium); Laurent, S.; Geboes, K. [Ghent University Hospital, Department of Gastroenterology, Ghent (Belgium); Peeters, M. [Ghent University Hospital, Department of Gastroenterology, Ghent (Belgium); Antwerp University Hospital, Department of Oncology, Edegem (Belgium)

    2013-08-15

    Standardized added metabolic activity (SAM) is a PET parameter for assessing the total metabolic load of malignant processes, avoiding partial volume effects and lesion segmentation. The potential role of this parameter in the assessment of response to chemotherapy and bevacizumab was tested in patients with metastatic colorectal cancer with potentially resectable liver metastases (mCRC). {sup 18}F-FDG PET/CT was performed in 18 mCRC patients with liver metastases before treatment and after five cycles of FOLFOX/FOLFIRI and bevacizumab. Of the 18 patients, 16 subsequently underwent resection of liver metastases. Baseline and follow-up SUV{sub max}, and SAM as well as reduction in SUV{sub max} ({nabla}SUV{sub max}) and SAM ({nabla}SAM) of all liver metastases were correlated with morphological response, and progression-free and overall survival (PFS and OS). A significant reduction in metabolic activity of the liver metastases was seen after chemotherapy with a median {nabla}SUV{sub max} of 25.3 % and {nabla}SAM of 94.5 % (p = 0.033 and 0.003). Median baseline SUV{sub max} and SAM values were significantly different between morphological responders and nonresponders (3.8 vs. 7.2, p = 0.021; and 34 vs. 211, p = 0.002, respectively), but neither baseline PET parameters nor morphological response was correlated with PFS or OS. Follow-up SUV{sub max} and SAM as well as {nabla}SAM were found to be prognostic factors. The median PFS and OS in the patient group with a high follow-up SUV{sub max} were 10.4 months and 32 months, compared to a median PFS of 14.7 months and a median OS which had not been reached in the group with a low follow-up SUV{sub max} (p = 0.01 and 0.003, respectively). The patient group with a high follow-up SAM and a low {nabla}SAM had a median PFS and OS of 9.4 months and 32 months, whereas the other group had a median PFS of 14.7 months and a median OS which had not been reached (p = 0.002 for both PFS and OS). {sup 18}F-FDG PET imaging is a useful

  7. Assessing Fungal Population in Soil Planted with Cry1Ac and CPTI Transgenic Cotton and Its Conventional Parental Line Using 18S and ITS rDNA Sequences over Four Seasons

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qi, Xiemin; Liu, Biao; Song, Qinxin; Zou, Bingjie; Bu, Ying; Wu, Haiping; Ding, Li; Zhou, Guohua

    2016-01-01

    Long-term growth of genetically modified plants (GMPs) has raised concerns regarding their ecological effects. Here, FLX-pyrosequencing of region I (18S) and region II (ITS1, 5.8S, and ITS2) rDNA was used to characterize fungal communities in soil samples after 10-year monoculture of one representative transgenic cotton line (TC-10) and 15-year plantation of various transgenic cotton cultivars (TC-15mix) over four seasons. Soil fungal communities in the rhizosphere of non-transgenic control (CC) were also compared. No notable differences were observed in soil fertility variables among CC, TC-10, and TC-15mix. Within seasons, the different estimations were statistically indistinguishable. There were 411 and 2 067 fungal operational taxonomic units in the two regions, respectively. More than 75% of fungal taxa were stable in both CC and TC except for individual taxa with significantly different abundance between TC and CC. Statistical analysis revealed no significant differences between CC and TC-10, while discrimination of separating TC-15mix from CC and TC-10 with 37.86% explained variance in PCoA and a significant difference of Shannon indexes between TC-10 and TC-15mix were observed in region II. As TC-15mix planted with a mixture of transgenic cottons (Zhongmian-29, 30, and 33B) for over 5 years, different genetic modifications may introduce variations in fungal diversity. Further clarification is necessary by detecting the fungal dynamic changes in sites planted in monoculture of various transgenic cottons. Overall, we conclude that monoculture of one representative transgenic cotton cultivar may have no effect on fungal diversity compared with conventional cotton. Furthermore, the choice of amplified region and methodology has potential to affect the outcome of the comparison between GM-crop and its parental line. PMID:27462344

  8. Microbiological diagnostics of fungal infections

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Corrado Girmenia

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available Laboratory tests for the detection of fungal infections are easy to perform. The main obstacle to a correct diagnosis is the correlation between the laboratory findings and the clinical diagnosis. Among pediatric patients, the most common fungal pathogen is Candida. The detection of fungal colonization may be performed through the use of chromogenic culture media, which allows also the identification of Candida subspecies, from which pathogenicity depends. In neonatology, thistest often drives the decision to begin a empiric therapy; in this regard, a close cooperation between microbiologists and clinicians is highly recommended. Blood culture, if positive, is a strong confirmation of fungal infection; however, its low sensitivity results in a high percentage of false negatives, thus decreasing its reliability. Molecular diagnostics is still under evaluation, whereas the detection of some fungal antigens, such as β-D-glucan, galactomannan, mannoprotein, and cryptococcal antigen in the serum is used for adults, but still under evaluations for pediatric patients.http://dx.doi.org/10.7175/rhc.v4i1S.862

  9. Fungal sensing of host environment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Braunsdorf, C; Mailänder-Sánchez, D; Schaller, M

    2016-09-01

    To survive inside a host, fungi have to adapt to a changing and often hostile environment and therefore need the ability to recognize what is going on around them. To adapt to different host niches, they need to sense external conditions such as temperature, pH and to recognize specific host factors. The ability to respond to physiological changes inside the host, independent of being in a commensal, pathogenic or even symbiotic context, implicates mechanisms for sensing of specific host factors. Because the cell wall is constantly in contact with the surrounding, fungi express receptors on the surface of their cell wall, such as pheromone receptors, which have important roles, besides mediating chemotropism for mating. We are not restricting the discussion to the human host because the receptors and mechanisms used by different fungal species to sense their environment are often similar even for plant pathogens. Furthermore, the natural habitat of opportunistic pathogenic fungi with the potential to cause infection in a human host is in soil and on plants. While the hosts' mechanisms of sensing fungal pathogens have been addressed in the literature, the focus of this review is to fill the gap, giving an overview on fungal sensing of a host-(ile) environment. Expanding our knowledge on host-fungal interactions is extremely important to prevent and treat diseases of pathogenic fungi, which are important issues in human health and agriculture but also to understand the delicate balance of fungal symbionts in our ecosystem. PMID:27155351

  10. Aerodynamic characteristics and respiratory deposition of fungal fragments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cho, Seung-Hyun; Seo, Sung-Chul; Schmechel, Detlef; Grinshpun, Sergey A.; Reponen, Tiina

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the aerodynamic characteristics of fungal fragments and to estimate their respiratory deposition. Fragments and spores of three different fungal species ( Aspergillus versicolor, Penicillium melinii, and Stachybotrys chartarum) were aerosolized by the fungal spore source strength tester (FSSST). An electrical low-pressure impactor (ELPI) measured the size distribution in real-time and collected the aerosolized fungal particles simultaneously onto 12 impactor stages in the size range of 0.3-10 μm utilizing water-soluble ZEF-X10 coating of the impaction stages to prevent spore bounce. For S. chartarum, the average concentration of released fungal fragments was 380 particles cm -3, which was about 514 times higher than that of spores. A. versicolor was found to release comparable amount of spores and fragments. Microscopic analysis confirmed that S. chartarum and A. versicolor did not show any significant spore bounce, whereas the size distribution of P. melinii fragments was masked by spore bounce. Respiratory deposition was calculated using a computer-based model, LUDEP 2.07, for an adult male and a 3-month-old infant utilizing the database on the concentration and size distribution of S. chartarum and A. versicolor aerosols measured by the ELPI. Total deposition fractions for fragments and spores were 27-46% and 84-95%, respectively, showing slightly higher values in an infant than in an adult. For S. chartarum, fragments demonstrated 230-250 fold higher respiratory deposition than spores, while the number of deposited fragments and spores of A. versicolor were comparable. It was revealed that the deposition ratio (the number of deposited fragments divided by that of deposited spores) in the lower airways for an infant was 4-5 times higher than that for an adult. As fungal fragments have been shown to contain mycotoxins and antigens, further exposure assessment should include the measurement of fungal fragments for

  11. Entomopathogenic fungal (Hyphomycetes collection: assessment of conidial viability Coleção de fungos entomopatogênicos (Hyphomycetes: avaliação da viabilidade conidial

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcos Rodrigues de Faria

    1999-08-01

    Full Text Available Twenty four strains of the entomopathogenic fungi (Hyphomycetes Beauveria bassiana, Metarrhizium anisopliae, Nomuraea rileyi, Paecilomyces farinosus, P. fumosoroseus and P. lilacinus, maintained in the culture collection of Embrapa-Centro Nacional de Pesquisa de Recursos Genéticos e Biotecnologia (Cenargen and preserved by lyophilization and in liquid nitrogen, had their conidial viability assessed. Germination rates of 16- to 84-month-old cultures stored in liquid nitrogen decreased, on average, less than 13.3%. For 29- to 49-month-old cultures preserved by lyophilization, the viability loss ranged, on average, from 28.6 to 94.5%. The results demonstrated the efficiency of the tested methods, especially liquid nitrogen, in preserving the viability of entomopathogenic fungi.Vinte e quatro isolados dos fungos entomopatogênicos (Hyphomycetes Beauveria bassiana, Metarrhizium anisopliae, Nomuraea rileyi, Paecilomyces farinosus, P. fumosoroseus e P. lilacinus, mantidos na coleção de culturas da Embrapa-Centro Nacional de Pesquisa de Recursos Genéticos e Biotecnologia (Cenargen e preservados em nitrogênio líquido e liofilização, tiverama viabilidade conidial avaliada. As taxas de germinação de conídios preservados em nitrogênio líquido diminuíram, em média, menos de 13,3% após 16 a 84 meses de armazenamento. A perda de viabilidade de isolados liofilizados, após 29 a 49 meses de armazenamento, variou de 28,6 a 94,5%. Os resultados demonstraram a eficiência dos métodos testados, especialmente nitrogênio líquido, na preservação da viabilidade de fungos entomopatogênicos.

  12. Arbuscular mycorrhizal fungal community response to warming and nitrogen addition in a semiarid steppe ecosystem.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Yong-Chan; Gao, Cheng; Zheng, Yong; He, Xin-Hua; Yang, Wei; Chen, Liang; Wan, Shi-Qiang; Guo, Liang-Dong

    2015-05-01

    Understanding the response of arbuscular mycorrhizal (AM) fungi to warming and nitrogen (N) fertilization is critical to assess the impact of anthropogenic disturbance on ecosystem functioning under global climate change scenarios. In this study, AM fungal communities were examined in a full factorial design with warming and N addition in a semiarid steppe in northern China. Warming significantly increased AM fungal spore density, regardless of N addition, whilst N addition significantly decreased AM fungal extraradical hyphal density, regardless of warming. A total of 79 operational taxonomic units (OTUs) of AM fungi were recovered by 454 pyrosequencing of SSU rDNA. Warming, but not N addition, had a significant positive effect on AM fungal OTU richness, while warming and N addition significantly increased AM fungal Shannon diversity index. N addition, but not warming, significantly altered the AM fungal community composition. Furthermore, the changes in AM fungal community composition were associated with shifts in plant community composition indirectly caused by N addition. These findings highlight the different effects of warming and N addition on AM fungal communities and contribute to understanding AM fungal community responses to global environmental change scenarios in semiarid steppe ecosystems. PMID:25307533

  13. The mycotoxin definition reconsidered towards fungal cyclic depsipeptides.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taevernier, Lien; Wynendaele, Evelien; De Vreese, Leen; Burvenich, Christian; De Spiegeleer, Bart

    2016-04-01

    Currently, next to the major classes, cyclic depsipeptides beauvericin and enniatins are also positioned as mycotoxins. However, as there are hundreds more fungal cyclic depsipeptides already identified, should these not be considered as mycotoxins as well? The current status of the mycotoxin definition revealed a lack of consistency, leading to confusion about what compounds should be called mycotoxins. Because this is of pivotal importance in risk assessment prioritization, a clear and quantitatively expressed mycotoxin definition is proposed, based on data of widely accepted mycotoxins. Finally, this definition is applied to a set of fungal cyclic depsipeptides, revealing that some of these should indeed be considered as mycotoxins. PMID:26963720

  14. The Fungal Defensin Family Enlarged

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jiajia Wu

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Fungi are an emerging source of peptide antibiotics. With the availability of a large number of model fungal genome sequences, we can expect that more and more fungal defensin-like peptides (fDLPs will be discovered by sequence similarity search. Here, we report a total of 69 new fDLPs encoded by 63 genes, in which a group of fDLPs derived from dermatophytes are defined as a new family (fDEF8 according to sequence and phylogenetic analyses. In the oleaginous fungus Mortierella alpine, fDLPs have undergone extensive gene expansion. Our work further enlarges the fungal defensin family and will help characterize new peptide antibiotics with therapeutic potential.

  15. Assessment of myocardial metabolic disorder associated with mediastinal radiotherapy for esophageal cancer -a pilot study-

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    To evaluate the dose-effect relations for myocardial metabolic disorders after mediastinal radiotherapy (RT) by performing iodine-123 β-methyl-iodophenyl pentadecanoic acid (I-123 BMIPP) scintigraphy. Between 2011 and 2012, we performed I-123 BMIPP scintigraphy for patients with esophageal cancer before and six months after curative mediastinal RT. Single photon emission computed tomography (SPECT) images of pre-RT and post-RT were registered into RT dose distributions. The myocardium was contoured, and the regional RT dose was calculated. Normalization is required to compare pre- and post-RT SPECT images because the uptake pattern is changed due to the breathing level. Normalization was applied on the mean of SPECT counts in regions of the myocardium receiving less than 5 Gy. Relative values in each dose region (interval of 5 Gy) were calculated on the basis of this normalization for each patient. The reduction in the percent of relative values was calculated. Five patients were enrolled in this study. None of the patients had a past history of cardiac disease. The left ventricle was partially involved in RT fields in all patients. The patients received RT with median total doses of 60-66 Gy for the primary tumor and metastatic lymph nodes. Concomitant chemotherapy consisting of cisplatin or nedaplatin and 5-fluorouracil with RT was performed in 4 patients. All patients had reduced uptake corresponding to RT fields. Dose-effect relations for reduced uptake tended to be observed at 6 months after RT with mean decreases of 8.96% in regions at 10-15 Gy, 12.6% in regions at 20-25 Gy, 15.6% in regions at 30-35 Gy, 19.0% in regions at 40-45 Gy and 16.0% in regions at 50-55 Gy. Dose-effect relations for myocardial metabolic disorders tended to be observed. We may need to make an effort to reduce high-dose mediastinal RT to the myocardium in RT planning

  16. Supramolecular Probes for Assessing Glutamine Uptake Enable Semi-Quantitative Metabolic Models in Single Cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xue, Min; Wei, Wei; Su, Yapeng; Johnson, Dazy; Heath, James R

    2016-03-01

    We describe a supramolecular surface competition assay for quantifying glutamine uptake from single cells. Cy3-labeled cyclodextrins were immobilized on a glass surface as a supramolecular host/FRET donor, and adamantane-BHQ2 conjugates were employed as the guest/quencher. An adamantane-labeled glutamine analog was selected through screening a library of compounds and validated by cell uptake experiments. When integrated onto a single cell barcode chip with a multiplex panel of 15 other metabolites, associated metabolic enzymes, and phosphoproteins, the resultant data provided input for a steady-state model that describes energy potential in single cells and correlates that potential with receptor tyrosine kinase signaling. We utilize this integrated assay to interrogate a dose-dependent response of model brain cancer cells to EGFR inhibition. We find that low-dose (1 μM erlotinib) drugging actually increases cellular energy potential even as glucose uptake and phosphoprotein signaling is repressed. We also identify new interactions between phosphoprotein signaling and cellular energy processes that may help explain the facile resistance exhibited by certain cancer patients to EGFR inhibitors. PMID:26916347

  17. Experimental assessment of cumulative temperature and UV-B radiation effects on Mediterranean plankton metabolism

    KAUST Repository

    Garcia-Corral, Lara S.

    2015-07-07

    The Mediterranean Sea is a vulnerable region for climate change, warming at higher rates compare to the global ocean. Warming leads to increased stratification of the water column and enhanced the oligotrophic nature of the Mediterranean Sea. The oligotrophic waters are already highly transparent, however, exposure of Mediterranean plankton to ultraviolet radiation (UV-B and UV-A) may increase further if the waters become more oligotrophic, thereby, allowing a deeper UV radiation penetration and likely enhancing impacts to biota. Here we experimentally elucidate the cumulative effects of warming and natural UV-B radiation on the net community production (NCP) of plankton communities. We conducted five experiments at monthly intervals, from June to October 2013, and evaluated the responses of NCP to ambient UV-B radiation and warming (+3°C), alone and in combination, in a coastal area of the northwest Mediterranean Sea. UV-B radiation and warming lead to reduced NCP and resulted in a heterotrophic (NCP < 0) metabolic balance. Both UV-B radiation and temperature, showed a significant individual effect in NCP across treatments and time. However, their joint effect showed to be synergistic as the interaction between them (UV × Temp) was statistically significant in most of the experiments performed. Our results showed that both drivers, would affect the gas exchange of CO2−O2 from and to the atmosphere and the role of plankton communities in the Mediterranean carbon cycle.

  18. Fungal genomics beyond Saccharomyces cerevisiae?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hofmann, Gerald; Mcintyre, Mhairi; Nielsen, Jens

    2003-01-01

    Fungi are used extensively in both fundamental research and industrial applications. Saccharomyces cerevisiae has been the model organism for fungal research for many years, particularly in functional genomics. However, considering the diversity within the fungal kingdom, it is obvious that the...... application of the existing methods of genome, transcriptome, proteome and metabolome analysis to other fungi has enormous potential, especially for the production of food and food ingredients. The developments in the past year demonstrate that we have only just started to exploit this potential....

  19. Systemic Fungal Disease in Children

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A Zamani

    2005-10-01

    Full Text Available Background: Systemic fungal disease is related to administration of antibiotics, chemical therapy in malignancy, steroids therapy, etc in recent years. Methods: In a retrospective study from 1994 to 2004, we observed 26 patients. Findings: Most etiologic agents were Candida, Aspergillus, Mucormycosis and Cryptococcus. Predisposing factors in 80% of the patients were malignancy or chronic granulomatosis disease. Mortality occurred in 38% of patients. Conclusions: we recommend thinking to systemic fungal infections in high risk patients in order to diagnose and treat them properly.

  20. Cellular compartmentalization of secondary metabolism

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H. Corby eKistler

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Fungal secondary metabolism is often considered apart from the essential housekeeping functions of the cell. However, there are clear links between fundamental cellular metabolism and the biochemical pathways leading to secondary metabolite synthesis. Besides utilizing key biochemical precursors shared with the most essential processes of the cell (e.g. amino acids, acetyl CoA, NADPH, enzymes for secondary metabolite synthesis are compartmentalized at conserved subcellular sites that position pathway enzymes to use these common biochemical precursors. Co-compartmentalization of secondary metabolism pathway enzymes also may function to channel precursors, promote pathway efficiency and sequester pathway intermediates and products from the rest of the cell. In this review we discuss the compartmentalization of three well-studied fungal secondary metabolite biosynthetic pathways for penicillin G, aflatoxin and deoxynivalenol, and summarize evidence used to infer subcellular localization. We also discuss how these metabolites potentially are trafficked within the cell and may be exported.

  1. Mass spectrometry and its evolving role in assessing tissue specific steroid metabolism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andrew, Ruth; Homer, Natalie Z M

    2016-04-15

    Glucocorticoid hormones play vital roles in regulating diverse biological processes in health and disease. Tissue levels are regulated by enzymes which activate and inactivate hormones. The enzyme, 11β-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase type 1 (11βHSD1), in particular, has been identified as a potential drug target; inhibiting this enzyme attenuates glucocorticoid action by lowering local levels of active hormone. A variety of mass spectrometric approaches have been developed to characterize this enzymein vivo Endogenous glucocorticoids and their metabolites can be profiled in urine by GC-MS and circulating steroids are now more commonly quantified by liquid chromatography tandem mass spectrometry. Tracer dilution studies have allowed rates of generation of glucocorticoids by the enzyme to be distinguished from hormone generated directly by the adrenal glands and, in combination with arterio-venous (AV) sampling, rates of production by specific tissues have been quantified. This has allowed the contribution of liver, adipose, muscle and brain to cortisol production in metabolic disease and hence prioritized drug targets. Most recently MS imaging in combination with on-tissue derivatization has been developed to profile oxo-steroids in tissue sections, allowing molecular maps to be generated across complex tissues, where regional functions are important. The review provides a synopsis of how measurement of steroids by MS has evolved with technological advances and this has provided insight into the dynamic turnover of glucocorticoidsin vivo, highlighting the milestones that have advanced the field and identifying the remaining challenges for researchers, in terms of analytical chemistry and endocrine physiology and biochemistry. PMID:27068983

  2. Nonoxynol-9: in vivo disposition, metabolism and in vitro spermicidal assessment of selected oligomers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Walter, B.A.

    1988-01-01

    The disposition of nonoxynol-9 labelled with carbon-14 at the ethylene oxide units was studied following an i.v. or vaginal administration to female Sprague Dawley rats. The results from the vaginal administration studies indicate 12.8% absorption of (C-14) radioactivity in 6.0h and 37.7% in 24 h. Tissue distribution studies showed that the small and large intestines, including their contents, had the highest C-14 activity by either route of administration. Radiomonitored HPLC of bile collected at 6.0h and urine at 6.0, 24.0 and 48.0h following an i.v. injection of (C-14) nonoxynol-9 showed that the compound was completely metabolized in the body of the rat. Pharmacokinetics of the most abundant oligomer (E.O.8) following an i.v. administration indicated a rapid distribution to a peripheral compartment followed by a slower elimination (half-life = 196min) of the E.O.8 from the plasma. The in vitro spermicidal activity of various molecular weight N-9 oligomers was compared to N-9 with rabbit spermatozoa. When HPLC purified fractions of N-9 were formulated with PVP and evaluated in equimolar concentrations the order of spermicidal activity was: middle MW fraction (E.O. = 6-8) > N-9 > high MW fraction (E.O. = 11-13) > low MW fraction (E.O. = 1-4). Also the N-9 - PVP complex was more effective in immobilizing spermatozoa than N-9 alone.

  3. Assessing bioenergetic function in response to oxidative stress by metabolic profiling

    OpenAIRE

    Dranka, Brian P.; Benavides, Gloria A.; Diers, Anne R.; Giordano, Samantha; Zelickson, Blake R.; Reily, Colin; Zou, Luyun; Chatham, John C.; Hill, Bradford G.; Zhang, Jianhua; Landar, Aimee; Darley-Usmar, Victor M.

    2011-01-01

    It is now clear that mitochondria are an important target for oxidative stress in a broad range of pathologies including cardiovascular disease, diabetes, neurodegeneration, and cancer. Methods for assessing the impact of reactive species on isolated mitochondria are well established but constrained by the need for large amounts of material to prepare intact mitochondria for polarographic measurements. With the availability of high resolution polarography and fluorescence techniques for the m...

  4. Burden of fungal disease in Ireland

    OpenAIRE

    Dorgan, Eileen; Denning, David W; McMullan, Ronan

    2015-01-01

    Our objective was to estimate the burden of fungal disease on the island of Ireland, as part of a coordinated project estimating the global burden. Published epidemiology data describing fungal infection in Ireland were identified. Population and underlying disease data were collected for 2010 and a structured set of assumptions were applied to estimate burden of fungal disease based on immunosuppression, chronic disease, and other demographic information indicating predisposition to fungal i...

  5. Re-Defining the Subsurface Biosphere: Characterization of Fungal Populations from Energy Limited Deep Marine Subsurface Sediments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reese, B. K.; Ariza, M.; St. Peter, C.; Hoffman, C.; Edwards, K. J.; Mills, H. J.

    2012-12-01

    The detection and characterization of metabolically active fungal populations within the deep marine subsurface will alter current ecosystem models that are limited to bacterial and archaeal populations. Although marine fungi have been studied for over fifty years, a detailed description of fungal populations within the deep subsurface is lacking. Fungi possess metabolic pathways capable of utilizing previously considered non-bioavailable energy reserves. Therefore, metabolically active fungi would occupy a unique niche within subsurface ecosystems, with the potential to provide an organic carbon source for heterotrophic prokaryotic populations not currently being considered in subsurface energy budgets. Sediments from the South Pacific Gyre subsurface, one of the most energy-limited environments on Earth, were collected during the Integrated Ocean Drilling Program (IODP) Expedition 329. Anaerobic and aerobic sediment slurry cultures using fresh sediment began directly following the completion of the Expedition (December 2010). From these cultures, multiple fungal lineages have been isolated on several media types that vary in carbon concentrations. Physical growth parameters of these subsurface fungal isolates were determined and compared to previously characterized lineages. Additionally, the overall diversity of metabolically active and dormant fungal populations was determined using high throughput sequencing of nucleic acids extracted from in situ cryopreserved South Pacific Gyre sediments. This project provides a robust step in determining the importance and impact of fungal populations within the marine subsurface biosphere.

  6. Environment, host, and fungal traits predict continental-scale white-nose syndrome in bats

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hayman, David T.S.; Pulliam, Juliet R.C.; Marshall, Jonathan C.; Cryan, Paul M.; Webb, Colleen T.

    2016-01-01

    White-nose syndrome is a fungal disease killing bats in eastern North America, but disease is not seen in European bats and is less severe in some North American species. We show that how bats use energy during hibernation and fungal growth rates under different environmental conditions can explain how some bats are able to survive winter with infection and others are not. Our study shows how simple but nonlinear interactions between fungal growth and bat energetics result in decreased survival times at more humid hibernation sites; however, differences between species such as body size and metabolic rates determine the impact of fungal infection on bat survival, allowing European bat species to survive, whereas North American species can experience dramatic decline.

  7. (Post-)genomics approaches in fungal research

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Aguilar-Pontes, María Victoria; de Vries, Ronald P; Zhou, M.; van den Brink, J.

    2014-01-01

    To date, hundreds of fungal genomes have been sequenced and many more are in progress. This wealth of genomic information has provided new directions to study fungal biodiversity. However, to further dissect and understand the complicated biological mechanisms involved in fungal life styles, functio

  8. Fungal endophyte diversity in Sarracenia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fungal endophytes were isolated from four species of the carnivorous pitcher plant genus Sarracenia: S. minor, S. oreophila, S. purpurea, and S. psittacina. Twelve taxa of fungi, eight within the Ascomycota and four within the Basidiomycota, were identified based on PCR amplification and sequencing ...

  9. Imaging fungal infections in children

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ankrah, Alfred O.; Sathekge, Mike M; Dierckx, Rudi A.J.O.; Glaudemans, Andor W.J.M.

    2016-01-01

    Fungal infections in children rarely occur, but continue to have a high morbidity and mortality despite the development of newer antifungal agents. It is essential for these infections to be diagnosed at the earliest possible stage so appropriate treatment can be initiated promptly. The addition of

  10. Application of speckle image correlation for real-time assessment of metabolic activity in herpes virus-infected cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Earlier we reported developing a speckle interferometry technique and a device designed to assess the metabolic activity of a cell monolayer cultivated on a glass substrate. This paper aimed at upgrading the technique and studying its potential for real-time assessment of herpes virus development process. Speckle dynamics was recorded in the image plane of intact and virus-infected cell monolayer. HLE-3, L-41 and Vero cells were chosen as research targets. Herpes simplex virus-1-(HSV-1)- infected cell cultures were studied. For 24 h we recorded the digital value of optical signal I in one pixel and parameter η characterizing change in the distribution of the optical signal on 10 × 10-pixel areas. The coefficient of multiple determination calculated by η time dependences for three intact cell cultures equals 0.94. It was demonstrated that the activity parameters are significantly different for intact and virus-infected cells. The difference of η value for intact and HSV-1-infected cells is detectable 10 minutes from the experiment start.

  11. Use of stable isotopes to assess protein and amino acid metabolism in children and adolescents: a brief review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Darmaun, Dominique; Mauras, Nelly

    2005-01-01

    As protein accretion is a prerequisite for growth, studying the mechanisms by which nutrients and hormones promote protein gain is of the utmost relevance to paediatric endocrinology. Tracers are ideally suited for the assessment of protein and amino acid kinetics in vivo, as they provide an estimate of synthesis and turnover. Current tracer approaches in children and adolescents utilize stable isotopes, 'heavier' forms of elements that have one or several extra neutrons in the nucleus. Such isotopes are already present at low, but significant, levels in all tissues and foodstuffs, are not radioactive and are devoid of any known side-effects when present in small amounts. L-[1-(13)C] labelled leucine, given as a 4- to 6-h intravenous infusion, has become the method of choice to assess whole-body protein kinetics. After infusion, any 13C-leucine that is oxidized appears in the breath as 13CO2, whereas the remainder is incorporated into body proteins through protein synthesis. The isotope enrichments are determined by isotope ratio mass spectrometry and gas chromatography mass spectrometry, and absolute rates of whole-body protein synthesis, oxidation, and breakdown can be extrapolated. This approach has been used extensively to investigate the regulation of protein kinetics by nutrients and by hormones. Attempts have also been made to measure amino acid/protein metabolism in selected body compartments, and to measure the kinetics of specific tissue proteins, for example, muscle, gut, or plasma proteins. PMID:16439842

  12. Quantification of urban metabolism through coupling with the life cycle assessment framework: concept development and case study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cities now consume resources and produce waste in amounts that are incommensurate with the populations they contain. Quantifying and benchmarking the environmental impacts of cities is essential if urbanization of the world’s growing population is to occur sustainably. Urban metabolism (UM) is a promising assessment form in that it provides the annual sum material and energy inputs, and the resultant emissions of the emergent infrastructural needs of a city’s sociotechnical subsystems. By fusing UM and life cycle assessment (UM–LCA) this study advances the ability to quantify environmental impacts of cities by modeling pressures embedded in the flows upstream (entering) and downstream (leaving) of the actual urban systems studied, and by introducing an advanced suite of indicators. Applied to five global cities, the developed UM–LCA model provided enhanced quantification of mass and energy flows through cities over earlier UM methods. The hybrid model approach also enabled the dominant sources of a city’s different environmental footprints to be identified, making UM–LCA a novel and potentially powerful tool for policy makers in developing and monitoring urban development policies. Combining outputs with socioeconomic data hinted at how these forces influenced the footprints of the case cities, with wealthier ones more associated with personal consumption related impacts and poorer ones more affected by local burdens from archaic infrastructure. (letter)

  13. A Comparative Study of the Anti-Fungal Activity of Zinc Oxide and Titanium Dioxide Nano and Bulk Particles with Anti-Fungals against Fungi Isolated from Infected Skin and Dandruff Flakes

    OpenAIRE

    Sara A George; M Shailaja Raj; Diana Solomon; Roselin P

    2014-01-01

    The anti-fungal activity of Zinc oxide and Titanium dioxide nano-particles was assessed by treating eight fungal cultures - Aspergillus niger, Trichophyton, Fonsecaea, Aspergillus flavus, Rhizopus oryzae, Fusarium, Ramichloridium schulzeri and Cladosporium, isolated from infected skin and dandruff flakes with the nanoparticles and analysing the extent of growth inhibition on agar and in broth media. The anti-fungal activity of these nano-particles was also compared to that of their respective...

  14. First haematic results for the sea bass (Dicentrarchus labrax metabolic profile assessment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Riccardo Bozzi

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available The assessment of blood reference ranges of farmed fish can be extremely useful in improving production and productquality. A first attempt to establish the normality ranges for the most important haematochemical parameters of farmedsea bass was carried out by analysing the trend of Haematocrit, Glucose, Total Protein, Albumin, Globulin, TotalCholesterol and some electrolytes in 353 sea bass farmed with two different farming systems within 1 year. A strong seasonaleffect was found with regard to each parameter; the role of some environmental conditions was evaluated; andsome reference ranges were proposed for the culturing methods considered.

  15. Association of Metabolic Syndrome with the Adiponectin to Homeostasis Model Assessment of Insulin Resistance Ratio

    OpenAIRE

    Yu-Song Ding; Shu-Xia Guo; Ru-Lin Ma; Shu-Gang Li; Heng Guo; Jing-Yu Zhang; Mei Zhang; Jia-Ming Liu; Jia He; Yi-zhong Yan; Wen-Jie Zhang; Lie-Gang Liu

    2015-01-01

    This study aimed at determining whether the adiponectin to HOMA-IR (A/H) ratio is associated with MetS and MetS components and comparing the diagnostic efficacy of adiponectin, HOMA-IR, and the A/H ratio in healthy, middle-aged participants. MetS was assessed in 1628 Kazakh participants (men, 768; women, 860). The associations between adiponectin, HOMA-IR, and the A/H ratio with the components of MetS and MetS were examined using logistic regression analysis and receiver operating characteris...

  16. Vitamin A metabolism, kinetic behavior and utilization: Rationale for the continued development and use of an isotope dilution technique for assessing vitamin A stores in human populations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The paper discusses the applicability of isotope dilution method in general and oral isotope dilution in particular to the assessment of vitamin A status in humans. It also highlights some aspects of vitamin A intake and metabolism as related to isotope dilution method. Areas of methodological research and development in vitamin A research are also proposed

  17. Recovery of community genomes to assess subsurface metabolic potential: exploiting the capacity of next generation sequencing-based metagenomics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wrighton, K. C.; Thomas, B.; Miller, C. S.; Sharon, I.; Wilkins, M. J.; VerBerkmoes, N. C.; Handley, K. M.; Lipton, M. S.; Hettich, R. L.; Williams, K. H.; Long, P. E.; Banfield, J. F.

    2011-12-01

    With the goal of developing a deterministic understanding of the microbiological and geochemical processes controlling subsurface environments, groundwater bacterial communities were collected from the Rifle Integrated Field Research Challenge (IFRC) site. Biomass from three temporal acetate-stimulated groundwater samples were collected during a period of dominant Fe(III)-reduction, in a region of the aquifer that had previously received acetate amendment the year prior. Phylogenetic analysis revealed a diverse Bacterial community, notably devoid of Archaea with 249 taxa from 9 Bacterial phyla including the dominance of uncultured candidate divisions, BD1-5, OD1, and OP11. We have reconstructed 86 partial to near-complete genomes and have performed a detailed characterization of the underlying metabolic potential of the ecosystem. We assessed the natural variation and redundancy in multi-heme c-type cytochromes, sulfite reductases, and central carbon metabolic pathways. Deep genomic sampling indicated the community contained various metabolic pathways: sulfur oxidation coupled to microaerophilic conditions, nitrate reduction with both acetate and inorganic compounds as donors, carbon and nitrogen fixation, antibiotic warfare, and heavy-metal detoxification. Proteomic investigations using predicted proteins from metagenomics corroborated that acetate oxidation is coupled to reduction of oxygen, sulfur, nitrogen, and iron across the samples. Of particular interest was the detection of acetate oxidizing and sulfate reducing proteins from a Desulfotalea-like bacterium in all three time points, suggesting that aqueous sulfide produced by active sulfate-reducing bacteria could contribute to abiotic iron reduction during the dominant iron reduction phase. Additionally, proteogenomic analysis verified that a large portion of the community, including members of the uncultivated BD1-5, are obligate fermenters, characterized by the presence of hydrogen-evolving hydrogenases

  18. Comparative genomics of fungal allergens and epitopes shows widespread distribution of closely related allergen and epitope orthologues

    OpenAIRE

    Fraczek Marcin; Bowyer Paul; Denning David W

    2006-01-01

    Abstract Background Allergy is a common debilitating and occasionally life threatening condition. The fungal kingdom contains a number of species that produce a wide range of well defined protein allergens although the vast majority of fungal species have unknown allergenic potential. The recent genome sequencing of a variety of fungi provides the opportunity to assess the occurrence of allergen orthologues across the fungal kingdom. Here we use comparative genomics to survey the occurrence o...

  19. Fungal palaeodiversity revealed using high-throughput metabarcoding of ancient DNA from arctic permafrost

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bellemain, E.; Davey, M.L.; Kauserud, H.;

    2013-01-01

    The taxonomic and ecological diversity of ancient fungal communities was assessed by combining next generation sequencing and metabarcoding of DNA preserved in permafrost. Twenty-six sediment samples dated 16000-32000 radiocarbon years old from two localities in Siberia were analysed for fungal ITS....... We detected 75 fungal OTUs from 21 orders representing three phyla, although rarefaction analyses suggested that the full diversity was not recovered despite generating an average of 6677±3811 (mean±SD) sequences per sample and that preservation bias likely has considerable effect on the recovered...... DNA. Most OTUs (75.4%) represented ascomycetes. Due to insufficient sequencing depth, DNA degradation and putative preservation biases in our samples, the recovered taxa probably do not represent the complete historic fungal community, and it is difficult to determine whether the fungal communities...

  20. Discrimination of fungal infections on grape berries via spectral signatures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Molitor, Daniel; Griesser, Michaela; Schütz, Erich; Khuen, Marie-Therese; Schefbeck, Christa; Ronellenfitsch, Franz Kai; Schlerf, Martin; Beyer, Marco; Schoedl-Hummel, Katharina; Anhalt, Ulrike; Forneck, Astrid

    2016-04-01

    The fungal pathogens Botrytis cinerea and Penicillium expansum are causing economic damages on grapevine worldwide. Especially the simultaneous occurrence of both often results in off-flavours highly threatening wine quality. For the classification of grape quality as well as for the determination of targeted enological treatments, the knowledge of the level of fungal attack is of highest interest. However, visual assessment and pathogen discrimination are cost-intensive. Consequently, a pilot laboratory study aimed at (i) detecting differences in spectral signatures between grape berry lots with different levels of infected berries (B. cinerea and/or P. expansum) and (ii) detecting links between spectral signatures and biochemical as well as quantitative molecular markers for fungal attack. To this end, defined percentages (infection levels) of table grape berries were inoculated with fungal spore suspensions. Spectral measurements were taken using a FieldSpec 3 Max spectroradiometer (ASD Inc., Boulder/Colorado, USA) in regular intervals after inoculation. In addition, fungal attack was determined enzymatically) and quantitatively (real-time PCR). In addition, gluconic acid concentrations (as a potential markers for fungal attack) were determined photometrically. Results indicate that based on spectral signatures, a discrimination of P. expansum and B. cinerea infections as well as of different B. cinerea infection levels is possible. Real-time PCR analyses, detecting DNA levels of both fungi, showed yet a low detection level. Whereas the gluconic acid concentrations turned out to be specific for the two fungi tested (B. cinerea vs. P. expansum) and thus may serve as a differentiating biochemical marker. Correlation analyses between spectral measurements and biological data (gluconic acid concentrations, fungi DNA) as well as further common field and laboratory trials are targeted.

  1. Arctic root-associated fungal community composition reflects environmental filtering.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blaalid, Rakel; Davey, Marie L; Kauserud, Håvard; Carlsen, Tor; Halvorsen, Rune; Høiland, Klaus; Eidesen, Pernille B

    2014-02-01

    There is growing evidence that root-associated fungi have important roles in Arctic ecosystems. Here, we assess the diversity of fungal communities associated with roots of the ectomycorrhizal perennial herb Bistorta vivipara on the Arctic archipelago of Svalbard and investigate whether spatial separation and bioclimatic variation are important structuring factors of fungal community composition. We sampled 160 plants of B. vivipara from 32 localities across Svalbard. DNA was extracted from entire root systems, and 454 pyrosequencing of ITS1 amplicons was used to profile the fungal communities. The fungal communities were predominantly composed of Basidiomycota (55% of reads) and Ascomycota (35%), with the orders Thelephorales (24%), Agaricales (13.8%), Pezizales (12.6%) and Sebacinales (11.3%) accounting for most of the reads. Plants from the same site or region had more similar fungal communities to one another than plants from other sites or regions, and sites clustered together along a weak latitudinal gradient. Furthermore, a decrease in per-plant OTU richness with increasing latitude was observed. However, no statistically significant spatial autocorrelation between sites was detected, suggesting that environmental filtering, not dispersal limitation, causes the observed patterns. Our analyses suggest that while latitudinal patterns in community composition and richness might reflect bioclimatic influences at global spatial scales, at the smaller spatial scale of the Svalbard archipelago, these changes more likely reflect varied bedrock composition and associated edaphic factors. The need for further studies focusing on identifying those specific bioclimatic and edaphic factors structuring root-associated fungal community composition at both global and local scales is emphasized. PMID:24320873

  2. Fungal Infections and New Biologic Therapies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vallabhaneni, Snigdha; Chiller, Tom M

    2016-05-01

    The development of biologic therapies targeting proinflammatory mediators has led to significant advances in the treatment of immune-mediated inflammatory diseases (IMIDs). Blocking undesired inflammatory effects also has the potential to disrupt the body's immune response and increase the risk for infections, including fungal infections. This review summarizes the published data on the frequency and risk for fungal infections among patients treated with biologics, with a focus on the newer therapies approved for use with IMIDs in the last 10 years. The use of biologics is associated with a small but important risk of fungal infections. Pneumocystis jirovecii pneumonia, histoplasmosis, and candidiasis are some of the most common fungal infections associated with biologics. Providers should be vigilant for fungal infection among patients taking biologics, be aware that biologic agents may alter the typical presentation of fungal infections, and take timely steps to diagnose and treat fungal infection to reduce resultant morbidity and mortality. PMID:27032792

  3. Forest Age and Plant Species Composition Determine the Soil Fungal Community Composition in a Chinese Subtropical Forest.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yu Ting Wu

    Full Text Available Fungal diversity and community composition are mainly related to soil and vegetation factors. However, the relative contribution of the different drivers remains largely unexplored, especially in subtropical forest ecosystems. We studied the fungal diversity and community composition of soils sampled from 12 comparative study plots representing three forest age classes (Young: 10-40 yrs; Medium: 40-80 yrs; Old: ≥80 yrs in Gutianshan National Nature Reserve in South-eastern China. Soil fungal communities were assessed employing ITS rDNA pyrotag sequencing. Members of Basidiomycota and Ascomycota dominated the fungal community, with 22 putative ectomycorrhizal fungal families, where Russulaceae and Thelephoraceae were the most abundant taxa. Analysis of similarity showed that the fungal community composition significantly differed among the three forest age classes. Forest age class, elevation of the study plots, and soil organic carbon (SOC were the most important factors shaping the fungal community composition. We found a significant correlation between plant and fungal communities at different taxonomic and functional group levels, including a strong relationship between ectomycorrhizal fungal and non-ectomycorrhizal plant communities. Our results suggest that in subtropical forests, plant species community composition is the main driver of the soil fungal diversity and community composition.

  4. Assessment of Metformin as an Additional Treatment to Therapeutic Lifestyle Changes in Pediatric Patients with Metabolic Syndrome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rebecca M. Raub

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective. To assess the effectiveness of metformin and therapeutic lifestyle changes (TLCs in a clinical setting, compared to TLC alone in adolescents with metabolic syndrome (MS. Methodology. This study was a retrospective trial consisting of 60 patients, aged 8–18 years, who were treated for MS at an outpatient clinic. Two groups were formed: the metformin group (M group and the control group (C group. The M group had been given metformin along with TLC, and the C group had been given TLC alone. Several outcome measures were obtained; the main outcome measure was measuring the change in percentile and z-score of weight and BMI. Results. There were no significant differences between the two groups at the conclusion of the study, except for height percentile (P=0.02 and z-score (P=0.03. Both groups showed promising significant intragroup decreases in weight z-score but BMI percentile and z-score were only significantly decreased in the M group. Conclusion. Metformin at an average dose of 1033 mg, when added to TLC, did not show any clinically important efficacy compared to TLC alone in a pediatric population with MS. However, both groups made significant changes in a positive direction, which may be solely due to TLC.

  5. Fungal genome resources at NCBI

    OpenAIRE

    Robbertse, B.; Tatusova, T.

    2011-01-01

    The National Center for Biotechnology Information (NCBI) is well known for the nucleotide sequence archive, GenBank and sequence analysis tool BLAST. However, NCBI integrates many types of biomolecular data from variety of sources and makes it available to the scientific community as interactive web resources as well as organized releases of bulk data. These tools are available to explore and compare fungal genomes. Searching all databases with Fungi [organism] at http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/...

  6. Directed Evolution of Fungal Laccases

    OpenAIRE

    Maté, Diana; García-Ruiz, Eva; Camarero, Susana; Alcalde, Miguel

    2011-01-01

    Fungal laccases are generalists biocatalysts with potential applications that range from bioremediation to novel green processes. Fuelled by molecular oxygen, these enzymes can act on dozens of molecules of different chemical nature, and with the help of redox mediators, their spectrum of oxidizable substrates is further pushed towards xenobiotic compounds (pesticides, industrial dyes, PAHs), biopolymers (lignin, starch, cellulose) and other complex molecules. In recent years, extraordinary e...

  7. A Comparative Study of the Anti-Fungal Activity of Zinc Oxide and Titanium Dioxide Nano and Bulk Particles with Anti-Fungals against Fungi Isolated from Infected Skin and Dandruff Flakes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sara A George

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available The anti-fungal activity of Zinc oxide and Titanium dioxide nano-particles was assessed by treating eight fungal cultures - Aspergillus niger, Trichophyton, Fonsecaea, Aspergillus flavus, Rhizopus oryzae, Fusarium, Ramichloridium schulzeri and Cladosporium, isolated from infected skin and dandruff flakes with the nanoparticles and analysing the extent of growth inhibition on agar and in broth media. The anti-fungal activity of these nano-particles was also compared to that of their respective bulk-particular forms, as well as to two commonly used anti-fungals, namely Amphotericin-B and Miconazole. The nano-particles were found to be more effective than the bulk-particles and almost equally efficient as Amphotericin-B, however Miconazole was found to be a better anti-fungal at an equal concentration. Zinc oxide nano-particles were better anti-fungals than Titanium dioxide, thus its anti-fungal activity at different concentrations was assessed to identify the concentration that shows similar anti-fungal activity as 3μg/ml of Miconazole. The reason for performing this study was to investigate the possibility of replacing presently used anti-fungal drugs with nano-particles in topical applications to treat mycosis.

  8. Fungal genome resources at NCBI.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robbertse, B; Tatusova, T

    2011-09-01

    The National Center for Biotechnology Information (NCBI) is well known for the nucleotide sequence archive, GenBank and sequence analysis tool BLAST. However, NCBI integrates many types of biomolecular data from variety of sources and makes it available to the scientific community as interactive web resources as well as organized releases of bulk data. These tools are available to explore and compare fungal genomes. Searching all databases with Fungi [organism] at http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/ is the quickest way to find resources of interest with fungal entries. Some tools though are resources specific and can be indirectly accessed from a particular database in the Entrez system. These include graphical viewers and comparative analysis tools such as TaxPlot, TaxMap and UniGene DDD (found via UniGene Homepage). Gene and BioProject pages also serve as portals to external data such as community annotation websites, BioGrid and UniProt. There are many different ways of accessing genomic data at NCBI. Depending on the focus and goal of research projects or the level of interest, a user would select a particular route for accessing genomic databases and resources. This review article describes methods of accessing fungal genome data and provides examples that illustrate the use of analysis tools. PMID:22737589

  9. Systems biology of fungal infection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fabian eHorn

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available Elucidation of pathogenicity mechanisms of the most important human pathogenic fungi, Aspergillus fumigatus and Candida albicans, has gained great interest in the light of the steadily increasing number of cases of invasive fungal infections.A key feature of these infections is the interaction of the different fungal morphotypes with epithelial and immune effector cells in the human host. Because of the high level of complexity, it is necessary to describe and understand invasive fungal infection by taking a systems biological approach, i.e., by a comprehensive quantitative analysis of the non-linear and selective interactions of a large number of functionally diverse, and frequently multifunctional, sets of elements, e.g., genes, proteins, metabolites, which produce coherent and emergent behaviours in time and space. The recent advances in systems biology will now make it possible to uncover the structure and dynamics of molecular and cellular cause-effect relationships within these pathogenic interactions.We review current efforts to integrate omics and image-based data of host-pathogen interactions into network and spatio-temporal models. The modelling will help to elucidate pathogenicity mechanisms and to identify diagnostic biomarkers and potential drug targets for therapy and could thus pave the way for novel intervention strategies based on novel antifungal drugs and cell therapy.

  10. Allergen Immunotherapy in an HIV+ Patient with Allergic Fungal Rhinosinusitis

    OpenAIRE

    Myles, Ian A.; Satyen Gada

    2015-01-01

    Patients with HIV/AIDS can present with multiple types of fungal rhinosinusitis, fungal balls, granulomatous invasive fungal rhinosinusitis, acute or chronic invasive fungal rhinosinusitis, or allergic fungal rhinosinusitis (AFRS). Given the variable spectrum of immune status and susceptibility to severe infection from opportunistic pathogens it is extremely important that clinicians distinguish aggressive fungal invasive fungal disease from the much milder forms such as AFRS. Here we descr...

  11. National and subnational mortality effects of metabolic risk factors and smoking in Iran: a comparative risk assessment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Farzadfar Farshad

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Mortality from cardiovascular and other chronic diseases has increased in Iran. Our aim was to estimate the effects of smoking and high systolic blood pressure (SBP, fasting plasma glucose (FPG, total cholesterol (TC, and high body mass index (BMI on mortality and life expectancy, nationally and subnationally, using representative data and comparable methods. Methods We used data from the Non-Communicable Disease Surveillance Survey to estimate means and standard deviations for the metabolic risk factors, nationally and by region. Lung cancer mortality was used to measure cumulative exposure to smoking. We used data from the death registration system to estimate age-, sex-, and disease-specific numbers of deaths in 2005, adjusted for incompleteness using demographic methods. We used systematic reviews and meta-analyses of epidemiologic studies to obtain the effect of risk factors on disease-specific mortality. We estimated deaths and life expectancy loss attributable to risk factors using the comparative risk assessment framework. Results In 2005, high SBP was responsible for 41,000 (95% uncertainty interval: 38,000, 44,000 deaths in men and 39,000 (36,000, 42,000 deaths in women in Iran. High FPG, BMI, and TC were responsible for about one-third to one-half of deaths attributable to SBP in men and/or women. Smoking was responsible for 9,000 deaths among men and 2,000 among women. If SBP were reduced to optimal levels, life expectancy at birth would increase by 3.2 years (2.6, 3.9 and 4.1 years (3.2, 4.9 in men and women, respectively; the life expectancy gains ranged from 1.1 to 1.8 years for TC, BMI, and FPG. SBP was also responsible for the largest number of deaths in every region, with age-standardized attributable mortality ranging from 257 to 333 deaths per 100,000 adults in different regions. Discussion Management of blood pressure through diet, lifestyle, and pharmacological interventions should be a priority in Iran

  12. Phylogenetic distribution of fungal sterols.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    John D Weete

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Ergosterol has been considered the "fungal sterol" for almost 125 years; however, additional sterol data superimposed on a recent molecular phylogeny of kingdom Fungi reveals a different and more complex situation. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: The interpretation of sterol distribution data in a modern phylogenetic context indicates that there is a clear trend from cholesterol and other Delta(5 sterols in the earliest diverging fungal species to ergosterol in later diverging fungi. There are, however, deviations from this pattern in certain clades. Sterols of the diverse zoosporic and zygosporic forms exhibit structural diversity with cholesterol and 24-ethyl -Delta(5 sterols in zoosporic taxa, and 24-methyl sterols in zygosporic fungi. For example, each of the three monophyletic lineages of zygosporic fungi has distinctive major sterols, ergosterol in Mucorales, 22-dihydroergosterol in Dimargaritales, Harpellales, and Kickxellales (DHK clade, and 24-methyl cholesterol in Entomophthorales. Other departures from ergosterol as the dominant sterol include: 24-ethyl cholesterol in Glomeromycota, 24-ethyl cholest-7-enol and 24-ethyl-cholesta-7,24(28-dienol in rust fungi, brassicasterol in Taphrinales and hypogeous pezizalean species, and cholesterol in Pneumocystis. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: Five dominant end products of sterol biosynthesis (cholesterol, ergosterol, 24-methyl cholesterol, 24-ethyl cholesterol, brassicasterol, and intermediates in the formation of 24-ethyl cholesterol, are major sterols in 175 species of Fungi. Although most fungi in the most speciose clades have ergosterol as a major sterol, sterols are more varied than currently understood, and their distribution supports certain clades of Fungi in current fungal phylogenies. In addition to the intellectual importance of understanding evolution of sterol synthesis in fungi, there is practical importance because certain antifungal drugs (e.g., azoles target reactions in

  13. Circadian control sheds light on fungal bioluminescence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oliveira, Anderson G; Stevani, Cassius V; Waldenmaier, Hans E; Viviani, Vadim; Emerson, Jillian M; Loros, Jennifer J; Dunlap, Jay C

    2015-03-30

    Bioluminescence, the creation and emission of light by organisms, affords insight into the lives of organisms doing it. Luminous living things are widespread and access diverse mechanisms to generate and control luminescence [1-5]. Among the least studied bioluminescent organisms are phylogenetically rare fungi-only 71 species, all within the ∼ 9,000 fungi of the temperate and tropical Agaricales order-are reported from among ∼ 100,000 described fungal species [6, 7]. All require oxygen [8] and energy (NADH or NADPH) for bioluminescence and are reported to emit green light (λmax 530 nm) continuously, implying a metabolic function for bioluminescence, perhaps as a byproduct of oxidative metabolism in lignin degradation. Here, however, we report that bioluminescence from the mycelium of Neonothopanus gardneri is controlled by a temperature-compensated circadian clock, the result of cycles in content/activity of the luciferase, reductase, and luciferin that comprise the luminescent system. Because regulation implies an adaptive function for bioluminescence, a controversial question for more than two millennia [8-15], we examined interactions between luminescent fungi and insects [16]. Prosthetic acrylic resin "mushrooms," internally illuminated by a green LED emitting light similar to the bioluminescence, attract staphilinid rove beetles (coleopterans), as well as hemipterans (true bugs), dipterans (flies), and hymenopterans (wasps and ants), at numbers far greater than dark control traps. Thus, circadian control may optimize energy use for when bioluminescence is most visible, attracting insects that can in turn help in spore dispersal, thereby benefitting fungi growing under the forest canopy, where wind flow is greatly reduced. PMID:25802150

  14. Oligonucleotide Fingerprinting of rRNA Genes for Analysis of Fungal Community Composition

    OpenAIRE

    Valinsky, Lea; Della Vedova, Gianluca; Jiang, Tao; Borneman, James

    2002-01-01

    Thorough assessments of fungal diversity are currently hindered by technological limitations. Here we describe a new method for identifying fungi, oligonucleotide fingerprinting of rRNA genes (OFRG). ORFG sorts arrayed rRNA gene (ribosomal DNA [rDNA]) clones into taxonomic clusters through a series of hybridization experiments, each using a single oligonucleotide probe. A simulated annealing algorithm was used to design an OFRG probe set for fungal rDNA. Analysis of 1,536 fungal rDNA clones d...

  15. Unsupervised principal component analysis of NMR metabolic profiles for the assessment of substantial equivalence of transgenic grapes (Vitis vinifera).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Picone, Gianfranco; Mezzetti, Bruno; Babini, Elena; Capocasa, Franco; Placucci, Giuseppe; Capozzi, Francesco

    2011-09-14

    Substantial equivalence is a key concept in the evaluation of unintended and potentially harmful metabolic impact consequent to a genetic modification of food. The application of unsupervised multivariate data analysis to the metabolic profiles is expected to improve the effectiveness of such evaluation. The present study uses NMR spectra of hydroalcoholic extracts, as holistic representations of the metabolic profiles of grapes, to evaluate the effect of the insertion of one or three copies of the DefH9-iaaM construct in plants of Silcora and Thompson Seedless cultivars. The comparison of the metabolic profiles of transgenic derivatives with respect to their corresponding natural lines pointed out that the overall metabolic changes occur in the same direction, independent of the host genotype, although the two cultivars are modified to different extents. A higher number of copies not only produces a larger effect but also modifies the whole pattern of perturbed metabolites. PMID:21806070

  16. In vivo hypoxia and a fungal alcohol dehydrogenase influence the pathogenesis of invasive pulmonary aspergillosis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nora Grahl

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available Currently, our knowledge of how pathogenic fungi grow in mammalian host environments is limited. Using a chemotherapeutic murine model of invasive pulmonary aspergillosis (IPA and (1H-NMR metabolomics, we detected ethanol in the lungs of mice infected with Aspergillus fumigatus. This result suggests that A. fumigatus is exposed to oxygen depleted microenvironments during infection. To test this hypothesis, we utilized a chemical hypoxia detection agent, pimonidazole hydrochloride, in three immunologically distinct murine models of IPA (chemotherapeutic, X-CGD, and corticosteroid. In all three IPA murine models, hypoxia was observed during the course of infection. We next tested the hypothesis that production of ethanol in vivo by the fungus is involved in hypoxia adaptation and fungal pathogenesis. Ethanol deficient A. fumigatus strains showed no growth defects in hypoxia and were able to cause wild type levels of mortality in all 3 murine models. However, lung immunohistopathology and flow cytometry analyses revealed an increase in the inflammatory response in mice infected with an alcohol dehydrogenase null mutant strain that corresponded with a reduction in fungal burden. Consequently, in this study we present the first in vivo observations that hypoxic microenvironments occur during a pulmonary invasive fungal infection and observe that a fungal alcohol dehydrogenase influences fungal pathogenesis in the lung. Thus, environmental conditions encountered by invading pathogenic fungi may result in substantial fungal metabolism changes that influence subsequent host immune responses.

  17. Characterization of active and total fungal communities in the atmosphere over the Amazon rainforest

    Science.gov (United States)

    Womack, A. M.; Artaxo, P. E.; Ishida, F. Y.; Mueller, R. C.; Saleska, S. R.; Wiedemann, K. T.; Bohannan, B. J. M.; Green, J. L.

    2015-11-01

    Fungi are ubiquitous in the atmosphere and may play an important role in atmospheric processes. We investigated the composition and diversity of fungal communities over the Amazon rainforest canopy and compared these communities to fungal communities found in terrestrial environments. We characterized the total fungal community and the metabolically active portion of the community using high-throughput DNA and RNA sequencing and compared these data to predictions generated by a mass-balance model. We found that the total community was primarily comprised of fungi from the phylum Basidiomycota. In contrast, the active community was primarily composed of members of the phylum Ascomycota and included a high relative abundance of lichen fungi, which were not detected in the total community. The relative abundance of Basidiomycota and Ascomycota in the total and active communities was consistent with our model predictions, suggesting that this result was driven by the relative size and number of spores produced by these groups. When compared to other environments, fungal communities in the atmosphere were most similar to communities found in tropical soils and leaf surfaces. Our results demonstrate that there are significant differences in the composition of the total and active fungal communities in the atmosphere, and that lichen fungi, which have been shown to be efficient ice nucleators, may be abundant members of active atmospheric fungal communities over the forest canopy.

  18. Characterization of active and total fungal communities in the atmosphere over the Amazon rainforest

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. M. Womack

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Fungi are ubiquitous in the atmosphere and may play an important role in atmospheric processes. We investigated the composition and diversity of fungal communities over the Amazon rainforest canopy and compared these communities to fungal communities found in terrestrial environments. We characterized the total fungal community and the metabolically active portion of the community using high-throughout DNA and RNA sequencing and compared these data to predictions generated by a mass-balance model. We found that the total community was primarily comprised of fungi from the phylum Basidiomycota. In contrast, the active community was primarily composed of members of the phylum Ascomycota and included a high relative abundance of lichen fungi, which were not detected in the total community. The relative abundance of Basidiomycota and Ascomycota in the total and active communities was consistent with our model predictions, suggesting that this result was driven by the relative size and number of spores produced by these groups. When compared to other environments, fungal communities in the atmosphere were most similar to communities found in tropical soils and leaf surfaces, suggesting that inputs of fungi to the atmosphere are from local, rather than distant, sources. Our results demonstrate that there are significant differences in the composition of the total and active fungal communities in the atmosphere, and that lichen fungi, which have been shown to be efficient ice nucleators, may be abundant members of active atmospheric fungal communities over the forest canopy.

  19. Controls over fungal communities and consequences for nutrient cycling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Treseder, K. K.; Majumder, P.; Bent, E.; Borneman, J.; Allison, S. D.; Hanson, C. A.

    2007-12-01

    Soils harbor a high diversity of microbes-- as many as 100 species of fungi within a square meter. If different species target different components of litter, a more diverse community of fungi should lead to faster decomposition rates. We examined the hypotheses that variation in substrate use among fungal groups and variation in nitrogen availability are both important controls over the diversity of fungi in an Alaskan boreal forest. Nitrogen availability was considered because microbes are often N-limited, and because humans are altering N availability via anthropogenic N deposition and global warming. We used nucleotide analogs to link fungal groups with their role in decomposition in field samples. Leaf litter collected from the forest floor was supplemented with one of four N-containing compounds. Bromodeoxyuridine (BrdU, a thymidine analog) was also added. After 48 hours incubation, DNA was extracted. Most growing fungi should have assimilated the BrdU into new DNA. Their genetic identity was determined using oligonucleotide fingerprinting of rRNA genes (OFRG). OFRG is an rRNA gene profiling method that sorts genes into taxonomic groups with a high degree of resolution, and has a large capacity for sample processing. Fungal groups that proliferated following the addition of a given compound probably metabolized that compound. We found that fungal taxa varied in their responses to different substrates, indicating that they differed in substrate use. Specifically, community composition of fungi was significantly different among substrate treatments (P tannin-protein complexes (P = 0.014); Saccharomycetales, arginine (P = 0.042); and Polyporales, arginine and lignocellulose (P = 0.040). In a complementary experiment, we used BrdU labeling to characterize effects of N fertilization on fungal community composition. We observed that N fertilization decreased the richness of fungal taxa by 22%. Helotiales and Saccharomycetales tended to increase under N

  20. Alterations of fungal metabolism under decreasing oxygen level

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Jirout, Jiří

    Samsun: Soil Science Society of Turkey, 2014. s. 36. [International Soil Science Congress on "The Soul of Soil and Civilization" /9./. 14.10.2014-16.10.2014, Antalya] Institutional support: RVO:60077344 Keywords : soil fungi * nitrous oxide * fatty acids * cattle overwintering Subject RIV: EE - Microbiology, Virology

  1. Physiological roles and metabolism of fungal aryl alcohols

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jong, de E.

    1993-01-01

    The major structural elements of wood and other vascular tissues are cellulose, hemicellulose and generally 20-30% lignin. Lignin gives the plant strength, it serves as a barrier against microbial attack and it acts as a water impermeable seal across cell walls of the xylem tissue. However, the pres

  2. Physiological roles and metabolism of fungal aryl alcohols

    OpenAIRE

    Jong, de, J.

    1993-01-01

    The major structural elements of wood and other vascular tissues are cellulose, hemicellulose and generally 20-30% lignin. Lignin gives the plant strength, it serves as a barrier against microbial attack and it acts as a water impermeable seal across cell walls of the xylem tissue. However, the presence of lignin has practical drawbacks for some of the applications of lignocellulosic materials. First, lignin has to be removed for the production of high quality pulps. Second, lignin reduces th...

  3. Industrial Fungal Enzymes: An Occupational Allergen Perspective

    OpenAIRE

    Green, Brett J.; Beezhold, Donald H.

    2011-01-01

    Occupational exposure to high-molecular-weight allergens is a risk factor for the development and pathogenesis of IgE-mediated respiratory disease. In some occupational environments, workers are at an increased risk of exposure to fungal enzymes used in industrial production. Fungal enzymes have been associated with adverse health effects in the work place, in particular in baking occupations. Exposure-response relationships have been demonstrated, and atopic workers directly handling fungal ...

  4. Diversity, prevalence and virulence of fungal entomopathogens in colonies of the ant Formica selysi

    OpenAIRE

    Reber A.; Chapuisat M.

    2012-01-01

    The richness of the parasitic community associated with social insect colonies has rarely been investigated. Moreover, understanding how hosts and pathogens interact in nature is important to interpret results from laboratory experiments. Here, we assessed the diversity, prevalence and virulence of fungal entomopathogens present around and within colonies of the ant Formica selysi. We detected eight fungal species known to be entomopathogenic in soil sampled from the habitat of ants. Six of t...

  5. Moisture parameters and fungal communities associated with gypsum drywall in buildings

    OpenAIRE

    Dedesko, Sandra; Siegel, Jeffrey A.

    2015-01-01

    Uncontrolled excess moisture in buildings is a common problem that can lead to changes in fungal communities. In buildings, moisture parameters can be classified by location and include assessments of moisture in the air, at a surface, or within a material. These parameters are not equivalent in dynamic indoor environments, which makes moisture-induced fungal growth in buildings a complex occurrence. In order to determine the circumstances that lead to such growth, it is essential to have a t...

  6. Fungal Infection in Patients with Serpiginous Choroiditis or Acute Zonal Occult Outer Retinopathy▿

    OpenAIRE

    Pisa, Diana; Ramos, Marta; García, Patricia; Escoto, Remberto; Barraquer, Rafael; Molina, Susana; Carrasco, Luis

    2007-01-01

    The etiologies of a number of retinopathies, including serpiginous choroiditis and acute zonal occult outer retinopathy (AZOOR), remain uncertain. Recently, we provided evidence that AZOOR is caused by Candida famata infection. The purpose of this article was to investigate the presence of fungal infection in five patients affected with serpiginous choroiditis and five patients with diagnosis of AZOOR. To assess the presence of fungal infection the presence of antibodies in human serum sample...

  7. Fine Needle Aspiration Cytology: A Useful Technique for Diagnosis of Invasive Fungal Rhinosinusitis

    OpenAIRE

    Singhal, Niti; Raghubanshi, Gunjan; Handa, Uma; Punia, R. P. S.; Singhal, Surinder

    2013-01-01

    Mycotic infections are on the rise globally. Patients with invasive fungal infection of the paranasal sinuses often present with destructive mass lesions and mimic malignancy clinically and radiologically. To assess the utility of Fine needle aspiration cytology for early diagnosis of invasive fungal rhinosinusitis. Fine needle aspiration cytology was performed from the maxillary/ethmoid sinus in patients with a destructive mass lesion in the maxilla. Differential diagnoses were malignancy an...

  8. Burden of fungal disease in Ireland.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dorgan, Eileen; Denning, David W; McMullan, Ronan

    2015-04-01

    Our objective was to estimate the burden of fungal disease on the island of Ireland, as part of a coordinated project estimating the global burden. Published epidemiology data describing fungal infection in Ireland were identified. Population and underlying disease data were collected for 2010 and a structured set of assumptions were applied to estimate burden of fungal disease based on immunosuppression, chronic disease, and other demographic information indicating predisposition to fungal infection. From Ireland's population of 6.4 million, we estimate 117, 000 patients develop significant fungal disease each year. By far the most common fungal disease is recurrent Candida vaginitis, with an estimated 95, 000 episodes annually (3000 per 100 000 women). Other fungal diseases which may be less well recognized are severe asthma with fungal sensitization and allergic bronchopulmonary aspergillosis, with estimated episodes per year of 11, 700 and 9000, respectively (182 and 140 per 100, 000 population, respectively). The model also estimates 450 episodes of invasive aspergillosis, 200 of chronic pulmonary aspergillosis, 600 of oesophageal candidiasis and 450 of candidaemia per year (7, 3, 9 and 6 episodes per 100, 000 population, respectively). This is, we believe, the first attempt to estimate the burden of fungal disease in our population and provides a basis for estimating its impact on human health and resource use. PMID:25596121

  9. Regulation of the fungal secretome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCotter, Sean W; Horianopoulos, Linda C; Kronstad, James W

    2016-08-01

    The ability of countless representatives of the Kingdom Fungi to adapt to and proliferate in diverse environments is facilitated by regulation of their secretomes to respond to changes in environmental conditions and to mediate interactions with other organisms. Secretome changes often fulfill common functions of nutrient acquisition, facilitation of host/symbiont interactions, cell wall modification, and optimization of the enzyme suite to adapt to new environmental resources. In this review, we expand on our recent work on signaling and the secretome in the pathogenic fungus Cryptococcus neoformans to consider a range of selected examples of regulation of fungal secretomes. These examples include the impact of carbon source and aspects of the response to plant and animal hosts. Additionally, the influence of key protein kinases (e.g., Pka1, Snf1) and transcription factors (e.g., Rim101/PacC) is highlighted to illustrate some underlying regulatory factors influencing the secretome. Although there is a wealth of information about fungal secretomes from both experimentation and genome sequence mining, there are also major gaps in our knowledge about the complete composition of fungal secretomes and mechanisms of dynamic change. For example, a more comprehensive understanding of the composition and regulation of the secretome will require consideration of the emerging roles of unconventional secretion and extracellular vesicles in delivering proteins outside the cell. Overall, changes in the secretome are well documented in diverse fungi and the underlying mechanisms are currently under investigation; however, there remain unknown steps in the regulation of secretory pathways and gaps in understanding the regulation of unconventional secretion, which warrant further research. PMID:26879194

  10. Fungal NRPS-dependent siderophores

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sørensen, Jens Laurids; Knudsen, Michael; T. Hansen, Frederik;

    2015-01-01

    Iron is an essential, yet often limiting element for the growth of many organisms. In response to iron limitation, fungi have developed siderophores that provide a high-affinity iron uptake system and safe intracellular storage and transport mechanisms to gain a competitive advantage. Here, we...... discuss the function of siderophores in relation to fungal iron uptake mechanisms and their importance for coexistence with host organisms. The chemical nature of the major groups of siderophores and their regulation is described along with the function and architecture of the large multi-domain enzymes...

  11. Fungal communities on speleothem surfaces in Kartchner Caverns, Arizona, USA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vaughan Michael J.

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Kartchner Caverns, located near Benson, Arizona, USA, is an active carbonate cave that serves as the major attraction for Kartchner Caverns State Park. Low-impact development and maintenance have preserved prediscovery macroscopic cavern features and minimized disturbances to biological communities within the cave.. The goal of this study was to examine fungal diversity in Kartchner Caverns on actively-forming speleothem surfaces. Fifteen formations were sampled from five sites across the cave. Richness was assessed using standard culture-based fungal isolation techniques. A culture-independent analysis using denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis (DGGE was used to assay evidence of community homogeneity across the cave through the separation of 18S rDNA amplicons from speleothem community DNA. The culturing effort recovered 53 distinct morphological taxonomic units (MTUs, corresponding to 43 genetic taxonomic units (GTUs that represented 21 genera. From the observed MTU accumulation curve and the projected total MTU richness curve, it is estimated that 51 percent of the actual MTU richness was recovered. The most commonly isolated fungi belonged to the genera Penicillium, Paecilomyces, Phialophora, and Aspergillus.This culture- based analysis did not reveal significant differences in fungal richness or number of fungi recovered across sites. Cluster analysis using DGGE band profiles did not reveal distinctive groupings of speleothems by sample site. However, canonical correspondence analysis (CCA analysis of culture-independent DGGE profiles showed a significant effect of sampling site and formation type on fungal community structure.Taken together, these results reveal that diverse fungal communities exist on speleothem surfaces in Kartchner Caverns, and that these communities are not uniformly distributed spatially. Analysis of sample saturation indicated that more sampling depth is required to uncover the full scale of mycological richness

  12. The dynamic organization of fungal acetyl-CoA carboxylase

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hunkeler, Moritz; Stuttfeld, Edward; Hagmann, Anna; Imseng, Stefan; Maier, Timm

    2016-04-01

    Acetyl-CoA carboxylases (ACCs) catalyse the committed step in fatty-acid biosynthesis: the ATP-dependent carboxylation of acetyl-CoA to malonyl-CoA. They are important regulatory hubs for metabolic control and relevant drug targets for the treatment of the metabolic syndrome and cancer. Eukaryotic ACCs are single-chain multienzymes characterized by a large, non-catalytic central domain (CD), whose role in ACC regulation remains poorly characterized. Here we report the crystal structure of the yeast ACC CD, revealing a unique four-domain organization. A regulatory loop, which is phosphorylated at the key functional phosphorylation site of fungal ACC, wedges into a crevice between two domains of CD. Combining the yeast CD structure with intermediate and low-resolution data of larger fragments up to intact ACCs provides a comprehensive characterization of the dynamic fungal ACC architecture. In contrast to related carboxylases, large-scale conformational changes are required for substrate turnover, and are mediated by the CD under phosphorylation control.

  13. Tracking fungal community responses to maize plants by DNA- and RNA-based pyrosequencing.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eiko E Kuramae

    Full Text Available We assessed soil fungal diversity and community structure at two sampling times (t1 = 47 days and t2 = 104 days of plant age in pots associated with four maize cultivars, including two genetically modified (GM cultivars by high-throughput pyrosequencing of the 18S rRNA gene using DNA and RNA templates. We detected no significant differences in soil fungal diversity and community structure associated with different plant cultivars. However, DNA-based analyses yielded lower fungal OTU richness as compared to RNA-based analyses. Clear differences in fungal community structure were also observed in relation to sampling time and the nucleic acid pool targeted (DNA versus RNA. The most abundant soil fungi, as recovered by DNA-based methods, did not necessary represent the most "active" fungi (as recovered via RNA. Interestingly, RNA-derived community compositions at t1 were highly similar to DNA-derived communities at t2, based on presence/absence measures of OTUs. We recovered large proportions of fungal sequences belonging to arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi and Basidiomycota, especially at the RNA level, suggesting that these important and potentially beneficial fungi are not affected by the plant cultivars nor by GM traits (Bt toxin production. Our results suggest that even though DNA- and RNA-derived soil fungal communities can be very different at a given time, RNA composition may have a predictive power of fungal community development through time.

  14. FDG-PET/CT assessment of differential chemotherapy effects upon skeletal muscle metabolism in patients with melanoma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    To quantify the differential effects of chemotherapy on the metabolic activity of skeletal muscle in vivo using molecular imaging with [18F]-fluorodeoxy-glucose (FDG)-positron emission tomography/computed tomography (PET/CT). In this retrospective study, 21 subjects with stage IV melanoma who underwent pre- and post-chemotherapy whole-body FDG-PET/CT imaging were included. The mean standardized uptake value (SUVmean) of 8 different skeletal muscles was measured per subject. Pre- and post-treatment measurements were then averaged across all subjects for each muscle and compared for statistically significant differences between the muscles and following different chemotherapy regimens including dacarbazine (DTIC) and temozolomide (TMZ). Analysis of FDG-PET/CT images reliably detected changes in skeletal muscle metabolic activity based on muscle location. The percent change in metabolic activity of each skeletal muscle in each subject following chemotherapy was observed to be related to the type of chemotherapy received. Subjects receiving DTIC generally had a decrease in metabolic activity of all muscle groups, whereas subjects receiving TMZ generally had an increase in muscle activity of all muscle groups. FDG-PET/CT can reveal baseline metabolic differences between different muscles of the body. Different chemotherapies are associated with differential changes in the metabolic activity of skeletal muscle, which can be detected and quantified with FDG-PET/CT. (author)

  15. Assessment of chitosan-affected metabolic response by peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor bioluminescent imaging-guided transcriptomic analysis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chia-Hung Kao

    Full Text Available Chitosan has been widely used in food industry as a weight-loss aid and a cholesterol-lowering agent. Previous studies have shown that chitosan affects metabolic responses and contributes to anti-diabetic, hypocholesteremic, and blood glucose-lowering effects; however, the in vivo targeting sites and mechanisms of chitosan remain to be clarified. In this study, we constructed transgenic mice, which carried the luciferase genes driven by peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor (PPAR, a key regulator of fatty acid and glucose metabolism. Bioluminescent imaging of PPAR transgenic mice was applied to report the organs that chitosan acted on, and gene expression profiles of chitosan-targeted organs were further analyzed to elucidate the mechanisms of chitosan. Bioluminescent imaging showed that constitutive PPAR activities were detected in brain and gastrointestinal tract. Administration of chitosan significantly activated the PPAR activities in brain and stomach. Microarray analysis of brain and stomach showed that several pathways involved in lipid and glucose metabolism were regulated by chitosan. Moreover, the expression levels of metabolism-associated genes like apolipoprotein B (apoB and ghrelin genes were down-regulated by chitosan. In conclusion, these findings suggested the feasibility of PPAR bioluminescent imaging-guided transcriptomic analysis on the evaluation of chitosan-affected metabolic responses in vivo. Moreover, we newly identified that downregulated expression of apoB and ghrelin genes were novel mechanisms for chitosan-affected metabolic responses in vivo.

  16. Analysis of surfaces for characterization of fungal burden – Does it matter?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carla Viegas

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Objectives: Mycological contamination of occupational environments can be a result of fungal spores’ dispersion in the air and on surfaces. Therefore, it is very important to assess it in both types of the samples. In the present study we assessed fungal contamination in the air and in the surface samples to show relevance of surfaces sampling in complementing the results obtained in the air samples. Material and Methods: In total, 42 settings were assessed by the analysis of air and surfaces samples. The settings were divided into settings with a high fungal load (7 poultry farms and 7 pig farms, 3 cork industries, 3 waste management plants, 2 wastewater treatment plants and 1 horse stable and a low fungal load (10 hospital canteens, 8 college canteens and 1 maternity hospital. In addition to culture-based methods, molecular tools were also applied to detect fungal burden in the settings with a higher fungal load. Results: From the 218 sampling sites, 140 (64.2% presented different species in the examined surfaces when compared with the species identified in the air. A positive association in the high fungal load settings was found between the presence of different species in the air and surfaces. Wastewater treatment plants constituted the setting with the highest number of different species between the air and surface. Conclusions: We observed that surfaces sampling and application of molecular tools showed the same efficacy of species detection in high fungal load settings, corroborating the fact that surface sampling is crucial for a correct and complete analysis of occupational scenarios.

  17. Spatial and taxonomical overlap of fungi on phylloplanes and invasive alien ladybirds with fungal infections in tree crowns of urban green spaces

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Howe, Andrew Gordon; Ravn, Hans Peter; Jensen, Annette Bruun;

    2016-01-01

    Occurrence of entomopathogenic fungi on phylloplanes in Tilia x europaea crowns between 1 - 13m was assessed in urban parks. Prevalence of fungal infections in ladybirds (Coleoptera: Coccinellidae) collected from T. x europaea was assessed to determine whether fungi found on phylloplanes also occ...... assemblage of entomopathogenic fungal species with a different prevalence in coccinellids compared to their relative abundance in this habitat....

  18. Metabolic impact of partial volume correction of [18F]FDG PET-CT oncological studies on the assessment of tumor response to treatment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The aim of this work is to evaluate the metabolic impact of Partial Volume Correction (PVC) on the measurement of the Standard Uptake Value (SUV) from [18F]FDG PET-CT oncological studies for treatment monitoring purpose. Twenty-nine breast cancer patients with bone lesions (42 lesions in total) underwent [18F]FDG PET-CT studies after surgical resection of breast cancer primitives, and before (PET-I) and after (PET-II) chemotherapy and hormone treatment. PVC of bone lesion uptake was performed on the two [18F]FDG PET-CT studies, using a method based on Recovery Coefficients (RC) and on an automatic measurement of lesion metabolic volume. Body-weight average SUV was calculated for each lesion, with and without PVC. The accuracy, reproducibility, clinical feasibility and the metabolic impact on treatment response of the considered PVC method was evaluated. The PVC method was found clinically feasible in bone lesions, with an accuracy of 93% for lesion sphere-equivalent diameter >1 cm. Applying PVC, average SUV values increased, from 7% up to 154% considering both PET-I and PET-II studies, proving the need of the correction. As main finding, PVC modified the therapy response classification in 6 cases according to EORTC 1999 classification and in 5 cases according to PERCIST 1.0 classification. In conclusion, PVC has an important metabolic impact on the assessment of tumor response to treatment by [18F]FDG PET-CT oncological studies

  19. Cerebral metabolism in dogs assessed by 18F-FDG PET. A pilot study to understand physiological changes in behavioral disorders in dogs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The positron emission tomography (PET) imaging technique, which is utilized in human behavior and psychiatric disorder research, was performed on the brains of clinically normal mixed breed dogs, 3 hound-type (long floppy ears) mixed breed dogs and 3 non-hound retriever-type mixed breed dogs. Glucose metabolism was obtained with F-18 fluorodeoxyglucose (FDG), and quantitative analysis was performed by standardized uptake value (SUV) measurement. Magnetic resonance (MR) images were obtained in each dog, and these images were superimposed on PET images to identify anatomical locations. The glucose metabolism in each region of interest was compared between the three hound-type dogs and 3 non-hound-type dogs. The two anatomically different types of dog were compared to assess whether breed-typical behavioral tendencies (e.g., sniffing behavior in hound-type dogs, staring and retrieving in Labrador-type dogs) are reflected in baseline brain metabolic activity. There were no significant differences between the hound-type dogs and non-hound-type dogs in cerebral SUV values. These data might serve as normal canine cerebral metabolism data for FDG PET studies in dogs and form the basis for investigations into behavioral disorders in dogs such as compulsive disorder, anxiety disorders and cognitive dysfunction. (author)

  20. Assessing Psychological Functioning in Metabolic Disorders: Validation of the Adaptive Behavior Assessment System, Second Edition (ABAS-II), and the Behavior Rating Inventory of Executive Function (BRIEF) for Identification of Individuals at Risk.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Waisbren, Susan E; He, Jianping; McCarter, Robert

    2015-01-01

    Long-term follow-up of neuropsychological functioning in metabolic disorders remains difficult due to limited opportunities for comprehensive neuropsychological evaluations. This study examined the validity of using the Adaptive Behavior Assessment System, Second Edition (ABAS-II), and the Behavior Rating Inventory of Executive Function (BRIEF) for assessing developmental status in metabolic disorders and for identifying individuals at risk for cognitive deficits. Results from individuals with urea cycle disorders, phenylketonuria, galactosemia, and fatty acid oxidation disorders were obtained on the ABAS-II and BRIEF and were compared to results obtained from neuropsychological testing performed on the same day. Correlations between scores on the ABAS-II and developmental or IQ tests for individuals with urea cycle disorders ranged from 0.48 to 0.72 and concordance rates for scores greater than a standard deviation below the normative mean ranged from 69 to 89%. Correlations ranged from 0.20 to 0.68 with concordance ranging from 73 to 90% in the other metabolic disorders. For the BRIEF, correlations with other tests of executive functioning were significant for urea cycle disorders, with concordance ranging from 52 to 80%. For the other metabolic disorders, correlations ranged from -0.09 to -0.55. Concordance rates for at-risk status on the BRIEF and executive functioning tests ranged from 55% in adults to 80% in children with other metabolic disorders. These results indicate that the ABAS-II and BRIEF together can confidently be used as an adjunct or supplementary method for clinical follow-up and for research on functional status involving infants, children, and adults with metabolic disorders. PMID:25712381

  1. Naming names: the etymology of fungal entomopathogens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    The chapter introduces the reader to the etymology of the generic names given to 26 fungal entomopathogens. Possessing some knowledge on how a name originates sometimes provides us with information on a fungal characteristic that might help us identify the organism, e.g., Conidiobolus, Cordyceps, P...

  2. Clinical consideration of fungal paranasal sinusitis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fungal paranasal sinusitis is included in the differential diagnosis of unilateral paranasal lesion. Recently the incidence of fungal paranasal sinusitis has been increasing. We reviewed 24 patients (9 males and 15 females) with fungal paranasal sinusitis treated at Muroran City Hospital between January 2001 and May 2006, and clinical presentation and CT findings with those of 56 patients (36 males and 20 females) with chronic unilateral sinusitis. Fungal sinusitis patients ranged in age from 45 to 87, and the average age was 65.9 years old. In contrast, the age of chronic sinusitis patients ranged from 24 to 83, and the average age was 54.4 years old. The chief complaint of both fungal sinusitis and chronic sinusitis included rhinorrhea, nasal obstruction and post nasal discharge. CT exam was performed in all patients. In 23 cases of paranasal fungal sinusitis and 54 cases of chronic sinusitis the findings involved the maxillary sinus. The most common observation (69.6%) was bone density within the affected sinus in fungal sinusitis. However, only 2 cases of chronic sinusitis (3.9%) showed calcification. All cases of fungal sinusitis were diagnosed by pathological examinations. Most cases were proved to be aspergillus, while only one case was mucor. We treated all cases surgically, 18 cases underwent Caldwell-Luc's procedure and 5 cases underwent endoscopic sinus surgery under local anesthesia. (author)

  3. Missing checkerboards? An absence of competitive signal in Alnus-associated ectomycorrhizal fungal communities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peter Kennedy

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available A number of recent studies suggest that interspecific competition plays a key role in determining the structure of ectomycorrhizal (ECM fungal communities. Despite this growing consensus, there has been limited study of ECM fungal community dynamics in abiotically stressful environments, which are often dominated by positive rather than antagonistic interactions. In this study, we examined the ECM fungal communities associated with the host genus Alnus, which live in soils high in both nitrate and acidity. The nature of ECM fungal species interactions (i.e., antagonistic, neutral, or positive was assessed using taxon co-occurrence and DNA sequence abundance correlational analyses. ECM fungal communities were sampled from root tips or mesh in-growth bags in three monodominant A. rubra plots at a site in Oregon, USA and identified using Illumina-based amplification of the ITS1 gene region. We found a total of 175 ECM fungal taxa; 16 of which were closely related to known Alnus-associated ECM fungi. Contrary to previous studies of ECM fungal communities, taxon co-occurrence analyses on both the total and Alnus-associated ECM datasets indicated that the ECM fungal communities in this system were not structured by interspecific competition. Instead, the co-occurrence patterns were consistent with either random assembly or significant positive interactions. Pair-wise correlational analyses were also more consistent with neutral or positive interactions. Taken together, our results suggest that interspecific competition does not appear to determine the structure of all ECM fungal communities and that abiotic conditions may be important in determining the specific type of interaction occurring among ECM fungi.

  4. 2012 CELLULAR & MOLECULAR FUNGAL BIOLOGY GORDON RESEARCH CONFERENCE, JUNE 17 - 22, 2012

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Judith Berman

    2012-06-22

    The Gordon Research Conference on CELLULAR & MOLECULAR FUNGAL BIOLOGY was held at Holderness School, Holderness New Hampshire, June 17 - 22, 2012. The 2012 Gordon Conference on Cellular and Molecular Fungal Biology (CMFB) will present the latest, cutting-edge research on the exciting and growing field of molecular and cellular aspects of fungal biology. Topics will range from yeast to filamentous fungi, from model systems to economically important organisms, and from saprophytes and commensals to pathogens of plants and animals. The CMFB conference will feature a wide range of topics including systems biology, cell biology and morphogenesis, organismal interactions, genome organisation and regulation, pathogenesis, energy metabolism, biomass production and population genomics. The Conference was well-attended with 136 participants. Gordon Research Conferences does not permit publication of meeting proceedings.

  5. Exploring the potential of fungi for methane abatement: Performance evaluation of a fungal-bacterial biofilter.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lebrero, Raquel; López, Juan Carlos; Lehtinen, Iiro; Pérez, Rebeca; Quijano, Guillermo; Muñoz, Raúl

    2016-02-01

    Despite several fungal strains have been retrieved from methane-containing environments, the actual capacity and role of fungi on methane abatement is still unclear. The batch biodegradation tests here performed demonstrated the capacity of Graphium sp. to co-metabolically biodegrade methane and methanol. Moreover, the performance and microbiology of a fungal-bacterial compost biofilter treating methane at concentrations of ∼2% was evaluated at empty bed residence times of 40 and 20 min under different irrigation rates. The daily addition of 200 mL of mineral medium resulted in elimination capacities of 36.6 ± 0.7 g m(-3) h(-1) and removal efficiencies of ≈90% at the lowest residence time. The indigenous fungal community of the compost was predominant in the final microbial population and outcompeted the inoculated Graphium sp. during biofilter operation. PMID:26347931

  6. Histone Acetylation in Fungal Pathogens of Plants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Junhyun Jeon

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Acetylation of histone lysine residues occurs in different organisms ranging from yeast to plants and mammals for the regulation of diverse cellular processes. With the identification of enzymes that create or reverse this modification, our understanding on histone acetylation has expanded at an amazing pace during the last two decades. In fungal pathogens of plants, however, the importance of such modification has only just begun to be appreciated in the recent years and there is a dearth of information on how histone acetylation is implicated in fungal pathogenesis. This review covers the current status of research related to histone acetylation in plant pathogenic fungi and considers relevant findings in the interaction between fungal pathogens and host plants. We first describe the families of histone acetyltransferases and deacetylases. Then we provide the cases where histone acetylation was investigated in the context of fungal pathogenesis. Finally, future directions and perspectives in epigenetics of fungal pathogenesis are discussed.

  7. Hydrodynamics, Fungal Physiology, and Morphology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Serrano-Carreón, L; Galindo, E; Rocha-Valadéz, J A; Holguín-Salas, A; Corkidi, G

    2015-01-01

    Filamentous cultures, such as fungi and actinomycetes, contribute substantially to the pharmaceutical industry and to enzyme production, with an annual market of about 6 billion dollars. In mechanically stirred reactors, most frequently used in fermentation industry, microbial growth and metabolite productivity depend on complex interactions between hydrodynamics, oxygen transfer, and mycelial morphology. The dissipation of energy through mechanically stirring devices, either flasks or tanks, impacts both microbial growth through shearing forces on the cells and the transfer of mass and energy, improving the contact between phases (i.e., air bubbles and microorganisms) but also causing damage to the cells at high energy dissipation rates. Mechanical-induced signaling in the cells triggers the molecular responses to shear stress; however, the complete mechanism is not known. Volumetric power input and, more importantly, the energy dissipation/circulation function are the main parameters determining mycelial size, a phenomenon that can be explained by the interaction of mycelial aggregates and Kolmogorov eddies. The use of microparticles in fungal cultures is also a strategy to increase process productivity and reproducibility by controlling fungal morphology. In order to rigorously study the effects of hydrodynamics on the physiology of fungal microorganisms, it is necessary to rule out the possible associated effects of dissolved oxygen, something which has been reported scarcely. At the other hand, the processes of phase dispersion (including the suspended solid that is the filamentous biomass) are crucial in order to get an integral knowledge about biological and physicochemical interactions within the bioreactor. Digital image analysis is a powerful tool for getting relevant information in order to establish the mechanisms of mass transfer as well as to evaluate the viability of the mycelia. This review focuses on (a) the main characteristics of the two most

  8. Non-invasive assessment of the effect of cardiac sympathetic innervation on metabolism of the human heart

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bengel, F.M.; Ziegler, S.I.; Nekolla, S.G.; Odaka, K.; Schwaiger, M. [Muenchen Univ. (Germany). Klinik und Poliklinik fuer Nuklearmedizin; Ueberfuhr, P.; Reichart, B. [Muenchen Univ. (Germany). Herzchirurgische Klinik

    2000-11-01

    The role of cardiac sympathetic nerves in the regulation of myocardial metabolism is not well defined. Owing to the presence of incomplete reinnervation, heart transplant recipients provide a unique model to study the effects of efferent sympathetic innervation. Using this model, we sought to determine the influence of cardiac sympathetic signals on substrate utilisation and overall oxidative metabolism. In 21 transplant recipients, positron emission tomography was applied to determine sympathetic innervation with the noradrenaline analogue carbon-11 hydroxyephedrine, oxidative metabolism with carbon-11 acetate (n=14), and glucose utilisation with fluorine-18 fluorodeoxyglucose (n=7). The reinnervated area comprised 22%{+-}20% of the left ventricle. Oxidative metabolism was similar in denervated and reinnervated myocardium [0.06{+-}0.01 vs 0.06{+-}0.01/min for k(mono)], while glucose uptake was significantly higher in denervated myocardium (6.9{+-}6.6 vs 6.0{+-}6.2 {mu}mol/min/100 g; P=0.03). Reinnervation mainly occurred in the territory of the left anterior descending artery, where retention of {sup 11}C-hydroxyephedrine (6.8{+-}2.7%/min) was higher compared with territories of the left circumflex (4.1{+-}1.7%/min; P<0.01) and right coronary (3.8{+-}1.1%/min; P<0.01) arteries. Oxidative metabolism was similar in all three territories, but compared with the reinnervated territory of the left anterior descending artery (53%{+-}16% of maximum), relative FDG uptake was higher in territories of the left circumflex (76%{+-}6%, P<0.01) and right coronary (67%{+-}10%, P<0.05) arteries. Similar degrees of regional heterogeneity were not observed in normals. Thus, while overall energy production through oxidative metabolism remains unaffected, cardiac utilisation of glucose in the fasting state is increased in the absence of catecholamine uptake sites. Innervated myocardium, however, may preferentially utilise free fatty acids, suggesting a role for sympathetic tone in

  9. Assessment of right ventricular oxidative metabolism by PET in patients with idiopathic dilated cardiomyopathy undergoing cardiac resynchronisation therapy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Knuuti, Juhani; Naum, Alexandru; Stolen, Kira Q.; Kalliokoski, Riikka [University of Turku, Turku PET Centre, P.O. Box 52, Turku (Finland); Sundell, Jan [University of Turku, Turku PET Centre, P.O. Box 52, Turku (Finland); University of Turku, Department of Medicine, Turku (Finland); Engblom, Erik; Koistinen, Juhani; Airaksinen, K.E. Juhani [University of Turku, Department of Medicine, Turku (Finland); Ylitalo, Antti [Satakunta Central Hospital, Department of Medicine, Pori (Finland); Nekolla, Stephan G. [Klinikum rechts der Isar der Technischen Universitaet Muenchen, Klinik und Poliklinik fuer Nuklearmedizin, Munich (Germany); Bax, K.E. Jeroen J. [Leiden University, Department of Cardiology, Leiden (Netherlands)

    2004-12-01

    Right ventricular (RV) performance is known to have prognostic value in patients with congestive heart failure (CHF). Cardiac resynchronisation therapy (CRT) has been found to enhance left ventricular (LV) energetics and metabolic reserve in patients with heart failure. The interplay between the LV and RV may play an important role in CRT response. The purpose of the study was to investigate RV oxidative metabolism, metabolic reserve and the effects of CRT in patients with CHF and left bundle brach block. In addition, the role of the RV in the response to CRT was evaluated. Ten patients with idiopathic dilated cardiomyopathy who had undergone implantation of a biventricular pacemaker 8{+-}5 months earlier were studied under two conditions: CRT ON and after CRT had been switched OFF for 24 h. Oxidative metabolism was measured using [{sup 11}C]acetate positron emission tomography (K{sub mono}). The measurements were performed at rest and during dobutamine-induced stress (5 {mu}g/kg per minute). LV performance and interventricular mechanical delay (interventricular asynchrony) were measured using echocardiography. CRT had no effect on RV K{sub mono} at rest (ON: 0.052{+-}0.014, OFF: 0.047{+-}0.018, NS). Dobutamine-induced stress increased RV K{sub mono} significantly under both conditions but oxidative metabolism was more enhanced when CRT was ON (0.076{+-}0.026 vs 0.065{+-}0.027, p=0.003). CRT shortened interventricular delay significantly (45{+-}33 vs 19{+-}35 ms, p=0.05). In five patients the response to CRT was striking (32% increase in mean LV stroke volume, range 18-36%), while in the other five patients no response was observed (mean change +2%, range -6% to +4%). RV K{sub mono} and LV stroke volume response to CRT correlated inversely (r=-0.66, p=0.034). None of the other measured parameters, including all LV parameters and electromechanical parameters, were associated with the response to CRT. In responders, RV K{sub mono} with CRT OFF was significantly lower

  10. Real-time cardiac metabolism assessed with hyperpolarized [1-13C]acetate in a large-animal model

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Flori, Alessandra; Liserani, Matteo; Frijia, Francesca;

    2015-01-01

    Dissolution-dynamic nuclear polarization (dissolution-DNP) for magnetic resonance (MR) spectroscopic imaging has recently emerged as a novel technique for noninvasive studies of the metabolic fate of biomolecules in vivo. Since acetate is the most abundant extra- and intracellular short-chain fatty...... acid, we focused on [1-13C]acetate as a promising candidate for a chemical probe to study the myocardial metabolism of a beating heart. The dissolution-DNP procedure of Na[1-13C]acetate for in vivo cardiac applications with a 3 T MR scanner was optimized in pigs during bolus injection of doses of up to...

  11. Positron emission tomography assessment of effects of benzodiazepines on regional glucose metabolic rate in patients with anxiety disorder

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Patients with generalized anxiety disorder (n = 18) entered a 21-day, double-blind, placebo-controlled random assignment trial of clorazepate. Positron emission tomography with 18F-deoxyglucose was carried out before and after treatment. Decreases in glucose metabolic rate in visual cortex and relative increases in the basal ganglia and thalamus were found. A correlation between regional changes in metabolic rate and regional benzodiazepine receptor binding density from other human autopsy studies was observed; brain regions highest in receptor density showed the greatest decrease in rate

  12. Positron emission tomography assessment of effects of benzodiazepines on regional glucose metabolic rate in patients with anxiety disorder

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Buchsbaum, M.S.; Wu, J.; Haier, R.; Hazlett, E.; Ball, R.; Katz, M.; Sokolski, K.; Lagunas-Solar, M.; Langer, D.

    1987-06-22

    Patients with generalized anxiety disorder (n = 18) entered a 21-day, double-blind, placebo-controlled random assignment trial of clorazepate. Positron emission tomography with YF-deoxyglucose was carried out before and after treatment. Decreases in glucose metabolic rate in visual cortex and relative increases in the basal ganglia and thalamus were found. A correlation between regional changes in metabolic rate and regional benzodiazepine receptor binding density from other human autopsy studies was observed; brain regions highest in receptor density showed the greatest decrease in rate.

  13. Chapter 8: Invasive fungal rhinosinusitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duggal, Praveen; Wise, Sarah K

    2013-01-01

    Invasive fungal rhinosinusitis (IFRS) is a disease of the paranasal sinuses and nasal cavity that typically affects immunocompromised patients in the acute fulminant form. Early symptoms can often mimic rhinosinusitis, while late symptoms can cause significant morbidity and mortality. Swelling and mucosal thickening can quickly progress to pale or necrotic tissue in the nasal cavity and sinuses, and the disease can rapidly spread and invade the palate, orbit, cavernous sinus, cranial nerves, skull base, carotid artery, and brain. IFRS can be life threatening if left undiagnosed or untreated. While the acute fulminant form of IFRS is the most rapidly progressive and destructive, granulomatous and chronic forms also exist. Diagnosis of IFRS often mandates imaging studies in conjunction with clinical, endoscopic, and histopathological examination. Treatment of IFRS consists of reversing the underlying immunosuppression, antifungal therapy, and aggressive surgical debridement. With early diagnosis and treatment, IFRS can be treated and increase patient survival. PMID:23711036

  14. Comparative genomic analysis of human fungal pathogens causing paracoccidioidomycosis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christopher A Desjardins

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available Paracoccidioides is a fungal pathogen and the cause of paracoccidioidomycosis, a health-threatening human systemic mycosis endemic to Latin America. Infection by Paracoccidioides, a dimorphic fungus in the order Onygenales, is coupled with a thermally regulated transition from a soil-dwelling filamentous form to a yeast-like pathogenic form. To better understand the genetic basis of growth and pathogenicity in Paracoccidioides, we sequenced the genomes of two strains of Paracoccidioides brasiliensis (Pb03 and Pb18 and one strain of Paracoccidioides lutzii (Pb01. These genomes range in size from 29.1 Mb to 32.9 Mb and encode 7,610 to 8,130 genes. To enable genetic studies, we mapped 94% of the P. brasiliensis Pb18 assembly onto five chromosomes. We characterized gene family content across Onygenales and related fungi, and within Paracoccidioides we found expansions of the fungal-specific kinase family FunK1. Additionally, the Onygenales have lost many genes involved in carbohydrate metabolism and fewer genes involved in protein metabolism, resulting in a higher ratio of proteases to carbohydrate active enzymes in the Onygenales than their relatives. To determine if gene content correlated with growth on different substrates, we screened the non-pathogenic onygenale Uncinocarpus reesii, which has orthologs for 91% of Paracoccidioides metabolic genes, for growth on 190 carbon sources. U. reesii showed growth on a limited range of carbohydrates, primarily basic plant sugars and cell wall components; this suggests that Onygenales, including dimorphic fungi, can degrade cellulosic plant material in the soil. In addition, U. reesii grew on gelatin and a wide range of dipeptides and amino acids, indicating a preference for proteinaceous growth substrates over carbohydrates, which may enable these fungi to also degrade animal biomass. These capabilities for degrading plant and animal substrates suggest a duality in lifestyle that could enable pathogenic

  15. Metabolic acidosis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Acidosis - metabolic ... Metabolic acidosis occurs when the body produces too much acid. It can also occur when the kidneys are not ... the body. There are several types of metabolic acidosis. Diabetic acidosis develops when acidic substances, known as ...

  16. An age-structured model to evaluate the potential of novel malaria-control interventions: a case study of fungal biopesticide sprays

    OpenAIRE

    Hancock, P.A; M. B. Thomas; Godfray, H.C.J.

    2008-01-01

    It has recently been proposed that mosquito vectors of human diseases, particularly malaria, may be controlled by spraying with fungal biopesticides that increase the rate of adult mortality. Though fungal pathogens do not cause instantaneous mortality, they can kill mosquitoes before they are old enough to transmit disease. A model is developed (i) to explore the potential for fungal entomopathogens to reduce significantly infectious mosquito populations, (ii) to assess the relative value of...

  17. Critical issues in benzene toxicity and metabolism: The effect of interactions with other organic chemicals on risk assessment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Medinsky, M.A.; Schlosser, P.M.; Bond, J.A. [Chemical Industry Institute of Toxicology, Research Triangle Park, NC (United States)

    1994-11-01

    Benzene, an important industrial solvent, is also present in unleaded gasoline and cigarette smoke. The hematotoxic effects of benzene are well documented and include aplastic anemia and pancytopenia. Some individuals exposed repeatedly to cytotoxic concentrations of benzene develop acute myeloblastic anemia. It has been hypothesized that metabolism of benzene is required for its toxicity, although administration of no single benzene metabolite duplicates the toxicity of benzene. Several investigators have demonstrated that a combination of metabolites (hydroquinone and phenol, for example) is necessary to duplicate the hematotoxic effect of benzene. Enzymes implicated in the metabolic activation of benzene and its metabolites include the cytochrome P450 monooxygenases and myeloperoxidase. Since benzene and its hydroxylated metabolites (phenol, hydroquinone, and catechol) are substrates for the same cytochrome P450 enzymes, competitive interactions among the metabolites are possible. In vivo data on metabolite formation by mice exposed to various benzene concentrations are consistent with competitive inhibition of phenol oxidation by benzene. Other organic molecules that are substrates for cytochrome P450 can inhibit the metabolism of benzene. For example, toluene has been shown to inhibit the oxidation of benzene in a noncompetitive manner. Enzyme inducers, such as ethanol, can alter the target tissue dosimetry of benzene metabolites by inducing enzymes responsible for oxidation reactions involved in benzene metabolism. 24 refs., 6 figs., 2 tabs.

  18. Biochemical markers for assessment of calcium economy and bone metabolism: application in clinical trials from pharmaceutical agents to nutritional products.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bonjour, Jean-Philippe; Kohrt, Wendy; Levasseur, Régis; Warren, Michelle; Whiting, Susan; Kraenzlin, Marius

    2014-12-01

    Nutrition plays an important role in osteoporosis prevention and treatment. Substantial progress in both laboratory analyses and clinical use of biochemical markers has modified the strategy of anti-osteoporotic drug development. The present review examines the use of biochemical markers in clinical research aimed at characterising the influence of foods or nutrients on bone metabolism. The two types of markers are: (i) specific hormonal factors related to bone; and (ii) bone turnover markers (BTM) that reflect bone cell metabolism. Of the former, vitamin D metabolites, parathyroid hormone, and insulin-like growth factor-I indicate responses to variations in the supply of bone-related nutrients, such as vitamin D, Ca, inorganic phosphate and protein. Thus modification in bone remodelling, the key process upon which both pharmaceutical agents and nutrients exert their anti-catabolic or anabolic actions, is revealed. Circulating BTM reflect either osteoclastic resorption or osteoblastic formation. Intervention with pharmacological agents showed that early changes in BTM predicted bone loss and subsequent osteoporotic fracture risk. New trials have documented the influence of nutrition on bone-tropic hormonal factors and BTM in adults, including situations of body-weight change, such as anorexia nervosa, and weight loss by obese subjects. In osteoporosis-prevention studies involving dietary manipulation, randomised cross-over trials are best suited to evaluate influences on bone metabolism, and insight into effects on bone metabolism may be gained within a relatively short time when biochemical markers are monitored. PMID:25394580

  19. Altered transport and metabolism of phenolic compounds in obesity and diabetes: implications for functional food development and assessment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Interest in application of phenolic compounds from diet or supplements for prevention of chronic diseases has grown significantly, but efficacy of such approaches in humans is largely dependent on the bioavailability and metabolism of these compounds. While food and dietary factors have been the foc...

  20. Influence of various growth parameters on fungal growth and volatile metabolite production by indoor molds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Polizzi, Viviana; Adams, An; De Saeger, Sarah; Van Peteghem, Carlos; Moretti, Antonio; De Kimpe, Norbert

    2012-01-01

    A Penicillium polonicum, an Aspergillus ustus and a Periconia britannica strain were isolated from water-damaged environments and the production of microbial volatile organic compounds (MVOCs) was investigated by means of headspace solid-phase microextraction followed by GC-MS analysis. The most important MVOCs produced were 2-methylisoborneol, geosmin and daucane-type sesquiterpenes for P. polonicum, 1-octen-3-ol, 3-octanone, germacrene D, δ-cadinene and other sesquiterpenes for A. ustus and the volatile mycotoxin precursor aristolochene together with valencene, α-selinene and β-selinene for P. britannica. Different growth conditions (substrate, temperature, relative humidity) were selected, resembling indoor parameters, to investigate their influence on fungal metabolism in relation with the sick building syndrome and the results were compared with two other fungal strains previously analyzed under the same conditions. In general, the range of MVOCs and the emitted quantities were larger on malt extract agar than on wallpaper and plasterboard, but, overall, the main MVOC profile was conserved also on the two building materials tested. The influence of temperature and relative humidity on growth and metabolism is different for different fungal species, and two main patterns of behavior could be distinguished. Results show that, even at suboptimal conditions for growth, production of fungal volatiles can be significant. PMID:22169393

  1. CO(2) acts as a signalling molecule in populations of the fungal pathogen Candida albicans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hall, Rebecca A; De Sordi, Luisa; Maccallum, Donna M; Topal, Hüsnü; Eaton, Rebecca; Bloor, James W; Robinson, Gary K; Levin, Lonny R; Buck, Jochen; Wang, Yue; Gow, Neil A R; Steegborn, Clemens; Mühlschlegel, Fritz A

    2010-01-01

    When colonising host-niches or non-animated medical devices, individual cells of the fungal pathogen Candida albicans expand into significant biomasses. Here we show that within such biomasses, fungal metabolically generated CO(2) acts as a communication molecule promoting the switch from yeast to filamentous growth essential for C. albicans pathology. We find that CO(2)-mediated intra-colony signalling involves the adenylyl cyclase protein (Cyr1p), a multi-sensor recently found to coordinate fungal responses to serum and bacterial peptidoglycan. We further identify Lys 1373 as essential for CO(2)/bicarbonate regulation of Cyr1p. Disruption of the CO(2)/bicarbonate receptor-site interferes selectively with C. albicans filamentation within fungal biomasses. Comparisons between the Drosophila melanogaster infection model and the mouse model of disseminated candidiasis, suggest that metabolic CO(2) sensing may be important for initial colonisation and epithelial invasion. Our results reveal the existence of a gaseous Candida signalling pathway and its molecular mechanism and provide insights into an evolutionary conserved CO(2)-signalling system. PMID:21124988

  2. CO(2 acts as a signalling molecule in populations of the fungal pathogen Candida albicans.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rebecca A Hall

    Full Text Available When colonising host-niches or non-animated medical devices, individual cells of the fungal pathogen Candida albicans expand into significant biomasses. Here we show that within such biomasses, fungal metabolically generated CO(2 acts as a communication molecule promoting the switch from yeast to filamentous growth essential for C. albicans pathology. We find that CO(2-mediated intra-colony signalling involves the adenylyl cyclase protein (Cyr1p, a multi-sensor recently found to coordinate fungal responses to serum and bacterial peptidoglycan. We further identify Lys 1373 as essential for CO(2/bicarbonate regulation of Cyr1p. Disruption of the CO(2/bicarbonate receptor-site interferes selectively with C. albicans filamentation within fungal biomasses. Comparisons between the Drosophila melanogaster infection model and the mouse model of disseminated candidiasis, suggest that metabolic CO(2 sensing may be important for initial colonisation and epithelial invasion. Our results reveal the existence of a gaseous Candida signalling pathway and its molecular mechanism and provide insights into an evolutionary conserved CO(2-signalling system.

  3. Microbial community assembly and metabolic function during mammalian corpse decomposition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Metcalf, Jessica L; Xu, Zhenjiang Zech; Weiss, Sophie; Lax, Simon; Van Treuren, Will; Hyde, Embriette R.; Song, Se Jin; Amir, Amnon; Larsen, Peter; Sangwan, Naseer; Haarmann, Daniel; Humphrey, Greg C; Ackermann, Gail; Thompson, Luke R; Lauber, Christian; Bibat, Alexander; Nicholas, Catherine; Gebert, Matthew J; Petrosino, Joseph F; Reed, Sasha C.; Gilbert, Jack A; Lynne, Aaron M; Bucheli, Sibyl R; Carter, David O; Knight, Rob

    2016-01-01

    Vertebrate corpse decomposition provides an important stage in nutrient cycling in most terrestrial habitats, yet microbially mediated processes are poorly understood. Here we combine deep microbial community characterization, community-level metabolic reconstruction, and soil biogeochemical assessment to understand the principles governing microbial community assembly during decomposition of mouse and human corpses on different soil substrates. We find a suite of bacterial and fungal groups that contribute to nitrogen cycling and a reproducible network of decomposers that emerge on predictable time scales. Our results show that this decomposer community is derived primarily from bulk soil, but key decomposers are ubiquitous in low abundance. Soil type was not a dominant factor driving community development, and the process of decomposition is sufficiently reproducible to offer new opportunities for forensic investigations.

  4. Fungal infection in organ transplant patients

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    洪微; 温海; 廖万清

    2003-01-01

    Purpose To review the characteristics and evolution of the fungal spectrum, and the risk factors causing fungal infection, and to make progress in diagnosing fungal infection after organ transplantation.Data sources An English-language literature search (MEDLINE 1990-2000) and bibliographic review of textbooks and review articles.Study selection Twenty-three articles were selected from the literature that specifically addressed the stated purpose.Results Fungal infections in organ transplant patients were generally divided into two types: ① disseminated primary or reactivation infection with one of the geographically restricted systemic mycoses; ② opportunistic infection by fungal species that rarely cause invasive infection in normal hosts. The risk factors of fungal infection after a transplant can be evaluated and predicted according to the organ recipient ’s conditions before, during and after the transplant. Progress in early diagnostic methods during the past 10 years has mainly revolved around two aspects, culture and non-culture. Conclusions It is important to undertake a systemic evaluation on the condition of the organ recipient before, during and after a transplant; should any risk factor for fungal infection be suspected, diagnosis should be made as early as possible by employing mycological techniques including culture and non-culture methods.

  5. A novel class of fungal lipoxygenases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heshof, Ruud; Jylhä, Sirpa; Haarmann, Thomas; Jørgensen, Ann Louise Worsøe; Dalsgaard, Trine Kastrup; de Graaff, Leo H

    2014-02-01

    Lipoxygenases (LOXs) are well-studied enzymes in plants and mammals. However, fungal LOXs are less studied. In this study, we have compared fungal LOX protein sequences to all known characterized LOXs. For this, a script was written using Shell commands to extract sequences from the NCBI database and to align the sequences obtained using Multiple Sequence Comparison by Log-Expectation. We constructed a phylogenetic tree with the use of Quicktree to visualize the relation of fungal LOXs towards other LOXs. These sequences were analyzed with respect to the signal sequence, C-terminal amino acid, the stereochemistry of the formed oxylipin, and the metal ion cofactor usage. This study shows fungal LOXs are divided into two groups, the Ile- and the Val-groups. The Ile-group has a conserved WRYAK sequence that appears to be characteristic for fungal LOXs and has as a C-terminal amino acid Ile. The Val-group has a highly conserved WL-L/F-AK sequence that is also found in LOXs of plant and animal origin. We found that fungal LOXs with this conserved sequence have a Val at the C-terminus in contrast to other LOXs of fungal origin. Also, these LOXs have signal sequences implying these LOXs will be expressed extracellularly. Our results show that in this group, in addition to the Gaeumannomyces graminis and the Magnaporthe salvinii LOXs, the Aspergillus fumigatus LOX uses manganese as a cofactor. PMID:24276623

  6. Investigating xylose metabolism in recombinant Saccharomyces cerevisiae via 13C metabolic flux analysis

    OpenAIRE

    Feng, Xueyang; Zhao, Huimin

    2013-01-01

    Background To engineer Saccharomyces cerevisiae for efficient xylose utilization, a fungal pathway consisting of xylose reductase, xylitol dehydrogenase, and xylulose kinase is often introduced to the host strain. Despite extensive in vitro studies on the xylose pathway, the intracellular metabolism rewiring in response to the heterologous xylose pathway remains largely unknown. In this study, we applied 13C metabolic flux analysis and stoichiometric modeling to systemically investigate the f...

  7. Fungal colonization of air-conditioning systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ljaljević-Grbić Milica

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Fungi have been implicated as quantitatively the most important bioaerosol component of indoor air associated with contaminated air-conditioning systems. rarely, indoor fungi may cause human infections, but more commonly allergenic responses ranging from pneumonitis to asthma-like symptoms. From all air conditioner filters analyzed, 16 fungal taxa were isolated and identified. Aspergillus fumigatus causes more lethal infections worldwide than any other mold. Air-conditioning filters that adsorb moisture and volatile organics appear to provide suitable substrates for fungal colonization. It is important to stress that fungal colonization of air-conditioning systems should not be ignored, especially in hospital environments.

  8. Fungal infections in neutropenic cancer patients

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Invasive fungal infections are important causes of morbidity and mortality in cancer patients with prolonged neutropenia following chemotherapy. Recent trends indicate a change toward infections by Aspergillus species, non-albicans species of Candida, and previously uncommon fungal pathogens. These have decreased susceptibility to current antifungal agents. In the last decade there has been much effort to find solutions for these changing trends. This article reviews current approaches to prevention and treatment of opportunistic fungal infections in postchemotherapy neutropenic patients and discussion future antifungal approaches and supportive methods. (author)

  9. antiSMASH: rapid identification, annotation and analysis of secondary metabolite biosynthesis gene clusters in bacterial and fungal genome sequences

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Medema, M.H.; Blin, K.; Cimermancic, P.; Jager, de V.C.L.; Zakrzewski, P.; Fischbach, M.A.; Weber, T.; Takano, E.; Breitling, R.

    2011-01-01

    Bacterial and fungal secondary metabolism is a rich source of novel bioactive compounds with potential pharmaceutical applications as antibiotics, anti-tumor drugs or cholesterol-lowering drugs. To find new drug candidates, microbiologists are increasingly relying on sequencing genomes of a wide var

  10. antiSMASH: rapid identification, annotation and analysis of secondary metabolite biosynthesis gene clusters in bacterial and fungal genome sequences.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Medema, M.H.; Blin, K.; Cimermancic, P.; Jager, V.C.L. de; Zakrzewski, P.; Fischbach, M.A.; Weber, T.; Takano, E.; Breitling, R.

    2011-01-01

    Bacterial and fungal secondary metabolism is a rich source of novel bioactive compounds with potential pharmaceutical applications as antibiotics, anti-tumor drugs or cholesterol-lowering drugs. To find new drug candidates, microbiologists are increasingly relying on sequencing genomes of a wide var

  11. antiSMASH : rapid identification, annotation and analysis of secondary metabolite biosynthesis gene clusters in bacterial and fungal genome sequences

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Medema, Marnix H.; Blin, Kai; Cimermancic, Peter; de Jager, Victor; Zakrzewski, Piotr; Fischbach, Michael A.; Weber, Tilmann; Takano, Eriko; Breitling, Rainer

    2011-01-01

    Bacterial and fungal secondary metabolism is a rich source of novel bioactive compounds with potential pharmaceutical applications as antibiotics, anti-tumor drugs or cholesterol-lowering drugs. To find new drug candidates, microbiologists are increasingly relying on sequencing genomes of a wide var

  12. Cerebral metabolism and perfusion in MR-negative individuals with refractory focal epilepsy assessed by simultaneous acquisition of 18F-FDG PET and arterial spin labeling

    OpenAIRE

    Galazzo, I. B.; Mattoli, M. V.; Pizzini, F. B.; Vita, E.; Barnes, A.; Duncan, J.S.; Jager, R.; Golay, X.; Bomanji, J. B.; Koepp, M.; Groves, A M; Fraioli, F.

    2016-01-01

    The major challenge in pre-surgical epileptic patient evaluation is the correct identification of the seizure onset area, especially in MR-negative patients. In this study, we aimed to: (1) assess the concordance between perfusion, from ASL, and metabolism, from 18F-FDG, acquired simultaneously on PET/MR; (2) verify the utility of a statistical approach as supportive diagnostic tool for clinical readers. Secondarily, we compared 18F-FDG PET data from the hybrid PET/MR system with those acquir...

  13. Assessment of the severity of coronary artery disease by thallium-201 washout rate after dipyridamole infusion. A coronary hemodynamic and metabolic study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This study examined the relationship between the myocardial washout rate (WR) of thallium-201 (201Tl) in dipyridamole scintigraphy and both coronary flow reserve (CFR) and myocardial lactate extraction rate (LER) after dipyridamole infusion in 31 patients with coronary artery disease (CAD) without myocardial infarction and 16 control patients. Patients with CAD demonstrated significantly lower WR (21±17 vs 43±10%, p201Tl after dipyridamole infusion reflects the severity of coronary artery disease as assessed by coronary hemodynamics, myocardial metabolism, symptoms and electrocardiography. (author)

  14. Optimal cut‐off point for homeostasis model assessment of insulin resistance to discriminate metabolic syndrome in non‐diabetic Japanese subjects

    OpenAIRE

    Yamada, Chizumi; Moriyama, Kengo; Takahashi, Eiko

    2012-01-01

    Abstract We have recently established a ‘health‐associated’ reference interval of homeostasis model assessment of insulin resistance (HOMA‐IR) between 0.4 and 2.4. In the present study, the aim was to establish a ‘decision‐based’ limit of HOMA‐IR for the discrimination of metabolic syndrome (MetS) in non‐diabetic Japanese subjects. The receiver–operating characteristic curve of HOMA‐IR for detecting MetS was developed using data from 6868 non‐diabetic subjects (3727 men, 3141 women). The opti...

  15. Non-invasive assessment of the effect of cardiac sympathetic innervation on metabolism of the human heart

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The role of cardiac sympathetic nerves in the regulation of myocardial metabolism is not well defined. Owing to the presence of incomplete reinnervation, heart transplant recipients provide a unique model to study the effects of efferent sympathetic innervation. Using this model, we sought to determine the influence of cardiac sympathetic signals on substrate utilisation and overall oxidative metabolism. In 21 transplant recipients, positron emission tomography was applied to determine sympathetic innervation with the noradrenaline analogue carbon-11 hydroxyephedrine, oxidative metabolism with carbon-11 acetate (n=14), and glucose utilisation with fluorine-18 fluorodeoxyglucose (n=7). The reinnervated area comprised 22%±20% of the left ventricle. Oxidative metabolism was similar in denervated and reinnervated myocardium [0.06±0.01 vs 0.06±0.01/min for k(mono)], while glucose uptake was significantly higher in denervated myocardium (6.9±6.6 vs 6.0±6.2 μmol/min/100 g; P=0.03). Reinnervation mainly occurred in the territory of the left anterior descending artery, where retention of 11C-hydroxyephedrine (6.8±2.7%/min) was higher compared with territories of the left circumflex (4.1±1.7%/min; P<0.01) and right coronary (3.8±1.1%/min; P<0.01) arteries. Oxidative metabolism was similar in all three territories, but compared with the reinnervated territory of the left anterior descending artery (53%±16% of maximum), relative FDG uptake was higher in territories of the left circumflex (76%±6%, P<0.01) and right coronary (67%±10%, P<0.05) arteries. Similar degrees of regional heterogeneity were not observed in normals. Thus, while overall energy production through oxidative metabolism remains unaffected, cardiac utilisation of glucose in the fasting state is increased in the absence of catecholamine uptake sites. Innervated myocardium, however, may preferentially utilise free fatty acids, suggesting a role for sympathetic tone in substrate utilisation. (orig.)

  16. Soil DNA pyrosequencing and fruitbody surveys reveal contrasting diversity for various fungal ecological guilds in chestnut orchards.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baptista, Paula; Reis, Francisca; Pereira, Eric; Tavares, Rui M; Santos, Pedro M; Richard, Franck; Selosse, Marc-André; Lino-Neto, Teresa

    2015-12-01

    Fungal diversity in Mediterranean forest soils is poorly documented, particularly when considering saprobic and pathogenic organisms. Next-generation sequencing (NGS) methods applied to soil fungi provide the opportunity to unveil the most inconspicuous functional guilds (e.g. saprobes) and life forms (e.g. Corticiaceae) of this tremendous diversity. We used fruitbody surveys over 2 years and soil 454 metabarcoding in Castanea sativa orchards to evaluate respectively the reproductive (fruitbodies) and vegetative (mycelia) parts of fungal communities in three 100-year-old stands. Analysis of 839 fruitbodies and 210 291 ITS1 reads revealed high fungal diversity, mainly shown by belowground analysis, with high (dominant) abundance of mycorrhizal fruitbodies and reads. Both methods displayed contrasted composition and structure of fungal communities, with Basidio- and Ascomycetes dominating above- and belowground, respectively. For the two dominant fungal guilds (i.e. ectomycorrhizal and saprobic), diversity above- and belowground overlapped weakly. This study is the first assessment of the complementarity of fruitbody surveys and NGS for analysing fungal diversity in Mediterranean ecosystems and shows that belowground methods still need to be completed by fruiting diversity to provide a comprehensive overview of the different fungal guilds. The results shed light on chestnut soil biodiversity and question the spatial distribution and synergies among fungal guilds. PMID:26391727

  17. Assessment of the metabolic trapping rate of FDG in rat brain using dual tracer autoradiography with 18F-FDG and 14C-FDG

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The dual tracer autoradiography using 18F-FDG and 14C-FDG was applied to the estimation of changes in the metabolic trapping rate in rat brain. Rats were infused with kainic acid (1 μg/μL) into the right striatum 3 hours prior to the tracer experiment. 18F-FDG was intravenously injected into the rats, and 14C-FDG was injected 44 minutes after 18F-FDG injection. The rats were decapitated at 1 minute post-injection of 14C-FDG, and frozen brain sections were prepared. The slices were exposed on imaging plate for 1 hour, and 18F-FDG images (45 minutes) were obtained. After the decay of 18F, the same slices were contacted with imaging plate for 1 week, and 14C-FDG images (1 minute) were obtained. Radioactivity concentrations in cerebral cortex at 1 minute and 45 minutes after 18F-FDG injection were determined by the dissection method, the values were used to normalize 18F-FDG and 14C-FDG image. The subtraction image was made by subtracting the normalized 14C-FDG image from the 18F-FDG image. In the results, intrastriatal infusion of kainic acid significantly enhanced the metabolic trapping process of FDG. The dual tracer autoradiography with 18F-FDG and 14C-FDG seems to be useful to assess the metabolic trapping rate of FDG in brain injury. (author)

  18. PNNL Fungal Biotechnology Core DOE-OBP Project

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Baker, Scott E.; Bruno, Kenneth S.; Butcher, Mark G.; Collett, James R.; Culley, David E.; Dai, Ziyu; Magnuson, Jon K.; Panisko, Ellen A.

    2009-11-30

    In 2009, we continued to address barriers to fungal fermentation in the primary areas of morphology control, genomics, proteomics, fungal hyperproductivity, biomass-to-products via fungal based consolidated bioprocesses, and filamentous fungal ethanol. “Alternative renewable fuels from fungi” was added as a new subtask. Plans were also made to launch a new advanced strain development subtask in FY2010.

  19. Indoor fungal contamination: health risks and measurement methods in hospitals, homes and workplaces.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Méheust, Delphine; Le Cann, Pierre; Reboux, Gabriel; Millon, Laurence; Gangneux, Jean-Pierre

    2014-08-01

    Indoor fungal contamination has been associated with a wide range of adverse health effects, including infectious diseases, toxic effects and allergies. The diversity of fungi contributes to the complex role that they play in indoor environments and human diseases. Molds have a major impact on public health, and can cause different consequences in hospitals, homes and workplaces. This review presents the methods used to assess fungal contamination in these various environments, and discusses advantages and disadvantages for each method in consideration with different health risks. Air, dust and surface sampling strategies are compared, as well as the limits of various methods are used to detect and quantify fungal particles and fungal compounds. In addition to conventional microscopic and culture approaches, more recent chemical, immunoassay and polymerase chain reaction (PCR)-based methods are described. This article also identifies common needs for future multidisciplinary research and development projects in this field, with specific interests on viable fungi and fungal fragment detections. The determination of fungal load and the detection of species in environmental samples greatly depend on the strategy of sampling and analysis. Quantitative PCR was found useful to identify associations between specific fungi and common diseases. The next-generation sequencing methods may afford new perspectives in this area. PMID:23586944

  20. Ethanol and phenanthrene increase the biomass of fungal assemblages and decrease plant litter decomposition in streams.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barros, Diana; Oliveira, Patrícia; Pascoal, Cláudia; Cássio, Fernanda

    2016-09-15

    Fungi, particularly aquatic hyphomycetes, have been recognized as playing a dominant role in microbial decomposition of plant litter in streams. In this study, we used a microcosm experiment with different levels of fungal diversity (species number and identity) using monocultures and combinations with up to five aquatic hyphomycete species (Articulospora tetracladia, Tricladium splendens, Heliscus submersus, Tetrachaetum elegans and Flagellospora curta) to assess the effects of ethanol and phenanthrene on three functional measures: plant litter decomposition, fungal biomass accrual and reproduction. Alder leaves were conditioned by fungi for 7days and then were exposed to phenanthrene (1mgL(-1)) dissolved in ethanol (0.1% final concentration) or ethanol (at the concentration used to solubilise phenanthrene) for further 24days. Exposure to ethanol alone or in combination with phenanthrene decreased leaf decomposition and fungal reproduction, but increased fungal biomass produced. All aspects of fungal activity varied with species number. Fungal activity in polycultures was generally higher than that expected from the sum of the weighted performances of participating species in monoculture, suggesting complementarity between species. However, the activity of fungi in polycultures did not exceed the activity of the most productive species either in the absence or presence of ethanol alone or with phenanthrene. PMID:27186876

  1. Ecological succession reveals potential signatures of marine-terrestrial transition in salt marsh fungal communities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dini-Andreote, Francisco; Pylro, Victor Satler; Baldrian, Petr; van Elsas, Jan Dirk; Salles, Joana Falcão

    2016-08-01

    Marine-to-terrestrial transition represents one of the most fundamental shifts in microbial life. Understanding the distribution and drivers of soil microbial communities across coastal ecosystems is critical given the roles of microbes in soil biogeochemistry and their multifaceted influence on landscape succession. Here, we studied the fungal community dynamics in a well-established salt marsh chronosequence that spans over a century of ecosystem development. We focussed on providing high-resolution assessments of community composition, diversity and ecophysiological shifts that yielded patterns of ecological succession through soil formation. Notably, despite containing 10- to 100-fold lower fungal internal transcribed spacer abundances, early-successional sites revealed fungal richnesses comparable to those of more mature soils. These newly formed sites also exhibited significant temporal variations in β-diversity that may be attributed to the highly dynamic nature of the system imposed by the tidal regime. The fungal community compositions and ecophysiological assignments changed substantially along the successional gradient, revealing a clear signature of ecological replacement and gradually transforming the environment from a marine into a terrestrial system. Moreover, distance-based linear modelling revealed soil physical structure and organic matter to be the best predictors of the shifts in fungal β-diversity along the chronosequence. Taken together, our study lays the basis for a better understanding of the spatiotemporally determined fungal community dynamics in salt marshes and highlights their ecophysiological traits and adaptation in an evolving ecosystem. PMID:26824176

  2. Lichen-Associated Fungal Community in Hypogymnia hypotrypa (Parmeliaceae, Ascomycota) Affected by Geographic Distribution and Altitude

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Yanyan; Zheng, Yong; Wang, Xinyu; Wei, Xinli; Wei, Jiangchun

    2016-01-01

    Lichen-associated fungal species have already been investigated in almost all the main growth forms of lichens, however, whether or not they are homogeneous and constant within each lichen species are still inconclusive. Moreover, the related ecological factors to affect and structure the fungal composition have been poorly studied. In order to answer these questions, we took Hypogymnia hypotrypa as a model to study the relationship between the lichen-associated fungal composition and two ecological factors, i.e., site and altitude, using the method of IlluminaMiSeq sequencing. Four different sites and two levels of altitude were included in this study, and the effects of site and altitude on fungal community composition were assessed at three levels, i.e., operational taxonomic unit (OTU), class and phylum. The results showed that a total of 50 OTUs were identified and distributed in 4 phyla, 13 classes, and 20 orders. The lichen-associated fungal composition within H. hypotrypa were significantly affected by both site and altitude at OTU and class levels, while at the phylum level, it was only affected by altitude. While the lichen associated fungal communities were reported to be similar with endophytic fungi of the moss, our results indicated the opposite results in some degree. But whether there exist specific OTUs within this lichen species corresponding to different sites and altitudes is still open. More lichen species and ecological factors would be taken into the integrated analyses to address these knowledge gaps in the near future. PMID:27547204

  3. Diversity and distribution of fungal communities in the marine sediments of Kongsfjorden, Svalbard (High Arctic)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Tao; Fei Wang, Neng; Qin Zhang, Yu; Yu Liu, Hong; Yan Yu, Li

    2015-10-01

    This study assessed the diversity and distribution of fungal communities in eight marine sediments of Kongsfjorden (Svalbard, High Arctic) using 454 pyrosequencing with fungal-specific primers targeting the internal transcribed spacer (ITS) region of the ribosomal rRNA gene. Sedimentary fungal communities showed high diversity with 42,219 reads belonging to 113 operational taxonomic units (OTUs). Of these OTUs, 62 belonged to the Ascomycota, 26 to Basidiomycota, 2 to Chytridiomycota, 1 to Zygomycota, 1 to Glomeromycota, and 21 to unknown fungi. The major known orders included Hypocreales and Saccharomycetales. The common fungal genera were Pichia, Fusarium, Alternaria, and Malassezia. Interestingly, most fungi occurring in these Arctic sediments may originate from the terrestrial habitats and different basins in Kongsfjorden (i.e., inner basin, central basin, and outer basin) harbor different sedimentary fungal communities. These results suggest the existence of diverse fungal communities in the Arctic marine sediments, which may serve as a useful community model for further ecological and evolutionary study of fungi in the Arctic.

  4. Arbuscular mycorrhizal fungal networks vary throughout the growing season and between successional stages.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alison Elizabeth Bennett

    Full Text Available To date, few analyses of mutualistic networks have investigated successional or seasonal dynamics. Combining interaction data from multiple time points likely creates an inaccurate picture of the structure of networks (because these networks are aggregated across time, which may negatively influence their application in ecosystem assessments and conservation. Using a replicated bipartite mutualistic network of arbuscular mycorrhizal (AM fungal-plant associations, detected using large sample numbers of plants and AM fungi identified through molecular techniques, we test whether the properties of the network are temporally dynamic either between different successional stages or within the growing season. These questions have never been directly tested in the AM fungal-plant mutualism or the vast majority of other mutualisms. We demonstrate the following results: First, our examination of two different successional stages (young and old forest demonstrated that succession increases the proportion of specialists within the community and decreases the number of interactions. Second, AM fungal-plant mutualism structure changed throughout the growing season as the number of links between partners increased. Third, we observed shifts in associations between AM fungal and plant species throughout the growing season, potentially reflecting changes in biotic and abiotic conditions. Thus, this analysis opens up two entirely new areas of research: 1 identifying what influences changes in plant-AM fungal associations in these networks, and 2 what aspects of temporal variation and succession are of general importance in structuring bipartite networks and plant-AM fungal communities.

  5. Lichen-Associated Fungal Community in Hypogymnia hypotrypa (Parmeliaceae, Ascomycota) Affected by Geographic Distribution and Altitude.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Yanyan; Zheng, Yong; Wang, Xinyu; Wei, Xinli; Wei, Jiangchun

    2016-01-01

    Lichen-associated fungal species have already been investigated in almost all the main growth forms of lichens, however, whether or not they are homogeneous and constant within each lichen species are still inconclusive. Moreover, the related ecological factors to affect and structure the fungal composition have been poorly studied. In order to answer these questions, we took Hypogymnia hypotrypa as a model to study the relationship between the lichen-associated fungal composition and two ecological factors, i.e., site and altitude, using the method of IlluminaMiSeq sequencing. Four different sites and two levels of altitude were included in this study, and the effects of site and altitude on fungal community composition were assessed at three levels, i.e., operational taxonomic unit (OTU), class and phylum. The results showed that a total of 50 OTUs were identified and distributed in 4 phyla, 13 classes, and 20 orders. The lichen-associated fungal composition within H. hypotrypa were significantly affected by both site and altitude at OTU and class levels, while at the phylum level, it was only affected by altitude. While the lichen associated fungal communities were reported to be similar with endophytic fungi of the moss, our results indicated the opposite results in some degree. But whether there exist specific OTUs within this lichen species corresponding to different sites and altitudes is still open. More lichen species and ecological factors would be taken into the integrated analyses to address these knowledge gaps in the near future. PMID:27547204

  6. Fungal diversity is not determined by mineral and chemical differences in serpentine substrates.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stefania Daghino

    Full Text Available The physico-chemical properties of serpentine soils lead to strong selection of plant species. Whereas many studies have described the serpentine flora, little information is available on the fungal communities dwelling in these sites. Asbestos minerals, often associated with serpentine rocks, can be weathered by serpentine-isolated fungi, suggesting an adaptation to this substrate. In this study, we have investigated whether serpentine substrates characterized by the presence of rocks with distinct mineral composition could select for different fungal communities. Both fungal isolation and 454 pyrosequencing of amplicons obtained from serpentine samples following direct DNA extraction revealed some fungal taxa shared by the four ophiolitic substrates, but also highlighted several substrate-specific taxa. Bootstrap analysis of 454 OTU abundances indicated weak clustering of fungal assemblages from the different substrates, which did not match substrate classification based on exchangeable macronutrients and metals. Intra-substrate variability, as assessed by DGGE profiles, was similar across the four serpentine substrates, and comparable to inter-substrate variability. These findings indicate the absence of a correlation between the substrate (mineral composition and available cations and the diversity of the fungal community. Comparison of culture-based and culture-independent methods supports the higher taxonomic precision of the former, as complementation of the better performance of the latter.

  7. Analysis of fungal ball rhinosinusitis by culturing fungal clumps under endoscopic surgery

    OpenAIRE

    Zhang, Junyi; Li, Yunchuan; Lu, Xinxin; Wang, Xiangdong; Zang, Hongrui; Wang, Tong; Zhou, Bing; Zhang, Luo

    2015-01-01

    Objective: This study was designed to investigate the clinical microbiology of fungal ball (FB) rhinosinusitis by culturing fungal clumps collected under endoscopic surgery. Methods: From April to November of 2012, fungal clumps were sampled by endoscopic surgery from patients diagnosed with FB using clinical and histopathological methods. The specimens were subjected to smear microscopy, and cultured for bacteria and fungi analysis. Results: Out of the 81 specimens from 80 patients, 69 (69/8...

  8. Assessment of crosstalks between the Snf1 kinase complex and sphingolipid metabolism in S. cerevisiae via systems biology approaches.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Borklu Yucel, Esra; Ulgen, Kutlu O

    2013-11-01

    Sphingolipids are essential building blocks of the plasma membranes and are highly bioactive in the regulation of diverse cellular functions and pathological processes, a fact which renders the sphingolipid metabolism an important research area. In this study, a computational framework was recruited for the reconstruction of a functional interaction network for sphingolipid metabolism in Baker's yeast, SSN. Gene Ontology (GO) annotations were integrated with functional interaction data of the BIOGRID database and the reconstructed protein interaction network was subjected to topological and descriptive analyses. SSN was of a scale-free nature, following a power law model with γ=1.41. Prominent processes of SSN revealed that the reconstructed network encapsulated the involvement of sphingolipid metabolism in vital cellular processes such as energy homeostasis, cell growth and/or death and synthesis of building blocks. To investigate the potential of SSN for predicting signal transduction pathways regulating and/or being regulated by sphingolipid biosynthesis in yeast, a case study involving the S. cerevisiae counterpart of AMP-activated protein kinase, the Snf1 kinase complex, was conducted. The mutant strain lacking the catalytic α subunit, snf1Δ/snf1Δ, had elevated inositol phosphorylceramide and mannosyl-inositol phosphorylceramide levels, and decreased mannosyl-diinositol phosphorylceramide levels compared to the wild type strain, revealing that Snf1p has a regulatory role in the sphingolipid metabolism. Transcriptome data belonging to that strain available in the literature were mapped onto SSN and the correlated SSN was further investigated to evaluate the possible crosstalk machineries where sphingolipids and Snf1p function in coordination, in other words the crosstalk points between sphingolipid-mediated and Snf1 kinase signalling. The subsequent investigation of the discovered candidate crosstalk processes by performing sensitivity experiments imply a

  9. Biochemical markers for assessment of calcium economy and bone metabolism: application in clinical trials from pharmaceutical agents to nutritional products

    OpenAIRE

    Bonjour, Jean-Philippe; Kohrt, Wendy; Levasseur, Régis; Warren, Michelle; Whiting, Susan; Kraenzlin, Marius

    2014-01-01

    Nutrition plays an important role in osteoporosis prevention and treatment. Substantial progress in both laboratory analyses and clinical use of biochemical markers has modified the strategy of anti-osteoporotic drug development. The present review examines the use of biochemical markers in clinical research aimed at characterising the influence of foods or nutrients on bone metabolism. The two types of markers are: (i) specific hormonal factors related to bone; and (ii) bone turnover markers...

  10. Probing the metabolic aberrations underlying mutant huntingtin toxicity in yeast and assessing their degree of preservation in humans and mice

    OpenAIRE

    Joyner, P. Matthew; Matheke, Ronni M.; Smith, Lindsey M.; Cichewicz, Robert H.

    2010-01-01

    Metabolomics is a powerful multi-parameter tool for evaluating phenotypic traits associated with disease processes. We have used 1H NMR metabolome profiling to characterize metabolic aberrations in a yeast model of Huntington's disease that are attributable to the mutant huntingtin protein's gain-of-toxic-function effects. A group of 11 metabolites (alanine, acetate, galactose, glutamine, glycerol, histidine, proline, succinate, threonine, trehalose, and valine) exhibited significant concentr...

  11. Zoosporic fungal parasites of marine biota

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    RaghuKumar, C.

    laboratory media. In such instances, a detailed and careful examination of the disease symptoms and the endobiotic fungal parasites is to be recorded. Maintaining dual culture of the healthy and infected host also helps to fulfill these postulates partially....

  12. Fungal infections and cavernous sinus thrombosis

    OpenAIRE

    Munjal, Manish; Khurana, A. S.

    2004-01-01

    Rhino — Cerebral Mucormycosis, in uncontrolled diabetics, is a common entity Cavernous Sinus Thrombosis, secondary to fungal involvement is rarely encountered Two cases with fulminant spread are reported highlighting the symptoms, signs, and therapeutic modality

  13. Air Contamination With Fungals In Museum

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scarlat, Iuliana; Haiducu, Maria; Stepa, Raluca

    2015-07-01

    The aim of the studies was to determine the level and kind of fungal contamination of air in museum, deposits patrimony, restoration and conservation laboratories and their effects on health of workers. Microbiological air purity was measured with a SAS-100 Surface Air System impactor. The fungal contamination was observed in all 54 rooms where we made determinations. The highest levels of fungal were recorded at rooms with hygroscopic patrimony objects, eg carpets, chairs, upholstered chairs, books etc. The most species identified included under common allergens: Aspergillus, Penicillium, and Mucor. There fungal species belonging to the genus identified in this study, can trigger serious diseases museum workers, such as for example Aspergillus fumigatus, known allergies and toxic effects that may occur. In some places of the museum, occupational exposure limit values to fungi present in the air in the work environment, recommended by the specialized literature, have been overcome.

  14. Voriconazole in the management of nosocomial invasive fungal infections.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pemán, Javier; Salavert, Miguel; Cantón, Emilia; Jarque, Isidro; Romá, Eva; Zaragoza, Rafael; Viudes, Angel; Gobernado, Miguel

    2006-06-01

    Voriconazole is a new triazole developed for the treatment of life-threatening fungal infections. The drug is available for both oral and intravenous administration; the oral formulation has excellent bioavailability. The side-effect profile of voriconazole presents an acceptable safety and tolerability spectrum: transient visual disturbances, liver enzyme abnormalities, and skin rashes are the most frequently reported side effects but rarely lead to discontinuation. The potential for drug-drug interactions is high, because of its extensive hepatic metabolism. Careful attention to dosage is required, and serum levels and the effects of interacting drugs should be monitored. Review of 25 470 isolates of yeasts and 3216 isolates of filamentous fungi showed voriconazole to have broad-spectrum activity against pathogenic yeasts including intrinsically fluconazole-resistant isolates such as Candida krusei, dimorphic fungi, and opportunistic moulds like Aspergillus spp, amphotericin-B-resistant Aspergillus terreus, Fusarium spp, and Scedosporium apiospermum. It displays excellent clinical efficacy in patients with fluconazole-resistant and -susceptible Candida infections, invasive bone and central nervous system aspergillosis, and various refractory fungal infections. Voriconazole has been approved by the US Food and Drug Administration and by the European Medicines Agency for the treatment of invasive aspergillosis, serious infections caused by Fusarium and S. apiospermum, fluconazole-resistant invasive Candida infections, and candidemia in nonneutropenic patients. PMID:18360588

  15. Streptomycetes and micromycetes as perspective antagonists of fungal phytopathogens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Postolaky, O; Syrbu, T; Poiras, N; Baltsat, K; Maslobrod, S; Boortseva, S

    2012-01-01

    Among natural factors that permanently influence on the plants, the soil microorganisms play a special role for the growing of plants as habitants of their rhizosphere. Mainly they are the representatives of actinomycetes genus Streptomyces and fungal genus Penicillium and their metabolic products stimulate plant growth and inhibit the growth of pathogenic fungi and bacteria. The aim of our study was to determine the antagonism of actinomycetes and micromycetes isolated from soils of R. Moldova against the fungal pathogens of agricultural plants. The strains were isolated from 5 types of chernozem (black soil) from central zone of R. Moldova, with different concentration of humus. Most of micromycetes and streptomycetes were isolated from soil sample 1 (monoculture of maize) and soil sample 2 (Poltava road border) with similar humus content (2.4-2.6%). The antifungal activity of micromycetes strains was occurring mostly against Fusarium solani and Thelaviopsis basicola, at streptomycetes against Alternaria alternata and Botrytis cinerea. It was revealed the strains completely inhibit the growth of Alt. alternata (streptomycetes strains 23, 33, 37), B. cinerea (Streptomyces sp. 17), and F. solani (Penicillium sp. 104). Our results allow to consider the actinomycetes Streptomyces sp.9, Streptomyces sp. 12, Streptomyces sp. 17, Streptomyces sp. 37 Streptomyces sp. 66 and micromycetes Penicillium sp. 5, Penicillium sp. 65, Penicillium sp. 104 isolated from soils of R. Moldova, as prospective strains-antagonists against the phytopathogenic fungus, the causative agents of agricultural plants deseasis. PMID:23878981

  16. Research Progress Concerning Fungal and Bacterial β-Xylosidases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bosetto, Adilson; Justo, Priscila Innocenti; Zanardi, Bruna; Venzon, Simoni Spohr; Graciano, Luciana; dos Santos, Elaine Luzia; Simão, Rita de Cássia Garcia

    2016-02-01

    In the present review, we briefly summarize the biotechnological applications of microbial β-xylosidases in the processing of agro-industrial residues into fuels and chemicals and report the importance of using immobilization techniques to study the enzyme. The advantages of utilizing genes that encode β-xylosidases are readily apparent in the bioconversion of abundant, inexpensive, and renewable resources into economically important products, such as xylitol and bioethanol. We highlight recent research characterizing fungal and bacterial β-xylosidases, including the use of classical biochemical methods such as purification, heterologous recombinant protein expression, and metagenomic approaches to discovery β-xylosidases, with focus on enzyme molecular and kinetic properties. In addition, we discuss the relevance of using experimental design optimization methodologies to increase the efficacy of these enzymes for use with residual biomass. Finally, we emphasize more extensively the advances in the regulatory mechanisms governing β-xylosidase gene expression and xylose metabolism in gram-negative and gram-positive bacteria and fungi. Unlike previous reviews, this revision covers recent research concerning the various features of bacterial and fungal β-xylosidases with a greater emphasis on their biochemical characteristics and how the genes that encode these enzymes can be better exploited to obtain products of biotechnological interest via the application of different technical approaches. PMID:26536888

  17. Microbial Pathogens in the Fungal Kingdom

    OpenAIRE

    Heitman, Joseph

    2011-01-01

    The fungal kingdom is vast, spanning ~1.5 to as many as 5 million species diverse as unicellular yeasts, filamentous fungi, mushrooms, lichens, and both plant and animal pathogens. The fungi are closely aligned with animals in one of the six to eight supergroups of eukaryotes, the opisthokonts. The animal and fungal kingdoms last shared a common ancestor ~1 billion years ago, more recently than other groups of eukaryotes. As a consequence of their close evolutionary history and shared cellula...

  18. Combination Treatment of Invasive Fungal Infections

    OpenAIRE

    Pranab K Mukherjee; Sheehan, Daniel J.; Hitchcock, Christopher A.; Ghannoum, Mahmoud A.

    2005-01-01

    The persistence of high morbidity and mortality from systemic fungal infections despite the availability of novel antifungals points to the need for effective treatment strategies. Treatment of invasive fungal infections is often hampered by drug toxicity, tolerability, and specificity issues, and added complications often arise due to the lack of diagnostic tests and to treatment complexities. Combination therapy has been suggested as a possible approach to improve treatment outcome. In this...

  19. FUNGAL INFECTIONS IN LIVER TRANSPLANT RECIPIENTS1

    OpenAIRE

    Wajszczuk, Charles P.; Dummer, J. Stephen; Ho, Monto; Van Thiel, David H.; Starzl, Thomas E.; Iwatsuki, Shunzaburo; Shaw, Byers

    1985-01-01

    Sixty-two adults who underwent orthotopic liver transplantations between February 1981 and June 1983 were followed for a mean of 170 days after the operation. Twenty-six patients developed 30 episodes of significant fungal infection. Candida species and Torulopsis glabrata were responsible for 22 episodes and Aspergillus species for 6. Most fungal infections occurred in the first month after transplantation. In the first 8 weeks after transplantation, death occurred in 69% (18/26) of patients...

  20. Treatment of fungal infections: an update

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Antonietta Giannattasio

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Fungal infections represent a serious problem in neonatal intensive care units (NICUs worldwide. Preterm infants are a vulnerable population for major events and adverse sequelae from fungal sepsis. The primary fungus of concern in neonates is C. albicans, whose colonization is associated with devastating complication and high rate of mortality. Among the risk factors responsible for development of invasive fungal infections, previous mucosal and skin colonization are of primary importance. Fungal colonization in neonates may be secondary to either maternal transmission or nosocomial acquisition in the nursery. Antifungal prophylaxis is currently applied in different NICUs and in various patients groups with successful results. Prophylactic drugs can include oral nystatin and oral or intravenous fluconazole. To date, antifungal prophylaxis with fluconazole is the recommended approach for neonates lower than 1,000 g and/or 27 weeks’ gestation or less, manly in NICUs with relatively high frequency of invasive candidiasis. First-line treatment of invasive fungal infections includes amphotericin B deoxycholate, lipid preparations of amphotericin B, fluconazole, or micafungin. However, data on pharmacokinetic, schedule treatment and appropriate dosage of antifungal agents in neonates, mainly in premature, are still limited. Future strategies to reduce neonatal morbidity and mortality derived from invasive fungal infections include new echinocandins not yet approved for neonatal use (caspofungin or anidulafungin and other adjuvant treatments as intravenous immunoglobulin, lactoferrin or probiotics. Since current therapies for systemic fungal diseases are not universally successful and morbidity remains high, future efforts will be also focused on better prevention of fungal diseases and understanding of appropriate dosing schedule of the available antifungal agents. Proceedings of the 10th International Workshop on Neonatology · Cagliari (Italy

  1. Fungal Rhino Sinusitisin in Tehran, Iran

    OpenAIRE

    Mehdi Nazeri1; Seyed Jamal Hashemi; Mohammad Ardehali; Sasan Rezaei; SeyedMojtaba Seyedmousavi; Mahdi Zareei; Emaddodin Hosseinjani

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Fungal rhino sinusitis (FRS) is an important infection of para nasal sinuses, which encompasses two main categories; invasive and noninvasive forms according to histopathological findings. Aspergillus spp are the most common species isolated from noninvasive form, while Mucorales are more frequently isolates from acute infections. METHODS: Four hundred fifty patients suspected to fungal rhino sinusitis were investigated in a cross-sectional prospective study from June 2009 to Sep ...

  2. Fungal and aflatoxin contamination of marketed spices

    OpenAIRE

    Hammami, Walid; Fiori, Stefano; Al Thani, Roda; Kali, Najet Ali; Balmas, Virgilio; Migheli, Quirico; Jaoua, Samir

    2014-01-01

    Fourteen spice samples were collected from local markets in Doha, Qatar, during 2012, and were surveyed for the presence of potentially harmful mycoflora and for contamination with aflatoxins B1, B2, G1, and G2 by high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC). Among the tested spice samples, chili powder showed the highest presence of fungal propagules, while ginger, curry and garlic samples did not present any fungal contamination. A total of 120 isolates, mostly belonging to Aspergillus and...

  3. Spontaneous course of an untreated fungal spondylitis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    After 29 known cases in the world, we report another case of fungal spondylitis being not yet treated. Within four months with increasing clinical complaints and without neurological defects the disease led to a complete involvement of two vertebras and their partial resorption. An early radiologic hint in fungal spondylitis is possible, a sure diagnosis, however, depends on puncture. Pathogenetic aspects and the importance of a new method to identify candida infection in blood-sample are discussed. (orig.)

  4. Striking a Balance: Fungal Commensalism versus Pathogenesis

    OpenAIRE

    Iliev, Iliyan D.; Underhill, David M.

    2013-01-01

    The environment is suffused with nearly countless types of fungi, and our immune systems must be tuned to cope with constant exposure to them. In addition, it is becoming increasingly clear that many surfaces of our bodies are colonized with complex populations of fungi (the mycobiome) in the same way that they are colonized with complex populations of bacteria. The immune system must tolerate colonization with commensal fungi but defend against fungal invasion. Truly life-threatening fungal ...

  5. Fungal-fungal associations affect the assembly of endophyte communities in maize (Zea mays).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pan, Jean J; May, Georgiana

    2009-10-01

    Many factors can affect the assembly of communities, ranging from species pools to habitat effects to interspecific interactions. In microbial communities, the predominant focus has been on the well-touted ability of microbes to disperse and the environment acting as a selective filter to determine which species are present. In this study, we investigated the role of biotic interactions (e.g., competition, facilitation) in fungal endophyte community assembly by examining endophyte species co-occurrences within communities using null models. We used recombinant inbred lines (genotypes) of maize (Zea mays) to examine community assembly at multiple habitat levels, at the individual plant and host genotype levels. Both culture-dependent and culture-independent approaches were used to assess endophyte communities. Communities were analyzed using the complete fungal operational taxonomic unit (OTU) dataset or only the dominant (most abundant) OTUs in order to ascertain whether species co-occurrences were different for dominant members compared to when all members were included. In the culture-dependent approach, we found that for both datasets, OTUs co-occurred on maize genotypes more frequently than expected under the null model of random species co-occurrences. In the culture-independent approach, we found that OTUs negatively co-occurred at the individual plant level but were not significantly different from random at the genotype level for either the dominant or complete datasets. Our results showed that interspecific interactions can affect endophyte community assembly, but the effects can be complex and depend on host habitat level. To our knowledge, this is the first study to examine endophyte community assembly in the same host species at multiple habitat levels. Understanding the processes and mechanisms that shape microbial communities will provide important insights into microbial community structure and the maintenance of microbial biodiversity. PMID:19517158

  6. Experimental study on cryotherapy for fungal corneal ulcer

    OpenAIRE

    Chen, Yingxin; Yang, Weijia; Gao, Minghong; Belin, Michael Wellington; Yu, Hai; Yu, Jing

    2015-01-01

    Background Fungal corneal ulcer is one of the major causes of visual impairment worldwide. Treatment of fungal corneal ulcer mainly depends on anti-fungal agents. In the current study, we developed an integrated combination therapy of cryotherapy and anti-fungal agents to facilitate effective treatment of fungal corneal ulcer. Methods Rabbit models of cornea infection were established using a combined method of intrastromal injection and keratoplasty. After treatment with cryotherapy and anti...

  7. Environmental and self-sufficiency assessment of the energy metabolism of tourist hubs on Mediterranean Islands: The case of Menorca (Spain)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Energy performance of island tourism has been analyzed in the literature. However, tourist services tend to concentrate in tourist hubs, especially where mass tourism predominates (e.g., Mediterranean), and the energy metabolism of these systems has not yet been assessed. The present paper models and estimates the energy metabolism of tourist hubs in the Menorca Island (Spain) by integrating social, geographical and environmental methods. Mobility (both external and internal) and consumption of lodging services were characterized through surveys to users (tourists) and business managers. An environmental assessment evaluated CO2 emissions, and energy self-sufficiency potential was estimated via GIS data. The results indicate that, on average, a tourist consumes 4756 MJ with associated emissions of 277 kg of CO2 per stay (20 days on average). Of all the energy flows, external mobility contributes the most to total emissions (77%). For every day spent in a tourist hub, a tourist consumes between 29 MJ and 93 MJ in lodging services, consumption that could be 100% satisfied by photovoltaic systems, and these systems would result in positive effects for the island. Sustainable tourism management might focus on promoting environmentally friendly transportation, energy efficient practices, and environmental communication through ecolabeling. - Highlights: • We modeled the entire energy metabolism of tourist hubs in islands. • Results showed that a tourist in Menorca consumes from 4000 to 6000 MJ per trip. • External mobility (trip to the island) accounts for 77% of the total CO2 emissions. • Photovoltaic systems could provide enough power to achieve self-sufficiency. • Tourists at hotel hubs have higher energy consumption than other types of hubs

  8. Development of HepG2-derived cells expressing cytochrome P450s for assessing metabolism-associated drug-induced liver toxicity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xuan, Jiekun; Chen, Si; Ning, Baitang; Tolleson, William H; Guo, Lei

    2016-08-01

    The generation of reactive metabolites from therapeutic agents is one of the major mechanisms of drug-induced liver injury (DILI). In order to evaluate metabolism-related toxicity and improve drug efficacy and safety, we generated a battery of HepG2-derived cell lines that express 14 cytochrome P450s (CYPs) (1A1, 1A2, 1B1, 2A6, 2B6, 2C8, 2C9, 2C18, 2C19, 2D6, 2E1, 3A4, 3A5 and 3A7) individually using a lentiviral expression system. The expression/production of a specific CYP in each cell line was confirmed by an increased abundance of the CYP at both mRNA and protein levels. Moreover, the enzymatic activities of representative CYPs in the corresponding cell lines were also measured. Using our CYP-expressed HepG2 cells, the toxicity of three drugs that could induce DILI (amiodarone, chlorpromazine and primaquine) was assessed, and all of them showed altered (increased or decreased) toxicity compared to the toxicity in drug-treated wild-type HepG2 cells. CYP-mediated drug toxicity examined in our cell system is consistent with previous reports, demonstrating the potential of these cells for assessing metabolism-related drug toxicity. This cell system provides a practical in vitro approach for drug metabolism screening and for early detection of drug toxicity. It is also a surrogate enzyme source for the enzymatic characterization of a particular CYP that contributes to drug-induced liver toxicity. PMID:26477383

  9. Atopic cough and fungal allergy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fujimura, Masaki; Ohkura, Noriyuki; Makimura, Koichi

    2014-01-01

    We have shown that some patients presenting with chronic bronchodilator-resistant non-productive cough have a global atopic tendency and cough hypersensitivity without nonspecific bronchial hyperresponsiveness, abbreviated as atopic cough (AC). The cough can be treated successfully with histamine H1 antagonists and/or glucocorticoids. Eosinophilic tracheobronchitis and cough hypersensitivity are pathological and physiological characteristics of AC. Fungus-associated chronic cough (FACC) is defined as chronic cough associated with basidiomycetous (BM) fungi found in induced sputum, and recognition of FACC has provided the possibility of using antifungal drugs as new treatment strategies. Bjerkandera adusta is a wood decay BM fungus, which has attracted attention because of its potential role in enhancing the severity of cough symptoms in FACC patients by sensitization to this fungus. Before making a diagnosis of “idiopathic cough” in cases of chronic refractory cough, remaining intractable cough-related laryngeal sensations, such as “a sensation of mucus in the throat (SMIT),” which is correlated with fungal colonization, should be evaluated and treated appropriately in each patient. The new findings, i.e., the detection of environmental mushroom spores that should not be present in the human airways in addition to the good clinical response of patients to antifungal drugs, may lead to the development of novel strategies for treatment of chronic cough. PMID:25383202

  10. Evaluation of Fungal Keratitis using a Newly Developed Computer Program, Optscore, for Grading Digital Corneal Photographs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Toutain-Kidd, Christine M.; Porco, Travis C.; Kidd, Eric M.; Srinivasan, M; Prajna, Namperumalsamy V.; Acharya, Nisha; Lietman, Thomas; Zegans, Michael E.

    2016-01-01

    Purpose To validate computer software developed to assess digital corneal photographs of fungal keratitis in clinical research. Methods A cornea specialist and five medical students (after training) graded on two occasions 100 corneal photographs of patients with fungal keratitis using Optscore software. Variables assessed were lesion area, location, degree of opacity, percentage of the ulcer lying within a central 4mm circle of the cornea. Intraclass correlation coefficients (ICCs) were used to assess intragrader reliability, agreement of the students with the corneal specialist, and the reliability of the group mean of the student raters. The area determined using Optscore was compared to the area estimated from slit lamp and to visual acuity. Results As a group, medical students achieved an ICC greater than 0.9 for five out of the seven assessed variables. Similar levels of consistency were found after analyzing the graders’ individual results compared to the specialist. The area estimated using slit lamp examination was highly correlated with the mean area determined by Optscore, as was the logarithm of the minimum angle of resolution visual acuity at enrollment. Conclusions Non-expert graders using Optscore to assess digital photographs of fungal keratitis are self-consistent, agree with an expert grader both as a group and individually, and measurements of ulcer area obtained from Optscore are highly correlated with measurements of the same patients obtained on clinical examination. These observations support the validity of Optscore for assessing corneal pathology associated with fungal keratitis and make it a promising clinical research tool. PMID:24467559

  11. Structure and biological functions of fungal cerebrosides

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Barreto-Bergter Eliana

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available Ceramide monohexosides (CMHs, cerebrosides are glycosphingolipids composed of a hydrophobic ceramide linked to one sugar unit. In fungal cells, CMHs are very conserved molecules consisting of a ceramide moiety containing 9-methyl-4,8-sphingadienine in amidic linkage to 2-hydroxyoctadecanoic or 2-hydroxyhexadecanoic acids, and a carbohydrate portion consisting of one residue of glucose or galactose. 9-Methyl 4,8-sphingadienine-containing ceramides are usually glycosylated to form fungal cerebrosides, but the recent description of a ceramide dihexoside (CDH presenting phytosphingosine in Magnaporthe grisea suggests the existence of alternative pathways of ceramide glycosylation in fungal cells. Along with their unique structural characteristics, fungal CMHs have a peculiar subcellular distribution and striking biological properties. In Pseudallescheria boydii, Candida albicans, Cryptococcus neoformans, Aspergillus nidulans, A. fumigatus, and Schizophyllum commune, CMHs are apparently involved in morphological transitions and fungal growth. The elucidation of structural and functional aspects of fungal cerebrosides may therefore contribute to the design of new antifungal agents inhibiting growth and differentiation of pathogenic species.

  12. Fungal allelochemicals in insect pest management.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holighaus, Gerrit; Rohlfs, Marko

    2016-07-01

    Interactions between insects and fungi are widespread, and important mediators of these interactions are fungal chemicals that can therefore be considered as allelochemicals. Numerous studies suggest that fungal chemicals can affect insects in many different ways. Here, we apply the terminology established by insect-plant ecologists for categorizing the effect of fungal allelochemicals on insects and for evaluating the application potential of these chemicals in insect pest management. Our literature survey shows that fungal volatile and non-volatile chemicals have an enormous potential to influence insect behavior and fitness. Many of them still remain to be discovered, but some recent examples of repellents and toxins could open up new ways for developing safe insect control strategies. However, we also identified shortcomings in our understanding of the chemical ecology of insect-fungus interactions and the way they have been investigated. In particular, the mode-of-action of fungal allelochemicals has often not been appropriately designated or examined, and the way in which induction by insects affects fungal chemical diversity is poorly understood. This review should raise awareness that in-depth ecological studies of insect-fungus interactions can reveal novel allelochemicals of particular benefit for the development of innovative insect pest management strategies. PMID:27147531

  13. Drug penetration and metabolism in 3D cell cultures treated in a 3D printed fluidic device: assessment of irinotecan via MALDI imaging mass spectrometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    LaBonia, Gabriel J; Lockwood, Sarah Y; Heller, Andrew A; Spence, Dana M; Hummon, Amanda B

    2016-06-01

    Realistic in vitro models are critical in the drug development process. In this study, a novel in vitro platform is employed to assess drug penetration and metabolism. This platform, which utilizes a 3D printed fluidic device, allows for dynamic dosing of three dimensional cell cultures, also known as spheroids. The penetration of the chemotherapeutic irinotecan into HCT 116 colon cancer spheroids was examined with MALDI imaging mass spectrometry (IMS). The active metabolite of irinotecan, SN-38, was also detected. After twenty-four hours of treatment, SN-38 was concentrated to the outside of the spheroid, a region of actively dividing cells. The irinotecan prodrug localization contrasted with SN-38 and was concentrated to the necrotic core of the spheroids, a region containing mostly dead and dying cells. These results demonstrate that this unique in vitro platform is an effective means to assess drug penetration and metabolism in 3D cell cultures. This innovative system can have a transformative impact on the preclinical evaluation of drug candidates due to its cost effectiveness and high throughput. PMID:27198560

  14. Fungal genus Hypocrea/Trichoderma: from barcodes to biodiversity

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Christian P. KUBICEK; Monika KOMON-ZELAZOWSKA; Irina S. DRUZHININA

    2008-01-01

    Hypocrea/Trichoderma is a genus of soil-borne or wood-decaying fungi containing members important to mankind as producers of industrial enzymes and biocontrol agents against plant pathogens, but also as opportunistic pathogens of immuno-compromised humans and animals, while others can cause damage to cultivated mushroom. With the recent advent of a reliable, BarCode-aided identification system for all known taxa of Trichoderma and Hypocrea, it became now possible to study some of the biological fundamentals of the diversity in this fungal genus in more detail. In this article, we will therefore review recent progress in (1) the understanding of the geographic distribution of individual taxa; (2) mechanisms of speciation leading to development of mushroom diseases and facultative human mycoses; and (3) the possible correlation of specific traits of secondary metabolism and molecular phylogeny.

  15. Assessment of the metabolic effects of the ionophore grisorixin on myocardial cells in culture with 14-C-labelled substrates

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cultures of myocardial cells were utilized to verify the hypothesis that the ionophore grisorixin could facilitate the anaerobic and impair the aerobic metabolism in the myocardium. This was suggested by previous experiments in which the authors found an increase in the cardiac work without increase in the oxygen consumption, while the myocardial uptake of 123-Iodo-hexadecenoic acid was decreased. Tissue cultures were prepared by trypsinization of the myocardium of two to four-day old newborn mice. The cultures were incubated with 14-C-glucose (n=10), 14-C-octanoate (n=14) or 14-C-acetate (n=12). Except for the controls (n=19), they also received 1 μg/ml of an alcoholic solution of grisorixin or 200 μl of 60% alcohol. The cultures were then placed in a circuit with a closed circulation of air which passed through a vibrating reed electrometer for detection of the beta radiations of the 14-CO/sub 2/ liberated by the 14-C labelled substrates. The activity was permanently recorded for measurements of the rate of consumption of these substrates. Compared to the control values, the metabolic rate with grisorixin was significantly decreased for octanoate (77 +- 22 vs 169 +- 62 rho mole/min/mg prot, rho<0.01) and acetate (2.7 +- 1.0 vs 6.0 +- 1.3 rho mole/min/mg prot, rho<0.01). The results for glucose were 1.05 +- 0.24 vs 0.88 +- 0.24 n mole/min/mg prot, (rho<0.10). Alcohol alone produced no significant effect except on the octanoate consumption. These results provide direct evidence that grisorixin favors the anaerobic pathway in the metabolism of the myocardial cells

  16. In vitro assessment of drug-drug interaction potential of boceprevir associated with drug metabolizing enzymes and transporters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chu, Xiaoyan; Cai, Xiaoxin; Cui, Donghui; Tang, Cuyue; Ghosal, Anima; Chan, Grace; Green, Mitchell D; Kuo, Yuhsin; Liang, Yuexia; Maciolek, Cheri M; Palamanda, Jairam; Evers, Raymond; Prueksaritanont, Thomayant

    2013-03-01

    The inhibitory effect of boceprevir (BOC), an inhibitor of hepatitis C virus nonstructural protein 3 protease was evaluated in vitro against a panel of drug-metabolizing enzymes and transporters. BOC, a known substrate for cytochrome P450 (P450) CYP3A and aldo-ketoreductases, was a reversible time-dependent inhibitor (k(inact) = 0.12 minute(-1), K(I) = 6.1 µM) of CYP3A4/5 but not an inhibitor of other major P450s, nor of UDP-glucuronosyltransferases 1A1 and 2B7. BOC showed weak to no inhibition of breast cancer resistance protein (BCRP), P-glycoprotein (Pgp), or multidrug resistance protein 2. It was a moderate inhibitor of organic anion transporting polypeptide (OATP) 1B1 and 1B3, with an IC(50) of 18 and 4.9 µM, respectively. In human hepatocytes, BOC inhibited CYP3A-mediated metabolism of midazolam, OATP1B-mediated hepatic uptake of pitavastatin, and both the uptake and metabolism of atorvastatin. The inhibitory potency of BOC was lower than known inhibitors of CYP3A (ketoconazole), OATP1B (rifampin), or both (telaprevir). BOC was a substrate for Pgp and BCRP but not for OATP1B1, OATP1B3, OATP2B1, organic cation transporter, or sodium/taurocholate cotransporting peptide. Overall, our data suggest that BOC has the potential to cause pharmacokinetic interactions via inhibition of CYP3A and CYP3A/OATP1B interplay, with the interaction magnitude lower than those observed with known potent inhibitors. Conversely, pharmacokinetic interactions of BOC, either as a perpetrator or victim, via other major P450s and transporters tested are less likely to be of clinical significance. The results from clinical drug-drug interaction studies conducted thus far are generally supportive of these conclusions. PMID:23293300

  17. Novel assessment of global metabolism by 18F-FDG-PET for localizing affected lobe in temporal lobe epilepsy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peter, Jonah; Houshmand, Sina; Werner, Thomas J; Rubello, Domenico; Alavi, Abass

    2016-08-01

    The aim of this study was to develop a novel method of global quantitative analysis for use in the diagnosis and treatment evaluation of temporal lobe epilepsy (TLE). We studied 16 patients diagnosed with TLE who underwent fluorine-18 fluorodeoxyglucose-PET (F-FDG-PET) and MRI at the Hospital of the University of Pennsylvania. To quantify temporal lobe hypometabolism, we averaged the mean standardized uptake value across regions of interest (ROIs) encompassing each lobe in its entirety and calculated the metabolic ratios and lateralization indices for each patient on the basis of global measurements. For comparison, we carried out a traditional 'punch biopsy' ROI analysis by averaging the mean standardized uptake value within 1 cm diameter ROIs across select slices. Both techniques were performed twice by the same rater to test intraobserver variability. An expert observer carried out visual analyses of both F-FDG-PET and MRI for reference. The global quantitative analysis identified a seizure focus lateralization in agreement with clinical evaluations for 91% of patients on both trials, with intraclass correlation coefficients of 0.97 and 0.92 for metabolic ratios and lateralization indices, respectively. The punch biopsy analysis was in agreement for 91 and 82% of patients on respective trials, with intraclass correlation coefficients of 0.90 and 0.75. Expert visual analyses carried out on F-FDG-PET and MRI were in agreement for 64 and 9% of patients, respectively. The global quantitative analysis proved to be the most accurate and reliable of the methods tested. This technique has the potential to improve metabolic analysis in TLE and other neuropsychiatric disorders. PMID:27092666

  18. Hypopyon in patients with fungal keratitis

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    XU Ling-juan; SONG Xiu-sheng; ZHAO Jing; SUN Shi-ying; XIE Li-xin

    2012-01-01

    Background Hypopyon is common in eyes with fungal keratitis.The evaluation of the clinical features,culture results and the risk factors for hypopyon and of the possible correlation between hypopyon and the treatment outcome could be helpful for making treatment decisions.Methods The medical records of 1066 inpatients (1069 eyes) with fungal keratitis seen at the Shandong Eye Institute from January 2000 to December 2009 were reviewed retrospectively for demographic features,risk factors,clinical characteristics,laboratory findings and treatment outcomes.The incidence of hypopyon,the fungal culture positivity for hypopyon,risk factors for hypopyon and the effect of hypopyon on the treatment and prognosis were determined.Results We identified 1069 eyes with fungal keratitis.Of the 850 fungal culture-positive eyes,the Fusarium species was the most frequent (73.6%),followed by Altemaria (10.0%) and Aspergillus (9.0%).Upon admission,562 (52.6%)eyes with hypopyon were identified.The hypopyon of 66 eyes was evaluated via fungal culturing,and 31 eyes (47.0%)were positive.A total of 194 eyes had ocular hypertension,and 172 (88.7%) of these eyes had hypopyon (P <0.001).Risk factors for incident hypopyon included long duration of symptoms (P <0.001),large lesion size (P <0.001) and infection caused by the Fusarium and Aspergillus species (P <0.001).The positivity of fungal culture for hypopyon was associated with duration of symptoms and lesion size.Surgical intervention was more common in cases with hypopyon (P <0.001).Hypopyon was a risk factor for the recurrence of fungal keratitis after corneal transplantation (P=0.002).Conclusions Hypopyon is common in patients with severe fungal keratitis and can cause ocular hypertension.About half of the hypopyon cases were positive based on fungal culture.Long duration of symptoms,large lesion size and infection with the Fusarium and Aspergillus species were risk factors for hypopyon.The presence of hypopyon

  19. Cerebral metabolic and structural alterations in hereditary spastic paraplegia with thin corpus callosum assessed by MRS and DTI

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hereditary spastic paraplegia with thin corpus callosum (HSP-TCC) is a complicated form of autosomal-recessive hereditary spastic paraplegia. Characteristic clinical features comprise progressive spastic gait, cognitive impairment, and ataxia. Diagnostic MRI findings include thinning of the corpus callosum and non-progressive white matter (WM) alterations. To study the extent of axonal involvement, we performed localized proton magnetic resonance spectroscopy (MRS) of the cerebral WM and cortical grey matter (GM) in a patient with HSP-TCC at 20 and 25 years of age. The second investigation included diffusion tensor imaging (DTI). While MRS of the GM was normal, affected WM was characterized by major metabolic alterations such as reduced concentrations of N-acetylaspartate and N-acetylaspartyl-glutamate, creatine and phosphocreatine, and choline-containing compounds as well as elevated levels of myo-inositol. These abnormalities showed progression over a period of 5 years. DTI revealed increased mean diffusivity as well as reduced fractional anisotropy in periventricular WM. The metabolic and structural findings are consistent with progressive neuroaxonal loss in the WM accompanied by astrocytic proliferation - histopathological changes known to occur in HSP-TCC. Our results are in agreement with the hypothesis that the primary pathological process in HSP-TCC affects the axon, possibly due to impaired axonal trafficking. (orig.)

  20. Uptake of amino acids in brain tumours using positron emission tomography as an indicator for assessing metabolic activity and malignancy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Diagnosis and post-therapeutic follow-up of tumour patients necessitates morphological and particularly functional imaging methods. For the latter approach positron emission tomography has proven a valid tool for the measurement of perfusion, of energy consumption parameters such as oxygen extraction, glucose metabolism and amino acid uptake. However, neither perfusion nor energy consumption parameters have yielded unambiguous information on the clinical status of various tumours in respect of their malignancy and their growth status. It is shown in this paper that amino acid uptake seems to be a valid measure for the functional activity of tumour tissue for a broad range of neoplasms. The uptake of 11C-L-Methionine was measured in 33 patients having various brain tumours, and was compared with 6 patients who had an infarction, and with 8 patients suffering from arachnoidal cysts. The amino acid uptake correlated well with the histological grading of the tumours and the clinical status of the patient. The uptake was well differentiated against metabolically inactive lesions. Parallel investigations on the uptake mechanisms of amino acids in an animal model have shown that transport phenomena regulate the uptake rather than protein synthesis rates. However, protein synthesis may nevertheless exercise a control function on the transport process. (orig.)

  1. Divergent and Convergent Evolution of Fungal Pathogenicity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shang, Yanfang; Xiao, Guohua; Zheng, Peng; Cen, Kai; Zhan, Shuai; Wang, Chengshu

    2016-01-01

    Fungal pathogens of plants and animals have multifarious effects; they cause devastating damages to agricultures, lead to life-threatening diseases in humans, or induce beneficial effects by reducing insect pest populations. Many virulence factors have been determined in different fungal pathogens; however, the molecular determinants contributing to fungal host selection and adaptation are largely unknown. In this study, we sequenced the genomes of seven ascomycete insect pathogens and performed the genome-wide analyses of 33 species of filamentous ascomycete pathogenic fungi that infect insects (12 species), plants (12), and humans (9). Our results revealed that the genomes of plant pathogens encode more proteins and protein families than the insect and human pathogens. Unexpectedly, more common orthologous protein groups are shared between the insect and plant pathogens than between the two animal group pathogens. We also found that the pathogenicity of host-adapted fungi evolved multiple times, and that both divergent and convergent evolutions occurred during pathogen-host cospeciation thus resulting in protein families with similar features in each fungal group. However, the role of phylogenetic relatedness on the evolution of protein families and therefore pathotype formation could not be ruled out due to the effect of common ancestry. The evolutionary correlation analyses led to the identification of different protein families that correlated with alternate pathotypes. Particularly, the effector-like proteins identified in plant and animal pathogens were strongly linked to fungal host adaptation, suggesting the existence of similar gene-for-gene relationships in fungus-animal interactions that has not been established before. These results well advance our understanding of the evolution of fungal pathogenicity and the factors that contribute to fungal pathotype formation. PMID:27071652

  2. Cerebral metabolism and perfusion in MR-negative individuals with refractory focal epilepsy assessed by simultaneous acquisition of (18)F-FDG PET and arterial spin labeling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boscolo Galazzo, Ilaria; Mattoli, Maria Vittoria; Pizzini, Francesca Benedetta; De Vita, Enrico; Barnes, Anna; Duncan, John S; Jäger, Hans Rolf; Golay, Xavier; Bomanji, Jamshed B; Koepp, Matthias; Groves, Ashley M; Fraioli, Francesco

    2016-01-01

    The major challenge in pre-surgical epileptic patient evaluation is the correct identification of the seizure onset area, especially in MR-negative patients. In this study, we aimed to: (1) assess the concordance between perfusion, from ASL, and metabolism, from (18)F-FDG, acquired simultaneously on PET/MR; (2) verify the utility of a statistical approach as supportive diagnostic tool for clinical readers. Secondarily, we compared (18)F-FDG PET data from the hybrid PET/MR system with those acquired with PET/CT, with the purpose of validate the reliability of (18)F-FDG PET/MR data. Twenty patients with refractory focal epilepsy, negative MR and a defined electro-clinical diagnosis underwent PET/MR, immediately followed by PET/CT. Standardized uptake value ratio (SUVr) and cerebral blood flow (CBF) maps were calculated for PET/CT-PET/MR and ASL, respectively. For all techniques, z-score of the asymmetry index (zAI) was applied for depicting significant Right/Left differences. SUVr and CBF images were firstly visually assessed by two neuroimaging readers, who then re-assessed them considering zAI for reaching a final diagnosis. High agreement between (18)F-FDG PET/MR and ASL was found, showing hypometabolism and hypoperfusion in the same hemisphere in 18/20 patients, while the remaining were normal. They were completely concordant in 14/18, concordant in at least one lobe in the remaining. zAI maps improved readers' confidence in 12/20 and 15/20 patients for (18)F-FDG PET/MR and ASL, respectively. (18)F-FDG PET/CT-PET/MR showed high agreement, especially when zAI was considered. The simultaneous metabolism-perfusion acquisition provides excellent concordance on focus lateralisation and good concordance on localisation, determining useful complementary information. PMID:27222796

  3. Effects of Nutrient Enrichment on Decomposition and Fungal Colonization of Sweet Chestnut Leaves in an Iberian Stream (Central Portugal)

    OpenAIRE

    Abelho, Manuela; Graça, M.

    2006-01-01

    Abstract This study assessed the effect of nutrient enrichment on rates of decomposition, ergosterol concentrations (as a measure of fungal biomass), and rates of fungal sporulation of sweet chestnut (Castanea sativa Miller) leaves in a 3rd order stream (Central Portugal), with medium to high background values of nutrients. Coarse and fine mesh leaf bags were attached to nutrient diffusing substrata containing NaNO3, KH2PO4, both nutrients, or no additions. Leaf breakdown rates were similar...

  4. FDG-PET Assessment of the Effect of Head and Neck Radiotherapy on Parotid Gland Glucose Metabolism

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Roach, Michael C. [School of Medicine, Duke University Medical Center, Duke University, Durham, NC (United States); Turkington, Timothy G. [Department of Radiology, Duke University Medical Center, Duke University, Durham, NC (United States); Department of Biomedical Engineering, Duke University Medical Center, Duke University, Durham, NC (United States); Higgins, Kristin A. [Department of Radiation Oncology, Duke University Medical Center, Duke University, Durham, NC (United States); Hawk, Thomas C. [Department of Radiology, Duke University Medical Center, Duke University, Durham, NC (United States); Hoang, Jenny K. [Department of Radiology, Duke University Medical Center, Duke University, Durham, NC (United States); Department of Radiation Oncology, Duke University Medical Center, Duke University, Durham, NC (United States); Brizel, David M., E-mail: david.brizel@duke.edu [Department of Radiation Oncology, Duke University Medical Center, Duke University, Durham, NC (United States); Department of Surgery, Duke University Medical Center, Duke University, Durham, NC (United States)

    2012-01-01

    Purpose: Functional imaging with [F-18]-fluorodeoxyglucose positron emission tomography (FDG-PET) provides the opportunity to define the physiology of the major salivary glands before and after radiation therapy. The goal of this retrospective study was to identify the radiation dose-response relationship of parotid gland glucose metabolism in patients with head and neck squamous cell carcinoma (HNSCC). Materials and Methods: Forty-nine adults with HNSCC were identified who had curative intent intensity-modulated radiation therapy (IMRT) and FDG-PET imaging before and after treatment. Using a graphical user interface, contours were delineated for the parotid glands on axial CT slices while all authors were blinded to paired PET slices. Average and maximal standard uptake values (SUV) were measured within these anatomic regions. Changes in SUV and volume after radiation therapy were correlated with parotid gland dose-volume histograms from IMRT plans. Results: The average parotid gland volume was 30.7 mL and contracted 3.9 {+-} 1.9% with every increase of 10 Gy in mean dose (p = 0.04). However, within the first 3 months after treatment, there was a uniform reduction of 16.5% {+-} 7.3% regardless of dose. The average SUV{sub mean} of the glands was 1.63 {+-} 0.48 pretreatment and declined by 5.2% {+-} 2.5% for every increase of 10 Gy in mean dose (p = 0.04). The average SUV{sub max} was 4.07 {+-} 2.85 pretreatment and decreased in a sigmoid manner with mean dose. A threshold of 32 Gy for mean dose existed, after which SUV{sub max} declined rapidly. Conclusion: Radiation dose responses of the parotid glands can be measured by integrated CT/FDG-PET scans. Retrospective analysis showed sigmoidal declines in the maximum metabolism but linear declines in the average metabolism of the glands with dose. Future studies should correlate this decline in FDG uptake with saliva production to improve treatment planning.

  5. Assessment of incretins in oral glucose and lipid tolerance tests may be indicative in the diagnosis of metabolic syndrome aggravation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kiec-Klimczak, M; Malczewska-Malec, M; Razny, U; Zdzienicka, A; Gruca, A; Goralska, J; Pach, D; Gilis-Januszewska, A; Dembinska-Kiec, A; Hubalewska-Dydejczyk, A

    2016-04-01

    Incretins stimulated by oral meals are claimed to be protective for the pancreatic beta cells, to increase insulin secretion, to inhibit glucagon release, slow gastric emptying (glucagon-like peptide-1) and suppress appetite. Recently it has however been suggested that glucagon-like peptide-1 (GLP-1) is putative early biomarker of metabolic consequences of the obesity associated proinflammatory state. The study was aimed to compare the release of incretins and some of early markers of inflammation at the fasting and postprandial period induced by functional oral glucose as well as lipid load in healthy controls and patients with metabolic syndrome (MS) to see if functional tests may be helpful in searching for the inflammatory status of patients. Fifty patients with MS and 20 healthy volunteers (C) participated in this study. The 3-hour oral glucose (OGTT) and the 8-hour oral lipid (OLTT) tolerance tests were performed. At fasting leptin and adiponectin, as well as every 30 minutes of OGTT and every 2 hours of OLTT blood concentration of GLP-1, glucose-dependent insulinotropic polypeptide (GIP), glucose, insulin, triglycerides, free fatty acids, glutathione peroxidase, interleukin-6, sE-selectin, monocyte chemoattractant protein-1 (MCP1) and visfatin were measured. At fasting and during both OGTT and OLTT the level of incretins did not differ between the MS and the C group. Both glucose and lipids reach food activated incretins secretion. Glucose was the main GLP-1 release activator, while the lipid load activated evidently GIP secretion. A significantly larger AUC-GIP after the lipid-rich meal over the carbohydrate meal was observed, while statistically bigger value of AUC-GLP-1 was noticed in OGTT than in OLTT (P fasting plasma GIP concentration (3(rd) tertile), IL-6, MCP-1, sE-selectin and visfatin blood levels were increased and correlated with glutathione peroxydase, leptin/adiponectin ratio, higher visfatin and interleukin-6 levels. The fat containing meals

  6. Effect of lifestyle intervention plus rosiglitazone or placebo therapy on left ventricular mass assessed with cardiovascular magnetic resonance in the metabolic syndrome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tamsma Jouke T

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background To evaluate the effect of lifestyle intervention in conjunction with rosiglitazone or placebo therapy on left ventricular (LV mass, using cardiovascular magnetic resonance (CMR in the metabolic syndrome. Methods The present study was a pre-specified substudy of a double-blind randomized controlled trial evaluating the effect of lifestyle intervention in conjunction with rosiglitazone or placebo therapy on carotid artery atherosclerosis in the metabolic syndrome. From this original study population, 10 subjects from the placebo group and 10 from the rosiglitazone group were randomly selected. At baseline and follow-up (52 weeks, clinical and laboratory measurements were assessed and a CMR-examination was performed to evaluate LV mass indexed for body surface area (LV mass-I. Subsequently, the effect of therapy (rosiglitazone vs. placebo and clinical and laboratory variables on LV mass-I was evaluated. Results In both groups, body mass index, waist circumference, systolic and diastolic blood pressure significantly decreased during follow-up. Interestingly, LV mass-I significantly decreased in the placebo group (48.9 ± 5.3 g/m2 vs. 44.3 ± 5.6 g/m2, p 2 vs. 53.7 ± 9.2 g/m2, p = 0.3. After correction for systolic and diastolic blood pressure and triglyceride, the kind of therapy (rosiglitazone vs. placebo remained the only significant predictor of LV mass-I reduction. Conclusions Lifestyle intervention resulted in a reduction of LV mass-I in the metabolic syndrome, indicating reverse remodeling. However, rosiglitazone therapy may have inhibited this positive reverse remodeling. Trial registration Current Controlled Trials ISRCTN54951661.

  7. Assessment of drug metabolism enzyme and transporter pharmacogenetics in drug discovery and early development: perspectives of the I-PWG.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brian, William; Tremaine, Larry M; Arefayene, Million; de Kanter, Ruben; Evers, Raymond; Guo, Yingying; Kalabus, James; Lin, Wen; Loi, Cho-Ming; Xiao, Guangqing

    2016-04-01

    Genetic variants of drug metabolism enzymes and transporters can result in high pharmacokinetic and pharmacodynamic variability, unwanted characteristics of efficacious and safe drugs. Ideally, the contributions of these enzymes and transporters to drug disposition can be predicted from in vitro experiments and in silico modeling in discovery or early development, and then be utilized during clinical development. Recently, regulatory agencies have provided guidance on the preclinical investigation of pharmacogenetics, for application to clinical drug development. This white paper summarizes the results of an industry survey conducted by the Industry Pharmacogenomics Working Group on current practice and challenges with using in vitro systems and in silico models to understand pharmacogenetic causes of variability in drug disposition. PMID:27045656

  8. Metabolic Disorders

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... as your liver, muscles, and body fat. A metabolic disorder occurs when abnormal chemical reactions in your body ... that produce the energy. You can develop a metabolic disorder when some organs, such as your liver or ...

  9. Metabolic Syndrome

    Science.gov (United States)

    Metabolic syndrome is a group of conditions that put you at risk for heart disease and diabetes. These ... doctors agree on the definition or cause of metabolic syndrome. The cause might be insulin resistance. Insulin is ...

  10. Complement and fungal pathogens: an update.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Speth, Cornelia; Rambach, Günter; Würzner, Reinhard; Lass-Flörl, Cornelia

    2008-11-01

    Fungal infections are a serious complication in immunocompromised patients such as human immunodeficiency virus-infected individuals, patients with organ transplantations or with haematological neoplasia. The lethality of opportunistic fungal infection is high despite a growing arsenal of antimycotic drugs, implying the urgent need for supportive immunological therapies to strengthen the current inefficient antimicrobial defences of the immunocompromised host. Therefore, increasing effort has been directed to investigating the interplay between fungi and the host immunity and thus to find starting points for additional therapeutic approaches. In this article, we review the actual state of the art concerning the role of complement in the pathogenesis of fungal infections. Important aspects include the activation of the complement system by the fungal pathogen, the efficiency of the complement-associated antimicrobial functions and the arsenal of immune evasion strategies applied by the fungi. The twin functions of complement as an interactive player of the innate immunity and at the same time as a modulator of the adaptive immunity make this defence weapon a particularly interesting therapeutic candidate to mobilise a more effective immune response and to strengthen in one fell swoop a broad spectrum of different immune reactions. However, we also mention the 'Yin-Yang' nature of the complement system in fungal infections, as growing evidence assigns to complement a contributory part in the pathogenesis of fungus-induced allergic manifestations. PMID:18705662

  11. Proteomics of survival structures of fungal pathogens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Loginov, Dmitry; Šebela, Marek

    2016-09-25

    Fungal pathogens are causal agents of numerous human, animal, and plant diseases. They employ various infection modes to overcome host defense systems. Infection mechanisms of different fungi have been subjected to many comprehensive studies. These investigations have been facilitated by the development of various '-omics' techniques, and proteomics has one of the leading roles in this regard. Fungal conidia and sclerotia could be considered the most important structures for pathogenesis as their germination is one of the first steps towards a host infection. They represent interesting objects for proteomic studies because of the presence of unique proteins with unexplored biotechnological potential required for pathogen viability, development and the subsequent host infection. Proteomic peculiarities of survival structures of different fungi, including those of biotechnological significance (e.g., Asperillus fumigatus, A. nidulans, Metarhizium anisopliae), in a dormant state, as well as changes in the protein production during early stages of fungal development are the subjects of the present review. We focused on biological aspects of proteomic studies of fungal survival structures rather than on an evaluation of proteomic approaches. For that reason, proteins that have been identified in this context are discussed from the point of view of their involvement in different biological processes and possible functions assigned to them. This is the first review paper summarizing recent advances in proteomics of fungal survival structures. PMID:26777984

  12. Fueling the Future with Fungal Genomes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Grigoriev, Igor V.

    2014-10-27

    Genomes of fungi relevant to energy and environment are in focus of the JGI Fungal Genomic Program. One of its projects, the Genomics Encyclopedia of Fungi, targets fungi related to plant health (symbionts and pathogens) and biorefinery processes (cellulose degradation and sugar fermentation) by means of genome sequencing and analysis. New chapters of the Encyclopedia can be opened with user proposals to the JGI Community Science Program (CSP). Another JGI project, the 1000 fungal genomes, explores fungal diversity on genome level at scale and is open for users to nominate new species for sequencing. Over 400 fungal genomes have been sequenced by JGI to date and released through MycoCosm (www.jgi.doe.gov/fungi), a fungal web-portal, which integrates sequence and functional data with genome analysis tools for user community. Sequence analysis supported by functional genomics will lead to developing parts list for complex systems ranging from ecosystems of biofuel crops to biorefineries. Recent examples of such ‘parts’ suggested by comparative genomics and functional analysis in these areas are presented here.

  13. Fungal Genomics for Energy and Environment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Grigoriev, Igor V.

    2013-03-11

    Genomes of fungi relevant to energy and environment are in focus of the Fungal Genomic Program at the US Department of Energy Joint Genome Institute (JGI). One of its projects, the Genomics Encyclopedia of Fungi, targets fungi related to plant health (symbionts, pathogens, and biocontrol agents) and biorefinery processes (cellulose degradation, sugar fermentation, industrial hosts) by means of genome sequencing and analysis. New chapters of the Encyclopedia can be opened with user proposals to the JGI Community Sequencing Program (CSP). Another JGI project, the 1000 fungal genomes, explores fungal diversity on genome level at scale and is open for users to nominate new species for sequencing. Over 200 fungal genomes have been sequenced by JGI to date and released through MycoCosm (www.jgi.doe.gov/fungi), a fungal web-portal, which integrates sequence and functional data with genome analysis tools for user community. Sequence analysis supported by functional genomics leads to developing parts list for complex systems ranging from ecosystems of biofuel crops to biorefineries. Recent examples of such parts suggested by comparative genomics and functional analysis in these areas are presented here.

  14. Bacterial and fungal colonization of burn wounds

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jefferson Lessa Soares de Macedo

    2005-08-01

    Full Text Available A prospective study of fungal and bacterial flora of burn wounds was carried out from February 2004 to February 2005 at the Burns Unit of Hospital Regional da Asa Norte, Brasília, Brazil. During the period of the study, 203 patients were treated at the Burns Unit. Wound swab cultures were assessed at weekly intervals for four weeks. Three hundred and fifty four sampling procedures (surface swabs were performed from the burn wounds. The study revealed that bacterial colonization reached 86.6% within the first week. Although the gram-negative organisms, as a group, were more predominant, Staphylococcus aureus (28.4% was the most prevalent organism in the first week. It was however surpassed by Pseudomonas aeruginosa form third week onwards. For S. aureus and P. aeruginosa vancomycin and polymyxin were found to be the most effective drugs. Most of the isolates showed high level resistance to antimicrobial agents. Fungi were found to colonize the burn wound late during the second week postburn, with a peak incidence during the third and fourth weeks. Species identification of fungi revealed that Candida tropicalis was the most predominant, followed by Candida parapsilosis. It is crucial for every burn institution to determine the specific pattern of burn wound microbial colonization, the time-related changes in the dominant flora, and the antimicrobial sensitivity profiles. This would enable early treatment of imminent septic episodes with proper empirical systemic antibiotics, without waiting for culture results, thus improving the overall infection-related morbidity and mortality.

  15. Assessment of the biodistribution and metabolism of 5-fluorouracil as monitored by 18F PET and 19F MRI: A comparative animal study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The effective clinical use of the anticancer drug 5-fluorouracil (5-FU) requires the non-invasive assessment of its transport and metabolism, particularly in the tumor and the liver, where the drug is catabolized to α-fluoro-β-alanine (FBAL). In this study, the potentials and limitations of dynamic 18F PET and metabolic 19F MRI examinations for noninvasive 5-FU monitoring were investigated in ACI and Buffalo rats with transplanted MH3924A and TC5123 Morris hepatomas, respectively. Selective 5-[19F]FU and [19F]FBAL MR images were acquired 5 and 70 min after 5-FU injection using a CHESS MRI sequence. After administration of 5-[18F]FU, the kinetics of the regional 5-[18F]FU uptake were measured by dynamic PET scanning over 120 min. To allow a comparison between PET and MRI data, standardized uptake values (SUV) were computed at the same points in time. The TC5123 hepatoma showed a significantly (p 19F]FU and [19F]FBAL MR signal values in the tumor of both models were observed. The MR images, however, yielded the additional information that 5-FU is converted to FBAL only in the liver and not in the hepatomas

  16. Non-mycorrhizal fungal endophytes in two orchids of Kaiga forest (Western Ghats), India

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Naga M. Sudheep; Kandikere R. Sridhar

    2012-01-01

    We used standard isolation protocols to explore the endophytic fungal communities in three tissue types of two dominant orchids (Bulbophyllum neilgherrense and Vanda testacea) of the Kaiga forest of the Western Ghats.We surface sterilized and assessed 90 segments of each orchid for the occurrence and diversity of endophytic fungal taxa.The 118 fungal isolates were obtained from root,bulb and leaves of B.neilgherrense,consisting of 17 anamorphic taxa (range,10-15 taxa) with 1.3 fungal taxa per segment (range,1.2-1.4 taxa).Four taxa (Aspergillus flavus,A.niger,Penicillium sp.and morpho sp.1 ) belonged to the core group (11.1%-32.2%).The relative abundance ofA.flavus and morpho sp.1 was more than 10%.A total of 130 fungal isolates from roots,stems and leaves of V.testacea yielded 20 anamorphic taxa (range,11-15 taxa)with 1.4 fungal taxa per segment (range,1.4-1.5 taxa).Aspergillusflavus,A.niger,A.ochraceus,Gliocladium viride,Penicillium sp.and morpho sp.1 belonged to the core group.Relative abundance exceeded 10% for A.flavus,A.niger,and morpho sp.1.The Simpson and Shannon diversity indices were higher in leaf than root or bulb/stem of both orchids.Jaccard's similarity coefficient was higher between root and leaf in both orchids (56.3%-60%) than between other pairs.Our study revealed that the endophytic fungal assemblage and diversity ofB.neilgherrense and V.testacea of Kaiga forest of the Western Ghats were relatively similar between orchids and their tissues.

  17. An Evaluation of Antifungal Agents for the Treatment of Fungal Contamination in Indoor Air Environments

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Senthaamarai Rogawansamy

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Fungal contamination in indoor environments has been associated with adverse health effects for the inhabitants. Remediation of fungal contamination requires removal of the fungi present and modifying the indoor environment to become less favourable to growth.  This may include treatment of indoor environments with an antifungal agent to prevent future growth. However there are limited published data or advice on chemical agents suitable for indoor fungal remediation. The aim of this study was to assess the relative efficacies of five commercially available cleaning agents with published or anecdotal use for indoor fungal remediation. The five agents included two common multi-purpose industrial disinfectants (Cavicide® and Virkon®, 70% ethanol, vinegar (4.0%-4.2% acetic acid, and a plant-derived compound (tea tree (Melaleuca alternifolia oil tested in both a liquid and vapour form. Tea tree oil has recently generated interest for its antimicrobial efficacy in clinical settings, but has not been widely employed for fungal remediation. Each antifungal agent was assessed for fungal growth inhibition using a disc diffusion method against a representative species from two common fungal genera, (Aspergillus fumigatus and Penicillium chrysogenum, which were isolated from air samples and are commonly found in indoor air. Tea tree oil demonstrated the greatest inhibitory effect on the growth of both fungi, applied in either a liquid or vapour form. Cavicide® and Virkon® demonstrated similar, although less, growth inhibition of both genera. Vinegar (4.0%–4.2% acetic acid was found to only inhibit the growth of P. chrysogenum, while 70% ethanol was found to have no inhibitory effect on the growth of either fungi. There was a notable inhibition in sporulation, distinct from growth inhibition after exposure to tea tree oil, Virkon®, Cavicide® and vinegar. Results demonstrate that common cleaning and antifungal agents differ in their capacity to

  18. Moisture parameters and fungal communities associated with gypsum drywall in buildings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dedesko, Sandra; Siegel, Jeffrey A

    2015-01-01

    Uncontrolled excess moisture in buildings is a common problem that can lead to changes in fungal communities. In buildings, moisture parameters can be classified by location and include assessments of moisture in the air, at a surface, or within a material. These parameters are not equivalent in dynamic indoor environments, which makes moisture-induced fungal growth in buildings a complex occurrence. In order to determine the circumstances that lead to such growth, it is essential to have a thorough understanding of in situ moisture measurement, the influence of building factors on moisture parameters, and the levels of these moisture parameters that lead to indoor fungal growth. Currently, there are disagreements in the literature on this topic. A literature review was conducted specifically on moisture-induced fungal growth on gypsum drywall. This review revealed that there is no consistent measurement approach used to characterize moisture in laboratory and field studies, with relative humidity measurements being most common. Additionally, many studies identify a critical moisture value, below which fungal growth will not occur. The values defined by relative humidity encompassed the largest range, while those defined by moisture content exhibited the highest variation. Critical values defined by equilibrium relative humidity were most consistent, and this is likely due to equilibrium relative humidity being the most relevant moisture parameter to microbial growth, since it is a reasonable measure of moisture available at surfaces, where fungi often proliferate. Several sources concur that surface moisture, particularly liquid water, is the prominent factor influencing microbial changes and that moisture in the air and within a material are of lesser importance. However, even if surface moisture is assessed, a single critical moisture level to prevent fungal growth cannot be defined, due to a number of factors, including variations in fungal genera and

  19. Metabolic syndrome and menopause

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jouyandeh Zahra

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The metabolic syndrome is defined as an assemblage of risk factors for cardiovascular diseases, and menopause is associated with an increase in metabolic syndrome prevalence. The aim of this study was to assess the prevalence of metabolic syndrome and its components among postmenopausal women in Tehran, Iran. Methods In this cross-sectional study in menopause clinic in Tehran, 118 postmenopausal women were investigated. We used the adult treatment panel 3 (ATP3 criteria to classify subjects as having metabolic syndrome. Results Total prevalence of metabolic syndrome among our subjects was 30.1%. Waist circumference, HDL-cholesterol, fasting blood glucose, diastolic blood pressure ,Systolic blood pressure, and triglyceride were significantly higher among women with metabolic syndrome (P-value Conclusions Our study shows that postmenopausal status is associated with an increased risk of metabolic syndrome. Therefore, to prevent cardiovascular disease there is a need to evaluate metabolic syndrome and its components from the time of the menopause.

  20. Biosorption of radionuclides by fungal biomass

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Four kinds of bioreactor were evaluated for thorium removal by fungal biomass. An air-lift bioreactor removed approximately 90-95% of the thorium supplied over extended time periods and exhibited a well-defined breakthrough point after biosorbent saturation. The air-lift bioreactor promoted efficient circulation and effective contact between the thorium solution and the mycelial pellets. Of several fungal species tested, Rhizopus arrhizus and Aspergillus niger were the most effective biosorbents. The efficiency of thorium biosorption by A. niger was markedly reduced in the presence of other inorganic solutes while thorium biosorption by R. arrhizus was relatively unaffected. Air-lift bioreactors containing R. arrhizus biomass could effectively remove thorium from acidic solution over a wide range of initial thorium concentrations. The biotechnological application and significance of these results are discussed in the wider context of fungal biosorption of radionuclides. (author)

  1. Production and applications of fungal exopolysaccharides

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mariane Magrini Pigatto

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available Exopolysaccharides are polymers of monosaccharides which are secreted in the culture medium and allow for different industrial applications. There are few scientific reports on the production, characterization and applications of fungal exopolysaccharides (EPS . Most research in the field has been concentrated on bacterial EPS, since bacteria are easier to grow. The objectives of the present work were to review the literature on fungal EPS, reporting fermentation parameters for growing fungi, and the effect of carbon source, organic and inorganic nitrogen, aeration, agitation, microelements, addition of antifoam, and factors of growth on EPS production. The methods for recovering fungal EPS as well as their characterization, some rheological properties of the culture medium, and EPS applications were also described.

  2. Soil fungal community responses to global changes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Haugwitz, Merian Skouw

    Global change will affect the functioning and structure of terrestrial ecosystems and since soil fungi are key players in organic matter decomposition and nutrient turnover, shifts in fungal community composition might have a strong impact on soil functioning. The main focus of this thesis...... storage in both a shorter and longer term global change experiment. Extended drought at the dry, temperate heath showed that soil fungi were well adapted to dry conditions. Furthermore, soil fungal communities responded significantly to seasonal fluctuations at the temperate heath, but despite large...... composition of fungi, but the effects were generally limited to the litter layer and the uppermost humus layer (0-5 cm), which was unexpected considering the ecosystem had been manipulated for 18 years. Taken together the global change experiments altered the soil fungal communities and thereby highlight...

  3. The Preventable Causes of Death in the United States: Comparative Risk Assessment of Dietary, Lifestyle, and Metabolic Risk Factors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Danaei, Goodarz; Ding, Eric L.; Mozaffarian, Dariush; Taylor, Ben; Rehm, Jürgen; Murray, Christopher J. L.; Ezzati, Majid

    2009-01-01

    Background Knowledge of the number of deaths caused by risk factors is needed for health policy and priority setting. Our aim was to estimate the mortality effects of the following 12 modifiable dietary, lifestyle, and metabolic risk factors in the United States (US) using consistent and comparable methods: high blood glucose, low-density lipoprotein (LDL) cholesterol, and blood pressure; overweight–obesity; high dietary trans fatty acids and salt; low dietary polyunsaturated fatty acids, omega-3 fatty acids (seafood), and fruits and vegetables; physical inactivity; alcohol use; and tobacco smoking. Methods and Findings We used data on risk factor exposures in the US population from nationally representative health surveys and disease-specific mortality statistics from the National Center for Health Statistics. We obtained the etiological effects of risk factors on disease-specific mortality, by age, from systematic reviews and meta-analyses of epidemiological studies that had adjusted (i) for major potential confounders, and (ii) where possible for regression dilution bias. We estimated the number of disease-specific deaths attributable to all non-optimal levels of each risk factor exposure, by age and sex. In 2005, tobacco smoking and high blood pressure were responsible for an estimated 467,000 (95% confidence interval [CI] 436,000–500,000) and 395,000 (372,000–414,000) deaths, accounting for about one in five or six deaths in US adults. Overweight–obesity (216,000; 188,000–237,000) and physical inactivity (191,000; 164,000–222,000) were each responsible for nearly 1 in 10 deaths. High dietary salt (102,000; 97,000–107,000), low dietary omega-3 fatty acids (84,000; 72,000–96,000), and high dietary trans fatty acids (82,000; 63,000–97,000) were the dietary risks with the largest mortality effects. Although 26,000 (23,000–40,000) deaths from ischemic heart disease, ischemic stroke, and diabetes were averted by current alcohol use, they were

  4. The preventable causes of death in the United States: comparative risk assessment of dietary, lifestyle, and metabolic risk factors.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Goodarz Danaei

    2009-04-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Knowledge of the number of deaths caused by risk factors is needed for health policy and priority setting. Our aim was to estimate the mortality effects of the following 12 modifiable dietary, lifestyle, and metabolic risk factors in the United States (US using consistent and comparable methods: high blood glucose, low-density lipoprotein (LDL cholesterol, and blood pressure; overweight-obesity; high dietary trans fatty acids and salt; low dietary polyunsaturated fatty acids, omega-3 fatty acids (seafood, and fruits and vegetables; physical inactivity; alcohol use; and tobacco smoking. METHODS AND FINDINGS: We used data on risk factor exposures in the US population from nationally representative health surveys and disease-specific mortality statistics from the National Center for Health Statistics. We obtained the etiological effects of risk factors on disease-specific mortality, by age, from systematic reviews and meta-analyses of epidemiological studies that had adjusted (i for major potential confounders, and (ii where possible for regression dilution bias. We estimated the number of disease-specific deaths attributable to all non-optimal levels of each risk factor exposure, by age and sex. In 2005, tobacco smoking and high blood pressure were responsible for an estimated 467,000 (95% confidence interval [CI] 436,000-500,000 and 395,000 (372,000-414,000 deaths, accounting for about one in five or six deaths in US adults. Overweight-obesity (216,000; 188,000-237,000 and physical inactivity (191,000; 164,000-222,000 were each responsible for nearly 1 in 10 deaths. High dietary salt (102,000; 97,000-107,000, low dietary omega-3 fatty acids (84,000; 72,000-96,000, and high dietary trans fatty acids (82,000; 63,000-97,000 were the dietary risks with the largest mortality effects. Although 26,000 (23,000-40,000 deaths from ischemic heart disease, ischemic stroke, and diabetes were averted by current alcohol use, they were outweighed by

  5. Fractal dimension based corneal fungal infection diagnosis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Balasubramanian, Madhusudhanan; Perkins, A. Louise; Beuerman, Roger W.; Iyengar, S. Sitharama

    2006-08-01

    We present a fractal measure based pattern classification algorithm for automatic feature extraction and identification of fungus associated with an infection of the cornea of the eye. A white-light confocal microscope image of suspected fungus exhibited locally linear and branching structures. The pixel intensity variation across the width of a fungal element was gaussian. Linear features were extracted using a set of 2D directional matched gaussian-filters. Portions of fungus profiles that were not in the same focal plane appeared relatively blurred. We use gaussian filters of standard deviation slightly larger than the width of a fungus to reduce discontinuities. Cell nuclei of cornea and nerves also exhibited locally linear structure. Cell nuclei were excluded by their relatively shorter lengths. Nerves in the cornea exhibited less branching compared with the fungus. Fractal dimensions of the locally linear features were computed using a box-counting method. A set of corneal images with fungal infection was used to generate class-conditional fractal measure distributions of fungus and nerves. The a priori class-conditional densities were built using an adaptive-mixtures method to reflect the true nature of the feature distributions and improve the classification accuracy. A maximum-likelihood classifier was used to classify the linear features extracted from test corneal images as 'normal' or 'with fungal infiltrates', using the a priori fractal measure distributions. We demonstrate the algorithm on the corneal images with culture-positive fungal infiltrates. The algorithm is fully automatic and will help diagnose fungal keratitis by generating a diagnostic mask of locations of the fungal infiltrates.

  6. Imaging O2 changes induced in tomato roots by fungal pathogen

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rubol, S.; Turco, E.; Rodeghiero, M.; Bellin, A.

    2014-12-01

    In the last decade, planar optodes have demonstrated to be a useful non-invasive tool to monitor real time oxygen concentrations in a wide range of applications. However, only limited investigations have been carried out to explore the use of optodes in plant respiration studies. In particular, their use to study plant-pathogen interactions has been not deeply investigated. Here, we present for the first time an in vitro experimental setup capable to depict the dynamical effects of the fungal pathogen Fusarium oxysporum f.sp. lycopersici (Fol) on tomato roots by the use of a recently developed optical non-invasive optode oxygen sensor (Visisens, Presens, Germany). Fol is a soil-borne pathogen and the causal agent of wilt in tomato plants, a destructive worldwide disease. The interaction Fol-tomato is widely accepted as a model system in plant pathology. In this work, oxygen concentrations are monitored continuously in time and considered a proxy for root respiration and metabolic activity. The experimental procedure reveals three different dynamic stages: 1) a uniform oxygen consumption in tomato roots earlier before pathogen colonization, 2) a progressive decrease in the oxygen concentration indicating a high metabolic activity as soon as the roots were surrounded and colonized by the fungal mycelium, and 3) absence of root respiration, as a consequence of root death. Our results suggest the ability of the fungal mycelium to move preferentially towards and along the root as a consequence of the recognition event.

  7. Mucormycosis: a devastating fungal infection in diabetics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mucormycosis is a highly invasive, devastating and usually fatal fungal infection of the sinuses, brain, or lungs that occurs primarily in people with immune disorders. Despite advances in diagnosis and treatment, a high mortality still exists. We present a middle aged diabetic male with this serious fungal infection involving nose, paranasal area and adjacent periorbital regions with a high risk of progressing further towards the dura mater. He was promptly diagnosed and managed with serial surgical debridements with systemic antifungals and was later fitted with a nasal prosthesis. (author)

  8. Tropospheric ozone as a fungal elicitor

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Paolo Zuccarini

    2009-03-01

    Tropospheric ozone has been proven to trigger biochemical plant responses that are similar to the ones induced by an attack of fungal pathogens, i.e. it resembles fungal elicitors. This suggests that ozone can represent a valid tool for the study of stress responses and induction of resistance to pathogens. This review provides an overview of the implications of such a phenomenon for basic and applied research. After an introduction about the environmental implications of tropospheric ozone and plant responses to biotic stresses, the biochemistry of ozone stress is analysed, pointing out its similarities with plant responses to pathogens and its possible applications.

  9. Fungal and mycotoxin contamination of coffee beans in Benguet province, Philippines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Culliao, Audrey Glenn L; Barcelo, Jonathan M

    2015-01-01

    Coffee remains an important agricultural product in Benguet province, Philippines, but is highly susceptible to fungal and mycotoxin contamination in various stages of growth and processing and in different local climates. In this study, pre- and post-harvest coffee bean samples from temperate and warm farming areas were assessed for their fungal and mycotoxin contaminants. One hundred eighty-five fungal isolates belonging to six genera were isolated representing 88.1% of mycotoxigenic fungi. The predominant species belonged to the genus Aspergillus, which are known producers of mycotoxins. Coffee beans from the post-harvest temperate group were found to have the highest percentage mycotoxigenic contamination of 98.4%, suggesting that the risk for fungal contamination is high after drying. Determination of the mycotoxins indicated 28.6% contamination. Ochratoxin A was found to be highest in dried whole cherries which contained 97.3 μg kg(-1), whilst sterigmatocystin was also highest in dried whole cherries at 193.7 μg kg(-1). These results indicate that there are risks of fungal and mycotoxin contamination of Benguet coffee at the post-harvest stage. PMID:25534333

  10. Fungal Community Successions in Rhizosphere Sediment of Seagrasses Enhalus acoroides under PAHs Stress

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juan Ling

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Seagrass meadows represent one of the highest productive marine ecosystems and are of great ecological and economic values. Recently, they have been confronted with worldwide decline. Fungi play important roles in sustaining the ecosystem health as degraders of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs, but fewer studies have been conducted in seagrass ecosystems. Hence, we investigated the dynamic variations of the fungal community succession under PAH stress in rhizosphere sediment of seagrasses Enhalus acoroides in this study. Polymerase chain reaction-denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis (PCR-DGGE, quantitative PCR (qPCR and a clone library have been employed to analyze the fungal community’s shifts. Sequencing results of DGGE and the clone library showed that the predominant species belong to phyla Ascomycota and Basidiomycota. The abundance of three groups decreased sharply over the incubation period, whereas they demonstrated different fungal diversity patterns. Both the exposure time and the PAH concentrations affected the microbial diversity as assessed by PCR-DGGE analysis. Redundancy analysis (RDA indicated that significant factors driving community shifts were ammonium and pH (p < 0.05. Significant amounts of the variations (31.1% were explained by pH and ammonium, illustrating that those two parameters were the most likely ones to influence or be influenced by the fungal communities’ changes. Investigation results also indicated that fungal communities in seagrass meadow were very sensitive to PAH-induced stress and may be used as potential indicators for the PAH contamination.

  11. Host associations and beta diversity of fungal endophyte communities in New Guinea rainforest trees.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vincent, J B; Weiblen, G D; May, G

    2016-02-01

    Processes shaping the distribution of foliar fungal endophyte species remain poorly understood. Despite increasing evidence that these cryptic fungal symbionts of plants mediate interactions with pathogens and herbivores, there remain basic questions regarding the extent to which dispersal limitation and host specificity might shape fungal endophyte community composition in rainforests. To assess the relative importance of spatial pattern and host specificity, we isolated fungi from a sample of mapped trees in lowland Papua New Guinea. Sequences of the internal transcribed spacer (ITS) region were obtained for 2079 fungal endophytes from three sites and clustered into molecular operational taxonomic units (MOTUs) at 95% similarity. Multivariate analyses suggest that host affinity plays a significant role in structuring endophyte community composition whereas there was no evidence of endophyte spatial pattern at the scale of tens to hundreds of metres. Differences in endophyte communities between sampled trees were weakly correlated with variation in foliar traits but not with tree species relatedness. The dominance of relatively few generalist endophytes and the presence of a large number of rare MOTUs was a consistent observation at three sites separated by hundreds of kilometres and regional turnover was low. Host specificity appears to play a relatively weak but more important role than dispersal limitation in shaping the distribution of fungal endophyte communities in New Guinea forests. Our results suggest that in the absence of strong ecological gradients and host turnover, beta diversity of endophyte communities could be low in large areas of contiguous forest. PMID:26661903

  12. Fungal Community Successions in Rhizosphere Sediment of Seagrasses Enhalus acoroides under PAHs Stress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ling, Juan; Zhang, Yanying; Wu, Meilin; Wang, Youshao; Dong, Junde; Jiang, Yufeng; Yang, Qingsong; Zeng, Siquan

    2015-01-01

    Seagrass meadows represent one of the highest productive marine ecosystems and are of great ecological and economic values. Recently, they have been confronted with worldwide decline. Fungi play important roles in sustaining the ecosystem health as degraders of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs), but fewer studies have been conducted in seagrass ecosystems. Hence, we investigated the dynamic variations of the fungal community succession under PAH stress in rhizosphere sediment of seagrasses Enhalus acoroides in this study. Polymerase chain reaction-denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis (PCR-DGGE), quantitative PCR (qPCR) and a clone library have been employed to analyze the fungal community's shifts. Sequencing results of DGGE and the clone library showed that the predominant species belong to phyla Ascomycota and Basidiomycota. The abundance of three groups decreased sharply over the incubation period, whereas they demonstrated different fungal diversity patterns. Both the exposure time and the PAH concentrations affected the microbial diversity as assessed by PCR-DGGE analysis. Redundancy analysis (RDA) indicated that significant factors driving community shifts were ammonium and pH (p < 0.05). Significant amounts of the variations (31.1%) were explained by pH and ammonium, illustrating that those two parameters were the most likely ones to influence or be influenced by the fungal communities' changes. Investigation results also indicated that fungal communities in seagrass meadow were very sensitive to PAH-induced stress and may be used as potential indicators for the PAH contamination. PMID:26096007

  13. Assessment of myocardial fatty acid metabolism in patients with vasospastic angina using {sup 123}I-BMIPP myocardial SPECT

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ito, Kazuki; Sugihara, Hiroki; Terada, Kouji [Kyoto Prefectural Univ. of Medicine (Japan)] [and others

    1995-10-01

    Myocardial perfusion and fatty acid metabolism may be unpaired in the patients of vasospastic angina (VSA), because abnormal regional wall motion of left ventricle has been shown in some cases of VSA without apparent history of myocardial infarction. To study the clinical utility of {sup 123}I-BMIPP scintigraphy in diagnosis of myocardial ischemia in VSA, both {sup 123}I-BMIPP (rest) and {sup 201}Tl (exercise) SPECT were performed in the 20 patients of VSA diagnosed by coronary angiography. Defect scores were calculated visually from the 17 segments of myocardial images and were compared with patient`s anginal history, period from last attack, numbers of attack, left ventricular (LV) ejection fraction and severity of regional LV wall motion abnormality. {sup 123}I-BMIPP SPECT images showed decreased tracer uptake in 14 cases of 20 (70%) VSA patients. Exercise {sup 201}Tl SPECT images showed decreased tracer uptake in 3 cases of 20 (15%) of patients. Severity of regional LV wall motion abnormality was correlated with defect score of BMIPP. Though total defect score of BMIPP did not correlate with patient`s anginal history, number of symptoms and LV ejection fraction, correlated inversely with period from last attack. It was suggested that {sup 123}I-BMIPP myocardial SPECT images in VSA patients showed `memories` of myocardial ischemic damages induced by vasospasm. In summary, {sup 123}I-BMIPP myocardial SPECT images could be a useful test for diagnosis and evaluation of VSA. (author).

  14. Assessment of the serum levels of bone alkaline phosphatase with a new immunoradiometric assay in patients with metabolic bone disease

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The authors measured serum bone alkaline phosphatase (B-ALP) with a new immunoradiometric assay (IRMA) in a large sample of healthy controls comprising 173 women and 180 men, 20-88 yr of age, and in patients with metabolic bone disease. Using serum samples from patients with liver disease and patients with Paget's disease with elevated total alkaline phosphatase (T-ALP) as a source of, respectively, liver and bone isoenyzmes, they determined a liver cross-reactivity of the IRMA of 16% that was confirmed by electrophoresis of the circulating alkaline phosphatase isoenzymes. The IRMA was linear for serial sample dilutions, the recovery ranged from 89-110%, and the intra- and interassay variations were below 7% and 9%, respectively. B-ALP increased linearly with age in both sexes, and the mean B-ALP serum levels were not significantly different for women and men (11.3 ± 4.8 ng/mL for women; 11.0 ± 4.0 ng/mL for men). The increase in B-ALP after the menopause was significantly higher than that in T-ALP (+77% vs. +24%; P<0.001). When the values of postmenopausal women were expressed as the SD from the mean of premenopausal women, the mean Z scores were 2.2± 1.8 for B-ALP and 0.9 ± 1.3 for T-ALP (P<0.001 between the two)

  15. MycoCosm, an Integrated Fungal Genomics Resource

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shabalov, Igor; Grigoriev, Igor

    2012-03-16

    MycoCosm is a web-based interactive fungal genomics resource, which was first released in March 2010, in response to an urgent call from the fungal community for integration of all fungal genomes and analytical tools in one place (Pan-fungal data resources meeting, Feb 21-22, 2010, Alexandria, VA). MycoCosm integrates genomics data and analysis tools to navigate through over 100 fungal genomes sequenced at JGI and elsewhere. This resource allows users to explore fungal genomes in the context of both genome-centric analysis and comparative genomics, and promotes user community participation in data submission, annotation and analysis. MycoCosm has over 4500 unique visitors/month or 35000+ visitors/year as well as hundreds of registered users contributing their data and expertise to this resource. Its scalable architecture allows significant expansion of the data expected from JGI Fungal Genomics Program, its users, and integration with external resources used by fungal community.

  16. Associations between Fungal Species and Water-Damaged Building Materials

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Birgitte; Frisvad, Jens Christian; Søndergaard, Ib; Rasmussen, Ib S.; Larsen, Lisbeth S.

    2011-01-01

    8 contact plates from materials with visible fungal growth. Fungal identifications and information on building material components were analyzed using multivariate statistic methods to determine associations between fungi and material components. The results confirmed that Penicillium chrysogenum...

  17. Does overnight normalization of plasma glucose by insulin infusion affect assessment of glucose metabolism in Type 2 diabetes?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Staehr, P; Højlund, Kurt; Hother-Nielsen, O;

    2003-01-01

    turnover rates were quantified by adjusted primed-constant 3-3H-glucose infusions, and insulin action was assessed in 4-h euglycaemic, hyperinsulinaemic (40 mU m-2 min-1) clamp studies using labelled glucose infusates (Hot-GINF). RESULTS: Basal plasma glucose levels (mean +/- sd) were 5.5 +/- 0.5 and 10...... from basal rates of Rd, assessment of glucose turnover rates in euglycaemic clamp studies of Type 2 diabetic patients is not dependent on the method by which plasma glucose levels are lowered........7 +/- 2.9 mmol/l in the + ON and - ON studies, respectively, and were clamped at -5.5 mmol/l. Basal rates of glucose production (GP) were similar in the + ON and - ON studies, 83 +/- 13 vs. 85 +/- 14 mg m-2 min-1 (NS), whereas basal rates of glucose disappearance (Rd) were lower in the + ON than in the...

  18. Modulation of host-cell MAPkinase signaling during fungal infection

    OpenAIRE

    Nir Osherov

    2015-01-01

    Fungal infections contribute substantially to human suffering and mortality. The interaction between fungal pathogens and their host involves the invasion and penetration of the surface epithelium, activation of cells of the innate immune system and the generation of an effective response to block infection. Numerous host-cell signaling pathways are activated during fungal infection. This review will focus on the main fungal pathogens Aspergillus fumigatus, Candida albicans and Cryptococcus n...

  19. Cracking the Toll-like receptor code in fungal infections

    OpenAIRE

    Cunha, Cristina; Romani, Luigina; Carvalho, Agostinho

    2010-01-01

    Innate control of fungal infection requires the specific recognition of invariant fungal molecular structures by a variety of innate immune receptors, including Toll-like receptors. In addition to the role in inducing protective immune responses, Toll-like receptor engagement may paradoxically favor fungal infections, by inducing inflammatory pathology and impairing antifungal immunity. Although the dissection of complex genetic traits modulating susceptibility to fungal infections is complex...

  20. Validity of using a 3-dimensional PET scanner during inhalation of 15O-labeled oxygen for quantitative assessment of regional metabolic rate of oxygen in man

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Use of 15O labeled oxygen (15O2) and positron emission tomography (PET) allows quantitative assessment of the regional metabolic rate of oxygen (CMRO2) in vivo, which is essential to understanding the pathological status of patients with cerebral vascular and neurological disorders. The method has, however, been challenging, when a 3D PET scanner is employed, largely attributed to the presence of gaseous radioactivity in the trachea and the inhalation system, which results in a large amount of scatter and random events in the PET assessment. The present study was intended to evaluate the adequacy of using a recently available commercial 3D PET scanner in the assessment of regional cerebral radioactivity distribution during an inhalation of 15O2. Systematic experiments were carried out on a brain phantom. Experiments were also performed on a healthy volunteer following a recently developed protocol for simultaneous assessment of CMRO2 and cerebral blood flow, which involves sequential administration of 15O2 and C15O2. A particular intention was to evaluate the adequacy of the scatter-correction procedures. The phantom experiment demonstrated that errors were within 3% at the practically maximum radioactivity in the face mask, with the greatest radioactivity in the lung. The volunteer experiment demonstrated that the counting rate was at peak during the 15O gas inhalation period, within a verified range. Tomographic images represented good quality over the entire FOV, including the lower part of the cerebral structures and the carotid artery regions. The scatter-correction procedures appeared to be important, particularly in the process to compensate for the scatter originating outside the FOV. Reconstructed images dramatically changed if the correction was carried out using inappropriate procedures. This study demonstrated that accurate reconstruction could be obtained when the scatter compensation was appropriately carried out. This study also suggested the

  1. Economic Evaluation of Posaconazole Versus Standard Azole Therapy as Prophylaxis against Invasive Fungal Infections in Patients with Prolonged Neutropenia in Canada

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amir A Tahami Monfared

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available INTRODUCTION: Posaconazole prophylaxis in high-risk neutropenic patients prevents invasive fungal infection (IFI. An economic model was used to assess the cost effectiveness of posaconazole from a Canadian health care system perspective.

  2. Fungal dissemination by housefly (Musca domestica L.) and contamination of food commodities in rural areas of South Africa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Phoku, J Z; Barnard, T G; Potgieter, N; Dutton, M F

    2016-01-18

    Several insects that act as vectors, including houseflies (Musca domestica L.), are often considered to be an important source of fungal contamination in human foods. Houseflies are also involved in the transmission of bacterial pathogens that may pose a serious hazard to human health. Thus, the rural population of South Africa, as typified by that in the Gauteng Province investigated in this study, is at high risk from fungal exposure disseminated by houseflies and it is therefore important to assess the role of flies in contaminating various food commodities. Eighty four samples of houseflies (captured from households and pit toilets) were studied for their potential to carry fungal spores into food commodities. The fungi occurring in samples of raw maize (15) and porridge (19) were also assessed. Fungal isolates were identified based on morphological characteristics by conventional identification methods. Fifteen genera of fungi were isolated and identified, of which Aspergillus, Fusarium, Penicillium, Cladosporium, Moniliella and Mucor were the most prevalent in all three sample types analysed. The incidence rates of fungal contamination per total fungal count isolated in houseflies, maize and porridge were recorded with mean fungal load of 2×10(8) CFU/ml, 1×10(7)CFU/g and 2×10(7)CFU/g respectively. Additionally, A. flavus, A. parasiticus, F. verticillioides, F. proliferatum, P. verrucosum, P. aurantiogriseum and M. suaveolens were the most frequent fungal isolates in houseflies with incidence rate of 34%, 11%, 27%, 21%, 22%, 17% and 32% respectively. F. verticillioides, A. flavus, A. niger and P. oslonii were the most prevalent species contaminating porridge and maize with incidence rate of 23%, 32%, 16% and 28% in maize samples, while incidence rates of 59%, 15% and 29% were recorded in porridge samples with the exception of F. verticillioides. The prevalence of these genera of fungi may pose serious health risks. PMID:26544205

  3. Pb2+ Biosorption by Pretreated Fungal Biomass

    OpenAIRE

    ÇABUK, Ahmet; İLHAN, Semra; FİLİK, Cansu; ÇALIŞKAN, Figen

    2005-01-01

    The effect of pretreatment on the Pb2+ biosorption capacity of fungal biomasses, Aspergillus versicolor, Metarrhizium anisopliae var. anisopliae, and Penicillium verrucosum, was investigated. For this purpose, the biomasses were subjected to physical treatments such as heat and autoclaving, and chemical treatments such as sodium hydroxide, formaldehyde, gluteraldehyde, acetic acid, hydrogen peroxide, commercial laundry detergent, orthophosphoric acid and dimethyl sulfoxide. Dimethyl sulfoxid...

  4. Fungal Bioconversion of Lignocellulosic Residues; Opportunities & Perspectives

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mehdi Dashtban, Heidi Schraft, Wensheng Qin

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available The development of alternative energy technology is critically important because of the rising prices of crude oil, security issues regarding the oil supply, and environmental issues such as global warming and air pollution. Bioconversion of biomass has significant advantages over other alternative energy strategies because biomass is the most abundant and also the most renewable biomaterial on our planet. Bioconversion of lignocellulosic residues is initiated primarily by microorganisms such as fungi and bacteria which are capable of degrading lignocellulolytic materials. Fungi such as Trichoderma reesei and Aspergillus niger produce large amounts of extracellular cellulolytic enzymes, whereas bacterial and a few anaerobic fungal strains mostly produce cellulolytic enzymes in a complex called cellulosome, which is associated with the cell wall. In filamentous fungi, cellulolytic enzymes including endoglucanases, cellobiohydrolases (exoglucanases and β-glucosidases work efficiently on cellulolytic residues in a synergistic manner. In addition to cellulolytic/hemicellulolytic activities, higher fungi such as basidiomycetes (e.g. Phanerochaete chrysosporium have unique oxidative systems which together with ligninolytic enzymes are responsible for lignocellulose degradation. This review gives an overview of different fungal lignocellulolytic enzymatic systems including extracellular and cellulosome-associated in aerobic and anaerobic fungi, respectively. In addition, oxidative lignocellulose-degradation mechanisms of higher fungi are discussed. Moreover, this paper reviews the current status of the technology for bioconversion of biomass by fungi, with focus on mutagenesis, co-culturing and heterologous gene expression attempts to improve fungal lignocellulolytic activities to create robust fungal strains.

  5. Fungal bioconversion of lignocellulosic residues; opportunities & perspectives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dashtban, Mehdi; Schraft, Heidi; Qin, Wensheng

    2009-01-01

    The development of alternative energy technology is critically important because of the rising prices of crude oil, security issues regarding the oil supply, and environmental issues such as global warming and air pollution. Bioconversion of biomass has significant advantages over other alternative energy strategies because biomass is the most abundant and also the most renewable biomaterial on our planet. Bioconversion of lignocellulosic residues is initiated primarily by microorganisms such as fungi and bacteria which are capable of degrading lignocellulolytic materials. Fungi such as Trichoderma reesei and Aspergillus niger produce large amounts of extracellular cellulolytic enzymes, whereas bacterial and a few anaerobic fungal strains mostly produce cellulolytic enzymes in a complex called cellulosome, which is associated with the cell wall. In filamentous fungi, cellulolytic enzymes including endoglucanases, cellobiohydrolases (exoglucanases) and beta-glucosidases work efficiently on cellulolytic residues in a synergistic manner. In addition to cellulolytic/hemicellulolytic activities, higher fungi such as basidiomycetes (e.g. Phanerochaete chrysosporium) have unique oxidative systems which together with ligninolytic enzymes are responsible for lignocellulose degradation. This review gives an overview of different fungal lignocellulolytic enzymatic systems including extracellular and cellulosome-associated in aerobic and anaerobic fungi, respectively. In addition, oxidative lignocellulose-degradation mechanisms of higher fungi are discussed. Moreover, this paper reviews the current status of the technology for bioconversion of biomass by fungi, with focus on mutagenesis, co-culturing and heterologous gene expression attempts to improve fungal lignocellulolytic activities to create robust fungal strains. PMID:19774110

  6. Modelling Fungal Fermentations for Enzyme Production

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Albæk, Mads Orla; Gernaey, Krist; Hansen, Morten S.;

    We have developed a process model of fungal fed-batch fermentations for enzyme production. In these processes, oxygen transfer rate is limiting and controls the substrate feeding rate. The model has been shown to describe cultivations of both Aspergillus oryzae and Trichoderma reesei strains in 550...

  7. 50-plus years of fungal viruses

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ghabrial, Said A., E-mail: saghab00@email.uky.edu [Plant Pathology Department, University of Kentucky, Lexington, KY (United States); Castón, José R. [Department of Structure of Macromolecules, Centro Nacional Biotecnologıa/CSIC, Campus de Cantoblanco, Madrid (Spain); Jiang, Daohong [State Key Lab of Agricultural Microbiology, Huazhong Agricultural University, Wuhan, Hubei Province (China); Nibert, Max L. [Department of Microbiology and Immunobiology, Harvard Medical School, Boston, MA (United States); Suzuki, Nobuhiro [Institute of Plant Science and Resources, Okayama University, Kurashiki, Okayama (Japan)

    2015-05-15

    Mycoviruses are widespread in all major taxa of fungi. They are transmitted intracellularly during cell division, sporogenesis, and/or cell-to-cell fusion (hyphal anastomosis), and thus their life cycles generally lack an extracellular phase. Their natural host ranges are limited to individuals within the same or closely related vegetative compatibility groups, although recent advances have established expanded experimental host ranges for some mycoviruses. Most known mycoviruses have dsRNA genomes packaged in isometric particles, but an increasing number of positive- or negative-strand ssRNA and ssDNA viruses have been isolated and characterized. Although many mycoviruses do not have marked effects on their hosts, those that reduce the virulence of their phytopathogenic fungal hosts are of considerable interest for development of novel biocontrol strategies. Mycoviruses that infect endophytic fungi and those that encode killer toxins are also of special interest. Structural analyses of mycoviruses have promoted better understanding of virus assembly, function, and evolution. - Highlights: • Historical perspective of fungal virus research. • Description, classification and diversity of fungal virus families. • Structural features of fungal virus particles. • Hypovirulence and exploitation of mycoviruses in biological control of plant pathogenic fungi.

  8. FUNGAL ASSOCIATION WITH SESSILE MARINE INVERTEBRATES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Oded eYarden

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available The presence and association of fungi with sessile marine animals such as coral and sponges has been well established, yet information on the extent of diversity of the associated fungi is still in its infancy. Culture- as well as metagenomic- and transcriptomic-based analyses have shown that fungal presence in association with these animals can be dynamic and can include core residents as well as shifts in fungal communities. Evidence for detrimental and beneficial interactions between fungi and their marine hosts is accumulating and current challenges include the elucidation of the chemical and cellular crosstalk between fungi and their associates within the holobionts. The ecological function of fungi in association with sessile marine animals is complex and is founded on a combination of factors such as fungal origin, host health, environmental conditions and the presence of other resident or invasive microorganisms in the host. Based on evidence from the much more studied terrestrial systems, the evaluation of marine animal-fungal symbioses under varying environmental conditions may well prove to be critical in predicting ecosystem response to global change, including effects on the health of sessile marine animals.

  9. 50-plus years of fungal viruses

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mycoviruses are widespread in all major taxa of fungi. They are transmitted intracellularly during cell division, sporogenesis, and/or cell-to-cell fusion (hyphal anastomosis), and thus their life cycles generally lack an extracellular phase. Their natural host ranges are limited to individuals within the same or closely related vegetative compatibility groups, although recent advances have established expanded experimental host ranges for some mycoviruses. Most known mycoviruses have dsRNA genomes packaged in isometric particles, but an increasing number of positive- or negative-strand ssRNA and ssDNA viruses have been isolated and characterized. Although many mycoviruses do not have marked effects on their hosts, those that reduce the virulence of their phytopathogenic fungal hosts are of considerable interest for development of novel biocontrol strategies. Mycoviruses that infect endophytic fungi and those that encode killer toxins are also of special interest. Structural analyses of mycoviruses have promoted better understanding of virus assembly, function, and evolution. - Highlights: • Historical perspective of fungal virus research. • Description, classification and diversity of fungal virus families. • Structural features of fungal virus particles. • Hypovirulence and exploitation of mycoviruses in biological control of plant pathogenic fungi

  10. Habitat filters in fungal endophyte community assembly

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fungal endophytes can influence host health, and more broadly, can instigate trophic cascades with effects scaling to the ecosystem level. Despite this, biotic mechanisms of endophyte community assembly are largely unknown. We used maize to investigate three potential habitat filters in endophyte co...

  11. Grass fungal endophytes and uses thereof

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Craven, Kelly

    2015-03-10

    The invention provides isolated fungal endophytes and synthetic combinations thereof with host grass plants. Methods for inoculating grass plant with the endophytes, for propagating the grass-endophyte combinations, and for producing feeds and biofuels from grass-endophyte combinations are also provided.

  12. CT scan findings of fungal pneumonia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The importance of fungal infection of the lung in immunocompromised patients has increased substantially during the last decades. Numerically the most patients are those with neutropenia, e.g. patients with malignancies or solid organ and stem cell transplantation, chemotherapy, corticosteroid use and HIV infection. Although fungal infections can occur in immunocompetent patients, their frequency in this population is rare. The clinical symptoms such as fever accompanied with non-productive cough are unspecific. In some patients progression to hypoxemia and dyspnea may occur rapidly. In spite of improved antifungal therapy morbidity and mortality of these infections are still high. Therefore an early and non-invasive diagnosis is very important. That is why CT and even better High-Resolution-CT (HR-CT) is a very important modality in examining immunocompromised patients with a probability of fungal infection. CT is everywhere available and, as a non-invasive method, able to give the relevant diagnose efficiently. This paper should give an overview about the radiologic findings and possible differential diagnosis of diverse pulmonary fungal infections in CT. Pneumonias caused by Aspergillus, Cryptococcus, Candida, Histoplasma, Mucor and Geotrichum capitatum are illustrated. (orig.)

  13. Pulmonary fungal infections after bone marrow transplantation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Of 319 pediatric patients treated with bone marrow transplantation (BMT) during a 10-year period, 27 developed pulmonary fungal infections (PFI). Only 2 patients (7%) survived. Twenty-three patients (85%) had been treated with systemic anti-fungal therapy immediately before or at the time of diagnosis. Nineteen patients (70%) were neutropenic, and 4 of the 8 patients who were not neutropenic were being treated with systemic steroids for graft vs. host disease (GVHD). Seven patients (26%) died within 7 days of diagnosis. The diagnosis was made ante-mortem in 9 patients (33%). Radiographic abnormalities were variable. At the onset of chest X-ray (CXR) change, the pulmonary infiltrates were unilateral in 14 patients (52%) and, at diagnosis, bilateral in 18 (66%). At diagnosis the infiltrates were interstitial in 3 patients (11%), alveolar in 20 (74%) and mixed in 4 (15%). Six patients (22%) developed cavitary lesions. The infecting agents were Aspergillus in 21 patients (78%), Candida in 7 (26%), Mucormycosis in 3 (11%), and Fusarium in 1 (4%). Five patients (19%) had mixed fungal infections and 7 (26%) had concurrent cytomegalovirus (CMV) pulmonary infections. Although the radiographic changes are often nonspecific in PFI, alveolar or nodular infiltrates in neutropenic patients or in those being treated for GVHD should strongly suggest a fungal etiology. (orig.)

  14. Application of Fungal Cyclic Peptides and Metabolites

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Nedvěd, Jan; Šulc, Miroslav; Jegorov, A.; Giannakopulos, A.; Havlíček, Vladimír

    Weinheim : Wiley, 2008 - (Van Eyk, J.; Dunn, M.), s. 483-509 ISBN 978-3-527-31637-3 R&D Projects: GA MŠk LC07017; GA ČR GA203/04/0799 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z50200510 Keywords : cyclic peptides * mass spectromety * fungal Subject RIV: EE - Microbiology, Virology

  15. October 2012 Multistate Fungal Meningitis Outbreak

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts

    2012-10-17

    This podcast gives an overview of the October 2012 multistate fungal meningitis outbreak, including symptoms to watch for and a website for up-to-date information.  Created: 10/17/2012 by National Center for Emerging and Zoonotic Infectious Diseases (NCEZID).   Date Released: 10/17/2012.

  16. Packaging conditions hindering fungal growth on cheese

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Per Væggemose; Haasum, Iben

    1997-01-01

    Fungal contamination is one of the most important quality deteriorating factors on cheese. During the last 5 years we have studied in detail the underlying factors controlling these unwanted processes in a collaborative project financed by the Danish Dairy Board and the Ministry of Agriculture. R...

  17. Surgical management of intracranial fungal masses

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rajshekhar Vedantam

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Intracranial fungal masses (IFMs, granulomas and abscesses are uncommon lesions, infrequently encountered by neurosurgeons. There is no conclusive evidence on the ideal surgical management of these lesions. Aims: To summarize the recent literature on the prevalence, presentation, surgical management and outcome of patients with IFMs. Materials and Methods: The recent published literature was searched using standard search engines (PubMed and Google for articles reporting on the databases and surgical management of IFMs. A special effort was made to include publications from Indian centers. Results: Intracranial fungal masses were rarely seen even in major neurosurgical centers in India with a prevalence of around one to two per year. While most patients with IFM have immunosuppressed states, nearly 50% of patients with IFMs (especially in India have no obvious predisposing causes and are apparently immunocompetent. The clinical presentation could be categorized into three groups: 1. Involvement of the cranial nerves 1 to 6 with orbital and nasal symptoms. 2. Focal neurological deficits due to involvement of any part of the neuraxis; and 3. "Stroke-like" presentation with sudden onset of hemiparesis. Based on the presence or absence of radiological evidence of paranasal sinus disease, IFMs were classified into two types: 1. Rhinocerebral type; 2. Purely intracranial type that was further divided into a. intracerebral or b. extracerebral forms. Aspergillus species was the commonest fungal organism causing IFMs but a number of other fungi have been reported to cause IFMs. Surgery for IFMs can be of different types, namely 1. Stereotactic procedures; 2. Craniotomy; 3. Shunt surgery; and 4. Treatment of fungal aneurysms. Generally, radical surgery is advocated for IFMs but there is no unanimity regarding the radicality of the excision especially for the rhinocerebral form of the disease. Surgery should always be followed by antifungal

  18. Comparison of Accuracy of Diabetes Risk Score and Components of the Metabolic Syndrome in Assessing Risk of Incident Type 2 Diabetes in Inter99 Cohort

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Shafizadeh, Tracy B; Moler, Edward J; Kolberg, Janice A; Nguyen, Uyen Thao; Hansen, Torben; Jørgensen, Torben; Pedersen, Oluf; Borch-Johnsen, Knut

    2011-01-01

    Background: Given the increasing worldwide incidence of diabetes, methods to assess diabetes risk which would identify those at highest risk are needed. We compared two risk-stratification approaches for incident type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM); factors of metabolic syndrome (MetS) and a previously...... developed diabetes risk score, PreDxH Diabetes Risk Score (DRS). DRS assesses 5 yr risk of incident T2DM based on the measurement of 7 biomarkers in fasting blood. Methodology/Principal Findings: DRS was evaluated in baseline serum samples from 4,128 non-diabetic subjects in the Inter99 cohort (Danes aged...... 30–60) for whom diabetes outcomes at 5 years were known. Subjects were classified as having MetS based on the presence of at least 3 MetS risk factors in baseline clinical data. The sensitivity and false positive rate for predicting diabetes using MetS was compared to DRS. When the sensitivity was...

  19. Assessing SNP-SNP interactions among DNA repair, modification and metabolism related pathway genes in breast cancer susceptibility.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yadav Sapkota

    Full Text Available Genome-wide association studies (GWASs have identified low-penetrance common variants (i.e., single nucleotide polymorphisms, SNPs associated with breast cancer susceptibility. Although GWASs are primarily focused on single-locus effects, gene-gene interactions (i.e., epistasis are also assumed to contribute to the genetic risks for complex diseases including breast cancer. While it has been hypothesized that moderately ranked (P value based weak single-locus effects in GWASs could potentially harbor valuable information for evaluating epistasis, we lack systematic efforts to investigate SNPs showing consistent associations with weak statistical significance across independent discovery and replication stages. The objectives of this study were i to select SNPs showing single-locus effects with weak statistical significance for breast cancer in a GWAS and/or candidate-gene studies; ii to replicate these SNPs in an independent set of breast cancer cases and controls; and iii to explore their potential SNP-SNP interactions contributing to breast cancer susceptibility. A total of 17 SNPs related to DNA repair, modification and metabolism pathway genes were selected since these pathways offer a priori knowledge for potential epistatic interactions and an overall role in breast carcinogenesis. The study design included predominantly Caucasian women (2,795 cases and 4,505 controls from Alberta, Canada. We observed two two-way SNP-SNP interactions (APEX1-rs1130409 and RPAP1-rs2297381; MLH1-rs1799977 and MDM2-rs769412 in logistic regression that conferred elevated risks for breast cancer (P(interaction<7.3 × 10(-3. Logic regression identified an interaction involving four SNPs (MBD2-rs4041245, MLH1-rs1799977, MDM2-rs769412, BRCA2-rs1799943 (P(permutation = 2.4 × 10(-3. SNPs involved in SNP-SNP interactions also showed single-locus effects with weak statistical significance, while BRCA2-rs1799943 showed stronger statistical significance (P

  20. Heritability assessment of cartilage metabolism. A twin study on circulating procollagen IIA N-terminal propeptide (PIIANP)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Munk, H L; Svendsen, A J; Hjelmborg, J V B;

    2014-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: The aim of this investigation was to estimate the heritability of circulating collagen IIA N-terminal propeptide (PIIANP) by studying mono- and dizygotic healthy twin pairs at different age and both genders. DESIGN: 598 monozygotic (MZ) and dizygotic (DZ) twin individuals aged 18...... the collagen IIA synthesis as assessed by the collagen IIA N-terminal propeptide in serum is attributable to genetic effectors while individual and shared environment account for 24% and 31% respectively. The heritability does not differ between genders or according to age....

  1. Post-harvest strategies for the prevention of fungal growth and mycotoxin production in corn

    OpenAIRE

    Samapundo, Simbarashe

    2006-01-01

    The overall objective of the research was to assess preservation techniques for corn including methods based on the addition of bicarbonates and phenolic compounds and the application of modified atmospheres. In light of the emergence of ‘Predictive Mycology’, the study also had the goal of developing validated predictive models to describe the growth of the most important fungal contaminators in corn and to assess their ability to model the trends observed in the preservation studies. The re...

  2. Fungal Taxa Target Different Carbon Substrates in Harvard Forest Soils

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hanson, C. A.; Allison, S. D.; Wallenstein, M. D.; Mellilo, J. M.; Treseder, K. K.

    2006-12-01

    The mineralization of soil organic carbon is a major component of the global carbon cycle and is largely controlled by soil microbial communities. However, little is known about the functional roles of soil microbes or whether different microbial taxa target different carbon substrates under natural conditions. To examine this possibility, we assessed the community composition of active fungi by using a novel nucleotide analog technique in soils from the Harvard Forest. We hypothesized that fungal community composition would shift in response to the addition of different substrates and that specific fungal taxa would respond differentially to particular carbon sources. To test this hypothesis, we added a nucleotide analog probe directly to soils in conjunction with one of five carbon compounds of increasing recalcitrance: glycine, sucrose, cellulose, tannin-protein complex, and lignin. During 48 hour incubations, the nucleotide analog was incorporated into newly replicated DNA of soil organisms that proliferated following the addition of the substrates. In this way, we labeled the DNA of microbes that respond to a particular carbon source. Labeled DNA was isolated and fungal Internal Transcribed Spacer (ITS) regions of ribosomal DNA (rDNA) were sequenced and analyzed to identify active fungi to near-species resolution. Diversity analyses at the ≥97% sequence similarity level indicated that taxonomic richness was greater under cellulose (Shannon Index: 3.23 ± 0.11 with ± 95% CI) and lignin (2.87 ± 0.15) additions than the other treatments (2.34 ± 0.16 to 2.64 ± 0.13). In addition, community composition of active fungi shifted under glycine, sucrose, and cellulose additions. Specifically, the community under glycine was significantly different from communities under control, cellulose, and tannin-protein (Ptannin-protein and slightly increased in response to lignin and sucrose. This confirms our hypothesis that particular taxa respond differently to specific

  3. Surfactant proteins, SP-A and SP-D, in respiratory fungal infections: their role in the inflammatory response.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carreto-Binaghi, Laura Elena; Aliouat, El Moukhtar; Taylor, Maria Lucia

    2016-01-01

    Pulmonary surfactant is a complex fluid that comprises phospholipids and four proteins (SP-A, SP-B, SP-C, and SP-D) with different biological functions. SP-B, SP-C, and SP-D are essential for the lungs' surface tension function and for the organization, stability and metabolism of lung parenchyma. SP-A and SP-D, which are also known as pulmonary collectins, have an important function in the host's lung immune response; they act as opsonins for different pathogens via a C-terminal carbohydrate recognition domain and enhance the attachment to phagocytic cells or show their own microbicidal activity by increasing the cellular membrane permeability. Interactions between the pulmonary collectins and bacteria or viruses have been extensively studied, but this is not the same for fungal pathogens. SP-A and SP-D bind glucan and mannose residues from fungal cell wall, but there is still a lack of information on their binding to other fungal carbohydrate residues. In addition, both their relation with immune cells for the clearance of these pathogens and the role of surfactant proteins' regulation during respiratory fungal infections remain unknown. Here we highlight the relevant findings associated with SP-A and SP-D in those respiratory mycoses where the fungal infective propagules reach the lungs by the airways. PMID:27250970

  4. Simultaneous transcriptome analysis of Colletotrichum gloeosporioides and tomato fruit pathosystem reveals novel fungal pathogenicity and fruit defense strategies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alkan, Noam; Friedlander, Gilgi; Ment, Dana; Prusky, Dov; Fluhr, Robert

    2015-01-01

    The fungus Colletotrichum gloeosporioides breaches the fruit cuticle but remains quiescent until fruit ripening signals a switch to necrotrophy, culminating in devastating anthracnose disease. There is a need to understand the distinct fungal arms strategy and the simultaneous fruit response. Transcriptome analysis of fungal-fruit interactions was carried out concurrently in the appressoria, quiescent and necrotrophic stages. Conidia germinating on unripe fruit cuticle showed stage-specific transcription that was accompanied by massive fruit defense responses. The subsequent quiescent stage showed the development of dendritic-like structures and swollen hyphae within the fruit epidermis. The quiescent fungal transcriptome was characterized by activation of chromatin remodeling genes and unsuspected environmental alkalization. Fruit response was portrayed by continued highly integrated massive up-regulation of defense genes. During cuticle infection of green or ripe fruit, fungi recapitulate the same developmental stages but with differing quiescent time spans. The necrotrophic stage showed a dramatic shift in fungal metabolism and up-regulation of pathogenicity factors. Fruit response to necrotrophy showed activation of the salicylic acid pathway, climaxing in cell death. Transcriptome analysis of C. gloeosporioides infection of fruit reveals its distinct stage-specific lifestyle and the concurrent changing fruit response, deepening our perception of the unfolding fungal-fruit arms and defenses race. PMID:25377514

  5. Metabolic mapping by use of high-resolution magic angle spinning 1H MR spectroscopy for assessment of apoptosis in cervical carcinomas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sundfør Kolbein

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background High-resolution magic angle proton magnetic resonance spectroscopy (HR 1H MAS MRS provides a broad metabolic mapping of intact tumor samples and allows for microscopy investigations of the samples after spectra acquisition. Experimental studies have suggested that the method can be used for detection of apoptosis, but this has not been investigated in a clinical setting so far. We have explored this hypothesis in cervical cancers by searching for metabolites associated with apoptosis that were not influenced by other histopathological parameters like tumor load and tumor cell density. Methods Biopsies (n = 44 taken before and during radiotherapy in 23 patients were subjected to HR MAS MRS. A standard pulse-acquire spectrum provided information about lipids, and a spin-echo spectrum enabled detection of non-lipid metabolites in the lipid region of the spectra. Apoptotic cell density, tumor cell fraction, and tumor cell density were determined by histopathological analysis after spectra acquisition. Results The apoptotic cell density correlated with the standard pulse-acquire spectra (p 2 to CH3 (p = 0.02. In contrast, the spin-echo spectra contained the main information on tumor cell fraction and tumor cell density (p p = 0.001 and between tumor cell density and glycerophosphocholine (GPC concentration (p = 0.024 and ratio of GPC to choline (p Conclusion Our findings indicate that the apoptotic activity of cervical cancers can be assessed from the lipid metabolites in HR MAS MR spectra and that the HR MAS data may reveal novel information on the metabolic changes characteristic of apoptosis. These changes differed from those associated with tumor load and tumor cell density, suggesting an application of the method to explore the role of apoptosis in the course of the disease.

  6. Metabolic ecology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Humphries, Murray M; McCann, Kevin S

    2014-01-01

    Ecological theory that is grounded in metabolic currencies and constraints offers the potential to link ecological outcomes to biophysical processes across multiple scales of organization. The metabolic theory of ecology (MTE) has emphasized the potential for metabolism to serve as a unified theory of ecology, while focusing primarily on the size and temperature dependence of whole-organism metabolic rates. Generalizing metabolic ecology requires extending beyond prediction and application of standardized metabolic rates to theory focused on how energy moves through ecological systems. A bibliometric and network analysis of recent metabolic ecology literature reveals a research network characterized by major clusters focused on MTE, foraging theory, bioenergetics, trophic status, and generalized patterns and predictions. This generalized research network, which we refer to as metabolic ecology, can be considered to include the scaling, temperature and stoichiometric models forming the core of MTE, as well as bioenergetic equations, foraging theory, life-history allocation models, consumer-resource equations, food web theory and energy-based macroecology models that are frequently employed in ecological literature. We conclude with six points we believe to be important to the advancement and integration of metabolic ecology, including nomination of a second fundamental equation, complementary to the first fundamental equation offered by the MTE. PMID:24028511

  7. Gene activation by UV light, fungal elicitor or fungal infection in Petroselinum crispum is correlated with repression of cell cycle-related genes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The effects of UV light or fungal elicitors on plant cells have so far been studied mostly with respect to defense-related gene activation. Here, an inverse correlation of these stimulatory effects with the activities of several cell cycle-related genes is demonstrated. Concomitant with the induction of flavonoid biosynthetic enzymes in UV-irradiated cell suspension cultures of parsley (Petroselinum crispum), total histone synthesis declined to about half the initial rate. A subclass of the histone H3 gene family was selected to demonstrate the close correlation of its expression with cell division, both in intact plants and cultured cells. Using RNA-blot and run-on transcription assays, it was shown that one arbitrarily selected subclass of each of the histone H2A, H2B, H3 and H4 gene families and of the genes encoding a p34cdc2 protein kinase and a mitotic cyclin were transcriptionally repressed in UV-irradiated as well as fungal elicitor-treated parsley cells. The timing and extent of repression differed between the two stimuli; the response to light was more transient and smaller in magnitude. These differential responses to light and elicitor were inversely correlated with the induction of phenylalanine ammonia-lyase, a key enzyme of phenylpropanoid metabolism. Essentially the same result was obtained with a defined oligopeptide elicitor, indicating that the same signaling pathway is responsible for defense-related gene activation and cell cycle-related gene repression. A temporary (UV light) or long-lasting (fungal elicitor) cessation of cell culture growth is most likely due to an arrest of cell division which may be a prerequisite for full commitment of the cells to transcriptional activation of full commitment of the cells to transcriptional activation of pathways involved in UV protection or pathogen defense. This conclusion is corroborated by the observation that the histone H3 mRNA level greatly declined around fungal infection sites in young parsley

  8. Biochemical metabolic changes assessed by 31P magnetic resonance spectroscopy after radiation-induced hepatic injury in rabbits

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Ri-Sheng Yu; Liang Hao; Fei Dong; Jian-Shan Mao; Jian-Zhong Sun; Ying Chen; Min Lin; Zhi-Kang Wang; Wen-Hong Ding

    2009-01-01

    AIM:To compare the features of biochemical metabolic changes detected by hepatic phosphorus-31 magnetic resonance spectroscopy (31P MRS) with the liver damage score (LDS) and pathologic changes in rabbits and to investigate the diagnostic value of 31P MRS in acute hepatic radiation injury.METHODS:A total of 30 rabbits received different radiation doses (ranging 5-20 Gy) to establish acute hepatic injury models.Blood biochemical tests,31P MRS and pathological examinations were carried out 24 h after irradiation.The degree of injury was evaluated according to LDS and pathology.Ten healthy rabbits served as controls.The MR examination was performed on a 1.5 T imager using a 1H/31P surface coil by the 2D chemical shift imaging technique.The relative quantities of phosphomonoesters (PME),phosphodiesters (PDE),inorganic phosphate (Pi) and adenosine triphosphate (ATP) were measured.The data were statistically analyzed.RESULTS:(1) Relative quantification of phosphorus metabolites:(a) ATP:there were significant differences (P<0.05) (LDS-groups:control group vs mild group vs moderate group vs severe group,1.83±0.33 vs 1.55±0.24 vs 1.27±0.09 vs 0.98±0.18;pathological groups:control group vs mild group vs moderate group vs severe group,1.83±0.33 vs 1.58±0.25 vs 1.32±0.07 vs 1.02 ± 0.18) of ATP relative quantification among control group,mild injured group,moderate injured group,and severe injured group according to both LDS grading and pathological grading,respectively,and it decreased progressively with the increased degree of injury (r=-0.723,P=0.000).(b) PME and Pi;the relative quantification of PME and Pi decreased significantly in the severe injured group,and the difference between the control group and severe injured group was significant (P<0.05) (PME:LDScontrol group vs LDS-severe group,0.86±0.23 vs 0.58±0.22,P=0.031;pathological control group vs pathological severe group,0.86±0.23 vs 0.60±0.21,P=0.037;Pi:LDS-control group vs LDS-severe group,0.74±0.18 vs

  9. Higher diversity in fungal species discriminates children with type 1 diabetes mellitus from healthy control

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kowalewska, Beata; Zorena, Katarzyna; Szmigiero-Kawko, Małgorzata; Wąż, Piotr; Myśliwiec, Małgorzata

    2016-01-01

    Objective To conduct qualitative and quantitative assessment of yeast-like fungi in the feces of children and adolescents with type 1 diabetes mellitus (T1DM) with respect to their metabolic control and duration of the disease. Materials and methods The studied materials included samples of fresh feces collected from 53 children and adolescents with T1DM. Control group included 30 age- and sex-matched healthy individuals. Medical history was taken and physical examination was conducted in the two study arms. Prevalence of the yeast-like fungi in the feces was determined as well as their amounts, species diversity, drug susceptibility, and enzymatic activity. Results The yeast-like fungi were found in the samples of feces from 75.4% of T1DM patients and 70% controls. In the group of T1DM patients, no correlation was found between age (Rs=0.253, P=0.068), duration of diabetes (Rs=−0.038, P=0.787), or body mass index (Rs=0.150, P=0.432) and the amount of the yeast-like fungi isolated in the feces. Moreover, no correlation was seen between the amount of the yeast-like fungi and glycated hemoglobin (Rs=0.0324, P=0.823), systolic blood pressure (Rs=0.102, P=0.483), or diastolic blood pressure (Rs=0.271, P=0.345). Conclusion Our research has shown that children and adolescents with T1DM show higher species diversity of the yeast-like fungi, with Candida albicans being significantly less prevalent versus control subjects. Moreover, fungal species in patients with T1DM turn out to be more resistant to antifungal treatment. PMID:27143864

  10. Host-synthesized secondary compounds influence the in vitro interactions between fungal endophytes of maize.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saunders, Megan; Kohn, Linda M

    2008-01-01

    Maize produces a suite of allelopathic secondary metabolites, the benzoxazinoids. 2,4-Dihydroxy-7-methoxy-2H-1,4-benzoxazin-3-one and 2,4-dihydroxy-2H-1,4-benzoxazin-3-one reside as glucosides in plant tissue and spontaneously degrade to 6-methoxy-2-benzoxazolinone (MBOA) and 2-benzoxazolinone (BOA) upon plant cell disruption. Several maize-associated fungi in the genus Fusarium can metabolize MBOA and BOA. BOA tolerance levels in 10 species of Fusarium and in the maize endophytes Nigrospora oryzae, Acremonium zeae, and Periconia macrospinosa were characterized. BOA tolerance ranged from 0.25 to 1.10 mg/ml among species. The influence of substrate alteration by one species on the subsequent growth of another species was assessed in the presence and absence of BOA. The colony area of the secondary colonizer in heterospecific interactions was compared to that in autospecific interactions (one isolate follows itself). In the presence of BOA, four of six secondary colonizers had greater growth (facilitation) when primary colonizers had higher BOA tolerance than the secondary colonizer. When the primary colonizer had lower tolerance than the secondary, three of six secondary colonizers were inhibited (competition) and three not significantly affected. In BOA-free medium, the number of isolates that were facilitated or inhibited was the same regardless of the tolerance level of the primary colonizer. Two of six secondary colonizers were facilitated, two inhibited, and two not significantly affected. This study provides some support for facilitation in stressful conditions under the Menge-Sutherland model. The results are not consistent with the corresponding prediction of competition in the absence of stress. The hypothesis drawn from these data is that in the presence of a toxin, fungal species that detoxify their substrate can enhance the colonization rate of less tolerant fungi. PMID:17993551

  11. Unravelling soil fungal communities from different Mediterranean land-use backgrounds.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alberto Orgiazzi

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Fungi strongly influence ecosystem structure and functioning, playing a key role in many ecological services as decomposers, plant mutualists and pathogens. The Mediterranean area is a biodiversity hotspot that is increasingly threatened by intense land use. Therefore, to achieve a balance between conservation and human development, a better understanding of the impact of land use on the underlying fungal communities is needed. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: We used parallel pyrosequencing of the nuclear ribosomal its regions to characterize the fungal communities in five soils subjected to different anthropogenic impact in a typical mediterranean landscape: a natural cork-oak forest, a pasture, a managed meadow, and two vineyards. Marked differences in the distribution of taxon assemblages among the different sites and communities were found. Data analyses consistently indicated a sharp distinction of the fungal community of the cork oak forest soil from those described in the other soils. Each soil showed features of the fungal assemblages retrieved which can be easily related to the above-ground settings: ectomycorrhizal phylotypes were numerous in natural sites covered by trees, but were nearly completely missing from the anthropogenic and grass-covered sites; similarly, coprophilous fungi were common in grazed sites. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: Data suggest that investigation on the below-ground fungal community may provide useful elements on the above-ground features such as vegetation coverage and agronomic procedures, allowing to assess the cost of anthropogenic land use to hidden diversity in soil. Datasets provided in this study may contribute to future searches for fungal bio-indicators as biodiversity markers of a specific site or a land-use degree.

  12. Assessment of the repair capability of infarcted myocardium in dogs after intracoronary delivery of mesenchymal stem cells using myocardial perfusion and metabolism imaging

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Objective: Bone marrow-derived mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) can be used as a potential progenitor cell source for the regeneration of myocardium. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the repair capability of infarcted myocardium in dogs by myocardial perfusion and metabolism imaging (MPI/MMI) after intracoronary infusion of autologous MSCs. Methods: Twelve dogs were randomly divided into two groups: 6 in graft group and 6 in control group. Acute myocardial infarction (AMI) model was created by surgical blockade of myocardial blood flow in the distal 1/3 of left anterior descending artery (LAD) for 90 min. Then 0.9% NaCl and culture-expanded MSCs were grafted into the infarcted myocardium of the control and graft groups by intracoronary delivery. Electrocardiogram (ECG), serum biochemistry, MPI/MMI were performed in all subjects at 6 and 10 weeks after graft procedure. Pathological and immunohistochemical analysis was performed in all dogs at the end of the trial. SPSS 10.0 was used to analyse the data. Results: Three dogs died during AMI modeling. The remaining 9 dogs that successfully passed AMI modeling were assessed by changes in ECG, serum creatine kinase (CK), CK-isoenzymes (MB), glutamate pyruvate transaminase (GPT), glutamic oxaloacetic transaminase (GOT) and MPI. The number of infarcted and viable myocardial segments, as evaluated by MPI/MMI 5-7 d after AMI, was 20 and 8 in the control group, and 25 and 10 in the graft group, respectively (t=0.389, P > 0.05, statistically insignificant). The difference between the number of viable myocardial segments at 5-7 d and at 10 weeks was statistically significant in the graft group (F=5.879, P0.05) with ANOVA F test. The left ventricular ejection fraction (LVEF) changes between 5-7 d and 10 weeks in control and graft groups were (5.50 ± 2.69)% and (16.20 ± 2.93)%, respectively (t=13.563, P< 0.01). Conclusion: Myocardial peffusion and metabolism imaging are useful for assessment of changes in myocardial

  13. Assessment of nitric oxide (NO) redox reactions contribution to nitrous oxide (N2 O) formation during nitrification using a multispecies metabolic network model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perez-Garcia, Octavio; Chandran, Kartik; Villas-Boas, Silas G; Singhal, Naresh

    2016-05-01

    Over the coming decades nitrous oxide (N2O) is expected to become a dominant greenhouse gas and atmospheric ozone depleting substance. In wastewater treatment systems, N2O is majorly produced by nitrifying microbes through biochemical reduction of nitrite (NO2(-)) and nitric oxide (NO). However it is unknown if the amount of N2O formed is affected by alternative NO redox reactions catalyzed by oxidative nitrite oxidoreductase (NirK), cytochromes (i.e., P460 [CytP460] and 554 [Cyt554 ]) and flavohemoglobins (Hmp) in ammonia- and nitrite-oxidizing bacteria (AOB and NOB, respectively). In this study, a mathematical model is developed to assess how N2O formation is affected by such alternative nitrogen redox transformations. The developed multispecies metabolic network model captures the nitrogen respiratory pathways inferred from genomes of eight AOB and NOB species. The performance of model variants, obtained as different combinations of active NO redox reactions, was assessed against nine experimental datasets for nitrifying cultures producing N2O at different concentration of electron donor and acceptor. Model predicted metabolic fluxes show that only variants that included NO oxidation to NO2(-) by CytP460 and Hmp in AOB gave statistically similar estimates to observed production rates of N2O, NO, NO2(-) and nitrate (NO3(-)), together with fractions of AOB and NOB species in biomass. Simulations showed that NO oxidation to NO2(-) decreased N2O formation by 60% without changing culture's NO2(-) production rate. Model variants including NO reduction to N2O by Cyt554 and cNor in NOB did not improve the accuracy of experimental datasets estimates, suggesting null N2O production by NOB during nitrification. Finally, the analysis shows that in nitrifying cultures transitioning from dissolved oxygen levels above 3.8 ± 0.38 to <1.5 ± 0.8 mg/L, NOB cells can oxidize the NO produced by AOB through reactions catalyzed by oxidative NirK. PMID:26551878

  14. 代谢综合征的全麻风险评估及管理%Anesthesia and risk assessment for metabolic syndrome

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王伟; 徐丰瀛; 石学银

    2014-01-01

    Background The metabolic syndrome (MS) is a distinct obesity-related syndrome characterized by truncal obesity,insulin resistance (IR),dyslipidemia,hypertension and decreased glucose tolerance (or Type 2 diabetes),of which the prevalence has been increasing obviously in recent years.The MS affects multiple interacting organ systems,and greatly increases the perioperative risks of anesthesia and surgical procedures.Objective The objective of this review was to offer reference for the perioperative risk assessment and the anesthetic management of patients with the MS,by summarizing current opinions and actualities available.Content Elaborating the concept,pathogenesis and epidemiology of the MS,and discussing the perioperative risk assessment and management from different aspects,such as the physiopathologic changes in the respiratory,circulatory,and digestive systems.Trend Our review may help to provide information for the development of anesthetic management strategies and clinical algorithms.%背景 代谢综合征(metabolic syndrome,MS)是以腹部型肥胖、胰岛素抵抗(insulin resistance,IR)、高血压、脂代谢异常、糖耐量下降或2型糖尿病为主要特征的一种症候群,近年来其发病率呈明显上升趋势.它对机体的心、肺、脑等重要器官都有影响,因此大大增加了麻醉和手术过程的风险.目的 回顾近年来国内外关于MS的研究,为MS患者的术前风险评估及麻醉管理提供参考.内容 阐述MS的概念、发病机制及流行病学调查,并且从呼吸系统、循环系统、消化系统等方面探讨MS的术前风险评估及麻醉管理.趋向 争取早日制定出与MS相适应的麻醉管理策略及临床路径.

  15. Watershed scale fungal community characterization along a pH gradient in a subsurface environment co-contaminated with uranium and nitrate

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jasrotia, Puja [Florida State University, Tallahassee; Green, Stefan [University of Illinois, Chicago; Canion, Andy [Florida State University, Tallahassee; Overholt, Will [Florida State University, Tallahassee; Prakash, Om [Florida State University, Tallahassee; Wafula, Dennis [Georgia Institute of Technology, Atlanta; Hubbard, Daniela [Florida State University, Tallahassee; Watson, David B [ORNL; Schadt, Christopher Warren [ORNL; Brooks, Scott C [ORNL; Kostka, [Georgia Institute of Technology, Atlanta

    2014-01-01

    The objective of this study was to characterize fungal communities in a subsurface environment co-contaminated with uranium and nitrate at the watershed scale, and to determine the potential contribution of fungi to contaminant transformation (nitrate attenuation). The abundance, distribution and diversity of fungi in subsurface groundwater samples were determined using quantitative and semi-quantitative molecular techniques, including quantitative PCR of eukaryotic SSU rRNA genes and pyrosequencing of fungal internal transcribed spacer (ITS) regions. Potential bacterial and fungal denitrification was assessed in sediment-groundwater slurries amended with antimicrobial compounds and in fungal pure cultures isolated from subsurface. Our results demonstrate that subsurface fungal communities are dominated by members of the phylum Ascomycota, and a pronounced shift in fungal community composition occurs across the groundwater pH gradient at the field site, with lower diversity observed under acidic (pH < 4.5) conditions. Fungal isolates recovered from subsurface sediments were shown to reduce nitrate to nitrous oxide, including cultures of the genus Coniochaeta that were detected in abundance in pyrosequence libraries of site groundwater samples. Denitrifying fungal isolates recovered from the site were classified, and found to be distributed broadly within the phylum Ascomycota, and within a single genus within the Basidiomycota. Potential denitrification rate assays with sediment-groundwater slurries showed the potential for subsurface fungi to reduce nitrate to nitrous oxide under in situ acidic pH conditions.

  16. Ectomycorrhizal fungal communities of Coccoloba uvifera (L.) L. mature trees and seedlings in the neotropical coastal forests of Guadeloupe (Lesser Antilles).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Séne, Seynabou; Avril, Raymond; Chaintreuil, Clémence; Geoffroy, Alexandre; Ndiaye, Cheikh; Diédhiou, Abdala Gamby; Sadio, Oumar; Courtecuisse, Régis; Sylla, Samba Ndao; Selosse, Marc-André; Bâ, Amadou

    2015-10-01

    We studied belowground and aboveground diversity and distribution of ectomycorrhizal (EM) fungal species colonizing Coccoloba uvifera (L.) L. (seagrape) mature trees and seedlings naturally regenerating in four littoral forests of the Guadeloupe island (Lesser Antilles). We collected 546 sporocarps, 49 sclerotia, and morphotyped 26,722 root tips from mature trees and seedlings. Seven EM fungal species only were recovered among sporocarps (Cantharellus cinnabarinus, Amanita arenicola, Russula cremeolilacina, Inocybe littoralis, Inocybe xerophytica, Melanogaster sp., and Scleroderma bermudense) and one EM fungal species from sclerotia (Cenococcum geophilum). After internal transcribed spacer (ITS) sequencing, the EM root tips fell into 15 EM fungal taxa including 14 basidiomycetes and 1 ascomycete identified. Sporocarp survey only weakly reflected belowground assessment of the EM fungal community, although 5 fruiting species were found on roots. Seagrape seedlings and mature trees had very similar communities of EM fungi, dominated by S. bermudense, R. cremeolilacina, and two Thelephoraceae: shared species represented 93 % of the taxonomic EM fungal diversity and 74 % of the sampled EM root tips. Furthermore, some significant differences were observed between the frequencies of EM fungal taxa on mature trees and seedlings. The EM fungal community composition also varied between the four investigated sites. We discuss the reasons for such a species-poor community and the possible role of common mycorrhizal networks linking seagrape seedlings and mature trees in regeneration of coastal forests. PMID:25711744

  17. Fungal atopy in adult cystic fibrosis.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Henry, M

    2012-02-03

    This study set out to estimate the prevalence of atopy to a variety of common ubiquitous fungi, including A. fumigatus, in cystic fibrosis (CF), and to evaluate the investigations by which the diagnosis was made. Particular attention was paid to the usefulness of skin testing and immunoassays in detecting which patients had simple fungal atopy, and which patients were at high risk of developing allergic bronchopulmonary mycoses. This cross-sectional study included 21 adult CF patients and 20 matched controls. Serum samples were taken for the measurement of total serum IgE and specific serum IgE to nine common fungi. Immediate hypersensitivity skin prick testing to each of the fungi was also performed. Simple fungal atopy was described in subjects fulfilling the following criteria: total serum IgE > 100 KU l(-1) with specific radioimmunoassay > or = grade 1 to at least one fungus and a positive skin prick test (SPT) > or = 3 mm to the same fungus. \\'High risk\\' for developing allergic bronchopulmonary mycosis (ABPM) was described in subjects fulfilling the following criteria: total serum IgE > 200 KU l(-1) with specific radioimmunoassay > or = grade 2 to at least one fungus and a positive skin prick test (SPT) > or = 6 mm to the same fungus. The adult CF group had a significantly higher total SPT score (P=0.005) and mean total serum IgE (P<0.05) than controls. Forty-three percent of CF patients fulfilled the criteria for fungal atopy to at least a single fungus. Over half this group had an atopic tendency to more than one fungus. Nineteen percent of the CF group were at least \\'high risk\\' of developing ABPM. Skin prick testing is a better marker of fungal atopy and a better predictor of those adult CF patients at higher risk of developing ABPM than specific radioimmunoassay serum testing. There is a high prevalence of fungal atopy in the adult CF population. Total serum IgE and skin prick testing are good predictors of fungal atopy and help predict those at

  18. Human systemic exposure to [¹⁴C]-paraphenylenediamine-containing oxidative hair dyes: Absorption, kinetics, metabolism, excretion and safety assessment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nohynek, Gerhard J; Skare, Julie A; Meuling, Wim J A; Wehmeyer, Kenneth R; de Bie, Albertus Th H J; Vaes, Wouter H J; Dufour, Eric K; Fautz, Rolf; Steiling, Winfried; Bramante, Mario; Toutain, Herve

    2015-07-01

    Systemic exposure was measured in humans after hair dyeing with oxidative hair dyes containing 2.0% (A) or 1.0% (B) [(14)C]-p-phenylenediamine (PPD). Hair was dyed, rinsed, dried, clipped and shaved; blood and urine samples were collected for 48 hours after application. [(14)C] was measured in all materials, rinsing water, hair, plasma, urine and skin strips. Plasma and urine were also analysed by HLPC/MS/MS for PPD and its metabolites (B). Total mean recovery of radioactivity was 94.30% (A) or 96.21% (B). Mean plasma Cmax values were 132.6 or 97.4 ng [(14)C]-PPDeq/mL, mean AUC(0-∞) values 1415 or 966 ng [(14)C]-PPDeq/mL*hr in studies A or B, respectively. Urinary excretion of [(14)C] mainly occurred within 24 hrs after hair colouring with a total excretion of 0.72 or 0.88% of applied radioactivity in studies A or B, respectively. Only N,N'-diacetylated-PPD was detected in plasma and the urine. A TK-based human safety assessment estimated margins of safety of 23.3- or 65-fold relative to respective plasma AUC or Cmax values in rats at the NOAEL of a toxicity study. Overall, hair dyes containing PPD are unlikely to pose a health risk since they are used intermittently and systemic exposure is limited to the detoxified metabolite N,N'-diacetyl-PPD. PMID:25846501

  19. Assessment of Metabolic Impairment in Alzheimer's Disease with [18F] FDG PET : Validity and Role of Simplified Tissue Radioactivity Ratio Analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The purpose of the present study was to validate the use of tissue radioactivity ratios instead of regional metabolic rates for the assessment of regional metabolic changes in Alzheimer's disease(AD) with [18F]FDG PET and to examine the correlation of ratio indices with the severity of cognitive impairment in AD. Thirty-seven AD patients(age 68 ±9 yrs, mean ±s.d.; 36 probable and 1 definite AD), 28 patients with dementia of non-Alzheimer type(age 66 ±7 yrs), and 17 healthy controls(age 66 ±4 yrs) underwent [18F]FDG PET imaging. Two simplified radioactivity ratio indices were calculated from 37-66 min image: region-to-cerebellar radioactivity-ratio(RCR) and a composite radioactivity ratio(a ratio of radioactivity in the most typically affected regions over the least typically affected regions: CRR). Local cerebral metabolic rate for glucose(LCMRglu) was also measured using a three-compartment, five-parameter tracer kinetic model. The ratio indices were significantly lower in AD patients than in controls(RCR in temporoparietal cortex, 0.949 ± 8.136 vs. 1.238 ± 0.129, p=0.0004; PCR in frontal cortex, 1.027 ± 0.128 vs. 1.361 ± 0.151, p<0.0001; CRR, 0.886 ± 0.096 vs. 1.032 ± 0.042: p=0.0024). On the RCR analysis, 86% of AD patients showed a pattern of bilateral temporoparietal hypometabolism with or without frontal involvement; hypometabolism was unilateral in 11% of the patients. When bilateral temporoparietal hypometabolism was considered to be suggestive of AD, the sensitivity and specificity of the RCR was analysis for the differential diagnosis of AD were 86% and 73%, respectively. The RCR was correlated significantly with the macroparameter K [K1k3/(k2+k3)] (r=0.775, p<0.0001) and LCMRglu(r=0.633, p=0.0002) measured using the kinetic model. In patients with AD, both average RCR of cortical association areas and CRR were correlated with Mini-Mental Status Examination(r=0.565, p=0.0145; r=0.642, p=0.0031, respectively), Clinical Dementia Rating(r=-0.576, p

  20. A continental view of pine-associated ectomycorrhizal fungal spore banks: a quiescent functional guild with a strong biogeographic pattern.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Glassman, Sydney I; Peay, Kabir G; Talbot, Jennifer M; Smith, Dylan P; Chung, Judy A; Taylor, John W; Vilgalys, Rytas; Bruns, Thomas D

    2015-03-01

    Ecologists have long acknowledged the importance of seed banks; yet, despite the fact that many plants rely on mycorrhizal fungi for survival and growth, the structure of ectomycorrhizal (ECM) fungal spore banks remains poorly understood. The primary goal of this study was to assess the geographic structure in pine-associated ECM fungal spore banks across the North American continent. Soils were collected from 19 plots in forests across North America. Fresh soils were pyrosequenced for fungal internal transcribed spacer (ITS) amplicons. Adjacent soil cores were dried and bioassayed with pine seedlings, and colonized roots were pyrosequenced to detect resistant propagules of ECM fungi. The results showed that ECM spore banks correlated strongly with biogeographic location, but not with the identity of congeneric plant hosts. Minimal community overlap was found between resident ECM fungi vs those in spore banks, and spore bank assemblages were relatively simple and dominated by Rhizopogon, Wilcoxina, Cenococcum, Thelephora, Tuber, Laccaria and Suillus. Similar to plant seed banks, ECM fungal spore banks are, in general, depauperate, and represent a small and rare subset of the mature forest soil fungal community. Yet, they may be extremely important in fungal colonization after large-scale disturbances such as clear cuts and forest fires. PMID:25557275

  1. Impact of different cropping conditions and tillage practices on the soil fungal abundance of a Phaeozem luvico

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Romina P. Gómez

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Fungal diversity seems to be a good indicator of ecosystem disturbance and functioning. The purpose of this work was to quantify the fungal population as a sensitive indicator of the changes caused by stubble placement in two tillage systems: reduced tillage (RT and conventional tillage (CT with and without cropping. To this end, we determined the effect of soil disturbances such as N fertilization, tillage practice, and cropped area on the soil fungal communities of a Phaeozem luvico of the El Salado river basin (Argentina. Soil samples (at 0-10 cm depth were collected from a field cultivated with wheat at post-harvest, before sowing and at tillering. The relative abundance of individuals of the fungal population was studied on Nash Snyder and Oxgall agar media after different treatments and assessed as colony forming units (CFU/g of soil. The diversity of the fungal population was studied by Shannon´s index (H. The tillage system showed a marked effect only at post-harvest and the number of propagules was highest under RT for both culture media. The largest values of H were found only at post-harvest when Oxgall agar was used. A significant decrease in the values of H was observed when CT and high fertilization was applied in the wheat cropped area. The relative abundance of individuals of the fungal population was different in soils under the different tillage practices.

  2. Fungal endophytes of Catharanthus roseus enhance vindoline content by modulating structural and regulatory genes related to terpenoid indole alkaloid biosynthesis

    OpenAIRE

    Pandey, Shiv S.; Sucheta Singh; C. S. Vivek Babu; Karuna Shanker; Srivastava, N. K.; Ashutosh K Shukla; Alok Kalra

    2016-01-01

    Not much is known about the mechanism of endophyte-mediated induction of secondary metabolite production in Catharanthus roseus. In the present study two fungal endophytes, Curvularia sp. CATDLF5 and Choanephora infundibulifera CATDLF6 were isolated from the leaves of the plant that were found to enhance vindoline content by 229–403%. The isolated endophytes did not affect the primary metabolism of the plant as the maximum quantum efficiency of PSII, net CO2 assimilation, plant biomass and st...

  3. Comparison of Nitrogen Depletion and Repletion on Lipid Production in Yeast and Fungal Species

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yang, Shihui; Wang, Wei; Wei, Hui; Van Wychen, Stefanie; Pienkos, Philip T.; Zhang, Min; Himmel, Michael E.

    2016-09-01

    Although it is well known that low nitrogen stimulates lipid accumulation, especially for algae and some oleaginous yeast, few studies have been conducted in fungal species, especially on the impact of different nitrogen deficiency strategies. In this study, we use two promising consolidated bioprocessing (CBP) candidates to examine the impact of two nitrogen deficiency strategies on lipid production, which are the extensively investigated oleaginous yeast Yarrowia lipolytica, and the commercial cellulase producer Trichoderma reesei. We first utilized bioinformatics approaches to reconstruct the fatty acid metabolic pathway and demonstrated the presence of a triacylglycerol (TAG) biosynthesis pathway in Trichoderma reesei. We then examined the lipid production of Trichoderma reesei and Y. lipomyces in different media using two nitrogen deficiency strategies of nitrogen natural repletion and nitrogen depletion through centrifugation. Our results demonstrated that nitrogen depletion was better than nitrogen repletion with about 30% lipid increase for Trichoderma reesei and Y. lipomyces, and could be an option to improve lipid production in both oleaginous yeast and filamentous fungal species. The resulting distinctive lipid composition profiles indicated that the impacts of nitrogen depletion on yeast were different from those for fungal species. Under three types of C/N ratio conditions, C16 and C18 fatty acids were the predominant forms of lipids for both Trichoderma reesei and Y. lipolytica. While the overall fatty acid methyl ester (FAME) profiles of Trichoderma reesei were similar, the overall FAME profiles of Y. lipolytica observed a shift. The fatty acid metabolic pathway reconstructed in this work supports previous reports of lipid production in T. reesei, and provides a pathway for future omics studies and metabolic engineering efforts. Further investigation to identify the genetic targets responsible for the effect of nitrogen depletion on lipid production

  4. Evacetrapib: in vitro and clinical disposition, metabolism, excretion, and assessment of drug interaction potential with strong CYP3A and CYP2C8 inhibitors

    OpenAIRE

    Cannady, Ellen A.; Wang, Ming-Dauh; Friedrich, Stuart; Rehmel, Jessica L F; Yi, Ping; Small, David S; ZHANG Wei; Suico, Jeffrey G.

    2015-01-01

    Evacetrapib is an investigational cholesteryl ester transfer protein inhibitor (CETPi) for reduction of risk of major adverse cardiovascular events in patients with high-risk vascular disease. Understanding evacetrapib disposition, metabolism, and the potential for drug–drug interactions (DDI) may help guide prescribing recommendations. In vitro, evacetrapib metabolism was investigated with a panel of human recombinant cytochromes P450 (CYP). The disposition, metabolism, and excretion of evac...

  5. Chytrids dominate arctic marine fungal communities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hassett, B T; Gradinger, R

    2016-06-01

    Climate change is altering Arctic ecosystem structure by changing weather patterns and reducing sea ice coverage. These changes are increasing light penetration into the Arctic Ocean that are forecasted to increase primary production; however, increased light can also induce photoinhibition and cause physiological stress in algae and phytoplankton that can favour disease development. Fungi are voracious parasites in many ecosystems that can modulate the flow of carbon through food webs, yet are poorly characterized in the marine environment. We provide the first data from any marine ecosystem in which fungi in the Chytridiomycota dominate fungal communities and are linked in their occurrence to light intensities and algal stress. Increased light penetration stresses ice algae and elevates disease incidence under reduced snow cover. Our results show that chytrids dominate Arctic marine fungal communities and have the potential to rapidly change primary production patterns with increased light penetration. PMID:26754171

  6. Standard methods for fungal brood disease research

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Annette Bruun; Aronstein, Kathrine; Manuel Flores, Jose;

    2013-01-01

    Chalkbrood and stonebrood are two fungal diseases associated with honey bee brood. Chalkbrood, caused by Ascosphaera apis, is a common and widespread disease that can result in severe reduction of emerging worker bees and thus overall colony productivity. Stonebrood is caused by Aspergillus spp. ...... interactions. We give guidelines on the preferred methods used in current research and the application of molecular techniques. We have added photographs, drawings and illustrations to assist bee-extension personnel and bee scientists in the control of these two diseases....... tissues upon inhalation by humans. In the current chapter we describe the honey bee disease symptoms of these fungal pathogens. In addition, we provide research methodologies and protocols for isolating and culturing, in vivo and in vitro assays that are commonly used to study these host pathogen...

  7. Anti-fungal activity of irradiated chitosan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anti-fungal activity of chitosan induced by irradiation has been investigated. Commercial chitosan samples of 8B (80% deacetylation) and l0B (99% deacetylation) were irradiated by γ-ray in dry condition. Highly deacethylated chitosan (10B) at low dose irradiation (75 kGy) was effective for inhibition of fungal growth. The sensitivities of Exobasidium vexans, Septoria chrysanthemum and Gibberella fujikuroi for the irradiated chitosan were different and the necessary concentrations of chitosan were 550, 350 and 250 μg/ml, respectively. For the plant growth, low deacethylation (chitosan 8B) and high dose (500 kGy) was effective and the growth of chrysanthemum was promoted by spraying the irradiated chitosan. (author)

  8. Fungal natural products targeting chronic lymphocytic leukemia

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bladt, Tanja Thorskov; Kildgaard, Sara; Knudsen, Peter Boldsen; Gotfredsen, Charlotte Held; Duerr, C.; Seiffert, M.; Larsen, Thomas Ostenfeld

    2012-01-01

    Chronic lymphocytic leukemia (CLL) is the most common leukemia in adults from the western world. No curative treatments of CLL are presently known so the treatment strategy today is primarily to prolong patient survival,1 why we have initiated new activities towards discovery of novel compounds...... with potential tumor specificity. Our starting point is a diverse fungal collection of thousands of Penicillium and Aspergillus species. These fungi have proven to be a very rich source of various bioactive compounds and yet our dereplication investigations have demonstrated that there are still...... numerous unknown compounds to be identified within these species. Until now we have found that 11 out of 289 fungal extracts are active against CLL cells. Using our established chemotaxonomic discovery approach we have dereplicated and fractionated these extracts to track the activity into single fractions/compounds...

  9. Overview of fungal lipase: a review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, Abhishek Kumar; Mukhopadhyay, Mausumi

    2012-01-01

    Lipases (triacylglycerolacyl hydrolases, EC3.1.1.3) are class of enzymes which catalyze the hydrolysis of long-chain triglycerides. In this review paper, an overview regarding the fungal lipase production, purification, and application is discussed. The review describes various industrial applications of lipase in pulp and paper, food, detergent, and textile industries. Some important lipase-producing fungal genera include Aspergillus, Penicillium, Rhizopus, Candida, etc. Current fermentation process techniques such as batch, fed-batch, and continuous mode of lipase production in submerged and solid-state fermentations are discussed in details. The purification of lipase by hydrophobic interaction chromatography is also discussed. The development of mathematical models applied to lipase production is discussed with special emphasis on lipase engineering. PMID:22072143

  10. Incidence of Fungal attack on Aircraft Fuselage

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H. M. Dayal

    1968-10-01

    Full Text Available Incidence of fungal attack on the fuselage of a few Vampire aircraft has been observed. The fungus isolated from the infected regions has been tentatively indentified as TorulaSp. Laboratory experiments have revealed that within four weeks this fungus causes about 44 percent loss in the tensile strength of the brich plywood used in the manufacture of the fuselage of the aircraft.

  11. Circadian Control Sheds Light on Fungal Bioluminescence

    OpenAIRE

    Oliveira, Anderson G.; Cassius V. Stevani; Waldenmaier, Hans E.; Viviani, Vadim; Emerson, Jillian M.; Loros, Jennifer J.; Jay C Dunlap

    2015-01-01

    Bioluminescence, the creation and emission of light by organisms, affords insight into the lives of organisms doing it. Luminous living things are widespread and access diverse mechanisms to generate and control luminescence [1-5]. Among the least studied bioluminescent organisms are phylogenetically rare fungi – only 71 species, all within the ~9000 fungi of the temperate and tropical Agaricales Order - are reported from among ~100,000 described fungal species [6,7]. All require oxygen [8] a...

  12. A biotechnology perspective of fungal proteases

    OpenAIRE

    Paula Monteiro Souza; Mona Lisa de Assis Bittencourt; Carolina Canielles Caprara; Marcela de Freitas; Renata Paula Coppini de Almeida; Dâmaris Silveira; Yris Maria Fonseca; Edivaldo Ximenes Ferreira Filho; Adalberto Pessoa Junior; Pérola Oliveira Magalhães

    2015-01-01

    Proteases hydrolyze the peptide bonds of proteins into peptides and amino acids, being found in all living organisms, and are essential for cell growth and differentiation. Proteolytic enzymes have potential application in a wide number of industrial processes such as food, laundry detergent and pharmaceutical. Proteases from microbial sources have dominated applications in industrial sectors. Fungal proteases are used for hydrolyzing protein and other components of soy beans and wheat in soy...

  13. Drug resistance mechanisms of fungal biofilms

    OpenAIRE

    Seneviratne, CJ; Samaranayake, LP

    2011-01-01

    Fungi are ubiquitous in nature and exist in soil, water, plants, and in animals and humans. Similar to bacteria, fungi also form confluent biofilms either singly (mono-species) or with other microbial species (mixed-species). Fungal biofilms are known to be highly resistant to the adverse environmental conditions including antimicrobials and biocide compared to its planktonic (free-floating) counterparts. Although bacterial biofilms have been studied in detail, relatively little is known of f...

  14. Fungal Air Quality in Medical Protected Environments

    OpenAIRE

    Araujo, Ricardo; Cabral, João P.

    2010-01-01

    It is probably true to say that moulds cannot be completely eliminated from indoor environments. Normal buildings contain a diversity of materials and substrates that allow growth and sporulation of many species of fungi. Some strategies can be used to reduce indoor fungal load in wards receiving high-risk patients, namely by adding air filters and a positive air flow rate, by the presence of an anteroom, the use of protective clothes and of hair and shoe covers, the implementation of regular...

  15. Development of novel Fungal Biocontrol Agents

    OpenAIRE

    Eiben, Ute; Lüth, Dr. Peter

    2006-01-01

    One of the tasks within the scope of REPCO is to select fungal isolates from a group of candidates highly hyperparasitc to Venturia inaequalis on apple.The selected isolates should be suitable for large-scale biotechnological production processes based on Solid-State fermentation. Therefore the ability to formulate a final product suitable for application and with good shelf-life and cost-competitiveness characteristics is also to be tested.

  16. Immunological responses to fungal epitope peptides

    OpenAIRE

    Sheth-Ughade, Parita

    2012-01-01

    Introduction: Fungi are common aeroallergens responsible for at least 3% – 10% of allergic diseases worldwide, with the proportion hugely variable in different populations. Treatment is complicated by viable nature and disease causing ability of the allergen and is often only palliative. Thus, this study aimed to serve as a pilot investigation to design novel anti-allergy therapeutics to cure allergy at the molecular level. It investigates the effect of wild type fungal peptides and correspon...

  17. Application of Fungal Cyclic Peptides and Metabolites

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Nedvěd, Jan; Šulc, Miroslav; Jegorov, A.; Giannakopulos, A.; Havlíček, Vladimír

    Weinheim : Wiley, 2007 - (Van Eyk, J.; Dunn, M.), s. 483-498 ISBN 978-3-527-31637-3 R&D Projects: GA MŠk LC07017; GA ČR GA203/04/0799 Grant ostatní: XE(XE) EK MTKD-CT-2004-014407 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z50200510 Source of funding: R - rámcový projekt EK Keywords : cyclic * fungal * peptides Subject RIV: EE - Microbiology, Virology

  18. Synthesis and assembly of fungal melanin

    OpenAIRE

    Eisenman, Helene C; Casadevall, Arturo

    2011-01-01

    Melanin is a unique pigment with myriad functions that is found in all biological kingdoms. It is multifunctional, providing defense against environmental stresses such as ultraviolet (UV) light, oxidizing agents and ionizing radiation. Melanin contributes to the ability of fungi to survive in harsh environments. In addition, it plays a role in fungal pathogenesis. Melanin is an amorphous polymer that is produced by one of two synthetic pathways. Fungi may synthesize melanin from endogenous s...

  19. Coordination of secondary metabolism and development in fungi: the velvet family of regulatory proteins

    OpenAIRE

    Bayram, Ozgur; Braus, Gerhard H

    2012-01-01

    Filamentous fungi produce a number of small bioactive molecules as part of their secondary metabolism ranging from benign antibiotics such as penicillin to threatening mycotoxins such as aflatoxin. Secondary metabolism can be linked to fungal developmental programs in response to various abiotic or biotic external triggers. The velvet family of regulatory proteins plays a key role in coordinating secondary metabolism and differentiation processes such as asexual or sexual sporulation and scle...

  20. Role of mannitol metabolism in the pathogenicity of the necrotrophic fungus Alternaria brassicicola

    OpenAIRE

    Calmes, Benoit; Guillemette, Thomas; Teyssier, Lény; Siegler, Benjamin; Pigné, Sandrine; Landreau, Anne; Iacomi, Béatrice; Lemoine, Rémi; Richomme, Pascal; Simoneau, Philippe

    2013-01-01

    In this study, the physiological functions of fungal mannitol metabolism in the pathogenicity and protection against environmental stresses were investigated in the necrotrophic fungus Alternada brassicicola. Mannitol metabolism was examined during infection of Brass/ca oleracea leaves by sequential HPLC quantification of the major soluble carbohydrates and expression analysis of genes encoding two proteins of mannitol metabolism, i.e., a mannitol dehydrogenase (AbMdh), and a mannito1-1-phosp...

  1. Assessment of metabolic capacity of Trichoderma inhamatum Bol12 QD biocontrol on native strains of Phytophthora infestans in vitro

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    Puño Ramon

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available Plant pathogen Phytophthora infestans is a cause of decreased crop yield of tomato, to control these losses, farmers use chemicals. This has consequences for the environment, human health and beneficial organisms in the ecosystem. The objective was to obtain and identify native isolates of Trichoderma spp. In soil planted with tomato Tlayacapan, Morelos (Mexico, Alternaria solani problems and Phytophthora infestans, also determine their antagonistic capacity in vitro. Trichoderma was isolated directly from soil by dilution in culture medium plate with potato dextrose agar (PDA. On the other side plate dilutions of yeast T. QD Bol12 inhamatum crops produced in batch for 30 days to compare the effectiveness of biocontrol. The filtered yeast inhibited mycelial growth kinetic of the agent in laboratory with the 1:2 dilution growth was 32.5% for the 1:4 dilution mycelial growth was 69.1% and finally to the dilution of 1:8 of the yeast biocontrol mycelium grew to 95.2%. To demonstrate the inhibitory activity on the pathogen in field crops, there were 3 L batch for four months. The application of three doses (undiluted, diluted 1:2 and 1:4 plus a control dilution water only was performed in a complete block design with four replications randomly with the tomato crop, belonging to the variety Santa Cruz Kada Gigante in the plots of the Academic Rural United Campesina Carmen Pampa. Statistical analysis by Duncan's test showed that the pure leaven reduce infection by Phytophthora infestans significantly in tomato. Appeared another tomato plant pathogen, Septoria lycopersici, in the course of fieldwork. We also evaluated the effect of the dose of yeast to this disease, and also noticed a significant reduction with all doses of yeast. These experiments demonstrated that the seeds of T. QD Bol12 inhamatum have biocontrol effect on the tomato crop. The antagonistic capacity was assessed using the cellophane and the kind of antagonism with the dual culture

  2. Distribution of introns in fungal histone genes.

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    Choong-Soo Yun

    Full Text Available Saccharomycotina and Taphrinomycotina lack intron in their histone genes, except for an intron in one of histone H4 genes of Yarrowia lipolytica. On the other hand, Basidiomycota and Perizomycotina have introns in their histone genes. We compared the distributions of 81, 47, 79, and 98 introns in the fungal histone H2A, H2B, H3, and H4 genes, respectively. Based on the multiple alignments of the amino acid sequences of histones, we identified 19, 13, 31, and 22 intron insertion sites in the histone H2A, H2B, H3, and H4 genes, respectively. Surprisingly only one hot spot of introns in the histone H2A gene is shared between Basidiomycota and Perizomycotina, suggesting that most of introns of Basidiomycota and Perizomycotina were acquired independently. Our findings suggest that the common ancestor of Ascomycota and Basidiomycota maybe had a few introns in the histone genes. In the course of fungal evolution, Saccharomycotina and Taphrinomycotina lost the histone introns; Basidiomycota and Perizomycotina acquired other introns independently. In addition, most of the introns have sequence similarity among introns of phylogenetically close species, strongly suggesting that horizontal intron transfer events between phylogenetically distant species have not occurred recently in the fungal histone genes.

  3. Fungal myositis in children: serial ultrasonographic findings

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kwon, Jung Hwa; Lee, Hee Jung; Choi, Jin Soo [Keimyung University School of Medicine, Daegu (Korea, Republic of)

    2003-08-01

    To evaluate serial ultrasonographic findings of fungal myositis in children. Eleven lesions caused by fungal myositis and occurring in six children were included in this study. Eight lesions in five children were histopathologically proven and the other three were clinically diagnosed. Serial ultrasonographic findings were retrospectively evaluated in terms of size, location, margin, internal echotexture and adjacent cortical change occurring during the follow-up period ranging from five days to two months. Three patients (50%) had multiple lesions. The sites of involvment were the thigh (n=4), calf (n=3), chest wall (n=2), abdominal wall (n=1) and forearm (n=1). Initially, diffuse muscular swelling was revealed, with ill-defined hypoechoic lesions confined to the muscle layer (n=8). Follow-up examination of eight lesions over a period of 5-10 days showed that round central echogenic lesions were surrounded by previous slightly echogenic lesions (n=6, 75%). Long-term follow-up of five lesions over a two-month period revealed periosteal thickening in one case (20%), and the peristence of echogenic solid nodules in four (80%). Pathologic examination showed that the central lesions correlated with a fungus ball and the peripheral slightly echogenic lesions corresponded to hematoma and necrosis. Serial ultrasonographic findings of fungal myositis in children revealed relatively constant features in each case. In particular, the findings of muscular necrosis and a fungus ball over a period of 5-14 days were thought to be characteristic.

  4. Sebacinales everywhere: previously overlooked ubiquitous fungal endophytes.

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    Michael Weiss

    Full Text Available Inconspicuous basidiomycetes from the order Sebacinales are known to be involved in a puzzling variety of mutualistic plant-fungal symbioses (mycorrhizae, which presumably involve transport of mineral nutrients. Recently a few members of this fungal order not fitting this definition and commonly referred to as 'endophytes' have raised considerable interest by their ability to enhance plant growth and to increase resistance of their host plants against abiotic stress factors and fungal pathogens. Using DNA-based detection and electron microscopy, we show that Sebacinales are not only extremely versatile in their mycorrhizal associations, but are also almost universally present as symptomless endophytes. They occurred in field specimens of bryophytes, pteridophytes and all families of herbaceous angiosperms we investigated, including liverworts, wheat, maize, and the non-mycorrhizal model plant Arabidopsis thaliana. They were present in all habitats we studied on four continents. We even detected these fungi in herbarium specimens originating from pioneering field trips to North Africa in the 1830s/40s. No geographical or host patterns were detected. Our data suggest that the multitude of mycorrhizal interactions in Sebacinales may have arisen from an ancestral endophytic habit by specialization. Considering their proven beneficial influence on plant growth and their ubiquity, endophytic Sebacinales may be a previously unrecognized universal hidden force in plant ecosystems.

  5. Sebacinales everywhere: previously overlooked ubiquitous fungal endophytes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weiss, Michael; Sýkorová, Zuzana; Garnica, Sigisfredo; Riess, Kai; Martos, Florent; Krause, Cornelia; Oberwinkler, Franz; Bauer, Robert; Redecker, Dirk

    2011-01-01

    Inconspicuous basidiomycetes from the order Sebacinales are known to be involved in a puzzling variety of mutualistic plant-fungal symbioses (mycorrhizae), which presumably involve transport of mineral nutrients. Recently a few members of this fungal order not fitting this definition and commonly referred to as 'endophytes' have raised considerable interest by their ability to enhance plant growth and to increase resistance of their host plants against abiotic stress factors and fungal pathogens. Using DNA-based detection and electron microscopy, we show that Sebacinales are not only extremely versatile in their mycorrhizal associations, but are also almost universally present as symptomless endophytes. They occurred in field specimens of bryophytes, pteridophytes and all families of herbaceous angiosperms we investigated, including liverworts, wheat, maize, and the non-mycorrhizal model plant Arabidopsis thaliana. They were present in all habitats we studied on four continents. We even detected these fungi in herbarium specimens originating from pioneering field trips to North Africa in the 1830s/40s. No geographical or host patterns were detected. Our data suggest that the multitude of mycorrhizal interactions in Sebacinales may have arisen from an ancestral endophytic habit by specialization. Considering their proven beneficial influence on plant growth and their ubiquity, endophytic Sebacinales may be a previously unrecognized universal hidden force in plant ecosystems. PMID:21347229

  6. Higher diversity in fungal species discriminates children with type 1 diabetes mellitus from healthy control

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    Kowalewska B

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Beata Kowalewska,1 Katarzyna Zorena,2 Małgorzata Szmigiero-Kawko,3 Piotr Wąż,4 Małgorzata Myśliwiec3 1Department of Tropical Medicine and Epidemiology, Institute of Maritime and Tropical Medicine, 2Department of Immunology and Environmental Microbiology, 3Clinic of Paediatrics, Diabetology and Endocrinology, 4Department of Nuclear Medicine, Medical University of Gdańsk, Gdańsk, Poland Objective: To conduct qualitative and quantitative assessment of yeast-like fungi in the feces of children and adolescents with type 1 diabetes mellitus (T1DM with respect to their metabolic control and duration of the disease.Materials and methods: The studied materials included samples of fresh feces collected from 53 children and adolescents with T1DM. Control group included 30 age- and sex-matched healthy individuals. Medical history was taken and physical examination was conducted in the two study arms. Prevalence of the yeast-like fungi in the feces was determined as well as their amounts, species diversity, drug susceptibility, and enzymatic activity.Results: The yeast-like fungi were found in the samples of feces from 75.4% of T1DM patients and 70% controls. In the group of T1DM patients, no correlation was found between age (Rs=0.253, P=0.068, duration of diabetes (Rs=−0.038, P=0.787, or body mass index (Rs=0.150, P=0.432 and the amount of the yeast-like fungi isolated in the feces. Moreover, no correlation was seen between the amount of the yeast-like fungi and glycated hemoglobin (Rs=0.0324, P=0.823, systolic blood pressure (Rs=0.102, P=0.483, or diastolic blood pressure (Rs=0.271, P=0.345.Conclusion: Our research has shown that children and adolescents with T1DM show higher species diversity of the yeast-like fungi, with Candida albicans being significantly less prevalent versus control subjects. Moreover, fungal species in patients with T1DM turn out to be more resistant to antifungal treatment. Keywords: children, diabetes mellitus type 1

  7. Metabarcoding-based fungal diversity on coarse and fine particulate organic matter in a first-order stream in Nova Scotia, Canada [version 2; referees: 2 approved

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    Christian Wurzbacher

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Most streams receive substantial inputs of allochthonous organic material in the form of leaves and twigs (CPOM, coarse particulate organic matter. Mechanical and biological processing converts this into fine particulate organic matter (FPOM. Other sources of particles include flocculated dissolved matter and soil particles. Fungi are known to play a role in the CPOM conversion process, but the taxonomic affiliations of these fungi remain poorly studied. The present study seeks to shed light on the composition of fungal communities on FPOM and CPOM as assessed in a natural stream in Nova Scotia, Canada. Maple leaves were exposed in a stream for four weeks and their fungal community evaluated through pyrosequencing. Over the same period, four FPOM size fractions were collected by filtration and assessed. Particles had much lower ergosterol contents than leaves, suggesting major differences in the extent of fungal colonization. Pyrosequencing documented a total of 821 fungal operational taxonomic units (OTU, of which 726 were exclusive to particles and 47 to leaf samples. Most fungal phyla were represented, including yeast lineages (e.g., Taphrinaceae and Saccharomycotina, Basidiomycota, Chytridiomycota and Cryptomycota, but several classes of Pezizomycontina (Ascomycota dominated. Cluster dendrograms clearly separated fungal communities from leaves and from particles. Characterizing fungal communities may shed some light on the processing pathways of fine particles in streams and broadens our view of the phylogenetic composition of fungi in freshwater ecosystems.

  8. Effects of artificial defoliation of pines on the structure and physiology of the soil fungal community of a mixed pine-spruce forest

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cullings, Ken; Raleigh, Christopher; New, Michael H.; Henson, Joan

    2005-01-01

    Loss of photosynthetic area can affect soil microbial communities by altering the availability of fixed carbon. We used denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis (DGGE) and Biolog filamentous-fungus plates to determine the effects of artificial defoliation of pines in a mixed pine-spruce forest on the composition of the fungal community in a forest soil. As measured by DGGE, two fungal species were affected significantly by the defoliation of pines (P soil fungus increased. The decrease in the amount of Cenococcum organisms may have occurred because of the formation of extensive hyphal networks by species of this genus, which require more of the carbon fixed by their host, or because this fungus is dependent upon quantitative differences in spruce root exudates. The defoliation of pines did not affect the overall composition of the soil fungal community or fungal-species richness (number of species per core). Biolog filamentous-fungus plate assays indicated a significant increase (P soil fungi and the rate at which these substrates were used, which could indicate an increase in fungal-species richness. Thus, either small changes in the soil fungal community give rise to significant increases in physiological capabilities or PCR bias limits the reliability of the DGGE results. These data indicate that combined genetic and physiological assessments of the soil fungal community are needed to accurately assess the effect of disturbance on indigenous microbial systems.

  9. Evaluation of secretion prediction highlights differing approaches needed for oomycete and fungal effectors

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    Jana eSperschneider

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The steadily increasing number of sequenced fungal and oomycete genomes has enabled detailed studies of how these eukaryotic microbes infect plants and cause devastating losses in food crops. During infection, fungal and oomycete pathogens secrete effector molecules which manipulate host plant cell processes to the pathogen’s advantage. Proteinaceous effectors are synthesised intracellularly and must be externalised to interact with host cells. Computational prediction of secreted proteins from genomic sequences is an important technique to narrow down the candidate effector repertoire for subsequent experimental validation. In this study, we benchmark secretion prediction tools on experimentally validated fungal and oomycete effectors. We observe that for a set of fungal SwissProt protein sequences, SignalP 4 and the neural network predictors of SignalP 3 (D-score and SignalP 2 perform best. For effector prediction in particular, the use of a sensitive method can be desirable to obtain the most complete candidate effector set. We show that the neural network predictors of SignalP 2 and 3, as well as TargetP were the most sensitive tools for fungal effector secretion prediction, whereas the hidden Markov model predictors of SignalP 2 and 3 were the most sensitive tools for oomycete effectors. Thus, previous versions of SignalP retain value for oomycete effector prediction, as the current version, SignalP 4, was unable to reliably predict the signal peptide of the oomycete Crinkler effectors in the test set. Our assessment of subcellular localisation predictors shows that cytoplasmic effectors are often predicted as not extracellular. This limits the reliability of secretion predictions that depend on these tools. We present our assessment with a view to informing future pathogenomics studies and suggest revised pipelines for secretion prediction to obtain optimal effector predictions in fungi and oomycetes.

  10. Metabolic mapping by use of high-resolution magic angle spinning 1H MR spectroscopy for assessment of apoptosis in cervical carcinomas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    High-resolution magic angle proton magnetic resonance spectroscopy (HR 1H MAS MRS) provides a broad metabolic mapping of intact tumor samples and allows for microscopy investigations of the samples after spectra acquisition. Experimental studies have suggested that the method can be used for detection of apoptosis, but this has not been investigated in a clinical setting so far. We have explored this hypothesis in cervical cancers by searching for metabolites associated with apoptosis that were not influenced by other histopathological parameters like tumor load and tumor cell density. Biopsies (n = 44) taken before and during radiotherapy in 23 patients were subjected to HR MAS MRS. A standard pulse-acquire spectrum provided information about lipids, and a spin-echo spectrum enabled detection of non-lipid metabolites in the lipid region of the spectra. Apoptotic cell density, tumor cell fraction, and tumor cell density were determined by histopathological analysis after spectra acquisition. The apoptotic cell density correlated with the standard pulse-acquire spectra (p < 0.001), but not with the spin-echo spectra, showing that the lipid metabolites were most important. The combined information of all lipids contributed to the correlation, with a major contribution from the ratio of fatty acid -CH2 to CH3 (p = 0.02). In contrast, the spin-echo spectra contained the main information on tumor cell fraction and tumor cell density (p < 0.001), for which cholines, creatine, taurine, glucose, and lactate were most important. Significant correlations were found between tumor cell fraction and glucose concentration (p = 0.001) and between tumor cell density and glycerophosphocholine (GPC) concentration (p = 0.024) and ratio of GPC to choline (p < 0.001). Our findings indicate that the apoptotic activity of cervical cancers can be assessed from the lipid metabolites in HR MAS MR spectra and that the HR MAS data may reveal novel information on the metabolic changes

  11. Early detection of fungal contamination on green coffee by a MOX sensors based Electronic Nose

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fungal growth can occur on green coffee beans along all the distribution chain, eventually bringing on health hazards to consumers, because of the production of toxic metabolites (mycotoxins). Besides, the sensorial contamination due to volatiles by-products of fungal metabolism could cause defects on coffee also after roasting. Therefore, it is necessary to devise strategies to detect and quantify fungal infection and toxin production at early stages of the food chain. One of the most promising techniques is the analysis of volatile compounds in the headspace gas surrounding the samples. The aim of this work was to verify the ability of the Electronic Nose (EN EOS835) to early detect the microbial contamination of Arabica green coffee. This EN is equipped with Metal Oxide Semiconductor sensor array. Gas chromatography coupled to mass spectrometry (GC-MS) analysis of the static headspace of non-contaminated Arabica green coffee samples was carried out to confirm the EN ability to provide satisfactory indications about the presence of contamination.

  12. Sophisticated Functions for a Simple Molecule: The Role of Glucosylceramides in Fungal Cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leonardo Nimrichter

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available It is well known that mammalian glycosphingolipids (GSL play key roles in different physiological and pathophysiological processes. The simplest GSL, glucosylceramide (GlcCer, is formed through the enzymatic transfer of glucose to a ceramide moiety. In mammalian cells this molecule is the building block for the synthesis of lactosylceramides and many other complex GSLs. In fungal cells GlcCer is a major neutral GSL that has been considered during decades merely as a structural component of cell membranes. The recent literature, however, describes the participation of fungal GlcCer in vital processes such as secretion, cell wall assembly, recognition by the immune system and regulation of virulence. In this review we discuss the most recent information regarding fungal GlcCer, including (i new aspects of GlcCer metabolism, (ii the involvement of these molecules in virulence mechanisms, (iii their role as targets of new antifungal drugs and immunotherapeutic agents and, finally, (v their potential participation on cellular signaling in response to different stimuli.

  13. Multicomponent Analysis of the Differential Induction of Secondary Metabolite Profiles in Fungal Endophytes

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    Víctor González-Menéndez

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Small molecule histone deacetylase (HDAC and DNA methyltransferase (DNMT inhibitors are commonly used to perturb the production of fungal metabolites leading to the induction of the expression of silent biosynthetic pathways. Several reports have described the variable effects observed in natural product profiles in fungi treated with HDAC and DNMT inhibitors, such as enhanced chemical diversity and/or the induction of new molecules previously unknown to be produced by the strain. Fungal endophytes are known to produce a wide variety of secondary metabolites (SMs involved in their adaptation and survival within higher plants. The plant-microbe interaction may influence the expression of some biosynthetic pathways, otherwise cryptic in these fungi when grown in vitro. The aim of this study was to setup a systematic approach to evaluate and identify the possible effects of HDAC and DNMT inhibitors on the metabolic profiles of wild type fungal endophytes, including the chemical identification and characterization of the most significant SMs induced by these epigenetic modifiers.

  14. Multicomponent Analysis of the Differential Induction of Secondary Metabolite Profiles in Fungal Endophytes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    González-Menéndez, Víctor; Pérez-Bonilla, Mercedes; Pérez-Victoria, Ignacio; Martín, Jesús; Muñoz, Francisca; Reyes, Fernando; Tormo, José R; Genilloud, Olga

    2016-01-01

    Small molecule histone deacetylase (HDAC) and DNA methyltransferase (DNMT) inhibitors are commonly used to perturb the production of fungal metabolites leading to the induction of the expression of silent biosynthetic pathways. Several reports have described the variable effects observed in natural product profiles in fungi treated with HDAC and DNMT inhibitors, such as enhanced chemical diversity and/or the induction of new molecules previously unknown to be produced by the strain. Fungal endophytes are known to produce a wide variety of secondary metabolites (SMs) involved in their adaptation and survival within higher plants. The plant-microbe interaction may influence the expression of some biosynthetic pathways, otherwise cryptic in these fungi when grown in vitro. The aim of this study was to setup a systematic approach to evaluate and identify the possible effects of HDAC and DNMT inhibitors on the metabolic profiles of wild type fungal endophytes, including the chemical identification and characterization of the most significant SMs induced by these epigenetic modifiers. PMID:26901184

  15. Early detection of fungal contamination on green coffee by a MOX sensors based Electronic Nose

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sberveglieri, V.; Concina, I.; Falasconi, M.; Gobbi, E.; Pulvirenti, A.; Fava, P.

    2011-09-01

    Fungal growth can occur on green coffee beans along all the distribution chain, eventually bringing on health hazards to consumers, because of the production of toxic metabolites (mycotoxins) [1]. Besides, the sensorial contamination due to volatiles by-products of fungal metabolism could cause defects on coffee also after roasting. Therefore, it is necessary to devise strategies to detect and quantify fungal infection and toxin production at early stages of the food chain. One of the most promising techniques is the analysis of volatile compounds in the headspace gas surrounding the samples. The aim of this work was to verify the ability of the Electronic Nose (EN EOS835) to early detect the microbial contamination of Arabica green coffee. This EN is equipped with Metal Oxide Semiconductor sensor array. Gas chromatography coupled to mass spectrometry (GC-MS) analysis of the static headspace of non-contaminated Arabica green coffee samples was carried out to confirm the EN ability to provide satisfactory indications about the presence of contamination.

  16. Host-Imposed Copper Poisoning Impacts Fungal Micronutrient Acquisition during Systemic Candida albicans Infections

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mackie, Joanna; Ballou, Elizabeth R.; Childers, Delma S.; MacCallum, Donna M.; Feldmann, Joerg; Brown, Alistair J. P.

    2016-01-01

    Nutritional immunity is a process whereby an infected host manipulates essential micronutrients to defend against an invading pathogen. We reveal a dynamic aspect of nutritional immunity during infection that involves copper assimilation. Using a combination of laser ablation inductively coupled mass spectrometry (LA-ICP MS) and metal mapping, immunohistochemistry, and gene expression profiling from infected tissues, we show that readjustments in hepatic, splenic and renal copper homeostasis accompany disseminated Candida albicans infections in the mouse model. Localized host-imposed copper poisoning manifests itself as a transient increase in copper early in the kidney infection. Changes in renal copper are detected by the fungus, as revealed by gene expression profiling and fungal virulence studies. The fungus responds by differentially regulating the Crp1 copper efflux pump (higher expression during early infection and down-regulation late in infection) and the Ctr1 copper importer (lower expression during early infection, and subsequent up-regulation late in infection) to maintain copper homeostasis during disease progression. Both Crp1 and Ctr1 are required for full fungal virulence. Importantly, copper homeostasis influences other virulence traits—metabolic flexibility and oxidative stress resistance. Our study highlights the importance of copper homeostasis for host defence and fungal virulence during systemic disease. PMID:27362522

  17. DRUG METABOLISM

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    Deepak Singla

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available The termmetabolism, derived from the Greek language, simply means change or transformation. It relates to various processes within the body that convert food and other substances into energy and other metabolic byproducts used by the body. Drug metabolism is the body’s way of transforming drugs, so they can be excreted from the body. Many drugs arenot active until they have been metabolized in the body by enzymes that transform them. Most drugs are lipophilic, meaning they pass through membranes to reach their target site. Most drugs are treated by the body like foreign substances, also known as xenobiotics. Humans have evolved a complex system for xenobiotic metabolism

  18. Metabolic neuropathies

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... body ( sepsis ) Thyroid disease Vitamin deficiencies (including vitamins B12 , B6 , E , and B1 ) Some metabolic disorders are ... by injection. Abnormal blood sugar level or thyroid function may need medicines to correct the problem. For ...

  19. Fungal bio-degradation of 14C-parathion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    14'C-parathion (670 Bq) was applied to mineral salt medium (MSM) to examine and evaluate its biodegradation by some fungi. The studied isolates were Alternaria alternate, Fusarium oxysporim and trichoderma viride. The inoculated media were incubated at 30 oC for periods of 2, 4, 6 and 8 days. Ta each interval, mycelia were separated from nutrient solution and extracted for its radioactivity. However, non extractable compounds were liberated by combustion. Quantitative and qualitative analysis were carried out for the radioactive compound in mycelia l extracts and residues as well as the fungal culture filtrate. Balance sheet for total recovered radioactive compounds was concluded 14'C-parathion metabolism was expressed as original compound, polar metabolite, non polar metabolites and non extractable residues and then degradation rate was calculated. araesults indicated that there was continuous penetration for the radioactivity into mycelia tissues and the maximum, accumulation was recorded by Fusarium Oxysporium. The fungi under investigation showed considerable variations regarding their capacity to degrade the radioactive pesticide. Trichoderma viride exhibited the maximum capability to catabolism the the 14C-parathion as it exerted the maximum degradation rate. Fusarium and Alternate alter nata showed less degradation rates for the 14C- pesticide under investigation. (Author)

  20. Metabolic syndrome

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    Gogia Atul

    2006-02-01

    Full Text Available The Metabolic syndrome is a widely prevalent and multi-factorial disorder. The syndrome has been given several names, including- the metabolic syndrome, the insulin resistance syndrome, the plurimetabolic syndrome, and the deadly quartet. With the formulation of NCEP/ATP III guidelines, some uniformity and standardization has occurred in the definition of metabolic syndrome and has been very useful for epidemiological purposes. The mechanisms underlying the metabolic syndrome are not fully known; however resistance to insulin stimulated glucose uptake seems to modify biochemical responses in a way that predisposes to metabolic risk factors. The clinical relevance of the metabolic syndrome is related to its role in the development of cardiovascular disease. Management of the metabolic syndrome involves patient-education and intervention at various levels. Weight reduction is one of the main stays of treatment. In this article we comprehensively discuss this syndrome- the epidemiology, pathogenesis, clinical relevance and management. The need to do a comprehensive review of this particular syndrome has arisen in view of the ever increasing incidence of this entitiy. Soon, metabolic syndrome will overtake cigarette smoking as the number one risk factor for heart disease among the US population. Hardly any issue of any primary care medical journal can be opened without encountering an article on type 2 diabetes, dyslipidemia or hypertension. It is rare to see type 2 diabetes, dyslipidemia, obesity or hypertension in isolation. Insulin resistance and resulting hyperinsulinemia have been implicated in the development of glucose intolerance (and progression to type 2 diabetes, hypertriglyceridemia, hypertension, polycystic ovary yndrome, hypercoagulability and vascular inflammation, as well as the eventual development of atherosclerotic cardiovascular disease manifested as myocardial infarction, stroke and myriad end organ diseases. Conversely

  1. Lipid Metabolism

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2008-01-01

    2008393 Effects of angiotensin Ⅱ type 1 receptor blocker on triglyceride metabolism in the liver: experiment with Zucker fatty rats. RAN Jianmin(冉建民), et al. Dept Endocrinol, Guangzhou Red Cross Hosp, 4th Hosp Med Coll, Jinan Univ, Guangzhou 510220. Natl Med J China 2008;88(22):1557-1561. Objective To investigate the effects of angiotensin receptor blocker (ARB) on triglyceride (TG) metabolism and mechanism thereof.

  2. Selection and validation of enzymatic activities as functional markers in wood biotechnology and fungal ecology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mathieu, Yann; Gelhaye, Eric; Dumarçay, Stéphane; Gérardin, Philippe; Harvengt, Luc; Buée, Marc

    2013-02-15

    The dead wood and forest soils are sources of diversity and under-explored fungal strains with biotechnological potential, which require to be studied. Numerous enzymatic tests have been proposed to investigate the functional potential of the soil microbial communities or to test the functional abilities of fungal strains. Nevertheless, the diversity of these functional markers and their relevance in environmental studies or biotechnological screening does still have not been demonstrated. In this work, we assessed ten different extracellular enzymatic activities involved in the wood decaying process including β-etherase that specifically cleaves the β-aryl ether linkages in the lignin polymer. For this purpose, a collection of 26 fungal strains, distributed within three ecological groups (white, brown and soft rot fungi), has been used. Among the ten potential functional markers, the combinatorial use of only six of them allowed separation between the group of white and soft rot fungi from the brown rot fungi. Moreover, our results suggest that extracellular β-etherase is a rare and dispensable activity among the wood decay fungi. Finally, we propose that this set of markers could be useful for the analysis of fungal communities in functional and environmental studies, and for the selection of strains with biotechnological interests. PMID:23206919

  3. Symbiont dynamics during ecosystem succession: co-occurring plant and arbuscular mycorrhizal fungal communities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    García de León, David; Moora, Mari; Öpik, Maarja; Neuenkamp, Lena; Gerz, Maret; Jairus, Teele; Vasar, Martti; Bueno, C Guillermo; Davison, John; Zobel, Martin

    2016-07-01

    Although mycorrhizas are expected to play a key role in community assembly during ecological succession, little is known about the dynamics of the symbiotic partners in natural systems. For instance, it is unclear how efficiently plants and arbuscular mycorrhizal (AM) fungi disperse into early successional ecosystems, and which, if either, symbiotic partner drives successional dynamics. This study describes the dynamics of plant and AM fungal communities, assesses correlation in the composition of plant and AM fungal communities and compares dispersal limitation of plants and AM fungi during succession. We studied gravel pits 20 and 50 years post abandonment and undisturbed grasslands in Western Estonia. The composition of plant and AM fungal communities was strongly correlated, and the strength of the correlation remained unchanged as succession progressed, indicating a stable dependence among mycorrhizal plants and AM fungi. A relatively high proportion of the AM fungal taxon pool was present in early successional sites, in comparison with the respective fraction of plants. These results suggest that AM fungi arrived faster than plants and may thus drive vegetation dynamics along secondary vegetation succession. PMID:27162183

  4. Development of anti β glucan aptamers for use as radiopharmaceutical in the identification of fungal Infections

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Invasive fungal infections caused by Candida albicans, are recognized as a major cause of morbidity and mortality in immuno compromised individuals. Patients may not show obvious clinical signs or symptoms, making it difficult to detect its origin or new focus that developed through hematogenous spread. Nuclear medicine could contribute to an early diagnosis of fungal infections, since specific markers are available. The aim of this study was to develop, through SELEX technique (Systematic Evolution of Ligands by Exponential Enrichment), aptamers for beta glucan for subsequent labeling with 99mTc and evaluation of this radiopharmaceutical in the diagnosis of invasive fungal infections, scintigraphy. To obtain aptamers were performed 15 cycles of SELEX technique, using centrifugation as separation method of oligonuclotideos linked to the beta-glucan is not connected. The DNA bands were observed in all 15 cycles. The oligonucleotides obtained after cycles were cloned using the standard protocol kit-Topo TA vector (Invitrogen), and subjected to sequencing Megabase. Three aptamers for yeast cells were selected for this study. Further, other studies should be performed to assess the specificity and affinity thereof for later use in the diagnosis of fungal infections. (author)

  5. Development of anti β glucan aptamers for use as radiopharmaceutical in the identification of fungal Infections

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lacerda, Camila Maria de Sousa; Reis, Mariana Flister; Correa, Cristiane Rodrigues; Andrade, Antero S.R., E-mail: cmsl@cdtn.br, E-mail: antero@cdtn.br [Centro de Desenvolvimento da Tecnologia Nuclear (CDTN/CNEM-MG), Belo Horizonte, MG (Brazil)

    2013-07-01

    Invasive fungal infections caused by Candida albicans, are recognized as a major cause of morbidity and mortality in immuno compromised individuals. Patients may not show obvious clinical signs or symptoms, making it difficult to detect its origin or new focus that developed through hematogenous spread. Nuclear medicine could contribute to an early diagnosis of fungal infections, since specific markers are available. The aim of this study was to develop, through SELEX technique (Systematic Evolution of Ligands by Exponential Enrichment), aptamers for beta glucan for subsequent labeling with {sup 99}mTc and evaluation of this radiopharmaceutical in the diagnosis of invasive fungal infections, scintigraphy. To obtain aptamers were performed 15 cycles of SELEX technique, using centrifugation as separation method of oligonuclotideos linked to the beta-glucan is not connected. The DNA bands were observed in all 15 cycles. The oligonucleotides obtained after cycles were cloned using the standard protocol kit-Topo TA vector (Invitrogen), and subjected to sequencing Megabase. Three aptamers for yeast cells were selected for this study. Further, other studies should be performed to assess the specificity and affinity thereof for later use in the diagnosis of fungal infections. (author)

  6. Comparison of accuracy of diabetes risk score and components of the metabolic syndrome in assessing risk of incident type 2 diabetes in Inter99 cohort.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tracy B Shafizadeh

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Given the increasing worldwide incidence of diabetes, methods to assess diabetes risk which would identify those at highest risk are needed. We compared two risk-stratification approaches for incident type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM; factors of metabolic syndrome (MetS and a previously developed diabetes risk score, PreDx® Diabetes Risk Score (DRS. DRS assesses 5 yr risk of incident T2DM based on the measurement of 7 biomarkers in fasting blood. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: DRS was evaluated in baseline serum samples from 4,128 non-diabetic subjects in the Inter99 cohort (Danes aged 30-60 for whom diabetes outcomes at 5 years were known. Subjects were classified as having MetS based on the presence of at least 3 MetS risk factors in baseline clinical data. The sensitivity and false positive rate for predicting diabetes using MetS was compared to DRS. When the sensitivity was fixed to match MetS, DRS had a significantly lower false positive rate. Similarly, when the false positive rate was fixed to match MetS, DRS had a significantly higher specificity. In further analyses, subjects were classified by presence of 0-2, 3 or 4-5 risk factors with matching proportions of subjects distributed among three DRS groups. Comparison between the two risk stratification schemes, MetS risk factors and DRS, were evaluated using Net Reclassification Improvement (NRI. Comparing risk stratification by DRS to MetS factors in the total population, the NRI was 0.146 (p = 0.008 demonstrating DRS provides significantly improved stratification. Additionally, the relative risk of T2DM differed by 15 fold between the low and high DRS risk groups, but only 8-fold between the low and high risk MetS groups. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: DRS provides a more accurate assessment of risk for diabetes than MetS. This improved performance may allow clinicians to focus preventive strategies on those most in need of urgent intervention.

  7. Animal metabolism

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Studies on placental transport included the following: clearance of tritiated water as a baseline measurement for transport of materials across perfused placentas; transport of organic and inorganic mercury across the perfused placenta of the guinea pig in late gestation; and transport of cadmium across the perfused placenta of the guinea pig in late gestation. Studies on cadmium absorption and metabolism included the following: intestinal absorption and retention of cadmium in neonatal rats; uptake and distribution of an oral dose of cadmium in postweanling male and female, iron-deficient and normal rats; postnatal viability and growth in rat pups after oral cadmium administration during gestation; and the effect of calcium and phosphorus on the absorption and toxicity of cadmium. Studies on gastrointestinal absorption and mineral metabolism included: uptake and distribution of orally administered plutonium complex compounds in male mice; gastrointestinal absorption of 144Ce in the newborn mouse, rat, and pig; and gastrointestinal absorption of 95Nb by rats of different ages. Studies on iodine metabolism included the following: influence of thyroid status and thiocyanate on iodine metabolism in the bovine; effects of simulated fallout radiation on iodine metabolism in dairy cattle; and effects of feeding iodine binding agents on iodine metabolism in the calf

  8. A resource for the in silico identification of fungal polyketide synthases from predicted fungal proteomes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Delgado, Javier A; Al-Azzam, Omar; Denton, Anne M; Markell, Samuel G; Goswami, Rubella S

    2012-06-01

    The goal of this study was to develop a tool specifically designed to identify iterative polyketide synthases (iPKSs) from predicted fungal proteomes. A fungi-based PKS prediction model, specifically for fungal iPKSs, was developed using profile hidden Markov models (pHMMs) based on two essential iPKS domains, the β-ketoacyl synthase (KS) domain and acyltransferase (AT) domain, derived from fungal iPKSs. This fungi-based PKS prediction model was initially tested on the well-annotated proteome of Fusarium graminearum, identifying 15 iPKSs that matched previous predictions and gene disruption studies. These fungi-based pHMMs were subsequently applied to the predicted fungal proteomes of Alternaria brassicicola, Fusarium oxysporum f.sp. lycopersici, Verticillium albo-atrum and Verticillium dahliae. The iPKSs predicted were compared against those predicted by the currently available mixed-kingdom PKS models that include both bacterial and fungal sequences. These mixed-kingdom models have been proven previously by others to be better in predicting true iPKSs from non-iPKSs compared with other available models (e.g. Pfam and TIGRFAM). The fungi-based model was found to perform significantly better on fungal proteomes than the mixed-kingdom PKS model in accuracy, sensitivity, specificity and precision. In addition, the model was capable of predicting the reducing nature of fungal iPKSs by comparison of the bit scores obtained from two separate reducing and nonreducing pHMMs for each domain, which was confirmed by phylogenetic analysis of the KS domain. Biological confirmation of the predictions was obtained by polymerase chain reaction (PCR) amplification of the KS and AT domains of predicted iPKSs from V. dahliae using domain-specific primers and genomic DNA, followed by sequencing of the PCR products. It is expected that the fungi-based PKS model will prove to be a useful tool for the identification and annotation of fungal PKSs from predicted proteomes. PMID:22112245

  9. Anthropogenic N deposition slows decay by favoring bacterial metabolism: Insights from metagenomic analyses

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zachary B. Freedman

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Litter decomposition is an enzymatically-complex process that is mediated by a diverse assemblage of saprophytic microorganisms. It is a globally important biogeochemical process that can be suppressed by anthropogenic N deposition. In a northern hardwood forest ecosystem located in Michigan, USA, 20 years of experimentally increased atmospheric N deposition has reduced forest floor decay and increased soil C storage. Here, we paired extracellular enzyme assays with shotgun metagenomics to assess if anthropogenic N deposition has altered the functional potential of microbial communities inhabiting decaying forest floor. Experimental N deposition significantly reduced the activity of extracellular enzymes mediating plant cell wall decay, which occurred concurrently with changes in the relative abundance of metagenomic functional gene pathways mediating the metabolism of carbohydrates, aromatic compounds, as well as microbial respiration. Moreover, experimental N deposition increased the relative abundance of 50 of the 60 gene pathways, the majority of which were associated with saprotrophic bacteria. Conversely, the relative abundance and composition of fungal genes mediating the metabolism of plant litter was not affected by experimental N deposition. Future rates of atmospheric N deposition have favored saprotrophic soil bacteria, whereas the metabolic potential of saprotrophic fungi appears resilient to this agent of environmental change. Results presented here provide evidence that changes in the functional capacity of saprotrophic soil microorganisms mediate how anthropogenic N deposition increases C storage in soil.

  10. Fungal Community Assembly in the Amazonian Dark Earth

    OpenAIRE

    Lucheta, A.R.; Souza Cannavan, F.S.; Roesch, L.; Tsai, S.M.; Kuramae, E.E.

    2015-01-01

    Here, we compare the fungal community composition and diversity in Amazonian Dark Earth (ADE) and the respective non-anthropogenic origin adjacent (ADJ) soils from four different sites in Brazilian Central Amazon using pyrosequencing of 18S ribosomal RNA (rRNA) gene. Fungal community composition in ADE soils were more similar to each other than their ADJ soils, except for only one site. Phosphorus and aluminum saturation were the main soil chemical factors contributing to ADE and ADJ fungal c...

  11. Pathogenesis and CT findings of primary pulmonary fungal infection

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Primary pulmonary fungal infection occurs in immunocompetent hosts without underlying lesions. In the clinic, the most common pathogenic fungal are cryptococcus (cryptococcus neoformans) and aspergillus. Due to the increased incidence of the disease, the misdiagnosis rate and mortality, it has great clinical importance to study the clinical and CT features. By reviewing the recent domestic and overseas literatures, the definition, pathogenesis, clinical manifestations. clinical diagnosis, and CT findings of primary pulmonary fungal infection are summarized. (authors)

  12. Nitrosative and oxidative stress responses in fungal pathogenicity

    OpenAIRE

    Brown, Alistair JP; Haynes, Ken; Quinn, Janet

    2009-01-01

    Fungal pathogenicity has arisen in polyphyletic manner during evolution, yielding fungal pathogens with diverse infection strategies and with differing degrees of evolutionary adaptation to their human host. Not surprisingly, these fungal pathogens display differing degrees of resistance to the reactive oxygen and nitrogen species used by human cells to counteract infection. Furthermore, whilst evolutionarily conserved regulators, such as Hog1, are central to such stress responses in many fun...

  13. Initial fungal effector production is mediated by early endosome motility

    OpenAIRE

    Higuchi, Yujiro

    2015-01-01

    Fungal plant pathogenicity is facilitated by effector proteins that are specifically expressed during infection and are responsible for suppressing plant defense mechanisms. Recent studies have elucidated the detailed molecular mechanisms of effector action throughout fungal infection. However, little is known about the trafficking and secretion of effectors in fungal hyphae during the initial stage of infection. Using state-of-the-art microscopy we have demonstrated that early endosome (EE) ...

  14. IMMUNOGLOBULINS IN DEFENSE, PATHOGENESIS AND THERAPY OF FUNGAL DISEASES

    OpenAIRE

    Casadevall, Arturo; Pirofski, Liise-anne

    2012-01-01

    Only two decades ago antibodies to fungi were thought to have little or no role in protection against fungal diseases. However, subsequent research has provided convincing evidence that certain antibodies can modify the course of fungal infection to the benefit or detriment of the host. Hybridoma technology was the breakthrough that enabled the characterization of antibodies to fungi, illuminating some of the requirements for antibody efficacy. As discussed in this review, fungal specific ant...

  15. The influence of the fungal pathogen Mycocentrospora acerina on the proteome and polyacetylenes and 6-methoxymellein in organic and conventionally cultivated carrots (Daucus carota) during post harvest storage

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Louarn, Sébastien; Nawrocki, Arkadiusz; Edelenbos, Merete;

    2012-01-01

    Many carrots are discarded during post harvest cold storage due to development of fungal infections, caused by, e.g., Mycocentrospora acerina (liquorice rot). We compared the susceptibility of carrots grown under conventional and organic agricultural practices. In one year, organically cultivated...... metabolism. This combined metabolic and proteomic study indicates that roots respond to fungal infection through altered metabolism: simultaneous induction of 6-methoxymellein and synthesis of defence related proteins....... carrots showed 3× to 7× more symptoms than conventionally cultivated, when studying naturally occurring disease at 4 and 6 months, respectively. On the other hand, we have developed a bioassay for infection studies of M. acerina on carrots and observed that organic roots were more susceptible after one...

  16. Can fungal zoospores be the source of energy for the rumen protozoa Eudiplodinium maggii?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miltko, Renata; Bełżecki, Grzegorz; Kowalik, Barbara; Michałowski, Tadeusz

    2014-10-01

    Results of our earlier studies showed the ability of ciliates Eudiplodinium maggii to digest and metabolize commercial chitin. The natural source of this polysaccharide in the rumen are fungi. The objectives of present research were to determine the effect of fungal zoospores on the survival and population density of E. maggii to quantify the concentration of chitin in the cells of protozoa and to examine the ability of E. maggii, to ferment chitin of fungal zoospores. The cultivation experiment showed that the survival of protozoa was shorter than 4 days when the culture medium was composed of buffer solution and lyophilized fungal spores. An enrichment of this medium with wheat gluten prolonged the survival of ciliates up to 8 days. The supplementation of the last medium with meadow hay enabled the protozoa to survive for 28 days but a positive effect was observed only during the last 8 days of experiment. The chitin content was 0.27 ng and 0.21-0.35 ng per single zoospore and ciliate, respectively. An increase in the concentration of volatile fatty acids (VFA) was found when protozoa were incubated with zoospores. The production rate of VFA was 46.3 pM/protozoan per h whereas the endogenous production did not exceed 31 pM/protozoan per h. The molar proportion of acetic acid was 77.7% and these of butyric and propionic acids-12.2 and 11.0%, respectively. The obtained results make it evident that carbohydrates present in fungal zoospores were utilized by protozoa in energy yielding processes. PMID:24012688

  17. Contrasting Diversity Patterns of Crenarchaeal, Bacterial and Fungal Soil Communities in an Alpine Landscape

    OpenAIRE

    Zinger, Lucie; Lejon, David P. H.; Baptist, Florence; Bouasria, Abderrahim; Aubert, Serge; Geremia, Roberto A.; Choler, Philippe

    2011-01-01

    Background: The advent of molecular techniques in microbial ecology has aroused interest in gaining an understanding about the spatial distribution of regional pools of soil microbes and the main drivers responsible of these spatial patterns. Here, we assessed the distribution of crenarcheal, bacterial and fungal communities in an alpine landscape displaying high turnover in plant species over short distances. Our aim is to determine the relative contribution of plant species composition, env...

  18. Dynamics of bacterial and fungal communities associated with eggshells during incubation

    OpenAIRE

    Grizard, Stéphanie; Dini-Andreote, Francisco; Tieleman, B Irene; Salles, Joana F

    2014-01-01

    Microorganisms are closely associated with eggs and may play a determinant role in embryo survival. Yet, the majority of studies focusing on this association relied on culture-based methodology, eventually leading to a skewed assessment of microbial communities. By targeting the 16S rRNA gene and internal transcribed spacer (ITS) region, we, respectively, described bacterial and fungal communities on eggshells of the homing pigeon Columba livia. We explored their structure, abundance, and com...

  19. Invasive fungal disease in university hospital: a PCR-based study of autopsy cases

    OpenAIRE

    Ruangritchankul, Komkrit; Chindamporn, Ariya; Worasilchai, Navaporn; Poumsuk, Ubon; Keelawat, Somboon; Bychkov, Andrey.

    2015-01-01

    Invasive fungal disease (IFD) has high mortality rate, especially in the growing population of immunocompromised patients. In spite of introduction of novel diagnostic approaches, the intravital recognition of IFD is challenging. Autopsy studies remain a key tool for assessment of epidemiology of visceral mycoses. We aimed to determine species distribution and trends of IFD over the last 10 years in unselected autopsy series from a large university hospital. Forty-five cases of visceral mycos...

  20. Serendipitous Meta-Transcriptomics: The Fungal Community of Norway Spruce (Picea abies.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nicolas Delhomme

    Full Text Available After performing de novo transcript assembly of >1 billion RNA-Sequencing reads obtained from 22 samples of different Norway spruce (Picea abies tissues that were not surface sterilized, we found that assembled sequences captured a mix of plant, lichen, and fungal transcripts. The latter were likely expressed by endophytic and epiphytic symbionts, indicating that these organisms were present, alive, and metabolically active. Here, we show that these serendipitously sequenced transcripts need not be considered merely as contamination, as is common, but that they provide insight into the plant's phyllosphere. Notably, we could classify these transcripts as originating predominantly from Dothideomycetes and Leotiomycetes species, with functional annotation of gene families indicating active growth and metabolism, with particular regards to glucose intake and processing, as well as gene regulation.