Nadeem, Sanober; Rafique, Ghazala; Khowaja, Liaquat; Yameen, Anjum
Family environment plays a very important role in early child development and the availability of stimulating material in the early years of a child's life is crucial for optimising development. The Home Observation for Measurement of the Environment (HOME) inventory is one of the most widely used measures to assess the quality and quantity of…
Full Text Available Motor skills, language, social and personal development as well as cognitive abilities are often the focus of early child development assessment and monitoring. The article presents some of the developmental milestones in these areas of child development. At the same time the article demonstrates that early child development assessment surpasses merely the orientation acording to developmental milestones. As a part of primary health prevention in Slovenia, identification of children with potential developmental delays is performed with the Denver developmental screening test II and the Systematical psychological examination of the three-year-old procedure. The purpose of applying developmental screening tests is early identification of children with developmental problems, as well as preparation of effective early interventions. By applying an appropriate psychological test material, a psychologist is able to assess the type and the stage of child' s psychological problems and delays in different developmental domains. Only psychometrically sound, and standardized tests should be applied in the process of early child development assessment. The work presents some of the practical and theoretical difficulties which practitioners are facing in the process of early child development assessment. Some feasible solutions are provided as well.
Richards, Jeffrey A.; Xu, Dongxin; Gilkerson, Jill; Yapanel, Umit; Gray, Sharmistha; Paul, Terrance
Purpose: To produce a novel, efficient measure of children's expressive vocal development on the basis of automatic vocalization assessment (AVA), child vocalizations were automatically identified and extracted from audio recordings using Language Environment Analysis (LENA) System technology. Method: Assessment was based on full-day audio…
... grow older, they develop in several different ways. Child development includes physical, intellectual, social, and emotional changes. ... same sex. Peer approval becomes very important. Your child may try new behaviors to be part of " ...
A cross-sectional study was conducted between July and December 1992 to assess the nutritional status, cognitive development, and mother-child interactions in a group of 153 Nicaraguan refugee children living in Costa Rica. Nutritional status was assessed using anthropometric indices. Cognitive development was assessed with the Bayley Scale of Mental Development. Mother-child interaction was assessed with the Nursing Child Assessment Teaching Scale and Caldwell's Home Observation and Measurem...
Full Text Available A cross-sectional study was conducted between July and December 1992 to assess the nutritional status, cognitive development, and mother-child interactions in a group of 153 Nicaraguan refugee children living in Costa Rica. Nutritional status was assessed using anthropometric indices. Cognitive development was assessed with the Bayley Scale of Mental Development. Mother-child interaction was assessed with the Nursing Child Assessment Teaching Scale and Caldwell's Home Observation and Measurement of the Environment Inventory. Correlational analysis was performed to examine the relationship between child cognitive development scores and mother-child interaction measures and also between anthropometric measures and child cognitive development scores. Multiple regression analysis was performed to evaluate the relationship between the mother-child interaction measures and cognitive development scores, after adjusting by anthropometric measures. Thirty-three percent of the children were below the 10th percentile for height-for-age. There was no significant correlation between the total amount of mother-child interaction and child cognitive development. However, certain aspects of the home environment correlated with cognitive development, specifically the manner in which the mother responded emotionally and verbally to her child, and the organization of the child's physical and temporal environment. Multiple regression analysis revealed that the manner in which the mother responded and the child's weight-for-height were important in predicting child cognitive development. The child's weight-for-height and certain aspects of the home environment played an important role in the cognitive development of this refugee population. The findings indicate the importance of assessing nutritional status in this refugee population.
Honma, Satoru; Wakamatsu, Hidetoshi; Ueda, Reiko
Some assessments have been applied to find possible factors that might lead to child abuse. PACAP is a new method proposed by Ueda and others as a pre-assessment of the concerning child abuse, which reduces its false-positive misclassification. The Internet PACAP is developed to reduce the laborious work of nurses and health care workers for the necessary processing and classifying the scores of the pre-assessment. The present system is expected to prevent the child abuse more effectively.
Chaney, Beth H.; Cremeens, Jennifer
Background: Past research suggests that parent-child communication can serve as protective factors to reduce alcohol misuse among college-aged children. Purpose: This article presents the methodology used and preliminary findings for developing and validating an instrument to assess parent-college student communication regarding alcohol use.…
The US Department of Energy Albuquerque Operations Office (DOE/AL), through the DOE Pinellas Area Office (PAO) and GE Neutron Devices (GEND), is proposing a joint venture to operate a Partnership School and Child Development Center at the Pinellas Plant. The Child Development Center/Partnership School proposal has been developed. The building has been constructed, teachers and staff selected, and the building made ready for immediate occupancy. The proposed action addressed by this environmental assessment is the operation and utilization of the school as a Partnership School, a preschool Child Development Center, and a before- and after-hours child care facility. In compliance with the National Environmental Policy Act of 1970, the potential impacts from the operation of the proposed action are assessed. Additionally, since the proposed school is located next to an industrial facility, impacts on the school population from routine plant operations, as well as abnormal events, are analyzed, and changes in plant operation that may be prudent are considered. 25 refs., 8 figs., 9 tabs.
Dender, Alma; Stagnitti, Karen
There is a need for culturally appropriate assessments for Australian Indigenous children. This article reports the selection of culturally appropriate and gender-neutral play materials, and changes in administration identified to develop further the Indigenous Child-Initiated Pretend Play Assessment (I-ChIPPA). Twenty-three typically developing children aged four to six years from the Pilbara region in Western Australia participated in the study. Children were presented with four sets of play materials and frequency counts were recorded for each time the child used one of the play materials in a pretend play action. Twelve of the 23 children came to play in pairs. Both boys and girls used the Pilbara toy set including the dark coloured dolls and Pilbara region animals, more frequently than the standardised play materials from the Child-Initiated Pretend Play Assessment (ChIPPA). This study reports the first steps in the development of the I-ChIPPA. Future development will include the refinement of the administration and scoring with pairs of children, and then validity testing the assessment. © 2010 The Authors. Australian Occupational Therapy Journal © 2010 Australian Association of Occupational Therapists.
... DEVELOPMENTAL MILESTONES Children reach milestones in how they play, learn, speak, behave, and move (for example, crawling ... Basics Early Brain Development Developmental Screening Screening for ...
... Development, Teaching, and Learning The Frank Porter Graham Child Development Institute will partner with Zero to Three to ... Center October 6, 2017 More Frank Porter Graham Child Development Institute The University of North Carolina at Chapel ...
Padilla, Alcides de J; Trujillo, Juan C
This article aims to assess the impact of the Child Growth, Development and Care Program in the Caribbean region of Colombia by analyzing variables such as maternal childcare practices and indicators...
Takaro, Tim K; Scott, James A; Allen, Ryan W; Anand, Sonia S; Becker, Allan B; Befus, A Dean; Brauer, Michael; Duncan, Joanne; Lefebvre, Diana L; Lou, Wendy; Mandhane, Piush J; McLean, Kathleen E; Miller, Gregory; Sbihi, Hind; Shu, Huan; Subbarao, Padmaja; Turvey, Stuart E; Wheeler, Amanda J; Zeng, Leilei; Sears, Malcolm R; Brook, Jeffrey R
The Canadian Healthy Infant Longitudinal Development birth cohort was designed to elucidate interactions between environment and genetics underlying development of asthma and allergy. Over 3600 pregnant mothers were recruited from the general population in four provinces with diverse environments. The child is followed to age 5 years, with prospective characterization of diverse exposures during this critical period. Key exposure domains include indoor and outdoor air pollutants, inhalation, ingestion and dermal uptake of chemicals, mold, dampness, biological allergens, pets and pests, housing structure, and living behavior, together with infections, nutrition, psychosocial environment, and medications. Assessments of early life exposures are focused on those linked to inflammatory responses driven by the acquired and innate immune systems. Mothers complete extensive environmental questionnaires including time-activity behavior at recruitment and when the child is 3, 6, 12, 24, 30, 36, 48, and 60 months old. House dust collected during a thorough home assessment at 3-4 months, and biological specimens obtained for multiple exposure-related measurements, are archived for analyses. Geo-locations of homes and daycares and land-use regression for estimating traffic-related air pollution complement time-activity-behavior data to provide comprehensive individual exposure profiles. Several analytical frameworks are proposed to address the many interacting exposure variables and potential issues of co-linearity in this complex data set.
Piotrowski, J.T.; Vossen, H.G.M.; Valkenburg, P.M.; Wright, J.D.
Decades of research have shown that the relationship between media and childhood is not unidirectional but reciprocal. In this article, both directions of the media-child development relationship are presented. We discuss how child development predisposes children's media use and preferences by
Lu, Chunling; Chu, Annie; Li, Zhihui; Shen, Jian; Subramanian, Subu; Hill, Kenneth
The majority of Countdown countries did not reach the fourth Millennium Development Goal (MDG 4) on reducing child mortality, despite the fact that donor funding to the health sector has drastically increased. When tracking aid invested in child survival, previous studies have exclusively focused on aid targeting reproductive, maternal, newborn, and child health (RMNCH). We take a multi-sectoral approach and extend the estimation to the four sectors that determine child survival: health (RMNCH and non-RMNCH), education, water and sanitation, and food and humanitarian assistance (Food/HA). Using donor reported data, obtained mainly from the OECD Creditor Reporting System and Development Assistance Committee, we tracked the level and trends of aid (in grants or loans) disbursed to each of the four sectors at the global, regional, and country levels. We performed detailed analyses on missing data and conducted imputation with various methods. To identify aid projects for RMNCH, we developed an identification strategy that combined keyword searches and manual coding. To quantify aid for RMNCH in projects with multiple purposes, we adopted an integrated approach and produced the lower and upper bounds of estimates for RMNCH, so as to avoid making assumptions or using weak evidence for allocation. We checked the sensitivity of trends to the estimation methods and compared our estimates to that produced by other studies. Our study yielded time-series and recipient-specific annual estimates of aid disbursed to each sector, as well as their lower- and upper-bounds in 134 countries between 2000 and 2014, with a specific focus on Countdown countries. We found that the upper-bound estimates of total aid disbursed to the four sectors in 134 countries rose from US$ 22.62 billion in 2000 to US$ 59.29 billion in 2014, with the increase occurring in all income groups and regions with sub-Saharan Africa receiving the largest sum. Aid to RMNCH has experienced the fastest growth (12
Full Text Available The majority of Countdown countries did not reach the fourth Millennium Development Goal (MDG 4 on reducing child mortality, despite the fact that donor funding to the health sector has drastically increased. When tracking aid invested in child survival, previous studies have exclusively focused on aid targeting reproductive, maternal, newborn, and child health (RMNCH. We take a multi-sectoral approach and extend the estimation to the four sectors that determine child survival: health (RMNCH and non-RMNCH, education, water and sanitation, and food and humanitarian assistance (Food/HA.Using donor reported data, obtained mainly from the OECD Creditor Reporting System and Development Assistance Committee, we tracked the level and trends of aid (in grants or loans disbursed to each of the four sectors at the global, regional, and country levels. We performed detailed analyses on missing data and conducted imputation with various methods. To identify aid projects for RMNCH, we developed an identification strategy that combined keyword searches and manual coding. To quantify aid for RMNCH in projects with multiple purposes, we adopted an integrated approach and produced the lower and upper bounds of estimates for RMNCH, so as to avoid making assumptions or using weak evidence for allocation. We checked the sensitivity of trends to the estimation methods and compared our estimates to that produced by other studies. Our study yielded time-series and recipient-specific annual estimates of aid disbursed to each sector, as well as their lower- and upper-bounds in 134 countries between 2000 and 2014, with a specific focus on Countdown countries. We found that the upper-bound estimates of total aid disbursed to the four sectors in 134 countries rose from US$ 22.62 billion in 2000 to US$ 59.29 billion in 2014, with the increase occurring in all income groups and regions with sub-Saharan Africa receiving the largest sum. Aid to RMNCH has experienced the
... when touched on the sole of the foot Social and Emotional Development soothed by a parent's voice and touch has periods of alertness Cognitive Skills (Thinking and Learning) looks at faces when quiet and alert follows faces When to Talk to Your Doctor Every child develops at his or her own pace, but ...
Kristensen, Kirsten; And Others
This booklet focuses on screening tests that can be developed and used at educational assessment and resource centers, for assessment and early intervention with handicapped children and young people, especially in developing countries. The first part, titled "Guidelines on the Establishment of Educational Assessment and Resource Centres" by…
Child labour in developing countries Abstract This bachelor thesis deals with the child labour and its occurence in developing countries. The main aim is to present the basic view of this problem. The term of child labour relies here on Convention on the Rights of the Child and conventions of International Labour Organization. There are several types of child labour, in which children appear most, including the worst forms of child labour. Every type includes description of activities perform...
Edwards, Sara L; Sarwark, John F
Identifying infant and child developmental delay is a skill important for orthopaedic surgeons to master because they often are asked to distinguish between normal and abnormal movement. An emphasis has been placed on early detection and referral for intervention, which has been shown to enhance the lives of the infant or child and his or her family. Appropriate recognition of delay is necessary for referral to early intervention services, which serve to help these children overcome or improve motor dysfunction and to help families grow more confident in caring for children with special needs. We define early intervention, discuss normal and abnormal motor development, and provide useful examination tools to assess motor development.
Stewart, Shannon L; Hamza, Chloe A
The Child and Youth Mental Health (ChYMH) assessment system was developed by interRAI (i.e., an international collective of researchers and clinicians from over thirty countries) in response to the unprecedented need for a coordinated approach to delivery of children's mental health care. Many interRAI instruments are used across Canada and internationally, but the ChYMH represents the first assessment specifically for children and youth. In the present paper, a short overview of the development process of the ChYMH is provided, and then the psychometric properties of several embedded scales on the ChYMH are examined. Participants included 1297 children and youth and their families who completed the ChYMH after being referred to mental health agencies within Ontario, Canada. In addition, smaller subsets of participants (N = 48-53) completed additional criterion measures, including the Social Skills Improvement System (SSIS), the Child and Adolescent Functional Assessment Scale (CAFAS), the Child Behavior Checklist (CBCL), and the Brief Child and Family Phone Interview (BCFPI). Results demonstrated that the ChYMH subscales had strong internal-consistency (Cronbach's higher than .70), and correlated well with the criterion measures. Findings support the clinical utility of the ChYMH for use among clinically referred children and youth. Implications for children's mental health assessment and practice are discussed.
Gordon, Rachel A.; Fujimoto, Ken; Kaestner, Robert; Korenman, Sanders; Abner, Kristin
The Early Childhood Environment Rating Scale-Revised (ECERS-R) is widely used to associate child care quality with child development, but its validity for this purpose is not well established. We examined the validity of the ECERS-R using the multidimensional Rasch partial credit model (PCM), factor analyses, and regression analyses with data from…
Teklu Gemechu Abessa
Full Text Available Abstract Background Due to lack of culturally relevant assessment tools, little is known about children’s developmental profiles in low income settings such as Ethiopia. The objective of this study was to adapt and standardize the Denver II for assessing child development in Jimma Zone, South West Ethiopia. Methods Culture-specific test items in Denver II were modified. After translation into two local languages, all test items were piloted and fine-tuned. Using 1597 healthy children 4 days to 70.6 months of age, the 25, 50, 75 and 90 % passing ages were determined for each test item as milestones. Milestones attainment on the adapted version and the Denver II were compared on the 90 % passing age. Reliability of the adapted tool was examined. Results A total of 36 (28.8 % test items, mostly from personal social domain, were adapted. Milestones attainment ages on the two versions differed significantly on 42 (34 % test items. The adapted tool has an excellent inter-rater on 123 (98 % items and substantial to excellent test-retest reliability on 119 (91 % items. Conclusions A Western developmental assessment tool can be adapted reliably for use in low-income settings. Age differences in attaining milestones indicate a correct estimation of child development requires a population-specific standard.
Full Text Available Abstract Background In Sri Lanka, behavioural problems have grown to epidemic proportions accounting second highest category of mental health problems among children. Early identification of behavioural problems in children is an important pre-requisite of the implementation of interventions to prevent long term psychiatric outcomes. The objectives of the study were to develop and validate a screening instrument for use in the community setting to identify behavioural problems in children aged 4-6 years. Methods An initial 54 item questionnaire was developed following an extensive review of the literature. A three round Delphi process involving a panel of experts from six relevant fields was then undertaken to refine the nature and number of items and created the 15 item community screening instrument, Child Behaviour Assessment Instrument (CBAI. Validation study was conducted in the Medical Officer of Health area Kaduwela, Sri Lanka and a community sample of 332 children aged 4-6 years were recruited by two stage randomization process. The behaviour status of the participants was assessed by an interviewer using the CBAI and a clinical psychologist following clinical assessment concurrently. Criterion validity was appraised by assessing the sensitivity, specificity and predictive values at the optimum screen cut off value. Construct validity of the instrument was quantified by testing whether the data of validation study fits to a hypothetical model. Face and content validity of the CBAI were qualitatively assessed by a panel of experts. The reliability of the instrument was assessed by internal consistency analysis and test-retest methods in a 15% subset of the community sample. Results Using the Receiver Operating Characteristic analysis the CBAI score of >16 was identified as the cut off point that optimally differentiated children having behavioural problems, with a sensitivity of 0.88 (95% CI = 0.80-0.96 and specificity of 0.81 (95% CI = 0
Full Text Available The paper presents an overview of research findings on influence of family environment, especially parental behaviour, on child's development. Contemporary authors question early socialization researchers' claims that family characteristics and parental behaviour have important influence on behaviour of their children. Later researchers examined the size and durability of possible effects of family environment on child development. In addition, they focused on establishing whether it is actually the parental behaviour that influences child's development or, on the contrary, parental behaviour represents mainly a reaction to child's characteristics. Behaviour genetic studies have provided evidence that many traditional measures of family environment, including measures of parental behaviour, show genetic influence, thus reflecting genetically influenced child characteristics. Behaviour geneticists also suggest that environmental influences on child (personality development include predominantly non-shared environment, i.e. individual child's specific experiences, his/her own perceptions and interpretations of objectively same events. Based on empirically determined significant genetic effects on most behavioural traits and inconclusive results of studies on effects of family environment on child development some authors believe that it is not the parents, but rather genetic factor and/or peers who have the key role in child development. With respect to findings of behaviour genetics numerous recent studies of relations between family environment and child development involve child specific measures of (extrafamilial environment and examine the interactions between characteristics of an individual and those of his/her environment.
Prado, Elizabeth L.; Hartini, Sri; Rahmawati, Atik; Ismayani, Elfa; Hidayati, Astri; Hikmah, Nurul; Muadz, Husni; Apriatni, Mandri S.; Ullman, Michael T.; Shankar, Anuraj H.; Alcock, Katherine J.
Background: Evaluating the impact of nutrition interventions on developmental outcomes in developing countries can be challenging since most assessment tests have been produced in and for developed country settings. Such tests may not be valid measures of children's abilities when used in a new context. Aims: We present several principles for the…
This paper estimates production functions of child cognitive and social development using a panel data of nine-year old children each with over two hundred home and school inputs as well as family background variables. A tree regression method is used to conduct estimation under various specifications. A small subset of inputs is found consistently important in explaining variances of child development results, including the number of books a child has at various ages and how often a mother r...
Harpham, Trudy; Huong, Nguyen Thu; Long, Tran Thap; Tuan, Tran
There are increasing calls for more child specific measures of poverty in developing countries and the need for such measures to be multi-dimensional (that is not just based on income) has been recognised. Participatory Poverty Assessments (PPAs) are now common in international development research. Most PPAs have been undertaken with adults and…
in Yuba County approximately 40 miles north of the city of Sacramento, California and 12 miles east of the City of Marysville (Figure 1‐1). A Child...under Title V of the CAA. Beale AFB is in Yuba County, which is within the Sacramento Valley Intrastate (SVI) AQCR. The Proposed Action is in the...implementing and enforcing state and Federal air quality regulations in Yuba County, Sutter County, and portions of the Northern Sacramento Valley
Larkin, Fionnuala; Guerin, Suzanne; Hobson, Jessica A; Gutstein, Steven E
The aim of this project was to replicate and extend findings from two recent studies on parent-child relatedness in autism (Beurkens, Hobson, & Hobson, 2013; Hobson, Tarver, Beurkens, & Hobson, 2013, under review) by adapting an observational assessment and coding schemes of parent-child relatedness for the clinical context and examining their validity and reliability. The coding schemes focussed on three aspects of relatedness: joint attentional focus (Adamson, Bakeman, & Deckner, 2004), the capacity to co-regulate an interaction and the capacity to share emotional experiences. The participants were 40 children (20 with autism, 20 without autism) aged 6-14, and their parents. Parent-child dyads took part in the observational assessment and were coded on these schemes. Comparisons were made with standardised measures of autism severity (Autism Diagnostic Observation Schedule, ADOS: Lord, Rutter, DiLavore, & Risi, 2001; Social Responsiveness Scale, SRS: Constantino & Gruber, 2005), relationship quality (Parent Child Relationship Inventory, PCRI: Gerard, 1994) and quality of parent-child interaction (Dyadic Coding Scales, DCS: Humber & Moss, 2005). Inter-rater reliability was very good and, as predicted, codes both diverged from the measure of parent-child relationship and converged with a separate measure of parent-child interaction quality. A detailed profile review revealed nuanced areas of group and individual differences which may be specific to verbally-able school-age children. The results support the utility of the Relationship Development Assessment - Research Version for clinical practice. © The Author(s) 2013.
Lejarraga, Horacio; Kelmansky, Diana M; Passcucci, María C; Masautis, Alicia; Insua, Iván; Lejarraga, Celina; Nunes, Fernando
It is necessary to use health indicators describing the conditions of all individuals in a population, not just of those who have a disease or die. To introduce a method to collect population indicators of psychomotor development in children younger than 6 years old and show its results. Data were obtained from a cross-sectional assessment regarding compliance with 13 developmental milestones (selected from the national reference) conducted in 5465 children using five surveys administered by the Matanza-Riachuelo River Basin Authority in areas of this basin where a high proportion of families with unmet basic needs live. For each survey, a logistic regression analysis was used to estimate the median age at attainment of the 13 developmental milestones. A linear regression model between the estimated age at attainment of the 13 milestones was adjusted for each survey based on the corresponding age at attainment of the national reference. Based on this model, three indicators were defined: overall developmental quotient, developmental quotient at 4 years old, and developmental trend. Results from the five surveys ranged between 0.74 and 0.85, 0.88 and 0.81, and -0.15 and -0.26 for the overall developmental quotient, developmental quotient at 4 years old, and developmental trend, respectively. A distinct developmental delay and an increasing trend in delay with age were observed. Indicators are easily interpreted and related to social indicators (unmet basic needs, etc.). Collecting the information necessary to make estimations takes little time and can be applied to population groups, but not on an individual level. Sociedad Argentina de Pediatría.
Theresa S Betancourt
Full Text Available The child protection community is increasingly focused on developing tools to assess threats to child protection and the basic security needs and rights of children and families living in adverse circumstances. Although tremendous advances have been made to improve measurement of individual child health status or household functioning for use in low-resource settings, little attention has been paid to a more diverse array of settings in which many children in adversity spend time and how context contributes to threats to child protection. The SAFE model posits that insecurity in any of the following fundamental domains threatens security in the others: Safety/freedom from harm; Access to basic physiological needs and healthcare; Family and connection to others; Education and economic security. Site-level tools are needed in order to monitor the conditions that can dramatically undermine or support healthy child growth, development and emotional and behavioral health. From refugee camps and orphanages to schools and housing complexes, site-level threats exist that are not well captured by commonly used measures of child health and well-being or assessments of single households (e.g., SDQ, HOME.The present study presents a methodology and the development of a scale for assessing site-level child protection threats in various settings of adversity. A modified Delphi panel process was enhanced with two stages of expert review in core content areas as well as review by experts in instrument development, and field pilot testing.Field testing in two diverse sites in India-a construction site and a railway station-revealed that the resulting SAFE instrument was sensitive to the differences between the sites from the standpoint of core child protection issues.
Full Text Available Background: Child development highly correlates with child’s quality. The fastest child development period is during the first three years, also called golden period. This research was aimed to discover correlation between exclussive breastfeeding and child development in Cipacing Village Jatinangor, district of Sumedang. Methods: This research was conducted using cross-sectional method in thirteen Pos Pelayanan Terpadu (Posyandu Cipacing Village in Jatinangor. One hundred and two children aged 12−24 months with their caregiver were recruited as respondents by using cluster sampling method. Hist ory of exclusive breastfeeding was assessed with questionnaire while child development status was assesed with Kuesioner Pra Skrining Perkembangan (KPSP in September 2013 after informed consent was obtained. Chi-square test analysis was performed to determine correlation between exclusive breastfeeding and child development status. Results: Overall, children in Cipacing Village had non-exclusive breastfeeding history (83.3%, and only 16.7% respondents had exclusive breastfeeding history. Meanwhile, 89.2% of children had normal development status, and 10.8% had delayed development status. Statistic analysis using chi-square test in the level of 95% confidence between exclusive breastfeeding and child development showed p=0.686 and odds ratio 2.133. Conclusions: There is no significant relationship between history of exclusive breastfeeding and child development status.
This article deals with the recent adaptation of the Reynell Developmental Language Scales to the Dutch language. The existing language tests for the Dutch language are reviewed and the need to adapt a test for young children, measuring both receptive and expressive language development, is argued. The adaptation of the original Reynell Developmental Language Scales to the Dutch language is described. An extensive standardisation was carried out with 1,288 Dutch-speaking children, carefully selected geographically and according to socio-economic status. The psychodiagnostic results of the standardisation are discussed. As a result there are now norms for children between 2 and 5 years, both for receptive and expressive language development. The adaptation of the original Reynell Scales to Dutch functions under the new name RTOS (Reynell Taalontwikkelingsschalen).
This article traces Piaget's theory of child development from its philosophic foundations in Kantian organization and then describes in sequence Piaget's four stages. (A follow-up article on Piaget and educational practice will appear in a later issue.) (JA)
Zahir, M; Bennett, S
Since the Court report was published in 1976 there has been a consensus that the needs of children with disabilities are best met by child development teams. This study explored the structure, facilities, and organisational elements of child development teams operating in the South East Thames region by means of a structured interview with senior professionals involved with organising services for children with disabilities in 14 of 15 health districts in the region. Although all districts ha...
Hsu, Justine; Pitt, Catherine; Greco, Giulia; Berman, Peter; Mills, Anne
Tracking of financial resources to maternal, newborn, and child health provides crucial information to assess accountability of donors. We analysed official development assistance (ODA) flows to maternal, newborn, and child health for 2009 and 2010, and assessed progress since our monitoring began in 2003. We coded and analysed all 2009 and 2010 aid activities from the database of the Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development, according to a functional classification of activities and whether all or a proportion of the value of the disbursement contributed towards maternal, newborn, and child health. We analysed trends since 2003, and reported two indicators for monitoring donor disbursements: ODA to child health per child and ODA to maternal and newborn health per livebirth. We analysed the degree to which donors allocated ODA to 74 countries with the highest maternal and child mortality rates (Countdown priority countries) with time and by type of donor. Donor disbursements to maternal, newborn, and child health activities in all countries continued to increase, to $6511 million in 2009, but slightly decreased for the first time since our monitoring started, to $6480 million in 2010. ODA for such activities to the 74 Countdown priority countries continued to increase in real terms, but its rate of increase has been slowing since 2008. We identified strong evidence that targeting of ODA to countries with high rates of maternal mortality improved from 2005 to 2010. Targeting of ODA to child health also improved but to a lesser degree. The share of multilateral funding continued to decrease but, relative to bilaterals and global health initiatives, was better targeted. The recent slowdown in the rate of funding increases is worrying and likely to partly result from the present financial crisis. Tracking of donor aid should continue, to encourage donor accountability and to monitor performance in targeting aid flows to those in most need. Bill & Melinda
Chang, Florence; Munoz, Marco A.
There is an increasing interest in linking character education programs with social and academic outcomes. The Child Development Project (CDP) is a character education program that promotes academic and social growth in teachers and students. This theory-driven evaluation employed a quasi-experimental design with matched control schools. School…
Chan, Ko Ling
The present study developed the Child Abuse Risk Assessment Scale (CARAS), an actuarial instrument for the assessment of the risk of physical child abuse. Data of 2,363 Chinese parents (47.7% male) living in Hong Kong were used in the analyses. Participants were individually interviewed with a questionnaire assessing their perpetration of child…
Sundel, Martin; And Others
This manual provides a systematic method for administrators and child welfare specialists to assess a child welfare service delivery system. The management of child welfare programs is considered within the framework of five management functions: planning, resource development, implementation, monitoring and evaluation. The manual contains seven…
The recent publication of fetal growth and gestational age-specific growth standards by the International Fetal and Newborn Growth Consortium for the 21st Century Project and the previous publication by the WHO of infant and young child growth standards based on the WHO Multicentre Growth Reference Study enable evaluations of growth from ∼9 wk gestation to 5 y. The most important features of these projects are the prescriptive approach used for subject selection and the rigorous testing of the assertion that growth is very similar among geographically and ethnically diverse nonisolated populations when health, nutrition, and other care needs are met and the environment imposes minimal constraints on growth. Both studies documented that with adequate controls, the principal source of variability in growth during gestation and early childhood resides among individuals. Study sites contributed much less to observed variability. The agreement between anthropometric measurements common to both studies also is noteworthy. Jointly, these studies provide for the first time, to my knowledge, a conceptually consistent basis for worldwide and localized assessments and comparisons of growth performance in early life. This is an important contribution to improving the health care of children across key periods of growth and development, especially given the appropriate interest in pursuing "optimal" health in the "first 1000 d," i.e., the period covering fertilization/implantation, gestation, and postnatal life to 2 y of age. © 2015 American Society for Nutrition.
Pitt, Catherine; Greco, Giulia; Powell-Jackson, Timothy; Mills, Anne
Achievement of high coverage of effective interventions and Millennium Development Goals (MDGs) 4 and 5A requires adequate financing. Many of the 68 priority countries in the Countdown to 2015 Initiative are dependent on official development assistance (ODA). We analysed aid flows for maternal, newborn, and child health for 2007 and 2008 and updated previous estimates for 2003-06. We manually coded and analysed the complete aid activities database of the Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development for 2007 and 2008 with methods that we previously developed to track ODA. By use of newly available data for donor disbursement and population estimates, we revised data for 2003-06. We analysed the degree to which donors target their ODA to recipients with the greatest maternal and child health needs and examined trends over the 6 years. In 2007 and 2008, US$4·7 billion and $5·4 billion (constant 2008 US$), respectively, were disbursed in support of maternal, newborn, and child health activities in all developing countries. These amounts reflect a 105% increase between 2003 and 2008, but no change relative to overall ODA for health, which also increased by 105%. Countdown priority countries received $3·4 billion in 2007 and $4·1 billion in 2008, representing 71·6% and 75·6% of all maternal, newborn, and child health disbursements, respectively. Targeting of ODA to countries with high rates of maternal and child mortality improved over the 6-year period, although some of these countries persistently received far less ODA per head than did countries with much lower mortality rates and higher income levels. Funding from the GAVI Alliance and the Global Fund to Fight AIDS, Tuberculosis and Malaria exceeded core funding from multilateral institutions, and bilateral funding also increased substantially between 2003 and 2008, especially from the USA and the UK. The increases in ODA to maternal, newborn, and child health during 2003-08 are to be welcomed, as is
Hodges, Eric A.; Johnson, Susan L; Hughes, Sheryl O; Hopkinson, Judy M.; Butte, Nancy F; Jennifer O. Fisher
Parent-child feeding interactions during the first two years of life are thought to shape child appetite and obesity risk, but remain poorly studied. This research was designed to develop and assess the Responsiveness to Child Feeding Cues Scale (RCFCS), an observational measure of caregiver responsiveness to child feeding cues relevant to obesity. General responsiveness during feeding as well as maternal responsiveness to child hunger and fullness were rated during mid-morning feeding occasi...
Herbst, Chris M.; Tekin, Erdal
Child care subsidies are an important part of federal and state efforts to move welfare recipients into employment. One of the criticisms of the current subsidy system, however, is that it overemphasizes work and does little to encourage parents to purchase high-quality child care. Consequently, there are reasons to be concerned about the…
Panduro Paredes, José Antonio
An infant stimulation in mother-child relationship assessment scale (ISA Scale) was developed, based on a classification of probable effects on child's behavior, such as behavioral promotion stimulation (BPS) and behavioral control stimulation (BCS), refering to mother action level to promote desirable behaviors and to control socially non desirable behaviors in child's behavior repertory. 540 mother-child dyads were evaluated. The construct validity tests showed significant correlations in i...
Zahir, M; Bennett, S
Since the Court report was published in 1976 there has been a consensus that the needs of children with disabilities are best met by child development teams. This study explored the structure, facilities, and organisational elements of child development teams operating in the South East Thames region by means of a structured interview with senior professionals involved with organising services for children with disabilities in 14 of 15 health districts in the region. Although all districts had a designated child development team, not all core professionals were adequately represented and four of 14 districts had no child development centre. The quality of buildings and facilities was variable. Teams that did not have a physical base in the form of a centre had fewer staff in the service and poorer facilities. There is a need for further consensus work about broad guidelines on the requirements of child development teams. These will help to inform purchasing authorities about the needs of children with disabilities living in their districts.
Hawkinson, Laura E.
Research using an experimental design is needed to provide firm causal evidence on the impacts of child care subsidy use on child development, and on underlying causal mechanisms since subsidies can affect child development only indirectly via changes they cause in children's early experiences. However, before costly experimental research is…
Drange, Nina; Rønning, Marte
We estimate effects of child care center staff composition on early child development. During the years our data covers, child care centers in Oslo were oversubscribed, and child care slots were allocated through a lottery. This allow us to explore how staff education, experience and stability, as well as proportion of male and immigrant staff, affect the cognitive development of children whose parents initially applied for the same center(s), but where children got offers from di...
The Sustainable Development Goal's "Education 2030" agenda includes an explicit focus on early childhood development. Target 4.2 states that all children are "developmentally on track" at the start of school. What does it mean for a child to be developmentally on track, and how should it be measured, especially in an…
Caceres, Susan; Tanner, Jeffrey; Williams, Sian
This policy note advances three inter-related principles to guide policy-makers and agents in international development organizations to prioritize their actions. These principles are drawn from findings from two Early Childhood Development (ECD) reports recently completed by the World Bank Independent Evaluation Group—one on the World Bank support for ECD and the other a systematic review of the sustained effects of early childhood interventions. The principles are: Support the Early Develop...
... Your Area Crying Baby Back to top D Daycare Delayed Development Delayed Speech and Language Deployment or ... Nursing U-M Michigan Medicine, 1500 E. Medical Center Drive Ann Arbor, MI 48109 734-936-4000 © ...
Thompson, Ross A.
Children's early social experiences shape their developing neurological and biological systems for good or for ill, writes Ross Thompson, and the kinds of stressful experiences that are endemic to families living in poverty can alter children's neurobiology in ways that undermine their health, their social competence, and their ability…
Chiam, Heng Keng, Ed.
This book reports some of the results of an extensive study of the physical, cognitive, language, social, and emotional development of Malaysian children. Chapter 1 of the book describes the demographics of the sample. Subjects were 3,099 preschool children in the state of Selangor and the federal district of Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia. Data is…
Harvard Univ., Cambridge, MA. Graduate School of Education.
THIS BIBLIOGRAPHY SUPPLEMENT LISTS MATERIAL ON VARIOUS ASPECTS OF CHILD DEVELOPMENT. APPROXIMATELY 90 UNANNOTATED REFERENCES ARE PROVIDED TO DOCUMENTS DATING FROM 1956 TO 1966. JOURNALS, BOOKS, AND REPORT MATERIALS ARE LISTED. SUBJECT AREAS INCLUDED ARE BEHAVIOR TESTS, CONDITIONING, MATERNAL REACTIONS, GRADE PREDICTABILITY, EXPERIMENTAL STUDIES,…
Mª Ignacia Arruabarrena
Full Text Available Psychological maltreatment is one of the main and potentially more destructive forms of child maltreatment. It is difficult to identify, assess and treat. Compared to other forms of child maltreatment such as sexual abuse, physical abuse and neglect, attention received from researchers, child protection service managers and practitioners has been scarce. A review of available knowledge about psychological maltreatment reveals challenges to define the concept in ways useful to policy makers and practitioners. This paper presents a review of definitions of child psychological maltreatment and several measures available for assessing its severity. The review has been used in the Comunidad Autónoma Vasca (Spain to develop more specific criteria for the identification and severity assessment of child psychological maltreatment in Spanish children services. This paper develops these criteria.
The efficacy of pain management is subordinated to the efficacy of pain assessment. Children are particularly difficult-to-assess patients. In this area, child psychology can contribute to the development of tools and to improving pain assessment. This paper highlights the relevance of studies on dialog in pain assessment situations and the importance of the specificity of both the patient and his pain. Assessing pain and listening to the patient's complaint means meeting the child in his own world. Nonetheless, it is necessary to use and develop assessment tools that are scientifically validated.
Santos, Nadine F; Costa, Raquel A
To analyze the association between parental tobacco consumption and the prevalence of psychomotor development disorders in children between 6 and 22 months of age. One hundred and nine mothers, fathers, and their babies participated in the study. The sociodemographic and clinical conditions were assessed using questionnaires. Tobacco consumption was assessed using the Fagerström Test for Nicotine Dependence (FTND). Child development was evaluated using the Scale of Psychomotor Development in Early Childhood. There was a significant negative correlation between the father's morning smoking (FTND) and the child's language development quotient; r=-0.41, p=0.005, r(2)=0.15. The children of mothers without nicotine dependence had a higher mean language development quotient than children of mothers with nicotine dependence; F(1, 107)=5.51, p=0.021, ηp(2)=0.05. Parental smoking appears to have a detrimental effect on child development. Copyright © 2015 Sociedade Brasileira de Pediatria. Published by Elsevier Editora Ltda. All rights reserved.
Davis, Gavin A; Purcell, Laura; Schneider, Kathryn J; Yeates, Keith Owen; Gioia, Gerard A; Anderson, Vicki; Ellenbogen, Richard G; Echemendia, Ruben J; Makdissi, Michael; Sills, Allen; Iverson, Grant L; Dvořák, Jiří; McCrory, Paul; Meeuwisse, Willem; Patricios, Jon; Giza, Christopher C; Kutcher, Jeffrey S
This article presents the Child Sport Concussion Assessment Tool 5th Edition (Child SCAT5). The Sport Concussion Assessment Tool was introduced in 2004, following the 2nd International Conference on Concussion in Sport in Prague, Czech Republic. Following the 4th International Consensus Conference, held in Zurich, Switzerland, in 2012, the SCAT 3rd edition (Child SCAT3) was developed for children aged between 5 and12 years. Research to date was reviewed and synthesised for the 5th International Consensus Conference on Concussion in Sport in Berlin, Germany, leading to the current revision of the test, the Child SCAT5. This article describes the development of the Child SCAT5. © Article author(s) (or their employer(s) unless otherwise stated in the text of the article) 2017. All rights reserved. No commercial use is permitted unless otherwise expressly granted.
Full Text Available In 2006, the department of public health in Montreal, Quebec, Canada, conducted the Survey of the School Readiness of Montreal Children. After unveiling the results in February 2008, it launched an appeal for intersectoral mobilization. This article documents the chain of events in the collective decision-making process that fostered ownership of the survey results and involvement in action. It also documents the impacts of those findings on intersectoral action and the organization of early childhood services four years later. The results show that the survey served as a catalyst for intersectoral action as reflected in the increased size and strength of the actor network and the formalization of the highly-anticipated collaboration between school and early childhood networks. Actors have made abundant use of survey results in planning and justifying the continuation of projects or implementation of new ones. A notable outcome, in all territories, has been the development of both transition-to-kindergarten tools and literacy activities. The portrait drawn by the research raises significant issues for public planning while serving as a reminder of the importance of intersectoral mobilization in providing support for multiple trajectories of child preschool development.
Bauchmüller, Robert; Gørtz, Mette; Rasmussen, Astrid Würtz
, of total work experiences, ages and hourly wages of staff members. Those indicators show the expected correlations with children’s development outcomes, better day-care quality being linked to better child outcomes ten years later. We use rich administrative information about the children’s background......Earlier research suggests that children’s development is shaped in their early years of life. This paper examines whether differences in day-care experiences during pre-school age are important for children’s cognitive and language development at the age of 15. The analysis is based on class...... performance at the end of elementary schooling. We assess the effects of attended types and qualities of day-care institutions on various child outcomes as measured by school grades in mathematics, science, English and Danish for the whole Danish population as well as outcomes from the 2006 PISA Denmark...
Bauchmüller, Robert; Gørtz, Mette; Rasmussen, Astrid Würtz
, of total work experiences, ages and hourly wages of staff members. Those indicators show the expected correlations with children's development outcomes, better day-care quality being linked to better child outcomes ten years later. We use rich administrative information about the children's background......Earlier research suggests that children's development is shaped in their early years of life. This paper examines whether differences in day-care experiences during pre-school age are important for children's cognitive and language development at the age of 15. The analysis is based on class...... performance at the end of elementary schooling. We assess the effects of attended types and qualities of day-care institutions on various child outcomes as measured by school grades in mathematics, science, English and Danish for the whole Danish population as well as outcomes from the 2006 PISA Denmark...
Polit, D F
For some time now there has been a multidisciplinary interest in the effects of family size on children's development and on their overall life outcomes. In general, available evidence indicates that children from small families tend to accrue advantages in many developmental areas, while children from larger families are, as a group, relatively disadvantaged. Care needs to be taken when drawing conclusions from correlational research, yet there is growing evidence that even when the social class of families is accounted for, children from smaller families fare better on many measures of development than those from large families. 1 of the best documented research findings is that children from smaller families perform better on tests of intellectual ability than children from large families. Efforts to understand why family size should affect intellectual performance have intensified in recent years. Many explanations have been offered, but the explanation termed the "confluence model" has attracted the most interest and controversy. According to this model, a child's intellectual development is a function of the intellectual environment provided by the family. That environment is conceptualized as the average of absolute intelligence of all family members. A child is born with an absolute intelligence of zero. The arrival of each additional child has the effect of lowering the family's intellectual environment. Thus, children from larger families grow up in a less enriched environment and tend to perform less well on measures of ability. A 2nd component of the confluence model is necessary to explain the phenomenon that "only" children fail to perform as well as might be expected on intelligence tests. According to the confluence model, the only child discontinuity results from the absence of an opportunity to tutor younger siblings. Available evidence indicates that family size exerts an effect on educational and occupational achievement over and above its
Rosenthal, Marjorie S; Crowley, Angela A; Curry, Leslie
Given the significant proportion of children in nonparental child care and the importance of early life experiences on development, interventions to improve a child care provider's ability to enhance a young child's development and behavior are essential. Such interventions require understanding of and responsiveness to the provider's self-perceived roles, responsibilities, and willingness to engage in such interventions, yet prior research is limited. The purpose of the study was to characterize licensed family child care provider perspectives as a first step toward designing effective provider-based interventions to improve children's development and behavior. We conducted a qualitative study using in-depth interviews with licensed family child care providers serving economically disadvantaged children. Interviews were audiotaped, transcribed, and synthesized into common themes using the constant comparative method of qualitative data analysis. The family child care providers described five domains related to their role in child development and behavior: (a) promotion, (b) assessment, (c) advising parents, (d) acknowledging barriers, and (e) their own skill development. The family child care providers we interviewed describe how the developmental and behavioral health of children is an important aspect of their role and identify innovative and feasible ways to enhance their skills. Understanding the self-perceived role, responsibility, and willingness of child care providers is an important foundation to designing effective interventions to achieve high-quality child care.
Ide, Lisa S R; Parker, David L
Hazardous child labor is challenging to define and quantify in the context of acute or chronic toxic exposures--either of which may cause significant disease and disability. Epidemiologic occupational studies in adults have documented many harmful outcomes secondary to exposure to toxic substances. Occupational surveillance efforts often have focused on acute injuries because they are more readily identified. Fassa has been able to compile data concerning injuries to child laborers but notes, "There is great need for studies in developing countries ... on the impact of child labour on illness." Although injuries may be underreported or undocumented among child laborers, acute injury is, at least, potentially recordable. This is in sharp contrast to toxic exposures, where exposure assessment is usually difficult and costly. This is especially true when it is done after an exposure has taken place. The outcomes of most toxic workplace exposures to children remain unknown. The Agency for Toxic Substances and Disease Registries (ATSDR) notes that in similar environments, children may have greater exposures than adults: "Pound for pound of body weight, children drink more water, eat more food, and breathe more air than adults," and "In some instances, children are less able than adults to detoxify chemicals and are thus more vulnerable." Children who begin work at an early age have many more years to develop illness than an adult doing the same work. A household survey of child laborers in Ethiopia found that a high proportion (greater than 90%) of children in both urban and rural areas of the country reported non-use of protective equipment. However, it is the experience of present author D.P. that this equipment is rarely if ever adequate, even when made available. For example, protective equipment such as respirators or impermeable gloves are designed for adults, and thus do not properly fit children. In defining hazardous child labor, the larger context of public
He advocates for the development of monolingual dictionaries to stem "… the chaotic nature of language acquisition by the modern African child." In this paper we set out to discuss a few of Amfani's exciting claims about the lexicon, the dictionary, second language acquisition, child language acquisition and child language ...
Aug 5, 2010 ... Order the book. What factors affect child welfare? How can policy improve child welfare? In developing countries, there has been relatively little empirical work on the analysis and measurement of child poverty. Further, poverty has many dimensions, including mortality, morbidity, hunger, illiteracy, lack of ...
Gómez de Terreros Guardiola, Montserrat; Lozano Oyola, José Francisco; Avilés Carvajal, Isabel; Martínez Cervantes, Rafael Jesús
To develop an instrument to assess the satisfaction of children and teenagers with their stay in hospital. A qualitative analysis of hospitalisation satisfaction dimensions based on the feedback of hospitalised children and teenagers; a content validation study by a group of experts of the items generated for the different satisfaction dimensions; and a pilot study to assess the usefulness of the questionnaire with a sample of 84 children and teenagers hospitalised in Andalusia. After successive refinements, a short questionnaire was obtained which took between 5 and 15minutes to complete. All items presented positive item-total correlations (r>0.18). The questionnaire showed an internal consistency index of 0.779 (Cronbach's alpha) and significant rank differences (Mann-Whitney U test; p0.151) in three satisfaction dimensions compared between hospitals. A short, easy-to-answer questionnaire was developed that is reliable regarding its internal consistency and sensitive to differences in hospital satisfaction dimensions. Once validated, it will be used to assess the satisfaction of children and teenagers with their hospital stay, in addition to being a potential indicator of quality of care. Copyright © 2016 SESPAS. Publicado por Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.
Suchitra, S. P.; Jagan, Arati; Nagendra, H. R.
Background: Ayurveda inventories for prakriti (constitution) have been developed and validated for adults. Children, however, require different categories of quarter and questions, for example, to assess the intelligence, the questions can be related to their scholastic performances. Objective: To develop and standardize an inventory to assess the prakriti of the children, and to compare with Child Personality Questionnaire (CPQ). Materials and Methods: A 135-item Ayurveda child personality ...
Rowe, Meredith L
This study sought to determine why American parents from different socioeconomic backgrounds communicate in different ways with their children. Forty-seven parent-child dyads were videotaped engaging in naturalistic interactions in the home for ninety minutes at child age 2;6. Transcripts of these interactions provided measures of child-directed speech. Children's vocabulary comprehension skills were measured using the Peabody Picture Vocabulary Test at 2;6 and one year later at 3;6. Results indicate that: (I) child-directed speech with toddlers aged 2;6 predicts child vocabulary skill one year later, controlling for earlier toddler vocabulary skill; (2) child-directed speech relates to socioeconomic status as measured by income and education; and (3) the relation between socioeconomic status and child-directed speech is mediated by parental knowledge of child development. Potential mechanisms through which parental knowledge influences communicative behavior are discussed.
Full Text Available Our experience of the world and life is associated with our sense of ‘self’, which begins to grow in the preverbal period through the child’s primary relationships with his/her parents. Such relationships should be optimal and full of true, genuine and deep contact, marked with a parent’s empathic responsiveness. Empathic parents encourage positive development, while lack of empathy is many times associated with dysfunctional patterns of behaviour in later life. Empathy is a critical factor for the healthy development of a child, especially for the growth of a creative and genuine sense of ‘self’, which in adulthood is essential for a healthy and vibrant personality, one who is capable of coping with life and living empathic relationships. Empathy in the narrowest sense of the word is the ability to share and comprehend the feelings and thoughts of another, e.g. the ability to have insight into experiencing. In a broader sense, it is the basic dynamics of relationships that fully enable us to feel safe and accepted with others and thereby give us space for growth and development.
Trickett, Penelope K.; Negriff, Sonya; Ji, Juye; Peckins, Melissa
Child abuse and neglect, often collectively called child maltreatment, are huge social problems affecting millions of children and adolescents in America. Adolescents are affected both by maltreatment which occurred during childhood with lingering effects and by maltreatment that continues into or begins in adolescence. Several decades of research…
Theories of child development, no less than the ways in which children develop, are influenced by social context. This thesis is illustrated by examples drawn three areas relevant to pediatrics. First, given the data demonstrating that fewer biologic and social hazards result from first trimester abortion that from carrying an unwanted pregnancy to term, the current controversy about abortion can only be understood in relation to concerns about contemporary patterns of sexual behavior, contraceptive use, and preferred family size. Second, now that the majority of mothers are employed in the work force, stress on the importance of "bonding" in early infancy, on the basis of dubious evidence, leads to unwarranted implications for social policy. Third, in contrast to the traditional American belief in public schools as instruments for the democratization of our society, public education is now being assailed as useless (and thus undeserving of funding) despite data indicating that schools make a difference to both academic and behavioral outcomes. In these controversies, differing value commitments lead to the choice of different data sets to justify a priori conclusions. Social theories are, by their very nature, value-laden but they can nonetheless be effective guides to action if those values are made explicit.
Chess, Stella, Ed.; Thomas, Alexander, Ed.
Selected studies of infant development concern biological rhythms, pattern preferences, sucking, and Negro-white comparisons. Sex, age, state, eye to eye contact, and human symbiosis are considered in mother-infant interaction. Included in pediatrics are child development and the relationship between pediatrics and psychiatry. Environmental…
... for Educators Search English Español Developing Your Child's Self-Esteem KidsHealth / For Parents / Developing Your Child's Self-Esteem ... their ability to do well at things Why Self-Esteem Matters When children feel good about themselves, it ...
Child Welfare in Developing Countries. Couverture du livre Child Welfare in Developing Countries. Editor(s):. John Cockburn et Jane Kabubo-Mariara. Publisher(s):. Springer, PEP, CRDI. August 5, 2010. ISBN: 9781441963376. 308 pages. e-ISBN: 9781552504888. Download PDF · Read the e-book · Order the book.
... in a book starts to engage in pretend play, such as feeding a baby doll When to Talk to Your Doctor Every child develops at his or her own pace, but certain signs could indicate a delay in development. Talk to your doctor if your child: doesn' ...
Cook, Jonathan R; Hausman, Estee M; Jensen-Doss, Amanda; Hawley, Kristin M
Assessment is an integral component of treatment. However, prior surveys indicate clinicians may not use standardized assessment strategies. We surveyed 1,510 clinicians and used multivariate analysis of variance to explore group differences in specific measure use. Clinicians used unstandardized measures more frequently than standardized measures, although psychologists used standardized measures more frequently than nonpsychologists. We also used latent profile analysis to classify clinicians based on their overall approach to assessment and examined associations between clinician-level variables and assessment class or profile membership. A four-profile model best fit the data. The largest profile consisted of clinicians who primarily used unstandardized assessments (76.7%), followed by broad-spectrum assessors who regularly use both standardized and unstandardized assessment (11.9%), and two smaller profiles of minimal (6.0%) and selective assessors (5.5%). Compared with broad-spectrum assessors, unstandardized and minimal assessors were less likely to report having adequate standardized measures training. Implications for clinical practice and training are discussed.
Tanskanen Antti O.
Full Text Available Evolutionary studies have shown that in many traditional populations the beneficial effects of grandparental presence for grandchildren may vary according to the sex and lineage of the grandparents, as well as by the sex of the grandchild. However, few studies have investigated the relevance of these factors in modern developed societies. The present investigation uses the Millennium Cohort Study (n = 4,636 children to analyse the association between grandparental investment and child development in contemporary England. Grandparental investment is measured by parent-grandparent contact frequencies at the child’s age of 3 and child development by “early learning goals” over the first year of primary school assessed with the Foundation Stage Profile (FSP. Children whose mothers reported contacts with maternal grandparents receive higher FSP scores compared to those with no contact at all. In addition, children whose fathers reported daily contacts with paternal grandfathers have lower FSP scores than other children. The study provides evidence of the relevance of grandparental investment on grandchild development also in developed societies. The results are discussed with reference to the grandmother hypothesis, sex-specific reproductive strategies and sex chromosome hypothesis.
Palusci, Vincent J.; Cox, Edward O.; Shatz, Eugene M.; Schultze, Joel M.
Background: Immediate medical assessment has been recommended for children after sexual abuse to identify physical injuries, secure forensic evidence, and provide for the safety of the child. However, it is unclear whether young children seen urgently within 72 hours of reported sexual contact would have higher frequencies of interview or…
Sivan, Abigail B.
This article reviews research on child development relevant to the question of the veracity of mistreatment allegations made by children ages two to five years. The article covers research on thought and language, memory and learning, fears, fantasy, play, and television's effects. It is concluded that preschoolers base their play on the reality…
In a country such as South Africa, where professionals are often faced with many different cultures, understanding the variables that come to play in the development and assessment of children becomes a daunting task. This paper explores cross-cultural research with respect to child development, assessment and school ...
Díaz, Adrián Alberto; Gallestey, Jorge Bacallao; Vargas-Machuca, Rocío; Velarde, Roxana Aguilar
The objective of the study was to demonstrate the influence of several socioeconomic factors on the motor and language development of children under 5 from the baseline study conducted within the framework of the Joint Program for Children, Food Security, and Nutrition, implemented by five United Nations agencies across 65 districts in the departments of Loreto, Ayacucho, Huancavelica, and Apurímac, Peru. Dichotomous logistic regression models were used to estimate the likelihood of achievement of motor and language milestones, while polynomial regression models were used to estimate the last milestone achieved and the number of milestones achieved. The study analyzes the influence that maternal education, urban vs. rural housing, and unmet basic needs have on the difference between actual results and expected results for age was analyzed. Children living in rural areas, those whose mothers had low educational attainment, and those from households with unmet basic needs exhibited poorer outcomes in the two areas of development assessed. As the number of risk factors increased, so did the developmental delay. Evaluation of child development and follow-up of families during the child-rearing process should be prioritized by health systems and social programs. The instruments used were sensitive to three criteria for validation.
Murray-Kolb, Laura E; Rasmussen, Zeba A; Scharf, Rebecca J; Rasheed, Muneera A; Svensen, Erling; Seidman, Jessica C; Tofail, Fahmida; Koshy, Beena; Shrestha, Rita; Maphula, Angelina; Vasquez, Angel Orbe; da Costa, Hilda P; Yousafzai, Aisha K; Oria, Reinaldo B; Roshan, Reeba; Bayyo, Eliwasa B; Kosek, Margaret; Shrestha, Sanjaya; Schaefer, Barbara A; Bessong, Pascal; Ahmed, Tahmeed; Lang, Dennis
More epidemiological data are needed on risk and protective factors for child development. In The Etiology, Risk Factors and Interactions of Enteric Infections and Malnutrition and the Consequences for Child Health and Development (MAL-ED) cohort study, we assessed child development in a harmonious manner across 8 sites in Bangladesh, Brazil, India, Nepal, Pakistan, Peru, South Africa, and Tanzania. From birth to 24 months, development and language acquisition were assessed via the Bayley Scales of Infant and Toddler Development and a modified MacArthur Communicative Development Inventory. Other measures were infant temperament, the child's environment, maternal psychological adjustment, and maternal reasoning abilities. We developed standard operating procedures and used multiple techniques to ensure appropriate adaptation and quality assurance across the sites. Test adaptation required significant time and human resources but is essential for data quality; funders should support this step in future studies. At the end of this study, we will have a portfolio of culturally adapted instruments for child development studies with examination of psychometric properties of each tool used. © The Author 2014. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Infectious Diseases Society of America. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please e-mail: email@example.com.
Murray-Kolb, Laura E.; Rasmussen, Zeba A.; Scharf, Rebecca J.; Rasheed, Muneera A.; Svensen, Erling; Seidman, Jessica C.; Tofail, Fahmida; Koshy, Beena; Shrestha, Rita; Maphula, Angelina; Vasquez, Angel Orbe; da Costa, Hilda P.; Yousafzai, Aisha K.; Oria, Reinaldo B.; Roshan, Reeba; Bayyo, Eliwasa B.; Kosek, Margaret; Shrestha, Sanjaya; Schaefer, Barbara A.; Bessong, Pascal; Ahmed, Tahmeed; Lang, Dennis
More epidemiological data are needed on risk and protective factors for child development. In The Etiology, Risk Factors and Interactions of Enteric Infections and Malnutrition and the Consequences for Child Health and Development (MAL-ED) cohort study, we assessed child development in a harmonious manner across 8 sites in Bangladesh, Brazil, India, Nepal, Pakistan, Peru, South Africa, and Tanzania. From birth to 24 months, development and language acquisition were assessed via the Bayley Scales of Infant and Toddler Development and a modified MacArthur Communicative Development Inventory. Other measures were infant temperament, the child's environment, maternal psychological adjustment, and maternal reasoning abilities. We developed standard operating procedures and used multiple techniques to ensure appropriate adaptation and quality assurance across the sites. Test adaptation required significant time and human resources but is essential for data quality; funders should support this step in future studies. At the end of this study, we will have a portfolio of culturally adapted instruments for child development studies with examination of psychometric properties of each tool used. PMID:25305296
Rosenblith, Judy F., Ed.; And Others
This volume is intended for use in college courses that combine educational psychology with child and adolescent psychology or human development. Section I, an introductory chapter presents selective groups of readings in the field of child developmental theory. Sections II through X each deal with one of the explanations of behavior that have…
Polańska, Kinga; Muszyński, Paweł; Sobala, Wojciech; Dziewirska, Emila; Merecz-Kot, Dorota; Hanke, Wojciech
Nowadays special attention is paid to prenatal exposures to maternal lifestyle factors and their impact on a child development. The objective of this study was to evaluate the impact of modifiable maternal lifestyle factors on child neurodevelopment based on the Polish Mother and Child Cohort study. The current analysis included 538 mother-child pairs. The following factors related to maternal lifestyle were considered: smoking and environmental tobacco smoke (ETS) exposure (based on the cotinine level in maternal saliva measured using LC-ESI+MS/MS method), alcohol consumption and leisure-time physical activity (LTPA) in pregnancy, pre-pregnancy BMI, and folic acid supplementations before and during pregnancy based on questionnaire data. Psychomotor development was assessed in children at the ages of one and two by the Bayley Scales of Infant and Toddler Development. Significant association was observed between prenatal exposure to tobacco constituents and a decreased child motor development in assessments performed at both ages (β=-0.8, p=0.01; β=-1.4, ppregnancy underweight was associated with decreased language abilities at 12 months of age (β=-5.2, p=0.01) and cognitive and motor development at 24 months of age, for which the associations were of borderline significance (p=0.06). The recommended level of LTPA during pregnancy was beneficial for child language development at two years of age (β=4.8, p=0.02). For alcohol and folic acid consumption there were no significant associations with any of the analyzed domains of child neurodevelopment. Children prenatally exposed to tobacco compounds and those of underweight mothers had a decreased psychomotor development. The recommended level of LTPA during pregnancy had positive impact on child development. These results underscore the importance of policies and public health interventions promoting healthy lifestyle among women in reproductive age and during pregnancy. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All
Profiling Child Poverty in Four WAEMU Countries: A Comparative Analysis Based on the Multidimensional Poverty Approach. 61. Gustave Kossi ...... Other premises relate to the relationship between morbidity and mortality (medical science methodologies), which is beyond the scope of this chapter. Given these premises ...
Brown, William; Liu, Connie; John, Rita Marie; Ford, Phoebe
Developing gross and fine motor skills and expressing complex emotion is critical for child development. We introduce "StorySense", an eBook-integrated mobile app prototype that can sense face and sound topologies and identify movement and expression to promote children's motor skills and emotional developmental. Currently, most interactive eBooks on mobile devices only leverage "low-motor" interaction (i.e. tapping or swiping). Our app senses a greater breath of motion (e.g. clapping, snapping, and face tracking), and dynamically alters the storyline according to physical responses in ways that encourage the performance of predetermined motor skills ideal for a child's gross and fine motor development. In addition, our app can capture changes in facial topology, which can later be mapped using the Facial Action Coding System (FACS) for later interpretation of emotion. StorySense expands the human computer interaction vocabulary for mobile devices. Potential clinical applications include child development, physical therapy, and autism.
Crowne, Sarah Shea; Gonsalves, Kay; Burrell, Lori; McFarlane, Elizabeth; Duggan, Anne
Prior research indicates that closely spaced births are associated with poor outcomes for the mother and subsequent child. Limited research has focused on outcomes for the index child (the child born immediately prior to a subsequent child in a birth interval). The objectives are to assess the association of short birth intervals in at-risk families with: (1) indicators of harsh and neglectful parenting behaviors towards the index child, including substantiated maltreatment reports across 6 years; and (2) the index child's behavior and development in first grade. This is a longitudinal study of 658 women screened to be at-risk for child maltreatment. Twenty percent of women had a rapid repeat birth (RRB), defined as the birth of a subsequent child within 24 months of the index child. Generalized estimating equations, survival analyses, and linear and logistic regression models were used to assess the associations between RRB and index child outcomes. Women with an RRB were more likely than those without an RRB to report neglectful parenting of the index child. Children of mothers with an RRB were more likely than children of mothers without an RRB to have more behavioral problems and lower cognitive functioning in first grade. This study is among the first to focus on the associations of birth spacing with maltreatment, behavior and development outcomes in the index child. Future work regarding the effects of birth spacing should include a focus on the index child.
Bogatyrev, A N; Dydykin, A S; Asianova, M A; Fedulova, L V; Ustinova, A V
The effectiveness of iodine containing additives on the basis of whey protein and milk protein casein compared to iodized salt in the composition of meat minced semi-finished products for child nutrition was examined in the experiment on laboratory animals. Four variants of the semi-finished products were investigated: 1 - control; 2 - enriched with iodine containing milk protein casein; 3 - enriched with iodine containing whey proteins; 4 - enriched with iodized salt. The semi-finished products were enriched at the level of 15% of the daily norm of iodine requirement for children at the age of 7-12 years. Iodine content in 100 g of product was 20 μkg. Rats (initial body weight 140±20 g, n=80) were divided into five groups (control, intact and three experimental groups). Groups 1 and 5 included the animals fed with a standard vivarium diet throughout the experiment. The rats from groups 2-4 were fed with the iodine enriched diet: group 2 received diet containing semi-finished products No. 2; group 3 sample No. 3 and group 4 - sample No. 4. The first stage of the experiment was aimed at accumulation of iodine in tissues and organs of animals consumed the tested iodine containing additives in the composition of semi-finished products. The second stage of the experiment consisted in simulation of the mercazolilum-induced (50 mg/kg b.w.) hypothyroidism (iodine deficiency) and detection of preventive effects of iodine containing meat semi-finished products in a model of experimental hypothyroidism in rats. The data obtained upon the end of the experiment suggest that the highest effect for correction of iodine deficiency was achieved when using the culinary products enriched with iodine containing whey proteins (sample No. 3): the level of thyroxine (T4) was restored by 98.7% in the animals from group 3 compared to the indices of the intact group, Т3 by 100%, TSH - by 89.3%. This effect was confirmed by the hematological and biochemical blood indexes, as well as the
Bingley, Paul; Christensen, Kaare; Jensen, Vibeke Myrup
Why is it that parents with more schooling tend to have children with better outcomes? We use unique Danish administrative data for identical and fraternal twin parents and their children to estimate the effect of parental schooling on short-run and long-run outcomes for their children....... By differencing within identical twin pair we are able to take heritable endowments transmitted from parent to child into account. For all outcomes OLS is found to be upward biased. Father schooling is found to have no causal effect on infant and early childhood health. Mother schooling increases birth weight...... and the probability of high school completion. For older cohorts, we are able to replicate the findings of Behrman & Rosenzweig (2002) that fathers’ schooling has a positive causal effect on child schooling but mothers’ does not. However, this is reversed for parents born after 1945, when mothers’ schooling has...
Hodges, Eric A; Johnson, Susan L; Hughes, Sheryl O; Hopkinson, Judy M; Butte, Nancy F; Fisher, Jennifer O
Parent-child feeding interactions during the first 2 years of life are thought to shape child appetite and obesity risk, but remain poorly studied. This research was designed to develop and assess the Responsiveness to Child Feeding Cues Scale (RCFCS), an observational measure of caregiver responsiveness to child feeding cues relevant to obesity. General responsiveness during feeding as well as maternal responsiveness to child hunger and fullness were rated during mid-morning feeding occasions by three trained coders using digital-recordings. Initial inter-rater reliability and criterion validity were evaluated in a sample of 144 ethnically-diverse mothers of healthy 7- to 24-month-old children. Maternal self-report of demographics and measurements of maternal/child anthropometrics were obtained. Inter-rater agreement for most variables was excellent (ICC>0.80). Mothers tended to be more responsive to child hunger than fullness cues (pFeeding responsiveness dimensions were associated with demographics, including maternal education, maternal body mass index, child age, and aspects of child feeding, including breastfeeding duration, and self-feeding. The RCFCS is a reliable observational measure of responsive feeding for children <2 years of age that is relevant to obesity. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Full Text Available Although 80% of children with disabilities live in developing countries, there are few culturally appropriate developmental assessment tools available for these settings. Often tools from the West provide misleading findings in different cultural settings, where some items are unfamiliar and reference values are different from those of Western populations.Following preliminary and qualitative studies, we produced a draft developmental assessment tool with 162 items in four domains of development. After face and content validity testing and piloting, we expanded the draft tool to 185 items. We then assessed 1,426 normal rural children aged 0-6 y from rural Malawi and derived age-standardized norms for all items. We examined performance of items using logistic regression and reliability using kappa statistics. We then considered all items at a consensus meeting and removed those performing badly and those that were unnecessary or difficult to administer, leaving 136 items in the final Malawi Developmental Assessment Tool (MDAT. We validated the tool by comparing age-matched normal children with those with malnutrition (120 and neurodisabilities (80. Reliability was good for items remaining with 94%-100% of items scoring kappas >0.4 for interobserver immediate, delayed, and intra-observer testing. We demonstrated significant differences in overall mean scores (and individual domain scores for children with neurodisabilities (35 versus 99 [p<0.001] when compared to normal children. Using a pass/fail technique similar to the Denver II, 3% of children with neurodisabilities passed in comparison to 82% of normal children, demonstrating good sensitivity (97% and specificity (82%. Overall mean scores of children with malnutrition (weight for height <80% were also significantly different from scores of normal controls (62.5 versus 77.4 [p<0.001]; scores in the separate domains, excluding social development, also differed between malnourished children and
Staal, I.I.E.; Hermanns, J.M.A.; Schrijvers, A.J.P.; van Stel, H.F.
Objective: As child maltreatment has a major impact, prevention and early detection of parenting problems are of great importance. We have developed a structured interview which uses parents’ concerns for a joint needs assessment by parents and a child health care nurse, followed by a professional
... Teens a Voice in Health Care Decisions Your Child’s Development: 3-5 Days KidsHealth > For Parents > Your Child’s Development: 3-5 Days Print A A A en ... the sole of the foot Social and Emotional Development soothed by a ... When to Talk to Your Doctor Every child develops at his or her own pace, but ...
Johnson, Cynthia R.; Butter, Eric M.; Handen, Benjamin L.; Sukhodolsky, Denis G.; Mulick, James; Lecavalier, Luc; Aman, Michael G.; Arnold, Eugene L.; Scahill, Lawrence; Swiezy, Naomi; Sacco, Kelley; Stigler, Kimberly A.; McDougle, Christopher J.
Background: Observational measures of parent and child behaviours have a long history in child psychiatric and psychological intervention research, including the field of autism and developmental disability. We describe the development of the Standardised Observational Analogue Procedure (SOAP) for the assessment of parent-child behaviour before…
Hendricks, Alison; Conradi, Lisa; Wilson, Charles
This article describes a community assessment process designed to evaluate a specific child welfare jurisdiction based on the current definition of trauma-informed child welfare and its essential elements. This process has recently been developed and pilot tested within three diverse child welfare systems in the United States. The purpose of the…
Nguyen, Phuong H; DiGirolamo, Ann M; Gonzalez-Casanova, Ines; Young, Melissa; Kim, Nicole; Nguyen, Son; Martorell, Reynaldo; Ramakrishnan, Usha
Early childhood development plays a key role in a child's future health, educational success, and economic status. However, suboptimal early development remains a global challenge. This study examines the influences of quality of the home learning environment (HOME) and child stunting in the first year of life on child development. We used data collected from a randomized controlled trial of preconceptional micronutrient supplementation in Vietnam (n = 1,458). The Bayley Scales of Infant Development-III were used to assess cognition, language, and motor development domains at 2 years. At 1 year, 14% of children were stunted, and 15%, 58%, and 28% of children lived in poor, medium, and high HOME environments, respectively. In multivariate generalized linear regression models, living in a high HOME environment was significantly associated with higher scores (0.10 to 0.13 SD) in each of the developmental domains. Stunted children scored significantly lower for cognitive, language, and motor development (-0.11 to -0.18), compared to nonstunted children. The negative associations between stunting on development were modified by HOME; the associations were strong among children living in homes with a poor learning environment whereas they were nonsignificant for those living in high-quality learning environments. In conclusion, child stunting the first year of life was negatively associated with child development at 2 years among children in Vietnam, but a high-quality HOME appeared to attenuate these associations. Early interventions aimed at improving early child growth as well as providing a stimulating home environment are critical to ensure optimal child development. © 2017 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.
MacKenzie, Michael J; Nicklas, Eric; Waldfogel, Jane; Brooks-Gunn, Jeanne
To examine the prevalence of maternal and paternal spanking of children at 3 and 5 years of age and the associations between spanking and children's externalizing behavior and receptive vocabulary through age 9. The Fragile Families and Child Well-Being Study, a longitudinal birth cohort study of children in 20 medium to large US cities, was used. Parental reports of spanking were assessed at age 3 and 5, along with child externalizing behavior and receptive vocabulary at age 9 (N = 1933). The data set also included an extensive set of child and family controls (including earlier measures of the child outcomes). Overall, 57% of mothers and 40% of fathers engaged in spanking when children were age 3, and 52% of mothers and 33% of fathers engaged in spanking at age 5. Maternal spanking at age 5, even at low levels, was associated with higher levels of child externalizing behavior at age 9, even after an array of risks and earlier child behavior were controlled for. Father's high-frequency spanking at age 5 was associated with lower child receptive vocabulary scores at age 9. Spanking remains a typical rearing experience for American children. These results demonstrate negative effects of spanking on child behavioral and cognitive development in a longitudinal sample from birth through 9 years of age.
... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Child development centers. 55.9... DEVELOPMENT SERVICES General § 55.9 Child development centers. (a) The Commandant may make child development services available at child development centers located at Coast Guard installations. (b) Regular and...
Gavilán, Enrique; Jiménez de Gracia, Laura
Iodine deficiency is a factor that may compromise child development, but is not the only one. Other health determinants, some of them outside the healthcare system, are able to influence development. Fighting iodine deficiency may be a pragmatic and useful strategy if it is found to be not maleficent, beneficial to health, and cost-effective, and does not make us lose the notion that child development goes beyond psychomotor or cognitive performance. This article analyzes such constraints from a critical point of view. Copyright © 2013 SEEN. Published by Elsevier Espana. All rights reserved.
... Months Print A A A en español El desarrollo de su hijo: 2 meses Your baby develops ... pose) fists remain unclenched half of the time Social and Emotional Development comforts himself or herself, maybe ...
Wood, F; Reinhold, A J
Community-based groups are organized around particular aspects of early childhood development (ECD), such as literacy, parent education, and early childhood activities. In the Colombian national program, community households call upon women to devote a portion of their home to organized child care for minimal material reward. The Indian Child Development Service subsidizes the payment of organizers; and Kenyan parents construct basic preschool facilities, provide school lunches, and subsidize a teacher. In such cases the government plays a subordinate role, while the burden of program maintenance is carried by the community. These programs share the characteristics that children and adults learn side by side; adult learning ranges from women's literacy, to health, organizational issues, or small-scale economic development; a strong cultural component emphasizes mother tongue language learning, indigenous child-rearing practices, and local working models; physical structures are in homes; capacity-building for the adults is central which will be transferred to other spheres of community life. In the remote coastal villages of Colombia, an organization called Promesa works with mothers on designing their preschool children's educational activities. Promesa began to confront other priority needs in the villages, especially in environmental health and malaria control. A 1990 assessment related that participants' pride, self-confidence, and ability to solve problems regarding the healthy development of their children increased; groups learned to make use of the physical, human, and institutional resources from their environments; and participants' children remained in school and performed better. Conclusions from a decade of loose experimentation suggest that through communication community women can be organized to provide basic early education and early childhood activities can help rural children over the cultural barrier of school.
Addresses the problems of child survival and development in developing countries by discussing the biomedical causes and the concomitant social determinants of high infant mortality rates. Describes four intervention strategies recommended by UNICEF: growth monitoring, oral rehydration therapy, breast feeding, and immunization. (HOD)
Watson, Mark; Nota, Laura; McMahon, Mary
Herein, the contributions to this special issue and positions the field of child career development in terms of its past, present, and future are considered. There is an initial brief overview of past developments in the field, specifically as described in seminal reviews. The article then considers the present status of and future agenda for the…
Felfe, Christina; Hsin, Amy
How do maternal work conditions, such as psychological stress and physical hazards, affect children's development? Combining data from the Child Development Supplement of the Panel Study of Income Dynamics and the Occupational Information Network allows us to shed some light on this question. We employ various techniques including OLS with…
Pressley, Michael; McCormick, Christine B.
Filling a tremendous need, this is the first graduate-level child development text written specifically for future educators. The volume provides a solid understanding of major theories of development, focusing on how each has informed research and practice in educational contexts. Topics include the impact of biology and early experiences on the…
Lucas, J E; Richter, L M; Daelmans, B
An estimated 43% of children younger than 5 years of age are at elevated risk of failing to achieve their human potential. In response, the World Health Organization and UNICEF developed Care for Child Development (CCD), based on the science of child development, to improve sensitive and responsive caregiving and promote the psychosocial development of young children. In 2015, the World Health Organization and UNICEF identified sites where CCD has been implemented and sustained. The sites were surveyed, and responses were followed up by phone interviews. Project reports provided information on additional sites, and a review of published studies was undertaken to document the effectiveness of CCD for improving child and family outcomes, as well as its feasibility for implementation in resource-constrained communities. The inventory found that CCD had been integrated into existing services in diverse sectors in 19 countries and 23 sites, including child survival, health, nutrition, infant day care, early education, family and child protection and services for children with disabilities. Published and unpublished evaluations have found that CCD interventions can improve child development, growth and health, as well as responsive caregiving. It has also been reported to reduce maternal depression, a known risk factor for poor pregnancy outcomes and poor child health, growth and development. Although CCD has expanded beyond initial implementation sites, only three countries reported having national policy support for integrating CCD into health or other services. Strong interest exists in many countries to move beyond child survival to protect and support optimal child development. The United Nations Sustainable Development Goals depend on children realizing their potential to build healthy and emotionally, cognitively and socially competent future generations. More studies are needed to guide the integration of the CCD approach under different conditions. Nevertheless
... Child’s Development: 3 Years KidsHealth / For Parents / Your Child’s Development: 3 Years Print en español El desarrollo de su hijo: 3 años Kids this age love to play games of make-believe. But their imaginations can ...
Bjorklund, David F.; Pellegrini, Anthony D.
Argues that an evolutionary account provides insight into developmental function and individual differences. Outlines some assumptions of evolutionary psychology related to development. Introduces the developmental systems approach, differential influence of natural selection at different points in ontogeny, and development of evolved…
Child Trends, 2010
This paper presents a profile of Iowa's Child Care Quality Rating System prepared as part of the Child Care Quality Rating System (QRS) Assessment Study. The profile is divided into the following categories: (1) Program Information; (2) Rating Details; (3) Quality Indicators for Center-Based Programs; (4) Indicators for Family Child Care Programs;…
... Months Print A A A en español El desarrollo de su hijo: 15 meses Toddlers this age ... stacks three blocks scribbles with crayon on paper Social and Emotional Development begins to show preference for ...
... Months Print A A A en español El desarrollo de su hijo: 6 meses Notice your baby ... both ways (back to front, front to back) Social and Emotional Development recognizes and responds happily to ...
Mirna Albuquerque Frota
Full Text Available Objective: To investigate the perception of mothers regarding the care and development of their children. Methods: This was a descriptive and qualitative study, conducted in a Basic Health Unit (UBS in Fortaleza-CE, Brazil, in the period from July to October, 2008. The subjects were twenty mothers who accompanied their children in childcare consultation and met with favorable clinical conditions. Data collection techniques used free observation and semistructured interview consisting of questions involving the perception of child development and care. Results: By means of data analysis the following categories emerged: “Smile and play: mother’s perception regarding the development of the child”; “Take care: emphasis on breastfeeding and body hygiene”. The main source of nonverbal communication that the child has to convey affection and love is the smile, being an essential activity to child development. We verified that the care with breastfeeding and body hygiene suggest behavioral indicators of maternal sensitivity. Final considerations: The childcare consultation held in UBS is essential, because it allows integration of ideas and actions shared with the professional-parent dyad, thus providing the arousal of new experiences in care and the influence on child development.
Full Text Available Comprehensive clinical studies show that adverse conditions in early life can severely impact the developing brain and increase vulnerability to mood disorders later in life. During early postnatal life the brain exhibits high plasticity which allows environmental signals to alter the trajectories of rapidly developing circuits. Adversity in early life is able to shape the experience-dependent maturation of stress-regulating pathways underlying emotional functions and endocrine responses to stress, such as the hypothalamo-pituitary-adrenal (HPA system, leading to long-lasting altered stress responsivity during adulthood.To date, the study of gene-environment interactions in the human population has been dominated by epidemiology. However, recent research in the neuroscience field is now advancing clinical studies by addressing specifically the mechanisms by which gene-environment interactions can predispose individuals towards psychopathology. To this end, appropriate animal models are being developed in which early environmental factors can be manipulated in a controlled manner. Here we will review recent studies performed with the common aim of understanding the effects of the early environment in shaping brain development and discuss the newly developing role of epigenetic mechanisms in translating early life conditions into long-lasting changes in gene expression underpinning brain functions. Particularly, we argue that epigenetic mechanisms can mediate the gene-environment dialogue in early life and give rise to persistent epigenetic programming of adult physiology and dysfunction eventually resulting in disease. Understanding how early life experiences can give raise to lasting epigenetic memories conferring increased risk for mental disorders, how they are maintained and how they could be reversed, is increasingly becoming a focus of modern psychiatry and should pave new guidelines for timely therapeutic interventions.
Full Text Available In the program of early intervention in occupational therapy, the assessment of functional vision and infant development of children with visual impairment contributes to improve the development of their skills. The aim of this study was to present the results of the functional vision assessment of a premature child with congenital blindness and point out the importance of the findings for planning occupational therapy intervention and family orientation. The study participant was a preterm child with 6 months of corrected age and ophthalmological diagnosis of retinopathy of prematurity; she participated in the Visually Impaired Habilitation and Rehabilitation Program at a public university in the countryside of Sao Paulo state. For data collection, we used the Assessment of Functional Vision and Infant Development, an evaluation script that enables the record of children’s performance and behavior in response to different visual stimuli. We verified that, through the functional vision assessment, it is possible to learn the conditions that contribute to children’s ability to use their visual functioning and remaining sensory resources, pointing out the importance of material and environmental adaptations that favor children’s interaction with the external environment. The findings are relevant to aid in educating parents about children’s skills and understanding the different ways to encourage the use of functional vision in daily activities. Thus, the functional vision assessment of children with visual impairment is a relevant guiding parameter to complement the psychomotor development assessment in occupational therapy intervention.
Maternal, newborn, and child health is Canada's top development priority. Despite progress in the past two decades, nearly 800 women die every day due to complications during pregnancy and childbirth, and 16,000 children under the age of five die from preventable causes. Most of these deaths occur in low-and ...
The involvement of children in fighting forces continues to be widespread, undercutting security and blocking development in many fragile states. Failure ... The project will include field testing promising techniques in an existing child soldier recruitment situation. ... Driving vaccine innovations to improve lives and livelihoods.
Osher, David; Kendziora, Kimberly; Spier, Elizabeth; Garibaldi, Mark L.
Schools play a key role in child and youth development as both social microcosms of the broader society and reciprocally influencing people and communities. As such, schools can function as a protective factor that promotes safety, motivation, relationships, and support for positive student outcomes. However, schools may also function as a risk…
Levine, Laura E.; Munsch, Joyce
Within each chapter of this innovative topical text, the authors engage students by demonstrating the wide range of real-world applications of psychological research connected to child development. In particular, the distinctive Active Learning features incorporated throughout the book foster a dynamic and personal learning process for students.…
Billard, C; Jambaqué, I
The past few years have seen important progress and new developments in the field of child neuropsychology. Children can exhibit acquired or learning disorders, but in all cases such deficits take place in a developmental trajectory that requires taking into account cerebral maturation and plasticity processes. Child neuropsychology finds its specificity in the perspective of developmental neuropsychology and has close connections with health and education. This article focuses on two pathologies - childhood epilepsies and developmental dyslexia - that highlight the recent progress in this specialty and its perspectives.
Turner, Joan C.; Fralic, Jessica
The purpose of this study was to explore the assessment process of child life specialists. During semi-structured interviews, twelve respondents talked about the experience of meeting a child and family for the first time, revealing aspects of the assessment process that developed in their ongoing interactions. The respondents spoke of building…
Vandell, D L; Corasaniti, M A
In a state with minimal child care standards, we found pervasive differences in third graders associated with earlier child care histories. More extensive child are predicted children receiving more negative ratings from parents and teachers, poorer academic and conduct grades, lower standardized test scores, and more negative sociometric nominations. In addition, for some variables (IQ, work habits negative peer nominations, and compliance ratings) there was evidence of interactive effects in which both extensive infant care and exclusive maternal care were associated with more problematical functioning, depending on parental marital status, social class, and child gender. We found no evidence of negative effects associated with part-time care. This study has several important limitations that should be acknowledged. The first is the danger of generalizing these results to states and communities with higher-quality child care standards than those imposed in Texas. They may, unfortunately, be generalizable to the twenty states with child care regulations similar to those in Texas. This study has another important limitation. It did not examine the underlying processes that might contribute to the effects of child care history. For example, we do not know if the differences in children who were in part-time versus extensive child care are owing to (1) differences in the children's experiences while they are in the child care settings, or (2) differences in the quality of interactions that occur when the two groups of children are at home, or (3) some combination of children's experiences in child care and the family.
Forbes, P.A.; Rooij, L. van; Rodarius, C.; Crandall, J.
The current study presents a development and validation approach of a child human body model that will help understand child impact injuries and improve the biofidelity of child anthropometric test devices. Due to the lack of fundamental child biomechanical data needed to fully develop such models a
... Snapshot of Pregnancy & Infant Development Advances Snapshot of Child Development Advances Snapshot of Adult & Family Health Advances NICHD ... Meetings and Events BACK TO TOP Content Owner Child Development and Behavior Branch Last Reviewed Date 12/30/ ...
Grantham-McGregor, Sally M; Fernald, Lia C H; Kagawa, Rose M C; Walker, Susan
We conducted a systematic review of studies that examined the effect of interventions combining a child development component with a nutrition one; in some cases the nutrition interventions also included health-promotion components. Only papers with both child development and nutrition outcomes and rated as moderate-to-good quality were included. Eleven efficacy and two nonrandomized trials, and eight program evaluations were identified. Only six trials examined interventions separately and combined. The trials showed nutritional interventions usually benefited nutritional status and sometimes benefited child development. Stimulation consistently benefited child development. There was no significant loss of any effect when interventions were combined, but there was little evidence of synergistic interaction between nutrition and stimulation on child development. Only three trials followed up the children after intervention. All at-scale program evaluations were combined interventions. Five benefited child development, but one did not, and two showed deficits. There was generally little benefit of at-scale programs to nutritional status. We found no rigorous evaluations of adding stimulation to health and nutrition services at scale and there is an urgent need for them. There is also a need to establish quality-control mechanisms for existing scaled-up programs and to determine their long-term effects. There is also a need to determine if there are any sustained benefits for the children after programs finish. © 2013 New York Academy of Sciences.
Hawkinson, Laura E.; Griffen, Andrew S.; Dong, Nianbo; Maynard, Rebecca A.
Child care subsidies help low-income families pay for child care while parents work or study. Few studies have examined the effects of child care subsidy use on child development, and no studies have done so controlling for prior cognitive skills. We use rich, longitudinal data from the ECLS-B data set to estimate the relationship between child…
Matthews, Hannah; Reeves, Rhiannon
The Child Care and Development Block Grant (CCDBG) is the primary funding source for federal child care subsidies to low-income working families, as well as improving child care quality. Based on preliminary state-reported data from the federal Office of Child Care, this fact sheet provides a snapshot of CCDBG program participation in 2012, noting…
Williams, Natalie A; Parra, Gilbert R; Elkin, T David
Food allergy affects up to 8% of children and is increasingly common. Although adult caregivers initially assume the primary role in children's daily allergy management activities, as children approach school age they assume greater responsibility for the prevention of allergic exposures. The ways that parents prepare children for this transition are likely to influence children's subsequent risk for allergic exposures, yet few studies have examined parent behaviors in the context of pediatric food allergy. To develop a brief measure to evaluate specific parenting practices related to caring for a child with food allergy. A total of 292 primary caregivers of food-allergic children completed an Internet-based survey that included the Parenting Children with Food Allergy (PCFA) questionnaire. Factor analysis of the PCFA items suggested 3 factors that accounted for 98% of the variance: autonomy support, protection/monitoring, and emergency education. Internal consistencies for the 3 scales were acceptable (alpha = .79, .73, and .82, respectively). Child age and medical variables (history of emergency epinephrine use, perceived severity of worst allergic reaction, and number of different food allergies) were associated with parenting practices. Although additional psychometric data for the PCFA are needed, preliminary findings suggest that this measure may be useful in evaluating parenting within the context of pediatric food allergy.
Bergmeier, Heidi; Aksan, Nazan; McPhie, Skye; Fuller-Tyszkiewicz, Matthew; Baur, Louise; Milgrom, Jeannette; Campbell, Karen; Demir, Defne; Skouteris, Helen
Mother-child mealtime interactions during preschool years is an important but overlooked factor when evaluating the influence of parent-child relationships on child eating and weight. This paper describes the validation of the Mutually Responsive Orientation (MRO) coding system adapted for assessing parent-child interactions during food preparation and consumption situations. Home-based mealtimes of 94 mothers and their children (3.03 ± 0.75 years) were filmed at two time points, 12-months apart. Filmed dimensions of mutual mother-child responsiveness, shared positive affect, maternal control relating to food and child compliance were assessed. Objective BMI and maternal reports of parenting, feeding, child eating, diet and child temperament were also collected. Correlations, repeated measures ANOVAs and regressions were performed to examine the validity of MRO variables and their stability across both time points. Validation analysis showed the MRO coding system performed as expected: dyads with higher MRO scores expressed lower control/power assertion, lower child non-compliance, and greater committed compliance. The measure demonstrated sensitivity to specific contexts: maternal responsiveness, mother and child positive affect were higher during food consumption compared to food preparation. Coded dimensions were stable across time points, with the exception of decreases in maternal responsiveness in food consumption and child non-compliance in food preparation. MRO and maternal dimensions were correlated with maternally reported parenting and feeding measures. Maternal responsiveness (inversely) and child responsiveness (positively) were concurrently associated with child fussy eating, and child refusal was prospectively and inversely associated with child fussy eating. Findings suggest the adapted MRO coding system is a useful measure for examining observed parent-child mealtime interactions potentially implicated in preschoolers' eating and weight
Andrade, Susanne Anjos; Santos, Darci Neves; Bastos, Ana Cecília; Pedromônico, Márcia Regina Marcondes; de Almeida-Filho, Naomar; Barreto, Mauricio L
To assess the association between quality of stimulation in the family environment and child's cognitive development considering the impact of mother's schooling on the quality of stimulation. A cross-sectional study comprising 350 children aged 17-42 months was carried out in central and peripheral areas of Salvador, Northeastern Brazil, in 1999. A socio-economic questionnaire was used, along with the Home Observation for Measurement of the Environment Scale (HOME Inventory), and the Bayley Scale for Infant Development. Bivariate and multivariate analyses were carried out through linear regression at 5% level of significance. There was a positive (beta=0.66) and statistically significant association between quality of stimulation in the family environment and child's cognitive development. Part of the effect was mediated by the mother's working circumstances and educational level. It was verified that a better quality of stimulation is provided for those who come early in the birth order in family, and live with only a few others under five years of age. This pattern of stimulation is better among children who live with their parents and whose mothers have better education, have a job and a partner involved in the family environment. Quality of stimulation in the family environment is crucial for child's cognitive development, besides the significant role of the available resources and family dynamics. The study findings show the pertinence to cognitive development of interventions which improve the quality of the environment and the child-caregiver relationship.
Geller, Amanda; Cooper, Carey E; Garfinkel, Irwin; Schwartz-Soicher, Ofira; Mincy, Ronald B
High rates of incarceration among American men, coupled with high rates of fatherhood among men in prison, have motivated recent research on the effects of parental imprisonment on children's development. We use data from the Fragile Families and Child Wellbeing Study to examine the relationship between paternal incarceration and developmental outcomes for approximately 3,000 urban children. We estimate cross-sectional and longitudinal regression models that control not only for fathers' basic demographic characteristics and a rich set of potential confounders, but also for several measures of pre-incarceration child development and family fixed effects. We find significant increases in aggressive behaviors and some evidence of increased attention problems among children whose fathers are incarcerated. The estimated effects of paternal incarceration are stronger than those of other forms of father absence, suggesting that children with incarcerated fathers may require specialized support from caretakers, teachers, and social service providers. The estimated effects are stronger for children who lived with their fathers prior to incarceration but are also significant for children of nonresident fathers, suggesting that incarceration places children at risk through family hardships including and beyond parent-child separation.
Mahdin A. Husaini
Full Text Available Background Motor behavior is an essential aspect of child development, and usually assessed in terms of age of achievement of motor milestone. The early detection of infants experiencing subtle delays in motor maturation can allow early intervention in developmental problems. Intervention can be more effective if delays are identified early. In order to facilitate the identification of early delays, the Center of Nutrition and Foods Research and Development in Bogor has designed a simple tool to monitor the child (aged 3 to 18 months motor development. Objective To develop an observable of normal gross motor maturation for use to detect deviance or motor delay. Methods A total of 2100 healthy children, aged 3-18 months, from high socio-economic group, in urban and suburban areas, were studied. Body length, weight and motor development were measured on all children. Gross motor development was measured 17 pre selected milestones: lie, sit, crawl, creep, stand Mth assistance, walk with assistance, stand alone, walk alone, and run. Results There were no differences between males and females in the comparison of attainment motor maturation therefore a sex combined curve was developed. Conclusion The curve of normal motor milestone development can be used as a tool to evaluate motor development over time, and/or as a child development card for use in primary health care.
Ali, Syed Sadat; Dhaded,; Goudar, Shivprasad
Background: In India, child malnutrition is mostly the result of high levels of exposure to infection and inappropriate infant and young child feeding and caring practices and has its origins almost entirely during the first 2 to 3 years of life. This study aims in assessing the impact of breast feeding on child development of children at 3 years. Methods: About 530 children at 3 years were assessed for developmental delay by Ages and Stages Questionnaire (ASQ). Growth measurements and he...
Rodriguez, Christina M.; Russa, Mary Bower; Harmon, Nancy
Objectives: The present investigation reports on the development and initial validation of a new analog task, the Parent-Child Aggression Acceptability Movie Task (P-CAAM), intended to assess respondents' acceptance of parent-child aggression, including both physical discipline and physical abuse. Methods: Two independent samples were utilized to…
A basic assumption in psychotherapy with children is that the parent-child relationship is central to the child's development. This article describes the Joint Painting Procedure, an art-based assessment for evaluating relationships with respect to the two main developmental tasks of middle childhood: (a) the parent's ability to monitor and…
Bornstein, Marc H.; Britto, Pia Rebello; Nonoyama-Tarumi, Yuko; Ota, Yumiko; Petrovic, Oliver; Putnick, Diane L.
The Multiple Indicator Cluster Survey (MICS) is a nationally representative, internationally comparable household survey implemented to examine protective and risk factors of child development in developing countries around the world. This introduction describes the conceptual framework, nature of the MICS3, and general analytic plan of articles…
Clark, Brenda; Andrews, Debra; Taghaddos, Soreh; Dinu, Irina
Several published strategies on teaching the screening of normal child development were integrated into a small group learning experience for second-year medical students to address practical and logistical problems of approaches used individually. This study examines the effectiveness of this integrated approach using student evaluations. A total of 191 second-year university medical and dental students were invited to participate. Well-described learning objectives, the Ages and Stages Questionnaire (ASQ), live parent-child dyads and video backup were used. Students rotated through three small group stations. Feedback was provided using a Likert scale (from 1, low, to 5, high) and written comments. Consent was obtained. Live parent-child dyads versus video clip groups were analysed by averaging overall scores. Generalised estimating equation (GEE) analysis in stata (Stata Corporation, College Station, Texas) was used for comparing the two groups. A total of 178 students (93%) agreed to participate and filled out the evaluation forms. The overall score on the Likert scale was 4.6 (range 4-5). On two occasions video clips were substituted for live parent-child dyad presentations in one of the three stations. These students (n=43, rating 4.61/5) rated their experience as comparable with those who had three live family stations (n=135, rating 4.56/5). Student comments were grouped into broad themes, with most being positive about their learning experience. This integrated approach is highly acceptable. Video clip usage, live dyads, clear written objectives and use of a standardised screening tool preserved the interaction and immediacy of a clinical encounter, while maintaining consistency in content. © Blackwell Publishing Ltd 2012.
Seto, Michael C; Eke, Angela W
In this study, we developed a structured risk checklist, the Child Pornography Offender Risk Tool (CPORT), to predict any sexual recidivism among adult male offenders with a conviction for child pornography offenses. We identified predictors of sexual recidivism using a 5-year fixed follow-up analysis from a police case file sample of 266 adult male child pornography offenders in the community after their index offense. In our 5-year follow-up, 29% committed a new offense, and 11% committed a new sexual offense, with 3% committing a new contact sexual offense against a child and 9% committing a new child pornography offense. The CPORT items comprised younger offender age, any prior criminal history, any contact sexual offending, any failure on conditional release, indication of sexual interest in child pornography material or prepubescent or pubescent children, more boy than girl content in child pornography, and more boy than girl content in other child depictions. The CPORT was significantly associated with any sexual recidivism, with moderate predictive accuracy, and thus has promise in the risk assessment of adult male child pornography offenders with further cross-validation. (c) 2015 APA, all rights reserved).
"It's the Way You Talk to Them." The Child's Environment: Early Years Practitioners' Perceptions of Its Influence on Speech and Language Development, Its Assessment and Environment Targeted Interventions
Marshall, Julie; Lewis, Elizabeth
Speech and language delay occurs in approximately 6% of the child population, and interventions to support this group of children focus on the child and/or the communicative environment. Evidence about the effectiveness of interventions that focus on the environment as well as the (reported) practices of speech and language therapists (SLTs) and…
Frijters, Paul; David W Johnston; Shah, Manisha; Shields, Michael A.
We estimate the effect of early child development on maternal labor force participation using data from teacher assessments. Mothers might react to having a poorly developing child by dropping out of the formal labor force in order to spend more time with their child, or they could potentially increase their labor supply to be able to provide the funds for better education and health resources. Which action dominates is therefore the empirical question we seek to answer in this paper. Importa...
Healy, Sarah J; Murray, Lynne; Cooper, Peter J; Hughes, Claire; Halligan, Sarah L
Aggression in children is associated with an enhanced tendency to attribute hostile intentions to others. However, limited information is available regarding the factors that contribute to the development of such hostile attribution tendencies. We examined factors that contribute to individual differences in child hostile attributions and aggression, focusing on potential pathways from maternal hostile attributions via negative parenting behavior. We conducted a longitudinal study of 98 mothers and children (47 male, 51 female), recruited from groups experiencing high and low levels of psychosocial adversity. Maternal hostile attributions, observed parenting, and child behaviour were assessed at 18 months and 5 years child age, and child hostile attributions were also examined at 5 years. Independent assessments of maternal and child processes were utilized where possible. Analyses provided support for a direct influence of maternal hostile attributions on the development of child hostile attributions and aggressive behaviour. Maternal hostile attributions were also associated with negative parenting behaviour, which in turn influenced child adjustment. Even taking account of possible parenting influences and preexisting child difficulties, hostile attributions in the mother showed a direct link with child aggression at 5 years. Maternal hostile attributions were themselves related to psychosocial adversity. We conclude that maternal hostile attributions are prevalent in high-risk samples and are related to less optimal parenting behaviour, child hostile attributions, and child aggression. Targeting hostile maternal cognitions may be a useful adjunct to parenting programs.
Stahmer, Aubyn C; Hurlburt, Michael; Horwitz, Sarah McCue; Landsverk, John; Zhang, Jinjin; Leslie, Laurel K
To examine developmental and behavioral status of children in child welfare (CW) over time, by intensity of CW involvement using a national probability sample. As part of the National Survey of Child and Adolescent Well-being (NSCAW), data were collected on 1,049 children 12-47 months old investigated by CW agencies for possible abuse or neglect. Analyses used descriptive statistics to characterize developmental and behavioral status across four domains (developmental/cognitive, language, adaptive functioning, and behavior) by intensity of CW involvement (in-home with CW services, in-home with no CW services or out-of-home care) over time. Multivariate analyses were used to examine the relationship between independent variables (age, gender, home environment, race/ethnicity, maltreatment history, intensity of CW involvement) and follow-up domain scores. On average, children improved in developmental/cognitive, communication/language status over time, but these improvements did not differ by intensity of CW involvement. Analyses revealed a positive relationship between the home environment and change in language and adaptive behavior standard scores over time, and few predictors of change in behavioral status. An interaction between intensity of CW involvement and initial developmental/cognitive status was present. Across domains, intensity of CW involvement does not appear to have a significant effect on change in developmental and behavioral status, although out-of-home care does have differential relationships with children's developmental/cognitive status for those with very low initial cognitive/developmental status. Facilitating development in children in CW may require supportive, enriched care environments both for children remaining at home and those in foster care. Toddler and preschool age children known to child welfare are likely to have difficulties with development whether they are removed from their homes or not. It would be helpful if child welfare
Stahmer, Aubyn C; Hurlburt, Michael; Horwitz, Sarah McCue; Landsverk, John; Zhang, Jinjin; Leslie, Laurel K
Objective To examine developmental and behavioral status of children in child welfare (CW) over time, by intensity of CW involvement using a national probability sample. Methods As part of the National Survey of Child and Adolescent Well-Being (NSCAW), data were collected on 1,049 children 12–47 months old investigated by CW agencies for possible abuse or neglect. Analyses used descriptive statistics to characterize developmental and behavioral status across four domains (developmental/cognitive, language, adaptive functioning, and behavior) by intensity of CW involvement (in-home with CW services, in-home with no CW services or out-of-home care) over time. Multivariate analyses were used to examine the relationship between independent variables (age, gender, home environment, race/ethnicity, maltreatment history, intensity of CW involvement) and follow-up domain scores. Results On average, children improved in developmental/cognitive, communication/language status over time, but these improvements did not differ by intensity of CW involvement. Analyses revealed a positive relationship between the home environment and change in language and adaptive behavior standard scores over time, and few predictors of change in behavioral status. An interaction between intensity of CW involvement and initial developmental/cognitive status was present. Conclusions Across domains, intensity of CW involvement does not appear to have a significant effect on change in developmental and behavioral status, although out-of-home care does have differential relationships with children’s developmental/cognitive status for those with very low initial cognitive/developmental status. Facilitating development in children in CW may require supportive, enriched care environments both for children remaining at home and those in foster care. Practice Implications Toddler and preschool age children known to child welfare are likely to have difficulties with development whether they are
Administration for Children & Families, 2014
This catalog provides short descriptions of major Division of Child and Family Development (DCFD) projects from Fiscal Year 2014. Multiple projects are described in the areas of child care, Head Start/Early Head Start, child welfare promotion, and the recognition of cultural diversity. An additional section features projects that fall into more…
Full Text Available Many studies show that parental education and child's gender are the factors that influence child's language development. The purpose of the longitudinal study was to examine the effect of parental education and child's gender on language competence of children aged 3 to 4 years. The sample included 80 randomly chosen children, 39 girls and 41 boys, who were included in one of 13 preschool institutions from different regions of Slovenia. The average age of the children was 3;1 years at the first assessment and 4;1 years at the second assessment, one year later. The characteristics of child'slanguage development were assessed by 3 assessors in 3 different social contexts, in test situation by a trained examiner, in child's home environment by his mother and in the preschool institution by his preschool teacher. Results show a positive effect of mother's educational level on some of the measures of child's language development, e.g. achievements on Language development scale; developmental level of storytelling, mother's estimation of child's language competence, while the father's educational level had no significant effect on any of the obtained measures. Child's gender had only a small effect on his achievements on language expression subscale at the age of 3 and 4 as well as on the preschool teacher's estimations of child's language competence at 4 years of age.
Full Text Available This paper presents an overview of recent personality trait research in children and early adolescents, with a special focus on studies in Slovenia. In the search for the precursors of the adult Big Five, a free-descriptive strategy to assess personality in non-adult samples is emphasized. Findings suggest that parents describe infants and toddlers in terms that are predominantly categorized in the Five-Factor Model taxonomy. Distributions of descriptors show developmental patterns from infancy to early adolescence and small cultural differences. Based on the parental natural language used to describe children across countries, ecologically valid assessment tools were created. The Inventory of Child Individual Differences (ICID; Halverson et al., 2003 was conceptualized as an age and culturally neutral instrument, and is widely used in Slovenia. Cross-sectional studies on ICID ratings of 3 to 14 year-olds provide information on age, sex, and cultural differences in child/adolescent personality trait expression across observers. Several aspects of trait consistency from early to middle childhood, using a longitudinal and multiple-informant approach, are reviewed, as well as the aspects of consistency across contexts and informants. Concurrent and longitudinal predictive values of the ICID trait assessments are shown in relation to several social and academic outcomes. In addition to the variable-centered method, results based on the child-centered approach suggest several internally replicable personality types. Developmental and cross-observer consistency in the structure of personality types, stability of type membership and its predictive validity versus personality traits is described. Prospects for future research on child personality development are suggested, including new methods of assessment and the investigation of links between early personality and important life outcomes.
Rowe, Meredith L.
This study sought to determine why American parents from different socioeconomic backgrounds communicate in different ways with their children. Forty-seven parent-child dyads were videotaped engaging in naturalistic interactions in the home for ninety minutes at child age 2 ; 6. Transcripts of these interactions provided measures of child-directed…
Bech-Larsen, Tino; Jensen, Birger Boutrup
parental knowledge of their children’s quality assessments significantly affect the willingness to pay. Accordingly, interaction between parents and children should be promoted when developing, testing and marketing new and healthier food products for children....... of attention. The purpose of this article is to discuss the interpersonal aspects of food quality formation, and to explore these in the context of parents buying new types of healthier in-between meals for their children. To pursue this we introduce the concept of dyadic quality assessment and apply...... it to a hall-test of children’s and parents’ quality formation and to the latter’s willingness to pay for such products. The findings show poor congruence between parent and child quality evaluations due to the two parties emphasising different quality aspects. Results also indicate, however, that improved...
Fond, G; Franc, N; Purper-Ouakil, D
The aim of this article is to provide an overview of existing studies on gay and lesbian parenthood and child development. Although 200,000 to 300,000 children could be concerned in 2010 in France, there is a lack of research on this issue in our country. Research among children raised by homosexual parents involves methodological issues, such as defining homosexual families, sampling cases and controls, and choosing structured or semi-structured evaluations. The fact that homosexual marriage, adoption and insemination are not presently legal in France could explain that only one study has been conducted in France in 2000 among 58 children raided by homosexual parents. This study concluded that these children did not show an increased rate of behavior or anxiety disorders. Concerns about lesbian parenting have focused on the absence of a father, the homosexual orientation of the mother, and their negative consequences on the development of the children. Research on parenting and child rearing has repeatedly compared lesbian and heterosexual families, and in the last 30 years a growing body of studies on lesbian parents and the development of their children has been published. Studies about child development, sexual orientation, gender identity, gender role behavior, emotional/behavioral development, social relationships and cognitive functioning showed no difference between children of lesbian mothers and those of heterosexual parents. Likewise, parental functioning, the mothers' psychological health and maternal skills were not significantly different among lesbian mothers than among heterosexual mothers. In studies concerning gay fathers, findings generally indicate no differences in sexual orientation, socialization, or psychological outcomes in children of gay fathers compared to children of heterosexual fathers. However, the first study on the adult attachment style dimensions of adult women who had gay or bisexual fathers suggested that they were
Pronyk, Paul M; Muniz, Maria; Nemser, Ben; Somers, Marie-Andrée; McClellan, Lucy; Palm, Cheryl A; Huynh, Uyen Kim; Ben Amor, Yanis; Begashaw, Belay; McArthur, John W; Niang, Amadou; Sachs, Sonia Ehrlich; Singh, Prabhjot; Teklehaimanot, Awash; Sachs, Jeffrey D
Simultaneously addressing multiple Millennium Development Goals (MDGs) has the potential to complement essential health interventions to accelerate gains in child survival. The Millennium Villages project is an integrated multisector approach to rural development operating across diverse sub-Saharan African sites. Our aim was to assess the effects of the project on MDG-related outcomes including child mortality 3 years after implementation and compare these changes to local comparison data. Village sites averaging 35,000 people were selected from rural areas across diverse agroecological zones with high baseline levels of poverty and undernutrition. Starting in 2006, simultaneous investments were made in agriculture, the environment, business development, education, infrastructure, and health in partnership with communities and local governments at an annual projected cost of US$120 per person. We assessed MDG-related progress by monitoring changes 3 years after implementation across Millenium Village sites in nine countries. The primary outcome was the mortality rate of children younger than 5 years of age. To assess plausibility and attribution, we compared changes to reference data gathered from matched randomly selected comparison sites for the mortality rate of children younger than 5 years of age. Analyses were done on a per-protocol basis. This trial is registered with ClinicalTrials.gov, number NCT01125618. Baseline levels of MDG-related spending averaged $27 per head, increasing to $116 by year 3 of which $25 was spent on health. After 3 years, reductions in poverty, food insecurity, stunting, and malaria parasitaemia were reported across nine Millennium Village sites. Access to improved water and sanitation increased, along with coverage for many maternal-child health interventions. Mortality rates in children younger than 5 years of age decreased by 22% in Millennium Village sites relative to baseline (absolute decrease 25 deaths per 1000 livebirths, p=0
Palusci, Vincent J
The history of child abuse pediatrics reflects the development of medicine as a profession influenced by social movements reacting to poverty, economic exploitation, and child maltreatment. As physicians began to specialize in caring for children, egregious cases led them to recognize children were affected by special medical problems and diseases which were compounded by poor conditions and abuse and neglect. They developed the fields of pediatrics and child abuse pediatrics to advocate for their needs in courts and communities. Using a history of prominent physicians and cases, the objectives of this article are to: (1) rediscover the founding of pediatrics in NYC in the context of the environment which served as the setting for its development; (2) highlight our early understanding of the medical issues surrounding child maltreatment, with advocacy and forensic medicine becoming a growing part of medical care for children; and (3) explore the development of child abuse pediatrics in light of prominent physicians making major contributions to child protection. Timelines show the early interplay among social problems, publicized cases, private and governmental agencies, and the development of child abuse pediatrics. The article concludes with potential lessons to be learned and further questions about this interplay of child protection systems and the development of child abuse pediatrics. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd and Faculty of Forensic and Legal Medicine. All rights reserved.
Fanti, Kostas A.; Panayiotou, Georgia; Fanti, Savvas
The current study investigated the longitudinal transactional association among paternal and maternal depressive symptoms and child internalizing and externalizing difficulties. Data were collected on preschool- to adolescent-age youth via a total of six assessments. The sample (National Institute of Child Health and Human Development [NICHD]…
Sunday B. Fakunmoju
Full Text Available This article presents reliability and validity analyses of the Perception of Child Maltreatment Scale (PCMS. The scale comprised 34 items that measure abusive behaviors related to emotional/psychological abuse (10 items, sexual abuse (6 items, child neglect (6 items, child labor (7 items, and physical abuse (5 items. Analysis was based on a convenience sample of 317 participants in Nigeria. Exploratory factor analysis with promax rotation was used to determine construct validity of its five-factor structure (subscales. The overall internal consistency of the PCMS was .95; subscales of Emotional/Psychological Abuse (.93 and Sexual Abuse (.91 were high, whereas those of Child Neglect (.89, Child Labor (.86, and Physical Abuse (.84 were good. Cutoff scores were computed categorizing scores into low/weak, medium/moderate, and high/strong perceptions of child maltreatment. Strengths and limitations as well as practical applications and implications of the scale for research were discussed.
Romano, Judith T.
The vast majority of young children spend time in settings outside of the home, and the nature of those settings directly impacts the child's health and development. The ecobiodevelopmental framework of early brain and child development serve as the backdrop for establishing quality. This article describes the use of quality rating systems,…
Dexter, Casey A.; Stacks, Ann M.
This study examined relations between parenting, shared reading practices, and child development. Participants included 28 children (M = 24.66 months, SD = 8.41 months) and their parents. Measures included naturalistic observations of parenting and shared reading quality, assessments of child cognitive and language development, and home reading…
Black, Maureen M; Dewey, Kathryn G
.... Transactional theory serves as a useful framework for examining the associations that link early child development and nutrition because it emphasizes the interplay that occurs between children...
Falbo, Bruna Cristine Peres; Andrade, Raquel Dully; Furtado, Maria Cândida de Carvalho; de Mello, Débora Falleiros
This integrative literature review aimed to identify nursing actions for stimulating child development in national and international journals, between 2000 and 2009. Medline and Lilacs were examined, with analysis of fifteen articles. Results point out ludic elements as essential for child development and state that it should be explored by nursing professionals through art, music, toys and theatre. Soften the stress of hospitalization through environmental adjustments reduces its impact on child development. Guiding and intervening in the inter-relationships are nursing actions for the social and behavioral development of children. The themes addressed in literature are essential to the nursing practice in comprehensive child care.
Full Text Available To examine the association between maternal depression and anxiety disorders (MDAD and child development assessed during the kindergarten year.Administrative data from several health and social databases in Manitoba, Canada, were used to study 18,331 mother-child pairs. MDAD over the period from one year prior to the child's birth to the kindergarten year was defined using physician diagnoses and filled prescriptions. Child development was assessed during the kindergarten year using the Early Development Instrument (EDI which measures vulnerability across five domains of development. Structural equation modeling was used to examine associations between timing, recurrence and severity of MDAD and child outcomes. Health at Birth (preterm, low birth weight, neonatal intensive care stay and long birth hospitalization, Family Context (teen mother, lone parent, socio-economic status (SES, child age and child sex were covariates.MDAD had a modest negative association with child EDI scores across all models tested, particularly for social, emotional and physical development. Prenatal MDAD had a stronger negative association with outcomes than other time periods; however, recurrent MDAD had a stronger negative association with outcomes than any specific time period or MDAD severity. The influence of MDAD was mediated by Family Context, which had a strong, negative association with outcomes, particularly language and cognitive development.The number of time periods a child was exposed to MDAD in early childhood was more negatively associated with five areas of child development than timing or severity. Prenatal exposure may be more sensitive to MDAD than other time periods. The familial context (teen mother, lone parenthood and low SES had a stronger influence on child outcomes than MDAD. Findings can be used to inform interventions which address maternal mental health from the prenatal period onward, and to support disadvantaged families to encourage
Saleem, Haneefa T; Surkan, Pamela J
To examine how maternal and paternal pregnancy wantedness and couple concordance regarding pregnancy wantedness predict children's social-emotional development in kindergarten. We used data from nationally representative US sample from the Early Childhood Longitudinal Study Birth Cohort. Exposures of interest were maternal and paternal pregnancy wantedness, and couple concordance regarding pregnancy wantedness. Children's social-emotional development was evaluated by the child's kindergarten teacher using an adapted version of the Preschool and Kindergarten Behavior Scales. We examined bivariate associations between pregnancy wantedness and key socio-demographic variables in relation to children's social-emotional development. Multiple linear regression was used to assess the relationship between each pregnancy wantedness predictor and children's social-emotional development scores. Items related to child concentration and attention appeared to be the components driving almost all the associations with social-emotional development. Maternal report of unwanted pregnancy, resident father's report of mistimed pregnancy, and discordance of parental pregnancy wantedness (specifically when the mother wanted but the father did not want the pregnancy) predicted lower children's social-emotional development scores. Results suggest that maternal unwanted pregnancy and couple discordance in pregnancy wantedness were associated with poorer social-emotional development, especially in the area of concentration and attention, in kindergarten.
Thackeray, Jonathan D.; Scribano, Philip V.; Rhoda, Dale
Objective: This study was designed to identify the frequency, methods, and practices of universal assessments for domestic violence (DV) within child advocacy centers (CACs) and determine which factors are associated with CACs that conduct universal DV assessments. Methods: The study design was a cross-sectional, web-based survey distributed to…
Ollendick, Thomas H.; King, Neville J.
Reviews basic principles and practices of child behavioral assessment. Examines the effects of cognitive-behavioral interventions in the treatment of school refusal. Concludes that these interventions can be enhanced by a prescriptive treatment approach in which assessment information is used to tailor treatment to the specified problem of a given…
Despite significant gains in tackling the major causes of child mortality and evidence of an urgent need for child mental health services, resource-poor countries continue to lag behind in child and adolescent mental health service development. This paper analyses possible barriers to the development of child mental health services in resource-poor countries and attempts to proffer solutions. Obstacles identified are the magnitude of child mental health problems that remain invisible to policy makers, an absence of child mental policies to guide the process of service development, and overburdened child mental health professionals. The belief systems about mental illness also prompt help seeking in alternative health systems, thereby reducing the evidence for the burden associated with health seeking. Solutions that may support child mental health service development are the provision of adequate advocacy tools to reveal the burden, poverty alleviation, health awareness programmes, enforcing legislation, training centred within the region, and partnerships with professionals in developed countries. These solutions require simultaneous approaches to encourage service development and utilization. Reductions in child mortality in resource-poor countries will be even more dramatic in the years to come and preparations need to be made to take care of the mental health needs of the children who will survive.
Full Text Available Article assesses the impact of adverse factors on intrauterine development of the child, first of all, drugs. The author stresses that the importance of drug safety (D is due to the large number of unintended pregnancies worldwide. A list of the D, providing proven teratogenic effects on a child organism is presenting. It is shown that the D teratogenic effect in humans can not be assessed on the basis of experimental data obtained in animals due to the difference between metabolic and detoxification processes in a different mammals and individuals. Key words: drugs, safety, teratogenic effects, fetal development, the unborn child. (Pediatric pharmacology. — 2011; 8 (6: 57–60.
In the article child’s speech development process is observed, which, on the one hand, assumes the accounting of not only didactic, but also methodological principles, which let the preschool pedagogue choose appropriate means for speech development. On the other hand, the basis of the organization of speech development process is the preschool educational curriculum, where the volume of speech abilities and skills, the demands for different aged-groups are defined. But child’s speech develop...
O'Connor, Thomas G; Monk, Catherine; Fitelson, Elizabeth M
The empirical base suggesting a link between prenatal maternal anxiety, stress or depression and cognitive, behavioral, and biological outcomes in the infant and child has increased dramatically in the past 10 years. In this review, we consider the relevance of prenatal maternal mood for child mental health practitioners; the empirical base for a likely causal impact of the link between prenatal anxiety, depression, or stress and child outcomes; the degree to which the available evidence is sufficient for informing or altering clinical practice; and the possible role of prenatal interventions for promoting child health and development. A selective review of PubMed, Cochrane Library and other sources was undertaken. Clinically significant links between maternal prenatal distress and child behavioral and cognitive outcomes have been reported; predictions to stress physiology, immunology, and neurodevelopment have been reported but the effect sizes and clinical significance is less clear. Several candidate mechanisms have been proposed, with some supporting evidence. Many behavioral treatments for prenatal maternal distress exist, but their application to promoting child health is largely unknown. Research on maternal prenatal distress is a good example of translational research and offers a strong paradigm for promoting interdisciplinary clinical research on child health and development. © 2013 The Authors. Journal of Child Psychology and Psychiatry © 2013 Association for Child and Adolescent Mental Health.
Majorano, Marinella; Rainieri, Chiara; Corsano, Paola
The present study focuses on the characteristics of parental child-directed communication and its relationship with child language development. For this purpose, thirty-six toddlers (18 males and 18 females) and their parents were observed in a laboratory during triadic free play at ages 1;3 and 1;9. The characteristics of the maternal and…
Coelho, Renato; Ferreira, José Paulo; Sukiennik, Ricardo; Halpern, Ricardo
To evaluate a child development surveillance tool proposal to be used in primary care, with simultaneous use of the Denver II scale. This was a cross-sectional study of 282 infants aged up to 36 months, enrolled in a public daycare in a countryside community in Rio Grande do Sul/Brazil. Child development was assessed using the surveillance tool and the Denver II scale. The prevalence of probable developmental delay was 53%; most of these cases were in the alert group and 24% had normal development, but with risk factors. At the Denver scale, the prevalence of suspected developmental delay was 32%. When risk factors and sociodemographic variables were assessed, no significant difference was observed. The evaluation of this surveillance tool resulted in objective and comparable data, which were adequate for a screening test. It is easily applicable as a screening tool, even though it was originally designed as a surveillance tool. The inclusion of risk factors to the scoring system is an innovation that allows for the identification of children with suspected delay in addition to developmental milestones, although the definition of parameters and choice of indicators should be thoroughly studied. Copyright © 2016 Sociedade Brasileira de Pediatria. Published by Elsevier Editora Ltda. All rights reserved.
Full Text Available Abstract Objective: To evaluate a child development surveillance tool proposal to be used in primary care, with simultaneous use of the Denver II scale. Methods: This was a cross-sectional study of 282 infants aged up to 36 months, enrolled in a public daycare in a countryside community in Rio Grande do Sul/Brazil. Child development was assessed using the surveillance tool and the Denver II scale. Results: The prevalence of probable developmental delay was 53%; most of these cases were in the alert group and 24% had normal development, but with risk factors. At the Denver scale, the prevalence of suspected developmental delay was 32%. When risk factors and sociodemographic variables were assessed, no significant difference was observed. Conclusion: The evaluation of this surveillance tool resulted in objective and comparable data, which were adequate for a screening test. It is easily applicable as a screening tool, even though it was originally designed as a surveillance tool. The inclusion of risk factors to the scoring system is an innovation that allows for the identification of children with suspected delay in addition to developmental milestones, although the definition of parameters and choice of indicators should be thoroughly studied.
Altamira Pereira da Silva Reichert
Full Text Available The aim of this study was to evaluate the perception of nurses regarding their practice in child care after training in child development surveillance, in the context of the Integrated Care for Childhood Prevalent Diseases. An exploratory study, using a qualitative approach, was developed between June and August 2009, by means of interviews with 11 nurses who participated in training workshops developed in João Pessoa, Paraíba, Brazil. The thematic analysis helped identify three categories: weaknesses in child development surveillance before training; post-training qualified perspective: professional motivation and empowerment; and a new behavior in child development surveillance. The training was considered to be a powerful strategy for professional qualification and for changing the attitude of primary care nurses, motivating nurses to adopt a new behavior in child development surveillance.
Cortés Moreno, Assol; Universidad Nacional Autónoma de México-FES Iztacala; Avilés Flores, Ana Laura; Universidad Nacional Autónoma de México-FES Iztacala
Effects of undernourishment on psychological development vary according psychosocial factors. This study assessed the impact of demographic, familiar, and rearing variables on nourishment and psychological development in children aged complementary feeding. A sample of 124 child-caregiver dyads from four different socioeconomic and nutritional index communities from México participated. Anthropometrics and child development were measured. Prediction power of demographics, rearing practices, a...
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... All Early Learning Child Care Early Literacy Early Math and Science Language and Communication Play School Readiness ... Member-Exclusive Resources The Bookstore ZERO TO THREE Journal Parent Favorites Newsletters Policymakers & Advocates Virtual Events CERO ...
... All Early Learning Child Care Early Literacy Early Math and Science Language and Communication Play School Readiness ... Member-Exclusive Resources The Bookstore ZERO TO THREE Journal Parent Favorites Newsletters Policymakers & Advocates Virtual Events CERO ...
Feldman, Maurice A.; Battin, Susan M.; Shaw, Olivia A.; Luckasson, Ruth
This study investigated whether children with disabilities are excluded from mainstream child development research. Fifteen per cent of 533 articles from "Child Development" and "Developmental Psychology" (1996-2010) were randomly selected. The exclusion rate was 89.9% when no mention of participants with disabilities was…
Child Welfare in Developing Countries. Couverture du livre Child Welfare in Developing Countries. Directeur(s) : John Cockburn et Jane Kabubo-Mariara. Maison(s) d'édition : Springer, PEP, CRDI. 5 août 2010. ISBN : 9781441963376. 308 pages. e-ISBN : 9781552504888. Téléchargez le PDF · Téléchargez le cyberlivre.
Mash, Eric J.; Hunsley, John
The main purpose of this article and this special section is to encourage greater attention to evidence-based assessment (EBA) in the development of a scientifically supported clinical child and adolescent psychology. This increased attention is especially important in light of (a) the omission of assessment considerations in recent efforts to…
van der Put, Claudia E; Assink, Mark; Boekhout van Solinge, Noëlle F
Risk assessment is crucial in preventing child maltreatment since it can identify high-risk cases in need of child protection intervention. Despite widespread use of risk assessment instruments in child welfare, it is unknown how well these instruments predict maltreatment and what instrument characteristics are associated with higher levels of predictive validity. Therefore, a multilevel meta-analysis was conducted to examine the predictive accuracy of (characteristics of) risk assessment instruments. A literature search yielded 30 independent studies (N=87,329) examining the predictive validity of 27 different risk assessment instruments. From these studies, 67 effect sizes could be extracted. Overall, a medium significant effect was found (AUC=0.681), indicating a moderate predictive accuracy. Moderator analyses revealed that onset of maltreatment can be better predicted than recurrence of maltreatment, which is a promising finding for early detection and prevention of child maltreatment. In addition, actuarial instruments were found to outperform clinical instruments. To bring risk and needs assessment in child welfare to a higher level, actuarial instruments should be further developed and strengthened by distinguishing risk assessment from needs assessment and by integrating risk assessment with case management. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
This article discusses family interactions that devalue female children in India and the role of government in enriching family life. Child development is dependent upon the family and the social environment. Patriarchy establishes the structure, roles, and responsibilities of the family through hierarchies of age, gender, and generation. Males hold authoritative positions because of their control over resources and the assumption of their superiority. Family unity and stability is based on conformity with the community and kinship norms. The Indian family places a low priority on the development of individual family members and children. Female children are a low priority both as children and as girls. Girls carry a heavy domestic workload in the family, but girls do not receive recognition for their contributions. The family socializes children based on norms of gender and age inequalities. Deviation from patriarchal norms results in ostracism. Families without resources are vulnerable to deprivation and exploitation. Gaps have widened between rich and poor, and men and women. Particularly vulnerable groups are women in single-parent families and female-headed households. The combination of patriarchy, increased consumerism, and structural adjustment programs marginalizes girl children. Every family should be considered equal in dignity and worth and have the right to freedom, choices, life, security of person and privacy, and protection from domestic violence. Vulnerable family members need special attention. Every family member should take responsibility for promoting sensitivity and responsiveness, positive communication, companionable relationships, democratic decision making, respect for individual needs and differences, peaceful and nonviolent approaches for resolving conflicts, and support in crisis situations.
Full Text Available Annually approximately 400,000 American children receive treatment for dog bites. Young children are at greatest risk and are frequently bitten following behavior that provokes familiar dogs. This study investigated the effects of child temperament on children’s interaction with dogs. Eighty-eight children aged 3.5–6 years interacted with a live dog. Dog and child behaviors were assessed through observational coding. Four child temperament constructs—impulsivity, inhibitory control, approach and shyness—were assessed via the parent-report Children’s Behavioral Questionnaire. Less shy children took greater risks with the dog, even after controlling for child and dog characteristics. No other temperament traits were associated with risk-taking with the dog. Based on these results, children’s behavior with unfamiliar dogs may parallel behavior with other novel or uncertain situations. Implications for dog bite intervention programs include targeting at-risk children and merging child- and parent-oriented interventions with existing programs geared toward the physical environment and the dog.
In 2010, the World Bank published a policy study on early child education (ECE) developments in Brazil, entitled "Early Child Education: Making Programs Work for Brazil's Most Important Generation. Development." This paper analyses the report's assessment of ECE policy in Brazil as well as the recommendations it provides. A critical…
Interviewees also described adaptive responses to these contextual challenges. These responses are discussed as evidence of the usefulness of theoretical and technical eclecticism, when applied with psychoanalytic mindfulness, in developing the South African parent–infant/child psychotherapy field. Journal of Child ...
Johnson, Genevieve Marie
Ecological systems theory assumes that child development is the consequence of ongoing reciprocal and spiraling interactions between the child and his/her microsystem (immediate home, school, and community environments). The increasing presence of digital technologies in children's immediate environments suggests the need for the proposed…
Uddin, Md. Jamal; Hossain, Md. Zakir; Ullah, Mohammad Ohid
This study uses data from the "Bangladesh Demographic and Health Survey (BDHS] 1999-2000" to investigate the predictors of child (age 1-4 years) mortality in a developing country like Bangladesh. The cross-tabulation and multiple logistic regression techniques have been used to estimate the predictors of child mortality. The…
The current state of service delivery to bilingual children, including those with first languages other than English or Afrikaans, is not known. This study was undertaken to ascertain how SLTs in South Africa adapt their assessment and intervention practices to cope with the multilingual and multicultural nature of the local child ...
Freeman, Nancy K.; Brown, Mac H.
Describes the Collaborative Professional Assessment Process (CPAP) to guide the evaluation of the director of early childhood programs. Examines the assumptions upon which the CPAP is based. Lists the management skills and leadership abilities of successful child care directors. Includes the Director Self-Evaluation form and a program evaluation…
In sub-Saharan Africa, many children die from diarrhea, acute respiratory illness and malaria, despite the fact that there are well recognized, inexpensive and highly effective treatments for these ailments. Healthy Child Uganda (HCU), a Ugandan-Canadian partnership, has been operating a village health volunteer program ...
Turner, Daniel; Rettenberger, Martin; Yoon, Dahlnym; Klein, Verena; Eher, Reinhard; Briken, Peer
Child sexual abuse occurring in a child- or youth-serving institution or organization has attracted great public and scientific attention. In light of the particular personal and offense-related characteristics of men who have abused children within such an institution or organization, it is of special importance to evaluate the predictive performance of currently applied risk assessment instruments in this offender population. Therefore, the present study assessed the risk ratings and predictive performance of four risk assessment instruments and one instrument assessing protective factors concerning any, violent and sexual recidivism in child sexual abusers working with children (CSA-W) in comparison with extra-familial child sexual abusers (CSA-E) and intra-familial child sexual abusers (CSA-I). The results indicate that CSA-W mostly recidivate with a sexual offense. Although all included risk measures seem to function with CSA-W, the Static-99 seems to be the instrument that performs best in predicting sexual recidivism in CSA-W. CSA-W had the most protective factors measured with the Structured Assessment of PROtective Factors (SAPROF). While the SAPROF could not predict desistance from recidivism in CSA-W, it predicted desistance from any recidivism in all CSA. As CSA-W frequently hold many indicators for pedophilic sexual interests but only a few for antisocial tendencies, it can be suggested that CSA-W are at an increased risk for sexual recidivism and thus risk measures especially designed for sexual recidivism work best in CSA-W. Nevertheless, CSA-W also hold many protective factors; however, their impact on CSA-W is not clear yet and needs further study. © The Author(s) 2014.
Jerusa Fumagalli de Salles
Full Text Available O objetivo deste estudo é apresentar o processo de desenvolvimento e validação de conteúdo do Instrumento de Avaliação Neuropsicológica Breve Infantil NEUPSILIN-INF, que avalia, de modo breve, componentes de oito funções neuropsicológicas em crianças em idade escolar: orientação, atenção, percepção visual, memória, habilidades aritméticas, linguagem, habilidades visuoconstrutivas e funções executivas. O processo envolveu: 1 análise do instrumento original NEUPSILIN e definição das funções e tarefas a serem adaptadas para avaliação neuropsicológica infantil; 2 desenvolvimento de novas tarefas consideradas fundamentais para a avaliação na infância; 3 estudo piloto 1 com a versão preliminar do instrumento; 4 análise de juízes especialistas; 5 estudos piloto 2 e 3, nova reformulação de tarefas do instrumento e elaboração de sua versão final. O instrumento apresentou adequada validade aparente e de conteúdo.The aim of this study is to present the development process and content validation of Child Brief Neuropsychological Assessment Battery NEUPSILIN-INF, which briefly assesses the components of eight neuropsychological functions in school-aged children: orientation, attention, visual perception, memory, arithmetic abilities, language, visuoconstructive abilities and executive functions. The process comprised: 1 the analysis of the original NEUPSILIN instrument and definition of the functions and tasks to be adapted for the child neuropsychological assessment; 2 the development of new tasks considered as fundamental for the assessment in children; 3 pilot study 1 with the preliminary version of the instrument; 4 analysis by specialist judges; 5 pilot studies 2 and 3, new reformulation of the instrument's tasks and preparation of its final version. The instrument presented appropriate face and content validity.
Rao, Nirmala; Sun, Jin; Ng, Sharon Sui Ngan; Ma, Kitty; Becher, Yvonne; Lee, Diana; Lau, Carrie; Zhang, Li; Chow, Chun Bong; Ip, Patrick
This paper reports on the development and validation of the Hong Kong Early Child Development Scale (HKECDS), a holistic measure of child development designed specifically for preschool children in Hong Kong. Scale development was an iterative process and the first version of the scale contained 190 items whereas the final version includes only 95. Children ranging in age from three to six years were administered trial versions of the HKECDS in Studies 1 (n = 60) and 2 (n = 240). Item analyses indicated that it is a developmental scale and that it has an appropriate level of difficulty for preschool children. It also discriminates between three- to six-year-olds from different social backgrounds in Hong Kong. The final version of the HKECDS includes items from the following eight subscales: Personal, Social and Self-Care (7 items), Language Development (13 items), Pre-academic Learning (27 items), Cognitive Development (10 items), Gross Motor (12 items), Fine Motor (9 items), Physical Fitness, Health and Safety (7 items), and Self and Society (10 items). The HKECDS is the first early child development scale which considers both the holistic development of preschool children and incorporates current expectations of early child development in Hong Kong. In this era of evidence-based decision making, it can be used to evaluate both the efficacy of targeted interventions and broader child-related public policies on early child development in Hong Kong.
van Ee, Elisa; Kleber, Rolf J; Mooren, Trudy T M
Maternal traumatization has been proposed as a risk factor for child development, but the mechanisms involved are poorly understood. This study analyzed the interrelations among maternal posttraumatic stress symptoms, parent-child interaction (emotional availability), and infants' psychosocial functioning and development among 49 asylum-seeker and refugee mothers and their children (18-42 months). Measures included assessment of mothers' trauma and comorbid symptoms (Harvard Trauma Questionnaire: R.F. Mollica et al., 1992; Hopkins Symptom Checklist: L. Derogatis, R. Lipman, K. Rickels, E. Uhlenhuth, & L. Covi, 1974), emotional availability within parent-child interaction (Emotional Availability Scales: Z. Biringen, 2008), and infants' psychosocial functioning (Child Behavior Checklist: T.M. Achenbach & L.A. Rescorla, 2000) and development (Bayley Scales of Infant Development: B.F. van der Meulen, S.A.J. Ruiter, H.C. Spelberg, & M. Smrkovsky, 2000). The results show that higher levels of maternal posttraumatic stress symptoms are associated with a higher level of psychosocial problems of infants, but not with delays in their mental or psychomotor development. The results also show that higher levels of maternal posttraumatic stress symptoms are associated with higher levels of insensitive, unstructuring, or hostile, but not intrusive, parent-child interactions. Infants show lower levels of responsiveness and involvement to their traumatized mothers. Parent-child interaction did not function as a mediator between maternal trauma symptoms and infants' psychosocial functioning. Results are discussed in relation to the dyad's regulation of emotions. Results implicate a need to reestablish attunement between traumatized mothers and their nontraumatized children. Copyright © 2012 Michigan Association for Infant Mental Health.
Presumed perinatal ischemic stroke is the term used for cases in which an old stroke is diagnosed by the consequences of it and not by the acute symptoms. Many presumed perinatal ischemic strokes have congenital hemiparesis as the first manifestation, which is usually noticed between the fourth and eighth month of life as early hand preference. That is why the clear and persistent handedness developed before one year of age must be assumed as a warning sign of probable motor sequelae. In this paper we review the medical records of 15 cases of presumed perinatal ischemic stroke to assess the age at which the consultation led to the diagnosis, reason for consultation and age at development of handedness. Sociedad Argentina de Pediatría.
Kerns, Kathryn A; Brumariu, Laura E; Seibert, Ashley
This study included two different methods to assess mother-child attachment, questionnaires, and a doll play story stem interview, so their overlap could be evaluated. In addition, we investigated how attachment is related to parenting and child depression. The sample was comprised of 10- to 12-year-olds (N = 87) and their mothers. Children completed questionnaires (assessing security, avoidance, and ambivalence), and were administered a doll play interview to assess attachment patterns (security, avoidance, ambivalence, and disorganization). Two aspects of parenting (warmth/ engagement and psychological control) were assessed with child reports and observer ratings of maternal behavior. We also obtained child reports of depressive symptoms. Questionnaire and interview measures of attachment security were related to one another, and each showed predictable associations with parenting and child depression. By contrast, results were less consistent for the ambivalent and avoidant insecure attachment patterns, although disorganized attachment showed some associations with parenting and child adjustment.
Zimmerman, Frederick J; Gilkerson, Jill; Richards, Jeffrey A; Christakis, Dimitri A; Xu, Dongxin; Gray, Sharmistha; Yapanel, Umit
To test the independent association of adult language input, television viewing, and adult-child conversations on language acquisition among infants and toddlers. Two hundred seventy-five families of children aged 2 to 48 months who were representative of the US census were enrolled in a cross-sectional study of the home language environment and child language development (phase 1). Of these, a representative sample of 71 families continued for a longitudinal assessment over 18 months (phase 2). In the cross-sectional sample, language development scores were regressed on adult word count, television viewing, and adult-child conversations, controlling for socioeconomic attributes. In the longitudinal sample, phase 2 language development scores were regressed on phase 1 language development, as well as phase 1 adult word count, television viewing, and adult-child conversations, controlling for socioeconomic attributes. In fully adjusted regressions, the effects of adult word count were significant when included alone but were partially mediated by adult-child conversations. Television viewing when included alone was significant and negative but was fully mediated by the inclusion of adult-child conversations. Adult-child conversations were significant when included alone and retained both significance and magnitude when adult word count and television exposure were included. Television exposure is not independently associated with child language development when adult-child conversations are controlled. Adult-child conversations are robustly associated with healthy language development. Parents should be encouraged not merely to provide language input to their children through reading or storytelling, but also to engage their children in two-sided conversations.
Chartier, Mariette J; Brownell, Marni D; Isaac, Michael R; Chateau, Dan; Nickel, Nathan C; Katz, Alan; Sarkar, Joykrishna; Hu, Milton; Taylor, Carole
While home visiting programs are among the most widespread interventions to support at-risk families, there is a paucity of research investigating these programs under real-world conditions. The effectiveness of Families First home visiting (FFHV) was examined for decreasing rates of being in care of child welfare, decreasing hospitalizations for maltreatment-related injuries, and improving child development at school entry. Data for 4,562 children from home visiting and 5,184 comparison children were linked to deidentified administrative health, social services, and education data. FFHV was associated with lower rates of being in care by child's first, second, and third birthday (adjusted risk ratio [aRR] = 0.75, 0.79, and 0.81, respectively) and lower rates of hospitalization for maltreatment-related injuries by third birthday (aRR = 0.59). No differences were found in child development at kindergarten. FFHV should be offered to at-risk families to decrease child maltreatment. Program enhancements are required to improve child development at school entry.
Sophie Helena Eickmann
Conclusions: The pediatrician's role in the future will include both physical and mental health, recognizing that social development, resilience, and emotional maturity are as important as physical growth and neuromotor skills in a child's life course.
This article seeks to examine critically South African early child development (ECD) in order to uncover some of the challenges that lie ahead in creating a more equitable future for its youngest children...
Lee, Richard M; Y J Kim, Adam; Zhou, Xiang
In this commentary, we put forth an Asian Americanist perspective on child development that frames, expands upon, and at times challenges the contextual, conceptual, and methodological ideas put forward by Kiang et al., Mistry et al., and Yoshikawa et al. (this volume). This Asian Americanist perspective draws upon scholarship in Asian American Studies and critical race theory to bridge the historical, conceptual, and methodological contributions of the three articles. We also aim to challenge current and future generations of scholars studying Asian American child development to look at Asian American youth and families as autonomous, self-determining agents who are capable of challenging, resisting, and affecting change in a racialized society. © 2016 The Authors. Child Development © 2016 Society for Research in Child Development, Inc.
Jensen, Lene Arnett; Larson, Reed W.
This volume brings together leading scholars to describe important new directions in research on child and adolescent development. This introductory chapter places their articles in the context of three larger trends in the field.
Журавлева, Ж. И.
The article deals with the problem of child creativity in typically developing preschoolers and their peers with different variants of dysontogenesis. The article shows that researchers consider the development of creativity and imagination of preschool children through game-based activity and productive creativity. However, they disagree on the issue of relationship between the child’s training and creativity.One variant puts forward the necessity to give the child full freedom of creative a...
Use of a "Super-child" Approach to Assess the Vitamin A Equivalence of Moringa oleifera Leaves, Develop a Compartmental Model for Vitamin A Kinetics, and Estimate Vitamin A Total Body Stores in Young Mexican Children.
Lopez-Teros, Veronica; Ford, Jennifer Lynn; Green, Michael H; Tang, Guangwen; Grusak, Michael A; Quihui-Cota, Luis; Muzhingi, Tawanda; Paz-Cassini, Mariela; Astiazaran-Garcia, Humberto
Background: Worldwide, an estimated 250 million children <5 y old are vitamin A (VA) deficient. In Mexico, despite ongoing efforts to reduce VA deficiency, it remains an important public health problem; thus, food-based interventions that increase the availability and consumption of provitamin A-rich foods should be considered.Objective: The objectives were to assess the VA equivalence of (2)H-labeled Moringa oleifera (MO) leaves and to estimate both total body stores (TBS) of VA and plasma retinol kinetics in young Mexican children.Methods: β-Carotene was intrinsically labeled by growing MO plants in a (2)H2O nutrient solution. Fifteen well-nourished children (17-35 mo old) consumed puréed MO leaves (1 mg β-carotene) and a reference dose of [(13)C10]retinyl acetate (1 mg) in oil. Blood (2 samples/child) was collected 10 times (2 or 3 children each time) over 35 d. The bioefficacy of MO leaves was calculated from areas under the composite "super-child" plasma isotope response curves, and MO VA equivalence was estimated through the use of these values; a compartmental model was developed to predict VA TBS and retinol kinetics through the use of composite plasma [(13)C10]retinol data. TBS were also estimated with isotope dilution.Results: The relative bioefficacy of β-carotene retinol activity equivalents from MO was 28%; VA equivalence was 3.3:1 by weight (0.56 μmol retinol:1 μmol β-carotene). Kinetics of plasma retinol indicate more rapid plasma appearance and turnover and more extensive recycling in these children than are observed in adults. Model-predicted mean TBS (823 μmol) was similar to values predicted using a retinol isotope dilution equation applied to data from 3 to 6 d after dosing (mean ± SD: 832 ± 176 μmol; n = 7).Conclusions: The super-child approach can be used to estimate population carotenoid bioefficacy and VA equivalence, VA status, and parameters of retinol metabolism from a composite data set. Our results provide initial estimates
Tervo, Raymond C.; Kinney, Cheryl A.
Speech and language disorders are the most common developmental problems among preschool children. Early detection and remediation of delayed language development are important in helping the child establish appropriate social behavior and acquire additional information about the world through the use of language.
Mahoney, Joseph L.; Lord, Heather; Carryl, Erica
This longitudinal study assessed the role of afterschool program (ASP) participation in the development of child obesity and peer acceptance in a sample of 439 children. Most participants lived in poverty and were Hispanic or African American. Measurements of height and weight determined obesity status and peer acceptance was assessed through…
Romanelli, Lisa Hunter; Landsverk, John; Levitt, Jessica Mass; Leslie, Laurel K.; Hurley, Maia M.; Bellonci, Christopher; Gries, Leonard T.; Pecora, Peter J.; Jensen, Peter S.
The Best Practices for Mental Health in Child Welfare Consensus Conference focused on developing guidelines in five key areas (screening and assessment, psychosocial interventions, psychopharmacologic treatment, parent engagement, and youth empowerment) related to children's mental health. This paper provides an overview of issues related to the…
Full Text Available This study evaluates the impact on child development of a group intervention with mothers and their eight-month-old babies from a marginal urban district of Lima. The groups, control and treatment, were randomized and child development was assessed before and after with the BSID-II. The intervention had a general positive impact in the children’s development, but no significant differences were found between both groups in the Mental Development Index or the Psychomotor Development Index. There was a significant effect (p < .05 in two of the BSID-II Behavioral Scale factors.
Stewart, Chris; Kirisci, Levent; Long, Abigail L; Giancola, Peter R
Neglect poses a significant risk for children throughout their development and is often linked with serious consequences that reach into adulthood. The Child Neglect Questionnaire (CNQ) fills existing gaps by incorporating multiple perspectives from both parents and the child, as well as measuring the complex phenomenon of neglect multidimensionally. Furthermore, this measure addresses the need for an instrument specifically developed for late childhood (ages 10-12), as much of the extant evidence and corresponding measures focus on young children and their mothers. A panel of three psychologists, using Cicchetti's model of child neglect as a theoretical guide, began by selecting items from an existing database. Results of exploratory and confirmatory factor analyses and item response theory demonstrated the unidimensionality of physical, emotional, educational, and supervision neglect as well as a second-order construct of child neglect. Analyses controlling for risk status due to father's substance use disorder, socioeconomic status, and child's ethnicity demonstrated that father's and mother's (parental) neglect, particularly in the child's versions, had sound concurrent and predictive validity. Concurrently, at age 10-12, the child's version of both parents' neglect correlated with their parenting behaviors evaluated by other available measures. Prospectively, from 10-12 years of age to 11-13 years of age, parental neglect predicted child's drug use frequency with coexisting psychological dysregulation, psychiatric symptoms, antisocial behavior, non-normative sexual behavior, involvement with deviant peers and leisure activities thus demonstrating sound predictive validity. Also, internal consistency and inter-rater reliability were excellent. The CNQ, particularly the child's version, may thus be useful for detecting children at high risk for parental neglect. © The Author(s) 2014.
Para Candidatos en Programas de Centros de Cuidado y Educacion Infantil con Bebes y "Toddlers": Asociado en Desarrollo Infantil Sistema de Evaluacion y Normas de Competencia CDA (Infant/Toddler Caregivers in Center-Based Programs: The Child Development Associate Assessment System and Competency Standards).
Council for Early Childhood Professional Recognition, Washington, DC.
This Spanish-language booklet outlines the requirements of the Child Development Associate (CDA) credential for caregivers working in center-based infant and toddler day care programs. Part 1 provides an overview of the CDA credentialing system and the various options, settings, standards, and stages of the CDA assessment system. Part 2 explains…
Para Candidatos en Programas de Centros de Cuidado y Educacion Infantil con Ninos de Edad Pre-escolar: Asociado en Desarrollo Infantil Sistema de Evaluacion y Normas de Competencia CDA (Preschool Caregivers in Center-Based Programs: The Child Development Associate Assessment System and Competency Standards).
Council for Early Childhood Professional Recognition, Washington, DC.
This Spanish-language booklet outlines the requirements of the Child Development Associate (CDA) credential for preschool teachers or caregivers who work in center-based preschool day care programs. Part 1 provides an overview of the CDA credentialing system and the various options, settings, standards, and stages of the CDA assessment system.…
Stern, Jessica A; Borelli, Jessica L; Smiley, Patricia A
Although empathy has been associated with helping behavior and relationship quality, little research has evaluated the role of parental empathy in the development of parent-child relationships. The current study (1) establishes preliminary validity of the Parental Affective and Cognitive Empathy Scale (PACES), a method for coding empathy from parents' narrative responses to the Parent Development Interview - Revised for School-Aged Children (PDI-R-SC), and (2) tests a theoretical model of empathy and attachment. Sixty caregivers and their children completed a battery of questionnaire and interview measures, including the PDI-R-SC and the Child Attachment Interview (CAI). Caregivers' interview narratives were scored for empathy using PACES. PACES showed good interrater reliability and good convergent validity with a self-report empathy measure. Parent empathy was positively related to child attachment security (using a continuous score for narrative coherence) and emotional openness on the CAI, as well as to child perceptions of parental warmth. Moreover, parent empathy mediated the relation between parents' self-reported attachment style and their children's attachment security. Implications for attachment theory and future directions for establishing scale validity are discussed.
Brownell, Marni D.; Isaac, Michael R.; Chateau, Dan; Nickel, Nathan C.; Katz, Alan; Sarkar, Joykrishna; Hu, Milton; Taylor, Carole
While home visiting programs are among the most widespread interventions to support at-risk families, there is a paucity of research investigating these programs under real-world conditions. The effectiveness of Families First home visiting (FFHV) was examined for decreasing rates of being in care of child welfare, decreasing hospitalizations for maltreatment-related injuries, and improving child development at school entry. Data for 4,562 children from home visiting and 5,184 comparison children were linked to deidentified administrative health, social services, and education data. FFHV was associated with lower rates of being in care by child’s first, second, and third birthday (adjusted risk ratio [aRR] = 0.75, 0.79, and 0.81, respectively) and lower rates of hospitalization for maltreatment-related injuries by third birthday (aRR = 0.59). No differences were found in child development at kindergarten. FFHV should be offered to at-risk families to decrease child maltreatment. Program enhancements are required to improve child development at school entry. PMID:28413917
Ana Paula Maurilia dos Santos
Full Text Available o objetivo deste estudo foi analisar o desenvolvimento motor de uma criança com síndrome de Down e verificar os efeitos de um programa de intervenção motora específica. Trata-se de uma pesquisa descritiva do tipo estudo de caso. Para a avaliação do desenvolvimento motor foram utilizados os testes da Escala de Desenvolvimento Motor - EDM que analisa as áreas da motricidade fina e global, equilíbrio, esquema corporal, organização espacial e temporal/linguagem, e lateralidade. Essa criança participou, respectivamente, de avaliação motora, intervenção motora (32 sessões, 2 vezes semanais e reavaliação motora. As intervenções motoras mostraram avanços positivos nas áreas da motricidade global, equilíbrio e organização espacial. A motricidade fina, esquema corporal e a organização temporal /linguagem não apresentaram avanços. Verificou-se que a linguagem foi a área de maior prejuízo. O quociente motor em todos os itens foi classificado como muito inferior, o que se caracteriza como déficit motor. Esses dados justificam a relevância de programas de intervenção motora para essa população.the objective of this study was to analyze the motor development of a child with Down syndrome and to verify the effect of a specific motor intervention program. This is a descriptive research case study. Motor development was evaluated using the Motor Development Scale - MDS, which analyzes both fine and gross motor skills as well as balance, body schema, spatial and temporal organization, language, and laterality. This child participated, respectively, of the motor assessment, motor intervention (32 sessions, twice weekly and motor reevaluation. Gains were demonstrated in motor intervention in the areas of the gross motor skills, balance and spatial organization. No improvement was shown in fine motor skills, body schema and temporal organization/ language. Language was found to be the area of lowest achievement. The motor
Abera, Mubarek; Tesfaye, Markos; Girma, Tsinuel
-displacement plethysmography. Child development was assessed at 2 years of age using Denver developmental screening test. Associations between body composition at birth and development at 2 years of age were tested using linear regression analysis. RESULTS: FFM but not FM at birth was positively associated with higher global...
Mizuno, Koji; Iwata, Kazuya; Deguchi, Takashi; Ikami, Takashi; Kubota, Masami
Child crash dummies are conventionally used for safety performance evaluations of the child restraint system (CRS) in vehicle crash tests. To investigate injuries to various body regions of a child in detail, mathematical models are useful, and provide information that cannot be analyzed by crash dummies. Therefore, in the present research, a finite element (FE) model of a 3-year-old child has been developed by model-based scaling from the AM50 human FE model, THUMS (Total HUman body for Safety). The dimensions of each body region were based on the anthropometry data of United States children, and material properties of child bone were estimated from data reported in the literature. Neck flexion, thorax impact responses, and torso flexion were validated against the response corridor of the 3-year-old Hybrid III dummy in calibration tests. A test of lap belt loading to the abdomen was also conducted. FE models of two different types of CRS, a 5-point harness and a tray shield CRS, were also made, and ECE R44 sled impact test simulations were conducted using the child FE model. The characteristics of the child FE model proved to be close to the Hybrid III and child volunteer corridor. In the ECE R44 sled test simulations using the child FE model, the head movement down and head rotation were large in the 5-point harness CRS, and chest deflection was large in the tray shield CRS. In both CRS types, the whole spine flexed in the child FE model. This behavior is different from that of the Hybrid III, where the thorax spine is stiff and only the cervical spine and lumbar spine flex. Although this child FE model has several limitations in areas such as the anatomical shapes and material properties of a child, this model can be a useful tool to examine the behavior of a child in impacts, which may be difficult to predict by using the Hybrid III dummy with its stiff thorax spine box.
Welander, Anna; Lyttkens, Carl Hampus; Nilsson, Therese
Good health is crucial for human and economic development. In particular poor health in childhood is of utmost concern since it causes irreversible damage and has implications later in life. Recent research suggests globalization is a strong force affecting adult and child health outcomes. Yet, there is much unexplained variation with respect to the globalization effect on child health, in particular in low- and middle-income countries. One factor that could explain such variation across countries is the quality of democracy. Using panel data for 70 developing countries between 1970 and 2009 this paper disentangles the relationship between globalization, democracy, and child health. Specifically the paper examines how globalization and a country's democratic status and historical experience with democracy, respectively, affect infant mortality. In line with previous research, results suggest that globalization reduces infant mortality and that the level of democracy in a country generally improves child health outcomes. Additionally, democracy matters for the size of the globalization effect on child health. If for example Côte d'Ivoire had been a democracy in the 2000-2009 period, this effect would translate into 1200 fewer infant deaths in an average year compared to the situation without democracy. We also find that nutrition is the most important mediator in the relationship. To conclude, globalization and democracy together associate with better child health in developing countries. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Lansford, Jennifer E; Bornstein, Marc H; Deater-Deckard, Kirby; Dodge, Kenneth A; Al-Hassan, Suha M; Bacchini, Dario; Bombi, Anna Silvia; Chang, Lei; Chen, Bin-Bin; Di Giunta, Laura; Malone, Patrick S; Oburu, Paul; Pastorelli, Concetta; Skinner, Ann T; Sorbring, Emma; Steinberg, Laurence; Tapanya, Sombat; Alampay, Liane Peña; Tirado, Liliana Maria Uribe; Zelli, Arnaldo
International research on parenting and child development can advance our understanding of similarities and differences in how parenting is related to children's development across countries. Challenges to conducting international research include operationalizing culture, disentangling effects within and between countries, and balancing emic and etic perspectives. Benefits of international research include testing whether findings regarding parenting and child development replicate across diverse samples, incorporating cultural and contextual diversity to foster more inclusive and representative research samples and investigators than has typically occurred, and understanding how children develop in proximal parenting and family and distal international contexts.
Sarah A. Reynolds
Full Text Available This paper examines associations between labor market participation of Chilean mothers and the cognitive, language, and socio-economic development of their children. Using a nationally-representative sample of 3-year-old children, we test if mothers’ work intensity in the two previous years is associated with child development outcomes; data were collected in 2010 when children were one year old, and again in 2012, when they were three years old. We find that children who were three years old with mothers who worked for higher fractions of their children’s lives in the previous two years perform significantly better on all tests (cognitive, language, socio-emotional than children whose mothers had worked less, while controlling for baseline test performance. These main effects did not remain significant with the inclusion of a wide range of socio-economic, demographic control variables, however. Our results were similarly null when using an IV analysis or a propensity score matching approach. We provide descriptive information on theoretical pathways by which maternal work may influence child development. Though several of these pathways (e.g. preschool, toys, maternal stress seem to be associated with both maternal work and child development outcomes, the pathways are not sufficiently strong to generate an association between maternal work and child development. We conclude that Chilean mothers’ employment in early childhood generally does not have an effect on child development.
Ali, Syed Sadat; Dhaded; Goudar, Shivprasad
In India, child malnutrition is mostly the result of high levels of exposure to infection and inappropriate infant and young child feeding and caring practices and has its origins almost entirely during the first 2 to 3 years of life. This study aims in assessing the impact of breast feeding on child development of children at 3 years. About 530 children at 3 years were assessed for developmental delay by Ages and Stages Questionnaire (ASQ). Growth measurements and hemoglobin estimation were carried out at the time of developmental evaluation. Physical growth was assessed by using World Health Organization growth charts. Children were assessed for their duration of breast feeding and weaning period. They were analyzed for the feeding practices versus developmental outcome. Chi-square test was used to compare the categorical variables. Differences were considered significant at P development of the child and should be promoted in the present generation. In India, child malnutrition is responsible for a higher percentage of the country's burden of disease. Undernutrition also affects cognitive and motor development and undermines educational attainment; and ultimately impacts on productivity at work and at home, with adverse implications for income and economic growth.
De Los Reyes, Andres; Kazdin, Alan E.
Examined whether mother-child discrepancies in perceived child behavior problems relate to dysfunctional interactions between mother and child and stress in the mother. Participants included 239 children (6–16 years old; 58 girls, 181 boys) referred for oppositional, aggressive, and antisocial behavior, and their mothers. Mother-child discrepancies in perceived child behavior problems were related to mother-child conflict. Moreover, maternal stress mediated this relationship. The findings sug...
Nair, Prasanna; Schuler, Maureen E; Black, Maureen M; Kettinger, Laurie; Harrington, Donna
To assess the relationship between cumulative environmental risks and early intervention, parenting attitudes, potential for child abuse and child development in substance abusing mothers. We studied 161 substance-abusing women, from a randomized longitudinal study of a home based early intervention, who had custody of their children through 18 months. The intervention group received weekly home visits in the first 6 months and biweekly visits from 6 to 18 months. Parenting stress and child abuse potential were assessed at 6 and 18 months postpartum. Children's mental and motor development (Bayley MDI and PDI) and language development (REEL) were assessed at 6, 12, and 18 months postpartum. Ten maternal risk factors were assessed: maternal depression, domestic violence, nondomestic violence, family size, incarceration, no significant other in home, negative life events, psychiatric problems, homelessness, and severity of drug use. Level of risk was recoded into four categories (2 or less, 3, 4, and 5 or more), which had adequate cell sizes for repeated measures analysis. Repeated measures analyses were run to examine how level of risk and group (intervention or control) were related to parenting stress, child abuse potential, and children's mental, motor and language development over time. Parenting stress and child abuse potential were higher for women with five risks or more compared with women who had four or fewer risks; children's mental, motor, and language development were not related to level of risk. Children in the intervention group had significantly higher scores on the PDI at 6 and 18 months (107.4 vs. 103.6 and 101.1 vs. 97.2) and had marginally better scores on the MDI at 6 and 12 months (107.7 vs. 104.2 and 103.6 vs. 100.1), compared to the control group. Compared to drug-abusing women with fewer than five risks, women with five or more risks found parenting more stressful and indicated greater inclination towards abusive and neglectful behavior
Larissa de Souza Siqueira
Full Text Available Abstract Introduction: The Hayling Test assesses the components of initiation, inhibition, cognitive flexibility and verbal speed by means of a sentence completion task. This study presents the process of developing the Brazilian version of the Child Hayling Test (CHT and reports evidence of its content validity. Methods: 139 people took part in the study. The adaptation was performed by seven translators and 12 specialist judges. An initial sample of 92 healthy children was recruited to test a selection of sentences adapted from previous adult and pediatric versions of the instrument, and a sample of 28 healthy children was recruited for pilot testing of the final version. The instrument was developed in seven stages: 1 translation, 2 back-translation, 3 comparison of translated versions, 4 preparation of new stimuli, 5 data collection with healthy children to analyze comprehension of the stimuli and analyses by the authors against the psycholinguistic criteria adopted, 6 analyses conducted by judges who are specialists in neuropsychology or linguistics, and 7 the pilot study. Results: Twenty-four of the 72 sentences constructed were selected on the basis of 70-100% agreement between judges evaluating what they assessed and level of comprehensibility. The pilot study revealed better performance by older children, providing evidence of the instrument's sensitivity to developmental factors. Conclusions: Future studies employing this version of CHT with clinical pediatric populations who have frontal lesions and dysfunctions and in related areas are needed to test functional and differential diagnoses of preserved or impaired executive functions.
Duck, S C
Reliable measurements taken by trained personnel using appropriate equipment are essential in assessment of the slowly growing child. Linear growth plotted on appropriate statistical charts and expected growth based on parental heights are indicators of inappropriately reduced linear growth. Children older than three years of age who grow less than 1.75 in (4.5 cm) per year should be evaluated. Family and personal medical history (including prenatal and birth information) are important in the identification of familial short stature, constitutional delay and other causes of proportionate growth disorders. Other conditions, including chromosomal disorder, systemic disease and endocrine dysfunction, may be discovered during physical examination or appropriate laboratory investigation. Disproportionate growth of the limbs and trunk suggests the presence of a bone or collagen disorder. Bone age data based on radiographs of the left hand may assist in predicting the child's final height.
Phillips-Hing, Christine Dawn
Sixty families with their eldest child, aged 3 or 4 years, participated in this study of parent-child interactions and the development of social competency. Mother-child and father-child dyads were observed for 10 minutes each, completing either a gross motor or fine motor semi-structured laboratory construction task. Parental directiveness and scaffolding were coded and measures of child temperament, child receptive language, and child social competency in preschool were obtained. As expecte...
Black, Maureen M; Dewey, Kathryn G
Sustainable development, a foundation of the post-2015 global agenda, depends on healthy and productive citizens. The origins of adult health begin early in life, stemming from genetic-environmental interactions that include adequate nutrition and opportunities for responsive learning. Inequities associated with inadequate nutrition and early learning opportunities can undermine children's health and development, thereby compromising their productivity and societal contributions. Transactional theory serves as a useful framework for examining the associations that link early child development and nutrition because it emphasizes the interplay that occurs between children and the environment, mediated through caregiver interactions. Although single interventions targeting early child development or nutrition can be effective, there is limited evidence on the development, implementation, evaluation, and scaling up of integrated interventions. This manuscript introduces a special edition of papers on six topics central to integrated child development/nutrition interventions: (1) review of integrated interventions; (2) methods and topics in designing integrated interventions; (3) economic considerations related to integrated interventions; (4) capacity-building considerations; (5) examples of integrated interventions; and (6) policy implications of integrated interventions. Ensuring the health and development of infants and young children through integrated child development/nutrition interventions promotes equity, a critical component of sustainable development. © 2014 New York Academy of Sciences.
Banham, Victoria; Hanson, Jane; Higgins, Alice; Jarrett, Michelle
In Australia, an exploratory study was grounded in U. Bronfenbrenner's ecological perspective of human development and his principles of reciprocity, affective tone, and developmental opportunity and developmental risk. It used D. Baumrind's (1979) work on child rearing styles (authoritarian, authoritative, and permissive) to explore the effect of…
Nabors, Martha L.; Edwards, Linda C.
Presents three teacher-preschooler scenarios illustrating teacher actions that hinder creativity and social development. Discusses the connection between psychosocial and creative development in light of Erik Erikson's eight stages of psychosocial development. Suggests that teachers need to be flexible, consider children's feelings, foster…
... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false How are child development center... HOMELAND SECURITY PERSONNEL CHILD DEVELOPMENT SERVICES General § 55.11 How are child development center fees established? (a) Fees for the provision of services at child development centers shall be set by...
Clarke, Alina Nadira; Cilenti, Dorothy
Purpose An assessment of the National Maternal and Child Health Workforce Development Center (the Center) was conducted to describe (1) effects of the Center's training on the use of collaborative leadership practices by MCH leaders, and (2) perceived barriers to collaboration for MCH leaders. The Center provides services to strengthen MCH professionals' skills in three core areas: Change Management/Adaptive Leadership, Evidence-Based Decision Making, and Systems Integration. Description This descriptive qualitative study compares eight interview responses from a sample of the Center's participants and findings from a document review of the training curriculum against an existing framework of collaborative leadership themes. Assessment Systems thinking tools and related training were highly referenced, and the interviewees often related process-based leadership practices with their applied learning health transformation projects. Perceived barriers to sustaining collaborative work included: (1) a tendency for state agencies to have siloed priorities, (2) difficulty achieving a consensus to move a project forward without individual partners disengaging, (3) strained organizational partnerships when the individual representative leaves that partnering organization, and (4) difficulty in sustaining project-based partnerships past the short term. Conclusion The findings in this study suggest that investments in leadership development training for MCH professionals, such as the Center, can provide opportunities for participants to utilize collaborative leadership practices.
This article uses an analysis of speech to qualitatively examine the relationship between a blind child and his environment, his use of semiotic signs, and his identity development. A brief overview of development in blind children is followed by a case study. The theoretical construct of this article, which is interactionism, is infused into the…
Preiss, David Daniel; Calcagni, Elisa; Grau, Valeska
The article reviews recent classroom research developed in South America related to child and adolescent development. We review work about three themes: ethnicity, school climate and violence, and the learning process. The few studies found on ethnicity and classroom experiences told a story of invisibility, if not exclusion and discrimination.…
Maholmes, Valerie, Ed.; Lomonaco, Carmela Gina, Ed.
Developed for an NIH training institute, this volume is organized around the most frequently asked questions by researchers starting their careers in applied research in child and adolescent development. With contributions from the leading scholars in the field, actual research experiences highlight the challenges one faces in conducting such…
Jacobsen, Stine Lindahl; H. McKinney, Cathy
Using a music therapy approach to assess emotional communication and parent–child interaction is new to the field of child protection. However, musical improvisations in music therapy has long been known as an analogue to affect attunement and early non-verbal communication between parent...... dyads underwent two video recorded music therapy assessment sessions. Video analyses focused on autonomy relationship, turns, and parental response types producing scores on Mutual Attunement, Nonverbal Communication Skills and Emotional Parental Response. Psychometric analyses of the APC-R included...... and infant, which called for an investigation of the value of music therapy within the field of family assessment and family therapy. More specifically, we wanted to investigate and further strengthen assessment of parenting competencies (APC). We developed scores and examined the psychometric properties...
Yoshikawa, Hirokazu; Leyva, Diana; Snow, Catherine E.; Treviño, Ernesto; Barata, M. Clara; Weiland, Christina; Gomez, Celia J.; Moreno, Lorenzo; Rolla, Andrea; D'Sa, Nikhit; Arbour, Mary Catherine
We assessed impacts on classroom quality and on 5 child language and behavioral outcomes of a 2-year teacher professional-development program for publicly funded prekindergarten and kindergarten in Chile. This cluster-randomized trial included 64 schools (child N = 1,876). The program incorporated workshops and in-classroom coaching. We found…
Full Text Available In our digitally connected world, the law is arguably behind the technological developments of the Internet age. While this causes many issues for law enforcement, it is of particular concern in the area of child pornography in the United States. With the wide availability of technologies such as digital cameras, peer-to-peer file sharing, strong encryption, Internet anonymizers and cloud computing, the creation and distribution of child pornography has become more widespread. Simultaneously, fighting the growth of this crime has become more difficult. This paper explores the development of both the legal and technological environments surrounding digital child pornography. In doing so, we cover the complications that court decisions have given law enforcement who are trying to investigate and prosecute child pornographers. We then provide a review of the technologies used in this crime and the forensic challenges that cloud computing creates for law enforcement. We note that both legal and technological developments since the 1990s seem to be working to the advantage of users and sellers of child pornography. Before concluding, we provide a discussion and offer observations regarding this subject.
Sophie Helena Eickmann
Full Text Available Abstract Objective: To review the epidemiology and update the scientific knowledge on the problems of development and behavior in childhood, and the recommendations for the role of the pediatrician in identifying and managing delays and disturbances in child development and mental health. Sources: A search for relevant literature was performed in the PubMed and Scopus databases and publications of the National Scientific Council on the Developing Child. Summary of the findings: With the decline in the incidence of communicable diseases in children, problems with development, behavior, and emotional regulation are increasingly becoming a part of the work of pediatricians, yet many are not trained and feel uncomfortable about this extension of their role. The available screening tools for child development and behavior are reviewed, and a ‘school readiness’ checklist is presented, together with recommendations on how the pediatrician can incorporate developmental surveillance into routine practice, aware of the need for children to acquire social, emotional, and cognitive skills so that they can develop their full potential. Conclusions: The pediatrician's role in the future will include both physical and mental health, recognizing that social development, resilience, and emotional maturity are as important as physical growth and neuromotor skills in a child's life course.
Rodriguez, Christina M; Russa, Mary Bower; Harmon, Nancy
The present investigation reports on the development and initial validation of a new analog task, the Parent-Child Aggression Acceptability Movie Task (P-CAAM), intended to assess respondents' acceptance of parent-child aggression, including both physical discipline and physical abuse. Two independent samples were utilized to develop and evaluate the P-CAAM: an undergraduate sample to initially pilot the task and a separate sample of normative parents for additional assessment of validity. Scores from the P-CAAM were compared to related measures, including measures of self-reported disciplinary attitudes, child abuse potential, harsh parenting style, and use and escalation of physical discipline practices on another analog parenting task. Across the studies, the P-CAAM demonstrated acceptable internal consistency and construct validity, evidencing mild to moderate associations with both self-report and analog measures. Participants demonstrating increased acceptance of physical discipline and physical abuse on the P-CAAM analog task also reported greater approval of physical discipline, greater use of and escalation of physical discipline, harsher parenting styles, and higher child abuse potential on two separate measures. The P-CAAM analog appears to offer a promising alternative and/or supplement to conventional self-report measures, assessing attitudes regarding the acceptability of parent-child aggression in a way that is less likely to be influenced by social desirability. Suggestions for future evaluations with alternative samples, as well as possible implications of the data for disciplinary reactions are discussed. The development of alternatives to self-report measurement may lead to clarification of theoretical models of abuse in ways that lead to improvements in intervention programming; analogs may also provide a useful means to assess intervention programming outcomes. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Persky, Susan; Goldring, Megan R; Turner, Sara A; Cohen, Rachel W; Kistler, William D
Assessment of parents' child feeding behavior is challenging, and there is need for additional methodological approaches. Virtual reality technology allows for the creation of behavioral measures, and its implementation overcomes several limitations of existing methods. This report evaluates the validity and usability of the Virtual Reality (VR) Buffet among a sample of 52 parents of children aged 3-7. Participants served a meal of pasta and apple juice in both a virtual setting and real-world setting (counterbalanced and separated by a distractor task). They then created another meal for their child, this time choosing from the full set of food options in the VR Buffet. Finally, participants completed a food estimation task followed by a questionnaire, which assessed their perceptions of the VR Buffet. Results revealed that the amount of virtual pasta served by parents correlated significantly with the amount of real pasta they served, r s = 0.613, p virtual and real apple juice, r s = 0.822, p < .0001. Furthermore, parents' perception of the calorie content of chosen foods was significantly correlated with observed calorie content (r s = 0.438, p = .002), and parents agreed that they would feed the meal they created to their child (M = 4.43, SD = 0.82 on a 1-5 scale). The data presented here demonstrate that parent behavior in the VR Buffet is highly related to real-world behavior, and that the tool is well-rated by parents. Given the data presented and the potential benefits of the abundant behavioral data the VR Buffet can provide, we conclude that it is a valid and needed addition to the array of tools for assessing feeding behavior. Published by Elsevier Ltd.
Anme, Tokie; Segal, Uma A.
With increasing numbers of women joining the workforce, there is a need for quality childcare. This project, conducted in Japan and using a large number of participants, sought to standardize an evaluation scale to measure the development of children. The development of children under six years of age (N = 22,819) who are enrolled in childcare…
Young, Mary Eming
The convergence of knowledge from neuroscience, social science and economics on the importance of early life or experiences on brain development has tremendous implication on the future of societies...
Parental traumatization has been proposed as a risk factor for child development, but the mechanisms involved are poorly understood. In this dissertation refugee and asylum seeker parents with traumatic experiences were assessed with their young non traumatized children to investigate the effect of
Fernald, Lia C. H.; Weber, Ann; Galasso, Emanuela; Ratsifandrihamanana, Lisy
Our objectives were to document and examine socioeconomic gradients across a comprehensive set of child development measures in a population living in extreme poverty, and to interpret these gradients in light of findings from the neuroscience literature. We assessed a nationally representative sample of 3-6-year-old children (n = 1332) from 150…
Algorithms which specify procedures for proper diagnosis and treatment of common diseases have been available to primary health care services in less developed countries for the past decade. Whereas each algorithm has usually been limited to a single ailment, children often present with the need for more comprehensive assessment and treatment. Treating just one illness in these children leads to incomplete treatment or missed opportunities for preventive services. To address this problem, the World Health Organization has recently developed a Sick Child Algorithm (SCA) for children aged 2 months-5 years. In addition to specifying case management procedures for acute respiratory illness, diarrhea/dehydration, fever, otitis, and malnutrition, the SCA prompts a check of the child's immunization status. The specificity and sensitivity of this SCA were field-tested in Kenya and the Gambia. In Kenya, the Malaria Branch of the US Centers for Disease Control and Prevention tested the SCA under typical conditions in Siaya District. The Quality Assurance Project of the Center for Human Services carried out a parallel facility-based systems analysis at the request of the Malaria Branch. The assessment which took place in September-October 1993, took the form of observations of provider/patient interactions, provider interviews, and verification of supplies and equipment in 19 rural health facilities to determine how current practices compare to actions prescribed by the SCA. This will reveal the type and amount of technical support needed to achieve conformity to the SCA's clinical practice recommendations. The data will allow officials to devise the proper training programs and will predict quality improvements likely to be achieved through adoption of the SCA in terms of effective case treatment and fewer missed immunization opportunities. Preliminary analysis indicates that the primary health care delivery in Siya deviates in several significant respects from performance
Souza, Juliana Martins de; Cruz, Diná de Almeida Lopes Monteiro da; Veríssimo, Maria De La Ó Ramallo
The paper proposes new diagnoses on child development (CD) for NANDA International. The study followed the recommended steps of Developmental Processes for NANDA International Nursing Diagnoses. It was a secondary analysis study on the findings of a concept analysis study on CD. A proposal of labels and components of three diagnoses: "Delayed child development," "Risk for delayed child development," and "Readiness for enhanced child development." The proposed diagnoses represent all the complexity of CD. The proposed diagnoses can support nurses in the development of a comprehensive care plan on the health of children. OBJETIVO: propor novos diagnósticos de enfermagem para a NANDA-International que abordem o desenvolvimento infantil. MÉTODO: Este estudo seguiu as etapas recomendadas para o desenvolvimento de diagnósticos de enfermagem da NANDA-International. Foi realizado a partir dos resultados da análise de conceito do termo desenvolvimento infantil. Propostos os títulos e os componentes de três diagnósticos: "Atraso no desenvolvimento infantil," "Risco de atraso no desenvolvimento infantil," e "Disposição para desenvolvimento infantil melhorado." CONCLUSÕES: Os diagnósticos propostos contemplam toda a complexidade do desenvolvimento infantil. IMPLICAÇÕES PARA A PRÁTICA DE ENFERMAGEM: Os novos diagnósticos podem subsidiar o enfermeiro na elaboração de um plano de cuidados integrais à saúde da criança. © 2016 NANDA International, Inc.
Shrestha, M P
This article is based on plenary address given before the International Symposium on the Girl Child in Asia, a Neglected Majority. The author answers the question of how do the efforts in child survival relate to the real welfare of children. The statistics are grim. 40,000 children 5 years died today. 1 child dies every 2 seconds. Every other second a child is severely disabled with a permanent mental or physical handicap, mostly in developing countries. More female than male children die even though, biologically, it ought to be the reverse. Most of the 14 million dying in a year and comparable figures for those who are disabled are preventable. Safe drinking water, appropriate sanitation, immunization, basic nutritional measures, and the guarantee of basic human rights would contribute greatly to changing the trend. 500 million children have insufficient food and clothing. The status of girls, particularly those in Nepal, is also grim. In 1981, 14.6% of Nepali children 10-14 years were either married, widowed, or divorced. Female illiteracy is high. Approximately 102 million of those 6-11 years old are not in school. In 50% of developing countries, universal primary education is decreasing. 57% of 10-14 year olds in Nepal are economically active. Daily, hundreds of girls are subjected to bonded labor, marriages without consent, sexual abuse and prostitution. 150 million street children are begging, picking rags, or engaged in underpaid, unhealthy and unsafe labor. The goal of ratifying the UN Convention on the Rights of the Child is not enough. Implementation is required. The rights of the child begin in utero. Women and girls are economically, politically, and socially powerless. Their complaints are frequently misunderstood, misinterpreted, or ignored. The development and education of the child must be appropriate to the historical, physical, sociocultural and demographic conditions of the country. Empowerment of women and participation in the social and
Melkman, Eran P; Hershkowitz, Irit; Zur, Ronit
A major challenge in cases of child sexual abuse (CSA) is determining the credibility of children's reports. Consequently cases may be misclassified as false or deemed 'no judgment possible'. Based on a large national sample of reports of CSA made in Israel in 2014, the study examines child and event characteristics contributing to the probability that reports of abuse would be judged credible. National data files of all children aged 3-14, who were referred for investigation following suspected victimization of sexual abuse, and had disclosed sexual abuse, were analyzed. Cases were classified as either 'credible' or 'no judgment possible'. The probability of reaching a 'credible' judgment was examined in relation to characteristics of the child (age, gender, cognitive delay, marital status of the parents,) and of the abusive event (abuse severity, frequency, perpetrator-victim relationship, perpetrator's use of grooming, and perpetrator's use of coercion), controlling for investigator's identity at the cluster level of the analysis. Of 1563 cases analyzed, 57.9% were assessed as credible. The most powerful predictors of a credible judgment were older age and absence of a cognitive delay. Reports of children to married parents, who experienced a single abusive event that involved perpetrator's use of grooming, were also more likely to be judged as credible. Rates of credible judgments found are lower than expected suggesting under-identification of truthful reports of CSA. In particular, those cases of severe and multiple abuse involving younger and cognitively delayed children are the ones with the lowest chances of being assessed as credible. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Dec 6, 2011 ... Strengthening regional economic integration for Af- rica's development: This would help build stronger and more resilient economies promote African econo- mies. Increased South-South collaboration: offers new op- portunities for transforming African economies linking up with China, Brazil, and India.
... of food to the mouth Social and Emotional Development enjoys peekaboo, pat-a-cake, and other social games likes being read to and looking at picture books cries when you leave the room feels proud when he or she gains a new skill like standing, walking, etc. Cognitive Skills (Thinking and ...
Kim, Hyun Sik
In this article, I propose a three-stage estimation model to examine the effect of parental divorce on the development of children's cognitive skills and noncognitive traits. Using a framework that includes pre-, in-, and post-divorce time periods, I disentangle the complex factors affecting children of divorce. I use the Early Childhood…
Falbe, Jennifer; Kenney, Erica L; Henderson, Kathryn E; Schwartz, Marlene B
There is a growing interest in studying the influence of child-care center policies on the health of preschool-aged children. To develop a reliable and valid instrument to quantitatively evaluate the quality of written nutrition and physical activity policies at child-care centers. Reliability and validation study. A 65-item measure was created to evaluate five areas of child-care center policies: nutrition education, nutrition standards for foods and beverages, promoting healthy eating in the child-care setting, physical activity, and communication and evaluation. The total scale and each subscale were scored on comprehensiveness and strength. Analyses were conducted on 94 independent policies from Connecticut child-care centers participating in the Child and Adult Care Food Program. Intraclass correlation coefficient was calculated to measure inter-rater reliability, and Cronbach's α was used to estimate internal consistency. To test construct validity, t tests were used to assess differences in scores between Head Start and non-Head Start centers and between National Association for the Education of Young Children-accredited and nonaccredited centers. Inter-rater reliability was high for total comprehensiveness and strength scores (intraclass correlation coefficient=0.98 and 0.94, respectively) and subscale scores (intraclass correlation coefficient=0.84 to 0.99). Subscales were adequately internally reliable (Cronbach's α=.53 to .83). Comprehensiveness and strength scores were higher for Head Start centers than non-Head Start centers across most domains and higher for National Association for the Education of Young Children-accredited centers than nonaccredited centers across some but not all domains, providing evidence of construct validity. This instrument provides a standardized method to analyze and compare the comprehensiveness and strength of written nutrition and physical activity policies in child-care centers. Copyright © 2011 American Dietetic
Koutra, Katerina; Roumeliotaki, Theano; Kyriklaki, Andriani; Kampouri, Mariza; Sarri, Katerina; Vassilaki, Maria; Bitsios, Panos; Kogevinas, Manolis; Chatzi, Leda
Poor perinatal maternal mental health has been linked with negative outcomes on early child development; however, the importance of maternal personality has been neglected thus far. We aimed to examine the effects of antenatal and postnatal maternal mental health, including assessment of maternal personality characteristics, on child neuropsychological and behavioral development at preschool years in a population based mother-child cohort (Rhea Study) in Crete, Greece. Self-reported measures of maternal depression (EPDS), trait anxiety (STAI-Trait) and personality traits (EPQ-R) were assessed in a sample of 288 women at 28-32 weeks of gestation. A larger sample of 642 mothers completed the EPDS scale at 8 weeks postpartum. Children's neuropsychological (MSCA) and behavioral (ADHDT and SDQ) development were assessed at 4 years of age. Linear regression analyses were used to estimate the associations between the exposures and outcomes of interest after adjustment for potential confounders. Regarding child neuropsychological development, increased postnatal depressive symptoms were associated with child's perceptual performance, whereas increased maternal psychoticism was linked with child's motor ability at 4 years of age. Furthermore, elevated levels of maternal depression during pregnancy and postpartum, and the predisposing personality characteristics of trait anxiety and neuroticism, were associated with children's behavioral difficulties. A clinical diagnostic instrument for maternal mental health was not used and assessment of children's behavior was based on maternal report. These findings suggest that poor perinatal maternal mental health and an adverse personality profile may be associated with impaired child neuropsychological and behavioral development at preschool years. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
Cygańska, Anna; Truszczyńska-Baszak, Aleksandra; Drzał-Grabiec, Justyna; Tarnowski, Adam
Playing violin may lead to overload of the locomotor system. The aim of this study was to assess body parameters for trunk symmetry in child violinists and compare with the control group. We analyzed body posture of 101 children aged 7-12 years, mean age 11.09 ± 9.46, 49 child violinists and control group of 52 children. We found statistically significant differences for the difference in depth of the lower corners of scapulae and upper posterior spina iliaca, though greater asymmetries were found in the clinical control group. The remaining parameter values are close to significance, which may suggest that the process of postural change among the children had just started and that the existing asymmetries were easy to correct. We found positive correlation between body height and the difference in distance of the lower corners of scapulae from the spine: OL (p= 0.029, correlation coefficient value was 0.167) and the Thales triangle height: (p= 0.018, correlation coefficient was 0.214). Position maintained while playing the violin changed some parameters characterizing the curvature of the spine in frontal plane. We found the importance of detailed analysis of children body posture and its critical assessment.
Adequate health, nutrition, and education during childhood are essential for human development. Deficits in these realms undermine the capacity to acquire the necessary skills to perform in life. Social policies addressing the causes of disadvantages in child development take up an important place in the social agenda. The Mexican Oportunidades program is such a policy. Investments in children’s health, nutrition, and education by the program are expected to facilitate children’s development....
Most scholars consider gratitude as a moral emotion, with only few seeing it as a character trait. As a result, no systematic mechanism has ever been attempted to develop gratitude in children. Given the social issue of widespread lack of gratitude in the one-child generations of China, this article attempts to outline a mechanism of parental…
When two or more languages are part of a child's world, we are presented with a rich opportunity to learn something about language in general and about how the mind works. In this book, Norbert Francis examines the development of bilingual proficiency and the different kinds of competence that come together in making up its component parts. In…
... much of them are transmitted to the younger generations. As a result, Igbo children do not use them or understand them as symbols rather they see them as ordinary words, expressions and objects. Therefore, the writers suggest that the Igbo child of today's aesthetic and value can be developed through symbolic treasure ...
evolutionary process, a change from a simple stage to a complex and better stage; an upward movement process. ..... centrally in the discourses of scholars from Sociology, Psychology, Education and. Theatre Arts. For instance, child development has been identified as one of the major concerns of dramatists from the two ...
Lasser, Jon; Fite, Kathleen; Wadende, Akinyi P.
This article reviews the traditional and evolving constructions of fatherhood in Kenyan society, with an emphasis on fatherhood's impact on child development outcomes. Western influence and increased access to technology have changed the role of the Kenyan father, and in turn affected his role in the family. Special attention is given to…
Fourteen years ago, the first article on molecular genetics was published in this journal: "Child Development, Molecular Genetics, and What to Do With Genes Once They Are Found" (R. Plomin & M. Rutter, 1998). The goal of the article was to outline what developmentalists can do with genes once they are found. These new directions for developmental…
Zimmermann, Laura K.
Interest in the use of technology in the classroom continues to grow. The current study included 100 students who registered for a 200 level child development class at a private university in Northern Virginia. Students were from 4 different sections taught by the same professor in different semesters. Two of the sections used a textbook. The…
Dreher, Melanie; Hudgins, Rebekah
Using field-based observations and standardized measures of the home environment and child development, the authors followed 59 rural Jamaican women and their offspring from birth to age 5. The findings suggest that conjugal multiplicity, a female reproductive pattern characterized by multiple unions, maternal unmarried status, and absent father,…
McCombie, Sally M.
The current media are laden with reports of the many significant problems facing today's youth. In fact, parenting has become a national topic of discussion. Parenting instruction, a responsibility that had previously rested in the home, has become part of educational curricula. Courses in child development are offered for high school students in…
Serpell, Robert; Marfo, Kofi
We reflect on ways in which research presented in earlier chapters responds to challenges of generating an African child development field and identify additional issues calling for the field's attention. The chapters collectively display a variety of African contexts and reflexive evidence of the authors' African cultural roots. Connecting…
Perspective: Socio-economic development and child survival. ... Nigerian Journal of Paediatrics ... Soon after independence in the 1950's and 60's many African countries suffered political unrest, social upheaval and economic instability with military coups and or civil wars, leaving 20 million internally displaced or refugees, ...
Wasik, Barbara A.; Jacobi-Vessels, Jill L.
Play is an important activity in young children's lives. It is how children explore their world and build knowledge. Although free play, which is play that is totally child directed, contributes to children's learning, self-regulation and motivation, adults' participation in children's play is critical in their development, especially their…
By bolstering students' sense of community in their school, educators can actually reduce the need for numerous prevention programs competing for time. When widely implemented, the Child Development Program fosters academic motivation and enjoyment of school while reducing alcohol and marijuana use among fifth and sixth graders. (MLH)
Bingley, Paul; Christensen, Kaare; Jensen, Vibeke Myrup
Understanding the causal relationship between parental schooling and child development is important to create polices raising schooling level. We use unique Danish administrative data with information on identical twins to estimate the effect of parental schooling on short-run and long-run outcomes....... By applying within twin fixed effect techniques we are able to take heritable endowments transmitted from parent to child into account. We find OLS to be consistently upward biased due to endowments. Further, paternal schooling has no causal effect on infant and early childhood health but increases children...
Zheng, Yi; Zheng, Xixi
China has a population of 1.3 billion, of which 238 million are children under age 15. The rapid economic development and social reforms that have taken place in recent years all had a great influence on child and adolescent mental health. Though a nationwide prevalence study for child and adolescent mental disorders in China is lacking, several regional studies have shown the prevalence of mental disorders in children to be close to the worldwide prevalence of 20%. This article reviews the c...
Black, M M; Nitz, K
To examine the relationships among grandmother co-residence, parenting, and early child development among low income, urban families with teen mothers whose children vary in growth (adequate versus failure to thrive [FTT]). Seventy-nine adolescent mothers of infants and toddlers (42 with adequate growth and 37 with FTT) recruited from a primary care clinic. Data collected during a laboratory evaluation included a videotaped session of mother and child during feeding, developmental assessment (Bayley Scales), and questionnaires on family support, perceived parenting stress, and maternal perception of child's temperament. Multivariate analyses of covariance. Independent variables were growth (adequate/FTT) and grandmother co-residence (present/absent). Dependent variables were maternal warmth during feeding, maternal perception of child's temperament, child's mealtime behavior, and child's cognitive and motor development. Covariates were child's age, maternal age, maternal education, parity, family support, and perceived stress. Teen mothers living with grandmothers were younger (mean age = 17.4 versus 18.6, p = .03) and had fewer children (mean parity = 1.2 versus 1.7, p = .001). Mothers displayed more warmth when not living with grandmothers (p = .01). Among adequately growing children, grandmother co-residence was associated with better motor skills (106 versus 98, p = .039). In contrast, among children with FTT, grandmother co-residence was associated with lower motor skills (90 versus 100, p = .017). Although multigenerational families may be protective for some teen parents and their young children, grandmother co-residence was not associated with maternal warmth. With the added stress of a poorly growing child, grandmother co-residence was associated with less optimal motor development.
Gur, Gokce; Cakar, Nilgun; Kiremitci, Saba; Taktak, Aysel; Basaran, Ozge; Uncu, Nermin
Henoch-Schonlein purpura (HSP) is the most common vasculitis in children. Vasculitic processes can involve the lung. Although diffuse alveolar hemorrhage may be seen as one of the manifestation of HSP, it is not a frequent presentation. Here we reported the case of a 10-year-old girl with HSP nephritis who developed pulmonary hemorrhage. The patient was treated successfully with intravenous methylprednisolone. A review of the literature revealed that young age may be a good prognostic sign and that immunosuppressive drugs and supportive management are essential in the treatment. Sociedad Argentina de Pediatría.
Donnelly, Louis; Garfinkel, Irwin; Brooks-Gunn, Jeanne; Wagner, Brandon G; James, Sarah; McLanahan, Sara
Recent research by Chetty and colleagues finds that children's chances of upward mobility are affected by the communities in which they grow up [Chetty R, Hendren N (2016) Working paper 23002]. However, the developmental pathways through which communities of origin translate into future economic gain are not well understood. In this paper we examine the association between Chetty and Hendren's county-level measure of intergenerational mobility and children's cognitive and behavioral development. Focusing on children from low-income families, we find that growing up in a county with high upward mobility is associated with fewer externalizing behavioral problems by age 3 years and with substantial gains in cognitive test scores between ages 3 and 9 years. Growing up in a county with 1 SD better intergenerational mobility accounts for ∼20% of the gap in developmental outcomes between children from low- and high-income families. Collectively, our findings suggest that the developmental processes through which residential contexts promote upward mobility begin early in childhood and involve the enrichment of both cognitive and social-emotional development.
Al-Jilaihawi, Sarah; Borg, Kevin; Maguire, Sabine; Hodes, Deborah
A perception exists that there are few benefits of a paediatric assessment in historic child sexual abuse (CSA), as the likelihood of finding forensic evidence is low. To determine the value of a comprehensive paediatric assessment in a dedicated clinic for children and young people who present following suspicion or allegation of historic CSA. All children with suspected or alleged historic CSA, defined as >7 days after the last episode of sexual assault in pubertal girls, or >3 days for prepubertal girls and all boys, were assessed in a specialised paediatric clinic. Clinic data were collected prospectively between October 2009 and November 2014 and through retrospective case note review. Among the 249 children who presented with possible historic CSA, ages ranged from 0 to 17 years (median 7, SD 4.3). Of these children, 141 (57%) had a medical concern(s) related to the referral reason, 78 (31%) had an unrelated medical concern(s) and 55 (22%) had emotional or behavioural concerns requiring onward referral, while 18 (7%) children had physical signs supportive of CSA. Findings referable to social care were identified in 26 cases (10%), the police in 6 cases and 15 (6%) parents required professional help for anxiety symptoms. This study highlights the value of a comprehensive paediatric assessment in a dedicated clinic for cases of suspected or alleged historic CSA, by identifying a broad variety of unmet health needs in this group. The findings have important implications for the child, their families and the multiagency team. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://www.bmj.com/company/products-services/rights-and-licensing/.
Hanington, Lucy; Ramchandani, Paul; Stein, Alan
Current research supports a link between maternal depression and difficult child temperament. The direction of effect is often assumed to be from parent to child, but few studies have addressed child to parent effects. In a large cohort study, the Avon Longitudinal Study of Parents and Children (ALSPAC) (N?=?14663), we aimed to further existing knowledge by investigating the relationship between maternal and paternal depressive symptoms and child temperament, and determining the direction of ...
... for the child as well as home visits to the parents. The major purpose of the classroom or socialization activities is to help meet the child's development needs and to foster the child's social... Start grantees must provide comprehensive child development services, as defined in the Head Start...
Matthews, Hannah; Schmit, Stephanie
Child care subsidies help make quality child care affordable for low-income parents, allowing them to attend work or school to support their families while ensuring their children's healthy development. The Child Care and Development Block Grant (CCDBG) is the primary source of federal funding for child care subsidies for low-income working…
Schwebel, David C; Brezausek, Carl M
In 2010, 8.6 million children were treated for unintentional injuries in American emergency departments. Child engagement in sports and recreation offers many health benefits but also exposure to injury risks. In this analysis, we consider possible developmental risk factors in a review of age, sex, and incidence of 39 sport and recreational injuries. To assess (1) how the incidence of 39 sport and recreational injuries changed through each year of child and adolescent development, ages 1 to 18 years, and (2) sex differences. Design : Descriptive epidemiology study. Emergency department visits across the United States, as reported in the 2001-2008 National Electronic Injury Surveillance System database. Data represent population-wide emergency department visits in the United States. Main Outcome Measure(s) : Pediatric sport- and recreation-related injuries requiring treatment in hospital emergency departments. Almost 37 pediatric sport or recreational injuries are treated hourly in the United States. The incidence of sport- and recreation-related injuries peaks at widely different ages. Team-sport injuries tend to peak in the middle teen years, playground injuries peak in the early elementary ages and then drop off slowly, and bicycling injuries peak in the preteen years but are a common cause of injury throughout childhood and adolescence. Bowling injuries peaked at the earliest age (4 years), and injuries linked to camping and personal watercraft peaked at the oldest age (18 years). The 5 most common causes of sport and recreational injuries across development, in order, were basketball, football, bicycling, playgrounds, and soccer. Sex disparities were common in the incidence of pediatric sport and recreational injuries. Both biological and sociocultural factors likely influence the developmental aspects of pediatric sport and recreational injury risk. Biologically, changes in perception, cognition, and motor control might influence injury risk. Socioculturally
Miller, Laurie C; Joshi, Neena; Lohani, Mahendra; Rogers, Beatrice; Loraditch, Meghan; Houser, Robert; Singh, Padma; Mahato, Shubh
More than 50% of children in Nepal are malnourished. Economic growth and poverty reduction are not always sufficient to improve the health and nutritional status of children. Heifer Nepal uses livestock training as a tool for community development and poverty alleviation but does not directly address child health and nutrition. To systematically assess the effects of Heifer activities on child health and nutrition. The study was a 2-year, longitudinal, randomized, controlled trial in six communities in Nepal (both Terai and hills), pair-matched for specific characteristics, randomly assigned to receive Heifer community development activities at baseline (intervention) or 1 year (control). At 6-month intervals over a period of 2 years, child anthropometric and comprehensive household surveys were performed. Four hundred fifteen households were enrolled containing 607 children 6 months to 5 years of age. The intervention and control communities were equivalent for baseline socioeconomic status, household size, ownership of land and animals, and child nutrition and health. At 12 months (prior to animal donations), the Terai intervention group had improved child weight (p = .04), improved child height (p = .05), and reduced sick days (p = .03), as well as increased household income (p = .004), increased ownership of animals (p = .04) and land (p = .04), and improved sanitation practices (p < .01). In all districts, longer participation in Heifer activities corresponded to more improvement in child height-for-age z-scores. Heifer interventions resulted in improved socioeconomic status and household income per family member. Children under 60 months of age in the intervention group had greater incremental improvement in height-for-age and weight-for-age z-scores than children in the control group, and longer participation in Heifer activities was associated with better growth. Poverty alleviation programs, such as Heifer, may indirectly benefit child growth.
Fleming, Andrew P; McMahon, Robert J; King, Kevin M
Structured observations of parent-child interactions are commonly used in research and clinical settings, but require additional empirical support. The current study examined the capacity of child-directed play, parent-directed play, and parent-directed chore interaction analogs to uniquely predict the development of conduct problems across a 6-year follow-up period. Parent-child observations were collected from 338 families from high-risk neighborhoods during the summer following the child's first-grade year. Participating children were 49.2 % female, 54.4 % white, and 45.6 % black, and had an average age of 7.52 years at the first assessment. Conduct problems were assessed via parent report and teacher report at five assessment points between first grade and seventh grade. Latent growth curve modeling was used to analyze predictors of conduct problem trajectory across this 6-year follow-up period. When race, sex, socioeconomic status, and maternal depressive symptoms were controlled, parental negative attention during child-directed play predicted higher levels of parent-reported conduct problems concurrently and after a 6-year follow-up period. Parental negative attention during child-directed play also predicted higher teacher-reported conduct problems 6 years later. Findings support the use of child-directed play and parent-directed chore analogs in predicting longitudinal development of conduct problems. The presence of parental negative attention during child-directed play appears to be an especially important predictor of greater conduct problems over time and across multiple domains. Additionally, the potential importance of task-incongruent behavior is proposed for further study.
Palermo, D S
In this article, I have presented a brief history of research directed toward examining the developing ability of children to comprehend and produce metaphor that occurs with increasing age. I argued that the child's ability in this area does not rest upon developing an ability specific to metaphor, but, instead, metaphor comprehension and production, not unlike other forms of cognition, rests upon a developing theory of the world founded upon an expanding knowledge base. Given that knowledge is central to the child's cognitive development, I turned to an examination of the nature of knowledge. The discussion of knowledge drawn from philosophers who have attempted to propose theories of knowledge in answer to the question, "What is knowledge?" Traditional justificationalist theories of knowledge and subsequently developed nonjustificationalist theories were considered. The discussion was focused upon a number of issues which have divided philosophers with respect to their treatment of knowledge in order to highlight the problematic nature of knowledge. Cognitive and developmental psychologists may wish to consider some of these issues and the implications they hold for their theories as they study knowledge and/or invoke knowledge as a part of their theory construction. Some of the implications of the issues were illustrated in a discussion of the relation of knowledge to the developing child's comprehension and production of metaphor.
Full Text Available Since children are the key stakeholders supporting and being affected by sustainable development, the framework for the Sustainable Child Development Index (SCDI was proposed. It addresses social, economic and environmental dimensions of sustainable development by considering seven relevant themes of child development, i.e., health, education, safety, economic status, relationship, environmental aspects and participation. However, an indicator set for initiating the SCDI is still missing. In this study, indicators for the themes, subthemes and criteria of SCDI are identified from literature and then analyzed regarding data availability. Sixty-six indicators with statistical data covering at least 100 countries are selected as the indicator set for the SCDI. The results indicate that data availability is best for indicators describing the themes of health and education, and worst for indicators addressing the themes of relationship and participation. Furthermore, 21 subthemes and 50 criteria described by indicators with limited data availability are identified for future indicator and data development. By providing an initial indicator set and screening the indicators with regard to data availability, the practicality of the SCDI framework is expected. Furthermore, the indicator set can serve as a potential indicator pool for other child and sustainable development related studies.
Measham, Toby; Rousseau, Cécile; Nadeau, Lucie
To look at the specificities of the work of a Transcultural Child Psychiatry Team developed to meet the need for specialized services for Montreal and Quebec's culturally diverse immigrant and refugee pediatric population. A Transcultural Child Psychiatry Team was started at McGill University in 1995. The clinic's development and method of service provision for its patient population will be described. Modalities of assessment and treatment are modified to meet the needs of the team's clientele and also reflect the philosophical underpinnings of the team's practitioners. In this model of service delivery, current mental health care practice is modified in order to address the social specificities and cultural diversity of transcultural child psychiatric populations.
Iwayama, Mariko; Kira, Ryutaro; Kinukawa, Naoko; Sakai, Yasunari; Torisu, Hiroyuki; Sanefuji, Masafumi; Ishizaki, Yoshito; Nose, Yoshiaki; Matsumoto, Toshimichi; Hara, Toshiro
The aim of the present study was to determine whether parental age has any influence on child health. Well-baby check-up data at 1 month and at 12 months of age were used. The trends of parental age in association with growth measurements, incidence of physical and developmental abnormalities, occurrence of low birthweight, and maternal history of spontaneous abortion were analyzed. Associations between increasing paternal age and incidence of psychomotor developmental delay at 12 months, increasing paternal and maternal age and increasing birthweight, and increasing parental age and higher incidence of history of spontaneous abortion were found. The incidence of low-birthweight infants was significantly decreased with increasing paternal age. Not only increasing maternal age but also increasing paternal age have influences on child development and growth in the general population. © 2011 The Authors. Pediatrics International © 2011 Japan Pediatric Society.
Engle, Patrice L; Black, Maureen M
Poverty affects a child's development and educational outcomes beginning in the earliest years of life, both directly and indirectly through mediated, moderated, and transactional processes. School readiness, or the child's ability to use and profit from school, has been recognized as playing a unique role in escape from poverty in the United States and increasingly in developing countries. It is a critical element but needs to be supported by many other components of a poverty-alleviation strategy, such as improved opportunity structures and empowerment of families. The paper reviews evidence from interventions to improve school readiness of children in poverty, both in the United States and in developing countries, and provides recommendations for future research and action.
Ozcan Dagdemir; Hakan Acaroglu
Child labour widely measured by child labour participation rates in literature is considered by non-attendance rates in primary education in this study. Along with this approach, it is attempted to investigate in what closeness the child labour ratios of countries are also measured by school non-attendance rates. The data is collected from UNICEF and World Bank. 85 developing countries take part in cross-country analysis by ordinary least square technique. The time period interval is 2000-200...
Alexandre Freitas Marchiori
Full Text Available Summary The study was conducted at the Centre Municipal Education Child (CMEI "Sinclair Phillips," located in the city of Vitoria / ES, in the quarter Caratoíra. It is worth emphasizing the importance of believing in the potential and the knowledge that each child brings from an early age, because it is a development and be in full in terms of broadening their knowledge from the opportunities given to it, aiming to form a citizen critical. It is for the purchase of motor skills, promote health, cognitive development (intellectual, literacy and transmission of knowledge and culture / art historically constituted. The creativity and autonomy of the child always been the guiding objectives of the proposed work. He had the following objectives: to consolidate the Body of Culture Movement, working with social learning; provide social inclusion, developing the creativity; lead and supporting construction of autonomy; stimulate the initiative and diversity; provoke awareness of social rules; literacy; provide access the arts; articulate knowledge lived / worked in the school; chance rescue experiences of childhood, and transmit the culture children. The classes are not based in a single perspective, but allowed diverse forms of work, taking the child and its development as the focus of work. Another point of support was the adoption of Culture, Body Movement and Critical-emancipatory to develop intervention and that enabled a rich and varied work. The results are perceived in the day-to-day life of children, demonstrated by the actions of acceptance of others, recognition of the rules of coexistence, the materialization of learning: reading, writing and interpretation of some children's stories - this includes its production / living standalone of children, beyond access to culture and arts offered during the school year. Key Words: Children's Education, Physical Education, school practice, teaching.
Full Text Available This research aims to study the composition and indications 1. The Child Development Centre under the local governments in UdonThani province 2. Study the current state and the desired operating child care centers under the jurisdiction of local governments in UdonThani province. 3. Develop the child development centers under the local governments in UdonThani province. The operation is divided. Phase one of the elements and indicators, the Child Development Center. By synthesis from text books related research. And evaluation by a qualified person. Phase two elements and indicators were constructed questionnaire. To study the present and desirable. Population data collection for research. A representative of the Executive Committee of the Child Development Centre under the local government of the province has analyzed data from 364 people on average. And standard deviation Phase III data results from the second phase for the index needs and prioritize the needs of formula PNI modified = (I-D / D and synthesize data from a study the agency has procedures governing. Child development centers of excellence. The Child Development Center under the Local governments in UdonThani province. The results showed that: 1 Analysis of components and indicators, the Child Development Center. Overall the level. With an average value of 4.26 and standard deviation equal to 0.56 indicators of the elements included in the appropriate level. With an average value of 4.13 and standard deviation equal to 0.67. 2 Analysis of the current condition of the child development center. According to the respondents of the Board of Management of Child Development Centers. Researchers analyzed using mean (Mean and standard deviation (Standard Deviation interpretation of the criteria were at the high level. With an average of 3.89 and standard deviation equal to 0.63 unpleasant condition that the child development center. Interpretation of the criteria were at the highest level
Antoniou, E E; Roefs, A; Kremers, S P J; Jansen, A; Gubbels, J S; Sleddens, E F C; Thijs, C
Children's picky eating behaviour has been linked both to being overweight and underweight. However, the role of parenting practices in this relationship has rarely been investigated. The present study aimed to clarify the direction of the association between picky eating and weight status and to examine the moderating role of food parenting practices. The present study comprised a longitudinal study on the effects of picky eating on child weight status within the KOALA Birth Cohort Study, the Netherlands. Mothers and their children were included in the analyses. Children's picky eating behaviour and food parenting practices were assessed at baseline (child age 5 years). Their weight status was assessed repeatedly until age 9 years. Mixed effects linear and logistic regressions were used to compare picky eaters (n = 403) and non-picky eaters (n = 621) on changes in weight status over the years. At baseline of age 5 years, picky eaters were slightly shorter, more often underweight and less often overweight than non-picky eaters, whereas energy intake in relation to body weight (kJ kg(-1)) was similar. Picky eaters with a normal weight at baseline had no increased risk of becoming underweight during follow-up until age 9 years, and were less likely to become overweight compared to non-picky eaters. There were no interactions with food parenting practices. The parents of picky eaters more often reported pressuring their child to eat and restrict unhealthy food intake compared to parents of non-picky eaters. The association between picky eating and child weight status was not influenced by parenting practices. © 2015 The British Dietetic Association Ltd.
Webbink, E.; Smits, J.P.J.M.; Jong, E. de
We study household and context determinants of child labor for 150,000 children in 11 developing countries, with child labor rates ranging from 2 to over 20 percent. Multilevel analysis showed socio-economic factors to be still major determinants of child labor, with less child labor in households
Full Text Available A female foetus in her mother’s womb was exposed to high concentrations of alcohol at each stage of pregnancy on a long-term basis, which resulted in a permanent disability. In addition to a number of deficiencies in the overall functioning of the body of the child, there are serious problems pertaining to verbal communication. This thesis aims to describe foetal alcohol syndrome (FAS disease and present the basic problems with communication functions in a child, caused by damage of brain structures responsible for speech development. The thesis includes a speech diagnosis and therapy program adapted to the presented case. In the Discussion Section we have presented characteristics of communication disorders in case of children with FAS and the description of developmental malformations, neurobehavioral disorders, and environmental factors affecting the development of the child’s speech.
A mother-child intervention program in adolescent mothers and their children to improve maternal sensitivity, child responsiveness and child development (the TeeMo study): study protocol for a randomized controlled trial.
Firk, Christine; Dahmen, Brigitte; Lehmann, Christin; Niessen, Anke; Koslowski, Julia; Rauch, Geraldine; Schwarte, Reinhild; Stich, Kerstin; Konrad, Kerstin; Herpertz-Dahlmann, Beate
Children of adolescent mothers present a high-risk group for child neglect and maltreatment. Previous findings suggest that early interventions can reduce maltreatment by improving the quality of mother-child interaction, particularly maternal sensitivity. The aim of the current study is to evaluate the effects of a mother-child intervention program using home visits and video-feedback regarding mother-child interaction (STEEP-b) plus psychiatric treatment of the mother in cases where mental illness is present compared with TAU (treatment as usual, that is, standardized support by the child welfare system) on enhancing maternal sensitivity and child responsiveness in adolescent, high-risk mothers. The second aim of the current project is to investigate behavioral and neural differences between adolescent and adult mothers at baseline and postintervention. This is a randomized controlled trial (RCT) with 120 high-risk adolescent mothers (25 years) will additionally be recruited to investigate behavioral and neural differences between the adolescent and adult group. Blind assessments will take place at T1 (pre-intervention), at the end of the 9-month intervention (T2, postintervention) and 6 months postintervention (T3, follow-up). Moderators of treatment outcomes and sociodemographic data will be assessed at T1. The primary outcome hypothesis is that STEEP-b added to treatment as usual will improve maternal sensitivity and child responsiveness compared with treatment as usual alone in high-risk adolescent mothers. The primary hypothesis will be evaluated at the end of the 9-month follow-up assessment based on the intention-to-treat principle. The trial is funded by the German Ministry for Research and Education (BMBF). Data collection started in October 2012. This is a randomized controlled trial that evaluates the effects of an early intervention program (STEEP-b) on the quality of mother-child interaction and child development in adolescent, high-risk mothers
Kekoni, Taru; Miettinen, Janissa; Häkälä, Niina; Savolainen, Anssi
Previous research has demonstrated that children who grow up in foster family care – along with other child welfare recipients – manage less well in adulthood compared to those children who do not. Given this challenge, this integrative literature review locates the critical factors that either positively or negatively affect a child’s development in foster family care. The articles were analysed using theory-driven content classification in relation to Bronfenbrenner’s bioecological framewor...
Henderson, Kathryn E; Grode, Gabrielle M; Middleton, Ann E; Kenney, Erica L; Falbe, Jennifer; Schwartz, Marlene B
Licensed child-care centers represent an opportunity to positively influence children's health behaviors. Valid and easy-to-use measures of the child-care environment are needed to assess the influence of environmental change on health. To develop and validate a self-administered survey to assess the nutrition and physical activity environment of child-care centers, and to identify domains that may be evaluated adequately through self-report. A survey was developed to assess four areas related to nutrition and physical activity: center policies, practices related to the social environment, physical environment, and nutrition quality. Development involved review of the literature, existing measures, and regulations/standards as well as collaboration with a working group. The survey was pilot tested and feedback was sought from expert consultants. It was administered statewide and validated against a menu rating tool, interviews with a center director, and a direct observation tool that was developed for this study. Participating sites were drawn from Child and Adult Care Food Program-participating licensed Connecticut child-care centers serving 13 or more children aged 3 to 5 years. Survey responses from 146 center directors were included, as were 62 center menus, and director interviews and observational data from 33 sites. PRIMARY OUTCOMES/STATISTICAL ANALYSES: Criterion validity of the survey was assessed through percent agreement with mirroring items in the additional measures. Healthy and unhealthy food scores were calculated for menu and survey tools, and Pearson correlations were computed. Percent agreement with criterion outcomes ranged from 39% to 97%, with 61% of items achieving agreement ≥80%. Agreement was highest for nutrition and policy domains, and lowest for physical activity and barriers to promoting health. Correlations between food scores across measures were moderate. The self-report survey demonstrated adequate criterion validity. We make
Wills, Russell; Ritchie, Miranda; Wilson, Mollie
To improve detection and quality of assessment of child and partner abuse within a health service. A formal organisational change approach was used to implement the New Zealand Family Violence Intervention Guidelines in a mid-sized regional health service. The approach includes obtaining senior management support, community collaboration, developing resources to support practice, research, evaluation and training. Formal pre-post evaluations were conducted of the training. Barriers and enablers of practice change were assessed through 85 interviews with 60 staff. More than 6000 clinical records were audited to assess rates of questioning for partner abuse. Identifications of partner abuse and referrals made were counted through the Family Violence Accessory File. Referrals to the Department of Child, Youth and Family Services (CYFS) were recorded routinely by the CYFS. Audits assessed quality of assessment of child and partner abuse, when identified. More than 700 staff were trained in dual assessment for child and partner abuse. Evaluations demonstrate improved confidence following training, though staff still need support. Barriers and enablers to asking about partner abuse were identified. Referrals from the health service to the CYFS increased from 10 per quarter to 70 per quarter. Identification of partner abuse increased from 30 to 80 per 6-month period. Routine questioning rates for partner abuse vary between services. Achieving and sustaining improved rates of identification and quality of assessment of child and partner abuse is possible with a formal organisational change approach.
Full Text Available To determine the relationship between caries and overall child development in three-year-old children in the cities of Linares and Talca, Chile, 2014-2015. Method: Cross-sectional study conducted in a sample of 170 preschool children attending daycare centers in Linares and Talca. Four dimensions of child development (language, cognition, motor skills and socio-emotional development were qualitatively assessed using the child learning and development test (TADI, for its acronym in Spanish. Nutritional development was calculated with the weight/height index. Caries history was assessed by the dmft index and compromised tissue quantification. Statistical analysis was performed using Pearson's rho, ANOVA, Student’s t-test, Fisher’s exact test and Kruskal-Wallis. Results: A negative linear correlation was observed between dmft and total TADI score (r=-0.20, p=0.00, and the dimensions of language (r=-0.19, p=0.01, cognition (r=-0.18, p=0.02 and socio-emotional development (r=-0.21, p=0.01. Preschoolers with a dmft of >6.5 had a lower average TADI score than those with a dmft of <2.6 (p=0.009. There were no statistically significant differences in the level of compromised tissue quantification between preschool children with normal and altered development. No statistically significant association between dmft and nutritional development was found. Conclusion: A relationship between caries severity and overall child development in three-year-old preschool children was observed. Longitudinal studies are required to assess causality.
Ramakrishnan, Usha; Goldenberg, Tamar; Allen, Lindsay H
Micronutrient deficiencies are common and often co-occur in many developing countries. Several studies have examined the benefits of providing multiple micronutrient (MMN) interventions during pregnancy and childhood, but the implications for programs remain unclear. The key objective of this review is to summarize what is known about the efficacy of MMN interventions during early childhood on functional outcomes, namely, child health, survival, growth, and development, to guide policy and identify gaps for future research. We identified review articles including meta-analyses and intervention studies that evaluated the benefits of MMN interventions (3 or more micronutrients) in children (child morbidity, anemia, and growth. Two studies found no effects on child mortality. The findings for respiratory illness and diarrhea are mixed, although suggestive of benefit when provided as fortified foods. There is evidence from several controlled trials (>25) and 2 meta-analyses that MMN interventions improve hemoglobin concentrations and reduce anemia, but the effects were small compared to providing only iron or iron with folic acid. Two recent meta-analyses and several intervention trials also indicated that MMN interventions improve linear growth compared to providing a placebo or single nutrients. Much less is known about the effects on MMN interventions during early childhood on motor and mental development. In summary, MMN interventions may result in improved outcomes for children in settings where micronutrient deficiencies are widespread.
... facilities and professionals, public health, environmental, social and cognitive science professional... HUMAN SERVICES National Institutes of Health National Institute of Child Health and Human Development... Institute of Child Health and Human Development (NICHD), the National Institutes of Health (NIH) will...
... collection projects, the National Institute of Child Health and Human Development (NICHD), the National... HUMAN SERVICES National Institutes of Health National Institute of Child Health and Human Development; New Proposed Collection; Comment Request; Environmental Science Formative Research Methodology Studies...
Bentley, Margaret E; Johnson, Susan L; Wasser, Heather; Creed-Kanashiro, Hilary; Shroff, Monal; Fernandez Rao, Sylvia; Cunningham, Melissa
Nutritional and developmental insults in the first few years of life have profound public health implications, including substantial contributions to neonatal, infant, and early childhood morbidity and mortality, as well as longer term effects on cognitive development, school achievement, and worker productivity. Optimal development that can lead to the attainment of an individual's fullest potential, therefore, requires a combination of genetic capacity, adequate nutrition, psychosocial stimulation, and safe, clean physical environments. Researchers and policymakers have called for integrated child nutrition and development interventions for more than 20 years, yet there are only a handful of efficacy trials and even fewer examples of integrated interventions that have been taken to scale. While a critical component in the design of such interventions is formative research, there is a dearth of information in both the literature and policy arenas to guide this phase of the process. To move the field forward, this paper first provides an overview of formative research methods with a focus on qualitative inquiry, a description of the critical domains to be assessed (infant and young child feeding, responsive feeding, and child development), and currently available resources. Application of these methods is provided through a real-world case study--the design of an integrated nutrition and child development efficacy trial in Andhra Pradesh, India. Recommendations for next steps are discussed, the most important of which is the need for a comprehensive set of formative guidelines for designing locally tailored, culturally appropriate, integrated interventions. © 2013 New York Academy of Sciences.
Meirsschaut, Mieke; Roeyers, Herbert; Warreyn, Petra
The parenting experiences of mothers in a family with a child with autism spectrum disorder (ASD) and a typically developing (TD) child were studied using a qualitative analysis of mothers' perceptions of the impact of autism on family and personal life. An additional quantitative comparison was performed to evaluate the effect of ASD on mothers'…
Grey, Ben; Farnfield, Steve
Reder and Duncan's well-known studies of the 1990s on fatal child abuse drew attention to how parental scripts regarding their children could dangerously distort relationships in ways that were sometimes fatal to children. This article reports on a new system for assessing the 'meaning of the child to the parent', called the Meaning of the Child Interview (MotC). Parents are interviewed using the established Parent Development Interview, or equivalent, and the transcript of the interview is then analysed according to parental sensitivity and likely risk to the child. The MotC constructs were developed from those used in observed parent-child interaction (specifically, the CARE-Index) and the form of discourse analysis used in the Dynamic Maturational Model - Adult Attachment Interview, allowing a more systemic and inter-subjective understanding of parenting representations than often put forward. This article discusses the theoretical background to the MotC, gives a brief review of similar measures and then introduces the coding system and patterns of caregiving. The validity of the MotC is addressed elsewhere.
Kraljević, Jelena Kuvač; Cepanec, Maja; Simleša, Sanja
Gesture and language are tightly connected during the development of a child's communication skills. Gestures mostly precede and define the way of language development; even opposite direction has been found. Few recent studies have focused on the relationship between specific gestures and specific word categories, emphasising that the onset of one gesture type predicts the onset of certain word categories or of the earliest word combinations. The aim of this study was to analyse predicative roles of different gesture types on the onset of first word categories in a child's early expressive vocabulary. Our data show that different types of gestures predict different types of word production. Object gestures predict open-class words from the age of 13 months, and gestural routines predict closed-class words and social terms from 8 months. Receptive vocabulary has a strong mediating role for all linguistically defined categories (open- and closed-class words) but not for social terms, which are the largest word category in a child's early expressive vocabulary. Accordingly, main contribution of this study is to define the impact of different gesture types on early expressive vocabulary and to determine the role of receptive vocabulary in gesture-expressive vocabulary relation in the Croatian language. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
The paper is purported to examine the consequences of possible labour market reform in the developing economies on the incidence of child labour and economic well-being of the child labour supplying families. A two-sector, full-employment general equilibrium structure with child labour and imperfection in the market for adult labour has been used for the analytical purpose. Although this policy is likely to lower the incidence of child labour the welfare of the families supplying child labour...
... HUMAN SERVICES 45 CFR Part 98 Child Care and Development Fund (CCDF) Program; Reopening of Comment... comments on the proposed rule for the Child Care and Development Fund (CCDF), published in the Federal... proposed rule for the Child Care and Development Fund (CCDF) in the Federal Register on May 20, 2013 (78 FR...
... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Who is eligible for child development services? 55.5 Section 55.5 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY PERSONNEL CHILD DEVELOPMENT SERVICES General § 55.5 Who is eligible for child development services...
... Shriver National Institute of Child Health & Human Development; Notice of Closed Meeting Pursuant to... Institute of Child Health and Human Development Special Emphasis Panel; Nature and Acquisition of Speech... Review, Eunice Kennedy Shriver National Institute of Child Health and Human Development, NIH, 6100...
... Kennedy Shriver National Institute of Child Health & Human Development; Notice of Closed Meeting Pursuant... privacy. Name of Committee: National Institute of Child Health and Human Development Special Emphasis... Institute of Child Health and Human Development, NIH, 6100 Executive Blvd., Room 5B01, Bethesda, MD 20892...
size reductions, after-school programs that promote personal/social skills). Another 21 strategies were classified as having consistent evidence of positive outcomes from high-quality observational studies only, while 28 strategies had insufficient evidence available to assess their effectiveness based on published reviews. We did not limit the review to studies conducted in the United States, but the vast majority of them were U.S.-based, and the results therefore are most applicable to the U.S. context. Conclusions Based on our synthesis of published literature on community development strategies, we provide an illustration combining a comprehensive set of evidence-based strategies to promote child health and development across a wide-range of child health outcomes. PMID:24138839
Alphonso, Aimee; Auerbach, Marc; Bechtel, Kirsten; Bilodeau, Kyle; Gawel, Marcie; Koziel, Jeannette; Whitfill, Travis; Tiyyagura, Gunjan Kamdar
To develop and provide validity evidence for a performance checklist to evaluate the child abuse screening behaviors of prehospital providers. Checklist Development: We developed the first iteration of the checklist after review of the relevant literature and on the basis of the authors' clinical experience. Next, a panel of six content experts participated in three rounds of Delphi review to reach consensus on the final checklist items. Checklist Validation: Twenty-eight emergency medical services (EMS) providers (16 EMT-Basics, 12 EMT-Paramedics) participated in a standardized simulated case of physical child abuse to an infant followed by one-on-one semi-structured qualitative interviews. Three reviewers scored the videotaped performance using the final checklist. Light's kappa and Cronbach's alpha were calculated to assess inter-rater reliability (IRR) and internal consistency, respectively. The correlation of successful child abuse screening with checklist task completion and with participant characteristics were compared using Pearson's chi squared test to gather evidence for construct validity. The Delphi review process resulted in a final checklist that included 24 items classified with trichotomous scoring (done, not done, or not applicable). The overall IRR of the three raters was 0.70 using Light's kappa, indicating substantial agreement. Internal consistency of the checklist was low, with an overall Cronbach's alpha of 0.61. Of 28 participants, only 14 (50%) successfully screened for child abuse in simulation. Participants who successfully screened for child abuse did not differ significantly from those who failed to screen in terms of training level, past experience with child abuse reporting, or self-reported confidence in detecting child abuse (all p > 0.30). Of all 24 tasks, only the task of exposing the infant significantly correlated with successful detection of child abuse (p child abuse checklist that demonstrated strong content validity and
Dietz, T.; Obeng, F.; Obure, J.; Zaal, F.
The starting point for development evaluations should be how the recipients of development assistance experience change, rather than the set perspectives of the evaluators. The participatory development assessment (PDA) methodology is designed to involve recipients in evaluations.
Urbain-Gauthier, Nadine; Wendland, Jaqueline
Among the multiple risk factors, the emergence of conduct problems in young children may be linked to harsh parenting and child's temperamental difficulties, leading to a reciprocal early discordant relationship. Little is known about the characteristics of early parent-child interactions in young children with physical aggression. The purpose of the current study was to evaluate the characteristics of mother-child interactions in dyads referred for excessive physical aggression in young children under 5 years of age compared to mother-child interactions in typically developing young children. Mother-child interactions were assessed during a free-play session in both a clinical sample ( N = 70, child mean age = 3.5 years) and a nonclinical sample ( N = 80, child mean age = 3.5 years) by using the Rating Scale of Interaction Style (Clark and Seifer, adapted by Molitor and Mayes). Significant differences were found between several interactive features in clinical and nonclinical dyads. In clinical dyads, mothers' behaviors were often characterized by intrusiveness and criticism toward children, and poor facilitative positioning. Children with excessive aggressive behavior often displayed poor communication, initiation of bids, and poor responsiveness toward the mother. They displayed fewer sustained bouts of play than typically developing children did. In clinical dyads, strong positive correlations were found between child responsiveness and maternal interest in engagement ( r = .41, p children with excessive aggressive behavior develop disrupted mother-infant interactions from a very young age. Several negative interactive features and correlations between child behavior and maternal behavior were found in clinical samples. The effects of these features add up and probably strengthen each other, thus leading to interactive difficulties from a very young age. More attention should be paid to early parent-child interactions in case of
Brentani, Alexandra; Fink, Günther
While a growing body of evidence has investigated the relationship between maternal mental health and child development, evidence on children's early life outcomes remains mixed. We analyze the empirical relationship between maternal depression and children's development at age one using data from the São Paulo Western Region Cohort project. Seven hundred and ninety-eight (798) mother-child dyads living in the Butantã-Jaguaré' region of São Paulo were assessed through a home visit between January and March 2015. Maternal mental health was assessed using the Edinburgh Postnatal Depression Scale (EPDS). Mothers were classified as "possibly depressed" if their EPDS score was between 10 and 13 and as "likely depressed" if their EPDS score was > 13. The child outcomes analyzed were height, weight, and overall development as assessed by the Ages and Stages Questionnaire (ASQ). Height and weight were age-normalized using WHO growth standards. Stunting was defined as height-for-age z-score (HAZ) 2. Adjusted and unadjusted linear regression models were used to assess the associations between Edinburgh scores and child outcomes. No association was found between maternal depression variables and children's height, weight, stunting, and obesity. Positive associations were found between possible depression and ASQ (delta = 0.33; 95CI 0.11-0.54; p-valuechild development in the study setting analyzed. Further research will be needed to understand this lack of association: while it is possible that caregivers' mental health did not affect caregiving behavior, it is possible that the effect of maternal depression can vary according to timing, persistence, and intensity. It is also possible that the EPDS instrument may fail to identify mothers with clinical depression, or that children with depressed mothers get increased support from other family members or public early childhood focused programs.
Bottorff, Joan L; Oliffe, John L; Kelly, Mary T; Johnson, Joy L; Chan, Anna
In this article we explore the micro-social context of parental tobacco use in the first years of a child's life and early childhood. We conducted individual interviews with 28 mothers and fathers during the 4 years following the birth of their child. Using grounded theory methods, we identified the predominant explanatory concept in parents' accounts as the need to reconcile being a parent and smoking. Desires to become smoke-free coexisted with five types of parent-child interactions: (a) protecting the defenseless child, (b) concealing smoking and cigarettes from the mimicking child, (c) reinforcing smoking as bad with the communicative child, (d) making guilt-driven promises to the fearful child, and (e) relinquishing personal responsibility to the autonomous child. We examine the agency of the child in influencing parents' smoking practices, the importance of children's observational learning in the early years, and the reciprocal nature of parent-child interactions related to parents' smoking behavior.
There is a global concern to curtail the prevalence of child abuse. However, certain difficulties are posed in meeting this objective in Nigeria, because child social workers often lack the practical or theoretical skills for detecting those children that are susceptible to abuse and thus, in need of early protective measures.
Emiroğlu, Fatma Neslihan Inal; Kurul, Semra; Akay, Aynur; Miral, Süha; Dirik, Eray
Neurologic symptoms such as headache, vertigo, dizziness, and fainting can create a diagnostic problem in pediatric neurology practice because they are also the most common presenting symptoms of psychiatric disorders. Children, especially adolescents, who are often admitted with such autonomic symptoms, are frequently misdiagnosed. In this study, we aimed to investigate the psychiatric morbidity and comorbidity rate in children and adolescents presenting with neurologic symptoms such as headache, vertigo, and syncope. We investigated 31 children who presented with these symptoms. All children were evaluated for their medical history and had a physical and neurologic examination. We attempted to rule out a possible organic etiology. All patients received a complete laboratory examination (blood count, electroencephalography), pediatric cardiology and otorhinolaryngology consultations, and a caloric test. All patients were assessed according to Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders-IV (DSM-IV) criteria. The majority of the patients (93.5%) received a psychiatric diagnosis according to the DSM-IV criteria. Most of these patients were adolescents and female. Psychosocial stressors such as academic problems, familial dysfunction, parental psychopathology, and child sexual abuse were associated with somatic symptoms. The results of this study demonstrated the importance of differential diagnosis and psychiatric comorbidity in a pediatric neurologic outpatient population. Treatment should be directed at biopsychosocial integrity, and a multidisciplinary treatment approach should be applied.
Barron, Carla C.; Stacks, Ann M.; Rodgers, Andrea; Fox, Kate
Infants, toddlers, and young children have unique needs when separated from their primary caregivers because of child abuse and neglect. Parents of these children often have their own histories of abuse and neglect and can benefit from assessments and interventions that bear in mind the effect caregiving histories have on present parenting. This…
... Child Health and Human Development Special Emphasis Panel; Diet, Obesity, and Weight Change in Pregnancy... Child Health and Human Development Special Emphasis Panel; 68-2 Diet, Obesity, and Weight Change in... HUMAN SERVICES National Institutes of Health Eunice Kennedy Shriver National Institute Of Child Health...
... Institute of Child Health and Human Development Special Emphasis Panel; Optimizing Social Communication in... Shriver National Institute of Child Health & Human Development Notice of Closed Meeting Pursuant to... Review Officer, Division Of Scientific Review, Eunice Kennedy Shriver National Institute of Child Health...
... Committee: National Institute of Child Health and Human Development Initial Review Group; Health, Behavior... Eunice Kennedy Shriver National Institute of Child Health & Human Development; Notice of Closed Meeting..., Division of Scientific Review, Eunice Kennedy Shriver National Institute of Child Health and Human...
... Eunice Kennedy Shriver National Institute of Child Health & Human Development; Notice of Closed Meeting... Committee: National Institute of Child Health and Human Development Special Emphasis Panel; Asymmetric.... Kandasamy, PhD, Scientific Review Administrator, Division of Scientific Review, National Institute of Child...
... Development Special Emphasis Panel; Changing Parental Relationships and Child Well-Being. Date: March 5, 2010... Shriver National Institute of Child Health and Human Development, NIH, 6100 Executive Blvd., Room 5B01... HUMAN SERVICES National Institutes of Health Eunice Kennedy Shriver National Institute of Child Health...
... HUMAN SERVICES National Institutes of Health National Institute of Child Health and Human Development... Research, Eunice Kennedy Shriver National Institute of Child Health and Human Development, Building 6100... comment on proposed data collection projects, the National Institute of Child Health and ] Human...
Vaivada, Tyler; Gaffey, Michelle F; Bhutta, Zulfiqar A
Although effective health and nutrition interventions for reducing child mortality and morbidity exist, direct evidence of effects on cognitive, motor, and psychosocial development is lacking. To review existing evidence for health and nutrition interventions affecting direct measures of (and pathways to) early child development. Reviews and recent overviews of interventions across the continuum of care and component studies. We selected systematic reviews detailing the effectiveness of health or nutrition interventions that have plausible links to child development and/or contain direct measures of cognitive, motor, and psychosocial development. A team of reviewers independently extracted data and assessed their quality. Sixty systematic reviews contained the outcomes of interest. Various interventions reduced morbidity and improved child growth, but few had direct measures of child development. Of particular benefit were food and micronutrient supplementation for mothers to reduce the risk of small for gestational age and iodine deficiency, strategies to reduce iron deficiency anemia in infancy, and early neonatal care (appropriate resuscitation, delayed cord clamping, and Kangaroo Mother Care). Neuroprotective interventions for imminent preterm birth showed the largest effect sizes (antenatal corticosteroids for developmental delay: risk ratio 0.49, 95% confidence interval 0.24 to 1.00; magnesium sulfate for gross motor dysfunction: risk ratio 0.61, 95% confidence interval 0.44 to 0.85). Given the focus on high-quality studies captured in leading systematic reviews, only effects reported within studies included in systematic reviews were captured. These findings should guide the prioritization and scale-up of interventions within critical periods of early infancy and childhood, and encourage research into their implementation at scale. Copyright © 2017 by the American Academy of Pediatrics.
Aker, Servet; Şahin, Mustafa Kürşat; Kınalı, Ömer; Şimşek Karadağ, Elif; Korkmaz, Tuğba
Aim The purpose of this study was to assess the attitude of family physicians toward a child with delayed growth and development. Primary healthcare professionals play a key role in monitoring growth and development, the best indicator of the child's health status. If delayed growth and development can be detected early, then it is usually possible to restore functioning. This descriptive study was performed in Samsun, Turkey, in May and June 2015. In total, 325 family physicians were included. The study consisted of two parts. In the first session of the research, the story of an 18-month-old child with delayed growth and development was presented using visual materials. An interview between the child's mother and a member of primary healthcare staff was then enacted by two of the authors using role-playing. Subsequently, participants were given the opportunity to ask the mother and member of primary healthcare staff questions about the case. During the sessions, two observers observed the participants, took notes and compared these after the presentation. In the second part of the study, the participants were asked to complete a questionnaire consisting of three open-ended questions. Findings When asking questions of the mother, family physicians generally used accusatory and judgmental language. One of the questions most commonly put to the mother was 'Do you think you are a good mother?' Family physicians were keen to provide instruction for the patient and relatives. Family physicians to a large extent thought that the problem of a child with delayed growth and development can be resolved through education. Family physicians' manner of establishing relations with the patient and relatives is inappropriate. We therefore think that they should receive on-going in-service training on the subject.
Lafave, Lynne; Tyminski, Sheila; Riege, Theresa; Hoy, Diane; Dexter, Bria
The purpose of this project was to develop and content validate both a formative and summative self-assessment scale designed to measure the nutrition and physical activity environment in community-based child care programs. The study followed a mixed-method modified Ebel procedure. An expert group with qualifications in nutrition, physical activity, and child care were recruited for content validation. The survey was subjected to expert review through digital communication followed by a face-to-face validation meeting. To establish consensus for content validity beyond the standard error of proportion (P validity index (CVI) required was ≥0.78. Of the initial 64 items, 44 scored an acceptable CVI for inclusion. The remaining items were discussed, missing concepts identified, and a final CVI employed to determine inclusion. The final tool included 62 items with 5 subscales: food served, healthy eating program planning, healthy eating environment, physical activity environment, and healthy body image environment. Content validation is an integral step in scale development that is often overlooked or poorly carried out. Initial content validity of this scale has been established and will be of value to researchers and practitioners interested in conducting healthy eating interventions in child care.
Full Text Available One of the main objectives of National Strategies on developing the system of children safeguarding and child-friendly justice is the establishment an effective system of prevention of offenses committed against minors and minor offences, as well as child-friendly justice and penal system. The article describes the issue of performing the task of creating a child-friendly justice, analyzes approaches to accomplish the tasks that can be implemented only in cooperation with different departments and agencies. Author considers the successful practices developing National Strategy provisions throughout the country, and provides analysis models of prevention of child delinquent behavior and neglect. The paper focuses on system analysis as a method of forecasting and overcoming dysfunctionality and system links irregularities in the field of minors social problems solving. Article proposals on development of the missing elements in the system of prevention and the implementation of the National Strategy provisions.
Figueroa, José Luis
The Mexican Oportunidades program is designed to increase human capital through investments in education, health, and nutrition for children in extreme poverty. Although the program is not expressly designed to promote a child's cognitive and non-cognitive development, the set of actions carried out by the program could eventually facilitate improvements in these domains. Previous studies on the Oportunidades program have found little impact on children's cognition but have found positive effects on their non-cognitive development. However, the majority of these studies use the average outcome to measure the impact of the program and thus overlook other "non-average" effects. This paper uses stochastic dominance methods to investigate results beyond the mean by comparing cumulative distributions for both children who are and children who are not aided by the program. Four indicators of cognitive development and one indicator of non-cognitive development are analyzed using a sample of 2595 children aged two to six years. The sample was collected in rural communities in Mexico in 2003 as part of the program evaluation. Similar to previous studies, the program is found to positively influence children's non-cognitive abilities: children enrolled in the program manifest fewer behavioral problems compared with children who are not enrolled. In addition, different program effects are found for girls and boys and for indigenous and non-indigenous children. The ranges where the effect is measured cover a large part of the outcome's distribution, and these ranges include a large proportion of the children in the sample. With regard to cognitive development, only one indicator (short-term memory) shows positive effects. Nevertheless, the results for this indicator demonstrate that children with low values of cognitive development benefit from the program, whereas children with high values do not. Overall, the program has positive effects on child development, especially for
Rolston, Aimee M; Gardner, Melissa; Vilain, Eric; Sandberg, David E
Disorders of sex development (DSD) are congenital conditions in which chromosomal, gonadal, or anatomic sex development is atypical. DSD-associated stigma is purported to threaten positive psychosocial adaptation. Parental perceptions of DSD-related stigma were assessed in 154 parents of 107 children (newborn-17 years) questionnaire comprising two scales, child-focused and parent-focused, and three subscales, perceived stigmatization, future worries, and feelings about the child's condition. Medical chart excerpts identified diagnoses and clinical management details. Stigma scale scores were generally low. Parents of children with DSD reported less stigma than parents of children with epilepsy; however, a notable proportion rated individual items in the moderate to high range. Stigma was unrelated to child's age or the number of DSD-related surgeries. Child-focused stigma scores exceeded parent-focused stigma and mothers reported more stigma than fathers, with a moderate level of agreement. Within 46,XY DSD, reported stigma was higher for children reared as girls. In conclusion, in this first quantitative study of ongoing experiences, DSD-related stigma in childhood and adolescence, while limited in the aggregate, is reported at moderate to high levels in specific areas. Because stigma threatens positive psychosocial adaptation, systematic screening for these concerns should be considered and, when reported, targeted for psychoeducational counseling.
Christoffersen, Mogens; DePanfilis, Diane
The aim of the study was to evaluate the implementation of a section in the Danish Social Assistance Act which encourages local authorities to offer families services in order to support children at risk of child maltreatment. The specific purpose of the present paper is to answer the question......: Will the socio-psychological development of children known to social services be improved when abuse and neglect are reduced? A sample of 1,138 children was drawn at random from new social services cases starting in 1998. Subsequently, about 80 per cent were evaluated by local caseworkers on the basis...... of a standardised questionnaire covering a period of four years. The most damaging family conditions seemed to be psychological maltreatment, physical/sexual abuse and neglect. Maltreated children were more often in a depressed state, unhappy, socially isolated, or they had an eating disorder, inadequate or under...
Ginsburg, Kenneth R
Play is essential to development because it contributes to the cognitive, physical, social, and emotional well-being of children and youth. Play also offers an ideal opportunity for parents to engage fully with their children. Despite the benefits derived from play for both children and parents, time for free play has been markedly reduced for some children. This report addresses a variety of factors that have reduced play, including a hurried lifestyle, changes in family structure, and increased attention to academics and enrichment activities at the expense of recess or free child-centered play. This report offers guidelines on how pediatricians can advocate for children by helping families, school systems, and communities consider how best to ensure that play is protected as they seek the balance in children's lives to create the optimal developmental milieu.
Datta Gupta, Nabanita; Lausten, Mette; Pozzoli, Dario
We investigate the degree of correspondence between parents’ reports on child behavioral and educational outcomes using the most recent available wave of a rich Danish longitudinal survey of children (the DALSC). All outcomes are measured at age 11 when the children are expected to be in fifth...... in explaining child academic performance and diagnosed mental health to investigate whether one parent is systematically a better informant of their child’s outcomes than the other....
Oliveira, Suelen Rosa de; Machado, Ana Carolina Cabral de Paula; Miranda, Débora Marques de; Campos, Flávio Dos Santos; Ribeiro, Cristina Oliveira; Magalhães, Lívia de Castro; Bouzada, Maria Cândida Ferrarez
To investigate the applicability of Near-Infrared Spectroscopy (NIRS) for cortical hemodynamic assessment tool as an aid in the study of child development. Search was conducted in the PubMed and Lilacs databases using the following keywords: "psychomotor performance/child development/growth and development/neurodevelopment/spectroscopy/near-infrared" and their equivalents in Portuguese and Spanish. The review was performed according to criteria established by Cochrane and search was limited to 2003 to 2013. English, Portuguese and Spanish were included in the search. Of the 484 articles, 19 were selected: 17 cross-sectional and two longitudinal studies, published in non-Brazilian journals. The analyzed articles were grouped in functional and non-functional studies of child development. Functional studies addressed the object processing, social skills development, language and cognitive development. Non-functional studies discussed the relationship between cerebral oxygen saturation and neurological outcomes, and the comparison between the cortical hemodynamic response of preterm and term newborns. NIRS has become an increasingly feasible alternative and a potentially useful technique for studying functional activity of the infant brain. Copyright © 2015 Associação de Pediatria de São Paulo. Publicado por Elsevier Editora Ltda. All rights reserved.
Leventakou, Vasiliki; Roumeliotaki, Theano; Sarri, Katerina; Koutra, Katerina; Kampouri, Mariza; Kyriklaki, Andriani; Vassilaki, Maria; Kogevinas, Manolis; Chatzi, Leda
Early-life nutrition is critical for optimal brain development; however, few studies have evaluated the impact of diet as a whole in early childhood on neurological development with inconsistent results. The present analysis is a cross-sectional study nested within an ongoing prospective birth cohort, the Rhea study, and aims to examine the association of dietary patterns with cognitive and psychomotor development in 804 preschool (mean age 4·2 years) children. Parents completed a validated FFQ, and dietary patterns were identified using principal component analysis. Child cognitive and psychomotor development was assessed by the McCarthy Scales of Children's Abilities (MSCA). Multivariable linear regression models were used to investigate the associations of dietary patterns with the MSCA scales. After adjustment for a large number of confounding factors, the 'Snacky' pattern (potatoes and other starchy roots, salty snacks, sugar products and eggs) was negatively associated with the scales of verbal ability (β=-1·31; 95 % CI -2·47, -0·16), general cognitive ability (β=-1·13; 95 % CI -2·25, -0·02) and cognitive functions of the posterior cortex (β=-1·20; 95 % CI -2·34, -0·07). Further adjustment for maternal intelligence, folic acid supplementation and alcohol use during pregnancy attenuated the observed associations, but effect estimates remained at the same direction. The 'Western' and the 'Mediterranean' patterns were not associated with child neurodevelopmental scales. The present findings suggest that poorer food choices at preschool age characterised by foods high in fat, salt and sugar are associated with reduced scores in verbal and cognitive ability.
Any child presenting at an emergency department after trauma, such as road traffic accidents, falls, sports and head injuries, should be assessed for risk of injury to the cervical spine. The aim of this article is to provide an overview of the assessment and nursing management of a child with a suspected cervical spine injury. Basic anatomy is covered along with neck injury assessment, how to measure a cervical collar correctly, safe immobilisation, and communication.
Full Text Available Causal attributions are affirmed as a cognitive element able to explain emotional and motivational aspects of behaviour of some categories of adult psychiatric patients, primarily depressive ones. Theoretical and practical success of cognitive ideas in explaining the origination of depressive disorders, and in the monitoring of depressive patient treatment has led to further development of theory, but also to the attempt to apply the learning about causal attributions to various problems. Characteristic attempts are those that the problems of child abuse, children’s depression, upbringing problems, school failure, hyperactivity, enuresis, and long-term effects of different child treatment, too, are analysed from the point of view of causal attributions. By assessing parent causal attributions regarding child night urination, we wanted to establish to what extent specific attributions for child behaviour differentiate the parents of children having this problem from those parents whose children have established control. Parents were assessed in terms of four dimensions of causal attributions for child’s problem. Those are the dimensions of globality, counter-lability, internality, and the stability of the cause of child’s problem. The analysis of parent causal attributions show that mothers and fathers in both assessed groups similarly experience the cause of enuretic problems of their children. Enuresis is seen as caused by specific, internal, and instable causes. Such a system of dimensions could correspond to the belief that the main etiological factor of the enuresis is maturing. For more reliable verification of this attitude, longitudinal strategy in research is necessary, especially to comprehend whether parental attributions have been developed as an effect of persistent enuresis, or whether the enuresis is developed as an effect of parental attributions.
Nanda, Alice Owens
Due to the paucity of research on struggling adult readers, researchers rely on child-based reading constructs and measures when investigating the reading skills of adults struggling with reading. The purpose of the two studies in this investigation was to evaluate the appropriateness of using child-based reading constructs and assessments with…
Forns, Joan; Vegas, Oscar; Julvez, Jordi; Garcia-Esteban, Raquel; Rivera, Marcela; Lertxundi, Nerea; Guxens, Mònica; Fano, Eduardo; Ferrer, Muriel; Grellier, James; Ibarluzea, Jesús; Sunyer, Jordi
Exposure to highly elevated levels of cortisol has been linked with impairments in cognitive capacities in both children and adults. By contrast, moderate levels of cortisol may engender beneficial effects. The main aim of this study was to assess the association between child cortisol levels and neuropsychological development during the second year of life. A population-based birth cohort was established in the city of Sabadell (Catalonia, Spain) as part of the INMA (Environment and Childhood) Project. We assessed the cognitive and psychomotor development at the age of 14 months using the Bayley Scales of Infant Development (BSID). We included 302 children assessed during their second year of life for whom we had information on neuropsychological assessment and measurements of cortisol in saliva. Higher levels of cortisol were associated with better scores in BSID's mental scale. There was no association between cortisol levels and psychomotor test scores. We found a small positive association between duration of breastfeeding and child cortisol levels. This association was only found in boys. The results of this study suggest that moderate levels of cortisol in children could have small beneficial effects on their early neuropsychological development. Copyright © 2013 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.
Malhotra, A K; Nagpal, S; Walia, B
Researchers interviewed 180 mothers in the village of Badaliala Singh in the Punjab, India to determine the effectiveness of the nutrition component of the 6 year old Integrated Child Development Services (ICDS). 73.33% of the mothers began breast feeding 48 hours after birth therefore their infants did not receive the beneficial colostrum. Only 60 mothers knew that the colostrum is good. Further, only 23.3% knew that it is good for the infant and none knew that it protects the infant from disease. 65.84% of the remaining mothers who believed colostrum to be harmful did not give a reason for their opinion. 30.83% thought that the colostrum is dirty and 3.33% thought it made the infant ill. Even though infants should start receiving supplementary foods at 4 months, 62.77% of the mothers began giving their infants supplementary food between 7-12 months. Some even began at 3 months (6.67%) and 12 months (7.23%). 47.77% only gave supplementary foods when the 8-9 month infant asked for them. 8.88% prepared special food for the infant whereas the remaining 91.12% fed the infant regular adult family food. The leading supplementary foods (83.33%) included milk, cereal, pulses, and vegetables. 5.5% did not introduce supplementary foods because they did not have money or time to do so. 51.67% fed the infant supplementary foods 3 times/day. 98.22% continued to breast feed their ill infant. Further, 75.56% still breast fed their infant during diarrhea, but only 1 mother knew about oral rehydration. The results reveal that the ICDS workers need to emphasize child feeding practices and diarrhea prevention and control. They should also bring to the mothers attention the television and radio publicity and the literature available on oral rehydration.
López-Pérez, Belén; Wilson, Ellie L
In this study, we assessed parent-child agreement in the perception of children's general happiness or well-being in typically developing children (10- and 11-year-olds, n = 172) and adolescents (15- and 16-year-olds, n = 185). Despite parent and child reporters providing internally consistent responses in the General Happiness single-item scale and the Oxford Happiness Questionnaire-Short Form, their perceptions about children's and adolescents' general happiness did not correlate. Parents of 10- and 11-year-olds significantly overestimated children's happiness, supporting previous literature on the parents' positivity bias effect. However, parents of 15- and 16-year-olds showed the reverse pattern by underestimating adolescents' happiness. Furthermore, parents' self-reported happiness or well-being (reported 6 months later) significantly correlated with their estimations of children's and adolescents' happiness. Therefore, these results suggest a potential parents' "egocentric bias" when estimating their children's happiness. These findings are discussed in terms of their theoretical and applied implications for research into child-parent relationships. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Black, Maureen M
As part of the Pioneers in Pediatric Psychology series, this article provides a brief personal account of Maureen Black's career as a pediatric psychologist. It traces the transition of the Society of Pediatric Psychology (SPP) from a section of the Division of Clinical Psychology of the American Psychological Association (APA) to an independent division of APA, which occurred during my presidency of SPP. The article addresses three aspects of pediatric psychology that have been central to my career: pediatric nutritional problems, global child development, and the advancement of children's health and development through policy-related strategies. The article concludes with Lessons Learned and Recommendations for the future of pediatric psychology. © The Author 2015. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Society of Pediatric Psychology. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: firstname.lastname@example.org.
Full Text Available At present time prematurity is the main reason for disability in children, which can be exemplified by the fact that 2/3 of educatees of children' homes for blind and deaf are preterm children. The most drastic consequences of prematurity is cerebral palsy with spastic diplegia; blindness or poor vision as a result of retina detachment; auditory inefficiency connected with the nerve deafness, decline in general cognitive and speech development; difficulties in coordination and planning serial operations; psycho-emotional impairments like autism. The distinctive features of appearance (failure to thrive, microcephalism with deformation of the shape of the head and behavior (stereotyped movements, lack in initiative purposeful activity make these children recognizable and let us talk about naturally determined set of impairments connected with the main reason — prematurity. The article regards the influence of preterm birth on child's nervous system and it's remote effect on his/her psychic development.
Peredo, Tatiana Nogueira; Owen, Margaret Tresch; Rojas, Raúl; Caughy, Margaret O'Brien
Research Findings: The roles of child lexical diversity and maternal sensitivity in the development of young children's inhibitory control were examined in 100 low-income Hispanic Spanish-speaking children. Child communication utterances at age 2½ years were transcribed from 10-min mother-child interactions to quantify lexical diversity. Maternal…
Ferholt, Beth; Lecusay, Robert
This article analyses adult and child development in the zone of proximal development in an educational practice based in Vygotsky's theories of play: the playworld educational practice. The playworld educational practice is a central component of a Scandinavian play pedagogy that promotes shared responsibility amongst adults and children for…
Park, Sung-Hee; Bang, Kyung-Sook
This study was done to develop the self-report Mother-Preschool Child Interaction Scale (MPIS) for mothers of preschool children. The scale was based on items derived from literature review and in-depth interviews. A methodological study was used to check reliability and validity and participants were 334 mothers of preschool children enrolled in kindergarten or nursery. Data were analyzed using principal component factor analysis for construct validity, t-test for contrasted group validity, Pearson correlation for criterion related validity and test-retest reliability and Cronbach's α for reliability. In the final MPIS 34 items identified through factor analysis were included, 6 constructs were derived, and explanatory power was 64.2%. Items on the MPIS were verified through correlation with the interaction observation scale of Kim & Mahoney and MPIS. Results were significant as mothers in the normal group exhibited MPIS scores that were significantly higher than those of mothers in the depressed group. Reliability of MPIS was .96 and test-retest reliability was .92. MPIS has the advantage of being easy to use, economical, and useful. Consequently, it is expected to be used as a screening tool for promptly and simply identifying the mother-preschool child interaction in diverse nursing practice and research.
Herbst, Chris M.; Tekin, Erdal
Child care subsidies are an important part of federal and state efforts to move welfare recipients into employment. One of the criticisms of the current subsidy system, however, is that it overemphasizes work and does little to encourage parents to purchase high-quality child care. Consequently, there are reasons to be concerned about the…
Lecic-Tosevski, D; Draganic-Gajic, S; Pejovic-Milovancevic, M; Popovic-Deusic, S; Christodoulou, N; Botbol, M
Available epidemiological data indicate that the abuse of children within families is a very common phenomenon, and is still on the rise. Among others, abuse includes direct physical and emotional violence to the child, as well as the indirect emotional trauma of witnessing interparental violence. These early trauma experienced within the context of the family can influence the development of the child's personality as well as predispose towards the development of mental disorders in adulthood. There are some important factors influencing the occurrence of abuse, or the conditions predisposing it: certain parental personality traits appear to be instrumental, and the presence of individual psychopathology of parents is also connected with different forms of family dysfunction as a system, representing a variable which is interpolated in the quality of parenthood as the most important factor that determines long-term consequences on children and possible future psychopathology. The complex but tangible effects of parents' personality traits on the psychological development of children may contribute to the transgenerational transmission of abuse and violence. The phenomenon of domestic violence and abuse can be described from the perspective of the psychological and systemic theoretical postulates. According to systemic theory and practice, dysfunctional communication in the family is a significant predictor for domestic violence. Characteristics of dysfunctional communication include low levels of verbal expressiveness and emotional responsiveness, low tolerance to criticism and its interpretation as a threat or intimidation, and consequently increased anxiety and subsequent escalation of an argument into violence. Overall it seems that there may be a complex connection between parental personality and family interaction patterns, leading to dysfunctional communication which further amplifies the detrimental characteristics of family dynamics, and eventually
Prior, Margot; Bavin, Edith L; Cini, Eileen; Reilly, Sheena; Bretherton, Lesley; Wake, Melissa; Eadie, Patricia
Within a longitudinal study using a large representative, community sample of infants recruited at mean age 8 months, we examined influences on infant communication development at 24 months, including child gender, shy temperament, behavioural and emotional problems, and several variables relating to maternal psychosocial health. On most developmental measures girls were in advance of boys and they also showed shyer temperament. Child gender, shy temperament and maternal psychosocial indices were associated with both vocabulary development as measured by the MacArthur-Bates Communicative Development Inventory (CDI), and communication and symbolic development assessed via the Communication and Symbolic Behaviour Scales-Developmental Profile (CSBS) at 24 months. No prediction was found using scores at 8 or 12 months, although moderate stability between measures between 12 and 24 months was evident. Predictors of 24 month outcomes were all concurrently measured variables, and included temperamental shyness, but very little variance in communication outcomes was explained. Children whose mothers were experiencing clinical levels of depression and life difficulties reported more child behavioural problems.
Graignic-Philippe, R; Dayan, J; Chokron, S; Jacquet, A-Y; Tordjman, S
Many studies have examined effects of prenatal stress on pregnancy and fetal development, especially on prematurity and birthweight, and more recently long-term effects on child behavioral and emotional development. These studies are reviewed and their limitations are discussed with regard to definitions (including the concepts of stress and anxiety), stress measurements, samples, and control for confounds such as depression. It appears necessary to assess individual stress reactivity prospectively and separately at each trimester of pregnancy, to discriminate chronic from acute stress, and to take into consideration moderator variables such as past life events, sociocultural factors, predictability, social support and coping strategies. Furthermore, it might be useful to examine simultaneously, during but also after pregnancy, stress, anxiety and depression in order to understand better their relationships and to evaluate their specific effects on pregnancy and child development. Finally, further research could benefit from an integrated psychological and biological approach studying together subjective perceived stress and objective physiological stress responses in pregnant women, and their effects on fetal and child development as well as on mother-infant interactions. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Jaspers, Merlijne; de Winter, Anea F; Huisman, Mark; Verhulst, Frank C; Ormel, Johan; Stewart, Roy E; Reijneveld, Sijmen A
Purpose: To describe trajectories of emotional and behavioral problems in adolescents and to identify early indicators of these trajectories using data from routine well-child assessments at ages 0-4 years. Methods...
Burke, Kylie; McCarthy, Maria; Lowe, Cherie; Sanders, Matthew R; Lloyd, Erin; Bowden, Madeleine; Williams, Lauren
Childhood cancer is associated with child adjustment difficulties including, eating and sleep disturbance, and emotional and other behavioral difficulties. However, there is a lack of validated instruments to measure the specific child adjustment issues associated with pediatric cancer treatments. The aim of this study was to develop and evaluate the reliability and validity of a parent-reported, child adjustment scale. One hundred thirty-two parents from two pediatric oncology centers who had children (aged 2-10 years) diagnosed with cancer completed the newly developed measure and additional measures of child behavior, sleep, diet, and quality of life. Children were more than 4 weeks postdiagnosis and less than 12 months postactive treatment. Factor structure, internal consistency, and construct (convergent) validity analyses were conducted. Principal component analysis revealed five distinct and theoretically coherent factors: Sleep Difficulties, Impact of Child's Illness, Eating Difficulties, Hospital-Related Behavior Difficulties, and General Behavior Difficulties. The final 25-item measure, the Children's Oncology Child Adjustment Scale (ChOCs), demonstrated good internal consistency (α = 0.79-0.91). Validity of the ChOCs was demonstrated by significant correlations between the subscales and measures of corresponding constructs. The ChOCs provides a new measure of child adjustment difficulties designed specifically for pediatric oncology. Preliminary analyses indicate strong theoretical and psychometric properties. Future studies are required to further examine reliability and validity of the scale, including test-retest reliability, discriminant validity, as well as change sensitivity and generalizability across different oncology samples and ages of children. The ChOCs shows promise as a measure of child adjustment relevant for oncology clinical settings and research purposes. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.
Al Abduwani, Jumana; Sidebotham, Peter; Al Saadoon, Muna; Al Lawati, Mohammed; Barlow, Jane
The Child Abuse Potential Inventory (CAPI) is a well-validated screening tool for assessing potential for child physical abuse, and has been translated into many different languages. To date the CAPI has not been translated into Arabic or used in any studies in Arabic-speaking populations. This study reports on the process of adapting the CAPI into Arabic Language which was undertaken following the International Society of Pharma-economics and Outcomes Research (ISPOR) guidelines. The translation/adaptation process was multi-stage, and involved the use of a Delphi process, cognitive debriefing, back translation, and a pilot testing of the Arabic CAPI at two primary health care centers with a population of pregnant women (n=60). Following "literal translation" 73 out of the 160 items needed re-phrasing to adapt the items to the Oman context. No differences were found when comparing results of the translated or back-translated versions to source; however, eight items needed further amendment following translated to back-translated comparison and feedback from the pilot. Iterations were resolved following in-depth interviews. Discrepancies were due to differences in culture, parenting practices, and religion. Piloting of the tool indicated mean score value of 155.8 (SD=59.4) and eleven women (18%) scored above the cut off value of 215. This Arabic translation of the CAPI was undertaken using rigorous methodology and sets the scene for further research on the Arabic CAPI within Arabic-speaking populations. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Full Text Available Child labour use in developing countries has been increasing over the years. In general, it’s characterized by low wages and long hours of work under dangerous, hazardous, unhealthy and unhygienic conditions, which could lead to poor physical and mental development. It deprives a child of education and natural development. In this paper, we examined the use of child labour in Fiji. The study utilized primary data collected using a structured survey to examine the determinants of child labour. The results from this study demonstrate that the variables such as household size, household income, and the gender of children significantly affect child labour supply. Furthermore, absence of adults from households is also a causal factor contributing towards child labour. Using these results, we make a case for “luxury” and “substitution” axioms for Fiji’s Child labour market.
Okada, Ryo; Tani, Iori; Ohnishi, Masafumi; Nakajima, Shunji; Tsujii, Masatsugu
This study developed a Japanese version of the Child Social Preference Scale, which measures children's social withdrawal. In addition, we examined developmental changes of children's withdrawal and the relationships between withdrawal and problematic behaviors. The participants were 7 012 mothers of preschool, elementary school, and middle school children. A factor analysis revealed a two-factor solution of shyness and social disinterest, which is consistent with previous studies. Shyness decreased as children's grade level increased. Social disinterest changed in a quadratic manner. The shyness score was lowest in the lower grades of elementary school. Shyness was related to more emotional symptoms, more peer relationship problems, and less prosocial behavior. Social disinterest was related to peer relationship problems. The importance of the distinction between shyness and social disinterest is discussed.
Objective: To ascertain and compare knowledge of child and maternal oral healthcare amongst a group of Nurses and Midwives in Ghana and Nigeria. Design: A cross-sectional survey. Setting: Health institutions in Cape Coast, Ghana and Port Harcourt, Nigeria. Subjects: One hundred and sixty Nurses and Midwives (80 ...
Feb 1, 2014 ... importance of good oral hygiene practices with pregnant women, encourage routine dental checkups. (10) and refer patients for dental treatment when necessary. Knowledge of child oral healthcare: The American. Academy of Pediatric Dentistry (AAPD) recommends that dental visits should begin with the ...
This study examined the impact of school-based, teacher-rated parental involvement on four child outcomes: language development, early reading skills, and positive and negative measures of social-emotional development. The 28 children were assessed for outcomes between 9 to 53 months post-graduation from a birth-to-3 early intervention (EI) program for children with hearing loss. Other factors included in the study were child's hearing loss, mother's education level, mother's current communication skills with her child, and maternal use of additional services beyond those offered by the early intervention program or the child's school program. Parental involvement in children's school-based education program is a significant positive predictor to early reading skills but shares considerable variance with maternal communication skill for this outcome. In this study, maternal communication skills and the child's hearing loss were the strongest predictors for language development. Maternal use of additional services was the strongest predictor to poorer social-emotional adjustment. The study's findings indicate that although parental involvement in their deaf child's school-based education program can positively contribute to academic performance, parental communication skill is a more significant predictor for positive language and academic development. Factors associated with parental involvement, maternal communication, and use of additional services are explored and suggestions are offered to enhance parental involvement and communication skills.
Alexander, Dayna S; Alfonso, Moya L; Cao, Chunhua; Hansen, Andrew R
In the USA, African American children residing in rural areas are disproportionately affected by childhood obesity. One strategy for preventing childhood obesity is helping caregivers to recognize their child is overweight or obese. The purpose of this study is to assess African American caregivers' perceived level of their child's obesity status and concordance between caregiver's reported height and weight of their children compared to the objective measure of their child's height and weight. Caregivers completed a paper-based survey about perceptions of their child's weight status including body silhouettes (n = 119) and self-reported their child's body mass index status (n = 68). Children's (n = 71) height and weight were objectively measured. Spearman rho and independent sample t tests were calculated to assess the relationship between caregiver's self-reported and objective BMI status. Caregiver's visually perceived their child's weight status to be underweight; yet, self-reported that their child's body mass index status was obese. The Spearman's rho correlation indicated a significant relationship between caregiver's self-reported and objective body mass index (r = .39, p child's body mass index.
Brown, Elise C; Kilgore, J Lon; Buchan, Duncan S; Baker, Julien S
Body Mass Index (BMI), as an adiposity indicator, assumes that for any given height a change in weight is attributed to a change in fat. This seems problematic in growing youth as great divergence is evident in bone, muscle, and adipose tissue development. Secondly, use of reference populations in categorizing children based on BMI, frequently use arbitrary percentile cut-offs for obesity and do not meet all of the assumptions that cut-offs imply. Lastly, BMI does not control for maturation status. Criterion-referenced assessments of child obesity that account for abdominal adiposity and permit international comparisons, such as waist-to-height ratio (WtHR), must be considered. Better predictive utility has been demonstrated when using WtHR for abdominal adiposity and cardiovascular risk factors in youth compared with BMI. Although multiple methods for assessing waist circumference may be problematic for comparison purposes, its simplicity and international comparability aspects make it a promising alternative to BMI.
Lon, Yohanes Servatius; Widyawati, Fransiska
This paper describes the influence of culture in defining the concept of a child, the stages of development and parenting of children in Manggarai, Flores, East Nusa Tenggara. The main questions are how do Manggaraian people define a child in their culture? How do people divide the stages of child development? What do parenting styles develop by the people to their children? How are these concepts different and similar to the general psychological concept about children? This paper was based ...
Andrew J. Lewis
Full Text Available Maternal mental disorders over pregnancy show a clear influence on child development. This review is focused on the possible mechanisms by which maternal mental disorders influence fetal development via programming effects. This field is complex since mental health symptoms during pregnancy vary in type, timing and severity and maternal psychological distress is often accompanied by higher rates of smoking, alcohol use, poor diet and lifestyle. Studies are now beginning to examine fetal programming mechanisms, originally identified within the DOHaD framework, to examine how maternal mental disorders impact fetal development. Such mechanisms include hormonal priming effects such as elevated maternal glucocorticoids, alteration of placental function and perfusion, and epigenetic mechanisms. To date, mostly high prevalence mental disorders such as depression and anxiety have been investigated, but few studies employ diagnostic measures, and there is very little research examining the impact of maternal mental disorders such as schizophrenia, bipolar disorder, eating disorders and personality disorders on fetal development. The next wave of longitudinal studies need to focus on specific hypotheses driven by plausible biological mechanisms for fetal programming and follow children for a sufficient period in order to examine the early manifestations of developmental vulnerability. Intervention studies can then be targeted to altering these mechanisms of intergenerational transmission once identified.
Lewis, Andrew J; Austin, Emma; Knapp, Rebecca; Vaiano, Tina; Galbally, Megan
Maternal mental disorders over pregnancy show a clear influence on child development. This review is focused on the possible mechanisms by which maternal mental disorders influence fetal development via programming effects. This field is complex since mental health symptoms during pregnancy vary in type, timing and severity and maternal psychological distress is often accompanied by higher rates of smoking, alcohol use, poor diet and lifestyle. Studies are now beginning to examine fetal programming mechanisms, originally identified within the DOHaD framework, to examine how maternal mental disorders impact fetal development. Such mechanisms include hormonal priming effects such as elevated maternal glucocorticoids, alteration of placental function and perfusion, and epigenetic mechanisms. To date, mostly high prevalence mental disorders such as depression and anxiety have been investigated, but few studies employ diagnostic measures, and there is very little research examining the impact of maternal mental disorders such as schizophrenia, bipolar disorder, eating disorders and personality disorders on fetal development. The next wave of longitudinal studies need to focus on specific hypotheses driven by plausible biological mechanisms for fetal programming and follow children for a sufficient period in order to examine the early manifestations of developmental vulnerability. Intervention studies can then be targeted to altering these mechanisms of intergenerational transmission once identified.
Tout, Kathryn; Starr, Rebecca; Soli, Margaret; Moodie, Shannon; Kirby, Gretchen; Boller, Kimberly
Quality Rating Systems (QRS) are currently operating, under development, or being piloted in over 25 states or local areas. As the QRS model becomes integrated into the landscape of child care and education service delivery, policy, and the decisions parents make about child care across the United States, there is an increasing need for…
Plum, Henry J.
Recommendations are made for improving the existing child protection system by consideration of children as legal persons, parental duty instead of parental rights, and the state's duty. Solutions involve recognizing what works, developing political astuteness, marketing child protective services as a business, balancing centralization and…
Whittaker, Jessica E. V.; Williford, Amanda P.; Carter, Lauren M.; Vitiello, Virginia E.; Hatfield, Bridget E.
Research Findings: This study explored the quality of teacher-child interactions within the context of a newly developed standardized task, Teacher-Child Structured Play Task (TC-SPT). A sample of 146 teachers and 345 children participated. Children who displayed the highest disruptive behaviors within each classroom were selected to participate.…
Efevbera, Yvette; Bhabha, Jacqueline; Farmer, Paul E; Fink, Günther
This paper quantitatively examines the intergenerational effects of girl child marriage, or the developmental and health outcomes of children born to women who marry before age 18. The overall objective is to understand the mechanisms through which girl child marriage affects the health and well-being of children in sub-Saharan Africa, as well as the relative magnitude and impact of these mechanisms. We used data from 37,558 mother-child pairs identified through 16 national and sub-national cross-sectional surveys across sub-Saharan Africa conducted between 2010 and 2014 by the UNICEF Multiple Indicator Clusters Survey program. The Early Childhood Development Index was used to measure child development, and stunting was used to measure health. Using logistic regression, we found that the odds of being off-track for development and being stunted were 25% and 29% higher, respectively, for children born to women who married before age 18 compared to those whose mothers married later (p child marriage affected child development and health. Our final models revealed that disparities in advanced maternal education and wealth explained child development and stunting. We conclude that there are intergenerational consequences of girl child marriage on her child's well-being, and that through association with other contextual, socioeconomic, and biological factors, marrying early does matter for child development and health. Our findings resonate with existing literature and point toward important policy considerations for improving early childhood outcomes. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Elucidating the mechanisms by which infant birth conditions shape development across lengthy periods is critical for understanding typical and pathological development and for targeted early interventions. This study examined how newborns' regulatory capacities impact 10-year outcomes via the bidirectional influences of child emotion regulation (ER) and reciprocal parenting across early development. Guided by dynamic systems theory, 125 infants were tested at seven time points: birth, 3, 6, 12, and 24 months and 5 and 10 years. Initial regulatory conditions were measured by respiratory sinus arrhythmia (RSA; vagal tone) and neurobehavioral regulation (Brazelton, 1973) at birth. At each assessment between 3 months and 5 years, infant ER was microcoded from age-appropriate paradigms and mother-child reciprocity observed during social interactions. Four regulation-related outcomes were measured at 10 years: child RSA, empathy measured by mother-child conflict discussion and a lab paradigm, accident proneness, and behavior problems. An autoregressive cross-lagged structural model indicated that infant birth conditions impacted 10-year outcomes via three mechanisms. First, child ER and reciprocal parenting were individually stable across development and were each predicted by regulatory birth conditions, describing gradual maturation of ER and reciprocity over time. Second, better ER skills at one time point were related to greater reciprocity at the next time point and vice versa, and these cross-time effects defined a field of individual-context mutual influences that mediated the links between neonatal RSA and 10-year outcomes. Third, direct associations emerged between neonatal regulation and outcome, suggesting that birth conditions may establish a neurobiological milieu that promotes a more mature and resilient system. These mechanisms describe distinct "attractor" states that constrain the system's future options, emphasize the importance of defining behavior
Runyon, Melissa K; Deblinger, Esther; Ryan, Erika E; Thakkar-Kolar, Reena
This article reviews and summarizes the extant literature regarding child physical abuse (CPA). Literature is summarized that describes the wide range of short- and long-term effects of CPA on children as well as the documented characteristics of parents/caregivers who engage in physically abusive parenting practices. Although the reviewed research documents that interventions geared only toward the parent have been found to produce significant improvements with respect to parenting abilities, parent-child interactions, and children's behavior problems, there is a paucity of research examining the efficacy of interventions developed specifically to target the child's emotional and behavioral difficulties. Based on the few studies that have shown emotional and behavioral gains for children who have participated in treatment, an integrated parent-child cognitive-behavioral therapy (CBT) approach is proposed here to address the complex issues presented by both parent and child in CPA cases. The direct participation of the child in treatment also may improve our ability to target posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD), depressive symptoms as well as anger control and dysfunctional abuse attributions in the children themselves. Implications for practice, public policy, and research are also addressed.
Lee, Dohoon; McLanahan, Sara
A growing literature documents the importance of family instability for child wellbeing. In this article, we use longitudinal data from the Fragile Families and Child Wellbeing Study to examine the impacts of family instability on children's cognitive and socioemotional development in early and middle childhood. We extend existing research in several ways: (1) by distinguishing between the number and types of family structure changes; (2) by accounting for time-varying as well as time-constant confounding; and (3) by assessing racial/ethnic and gender differences in family instability effects. Our results indicate that family instability has a causal effect on children's development, but the effect depends on the type of change, the outcome assessed, and the population examined. Generally speaking, transitions out of a two-parent family are more negative for children's development than transitions into a two-parent family. The effect of family instability is stronger for children's socioemotional development than for their cognitive achievement. For socioemotional development, transitions out of a two-parent family are more negative for white children, whereas transitions into a two-parent family are more negative for Hispanic children. These findings suggest that future research should pay more attention to the type of family structure transition and to population heterogeneity.
Full Text Available Attachment is central to the development of children’s regulatory processes. It has been associated with developmental and psychiatric health across the life span, especially emotional and behavioral regulation of negative affect when stressed (Schore, 2001; Schore & Schore, 2008. Assessment of attachment patterns provides a critical frame for understanding emerging developmental competencies and formulating treatment and intervention. Play-based attachment assessments provide access to representational models of attachment, which are regarded in attachment theory as the central organizing mechanisms associated with stability or change (Bowlby, 1969/1982; Bretherton & Munholland, 2008. The Attachment Doll Play Assessment (ADPA, George & Solomon, 1990-2016; Solomon, George, & De Jong, 1995 is a prominent established representational attachment measure for children aged early latency through childhood. This study examines the predictive validity of the ADPA to caregiving accessibility and responsiveness assessed from mother-child interaction and maternal representation. Sixty nine mothers and their 5-7-year-old children participated in this study. Mother-child interaction was observed during a pre-separation dyadic interaction task. Caregiving representations were rated from the Caregiving Interview (George & Solomon, 1988/1993/2005/2007. Child security with mother was associated with positive dyadic interaction and flexibly integrated maternal caregiving representations. Child controlling/disorganized attachments were significantly associated with problematic dyadic interaction and dysregulated-helpless maternal caregiving representations. The clinical implications and the use of the ADPA in clinical and educational settings are discussed.
Ni Luh Putu Sri Adnyani; I Wayan Pastika
.... This is called Crosslinguistic Influence (CLI). This paper explores whether CLI is experienced by a bilingual child raised in two typologically distinct languages in terms of phonological development...
Álamo-Junquera, Dolores; Sunyer, Jordi; Iñiguez, Carmen; Ballester, Ferran; Garcia-Esteban, Raquel; Forns, Joan; Turner, Michelle C; Lertxundi, Aitana; Lertxundi, Nerea; Fernandez-Somoano, Ana; Rodriguez-Dehli, Cristina; Julvez, Jordi
We sought to assess the association between prenatal head growth and child neuropsychological development in the general population. We evaluated 2104 children at the age of 14 months from a population-based birth cohort in Spain. Head circumference (HC) was measured by ultrasound examinations at weeks 12, 20, and 34 of gestation and by a nurse at birth. Head growth was assessed using conditional SD scores between weeks 12-20 and 20-34. Trained psychologists assessed neuropsychological functioning using the Bayley Scales of Infant Development. Head size measurements at birth were transformed into a 3-category variable: microcephalic (child and maternal cofactors did not affect results. The minimum sample size required for present study was 883 patients (β=2, α=0.05, power=0.80). Overall prenatal and perinatal HC was not associated with 14-month-old neuropsychological development. Findings suggest HC growth during uterine life among healthy infants may not be an important marker of early-life neurodevelopment but may be marginally useful with specific populations. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Pfeifer, Luzia I; Queiroz, Mirella A; Santos, Jair L F; Stagnitti, Karen E
Play is an indication of a children's development. Purpose. Organize a culturally adapt the Child-Initiated Pretend Play Assessment to Brazilian population. Translation and cultural adaptation procedures consisted of translation, synthesis, back translation, author's approval, and pretest of the assessment. For the pretest, 14 typically developing children were assessed. Was evaluated the use of play materials, duration of the assessment, and reliability. Play materials and duration of the assessment were appropriate for Brazilian children. Analysis of intra-rater reliability showed good agreement ranging from 0.90 to 1.00. Inter-rater reliability showed good to moderate agreement for five items ranging from 0.76 to 0.59. Four items showed chance to poor agreement (rho = -0.13 to 0.50). Results of the pretest indicate the Brazilian version of the ChlPPA is potentially useful for Brazilian children. ChlPPA training in Portuguese in Brazil with play observation feedback is recommended to improve inter-rater reliability.
Lynch, Michael P.; And Others
Tape recorded utterances of a three-year child who was born without cochleas were examined in order to assess the effect of total deafness on vocalization development. Results suggest that although hearing impairment slows the onset of canonical babbling, even total deafness does not preclude its eventual appearance. (33 references) (Author/VWL)
Osendarp Saskia JM
Full Text Available Omega-3 long chain polyunsaturated fatty acids (n-3 LCPUFA are important constituents of the maturing brain and therefore considered crucial for brain development in utero and in early infancy. However, it is uncertain whether n-3 LCPUFA supplementation during pregnancy and lactation can have beneficial, sustainable effects on visual or cognitive development. Beneficial effects on child cognitive function after supplementation with EPA and DHA during pregnancy and lactation were observed at 4 years of age, but not at 3, 6 months or 7 years. In term infants LCPUFA when given in relative high dosages, seems to improve visual acuity, but not cognitive function. Evidence for an effect of LCPUFA supplementation of preterm infants remains inconclusive. In children older than 2 years of age, epidemiological evidence suggests an association between psychiatric or neurodevelopmental disorders and omega-3 fatty acid deficiencies. However, the evidence from randomized controlled trials exploring the impact of omega-3 fatty acids on cognitive performance or brain function in school-aged children is not conclusive. In conclusion, n-3 LCPUFA are highly present in the maturing brain and are important for normal brain functioning and development. When provided in relative high dosages, n-3 LCPUFA may improve visual acuity in term infants. However, it remains unclear whether supplementation with n-3 LCPUFA during pregnancy, early infancy, and childhood can improve cognitive function.
Gofin, R; Adler, B; Palti, H
The study of the Development Quotient (DQ-according to the Brunet-Lezine test) of two-year-olds living in a geographically defined area in Western Jerusalem was carried out for the birth cohorts of 1971 to 1989 (n = 4314). An 'Early Stimulation' programme was implemented from 1975 through the Mother and Child Health Clinic. The stimulation programme provided mothers with skills to enhance the development of their children through social interaction, play and verbal stimulation from birth to two years of age. The mean DQ at 2 years old increased significantly from 104.6 (SD = 9.8) for the 1972 cohort to 108.9 (SD = 9.1) for those born in 1989. Coordination and posture subscores followed the trends of the total DQ while the trends in language development were less marked. There is indication that children whose mothers had 9-11 years of schooling benefited more than other children. Better achievement on the developmental test as expressed in the mean DQ was probably related to changing socio-demographic characteristics of the population, and the implementation of the 'Early Stimulation' programme. The widening gap of the DQ after an initial decrease among children whose mothers had < or = 8 years of schooling and those in higher educational groups during the 80s may have been caused by the fact that the latter are a very disadvantaged group of families compared with the rest of the population.
Interviews with key local stakeholders and practitioners supplement the literature review. This paper endeavours to locate parent-infant/child psychotherapy more clearly on the map of mental health work in South Africa, and in so doing to promote the work as both a relevant and valuable intervention. Journal of Child and ...
Child rights issues are becoming very important at policy arena and remarkable efforts and resources have been, and are still being committed to them. To demonstrate the seriousness being dedicated to the issues, particularly in line with international conventions, Nigeria enacted the Child Rights Acts (CRAs) in 2003 and ...
Walker, Richard N.
A test battery that corresponded to the Gesell Developmental Assessment (GDA) was given to 400 4-6 year olds. A truncated version of the GDA had moderate reliability and predictive power. Experienced judges sometimes differed in their assessments of a child's developmental level and recommendations for grade placement. (GLR)
McBride, Brent A.; Groves, Melissa; Barbour, Nancy; Horm, Diane; Stremmel, Andrew; Lash, Martha; Bersani, Carol; Ratekin, Cynthia; Moran, James; Elicker, James; Toussaint, Susan
Research Findings: University-based child development laboratory programs have a long and rich history of supporting teaching, research, and outreach activities in the child development/early childhood education fields. Although these programs were originally developed in order to conduct research on children and families to inform policy and…
... & Human Development; Notice of Meeting Pursuant to section 10(d) of the Federal Advisory Committee Act, as... Child Health & Human Development, including consideration of personnel qualifications and performance... Institute of Child Health and Human Development, NIH, 9000 Rockville Pike, Building 31, Room 2A50, Bethesda...
... & Human Development; Notice of Closed Meeting Pursuant to section 10(d) of the Federal Advisory Committee... Institute of Child Health and Human Development Special Emphasis Panel, ZHD1 DSG-H 53 1. Date: April 16-17... Kennedy Shriver National Institute of Child Health and Human Development, NIH, 6100 Executive Blvd., Room...
Full Text Available This report aimed to assess mothers’ perceptions on normal and deviation of development in their children. The study was done in underfive children and their mothers from May 1st 1999 to June 30th 1999 who visited the Nutrition, Growth & Development Clinic of the Child Health Department, Sanglah Hospital, Denpasar. A total of 76 children between 2 and 59 months of age and their mothers were enrolled. Data were collected by interview with mothers concerning the following items: perception of their children development, age of child, sex, mother’s education, mother’s job, number of sibling, and mother ability in making referral decisions. Denver II screening test was administered to each child to identify of development status as a gold standard. Sixteen (21% children was identified as having developmental deviation (by mother’s perception and 21 (28% by authors using Denver II screening test. The mother’s perception sensitivity was 67% and specificity was 97%. There were no significant differences of development status perception according to child’s age, mother’s education, mother’s job, and number of sibling. Most of mother’s perceptions about normal development were if the body weight increased and had no disability. Most of the sources of information about development was from the relatives. Thirteen of 21 children who had developmental deviation were referred by mothers. We conclude that mother’s perception can be used as early detection of developmental problems. Mother’s concerns of their children growth development had focused on again body weight, physical developmental and gross motor skill.
Full Text Available The World Health Organization Disability Assessment Schedule for children (WHODAS-Child is a disability assessment instrument based on the WHO's International Classification of Functioning, Disability and Health for children and youth. It is modified from the original adult version specifically for use with children. The aim of this study was to assess the WHODAS-Child structure and metric properties in a community sample of children with and without reported psychosocial problems in rural Rwanda.The WHODAS-Child was first translated into Kinyarwanda through a detailed committee translation process and back-translation. Cognitive interviewing was used to assess the comprehension of the translated items. Test-retest reliability was assessed in a group of 64 children. The translated WHODAS-Child was then administered to a final sample of 367 children in southern Kayonza district in rural southeastern Rwanda within a larger psychosocial assessment battery. The latent structure was assessed through confirmatory factor analysis. Reliability was evaluated in terms of internal consistency (Cronbach's alpha and test-retest reliability (Pearson's correlation coefficient. Construct validity was explored by examining convergence between WHODAS-Child scores and mental disorder status, and divergence of WHODAS-Child scores with protective factors and prosocial behaviors. Concordance between parent and child scores was also assessed.The six-factor structure of the WHODAS-Child was confirmed in a population sample of Rwandan children. Test-retest and inter-rater reliability were high (r = .83 and ICC = .88. WHODAS-Child scores were moderately positively correlated with presence of depression (r = .42, p<.001 and post-traumatic stress disorder (r = .31, p<.001 and moderately negatively correlated with prosocial behaviors (r = .47, p<.001. The Kinyarwanda version of the WHODAS-Child was found to be a reliable and acceptable self-report tool
Jeffrey, Sally Sherwin Jr.
SHARING THE RESPONSIBILITY FOR CHILDREN'S LITERACY DEVELOPMENT IN FIRST GRADE: CHILD - PARENT - TEACHER PARTNERSHIPS by Sally Sherwin Jeffrey Jerome A. Niles, Chairperson College of Human Resources and Education (ABSTRACT) The purpose of this study was to describe what happens when parents and children are invited to participate in a child-parent-teacher partnership which mutually supports the child's literacy development during transition into first grade. Q...
The present paper gives an account of part of the stage theory of early child development of the French theorist Henri Wallon (1879-1962). Unlike his contemporary Jean Piaget, Wallon concentrated his efforts upon a description of the child's emotional development and the role emotions play in establishing the bond between child and caregiver. The description of Wallon's stage theory is preceded by biographical information and a presentation of his methodological views. It is argued that Wallon's theory is unique in its focus, exerted influence upon theorists such as Lev Vygotsky, and is basically compatible with modern insights about the nature of child development and the growth of intersubjectivity.
Ito, Yoshiya; Takimoto, Hidemi
In Japan, health checkups for children take place from infancy through high school and play an important role in the maintenance and control of childhood/adolescent health. The anthropometric data obtained during these checkups are kept in health centers and schools and are also recorded in a mother's maternal and child health handbook, as well as on school health cards. These data are meaningful if they are utilized well and in an appropriate manner. They are particularly useful for the prevention of obesity-related conditions in adulthood, such as metabolic syndrome and diabetes mellitus. For this purpose, we have tried to establish a scanning system with an optical character recognition (OCR) function, which links data obtained during health checkups in infancy with that obtained in schools. In this system, handwritten characters on the records are scanned and processed using OCR. However, because many of the scanned characters are not read properly, we must wait for the improvement in the performance of the OCR function. In addition, we have developed Microsoft Excel spreadsheets, on which obesity-related indices, such as body mass index and relative body weight, are calculated. These sheets also provide functions that tabulate the frequencies of obesity in specific groups. Actively using these data and digitalized systems will not only contribute towards resolving physical health problems in children, but also decrease the risk of developing lifestyle-related diseases in adulthood.
Roggero, Paola; Mangiaterra, Viviana; Bustreo, Flavia; Rosati, Furio
Research on child labor and its effect on health has been limited. We sought to determine the impact of child labor on children's health by correlating existing health indicators with the prevalence of child labor in selected developing countries. We analyzed the relationship between child labor (defined as the percentage of children aged 10 to 14 years who were workers) and selected health indicators in 83 countries using multiple regression to determine the nature and strength of the relation. The regression included control variables such as the percentage of the population below the poverty line and the adult mortality rate. Child labor was significantly and positively related to adolescent mortality, to a population's nutrition level, and to the presence of infectious disease. Longitudinal studies are required to understand the short- and long-term health effects of child labor on the individual child.
Jacobsen, Stine Lindahl; Killén, Kari
and challenges of a nonverbal and emotional interactional medium such as music in assessing parent–child interaction and parental capacity are presented and discussed. The assessment model relates to theories of attunement, autonomy, and attachment, and clinical relevance for practice within the field of child...... protection is addressed according to clinical application of the tool. How can the scores of APC be interpreted and how are they clinically relevant? With the combination of a playful and rigorous approach, APC can provide useful information to families, family therapists, and other social......-service professions within the field of child protection, including level of mutual attunement, nonverbal communication skills, emotional parental response, and possibly indications of attachment behavior in the child. APC can thereby help indicate the severity of the situation and the possible therapeutic direction...
Gupta, Nabanita Datta; Lausten, Mette; Pozzoli, Dario
We investigate the degree of correspondence between parents’ reports on child behavioral and educational outcomes using wave four of a rich Danish longitudinal survey of children (the DALSC). All outcomes are measured at age 11 when the children are expected to be in fifth grade. Once discrepancies...... are detected, we analyze whether they are driven by noisy evaluations or by systematic bias, focusing on the role of parental characteristics and response heterogeneity. We then explicitly assess the relative importance of the mother’s versus the father’s assessments in explaining child academic performance...... and diagnosed mental health to investigate whether one parent is systematically a better informant of their child’s outcomes than the other. Our results show that parental psychopathology, measured as maternal distress, is a source of systematic misreporting of child functioning, that the parent–child...
Huang, Cindy Y.; Bory, Christopher T.; Caron, Colleen; Tebes, Jacob Kraemer; Connell, Christian M.
Risk assessments allow child and youth services to identify children who are at risk for maltreatment (e.g., abuse, neglect) and help determine the restrictiveness of placements or need for services among youth entering a child welfare system. Despite the use of instruments by many agencies within the U.S. to determine the appropriate placements for youth, research has shown that placement decisions are often influenced by factors such as gender, age, and severity of social–emotional and behavior problems. This study examined ratings of risk across multiple domains using a structured assessment tool used by caseworkers in the Rhode Island child welfare system. The relationship between ratings of risk and placement restrictiveness was also examined. Risk levels varied across placement settings. Multivariate analyses revealed that lower caseworker ratings of parent risk and higher ratings of youth risk were associated with more restrictive placements for youth. Implications for the child welfare system are discussed. PMID:25838617
Sethna, Vaheshta; Perry, Emily; Domoney, Jill; Iles, Jane; Psychogiou, Lamprini; Rowbotham, Natasha E L; Stein, Alan; Murray, Lynne; Ramchandani, Paul G
The quality of father-child interactions has become a focus of increasing research in the field of child development. We examined the potential contribution of father-child interactions at both 3 months and 24 months to children's cognitive development at 24 months. Observational measures of father-child interactions at 3 and 24 months were used to assess the quality of fathers' parenting (n = 192). At 24 months, the Mental Developmental Index (MDI) of the Bayley Scales of Infant Development, Second Edition (N. Bayley, ) measured cognitive functioning. The association between interactions and cognitive development was examined using multiple linear regression analyses, adjusting for paternal age, education and depression, infant age, and maternal sensitivity. Children whose fathers displayed more withdrawn and depressive behaviors in father-infant interactions at 3 months scored lower on the MDI at 24 months. At 24 months, children whose fathers were more engaged and sensitive as well as those whose fathers were less controlling in their interactions scored higher on the MDI. These findings were independent of the effects of maternal sensitivity. Results indicate that father-child interactions, even from a very young age (i.e., 3 months) may influence children's cognitive development. They highlight the potential significance of interventions to promote positive parenting by fathers and policies that encourage fathers to spend more time with their young children. © 2017 The Authors. Infant Mental Health Journal published by Wiley Periodicals, Inc. on behalf of Michigan Association for Infant Mental Health.
Gerhardt, Julie B.
Two aspects of the cognitive development of a 14- to 18-month-old blind child are reported: the development of procedures for the intentional control of objects and the development of certain classificatory skills. (Author)
White, Susan W.; Smith, Laura A.; Schry, Amie R.
Assessment of global functioning is an important consideration in treatment outcome research; yet, there is little guidance on its evidence-based assessment for children with autism spectrum disorders. This study investigated the utility and validity of clinician-rated global functioning using the Developmental Disability-Child Global Assessment…
Colins, Olivier F; Andershed, Henrik; Frogner, Louise; Lopez-Romero, Laura; Veen, Violaine; Andershed, Anna-Karin
Understanding the development of psychopathic personality from childhood to adulthood is crucial for understanding the development and stability of severe and long-lasting conduct problems and criminal behavior. This paper describes the development of a new teacher rated instrument to assess psychopathic personality from age three to 12, the Child Problematic Traits Inventory (CPTI). The reliability and validity of the CPTI was tested in a Swedish general population sample of 2,056 3- to 5-year-olds (mean age = 3.86; SD = .86; 53 % boys). The CPTI items loaded distinctively on three theoretically proposed factors: a Grandiose-Deceitful Factor, a Callous-Unemotional factor, and an Impulsive-Need for Stimulation factor. The three CPTI factors showed reliability in internal consistency and external validity, in terms of expected correlations with theoretically relevant constructs (e.g., fearlessness). The interaction between the three CPTI factors was a stronger predictor of concurrent conduct problems than any of the three individual CPTI factors, showing that it is important to assess all three factors of the psychopathic personality construct in early childhood. In conclusion, the CPTI seems to reliably and validly assess a constellation of traits that is similar to psychopathic personality as manifested in adolescence and adulthood.
Young, Susan; McKenzie, Margaret; Schjelderup, Liv; Omre, Cecilie; Walker, Shayne
Working from practice experiences, Social Work educators from Aotearoa/New Zealand, Norway and Western Australia have developed a framework for child welfare work . The framework brings together the Rights of the Child, Community Development and Child Protection. This article describes the principles and theoretical underpinnings of this…
Dishion, Thomas J; Tipsord, Jessica M
In this article, we examine the construct of peer contagion in childhood and adolescence and review studies of child and adolescent development that have identified peer contagion influences. Evidence suggests that children's interactions with peers are tied to increases in aggression in early and middle childhood and amplification of problem behaviors such as drug use, delinquency, and violence in early to late adolescence. Deviancy training is one mechanism that accounts for peer contagion effects on problem behaviors from age 5 through adolescence. In addition, we discuss peer contagion relevant to depression in adolescence, and corumination as an interactive process that may account for these effects. Social network analyses suggest that peer contagion underlies the influence of friendship on obesity, unhealthy body images, and expectations. Literature is reviewed that suggests how peer contagion effects can undermine the goals of public education from elementary school through college and impair the goals of juvenile corrections systems. In particular, programs that "select" adolescents at risk for aggregated preventive interventions are particularly vulnerable to peer contagion effects. It appears that a history of peer rejection is a vulnerability factor for influence by peers, and adult monitoring, supervision, positive parenting, structure, and self-regulation serve as protective factors.
Murray Harrison, Alexandra
This article proposes a method of volunteering mental health consultation to child caregivers in developing countries in the context of episodic visits and a long-term relationship. It is derived from the author's experience doing this work for approximately 12 years. The two foundational features of the method-the role of a consultant and a long-term relationship-are described. The method is then elaborated in two settings: consultation to caregivers in an orphanage in Central America and at a hospital in India. While these examples are distinct in multiple domains, they have in common the core features of the consultative model and a long-term relationship. Finally, the article briefly addresses challenges that the consultant experiences when working with neglected and traumatized children and the usefulness of reflective practice. It is hoped that an articulation of this method may make it possible for many who might wish to volunteer to do so, in a way that neither interferes significantly with their work and family life at home nor creates the problems of "helicopter volunteering." © 2016 Michigan Association for Infant Mental Health.
Chudasama, Rajesh K; Kadri, A M; Verma, Pramod B; Patel, Umed V; Joshi, Nirav; Zalavadiya, Dipesh; Bhola, Chirag
To evaluate Integrated Child Development Services (ICDS) program in terms of infrastructure of Anganwadi centers, inputs, process, coverage and utilization of services, and issues related to program operation in twelve districts of Gujarat, India. Facility (Anganwadi) based study. Twelve districts of Gujarat, India (April 1, 2012 to March 31, 2013). ICDS service providers (60 Anganwadi workers from 46 rural and 14 urban Anganwadi centers) and their beneficiaries. Coverage of supplementary nutrition, pre-school education, immunization and referral services. Supplementary nutrition coverage was reported in 48.3% in children. Interruption in supply of supplementary nutrition during last six months was reported in 61.7% Anganwadi centers. Only 20% centers reported 100% pre-school education coverage among children. Immunization of all children was recorded in only 10% Anganwadi centers, while in 76.7% centers, no such records were available. Regular health checkup of beneficiaries was done in 30% centers. Referral slips were available in 18.3% Anganwadi centers and referral of sick children was done from only 8.3% centers. There are program gaps in coverage of supplementary nutrition in children, its regular supply to the beneficiaries, in pre-school activities coverage, recording of immunization, and regular health check-up of beneficiaries and referral of sick children.
Dishion, Thomas J.; Tipsord, Jessica M.
In this article, we examine the construct of peer contagion in childhood and adolescence and review studies of child and adolescent development that have identified peer contagion influences. Evidence suggests that children's interactions with peers are tied to increases in aggression in early and middle childhood and amplification of problem behaviors such as drug use, delinquency, and violence in early to late adolescence. Deviancy training is one mechanism that accounts for peer contagion effects on problem behaviors from age 5 through adolescence. In addition, we discuss peer contagion relevant to depression in adolescence, and corumination as an interactive process that may account for these effects. Social network analyses suggest that peer contagion underlies the influence of friendship on obesity, unhealthy body images, and expectations. Literature is reviewed that suggests how peer contagion effects can undermine the goals of public education from elementary school through college and impair the goals of juvenile corrections systems. In particular, programs that “select” adolescents at risk for aggregated preventive interventions are particularly vulnerable to peer contagion effects. It appears that a history of peer rejection is a vulnerability factor for influence by peers, and adult monitoring, supervision, positive parenting, structure, and self-regulation serve as protective factors. PMID:19575606
... Development Special Emphasis Panel; Global Partnership for Social Science AIDS Research (R24). Date: March 21... Institute of Child Health And Human Development, NIH, 6100 Executive Boulevard, Room 5B01, Bethesda, MD... HUMAN SERVICES National Institutes of Health Eunice Kennedy Shriver National Institute of Child Health...
Culture performs a significant role in the development of a child. No individual develops outside the culture. The cultural background in which a child is brought up affects the totality of his life's activities. It is the culture of the people that creates the folk that stipulates reasons for action. Notions already established by an ...
This commentary discusses the implication of child and adolescent development research for public policy in Latin America. As illustrated by the articles in this special issue, even though the research of child and adolescent development in Latin America is making significant progress, still more research is needed. Developmental research in the…
... Development Special Emphasis Panel National Childrens Study. Date: July 12, 2010. Time: 8 a.m. to 5 p.m... of Scientific Review, National Institute of Child Health and Human Development, 6100 Executive... HUMAN SERVICES National Institutes of Health Eunice Kennedy Shriver National Institute of Child Health...
..., National Institute For Child Health & Development, 6100 Executive Boulevard, Room 5B01, Bethesda, MD 20812... HUMAN SERVICES National Institutes of Health Eunice Kennedy Shriver National Institute of Child Health & Human Development; Notice of Closed Meeting Pursuant to section 10(d) of the Federal Advisory Committee...
... Review, Eunice Kennedy Shriver National Institute of Child Health and Human Development, NIH, 6100... HUMAN SERVICES National Institutes of Health Eunice Kennedy Shriver National Institute of Child Health & Human Development; Notice of Closed Meeting Pursuant to section 10(d) of the Federal Advisory Committee...
... HUMAN SERVICES National Institutes of Health Eunice Kennedy Shriver National Institute of Child Health & Human Development; Amended Notice of Meeting Notice is hereby given of a change in the meeting of the National Institute of Child Health and Human Development Special Emphasis Panel, February 16, 2010, 2 p.m...
... Institute of Child Health and Human Development, NIH, 6100 Executive Blvd., Room 5B01, Bethesda, MD 20892... HUMAN SERVICES National Institutes of Health Eunice Kennedy Shriver National Institute of Child Health & Human Development; Notice of Closed Meeting Pursuant to section 10(d) of the Federal Advisory Committee...
... National Institute of Child Health and Human Development, NIH, 6100 Executive Blvd., Room 5C01, Bethesda... HUMAN SERVICES National Institutes of Health Eunice Kennedy Shriver National Institute of Child Health & Human Development; Notice of Meeting Pursuant to section 10(a) of the Federal Advisory Committee Act, as...
... Institute of Child Health and Human Development, NIH, 6100 Executive Blvd., Room 5B01, Bethesda, MD 20892... HUMAN SERVICES National Institutes of Health Eunice Kennedy Shriver National Institute of Child Health & Human Development; Notice of Closed Meeting Pursuant to section 10(d) of the Federal Advisory Committee...
... Children's Study, Eunice Kennedy Shriver National Institute of Child Health and Human Development, NIH... HUMAN SERVICES National Institutes of Health Eunice Kennedy Shriver National Institute of Child Health & Human Development; Notice of Meeting Pursuant to section 10(a) of the Federal Advisory Committee Act, as...
... Review, Eunice Kennedy Shriver National Institute of Child Health and Human Development, NIH, 6100... HUMAN SERVICES National Institutes of Health Eunice Kennedy Shriver National Institute of Child Health & Human Development; Notice of Closed Meeting Pursuant to section 10(d) of the Federal Advisory Committee...
... Institute of Child Health and Human Development, 6100 Executive Boulevard, ] Rockville, MD 20892-9304, (301... HUMAN SERVICES National Institutes of Health Eunice Kennedy Shriver National Institute of Child Health & Human Development Notice of Meeting Pursuant to section 10(a) of the Federal Advisory Committee Act, as...
... Institute of Child Health and Human Development, NIH, 6100 Executive Blvd., Room 5B01G, Bethesda, MD 20892... HUMAN SERVICES National Institutes of Health Eunice Kennedy Shriver National Institute of Child Health & Human Development; Notice of Closed Meeting Pursuant to section 10(d) of the Federal Advisory Committee...
... of Scientific Review, National Institute of Child Health and Human Development, NIH, 6100 Executive... HUMAN SERVICES National Institutes of Health Eunice Kennedy Shriver National Institute of Child Health & Human Development; Notice of Closed Meeting Pursuant to section 10(d) of the Federal Advisory Committee...
... Shriver National Institute of Child Health and Human Development, NIH, 6100 Executive Blvd., Room 5B01... HUMAN SERVICES National Institutes of Health Eunice Kennedy Shriver National Institute of Child Health & Human Development; Notice of Closed Meeting Pursuant to section 10(d) of the Federal Advisory Committee...
... Institute of Child Health and Human Development, NIH, 6100 Executive Blvd., Room 5B01, Rockville, MD, 301... HUMAN SERVICES National Institutes of Health Eunice Kennedy Shriver National Institute of Child Health & Human Development; Notice of Closed Meeting Pursuant to section 10(d) of the Federal Advisory Committee...
... Shriver National Institute of Child Health and Human Development, NIH, 6100 Executive Blvd., Room 5b01... HUMAN SERVICES National Institutes of Health Eunice Kennedy Shriver National Institute of Child Health & Human Development; Notice of Closed Meeting Pursuant to section 10(d) of the Federal Advisory Committee...
Langlais, Amanda G.
Recent changes made by the Council for Professional Recognition to the Child Development Associate (CDA) credentialing program create an opportunity to redesign high school child development programs. On April 1, 2011, the Council for Professional Recognition lifted the age restriction in the CDA credentialing requirements, now allowing students…
...., Biological Sciences and Career Development, NCMRR, Eunice Kennedy Shriver, National Institute of Child Health... HUMAN SERVICES National Institutes of Health Eunice Kennedy Shriver National Institute of Child Health & Human Development; Notice of Meeting Pursuant to section 10(a) of the Federal Advisory Committee Act, as...
... HUMAN SERVICES National Institutes of Health Eunice Kennedy Shriver National Institute of Child Health & Human Development; Notice of Closed Meeting Pursuant to section 10(d) of the Federal Advisory Committee... Institute of Child Health And Human Development, 6100 Executive Boulevard, Rockville, MD 20892-9304, (301...
... HUMAN SERVICES National Institutes of Health Eunice Kennedy Shriver National Institute of Child Health & Human Development; Notice of Closed Meeting Pursuant to section 10(d) of the Federal Advisory Committee... Institute of Child Health and Human Development, NIH, 6100 Executive Boulevard, Room 5B01, Bethesda, MD...
... HUMAN SERVICES National Institutes of Health Eunice Kennedy Shriver National Institute of Child Health & Human Development; Notice of Closed Meeting Pursuant to section 10(d) of the Federal Advisory Committee... Kennedy Shriver National Institute of Child Health and Human Development, NIH, 6100 Executive Blvd., Room...
... HUMAN SERVICES National Institutes of Health Eunice Kennedy Shriver National Institute of Child Health & Human Development; Notice of Closed Meeting Pursuant to section 10(d) of the Federal Advisory Committee... National Institute of Child Health and Human Development, NIH, 6100 Executive Blvd. Room 5B01, Bethesda, MD...
... HUMAN SERVICES National Institutes of Health Eunice Kennedy Shriver National Institute of Child Health & Human Development; Notice of Closed Meeting Pursuant to section 10(d) of the Federal Advisory Committee..., Eunice Kennedy Shriver National Institute of Child Health and Human Development, NIH, 6100 Executive Blvd...
... HUMAN SERVICES National Institutes of Health Eunice Kennedy Shriver National Institute of Child Health & Human Development; Notice of Closed Meeting Pursuant to section 10(d) of the Federal Advisory Committee..., National Institute of Child Health, And Human Development, 6100 Executive Boulevard, Room 5B01, Bethesda...
... HUMAN SERVICES National Institutes of Health Eunice Kennedy Shriver National Institute of Child Health & Human Development; Notice of Closed Meeting Pursuant to section 10(d) of the Federal Advisory Committee... Scientific Review, Eunice Kennedy Shriver National Institute of Child Health and Human Development, NIH, 6100...
... HUMAN SERVICES National Institutes of Health Eunice Kennedy Shriver National Institute of Child Health & Human Development; Notice of Closed Meeting Pursuant to section 10(d) of the Federal Advisory Committee... Kennedy Shriver National Institute of Child Health and Human Development, NIH, 6100 Executive Boulevard...
... HUMAN SERVICES National Institutes of Health Eunice Kennedy Shriver National Institute of Child Health & Human Development; Notice of Closed Meeting Pursuant to section 10(d) of the Federal Advisory Committee... Institute of Child Health and Human Development, NIH, 6100 Executive Blvd., Room 5b01, Bethesda, MD 20892...
... HUMAN SERVICES National Institutes of Health Eunice Kennedy Shriver National Institute of Child Health & Human Development; Notice of Meeting Pursuant to section 10(a) of the Federal Advisory Committee Act, as... Child Health and Human Development, NIH, 6100 Executive Blvd., Room 5C01, Bethesda, MD 20892, (703) 902...
... HUMAN SERVICES National Institutes of Health Eunice Kennedy Shriver National Institute of Child Health & Human Development; Notice of Closed Meeting Pursuant to section 10(d) of the Federal Advisory Committee... Institute of Child Health and Human Development, NIH, 6100 Executive Blvd., Room 5B01, Rockville, MD 20852...
... HUMAN SERVICES National Institutes of Health Eunice Kennedy Shriver National Institute of Child Health & Human Development; Notice of Closed Meeting Pursuant to section 10(d) of the Federal Advisory Committee... Child Health and Human Development, NIH, 6100 Executive Blvd., Room 5B01-G, Bethesda, MD 20892, 301-435...
... HUMAN SERVICES National Institutes of Health Eunice Kennedy Shriver National Institute of Child Health & Human Development; Notice of Closed Meeting Pursuant to section 10(d) of the Federal Advisory Committee... Kennedy Shriver National Institute of Child Health and Human Development, NIH, 6100 Executive Blvd., Room...
... HUMAN SERVICES National Institutes of Health Eunice Kennedy Shriver National Institute of Child Health & Human Development; Notice of Closed Meeting Pursuant to section 10(d) of the Federal Advisory Committee... Shriver National Institute of Child Health and Human Development, NIH, 6100 Executive Blvd., Room 5b01...
... HUMAN SERVICES National Institutes of Health Eunice Kennedy Shriver National Institute of Child Health & Human Development; Notice of Closed Meeting Pursuant to section 10(d) of the Federal Advisory Committee... Shriver National Institute of Child Health and Human Development, NIH, 6100 Executive Blvd., Room 5B01...
... HUMAN SERVICES National Institutes of Health Eunice Kennedy Shriver National Institute of Child Health & Human Development; Notice of Meeting Pursuant to section 10(a) of the Federal Advisory Committee Act, as... Child Health and Human Development, NIH, 6100 Executive Blvd., Room 5C01, Bethesda, MD 20892, (703) 902...
... HUMAN SERVICES National Institutes of Health Eunice Kennedy Shriver National Institute of Child Health & Human Development; Notice of Meeting Pursuant to section 10(a) of the Federal Advisory Committee Act, as... Sciences and Career Development, NCMRR, Eunice Kennedy Shriver National Institute of Child Health and Human...
... HUMAN SERVICES National Institutes of Health Eunice Kennedy Shriver National Institute of Child Health & Human Development; Notice of Closed Meeting Pursuant to section 10(d) of the Federal Advisory Committee... National Institute of Child Health and Human Development, NIH, 6100 Executive Blvd., Room 5B01, Bethesda...
... HUMAN SERVICES National Institutes of Health Eunice Kennedy Shriver National Institute of Child Health & Human Development; Notice of Closed Meeting Pursuant to section 10(d) of the Federal Advisory Committee... Institute o Child Health and Human Development, NIH, 6100 Executive Blvd., Room 5B01, Bethesda, MD 20892...
... HUMAN SERVICES National Institutes of Health Eunice Kennedy Shriver National Institute of Child Health & Human Development; Notice of Closed Meeting Pursuant to section 10(d) of the Federal Advisory Committee... Kennedy Shriver National Institute of Child Health and Human Development, NIH, 6100 Executive Blvd., Room...
... HUMAN SERVICES National Institutes of Health Eunice Kennedy Shriver National Institute of Child Health & Human Development; Notice of Closed Meeting Pursuant to section 10(d) of the Federal Advisory Committee... Child Health And Human Development, NIH, 6100 Executive Blvd., Room 5B01-G, Bethesda, MD 20892, 301-435...
... HUMAN SERVICES National Institutes of Health Eunice Kennedy Shriver National Institute of Child Health & Human Development; Notice of Closed Meeting Pursuant to section 10(d) of the Federal Advisory Committee... Institute of Child Health and Human Development, NIH, 6100 Executive Blvd., Room 5B01, Bethesda, MD 20892...
... HUMAN SERVICES National Institutes of Health Eunice Kennedy Shriver National Institute of Child Health & Human Development; Notice of Closed Meeting Pursuant to section 10(d) of the Federal Advisory Committee... Review Officer, Division of Scientific Review, National Institute of Child Health and Human Development...
... HUMAN SERVICES National Institutes of Health Eunice Kennedy Shriver National Institute of Child Health & Human Development Notice of Closed Meeting Pursuant to section 10(d) of the Federal Advisory Committee... Shriver National Institute of Child Health and Human Development, NIH, 6100 Executive Blvd., Room 5B01-G...
Keating, Daniel P.
Lester, Conradt, and Marsit (2016) have assembled a set of articles that bring to readers of "Child Development" the scope and impact of the exponentially growing research on epigenetics and child development. This commentary aims to place this work in a broader context of theory and research by (a) providing a conceptual framework for…
... Health National Institute of Child Health and Human Development; Revision to Proposed Collection; Comment... on proposed data collection projects, the National Institute of Child Health and Human Development... Collection Title: The National Children's Study, Vanguard (pilot) Study. Type of Information Collection...
Glover, Vivette; O'Connor, T. G.; O'Donnell, K.; Capron, Lauren
There is good evidence that if a woman is depressed, anxious, or stressed while she is pregnant, then there is an increased risk that her child will have emotional, behavioral, or cognitive problems. Her own biology must cause these effects, but it is not known how. One important line of research suggests that the function of the placenta changes…
Full Text Available We can identify five important needs that children have: the need for acknowledgment, acceptance, awareness or attention, respect, and care. If these needs are not met, children will modify themselves by denying central parts of their nature in order to adjust to their parents and the situation at large. When a child denies his or her talents, powers, and gender or aspects thereof, he or she loses quality of life, the ability to function, and physical or mental health. The loss of ability takes the form of diminished social ability, psychosexual potency, joy, energy, and fantasy while playing, as well as diminished ability to concentrate, focus, and learn. Many modifications result in a child with severely damaged self-confidence, self-worth, and poor performance. A child more or less deprived of self-worth cannot enjoy, give, or receive. A child deprived of emotions turns cold, rational, asocial, socially stiff, uncomfortable, and in the extreme case ... intentionally “evil”. When a child denies his or her own sex, it becomes invisible, uninteresting, and vague or becomes like the opposite sex in behavior and appearance. The general holistic solution to the vast diversity of symptoms in children with low quality of life is to improve the situation for the child and give the child the holding and support he or she needs. It is very important to realize that a negative belief often has survival value to the child as it helps the child to avoid taking responsibility for problems, which really belong to the parents or other adults. Children have a fine capability for spontaneous healing, and seem to enter this process more easily than adults, given sufficient holding. The symptoms of children with poor thriving ability are often difficult to understand, as they are caused by a complex combination of self-modification in five existential dimensions. This often leads to complex medical diagnosis, giving the idea that the child is sick and
one stop shop” for resources pertinent to military members and their families. Under the “Children, Youth, & Teens ” tab is a summary of the standards...Department. Retrieved from http://files.eric.ed.gov/fulltext/ED386297.pdf Laughlin, L. (2013). Who’s minding the kids ? Childcare arrangements: Spring 2011...view&id=47 Military OneSource. (n.d.). Certification, licensing, and accreditation: Standards that govern child care: Child, Youth & Teens . Retrieved
Marsac, Meghan L; Kassam-Adams, Nancy
Millions of children worldwide are exposed to acute potentially traumatic events (PTEs) annually. Many children and their families experience significant emotional distress and/or functional impairment following PTEs. While current research has begun to highlight a role for early appraisals and coping in promoting or preventing full recovery from PTEs, the exact nature of the relationships among appraisals, coping, and traumatic stress reactions as well as how appraisals and coping behaviors are influenced by the child's environment (e.g., parents) remains unclear; assessment tools that reach beyond self-report are needed to improve this understanding. The objective of the current study is to describe the newly created Trauma Ambiguous Situations Tool (TAST; i.e., an observational child-parent interview and discussion task that allows assessment of appraisals, coping, and parent-child processes) and to report on initial feasibility and validation of TAST implemented with child-parent dyads in which children were exposed to a PTE. As part of a larger study on the role of biopsychosocial factors in posttraumatic stress reactions, children (aged 8-13) and parents (n=25 child-parent dyads) completed the TAST during the child's hospitalization for injury. Children and parents engaged well with the TAST. The time to administer the TAST was feasible, even in a peri-trauma context. The TAST solicited a wide array of appraisals (threat and neutral) and coping solutions (proactive and avoidant). Forced-choice and open-ended appraisal assessments provided unique information. The parent-child discussion portion of the TAST allowed for direct observation of parent-child processes and demonstrated parental influence on children's appraisals and coping solutions. The TAST is a promising new research tool, which may help to explicate how parents influence their child's developing appraisals and coping solutions following a PTE. More research should examine the relationships of
Fischman, Davida; Wasserman, Kelli
Lesson study cultivates teachers' capacity for formative assessment by placing student thinking front and center throughout. Lesson study is a form of professional development in which a team of teachers determines a mathematical focus, collaboratively studies student thinking about the topic, designs a lesson about this content, implements the…
Zytowski, Donald G.; Luzzo, Darrell Anthony
Outlines issues surrounding construction of self-reported ability-skill-efficacy measures, including validity, response format, and norms. Illustrates how they were addressed in the development of the Kuder Skills Assessment, which consists of six self-efficacy subscales congruent with the Kuder Career Search. (Contains 46 references.) (SK)
Rasul, Mohamad Sattar; Rauf, Rose Amnah Abd; Mansor, Azlin Norhaini; Puvanasvaran, A. P.
Research nationally and internationally found that technical graduates are lacking in employability skills. As employability skills are crucial in outcome-based education, the main goal of this research is to develop an Employability Skill Assessment Tool to help students and lecturers produce competent graduates in employability skills needed by…
Olesen, Trine Staak; Bleses, Dorthe; Andersen, Helle Raun
, different ages and varying timing of exposure. Objectives To investigate the association between prenatal phthalate exposure and language development in children aged 20–36 months. Methods In the Odense Child Cohort, we analyzed 3rd trimester urine samples of 518 pregnant women for content of metabolites......Background Phthalates are a group of chemicals found in a variety of consumer products. They have anti-androgenic properties and human studies have reported associations between prenatal phthalate exposure and neuropsychological development in the offspring despite different cognitive tests...... of diethyl, di-n-butyl, diisobutyl, butylbenzyl, di(2-ethylhexyl), and diisononyl phthalate, adjusted for osmolality. Language development was addressed using the Danish version of the MacArthur-Bates Communicative Development Inventories “Words and Sentences”. Associations were assessed using logistic...
Jaspers, Merlijne; de Winter, Andrea F.; Huisman, Mark; Verhulst, Frank C.; Ormel, Johan; Stewart, Roy E.; Reijneveld, Sijmen A.
Purpose: To describe trajectories of emotional and behavioral problems in adolescents and to identify early indicators of these trajectories using data from routine well-child assessments at ages 0-4 years. Methods: Data from three assessment waves of adolescents (n = 1,816) of the TRAILS were used
Background: The assessment of victims of child sexual abuse (CSA) is now a recognized aspect of clinical work for both CAMH and adult services. As juvenile perpetrators of CSA are responsible for a significant minority of the sexual assaults on other children, CAMH services are increasingly approached to assess these oversexualized younger…
Malhotra, Savita; Biswas, Parthasarathy
This paper discusses the behavioral and psychological assessment of Child Sexual Abuse (CSA) in clinical practice. Following a brief introduction regarding definition and etiology of CSA and discussion on issues of behavioral/psychological consequences of CSA, the paper reviews the various approaches towards behavioral/psychological assessment in…
Full Text Available This paper discusses the implementation details of a child friendly, good quality, English text-to-speech (TTS system that is phoneme-based, concatenative, easy to set up and use with little memory. Direct waveform concatenation and linear prediction coding (LPC are used. Most existing TTS systems are unit-selection based, which use standard speech databases available in neutral adult voices. Here reduced memory is achieved by the concatenation of phonemes and by replacing phonetic wave files with their LPC coefficients. Linguistic analysis was used to reduce the algorithmic complexity instead of signal processing techniques. Sufficient degree of customization and generalization catering to the needs of the child user had been included through the provision for vocabulary and voice selection to suit the requisites of the child. Prosody had also been incorporated. This inexpensive TTS system was implemented in MATLAB, with the synthesis presented by means of a graphical user interface (GUI, thus making it child friendly. This can be used not only as an interesting language learning aid for the normal child but it also serves as a speech aid to the vocally disabled child. The quality of the synthesized speech was evaluated using the mean opinion score (MOS.
Full Text Available Objective: Using estimates from the 2013 Global Burden of Disease (GBD study, we update evidence on disparities in under-five child injury mortality between developing and developed countries from 1990 to 2013. Methods: Mortality rates were accessed through the online visualization tool by the GBD study 2013 group. We calculated percent change in child injury mortality rates between 1990 and 2013. Data analysis was conducted separately for <1 year and 1–4 years to specify age differences in rate changes. Results: Between 1990 and 2013, over 3-fold mortality gaps were observed between developing countries and developed countries for both age groups in the study time period. Similar decreases in injury rates were observed for developed and developing countries (<1 year: −50% vs. −50% respectively; 1–4 years: −56% vs. −58%. Differences in injury mortality changes during 1990–2013 between developing and developed nations varied with injury cause. There were greater reductions in mortality from transport injury, falls, poisoning, adverse effects of medical treatment, exposure to forces of nature, and collective violence and legal intervention in developed countries, whereas there were larger decreases in mortality from drowning, exposure to mechanical forces, and animal contact in developing countries. Country-specific analysis showed large variations across countries for both injury mortality and changes in injury mortality between 1990 and 2013. Conclusions: Sustained higher child injury mortality during 1990–2013 for developing countries merits the attention of the global injury prevention community. Countries that have high injury mortality can benefit from the success of other countries.
Shannon, Patrick; Tappan, Christine
The purpose of this study was to examine the ability of a Child Protective Services (CPS) screening and investigation process to identify children with developmental disabilities. The study used an emergent design, ethnographic interviews, purposive sampling, inductive data analysis, and grounded theory building. Ethnographic interviews were conducted with foster families, administrators, intake screeners, special investigators, and workers in one local CPS office. Participants expressed concern about the prevalence of children with developmental disabilities, lack of understanding of developmental disabilities, their ability to identify disabilities, and training to improve CPS workers' ability to identify children with developmental disabilities. Findings suggest a need to improve screening, determine strategies to improve interview reliability, develop the capacity to conduct developmental assessments, and improve the referral process for unfounded allegations.
of Play Room from prevention into clinical assessment, in cases of alleged child sexual abuse. Taking its starting point in the theory of Jean Laplanche, this article will discuss how psychoanalytic concepts such as seduction, translation, asymmetry, absence, and listening to listening can be used......This article presents an example of how psychoanalytic theory can be implemented in practice. The aim is to introduce and discuss the semi-projective material ‘Play Room’ which was originally developed to support prevention of sexual abuse among vulnerable children in Denmark. However, a recent...... study has shown that, when measured with a scale called Ability to Answer, children exposed to sexual abuse talked about the illustrations in Play Room in a significantly different way than did a clinical sample and a normal control group. The finding indicates the potential for expanding the scope...
Jørgensen, Andreas; Lai, Lufanna CH; Hauschild, Michael Zwicky
Background, aim and scope Assuming that the goal of social life cycle assessment (SLCA) is to assess damage and benefits on its ‘area of protection’ (AoP) as accurately as possible, it follows that the impact pathways, describing the cause effect relationship between indicator and the AoP, should...... in SLCA approaches can validly assess impacts on the well-being of the stakeholder, whereas the other example addresses whether the ‘incidence of child labour’ is a valid measure for impacts on the AoPs. Materials and methods The theoretical basis for the impact pathway between the relevant indicators...... exclusively with the type of indicators which are presently used in SLCA approaches. The second example shows that the mere fact that a child is working tells little about how this may damage or benefit the AoPs, implying that the normally used indicator; ‘incidence of child labour’ lacks validity in relation...
Collings, Laurel J; Cook, Nathan E; Porter, Shaun; Kusch, Cody; Sun, Jonathan; Virji-Babul, Naznin; Iverson, Grant L; Panenka, William J
The objectives of this study were to report baseline, preseason data for the Child-SCAT3, stratified by attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) status, and examine group differences in Child-SCAT3 performance between children with and without ADHD. Cross-sectional study. Young male hockey players (n = 304), aged 8-12 years, were administered the Child-SCAT3 during pre-season. Child-SCAT3 measures included a 20-item symptom scale, a Standardised Assessment of Concussion Child Version (SAC-C), a modified Balance Error Scoring System (m-BESS), a tandem gait task, and a coordination test. Children with ADHD (n = 20) endorsed significantly more symptoms (d = 0.95) and greater symptom severity (d = 1.13) compared to children without ADHD. No statistically significant differences were found between groups on Child-SCAT3 measures of cognitive or physical functioning (e.g. balance and coordination). ADHD should be considered when interpreting Child-SCAT3 scores, especially symptom reporting, in the context of concussion assessment. Better understanding of symptom reporting in uninjured child athletes with ADHD can inform the clinical interpretation of symptoms at baseline and following an actual or suspected concussion. Normative data for the Child-SCAT3 that is not stratified by or otherwise accounts for ADHD status should be used with caution when appraising performance of children with ADHD.
Full Text Available The basis of family law is the child’s interest. This is related to the right to be listened to, but not as an obligation. As a consequence, there is a necessity for the judge to conduct a judicial exploration of the child. But, in general, the judges are not trained in this type of explorations, and they may consequently obtain erroneous information in their exploration. Therefore, in this work, we present the generation of a questionnaire that explores the judicial agents’ necessities during judicial exploration of children. Five expert researchers in the subject participated in creating the questionnaire; five family judges participated in the pilot test; and in the final study, 63 family judges answered the final questionnaire. Global reliability was adequate (.858, as was the reliability for interviewer’s skills, but it was not for the other areas of the questionnaire. An exploratory factor analysis showed a factor structure consisting of 5 factors that accounted for 46.12% of the total variance, but these five factors don’t correspond to the factors provided by experts. But construct validity validated the structure provided by the experts (2/df = 1.35; BBNNFI = .873; CFI = .879; IFI = .881; RMR = .139; SRMR = .153; RMSEA = .075. To sum up, we can say that the questionnaire could be improved, but the best areas are the stages of the interview and the interviewer’s skills.
Full Text Available Motor development consists of dynamic and continuous development in motor behaviour and is reflected in motor competences (on the locomotive, manipulative and postural level and motor abilities (coordination, strength, speed, balance, flexibility, precision and endurance. This is a complex process in which a child acquires motor abilities and knowledge in interaction with inherited and environmental factors. A sample of 603 boys and girls, of which 263 were aged five (age deviation +/- 3 days; 18,5 ± 3,1kg body weight; 109,4 ± 4,3 cm body height and 340 were aged six and a half (age deviation +/- 3 days; 23, 7 ± 4, 3 kg body weight; 121 ± 4,8 cm body height, were involved in this study after written consent was obtained from their parents. The children's motor structure was established through the application of 28 tests that had been verified on the Slovene population and established as adequate for the study of motor abilities in the sample children. The factor analysis was applied to uncover the latent structure of motor space, and PB (Štalec Momirović criteria were used to establish the number of significant basic components. The analysis of the motor space structure revealed certain particularities for each age period. In the sample of 5 year old children, the use of PB criterion revealed four latent motor dimensions, in 6.5 year old children, the latent motor space structure was described with four (boys and five (girls factors. Despite the existence of gender differences in motor space structure and certain particularities in each age period mostly related to the factors which influence movement coordination, several very similar dimensions were discovered in both sexes.
Simanjuntak, Risa Rumentha
Article attempted to argue that bilingualism have positive contributions toward a child's cognitive development. By applying library research the discussion is focused on the contribution bilingualism had in mitigating socioeconomic detrimental effects on a child's learning. Article started with discussing aspects of cognition, especially those shown through speech productions, of a bilingual child, then moving forward to discuss previous findings and arguments from the research pertaining to...
Davison, Kirsten K; Blake, Christine E; Blaine, Rachel E; Younginer, Nicholas A; Orloski, Alexandria; Hamtil, Heather A; Ganter, Claudia; Bruton, Yasmeen P; Vaughn, Amber E; Fisher, Jennifer O
Snacking contributes to excessive energy intakes in children. Yet factors shaping child snacking are virtually unstudied. This study examines food parenting practices specific to child snacking among low-income caregivers. Semi-structured interviews were conducted in English or Spanish with 60 low-income caregivers of preschool-aged children (18 non-Hispanic white, 22 African American/Black, 20 Hispanic; 92% mothers). A structured interview guide was used to solicit caregivers' definitions of snacking and strategies they use to decide what, when and how much snack their child eats. Interviews were audio-recorded, transcribed verbatim and analyzed using an iterative theory-based and grounded approach. A conceptual model of food parenting specific to child snacking was developed to summarize the findings and inform future research. Caregivers' descriptions of food parenting practices specific to child snacking were consistent with previous models of food parenting developed based on expert opinion [1, 2]. A few noteworthy differences however emerged. More than half of participants mentioned permissive feeding approaches (e.g., my child is the boss when it comes to snacks). As a result, permissive feeding was included as a higher order feeding dimension in the resulting model. In addition, a number of novel feeding approaches specific to child snacking emerged including child-centered provision of snacks (i.e., responding to a child's hunger cues when making decisions about snacks), parent unilateral decision making (i.e., making decisions about a child's snacks without any input from the child), and excessive monitoring of snacks (i.e., monitoring all snacks provided to and consumed by the child). The resulting conceptual model includes four higher order feeding dimensions including autonomy support, coercive control, structure and permissiveness and 20 sub-dimensions. This study formulates a language around food parenting practices specific to child snacking
Fernald, Lia C H; Weber, Ann; Galasso, Emanuela; Ratsifandrihamanana, Lisy
Our objectives were to document and examine socioeconomic gradients across a comprehensive set of child development measures in a population living in extreme poverty, and to interpret these gradients in light of findings from the neuroscience literature. We assessed a nationally representative sample of 3-6-year-old children (n = 1332) from 150 communities of Madagascar using standard tests of development. We found that children whose families were in the top wealth quintile or whose mothers had secondary education performed significantly better across almost all measures of cognitive and language development and had better linear growth compared with children of women in the lowest wealth quintile or women with no education. These differences between children of low and high socioeconomic position were greatest for receptive language, working memory, and memory of phrases. The mean difference in the scores between children in the highest and lowest socioeconomic status categories doubled between age 3 and age 6, and the biggest gaps across socioeconomic position by age 6 were in receptive language and sustained attention. Our results suggest that even within the context of extreme poverty, there are strong associations between family socioeconomic status and child development outcomes among preschool children, and that the language and executive function domains exhibit the largest gradients. © 2011 Blackwell Publishing Ltd.
Fernald, Lia C H; Kariger, Patricia; Hidrobo, Melissa; Gertler, Paul J
Gradients across socio-economic position exist for many measures of children's health and development in higher-income countries. These associations may not be consistent, however, among the millions of children living in lower- and middle-income countries. Our objective was to examine child development and growth in young children across socio-economic position in four developing countries. We used cross-sectional surveys, child development assessments, measures of length (LAZ), and home stimulation (Family Care Index) of children in India, Indonesia, Peru, and Senegal. The Extended Ages and Stages Questionnaire (EASQ) was administered to parents of all children ages 3-23 mo in the household (n =8,727), and length measurements were taken for all children 0-23 mo (n = 11,102). Household wealth and maternal education contributed significantly and independently to the variance in EASQ and LAZ scores in all countries, while controlling for child's age and sex, mother's age and marital status, and household size. Being in the fifth wealth quintile in comparison with the first quintile was associated with significantly higher EASQ scores (0.27 to 0.48 of a standardized score) and higher LAZ scores (0.37 to 0.65 of a standardized score) in each country, while controlling for maternal education and covariates. Wealth and education gradients increased over the first two years in most countries for both EASQ and LAZ scores, with larger gradients seen in 16-23-mo-olds than in 0-7 mo-olds. Mediation analyses revealed that parental home stimulation activities and LAZ were significant mediating variables and explained up to 50% of the wealth effects on the EASQ.
Johnson, Michelle; Stone, Susan; Lou, Christine; Ling, Jennifer; Claassen, Jennette; Austin, Michael J
Parent education programs may be offered or mandated at various stages of the child welfare services continuum. However, little is known regarding their efficacy in addressing the parenting problems that bring families to the attention of child welfare services. This article synthesizes outcome data generated from 58 parenting programs with families determined to be at-risk of child maltreatment and/or abusive or neglectful. It places parent education programs within the broader context of research on effective parenting as well as the leading etiological models of child maltreatment to assess the evaluations of these programs with regard to methodological rigor as well as theoretical salience. Practical and theoretical implications are presented along with recommendations for future research.
Emery, Robert E; Otto, Randy K; O'Donohue, William T
-Most parents who live apart negotiate custody arrangements on their own or with the help of lawyers, mediators, or other professionals. However, psychologists and other mental health professionals increasingly have become involved in evaluating children and families in custody disputes, because of the large number of separated, divorced, and never-married parents and the substantial conflict that often accompanies the breakup of a family. Theoretically, the law guides and controls child custody evaluations, but the prevailing custody standard (the "best interests of the child" test) is a vague rule that directs judges to make decisions unique to individual cases according to what will be in children's future (and undefined) best interests. Furthermore, state statutes typically offer only vague guidelines as to how judges (and evaluators) are to assess parents and the merits of their cases, and how they should ultimately decide what custody arrangements will be in a child's best interests. In this vacuum, custody evaluators typically administer to parents and children an array of tests and assess them through less formal means including interviews and observation. Sadly, we find that (a) tests specifically developed to assess questions relevant to custody are completely inadequate on scientific grounds; (b) the claims of some anointed experts about their favorite constructs (e.g., "parent alienation syndrome") are equally hollow when subjected to scientific scrutiny; (c) evaluators should question the use even of well-established psychological measures (e.g., measures of intelligence, personality, psychopathology, and academic achievement) because of their often limited relevance to the questions before the court; and (d) little empirical data exist regarding other important and controversial issues (e.g., whether evaluators should solicit children's wishes about custody; whether infants and toddlers are harmed or helped by overnight visits), suggesting a need for
Huang, Li-Chi; Sun, Shih-Heng; Li, Ruo-Hua; Chang, Fy-Uan; Cheng, Jui-Fen; Chen, Li-Li
The effectiveness of early detection and intervention is emphasized in child development. The knowledge and attitudes of pediatric nurses related to child development is a factor critical to identifying and helping disabled children. The purpose of this study was to explore general pediatric nurse knowledge of young child development and attitudes and behavior toward child developmental care. Researchers collected data for this descriptive study using a structured questionnaire and recruited a sample of 112 pediatric nurses from hospitals in Central Taiwan. Data was analyzed by Mean, Pearson correlation, ANOVA, and Logistic regression. The study revealed pediatric nurses have a good level of knowledge related to children development. Although most participants held positive attitudes toward early intervention and child developmental care, their related behaviors were inadequately reported. Predictive factors of child developmental care behavior in nurses included attending related courses and number of children that has. Child development-related programs are an important factor affecting nurse child developmental care behavior. The authors recommend establishing developmental care programs and encouraging nurse participation. Early intervention concepts and models should be introduced in nursing and continued education programs.
Hitallo Lima Silva; Flávia Helena Germano Bezerra; Ismênia de Carvalho Brasileiro
Objective: To evaluate in the literature the educational materials developed on printed or online versions that are targeted at the promotion, prevention or intervention regarding the psychomotor development of the child. Methods...
... Development; Special Emphasis Panel; Infertility Treatment, Child Growth and Development to age Three Years... Children; 93.929, Center for Medical Rehabilitation Research; 93.209, Contraception and Infertility Loan...
Full Text Available Abstract Background The aim of the study was to describe families with small children who participated in parent-child interaction interventions at four centres in Sweden, and to examine long term and short term changes regarding the parents' experience of parental stress, parental attachment patterns, the parents' mental health and life satisfaction, the parents' social support and the children's problems. Methods In this longitudinal study a consecutive sample of 101 families (94 mothers and 54 fathers with 118 children (median age 3 years was assessed, using self-reports, at the outset of the treatment (T1, six months later (T2 and 18 months after the beginning of treatment (T3. Analysis of the observed differences was carried out using Wilcoxon's Signed-Rank test and Cohen's d. Results The results from commencement of treatment showed that the parents had considerable problems in all areas examined. At the outset of treatment (T1 the mothers showed a higher level of problem load than the fathers on almost all scales. In the families where the children's problems have also been measured (children from the age of four it appeared that they had problems of a nature and degree otherwise found in psychiatric populations. We found a clear general trend towards a positive development from T1 to T2 and this development was also reinforced from T2 to T3. Aggression in the child was one of the most common causes for contact. There were few undesired or unplanned interruptions of the treatment, and the attrition from the study was low. Conclusion This study has shown that it is possible to reach mothers as well as fathers with parenting problems and to create an intervention program with very low dropout levels – which is of special importance for families with small children displaying aggressive behaviour. The parents taking part in this study showed clear improvement trends after six months and this development was reinforced a year later. This
... tool for growth monitoring and the assessment of health among children from birth to five years of age, was introduced in South Africa in February 2011. Objectives. The study assessed the implementation of growth monitoring and promotion, immunisation, vitamin A supplementation, and deworming sections of the RtHB.
Risk assessment is central to the work of forensic mental health professionals, since it serves as a guide for prevention and intervention strategies. For effective risk assessment, knowledge on risk factors and their effects as well as the availability of valid and reliable instruments for risk
Nair, M K C; George, Babu; Nair, G S Harikumaran; Bhaskaran, Deepa; Leena, M L; Russell, Paul Swamidhas Sudhakar
The main objective of establishing the Child Development Centre (CDC), Kerala for piloting comprehensive child adolescent development program in India, has been to understand the conceptualization, design and scaling up of a pro-active positive child development initiative, easily replicable all over India. The process of establishing the Child Development Centre (CDC) Kerala for research, clinical services, training and community extension services over the last 25 y, has been as follows; Step 1: Conceptualization--The life cycle approach to child development; Step 2: Research basis--CDC model early stimulation is effective; Step 3: Development and validation of seven simple developmental screening tools; Step 4: CDC Diagnostic services--Ultrasonology and genetic, and metabolic laboratory; Step 5: Developing seven intervention packages; Step 6: Training--Post graduate diploma in clinical child development; Step 7: CDC Clinic Services--seven major ones; Step 8: CDC Community Services--Child development referral units; Step 9: Community service delivery models--Childhood disability and for adolescent care counselling projects; Step 10: National capacity building--Four child development related courses. CDC Kerala follow-up and clinic services are offered till 18 y of age and premarital counselling till 24 y of age as shown in "CDC Kerala Clinic Services Flow Chart" and 74,291 children have availed CDC clinic services in the last 10 y. CDC Kerala is the first model for comprehensive child adolescent development services using a lifecycle approach in the Government sector and hence declared as the collaborative centre for Rashtriya Bal Swasthya Karyakram (RBSK), in Kerala.
Bingley, Paul; Christensen, Kaare; Jensen, Vibeke Myrup
. By differencing within identical twin pair we are able to take heritable endowments transmitted from parent to child into account. For all outcomes OLS is found to be upward biased. Father schooling is found to have no causal effect on infant and early childhood health. Mother schooling increases birth weight...... and the probability of high school completion. For older cohorts, we are able to replicate the findings of Behrman & Rosenzweig (2002) that fathers' schooling has a positive causal effect on child schooling but mothers' does not. However, this is reversed for parents born after 1945, when mothers' schooling has...
The Albuquerque Operations Office through the Pinellas Plant Area Office is involved in a joint venture to establish a Partnership School and a Day Care Facility at the Plant. The venture is unique in that it is based on a partnership with the local county school system. The county school system will provide the teachers, supplies and classroom furnishings for the operation of the school for pre-kindergarten, kindergarten, first and second grade during regular school hours. The Government will provide the facility and its normal operating and maintenance costs. A Day Care Facility will also be available for children from infancy through the second grade for outside school hours. The day care will be operated as a non-profit corporation. Fees paid by parents with children in the day care center will cove the cost of staff, food, supplies and liability insurance. Again, the government will provide the facility and its normal operating and maintenance costs. Between 75 and 90 children are expected in the first year of operation. The Partnership School will consist of one class each for pre-kindergarten, kindergarten and first grade. Second grade will be added in 1990. The total estimated number of children for both the Child Care and Partnership School should not exceed 200 children. Expected benefits include reduced absenteeism, tardiness and turnover and thus increased productivity. The program will be an asset in recruiting and retaining the best workforce. Other benefits include improved education for the children.
Full Text Available In this article, the longitudinal development of directives in first-language acquisition is described, and examples of the development of directive speech acts in one Czech child from the ages of 2.8 to 4.1 are included. The results show that the child acquires communicative strategies gradually and that he usually prefers one concrete strategy initially, which is later replaced by a new strategy corresponding with the acquisition of morphological categories. The child’s grammatical development is divided into two stages: the stage of protomorphology, when the child acquires basic morphological categories, and the stage of morphology proper / modular morphology, when the child uses a variety of grammatical means. In the stage of morphology proper, pragmatic factors become more influential as the child is no longer limited by a lack of grammatical competence.
Westbrook, Tonya M.; Ellett, Alberta J.; Deweaver, Kevin W.
Objective: To develop and explore the validity characteristics of a new measure of organizational culture in public child welfare agencies. Method: Multiple validation methods were used, including expert judgment and criterion-related validity procedures using a statewide sample of 1,033 child welfare caseworkers, supervisors, and administrators.…
Berkowitz, Steven J.; Stover, Carla Smith; Marans, Steven R.
Objective: This pilot study evaluated the effectiveness of a four-session, caregiver-child Intervention, the Child and Family Traumatic Stress Intervention (CFTSI), to prevent the development of chronic posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) provided within 30 days of exposure to a potentially traumatic event (PTE). Method: One-hundred seventy-six 7…
Moreno-Torres, Ignacio; Torres, Santiago; Santana, Rafael
This is the first study to explore lexical and grammatical development in a deaf child diagnosed with Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder, Inattentive sub-type (ADHDI). The child, whose family language was Spanish, was fitted with a cochlear implant (CI) when she was 18 months old. ADHDI, for which she was prescribed medication, was diagnosed…
Ponczek, Vladimir; Souza, Andre Portela
This paper presents new evidence of the causal effect of family size on child quality in a developing-country context. We estimate the impact of family size on child labor and educational outcomes among Brazilian children and young adults by exploring the exogenous variation of family size driven by the presence of twins in the family. Using the…
Albers, E.M.; Riksen-Walraven, J.M.A.; Weerth, C. de
This study examined whether the quality of caregiver behavior in child care centers contributes to infant cognitive development at 9 months of age. Sixty-four infants (34 boys) were observed with their primary caregivers in child care centers at 3, 6, and 9 months of age. Caregiver behavior was
Barbour, Nancy, Ed.; McBride, Brent A., Ed.
Child development laboratory schools are found on college and university campuses throughout the U.S. Over the last century, they have acquired a long, rich history. Originally seen as settings for the new field of child study in the early 1900s, their functions have evolved over time. These programs often play a central role in supporting…
... HUMAN SERVICES National Institutes of Health Eunice Kennedy Shriver National Institute of Child Health & Human Development; Notice of Closed Meeting Pursuant to section 10(d) of the Federal Advisory Committee... unwarranted invasion of personal privacy. Name of Committee: National Institute of Child Health and Human...
... HUMAN SERVICES National Institutes of Health Eunice Kennedy Shriver National Institute of Child Health & Human Development; Notice of Closed Meeting Pursuant to section 10(d) of the Federal Advisory Committee... unwarranted invasion of personal privacy. Name of Committee: National Institute of Child Health and Human...
Matthews, Hannah; Schulman, Karen; Vogtman, Julie; Johnson-Staub, Christine; Blank, Helen
In November 2014, with broad bipartisan support, Congress reauthorized CCDBG [Child Care and Development Block Grant] (the major federal child care program) for the first time since 1996. The new law strengthens CCDBG's dual role as a major early childhood education program and a work support for low-income families. This implementation guide is…
This article presents the continued effects of a home-based intervention programme on child development outcomes and parenting practices in Bahrain. The intervention is the "Mother-Child Home Education Programme" (MOCEP) which was implemented in Arabic in the Kingdom of Bahrain beginning in 2001. One hundred and sixty-seven poor,…
... HUMAN SERVICES National Institutes of Health Eunice Kennedy Shriver National Institute of Child Health & Human Development Notice of Closed Meeting Pursuant to section 10(d) of the Federal Advisory Committee... unwarranted invasion of personal privacy. Name of Committee: National Institute of Child Health and Human...
... HUMAN SERVICES National Institutes of Health Eunice Kennedy Shriver National Institute of Child Health & Human Development; Notice of Closed Meeting Pursuant to section 10(d) of the Federal Advisory Committee... unwarranted invasion of personal privacy. Name of Committee: National Institute of Child Health and Human...
Votruba-Drzal, Elizabeth; Coley, Rebekah Levine; Maldonado-Carreno, Carolina; Li-Grining, Christine P.; Chase-Lansdale, P. Lindsay
Research examining the longer term influences of child care on children's development has expanded in recent years, but few studies have considered low-income children's experiences in community care arrangements. Using data from the Three-City Study (N = 349), the present investigation examines the influences of child care quality, extent and…
Stone, Nancy W.
The paper reviews aspects of a young child's emotional development occurring in social interactions and discusses implications for children having, or at risk of having, emotional and behavioral problems. Contributions of ethology and ecology are cited in an examination of the child's interaction with the family. Research findings are reviewed on…
Ro, Yeonsun Ellie; Cheatham, Gregory A.
Through case study methodology, this study examined how a second-generation bilingual child developed his two languages and associated literacies, the role of the parents' and child's goals as well as the family's daily effort to attain those goals, and the influences of environmental, social, and cultural factors. Based on sociocultural…