WorldWideScience

Sample records for assess child development

  1. Assessing Home Environment for Early Child Development in Pakistan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nadeem, Sanober; Rafique, Ghazala; Khowaja, Liaquat; Yameen, Anjum

    2014-01-01

    Family environment plays a very important role in early child development and the availability of stimulating material in the early years of a child's life is crucial for optimising development. The Home Observation for Measurement of the Environment (HOME) inventory is one of the most widely used measures to assess the quality and quantity…

  2. Assessing Child Development: A Critical Review and the Sustainable Child Development Index (SCDI)

    OpenAIRE

    Ya-Ju Chang; Laura Schneider; Matthias Finkbeiner

    2015-01-01

    Children are an important stakeholder group for sustainable development, as they represent the interface between current and future generations. A comprehensive assessment of child development (CD) in the context of sustainable development is still missing. In this paper, as a first step, a literature review is conducted to identify relevant aspects and gaps related to the assessment of CD. The main issues of CD are categorized into seven themes: health, education, safety, economic status, re...

  3. Assessing Child Development: A Critical Review and the Sustainable Child Development Index (SCDI

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ya-Ju Chang

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Children are an important stakeholder group for sustainable development, as they represent the interface between current and future generations. A comprehensive assessment of child development (CD in the context of sustainable development is still missing. In this paper, as a first step, a literature review is conducted to identify relevant aspects and gaps related to the assessment of CD. The main issues of CD are categorized into seven themes: health, education, safety, economic status, relationships, participation, and newly proposed environmental aspects. The corresponding subthemes and criteria are classified accordingly (e.g., nutrition, child mortality, immunization, etc., are assigned to the theme health. However, gaps in current studies, such as the heterogeneous classification of relevant aspects, regional and societal bias in addressing certain aspects, the limited number of subthemes, and criteria and the missing inclusion of environmental aspects impede the assessment of sustainable child development. To address the existing gaps, a comprehensive framework, the Sustainable Child Development Index (SCDI, is proposed. The SCDI is based on sustainable development as the core value, considers relevant aspects of CD with regard to newly-proposed environmental aspects and includes 26 aspects on an outcome and 37 indicators on a context level to tackle the heterogeneous classifications and interdependencies of relevant aspects. The proposed index intends to strengthen the stakeholder perspective of children in sustainability assessment.

  4. Sociocultural approach to assessment of child development and learning in preschool education

    OpenAIRE

    Rutar, Sonja

    2015-01-01

    Assessment is integral to preschool curriculum. Within contemporary preschool pedagogy, the assessment of child development and learning, which represents a basis for curriculum planning, is considered one of preschool standards of quality. In this paper, we present the difference between scientific observation which is based on developmental psychology, and the pedagogical assessment of child development and learning. We outline the purpose of assessing child development and learning in earl...

  5. Development of the System on the Internet for Pre-Assessment of Child Abuse Prevention

    Science.gov (United States)

    Honma, Satoru; Wakamatsu, Hidetoshi; Ueda, Reiko

    Some assessments have been applied to find possible factors that might lead to child abuse. PACAP is a new method proposed by Ueda and others as a pre-assessment of the concerning child abuse, which reduces its false-positive misclassification. The Internet PACAP is developed to reduce the laborious work of nurses and health care workers for the necessary processing and classifying the scores of the pre-assessment. The present system is expected to prevent the child abuse more effectively.

  6. Operation of the Pinellas Plant Child Development Center/Partnership School: Environmental assessment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1990-07-20

    The US Department of Energy Albuquerque Operations Office (DOE/AL), through the DOE Pinellas Area Office (PAO) and GE Neutron Devices (GEND), is proposing a joint venture to operate a Partnership School and Child Development Center at the Pinellas Plant. The Child Development Center/Partnership School proposal has been developed. The building has been constructed, teachers and staff selected, and the building made ready for immediate occupancy. The proposed action addressed by this environmental assessment is the operation and utilization of the school as a Partnership School, a preschool Child Development Center, and a before- and after-hours child care facility. In compliance with the National Environmental Policy Act of 1970, the potential impacts from the operation of the proposed action are assessed. Additionally, since the proposed school is located next to an industrial facility, impacts on the school population from routine plant operations, as well as abnormal events, are analyzed, and changes in plant operation that may be prudent are considered. 25 refs., 8 figs., 9 tabs.

  7. FPG Child Development Institute

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Development, Teaching, and Learning The Frank Porter Graham Child Development Institute will partner with Zero to Three to ... Education October 4, 2016 More Frank Porter Graham Child Development Institute The University of North Carolina at Chapel ...

  8. The Canadian Healthy Infant Longitudinal Development (CHILD) birth cohort study: assessment of environmental exposures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takaro, Tim K; Scott, James A; Allen, Ryan W; Anand, Sonia S; Becker, Allan B; Befus, A Dean; Brauer, Michael; Duncan, Joanne; Lefebvre, Diana L; Lou, Wendy; Mandhane, Piush J; McLean, Kathleen E; Miller, Gregory; Sbihi, Hind; Shu, Huan; Subbarao, Padmaja; Turvey, Stuart E; Wheeler, Amanda J; Zeng, Leilei; Sears, Malcolm R; Brook, Jeffrey R

    2015-01-01

    The Canadian Healthy Infant Longitudinal Development birth cohort was designed to elucidate interactions between environment and genetics underlying development of asthma and allergy. Over 3600 pregnant mothers were recruited from the general population in four provinces with diverse environments. The child is followed to age 5 years, with prospective characterization of diverse exposures during this critical period. Key exposure domains include indoor and outdoor air pollutants, inhalation, ingestion and dermal uptake of chemicals, mold, dampness, biological allergens, pets and pests, housing structure, and living behavior, together with infections, nutrition, psychosocial environment, and medications. Assessments of early life exposures are focused on those linked to inflammatory responses driven by the acquired and innate immune systems. Mothers complete extensive environmental questionnaires including time-activity behavior at recruitment and when the child is 3, 6, 12, 24, 30, 36, 48, and 60 months old. House dust collected during a thorough home assessment at 3-4 months, and biological specimens obtained for multiple exposure-related measurements, are archived for analyses. Geo-locations of homes and daycares and land-use regression for estimating traffic-related air pollution complement time-activity-behavior data to provide comprehensive individual exposure profiles. Several analytical frameworks are proposed to address the many interacting exposure variables and potential issues of co-linearity in this complex data set.

  9. Assessing organizational readiness and capacity for developing an integrated child health information system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wild, Ellen L; Fehrenbach, S Nicole

    2004-11-01

    The Tool for Assessment and Planning (the Tool) assists public health teams in designing child health information integration projects from planning through early implementation. The tool is a companion to Integration of Newborn Screening and Genetic Services Systems with Other Maternal and Child Health Systems: A Sourcebook for Planning and Development (the Sourcebook). The Tool and the Sourcebook focus on 9 key elements considered critical to supporting information systems integration. The 9 key elements are: leadership, project governance, project management, stakeholder involvement, organizational and technical strategies, technical support and coordination, financial support and management, policy support, and evaluation. Project teams can use the Tool to assess their organizational readiness and capacity by examining the critical components and strategies required to support success based on the 9 key elements. The questions are intended to promote discussion among project team members and to identify specific action steps. The Tool includes a planning matrix to track those action steps and to identify accountable personnel. Strategically examining the critical elements and documenting next steps increases the likelihood of a successful integration project. PMID:15643358

  10. Media and child development

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    J. Piotrowski; H.G.M. Vossen; P.M. Valkenburg

    2015-01-01

    Decades of research have shown that the relationship between media and childhood is not unidirectional but reciprocal. In this article, both directions of the media-child development relationship are presented. We discuss how child development predisposes children's media use and preferences by revi

  11. Child neglect: assessment and intervention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hornor, Gail

    2014-01-01

    Neglect is often a neglected form of child maltreatment even though it is the most common and deadliest form of child maltreatment. Pediatric nurse practitioners (PNPs) will most likely encounter neglected children in their practice. It is crucial that PNPs recognize child neglect in a timely manner and intervene appropriately. This continuing education article will help PNPs understand and respond to child neglect. Neglect will be defined and risk factors will be discussed. Children who are neglected can experience serious and lifelong consequences. The medical assessment and plan of care for children with concerns of suspected neglect will be discussed.

  12. An Assessment of the Validity of the ECERS-R with Implications for Measures of Child Care Quality and Relations to Child Development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gordon, Rachel A.; Fujimoto, Ken; Kaestner, Robert; Korenman, Sanders; Abner, Kristin

    2013-01-01

    The Early Childhood Environment Rating Scale-Revised (ECERS-R) is widely used to associate child care quality with child development, but its validity for this purpose is not well established. We examined the validity of the ECERS-R using the multidimensional Rasch partial credit model (PCM), factor analyses, and regression analyses with data from…

  13. Evaluating the risk of child abuse: the Child Abuse Risk Assessment Scale (CARAS)

    OpenAIRE

    Chan, KL

    2011-01-01

    The present study developed the Child Abuse Risk Assessment Scale (CARAS), an actuarial instrument for the assessment of the risk of physical child abuse. Data of 2,363 Chinese parents (47.7% male) living in Hong Kong were used in the analyses. Participants were individually interviewed with a questionnaire assessing their perpetration of child abuse and some theoretically or empirically tested factors associated with child abuse. Using the split-half validation procedure, the 5-factor, 64-it...

  14. The Child Behaviour Assessment Instrument: development and validation of a measure to screen for externalising child behavioural problems in community setting

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Perera Hemamali

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background In Sri Lanka, behavioural problems have grown to epidemic proportions accounting second highest category of mental health problems among children. Early identification of behavioural problems in children is an important pre-requisite of the implementation of interventions to prevent long term psychiatric outcomes. The objectives of the study were to develop and validate a screening instrument for use in the community setting to identify behavioural problems in children aged 4-6 years. Methods An initial 54 item questionnaire was developed following an extensive review of the literature. A three round Delphi process involving a panel of experts from six relevant fields was then undertaken to refine the nature and number of items and created the 15 item community screening instrument, Child Behaviour Assessment Instrument (CBAI. Validation study was conducted in the Medical Officer of Health area Kaduwela, Sri Lanka and a community sample of 332 children aged 4-6 years were recruited by two stage randomization process. The behaviour status of the participants was assessed by an interviewer using the CBAI and a clinical psychologist following clinical assessment concurrently. Criterion validity was appraised by assessing the sensitivity, specificity and predictive values at the optimum screen cut off value. Construct validity of the instrument was quantified by testing whether the data of validation study fits to a hypothetical model. Face and content validity of the CBAI were qualitatively assessed by a panel of experts. The reliability of the instrument was assessed by internal consistency analysis and test-retest methods in a 15% subset of the community sample. Results Using the Receiver Operating Characteristic analysis the CBAI score of >16 was identified as the cut off point that optimally differentiated children having behavioural problems, with a sensitivity of 0.88 (95% CI = 0.80-0.96 and specificity of 0.81 (95% CI = 0

  15. Family environment and child development

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tina Kavčič

    2005-04-01

    Full Text Available The paper presents an overview of research findings on influence of family environment, especially parental behaviour, on child's development. Contemporary authors question early socialization researchers' claims that family characteristics and parental behaviour have important influence on behaviour of their children. Later researchers examined the size and durability of possible effects of family environment on child development. In addition, they focused on establishing whether it is actually the parental behaviour that influences child's development or, on the contrary, parental behaviour represents mainly a reaction to child's characteristics. Behaviour genetic studies have provided evidence that many traditional measures of family environment, including measures of parental behaviour, show genetic influence, thus reflecting genetically influenced child characteristics. Behaviour geneticists also suggest that environmental influences on child (personality development include predominantly non-shared environment, i.e. individual child's specific experiences, his/her own perceptions and interpretations of objectively same events. Based on empirically determined significant genetic effects on most behavioural traits and inconclusive results of studies on effects of family environment on child development some authors believe that it is not the parents, but rather genetic factor and/or peers who have the key role in child development. With respect to findings of behaviour genetics numerous recent studies of relations between family environment and child development involve child specific measures of (extrafamilial environment and examine the interactions between characteristics of an individual and those of his/her environment.

  16. Countdown to 2015: changes in official development assistance to reproductive, maternal, newborn, and child health, and assessment of progress between 2003 and 2012

    OpenAIRE

    Leonardo Arregoces, MSc; Felicity Daly, DrPH; Catherine Pitt, MSc; Justine Hsu, MSc; Melisa Martinez-Alvarez, PhD; Giulia Greco, PhD; Prof. Anne Mills, PhD; Prof. Peter Berman, PhD; Dr. Josephine Borghi, PhD

    2015-01-01

    Background: Tracking of aid resources to reproductive, maternal, newborn, and child health (RMNCH) provides timely and crucial information to hold donors accountable. For the first time, we examine flows in official development assistance (ODA) and grants from the Bill & Melinda Gates Foundation (collectively termed ODA+) in relation to the continuum of care for RMNCH and assess progress since 2003. Methods: We coded and analysed financial disbursements for maternal, newborn, and child hea...

  17. The relationship development assessment - research version: preliminary validation of a clinical tool and coding schemes to measure parent-child interaction in autism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Larkin, Fionnuala; Guerin, Suzanne; Hobson, Jessica A; Gutstein, Steven E

    2015-04-01

    The aim of this project was to replicate and extend findings from two recent studies on parent-child relatedness in autism (Beurkens, Hobson, & Hobson, 2013; Hobson, Tarver, Beurkens, & Hobson, 2013, under review) by adapting an observational assessment and coding schemes of parent-child relatedness for the clinical context and examining their validity and reliability. The coding schemes focussed on three aspects of relatedness: joint attentional focus (Adamson, Bakeman, & Deckner, 2004), the capacity to co-regulate an interaction and the capacity to share emotional experiences. The participants were 40 children (20 with autism, 20 without autism) aged 6-14, and their parents. Parent-child dyads took part in the observational assessment and were coded on these schemes. Comparisons were made with standardised measures of autism severity (Autism Diagnostic Observation Schedule, ADOS: Lord, Rutter, DiLavore, & Risi, 2001; Social Responsiveness Scale, SRS: Constantino & Gruber, 2005), relationship quality (Parent Child Relationship Inventory, PCRI: Gerard, 1994) and quality of parent-child interaction (Dyadic Coding Scales, DCS: Humber & Moss, 2005). Inter-rater reliability was very good and, as predicted, codes both diverged from the measure of parent-child relationship and converged with a separate measure of parent-child interaction quality. A detailed profile review revealed nuanced areas of group and individual differences which may be specific to verbally-able school-age children. The results support the utility of the Relationship Development Assessment - Research Version for clinical practice. PMID:24366957

  18. Evaluating the Risk of Child Abuse: The Child Abuse Risk Assessment Scale (CARAS)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chan, Ko Ling

    2012-01-01

    The present study developed the Child Abuse Risk Assessment Scale (CARAS), an actuarial instrument for the assessment of the risk of physical child abuse. Data of 2,363 Chinese parents (47.7% male) living in Hong Kong were used in the analyses. Participants were individually interviewed with a questionnaire assessing their perpetration of child…

  19. Development of the SAFE Checklist Tool for Assessing Site-Level Threats to Child Protection: Use of Delphi Methods and Application to Two Sites in India.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Theresa S Betancourt

    Full Text Available The child protection community is increasingly focused on developing tools to assess threats to child protection and the basic security needs and rights of children and families living in adverse circumstances. Although tremendous advances have been made to improve measurement of individual child health status or household functioning for use in low-resource settings, little attention has been paid to a more diverse array of settings in which many children in adversity spend time and how context contributes to threats to child protection. The SAFE model posits that insecurity in any of the following fundamental domains threatens security in the others: Safety/freedom from harm; Access to basic physiological needs and healthcare; Family and connection to others; Education and economic security. Site-level tools are needed in order to monitor the conditions that can dramatically undermine or support healthy child growth, development and emotional and behavioral health. From refugee camps and orphanages to schools and housing complexes, site-level threats exist that are not well captured by commonly used measures of child health and well-being or assessments of single households (e.g., SDQ, HOME.The present study presents a methodology and the development of a scale for assessing site-level child protection threats in various settings of adversity. A modified Delphi panel process was enhanced with two stages of expert review in core content areas as well as review by experts in instrument development, and field pilot testing.Field testing in two diverse sites in India-a construction site and a railway station-revealed that the resulting SAFE instrument was sensitive to the differences between the sites from the standpoint of core child protection issues.

  20. What Matter for Child Development?

    OpenAIRE

    Fali Huang

    2006-01-01

    This paper estimates production functions of child cognitive and social development using a panel data of nine-year old children each with over two hundred home and school inputs as well as family background variables. A tree regression method is used to conduct estimation under various specifications. A small subset of inputs is found consistently important in explaining variances of child development results, including the number of books a child has at various ages and how often a mother r...

  1. Postpartum Depression and Child Development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murray, Lynne, Ed.; Cooper, Peter J., Ed.

    Only recently has the research on postpartum depression dealt with the disorder's effects on child development. This book explores the impact of postpartum depression on mother-infant interaction and child development, its treatment, and postpartum psychosis. The chapters are: (1) "The Nature of Postpartum Depressive Disorders" (Michael O'Hara);…

  2. Development of the Responsiveness to Child Feeding Cues Scale

    OpenAIRE

    Hodges, Eric A.; Johnson, Susan L.; Hughes, Sheryl O.; Hopkinson, Judy M.; Butte, Nancy F; Fisher, Jennifer O

    2013-01-01

    Parent-child feeding interactions during the first two years of life are thought to shape child appetite and obesity risk, but remain poorly studied. This research was designed to develop and assess the Responsiveness to Child Feeding Cues Scale (RCFCS), an observational measure of caregiver responsiveness to child feeding cues relevant to obesity. General responsiveness during feeding as well as maternal responsiveness to child hunger and fullness were rated during mid-morning feeding occasi...

  3. Development and initial psychometric examination of the Home Safety and Beautification Assessment in mothers referred to treatment by child welfare agents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Donohue, Brad; Pitts, Michelle; Chow, Graig M; Benning, Stephen D; Soto-Nevarez, Arturo; Plant, Christopher P; Allen, Daniel N

    2016-05-01

    Unintentional injury is the leading cause of death among children, with approximately 45% of injuries occurring in and around the home. Rates of home injury are particularly high in the homes of caregivers who are referred for intervention services by child welfare agents. However, there are few validated methods of home safety assessment available. The Home Safety and Beautification Assessment (HSBA) was developed to assist intervention planning specific to home safety and appearance in a sample of 77 mothers who were referred to treatment by Child Welfare Services. Exploratory factor analysis of HSBA items indicated that safety and appearance factors emerged across rooms in the home, and internal consistencies were good. For each room, the sums of assessors' safety and appearance intervention priority item scores were correlated with the assessors' global safety and appearance ratings of the entire home, respectively. The participants' overall room attractiveness scores were correlated with the assessors' overall room appearance intervention priority scores, whereas the participants' ratings of overall room safety were not correlated with the assessors' overall room safety intervention priority scores. Participants' scores on the Abuse subscale of the Child Abuse Potential Inventory, personal income, and education level were not associated with the assessors' home safety and appearance intervention priority ratings, suggesting the HSBA is assessing constructs that are distinct from child abuse potential and socioeconomic status. The results support the HSBA in a sample referred to treatment by child welfare agents. (PsycINFO Database Record PMID:26322799

  4. The concretization of the term sustainable spatial development for the assessment of child and juvenile awareness

    OpenAIRE

    Tadeja Zupančič; Tomaž Novljan; Matevž Juvančič; Špela Verovšek; Maruška Šubic Kovač; Andreja Istenič Starčič; Matija Svetina

    2009-01-01

    The following article is targeted at the comprehensive co-shaping of the conditions required for the active education on the effective and concrete contributions to sustainable development, with the emphasis based on the built environment or architecture. It defines the role of education on the built environment or architecture within the concept of sustainable development, determines the grounds for adjusting the methods of delivering architectural contents and defines the educational conten...

  5. The Development and Evaluation of Procedures to Assess Child Self-report Item Validity

    OpenAIRE

    Woolley, Michael E.; Bowen, Gary L.; Bowen, Natasha K.

    2006-01-01

    Cognitive pretesting (CP) is an interview methodology for pretesting the validity of items during the development of self-report instruments. The present research evaluates a systematic approach to the analysis of CP data. Materials and procedures were developed to rate self-report item performance with CP interview text data. Five raters were trained in the application of that system. Estimates of inter-rater reliability found acceptable to substantial levels of inter-rater agreement. Result...

  6. Child Care Subsidies and Child Development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herbst, Chris M.; Tekin, Erdal

    2010-01-01

    Child care subsidies are an important part of federal and state efforts to move welfare recipients into employment. One of the criticisms of the current subsidy system, however, is that it overemphasizes work and does little to encourage parents to purchase high-quality child care. Consequently, there are reasons to be concerned about the…

  7. Child Care Subsidy Use and Child Development: Potential Causal Mechanisms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hawkinson, Laura E.

    2011-01-01

    Research using an experimental design is needed to provide firm causal evidence on the impacts of child care subsidy use on child development, and on underlying causal mechanisms since subsidies can affect child development only indirectly via changes they cause in children's early experiences. However, before costly experimental research is…

  8. Clinical Assessment of Child and Adolescent Sleep Disturbance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuhn, Brett R.; Mayfield, Joan W.; Kuhn, Robert H.

    1999-01-01

    Provides guidelines for counselors interested in developing their own assessment procedure to evaluate child and adolescent sleep disturbance. Guidelines include reviewing the developmental and medical history, screening for parental psychopathology, obtaining a child behavior rating scale and sleep diary, and conducting a semistructured clinical…

  9. Child Sexual Abuse Assessment: Issues in Professional Ethics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Milchman, Madelyn Simring

    1995-01-01

    Coordinates ethical codes for psychiatry, psychology, and social work and discusses their implications for child sexual abuse assessment in child protection and divorce/custody/visitation cases. Guidelines developed by the American Professional Society on the Abuse of Children are also considered. Confidentiality, protection from harm, and bias…

  10. Child Psychological Maltreatment in the Family: Definition and Severity Assessment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mª Ignacia Arruabarrena

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available Psychological maltreatment is one of the main and potentially more destructive forms of child maltreatment. It is difficult to identify, assess and treat. Compared to other forms of child maltreatment such as sexual abuse, physical abuse and neglect, attention received from researchers, child protection service managers and practitioners has been scarce. A review of available knowledge about psychological maltreatment reveals challenges to define the concept in ways useful to policy makers and practitioners. This paper presents a review of definitions of child psychological maltreatment and several measures available for assessing its severity. The review has been used in the Comunidad Autónoma Vasca (Spain to develop more specific criteria for the identification and severity assessment of child psychological maltreatment in Spanish children services. This paper develops these criteria.

  11. Stress and Child Development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thompson, Ross A.

    2014-01-01

    Children's early social experiences shape their developing neurological and biological systems for good or for ill, writes Ross Thompson, and the kinds of stressful experiences that are endemic to families living in poverty can alter children's neurobiology in ways that undermine their health, their social competence, and their ability…

  12. Sports and child development

    OpenAIRE

    Christina Felfe; Michael Lechner; Andreas Steinmayr

    2011-01-01

    Despite the relevance of cognitive and non-cognitive skills for professional success, their formation is not yet fully understood. This study fills part of this gap by analyzing the effect of sports club participation, one of the most popular extra-curricular activities, on children’s skill development. Our results indicate positive effects: both cognitive skills, measured by school performance, and overall non-cognitive skills improve by 0.13 standard deviations. The results are robust when ...

  13. Clinical assessment of suspected child physical abuse

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Violence against children has many faces. Child physical abuse, neglect, sexual abuse and interparental violence can cause acute and permanent damage and affect children's development and their life plans in the long term. In industrialized nations almost 1 child in 10 is affected. Up to 10% of child physical abuse cases involve the central nervous system with 80% of these cases occurring during the first year of life. Worldwide more than 50,000 children die as a result of violence, abuse and neglect every year, according to the United Nations Children's Fund UNICEF. In Germany, there are about 120 cases of non-accidental head injury per year. In addition to the officially known cases there is a large grey area for all forms of violence. Recognition of these cases and the provision of help for the victims require an appropriate suspicion and understanding of the pertinent pathophysiology. Suspicion must be based on a well-documented medical history and multidisciplinary diagnostic assessment. Medical confidentiality prevents the disclosure of such information making early detection networks and guidelines for collaboration absolutely indispensable. (orig.)

  14. Household choices and child development

    OpenAIRE

    Del Boca, Daniela; Flinn, Christopher; Wiswall, Matthew

    2010-01-01

    The growth in labor market participation among women with young children has raised concerns about the potential negative impact of the mother's absence from home on child outcomes. Recent data show that mother's time spent with children has declined in the last decade, while the indicators of children’s cognitive and noncognitive outcomes have worsened. The objective of our research is to estimate a model of the cognitive development process of children nested within an otherwise standard mo...

  15. Day-care attendance and child development:

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bauchmüller, Robert; Gørtz, Mette; Rasmussen, Astrid Würtz

    , of total work experiences, ages and hourly wages of staff members. Those indicators show the expected correlations with children’s development outcomes, better day-care quality being linked to better child outcomes ten years later. We use rich administrative information about the children’s background......Earlier research suggests that children’s development is shaped in their early years of life. This paper examines whether differences in day-care experiences during pre-school age are important for children’s cognitive and language development at the age of 15. The analysis is based on class...... performance at the end of elementary schooling. We assess the effects of attended types and qualities of day-care institutions on various child outcomes as measured by school grades in mathematics, science, English and Danish for the whole Danish population as well as outcomes from the 2006 PISA Denmark...

  16. Pre-School Attendance and Child Development

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bauchmüller, Robert; Gørtz, Mette; Rasmussen, Astrid Würtz

    , of total work experiences, ages and hourly wages of staff members. Those indicators show the expected correlations with children's development outcomes, better day-care quality being linked to better child outcomes ten years later. We use rich administrative information about the children's background......Earlier research suggests that children's development is shaped in their early years of life. This paper examines whether differences in day-care experiences during pre-school age are important for children's cognitive and language development at the age of 15. The analysis is based on class...... performance at the end of elementary schooling. We assess the effects of attended types and qualities of day-care institutions on various child outcomes as measured by school grades in mathematics, science, English and Danish for the whole Danish population as well as outcomes from the 2006 PISA Denmark...

  17. The Only Child Factor in Homosexual Development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hogan, Robert A.; And Others

    1980-01-01

    An investigation of the life experiences and attitudes of homosexual women with only-child status reveals that their emotional and social development is less favorable than that of homosexual women who had siblings. Only-child status is an important variable in understanding child development. (Author/CS)

  18. Intersectoral Mobilization in Child Development: An Outcome Assessment of the Survey of the School Readiness of Montreal Children

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Isabelle Laurin

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available In 2006, the department of public health in Montreal, Quebec, Canada, conducted the Survey of the School Readiness of Montreal Children. After unveiling the results in February 2008, it launched an appeal for intersectoral mobilization. This article documents the chain of events in the collective decision-making process that fostered ownership of the survey results and involvement in action. It also documents the impacts of those findings on intersectoral action and the organization of early childhood services four years later. The results show that the survey served as a catalyst for intersectoral action as reflected in the increased size and strength of the actor network and the formalization of the highly-anticipated collaboration between school and early childhood networks. Actors have made abundant use of survey results in planning and justifying the continuation of projects or implementation of new ones. A notable outcome, in all territories, has been the development of both transition-to-kindergarten tools and literacy activities. The portrait drawn by the research raises significant issues for public planning while serving as a reminder of the importance of intersectoral mobilization in providing support for multiple trajectories of child preschool development.

  19. Child Maltreatment and Adolescent Development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trickett, Penelope K.; Negriff, Sonya; Ji, Juye; Peckins, Melissa

    2011-01-01

    Child abuse and neglect, often collectively called child maltreatment, are huge social problems affecting millions of children and adolescents in America. Adolescents are affected both by maltreatment which occurred during childhood with lingering effects and by maltreatment that continues into or begins in adolescence. Several decades of research…

  20. Improving Child Nutrition Outcomes in India : Can the Integrated Child Development Services Program Be More Effective?

    OpenAIRE

    Das Gupta, Monica; Lokshin, Michael; Gragnolati, Michele; Ivaschenko, Oleksiy

    2005-01-01

    Levels of child malnutrition in India fell only slowly during the 1990s, despite significant economic growth and large public spending on the Integrated Child Development Services (ICDS) program, of which the major component is supplementary feeding for malnourished children. To unravel this puzzle, the authors assess the program's placement and its outcomes using National Family Health Survey data from 1992 and 1998. They find that program placement is clearly regressive across states. The s...

  1. Improving child nutrition outcomes in India : can the integrated child development services be more effective?

    OpenAIRE

    Das Gupta, Monica; Lokshin, Michael; Gragnolati, Michele; Ivaschenko, Oleksiy

    2005-01-01

    Levels of child malnutrition in India fell only slowly during the 1990s, despite significant economic growth and large public spending on the Integrated Child Development Services (ICDS) program, of which the major component is supplementary feeding for malnourished children. To unravel this puzzle, the authors assess the program's placement and its outcomes using National Family Health Survey data from 1992 and 1998. They find that program placement is clearly regressive across states. The s...

  2. JING Qicheng wins award for child development

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2007-01-01

    @@ Together with two US psychologists, Prof. JING Qicheng from the CAS Institute of Psychology (IP) has been honored with the Award for Distinguished Scientific Contributions to Child Development in 2007 by the US-based Society for Research in Child Development(SRCD).

  3. Developing Your Child's Self-Esteem

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... to Know About Zika & Pregnancy Developing Your Child's Self-Esteem KidsHealth > For Parents > Developing Your Child's Self-Esteem ... response might be "I can't." What Is Self-Esteem? Self-esteem is similar to self-worth (how ...

  4. Child Social Development in Context

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Godwin S. Ashiabi

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available In his later writings, Bronfenbrenner revised his ecological theory, resulting in the bioecological model that gave prominence to proximal processes and the relationship between the context and individual characteristics. Drawing on the bioecological model, we hypothesized that (a contextual influences will be mediated by proximal processes, (b proximal processes will have a more powerful impact on children’s development than contextual factors, and (c the effect of contextual and proximal processes will vary as a function of child characteristic and developmental outcome. Data used were from a sample of 28,064 six- to eleven-year-olds in the 2007 National Survey of Children’s Health. A multigroup structural equation model that employed a process-person-context research design was used to analyze the data. In general, support was found for the meditational hypothesis and the hypothesis that the impact of contextual factors and proximal processes varies as a function of person and the developmental outcome. Partial support was found for the hypothesis that proximal processes exert a more powerful effect on development than contextual factors.

  5. Risk assessment of parents' concerns at 18 months in preventive child health care predicted child abuse and neglect

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    I.I.E. Staal; J.M.A. Hermanns; A.J.P. Schrijvers; H.F. van Stel

    2013-01-01

    Objective: As child maltreatment has a major impact, prevention and early detection of parenting problems are of great importance. We have developed a structured interview which uses parents’ concerns for a joint needs assessment by parents and a child health care nurse, followed by a professional j

  6. Creating Trauma-Informed Child Welfare Systems Using a Community Assessment Process

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hendricks, Alison; Conradi, Lisa; Wilson, Charles

    2011-01-01

    This article describes a community assessment process designed to evaluate a specific child welfare jurisdiction based on the current definition of trauma-informed child welfare and its essential elements. This process has recently been developed and pilot tested within three diverse child welfare systems in the United States. The purpose of the…

  7. Standardised Observation Analogue Procedure (SOAP) for Assessing Parent and Child Behaviours in Clinical Trials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, Cynthia R.; Butter, Eric M.; Handen, Benjamin L.; Sukhodolsky, Denis G.; Mulick, James; Lecavalier, Luc; Aman, Michael G.; Arnold, Eugene L.; Scahill, Lawrence; Swiezy, Naomi; Sacco, Kelley; Stigler, Kimberly A.; McDougle, Christopher J.

    2009-01-01

    Background: Observational measures of parent and child behaviours have a long history in child psychiatric and psychological intervention research, including the field of autism and developmental disability. We describe the development of the Standardised Observational Analogue Procedure (SOAP) for the assessment of parent-child behaviour before…

  8. Parents' child-directed communication and child language development: a longitudinal study with Italian toddlers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Majorano, Marinella; Rainieri, Chiara; Corsano, Paola

    2013-09-01

    The present study focuses on the characteristics of parental child-directed communication and its relationship with child language development. For this purpose, thirty-six toddlers (18 males and 18 females) and their parents were observed in a laboratory during triadic free play at ages 1 ; 3 and 1 ; 9. The characteristics of the maternal and paternal child-directed language (characteristics of communicative functions and lexicon as reported in psycholinguistic norms for Italian language) were coded during free play. Child language development was assessed during free play and at ages 2 ; 6 and 3 ; 0 using the Italian version of the MacArthur-Bates Communicative Development Inventory (2 ; 6) and the revised Peabody Picture Vocabulary Test (PPVT-R) (3 ; 0). Data analysis indicated differences between mothers and fathers in the quantitative characteristics of communicative functions and language, such as the mean length of utterances (MLU), and the number of tokens and types. Mothers also produced the more frequent nouns in the child lexicon. There emerged a relation between the characteristics of parental child-directed language and child language development.

  9. 18-24 Months: Your Child's Development

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Resources & Services Parenting Resource 18–24 Months: Your Child’s Development Download Files Feb 10, 2016 This is a ... home language in the same sentence. Downloads Your Child's Development: 18–24 Months PDF 464 KB Read more ...

  10. Developing an eBook-Integrated High-Fidelity Mobile App Prototype for Promoting Child Motor Skills and Taxonomically Assessing Children's Emotional Responses Using Face and Sound Topology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, William; Liu, Connie; John, Rita Marie; Ford, Phoebe

    2014-01-01

    Developing gross and fine motor skills and expressing complex emotion is critical for child development. We introduce "StorySense", an eBook-integrated mobile app prototype that can sense face and sound topologies and identify movement and expression to promote children's motor skills and emotional developmental. Currently, most interactive eBooks on mobile devices only leverage "low-motor" interaction (i.e. tapping or swiping). Our app senses a greater breath of motion (e.g. clapping, snapping, and face tracking), and dynamically alters the storyline according to physical responses in ways that encourage the performance of predetermined motor skills ideal for a child's gross and fine motor development. In addition, our app can capture changes in facial topology, which can later be mapped using the Facial Action Coding System (FACS) for later interpretation of emotion. StorySense expands the human computer interaction vocabulary for mobile devices. Potential clinical applications include child development, physical therapy, and autism.

  11. Risk assessment of parents' concerns at 18 months in preventive child health care predicted child abuse and neglect

    OpenAIRE

    Staal, I.I.E.; Hermanns, J.M.A.; Schrijvers, A.J.P.; Stel, van, H.F.

    2013-01-01

    Objective: As child maltreatment has a major impact, prevention and early detection of parenting problems are of great importance. We have developed a structured interview which uses parents’ concerns for a joint needs assessment by parents and a child health care nurse, followed by a professional judgment on the risk level of future parenting and developmental problems: the Structured Problem Analysis of Raising Kids (SPARK). Previous results have shown that the risk assessment of the SPARK ...

  12. 33 CFR 55.9 - Child development centers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Child development centers. 55.9... DEVELOPMENT SERVICES General § 55.9 Child development centers. (a) The Commandant may make child development services available at child development centers located at Coast Guard installations. (b) Regular...

  13. Parental Employment and Child Cognitive Development

    OpenAIRE

    Ruhm, Christopher J.

    2000-01-01

    This study investigates the relationship between parental employment and child cognitive development using data from multiple years of the National Longitudinal Survey of Youth. Maternal labor supply during the first three years of the child's life is predicted to have a small negative effect on the verbal ability of 3 and 4 year olds and a substantial detrimental impact on the reading and math achievement of 5 and 6 year olds. Working during the second and third years appears to have less fa...

  14. Development of foster mother-child attachment

    OpenAIRE

    Korhonen, J

    2014-01-01

    The impact of early attachment relationships and child-adult attachment relationships to children’s social and emotional development has been recognised for a long time. Since the pioneering attachment theories of John Bowlby and Mary Ainsworth highlighting the importance of secure child-adult attachments, many other theories from various perspectives have risen to fill in the gaps. These theories are examined with the framework of foster care in mind. In Finland, the primary solution fo...

  15. Assessment of nutritional activities under integrated child development services at anganwadi centers of different districts of Gujarat from April 2012 to March 2015

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rajesh K Chudasama

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: The Integrated Child Development Service (ICDS program aims at enhancing survival and development of children from the vulnerable sections of the society. Aim: The present study was conducted to assess various nutritional activities at anganwadi centers (AWCs in different districts of Gujarat state. Settings and Design: AWCs, cross-sectional study. Materials and Methods: A total of 130 AWCs were selected including 95 from rural and 35 from urban area from April 2012 to March 2015 including 12 districts of Gujarat and union territory, Diu. Five AWCs were selected from one district randomly. Detailed information about various nutritional activities including growth monitoring, preschool education (PSE and nutrition and health education (NHED, coverage for supplementary nutrition (SN, type of food provided under SN, and its issues at AWCs was collected. Statistical Analysis: Percentages, proportions, Chi-square/Fischer's exact test. Results: Growth chart was available in 96.9% AWCs. The malnutrition was reported among 14.9% children. PSE received by all children was only in 14.6% AWCs. NHED meeting was conducted in 73.8% AWCs. High coverage of receiving SN among enrolled was reported in pregnant and lactating mothers (84.6% and adolescents (79.2%. SN was fully acceptable in 91.5% AWCs. Interruption in SN supply during last 6 months was reported in 55.4% AWCs. Conclusion: Regular workshops should be conducted for ICDS staff to sensitize them about the importance of and practices on PSE. Interruption in supply of SN should be corrected by regular and adequate provision of SN foods to the beneficiaries.

  16. The Impact of Child Health and Family Inputs on Child Cognitive Develop-ment

    OpenAIRE

    Robert Kaestner; Hope Corman

    1995-01-01

    In this paper we extensively analyze the impact of child health and other family characteristics on the cognitive achievement of children between the ages of five and nine. We estimate both cross sectional and fixed effects models using data from the National Longitudinal Survey of Youth. Several of our results challenge the conclusions found in the existing literature. First, we find only a weak relationship between several measures of child health and child cognitive development. Second, we...

  17. Mutually Responsive Orientation: A novel observational assessment of mother-child mealtime interactions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bergmeier, Heidi; Aksan, Nazan; McPhie, Skye; Fuller-Tyszkiewicz, Matthew; Baur, Louise; Milgrom, Jeannette; Campbell, Karen; Demir, Defne; Skouteris, Helen

    2016-10-01

    Mother-child mealtime interactions during preschool years is an important but overlooked factor when evaluating the influence of parent-child relationships on child eating and weight. This paper describes the validation of the Mutually Responsive Orientation (MRO) coding system adapted for assessing parent-child interactions during food preparation and consumption situations. Home-based mealtimes of 94 mothers and their children (3.03 ± 0.75 years) were filmed at two time points, 12-months apart. Filmed dimensions of mutual mother-child responsiveness, shared positive affect, maternal control relating to food and child compliance were assessed. Objective BMI and maternal reports of parenting, feeding, child eating, diet and child temperament were also collected. Correlations, repeated measures ANOVAs and regressions were performed to examine the validity of MRO variables and their stability across both time points. Validation analysis showed the MRO coding system performed as expected: dyads with higher MRO scores expressed lower control/power assertion, lower child non-compliance, and greater committed compliance. The measure demonstrated sensitivity to specific contexts: maternal responsiveness, mother and child positive affect were higher during food consumption compared to food preparation. Coded dimensions were stable across time points, with the exception of decreases in maternal responsiveness in food consumption and child non-compliance in food preparation. MRO and maternal dimensions were correlated with maternally reported parenting and feeding measures. Maternal responsiveness (inversely) and child responsiveness (positively) were concurrently associated with child fussy eating, and child refusal was prospectively and inversely associated with child fussy eating. Findings suggest the adapted MRO coding system is a useful measure for examining observed parent-child mealtime interactions potentially implicated in preschoolers' eating and weight

  18. 30-36 Months: Your Child's Development

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Resources & Services Parenting Resource 30–36 Months: Your Child’s Development Download Files Feb 10, 2016 Older toddlers are ... go?” Then you two can switch. Downloads Your Child's Development: 30–36 Months PDF 373 KB Read more ...

  19. Child and Adolescent Development for Educators

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pressley, Michael; McCormick, Christine B.

    2006-01-01

    Filling a tremendous need, this is the first graduate-level child development text written specifically for future educators. The volume provides a solid understanding of major theories of development, focusing on how each has informed research and practice in educational contexts. Topics include the impact of biology and early experiences on the…

  20. Evolving Stories of Child Career Development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Watson, Mark; Nota, Laura; McMahon, Mary

    2015-01-01

    Herein, the contributions to this special issue and positions the field of child career development in terms of its past, present, and future are considered. There is an initial brief overview of past developments in the field, specifically as described in seminal reviews. The article then considers the present status of and future agenda for the…

  1. Maternal Work Conditions and Child Development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Felfe, Christina; Hsin, Amy

    2012-01-01

    How do maternal work conditions, such as psychological stress and physical hazards, affect children's development? Combining data from the Child Development Supplement of the Panel Study of Income Dynamics and the Occupational Information Network allows us to shed some light on this question. We employ various techniques including OLS with…

  2. A Child Survival and Development Revolution?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Halpern, Robert

    1986-01-01

    Addresses the problems of child survival and development in developing countries by discussing the biomedical causes and the concomitant social determinants of high infant mortality rates. Describes four intervention strategies recommended by UNICEF: growth monitoring, oral rehydration therapy, breast feeding, and immunization. (HOD)

  3. Child development: analysis of a new concept

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juliana Martins de Souza

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Objectives: to perform concept analysis of the term child development (CD and submit it to review by experts. Method: analysis of concept according to the hybrid model, in three phases: theoretical phase, with literature review; field phase of qualitative research with professionals who care for children; and analytical phase, of articulation of data from previous steps, based on the bioecological theory of development. The new definition was analyzed by experts in a focus group. Project approved by the Research Ethics Committee. Results: we reviewed 256 articles, from 12 databases and books, and interviewed 10 professionals, identifying that: The CD concept has as antecedents aspects of pregnancy, factors of the child, factors of context, highlighting the relationships and child care, and social aspects; its consequences can be positive or negative, impacting on society; its attributes are behaviors and abilities of the child; its definitions are based on maturation, contextual perspectives or both. The new definition elaborated in concept analysis was validated by nine experts in focus group. It expresses the magnitude of the phenomenon and factors not presented in other definitions. Conclusion: the research produced a new definition of CD that can improve nursing classifications for the comprehensive care of the child.

  4. Child human model development: a hybrid validation approach

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Forbes, P.A.; Rooij, L. van; Rodarius, C.; Crandall, J.

    2008-01-01

    The current study presents a development and validation approach of a child human body model that will help understand child impact injuries and improve the biofidelity of child anthropometric test devices. Due to the lack of fundamental child biomechanical data needed to fully develop such models a

  5. The Child's Right to Development

    OpenAIRE

    Peleg, N.

    2013-01-01

    Protecting children’s development is a key principle of international children’s rights law. However, while the meanings of children’s development are a central concern of disciplines such as psychology, sociology, neurology and pedagogy, so far there has been no systematic analysis of the meaning of the child’s legal right to development. This thesis remedies this significant gap in our knowledge by establishing the foundations for analysing the child’s right to development, as protected by ...

  6. Maternal perception regarding child care and development

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mirna Albuquerque Frota

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To investigate the perception of mothers regarding the care and development of their children. Methods: This was a descriptive and qualitative study, conducted in a Basic Health Unit (UBS in Fortaleza-CE, Brazil, in the period from July to October, 2008. The subjects were twenty mothers who accompanied their children in childcare consultation and met with favorable clinical conditions. Data collection techniques used free observation and semistructured interview consisting of questions involving the perception of child development and care. Results: By means of data analysis the following categories emerged: “Smile and play: mother’s perception regarding the development of the child”; “Take care: emphasis on breastfeeding and body hygiene”. The main source of nonverbal communication that the child has to convey affection and love is the smile, being an essential activity to child development. We verified that the care with breastfeeding and body hygiene suggest behavioral indicators of maternal sensitivity. Final considerations: The childcare consultation held in UBS is essential, because it allows integration of ideas and actions shared with the professional-parent dyad, thus providing the arousal of new experiences in care and the influence on child development.

  7. Assessing Abuse Risk beyond Self-Report: Analog Task of Acceptability of Parent-Child Aggression

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodriguez, Christina M.; Russa, Mary Bower; Harmon, Nancy

    2011-01-01

    Objectives: The present investigation reports on the development and initial validation of a new analog task, the Parent-Child Aggression Acceptability Movie Task (P-CAAM), intended to assess respondents' acceptance of parent-child aggression, including both physical discipline and physical abuse. Methods: Two independent samples were utilized to…

  8. Clinical Assessment Instruments in the Treatment of Child Abuse and Neglect.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rittner, Barbara; Wodarski, John S.

    1995-01-01

    A variety of objective measures have been developed to assess child abuse and neglect and that can be used by practitioners with minimal disruption in terms of time, energy, cost, and ease of use. Reviews instruments that child welfare workers, specifically, and practitioners involved in children's services, in general, can use in the assessment…

  9. Child Development: An Active Learning Approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Levine, Laura E.; Munsch, Joyce

    2010-01-01

    Within each chapter of this innovative topical text, the authors engage students by demonstrating the wide range of real-world applications of psychological research connected to child development. In particular, the distinctive Active Learning features incorporated throughout the book foster a dynamic and personal learning process for students.…

  10. Family Poverty, Welfare Reform, and Child Development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duncan, Greg J.; Brooks-Gunn, Jeanne

    2000-01-01

    Examines consequences of family poverty for child development, noting evidence that deep or persistent poverty early in childhood adversely affects children's ability and achievement. Argues that although the 1996 welfare reforms spurred many welfare-to-work transitions, their time limits and sanctions are likely to deepen poverty among some…

  11. Investigating the effects of child maltreatment and household dysfunction on child physical development in a British birth cohort

    OpenAIRE

    Denholm, R. E.

    2013-01-01

    Recent evidence suggests adverse childhood experiences (maltreatment and household dysfunction) may have long-term effects on adult health. One possible pathway is through physical development. This thesis investigated the prevalence of child maltreatment and household dysfunction in a population sample, and assessed their association with child-to-adult height and pubertal development. The 1958 British birth cohort includes all children (≈17,000) born in one week, March 1958, followed-up to ...

  12. The Impact of Nutrition on Child Development at 3 Years in a Rural Community of India

    OpenAIRE

    Syed Sadat Ali; Dhaded; Shivprasad Goudar

    2014-01-01

    Background: In India, child malnutrition is mostly the result of high levels of exposure to infection and inappropriate infant and young child feeding and caring practices and has its origins almost entirely during the first 2 to 3 years of life. This study aims in assessing the impact of breast feeding on child development of children at 3 years. Methods: About 530 children at 3 years were assessed for developmental delay by Ages and Stages Questionnaire (ASQ). Growth measurements and he...

  13. Child Care and Development Block Grant Participation in 2012

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matthews, Hannah; Reeves, Rhiannon

    2014-01-01

    The Child Care and Development Block Grant (CCDBG) is the primary funding source for federal child care subsidies to low-income working families, as well as improving child care quality. Based on preliminary state-reported data from the federal Office of Child Care, this fact sheet provides a snapshot of CCDBG program participation in 2012, noting…

  14. Effects of integrated child development and nutrition interventions on child development and nutritional status.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grantham-McGregor, Sally M; Fernald, Lia C H; Kagawa, Rose M C; Walker, Susan

    2014-01-01

    We conducted a systematic review of studies that examined the effect of interventions combining a child development component with a nutrition one; in some cases the nutrition interventions also included health-promotion components. Only papers with both child development and nutrition outcomes and rated as moderate-to-good quality were included. Eleven efficacy and two nonrandomized trials, and eight program evaluations were identified. Only six trials examined interventions separately and combined. The trials showed nutritional interventions usually benefited nutritional status and sometimes benefited child development. Stimulation consistently benefited child development. There was no significant loss of any effect when interventions were combined, but there was little evidence of synergistic interaction between nutrition and stimulation on child development. Only three trials followed up the children after intervention. All at-scale program evaluations were combined interventions. Five benefited child development, but one did not, and two showed deficits. There was generally little benefit of at-scale programs to nutritional status. We found no rigorous evaluations of adding stimulation to health and nutrition services at scale and there is an urgent need for them. There is also a need to establish quality-control mechanisms for existing scaled-up programs and to determine their long-term effects. There is also a need to determine if there are any sustained benefits for the children after programs finish.

  15. Study of Early Child Care and Youth Development (SECCYD)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... NICHD Science Advances Supported Networks, Programs & Initiatives NICHD Study of Early Child Care and Youth Development (SECCYD) ... Sunsetted/For Reference Only The NICHD started the Study of Early Child Care and Youth Development (SECCYD), ...

  16. Randomized Social Policy Experiments and Research on Child Development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Romich, Jennifer L.

    2006-01-01

    Randomized social policy experiments (SPEs) are an important methodology for investigating topics in child development. This article provides a framework for understanding how evidence from SPEs can add to knowledge about child development. The use of SPEs for child development questions to date is summarized and lessons from the applied economics…

  17. Social development and the girl child.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gangrade, K D

    1995-01-01

    This article discusses the social development of female children in India. Social development is "not merely an effort to provide ad hoc growth targets in each of the sectors of planning," but an integrative concept. Sustainable human development, according to Gus Speth (1994), is development that not only generates economic growth, it distributes its benefits equitably, regenerates the environment, and empowers people. India is ranked as 5th out of 132 countries in the 1994 World Bank Report, but 135th out of 173 in the Human Development Report. In India, there were 9000 dowry-related deaths in 1993. Son preference occurs regardless of social class. The sex ratio declined as low as 811 females per 1000 males in Jaisalmer district of Rajasthan. The government of India developed a National Action Plan that is committed to the survival, protection, and development of female children. The Integrated Child Development Scheme, in 2696 blocks with a coverage of 250,000 villages and 224 urban slum areas, has demonstrated its effectiveness in increased child nutrition. Survival of girl children is 50% less than male survival in the first 30 days of life. Under 50% of girls are enrolled in schools. Bihar state is particularly backward in enhancing girls' status through modernization and increased female enrollments. Child labor may contribute about 25-29% of gross national product. Bihar, Madhya Pradesh, Rajasthan, and Uttar Pradesh, with 40% of the total population, have over 60% of their females marrying below the age of 20 years. Recommended are universal enrollment of all children from scheduled caste and tribes; nonformal educational options for school drop outs, working children, and girls who cannot attend school; and increasing upper school education of girls. A variety of other recommendations are made on improving the status of women for working women, unmarried single women, and women in general. PMID:12158018

  18. A longitudinal investigation of maternal influences on the development of child hostile attributions and aggression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Healy, Sarah J; Murray, Lynne; Cooper, Peter J; Hughes, Claire; Halligan, Sarah L

    2015-01-01

    Aggression in children is associated with an enhanced tendency to attribute hostile intentions to others. However, limited information is available regarding the factors that contribute to the development of such hostile attribution tendencies. We examined factors that contribute to individual differences in child hostile attributions and aggression, focusing on potential pathways from maternal hostile attributions via negative parenting behavior. We conducted a longitudinal study of 98 mothers and children (47 male, 51 female), recruited from groups experiencing high and low levels of psychosocial adversity. Maternal hostile attributions, observed parenting, and child behaviour were assessed at 18 months and 5 years child age, and child hostile attributions were also examined at 5 years. Independent assessments of maternal and child processes were utilized where possible. Analyses provided support for a direct influence of maternal hostile attributions on the development of child hostile attributions and aggressive behaviour. Maternal hostile attributions were also associated with negative parenting behaviour, which in turn influenced child adjustment. Even taking account of possible parenting influences and preexisting child difficulties, hostile attributions in the mother showed a direct link with child aggression at 5 years. Maternal hostile attributions were themselves related to psychosocial adversity. We conclude that maternal hostile attributions are prevalent in high-risk samples and are related to less optimal parenting behaviour, child hostile attributions, and child aggression. Targeting hostile maternal cognitions may be a useful adjunct to parenting programs.

  19. Clinical application of music therapy assessment within the field of child protection

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jacobsen, Stine Lindahl; Killén, Kari

    2015-01-01

    The focus of this article is the theoretical understanding behind, and the clinical application of, a newly developed music-therapy assessment tool, Assessment of Parenting Competencies (APC). While the psychometric properties have been analyzed successfully in prior publications, the advantages...... and challenges of a nonverbal and emotional interactional medium such as music in assessing parent–child interaction and parental capacity are presented and discussed. The assessment model relates to theories of attunement, autonomy, and attachment, and clinical relevance for practice within the field of child......-service professions within the field of child protection, including level of mutual attunement, nonverbal communication skills, emotional parental response, and possibly indications of attachment behavior in the child. APC can thereby help indicate the severity of the situation and the possible therapeutic direction...

  20. 78 FR 29441 - Child Care and Development Fund (CCDF) Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-05-20

    ... 20, 2013 Part II Department of Health and Human Services 45 CFR Part 98 Child Care and Development... Development Fund (CCDF) Program AGENCY: Office of Child Care (OCC), Administration for Children and Families...: The Administration for Children and Families (ACF) proposes to amend the Child Care and...

  1. Language development in early childhood in relation to child's gender and parental education

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Urška Fekonja

    2005-04-01

    Full Text Available Many studies show that parental education and child's gender are the factors that influence child's language development. The purpose of the longitudinal study was to examine the effect of parental education and child's gender on language competence of children aged 3 to 4 years. The sample included 80 randomly chosen children, 39 girls and 41 boys, who were included in one of 13 preschool institutions from different regions of Slovenia. The average age of the children was 3;1 years at the first assessment and 4;1 years at the second assessment, one year later. The characteristics of child'slanguage development were assessed by 3 assessors in 3 different social contexts, in test situation by a trained examiner, in child's home environment by his mother and in the preschool institution by his preschool teacher. Results show a positive effect of mother's educational level on some of the measures of child's language development, e.g. achievements on Language development scale; developmental level of storytelling, mother's estimation of child's language competence, while the father's educational level had no significant effect on any of the obtained measures. Child's gender had only a small effect on his achievements on language expression subscale at the age of 3 and 4 as well as on the preschool teacher's estimations of child's language competence at 4 years of age.

  2. Child Development in Developing Countries: Introduction and Methods

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bornstein, Marc H.; Britto, Pia Rebello; Nonoyama-Tarumi, Yuko; Ota, Yumiko; Petrovic, Oliver; Putnick, Diane L.

    2012-01-01

    The Multiple Indicator Cluster Survey (MICS) is a nationally representative, internationally comparable household survey implemented to examine protective and risk factors of child development in developing countries around the world. This introduction describes the conceptual framework, nature of the MICS3, and general analytic plan of articles…

  3. The Big Five: Recent developments in Slovene child personality research

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maja Zupančič

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents an overview of recent personality trait research in children and early adolescents, with a special focus on studies in Slovenia. In the search for the precursors of the adult Big Five, a free-descriptive strategy to assess personality in non-adult samples is emphasized. Findings suggest that parents describe infants and toddlers in terms that are predominantly categorized in the Five-Factor Model taxonomy. Distributions of descriptors show developmental patterns from infancy to early adolescence and small cultural differences. Based on the parental natural language used to describe children across countries, ecologically valid assessment tools were created. The Inventory of Child Individual Differences (ICID; Halverson et al., 2003 was conceptualized as an age and culturally neutral instrument, and is widely used in Slovenia. Cross-sectional studies on ICID ratings of 3 to 14 year-olds provide information on age, sex, and cultural differences in child/adolescent personality trait expression across observers. Several aspects of trait consistency from early to middle childhood, using a longitudinal and multiple-informant approach, are reviewed, as well as the aspects of consistency across contexts and informants. Concurrent and longitudinal predictive values of the ICID trait assessments are shown in relation to several social and academic outcomes. In addition to the variable-centered method, results based on the child-centered approach suggest several internally replicable personality types. Developmental and cross-observer consistency in the structure of personality types, stability of type membership and its predictive validity versus personality traits is described. Prospects for future research on child personality development are suggested, including new methods of assessment and the investigation of links between early personality and important life outcomes.

  4. A Preliminary Investigation of the Relationship between Parenting, Parent-Child Shared Reading Practices, and Child Development in Low-Income Families

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dexter, Casey A.; Stacks, Ann M.

    2014-01-01

    This study examined relations between parenting, shared reading practices, and child development. Participants included 28 children (M = 24.66 months, SD = 8.41 months) and their parents. Measures included naturalistic observations of parenting and shared reading quality, assessments of child cognitive and language development, and home reading…

  5. Child and Family Development Research. OPRE Report 2014-89

    Science.gov (United States)

    Administration for Children & Families, 2014

    2014-01-01

    This catalog provides short descriptions of major Division of Child and Family Development (DCFD) projects from Fiscal Year 2014. Multiple projects are described in the areas of child care, Head Start/Early Head Start, child welfare promotion, and the recognition of cultural diversity. An additional section features projects that fall into more…

  6. Child Care and Development Block Grant Participation in 2009

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matthews, Hannah; Lim, Teresa

    2011-01-01

    The Office of Child Care released preliminary federal fiscal year 2009 administrative data for the Child Care and Development Block Grant (CCDBG). This fact sheet provides a snapshot of CCDBG program participation in 2009, noting the great variability in child care assistance programs among states. Participation is one of several significant…

  7. How Partnering with Your Child's Caregiver Supports Healthy Development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Daniel, Jerlean E.

    2012-01-01

    Jerlean Daniel, PhD, executive director of the National Association for the Education of Young Children, describes what quality child care looks like and how parents and child care providers can work together to nurture young children's healthy development. Dr. Daniel shares information about what to look for in a child care provider, how to…

  8. Millennium development goals and child undernutrition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patwari, A K

    2013-05-01

    Reduction in prevalence of underweight children (under five years of age) has been included as an indicator for one of the targets to eradicate extreme poverty and hunger (Goal 1) of the Millennium Development Goals (MDGs). The most recent MDG report of 2012 indicates that the target of reducing extreme poverty by half has been reached five years ahead of the 2015 deadline but close to one third of children in Southern Asia were underweight. In India, at the historical rate of decline the proportion of underweight children below 3 years, required to be reduced to 26% by 2015, is expected to come down only to about 33%. With barely 3 years left for achieving MDGs, the level of commitment to reduce child undernutrition needs to be gauged and effectiveness of current strategies and programmes ought to be reviewed. Undernutrition in children is not affected by food intake alone; it is also influenced by access to health services, quality of care for the child and pregnant mother as well as good hygiene practices. Would the scenario be different if child undernutrition was a part of Goal 4 of MDGs? What difference it would have made in terms of strategies and programmes if reduction in undernutrition in children underfive was a target instead of an indicator? It is time for nutrition to be placed higher on the development agenda. A number of simple, cost-effective measures to reduce undernutrition in the critical period from conception to two years after birth are available. There is a need for choosing nutrition strategies relevant in Indian context. Experiences from other countries should lead India toward innovative nutritional strategies to reduce underfive undernutrition in the country- that too on a fast track.

  9. 12-15 Months: Your Child's Development

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... All Early Learning Child Care Early Literacy Early Math and Science Language and Communication Play School Readiness ... to talk and understand so much more. Choose books about things that interest your child and make ...

  10. Child Support and Young Children's Development

    OpenAIRE

    Nepomnyaschy, Lenna; Magnuson, Katherine; Berger, Lawrence M.

    2012-01-01

    This study examines the effects of nonresident fathers’ provision of formal and informal cash child support on children's cognitive skills and behavior at 5 years of age. Taking advantage of the panel structure of the Fragile Families and Child Wellbeing Study, we control for child outcomes at age 3 and a rich set of child and family sociodemographic and psychosocial characteristics. We find that fathers’ provision of informal cash support (but not formal support), particularly at or above th...

  11. Evidence-Based Assessment of Child and Adolescent Disorders: Issues and Challenges

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mash, Eric J.; Hunsley, John

    2005-01-01

    The main purpose of this article and this special section is to encourage greater attention to evidence-based assessment (EBA) in the development of a scientifically supported clinical child and adolescent psychology. This increased attention is especially important in light of (a) the omission of assessment considerations in recent efforts to…

  12. Findings from a national needs assessment of American Indian/Alaska native child welfare programs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leake, Robin; Potter, Cathryn; Lucero, Nancy; Gardner, Jerry; Deserly, Kathy

    2012-01-01

    The National Child Welfare Resource Center for Tribes, a member of the Children's Bureau Child Welfare Training and Technical Assistance Network, conducted a national needs assessment of tribal child welfare. This assessment explored current practices in tribal child welfare to identify unique systemic strengths and challenges. A culturally based, multi-method design yielded findings in five areas: tribal child welfare practice, foster care and adoption, the Indian Child Welfare Act, legal and judicial, and program operations.

  13. A Malay version of the Child Oral Impacts on Daily Performances (Child-OIDP index: assessing validity and reliability

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yusof Zamros YM

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The study aimed to develop and test a Malay version of the Child-OIDP index, evaluate its psychometric properties and report on the prevalence of oral impacts on eight daily performances in a sample of 11–12 year old Malaysian schoolchildren. Methods The Child-OIDP index was translated from English into Malay. The Malay version was tested for reliability and validity on a non-random sample of 132, 11–12 year old schoolchildren from two urban schools in Kuala Lumpur. Psychometric analysis of the Malay Child-OIDP involved face, content, criterion and construct validity tests as well as internal and test-retest reliability. Non-parametric statistical methods were used to assess relationships between Child-OIDP scores and other subjective outcome measures. Results The standardised Cronbach’s alpha was 0.80 and the weighted Kappa was 0.84 (intraclass correlation = 0.79. The index showed significant associations with different subjective measures viz. perceived satisfaction with mouth, perceived needs for dental treatment, perceived oral health status and toothache experience in the previous 3 months (p  Conclusion This study indicated that the Malay Child-OIDP index is a valid and reliable instrument to measure the oral impacts of daily performances in 11–12 year old urban schoolchildren in Malaysia.

  14. Child Development in Developing Countries: Introduction and Methods

    OpenAIRE

    Bornstein, Marc H.; Britto, Pia Rebello; Nonoyama-Tarumi, Yuko; Ota, Yumiko; Petrovic, Oliver; Putnick, Diane L.

    2012-01-01

    The Multiple Indicator Cluster Survey (MICS) is a nationally representative, internationally comparable household survey implemented to examine protective and risk factors of child development in developing countries around the world. This Introduction describes the conceptual framework, nature of the MICS3, and general analytic plan of articles in this Special Section. The articles that follow describe the situations of children with successive foci on nutrition, parenting, discipline and vi...

  15. Development of Perception of Child Maltreatment Scale

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sunday B. Fakunmoju

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available This article presents reliability and validity analyses of the Perception of Child Maltreatment Scale (PCMS. The scale comprised 34 items that measure abusive behaviors related to emotional/psychological abuse (10 items, sexual abuse (6 items, child neglect (6 items, child labor (7 items, and physical abuse (5 items. Analysis was based on a convenience sample of 317 participants in Nigeria. Exploratory factor analysis with promax rotation was used to determine construct validity of its five-factor structure (subscales. The overall internal consistency of the PCMS was .95; subscales of Emotional/Psychological Abuse (.93 and Sexual Abuse (.91 were high, whereas those of Child Neglect (.89, Child Labor (.86, and Physical Abuse (.84 were good. Cutoff scores were computed categorizing scores into low/weak, medium/moderate, and high/strong perceptions of child maltreatment. Strengths and limitations as well as practical applications and implications of the scale for research were discussed.

  16. The effects of globalization on child labor in developing countries

    OpenAIRE

    Hakan Acaroglu; Ozcan Dagdemir

    2010-01-01

    This paper inquires the effects of globalization on child labor in developing countries via cross-country analysis by decomposing globalization to its components; foreign direct investment (FDI) and trade. The findings reveal that the relationship between the child labor supply and gross domestic product per capita (PCGDP) can be expressed as a U shape. The study indicates that the child labor increases in the developing countries whose PCGDP levels are above $7500 since the net effect of glo...

  17. A psychoanalytic child psychotherapy contribution to generic assessments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mees, Peta

    2016-01-01

    Psychoanalytically trained child and adolescent psychotherapists have applied psychodynamic thinking to family work, consultations and brief work for some time. Findings from a research project in which the author investigated the processes involved in generic assessments undertaken by herself and what actually takes place are presented. A description of some skills and techniques used by the author are also described. PMID:25604706

  18. The negative effects of poverty & food insecurity on child development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chilton, Mariana; Chyatte, Michelle; Breaux, Jennifer

    2007-10-01

    This paper addresses the importance of the first three years of life to the developing child, examines the importance of early childhood nutrition and the detrimental effects on child health and development due to poverty and food insecurity. As development experts learn more about the importance of the first three years of life, there is growing recognition that investments in early education, maternal-child attachment and nurturance, and more creative nutrition initiatives are critical to help break the cycle of poverty. Even the slightest forms of food insecurity can affect a young child's development and learning potential. The result is the perpetuation of another generation in poverty. Conceptualizing the poorly developed child as an embodiment of injustice helps ground the two essential frameworks needed to address food insecurity and child development: the capability approach and the human rights framework. The capability approach illuminates the dynamics that exist between poverty and child development through depicting poverty as capability deprivation and hunger as failure in the system of entitlements. The human rights framework frames undernutrition and poor development of young children as intolerable for moral and legal reasons, and provides a structure through which governments and other agencies of the State and others can be held accountable for redressing such injustices. Merging the development approach with human rights can improve and shape the planning, approach, monitoring and evaluation of child development while establishing international accountability in order to enhance the potential of the world's youngest children. PMID:18032801

  19. Child obesity and motor development delays

    Science.gov (United States)

    Childhood obesity has been associated with delays in motor development using weight-for-length z-scores and subcutaneous fat. To study this further, percent body fat and motor development were assessed in children ages 3 to 24 months. Included were 455 children with a total of 1882 longitudinal obse...

  20. A study to assess and measure the breaches in the child rights

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pooja Chaudhary

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Background: Children signify eternal optimism in the human being and provide potential for the development. Every nation whether developed or developing, links its future with the status of child. An understanding of the physical, social and behavioral factors is conducive to assess the current situation and vulnerability of any child. To ensure the utmost level of health and safety of a child, we need to have an insight of the violation of child rights. We conducted this study to assess and measure the breaches in child rights. Materials and Methods: A cross-sectional study was carried out among 200 children between 10 to 18 years of age in one of the field practice areas of Community Medicine department, B. J. Medical College, Ahmedabad. Results: More than 90% of the children were born in the hospital settings, fully vaccinated and living with their parents. Of these, 60% of the children reported to have some kind of illness in the past one year, and majority of them approached healthcare facility for that the treatment. Of these, 26% of them had low birth weight (LBW and 68% had body mass index (BMI <18.5. About 93% of the children were enrolled in either government or private school and out of them, 54% complained of the burden of either homework or tuition. Of these, 6.5% children were school dropouts and all of them were girls; 4% of them were child labors. Conclusion: The study indicated positive findings in the areas of child survival, development and to some extent, in the domain of right to participation, though there were poor environmental conditions and recreational activities. Prevalence of malnutrition and child labor was also high. Study results highlighted the need for adequate services in these areas.

  1. Surveillance of child development: practices of nurses after training

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Altamira Pereira da Silva Reichert

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to evaluate the perception of nurses regarding their practice in child care after training in child development surveillance, in the context of the Integrated Care for Childhood Prevalent Diseases. An exploratory study, using a qualitative approach, was developed between June and August 2009, by means of interviews with 11 nurses who participated in training workshops developed in João Pessoa, Paraíba, Brazil. The thematic analysis helped identify three categories: weaknesses in child development surveillance before training; post-training qualified perspective: professional motivation and empowerment; and a new behavior in child development surveillance. The training was considered to be a powerful strategy for professional qualification and for changing the attitude of primary care nurses, motivating nurses to adopt a new behavior in child development surveillance.

  2. Risk Assessment in Child Sexual Abusers Working With Children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Turner, Daniel; Rettenberger, Martin; Yoon, Dahlnym; Klein, Verena; Eher, Reinhard; Briken, Peer

    2016-09-01

    Child sexual abuse occurring in a child- or youth-serving institution or organization has attracted great public and scientific attention. In light of the particular personal and offense-related characteristics of men who have abused children within such an institution or organization, it is of special importance to evaluate the predictive performance of currently applied risk assessment instruments in this offender population. Therefore, the present study assessed the risk ratings and predictive performance of four risk assessment instruments and one instrument assessing protective factors concerning any, violent and sexual recidivism in child sexual abusers working with children (CSA-W) in comparison with extra-familial child sexual abusers (CSA-E) and intra-familial child sexual abusers (CSA-I). The results indicate that CSA-W mostly recidivate with a sexual offense. Although all included risk measures seem to function with CSA-W, the Static-99 seems to be the instrument that performs best in predicting sexual recidivism in CSA-W. CSA-W had the most protective factors measured with the Structured Assessment of PROtective Factors (SAPROF). While the SAPROF could not predict desistance from recidivism in CSA-W, it predicted desistance from any recidivism in all CSA. As CSA-W frequently hold many indicators for pedophilic sexual interests but only a few for antisocial tendencies, it can be suggested that CSA-W are at an increased risk for sexual recidivism and thus risk measures especially designed for sexual recidivism work best in CSA-W. Nevertheless, CSA-W also hold many protective factors; however, their impact on CSA-W is not clear yet and needs further study. PMID:25527631

  3. Inclusion of Children with Disabilities in Mainstream Child Development Research

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feldman, Maurice A.; Battin, Susan M.; Shaw, Olivia A.; Luckasson, Ruth

    2013-01-01

    This study investigated whether children with disabilities are excluded from mainstream child development research. Fifteen per cent of 533 articles from "Child Development" and "Developmental Psychology" (1996-2010) were randomly selected. The exclusion rate was 89.9% when no mention of participants with disabilities was…

  4. Development and validation of a newborn child dummy: Q0

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jager, K. de; Waagmeester, C.D.; Ratingen, M.R. van

    2004-01-01

    The Q0 dummy is the newest addition to the multi-directional Q-series of child dnmmies developed in Europe. This dummy represents a 50 percentile six weeks old child. The biomechanical targets, design, materials and instrumentation are in line with the other Q-dummies. The Q0 dummy has been develope

  5. Joint effects of child temperament and maternal sensitivity on the development of childhood obesity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Tiejian; Dixon, Wallace E; Dalton, William T; Tudiver, Fred; Liu, Xuefeng

    2011-05-01

    The interplay between child characteristics and parenting is increasingly implicated as crucial to child health outcomes. This study assessed the joint effects of children's temperamental characteristics and maternal sensitivity on children's weight status. Data from the National Institute of Child Health and Human Development's Study of Early Child Care and Youth Development were utilized. Infant temperament, assessed at child's age of 6 months by maternal report, was categorized into three types: easy, average, and difficult. Maternal sensitivity, assessed at child's age of 6 months by observing maternal behaviors during mother-child semi-structured interaction, was categorized into two groups: sensitive and insensitive. Children's height and weight were measured longitudinally from age 2 years to Grade 6, and body mass index (BMI) was calculated. BMI percentile was obtained based on the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention's BMI charts. Children, who had a BMI ≥ the 85th percentile, were defined as overweight-or-obese. Generalized estimating equations were used to analyze the data. The proportions of children overweight-or-obese increased with age, 15.58% at 2 years old to 34.34% by Grade 6. The joint effects of children's temperament and maternal sensitivity on a child's body mass status depended on the child's age. For instance, children with difficult temperament and insensitive mothers had significantly higher risks for being overweight-or-obese during the school age phase but not during early childhood. Specific combinations of child temperament and maternal sensitivity were associated with the development of obesity during childhood. Findings may hold implications for childhood obesity prevention/intervention programs targeting parents.

  6. On the Effectiveness of Child Care Centers in Promoting Child Development in Ecuador

    OpenAIRE

    Rosero, Jose

    2012-01-01

    Although the literature on the effectiveness of child care centers in developing countries is thin, most of the studies have concluded that the provision of these services are beneficial to enhance the development of poor children at early ages. Using different matching techniques, the results in this paper contrast with that conclusion as it finds no support of a positive effect of a large scale child care program in Ecuador on any of the dimensions considered of cognitive development. This ...

  7. 15-18 Months: Your Child's Development

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... All Early Learning Child Care Early Literacy Early Math and Science Language and Communication Play School Readiness ... understand my feelings and others’ feelings too. Read books that talk about feelings. Stay calm during tantrums. ...

  8. Risk factors affecting child cognitive development: a summary of nutrition, environment, and maternal-child interaction indicators for sub-Saharan Africa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ford, N D; Stein, A D

    2016-04-01

    An estimated 200 million children worldwide fail to meet their development potential due to poverty, poor health and unstimulating environments. Missing developmental milestones has lasting effects on adult human capital. Africa has a large burden of risk factors for poor child development. The objective of this paper is to identify scope for improvement at the country level in three domains--nutrition, environment, and mother-child interactions. We used nationally representative data from large-scale surveys, data repositories and country reports from 2000 to 2014. Overall, there was heterogeneity in performance across domains, suggesting that each country faces distinct challenges in addressing risk factors for poor child development. Data were lacking for many indicators, especially in the mother-child interaction domain. There is a clear need to improve routine collection of high-quality, country-level indicators relevant to child development to assess risk and track progress. PMID:26358240

  9. The Effect of Crowding on Child Health and Development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Booth, Alan; Johnson, David Richard

    1975-01-01

    Crowded household conditions have a small adverse effect on the physical and intellectual development of children. Parental health and socioeconomic status are found to be more momentous in child health and development. (Author/DE)

  10. Internet Use and Child Development: The Techno-Microsystem

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, Genevieve Marie

    2010-01-01

    Ecological systems theory assumes that child development is the consequence of ongoing reciprocal and spiraling interactions between the child and his/her microsystem (immediate home, school, and community environments). The increasing presence of digital technologies in children's immediate environments suggests the need for the proposed…

  11. Child Mortality in a Developing Country: A Statistical Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Uddin, Md. Jamal; Hossain, Md. Zakir; Ullah, Mohammad Ohid

    2009-01-01

    This study uses data from the "Bangladesh Demographic and Health Survey (BDHS] 1999-2000" to investigate the predictors of child (age 1-4 years) mortality in a developing country like Bangladesh. The cross-tabulation and multiple logistic regression techniques have been used to estimate the predictors of child mortality. The cross-tabulation…

  12. Uncertainty: A little bit not sure. Parental concern about child growth or development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mulcahy, Helen; Savage, Eileen

    2016-09-01

    Delays in child growth or development are significant problems for children, their families and population health. Eliciting parental concerns as early as possible to promote child growth and development requires close collaborative working with parents. There is evidence that parents delay expressing concern and that health-care professionals are not always effective at eliciting and attending to parental concerns. The aim of this study was to understand the experiences of parents of preschool children who had expressed a child growth or development concern. An Interpretative Phenomenological Analysis (IPA) study design was used with a purposive sample of parents of 15 preschool children in Ireland. Data were collected by semi-structured interviews and analysed using IPA. One key superordinate theme - Uncertainty - 'a little bit not sure' captured how parents made sense of their concerns about their child's growth and development. In addition to watching, comparing and wondering, parents assessed whether their child could 'do other things' or if something in particular could have caused the growth or development problem. Parents, particularly mothers, grapple with uncertainty associated with unfamiliar cues in the complex and multifaceted nature of child growth and development in their efforts to make sense of what is happening with their child.

  13. Afterschool Program Participation and the Development of Child Obesity and Peer Acceptance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mahoney, Joseph L.; Lord, Heather; Carryl, Erica

    2005-01-01

    This longitudinal study assessed the role of afterschool program (ASP) participation in the development of child obesity and peer acceptance in a sample of 439 children. Most participants lived in poverty and were Hispanic or African American. Measurements of height and weight determined obesity status and peer acceptance was assessed through…

  14. The Child with Delayed Language: Assessment and Management

    OpenAIRE

    Tervo, Raymond C.; Kinney, Cheryl A.

    1981-01-01

    Speech and language disorders are the most common developmental problems among preschool children. Early detection and remediation of delayed language development are important in helping the child establish appropriate social behavior and acquire additional information about the world through the use of language.

  15. Congenital Heart Disease and Impacts on Child Development

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mariana Alievi Mari

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Objective: To evaluate the child development and evaluate a possible association with the commitment by biopsychosocial factors of children with and without congenital heart disease. Methods: Observational study of case-control with three groups: Group 1 - children with congenital heart disease without surgical correction; Group 2 - children with congenital heart disease who underwent surgery; and Group 3 - healthy children. Children were assessed by socio-demographic and clinical questionnaire and the Denver II Screening Test. Results: One hundred and twenty eight children were evaluated, 29 in Group 1, 43 in Group 2 and 56 in Group 3. Of the total, 51.56% are girls and ages ranged from two months to six years (median 24.5 months. Regarding the Denver II, the children with heart disease had more "suspicious" and "suspect/abnormal" ratings and in the group of healthy children 53.6% were considered with "normal" development (P≤0.0001. The biopsychosocial variables that were related to a possible developmental delay were gender (P=0.042, child's age (P=0.001 and income per capita (P=0.019. Conclusion: The results suggest that children with congenital heart disease are likely to have a developmental delay with significant difference between children who have undergone surgery and those awaiting surgery under clinical follow-up.

  16. The effects of globalization on child labor in developing countries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hakan Acaroglu

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available This paper inquires the effects of globalization on child labor in developing countries via crosscountryanalysis by decomposing globalization to its components; foreign direct investment(FDI and trade. The findings reveal that the relationship between the child labor supply andgross domestic product per capita (PCGDP can be expressed as a U shape. The study indicatesthat the child labor increases in the developing countries whose PCGDP levels are above 7 500USD since the net effect of globalization is positive for the positive substitution effect is biggerthan the negative income effect. Data have been collected from UNICEF and World Bank.

  17. Para Candidatos en Programas de Centros de Cuidado y Educacion Infantil con Bebes y "Toddlers": Asociado en Desarrollo Infantil Sistema de Evaluacion y Normas de Competencia CDA (Infant/Toddler Caregivers in Center-Based Programs: The Child Development Associate Assessment System and Competency Standards).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Council for Early Childhood Professional Recognition, Washington, DC.

    This Spanish-language booklet outlines the requirements of the Child Development Associate (CDA) credential for caregivers working in center-based infant and toddler day care programs. Part 1 provides an overview of the CDA credentialing system and the various options, settings, standards, and stages of the CDA assessment system. Part 2 explains…

  18. Para Candidatos en Programas de Centros de Cuidado y Educacion Infantil con Ninos de Edad Pre-escolar: Asociado en Desarrollo Infantil Sistema de Evaluacion y Normas de Competencia CDA (Preschool Caregivers in Center-Based Programs: The Child Development Associate Assessment System and Competency Standards).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Council for Early Childhood Professional Recognition, Washington, DC.

    This Spanish-language booklet outlines the requirements of the Child Development Associate (CDA) credential for preschool teachers or caregivers who work in center-based preschool day care programs. Part 1 provides an overview of the CDA credentialing system and the various options, settings, standards, and stages of the CDA assessment system.…

  19. Tennessee Star-Quality Child Care Program: QRS Profile. The Child Care Quality Rating System (QRS) Assessment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Child Trends, 2010

    2010-01-01

    This paper presents a profile of Tennessee's Star-Quality Child Care Program prepared as part of the Child Care Quality Rating System (QRS) Assessment Study. The profile consists of several sections and their corresponding descriptions including: (1) Program Information; (2) Rating Details; (3) Quality Indicators for Center-Based Programs; (4)…

  20. Impact of a group intervention with mothers and babies on child development

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Beatriz Oré

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available This study evaluates the impact on child development of a group intervention with mothers and their eight-month-old babies from a marginal urban district of Lima. The groups, control and treatment, were randomized and child development was assessed before and after with the BSID-II. The intervention had a general positive impact in the children’s development, but no significant differences were found between both groups in the Mental Development Index or the Psychomotor Development Index. There was a significant effect (p < .05 in two of the BSID-II Behavioral Scale factors.

  1. Assessing parental empathy: a role for empathy in child attachment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stern, Jessica A; Borelli, Jessica L; Smiley, Patricia A

    2015-01-01

    Although empathy has been associated with helping behavior and relationship quality, little research has evaluated the role of parental empathy in the development of parent-child relationships. The current study (1) establishes preliminary validity of the Parental Affective and Cognitive Empathy Scale (PACES), a method for coding empathy from parents' narrative responses to the Parent Development Interview - Revised for School-Aged Children (PDI-R-SC), and (2) tests a theoretical model of empathy and attachment. Sixty caregivers and their children completed a battery of questionnaire and interview measures, including the PDI-R-SC and the Child Attachment Interview (CAI). Caregivers' interview narratives were scored for empathy using PACES. PACES showed good interrater reliability and good convergent validity with a self-report empathy measure. Parent empathy was positively related to child attachment security (using a continuous score for narrative coherence) and emotional openness on the CAI, as well as to child perceptions of parental warmth. Moreover, parent empathy mediated the relation between parents' self-reported attachment style and their children's attachment security. Implications for attachment theory and future directions for establishing scale validity are discussed.

  2. Developmental Horizons: Legacies and Prospects in Child and Adolescent Development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jensen, Lene Arnett; Larson, Reed W.

    2005-01-01

    This volume brings together leading scholars to describe important new directions in research on child and adolescent development. This introductory chapter places their articles in the context of three larger trends in the field.

  3. Content Validity for a Child Care Self-assessment Tool: Creating Healthy Eating Environments Scale (CHEERS).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lafave, Lynne; Tyminski, Sheila; Riege, Theresa; Hoy, Diane; Dexter, Bria

    2016-06-01

    The purpose of this project was to develop and content validate both a formative and summative self-assessment scale designed to measure the nutrition and physical activity environment in community-based child care programs. The study followed a mixed-method modified Ebel procedure. An expert group with qualifications in nutrition, physical activity, and child care were recruited for content validation. The survey was subjected to expert review through digital communication followed by a face-to-face validation meeting. To establish consensus for content validity beyond the standard error of proportion (P physical activity environment, and healthy body image environment. Content validation is an integral step in scale development that is often overlooked or poorly carried out. Initial content validity of this scale has been established and will be of value to researchers and practitioners interested in conducting healthy eating interventions in child care. PMID:26771216

  4. [Spanish adaptation of the EAS Temperament Survey for the assessment of child temperament].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bobes Bascarán, María Teresa; Jover, Manuel; Llácer, Blanca; Carot, José Miguel; Sanjuan, Julio

    2011-02-01

    Better understanding of child temperament is essential, as it may predict subsequent development of psychopathology. Questionnaires which have been adapted to Spanish population include a rather restricted age range. The Emotionality Sociability and Activity (EAS) Temperament Survey has been widely used in child temperament genetic research. A Spanish version of the scale was administered to a sample of 229 mothers and to their children at 18 and 42 months of age. Its psychometric features were examined. Results showed accuracy indices akin to that obtained in prior studies. Findings suggest a three-factor structure for the assessment of temperament. PMID:21266158

  5. Informant Discrepancies in Assessing Child Dysfunction Relate to Dysfunction Within Mother-Child Interactions

    OpenAIRE

    De Los Reyes, Andres; Kazdin, Alan E.

    2006-01-01

    Examined whether mother-child discrepancies in perceived child behavior problems relate to dysfunctional interactions between mother and child and stress in the mother. Participants included 239 children (6–16 years old; 58 girls, 181 boys) referred for oppositional, aggressive, and antisocial behavior, and their mothers. Mother-child discrepancies in perceived child behavior problems were related to mother-child conflict. Moreover, maternal stress mediated this relationship. The findings sug...

  6. A music therapy tool for assessing parent-child interaction in cases of emotional neglect

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jacobsen, Stine Lindahl; H. McKinney, Cathy

    2015-01-01

    Using a music therapy approach to assess emotional communication and parent–child interaction is new to the field of child protection. However, musical improvisations in music therapy has long been known as an analogue to affect attunement and early non-verbal communication between parent...... dyads underwent two video recorded music therapy assessment sessions. Video analyses focused on autonomy relationship, turns, and parental response types producing scores on Mutual Attunement, Nonverbal Communication Skills and Emotional Parental Response. Psychometric analyses of the APC-R included...... and infant, which called for an investigation of the value of music therapy within the field of family assessment and family therapy. More specifically, we wanted to investigate and further strengthen assessment of parenting competencies (APC). We developed scores and examined the psychometric properties...

  7. Child and Adolescent Development: The Critical Missing Focus in School Reform

    Science.gov (United States)

    Comer, James P.

    2005-01-01

    The key to improving student achievement, the author asserts, is to pay attention to child and adolescent development. If this factor is overlooked, new approaches to curriculum, instruction, and assessment will have little chance of succeeding. But even troubled districts that have made development a priority have seen remarkable success. The…

  8. [Preschool education impact on child development].

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-10-01

    Presumed perinatal ischemic stroke is the term used for cases in which an old stroke is diagnosed by the consequences of it and not by the acute symptoms. Many presumed perinatal ischemic strokes have congenital hemiparesis as the first manifestation, which is usually noticed between the fourth and eighth month of life as early hand preference. That is why the clear and persistent handedness developed before one year of age must be assumed as a warning sign of probable motor sequelae. In this paper we review the medical records of 15 cases of presumed perinatal ischemic stroke to assess the age at which the consultation led to the diagnosis, reason for consultation and age at development of handedness.

  9. [Preschool education impact on child development].

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-10-01

    Presumed perinatal ischemic stroke is the term used for cases in which an old stroke is diagnosed by the consequences of it and not by the acute symptoms. Many presumed perinatal ischemic strokes have congenital hemiparesis as the first manifestation, which is usually noticed between the fourth and eighth month of life as early hand preference. That is why the clear and persistent handedness developed before one year of age must be assumed as a warning sign of probable motor sequelae. In this paper we review the medical records of 15 cases of presumed perinatal ischemic stroke to assess the age at which the consultation led to the diagnosis, reason for consultation and age at development of handedness. PMID:27606651

  10. Parent-child interactions: contributions to the development of social competence in preschoolers.

    OpenAIRE

    Phillips-Hing, Christine Dawn

    2008-01-01

    Sixty families with their eldest child, aged 3 or 4 years, participated in this study of parent-child interactions and the development of social competency. Mother-child and father-child dyads were observed for 10 minutes each, completing either a gross motor or fine motor semi-structured laboratory construction task. Parental directiveness and scaffolding were coded and measures of child temperament, child receptive language, and child social competency in preschool were obtained. As expecte...

  11. Child health insurance coverage and household activity toward child development in four South American countries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wehby, George L

    2014-05-01

    We evaluate the association between child health insurance coverage and household activities that enhance child development. We use micro-level data on a unique sample of 2,370 children from four South American countries. Data were collected by physicians via in-person interviews with the mothers. The regression models compare insured and uninsured children seen within the same pediatric care practice for routine well-child care and adjust for several demographic and socioeconomic characteristics. We also stratify these analyses by selective household demographic and socioeconomic characteristics and by country. We find that insurance coverage is associated with increasingly engaging the child in development-enhancing household activity in the total sample. This association significantly varies with ethnic ancestry and is more pronounced for children of Native or African ancestry. When stratifying by country, a significant positive association is observed for Argentina, with two other countries having positive but insignificant associations. The results suggest that insurance coverage is associated with enhanced household activity toward child development. However, other data and research are needed to estimate the causal relationship.

  12. Development and Psychometric Evaluation of the Child Neglect Questionnaire.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stewart, Chris; Kirisci, Levent; Long, Abigail L; Giancola, Peter R

    2015-11-01

    Neglect poses a significant risk for children throughout their development and is often linked with serious consequences that reach into adulthood. The Child Neglect Questionnaire (CNQ) fills existing gaps by incorporating multiple perspectives from both parents and the child, as well as measuring the complex phenomenon of neglect multidimensionally. Furthermore, this measure addresses the need for an instrument specifically developed for late childhood (ages 10-12), as much of the extant evidence and corresponding measures focus on young children and their mothers. A panel of three psychologists, using Cicchetti's model of child neglect as a theoretical guide, began by selecting items from an existing database. Results of exploratory and confirmatory factor analyses and item response theory demonstrated the unidimensionality of physical, emotional, educational, and supervision neglect as well as a second-order construct of child neglect. Analyses controlling for risk status due to father's substance use disorder, socioeconomic status, and child's ethnicity demonstrated that father's and mother's (parental) neglect, particularly in the child's versions, had sound concurrent and predictive validity. Concurrently, at age 10-12, the child's version of both parents' neglect correlated with their parenting behaviors evaluated by other available measures. Prospectively, from 10-12 years of age to 11-13 years of age, parental neglect predicted child's drug use frequency with coexisting psychological dysregulation, psychiatric symptoms, antisocial behavior, non-normative sexual behavior, involvement with deviant peers and leisure activities thus demonstrating sound predictive validity. Also, internal consistency and inter-rater reliability were excellent. The CNQ, particularly the child's version, may thus be useful for detecting children at high risk for parental neglect. PMID:25535250

  13. Development and Psychometric Evaluation of the Child Neglect Questionnaire.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stewart, Chris; Kirisci, Levent; Long, Abigail L; Giancola, Peter R

    2015-11-01

    Neglect poses a significant risk for children throughout their development and is often linked with serious consequences that reach into adulthood. The Child Neglect Questionnaire (CNQ) fills existing gaps by incorporating multiple perspectives from both parents and the child, as well as measuring the complex phenomenon of neglect multidimensionally. Furthermore, this measure addresses the need for an instrument specifically developed for late childhood (ages 10-12), as much of the extant evidence and corresponding measures focus on young children and their mothers. A panel of three psychologists, using Cicchetti's model of child neglect as a theoretical guide, began by selecting items from an existing database. Results of exploratory and confirmatory factor analyses and item response theory demonstrated the unidimensionality of physical, emotional, educational, and supervision neglect as well as a second-order construct of child neglect. Analyses controlling for risk status due to father's substance use disorder, socioeconomic status, and child's ethnicity demonstrated that father's and mother's (parental) neglect, particularly in the child's versions, had sound concurrent and predictive validity. Concurrently, at age 10-12, the child's version of both parents' neglect correlated with their parenting behaviors evaluated by other available measures. Prospectively, from 10-12 years of age to 11-13 years of age, parental neglect predicted child's drug use frequency with coexisting psychological dysregulation, psychiatric symptoms, antisocial behavior, non-normative sexual behavior, involvement with deviant peers and leisure activities thus demonstrating sound predictive validity. Also, internal consistency and inter-rater reliability were excellent. The CNQ, particularly the child's version, may thus be useful for detecting children at high risk for parental neglect.

  14. Avaliação e intervenção no desenvolvimento motor de uma criança com Síndrome de Down Assessment and intervention in the motor development of a child with Down Syndrome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana Paula Maurilia dos Santos

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available o objetivo deste estudo foi analisar o desenvolvimento motor de uma criança com síndrome de Down e verificar os efeitos de um programa de intervenção motora específica. Trata-se de uma pesquisa descritiva do tipo estudo de caso. Para a avaliação do desenvolvimento motor foram utilizados os testes da Escala de Desenvolvimento Motor - EDM que analisa as áreas da motricidade fina e global, equilíbrio, esquema corporal, organização espacial e temporal/linguagem, e lateralidade. Essa criança participou, respectivamente, de avaliação motora, intervenção motora (32 sessões, 2 vezes semanais e reavaliação motora. As intervenções motoras mostraram avanços positivos nas áreas da motricidade global, equilíbrio e organização espacial. A motricidade fina, esquema corporal e a organização temporal /linguagem não apresentaram avanços. Verificou-se que a linguagem foi a área de maior prejuízo. O quociente motor em todos os itens foi classificado como muito inferior, o que se caracteriza como déficit motor. Esses dados justificam a relevância de programas de intervenção motora para essa população.the objective of this study was to analyze the motor development of a child with Down syndrome and to verify the effect of a specific motor intervention program. This is a descriptive research case study. Motor development was evaluated using the Motor Development Scale - MDS, which analyzes both fine and gross motor skills as well as balance, body schema, spatial and temporal organization, language, and laterality. This child participated, respectively, of the motor assessment, motor intervention (32 sessions, twice weekly and motor reevaluation. Gains were demonstrated in motor intervention in the areas of the gross motor skills, balance and spatial organization. No improvement was shown in fine motor skills, body schema and temporal organization/ language. Language was found to be the area of lowest achievement. The motor

  15. CHILD LABOUR IN PAKISTAN AND OTHER DEVELOPING COUNTRIES

    OpenAIRE

    Himayatullah Khan

    2007-01-01

    Child labor has been acknowledged as a serious and challenging issue in the civilized societies around the globe. Its continued existence remains a source of concern for all segments of human society. In spite of the threats of trade barriers, in spite of the call of moral understanding of the issue and active participation of government employers, workers and NGO’s, the prevalence of child labor in the developing nations is one proof that practical dependence on working children still has an...

  16. Globalization, democracy, and child health in developing countries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Welander, Anna; Lyttkens, Carl Hampus; Nilsson, Therese

    2015-07-01

    Good health is crucial for human and economic development. In particular poor health in childhood is of utmost concern since it causes irreversible damage and has implications later in life. Recent research suggests globalization is a strong force affecting adult and child health outcomes. Yet, there is much unexplained variation with respect to the globalization effect on child health, in particular in low- and middle-income countries. One factor that could explain such variation across countries is the quality of democracy. Using panel data for 70 developing countries between 1970 and 2009 this paper disentangles the relationship between globalization, democracy, and child health. Specifically the paper examines how globalization and a country's democratic status and historical experience with democracy, respectively, affect infant mortality. In line with previous research, results suggest that globalization reduces infant mortality and that the level of democracy in a country generally improves child health outcomes. Additionally, democracy matters for the size of the globalization effect on child health. If for example Côte d'Ivoire had been a democracy in the 2000-2009 period, this effect would translate into 1200 fewer infant deaths in an average year compared to the situation without democracy. We also find that nutrition is the most important mediator in the relationship. To conclude, globalization and democracy together associate with better child health in developing countries.

  17. Child care in Vrsac and its development

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Šljapić Živa

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available Documents concerning history of medicine during the Turkish reign (1552-1716 are very rare. However, there is evidence of plague epidemic in 18th century and cholera epidemic in the 19th century. The first medical institutions: The German Communal Hospital, The Serbian Hospital and the Pharmacy were founded in the second half of the 18th century. In the year 1803, children were vaccinated against variola. The first Serbian book about child care – "Čadoljub" was written by Dr. Gavrilo Pekarović (1812-1851 during his studies of medicine in Budapest. In 1927 the city founded a dispensary for the newborn. The Polyclinic for schoolchildren was established as a part of the Health Center in 1934. After World War II, Children's Department was opened in the Health Center, later on it was turned into Mother and Child Center. At the beginning of 1955, a provisional children's ward with 18 beds was established in the former sanatorium, whereas till the end of the year it had 49 beds. In May 1965, it was moved into a new hospital building. After integration of Hospital and the Health Center into a Medical Center in 1967, a department for children was founded and it consisted of the emergency center and a hospital. Parents counseling, dispensary for children and dispensary for schoolchildren were founded in August 1971. .

  18. 33 CFR 55.11 - How are child development center fees established?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false How are child development center... HOMELAND SECURITY PERSONNEL CHILD DEVELOPMENT SERVICES General § 55.11 How are child development center fees established? (a) Fees for the provision of services at child development centers shall be set...

  19. Parenting in Relation to Child and Adolescent Vocational Development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bryant, Brenda K.; Zvonkovic, Anisa M.; Reynolds, Paula

    2006-01-01

    Processes of child and adolescent vocational development include acquisition of knowledge, beliefs, and values about work options and requirements, exploration of interests that will be relevant for occupational interest development, development of academic aspirations, self-efficacy, expectations, and attainment. These elements serve to provide…

  20. Assessing Psychosocial Impairment in the Pediatric Emergency Department: Child/Caregiver Concordance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Montano, Zorash; Mahrer, Nicole E.; Nager, Alan L.; Claudius, Ilene; Gold, Jeffrey I.

    2011-01-01

    The objective of this study was to examine the level of agreement between child- and caregiver-reports of the child's psychosocial problems presenting to a Pediatric Emergency Department (PED) using a validated screening tool. This was an anonymous, prospective, cross-sectional, multi-informant (child and caregiver) study assessing cognitive,…

  1. Child Development and the Coworking of Doctor and Teacher: A Waldorf School Doctor's Perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karnow, Gerald F.

    This paper draws on the nearly 20 years' experiences of a school doctor working with teachers at the Rudolf Steiner School in New York City to describe general principles of assessing child development in relation to educational progress. The paper contrasts the customary role of school doctors (related to conducting physical examinations for…

  2. Socioeconomic Gradients and Child Development in a Very Low Income Population: Evidence from Madagascar

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fernald, Lia C. H.; Weber, Ann; Galasso, Emanuela; Ratsifandrihamanana, Lisy

    2011-01-01

    Our objectives were to document and examine socioeconomic gradients across a comprehensive set of child development measures in a population living in extreme poverty, and to interpret these gradients in light of findings from the neuroscience literature. We assessed a nationally representative sample of 3-6-year-old children (n = 1332) from 150…

  3. Prisoners of Childhood? Child Abuse and the Development of Heroes and Monsters in "Ender's Game"

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gross, Melissa

    2007-01-01

    Alice Miller's work provides a theoretical framework to assess the effects of child abuse and its relationship to the development of creativity, hatred, and violence in the novel "Ender's Game." Analysis focuses on the extent to which children are manipulated in order to meet the needs of adults, the presence of behaviors such as the repression of…

  4. "Is My Child Developing Normally?": A Critical Review of Web-Based Resources for Parents

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williams, Nia; Mughal, Sabena; Blair, Mitch

    2008-01-01

    Early detection of developmental problems improves outcomes for parents and children. Parents want to be involved in assessment and need high-quality, accurate, and reliable data on child development to help monitor progress and inform decisions on referral. The aim of this paper is to review which websites are readily accessible to parents on…

  5. Parent-Child Communication and Its Perceived Effects on the Young Child's Developing Self-Concept.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Banham, Victoria; Hanson, Jane; Higgins, Alice; Jarrett, Michelle

    In Australia, an exploratory study was grounded in U. Bronfenbrenner's ecological perspective of human development and his principles of reciprocity, affective tone, and developmental opportunity and developmental risk. It used D. Baumrind's (1979) work on child rearing styles (authoritarian, authoritative, and permissive) to explore the effect of…

  6. It's a lonely journey: a rapid evidence assessment on intrafamilial child sexual abuse

    OpenAIRE

    Horvath, Miranda A.H.; Davidson, Julia; Grove-Hills, Julie; Gekoski, Anna; Choak, Clare

    2014-01-01

    This Rapid Evidence Assessment (REA) was commissioned by the Office of the Children’s Commissioner (OCC) and conducted by Middlesex University. It centres on concerns about the level of child sexual abuse within the family environment (referred to in this report as ‘intrafamilial child sexual abuse or IFCSA) and how such abuse is being addressed by the child protection system and the criminal justice system. The OCC recently completed a two year Inquiry into child sexual exploitation in g...

  7. Promoting equity through integrated early child development and nutrition interventions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Black, Maureen M; Dewey, Kathryn G

    2014-01-01

    Sustainable development, a foundation of the post-2015 global agenda, depends on healthy and productive citizens. The origins of adult health begin early in life, stemming from genetic-environmental interactions that include adequate nutrition and opportunities for responsive learning. Inequities associated with inadequate nutrition and early learning opportunities can undermine children's health and development, thereby compromising their productivity and societal contributions. Transactional theory serves as a useful framework for examining the associations that link early child development and nutrition because it emphasizes the interplay that occurs between children and the environment, mediated through caregiver interactions. Although single interventions targeting early child development or nutrition can be effective, there is limited evidence on the development, implementation, evaluation, and scaling up of integrated interventions. This manuscript introduces a special edition of papers on six topics central to integrated child development/nutrition interventions: (1) review of integrated interventions; (2) methods and topics in designing integrated interventions; (3) economic considerations related to integrated interventions; (4) capacity-building considerations; (5) examples of integrated interventions; and (6) policy implications of integrated interventions. Ensuring the health and development of infants and young children through integrated child development/nutrition interventions promotes equity, a critical component of sustainable development. PMID:24571211

  8. Applied Research in Child and Adolescent Development: A Practical Guide

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maholmes, Valerie, Ed.; Lomonaco, Carmela Gina, Ed.

    2010-01-01

    Developed for an NIH training institute, this volume is organized around the most frequently asked questions by researchers starting their careers in applied research in child and adolescent development. With contributions from the leading scholars in the field, actual research experiences highlight the challenges one faces in conducting such…

  9. Classroom Research and Child and Adolescent Development in South America

    Science.gov (United States)

    Preiss, David Daniel; Calcagni, Elisa; Grau, Valeska

    2015-01-01

    The article reviews recent classroom research developed in South America related to child and adolescent development. We review work about three themes: ethnicity, school climate and violence, and the learning process. The few studies found on ethnicity and classroom experiences told a story of invisibility, if not exclusion and discrimination.…

  10. Fighting Child Pornography: A Review of Legal and Technological Developments

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jasmine Eggestein

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available In our digitally connected world, the law is arguably behind the technological developments of the Internet age.  While this causes many issues for law enforcement, it is of particular concern in the area of child pornography in the United States.  With the wide availability of technologies such as digital cameras, peer-to-peer file sharing, strong encryption, Internet anonymizers and cloud computing, the creation and distribution of child pornography has become more widespread. Simultaneously, fighting the growth of this crime has become more difficult.  This paper explores the development of both the legal and technological environments surrounding digital child pornography.  In doing so, we cover the complications that court decisions have given law enforcement who are trying to investigate and prosecute child pornographers.  We then provide a review of the technologies used in this crime and the forensic challenges that cloud computing creates for law enforcement.  We note that both legal and technological developments since the 1990s seem to be working to the advantage of users and sellers of child pornography.  Before concluding, we provide a discussion and offer observations regarding this subject.

  11. Development of a prediction model for child maltreatment recurrence in Japan: A historical cohort study using data from a Child Guidance Center.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Horikawa, Hiroyuki; Suguimoto, S Pilar; Musumari, Patou Masika; Techasrivichien, Teeranee; Ono-Kihara, Masako; Kihara, Masahiro

    2016-09-01

    To develop a prediction model for the first recurrence of child maltreatment within the first year after the initial report, we carried out a historical cohort study using administrative data from 716 incident cases of child maltreatment (physical abuse, psychological abuse, or neglect) not receiving support services, reported between April 1, 1996 through March 31, 2011 to Shiga Central Child Guidance Center, Japan. In total, 23 items related to characteristics of the child, the maltreatment, the offender, household, and other related factors were selected as predictive variables and analyzed by multivariate logistic regression model for association with first recurrence of maltreatment. According to the stepwise selection procedure six factors were identified that include 9-13year age of child (AOR=3.43/95%CI=1.52-7.72), maltreatment during childhood (AOR=2.56/95%CI=1.31-4.99), household financial instability or poverty (AOR=1.64/95%CI=1.10-2.45), absence of someone in the community who could watch over the child (AOR=1.68/95%CI=1.16-2.44), and the organization as the referral source (AOR=2.21/95%CI=1.24-3.93). Using these six predictors, we generated a linear prediction model with a sensitivity and specificity of 45.2% and 82.4%, respectively. The model may be useful to assess the risk of further maltreatment and help the child and family welfare administrations to develop preventive strategies for recurrence. PMID:27517122

  12. Community violence as it affects child development: issues of definition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trickett, Penelope K; Durán, Lorena; Horn, John L

    2003-12-01

    The state of the art of definition of community violence as it relates to child development was examined in terms of the definitions used in 23 empirical studies. In all cases community violence was defined in terms of what were assumed to be measurements obtained as linear combinations of a priori numerical weighting of responses to questions--asked either of a child or of the parent of a child--about experiencing and/or witnessing and/or hearing about instances of violence. Thus, the definitions can be seen to represent the perspectives of 2 kinds of observers--the child or the child's parent--and 3 levels of closeness to violence--experiencing, witnessing, or hearing about violence. Combining these perspectives and levels, the following 8 different definitions could be seen to be used in the practice of 1 or more of the 23 empirical studies: Child Self-Report (perception) of either (1) experiencing, or (2) witnessing, or (3) experiencing and witnessing, and hearing about violence; or Parent Report (perception) of the Child (4) experiencing, or (5) witnessing, or (6) experiencing and witnessing and hearing about violence, or (7) = (1) + (4), or (8) = (3) + (6). In almost all the examples of research definitions it was assumed implicitly and without test of the assumption that different violent events were interchangeable, and usually it was assumed (again without test) that the magnitudes of different violence events were equal. Usually, an unstated theory of stress appeared to guide the measurement definition, but in one study definitions were developed and tested in terms of a clearly-stated theory of learning. It was concluded that definition of community violence is a measurement problem; that very likely it is multidimensional; that it could be more nearly solved if better attention were given to specifying it in terms of theory that can be put to test and by attending to basic assumptions and principles of measurement.

  13. Evaluation of child development: beyond the neuromotor aspect

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sophie Helena Eickmann

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Objective: To review the epidemiology and update the scientific knowledge on the problems of development and behavior in childhood, and the recommendations for the role of the pediatrician in identifying and managing delays and disturbances in child development and mental health. Sources: A search for relevant literature was performed in the PubMed and Scopus databases and publications of the National Scientific Council on the Developing Child. Summary of the findings: With the decline in the incidence of communicable diseases in children, problems with development, behavior, and emotional regulation are increasingly becoming a part of the work of pediatricians, yet many are not trained and feel uncomfortable about this extension of their role. The available screening tools for child development and behavior are reviewed, and a ‘school readiness’ checklist is presented, together with recommendations on how the pediatrician can incorporate developmental surveillance into routine practice, aware of the need for children to acquire social, emotional, and cognitive skills so that they can develop their full potential. Conclusions: The pediatrician's role in the future will include both physical and mental health, recognizing that social development, resilience, and emotional maturity are as important as physical growth and neuromotor skills in a child's life course.

  14. The Intergeneratonal Transmission of Parental Schooling and Child Development

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bingley, Paul; Christensen, Kaare; Jensen, Vibeke Myrup

    Understanding the causal relation between mothers and fathers schooling and child development is important to create polices raising schooling level. We use unique Danish administrative data with information on identical twins and their children to estimate the causal effect of parental schooling...... that endowments counts for a substantial part of the correlation between parents' schooling on the devel-opment of the child. Father's schooling increases children's length of schooling, but decreases 9th grade academic achievement. Mother's schooling increases short run outcomes and the probability of high...... on both short-run and long-run outcomes. By applying within twin fixed effect techniques we are able to take heritable endowments transmitted from parent to child into account and as an important reference point to the general population we do a parallel study on a sample of same sex DZ twins. We find...

  15. Child Care and Development Block Grant (CCDBG) Participation Continues to Fall

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matthews, Hannah; Schmit, Stephanie

    2014-01-01

    Child care subsidies help make quality child care affordable for low-income parents, allowing them to attend work or school to support their families while ensuring their children's healthy development. The Child Care and Development Block Grant (CCDBG) is the primary source of federal funding for child care subsidies for low-income working…

  16. Creativity and the Child's Social Development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nabors, Martha L.; Edwards, Linda C.

    1994-01-01

    Presents three teacher-preschooler scenarios illustrating teacher actions that hinder creativity and social development. Discusses the connection between psychosocial and creative development in light of Erik Erikson's eight stages of psychosocial development. Suggests that teachers need to be flexible, consider children's feelings, foster…

  17. The Intergenerational Transmission of Parental Schooling and Child Development

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bingley, Paul; Christensen, Kaare; Jensen, Vibeke Myrup

    Understanding the causal relationship between parental schooling and child development is important to create polices raising schooling level. We use unique Danish administrative data with information on identical twins to estimate the effect of parental schooling on short-run and long-run outcomes....... By applying within twin fixed effect techniques we are able to take heritable endowments transmitted from parent to child into account. We find OLS to be consistently upward biased due to endowments. Further, paternal schooling has no causal effect on infant and early childhood health but increases children...

  18. Maternal Conjugal Multiplicity and Child Development in Rural Jamaica

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dreher, Melanie; Hudgins, Rebekah

    2010-01-01

    Using field-based observations and standardized measures of the home environment and child development, the authors followed 59 rural Jamaican women and their offspring from birth to age 5. The findings suggest that conjugal multiplicity, a female reproductive pattern characterized by multiple unions, maternal unmarried status, and absent father,…

  19. Using a Virtual Simulation Program to Teach Child Development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zimmermann, Laura K.

    2013-01-01

    Interest in the use of technology in the classroom continues to grow. The current study included 100 students who registered for a 200 level child development class at a private university in Northern Virginia. Students were from 4 different sections taught by the same professor in different semesters. Two of the sections used a textbook. The…

  20. High School Child Development Courses Provide a Valuable Apprenticeship

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCombie, Sally M.

    2009-01-01

    The current media are laden with reports of the many significant problems facing today's youth. In fact, parenting has become a national topic of discussion. Parenting instruction, a responsibility that had previously rested in the home, has become part of educational curricula. Courses in child development are offered for high school students in…

  1. Some Growth Points in African Child Development Research

    Science.gov (United States)

    Serpell, Robert; Marfo, Kofi

    2014-01-01

    We reflect on ways in which research presented in earlier chapters responds to challenges of generating an African child development field and identify additional issues calling for the field's attention. The chapters collectively display a variety of African contexts and reflexive evidence of the authors' African cultural roots.…

  2. Child Development and Molecular Genetics: 14 Years Later

    Science.gov (United States)

    Plomin, Robert

    2013-01-01

    Fourteen years ago, the first article on molecular genetics was published in this journal: "Child Development, Molecular Genetics, and What to Do With Genes Once They Are Found" (R. Plomin & M. Rutter, 1998). The goal of the article was to outline what developmentalists can do with genes once they are found. These new directions for developmental…

  3. Fatherhood in Kenyan Ethnic Communities: Implication for Child Development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lasser, Jon; Fite, Kathleen; Wadende, Akinyi P.

    2011-01-01

    This article reviews the traditional and evolving constructions of fatherhood in Kenyan society, with an emphasis on fatherhood's impact on child development outcomes. Western influence and increased access to technology have changed the role of the Kenyan father, and in turn affected his role in the family. Special attention is given to…

  4. Infant and Young Child Feeding in Developing Countries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arabi, Mandana; Frongillo, Edward A.; Avula, Rasmi; Mangasaryan, Nune

    2012-01-01

    Feeding practices are important determinants of growth and development of children. Using infant and young child feeding indicators and complementary feeding guidelines, 7 practices in 28 countries are described, showing substantial variation across countries. Only 25% of 0- to 5-month-olds were exclusively breastfed, and only half of 6- to…

  5. Child Development Associate. Social Science: Children in the Cosmos.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oscar Rose Junior Coll., Midwest City, OK.

    This Child Development Associate (CDA) training module, one of a series of 18, is designed to help the CDA intern provide learning experiences in the social sciences for young children. The module stipulates competency-based objectives and provides essential information, suggestions, examples and learning activities on three topics related to the…

  6. Bilingual Competence and Bilingual Proficiency in Child Development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Francis, Norbert

    2011-01-01

    When two or more languages are part of a child's world, we are presented with a rich opportunity to learn something about language in general and about how the mind works. In this book, Norbert Francis examines the development of bilingual proficiency and the different kinds of competence that come together in making up its component parts. In…

  7. A Mechanism for Gratitude Development in a Child

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Shi

    2016-01-01

    Most scholars consider gratitude as a moral emotion, with only few seeing it as a character trait. As a result, no systematic mechanism has ever been attempted to develop gratitude in children. Given the social issue of widespread lack of gratitude in the one-child generations of China, this article attempts to outline a mechanism of parental…

  8. Child Development and Childcare in Japan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anme, Tokie; Segal, Uma A.

    2010-01-01

    With increasing numbers of women joining the workforce, there is a need for quality childcare. This project, conducted in Japan and using a large number of participants, sought to standardize an evaluation scale to measure the development of children. The development of children under six years of age (N = 22,819) who are enrolled in childcare…

  9. Music, Development, and the Young Child.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fox, Donna Brink

    1991-01-01

    Examines the relationship between music and human development. Gives an overview of research on children's musical responses. Says music educators can create an environment where children can develop musical knowledge and skills. Urges more longitudinal research like Harvard University's Project Zero where characteristics of developmental stages…

  10. Distributional effects of OPORTUNIDADES on early child development

    OpenAIRE

    J.L. Figueroa

    2013-01-01

    Adequate health, nutrition, and education during childhood are essential for human development. Deficits in these realms undermine the capacity to acquire the necessary skills to perform in life. Social policies addressing the causes of disadvantages in child development take up an important place in the social agenda. The Mexican Oportunidades program is such a policy. Investments in children’s health, nutrition, and education by the program are expected to facilitate children’s development....

  11. Developing an eBook-Integrated High-Fidelity Mobile App Prototype for Promoting Child Motor Skills and Taxonomically Assessing Children’s Emotional Responses Using Face and Sound Topology

    OpenAIRE

    Brown, William; Liu, Connie; John, Rita Marie; Ford, Phoebe

    2014-01-01

    Developing gross and fine motor skills and expressing complex emotion is critical for child development. We introduce “StorySense”, an eBook-integrated mobile app prototype that can sense face and sound topologies and identify movement and expression to promote children’s motor skills and emotional developmental. Currently, most interactive eBooks on mobile devices only leverage “low-motor” interaction (i.e. tapping or swiping). Our app senses a greater breath of motion (e.g. clapping, snappi...

  12. AN ALTERNATIVE APPROACH FOR CHILD LABOUR IN DEVELOPING COUNTRIES: CHILD LABOUR PARTICIPATION RATES OR SCHOOL NON-ATTENDANCE RATES

    OpenAIRE

    Ozcan Dagdemir; Hakan Acaroglu

    2010-01-01

    Child labour widely measured by child labour participation rates in literature is considered by non-attendance rates in primary education in this study. Along with this approach, it is attempted to investigate in what closeness the child labour ratios of countries are also measured by school non-attendance rates. The data is collected from UNICEF and World Bank. 85 developing countries take part in cross-country analysis by ordinary least square technique. The time period interval is 2000-200...

  13. Consequences of Parental Divorce for Child Development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Hyun Sik

    2011-01-01

    In this article, I propose a three-stage estimation model to examine the effect of parental divorce on the development of children's cognitive skills and noncognitive traits. Using a framework that includes pre-, in-, and post-divorce time periods, I disentangle the complex factors affecting children of divorce. I use the Early Childhood…

  14. Developing the Young Gifted Child's Mathematical Mind

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fisher, Carol

    2016-01-01

    Schools seem firmly rooted in the emphasis on computational mastery, and seldom seem to have time to develop other areas of mathematical thinking, such as real-world problem solving and the application of mathematical concepts. All too often, children seem to do well in math in the early grades because they easily memorize the facts and the…

  15. Household and context determinants of child labor in 156 districts of 11 developing countries

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Webbink, E.; Smits, J.P.J.M.; Jong, E. de

    2008-01-01

    We study household and context determinants of child labor for 150,000 children in 11 developing countries, with child labor rates ranging from 2 to over 20 percent. Multilevel analysis showed socio-economic factors to be still major determinants of child labor, with less child labor in households w

  16. The Effect of Maternal Work Conditions on Child Development

    OpenAIRE

    Christina Felfe; Amy Hsin

    2009-01-01

    This study goes beyond the much-studied impact of mothers' labor force participation on children's development and investigates how mothers' working environment affects children's cognitive and non-cognitive performance. Using data from the Child Development Supplement of the Panel Study of Income Dynamics and the Occupational Information Network and applying a value added plus specification we find a negative impact of the hazards involved in mothers' jobs on their children’s non-cognitive a...

  17. Child Art Therapy and Parent Consultation: Facilitating Child Development and Parent Strengths.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shore, Annette

    2000-01-01

    Explores outpatient art therapy methodology which integrates D. W. Winnicott's (1971) model of parent consultation, child art therapy theories, and contemporary theories of child and brief psychotherapy. Two case studies that illustrate effective symptom management and structural change with the child and the child-parent bond are presented.…

  18. Preschool education impact on child development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gur, Gokce; Cakar, Nilgun; Kiremitci, Saba; Taktak, Aysel; Basaran, Ozge; Uncu, Nermin

    2016-10-01

    Henoch-Schonlein purpura (HSP) is the most common vasculitis in children. Vasculitic processes can involve the lung. Although diffuse alveolar hemorrhage may be seen as one of the manifestation of HSP, it is not a frequent presentation. Here we reported the case of a 10-year-old girl with HSP nephritis who developed pulmonary hemorrhage. The patient was treated successfully with intravenous methylprednisolone. A review of the literature revealed that young age may be a good prognostic sign and that immunosuppressive drugs and supportive management are essential in the treatment. PMID:27606665

  19. Developing an eBook-Integrated High-Fidelity Mobile App Prototype for Promoting Child Motor Skills and Taxonomically Assessing Children’s Emotional Responses Using Face and Sound Topology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, William; Liu, Connie; John, Rita Marie; Ford, Phoebe

    2014-01-01

    Developing gross and fine motor skills and expressing complex emotion is critical for child development. We introduce “StorySense”, an eBook-integrated mobile app prototype that can sense face and sound topologies and identify movement and expression to promote children’s motor skills and emotional developmental. Currently, most interactive eBooks on mobile devices only leverage “low-motor” interaction (i.e. tapping or swiping). Our app senses a greater breath of motion (e.g. clapping, snapping, and face tracking), and dynamically alters the storyline according to physical responses in ways that encourage the performance of predetermined motor skills ideal for a child’s gross and fine motor development. In addition, our app can capture changes in facial topology, which can later be mapped using the Facial Action Coding System (FACS) for later interpretation of emotion. StorySense expands the human computer interaction vocabulary for mobile devices. Potential clinical applications include child development, physical therapy, and autism. PMID:25954336

  20. Development of Child-Teen Obesity Treatment Service Platform

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lim, Kahyun; Lee, Byung Mun

    2016-01-01

    Objectives This study aimed to develop an effective and efficient obesity treatment and management service platform for obese children/teenagers. Methods The integrated smart platform was planned and established through cooperation with service providers such as hospitals and public health centers, obese children/teenagers who constitute the service's user base, and IT development and policy institutions and companies focusing on child-teen obesity management and treatment. Results Based on guidelines on intervention strategies to manage child-teen obesity, we developed two patient/parent mobile applications, one web-monitoring service for medical staff, one mobile application for food-craving endurance, and one mobile application for medical examinations. Conclusions The establishment of the integrated service platform was successfully completed; however, this study was restrictively to the hospital where the pilot program took place. The effectiveness of the proposed platform will be verified in the future in tests involving other organizations. PMID:27525166

  1. Child Development and Behavior Branch (CDBB), NIHCD, Report to the NACHHD Council

    Science.gov (United States)

    National Institute of Child Health and Human Development (NICHD), 2009

    2009-01-01

    The Child Development & Behavior (CDB) Branch of the National Institute of Child Health and Human Development (NICHD) seeks to improve the health and well-being of individuals from infancy through early adulthood by supporting research into healthy growth and development, including all aspects of child development. The study of typical child…

  2. Parents' Child-Directed Communication and Child Language Development: A Longitudinal Study with Italian Toddlers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Majorano, Marinella; Rainieri, Chiara; Corsano, Paola

    2013-01-01

    The present study focuses on the characteristics of parental child-directed communication and its relationship with child language development. For this purpose, thirty-six toddlers (18 males and 18 females) and their parents were observed in a laboratory during triadic free play at ages 1;3 and 1;9. The characteristics of the maternal and…

  3. Maternal Emotional Styles and Child Social Adjustment: Assessment, Correlates, Outcomes and Goodness of Fit in Early Childhood

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lagace-Seguin, Daniel G.; Coplan, Robert J.

    2005-01-01

    The goals of the present research were to develop a modified version of an existing self-assessment questionnaire designed to measure parents' emotional style and to examine how the aspects of child regulation may moderate the relation between the emotional styles and social outcomes in childhood. Participants in Study 1 were 140 mothers and…

  4. Early phonetic development in typically developing children: A longitudinal investigation from Cypriot-Greek child data.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Petinou, Kakia; Theodorou, Eleni

    2016-01-01

    The current longitudinal study examined the acquisition of consonantal singleton segments in Cypriot-Greek. The study's aims were: (a) to determine the acquisition of segments for manner and place of articulation as a function of age and word position, (b) to provide preliminary normative data, and (c) to further support the cross-linguistic data pool regarding developmental phonology patterns. Participants were 14 Cypriot-Greek speaking typically developing toddlers, examined at ages 24, 28, 32 and 36 months. Spontaneously produced and elicited glossable utterances were used in constructing each child's inventory. Findings revealed an increase of segmental acquisition across all age levels. Group trend analysis for manner and place of articulation indicated bilabial and alveolar stops and nasals to be among the earlier segments to develop. A word medial position advantage was also evident. The findings are discussed in terms of phonological universals and language-specific factors. Implications for early evidence-based phonetic assessment are discussed.

  5. Labour Market Reform and Incidence of Child Labour in a Developing Economy

    OpenAIRE

    Chaudhuri, Sarbajit

    2009-01-01

    The paper is purported to examine the consequences of possible labour market reform in the developing economies on the incidence of child labour and economic well-being of the child labour supplying families. A two-sector, full-employment general equilibrium structure with child labour and imperfection in the market for adult labour has been used for the analytical purpose. Although this policy is likely to lower the incidence of child labour the welfare of the families supplying child labour...

  6. The Duke Endowment Child Abuse Prevention Initiative: A Midpoint Assessment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Daro, Deborah; Huang, Lee Ann; English, Brianna

    2009-01-01

    The Duke Endowment launched its Child Abuse Prevention Initiative in 2002 by funding two program sites, the Durham Family Initiative in Durham, North Carolina, and Strong Communities in Greenville, South Carolina. Both sites aimed to reduce rates of child abuse, improve parenting practices and behaviors, strengthen community service systems, and…

  7. The last commodity: child prostitution in the developing world.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sachs, A

    1994-01-01

    growth of sex tourism in Asia during the Vietnam War, government complicity in the industry, and the need to develop political will to end child prostitution. PMID:12288929

  8. The assessment of the readiness of five countries to implement child maltreatment prevention programs on a large scale.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mikton, Christopher; Power, Mick; Raleva, Marija; Makoae, Mokhantso; Al Eissa, Majid; Cheah, Irene; Cardia, Nancy; Choo, Claire; Almuneef, Maha

    2013-12-01

    This study aimed to systematically assess the readiness of five countries - Brazil, the Former Yugoslav Republic of Macedonia, Malaysia, Saudi Arabia, and South Africa - to implement evidence-based child maltreatment prevention programs on a large scale. To this end, it applied a recently developed method called Readiness Assessment for the Prevention of Child Maltreatment based on two parallel 100-item instruments. The first measures the knowledge, attitudes, and beliefs concerning child maltreatment prevention of key informants; the second, completed by child maltreatment prevention experts using all available data in the country, produces a more objective assessment readiness. The instruments cover all of the main aspects of readiness including, for instance, availability of scientific data on the problem, legislation and policies, will to address the problem, and material resources. Key informant scores ranged from 31.2 (Brazil) to 45.8/100 (the Former Yugoslav Republic of Macedonia) and expert scores, from 35.2 (Brazil) to 56/100 (Malaysia). Major gaps identified in almost all countries included a lack of professionals with the skills, knowledge, and expertise to implement evidence-based child maltreatment programs and of institutions to train them; inadequate funding, infrastructure, and equipment; extreme rarity of outcome evaluations of prevention programs; and lack of national prevalence surveys of child maltreatment. In sum, the five countries are in a low to moderate state of readiness to implement evidence-based child maltreatment prevention programs on a large scale. Such an assessment of readiness - the first of its kind - allows gaps to be identified and then addressed to increase the likelihood of program success. PMID:23962585

  9. The assessment of the readiness of five countries to implement child maltreatment prevention programs on a large scale.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mikton, Christopher; Power, Mick; Raleva, Marija; Makoae, Mokhantso; Al Eissa, Majid; Cheah, Irene; Cardia, Nancy; Choo, Claire; Almuneef, Maha

    2013-12-01

    This study aimed to systematically assess the readiness of five countries - Brazil, the Former Yugoslav Republic of Macedonia, Malaysia, Saudi Arabia, and South Africa - to implement evidence-based child maltreatment prevention programs on a large scale. To this end, it applied a recently developed method called Readiness Assessment for the Prevention of Child Maltreatment based on two parallel 100-item instruments. The first measures the knowledge, attitudes, and beliefs concerning child maltreatment prevention of key informants; the second, completed by child maltreatment prevention experts using all available data in the country, produces a more objective assessment readiness. The instruments cover all of the main aspects of readiness including, for instance, availability of scientific data on the problem, legislation and policies, will to address the problem, and material resources. Key informant scores ranged from 31.2 (Brazil) to 45.8/100 (the Former Yugoslav Republic of Macedonia) and expert scores, from 35.2 (Brazil) to 56/100 (Malaysia). Major gaps identified in almost all countries included a lack of professionals with the skills, knowledge, and expertise to implement evidence-based child maltreatment programs and of institutions to train them; inadequate funding, infrastructure, and equipment; extreme rarity of outcome evaluations of prevention programs; and lack of national prevalence surveys of child maltreatment. In sum, the five countries are in a low to moderate state of readiness to implement evidence-based child maltreatment prevention programs on a large scale. Such an assessment of readiness - the first of its kind - allows gaps to be identified and then addressed to increase the likelihood of program success.

  10. Peer Contagion in Child and Adolescent Social and Emotional Development

    OpenAIRE

    Dishion, Thomas J.; Tipsord, Jessica M.

    2011-01-01

    In this article, we examine the construct of peer contagion in childhood and adolescence and review studies of child and adolescent development that have identified peer contagion influences. Evidence suggests that children's interactions with peers are tied to increases in aggression in early and middle childhood and amplification of problem behaviors such as drug use, delinquency, and violence in early to late adolescence. Deviancy training is one mechanism that accounts for peer contagion ...

  11. The effects of malnutrition on child mortality in developing countries.

    OpenAIRE

    Pelletier, D. L.; Frongillo, E. A.; Schroeder, D. G.; Habicht, J. P.

    1995-01-01

    Conventional methods of classifying causes of death suggest that about 70% of the deaths of children (aged 0-4 years) worldwide are due to diarrhoeal illness, acute respiratory infection, malaria, and immunizable diseases. The role of malnutrition in child mortality is not revealed by these conventional methods, despite the long-standing recognition of the synergism between malnutrition and infectious diseases. This paper describes a recently-developed epidemiological method to estimate the p...

  12. Voyage through Childhood into the Adult World: A Guide to Child Development. Lifeways Series. Second Edition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frommer, Eva A.

    Originally written for students at St. Thomas' Hospital in London, this guide to child development offers an overview of child development for parents, teachers, and all adults concerned with raising children. Many of the book's ideas come from direct work with children and draw on Rudolf Steiner's approach to child development. The book's…

  13. 78 FR 70309 - Eunice Kennedy Shriver National Institute of Child Health & Human Development; Notice of Closed...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-11-25

    ... Shriver National Institute of Child Health and Human Development, NIH, 6100 Executive Boulevard, Room 5B01... of Committee: National Institute of Child Health and Human Development Special Emphasis Panel... Branch, Eunice Kennedy Shriver National Institute of Child Health and Human Development, NIH,...

  14. 78 FR 37233 - Eunice Kennedy Shriver National Institute Of Child Health & Human Development; Notice of Closed...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-06-20

    ... Institute of Child Health and Human Development, 6100 Executive Boulevard, Rockville, MD 20892-9304, (301... Institute of Child Health and Human Development Special Emphasis Panel; Multiple Data Coordinating Center... Scientific Review, National Institute of Child Health and Human Development, 6100 Executive...

  15. 45 CFR 1306.30 - Provisions of comprehensive child development services.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 45 Public Welfare 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Provisions of comprehensive child development... Start Program Options § 1306.30 Provisions of comprehensive child development services. (a) All Head Start grantees must provide comprehensive child development services, as defined in the Head...

  16. 33 CFR 55.5 - Who is eligible for child development services?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Who is eligible for child development services? 55.5 Section 55.5 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY PERSONNEL CHILD DEVELOPMENT SERVICES General § 55.5 Who is eligible for child development...

  17. 77 FR 14530 - National Institute of Child Health and Human Development; New Proposed Collection; Comment...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-03-12

    ... HUMAN SERVICES National Institutes of Health National Institute of Child Health and Human Development... collection projects, the National Institute of Child Health and Human Development (NICHD), the National... the National Institute of Child Health and Human Development* to conduct a national longitudinal...

  18. 76 FR 37133 - Eunice Kennedy Shriver National Institute of Child Health & Human Development; Notice of Closed...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-06-24

    ... Development, Special Emphasis Panel. The Role of Human-Animal Interactions in Child Health and Development... Institute of Child Health and Human Development, NIH, 6100 Executive Blvd., room 5B01, Bethesda, MD 20892... HUMAN SERVICES National Institutes of Health Eunice Kennedy Shriver National Institute of Child...

  19. 76 FR 50743 - Eunice Kennedy Shriver National Institute of Child Health & Human Development; Notice of Closed...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-08-16

    ... Development Special Emphasis Panel, Maintenance of Child Health and Development Studies Name and Address Files... Scientific Review, Eunice Kennedy Shriver National Institute of Child Health and Human Development, NIH, 6100... HUMAN SERVICES National Institutes of Health Eunice Kennedy Shriver National Institute of Child...

  20. 78 FR 66752 - Eunice Kennedy Shriver National Institute of Child Health & Human Development; Notice of Closed...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-11-06

    ..., Division of Scientific Review, National Institute of Child Health and Human Development, NIH, 6100... funding cycle. Name of Committee: National Institute of Child Health and Human Development Initial Review... Review, Eunice Kennedy Shriver National Institute of Child Health and Human Development, NIH,...

  1. Do multiple micronutrient interventions improve child health, growth, and development?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramakrishnan, Usha; Goldenberg, Tamar; Allen, Lindsay H

    2011-11-01

    Micronutrient deficiencies are common and often co-occur in many developing countries. Several studies have examined the benefits of providing multiple micronutrient (MMN) interventions during pregnancy and childhood, but the implications for programs remain unclear. The key objective of this review is to summarize what is known about the efficacy of MMN interventions during early childhood on functional outcomes, namely, child health, survival, growth, and development, to guide policy and identify gaps for future research. We identified review articles including meta-analyses and intervention studies that evaluated the benefits of MMN interventions (3 or more micronutrients) in children (child morbidity, anemia, and growth. Two studies found no effects on child mortality. The findings for respiratory illness and diarrhea are mixed, although suggestive of benefit when provided as fortified foods. There is evidence from several controlled trials (>25) and 2 meta-analyses that MMN interventions improve hemoglobin concentrations and reduce anemia, but the effects were small compared to providing only iron or iron with folic acid. Two recent meta-analyses and several intervention trials also indicated that MMN interventions improve linear growth compared to providing a placebo or single nutrients. Much less is known about the effects on MMN interventions during early childhood on motor and mental development. In summary, MMN interventions may result in improved outcomes for children in settings where micronutrient deficiencies are widespread.

  2. Using Benefit-Cost Analysis to Assess Child Abuse Prevention and Intervention Programs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Plotnick, Robert D.; Deppman, Laurie

    1999-01-01

    Presents a case for using benefit-cost analysis to structure evaluations of child-abuse prevention and intervention programs. Presents the basic concept of benefit-cost analysis, its application in the context of assessing these types of child welfare programs, and limitations on its application to social service programs. (Author)

  3. Evaluating Child-Based Reading Constructs and Assessments with Struggling Adult Readers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nanda, Alice Owens

    2009-01-01

    Due to the paucity of research on struggling adult readers, researchers rely on child-based reading constructs and measures when investigating the reading skills of adults struggling with reading. The purpose of the two studies in this investigation was to evaluate the appropriateness of using child-based reading constructs and assessments with…

  4. Vermont STep Ahead Recognition System: QRS Profile. The Child Care Quality Rating System (QRS) Assessment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Child Trends, 2010

    2010-01-01

    This paper presents a profile of Vermont's STep Ahead Recognition System (STARS) prepared as part of the Child Care Quality Rating System (QRS) Assessment Study. The profile consists of several sections and their corresponding descriptions including: (1) Program Information; (2) Rating Details; (3) Quality Indicators for All Child Care Programs;…

  5. Practice parameter for the assessment and management of youth involved with the child welfare system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Terry; Fouras, George; Brown, Rachel

    2015-06-01

    This Practice Parameter presents principles for the mental health assessment and management of youth involved with the child welfare system. Important definitions, background, history, epidemiology, mental health care use, and functional outcomes are described. Practical guidance regarding child welfare-related considerations for evaluation and management are discussed. PMID:26004666

  6. Child poverty in comparative perspective: Assessing the role of family structure and parental education and employment

    OpenAIRE

    Gornick, Janet C.; Jäntti, Markus

    2011-01-01

    This paper draws on the Luxembourg Income Study (LIS) microdata to paint a portrait of child poverty across a diverse group of countries, as of 2004-2006. We will first synthesize past LIS-based research on child poverty, focusing on studies that aim to explain cross-national variation in child poverty rates. Our empirical sections will focus on child poverty in 20 high- and middle-income countries - including three Latin American countries, newly added to LIS. We will assess poverty among al...

  7. Gestural development and its relation to a child's early vocabulary.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kraljević, Jelena Kuvač; Cepanec, Maja; Simleša, Sanja

    2014-05-01

    Gesture and language are tightly connected during the development of a child's communication skills. Gestures mostly precede and define the way of language development; even opposite direction has been found. Few recent studies have focused on the relationship between specific gestures and specific word categories, emphasising that the onset of one gesture type predicts the onset of certain word categories or of the earliest word combinations. The aim of this study was to analyse predicative roles of different gesture types on the onset of first word categories in a child's early expressive vocabulary. Our data show that different types of gestures predict different types of word production. Object gestures predict open-class words from the age of 13 months, and gestural routines predict closed-class words and social terms from 8 months. Receptive vocabulary has a strong mediating role for all linguistically defined categories (open- and closed-class words) but not for social terms, which are the largest word category in a child's early expressive vocabulary. Accordingly, main contribution of this study is to define the impact of different gesture types on early expressive vocabulary and to determine the role of receptive vocabulary in gesture-expressive vocabulary relation in the Croatian language. PMID:24583922

  8. Gestural development and its relation to a child's early vocabulary.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kraljević, Jelena Kuvač; Cepanec, Maja; Simleša, Sanja

    2014-05-01

    Gesture and language are tightly connected during the development of a child's communication skills. Gestures mostly precede and define the way of language development; even opposite direction has been found. Few recent studies have focused on the relationship between specific gestures and specific word categories, emphasising that the onset of one gesture type predicts the onset of certain word categories or of the earliest word combinations. The aim of this study was to analyse predicative roles of different gesture types on the onset of first word categories in a child's early expressive vocabulary. Our data show that different types of gestures predict different types of word production. Object gestures predict open-class words from the age of 13 months, and gestural routines predict closed-class words and social terms from 8 months. Receptive vocabulary has a strong mediating role for all linguistically defined categories (open- and closed-class words) but not for social terms, which are the largest word category in a child's early expressive vocabulary. Accordingly, main contribution of this study is to define the impact of different gesture types on early expressive vocabulary and to determine the role of receptive vocabulary in gesture-expressive vocabulary relation in the Croatian language.

  9. Trade Liberalization in Agriculture in Developed Nations and Incidence of Child Labour in a Developing Economy

    OpenAIRE

    Sarbajit Chaudhuri; Jayanta Kumar Dwibedi

    2005-01-01

    This paper is an attempt to analyze the consequence of trade liberalization in agriculture in the developed countries on the incidence of child labour in a developing economy in terms of a three- sector general equilibrium model with informal sectors. Adult labour and child labour are substitutes to each other in the two informal sectors of the economy and are used together apart from capital in producing two exportable commodities. The interesting result that appears from the analysis is tha...

  10. Does Mother Know Best? Parental Discrepancies in Assessing Child Functioning

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Datta Gupta, Nabanita; Lausten, Mette; Pozzoli, Dario

    We investigate the degree of correspondence between parents’ reports on child behavioral and educational outcomes using the most recent available wave of a rich Danish longitudinal survey of children (the DALSC). All outcomes are measured at age 11 when the children are expected to be in fifth...... in explaining child academic performance and diagnosed mental health to investigate whether one parent is systematically a better informant of their child’s outcomes than the other....

  11. Reconciling parenting and smoking in the context of child development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bottorff, Joan L; Oliffe, John L; Kelly, Mary T; Johnson, Joy L; Chan, Anna

    2013-08-01

    In this article we explore the micro-social context of parental tobacco use in the first years of a child's life and early childhood. We conducted individual interviews with 28 mothers and fathers during the 4 years following the birth of their child. Using grounded theory methods, we identified the predominant explanatory concept in parents' accounts as the need to reconcile being a parent and smoking. Desires to become smoke-free coexisted with five types of parent-child interactions: (a) protecting the defenseless child, (b) concealing smoking and cigarettes from the mimicking child, (c) reinforcing smoking as bad with the communicative child, (d) making guilt-driven promises to the fearful child, and (e) relinquishing personal responsibility to the autonomous child. We examine the agency of the child in influencing parents' smoking practices, the importance of children's observational learning in the early years, and the reciprocal nature of parent-child interactions related to parents' smoking behavior. PMID:23774626

  12. 76 FR 69747 - Eunice Kennedy Shriver National Institute of Child Health & Human Development; Notice of Closed...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-11-09

    ... unwarranted invasion of personal privacy. Name of Committee: National Institute of Child Health and Human Development; Special Emphasis Panel; Infertility Treatment, Child Growth and Development to age Three Years... HUMAN SERVICES National Institutes of Health Eunice Kennedy Shriver National Institute of Child...

  13. 75 FR 54897 - Eunice Kennedy Shriver National Institute of Child Health & Human Development; Notice of Closed...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-09-09

    ... Child Health and Human Development Special Emphasis Panel; Review of T32 Applications from the... Institute of Child Health and Human Development, NIH, 6100 Executive Blvd., Room 5B01, Bethesda, MD 20892... HUMAN SERVICES National Institutes of Health Eunice Kennedy Shriver National Institute of Child...

  14. The Development of a Pediatric Inpatient Experience of Care Measure: Child HCAHPS®

    Science.gov (United States)

    Toomey, Sara L.; Zaslavsky, Alan M.; Elliott, Marc N.; Gallagher, Patricia M.; Fowler, Floyd J.; Klein, David J.; Shulman, Shanna; Ratner, Jessica; McGovern, Caitriona; LeBlanc, Jessica L.; Schuster, Mark A.

    2016-01-01

    CMS uses Adult HCAHPS® scores for public reporting and pay-for-performance for most U.S. hospitals, but no publicly available standardized survey of inpatient experience of care exists for pediatrics. To fill the gap, CMS/AHRQ commissioned the development of the Consumer Assessment of Healthcare Providers and Systems Hospital Survey – Child Version (Child HCAHPS), a survey of parents/guardians of pediatric patients (<18 years old) who were recently hospitalized. This Special Article describes the development of Child HCAHPS, which included an extensive review of the literature and quality measures, expert interviews, focus groups, cognitive testing, pilot testing of the draft survey, a national field test with 69 hospitals in 34 states, psychometric analysis, and end-user testing of the final survey. We conducted extensive validity and reliability testing to determine which items would be included in the final survey instrument and to develop composite measures. We analyzed national field test data from 17,727 surveys collected from 11/12-1/14 from parents of recently hospitalized children. The final Child HCAHPS instrument has 62 items, including 39 patient experience items, 10 screeners, 12 demographic/descriptive items, and 1 open-ended item. The 39 experience items are categorized based on testing into 18 composite and single-item measures. Our composite and single-item measures demonstrated good to excellent hospital-level reliability at 300 responses per hospital. Child HCAHPS was developed to be a publicly available standardized survey of pediatric inpatient experience of care. It can be used to benchmark pediatric inpatient experience across hospitals and assist in efforts to improve the quality of inpatient care. PMID:26195542

  15. The influence of causal attribution of parents on developing the child enuresis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jerković Ivan

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available Causal attributions are affirmed as a cognitive element able to explain emotional and motivational aspects of behaviour of some categories of adult psychiatric patients, primarily depressive ones. Theoretical and practical success of cognitive ideas in explaining the origination of depressive disorders, and in the monitoring of depressive patient treatment has led to further development of theory, but also to the attempt to apply the learning about causal attributions to various problems. Characteristic attempts are those that the problems of child abuse, children’s depression, upbringing problems, school failure, hyperactivity, enuresis, and long-term effects of different child treatment, too, are analysed from the point of view of causal attributions. By assessing parent causal attributions regarding child night urination, we wanted to establish to what extent specific attributions for child behaviour differentiate the parents of children having this problem from those parents whose children have established control. Parents were assessed in terms of four dimensions of causal attributions for child’s problem. Those are the dimensions of globality, counter-lability, internality, and the stability of the cause of child’s problem. The analysis of parent causal attributions show that mothers and fathers in both assessed groups similarly experience the cause of enuretic problems of their children. Enuresis is seen as caused by specific, internal, and instable causes. Such a system of dimensions could correspond to the belief that the main etiological factor of the enuresis is maturing. For more reliable verification of this attitude, longitudinal strategy in research is necessary, especially to comprehend whether parental attributions have been developed as an effect of persistent enuresis, or whether the enuresis is developed as an effect of parental attributions.

  16. Dietary patterns in early childhood and child cognitive and psychomotor development: the Rhea mother-child cohort study in Crete.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leventakou, Vasiliki; Roumeliotaki, Theano; Sarri, Katerina; Koutra, Katerina; Kampouri, Mariza; Kyriklaki, Andriani; Vassilaki, Maria; Kogevinas, Manolis; Chatzi, Leda

    2016-04-01

    Early-life nutrition is critical for optimal brain development; however, few studies have evaluated the impact of diet as a whole in early childhood on neurological development with inconsistent results. The present analysis is a cross-sectional study nested within an ongoing prospective birth cohort, the Rhea study, and aims to examine the association of dietary patterns with cognitive and psychomotor development in 804 preschool (mean age 4·2 years) children. Parents completed a validated FFQ, and dietary patterns were identified using principal component analysis. Child cognitive and psychomotor development was assessed by the McCarthy Scales of Children's Abilities (MSCA). Multivariable linear regression models were used to investigate the associations of dietary patterns with the MSCA scales. After adjustment for a large number of confounding factors, the 'Snacky' pattern (potatoes and other starchy roots, salty snacks, sugar products and eggs) was negatively associated with the scales of verbal ability (β=-1·31; 95 % CI -2·47, -0·16), general cognitive ability (β=-1·13; 95 % CI -2·25, -0·02) and cognitive functions of the posterior cortex (β=-1·20; 95 % CI -2·34, -0·07). Further adjustment for maternal intelligence, folic acid supplementation and alcohol use during pregnancy attenuated the observed associations, but effect estimates remained at the same direction. The 'Western' and the 'Mediterranean' patterns were not associated with child neurodevelopmental scales. The present findings suggest that poorer food choices at preschool age characterised by foods high in fat, salt and sugar are associated with reduced scores in verbal and cognitive ability. PMID:26887648

  17. The Attachment Doll Play Assessment: Predictive Validity with Concurrent Mother-Child Interaction and Maternal Caregiving Representations

    Science.gov (United States)

    George, Carol; Solomon, Judith

    2016-01-01

    Attachment is central to the development of children’s regulatory processes. It has been associated with developmental and psychiatric health across the life span, especially emotional and behavioral regulation of negative affect when stressed (Schore, 2001; Schore and Schore, 2008). Assessment of attachment patterns provides a critical frame for understanding emerging developmental competencies and formulating treatment and intervention. Play-based attachment assessments provide access to representational models of attachment, which are regarded in attachment theory as the central organizing mechanisms associated with stability or change (Bowlby, 1969/1982; Bretherton and Munholland, 2008). The Attachment Doll Play Assessment (ADPA, George and Solomon, 1990–2016; Solomon et al., 1995) is a prominent established representational attachment measure for children aged early latency through childhood. This study examines the predictive validity of the ADPA to caregiving accessibility and responsiveness assessed from mother-child interaction and maternal representation. Sixty nine mothers and their 5–7-year-old children participated in this study. Mother-child interaction was observed during a pre-separation dyadic interaction task. Caregiving representations were rated from the Caregiving Interview (George and Solomon, 1988/1993/2005/2007). Child security with mother was associated with positive dyadic interaction and flexibly integrated maternal caregiving representations. Child controlling/disorganized attachments were significantly associated with problematic dyadic interaction and dysregulated-helpless maternal caregiving representations. The clinical implications and the use of the ADPA in clinical and educational settings are discussed. PMID:27803683

  18. "It's the Way You Talk to Them." The Child's Environment: Early Years Practitioners' Perceptions of Its Influence on Speech and Language Development, Its Assessment and Environment Targeted Interventions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marshall, Julie; Lewis, Elizabeth

    2014-01-01

    Speech and language delay occurs in approximately 6% of the child population, and interventions to support this group of children focus on the child and/or the communicative environment. Evidence about the effectiveness of interventions that focus on the environment as well as the (reported) practices of speech and language therapists (SLTs) and…

  19. Nurses' involvement in interdisciplinary team evaluations: incorporating the family perspective into child assessment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Papenfus, H; Bryan, A A

    1998-05-01

    An expanded nursing role in interdisciplinary team evaluations of children with special needs would include seeking the family's perspective in a systematic yet sensitive way. Nursing's background in family and child health can offer valuable insight. This article reviews family nursing assessment categories, reframes them for use in assessing the family's perspective in relation to the child's health and educational needs, and presents a systematic integrated history and assessment format for gathering child and family data. This approach promotes family collaboration in understanding family, child health, and educational issues. The holistic understanding gained by the school nurse through this systematic process enhances insight in interdisciplinary team planning. The nursing written report with preliminary conclusions facilitates an organized presentation of data, setting the stage for family and interdisciplinary team mutual exploration of options and facilitating greater likelihood of successful outcomes. PMID:9672856

  20. Early Child Care and Child Development: For Whom It Works and Why

    OpenAIRE

    Felfe, Christina; Lalive, Rafael

    2013-01-01

    Many countries are currently expanding access to child care for young children. But are all children equally likely to benefit from such expansions? We address this question by adopting a marginal treatment effects framework. We study the West German setting where high quality center - based care is severely rationed and use within state differences in child care supply as exogenous variation in child care attendance. Data from the German Socio-Economic Panel provides comprehensive informa...

  1. A review of cortisol production and child care attendace: The promotion of positive child development

    OpenAIRE

    Mikkelborg, Susann

    2009-01-01

    Extensive evidence exist, demonstrating an association between cortisol and child care attendance. Cortisol is regarded as a valid and reliable measure of stress. This review aim to summarize findings regarding child care and cortisol. The results reveal a trend of atypical levels of cortisol seen in children attending non-parental group-based child care, in particular encompassing children below age three. Long-term effects are evident in some children, resulting in a down regulation of the ...

  2. Addressing Social Determinants of Health by Integrating Assessment of Caregiver-Child Attachment into Community Based Primary Health Care in Urban Kenya

    OpenAIRE

    Racheal Nduku Ndambuki; Paul Campbell Erwin; Susanna Williams; Bryant, Nancy H.; Bryant, John H.

    2012-01-01

    A principle strategic insight of the Final Report for WHO’s Commission on Social Determinants of Health (SDOH) is that the nurturant qualities of the environments where children grow up, live, and learn matter the most for their development. A key determinant of early childhood development is the establishment of a secure attachment between a caregiver and child. We report initial field-tests of the integration of caregiver-child attachment assessment by community health workers (CHWs) as a r...

  3. Child abuse in 28 developing and transitional countries ? results from the Multiple Indicator Cluster Surveys

    OpenAIRE

    Akmatov, Manas K.

    2010-01-01

    Abstract Background Child abuse is a worldwide recognized public health and social problem. Using data from the Multiple Indicator Cluster Surveys (MICS) we aimed to a) compare different forms of child abuse across countries and regions, and b) examine factors associated with different forms of child abuse. Methods Information on child abuse was available in 28 developing and transitional countries from the third round of MICS conducted in 2005 and 2006 (n=124 916 childr...

  4. Legal Response to Child Abuse and Neglect: Assessment, Treatment, and Prevention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Plum, Henry J.

    1991-01-01

    Recommendations are made for improving the existing child protection system by consideration of children as legal persons, parental duty instead of parental rights, and the state's duty. Solutions involve recognizing what works, developing political astuteness, marketing child protective services as a business, balancing centralization and…

  5. Progress in developing an infant and child feeding index

    OpenAIRE

    Arimond, Mary; Ruel, Marie T.

    2002-01-01

    "Feeding practices are an important determinant of the nutritional status of infants and children. It is therefore useful to measure and describe infant and child feeding practices in a number of contexts. Such measurements could enable (1) international comparisons of the adequacy of infant and child feeding, (2) research linking infant and child feeding to determinants or outcomes, (3) advocacy regarding the importance of adequate infant and child feeding, and (4) monitoring and evaluation ...

  6. Distributional effects of Oportunidades on early child development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Figueroa, José Luis

    2014-07-01

    The Mexican Oportunidades program is designed to increase human capital through investments in education, health, and nutrition for children in extreme poverty. Although the program is not expressly designed to promote a child's cognitive and non-cognitive development, the set of actions carried out by the program could eventually facilitate improvements in these domains. Previous studies on the Oportunidades program have found little impact on children's cognition but have found positive effects on their non-cognitive development. However, the majority of these studies use the average outcome to measure the impact of the program and thus overlook other "non-average" effects. This paper uses stochastic dominance methods to investigate results beyond the mean by comparing cumulative distributions for both children who are and children who are not aided by the program. Four indicators of cognitive development and one indicator of non-cognitive development are analyzed using a sample of 2595 children aged two to six years. The sample was collected in rural communities in Mexico in 2003 as part of the program evaluation. Similar to previous studies, the program is found to positively influence children's non-cognitive abilities: children enrolled in the program manifest fewer behavioral problems compared with children who are not enrolled. In addition, different program effects are found for girls and boys and for indigenous and non-indigenous children. The ranges where the effect is measured cover a large part of the outcome's distribution, and these ranges include a large proportion of the children in the sample. With regard to cognitive development, only one indicator (short-term memory) shows positive effects. Nevertheless, the results for this indicator demonstrate that children with low values of cognitive development benefit from the program, whereas children with high values do not. Overall, the program has positive effects on child development, especially for

  7. The history of China's maternal and child health care development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guo, Yan; Bai, Jing; Na, Heya

    2015-10-01

    The history of maternal and child health (MCH) development in China can be divided into six stages: before 1949 when the People's Republic of China was founded, traditional Chinese medicine shielded women's and children's health while modern medicine began to bud; 1949-1966, the MCH system was established and gradually improved; 1966-1976, the decade of the Cultural Revolution, the road to improve MCH twisted and turned along with the political instability; 1976-1990, especially after the "Reform" and "Opening Up", China's MCH care had been booming and the MCH status continued to improve with the rapid social and economic development; 1990-2008, with the booming economy, MCH care gained increasingly national and international attention. Through improving legislation and investment, China made great strides in the improvement of MCH. After 2009, the comprehensive health care reform laid an institutional basis for the development of MCH and promotion of health equity. PMID:26271835

  8. Cumulative Environmental Risk in Substance Abusing Women: Early Intervention, Parenting Stress, Child Abuse Potential and Child Development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kelley, Susan J.

    2003-01-01

    A study of 161 substance-abusing mothers assessed 10 maternal risk factors: maternal depression; domestic violence; nondomestic violence; family size; incarceration; no significant other at home; negative life events; psychiatric problems; homelessness; and drug use severity. Parenting stress and child abuse potential was higher for women with…

  9. Economic cycles and child mortality: A cross-national study of the least developed countries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pérez-Moreno, Salvador; Blanco-Arana, María C; Bárcena-Martín, Elena

    2016-09-01

    This paper examines the effects of growth and recession periods on child mortality in the Least Developed Countries (LDCs) during the period 1990-2010. We provide empirical evidence of uneven effects of variations in Gross Domestic Product (GDP) per capita on the evolution of child mortality rate in periods of economic recession and expansion. A decrease in GDP per capita entails a significant rise in child mortality rates, whereas an increase does not affect child mortality significantly. In this context, official development assistance seems to play a crucial role in counteracting the increment in child mortality rates in recession periods, at least in those LDCs receiving greater aid. PMID:26998938

  10. Between practice and theory: Melanie Klein, Anna Freud and the development of child analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Donaldson, G

    1996-04-01

    An examination of the early history of child analysis in the writings of Melanie Klein and Anna Freud reveals how two different and opposing approaches to child analysis arose at the same time. The two methods of child analysis are rooted in a differential emphasis on psychoanalytic theory and practice. The Kleinian method derives from the application of technique while the Anna Freudian method is driven by theory. Furthermore, by holding to the Freudian theory of child development Anna Freud was forced to limit the scope of child analysis, while Klein's application of Freudian practice has led to new discoveries about the development of the infant psyche.

  11. Mutual influences between child emotion regulation and parent-child reciprocity support development across the first 10 years of life: Implications for developmental psychopathology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feldman, Ruth

    2015-11-01

    Elucidating the mechanisms by which infant birth conditions shape development across lengthy periods is critical for understanding typical and pathological development and for targeted early interventions. This study examined how newborns' regulatory capacities impact 10-year outcomes via the bidirectional influences of child emotion regulation (ER) and reciprocal parenting across early development. Guided by dynamic systems theory, 125 infants were tested at seven time points: birth, 3, 6, 12, and 24 months and 5 and 10 years. Initial regulatory conditions were measured by respiratory sinus arrhythmia (RSA; vagal tone) and neurobehavioral regulation (Brazelton, 1973) at birth. At each assessment between 3 months and 5 years, infant ER was microcoded from age-appropriate paradigms and mother-child reciprocity observed during social interactions. Four regulation-related outcomes were measured at 10 years: child RSA, empathy measured by mother-child conflict discussion and a lab paradigm, accident proneness, and behavior problems. An autoregressive cross-lagged structural model indicated that infant birth conditions impacted 10-year outcomes via three mechanisms. First, child ER and reciprocal parenting were individually stable across development and were each predicted by regulatory birth conditions, describing gradual maturation of ER and reciprocity over time. Second, better ER skills at one time point were related to greater reciprocity at the next time point and vice versa, and these cross-time effects defined a field of individual-context mutual influences that mediated the links between neonatal RSA and 10-year outcomes. Third, direct associations emerged between neonatal regulation and outcome, suggesting that birth conditions may establish a neurobiological milieu that promotes a more mature and resilient system. These mechanisms describe distinct "attractor" states that constrain the system's future options, emphasize the importance of defining behavior

  12. Mutual influences between child emotion regulation and parent-child reciprocity support development across the first 10 years of life: Implications for developmental psychopathology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feldman, Ruth

    2015-11-01

    Elucidating the mechanisms by which infant birth conditions shape development across lengthy periods is critical for understanding typical and pathological development and for targeted early interventions. This study examined how newborns' regulatory capacities impact 10-year outcomes via the bidirectional influences of child emotion regulation (ER) and reciprocal parenting across early development. Guided by dynamic systems theory, 125 infants were tested at seven time points: birth, 3, 6, 12, and 24 months and 5 and 10 years. Initial regulatory conditions were measured by respiratory sinus arrhythmia (RSA; vagal tone) and neurobehavioral regulation (Brazelton, 1973) at birth. At each assessment between 3 months and 5 years, infant ER was microcoded from age-appropriate paradigms and mother-child reciprocity observed during social interactions. Four regulation-related outcomes were measured at 10 years: child RSA, empathy measured by mother-child conflict discussion and a lab paradigm, accident proneness, and behavior problems. An autoregressive cross-lagged structural model indicated that infant birth conditions impacted 10-year outcomes via three mechanisms. First, child ER and reciprocal parenting were individually stable across development and were each predicted by regulatory birth conditions, describing gradual maturation of ER and reciprocity over time. Second, better ER skills at one time point were related to greater reciprocity at the next time point and vice versa, and these cross-time effects defined a field of individual-context mutual influences that mediated the links between neonatal RSA and 10-year outcomes. Third, direct associations emerged between neonatal regulation and outcome, suggesting that birth conditions may establish a neurobiological milieu that promotes a more mature and resilient system. These mechanisms describe distinct "attractor" states that constrain the system's future options, emphasize the importance of defining behavior

  13. Assessing the development gap

    OpenAIRE

    Sinitsina, Irina; Chubrik, Alexander; Denisova, Irina; Dubrovskiy, Vladimir; Kartseva, Marina; Makenbaeva, Irina; Rokicka, Magdalena; Tokmazishvili, Michael

    2007-01-01

    Current report aims to identify major existing gaps in the four socio-economic dimensions (economic, human, environmental, and institutional) and to reveal those gaps which could potentially hinder social and economic integration of neighbor states with the EU. To achieve this, the authors aim to assess the existing trends in the size of the gaps across countries and problem areas, taking into consideration the specific origin of the gap between EU15/EU12, on the one hand, and FSU republics, ...

  14. Assessing parental risk in parenting plan (child custody) evaluation cases involving internet sexual behavior

    OpenAIRE

    Witt, Philip H.; Merdian, Hannah Lena; Connell, Mary; Douglas P. Boer

    2010-01-01

    One type of claim in parenting assessment (child custody)1 cases is that one parent, typically the father, is alleged to be engaging in improper or compulsive sexual behavior via the Internet. The sexual behavior at issue can range from frequent sexually explicit chats with other adults to compulsive viewing of adult pornography. In more extreme cases, the problematic behavior may involve viewing child pornography, and in some cases the parent faces actual criminal charges in this regard. The...

  15. Prematurity as a factor of damaged child development

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chukhutova G.L.

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available At present time prematurity is the main reason for disability in children, which can be exemplified by the fact that 2/3 of educatees of children' homes for blind and deaf are preterm children. The most drastic consequences of prematurity is cerebral palsy with spastic diplegia; blindness or poor vision as a result of retina detachment; auditory inefficiency connected with the nerve deafness, decline in general cognitive and speech development; difficulties in coordination and planning serial operations; psycho-emotional impairments like autism. The distinctive features of appearance (failure to thrive, microcephalism with deformation of the shape of the head and behavior (stereotyped movements, lack in initiative purposeful activity make these children recognizable and let us talk about naturally determined set of impairments connected with the main reason — prematurity. The article regards the influence of preterm birth on child's nervous system and it's remote effect on his/her psychic development.

  16. Placing Asian American Child Development Within Historical Context.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kiang, Lisa; Tseng, Vivian; Yip, Tiffany

    2016-07-01

    This article discusses influences of historical time and place on the development of children and youth of Asian descent in the U.S. Chinese, Indian, Hmong, and Filipino American experiences illustrate how history has defined race and racial stereotypes, determined cultural and community contexts, established pre-/postmigration circumstances, and influenced oppression and discrimination. Cross-cutting issues as applied to other ethnicities are discussed. By recognizing history's reach on child development, this article intends to inspire others to acknowledge and consider historical influences in their work. It also lays a foundation for the two ensuing articles within this Special Section, which present a novel conceptual framework (Mistry et al., this volume) and methodological recommendations (Yoshikawa, Mistry, & Wang, this volume) for research. PMID:27392795

  17. Child is father of the man: child abuse and development of future psychopathology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lecic-Tosevski, D; Draganic-Gajic, S; Pejovic-Milovancevic, M; Popovic-Deusic, S; Christodoulou, N; Botbol, M

    2014-01-01

    Available epidemiological data indicate that the abuse of children within families is a very common phenomenon, and is still on the rise. Among others, abuse includes direct physical and emotional violence to the child, as well as the indirect emotional trauma of witnessing interparental violence. These early trauma experienced within the context of the family can influence the development of the child's personality as well as predispose towards the development of mental disorders in adulthood. There are some important factors influencing the occurrence of abuse, or the conditions predisposing it: certain parental personality traits appear to be instrumental, and the presence of individual psychopathology of parents is also connected with different forms of family dysfunction as a system, representing a variable which is interpolated in the quality of parenthood as the most important factor that determines long-term consequences on children and possible future psychopathology. The complex but tangible effects of parents' personality traits on the psychological development of children may contribute to the transgenerational transmission of abuse and violence. The phenomenon of domestic violence and abuse can be described from the perspective of the psychological and systemic theoretical postulates. According to systemic theory and practice, dysfunctional communication in the family is a significant predictor for domestic violence. Characteristics of dysfunctional communication include low levels of verbal expressiveness and emotional responsiveness, low tolerance to criticism and its interpretation as a threat or intimidation, and consequently increased anxiety and subsequent escalation of an argument into violence. Overall it seems that there may be a complex connection between parental personality and family interaction patterns, leading to dysfunctional communication which further amplifies the detrimental characteristics of family dynamics, and eventually

  18. Adult and Child Development in the Zone of Proximal Development: Socratic Dialogue in a Playworld

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferholt, Beth; Lecusay, Robert

    2010-01-01

    This article analyses adult and child development in the zone of proximal development in an educational practice based in Vygotsky's theories of play: the playworld educational practice. The playworld educational practice is a central component of a Scandinavian play pedagogy that promotes shared responsibility amongst adults and children for…

  19. The Impact of the Developmental Training Model on Staff Development in Air Force Child Development Programs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bird, Candace Maria Edmonds

    2010-01-01

    In an effort to standardize training delivery and to individualize staff development based on observation and reflective practice, the Air Force implemented the Developmental Training Model (DTM) in its Child Development Programs. The goal of the Developmental Training Model is to enhance high quality programs through improvements in the training…

  20. Copying the development: mirror neurons in child development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herrera Morban, Demian Arturo; Montero Cruz, Nathalia Caridad

    2016-06-10

    Since intrauterine life, our brain is exposed to diverse internal and external factors that generate epigenetic changes affecting the neural networks and thus modifying the properties of the mirror neurons of the developing infant. We consider that changes on the mirror neurons may play a role on the neuro-developmental pathologies of an infant where no structural brain lesion is observed.

  1. 77 FR 58855 - Eunice Kennedy Shriver National Institute of Child Health & Human Development; Notice of Closed...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-09-24

    ... Development Special Emphasis Panel; Child Health Research Career Development Award (CHRCDA) Program. Date... & Human Development; Notice of Closed Meeting Pursuant to section 10(d) of the Federal Advisory Committee... Shriver ] National Institute of Child Health and Human Development, NIH, 6100 Executive Blvd., Room...

  2. 76 FR 40737 - Eunice Kennedy Shriver National Institute of Child Health & Human Development; Notice of Closed...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-07-11

    ... Development Special Emphasis Panel, Child Health Research Career Development Program. Dates: July 29, 2011... & Human Development; Notice of Closed Meeting Pursuant to section 10(d) of the Federal Advisory Committee... Institute of Child Health and Human Development, NIH, 6100 Executive Blvd., Room 5B0G, MSC 7510,...

  3. Trajectories of Psychosocial Problems in Adolescents Predicted by Findings From Early Well-Child Assessments

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jaspers, Merlijne; de Winter, Andrea F.; Huisman, Mark; Verhulst, Frank C.; Ormel, Johan; Stewart, Roy E.; Reijneveld, Sijmen A.

    2012-01-01

    Purpose: To describe trajectories of emotional and behavioral problems in adolescents and to identify early indicators of these trajectories using data from routine well-child assessments at ages 0-4 years. Methods: Data from three assessment waves of adolescents (n = 1,816) of the TRAILS were used

  4. Practitioner Review: The Victims and Juvenile Perpetrators of Child Sexual Abuse -- Assessment and Intervention

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vizard, Eileen

    2013-01-01

    Background: The assessment of victims of child sexual abuse (CSA) is now a recognized aspect of clinical work for both CAMH and adult services. As juvenile perpetrators of CSA are responsible for a significant minority of the sexual assaults on other children, CAMH services are increasingly approached to assess these oversexualized younger…

  5. Developments in Social Impact Assessment

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vanclay, Frank

    2014-01-01

    Along with environmental impact assessment, social impact assessment (SIA) has its origins in the 1970s and has developed from being a tool to meet regulatory requirements, to a discipline that seeks to contribute proactively to better project and policy development and to enhance the wellbeing of a

  6. Trajectories of maternal depressive symptoms across the birth of a child: associations with toddler emotional development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guyon-Harris, Katherine; Huth-Bocks, Alissa; Lauterbach, Dean; Janisse, Heather

    2016-02-01

    Depression during the perinatal period is common and impacts the physical and psychological well-being of those who experience it. One area of particular significance is the course of maternal depression across time, including the differential effects of depression trajectories during the perinatal period on early child development. The current study explored trajectories of maternal depressive symptoms from pregnancy through 2 years postpartum and their relation to toddler emotional development. Participants included 120 primarily low-income, ethnically diverse women and their toddlers. Depression was assessed during pregnancy, at 3 months postpartum, and at 1 and 2 years postpartum. Toddler emotional development was assessed at age 2 via video observations and mother report. Results indicated a four-class model that best fits the data: low-decreasing (47.5 %), stable-low (22.5 %), stable-moderate (21.7 %), and increasing (8.3 %) trajectories of maternal depressive symptoms. Women in the increasing group reported significantly more toddler social and emotional problems at age 2 than women in all other groups, and women in the stable-moderate group reported significantly more toddler social and emotional problems at age 2 than women in the stable-low group. No associations between trajectories and observed toddler affect expression were found. Results highlight variable courses of depressive symptoms for women across the birth of a child as well as the importance of reducing depression for the benefit of both mother and child. It is important for clinicians working with pregnant and postpartum mothers to assess for depressive symptoms over time and not just at a single time point. PMID:26184834

  7. The Canadian Healthy Infant Longitudinal Development (CHILD) Study: examining developmental origins of allergy and asthma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Subbarao, Padmaja; Anand, Sonia S; Becker, Allan B; Befus, A Dean; Brauer, Michael; Brook, Jeffrey R; Denburg, Judah A; HayGlass, Kent T; Kobor, Michael S; Kollmann, Tobias R; Kozyrskyj, Anita L; Lou, W Y Wendy; Mandhane, Piushkumar J; Miller, Gregory E; Moraes, Theo J; Pare, Peter D; Scott, James A; Takaro, Tim K; Turvey, Stuart E; Duncan, Joanne M; Lefebvre, Diana L; Sears, Malcolm R

    2015-10-01

    The Canadian Healthy Infant Longitudinal Development (CHILD) birth cohort study recruited 3624 pregnant women, most partners and 3542 eligible offspring. We hypothesise that early life physical and psychosocial environments, immunological, physiological, nutritional, hormonal and metabolic influences interact with genetics influencing allergic diseases, including asthma. Environmental and biological sampling, innate and adaptive immune responses, gene expression, DNA methylation, gut microbiome and nutrition studies complement repeated environmental and clinical assessments to age 5. This rich data set, linking prenatal and postnatal environments, diverse biological samples and rigorous phenotyping, will inform early developmental pathways to allergy, asthma and other chronic inflammatory diseases.

  8. Child Abuse Images and Cleanfeeds: Assessing Internet Blocking Systems

    OpenAIRE

    McIntyre, T. J.

    2013-01-01

    One of the most important trends in internet governance in recent years has been the growth of internet blocking as a policy tool, to the point where it is increasingly becoming a global norm. This is most obvious in states such as China where blocking is used to suppress political speech; however, in the last decade blocking has also become more common in democracies, usually as part of attempts to limit the availability of child abuse images. Numerous governments have therefore settled on b...

  9. Towards eliminating the worst forms of child labour in Cambodia by 2016: an assessment of resource requirements - Report on child labour

    OpenAIRE

    UCW

    2009-01-01

    The current report was developed under the aegis of the Understanding Children’s Work (UCW) program. UCW research efforts in Cambodia have shaped the development of a two-volume Inter-Agency Report on child labour. Volume I of the Inter-Agency Report - Children's Work in Cambodia: A Challenge for Growth and Poverty Reduction - was released on 12 June 2006. It analyses the current child labour situation in Cambodia - the extent and nature of child labour, the causes and consequences of child l...

  10. Child Development Laboratory Schools as Generators of Knowledge in Early Childhood Education: New Models and Approaches

    Science.gov (United States)

    McBride, Brent A.; Groves, Melissa; Barbour, Nancy; Horm, Diane; Stremmel, Andrew; Lash, Martha; Bersani, Carol; Ratekin, Cynthia; Moran, James; Elicker, James; Toussaint, Susan

    2012-01-01

    Research Findings: University-based child development laboratory programs have a long and rich history of supporting teaching, research, and outreach activities in the child development/early childhood education fields. Although these programs were originally developed in order to conduct research on children and families to inform policy and…

  11. Maternal and Child Mortality Development Goals : What Can the Transport Sector Do?

    OpenAIRE

    Babinard, Julie; Roberts, Peter

    2006-01-01

    The reduction of child mortality and the improvement of maternal health are two of the Millennium Development Goals. Child and maternal mortalities continue to represent severe burdens in many developing countries. Every year, 527,000 women in developing countries die of pregnancy-related complications and nearly 4 million children die during their first month (accounting for 40 percent of...

  12. 77 FR 19677 - Eunice Kennedy Shriver National Institute of Child Health & Human Development; Notice of Closed...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-04-02

    ... & Human Development; Notice of Closed Meeting Pursuant to section 10(d) of the Federal Advisory Committee... Institute of Child Health and Human Development Special Emphasis Panel, ZHD1 DSG-H 53 1. Date: April 16-17... Kennedy Shriver National Institute of Child Health and Human Development, NIH, 6100 Executive Blvd.,...

  13. 75 FR 71449 - Eunice Kennedy Shriver National Institute of Child Health & Human Development; Notice of Meeting

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-11-23

    ... & Human Development; Notice of Meeting Pursuant to section 10(d) of the Federal Advisory Committee Act, as... Child Health & Human Development, including consideration of personnel qualifications and performance... Institute of Child Health and Human Development, NIH, 9000 Rockville Pike, Building 31, Room 2A50,...

  14. A Child Development Point of View: Excerpts from the Writings of James L. Hymes, Jr.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hymes, James L., Jr.

    1998-01-01

    Discusses concerns of child development as a field of study, meeting a child's educational needs in developmentally appropriate ways, and encouraging children's growth by meeting their needs through basic decency. Notes that children's development proceeds most efficiently when teachers and caregivers observe children's natural development,…

  15. Henri Wallon's Theory of Early Child Development: The Role of Emotions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Veer

    1996-12-01

    The present paper gives an account of part of the stage theory of early child development of the French theorist Henri Wallon (1879-1962). Unlike his contemporary Jean Piaget, Wallon concentrated his efforts upon a description of the child's emotional development and the role emotions play in establishing the bond between child and caregiver. The description of Wallon's stage theory is preceded by biographical information and a presentation of his methodological views. It is argued that Wallon's theory is unique in its focus, exerted influence upon theorists such as Lev Vygotsky, and is basically compatible with modern insights about the nature of child development and the growth of intersubjectivity. PMID:8979855

  16. The Gesell Development Assessment: Psychometric Properties.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walker, Richard N.

    1992-01-01

    A test battery that corresponded to the Gesell Developmental Assessment (GDA) was given to 400 4-6 year olds. A truncated version of the GDA had moderate reliability and predictive power. Experienced judges sometimes differed in their assessments of a child's developmental level and recommendations for grade placement. (GLR)

  17. Evaluation of general practitioners' assessment of overweight among children attending the five-year preventive child health examination

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Merethe Kousgaard; Christensen, Bo; Obel, Carsten;

    2012-01-01

    Abstract Objective. To evaluate general practitioners' (GPs') assessment of potential overweight among children attending the five-year preventive child health examination (PCHE) by comparing their assessment of the children's weight-for-stature with overweight defined by body mass index (BMI......) according to paediatric standard definitions. Design. A cross-sectional survey. Data were obtained from a questionnaire survey of children's health in general and their growth in particular. Setting. The five-year preventive child health examination (PCHE) in general practice in the Central Denmark Region......), i.e. the Danish national growth charts for BMI, as the gold standard yielded a sensitivity of 70.1% (95% CI 62.0-77.3) and a specificity of 92.4% (95% CI 90.6-93.9). The sensitivity was influenced by the GPs' use of BMI and the presence of previous notes regarding abnormal weight development...

  18. What Can We Do to Bring the Sparkle Back into This Child's Eyes? Child Rights/Community Development Principles: Key Elements for a Strengths-Based Child Protection Practice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Young, Susan; McKenzie, Margaret; Schjelderup, Liv; Omre, Cecilie; Walker, Shayne

    2014-01-01

    Working from practice experiences, Social Work educators from Aotearoa/New Zealand, Norway and Western Australia have developed a framework for child welfare work . The framework brings together the Rights of the Child, Community Development and Child Protection. This article describes the principles and theoretical underpinnings of this…

  19. Assessing Whether Measurement Invariance of the KIDSCREEN-27 across Child-Parent Dyad Depends on the Child Gender: A Multiple Group Confirmatory Factor Analysis

    OpenAIRE

    Bagheri, Zahra; Jafari, Peyman; Tashakor, Elahe; Kouhpayeh, Amin; Riazi, Homan

    2014-01-01

    This study aims to assess the measurement invariance (MI) of the KIDSCREEN-27 questionnaire across girl-parent and boy-parent dyad to clarify how child gender affects the agreement between children’s and parents’ perception of the meaning of the items in the questionnaire. The child self-reports and parent proxy-reports of the KIDSCREEN-27 were completed by 1061 child-parent dyad. Multiple group categorical confirmatory factor analysis (MGCCFA) was applied to assess MI. The non-invariant item...

  20. Perinatal Maternal Mental Health, Fetal Programming and Child Development

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrew J. Lewis

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Maternal mental disorders over pregnancy show a clear influence on child development. This review is focused on the possible mechanisms by which maternal mental disorders influence fetal development via programming effects. This field is complex since mental health symptoms during pregnancy vary in type, timing and severity and maternal psychological distress is often accompanied by higher rates of smoking, alcohol use, poor diet and lifestyle. Studies are now beginning to examine fetal programming mechanisms, originally identified within the DOHaD framework, to examine how maternal mental disorders impact fetal development. Such mechanisms include hormonal priming effects such as elevated maternal glucocorticoids, alteration of placental function and perfusion, and epigenetic mechanisms. To date, mostly high prevalence mental disorders such as depression and anxiety have been investigated, but few studies employ diagnostic measures, and there is very little research examining the impact of maternal mental disorders such as schizophrenia, bipolar disorder, eating disorders and personality disorders on fetal development. The next wave of longitudinal studies need to focus on specific hypotheses driven by plausible biological mechanisms for fetal programming and follow children for a sufficient period in order to examine the early manifestations of developmental vulnerability. Intervention studies can then be targeted to altering these mechanisms of intergenerational transmission once identified.

  1. The development of causality in the young child

    Science.gov (United States)

    Campbell, Brian David

    The concepts of action and reaction, force and movement, prediction and reason have been central to scientific thinking since the time of Aristotle. It has been argued that the development of causal thinking is pivotal in the evolution of an individual making predictions and creating explanatory theories for phenomena. It follows that an understanding of the development of causal thinking is central to the understanding of scientific thinking. This work explores the development of causal thinking in the young child. Six Piagetian-type tasks were developed to investigate causal explanations and 101 subjects were independently interviewed. The subjects were from a rural Iowa elementary school. The academic grade of the subjects ranged from kindergarten through third. The three research hypotheses tested yielded the following results: (1) Subjects in this study showed a difference in task performance along academic grade levels on four of the tasks but not on two. The results showed that, as grade level increased for four of the six tasks, performance on those tasks tended to improve. (2) The four tasks analyzed with the Chilton modified Guttman Scalogram Analysis did form a unidimensional scale. Two tasks could not be analyzed. (3) Subjects in the study showed no statistically significant difference between gender and performance on the tasks.

  2. Perinatal Maternal Mental Health, Fetal Programming and Child Development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lewis, Andrew J; Austin, Emma; Knapp, Rebecca; Vaiano, Tina; Galbally, Megan

    2015-11-26

    Maternal mental disorders over pregnancy show a clear influence on child development. This review is focused on the possible mechanisms by which maternal mental disorders influence fetal development via programming effects. This field is complex since mental health symptoms during pregnancy vary in type, timing and severity and maternal psychological distress is often accompanied by higher rates of smoking, alcohol use, poor diet and lifestyle. Studies are now beginning to examine fetal programming mechanisms, originally identified within the DOHaD framework, to examine how maternal mental disorders impact fetal development. Such mechanisms include hormonal priming effects such as elevated maternal glucocorticoids, alteration of placental function and perfusion, and epigenetic mechanisms. To date, mostly high prevalence mental disorders such as depression and anxiety have been investigated, but few studies employ diagnostic measures, and there is very little research examining the impact of maternal mental disorders such as schizophrenia, bipolar disorder, eating disorders and personality disorders on fetal development. The next wave of longitudinal studies need to focus on specific hypotheses driven by plausible biological mechanisms for fetal programming and follow children for a sufficient period in order to examine the early manifestations of developmental vulnerability. Intervention studies can then be targeted to altering these mechanisms of intergenerational transmission once identified.

  3. A Critical Assessment of Child Custody Evaluations: Limited Science and a Flawed System.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Emery, Robert E; Otto, Randy K; O'Donohue, William T

    2005-07-01

    -Most parents who live apart negotiate custody arrangements on their own or with the help of lawyers, mediators, or other professionals. However, psychologists and other mental health professionals increasingly have become involved in evaluating children and families in custody disputes, because of the large number of separated, divorced, and never-married parents and the substantial conflict that often accompanies the breakup of a family. Theoretically, the law guides and controls child custody evaluations, but the prevailing custody standard (the "best interests of the child" test) is a vague rule that directs judges to make decisions unique to individual cases according to what will be in children's future (and undefined) best interests. Furthermore, state statutes typically offer only vague guidelines as to how judges (and evaluators) are to assess parents and the merits of their cases, and how they should ultimately decide what custody arrangements will be in a child's best interests. In this vacuum, custody evaluators typically administer to parents and children an array of tests and assess them through less formal means including interviews and observation. Sadly, we find that (a) tests specifically developed to assess questions relevant to custody are completely inadequate on scientific grounds; (b) the claims of some anointed experts about their favorite constructs (e.g., "parent alienation syndrome") are equally hollow when subjected to scientific scrutiny; (c) evaluators should question the use even of well-established psychological measures (e.g., measures of intelligence, personality, psychopathology, and academic achievement) because of their often limited relevance to the questions before the court; and (d) little empirical data exist regarding other important and controversial issues (e.g., whether evaluators should solicit children's wishes about custody; whether infants and toddlers are harmed or helped by overnight visits), suggesting a need for

  4. The victims and juvenile perpetrators of child sexual abuse – assessment and intervention

    OpenAIRE

    Vizard, E.

    2013-01-01

    Background: The assessment of victims of child sexual abuse (CSA) is now a recognized aspect of clinical work for both CAMH and adult services. As juvenile perpetrators of CSA are responsible for a significant minority of the sexual assaults on other children, CAMH services are increasingly approached to assess these oversexualized younger children or sexually abusive adolescents. A developmental approach to assessment and treatment intervention is essential in all these cases. Method: This r...

  5. Meet Laurie Hand: Cherokee Nation Child Care and Development Department

    Science.gov (United States)

    Exchange: The Early Childhood Leaders' Magazine Since 1978, 2006

    2006-01-01

    Cherokee Nation, along with 257 grantees, representing more than 500 Indian Tribes, Alaskan Native Villages, and Native Hawaiian Organizations, receives federal block grant funds to improve child care for Indian children. This article discusses child care, service, relationship between programs, initiative, implementation, cooperation, and setting…

  6. Role of neighbourhoods in child growth and development: does 'place' matter?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Avan, Bilal Iqbal; Kirkwood, Betty

    2010-07-01

    It is estimated that at least 200 million children--mostly from developing countries--suffer from developmental delays. The study aims to contribute to an understanding of the contextual environment in which a child grows and develops in such setup; and in particular to evaluate the relative contributions of socio-economic status and rural-urban neighbourhoods on growth and psychomotor development. A cross-sectional study was conducted from May to November 2002 in 15 rural and 11 urban communities of Sindh, Pakistan. 1,244 children aged less than 3 years were assessed via home visits using Bayley's Infant Developmental Scale for psychomotor development, anthropometry and a socio-economic and demographic questionnaire. A socio-economic index was created using principal component analysis, and the study hypotheses explored through hierarchical linear modelling. We found that sub-optimal growth and development were prevalent among the study's children. Overall the mean psychomotor development (PD) index was 96.0 (SD 16.7), with 23% assessed as having delayed development, and undernourished with 39.8% stunted, 30.9% underweight and 18.1% wasted. Lower socio-economic status and living in a rural rather than urban neighbourhood were all found to have strong associations with lower psychomotor scores and with undernutrition. Rural-urban differences in undernutrition were explained by the lower socio-economic status of families in rural areas. By contrast, rural-urban differences in psychomotor scores remained strong even after controlling for differences in socio-economic status. It was estimated that rural residence accounted for 28% of cases of delayed psychomotor development among study children. Improvements in socio-economic status are vital to achieve optimal growth and development during early childhood. The study draws attention to the importance of taking heed of contextual needs, especially relating to differences between rural and urban neighbourhoods, in the

  7. Accident consequence assessment code development

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This paper describes the new computer code system, OSCAAR developed for off-site consequence assessment of a potential nuclear accident. OSCAAR consists of several modules which have modeling capabilities in atmospheric transport, foodchain transport, dosimetry, emergency response and radiological health effects. The major modules of the consequence assessment code are described, highlighting the validation and verification of the models. (author)

  8. The role of omega-3 fatty acids in child development*

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Osendarp Saskia JM

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available Omega-3 long chain polyunsaturated fatty acids (n-3 LCPUFA are important constituents of the maturing brain and therefore considered crucial for brain development in utero and in early infancy. However, it is uncertain whether n-3 LCPUFA supplementation during pregnancy and lactation can have beneficial, sustainable effects on visual or cognitive development. Beneficial effects on child cognitive function after supplementation with EPA and DHA during pregnancy and lactation were observed at 4 years of age, but not at 3, 6 months or 7 years. In term infants LCPUFA when given in relative high dosages, seems to improve visual acuity, but not cognitive function. Evidence for an effect of LCPUFA supplementation of preterm infants remains inconclusive. In children older than 2 years of age, epidemiological evidence suggests an association between psychiatric or neurodevelopmental disorders and omega-3 fatty acid deficiencies. However, the evidence from randomized controlled trials exploring the impact of omega-3 fatty acids on cognitive performance or brain function in school-aged children is not conclusive. In conclusion, n-3 LCPUFA are highly present in the maturing brain and are important for normal brain functioning and development. When provided in relative high dosages, n-3 LCPUFA may improve visual acuity in term infants. However, it remains unclear whether supplementation with n-3 LCPUFA during pregnancy, early infancy, and childhood can improve cognitive function.

  9. Child court hearings in family cases: Assessment questionnaire of child needs during pre-trial proceedings

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Asuncion Molina

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available The basis of family law is the child’s interest. This is related to the right to be listened to, but not as an obligation. As a consequence, there is a necessity for the judge to conduct a judicial exploration of the child. But, in general, the judges are not trained in this type of explorations, and they may consequently obtain erroneous information in their exploration. Therefore, in this work, we present the generation of a questionnaire that explores the judicial agents’ necessities during judicial exploration of children. Five expert researchers in the subject participated in creating the questionnaire; five family judges participated in the pilot test; and in the final study, 63 family judges answered the final questionnaire. Global reliability was adequate (.858, as was the reliability for interviewer’s skills, but it was not for the other areas of the questionnaire. An exploratory factor analysis showed a factor structure consisting of 5 factors that accounted for 46.12% of the total variance, but these five factors don’t correspond to the factors provided by experts. But construct validity validated the structure provided by the experts (2/df = 1.35; BBNNFI = .873; CFI = .879; IFI = .881; RMR = .139; SRMR = .153; RMSEA = .075. To sum up, we can say that the questionnaire could be improved, but the best areas are the stages of the interview and the interviewer’s skills.

  10. Parents' assessment of parent-child interaction interventions – a longitudinal study in 101 families

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Engström Ingemar

    2009-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The aim of the study was to describe families with small children who participated in parent-child interaction interventions at four centres in Sweden, and to examine long term and short term changes regarding the parents' experience of parental stress, parental attachment patterns, the parents' mental health and life satisfaction, the parents' social support and the children's problems. Methods In this longitudinal study a consecutive sample of 101 families (94 mothers and 54 fathers with 118 children (median age 3 years was assessed, using self-reports, at the outset of the treatment (T1, six months later (T2 and 18 months after the beginning of treatment (T3. Analysis of the observed differences was carried out using Wilcoxon's Signed-Rank test and Cohen's d. Results The results from commencement of treatment showed that the parents had considerable problems in all areas examined. At the outset of treatment (T1 the mothers showed a higher level of problem load than the fathers on almost all scales. In the families where the children's problems have also been measured (children from the age of four it appeared that they had problems of a nature and degree otherwise found in psychiatric populations. We found a clear general trend towards a positive development from T1 to T2 and this development was also reinforced from T2 to T3. Aggression in the child was one of the most common causes for contact. There were few undesired or unplanned interruptions of the treatment, and the attrition from the study was low. Conclusion This study has shown that it is possible to reach mothers as well as fathers with parenting problems and to create an intervention program with very low dropout levels – which is of special importance for families with small children displaying aggressive behaviour. The parents taking part in this study showed clear improvement trends after six months and this development was reinforced a year later. This

  11. Case Study: Investigating the Impact of the Child Development Associate Credentialing Process on Child Care Provider Performance

    Science.gov (United States)

    McBride, Vickie

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of this case study was to investigate what impact the child development associate (CDA) credential has on the performance of childcare providers in the 6 CDA competency areas. Each participant was interviewed using 9 open-ended questions regarding their experience. Over the past few years, a number of studies have examined the effects…

  12. Interventions for postnatal depression assessing the mother–infant relationship and child developmental outcomes: a systematic review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tsivos ZL

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Zoe-Lydia Tsivos,1 Rachel Calam,1 Matthew R Sanders,1,2 Anja Wittkowski1 1School of Psychological Sciences, University of Manchester, Manchester, UK; 2Parenting and Family Support Center, University of Queensland, Brisbane, Australia Abstract: Postnatal depression (PND has negative effects on maternal well-being as well as implications for the mother–infant relationship, subsequent infant development, and family functioning. There is growing evidence demonstrating that PND impacts on a mother’s ability to interact with sensitivity and responsiveness as a caregiver, which may have implications for the infant’s development of self-regulatory skills, making the infant more vulnerable to later psychopathology. Given the possible intergenerational transmission of risk to the infant, the mother–infant relationship is a focus for treatment and research. However, few studies have assessed the effect of treatment on the mother–infant relationship and child developmental outcomes. The main aim of this paper was to conduct a systematic review and investigate effect sizes of interventions for PND, which assess the quality of the mother–infant dyad relationship and/or child outcomes in addition to maternal mood. Nineteen studies were selected for review, and their methodological quality was evaluated, where possible, effect sizes across maternal mood, quality of dyadic relationship, and child developmental outcomes were calculated. Finally, clinical implications in the treatment of PND are highlighted and recommendations made for further research. Keywords: postnatal depression, infant development, intervention, dyad, mother–infant relationship, systematic review

  13. 77 FR 73036 - Eunice Kennedy Shriver National Institute of Child Health & Human Development; Notice of Closed...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-12-07

    ... Shriver National Institute of Child Health and Human Development, NIH, 6100 Executive Blvd., Room 5b01... HUMAN SERVICES National Institutes of Health Eunice Kennedy Shriver National Institute of Child Health & Human Development; Notice of Closed Meeting Pursuant to section 10(d) of the Federal Advisory...

  14. 77 FR 21789 - Eunice Kennedy Shriver National Institute of Child Health & Human Development; Notice of Meeting

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-04-11

    ... Sciences and Career Development, NCMRR, Eunice Kennedy Shriver National Institute of Child Health and Human... HUMAN SERVICES National Institutes of Health Eunice Kennedy Shriver National Institute of Child Health & Human Development; Notice of Meeting Pursuant to section 10(a) of the Federal Advisory Committee Act,...

  15. 76 FR 13651 - Eunice Kennedy Shriver National Institute of Child Health & Human Development; Notice of Closed...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-03-14

    ... Institute of Child Health and Human Development, NIH, 6100 Executive Blvd., Room 5B01-G, Bethesda, MD 20892... HUMAN SERVICES National Institutes of Health Eunice Kennedy Shriver National Institute of Child Health & Human Development; Notice of Closed Meeting Pursuant to section 10(d) of the Federal Advisory...

  16. 76 FR 18566 - Eunice Kennedy Shriver National Institute of Child Health & Human Development; Notice of Closed...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-04-04

    ... National Institute of Child Health and Human Development, NIH, 6100 Executive Blvd., Room 5B01, Bethesda... HUMAN SERVICES National Institutes of Health Eunice Kennedy Shriver National Institute of Child Health & Human Development; Notice of Closed Meeting Pursuant to section 10(d) of the Federal Advisory...

  17. 76 FR 13649 - Eunice Kennedy Shriver National Institute of Child Health & Human Development; Notice of Closed...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-03-14

    ..., Eunice Kennedy Shriver National Institute of Child Health and Human Development, NIH, 6100 Executive Blvd... HUMAN SERVICES National Institutes of Health Eunice Kennedy Shriver National Institute of Child Health & Human Development; Notice of Closed Meeting Pursuant to section 10(d) of the Federal Advisory...

  18. 76 FR 77544 - Eunice Kennedy Shriver National Institute of Child Health & Human Development; Notice of Meeting

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-12-13

    ... Shriver National Institute of Child Health and Human Development, NIH, 6100 Executive Blvd., Room 5C01... HUMAN SERVICES National Institutes of Health Eunice Kennedy Shriver National Institute of Child Health & Human Development; Notice of Meeting Pursuant to section 10(a) of the Federal Advisory Committee Act,...

  19. Building Bridges between Physical and Behavioral Health: The Child Development Specialist in Pediatric Practice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lerner, Claire; Hamburger, Ellie

    2007-01-01

    This article uses the case study of 3-year-old Anna and her parents to illustrate how a child development specialist can be integrated into a private pediatric practice. First, pediatrician Hamburger describes how she and other members of her practice integrated a child development specialist into their pediatric practice. Second, Anna's parents…

  20. 77 FR 12599 - Eunice Kennedy Shriver National Institute of Child Health & Human Development; Notice of Closed...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-03-01

    ... Institute of Child Health and Human Development, NIH, 6100 Executive Blvd., Room 5b01, Bethesda, MD 20892... HUMAN SERVICES National Institutes of Health Eunice Kennedy Shriver National Institute of Child Health & Human Development; Notice of Closed Meeting Pursuant to section 10(d) of the Federal Advisory...

  1. 77 FR 34393 - Eunice Kennedy Shriver National Institute of Child Health & Human Development; Notice of Closed...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-06-11

    ... Institute o Child Health and Human Development, NIH, 6100 Executive Blvd., Room 5B01, Bethesda, MD 20892... HUMAN SERVICES National Institutes of Health Eunice Kennedy Shriver National Institute of Child Health & Human Development; Notice of Closed Meeting Pursuant to section 10(d) of the Federal Advisory...

  2. 76 FR 61721 - Eunice Kennedy Shriver National Institute of Child Health & Human Development; Notice of Closed...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-10-05

    ... Institute of Child Health and Human Development, NIH, 6100 Executive Blvd., Room 5B01, Bethesda, MD 20892... HUMAN SERVICES National Institutes of Health Eunice Kennedy Shriver National Institute of Child Health & Human Development; Notice of Closed Meeting Pursuant to section 10(d) of the Federal Advisory...

  3. 77 FR 12604 - Eunice Kennedy Shriver National Institute of Child Health & Human Development; Notice of Closed...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-03-01

    ... Institute of Child Health and Human Development, NIH, 6100 Executive Blvd., Room 5B01, Bethesda, MD 20892... HUMAN SERVICES National Institutes of Health Eunice Kennedy Shriver National Institute of Child Health & Human Development; Notice of Closed Meetings Pursuant to section 10(d) of the Federal Advisory...

  4. 76 FR 12125 - Eunice Kennedy Shriver National Institute of Child Health & Human Development; Notice of Closed...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-03-04

    ... Review, Eunice Kennedy Shriver National Institute of Child Health and Human Development, NIH, 6100... HUMAN SERVICES National Institutes of Health Eunice Kennedy Shriver National Institute of Child Health & Human Development; Notice of Closed Meeting Pursuant to section 10(d) of the Federal Advisory...

  5. 75 FR 63498 - Eunice Kennedy Shriver National Institute of Child Health & Human Development; Notice of Closed...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-15

    ... Institute of Child Health and Human Development, NIH, 6100 Executive Blvd., Room 5B01G, Bethesda, MD 20892... HUMAN SERVICES National Institutes of Health Eunice Kennedy Shriver National Institute of Child Health & Human Development; Notice of Closed Meeting Pursuant to section 10(d) of the Federal Advisory...

  6. 77 FR 58854 - Eunice Kennedy Shriver National Institute of Child Health & Human Development; Notice of Closed...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-09-24

    ... Officer, Division of Scientific Review, National Institute of Child Health and Human Development, 6100... HUMAN SERVICES National Institutes of Health Eunice Kennedy Shriver National Institute of Child Health & Human Development; Notice of Closed Meeting Pursuant to section 10(d) of the Federal Advisory...

  7. 76 FR 11800 - Eunice Kennedy Shriver National Institute of Child Health & Human Development; Notice of Closed...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-03-03

    ... Institute of Child Health and Human Development, NIH, 6100 Executive Blvd., Room 5B01, Bethesda, MD 20892... HUMAN SERVICES National Institutes of Health Eunice Kennedy Shriver National Institute of Child Health & Human Development; Notice of Closed Meeting Pursuant to section 10(d) of the Federal Advisory...

  8. 77 FR 64817 - Eunice Kennedy Shriver National Institute of Child Health & Human Development; Notice of Closed...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-10-23

    ... Child Health And Human Development, NIH, 6100 Executive Blvd., Room 5B01-G, Bethesda, MD 20892, 301-435... HUMAN SERVICES National Institutes of Health Eunice Kennedy Shriver National Institute of Child Health & Human Development; Notice of Closed Meeting Pursuant to section 10(d) of the Federal Advisory...

  9. Research on Child and Adolescent Development and Public Policy in Latin America

    Science.gov (United States)

    Narea, Marigen

    2016-01-01

    This commentary discusses the implication of child and adolescent development research for public policy in Latin America. As illustrated by the articles in this special issue, even though the research of child and adolescent development in Latin America is making significant progress, still more research is needed. Developmental research in the…

  10. 76 FR 8372 - Eunice Kennedy Shriver National Institute of Child Health & Human Development; Notice of Closed...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-02-14

    ... Shriver National Institute of Child Health and Human Development, NIH, 6100 Executive Blvd., Room 5B01... HUMAN SERVICES National Institutes of Health Eunice Kennedy Shriver National Institute of Child Health & Human Development; Notice of Closed Meeting Pursuant to section 10(d) of the Federal Advisory...

  11. 78 FR 18998 - Eunice Kennedy Shriver National Institute of Child Health & Human Development; Notice of Meeting

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-03-28

    ... Officer, Division of Scientific Review, National Institute of Child Health and Human Development, 6100... HUMAN SERVICES National Institutes of Health Eunice Kennedy Shriver National Institute of Child Health & Human Development; Notice of Meeting Pursuant to section 10(d) of the Federal Advisory Committee Act,...

  12. 78 FR 18996 - Eunice Kennedy Shriver National Institute of Child Health & Human Development; Notice of Closed...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-03-28

    ... Institute of Child Health And Human Development, 6100 Executive Boulevard, Rockville, MD 20892-9304, (301... HUMAN SERVICES National Institutes of Health Eunice Kennedy Shriver National Institute of Child Health & Human Development; Notice of Closed Meeting Pursuant to section 10(d) of the Federal Advisory...

  13. 76 FR 5593 - Eunice Kennedy Shriver National Institute of Child Health & Human Development; Notice of Closed...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-02-01

    ... Institute of Child Health and Human Development, NIH, 6100 Executive Blvd., Room 5B01, Rockville, MD, 301... HUMAN SERVICES National Institutes of Health Eunice Kennedy Shriver National Institute of Child Health & Human Development; Notice of Closed Meeting Pursuant to section 10(d) of the Federal Advisory...

  14. 78 FR 70311 - Eunice Kennedy Shriver National Institute of Child Health & Human Development; Notice of Closed...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-11-25

    ... Kennedy Shriver National Institute of Child Health and Human Development, NIH, 6100 Executive Blvd., Room... HUMAN SERVICES National Institutes of Health Eunice Kennedy Shriver National Institute of Child Health & Human Development; Notice of Closed Meeting Pursuant to section 10(d) of the Federal Advisory...

  15. 75 FR 29774 - Eunice Kennedy Shriver National Institute of Child Health & Human Development; Notice of Closed...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-05-27

    ... Scientific Review, Eunice Kennedy Shriver National Institute of Child Health and Human Development, NIH, 6100... HUMAN SERVICES National Institutes of Health Eunice Kennedy Shriver National Institute of Child Health & Human Development; Notice of Closed Meeting Pursuant to section 10(d) of the Federal Advisory...

  16. 76 FR 53686 - Eunice Kennedy Shriver National Institute of Child Health & Human Development; Notice of Meeting

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-08-29

    ... privacy. Name of Committee: National Advisory Child Health and Human Development Council; NACHHD... HUMAN SERVICES National Institutes of Health Eunice Kennedy Shriver National Institute of Child Health & Human Development; Notice of Meeting Pursuant to section 10(d) of the Federal Advisory Committee Act,...

  17. New Policies Allow High School Child Development Programs to Provide CDA Licensure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Langlais, Amanda G.

    2012-01-01

    Recent changes made by the Council for Professional Recognition to the Child Development Associate (CDA) credentialing program create an opportunity to redesign high school child development programs. On April 1, 2011, the Council for Professional Recognition lifted the age restriction in the CDA credentialing requirements, now allowing students…

  18. 75 FR 61765 - Eunice Kennedy Shriver National Institute of Child Health & Human Development; Notice of Closed...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-06

    ... Child Health and Human Development Special Emphasis Panel; ``Reproductive Panel''. Date: November 3-5... HUMAN SERVICES National Institutes of Health Eunice Kennedy Shriver National Institute of Child Health & Human Development; Notice of Closed Meeting Pursuant to section 10(d) of the Federal Advisory...

  19. 78 FR 37232 - Eunice Kennedy Shriver National Institute of Child Health & Human Development; Notice of Meeting

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-06-20

    ... Officer, Division of Scientific Review, National Institute of Child Health and Human Development, 6100... HUMAN SERVICES National Institutes of Health Eunice Kennedy Shriver National Institute of Child Health & Human Development; Notice of Meeting Pursuant to section 10(d) of the Federal Advisory Committee Act,...

  20. 77 FR 27468 - Eunice Kennedy Shriver National Institute of Child Health & Human Development Notice of Closed...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-05-10

    ... Shriver National Institute of Child Health and Human Development, NIH, 6100 Executive Blvd., Room 5B01-G... HUMAN SERVICES National Institutes of Health Eunice Kennedy Shriver National Institute of Child Health & Human Development Notice of Closed Meeting Pursuant to section 10(d) of the Federal Advisory...

  1. 76 FR 64092 - Eunice Kennedy Shriver National Institute of Child Health & Human Development; Notice of Closed...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-10-17

    ... Institute of Child Health and Human Development, NIH, 6100 Executive Blvd., Room 5B01, Bethesda, MD 20892... HUMAN SERVICES National Institutes of Health Eunice Kennedy Shriver National Institute of Child Health & Human Development; Notice of Closed Meeting Pursuant to section 10(d) of the Federal Advisory...

  2. 76 FR 67469 - Eunice Kennedy Shriver National Institute of Child Health & Human Development; Notice of Closed...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-11-01

    ... Shriver National Institute of Child Health and Human Development, NIH, 6100 Executive Blvd., Room 5b01... HUMAN SERVICES National Institutes of Health Eunice Kennedy Shriver National Institute of Child Health & Human Development; Notice of Closed Meeting Pursuant to section 10(d) of the Federal Advisory...

  3. 77 FR 66076 - Eunice Kennedy Shriver National Institute of Child Health & Human Development; Notice of Closed...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-11-01

    ... Kennedy Shriver National Institute of Child Health and Human Development, NIH, 6100 Executive Blvd., Room... HUMAN SERVICES National Institutes of Health Eunice Kennedy Shriver National Institute of Child Health & Human Development; Notice of Closed Meeting Pursuant to section 10(d) of the Federal Advisory...

  4. 76 FR 35226 - Eunice Kennedy Shriver National Institute of Child Health & Human Development; Notice of Meeting

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-06-16

    ... National Institute of Child Health and Human Development, NIH, 6100 Executive Blvd., Room 5C01, Bethesda... HUMAN SERVICES National Institutes of Health Eunice Kennedy Shriver National Institute of Child Health & Human Development; Notice of Meeting Pursuant to section 10(a) of the Federal Advisory Committee Act,...

  5. Transformative Role of Epigenetics in Child Development Research: Commentary on the Special Section

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keating, Daniel P.

    2016-01-01

    Lester, Conradt, and Marsit (2016) have assembled a set of articles that bring to readers of "Child Development" the scope and impact of the exponentially growing research on epigenetics and child development. This commentary aims to place this work in a broader context of theory and research by (a) providing a conceptual framework for…

  6. 76 FR 5594 - Eunice Kennedy Shriver National Institute of Child Health & Human Development; Notice of Closed...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-02-01

    ... Institute of Child Health and Human Development, NIH, 6100 Executive Blvd., Room 5B01, Bethesda, MD 20892... HUMAN SERVICES National Institutes of Health Eunice Kennedy Shriver National Institute of Child Health & Human Development; Notice of Closed Meeting Pursuant to section 10(d) of the Federal Advisory...

  7. 75 FR 36661 - Eunice Kennedy Shriver National Institute of Child Health & Human Development; Notice of Closed...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-06-28

    ... National Institute of Child Health and Human Development, NIH, 6100 Executive Blvd., Room 5B01, Bethesda... HUMAN SERVICES National Institutes of Health Eunice Kennedy Shriver National Institute of Child Health & Human Development; Notice of Closed Meeting Pursuant to section 10(d) of the Federal Advisory...

  8. 76 FR 76169 - Eunice Kennedy Shriver National Institute of Child Health & Human Development Notice of Meeting

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-12-06

    ... Institute of Child Health and Human Development, 6100 Executive Boulevard, ] Rockville, MD 20892-9304, (301... HUMAN SERVICES National Institutes of Health Eunice Kennedy Shriver National Institute of Child Health & Human Development Notice of Meeting Pursuant to section 10(a) of the Federal Advisory Committee Act,...

  9. 76 FR 67468 - Eunice Kennedy Shriver National Institute of Child Health & Human Development; Notice of Closed...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-11-01

    ... Review, Eunice Kennedy Shriver National Institute of Child Health and Human Development, NIH, 6100... HUMAN SERVICES National Institutes of Health Eunice Kennedy Shriver National Institute of Child Health & Human Development; Notice of Closed Meeting Pursuant to section 10(d) of the Federal Advisory...

  10. 77 FR 5035 - Eunice Kennedy Shriver National Institute of Child Health & Human Development; Notice of Closed...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-02-01

    ... Institute of Child Health and Human Development, NIH, 6100 Executive Blvd., Room 5B01, Bethesda, MD 20892... HUMAN SERVICES National Institutes of Health Eunice Kennedy Shriver National Institute of Child Health & Human Development; Notice of Closed Meeting Pursuant to section 10(d) of the Federal Advisory...

  11. 77 FR 27468 - Eunice Kennedy Shriver National Institute of Child Health & Human Development; Notice of Closed...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-05-10

    ... Child Health and Human Development, NIH, 6100 Executive Blvd., Room 5B01-G, Bethesda, MD 20892, 301-435... HUMAN SERVICES National Institutes of Health Eunice Kennedy Shriver National Institute of Child Health & Human Development; Notice of Closed Meeting Pursuant to section 10(d) of the Federal Advisory...

  12. 77 FR 16845 - Eunice Kennedy Shriver National Institute of Child Health & Human Development; Notice of Meeting

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-03-22

    ... Child Health and Human Development, NIH, 6100 Executive Blvd., Room 5C01, Bethesda, MD 20892, (703) 902... HUMAN SERVICES National Institutes of Health Eunice Kennedy Shriver National Institute of Child Health & Human Development; Notice of Meeting Pursuant to section 10(a) of the Federal Advisory Committee Act,...

  13. 78 FR 18997 - Eunice Kennedy Shriver National Institute of Child Health & Human Development; Notice of Closed...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-03-28

    ... Kennedy Shriver National Institute of Child Health and Human Development, NIH, 6100 Executive Boulevard... HUMAN SERVICES National Institutes of Health Eunice Kennedy Shriver National Institute of Child Health & Human Development; Notice of Closed Meeting Pursuant to section 10(d) of the Federal Advisory...

  14. 77 FR 34394 - Eunice Kennedy Shriver National Institute of Child Health & Human Development; Notice of Closed...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-06-11

    ... Institute of Child Health and Human Development, NIH, 6100 Executive Boulevard, Room 5B01, Bethesda, MD... HUMAN SERVICES National Institutes of Health Eunice Kennedy Shriver National Institute of Child Health & Human Development; Notice of Closed Meeting Pursuant to section 10(d) of the Federal Advisory...

  15. 77 FR 64818 - Eunice Kennedy Shriver National Institute of Child Health & Human Development; Notice of Closed...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-10-23

    ... Kennedy Shriver National Institute of Child Health and Human Development, NIH, 6100 Executive Blvd., Room... HUMAN SERVICES National Institutes of Health Eunice Kennedy Shriver National Institute of Child Health & Human Development; Notice of Closed Meeting Pursuant to section 10(d) of the Federal Advisory...

  16. 78 FR 11658 - Eunice Kennedy Shriver National Institute of Child Health & Human Development; Notice of Meeting

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-02-19

    ..., Division of Scientific Review, National Institute of Child Health and Human Development, 6100 Executive... HUMAN SERVICES National Institutes of Health Eunice Kennedy Shriver National Institute of Child Health & Human Development; Notice of Meeting Pursuant to section 10(d) of the Federal Advisory Committee Act,...

  17. 78 FR 6127 - Eunice Kennedy Shriver National Institute of Child Health & Human Development; Notice of Meeting

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-01-29

    ... Children's Study, Eunice Kennedy Shriver National Institute of Child Health and Human Development, NIH... HUMAN SERVICES National Institutes of Health Eunice Kennedy Shriver National Institute of Child Health & Human Development; Notice of Meeting Pursuant to section 10(a) of the Federal Advisory Committee Act,...

  18. 76 FR 59415 - Eunice Kennedy Shriver National Institute of Child Health & Human Development; Notice of Meeting

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-09-26

    ... Institute of Child Health and Human Development, NIH, 6100 Executive Blvd., Room 5C01, Bethesda, MD 20892... HUMAN SERVICES National Institutes of Health Eunice Kennedy Shriver National Institute of Child Health & Human Development; Notice of Meeting Pursuant to section 10(a) of the Federal Advisory Committee Act,...

  19. 76 FR 71985 - Eunice Kennedy Shriver National Institute of Child Health & Human Development; Notice of Closed...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-11-21

    ... National Institute of Child Health And Human Development, NIH, 6100 Executive Blvd., Room 5B01-G, Bethesda... HUMAN SERVICES National Institutes of Health Eunice Kennedy Shriver National Institute of Child Health & Human Development; Notice of Closed Meeting Pursuant to section 10(d) of the Federal Advisory...

  20. 75 FR 54890 - Eunice Kennedy Shriver National Institute of Child Health & Human Development; Notice of Closed...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-09-09

    ... Scientific Review, Eunice Kennedy Shriver National Institute of Child Health and Human Development, NIH, 6100... HUMAN SERVICES National Institutes of Health Eunice Kennedy Shriver National Institute of Child Health & Human Development; Notice of Closed Meeting Pursuant to section 10(d) of the Federal Advisory...

  1. 76 FR 6146 - Eunice Kennedy Shriver National Institute of Child Health & Human Development; Notice of Closed...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-02-03

    ... National Institute of Child Health and Human Development, NIH, 6100 Executive Blvd., Room 5B01, Bethesda... HUMAN SERVICES National Institutes of Health Eunice Kennedy Shriver National Institute of Child Health & Human Development; Notice of Closed Meeting Pursuant to section 10(d) of the Federal Advisory...

  2. 77 FR 52337 - Eunice Kennedy Shriver National Institute of Child Health & Human Development Notice of Closed...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-08-29

    ..., National Institute of Child Health and Human Development, 6100 Executive Boulevard, Rockville, MD 20892... HUMAN SERVICES National Institutes of Health Eunice Kennedy Shriver National Institute of Child Health & Human Development Notice of Closed Meeting Pursuant to section 10(d) of the Federal Advisory...

  3. 75 FR 54891 - Eunice Kennedy Shriver National Institute of Child Health & Human Development; Notice of Meeting

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-09-09

    ... Kennedy Shriver National Institute of Child Health and Human Development, NIH, 6100 Executive Blvd., Room... HUMAN SERVICES National Institutes of Health Eunice Kennedy Shriver National Institute of Child Health & Human Development; Notice of Meeting Pursuant to section 10(a) of the Federal Advisory Committee Act,...

  4. 76 FR 71986 - Eunice Kennedy Shriver National Institute of Child Health & Human Development; Notice of Closed...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-11-21

    ... Institute of Child Health And Human Development, NIH, 6100 Executive Blvd., Room 5B01, Rockville, MD 20852... HUMAN SERVICES National Institutes of Health Eunice Kennedy Shriver National Institute of Child Health & Human Development; Notice of Closed Meeting Pursuant to section 10(d) of the Federal Advisory...

  5. 77 FR 52338 - Eunice Kennedy Shriver National Institute of Child Health & Human Development (NICHD); Notice of...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-08-29

    ...., Deputy Director, Eunice Kenney Shriver National Institute of Child Health and Human Development, NIH... HUMAN SERVICES National Institutes of Health Eunice Kennedy Shriver National Institute of Child Health & Human Development (NICHD); Notice of Meeting Pursuant to section 10(d) of the Federal Advisory...

  6. 78 FR 4855 - Eunice Kennedy Shriver National Institute of Child Health & Human Development; Notice of Closed...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-01-23

    ... Officer, Division of Scientific Review, National Institute of Child Health and Human Development, NIH... HUMAN SERVICES National Institutes of Health Eunice Kennedy Shriver National Institute of Child Health & Human Development; Notice of Closed Meeting Pursuant to section 10(d) of the Federal Advisory...

  7. 78 FR 21382 - Eunice Kennedy Shriver National Institute of Child Health & Human Development; Notice of Closed...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-04-10

    ... National Institute of Child Health And Human Development, NIH, 6100 Executive Blvd., Room 5B01, Bethesda... HUMAN SERVICES National Institutes of Health Eunice Kennedy Shriver National Institute of Child Health & Human Development; Notice of Closed Meeting Pursuant to section 10(d) of the Federal Advisory...

  8. 76 FR 20358 - Eunice Kennedy Shriver National Institute of Child Health & Human Development; Notice of Closed...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-04-12

    ... Scientific Review, Eunice Kennedy Shriver National Institute of Child Health and Human Development, NIH, 6100... HUMAN SERVICES National Institutes of Health Eunice Kennedy Shriver National Institute of Child Health & Human Development; Notice of Closed Meeting Pursuant to section 10(d) of the Federal Advisory...

  9. 78 FR 13359 - Eunice Kennedy Shriver National Institute of Child Health & Human Development; Notice of Closed...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-02-27

    ... Institute of Child Health And Human Development, NIH, 6100 Executive Boulevard, Room 5B01, Bethesda, MD... HUMAN SERVICES National Institutes of Health Eunice Kennedy Shriver National Institute of Child Health & Human Development; Notice of Closed Meeting Pursuant to section 10(d) of the Federal Advisory...

  10. 78 FR 23771 - Eunice Kennedy Shriver National Institute of Child Health & Human Development; Notice of Closed...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-04-22

    ... Institute, of Child Health And Human Development, NIH, 6100 Executive Blvd., Room 5B01, Bethesda, MD 20892... HUMAN SERVICES National Institutes of Health Eunice Kennedy Shriver National Institute of Child Health & Human Development; Notice of Closed Meeting Pursuant to section 10(d) of the Federal Advisory...

  11. 78 FR 48880 - Eunice Kennedy Shriver National Institute of Child Health & Human Development; Notice of Closed...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-08-12

    ... Child Health and Human Development, NIH, 6100 Executive Blvd., Room 5B01, Bethesda, MD 20892, 301-451... HUMAN SERVICES National Institutes of Health Eunice Kennedy Shriver National Institute of Child Health & Human Development; Notice of Closed Meeting Pursuant to section 10(d) of the Federal Advisory...

  12. 76 FR 43334 - Eunice Kennedy Shriver National Institute of Child Health & Human Development; Notice of Closed...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-07-20

    ... Review, Eunice Kennedy Shriver National Institute of Child Health and Human Development, NIH, 6100... HUMAN SERVICES National Institutes of Health Eunice Kennedy Shriver National Institute of Child Health & Human Development; Notice of Closed Meeting Pursuant to section 10(d) of the Federal Advisory...

  13. 76 FR 59707 - Eunice Kennedy Shriver National Institute of Child Health & Human Development; Notice of Closed...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-09-27

    ... Institute of Child Health and Human Development, NIH, 6100 Executive Blvd., Room 5B01, Bethesda, MD 20892... HUMAN SERVICES National Institutes of Health Eunice Kennedy Shriver National Institute of Child Health & Human Development; Notice of Closed Meeting Pursuant to section 10(d) of the Federal Advisory...

  14. 78 FR 11660 - Eunice Kennedy Shriver National Institute Of Child Health & Human Development; Notice of Closed...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-02-19

    ... Scientific Review, National Institute of Child Health, and Human Development, NIH, 6100 Executive Blvd., Room... HUMAN SERVICES National Institutes of Health Eunice Kennedy Shriver National Institute Of Child Health & Human Development; Notice of Closed Meeting Pursuant to section 10(d) of the Federal Advisory...

  15. 76 FR 58283 - Eunice Kennedy Shriver National Institute of Child Health & Human Development Notice of Closed...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-09-20

    ... Kennedy Shriver National Institute of Child Health And Human Development, NIH, 6100 Executive ] Blvd... HUMAN SERVICES National Institutes of Health Eunice Kennedy Shriver National Institute of Child Health & Human Development Notice of Closed Meeting Pursuant to section 10(d) of the Federal Advisory...

  16. 78 FR 23772 - Eunice Kennedy Shriver National Institute of Child Health & Human Development; Notice of Closed...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-04-22

    ... Scientific Review, National Institute of Child Health and Human Development, NIH, 6100 Executive Blvd., Room... HUMAN SERVICES National Institutes of Health Eunice Kennedy Shriver National Institute of Child Health & Human Development; Notice of Closed Meeting Pursuant to section 10(d) of the Federal Advisory...

  17. Designing Better Preschools: Improving Communication between Designers and Child Development Professionals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beacham, Cindy V.

    2006-01-01

    This exploratory study examined communications between designers and child development professionals during the preschool design process. Qualitative interviews and focus groups were conducted to investigate the need for communication support between child development professionals, parents, and design professionals (n = 20) during the process of…

  18. 76 FR 40738 - Eunice Kennedy Shriver National Institute of Child Health & Human Development; Notice of Closed...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-07-11

    ... HUMAN SERVICES National Institutes of Health Eunice Kennedy Shriver National Institute of Child Health & Human Development; Notice of Closed Meeting Pursuant to section 10(d) of the Federal Advisory Committee..., Eunice Kennedy Shriver National Institute of Child Health and Human Development, NIH, 6100 Executive...

  19. 77 FR 19676 - Eunice Kennedy Shriver National Institute of Child Health & Human Development; Notice of Closed...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-04-02

    ... HUMAN SERVICES National Institutes of Health Eunice Kennedy Shriver National Institute of Child Health & Human Development; Notice of Closed Meeting Pursuant to section 10(d) of the Federal Advisory Committee... Shriver National Institute of Child Health and Human Development, NIH, 6100 Executive Blvd., Room...

  20. 76 FR 65516 - Eunice Kennedy Shriver National Institute of Child Health & Human Development; Notice of Closed...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-10-21

    ... HUMAN SERVICES National Institutes of Health Eunice Kennedy Shriver National Institute of Child Health & Human Development; Notice of Closed Meeting Pursuant to section 10(d) of the Federal Advisory Committee... Institute of Child Health and Human Development, NIH, 6100 Executive Blvd., Room 5B01, Rockville, MD...

  1. 75 FR 51827 - Eunice Kennedy Shriver National Institute of Child Health & Human Development; Notice of Closed...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-08-23

    ... HUMAN SERVICES National Institutes of Health Eunice Kennedy Shriver National Institute of Child Health & Human Development; Notice of Closed Meeting Pursuant to section 10(d) of the Federal Advisory Committee... Kennedy Shriver National Institute of Child Health and Human Development, NIH, 6100 Executive Blvd.,...

  2. 75 FR 12244 - Eunice Kennedy Shriver National Institute of Child Health & Human Development; Notice of Closed...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-03-15

    ... HUMAN SERVICES National Institutes of Health Eunice Kennedy Shriver National Institute of Child Health & Human Development; Notice of Closed Meeting Pursuant to section 10(d) of the Federal Advisory Committee... Scientific Review, Eunice Kennedy Shriver National Institute of Child Health and Human Development, NIH,...

  3. 77 FR 37424 - Eunice Kennedy Shriver National Institute of Child Health & Human Development; Notice of Meeting

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-06-21

    ... HUMAN SERVICES National Institutes of Health Eunice Kennedy Shriver National Institute of Child Health & Human Development; Notice of Meeting Pursuant to section 10(a) of the Federal Advisory Committee Act, as... Child Health and Human Development, NIH, 6100 Executive Blvd., Room 5C01, Bethesda, MD 20892, (703)...

  4. 77 FR 26020 - Eunice Kennedy Shriver National Institute of Child Health & Human Development; Notice of Closed...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-05-02

    ... HUMAN SERVICES National Institutes of Health Eunice Kennedy Shriver National Institute of Child Health & Human Development; Notice of Closed Meeting Pursuant to section 10(d) of the Federal Advisory Committee... Institute of Child Health and Human Development, NIH, 6100 Executive Blvd., Room 5B01, Bethesda, MD...

  5. 76 FR 40737 - Eunice Kennedy Shriver National Institute of Child Health & Human Development; Notice of Closed...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-07-11

    ... HUMAN SERVICES National Institutes of Health Eunice Kennedy Shriver National Institute of Child Health & Human Development; Notice of Closed Meeting Pursuant to section 10(d) of the Federal Advisory Committee... Kennedy Shriver National Institute of Child Health and Human Development, NIH, 6100 Executive Blvd.,...

  6. 75 FR 55807 - Eunice Kennedy Shriver National Institute of Child Health & Human Development; Notice of Closed...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-09-14

    ... HUMAN SERVICES National Institutes of Health Eunice Kennedy Shriver National Institute of Child Health & Human Development; Notice of Closed Meeting Pursuant to section 10(d) of the Federal Advisory Committee... National Institute of Child Health and Human Development, NIH, 6100 Executive Blvd., Room 5B01,...

  7. 75 FR 12243 - Eunice Kennedy Shriver National Institute of Child Health & Human Development; Notice of Closed...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-03-15

    ... HUMAN SERVICES National Institutes of Health Eunice Kennedy Shriver National Institute of Child Health & Human Development; Notice of Closed Meeting Pursuant to section 10(d) of the Federal Advisory Committee... National Institute of Child Health and Human Development, NIH, 6100 Executive Blvd. Room 5B01, Bethesda,...

  8. 75 FR 34457 - Eunice Kennedy Shriver National Institute of Child Health & Human Development; Notice of Closed...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-06-17

    ... HUMAN SERVICES National Institutes of Health Eunice Kennedy Shriver National Institute of Child Health & Human Development; Notice of Closed Meeting Pursuant to section 10(d) of the Federal Advisory Committee..., National Institute of Child Health, And Human Development, 6100 Executive Boulevard, Room 5B01,...

  9. 77 FR 61418 - Eunice Kennedy Shriver National Institute of Child Health & Human Development; Notice of Closed...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-10-09

    ... HUMAN SERVICES National Institutes of Health Eunice Kennedy Shriver National Institute of Child Health & Human Development; Notice of Closed Meeting Pursuant to section 10(d) of the Federal Advisory Committee... Institute of Child Health and Human Development, NIH, 6100 Executive Blvd., Room 5b01, Bethesda, MD...

  10. Assessment of the maternal self-efficacy for child diarrhea prevention

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Taís Capistrano Lopes

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available This study aims at assessing self-efficacy for preventing child diarrhea among mothers of children living in Quixadá, Ceará, Brazil. A descriptive, quantitative study was conducted in three Basic Health Units of Quixadá, CE, Brazil from March to May2012.We interviewed 150 mothers of children under five years, using the socio demographic form and the Maternal Self-Efficacy Scale for Child Diarrhea Prevention. 51.3% of children had had diarrhea, 89% of the mothers had low self-efficacy for preventing child diarrhea. Items that showed greater disagreement were “I am able to avoid my son putting dirty objects in his mouth" (10.2%, ’I am able to wash fruits and vegetables with sodium hypochlorite or bleach" (25.3%and "I am able not to give my child left over meals‘ (25.3%. The majority (89.0% of the mothers had low self-efficacy for preventing child diarrhea. Thus, maternal self-efficacy should be considered for the prevention of child diarrhea.

  11. INCIDENCE OF CHILD LABOUR, FREE EDUCATION POLICY AND ECONOMIC LIBERALIZATION IN A DEVELOPING ECONOMY

    OpenAIRE

    Sarbajit Chaudhuri

    2005-01-01

    The paper analyzes the implications of a subsidy policy on education and different liberalized trade and investment policies on the incidence of child labour in a developing economy in terms of a three-sector general equilibrium model with informal sector and child labour. The supply function of child labour is endogenously determined. The paper shows that different policies, if undertaken concurrently, may produce mutually contradictory effects, thereby producing little or no impact on the i...

  12. Incidence of Child Labour, Free Education Policy, and Economic Liberalisation in a Developing Economy

    OpenAIRE

    Sarbajit Chaudhuri

    2004-01-01

    The paper analyses the implications of a subsidy policy on education and of different liberalised trade and investment policies on the incidence of child labour in a developing economy in terms of a three-sector general equilibrium model with informal sector and child labour. The supply function of child labour is endogenously determined. The paper shows that different policies, if undertaken concurrently, may produce mutually contradictory effects, thereby producing little or no impact on th...

  13. When Does Time Matter? Maternal Employment, Children's Time With Parents, and Child Development

    OpenAIRE

    Hsin, Amy; Felfe, Christina

    2014-01-01

    This study tests the two assumptions underlying popularly held notions that maternal employment negatively affects children because it reduces time spent with parents: (1) that maternal employment reduces children's time with parents, and (2) that time with parents affects child outcomes. We analyze children's time-diary data from the Child Development Supplement of the Panel Study of Income Dynamics and use child fixed-effects and IV estimations to account for unobserved heterogeneity. We fi...

  14. Addressing inequity to achieve the maternal and child health millennium development goals: looking beyond averages

    OpenAIRE

    Ruhago George M; Ngalesoni Frida N; Norheim Ole F

    2012-01-01

    Abstract Background Inequity in access to and use of child and maternal health interventions is impeding progress towards the maternal and child health Millennium Development Goals. This study explores the potential health gains and equity impact if a set of priority interventions for mothers and under fives were scaled up to reach national universal coverage targets for MDGs in Tanzania. Methods We used the Lives Saved Tool (LiST) to estimate potential reductions in maternal and child mortal...

  15. Knowledge of the Unknown Child: A Systematic Review of the Elements of the Best Interests of the Child Assessment for Recently Arrived Refugee Children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Os, E C C; Kalverboer, M E; Zijlstra, A E; Post, W J; Knorth, E J

    2016-09-01

    Decision-making regarding an asylum request of a minor requires decision-makers to determine the best interests of the child when the minor is relatively unknown. This article presents a systematic review of the existing knowledge of the situation of recently arrived refugee children in the host country. This research is based on the General Comment No. 14 of UN Committee on the Rights of the Child. It shows the importance of knowing the type and number of stressful life events a refugee child has experienced before arrival, as well as the duration and severity of these events. The most common mental health problems children face upon arrival in the host country are PTSD, depression and various anxiety disorders. The results identify the relevant elements of the best interests of the child assessment, including implications for procedural safeguards, which should promote a child rights-based decision in the asylum procedure. PMID:27389604

  16. The Health Development Organization: An Organizational Approach to Achieving Child Health Development

    OpenAIRE

    Halfon, Neal; Inkelas, Moira; Hochstein, Miles

    2000-01-01

    The health development organization (HDO) is a new approach to the organization and delivery of children’s health and social services. The HDO would combine the best features of vertically integrated HMOs with horizontally integrated, child-focused social services and longitudinally integrated health promotion strategies. Its mandate would be to develop the health of children in a community. The impetus for creating HDOs is a growing body of evidence in chronic disease epidemiology, developme...

  17. The Impact of an Unconditional Cash Transfer on Early Child Development: The Zambia Child Grant Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seidenfeld, David; Prencipe, Leah; Handa, Sudhanshu; Hawkinson, Laura

    2015-01-01

    Little research has been conducted on unconditional cash transfers (UCTs) despite their growing prevalence in Africa, including South Africa, Zambia, Zimbabwe, Kenya, Malawi, Lesotho, and Uganda. In this study, researchers implemented a randomized control trial with over 2,500 households to investigate the impact of Africa's child grant program on…

  18. The Child Suicide Risk Assessment: A Screening Measure of Suicide Risk in Pre-Adolescents

    Science.gov (United States)

    Larzelere, Robert E.; Andersen, Jamie J.; Ringle, Jay L.; Jorgensen, Dan D.

    2004-01-01

    This study documents the initial reliability and validity of the Child Suicide Risk Assessment (CSRA) for children under the age of 13. The revised CSRA retained 18 of 20 original items based on item-specific psychometric data from 140 pre-adolescents in out-of-home treatment programs. The CSRA demonstrated adequate internal consistency (alpha =…

  19. Parent-Child Agreement in the Assessment of Obsessive-Compulsive Disorder

    Science.gov (United States)

    Canavera, Kristin E.; Wilkins, Kendall C.; Pincus, Donna B.; Ehrenreich-May, Jill T.

    2009-01-01

    The purpose of the current study was to extend research regarding parent-child agreement in the assessment of anxiety disorders to include youth with obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD). Ninety-three children and adolescents with OCD (50 female, 43 male), ages 6 to 17 years, and their parents were administered the Anxiety Disorders Interview…

  20. The Validity of the Child and Adolescent Needs and Strengths Assessment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dilley, Joseph B.; Weiner, Dana A.; Lyons, John S.; Martinovich, Zoran

    2007-01-01

    The Child and Adolescent Needs and Strengths (CANS) is a functional assessment used in approximately 27 states to evaluate youth service outcomes. The CANS purports to measure both the youth's risk and protective factors, but its validity is largely un-researched. This study compares ratings of 304 delinquent youth on the CANS and ratings on a…

  1. Virginia Star Quality Initiative: QRS Profile. The Child Care Quality Rating System (QRS) Assessment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Child Trends, 2010

    2010-01-01

    This paper presents a profile of Virginia's Star Quality Initiative prepared as part of the Child Care Quality Rating System (QRS) Assessment Study. The profile consists of several sections and their corresponding descriptions including: (1) Program Information; (2) Rating Details; (3) Quality Indicators for Center-Based Programs; (4) Indicators…

  2. Delaware Stars for Early Success. QRS Profile. The Child Care Quality Rating System (QRS) Assessment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Child Trends, 2010

    2010-01-01

    This paper presents a profile of Delaware's Stars for Early Success prepared as part of the Child Care Quality Rating System (QRS) Assessment Study. The profile consists of several sections and their corresponding descriptions including: (1) Program Information; (2) Rating Details; (3) Quality Indicators for Center-Based Programs; (4) Indicators…

  3. North Carolina Star Rated License System: QRS Profile. The Child Care Quality Rating System (QRS) Assessment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Child Trends, 2010

    2010-01-01

    This paper presents a profile of North Carolina's Star Rated License System prepared as part of the Child Care Quality Rating System (QRS) Assessment Study. The profile consists of several sections and their corresponding descriptions including: (1) Program Information; (2) Rating Details; (3) Quality Indicators for Center-Based Programs; (4)…

  4. Kentucky STARS for KIDS NOW: QRS Profile. The Child Care Quality Rating System (QRS) Assessment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Child Trends, 2010

    2010-01-01

    This paper presents a profile of Kentucky's STARS for KIDS NOW prepared as part of the Child Care Quality Rating System (QRS) Assessment Study. The profile consists of several sections and their corresponding descriptions including: (1) Program Information; (2) Rating Details; (3) Quality Indicators for Center-Based Programs; (4) Indicators for…

  5. Pennsylvania Keystone STARS: QRS Profile. The Child Care Quality Rating System (QRS) Assessment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Child Trends, 2010

    2010-01-01

    This paper presents a profile of Pennsylvania's Keystone STARS prepared as part of the Child Care Quality Rating System (QRS) Assessment Study. The profile consists of several sections and their corresponding descriptions including: (1) Program Information; (2) Rating Details; (3) Quality Indicators for Center-Based Programs; (4) Indicators for…

  6. Child Protection Assessment in Humanitarian Emergencies: Case Studies from Georgia, Gaza, Haiti and Yemen

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ager, Alastair; Blake, Courtney; Stark, Lindsay; Daniel, Tsufit

    2011-01-01

    Objectives: The paper reviews the experiences of conducting child protection assessments across four humanitarian emergencies where violence and insecurity, directly or indirectly, posed a major threat to children. We seek to identify common themes emerging from these experiences and propose ways to guide the planning and implementation of…

  7. Forensic Child Sexual Abuse Evaluations: Assessing Subjectivity and Bias in Professional Judgements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Everson, Mark D.; Sandoval, Jose Miguel

    2011-01-01

    Objectives: Evaluators examining the same evidence often arrive at substantially different conclusions in forensic assessments of child sexual abuse (CSA). This study attempts to identify and quantify subjective factors that contribute to such disagreements so that interventions can be devised to improve the reliability of case decisions. Methods:…

  8. The epigenetics of maternal cigarette smoking during pregnancy and effects on child development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Knopik, Valerie S; Maccani, Matthew A; Francazio, Sarah; McGeary, John E

    2012-11-01

    The period of in utero development is one of the most critical windows during which adverse intrauterine conditions and exposures can influence the growth and development of the fetus as well as the child's future postnatal health and behavior. Maternal cigarette smoking during pregnancy remains a relatively common but nonetheless hazardous in utero exposure. Previous studies have associated prenatal smoke exposure with reduced birth weight, poor developmental and psychological outcomes, and increased risk for diseases and behavioral disorders later in life. Researchers are now learning that many of the mechanisms whereby maternal smoke exposure may affect key pathways crucial for proper fetal growth and development are epigenetic in nature. Maternal cigarette smoking during pregnancy has been associated with altered DNA methylation and dysregulated expression of microRNA, but a deeper understanding of the epigenetics of maternal cigarette smoking during pregnancy as well as how these epigenetic changes may affect later health and behavior remain to be elucidated. This article seeks to explore many of the previously described epigenetic alterations associated with maternal cigarette smoking during pregnancy and assess how such changes may have consequences for both fetal growth and development, as well as later child health, behavior, and well-being. We also outline future directions for this new and exciting field of research.

  9. Socioeconomic gradients in child development in very young children: evidence from India, Indonesia, Peru, and Senegal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fernald, Lia C H; Kariger, Patricia; Hidrobo, Melissa; Gertler, Paul J

    2012-10-16

    Gradients across socio-economic position exist for many measures of children's health and development in higher-income countries. These associations may not be consistent, however, among the millions of children living in lower- and middle-income countries. Our objective was to examine child development and growth in young children across socio-economic position in four developing countries. We used cross-sectional surveys, child development assessments, measures of length (LAZ), and home stimulation (Family Care Index) of children in India, Indonesia, Peru, and Senegal. The Extended Ages and Stages Questionnaire (EASQ) was administered to parents of all children ages 3-23 mo in the household (n =8,727), and length measurements were taken for all children 0-23 mo (n = 11,102). Household wealth and maternal education contributed significantly and independently to the variance in EASQ and LAZ scores in all countries, while controlling for child's age and sex, mother's age and marital status, and household size. Being in the fifth wealth quintile in comparison with the first quintile was associated with significantly higher EASQ scores (0.27 to 0.48 of a standardized score) and higher LAZ scores (0.37 to 0.65 of a standardized score) in each country, while controlling for maternal education and covariates. Wealth and education gradients increased over the first two years in most countries for both EASQ and LAZ scores, with larger gradients seen in 16-23-mo-olds than in 0-7 mo-olds. Mediation analyses revealed that parental home stimulation activities and LAZ were significant mediating variables and explained up to 50% of the wealth effects on the EASQ.

  10. The Life Mission Theory IV. Theory on Child Development

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Soren Ventegodt

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available We can identify five important needs that children have: the need for acknowledgment, acceptance, awareness or attention, respect, and care. If these needs are not met, children will modify themselves by denying central parts of their nature in order to adjust to their parents and the situation at large. When a child denies his or her talents, powers, and gender or aspects thereof, he or she loses quality of life, the ability to function, and physical or mental health. The loss of ability takes the form of diminished social ability, psychosexual potency, joy, energy, and fantasy while playing, as well as diminished ability to concentrate, focus, and learn. Many modifications result in a child with severely damaged self-confidence, self-worth, and poor performance. A child more or less deprived of self-worth cannot enjoy, give, or receive. A child deprived of emotions turns cold, rational, asocial, socially stiff, uncomfortable, and in the extreme case…... intentionally “evil”. When a child denies his or her own sex, it becomes invisible, uninteresting, and vague or becomes like the opposite sex in behavior and appearance. The general holistic solution to the vast diversity of symptoms in children with low quality of life is to improve the situation for the child and give the child the holding and support he or she needs. It is very important to realize that a negative belief often has survival value to the child as it helps the child to avoid taking responsibility for problems, which really belong to the parents or other adults. Children have a fine capability for spontaneous healing, and seem to enter this process more easily than adults, given sufficient holding. The symptoms of children with poor thriving ability are often difficult to understand, as they are caused by a complex combination of self-modification in five existential dimensions. This often leads to complex medical diagnosis, giving the idea that the child is sick and

  11. Pinellas Plant: Child Care/Partnership School safety assessment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1989-11-01

    The Albuquerque Operations Office through the Pinellas Plant Area Office is involved in a joint venture to establish a Partnership School and a Day Care Facility at the Plant. The venture is unique in that it is based on a partnership with the local county school system. The county school system will provide the teachers, supplies and classroom furnishings for the operation of the school for pre-kindergarten, kindergarten, first and second grade during regular school hours. The Government will provide the facility and its normal operating and maintenance costs. A Day Care Facility will also be available for children from infancy through the second grade for outside school hours. The day care will be operated as a non-profit corporation. Fees paid by parents with children in the day care center will cove the cost of staff, food, supplies and liability insurance. Again, the government will provide the facility and its normal operating and maintenance costs. Between 75 and 90 children are expected in the first year of operation. The Partnership School will consist of one class each for pre-kindergarten, kindergarten and first grade. Second grade will be added in 1990. The total estimated number of children for both the Child Care and Partnership School should not exceed 200 children. Expected benefits include reduced absenteeism, tardiness and turnover and thus increased productivity. The program will be an asset in recruiting and retaining the best workforce. Other benefits include improved education for the children.

  12. Judicial Assessment of the Credibility of Child Witnesses

    OpenAIRE

    Bala, Nicholas; Ramakrishnan, Karuna; Lindsay, Roderick; Lee, Kang

    2005-01-01

    This article reports on the results of two research studies carried out by the authors that address the questions of how and how well judges assess the honesty and reliability of children’s testimony. One study tested the accuracy of judges and other professionals in assessing the honesty of children giving mock testimony. Judges performed at only slightly above chance levels, though the performance of judges was comparable to other justice system professionals, and significantly better than ...

  13. Developing a Child Friendly Text-to-Speech System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Agnes Jacob

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper discusses the implementation details of a child friendly, good quality, English text-to-speech (TTS system that is phoneme-based, concatenative, easy to set up and use with little memory. Direct waveform concatenation and linear prediction coding (LPC are used. Most existing TTS systems are unit-selection based, which use standard speech databases available in neutral adult voices. Here reduced memory is achieved by the concatenation of phonemes and by replacing phonetic wave files with their LPC coefficients. Linguistic analysis was used to reduce the algorithmic complexity instead of signal processing techniques. Sufficient degree of customization and generalization catering to the needs of the child user had been included through the provision for vocabulary and voice selection to suit the requisites of the child. Prosody had also been incorporated. This inexpensive TTS system was implemented in MATLAB, with the synthesis presented by means of a graphical user interface (GUI, thus making it child friendly. This can be used not only as an interesting language learning aid for the normal child but it also serves as a speech aid to the vocally disabled child. The quality of the synthesized speech was evaluated using the mean opinion score (MOS.

  14. Peer contagion in child and adolescent social and emotional development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dishion, Thomas J; Tipsord, Jessica M

    2011-01-01

    In this article, we examine the construct of peer contagion in childhood and adolescence and review studies of child and adolescent development that have identified peer contagion influences. Evidence suggests that children's interactions with peers are tied to increases in aggression in early and middle childhood and amplification of problem behaviors such as drug use, delinquency, and violence in early to late adolescence. Deviancy training is one mechanism that accounts for peer contagion effects on problem behaviors from age 5 through adolescence. In addition, we discuss peer contagion relevant to depression in adolescence, and corumination as an interactive process that may account for these effects. Social network analyses suggest that peer contagion underlies the influence of friendship on obesity, unhealthy body images, and expectations. Literature is reviewed that suggests how peer contagion effects can undermine the goals of public education from elementary school through college and impair the goals of juvenile corrections systems. In particular, programs that "select" adolescents at risk for aggregated preventive interventions are particularly vulnerable to peer contagion effects. It appears that a history of peer rejection is a vulnerability factor for influence by peers, and adult monitoring, supervision, positive parenting, structure, and self-regulation serve as protective factors. PMID:19575606

  15. Learning from Latinos: contexts, families, and child development in motion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fuller, Bruce; García Coll, Cynthia

    2010-05-01

    Two generations ago, Latino children and families were often defined as disadvantaged, even "culturally deprived," by psychologists, social scientists, and pediatric researchers. Since then, empirical work from several disciplines has yielded remarkable discoveries regarding the strengths of Latino families and resulting benefits for children. Theoretical advances illuminate how variation in the child's culturally bounded context or developmental niche reproduces differing socialization practices, forms of cognition, and motivated learning within everyday activities. This review sketches advances in 4 areas: detailing variation in children's local contexts and households among Latino subgroups, moving beyond Latino-White comparisons; identifying how parenting goals and practices in less acculturated, more traditional families act to reinforce social cohesion and support for children; identifying, in turn, how pressures on children and adolescents to assimilate to novel behavioral norms offer developmental risks, not only new opportunities; and seeing children's learning and motivation as situated within communities that exercise cognitive demands and social expectations, advancing particular forms of cognitive growth that are embedded within social participation and the motivated desire to become a competent member. This review places the articles that follow within such contemporary lines of work. Together they yield theoretical advances for understanding the growth of all children and adolescents, who necessarily learn and develop within bounded cultural or social-class groups.

  16. Developmental stimulation in child care centers contributes to young infants’ cognitive development

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Albers, E.M.; Riksen-Walraven, J.M.A.; Weerth, C. de

    2010-01-01

    This study examined whether the quality of caregiver behavior in child care centers contributes to infant cognitive development at 9 months of age. Sixty-four infants (34 boys) were observed with their primary caregivers in child care centers at 3, 6, and 9 months of age. Caregiver behavior was rate

  17. Effects of Child Maltreatment and Inherited Liability on Antisocial Development: An Official Records Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jonson-Reid, Melissa; Presnall, Ned; Drake, Brett; Fox, Louis; Bierut, Laura; Reich, Wendy; Kane, Phyllis; Todd, Richard D.; Constantino, John N.

    2010-01-01

    Objective: Evidence is steadily accumulating that a preventable environmental hazard, child maltreatment, exerts causal influences on the development of long-standing patterns of antisocial behavior in humans. The relationship between child maltreatment and antisocial outcome, however, has never previously been tested in a large-scale study in…

  18. 77 FR 64815 - Eunice Kennedy Shriver National Institute of Child Health & Human Development; Notice of Closed...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-10-23

    ... HUMAN SERVICES National Institutes of Health Eunice Kennedy Shriver National Institute of Child Health & Human Development; Notice of Closed Meeting Pursuant to section 10(d) of the Federal Advisory Committee... unwarranted invasion of personal privacy. Name of Committee: National Institute of Child Health and...

  19. 76 FR 5595 - Eunice Kennedy Shriver National Institute of Child Health & Human Development; Notice of Closed...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-02-01

    ... HUMAN SERVICES National Institutes of Health Eunice Kennedy Shriver National Institute of Child Health & Human Development; Notice of Closed Meeting Pursuant to section 10(d) of the Federal Advisory Committee... unwarranted invasion of personal privacy. Name of Committee: National Institute of Child Health and...

  20. 77 FR 12601 - Eunice Kennedy Shriver National Institute of Child Health & Human Development; Notice of Closed...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-03-01

    ... HUMAN SERVICES National Institutes of Health Eunice Kennedy Shriver National Institute of Child Health & Human Development; Notice of Closed Meeting Pursuant to section 10(d) of the Federal Advisory Committee... unwarranted invasion of personal privacy. Name of Committee: National Institute of Child Health and...

  1. 75 FR 66771 - Eunice Kennedy Shriver National Institute of Child Health & Human Development; Notice of Closed...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-29

    ... HUMAN SERVICES National Institutes of Health Eunice Kennedy Shriver National Institute of Child Health & Human Development; Notice of Closed Meeting Pursuant to section 10(d) of the Federal Advisory Committee... unwarranted invasion of personal privacy. Name of Committee: National Institute of Child Health and...

  2. The Continued Effects of Home Intervention on Child Development Outcomes in the Kingdom of Bahrain

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hadeed, Julie

    2011-01-01

    This article presents the continued effects of a home-based intervention programme on child development outcomes and parenting practices in Bahrain. The intervention is the "Mother-Child Home Education Programme" (MOCEP) which was implemented in Arabic in the Kingdom of Bahrain beginning in 2001. One hundred and sixty-seven poor, disadvantaged…

  3. 75 FR 17150 - Eunice Kennedy Shriver National Institute of Child Health & Human Development; Notice of Closed...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-05

    ... HUMAN SERVICES National Institutes of Health Eunice Kennedy Shriver National Institute of Child Health & Human Development; Notice of Closed Meeting Pursuant to section 10(d) of the Federal Advisory Committee... clearly unwarranted invasion of personal privacy. Name of Committee: National Institute of Child...

  4. 77 FR 5031 - Eunice Kennedy Shriver National Institute of Child Health & Human Development; Notice of Closed...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-02-01

    ... HUMAN SERVICES National Institutes of Health Eunice Kennedy Shriver National Institute of Child Health & Human Development; Notice of Closed Meeting Pursuant to section 10(d) of the Federal Advisory Committee... clearly unwarranted invasion of personal privacy. Name of Committee: National Institute of Child...

  5. 76 FR 11801 - Eunice Kennedy Shriver National Institute of Child Health & Human Development; Notice of Closed...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-03-03

    ... HUMAN SERVICES National Institutes of Health Eunice Kennedy Shriver National Institute of Child Health & Human Development; Notice of Closed Meeting Pursuant to section 10(d) of the Federal Advisory Committee... unwarranted invasion of personal privacy. Name of Committee: National Institute of Child Health and...

  6. 75 FR 65496 - Eunice Kennedy Shriver National Institute of Child Health & Human Development; Notice of Closed...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-25

    ... HUMAN SERVICES National Institutes of Health Eunice Kennedy Shriver National Institute of Child Health & Human Development; Notice of Closed Meeting Pursuant to section 10(d) of the Federal Advisory Committee... unwarranted invasion of personal privacy. Name of Committee: National Institute of Child Health and...

  7. 76 FR 76169 - Eunice Kennedy Shriver National Institute of Child Health & Human Development Notice of Closed...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-12-06

    ... HUMAN SERVICES National Institutes of Health Eunice Kennedy Shriver National Institute of Child Health & Human Development Notice of Closed Meeting Pursuant to section 10(d) of the Federal Advisory Committee... unwarranted invasion of personal privacy. Name of Committee: National Institute of Child Health and...

  8. 78 FR 18998 - Eunice Kennedy Shriver National Institute of Child Health & Human Development; Notice of Closed...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-03-28

    ... HUMAN SERVICES National Institutes of Health Eunice Kennedy Shriver National Institute of Child Health & Human Development; Notice of Closed Meeting Pursuant to section 10(d) of the Federal Advisory Committee... unwarranted invasion of personal privacy. Name of Committee: National Institute of Child Health and...

  9. 76 FR 13650 - Eunice Kennedy Shriver National Institute of Child Health & Human Development; Notice of Closed...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-03-14

    ... HUMAN SERVICES National Institutes of Health Eunice Kennedy Shriver National Institute of Child Health & Human Development; Notice of Closed Meeting Pursuant to section 10(d) of the Federal Advisory Committee... unwarranted invasion of personal privacy. Name of Committee: National Institute of Child Health and...

  10. 75 FR 36662 - Eunice Kennedy Shriver National Institute of Child Health & Human Development; Notice of Closed...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-06-28

    ... HUMAN SERVICES National Institutes of Health Eunice Kennedy Shriver National Institute of Child Health & Human Development; Notice of Closed Meeting Pursuant to section 10(d) of the Federal Advisory Committee... unwarranted invasion of personal privacy. Name of Committee: National Institute of Child Health and...

  11. 77 FR 27471 - Eunice Kennedy Shriver National Institute of Child Health & Human Development Notice of Closed...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-05-10

    ... HUMAN SERVICES National Institutes of Health Eunice Kennedy Shriver National Institute of Child Health & Human Development Notice of Closed Meeting Pursuant to section 10(d) of the Federal Advisory Committee... unwarranted invasion of personal privacy. Name of Committee: National Institute of Child Health and...

  12. 77 FR 17080 - Eunice Kennedy Shriver National Institute of Child Health & Human Development; Notice of Closed...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-03-23

    ... HUMAN SERVICES National Institutes of Health Eunice Kennedy Shriver National Institute of Child Health & Human Development; Notice of Closed Meeting Pursuant to section 10(d) of the Federal Advisory Committee... unwarranted invasion of personal privacy. Name of Committee: National Institute of Child Health and...

  13. 77 FR 58855 - Eunice Kennedy Shriver National Institute of Child Health & Human Development; Notice of Closed...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-09-24

    ... HUMAN SERVICES National Institutes of Health Eunice Kennedy Shriver National Institute of Child Health & Human Development; Notice of Closed Meeting Pursuant to section 10(d) of the Federal Advisory Committee... unwarranted invasion of personal privacy. Name of Committee: National Institute of Child Health and...

  14. 76 FR 64091 - Eunice Kennedy Shriver National Institute of Child Health & Human Development; Notice of Closed...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-10-17

    ... HUMAN SERVICES National Institutes of Health Eunice Kennedy Shriver National Institute of Child Health & Human Development; Notice of Closed Meetings Pursuant to section 10(d) of the Federal Advisory Committee... clearly unwarranted invasion of personal privacy. Name of Committee: National Institute of Child...

  15. 77 FR 5036 - Eunice Kennedy Shriver National Institute of Child Health & Human Development; Notice of Closed...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-02-01

    ... HUMAN SERVICES National Institutes of Health Eunice Kennedy Shriver National Institute of Child Health & Human Development; Notice of Closed Meeting Pursuant to section 10(d) of the Federal Advisory Committee... unwarranted invasion of personal privacy. Name of Committee: National Institute of Child Health and...

  16. 76 FR 61720 - Eunice Kennedy Shriver National Institute of Child Health & Human Development; Notice of Closed...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-10-05

    ... HUMAN SERVICES National Institutes of Health Eunice Kennedy Shriver National Institute of Child Health & Human Development; Notice of Closed Meeting Pursuant to section 10(d) of the Federal Advisory Committee... unwarranted invasion of personal privacy. Name of Committee: National Institute of Child Health and...

  17. 76 FR 72957 - Eunice Kennedy Shriver National Institute of Child Health & Human Development; Notice of Closed...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-11-28

    ... HUMAN SERVICES National Institutes of Health Eunice Kennedy Shriver National Institute of Child Health & Human Development; Notice of Closed Meeting Pursuant to section 10(d) of the Federal Advisory Committee... unwarranted invasion of personal privacy. Name of Committee: National Institute of Child Health and...

  18. 76 FR 61719 - Eunice Kennedy Shriver National Institute of Child Health & Human Development; Notice of Closed...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-10-05

    ... HUMAN SERVICES National Institutes of Health Eunice Kennedy Shriver National Institute of Child Health & Human Development; Notice of Closed Meeting Pursuant to section 10(d) of the Federal Advisory Committee... unwarranted invasion of personal privacy. Name of Committee: National Institute of Child Health and...

  19. Development and Validation of a Measure of Organizational Culture in Public Child Welfare Agencies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Westbrook, Tonya M.; Ellett, Alberta J.; Deweaver, Kevin W.

    2009-01-01

    Objective: To develop and explore the validity characteristics of a new measure of organizational culture in public child welfare agencies. Method: Multiple validation methods were used, including expert judgment and criterion-related validity procedures using a statewide sample of 1,033 child welfare caseworkers, supervisors, and administrators.…

  20. Biliteracy and Bilingual Development in a Second-Generation Korean Child: A Case Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ro, Yeonsun Ellie; Cheatham, Gregory A.

    2009-01-01

    Through case study methodology, this study examined how a second-generation bilingual child developed his two languages and associated literacies, the role of the parents' and child's goals as well as the family's daily effort to attain those goals, and the influences of environmental, social, and cultural factors. Based on sociocultural…

  1. Development and Evaluation of an Integrated Pest Management Toolkit for Child Care Providers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alkon, Abbey; Kalmar, Evie; Leonard, Victoria; Flint, Mary Louise; Kuo, Devina; Davidson, Nita; Bradman, Asa

    2012-01-01

    Young children and early care and education (ECE) staff are exposed to pesticides used to manage pests in ECE facilities in the United States and elsewhere. The objective of this pilot study was to encourage child care programs to reduce pesticide use and child exposures by developing and evaluating an Integrated Pest Management (IPM) Toolkit for…

  2. 78 FR 17419 - Eunice Kennedy Shriver National Institute of Child Health & Human Development; Notice of Closed...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-03-21

    ... HUMAN SERVICES National Institutes of Health Eunice Kennedy Shriver National Institute of Child Health & Human Development; Notice of Closed Meeting Pursuant to section 10(d) of the Federal Advisory Committee... unwarranted invasion of personal privacy. Name of Committee: National Institute of Child Health and...

  3. 76 FR 59708 - Eunice Kennedy Shriver National Institute of Child Health & Human Development; Notice of Closed...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-09-27

    ... HUMAN SERVICES National Institutes of Health Eunice Kennedy Shriver National Institute of Child Health & Human Development; Notice of Closed Meeting Pursuant to section 10(d) of the Federal Advisory Committee... unwarranted invasion of personal privacy. Name of Committee: National Institute of Child Health and...

  4. 78 FR 17421 - Eunice Kennedy Shriver National Institute of Child Health & Human Development; Notice of Closed...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-03-21

    ... HUMAN SERVICES National Institutes of Health Eunice Kennedy Shriver National Institute of Child Health & Human Development; Notice of Closed Meeting Pursuant to section 10(d) of the Federal Advisory Committee... clearly unwarranted invasion of personal privacy. Name of Committee: National Institute of Child...

  5. 76 FR 37132 - Eunice Kennedy Shriver National Institute of Child Health & Human Development; Notice of Closed...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-06-24

    ... HUMAN SERVICES National Institutes of Health Eunice Kennedy Shriver National Institute of Child Health & Human Development; Notice of Closed Meeting Pursuant to section 10(d) of the Federal Advisory Committee... unwarranted invasion of personal privacy. Name of Committee: National Institute of Child Health and...

  6. 77 FR 8271 - Eunice Kennedy Shriver National Institute of Child Health & Human Development; Notice of Closed...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-02-14

    ... HUMAN SERVICES National Institutes of Health Eunice Kennedy Shriver National Institute of Child Health & Human Development; Notice of Closed Meeting Pursuant to section 10(d) of the Federal Advisory Committee... clearly unwarranted invasion of personal privacy. Name of Committee: National Institute of Child...

  7. 78 FR 47328 - Eunice Kennedy Shriver National Institute of Child Health & Human Development; Notice of Closed...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-08-05

    ... HUMAN SERVICES National Institutes of Health Eunice Kennedy Shriver National Institute of Child Health & Human Development; Notice of Closed Meeting Pursuant to section 10(d) of the Federal Advisory Committee... unwarranted invasion of personal privacy. Name of Committee: National Institute of Child Health and...

  8. 76 FR 59709 - Eunice Kennedy Shriver National Institute of Child Health & Human Development Notice of Closed...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-09-27

    ... HUMAN SERVICES National Institutes of Health Eunice Kennedy Shriver National Institute of Child Health & Human Development Notice of Closed Meeting Pursuant to section 10(d) of the Federal Advisory Committee... unwarranted invasion of personal privacy. Name of Committee: National Institute of Child Health and...

  9. State Developments in Child Care, Early Education, and School-Age Care, 2001.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ewen, Danielle; Blank, Helen; Hart, Katherine; Schulman, Karen

    This report provides highlights and updates regarding state actions on child care, early education, and school-age care issues during 2001. It is intended to serve as a supplement to "State Developments in Child Care, Early Education, and School-Age Care 2000" and various reports published on this issue between 1997 and 1999. Information in the…

  10. Implementing the Child Care and Development Block Grant Reauthorization: A Guide for States

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matthews, Hannah; Schulman, Karen; Vogtman, Julie; Johnson-Staub, Christine; Blank, Helen

    2015-01-01

    In November 2014, with broad bipartisan support, Congress reauthorized CCDBG [Child Care and Development Block Grant] (the major federal child care program) for the first time since 1996. The new law strengthens CCDBG's dual role as a major early childhood education program and a work support for low-income families. This implementation guide is…

  11. 77 FR 61419 - Eunice Kennedy Shriver National Institute of Child Health & Human Development; Notice of Closed...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-10-09

    ... HUMAN SERVICES National Institutes of Health Eunice Kennedy Shriver National Institute of Child Health & Human Development; Notice of Closed Meeting Pursuant to section 10(d) of the Federal Advisory Committee... unwarranted invasion of personal privacy. Name of Committee: National Institute of Child Health and...

  12. 77 FR 37421 - Eunice Kennedy Shriver National Institute of Child Health & Human Development; Notice of Closed...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-06-21

    ... HUMAN SERVICES National Institutes of Health Eunice Kennedy Shriver National Institute of Child Health & Human Development; Notice of Closed Meeting Pursuant to section 10(d) of the Federal Advisory Committee... unwarranted invasion of personal privacy. Name of Committee: National Institute of Child Health and...

  13. 78 FR 12767 - Eunice Kennedy Shriver National Institute of Child Health & Human Development; Notice of Closed...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-02-25

    ... HUMAN SERVICES National Institutes of Health Eunice Kennedy Shriver National Institute of Child Health & Human Development; Notice of Closed Meeting Pursuant to section 10(d) of the Federal Advisory Committee... unwarranted invasion of personal privacy. Name of Committee: National Institute of Child Health and...

  14. 75 FR 10491 - Eunice Kennedy Shriver National Institute of Child Health & Human Development; Notice of Closed...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-03-08

    ... HUMAN SERVICES National Institutes of Health Eunice Kennedy Shriver National Institute of Child Health & Human Development; Notice of Closed Meeting Pursuant to section 10(d) of the Federal Advisory Committee... unwarranted invasion of personal privacy. Name of Committee: National Institute of Child Health and...

  15. 75 FR 4577 - Eunice Kennedy Shriver National Institute of Child Health & Human Development; Notice of Closed...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-28

    ... HUMAN SERVICES National Institutes of Health Eunice Kennedy Shriver National Institute of Child Health & Human Development; Notice of Closed Meeting Pursuant to section 10(d) of the Federal Advisory Committee... unwarranted invasion of personal privacy. Name of Committee: National Institute of Child Health and...

  16. 76 FR 19999 - Eunice Kennedy Shriver National Institute of Child Health & Human Development; Notice of Closed...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-04-11

    ... HUMAN SERVICES National Institutes of Health Eunice Kennedy Shriver National Institute of Child Health & Human Development; Notice of Closed Meeting Pursuant to section 10(d) of the Federal Advisory Committee... Review Officer, Division of Scientific Review, National Institute of Child Health and Human...

  17. Internet Use and Child Development: Validation of the Ecological Techno-Subsystem

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, Genevieve Marie

    2010-01-01

    Johnson and Puplampu recently proposed the "ecological techno-subsystem", a refinement to Bronfenbrenner's theoretical organization of environmental influences on child development. The ecological techno-subsystem includes child interaction with both living (e.g., peers) and nonliving (e.g., hardware) elements of communication, information, and…

  18. Happiness is 0 to 6 from 7 to 5: Coosa Valley's Child Development Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    Appalachia, 1973

    1973-01-01

    The Carterville and Calhoun centers are representative of the 6 local child development programs in rural northwest Georgia. The day care centers are for the children of working mothers. The outreach program provides workers who go into the homes to help nonworking mothers improve their child-rearing skills. (FF)

  19. Disparities in Under-Five Child Injury Mortality between Developing and Developed Countries: 1990–2013

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Yun; Wu, Yue; Schwebel, David C.; Zhou, Liang; Hu, Guoqing

    2016-01-01

    Objective: Using estimates from the 2013 Global Burden of Disease (GBD) study, we update evidence on disparities in under-five child injury mortality between developing and developed countries from 1990 to 2013. Methods: Mortality rates were accessed through the online visualization tool by the GBD study 2013 group. We calculated percent change in child injury mortality rates between 1990 and 2013. Data analysis was conducted separately for <1 year and 1–4 years to specify age differences in rate changes. Results: Between 1990 and 2013, over 3-fold mortality gaps were observed between developing countries and developed countries for both age groups in the study time period. Similar decreases in injury rates were observed for developed and developing countries (<1 year: −50% vs. −50% respectively; 1–4 years: −56% vs. −58%). Differences in injury mortality changes during 1990–2013 between developing and developed nations varied with injury cause. There were greater reductions in mortality from transport injury, falls, poisoning, adverse effects of medical treatment, exposure to forces of nature, and collective violence and legal intervention in developed countries, whereas there were larger decreases in mortality from drowning, exposure to mechanical forces, and animal contact in developing countries. Country-specific analysis showed large variations across countries for both injury mortality and changes in injury mortality between 1990 and 2013. Conclusions: Sustained higher child injury mortality during 1990–2013 for developing countries merits the attention of the global injury prevention community. Countries that have high injury mortality can benefit from the success of other countries. PMID:27399740

  20. Disparities in Under-Five Child Injury Mortality between Developing and Developed Countries: 1990–2013

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yun Huang

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Objective: Using estimates from the 2013 Global Burden of Disease (GBD study, we update evidence on disparities in under-five child injury mortality between developing and developed countries from 1990 to 2013. Methods: Mortality rates were accessed through the online visualization tool by the GBD study 2013 group. We calculated percent change in child injury mortality rates between 1990 and 2013. Data analysis was conducted separately for <1 year and 1–4 years to specify age differences in rate changes. Results: Between 1990 and 2013, over 3-fold mortality gaps were observed between developing countries and developed countries for both age groups in the study time period. Similar decreases in injury rates were observed for developed and developing countries (<1 year: −50% vs. −50% respectively; 1–4 years: −56% vs. −58%. Differences in injury mortality changes during 1990–2013 between developing and developed nations varied with injury cause. There were greater reductions in mortality from transport injury, falls, poisoning, adverse effects of medical treatment, exposure to forces of nature, and collective violence and legal intervention in developed countries, whereas there were larger decreases in mortality from drowning, exposure to mechanical forces, and animal contact in developing countries. Country-specific analysis showed large variations across countries for both injury mortality and changes in injury mortality between 1990 and 2013. Conclusions: Sustained higher child injury mortality during 1990–2013 for developing countries merits the attention of the global injury prevention community. Countries that have high injury mortality can benefit from the success of other countries.

  1. Assessment of food, nutrition, and physical activity practices in Oklahoma child-care centers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sisson, Susan B; Campbell, Janis E; May, Kellie B; Brittain, Danielle R; Monroe, Lisa A; Guss, Shannon H; Ladner, Jennifer L

    2012-08-01

    The purpose of the current study was to determine the obesogenic practices in all-day child-care centers caring for preschool-aged children. This study used a cross-sectional, self-reported survey mailed to centers across Oklahoma (n=314). Frequency of responses and χ(2) were calculated comparing region and star rating. Items where the majority of centers frequently report best practices include: daily fruits served (76%), daily nonfried vegetables served (71%), rarely/never served sugary drinks (92%), rarely/never used food to encourage good behaviors (88%), staff join children at table most of the time (81%), staff rarely eat different foods in view of children (69%), visible self-serve or request availability of water (93%), regular informal communication about healthy eating (86%), opportunities for outdoor play (95%), not withholding activity for punishment (91%), accessible play equipment (59% to 80% for different types of equipment), and minimization of extended sitting time (78%). Practices where centers can improve include increasing variety of vegetables (18%), reducing frequency of high-fat meats served (74% serve more than once per week), increasing high-fiber and whole-grain foods (35% offer daily), serving style of "seconds" (28% help kids determine whether they are still hungry), nonfood holiday celebrations (44% use nonfood treats), having toys and books that encourage healthy eating (27%) and physical activity (25%) in all rooms in the center, a standard nutrition (21%) and physical education (50%) curriculum, and following a written physical activity policy (43%). Practitioners can use these data to develop benchmarks and interventions, as this was the first study to assess statewide obesogenic practices in child care.

  2. The development of family alliance from pregnancy to toddlerhood and child outcomes at 5 years.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Favez, Nicolas; Lopes, Francesco; Bernard, Mathieu; Frascarolo, France; Lavanchy Scaiola, Chloe; Corboz-Warnery, Antoinette; Fivaz-Depeursinge, Elisabeth

    2012-12-01

    This article presents a longitudinal study of the development of "family alliance" from pregnancy to toddlerhood in a community sample, as well as its links with the emotional and cognitive development of the child at age 5 years. Family alliance is defined as the quality of the interactive coordination between family members. We consider that the alliance constitutes a context for the child to learn emotion regulation and to develop an understanding of inner states. Family interactions (N = 38) were observed at the 5th month of pregnancy and at 3, 9, and 18 months after birth in a standardized situation of observation (Lausanne Trilogue Play). Marital satisfaction and child temperament were assessed through self-reported questionnaires. Several outcomes of the child at age 5 years were measured: theory of mind performances, predominant emotional themes in pretend play, internalized and externalized symptoms. Results show that (a) three patterns of evolution of family alliance occur: "high stable" (n = 19), "high to low" (n = 10), and "low stable" (n = 9); (b) a high stable alliance is predictive of better outcomes in children at age 5 years, especially regarding theory of mind; (c) the temperament of the child is predictive of child outcomes; and (d) an interaction effect occurs between family alliance and temperament. These results highlight the importance of both family-level and individual-level variables for understanding individual differences in the social and cognitive development of children. PMID:23230984

  3. Assessment of Child and Adolescent Overweight and Obesity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Accurate appropriate assessment of overweight and obesity in children and adolescents is a critical aspect of contemporary medical care. However, physicians and other health care professionals may find this a somewhat thorny field to enter. The BMI has become the standard as a reliable indicator of ...

  4. Food quality assessment in parent–child dyads

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bech-Larsen, Tino; Jensen, Birger Boutrup

    2011-01-01

    of attention. The purpose of this article is to discuss the interpersonal aspects of food quality formation, and to explore these in the context of parents buying new types of healthier in-between meals for their children. To pursue this we introduce the concept of dyadic quality assessment and apply...

  5. Clinical assessment of suspected child physical abuse; Klinischer Verdacht auf Kindesmisshandlung

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rohrer, T. [Universitaetsklinikum des Saarlandes, Klinik fuer Allgemeine Paediatrie und Neonatologie, Homburg/Saar (Germany)

    2009-10-15

    Violence against children has many faces. Child physical abuse, neglect, sexual abuse and interparental violence can cause acute and permanent damage and affect children's development and their life plans in the long term. In industrialized nations almost 1 child in 10 is affected. Up to 10% of child physical abuse cases involve the central nervous system with 80% of these cases occurring during the first year of life. Worldwide more than 50,000 children die as a result of violence, abuse and neglect every year, according to the United Nations Children's Fund UNICEF. In Germany, there are about 120 cases of non-accidental head injury per year. In addition to the officially known cases there is a large grey area for all forms of violence. Recognition of these cases and the provision of help for the victims require an appropriate suspicion and understanding of the pertinent pathophysiology. Suspicion must be based on a well-documented medical history and multidisciplinary diagnostic assessment. Medical confidentiality prevents the disclosure of such information making early detection networks and guidelines for collaboration absolutely indispensable. (orig.) [German] Gewalt gegen Kinder hat viele Gesichter: Kindesmisshandlung, Vernachlaessigung, sexueller Missbrauch und elterliche Partnerschaftsgewalt koennen bei Kindern und Jugendlichen zu akuten und bleibenden Schaeden fuehren und ihre Entwicklung und Lebensentwuerfe nachhaltig beeinflussen. Betroffen ist in Industrienationen fast jedes zehnte Kind. Bis zu 10% der Kindesmisshandlungen betreffen das zentrale Nervensystem. Von diesen ereignen sich ca. 80% im ersten Lebensjahr. Weltweit sterben nach Angaben der Kinderhilfsorganisation UNICEF jaehrlich ueber 50.000 Kinder an den Folgen von Gewalt, Missbrauch und Vernachlaessigung. In Deutschland ereignen sich pro Jahr ca. 120 Faelle an nichtakzidentellen Kopfverletzungen. Den oeffentlich bekannten Faellen steht eine hohe Dunkelziffer aller Formen von Gewalt

  6. Child Labour and Educational Success in Portugal

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goulart, Pedro; Bedi, Arjun S.

    2008-01-01

    The current debate on child labour focuses on developing countries. However, Portugal is an example of a relatively developed country where child labour is still a matter of concern as between 8% and 12% of Portuguese children may be classified as workers. This paper studies the patterns of child labour in Portugal and assesses the consequences of…

  7. The Laboratory Parenting Assessment Battery: Development and Preliminary Validation of an Observational Parenting Rating System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilson, Sylia; Durbin, C. Emily

    2012-01-01

    Investigations of contributors to and consequences of the parent-child relationship require accurate assessment of the nature and quality of parenting. The present study describes the development and psychometric evaluation of the Laboratory Parenting Assessment Battery (Lab-PAB), an observational rating system that assesses parenting behaviors…

  8. Leadership for child health in the developing countries of the Western Pacific

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rami Subhi

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available The content and landscape of global child health is increasingly complex. There is strong evidence for the effectiveness of local, national and institutional leadership in reducing child mortality, but this has not been a focus of global health initiatives. Interventions to strengthen health systems should include support for local leadership: building-up institutions of training, empowering national paediatric professional associations, creating opportunities for contribution and leadership at national, provincial and local level, and networks of support for staff working in child health in remote areas. In the poorer high mortality burden countries of the Pacific, to meet the clinical and public health gaps, there is a need for increases in the education of child health nurse practitioners, and development of systems of continuing professional development for paediatric doctors and nurses. Involvement in local research, especially that which contributes directly to critical issues in child health policy or strengthening national data systems builds capacity for leadership.

  9. Neurodevelopmental Outcomes at 5 Years in Children Exposed Prenatally to Maternal Dental Amalgam: The Seychelles Child Development Nutrition Study

    OpenAIRE

    Watson, Gene E.; van Wijngaarden, Edwin; Love, Tanzy M. T.; McSorley, Emeir M; Bonham, Maxine P; Mulhern, Maria S.; Yeates, Alison J; Davidson, Philip W; Shamlaye, Conrad F.; Strain, J.J.; Thurston, Sally W.; Harrington, Donald; Zareba, Grazyna; Wallace, Julie M. W.; Myers, Gary J.

    2013-01-01

    Limited human data are available to assess the association between prenatal mercury vapor (Hg0) exposure from maternal dental amalgam restorations and neurodevelopment of children. We evaluated the association between maternal dental amalgam status during gestation and children’s neurodevelopmental outcomes at 5 years in the Seychelles Child Development Nutrition Study (SCDNS). Maternal amalgam status was determined prospectively in a longitudinal cohort study examining the associations of pr...

  10. Capacity building in the health sector to improve care for child nutrition and development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yousafzai, Aisha K; Rasheed, Muneera A; Daelmans, Bernadette; Manji, Sheila; Arnold, Caroline; Lingam, Raghu; Muskin, Joshua; Lucas, Jane E

    2014-01-01

    The effectiveness of interventions promoting healthy child growth and development depends upon the capacity of the health system to deliver a high-quality intervention. However, few health workers are trained in providing integrated early child-development services. Building capacity entails not only training the frontline worker, but also mobilizing knowledge and support to promote early child development across the health system. In this paper, we present the paradigm shift required to build effective partnerships between health workers and families in order to support children's health, growth, and development, the practical skills frontline health workers require to promote optimal caregiving, and the need for knowledge mobilization across multiple institutional levels to support frontline health workers. We present case studies illustrating challenges and success stories around capacity development. There is a need to galvanize increased commitment and resources to building capacity in health systems to deliver early child-development services.

  11. Parental Schooling and Child Development: Learning from Twin Parents

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bingley, Paul; Christensen, Kaare; Jensen, Vibeke Myrup

    . By differencing within identical twin pair we are able to take heritable endowments transmitted from parent to child into account. For all outcomes OLS is found to be upward biased. Father schooling is found to have no causal effect on infant and early childhood health. Mother schooling increases birth weight...... and the probability of high school completion. For older cohorts, we are able to replicate the findings of Behrman & Rosenzweig (2002) that fathers' schooling has a positive causal effect on child schooling but mothers' does not. However, this is reversed for parents born after 1945, when mothers' schooling has...

  12. 42 CFR 68c.1 - What is the scope and purpose of the National Institute of Child Health and Human Development...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... Institute of Child Health and Human Development (NICHD) Contraception and Infertility Research Loan... purpose of the National Institute of Child Health and Human Development (NICHD) Contraception and... payments under the National Institute of Child Health and Human Development (NICHD) Contraception...

  13. Child's Attachment to Mother as the Basis of Mental Development Typology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Galina V. Burmenskaya

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available The article shows the role of the attachment system (child-mother interactions in development of a wide spectrum of individual personality characteristics. Emotional attachment of the child to mother is considered as a complicated system of internal regulation and a basis of typology of mental development. Results of a series of empirical studies show the connection between the type of attachment, formed at the early stages of child development, and characteristics of his/her autonomy, consciousness (self-concept and self-esteem and empathy in preschool and middle childhood.

  14. Taking Stock and Moving Forward: Research on Asian American Child Development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tseng, Vivian; Kiang, Lisa; Mistry, Jayanthi; Mistry, Rashmita S; Wang, Yijie; Yoshikawa, Hirokazu

    2016-07-01

    With this Special Section, the Asian Caucus of the Society for Research in Child Development seeks to promote a more inclusive, expanded, and holistic developmental science that can account for the diversity of developmental trajectories among Asian Americans. The articles elucidate, in turn, historical, conceptual, and methodological issues in studying Asian American child development. Although the articles foreground Asian Americans, the ideas should help advance theoretical and empirical work for other racial and ethnic groups, thereby contributing to a more valid understanding of child development. PMID:27392794

  15. Employability Skills Assessment Tool Development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rasul, Mohamad Sattar; Rauf, Rose Amnah Abd; Mansor, Azlin Norhaini; Puvanasvaran, A. P.

    2012-01-01

    Research nationally and internationally found that technical graduates are lacking in employability skills. As employability skills are crucial in outcome-based education, the main goal of this research is to develop an Employability Skill Assessment Tool to help students and lecturers produce competent graduates in employability skills needed by…

  16. ICDP (INTERNATIONAL CHILD DEVELOPMENT PROGRAMME) IN THE CONTEXT OF INCLUSIVE EDUCATION

    OpenAIRE

    SULEYMANOV, Farid

    2015-01-01

    This article discusses theoretical foundation for International Child Development Programme (ICDP) as a resource based communication and mediation approach. A kind relation between a child and caregiver is a critically vital point for psychological development of children. Better relations also contribute to the child’s healthy growth and intellectual, social and emotional development. Fundamental caregiving skills function as particularly important contribution to the quality and effectivene...

  17. The Many Worlds of the Child and Moral Development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garanzini, Michael J.

    1985-01-01

    Views school-age children living in five distinct worlds, each with their own operational modes. Discusses the negative repercussions of failing to recognize the child's worlds. Reviews Lawrence Kohlberg's, Eliot Turiel's, and Carol Gilligan's positions concerning moral education. Recommends a broad definition of morality, including justice and…

  18. Development, Reliability, and Validity of a Child Dissociation Scale.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Putnam, Frank W.; And Others

    1993-01-01

    Evaluation of the Child Dissociative Checklist found it to be a reliable and valid observer report measure of dissociation in children, including sexually abused girls and children with dissociative disorder and with multiple personality disorder. The checklist, which is appended, is intended as a clinical screening instrument and research measure…

  19. Development of the Child Care Worker Job Stress Inventory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Curbow, Barbara; Spratt, Kai; Ungaretti, Antoinette; McDonnell, Karen; Breckler, Steven

    2000-01-01

    Examined psychometric characteristics of three 17-item measures of child care worker job demands, job control, and job resources. Found that job demands scale had lower reliability than job control or job resources. Demonstrated known groups validity through conceptually meaningful pattern of differences between family childcare providers and…

  20. Language Development in the Pre-School Child.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lenskyj, Helen

    This brief overview of child language acquisition begins with a discussion of the affective and cognitive dimensions of the transition period from babbling to speech. Three theories of language acquisition--reinforcement theory, social learning theory, and "innate mechanism" theory--are reviewed. Several theories of the function of language,…

  1. Effects of Home Visitation on Maternal Competencies, Family Environment, and Child Development: a Randomized Controlled Trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sierau, Susan; Dähne, Verena; Brand, Tilman; Kurtz, Vivien; von Klitzing, Kai; Jungmann, Tanja

    2016-01-01

    Based on the US Nurse-Family Partnership (NFP) program, the German home visiting program "Pro Kind" offered support for socially and financially disadvantaged first-time mothers from pregnancy until the children's second birthday. A multi-centered, longitudinal randomized controlled trial (RCT) was conducted to assess its effectiveness on mothers and children. A total of 755 women with multiple risk factors were recruited, 394 received regular home visits (treatment group), while 361 only had access to standard community services (control group). Program influences on family environment (e.g., quality of home, social support), maternal competencies (e.g., maternal self-efficacy, empathy, parenting style), and child development (e.g., cognitive and motor development) were assessed from mothers' program intake in pregnancy to children's second birthday based on self-reports in regular interviews and developmental tests. Generalized estimating equations (GEE) models showed small, but significant positive treatment effects on parental self-efficacy, and marginally significant effects on social support, and knowledge on child rearing. Maternal stress, self-efficacy, and feelings of attachment in the TG tend to show a more positive development over time. Subgroup effects were found for high-risk mothers in the TG, who reported more social support over time and, generally, had children with higher developmental scores compared to their CG counterparts. Post hoc analyses of implementation variables revealed the quality of the helping relationship as a significant indicator of treatment effects. Results are discussed in terms of implementation and public policy differences between NFP and Pro Kind. PMID:26103919

  2. Base Rates, Multiple Indicators, and Comprehensive Forensic Evaluations: Why Sexualized Behavior Still Counts in Assessments of Child Sexual Abuse Allegations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Everson, Mark D.; Faller, Kathleen Coulborn

    2012-01-01

    Developmentally inappropriate sexual behavior has long been viewed as a possible indicator of child sexual abuse. In recent years, however, the utility of sexualized behavior in forensic assessments of alleged child sexual abuse has been seriously challenged. This article addresses a number of the concerns that have been raised about the…

  3. 77 FR 64815 - Eunice Kennedy Shriver National Institute of Child Health and Human Development; Notice of Meeting

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-10-23

    ... Institute of Child Health & Human Development, including consideration of personnel qualifications and... National Institute of Child Health and Human Development, NIH, 9000 Rockville Pike, Building 31, Room 2A46... HUMAN SERVICES National Institutes of Health Eunice Kennedy Shriver National Institute of Child...

  4. Child Labor and the Influencing Factors: Evidence from less De-veloped Provinces of Iran

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Enayatollah HOMAIE RAD

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Background: This study aimed to calculate the child labor rate and establish the factors affecting this phenomenon in the less developed provinces of Iran.Methods: This study has used the secondary data of population and housing census gathered by Iranian Statistical Center in 2011. The data belonged to 14859 children between 10 and 14 of 9 less developed provinces of Iran. A multiple regression model was hypothesized drawing on related literature and accordingly using data; the logistic regression was estimated. Data cleaning process was also conducted prior to the analysis.Results: The child labor force participation rate for all children between 10 and 14 years old was 1.7%, of which boys’ child labor rate was higher than girls’ (2.4% over 1%. As such, the mothers’ fertility rate and education were of the strongest, yet converse, effect on child labor supply in the country.Conclusion: A little proportion of children in less developed regions of Iran was suffering from child labor. However, given the diminishing and rising effects of, respectively, variables such as mothers’ literacy and working on the child labor; the authorities could restrict child labor attending more to such a group. The factors identified could also be of a high value for the policy-makers at both national and international level such as the Health and Welfare ministries, EMRO, ILO and UNICEF.  

  5. The impact of nutrition on child development at 3 years in a rural community of India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Syed Sadat Ali

    2014-01-01

    Conclusion: Breast feeding has a positive effect on the overall development of the child and should be promoted in the present generation. In India, child malnutrition is responsible for a higher percentage of the country′s burden of disease. Undernutrition also affects cognitive and motor development and undermines educational attainment; and ultimately impacts on productivity at work and at home, with adverse implications for income and economic growth.

  6. Child labor in agriculture: some new developments to an ancient problem.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beyer, Dorianne

    2012-01-01

    Advocates for working children worldwide strive to eradicate the employment that minimizes a child's opportunities for education, good health and future potential. In agriculture, some promising developments in corporate social responsibility may generate partial solutions to child labor problems that have persisted for generations across world regions where food, fiber and fuel are produced. The purpose of this paper is to review these promising developments and propose recommendations in the context of a future of continued agricultural globalization and industrialization. PMID:22490031

  7. Evaluation of cluster-randomized trials on maternal and child health research in developing countries

    OpenAIRE

    Handlos, Line Neerup; Chakraborty, Hrishikesh; Sen, Pranab Kumar

    2009-01-01

    To summarize and evaluate all publications including cluster-randomized trials used for maternal and child health research in developing countries during the last 10 years.METHODS:All cluster-randomized trials published between 1998 and 2008 were reviewed, and those that met our criteria for inclusion were evaluated further. The criteria for inclusion were that the trial should have been conducted in maternal and child health care in a developing country and that the conclusions should have b...

  8. A Novel Self-Evaluation Tool to Assess the Team Function of a Child Protection Team

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kistin, Caroline J.; Tien, Irene; Leventhal, John M.; Bauchner, Howard

    2011-01-01

    Objective To develop a reliable and valid self-evaluation tool for use by child protection team (CPT) members. Methods An on-line survey was administered to members of 10 CPTs. The survey included 3 sections: 1) Initial Conditions (eg, team composition, resources); 2) Enabling Conditions (eg, team effort, strategy); and 3) Team Effectiveness (eg, team cohesion, meeting performance standards). Each section contained multiple subscales. Internal consistency was calculated using Cronbach’s α. To evaluate construct validity, the subscale scores of the most advanced teams who qualified as centers of excellence (N=3) were compared to the subscale scores of the other teams (N=7) to determine whether the tool could distinguish between the two. Results Of 116 team members, 83 (72%) completed the survey. The subscales exhibited good internal consistency (α = 0.71 – 0.97). The 3 centers of excellence had significantly higher mean scores than the other 7 CPTs on the following subscales: incentives (in the Initial Conditions section) (61.46 vs. 38.89, p = 0.003), effort (in the Enabling Conditions section) (79.31 vs. 67.70, p = 0.003), and professional growth (in the Team Effectiveness section) (83.89 vs. 80.40, p = 0.004). Conclusions This novel survey demonstrates satisfactory test characteristics and can be used to assess CPT performance and identify areas for improvement. PMID:21959096

  9. Child custody assessment: a field survey of spanish forensic psychologists’ practices

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joan Guàrdia

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available The participation of forensic psychologists has become common practice in proceedings involving families in dispute over child custody, and also to assess the suitability of joint custody. In order to know the practice, methodology, and decision-making criteria of Spanish forensic psychologists experienced in family cases, 66 Spanish forensic psychologists (error margin ±.06 responded to a Spanish adaptation of the questionnaire for the assessment of child custody evaluation practices by Keilin and Bloom (1986 and Ackerman and Ackerman (1997. The results showed that it was indifferent for the respondents to be retained by the court or one of the parties, and that the evaluation included a document review, each parent’s individual interview, each child’s individual interview, psychological tests run to parents and children, observation of parent-child interaction, and reports by other professionals. As regards the custody type, most of them chose sole custody. As for decision-making criteria for sole custody, the results showed that Spanish forensic psychologists follow a hierarchical decision-making model that begins, firstly, with the application of criteria concerning the child’s protection (e.g. cruelty, abuse, negligence, then moving on to parental abilities. The decision over joint custody also follows a hierarchical decision-making model, where suitability is assessed initially and, if applicable, a decision is made based on its possible success or failure.

  10. Childhood facing technological development: a study on child social representation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Viviane de Bona

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available The research that led to this study aimed to understand the meaning attributed to childhood in a world fulfilled by information technologies, especially the digital ones. The article proposes the analysis of social representations shared by children 200 teachers from public schools in Recife-PE, in order to understand the social meaning of the word child, propagated and used as reference system to guide people in their relationships with this group of people. The data collection instruments used was tests of free association. W ith the support of Trideux software and the Content Analysis, the analyzes of associations were done. The results show some aspects that seem to perpetuate themselves in relation to definition of a child, such as playing, going to school and have good feelings. In relation to technology is evidenced playful dimension of these resources and training.

  11. Child Vocabulary, Maternal Behavior, and Inhibitory Control Development Among Spanish-Speaking Children

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peredo, Tatiana Nogueira; Owen, Margaret Tresch; Rojas, Raúl; Caughy, Margaret O’Brien

    2015-01-01

    Research Findings The roles of child lexical diversity and maternal sensitivity in the development of young children’s inhibitory control were examined in 100 low-income Hispanic Spanish-speaking children. Child communication utterances at age 2½ years were transcribed from 10-min mother–child interactions to quantify lexical diversity. Maternal behavior was rated independently from the interactions. Inhibitory control was measured with a battery of tasks at ages 2½ and 3½. Greater maternal sensitivity was correlated with higher vocabulary at 2½. Greater vocabulary predicted positive growth in child inhibitory control skills from ages 2½ to 3½ in multivariable regression models that controlled for maternal education, family income, the home environment, and mothering quality. Practice or Policy These findings suggest that supporting vocabulary development in low-income Spanish-speaking children is important for the development of inhibitory control skills, an important foundation for school readiness and academic success. PMID:26306074

  12. Quality assessment of child care services in primary health care settings of Central Karnataka (Davangere District

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rashmi

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Infectious disease and malnutrition are common in children. Primary health care came into being to decrease the morbidity. Quality assessment is neither clinical research nor technology assessment. It is primarily an administrative device used to monitor performance to determine whether it continues to remain within acceptable bounds. Aims and Objectives: To assess the quality of service in the delivery of child health care in a primary health care setting. To evaluate client satisfaction. To assess utilization of facilities by the community. Materials and Methods: Study Type: Cross-sectional community-based study. Quality assessment was done by taking 30-50%, of the service provider. Client satisfaction was determined with 1 Immunization and child examination-90 clients each. Utilization of services was assessed among 478 households. Statistical Analysis: Proportions, Likert′s scale to grade the services and Chi-square. Results: Immunization service: Identification of needed vaccine, preparation and care was average. Vaccination technique, documentation, EPI education, maintenance of cold chain and supplies were excellent. Client satisfaction was good. Growth monitoring: It was excellent except for mother′s education andoutreach educational session . Acute respiratory tract infection care: History, physical examination, ARI education were poor. Classification, treatment and referral were excellent. Client satisfaction was good. Diarrheal disease care: History taking was excellent. But examination, classification, treatment, ORT education were poor. Conclusion: Mothers education was not stressed by service providers. Service providers′ knowledge do not go with the quality of service rendered. Physical examination of the child was not good. Except for immunization other services were average.

  13. When does time matter? maternal employment, children's time with parents, and child development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hsin, Amy; Felfe, Christina

    2014-10-01

    This study tests the two assumptions underlying popularly held notions that maternal employment negatively affects children because it reduces time spent with parents: (1) that maternal employment reduces children's time with parents, and (2) that time with parents affects child outcomes. We analyze children's time-diary data from the Child Development Supplement of the Panel Study of Income Dynamics and use child fixed-effects and IV estimations to account for unobserved heterogeneity. We find that working mothers trade quantity of time for better "quality" of time. On average, maternal work has no effect on time in activities that positively influence children's development, but it reduces time in types of activities that may be detrimental to children's development. Stratification by mothers' education reveals that although all children, regardless of mother's education, benefit from spending educational and structured time with their mothers, mothers who are high school graduates have the greatest difficulty balancing work and child care. We find some evidence that fathers compensate for maternal employment by increasing types of activities that can foster child development as well as types of activities that may be detrimental. Overall, we find that the effects of maternal employment are ambiguous because (1) employment does not necessarily reduce children's time with parents, and (2) not all types of parental time benefit child development. PMID:25280840

  14. Child Disaster Mental Health Services: a Review of the System of Care, Assessment Approaches, and Evidence Base for Intervention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pfefferbaum, Betty; North, Carol S

    2016-01-01

    Several decades of research have informed our knowledge of children's reactions to disasters and the factors that influence their reactions. This article describes the system of care for child disaster mental health services using population risk to determine needed services and a stepped care approach built on assessment and monitoring to advance children to appropriate services. To assess the evidence base for disaster interventions, recent reviews of numerous child disaster mental health interventions are summarized.

  15. Implementation of Nuclear Medicine Methods for Assessment of Child Abuse and Neglec

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eser Kaya

    2010-05-01

    Full Text Available Child abuse and neglect are detrimental to a child’s health, physical and psychosocial development and result from inappropriate behavior or inattention on the part of those responsible for the child’s care and protection. Child abuse/neglect is a serious public problem encompassing medical, ethical and legal aspects. Imaging methods play an important role in investigating and documenting child abuse and neglect. Radiological imaging methods have particular priority. X-rays of the whole skeletal system are obtained for evaluation of the bone structure. Computerized tomography (CT, magnetic resonance imaging (MRI, and ultrasonography (US are used for the detection of cranial and internal organ damage. Due to the rapid developments in technology, diagnostic methods using nuclear medicine have also been initiated for use in identifying abuse and neglect. Detection of abuse and neglect carries ethical, judicial and moral liabilities as well as a responsibility for accurate diagnosis and treatment. Implementation of diagnostic methods of nuclear medicine in determining child abuse and neglect might contribute significantly in resolving court cases by providing objective evidence in medicolegal cases for realization of fair trials and in facilitating substantial conclusions. It is hoped that nuclear medicine methods will be helpful in terms of providing objective evidence for the experts. (Journal of Current Pediatrics 2010; 8: 30-5

  16. “Which Child Left Behind”: Historical Issues Regarding Equity in Science Assessment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. Joy Cumming

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available Assessment of learning plays a dominant role in formal education in the forms of determining features of curriculum that are emphasized, pedagogic methods that teachers use with their students, and parents’ and employers’ understanding of how well students have performed. A common perception is that fair assessment applies the same mode of assessment and content focus for all students—the approach of assessments in international comparative studies of science achievement. This article examines research evidence demonstrating that the act of assessment is not neutral—different forms of assessment advantage or disadvantage groups of students on the basis of family backgrounds, gender, race, or disability. Assessment that implicitly or explicitly captures the social capital of the child serves to consolidate, not address, educational equity. The article provides an overview of ways that science curriculum focus and assessment can introduce bias in the identification of student achievement. It examines the effect of changes to curriculum and assessment approaches in science, and relationships between assessment of science and the cultural context of the student. Recommendations are provided for science–assessment research to address bias for different groups of students.

  17. 77 FR 17080 - Eunice Kennedy Shriver National Institute of Child Health & Human Development; Notice of Closed...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-03-23

    ... Development Special Emphasis Panel; Mentored Patient-Oriented Research Career Development Application. Date... & Human Development; Notice of Closed Meeting Pursuant to section 10(d) of the Federal Advisory Committee... Shriver National Institute of Child Health and Human Development, NIH, 6100 Executive Blvd., Room...

  18. 76 FR 17659 - Eunice Kennedy Shriver National Institute of Child Health & Human Development; Notice of Closed...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-03-30

    ... Development Special Emphasis Panel; Mentored Patient-Oriented Research Career Development Award. Date: April... & Human Development; Notice of Closed Meeting Pursuant to section 10(d) of the Federal Advisory Committee... Shriver National Institute of Child Health and Human Development, NIH, 6100 Executive Blvd., Room...

  19. Child development and genre preference: research for educational game design.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sherry, John L; Lucas, Kristen; Greenberg, Bradley S; Holmstrom, Amanda

    2013-05-01

    As the movement to capitalize on unique affordances of video games for learning continues to grow, relatively little research in that area has examined how formal features, such as genre and game mechanics, draw and hold children's attention. This study examines which genres children prefer and the reasons why children prefer those genres by reporting on a video game uses and gratifications survey of children of various ages (n=685). Results show distinct patterns of game use and preference tied to typical child developmental ecology at each age, indicating that genre preference varies by age and developmental context. Implications for game research and educational gaming are provided.

  20. Child development and genre preference: research for educational game design.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sherry, John L; Lucas, Kristen; Greenberg, Bradley S; Holmstrom, Amanda

    2013-05-01

    As the movement to capitalize on unique affordances of video games for learning continues to grow, relatively little research in that area has examined how formal features, such as genre and game mechanics, draw and hold children's attention. This study examines which genres children prefer and the reasons why children prefer those genres by reporting on a video game uses and gratifications survey of children of various ages (n=685). Results show distinct patterns of game use and preference tied to typical child developmental ecology at each age, indicating that genre preference varies by age and developmental context. Implications for game research and educational gaming are provided. PMID:23509989

  1. Evaluation of the International Child Development Programme (ICDP) as a community-wide parenting programme

    OpenAIRE

    Sherr, L.; Skar, A-MS; Clucas, C.; von Tetzchner, S.; Hundeide, K.

    2013-01-01

    Background: Many parenting programmes lack proper evaluation, especially under community-wide implementation. Objective: Examining the effectiveness of the eight-week International Child Development Programme (ICDP), implemented as a general programme. Methodology: Non-clinical caregivers attending ICDP (N = 141) and a non-attending community comparison group (N = 79) completed questionnaires on parenting, psychosocial functioning, and child difficulties before and after ICDP course. Analyses...

  2. A Transactional Model of Temperamental Development: Evidence of a Relationship between Child Temperament and Maternal Stress over Five Years

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pesonen, Anu-Katriina; Raikkonen, Katri; Heinonen, Kati; Komsi, Niina; Jarvenpaa, Anna-Liisa; Strandberg, Timo

    2008-01-01

    Although there is growing consensus that parental stress is a risk factor in child development, longitudinal studies of its effects are few. This study tested a sample of 231 mother-child dyads in terms of whether the relations between the global experience of stress in mothers (perceived stress scale) and child temperamental characteristics…

  3. The Cause of Child Abuse and Neglect and Their Effects on the Development of Children in Samaru Zaria, Nigeria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amdi, Veronica

    1990-01-01

    Initial discussion of the definition, types, causes, and effects of child abuse and neglect is followed by a description of a study of child abuse in Samaru Village of Nigeria and the effects of such abuse on the development of the child. (BG)

  4. Measuring the Interactive Skills of Caregivers in Child Care Centers: Development and Validation of the Caregiver Interaction Profile Scales

    Science.gov (United States)

    Helmerhorst, Katrien O. W.; Riksen-Walraven, J. Marianne; Vermeer, Harriet J.; Fukkink, Ruben G.; Tavecchio, Louis W. C.

    2014-01-01

    Research Findings: High-quality caregiver-child interactions constitute the core of high-quality child care for young children. This article describes the background and development of the Caregiver Interaction Profile (CIP) scales to rate 6 key skills of caregivers for interacting with 0-to 4-year-old children in child care centers: sensitive…

  5. Neurodevelopmental outcomes at 5 years in children exposed prenatally to maternal dental amalgam: the Seychelles Child Development Nutrition Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Watson, Gene E; van Wijngaarden, Edwin; Love, Tanzy M T; McSorley, Emeir M; Bonham, Maxine P; Mulhern, Maria S; Yeates, Alison J; Davidson, Philip W; Shamlaye, Conrad F; Strain, J J; Thurston, Sally W; Harrington, Donald; Zareba, Grazyna; Wallace, Julie M W; Myers, Gary J

    2013-01-01

    Limited human data are available to assess the association between prenatal mercury vapor (Hg⁰)) exposure from maternal dental amalgam restorations and neurodevelopment of children. We evaluated the association between maternal dental amalgam status during gestation and children's neurodevelopmental outcomes at 5 years in the Seychelles Child Development Nutrition Study (SCDNS). Maternal amalgam status was determined prospectively in a longitudinal cohort study examining the associations of prenatal exposure to nutrients and methylmercury (MeHg) with neurodevelopment. A total of 236 mother-child pairs initially enrolled in the SCDNS in 2001 were eligible to participate. Maternal amalgam status was measured as number of amalgam surfaces (the primary metric) and number of occlusal points. The neurodevelopmental assessment battery was comprised of age-appropriate tests of cognitive, language, and perceptual functions, and scholastic achievement. Linear regression analysis controlled for MeHg exposure, maternal fatty acid status, and other covariates relevant to child development. Maternal amalgam status evaluation yielded an average of 7.0 surfaces (range 0-28) and 11.0 occlusal points (range 0-40) during pregnancy. Neither the number of maternal amalgam surfaces nor occlusal points were associated with any outcome. Our findings do not provide evidence to support a relationship between prenatal exposure to Hg⁰ from maternal dental amalgam and neurodevelopmental outcomes in children at 5 years of age.

  6. A Contrast between Mothers' Assessments of Child Malnutrition and Physical Anthropometry in Rural Mexico: A Mixed Methods Community Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Turnbull, Bernardo; Martinez-Andrade, Gloria; Huerfano, Nazly; Ryan, Gery W.; Martinez, Homero

    2009-01-01

    Objective: To compare mothers' assessments of nutritional status with anthropometric measures and gain further insights into mothers' reasons for their judgment. Design: Each mother was asked to assess the nutritional status of her child and 2 other children and to compare all 3. Rates for "hits" and "misses" between mothers' assessment and…

  7. Legal Assessments of Child Victims of Human Trafficking for Sexual Purposes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lindholm, Johanna; Cederborg, Ann-Christin

    2016-01-01

    The present study investigated how Swedish district court judges assessed child victims' credibility and the reliability of their testimony in cases of alleged human trafficking for sexual purposes. Court files from 12 different cases, involving 16 alleged child victims (aged 13-17 years old), all of them girls, were qualitatively analyzed with particular attention paid to how the judges described credibility and reliability. Results indicated that, although the judges' assessments to a large extent were based on the Swedish Supreme Court's criteria for credibility and reliability, they were applied somewhat arbitrarily and subjectively. They were also applied as if obvious and grounded on shared experiences, although their meaning was never explored. The way that credibility was assessed may also reinforce gender and victim stereotypes. Moreover, there seems to exist a confusion surrounding the credibility and reliability concepts, as they were sometimes used interchangeably despite the intention that they are two different assessments. Overall, an apparent need exists to increase judges' awareness that their subjective impressions should decrease when legitimizing judicial decisions. Copyright © 2016 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. PMID:26990126

  8. A Change Management, Systems Thinking, or Organizational Development Approach to the No Child Left Behind Act

    Science.gov (United States)

    Galloway, Dominique L.

    2007-01-01

    Problems with implementation of the No Child Left Behind Act (NCLB) can be assessed in light of change management theory. Viewing stakeholders collectively as a corporate entity supports employing change management strategies to make the NCLB work. Examining ways that organizational controls and change management can work together points to…

  9. 75 FR 20853 - Eunice Kennedy Shriver National Institute of Child Health & Human Development; Notice of Meeting

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-21

    ...., Biological Sciences and Career Development, NCMRR, Eunice Kennedy Shriver, National Institute of Child Health & Human Development, NIH, DHHS, 6100 Executive Boulevard, Room 2A03, Bethesda, MD 20892- 7510, (301) 402... & Human Development; Notice of Meeting Pursuant to section 10(a) of the Federal Advisory Committee Act,...

  10. The Dynamics of Emergent Self-Organisation: Reconceptualising Child Development in Teacher Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Minkang; Sankey, Derek

    2010-01-01

    For more than half a century, child development has endured as one of the main components of teacher education. But if children do develop, as developmentalists claim, what precisely is it that develops and how? Traditionally, within education, answers to these questions have drawn heavily on the theories of Jean Piaget and Lev Vygotsky. Piaget…

  11. 76 FR 65517 - Eunice Kennedy Shriver National Institute of Child Health & Human Development; Notice of Closed...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-10-21

    ... & Human Development; Notice of Closed Meetings Pursuant to section 10(d) of the Federal Advisory Committee... and Human Development, Special Emphasis Panel, Reproductive Science Centers. Date: November 2, 2011... Institute of Child Health And Human Development, NIH, 6100 Executive Blvd., Room 5B01, Rockville, MD...

  12. 77 FR 10759 - Eunice Kennedy Shriver National Institute of Child Health and Human Development (NICHD); Notice...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-02-23

    ... and Human Development (NICHD); Notice of Meeting Pursuant to the NIH Reform Act of 2006 (42 U.S.C. Sec... and Human Development (NICHD) will host a meeting to enable public discussion of the Institute's... of Child Health and Human Development. Dates and Times: March 7, 2012, at 3 p.m. Place:...

  13. 75 FR 12245 - Eunice Kennedy Shriver National Institute of Child Health & Human Development; Notice of Closed...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-03-15

    ... & Human Development; Notice of Closed Meeting Pursuant to section 10(d) of the Federal Advisory Committee... Development Special Emphasis Panel; Human Capital Interventions Across Childhood and Adolescence. Date: April... Kennedy Shriver National Institute of Child Health and Human Development, NIH, 6100 Executive Blvd.,...

  14. 75 FR 12242 - Eunice Kennedy Shriver National Institute of Child Health & Human Development; Notice of Closed...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-03-15

    ... & Human Development; Notice of Closed Meetings Pursuant to section 10(d) of the Federal Advisory Committee... and Human Development Special Emphasis Panel, Pharmacokinetics and Pharmacodynamics of Antibiotics in... Scientific Review, National Institute of Child Health and Human Development, NIH, 6100 Executive Blvd....

  15. Teachers' Attitudes toward Reporting Child Sexual Abuse: Problems with Existing Research Leading to New Scale Development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walsh, Kerryann; Rassafiani, Mehdi; Mathews, Ben; Farrell, Ann; Butler, Des

    2010-01-01

    This paper details a systematic literature review identifying problems in extant research relating to teachers' attitudes toward reporting child sexual abuse and offers a model for new attitude scale development and testing. Scale development comprised a five-phase process grounded in contemporary attitude theories, including (a) developing the…

  16. 77 FR 62245 - Eunice Kennedy Shriver National Institute of Child Health & Human Development; Notice of Closed...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-10-12

    ... Development Initial Review Group, Obstetrics and Maternal-Fetal Biology Subcommittee. Date: October 23, 2012... & Human Development; Notice of Closed Meeting Pursuant to section 10(d) of the Federal Advisory Committee... National Institute of Child Health and Human Development, NIH, 6100 Executive Blvd., Room 5B01,...

  17. 76 FR 61720 - Eunice Kennedy Shriver National Institute of Child Health & Human Development; Notice of Closed...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-10-05

    ... Development Initial Review Group, Obstetrics and Maternal-Fetal Biology Subcommittee. Date: October 27, 2011... & Human Development; Notice of Closed Meeting Pursuant to section 10(d) of the Federal Advisory Committee... Institute of Child Health and Human Development, NIH, 6100 Executive Blvd., Room 5B01, Bethesda, MD...

  18. 76 FR 6803 - Eunice Kennedy Shriver National Institute Of Child Health & Human Development; Notice of Closed...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-02-08

    ... Development Initial Review Group; Obstetrics and Maternal-Fetal Biology Subcommittee. Date: March 3, 2011... & Human Development; Notice of Closed Meeting Pursuant to section 10(d) of the Federal Advisory Committee... Institute of Child Health and Human Development, NIH, 6100 Executive Blvd., Room 5b01, Bethesda, MD...

  19. 75 FR 21005 - Eunice Kennedy Shriver National Institute of Child Health & Human Development; Notice of Closed...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-22

    ... Development Special Emphasis Panel, ``RECOVERY'' The National Standard for Normal Fetal Growth. Date: May 12... & Human Development; Notice of Closed Meeting Pursuant to section 10(d) of the Federal Advisory Committee..., National Institute of Child Health and Human Development, 6100 Executive Boulevard, Room 5B01, Bethesda,...

  20. 78 FR 10186 - Eunice Kennedy Shriver National Institute of Child Health & Human Development; Notice of Closed...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-02-13

    ... Development Initial Review Group; Obstetrics and Maternal-Fetal Biology Subcommittee. Date: March 5, 2013... & Human Development; Notice of Closed Meeting Pursuant to section 10(d) of the Federal Advisory Committee... Institute of Child Health and Human Development, NIH, 6100 Executive Blvd., Room 5B01, Bethesda, MD...

  1. [Major obstacles in the development of child and adolescent psychiatry in Hungary].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kalmar, Sandor

    2016-06-01

    The author ascertains that healthy personality development faces increasingly serious obstacles and consequently the number of children in need of mental healthcare is on the rise. Child and adolescent psychiatry has drawn increasing appreciation, however, it is only formal and deficient in Hungary today and cannot assure optimal mental care according to the principles of evidence-based medicine. The author emphasizes that 75% of the first manifestation of the psychiatric disorders occurs during adolescence and young adulthood. In spite of legal regulation, several deficiencies hinder the development of children into healthy adults. The author analyses the most important obstacles in the development of child and adolescent Psychiatry. The author emphasizes the role of keypersons, describes the situation of and problems faced by Hungarian child psychiatric care. The author lists in detail the most important contradictions, deficiencies and obstacles and outlines suggestions for resolving the present crisis. The author emphasizes (1) the responsibility of institutions, and people dealing with society and children, and the disinterest of competent authorities. (2) The somatic, mental, cultural and spiritual ignorance/illiteracy among parents, teachers, healthcare workers, and the general population partly related to crises among the pedagogues. (3) The lack of holistic approach to treatment of children suffering from mental disorder. (4) The importance and the lack of knowledge concerning central nervous system function in child psychiatry. (5) Application of evidence-based medicine in child and adolescent psychiatry based on understanding the relationship between central nervous system alterations and mental functions. (6) Respecting keypersons' competence limits. (7) Immediate development of inpatient and outpatient child and adolescent psychiatry in the whole country. (8) Reform of child psychiatry board exam. (9) Development of currently missing textbooks and

  2. Shared Principles of Ethics for Infant and Young Child Nutrition in the Developing World

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daar Abdallah S

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The defining event in the area of infant feeding is the aggressive marketing of infant formula in the developing world by transnational companies in the 1970s. This practice shattered the trust of the global health community in the private sector, culminated in a global boycott of Nestle products and has extended to distrust of all commercial efforts to improve infant and young child nutrition. The lack of trust is a key barrier along the critical path to optimal infant and young child nutrition in the developing world. Discussion To begin to bridge this gap in trust, we developed a set of shared principles based on the following ideals: Integrity; Solidarity; Justice; Equality; Partnership, cooperation, coordination, and communication; Responsible Activity; Sustainability; Transparency; Private enterprise and scale-up; and Fair trading and consumer choice. We hope these principles can serve as a platform on which various parties in the in the infant and young child nutrition arena, can begin a process of authentic trust-building that will ultimately result in coordinated efforts amongst parties. Summary A set of shared principles of ethics for infant and young child nutrition in the developing world could catalyze the scale-up of low cost, high quality, complementary foods for infants and young children, and eventually contribute to the eradication of infant and child malnutrition in the developing world.

  3. Child development surveillance: intervention study with nurses of the Family Health Strategy1

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reichert, Altamira Pereira da Silva; Collet, Neusa; Eickmann, Sophie Helena; Lima, Marília de Carvalho

    2015-01-01

    Objective: to evaluate the effectiveness of an educational action in child development surveillance performed by nurses working in primary health care. Methods: interventional study with a before-and-after type of design, carried out with 45 nurses and 450 mothers of children under 2 years of age. Initially, it was evaluated the practices and knowledge of nurses on child development surveillance and the mothers were interviewed about these practices. Subsequently, workshops were carried out with nurses and four months later, the knowledge of nurses and the maternal information were reevaluated. Results: after intervention there was significant increase in the frequency of the following aspects: from 73% to 100%, in relation to the practice of nurses of asking the opinion of mothers about their children's development; from 42% to 91%, regarding the use of the systematized instrument of evaluation; from 91% to 100% with respect to guidance to mothers on how to stimulate child development. Conclusions: the intervention contributed to the increase of knowledge of nurses and implementation of child development surveillance, showing the importance of this initiative to improve the quality of child health care. PMID:26487147

  4. Child development surveillance: intervention study with nurses of the Family Health Strategy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Altamira Pereira da Silva Reichert

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Objective: to evaluate the effectiveness of an educational action in child development surveillance performed by nurses working in primary health care.Methods: interventional study with a before-and-after type of design, carried out with 45 nurses and 450 mothers of children under 2 years of age. Initially, it was evaluated the practices and knowledge of nurses on child development surveillance and the mothers were interviewed about these practices. Subsequently, workshops were carried out with nurses and four months later, the knowledge of nurses and the maternal information were reevaluated.Results: after intervention there was significant increase in the frequency of the following aspects: from 73% to 100%, in relation to the practice of nurses of asking the opinion of mothers about their children's development; from 42% to 91%, regarding the use of the systematized instrument of evaluation; from 91% to 100% with respect to guidance to mothers on how to stimulate child development.Conclusions: the intervention contributed to the increase of knowledge of nurses and implementation of child development surveillance, showing the importance of this initiative to improve the quality of child health care.

  5. Syllabus Outline on Child Care for Day Care Teachers at Family Life Teacher Training Centre in Somalia. African Studies in Curriculum Development and Evaluation No. 103.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahmed, Mumina M.

    Five day care centers in Mogadiscio, the capital city of Somalia, were studied to (1) identify problems encountered in teaching a course in child care; (2) observe teaching methods and assess their effectiveness; (3) ascertain reasons for the lack of preservice training for day care teachers; and (4) develop a new syllabus for a course in child…

  6. Assessing and developing academic literacy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Albert Weideman

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available This paper argues that there is much to learn from an external, peer or expert evaluation by a department that concerns itself with the assessment and development of academic literacy. Such an evaluation provides an opportunity to step back and reflect on the foundations of one’s work, and redefine its operational focuses. Taking the response to one such evaluation as an example, the paper shows how the external input led to the alignment of the two main aims of our work: (1 testing academic literacy levels, and (2 course design and teaching. The paper concludes by highlighting the numerous opportunities that are now opening up for inter-institutional co-operation on a national scale. Sharing the results and insights gained from an evaluation is not normally done outside of the institution that was evaluated. We hope that by making our information about this more freely available, it will further stimulate such co-operation.

  7. Water, sanitation, and hygiene (WASH), environmental enteropathy, nutrition, and early child development: making the links.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ngure, Francis M; Reid, Brianna M; Humphrey, Jean H; Mbuya, Mduduzi N; Pelto, Gretel; Stoltzfus, Rebecca J

    2014-01-01

    There is scarce research and programmatic evidence on the effect of poor water, sanitation, and hygiene (WASH) conditions of the physical environment on early child cognitive, sensorimotor, and socioemotional development. Furthermore, many common WASH interventions are not specifically designed to protect babies in the first 3 years of life, when gut health and linear growth are established. We review evidence linking WASH, anemia, and child growth, and highlight pathways through which WASH may affect early child development, primarily through inflammation, stunting, and anemia. Environmental enteropathy, a prevalent subclinical condition of the gut, may be a key mediating pathway linking poor hygiene to developmental deficits. Current early child development research and programs lack evidence-based interventions to provide a clean play and infant feeding environment in addition to established priorities of nutrition, stimulation, and child protection. Solutions to this problem will require appropriate behavior change and technologies that are adapted to the social and physical context and conducive to infant play and socialization. We propose the concept of baby WASH as an additional component of early childhood development programs. PMID:24571214

  8. Water, sanitation, and hygiene (WASH), environmental enteropathy, nutrition, and early child development: making the links.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ngure, Francis M; Reid, Brianna M; Humphrey, Jean H; Mbuya, Mduduzi N; Pelto, Gretel; Stoltzfus, Rebecca J

    2014-01-01

    There is scarce research and programmatic evidence on the effect of poor water, sanitation, and hygiene (WASH) conditions of the physical environment on early child cognitive, sensorimotor, and socioemotional development. Furthermore, many common WASH interventions are not specifically designed to protect babies in the first 3 years of life, when gut health and linear growth are established. We review evidence linking WASH, anemia, and child growth, and highlight pathways through which WASH may affect early child development, primarily through inflammation, stunting, and anemia. Environmental enteropathy, a prevalent subclinical condition of the gut, may be a key mediating pathway linking poor hygiene to developmental deficits. Current early child development research and programs lack evidence-based interventions to provide a clean play and infant feeding environment in addition to established priorities of nutrition, stimulation, and child protection. Solutions to this problem will require appropriate behavior change and technologies that are adapted to the social and physical context and conducive to infant play and socialization. We propose the concept of baby WASH as an additional component of early childhood development programs.

  9. Poverty and Child Development: A Longitudinal Study of the Impact of the Earned Income Tax Credit.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hamad, Rita; Rehkopf, David H

    2016-05-01

    Although adverse socioeconomic conditions are correlated with worse child health and development, the effects of poverty-alleviation policies are less understood. We examined the associations of the Earned Income Tax Credit (EITC) on child development and used an instrumental variable approach to estimate the potential impacts of income. We used data from the US National Longitudinal Survey of Youth (n = 8,186) during 1986-2000 to examine effects on the Behavioral Problems Index (BPI) and Home Observation Measurement of the Environment inventory (HOME) scores. We conducted 2 analyses. In the first, we used multivariate linear regressions with child-level fixed effects to examine the association of EITC payment size with BPI and HOME scores; in the second, we used EITC payment size as an instrument to estimate the associations of income with BPI and HOME scores. In linear regression models, higher EITC payments were associated with improved short-term BPI scores (per $1,000, β = -0.57; P = 0.04). In instrumental variable analyses, higher income was associated with improved short-term BPI scores (per $1,000, β = -0.47; P = 0.01) and medium-term HOME scores (per $1,000, β = 0.64; P = 0.02). Our results suggest that both EITC benefits and higher income are associated with modest but meaningful improvements in child development. These findings provide valuable information for health researchers and policymakers for improving child health and development. PMID:27056961

  10. Poverty and Child Development: A Longitudinal Study of the Impact of the Earned Income Tax Credit.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hamad, Rita; Rehkopf, David H

    2016-05-01

    Although adverse socioeconomic conditions are correlated with worse child health and development, the effects of poverty-alleviation policies are less understood. We examined the associations of the Earned Income Tax Credit (EITC) on child development and used an instrumental variable approach to estimate the potential impacts of income. We used data from the US National Longitudinal Survey of Youth (n = 8,186) during 1986-2000 to examine effects on the Behavioral Problems Index (BPI) and Home Observation Measurement of the Environment inventory (HOME) scores. We conducted 2 analyses. In the first, we used multivariate linear regressions with child-level fixed effects to examine the association of EITC payment size with BPI and HOME scores; in the second, we used EITC payment size as an instrument to estimate the associations of income with BPI and HOME scores. In linear regression models, higher EITC payments were associated with improved short-term BPI scores (per $1,000, β = -0.57; P = 0.04). In instrumental variable analyses, higher income was associated with improved short-term BPI scores (per $1,000, β = -0.47; P = 0.01) and medium-term HOME scores (per $1,000, β = 0.64; P = 0.02). Our results suggest that both EITC benefits and higher income are associated with modest but meaningful improvements in child development. These findings provide valuable information for health researchers and policymakers for improving child health and development.

  11. Development of a Child Abuse Level Management (CALM) Guide for Research with Young Children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lewin, Linda C; Schim, Stephanie Myers

    2016-05-01

    Reporting child abuse or neglect is an ethical expectation and a legislated mandate of behavioral and health care professionals in the United States. In particular, researchers who investigate parent-child dyads are responsible for submitting procedures and informed consent documents to institutional review boards that provide for the protection of children. The challenge for researchers is to recognize failing quality of parent-child interaction, prior to any event of maltreatment and to intercede in a deteriorating dynamic. The obligation to report any suspicions of child maltreatment supersedes the responsibility to provide for confidentiality of research data. The purpose of this paper is to describe the rationale for the development of a research protocol guide, Child Abuse Level Management (CALM), and address protection of children in research. The CALM is a brief, flexible guide designed for use by researchers to help identify and respond to negative trends in the parent-child interaction during data collection. Suggested intervention scripts are provided that can be modified for specific culture-focused samples. The CALM guide can be used for training of data collectors using simulations prior to initiating any study involving higher-risk dyads. PMID:26588859

  12. Addressing inequity to achieve the maternal and child health millennium development goals: looking beyond averages

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ruhago George M

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Inequity in access to and use of child and maternal health interventions is impeding progress towards the maternal and child health Millennium Development Goals. This study explores the potential health gains and equity impact if a set of priority interventions for mothers and under fives were scaled up to reach national universal coverage targets for MDGs in Tanzania. Methods We used the Lives Saved Tool (LiST to estimate potential reductions in maternal and child mortality and the number of lives saved across wealth quintiles and between rural and urban settings. High impact maternal and child health interventions were modelled for a five-year scale up, by linking intervention coverage, effectiveness and cause of mortality using data from Tanzania. Concentration curves were drawn and the concentration index estimated to measure the equity impact of the scale up. Results In the poorest population quintiles in Tanzania, the lives of more than twice as many mothers and under-fives were likely to be saved, compared to the richest quintile. Scaling up coverage to equal levels across quintiles would reduce inequality in maternal and child mortality from a pro rich concentration index of −0.11 (maternal and −0.12 (children to a more equitable concentration index of −0,03 and −0.03 respectively. In rural areas, there would likely be an eight times greater reduction in maternal deaths than in urban areas and a five times greater reduction in child deaths than in urban areas. Conclusions Scaling up priority maternal and child health interventions to equal levels would potentially save far more lives in the poorest populations, and would accelerate equitable progress towards maternal and child health MDGs.

  13. Protein energy malnutrition (PEM), brain and various facets of child development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Udani, P M

    1992-01-01

    Protein energy malnutrition (PEM) is a global problem. Nearly 150 million children under 5 years in the world and 70-80 million in India suffer from PEM, nearly 20 million in the world and 4 million in India suffer from severe forms of PEM, viz., marasmus, kwashiorkor and marasmic kwashiorkor. The studies in experimental animals in the west and children in developing countries have revealed the adverse effects of PEM on the biochemistry of developing brain which leads to tissue damage and tissue contents, growth arrest, developmental differentiation, myelination, reduction of synapses, synaptic transmitters and overall development of dendritic activity. Many of these adverse effects have been described in children in clinical data, biochemical studies, reduction in brain size, histology of the spinal cord, quantitative studies and electron microscopy of sural nerve, neuro -CT scan, magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) and morphological changes in the cerebellar cells. Longer the PEM, younger the child, poorer the maternal health and literacy, more adverse are the effects of PEM on the nervous system. Just like the importance of nutrients on the developing brain, so are the adverse effects on the child development of lack of environmental stimulation, emotional support and love and affection to the child. When both the adverse factors are combined, the impact is severe. Hence prevention of PEM in pregnant and lactating mothers, breast feeding, adequate home based supplements, family support and love will improve the physical growth, mental development, social competence and academic performance of the child. Hence nutritional rehabilitation, psychosocial and psychomotor development of the child should begin in infancy and continue throughout. It should be at all levels, most important being in family, school, community and various intervention programmes, local, regional and national. Moreover medical students, health personnel, all medical disciplines concerned with

  14. 75 FR 39031 - Eunice Kennedy Shriver National Institute of Child Health and Human Development; Notice of Closed...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-07

    ... and Human Development Special Emphasis Panel, Child Health Research Career Development Program. Date... and Human Development; Notice of Closed Meeting Pursuant to section 10(d) of the Federal Advisory... Scientific Review, Eunice Kennedy Shriver National Institute of Child Health and Human Development,...

  15. Evaluation of cluster-randomized trials on maternal and child health research in developing countries

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Handlos, Line Neerup; Chakraborty, Hrishikesh; Sen, Pranab Kumar

    2009-01-01

    To summarize and evaluate all publications including cluster-randomized trials used for maternal and child health research in developing countries during the last 10 years. METHODS: All cluster-randomized trials published between 1998 and 2008 were reviewed, and those that met our criteria...... for inclusion were evaluated further. The criteria for inclusion were that the trial should have been conducted in maternal and child health care in a developing country and that the conclusions should have been made on an individual level. Methods of accounting for clustering in design and analysis were......, and the trials generally improved in quality. CONCLUSIONS: Shortcomings exist in the sample-size calculations and in the analysis of cluster-randomized trials conducted during maternal and child health research in developing countries. Even though there has been improvement over time, further progress in the way...

  16. Assessing the child psychopathology beast: a reply to Achenbach and Dumenci's (2001) commentary.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lengua, L J; Sadowski, C A

    2001-08-01

    This article is a response to T. M. Achenbach and L. Dumenci's (2001) commentary concerning L. J. Lengua, C. A. Sadowski, W. N. Friedrich, and J. Fisher's (2001) article proposing an alternative scoring approach for the Child Behavior Checklist. The authors note that T. M. Achenbach and L. Dumenci do not comment on the stated goals of the alternative scoring approach and focus on a limited set of the results to make their argument. Although the original and proposed scoring approaches operate similarly, important differences suggest that the proposed scoring approach is promising for use in specific instances, including identifying distinct etiologies, developmental course, and co-occurrence of specific syndromes. The importance of combining rational and empirical approaches in articulating conceptual definitions and developing measures of child psychopathology is discussed. PMID:11550736

  17. Developing the Next Generation of Physics Assessments

    CERN Document Server

    Laverty, James T; Caballero, Marcos D

    2015-01-01

    Science education at all levels is currently undergoing dramatic changes to its curricula and developing assessments for these new curricula is paramount. We have used the basis of many of these new changes (scientific practices, crosscutting concepts, and core ideas) to develop sets of criteria that can be used to guide assessment development for this new curriculum. We present a case study that uses the criteria we have developed to revise a traditional physics assessment item into an assessment item that is much more aligned with the goals of current transformation efforts. Assessment items developed using this criteria can be used to assess student learning of both the concepts and process of science.

  18. Multi-Media Instructional Materials for Child Development/Parent Education Programs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bjorklund, Gail; Briggs, Anne

    Multi-media materials were used in a federally funded project, Facilitative Environment Encouraging Development (FEED), to teach child development and parenting skills to junior high students. Six criteria were used in material selection: (1) Content reflects a developmental approach; (2) Learning is characterized by an active, doing approach; (3)…

  19. Evaluation of Follow-Up Effects of the International Child Development Programme on Caregivers in Mozambique

    Science.gov (United States)

    Skar, Ane-Marthe Solheim; Sherr, Lorraine; Clucas, Claudine; von Tetzchner, Stephen

    2014-01-01

    Parenting programs have been used to good effect in many settings, yet few are systematically introduced and evaluated in developing countries. This study explores the relative long-term effect of participation in the International Child Development Programme (ICDP) in a group of caregivers in Mozambique. A quasi-experimental design was used to…

  20. The Role of Parenting Styles and Socio-Economic Status in Parents' Knowledge of Child Development

    Science.gov (United States)

    September, Shiron Jade; Rich, Edna Grace; Roman, Nicolette Vanessa

    2016-01-01

    Early childhood development (ECD) has been recognised to be the most important contributor to long-term social and emotional development. Therefore, positive parenting is paramount to foster quality parent-child interaction. Previous research shows that for parents to adopt a positive parenting style, some degree of parental knowledge is required.…