Sample records for assembly posttranslational regulation

  1. Regulation of the water channel aquaporin-2 by posttranslational modification. (United States)

    Moeller, Hanne B; Olesen, Emma T B; Fenton, Robert A


    The cellular functions of many eukaryotic membrane proteins, including the vasopressin-regulated water channel aquaporin-2 (AQP2), are regulated by posttranslational modifications. In this article, we discuss the experimental discoveries that have advanced our understanding of how posttranslational modifications affect AQP2 function, especially as they relate to the role of AQP2 in the kidney. We review the most recent data demonstrating that glycosylation and, in particular, phosphorylation and ubiquitination are mechanisms that regulate AQP2 activity, subcellular sorting and distribution, degradation, and protein interactions. From a clinical perspective, posttranslational modification resulting in protein misrouting or degradation may explain certain forms of nephrogenic diabetes insipidus. In addition to providing major insight into the function and dynamics of renal AQP2 regulation, the analysis of AQP2 posttranslational modification may provide general clues as to the role of posttranslational modification for regulation of other membrane proteins.

  2. Post-translational regulation of FOXO

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Qi Xie; Jing Chen; Zengqiang Yuan


    The Forkhead box O (FOXO) family transcription factors play critical roles in a series of cellular processes,including the cell cycle,cell death,metabolism,and oxidative stress resistance.FOXO proteins are subject to several posttranslational modifications,which are closely related to their activity.In this paper,we review the post-translational modifications of FOXOs and their biological functions.

  3. Regulation of eNOS enzyme activity by posttranslational modification. (United States)

    Heiss, Elke H; Dirsch, Verena M


    The regulation of endothelial NO synthase (eNOS) employs multiple different cellular control mechanisms impinging on level and activity of the enzyme. This review aims at summarizing the current knowledge on the posttranslational modifications of eNOS, including acylation, nitrosylation, phosphorylation, acetylation, glycosylation and glutathionylation. Sites, mediators and impact on enzyme localization and activity of the single modifications will be discussed. Moreover, interdependence, cooperativity and competition between the different posttranslational modifications will be elaborated with special emphasis on the susceptibility of eNOS to metabolic cues.

  4. Regulation of dynamin family proteins by post-translational modifications

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)



    Dynamin superfamily proteins comprising classical dynamins and related proteins are membrane remodelling agentsinvolved in several biological processes such as endocytosis, maintenance of organelle morphology and viralresistance. These large GTPases couple GTP hydrolysis with membrane alterations such as fission, fusion ortubulation by undergoing repeated cycles of self-assembly/disassembly. The functions of these proteins are regulatedby various post-translational modifications that affect their GTPase activity, multimerization or membrane association.Recently, several reports have demonstrated variety of such modifications providing a better understanding of themechanisms by which dynamin proteins influence cellular responses to physiological and environmental cues. In thisreview, we discuss major post-translational modifications along with their roles in the mechanism of dynaminfunctions and implications in various cellular processes.

  5. Posttranslational Modifications Regulate the Postsynaptic Localization of PSD-95. (United States)

    Vallejo, Daniela; Codocedo, Juan F; Inestrosa, Nibaldo C


    The postsynaptic density (PSD) consists of a lattice-like array of interacting proteins that organizes and stabilizes synaptic receptors, ion channels, structural proteins, and signaling molecules required for normal synaptic transmission and synaptic function. The scaffolding and hub protein postsynaptic density protein-95 (PSD-95) is a major element of central chemical synapses and interacts with glutamate receptors, cell adhesion molecules, and cytoskeletal elements. In fact, PSD-95 can regulate basal synaptic stability as well as the activity-dependent structural plasticity of the PSD and, therefore, of the excitatory chemical synapse. Several studies have shown that PSD-95 is highly enriched at excitatory synapses and have identified multiple protein structural domains and protein-protein interactions that mediate PSD-95 function and trafficking to the postsynaptic region. PSD-95 is also a target of several signaling pathways that induce posttranslational modifications, including palmitoylation, phosphorylation, ubiquitination, nitrosylation, and neddylation; these modifications determine the synaptic stability and function of PSD-95 and thus regulate the fates of individual dendritic spines in the nervous system. In the present work, we review the posttranslational modifications that regulate the synaptic localization of PSD-95 and describe their functional consequences. We also explore the signaling pathways that induce such changes.

  6. Specific posttranslational modification regulates early events in mammary carcinoma formation. (United States)

    Guo, Hua-Bei; Johnson, Heather; Randolph, Matthew; Nagy, Tamas; Blalock, Ryan; Pierce, Michael


    The expression of an enzyme, GnT-V, that catalyzes a specific posttranslational modification of a family of glycoproteins, namely a branched N-glycan, is transcriptionally up-regulated during breast carcinoma oncogenesis. To determine the molecular basis of how early events in breast carcinoma formation are regulated by GnT-V, we studied both the early stages of mammary tumor formation by using 3D cell culture and a her-2 transgenic mouse mammary tumor model. Overexpression of GnT-V in MCF-10A mammary epithelial cells in 3D culture disrupted acinar morphogenesis with impaired hollow lumen formation, an early characteristic of mammary neoplastic transformation. The disrupted acinar morphogenesis of mammary tumor cells in 3D culture caused by her-2 expression was reversed in tumors that lacked GnT-V expression. Moreover, her-2-induced mammary tumor onset was significantly delayed in the GnT-V null tumors, evidence that the lack of the posttranslational modification catalyzed by GnT-V attenuated tumor formation. Inhibited activation of both PKB and ERK signaling pathways was observed in GnT-V null tumor cells. The proportion of tumor-initiating cells (TICs) in the mammary tumors from GnT-V null mice was significantly reduced compared with controls, and GnT-V null TICs displayed a reduced ability to form secondary tumors in NOD/SCID mice. These results demonstrate that GnT-V expression and its branched glycan products effectively modulate her-2-mediated signaling pathways that, in turn, regulate the relative proportion of tumor initiating cells and the latency of her-2-driven tumor onset.

  7. Post-translational regulation of Oct4 transcriptional activity.

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    Jonathan P Saxe

    Full Text Available Oct4 is a key component of the molecular circuitry which regulates embryonic stem cell proliferation and differentiation. It is essential for maintenance of undifferentiated, pluripotent cell populations, and accomplishes these tasks by binding DNA in multiple heterodimer and homodimer configurations. Very little is known about how formation of these complexes is regulated, or the mechanisms through which Oct4 proteins respond to complex extracellular stimuli which regulate pluripotency. Here, we provide evidence for a phosphorylation-based mechanism which regulates specific Oct4 homodimer conformations. Point mutations of a putative phosphorylation site can specifically abrogate transcriptional activity of a specific homodimer assembly, with little effect on other configurations. Moreover, we performed bioinformatic predictions to identify a subset of Oct4 target genes which may be regulated by this specific assembly, and show that altering Oct4 protein levels affects transcription of Oct4 target genes which are regulated by this assembly but not others. Finally, we identified several signaling pathways which may mediate this phosphorylation and act in combination to regulate Oct4 transcriptional activity and protein stability. These results provide a mechanism for rapid and reversible alteration of Oct4 transactivation potential in response to extracellular signals.

  8. Considering protonation as a posttranslational modification regulating protein structure and function. (United States)

    Schönichen, André; Webb, Bradley A; Jacobson, Matthew P; Barber, Diane L


    Posttranslational modification is an evolutionarily conserved mechanism for regulating protein activity, binding affinity, and stability. Compared with established posttranslational modifications such as phosphorylation or ubiquitination, posttranslational modification by protons within physiological pH ranges is a less recognized mechanism for regulating protein function. By changing the charge of amino acid side chains, posttranslational modification by protons can drive dynamic changes in protein conformation and function. Addition and removal of a proton is rapid and reversible and, in contrast to most other posttranslational modifications, does not require an enzyme. Signaling specificity is achieved by only a minority of sites in proteins titrating within the physiological pH range. Here, we examine the structural mechanisms and functional consequences of proton posttranslational modification of pH-sensing proteins regulating different cellular processes.

  9. Developmentally Regulated Post-translational Modification of Nucleoplasmin Controls Histone Sequestration and Deposition

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    Takashi Onikubo


    Full Text Available Nucleoplasmin (Npm is an abundant histone chaperone in vertebrate oocytes and embryos. During embryogenesis, regulation of Npm histone binding is critical for its function in storing and releasing maternal histones to establish and maintain the zygotic epigenome. Here, we demonstrate that Xenopus laevis Npm post-translational modifications (PTMs specific to the oocyte and egg promote either histone deposition or sequestration, respectively. Mass spectrometry and Npm phosphomimetic mutations used in chromatin assembly assays identified hyperphosphorylation on the N-terminal tail as a critical regulator for sequestration. C-terminal tail phosphorylation and PRMT5-catalyzed arginine methylation enhance nucleosome assembly by promoting histone interaction with the second acidic tract of Npm. Electron microscopy reconstructions of Npm and TTLL4 activity toward the C-terminal tail demonstrate that oocyte- and egg-specific PTMs cause Npm conformational changes. Our results reveal that PTMs regulate Npm chaperoning activity by modulating Npm conformation and Npm-histone interaction, leading to histone sequestration in the egg.

  10. RegulatING chromatin regulators: post-translational modification of the ING family of epigenetic regulators. (United States)

    Satpathy, Shankha; Nabbi, Arash; Riabowol, Karl


    The five human ING genes encode at least 15 splicing isoforms, most of which affect cell growth, differentiation and apoptosis through their ability to alter gene expression by epigenetic mechanisms. Since their discovery in 1996, ING proteins have been classified as type II tumour suppressors on the basis of reports describing their down-regulation and mislocalization in a variety of cancer types. In addition to their regulation by transcriptional mechanisms, understanding the range of PTMs (post-translational modifications) of INGs is important in understanding how ING functions are fine-tuned in the physiological setting and how they add to the repertoire of activities affected by the INGs. In the present paper we review the different PTMs that have been reported to occur on INGs. We discuss the PTMs that modulate ING function under normal conditions and in response to a variety of stresses. We also describe the ING PTMs that have been identified by several unbiased MS-based PTM enrichment techniques and subsequent proteomic analysis. Among the ING PTMs identified to date, a subset has been characterized for their biological significance and have been shown to affect processes including subcellular localization, interaction with enzymatic complexes and ING protein half-life. The present review aims to highlight the emerging role of PTMs in regulating ING function and to suggest additional pathways and functions where PTMs may effect ING function.

  11. Regulation by S-Nitrosylation of Protein Post-translational Modification*


    Hess, Douglas T.; Stamler, Jonathan S.


    Protein post-translational modification by S-nitrosylation conveys a ubiquitous influence of nitric oxide on signal transduction in eukaryotic cells. The wide functional purview of S-nitrosylation reflects in part the regulation by S-nitrosylation of the principal protein post-translational modifications that play a role in cell signaling, including phosphorylation, acetylation, ubiquitylation and related modifications, palmitoylation, and alternative Cys-based redox modifications. In this mi...

  12. Regulated assembly of transcription factors and control of transcription initiation. (United States)

    Beckett, D


    Proteins that function in regulation of transcription initiation are typically homo or hetero-oligomeric. Results of recent biophysical studies of transcription regulators indicate that the assembly of these proteins is often subject to regulation. This regulation of assembly dictates the frequency of transcription initiation via its influence on the affinity of a transcription regulator for DNA and its affect on target site selection. Factors that modulate transcription factor assembly include binding of small molecules, post-translational modification, DNA binding and interactions with other proteins. Here, the results of recent structural and/or thermodynamic studies of a number of transcription regulators that are subject to regulated assembly are reviewed. The accumulated data indicate that this phenomenon is ubiquitous and that mechanisms utilized in eukaryotes and prokaryotes share common features. Copyright 2001 Academic Press.

  13. Post-translational regulation of COX2 activity by FYN in prostate cancer cells


    Alexanian, Anna; Miller, Bradley; Chesnik, Marla; Mirza, Shama; Sorokin, Andrey


    While increased COX2 expression and prostaglandin levels are elevated in human cancers, the mechanisms of COX2 regulation at the post-translational level are unknown. Initial observation that COX2 forms adduct with non-receptor tyrosine kinase FYN, prompted us to study FYN-mediated post-translational regulation of COX2. We found that FYN increased COX2 activity in prostate cancer cells DU145, independent of changes in COX2 or COX1 protein expression levels. We report that FYN phosphorylates h...

  14. Post-translational regulation of the β-secretase BACE1. (United States)

    Araki, Wataru


    β-Secretase, widely known as β-site APP cleaving enzyme 1 (BACE1), is a membrane-associated protease that cleaves amyloid precursor protein (APP) to generate amyloid β-protein (Aβ). As this cleavage is a pathologically relevant event in Alzheimer's disease, BACE1 is considered a viable therapeutic target. BACE1 can be regulated at the transcriptional, post-transcriptional, translational, and post-translational levels. Elucidation of the regulatory pathways of BACE1 is critical, not only for understanding the pathological mechanisms of AD but also developing effective therapeutic strategies to inhibit activity of the protease. This mini-review focuses on the post-translational regulation of BACE1, as modulation at this level is closely associated with both physiological and pathological conditions. Current knowledge on the mechanisms underlying such BACE1 regulation and their implications for therapy are discussed.

  15. Posttranslational regulation of phosphatase and tensin homolog (PTEN and its functional impact on cancer behaviors

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    Xu WT


    Full Text Available Wenting Xu,1 Zhen Yang,1 Shu-Feng Zhou,2 Nonghua Lu1 1Department of Gastroenterology, The First Affiliated Hospital of Nanchang University, Nanchang, Jiangxi, People’s Republic of China; 2Department of Pharmaceutical Sciences, College of Pharmacy, University of South Florida, Tampa, FL, USA Abstract: The incidence of cancer is increasing worldwide, but the biochemical mechanisms for the occurrence of cancer is not fully understood, and there is no cure for advanced tumors. Defects of posttranslational modifications of proteins are linked to a number of important diseases, such as cancer. This review will update our knowledge on the critical role of posttranscriptional regulation of phosphatase and tensin homolog (PTEN and its activities and the functional impact on cancer behaviors. PTEN is a tumor suppressor gene that occupies a key position in regulating cell growth, proliferation, apoptosis, mobility, signal transduction, and other crucial cellular processes. The activity and function of PTEN are regulated by coordinated epigenetic, transcriptional, posttranscriptional, and posttranslational modifications. In particular, PTEN is subject to phosphorylation, ubiquitylation, somoylation, acetylation, and active site oxidation. Posttranslational modifications of PTEN can dynamically change its activity and function. Deficiency in the posttranslational regulation of PTEN leads to abnormal cell proliferation, apoptosis, migration, and adhesion, which are associated with cancer initiation, progression, and metastasis. With increasing information on how PTEN is regulated by multiple mechanisms and networked proteins, its exact role in cancer initiation, growth, and metastasis will be revealed. PTEN and its functionally related proteins may represent useful targets for the discovery of new anticancer drugs, and gene therapy and the therapeutic potentials should be fully explored. Keywords: phosphorylation, ubiquitination, acetylation, oxidation

  16. Posttranslational Regulation of Organic Anion Transporters by Ubiquitination: Known and Novel. (United States)

    Xu, Da; Wang, Haoxun; You, Guofeng


    Organic anion transporters (OATs) encoded by solute carrier 22 family are localized in the epithelia of multiple organs, where they mediate the absorption, distribution, and excretion of a diverse array of negatively charged environmental toxins and clinically important drugs. Alterations in the expression and function of OATs play important roles in intra- and interindividual variability of the therapeutic efficacy and the toxicity of many drugs. As a result, the activity of OATs must be under tight regulation so as to carry out their normal functions. The regulation of OAT transport activity in response to various stimuli can occur at several levels such as transcription, translation, and posttranslational modification. Posttranslational regulation is of particular interest, because it usually happens within a very short period of time (minutes to hours) when the body has to deal with rapidly changing amounts of substances as a consequence of variable intake of drugs, fluids, or meals as well as metabolic activity. This review article highlights the recent advances from our laboratory in uncovering several posttranslational mechanisms underlying OAT regulation. These advances offer the promise of identifying targets for novel strategies that will maximize therapeutic efficacy in drug development.

  17. Post-translational regulation of COX2 activity by FYN in prostate cancer cells. (United States)

    Alexanian, Anna; Miller, Bradley; Chesnik, Marla; Mirza, Shama; Sorokin, Andrey


    While increased COX2 expression and prostaglandin levels are elevated in human cancers, the mechanisms of COX2 regulation at the post-translational level are unknown. Initial observation that COX2 forms adduct with non-receptor tyrosine kinase FYN, prompted us to study FYN-mediated post-translational regulation of COX2. We found that FYN increased COX2 activity in prostate cancer cells DU145, independent of changes in COX2 or COX1 protein expression levels. We report that FYN phosphorylates human COX2 on Tyr 446, and while corresponding phospho-mimetic COX2 mutation promotes COX2 activity, the phosphorylation blocking mutation prevents FYN-mediated increase in COX2 activity.

  18. An update on transcriptional and post-translational regulation of brain voltage-gated sodium channels. (United States)

    Onwuli, Donatus O; Beltran-Alvarez, Pedro


    Voltage-gated sodium channels are essential proteins in brain physiology, as they generate the sodium currents that initiate neuronal action potentials. Voltage-gated sodium channels expression, localisation and function are regulated by a range of transcriptional and post-translational mechanisms. Here, we review our understanding of regulation of brain voltage-gated sodium channels, in particular SCN1A (NaV1.1), SCN2A (NaV1.2), SCN3A (NaV1.3) and SCN8A (NaV1.6), by transcription factors, by alternative splicing, and by post-translational modifications. Our focus is strongly centred on recent research lines, and newly generated knowledge.

  19. Identification of nuclear protein targets for six leukemogenic tyrosine kinases governed by post-translational regulation.

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    Andrew Pierce

    Full Text Available Mutated tyrosine kinases are associated with a number of different haematological malignancies including myeloproliferative disorders, lymphoma and acute myeloid leukaemia. The potential commonalities in the action of six of these leukemogenic proteins on nuclear proteins were investigated using systematic proteomic analysis. The effects on over 3600 nuclear proteins and 1500 phosphopeptide sites were relatively quantified in seven isogenic cell lines. The effects of the kinases were diverse although some commonalities were found. Comparison of the nuclear proteomic data with transcriptome data and cytoplasmic proteomic data indicated that the major changes are due to post-translational mechanisms rather than changes in mRNA or protein distribution. Analysis of the promoter regions of genes whose protein levels changed in response to the kinases showed the most common binding site found was that for NFκB whilst other sites such as those for the glucocorticoid receptor were also found. Glucocorticoid receptor levels and phosphorylation were decreased by all 6 PTKs. Whilst Glucocorticoid receptor action can potentiate NFκB action those proteins where genes have NFκB binding sites were in often regulated post-translationally. However all 6 PTKs showed evidence of NFkB pathway modulation via activation via altered IkB and NFKB levels. Validation of a common change was also undertaken with PMS2, a DNA mismatch repair protein. PMS2 nuclear levels were decreased in response to the expression of all 6 kinases, with no concomitant change in mRNA level or cytosolic protein level. Response to thioguanine, that requires the mismatch repair pathway, was modulated by all 6 oncogenic kinases. In summary common targets for 6 oncogenic PTKs have been found that are regulated by post-translational mechanisms. They represent potential new avenues for therapies but also demonstrate the post-translational regulation is a key target of leukaemogenic kinases.

  20. Redox proteomics for the assessment of redox-related posttranslational regulation in plants. (United States)

    Mock, Hans-Peter; Dietz, Karl-Josef


    The methodological developments of in vivo and in vitro protein labeling and subsequent detection enable sensitive and specific detection of redox modifications. Such methods are presently applied to diverse cells and tissues, subproteomes and developmental as well as environmental conditions. The chloroplast proteome is particularly suitable for such kind of studies, because redox regulation of chloroplast proteins is well established, many plastid proteins are abundant, redox network components have been inventoried in great depth, and functional consequences explored. Thus the repertoire of redox-related posttranslational modifications on the one hand side and their abundance on the other pose a challenge for the near future to understand their contribution to physiological regulation. The various posttranslational redox modifications are introduced, followed by a description of the available proteomics methods. The significance of the redox-related posttranslational modification is exemplarily worked out using established examples from photosynthesis. This article is part of a Special Issue entitled: Plant Proteomics--a bridge between fundamental processes and crop production, edited by Dr. Hans-Peter Mock.

  1. Regulation of Chemokine Function: The Roles of GAG-Binding and Post-Translational Nitration. (United States)

    Thompson, Sarah; Martínez-Burgo, Beatriz; Sepuru, Krishna Mohan; Rajarathnam, Krishna; Kirby, John A; Sheerin, Neil S; Ali, Simi


    The primary function of chemokines is to direct the migration of leukocytes to the site of injury during inflammation. The effects of chemokines are modulated by several means, including binding to G-protein coupled receptors (GPCRs), binding to glycosaminoglycans (GAGs), and through post-translational modifications (PTMs). GAGs, present on cell surfaces, bind chemokines released in response to injury. Chemokines bind leukocytes via their GPCRs, which directs migration and contributes to local inflammation. Studies have shown that GAGs or GAG-binding peptides can be used to interfere with chemokine binding and reduce leukocyte recruitment. Post-translational modifications of chemokines, such as nitration, which occurs due to the production of reactive species during oxidative stress, can also alter their biological activity. This review describes the regulation of chemokine function by GAG-binding ability and by post-translational nitration. These are both aspects of chemokine biology that could be targeted if the therapeutic potential of chemokines, like CXCL8, to modulate inflammation is to be realised.

  2. Post-translational regulation of expression and conformation of an immunoglobulin domain in yeast surface display. (United States)

    Parthasarathy, Ranganath; Subramanian, Shyamsundar; Boder, Eric T; Discher, Dennis E


    Display of heterologous proteins on the surface of Saccharomyces cerevisiae is increasingly being exploited for directed evolution because of straightforward cell screens. However, yeast post-translationally modifies proteins in ways that must be factored into library engineering and refinement. Here, we express the extracellular immunoglobulin domain of an ubiquitous mammalian membrane protein, CD47, which is implicated in cancer, immunocompatibility, and motility. CD47 has multiple sites of glycosylation and a core disulfide bond. We assess the effects of both of these post-translational modifications on expression and antibody binding. CD47's extracellular domain is fused to the yeast mating protein Aga2p on the cell wall, and the resulting fusion protein binds several key antibodies, including a conformation-sensitive antibody. Site-by-site mutagenesis of CD47's five N-linked glycosylation sites progressively decreases expression levels on yeast, but folding appears stable. Cysteine mutations disrupt the expected core disulfide, and also decrease protein expression levels, though not to the extent seen with complete deglycosylation. However, with the core disulfide mutants, antibody binding proves to be lower than expected from expression levels and glycosylation is clearly reduced compared to wild-type. The results indicate that glycosylation regulates heterologous display on yeast more than core disulfides do and thus suggest bounds on directed evolution by post-translational processing.

  3. Protein phosphatase 1 (PP1 is a post-translational regulator of the mammalian circadian clock.

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    Isabelle Schmutz

    Full Text Available Circadian clocks coordinate the timing of important biological processes. Interconnected transcriptional and post-translational feedback loops based on a set of clock genes generate and maintain these rhythms with a period of about 24 hours. Many clock proteins undergo circadian cycles of post-translational modifications. Among these modifications, protein phosphorylation plays an important role in regulating activity, stability and intracellular localization of clock components. Several protein kinases were characterized as regulators of the circadian clock. However, the function of protein phosphatases, which balance phosphorylation events, in the mammalian clock mechanism is less well understood. Here, we identify protein phosphatase 1 (PP1 as regulator of period and light-induced resetting of the mammalian circadian clock. Down-regulation of PP1 activity in cells by RNA interference and in vivo by expression of a specific inhibitor in the brain of mice tended to lengthen circadian period. Moreover, reduction of PP1 activity in the brain altered light-mediated clock resetting behavior in mice, enhancing the phase shifts in either direction. At the molecular level, diminished PP1 activity increased nuclear accumulation of the clock component PER2 in neurons. Hence, PP1, may reduce PER2 phosphorylation thereby influencing nuclear localization of this protein. This may at least partially influence period and phase shifting properties of the mammalian circadian clock.

  4. Regulation of voltage gated calcium channels by GPCRs and post-translational modification. (United States)

    Huang, Junting; Zamponi, Gerald W


    Calcium entry via voltage gated calcium channels mediates a wide range of physiological functions, whereas calcium channel dysregulation has been associated with numerous pathophysiological conditions. There are myriad cell signaling pathways that act on voltage gated calcium channels to fine tune their activities and to regulate their cell surface expression. These regulatory mechanisms include the activation of G protein-coupled receptors and downstream phosphorylation events, and their control over calcium channel trafficking through direct physical interactions. Calcium channels also undergo post-translational modifications that alter both function and density of the channels in the plasma membrane. Here we focus on select aspects of these regulatory mechanisms and highlight recent developments.

  5. Regulation of translesion DNA synthesis: Posttranslational modification of lysine residues in key proteins. (United States)

    McIntyre, Justyna; Woodgate, Roger


    Posttranslational modification of proteins often controls various aspects of their cellular function. Indeed, over the past decade or so, it has been discovered that posttranslational modification of lysine residues plays a major role in regulating translesion DNA synthesis (TLS) and perhaps the most appreciated lysine modification is that of ubiquitination. Much of the recent interest in ubiquitination stems from the fact that proliferating cell nuclear antigen (PCNA) was previously shown to be specifically ubiquitinated at K164 and that such ubiquitination plays a key role in regulating TLS. In addition, TLS polymerases themselves are now known to be ubiquitinated. In the case of human polymerase η, ubiquitination at four lysine residues in its C-terminus appears to regulate its ability to interact with PCNA and modulate TLS. Within the past few years, advances in global proteomic research have revealed that many proteins involved in TLS are, in fact, subject to a previously underappreciated number of lysine modifications. In this review, we will summarize the known lysine modifications of several key proteins involved in TLS; PCNA and Y-family polymerases η, ι, κ and Rev1 and we will discuss the potential regulatory effects of such modification in controlling TLS in vivo.

  6. Structural basis for DNA recognition by FoxO1 and its regulation by posttranslational modification. (United States)

    Brent, Michael M; Anand, Ruchi; Marmorstein, Ronen


    FoxO transcription factors regulate the transcription of genes that control metabolism, cellular proliferation, stress tolerance, and possibly life span. A number of posttranslational modifications within the forkhead DNA-binding domain regulate FoxO-mediated transcription. We describe the crystal structures of FoxO1 bound to three different DNA elements and measure the change in FoxO1-DNA affinity with acetylation and phosphorylation. The structures reveal additional contacts and increased DNA distortion for the highest affinity DNA site. The flexible wing 2 region of the forkhead domain was not observed in the structures but is necessary for DNA binding, and we show that p300 acetylation in wing 2 reduces DNA affinity. We also show that MST1 phosphorylation of FoxO1 prevents high-affinity DNA binding. The observation that FoxO-DNA affinity varies between response elements and with posttranslational modifications suggests that modulation of FoxO-DNA affinity is an important component of FoxO regulation in health and misregulation in disease.

  7. Deciphering human heat shock transcription factor 1 regulation via post-translational modification in yeast.

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    Liliana Batista-Nascimento

    Full Text Available Heat shock transcription factor 1 (HSF1 plays an important role in the cellular response to proteotoxic stresses. Under normal growth conditions HSF1 is repressed as an inactive monomer in part through post-translation modifications that include protein acetylation, sumoylation and phosphorylation. Upon exposure to stress HSF1 homotrimerizes, accumulates in nucleus, binds DNA, becomes hyper-phosphorylated and activates the expression of stress response genes. While HSF1 and the mechanisms that regulate its activity have been studied for over two decades, our understanding of HSF1 regulation remains incomplete. As previous studies have shown that HSF1 and the heat shock response promoter element (HSE are generally structurally conserved from yeast to metazoans, we have made use of the genetically tractable budding yeast as a facile assay system to further understand the mechanisms that regulate human HSF1 through phosphorylation of serine 303. We show that when human HSF1 is expressed in yeast its phosphorylation at S303 is promoted by the MAP-kinase Slt2 independent of a priming event at S307 previously believed to be a prerequisite. Furthermore, we show that phosphorylation at S303 in yeast and mammalian cells occurs independent of GSK3, the kinase primarily thought to be responsible for S303 phosphorylation. Lastly, while previous studies have suggested that S303 phosphorylation represses HSF1-dependent transactivation, we now show that S303 phosphorylation also represses HSF1 multimerization in both yeast and mammalian cells. Taken together, these studies suggest that yeast cells will be a powerful experimental tool for deciphering aspects of human HSF1 regulation by post-translational modifications.

  8. Phosphoproteome Profiling Reveals Circadian Clock Regulation of Posttranslational Modifications in the Murine Hippocampus (United States)

    Chiang, Cheng-Kang; Xu, Bo; Mehta, Neel; Mayne, Janice; Sun, Warren Y. L.; Cheng, Kai; Ning, Zhibin; Dong, Jing; Zou, Hanfa; Cheng, Hai-Ying Mary; Figeys, Daniel


    The circadian clock is an endogenous oscillator that drives daily rhythms in physiology, behavior, and gene expression. The underlying mechanisms of circadian timekeeping are cell-autonomous and involve oscillatory expression of core clock genes that is driven by interconnecting transcription–translation feedback loops (TTFLs). Circadian clock TTFLs are further regulated by posttranslational modifications, in particular, phosphorylation. The hippocampus plays an important role in spatial memory and the conversion of short- to long-term memory. Several studies have reported the presence of a peripheral oscillator in the hippocampus and have highlighted the importance of circadian regulation in memory formation. Given the general importance of phosphorylation in circadian clock regulation, we performed global quantitative proteome and phosphoproteome analyses of the murine hippocampus across the circadian cycle, applying spiked-in labeled reference and high accuracy mass spectrometry (MS). Of the 3,052 proteins and 2,868 phosphosites on 1,368 proteins that were accurately quantified, 1.7% of proteins and 5.2% of phosphorylation events exhibited time-of-day-dependent expression profiles. The majority of circadian phosphopeptides displayed abrupt fluctuations at mid-to-late day without underlying rhythms of protein abundance. Bioinformatic analysis of cyclic phosphorylation events revealed their diverse distribution in different biological pathways, most notably, cytoskeletal organization and neuronal morphogenesis. This study provides the first large-scale, quantitative MS analysis of the circadian phosphoproteome and proteome of the murine hippocampus and highlights the significance of rhythmic regulation at the posttranslational level in this peripheral oscillator. In addition to providing molecular insights into the hippocampal circadian clock, our results will assist in the understanding of genetic factors that underlie rhythms-associated pathological states of

  9. Regulation of multispanning membrane protein topology via post-translational annealing. (United States)

    Van Lehn, Reid C; Zhang, Bin; Miller, Thomas F


    The canonical mechanism for multispanning membrane protein topogenesis suggests that protein topology is established during cotranslational membrane integration. However, this mechanism is inconsistent with the behavior of EmrE, a dual-topology protein for which the mutation of positively charged loop residues, even close to the C-terminus, leads to dramatic shifts in its topology. We use coarse-grained simulations to investigate the Sec-facilitated membrane integration of EmrE and its mutants on realistic biological timescales. This work reveals a mechanism for regulating membrane-protein topogenesis, in which initially misintegrated configurations of the proteins undergo post-translational annealing to reach fully integrated multispanning topologies. The energetic barriers associated with this post-translational annealing process enforce kinetic pathways that dictate the topology of the fully integrated proteins. The proposed mechanism agrees well with the experimentally observed features of EmrE topogenesis and provides a range of experimentally testable predictions regarding the effect of translocon mutations on membrane protein topogenesis.

  10. Histone Ketoamide Adduction by 4-Oxo-2-nonenal Is a Reversible Posttranslational Modification Regulated by Sirt2. (United States)

    Cui, Yiwen; Li, Xin; Lin, Jianwei; Hao, Quan; Li, Xiang David


    Lipid-derived electrophiles (LDEs) directly modify proteins to modulate cellular signaling pathways in response to oxidative stress. One such LDE, 4-oxo-2-nonenal (4-ONE), has recently been found to target histones and interfere with histone assembly into nucleosomes. Unlike other LDEs that preferentially modify cysteine via nucleophilic Michael addition, 4-ONE reacts with histone lysine residues to form a new histone modification, gamma-oxononanoylation (Kgon). However, it remains unclear whether Kgon can cause irreversible damage or be regulated by enzymes "erasing" this nonenzymatic modification. Here, we report that human Sirt2 catalyzes the removal of histone Kgon. Among the tested human sirtuins, Sirt2 showed robust deacylase activity toward the Kgon-carrying histone peptides in vitro. We use alkynyl-4-ONE as a chemical reporter for Kgon to demonstrate that Sirt2 is responsible for removing histone Kgon in cells. Furthermore, we develop a ketone-reactive chemical probe to detect histones modified by endogenous 4-ONE in macrophages in response to inflammatory stimulation. Using this probe, we show Sirt2 as a deacylase able to control histone Kgon in stimulated macrophages. This study unravels a new mechanism for the regulation of LDE-derived protein posttranslational modifications, as well as a novel role played by Sirt2 as a histone Kgon deacylase in cytoprotective signaling responses.

  11. Transcriptional and Posttranslational Regulation of Nucleotide Excision Repair: The Guardian of the Genome against Ultraviolet Radiation

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    Jeong-Min Park


    Full Text Available Ultraviolet (UV radiation from sunlight represents a constant threat to genome stability by generating modified DNA bases such as cyclobutane pyrimidine dimers (CPD and pyrimidine-pyrimidone (6-4 photoproducts (6-4PP. If unrepaired, these lesions can have deleterious effects, including skin cancer. Mammalian cells are able to neutralize UV-induced photolesions through nucleotide excision repair (NER. The NER pathway has multiple components including seven xeroderma pigmentosum (XP proteins (XPA to XPG and numerous auxiliary factors, including ataxia telangiectasia and Rad3-related (ATR protein kinase and RCC1 like domain (RLD and homologous to the E6-AP carboxyl terminus (HECT domain containing E3 ubiquitin protein ligase 2 (HERC2. In this review we highlight recent data on the transcriptional and posttranslational regulation of NER activity.

  12. Autophagy Regulates the Post-Translational Cleavage of BCL-2 and Promotes Neuronal Survival

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Laura Lossi


    Full Text Available B-cell lymphoma 2 protein (BCL-2 is one of the more widely investigated anti-apoptotic protein in mammals, and its levels are critical for protecting from programmed cell death. We report here that the cellular content of BCL-2 is regulated at post-translational level along the autophagy/lysosome pathways in organotypic cultures of post-natal mouse cerebellar cortex. Specifically this mechanism appears to be effective in the cerebellar granule cells (CGCs that are known to undergo massive programmed cell death (apoptosis during post-natal maturation. By the use of specific agonists/antagonist of calcium channels at the endoplasmic reticulum it was possible to understand the pivotal role of calcium release from intracellular stores in CGC neuroprotection. The more general significance of these findings is supported by a very recent study Niemann-Pick transgenic mice.

  13. Multiple layers of posttranslational regulation refine circadian clock activity in Arabidopsis. (United States)

    Seo, Pil Joon; Mas, Paloma


    The circadian clock is a cellular time-keeper mechanism that regulates biological rhythms with a period of ~24 h. The circadian rhythms in metabolism, physiology, and development are synchronized by environmental cues such as light and temperature. In plants, proper matching of the internal circadian time with the external environment confers fitness advantages on plant survival and propagation. Accordingly, plants have evolved elaborated regulatory mechanisms that precisely control the circadian oscillations. Transcriptional feedback regulation of several clock components has been well characterized over the past years. However, the importance of additional regulatory mechanisms such as chromatin remodeling, protein complexes, protein phosphorylation, and stability is only starting to emerge. The multiple layers of circadian regulation enable plants to properly synchronize with the environmental cycles and to fine-tune the circadian oscillations. This review focuses on the diverse posttranslational events that regulate circadian clock function. We discuss the mechanistic insights explaining how plants articulate a high degree of complexity in their regulatory networks to maintain circadian homeostasis and to generate highly precise waveforms of circadian expression and activity.

  14. Gene Regulation, Alternative Splicing, and Posttranslational Modification of Troponin Subunits in Cardiac Development and Adaptation: A Focused Review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juan-Juan eSheng


    Full Text Available Troponin plays a central role in regulating the contraction and relaxation of vertebrate striated muscles. This review focuses on the isoform gene regulation, alternative RNA splicing, and posttranslational modifications of troponin subunits in cardiac development and adaptation. Transcriptional and posttranscriptional regulations such as phosphorylation and proteolysis modifications, and structure-function relationships of troponin subunit proteins are summarized. The physiological and pathophysiological significances are discussed for impacts on cardiac muscle contractility, heart function, and adaptations in health and diseases.

  15. Gene regulation, alternative splicing, and posttranslational modification of troponin subunits in cardiac development and adaptation: a focused review. (United States)

    Sheng, Juan-Juan; Jin, Jian-Ping


    Troponin plays a central role in regulating the contraction and relaxation of vertebrate striated muscles. This review focuses on the isoform gene regulation, alternative RNA splicing, and posttranslational modifications of troponin subunits in cardiac development and adaptation. Transcriptional and posttranscriptional regulations such as phosphorylation and proteolysis modifications, and structure-function relationships of troponin subunit proteins are summarized. The physiological and pathophysiological significances are discussed for impacts on cardiac muscle contractility, heart function, and adaptations in health and diseases.

  16. Transcriptional, post-transcriptional and post-translational regulations of gene expression during leaf polarity formation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Lin Xu; Li Yang; Hai Huang


    Leaf morphogenesis requires the establishment of adaxial-abaxial polarity after primordium initiation from the shoot apical meristem (SAM). Several families of transcription factors are known to play critical roles in promoting adaxial or abaxial leaf fate. Recently, post-transcriptional gene silencing pathways have been shown to regulate the establishment of leaf polarity, providing novel and exciting insights into leaf development. For example, microRNAs (miR165/166)and a trans-acting siRNA (TAS3-derived tasiR-ARF) have been shown to repress the expression of several key transcription factor genes. In addition, yet another level of regulation, post-translational regulation, has been revealed recently by studies on the role of the 26S proteasome in leaf polarity. Although our understanding regarding the molecular mechanisms underlying establishment of adaxial-abaxial polarity has greatly improved, there is still much that remains elusive.This review aims to discuss recent progress, as well as the remaining questions, regarding the molecular mechanisms underlying leaf polarity formation.

  17. Post-translational regulation of SHORT VEGETATIVE PHASE as a major mechanism for thermoregulation of flowering. (United States)

    Hwan Lee, Jeong; Sook Chung, Kyung; Kim, Soon-Kap; Ahn, Ji Hoon


    In contrast to our extensive knowledge of vernalization, we know relatively little about the regulation of ambient temperature-responsive flowering. Recent reports revealed that FLOWERING LOCUS M (FLM) and SHORT VEGETATIVE PHASE (SVP) regulate high ambient temperature-responsive flowering through two different mechanisms: degradation of SVP protein and formation of a non-functional SVP-FLM-δ complex. To investigate further the mechanism of thermoregulation of flowering, we performed real-time quantitative polymerase chain reaction (RT-qPCR) and in vitro pull-down assays. We found that FLM-β and FLM-δ transcripts show similar absolute levels at different temperatures. Also, His-SVP protein bound to the GST-FLM-β or -δ proteins with similar binding intensities. These results suggest that functional SVP-FLM-β and non-functional SVP-FLM-δ complexes form similarly at warmer temperatures, thus indicating that post-translational regulation of SVP functions as a major mechanism for thermoregulation in flowering.

  18. PPARG Post-translational Modifications Regulate Bone Formation and Bone Resorption

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L.A. Stechschulte


    Full Text Available The peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor gamma (PPARγ regulates osteoblast and osteoclast differentiation, and is the molecular target of thiazolidinediones (TZDs, insulin sensitizers that enhance glucose utilization and adipocyte differentiation. However, clinical use of TZDs has been limited by side effects including a higher risk of fractures and bone loss. Here we demonstrate that the same post-translational modifications at S112 and S273, which influence PPARγ pro-adipocytic and insulin sensitizing activities, also determine PPARγ osteoblastic (pS112 and osteoclastic (pS273 activities. Treatment of either hyperglycemic or normoglycemic animals with SR10171, an inverse agonist that blocks pS273 but not pS112, increased trabecular and cortical bone while normalizing metabolic parameters. Additionally, SR10171 treatment modulated osteocyte, osteoblast, and osteoclast activities, and decreased marrow adiposity. These data demonstrate that regulation of bone mass and energy metabolism shares similar mechanisms suggesting that one pharmacologic agent could be developed to treat both diabetes and metabolic bone disease.

  19. New insights into the posttranslational regulation of human cytosolic thioredoxin by S-palmitoylation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Xu, Zhiyu; Zhong, Liangwei, E-mail:


    High level of palmitate is associated with metabolic disorders. We recently showed that enhanced level of S-palmitoylated cytosolic thioredoxin (Trx1) in mouse liver was new characteristic feature of insulin resistance. However, our understanding of the effect of S-palmitoylation on Trx1 is limited, and the tissue specificity of Trx1 S-palmitoylation is unclear. Here we show that S-palmitoylation also occurs at Cys73 of Trx1 in living endothelial cells, and the level of S-palmitoylated Trx1 undergoes regulation by insulin signaling. Trx1 prefers thiol-thioester exchange with palmitoyl-CoA to acetyl-CoA. S-palmitoylation alters conformation or secondary structure of Trx1, as well as decreases the ability of Trx1 to transfer electrons from thioredoxin reductase to S-nitrosylated protein–tyrosine phosphatase 1B and S-nitroso-glutathione. Our results demonstrate that S-palmitoylation is an important post-translational modification of human Trx1. - Highlights: • S-palmitoylation occurs at Cys73 of Trx1 in living endothelial cells. • Insulin signaling may regulate level of S-palmitoylated Trx1 in the cells. • S-palmitoylation plays significant effects on Trx1 structure and functions.

  20. Posttranslational regulation of nitrate assimilation in the cyanobacterium Synechocystis sp. strain PCC 6803. (United States)

    Kobayashi, Masaki; Takatani, Nobuyuki; Tanigawa, Mari; Omata, Tatsuo


    Posttranslational regulation of nitrate assimilation was studied in the cyanobacterium Synechocystis sp. strain PCC 6803. The ABC-type nitrate and nitrite bispecific transporter encoded by the nrtABCD genes was completely inhibited by ammonium as in Synechococcus elongatus strain PCC 7942. Nitrate reductase was insensitive to ammonium, while it is inhibited in the Synechococcus strain. Nitrite reductase was also insensitive to ammonium. The inhibition of nitrate and nitrite transport required the PII protein (glnB gene product) and the C-terminal domain of NrtC, one of the two ATP-binding subunits of the transporter, as in the Synechococcus strain. Mutants expressing the PII derivatives in which Ala or Glu is substituted for the conserved Ser49, which has been shown to be the phosphorylation site in the Synechococcus strain, showed ammonium-promoted inhibition of nitrate uptake like that of the wild-type strain. The S49A and S49E substitutions in GlnB did not affect the regulation of the nitrate and nitrite transporter in Synechococcus either. These results indicated that the presence or absence of negative electric charge at the 49th position does not affect the activity of the PII protein to regulate the cyanobacterial ABC-type nitrate and nitrite transporter according to the cellular nitrogen status. This finding suggested that the permanent inhibition of nitrate assimilation by an S49A derivative of PII, as was previously reported for Synechococcus elongatus strain PCC 7942, is likely to have resulted from inhibition of nitrate reductase rather than the nitrate and nitrite transporter.

  1. Protein post-translational modifications and regulation of pluripotency in human stem cells. (United States)

    Wang, Yu-Chieh; Peterson, Suzanne E; Loring, Jeanne F


    Post-translational modifications (PTMs) are known to be essential mechanisms used by eukaryotic cells to diversify their protein functions and dynamically coordinate their signaling networks. Defects in PTMs have been linked to numerous developmental disorders and human diseases, highlighting the importance of PTMs in maintaining normal cellular states. Human pluripotent stem cells (hPSCs), including embryonic stem cells (hESCs) and induced pluripotent stem cells (hiPSCs), are capable of self-renewal and differentiation into a variety of functional somatic cells; these cells hold a great promise for the advancement of biomedical research and clinical therapy. The mechanisms underlying cellular pluripotency in human cells have been extensively explored in the past decade. In addition to the vast amount of knowledge obtained from the genetic and transcriptional research in hPSCs, there is a rapidly growing interest in the stem cell biology field to examine pluripotency at the protein and PTM level. This review addresses recent progress toward understanding the role of PTMs (glycosylation, phosphorylation, acetylation and methylation) in the regulation of cellular pluripotency.

  2. Protein redox chemistry: post-translational cysteine modifications that regulate signal transduction and drug pharmacology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Revati eWani


    Full Text Available The perception of reactive oxygen species (ROS has evolved over the past decade from agents of cellular damage to secondary messengers which modify signaling proteins in physiology and the disease state (e.g. cancer. New protein targets of specific oxidation are rapidly being identified. One emerging class of redox modification occurs to the thiol side chain of cysteine residues which can produce multiple chemically-distinct alterations to the protein (e.g. sulfenic/sulfinic/sulfonic acid, disulfides. These post-translational modifications (PTM are shown to affect the protein structure and function. Because redox-sensitive proteins can traffic between subcellular compartments that have different redox environments, cysteine oxidation enables a spatio-temporal control to signaling. Understanding ramifications of these oxidative modifications to the functions of signaling proteins is crucial for understanding cellular regulation as well as for informed-drug discovery process. The effects of EGFR oxidation of Cys797 on inhibitor pharmacology are presented to illustrate the principle. Taken together, cysteine redox PTM can impact both cell biology and drug pharmacology.

  3. Lysine Glutarylation Is a Protein Posttranslational Modification Regulated by SIRT5

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tan, Minjia; Peng, Chao; Anderson, Kristin A.


    We report the identification and characterization of a five-carbon protein posttranslational modification (PTM) called lysine glutarylation (Kglu). This protein modification was detected by immunoblot and mass spectrometry (MS), and then comprehensively validated by chemical and biochemical metho...

  4. Smoothing T cell roads to the tumor: Chemokine post-translational regulation. (United States)

    Molon, Barbara; Viola, Antonella; Bronte, Vincenzo


    We described a novel tumor-associated immunosuppressive mechanism based on post-translational modifications of chemokines by reactive nitrogen species (RNS). To overcome tumor immunosuppressive hindrances, we designed and developed a new drug, AT38, that inhibits RNS generation at the tumor site. Combinatorial approaches with AT38 boost the effectiveness of cancer immunotherapy protocols.

  5. Parathyroid hormone-related protein regulates integrin α6 and β4 levels via transcriptional and post-translational pathways. (United States)

    Bhatia, Vandanajay; Mula, Ramanjaneya V R; Falzon, Miriam


    Parathyroid hormone-related protein (PTHrP) enhances prostate cancer (CaP) growth and metastasis in vivo. PTHrP also increases cell survival and migration, and upregulates pro-invasive integrin α6β4 expression. We used the human CaP cell lines C4-2 and PC-3 as model systems to study the mechanisms via which PTHrP regulates α6β4 levels. We report that PTHrP regulates α6 and β4 levels via a transcriptional pathway; β4 regulation involves the NF-κB pathway. PTHrP also regulates β4 levels at the post-translational level. PTHrP inhibits caspase-3 and -7 activities. Post-translational regulation of β4 by PTHrP is mediated via attenuation of its proteolytic cleavage by these caspases. Since α6 dimerizes with β4, increased β4 levels result in elevated α6 levels. Suppressing β4 using siRNA attenuates the effect of caspase inhibition on apoptosis and cell migration. These results provide evidence of a link between PTHrP, integrin α6β4 levels as a function of caspase activity, and cell survival and migration. Targeting PTHrP in CaP cancer, thereby reversing the effect on caspase activity and α6β4 levels, may thus prove therapeutically beneficial. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  6. Specific genomic cues regulate Cajal body assembly. (United States)

    Sawyer, Iain A; Hager, Gordon L; Dundr, Miroslav


    The assembly of specialized sub-nuclear microenvironments known as nuclear bodies (NBs) is important for promoting efficient nuclear function. In particular, the Cajal body (CB), a prominent NB that facilitates spliceosomal snRNP biogenesis, assembles in response to genomic cues. Here, we detail the factors that regulate CB assembly and structural maintenance. These include the importance of transcription at nucleating gene loci, the grouping of these genes on human chromosomes 1, 6 and 17, as well as cell cycle and biochemical regulation of CB protein function. We also speculate on the correlation between CB formation and RNA splicing levels in neurons and cancer. The timing and location of these specific molecular events is critical to CB assembly and its contribution to genome function. However, further work is required to explore the emerging biophysical characteristics of CB assembly and the impact upon subsequent genome reorganization.

  7. The story so far: post-translational regulation of peroxisome proliferator-activated receptors by ubiquitination and SUMOylation. (United States)

    Wadosky, Kristine M; Willis, Monte S


    Many studies have implicated the peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor (PPAR) family of nuclear receptor transcription factors in regulating cardiac substrate metabolism and ATP generation. Recently, evidence from a variety of cell culture and organ systems has implicated ubiquitin and small ubiquitin-like modifier (SUMO) conjugation as post-translational modifications that regulate the activity of PPAR transcription factors and their coreceptors/coactivators. Here we introduce the ubiquitin and SUMO conjugation systems and extensively review how they have been shown to regulate all three PPAR isoforms (PPARα, PPARβ/δ, and PPARγ) in addition to the retinoid X receptor and PPARγ coactivator-1α subunits of the larger PPAR transcription factor complex. We then present how the specific ubiquitin (E3) ligases have been implicated and review emerging evidence that post-translational modifications of PPARs with ubiquitin and/or SUMO may play a role in cardiac disease. Because PPAR activity is perturbed in a variety of forms of heart disease and specific proteins regulate this process (E3 ligases), this may be a fruitful area of investigation with respect to finding new therapeutic targets.

  8. Regulation of the mRNA-binding protein HuR by posttranslational modification: spotlight on phosphorylation. (United States)

    Eberhardt, Wolfgang; Doller, Anke; Pfeilschifter, Josef


    The ubiquitous mRNA-binding protein human antigen R (HuR) and its neuronal relatives (HuB, HuC, HuD) participate in the post-transcriptional regulation of many AU-rich element-bearing mRNAs. In addition to its originally described role in controlling mRNA decay, the binding of HuR to target mRNAs can affect many aspects of mRNA processing including splicing, polyadenylation, intracellular trafficking, translation and modulation of mRNA repression by miRNAs. In accordance to the growing list of signalling events which are involved in regulating these different HuR functions, recent data implicate that posttranslational modification, namely protein kinase-triggered phosphorylation of HuR plays a crucial role in connecting extracellular signal inputs to a specific post-transcriptional program by HuR. Notably, in addition to directly targeting HuR functions, posttranslational modifications of HuR have a major impact on the sequestration and binding to various HuR ligand proteins as has been demonstrated e.g. for the 14-3-3 chaperones. However, the detailed mechanisms of how a specific modification of HuR coordinates different aspects in HuR regulation are currently poorly understood. Due to the fact that most of the described HuR activities are closely related to its subcellular localization and the binding to cargo mRNA, this review will focus on these aspects of HuR functions and their control by posttranslational modification, particularly by HuR phosphorylations by different protein kinases.

  9. Post-translational regulation and trafficking of the granulin-containing protease RD21 of Arabidopsis thaliana.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christian Gu

    Full Text Available RD21-like proteases are ubiquitous, plant-specific papain-like proteases typified by carrying a C-terminal granulin domain. RD21-like proteases are involved in immunity and associated with senescence and various types of biotic and abiotic stresses. Here, we interrogated Arabidopsis RD21 regulation and trafficking by site-directed mutagenesis, agroinfiltration, western blotting, protease activity profiling and protein degradation. Using an introduced N-glycan sensor, deglycosylation experiments and glyco-engineered N. benthamiana plants, we show that RD21 passes through the Golgi where it becomes fucosylated. Our studies demonstrate that RD21 is regulated at three post-translational levels. Prodomain removal is not blocked in the catalytic Cys mutant, indicating that RD21 is activated by a proteolytic cascade. However, RD21 activation in Arabidopsis does not require vacuolar processing enzymes (VPEs or aleurain-like protease AALP. In contrast, granulin domain removal requires the catalytic Cys and His residues and is therefore autocatalytic. Furthermore, SDS can (re-activate latent RD21 in Arabidopsis leaf extracts, indicating the existence of a third layer of post-translational regulation, possibly mediated by endogenous inhibitors. RD21 causes a dominant protease activity in Arabidopsis leaf extracts, responsible for SDS-induced proteome degradation.

  10. Biophysical Regulation of Vascular Differentiation and Assembly

    CERN Document Server

    Gerecht, Sharon


    The ability to grow stem cells in the laboratory and to guide their maturation to functional cells allows us to study the underlying mechanisms that govern vasculature differentiation and assembly in health and disease. Accumulating evidence suggests that early stages of vascular growth are exquisitely tuned by biophysical cues from the microenvironment, yet the scientific understanding of such cellular environments is still in its infancy. Comprehending these processes sufficiently to manipulate them would pave the way to controlling blood vessel growth in therapeutic applications. This book assembles the works and views of experts from various disciplines to provide a unique perspective on how different aspects of its microenvironment regulate the differentiation and assembly of the vasculature. In particular, it describes recent efforts to exploit modern engineering techniques to study and manipulate various biophysical cues. Biophysical Regulation of Vascular Differentiation and Assembly provides an inter...

  11. Posttranslational Regulation of O(6)-Methylguanine-DNA Methyltransferase (MGMT) and New Opportunities for Treatment of Brain Cancers. (United States)

    Srivenugopal, Kalkunte S; Rawat, Amit; Niture, Suryakant K; Paranjpe, Ameya; Velu, Chinavenmani; Venugopal, Sanjay N; Madala, Hanumantha Rao; Basak, Debasish; Punganuru, Surendra R


    O(6)-Methylguanine-DNA-methyltransferase (MGMT) is an antimutagenic DNA repair protein highly expressed in human brain tumors. Because MGMT repairs the mutagenic, carcinogenic and cytotoxic O(6)-alkylguanine adducts, including those generated by the clinically used anticancer alkylating agents, it has emerged as a central and rational target for overcoming tumor resistance to alkylating agents. Although the pseudosubstrates for MGMT [O(6)-benzylguanine, O(6)-(4- bromothenyl)guanine] have gained attention as powerful and clinically-relevant inhibitors, bone marrow suppression due to excessive alkylation damage has diminished this strategy. Our laboratory has been working on various posttranslational modifications of MGMT that affect its protein stability, DNA repair activity and response to oxidative stress. While these modifications greatly impact the physiological regulation of MGMT, they also highlight the opportunities for inactivating DNA repair and new drug discovery in this specific area. This review briefly describes the newer aspects of MGMT posttranslational regulation by ubiquitination, sumoylation and glutathionylation and reveals how the reactivity of the active site Cys145 can be exploited for potent inhibition and depletion of MGMT by thiol-reacting drugs such as the disulfiram and various dithiocarbamate derivatives. The possible repurposing of these nontoxic and safe drugs for improved therapy of pediatric and adult brain tumors is discussed.

  12. Post-Translational Regulation of miRNA Pathway Components, AGO1 and HYL1, in Plants (United States)

    Cho, Seok Keun; Ryu, Moon Young; Shah, Pratik; Poulsen, Christian Peter; Yang, Seong Wook


    Post-translational modifications (PTMs) of proteins are essential to increase the functional diversity of the proteome. By adding chemical groups to proteins, or degrading entire proteins by phosphorylation, glycosylation, ubiquitination, neddylation, acetylation, lipidation, and proteolysis, the complexity of the proteome increases, and this then influences most biological processes. Although small RNAs are crucial regulatory elements for gene expression in most eukaryotes, PTMs of small RNA microprocessor and RNA silencing components have not been extensively investigated in plants. To date, several studies have shown that the proteolytic regulation of AGOs is important for host-pathogen interactions. DRB4 is regulated by the ubiquitin-proteasome system, and the degradation of HYL1 is modulated by a de-etiolation repressor, COP1, and an unknown cytoplasmic protease. Here, we discuss current findings on the PTMs of microprocessor and RNA silencing components in plants. PMID:27440184

  13. S-acylation dependent post-translational cross-talk regulates large conductance calcium- and voltage- activated potassium (BK channels

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael J Shipston


    Full Text Available Mechanisms that control surface expression and/or activity of large conductance calcium-activated potassium (BK channels are important determinants of their (pathophysiological function. Indeed, BK channel dysfunction is associated with major human disorders ranging from epilepsy to hypertension and obesity. S-acylation (S-palmitoylation represents a major reversible, post-translational modification controlling the properties and function of many proteins including ion channels. Recent evidence reveals that both pore-forming and regulatory subunits of BK channels are S-acylated and control channel trafficking and regulation by AGC-family protein kinases. The pore-forming α-subunit is S-acylated at two distinct sites within the N- and C-terminus, each site being regulated by different palmitoyl acyl transferases (zDHHCs and acyl thioesterases. (APTs. S-acylation of the N-terminus controls channel trafficking and surface expression whereas S-acylation of the C-terminal domain determines regulation of channel activity by AGC-family protein kinases. S-acylation of the regulatory β4-subunit controls ER exit and surface expression of BK channels but does not affect ion channel kinetics at the plasma membrane. Furthermore, a significant number of previously identified BK-channel interacting proteins have been shown, or are predicted to be, S-acylated. Thus, the BK channel multi-molecular signalling complex may be dynamically regulated by this fundamental post-translational modification and thus S-acylation likely represents an important determinant of BK channel physiology in health and disease.

  14. A conserved type IV pilin signal peptide H-domain is critical for the post-translational regulation of flagella-dependent motility. (United States)

    Esquivel, Rianne N; Pohlschroder, Mechthild


    In many bacteria and archaea, type IV pili facilitate surface adhesion, the initial step in biofilm formation. Haloferax volcanii has a specific set of adhesion pilins (PilA1-A6) that, although diverse, contain an absolutely conserved signal peptide hydrophobic (H) domain. Data presented here demonstrate that these pilins (PilA1-A6) also play an important role in regulating flagella-dependent motility, which allows cells to rapidly transition between planktonic and sessile states. Cells lacking adhesion pilins exhibit a severe motility defect, however, expression of any one of the adhesion pilins in trans can rescue the motility and adhesion. Conversely, while deleting pilB3-C3, genes required for PilA pilus biosynthesis, results in cells lacking pili and having an adhesion defect, it does not affect motility, indicating that motility regulation requires the presence of pilins, but not assembled pili. Mutagenesis studies revealed that the pilin-dependent motility regulatory mechanism does not require the diverse C-terminal region of the PilA pilins but specifically involves the conserved H-domain. This novel post-translational regulatory mechanism, which employs components that promote biofilm formation to inhibit motility, can provide a rapid response to changing environmental conditions. A model for this regulatory mechanism, which may also be present in other prokaryotes, is discussed.

  15. Lysine glutarylation is a protein posttranslational modification regulated by SIRT5. (United States)

    Tan, Minjia; Peng, Chao; Anderson, Kristin A; Chhoy, Peter; Xie, Zhongyu; Dai, Lunzhi; Park, Jeongsoon; Chen, Yue; Huang, He; Zhang, Yi; Ro, Jennifer; Wagner, Gregory R; Green, Michelle F; Madsen, Andreas S; Schmiesing, Jessica; Peterson, Brett S; Xu, Guofeng; Ilkayeva, Olga R; Muehlbauer, Michael J; Braulke, Thomas; Mühlhausen, Chris; Backos, Donald S; Olsen, Christian A; McGuire, Peter J; Pletcher, Scott D; Lombard, David B; Hirschey, Matthew D; Zhao, Yingming


    We report the identification and characterization of a five-carbon protein posttranslational modification (PTM) called lysine glutarylation (Kglu). This protein modification was detected by immunoblot and mass spectrometry (MS), and then comprehensively validated by chemical and biochemical methods. We demonstrated that the previously annotated deacetylase, sirtuin 5 (SIRT5), is a lysine deglutarylase. Proteome-wide analysis identified 683 Kglu sites in 191 proteins and showed that Kglu is highly enriched on metabolic enzymes and mitochondrial proteins. We validated carbamoyl phosphate synthase 1 (CPS1), the rate-limiting enzyme in urea cycle, as a glutarylated protein and demonstrated that CPS1 is targeted by SIRT5 for deglutarylation. We further showed that glutarylation suppresses CPS1 enzymatic activity in cell lines, mice, and a model of glutaric acidemia type I disease, the last of which has elevated glutaric acid and glutaryl-CoA. This study expands the landscape of lysine acyl modifications and increases our understanding of the deacylase SIRT5.

  16. Antioxidant systems are regulated by nitric oxide-mediated post-translational modifications (NO-PTMs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juan Carlos Begara-Morales


    Full Text Available Nitric oxide (NO is a biological messenger that orchestrates a plethora of plant functions, mainly through post-translational modifications (PTMs such as S-nitrosylation or tyrosine nitration. In plants, hundreds of proteins have been identified as potential targets of these NO-PTMs under physiological and stress conditions indicating the relevance of NO in plant-signaling mechanisms. Among these NO protein targets, there are different antioxidant enzymes involved in the control of reactive oxygen species (ROS, such as H2O2, which is also a signal molecule. This highlights the close relationship between ROS/NO signaling pathways. The major plant antioxidant enzymes, including catalase, superoxide dismutases (SODs peroxiredoxins (Prx and all the enzymatic components of the ascorbate-glutathione (Asa-GSH cycle, have been shown to be modulated to different degrees by NO-PTMs. This mini-review will update the recent knowledge concerning the interaction of NO with these antioxidant enzymes, with a special focus on the components of the Asa-GSH cycle and their physiological relevance.

  17. Post-translational inhibitory regulation of acid invertase induced by fructose and glucose in developing apple fruit

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张大鹏; 王永章


    Acid invertase (EC is one of the key enzymes involved in the carbohydrate sink-organ development and the sink strength modulation in crops. The experiment conducted with 'Starkrimson' apple (Malus domestica Borkh) fruit showed that, during the fruit development, the activity of acid invertase gradually declined concomitantly with the progressive accumulation of fructose, glucose and sucrose, while Western blotting assay of acid invertase detected a 30 ku peptide of which the immuno-signal intensity increased during the fruit development. The immuno-localization via immunogold electron microscopy showed that, on the one hand, acid invertase was mainly located on the flesh cell wall with numbers of the immunosignals present in the vacuole at the late stage of fruit development; and on the other hand, the amount of acid invertase increased during fruit development, which was consistent with the results of Western blotting. The in vivo pre-incubation of fruit discs with soluble sugars showed that the activity of extractible acid invertase was inhibited by fructose or glucose, while Western blotting did not detect any changes in apparent quantity of the enzyme nor other peptides than 30 ku one. So it is considered that fructose and glucose induced the post-translational or translocational inhibitory regulation of acid invertase in developing apple fruit. The mechanism of the post-translational inhibition was shown different from both the two previously reported ones that proposed either the inhibition by hexose products in the in vitro chemical reaction equilibrium system or the inhibition by the proteinaceous inhibitors. It was hypothesized that fructose and glucose might induce acid invertase inhibition by modulating the expression of some inhibition-related genes or some structural modification of acid invertase.

  18. Cell cycle regulation of central spindle assembly. (United States)

    Mishima, Masanori; Pavicic, Visnja; Grüneberg, Ulrike; Nigg, Erich A; Glotzer, Michael


    The bipolar mitotic spindle is responsible for segregating sister chromatids at anaphase. Microtubule motor proteins generate spindle bipolarity and enable the spindle to perform mechanical work. A major change in spindle architecture occurs at anaphase onset when central spindle assembly begins. This structure regulates the initiation of cytokinesis and is essential for its completion. Central spindle assembly requires the centralspindlin complex composed of the Caenorhabditis elegans ZEN-4 (mammalian orthologue MKLP1) kinesin-like protein and the Rho family GAP CYK-4 (MgcRacGAP). Here we describe a regulatory mechanism that controls the timing of central spindle assembly. The mitotic kinase Cdk1/cyclin B phosphorylates the motor domain of ZEN-4 on a conserved site within a basic amino-terminal extension characteristic of the MKLP1 subfamily. Phosphorylation by Cdk1 diminishes the motor activity of ZEN-4 by reducing its affinity for microtubules. Preventing Cdk1 phosphorylation of ZEN-4/MKLP1 causes enhanced metaphase spindle localization and defects in chromosome segregation. Thus, phosphoregulation of the motor domain of MKLP1 kinesin ensures that central spindle assembly occurs at the appropriate time in the cell cycle and maintains genomic stability.

  19. Posttranslational Modifications of the Master Transcriptional Regulator NPR1 Enable Dynamic but Tight Control of Plant Immune Responses (United States)

    Saleh, Abdelaty; Withers, John; Mohan, Rajinikanth; Marqués, Jorge; Gu, Yangnan; Yan, Shunping; Zavaliev, Raul; Nomoto, Mika; Tada, Yasuomi; Dong, Xinnian


    Summary NPR1, a master regulator of basal and systemic acquired resistance in plants, confers immunity through a transcriptional cascade, which includes transcription activators (e.g., TGA3) and repressors (e.g., WRKY70), leading to the massive induction of antimicrobial genes. How this single protein orchestrates genome-wide transcriptional reprogramming in response to immune stimulus remains a major question. Paradoxically, while NPR1 is essential for defense gene induction, its turnover appears to be required for this function, suggesting that NPR1 activity and degradation are dynamically regulated. Here we show that sumoylation of NPR1 by SUMO3 activates defense gene expression by switching NPR1's association with the WRKY transcription repressors to TGA transcription activators. Sumoylation also triggers NPR1 degradation, rendering the immune induction transient. SUMO modification of NPR1 is inhibited by phosphorylation at Ser55/Ser59, which keeps NPR1 stable and quiescent. Thus, posttranslational modifications enable dynamic but tight and precise control of plant immune responses. PMID:26269953

  20. Integration of Transcriptional and Posttranslational Regulation in a Glucose Signal Transduction Pathway in Saccharomyces cerevisiae


    Kim, Jeong-Ho; Brachet, Valérie; Moriya, Hisao; Johnston, Mark


    Expression of the HXT genes encoding glucose transporters in the budding yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae is regulated by two interconnected glucose-signaling pathways: the Snf3/Rgt2-Rgt1 glucose induction pathway and the Snf1-Mig1 glucose repression pathway. The Snf3 and Rgt2 glucose sensors in the membrane generate a signal in the presence of glucose that inhibits the functions of Std1 and Mth1, paralogous proteins that regulate the function of the Rgt1 transcription factor, which binds to th...

  1. USP2-45 Is a Circadian Clock Output Effector Regulating Calcium Absorption at the Post-Translational Level.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniel Pouly

    Full Text Available The mammalian circadian clock influences most aspects of physiology and behavior through the transcriptional control of a wide variety of genes, mostly in a tissue-specific manner. About 20 clock-controlled genes (CCGs oscillate in virtually all mammalian tissues and are generally considered as core clock components. One of them is Ubiquitin-Specific Protease 2 (Usp2, whose status remains controversial, as it may be a cogwheel regulating the stability or activity of core cogwheels or an output effector. We report here that Usp2 is a clock output effector related to bodily Ca2+ homeostasis, a feature that is conserved across evolution. Drosophila with a whole-body knockdown of the orthologue of Usp2, CG14619 (dUsp2-kd, predominantly die during pupation but are rescued by dietary Ca2+ supplementation. Usp2-KO mice show hyperabsorption of dietary Ca2+ in small intestine, likely due to strong overexpression of the membrane scaffold protein NHERF4, a regulator of the Ca2+ channel TRPV6 mediating dietary Ca2+ uptake. In this tissue, USP2-45 is found in membrane fractions and negatively regulates NHERF4 protein abundance in a rhythmic manner at the protein level. In clock mutant animals (Cry1/Cry2-dKO, rhythmic USP2-45 expression is lost, as well as the one of NHERF4, confirming the inverse relationship between USP2-45 and NHERF4 protein levels. Finally, USP2-45 interacts in vitro with NHERF4 and endogenous Clathrin Heavy Chain. Taken together these data prompt us to define USP2-45 as the first clock output effector acting at the post-translational level at cell membranes and possibly regulating membrane permeability of Ca2+.

  2. Managing the complexity of communication: regulation of gap junctions by post-translational modification

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Axelsen, Lene Nygaard; Callø, Kirstine; von Holstein-Rathlou, Niels-Henrik


    expression by transcription and translation is of great importance, the trafficking, channel activity and degradation are also under tight control. The function of connexins can be regulated by several post translational modifications, which affect numerous parameters; including number of channels, open......Gap junctions are comprised of connexins that form cell-to-cell channels which couple neighboring cells to accommodate the exchange of information. The need for communication does, however, change over time and therefore must be tightly controlled. Although the regulation of connexin protein...... probability, single channel conductance or selectivity. The most extensively investigated post translational modifications are phosphorylations, which have been documented in all mammalian connexins. Besides phosphorylations, some connexins are known to be ubiquitinated, SUMOylated, nitrosylated, hydroxylated...

  3. Posttranslational processing of progastrin

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bundgaard, Jens René; Rehfeld, Jens F.


    Gastrin and cholecystokinin (CCK) are homologous hormones with important functions in the brain and the gut. Gastrin is the main regulator of gastric acid secretion and gastric mucosal growth, whereas cholecystokinin regulates gall bladder emptying, pancreatic enzyme secretion and besides acts...... as a major neurotransmitter in the central and peripheral nervous systems. The tissue-specific expression of the hormones is regulated at the transcriptional level, but the posttranslational phase is also decisive and is highly complex in order to ensure accurate maturation of the prohormones in a cell...... processing progastrin is often greatly disturbed in neoplastic cells.The posttranslational phase of the biogenesis of gastrin and the various progastrin products in gastrin gene-expressing tissues is now reviewed here. In addition, the individual contributions of the processing enzymes are discussed...

  4. Induction of Posttranslational Modifications of Mitochondrial Proteins by ATP Contributes to Negative Regulation of Mitochondrial Function.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yong Zhang

    Full Text Available It is generally accepted that ATP regulates mitochondrial function through the AMPK signaling pathway. However, the AMPK-independent pathway remains largely unknown. In this study, we investigated ATP surplus in the negative regulation of mitochondrial function with a focus on pyruvate dehydrogenase (PDH phosphorylation and protein acetylation. PDH phosphorylation was induced by a high fat diet in the liver of obese mice, which was associated with ATP elevation. In 1c1c7 hepatoma cells, the phosphorylation was induced by palmitate treatment through induction of ATP production. The phosphorylation was associated with a reduction in mitochondria oxygen consumption after 4 h treatment. The palmitate effect was blocked by etomoxir, which inhibited ATP production through suppression of fatty acid β-oxidation. The PDH phosphorylation was induced by incubation of mitochondrial lysate with ATP in vitro without altering the expression of PDH kinase 2 (PDK2 and 4 (PDK4. In addition, acetylation of multiple mitochondrial proteins was induced by ATP in the same conditions. Acetyl-CoA exhibited a similar activity to ATP in induction of the phosphorylation and acetylation. These data suggest that ATP elevation may inhibit mitochondrial function through induction of the phosphorylation and acetylation of mitochondrial proteins. The results suggest an AMPK-independent mechanism for ATP regulation of mitochondrial function.

  5. Dimeric c-di-GMP is required for post-translational regulation of alginate production in Pseudomonas aeruginosa. (United States)

    Whitney, John C; Whitfield, Gregory B; Marmont, Lindsey S; Yip, Patrick; Neculai, A Mirela; Lobsanov, Yuri D; Robinson, Howard; Ohman, Dennis E; Howell, P Lynne


    Pseudomonas aeruginosa is an opportunistic human pathogen that secretes the exopolysaccharide alginate during infection of the respiratory tract of individuals afflicted with cystic fibrosis and chronic obstructive pulmonary disease. Among the proteins required for alginate production, Alg44 has been identified as an inner membrane protein whose bis-(3',5')-cyclic dimeric guanosine monophosphate (c-di-GMP) binding activity post-translationally regulates alginate secretion. In this study, we report the 1.8 Å crystal structure of the cytoplasmic region of Alg44 in complex with dimeric self-intercalated c-di-GMP and characterize its dinucleotide-binding site using mutational analysis. The structure shows that the c-di-GMP binding region of Alg44 adopts a PilZ domain fold with a dimerization mode not previously observed for this family of proteins. Calorimetric binding analysis of residues in the c-di-GMP binding site demonstrate that mutation of Arg-17 and Arg-95 alters the binding stoichiometry between c-di-GMP and Alg44 from 2:1 to 1:1. Introduction of these mutant alleles on the P. aeruginosa chromosome show that the residues required for binding of dimeric c-di-GMP in vitro are also required for efficient alginate production in vivo. These results suggest that the dimeric form of c-di-GMP represents the biologically active signaling molecule needed for the secretion of an important virulence factor produced by P. aeruginosa.

  6. Post-translational regulation of P2X receptor channels: modulation by phospholipids

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Louis-Philippe eBernier


    Full Text Available P2X receptor channels mediate fast excitatory signaling by ATP and play major roles in sensory transduction, neuro-immune communication and inflammatory response. P2X receptors constitute a gene family of calcium-permeable ATP-gated cation channels therefore the regulation of P2X signaling is critical for both membrane potential and intracellular calcium homeostasis. Phosphoinositides (PIPn are anionic signaling phospholipids that act as functional regulators of many types of ion channels. Direct PIPn binding was demonstrated for several ligand- or voltage-gated ion channels, however no generic motif emerged to accurately predict lipid-protein binding sites. This review presents what is currently known about the modulation of the different P2X subtypes by phospholipids and about critical determinants underlying their sensitivity to PIPn levels in the plasma membrane.All functional mammalian P2X subtypes tested, with the notable exception of P2X5, have been shown to be positively modulated by PIPn, i.e. homomeric P2X1, P2X2, P2X3, P2X4, and P2X7, as well as heteromeric P2X1/5 and P2X2/3 receptors. Based on various results reported on the aforementioned subtypes including mutagenesis of the prototypical PIPn-sensitive P2X4 and PIPn-insensitive P2X5 receptor subtypes, an increasing amount of functional, biochemical and structural evidence converges on the modulatory role of a short polybasic domain located in the proximal C-terminus of P2X subunits. This linear motif, semi-conserved in the P2X family, seems necessary and sufficient for encoding direct modulation of ATP-gated channels by PIPn. Furthermore, the physiological impact of the regulation of ionotropic purinergic responses by phospholipids on pain pathways was recently revealed in the context of native crosstalks between phospholipase C-linked metabotropic receptors and P2X receptor channels in DRG sensory neurons and microglia.

  7. Post-translational modification by acetylation regulates the mitochondrial carnitine/acylcarnitine transport protein. (United States)

    Giangregorio, Nicola; Tonazzi, Annamaria; Console, Lara; Indiveri, Cesare


    The carnitine/acylcarnitine transporter (CACT; SLC25A20) mediates an antiport reaction allowing entry of acyl moieties in the form of acylcarnitines into the mitochondrial matrix and exit of free carnitine. The transport function of CACT is crucial for the β-oxidation pathway. In this work, it has been found that CACT is partially acetylated in rat liver mitochondria as demonstrated by anti-acetyl-lys antibody immunostaining. Acetylation was reversed by the deacetylase Sirtuin 3 in the presence of NAD(+). After treatment of the mitochondrial extract with the deacetylase, the CACT activity, assayed in proteoliposomes, increased. The half-saturation constant of the CACT was not influenced, while the V max was increased by deacetylation. Sirtuin 3 was not able to deacetylate the CACT when incubation was performed in intact mitoplasts, indicating that the acetylation sites are located in the mitochondrial matrix. Prediction on the localization of acetylated residues by bioinformatics correlates well with the experimental data. Recombinant CACT treated with acetyl-CoA was partially acetylated by non-enzymatic mechanism with a corresponding decrease of transport activity. The experimental data indicate that acetylation of CACT inhibits its transport activity, and thus may contribute to the regulation of the mitochondrial β-oxidation pathway.

  8. Protein Methylation and Stress Granules: Posttranslational Remodeler or Innocent Bystander?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wen Xie


    Full Text Available Stress granules contain a large number of post-translationally modified proteins, and studies have shown that these modifications serve as recruitment tags for specific proteins and even control the assembly and disassembly of the granules themselves. Work originating from our laboratory has focused on the role protein methylation plays in stress granule composition and function. We have demonstrated that both asymmetrically and symmetrically dimethylated proteins are core constituents of stress granules, and we have endeavored to understand when and how this occurs. Here we seek to integrate this data into a framework consisting of the currently known post-translational modifications affecting stress granules to produce a model of stress granule dynamics that, in turn, may serve as a benchmark for understanding and predicting how post-translational modifications regulate other granule types.

  9. Regulated assembly of a supramolecular centrosome scaffold in vitro

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Woodruff, J. B.; Wueseke, O.; Viscardi, V.


    are not well understood. In Caenorhabditis elegans, PCM assembly requires the coiled-coil protein SPD-5. We found that recombinant SPD-5 could polymerize to form micrometer-sized porous networks in vitro. Network assembly was accelerated by two conserved regulators that control PCM assembly in vivo, Polo...

  10. Hypusine: its post-translational formation in eukaryotic initiation factor 5A and its potential role in cellular regulation. (United States)

    Park, M H; Wolff, E C; Folk, J E


    The amino acid, hypusine [N epsilon-(4-amino-2-hydroxybutyl) lysine], a unique component of one cellular protein, eukaryotic translation initiation factor 5A (eIF-5A, old terminology eIF-4D), is formed post-translationally in two enzymatic steps: (i) transfer of the 4-aminobutyl moiety of the polyamine spermidine to the epsilon-amino group of a single specific lysine residue in the eIF-5A precursor protein to form an intermediate, deoxyhypusine, and (ii) subsequent hydroxylation in this 4-aminobutyl portion. Hypusine is produced soon after the translation of eIF-5A mRNA; the modification is essentially irreversible. Hypusine is found in all eukaryotes examined as well as in archaebacteria; it does not occur in eubacteria. The protein containing hypusine from each species displays a high degree of amino acid identity; the sequence of amino acids surrounding the hypusine residue is strictly conserved, suggesting the importance of the hypusine modification throughout evolution. Expression of one of the two yeast eIF-5A genes is required for survival and the lysine codon at the site of hypusine synthesis is vital for yeast growth. The precise cellular function of eIF-5A remains to be elucidated; however, eIF-5A stimulates methionyl-puromycin synthesis in a model assay for translation initiation and eIF-5A precursors containing lysine in place of hypusine are inactive in this assay. This provides evidence that the hypusine modification is needed for eIF-5A activity. In view of the important role of hypusine in eIF-5A and because of the narrow specificities of the enzymes involved in formation of this unusual amino acid, the hypusine biosynthetic steps offer promising targets for intervention in cellular proliferation. Spermidine analogs that are inhibitors of deoxyhypusine synthase in vitro also cause inhibition of hypusine formation in cells, together with a reduction in protein synthesis and in cell growth. In addition, certain metal chelating inhibitors of

  11. Post-translational serine/threonine phosphorylation and lysine acetylation: a novel regulatory aspect of the global nitrogen response regulator GlnR in S. coelicolor M145.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rafat Amin


    Full Text Available Soil-dwelling Streptomyces bacteria such as S. coelicolor have to constantly adapt to the nitrogen (N availability in their habitat. Thus, strict transcriptional and post-translational control of the N-assimilation is fundamental for survival of this species. GlnR is a global response regulator that controls transcription of the genes related to the N-assimilation in S. coelicolor and other members of the Actinomycetales. GlnR represents an atypical orphan response regulator that is not activated by the phosphorylation of the conserved aspartate residue (Asp 50. We have applied transcriptional analysis, LC-MS/MS analysis and electrophoretic mobility shift assays (EMSAs to understand the regulation of GlnR in S. coelicolor M145. The expression of glnR and GlnR-target genes was revisited under four different N-defined conditions and a complex N-rich condition. Although, the expression of selected GlnR-target genes was strongly responsive to changing N-concentrations, the glnR expression itself was independent of the N-availability. Using LC-MS/MSanalysis we demonstrated that GlnR was post-translationally modified. The post-translational modifications of GlnR comprise phosphorylation of the serine/threonine residues and acetylation of lysine residues. In the complex N-rich medium GlnR was phosphorylated on six serine/ threonine residues and acetylated on one lysine residue. Under defined N-excess conditions only two phosphorylated residues were detected whereas under defined N-limiting conditions no phosphorylation was observed. GlnR phosphorylation is thus clearly correlated with N-rich conditions. Furthermore, GlnR was acetylated on four lysine residues independently of the N-concentration in the defined media and on only one lysine residue in the complex N-rich medium. Using EMSAs we demonstrated that phosphorylation inhibited the binding of GlnR to its targets genes, whereas acetylation had little influence on the formation of GlnR-DNA complex

  12. Amyloid β production is regulated by β2-adrenergic signaling-mediated post-translational modifications of the ryanodine receptor. (United States)

    Bussiere, Renaud; Lacampagne, Alain; Reiken, Steven; Liu, Xiaoping; Scheuerman, Valerie; Zalk, Ran; Martin, Cécile; Checler, Frederic; Marks, Andrew R; Chami, Mounia


    Alteration of ryanodine receptor (RyR)-mediated calcium (Ca(2+)) signaling has been reported in Alzheimer disease (AD) models. However, the molecular mechanisms underlying altered RyR-mediated intracellular Ca(2+) release in AD remain to be fully elucidated. We report here that RyR2 undergoes post-translational modifications (phosphorylation, oxidation, and nitrosylation) in SH-SY5Y neuroblastoma cells expressing the β-amyloid precursor protein (βAPP) harboring the familial double Swedish mutations (APPswe). RyR2 macromolecular complex remodeling, characterized by depletion of the regulatory protein calstabin2, resulted in increased cytosolic Ca(2+) levels and mitochondrial oxidative stress. We also report a functional interplay between amyloid β (Aβ), β-adrenergic signaling, and altered Ca(2+) signaling via leaky RyR2 channels. Thus, post-translational modifications of RyR occur downstream of Aβ through a β2-adrenergic signaling cascade that activates PKA. RyR2 remodeling in turn enhances βAPP processing. Importantly, pharmacological stabilization of the binding of calstabin2 to RyR2 channels, which prevents Ca(2+) leakage, or blocking the β2-adrenergic signaling cascade reduced βAPP processing and the production of Aβ in APPswe-expressing SH-SY5Y cells. We conclude that targeting RyR-mediated Ca(2+) leakage may be a therapeutic approach to treat AD. © 2017 by The American Society for Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, Inc.

  13. Posttranslational processing of progastrin

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bundgaard, Jens René; Rehfeld, Jens F.


    Gastrin and cholecystokinin (CCK) are homologous hormones with important functions in the brain and the gut. Gastrin is the main regulator of gastric acid secretion and gastric mucosal growth, whereas cholecystokinin regulates gall bladder emptying, pancreatic enzyme secretion and besides acts...... processing progastrin is often greatly disturbed in neoplastic cells.The posttranslational phase of the biogenesis of gastrin and the various progastrin products in gastrin gene-expressing tissues is now reviewed here. In addition, the individual contributions of the processing enzymes are discussed......, as are structural features of progastrin that are involved in the precursor activation process. Thus, the review describes how the processing depends on the cell-specific expression of the processing enzymes and kinetics in the secretory pathway....

  14. Transcriptional and post-translational regulation of Bim controls apoptosis in melatonin-treated human renal cancer Caki cells. (United States)

    Park, Eun Jung; Woo, Seon Min; Min, Kyoung-Jin; Kwon, Taeg Kyu


    Melatonin (N-acetyl-5-methoxytryptamine) has recently gained attention as an anticancer agent and for combined cancer therapy. In this study, we investigated the underlying molecular mechanisms of the effects of melatonin on cancer cell death. Treatment with melatonin induced apoptosis and upregulated the expression of the pro-apoptotic protein Bcl-2-interacting mediator of cell death (Bim) in renal cancer Caki cells. Furthermore, downregulation of Bim expression by siRNA markedly reduced melatonin-mediated apoptosis. Melatonin increased Bim mRNA expression through the induction of Sp1 and E2F1 expression and transcriptional activity. We found that melatonin also modulated Bim protein stability through the inhibition of proteasome activity. However, melatonin-induced Bim upregulation was independent of melatonin's antioxidant properties and the melatonin receptor. Taken together, our results suggest that melatonin induces apoptosis through the upregulation of Bim expression at the transcriptional level and at the post-translational level.

  15. Notch-mediated post-translational control of Ngn3 protein stability regulates pancreatic patterning and cell fate commitment

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Qu, Xiaoling; Afelik, Solomon; Jensen, Jan Nygaard


    involves transcriptional repression as previously shown, but also incorporates a novel post-translational mechanism. In addition to its ability to promote endocrine fate, we provide evidence of a competing ability of Ngn3 in the patterning of multipotent progenitor cells in turn controlling the formation...... of ducts. On one hand, Ngn3 cell-intrinsically activates endocrine target genes; on the other, Ngn3 cell-extrinsically promotes lateral signaling via the Dll1>Notch>Hes1 pathway which substantially limits its ability to sustain endocrine formation. Prior to endocrine commitment, the Ngn3-mediated......>Hes1-mediated Ngn3 protein destabilization serves to limit endocrine differentiation by reducing cellular levels of Ngn3. This system thus allows for rapid dynamic changes between opposing bHLH proteins in cells approaching a terminal differentiation event. Inhibition of Notch signaling leads to Ngn3...

  16. Balancing spatially regulated β-actin translation and dynamin-mediated endocytosis is required to assemble functional epithelial monolayers. (United States)

    Cruz, Lissette A; Vedula, Pavan; Gutierrez, Natasha; Shah, Neel; Rodriguez, Steven; Ayee, Brian; Davis, Justin; Rodriguez, Alexis J


    Regulating adherens junction complex assembly/disassembly is critical to maintaining epithelial homeostasis in healthy epithelial tissues. Consequently, adherens junction structure and function is often perturbed in clinically advanced tumors of epithelial origin. Some of the most studied factors driving adherens junction complex perturbation in epithelial cancers are transcriptional and epigenetic down-regulation of E-cadherin expression. However, numerous reports demonstrate that post-translational regulatory mechanisms such as endocytosis also regulate early phases of epithelial-mesenchymal transition and metastatic progression. In already assembled healthy epithelia, E-cadherin endocytosis recycles cadherin-catenin complexes to regulate the number of mature adherens junctions found at cell-cell contact sites. However, following de novo epithelial cell-cell contact, endocytosis negatively regulates adherens junction assembly by removing E-cadherin from the cell surface. By contrast, following de novo epithelial cell-cell contact, spatially localized β-actin translation drives cytoskeletal remodeling and consequently E-cadherin clustering at cell-cell contact sites and therefore positively regulates adherens junction assembly. In this report we demonstrate that dynamin-mediated endocytosis and β-actin translation-dependent cadherin-catenin complex anchoring oppose each other following epithelial cell-cell contact. Consequently, the final extent of adherens junction assembly depends on which of these processes is dominant following epithelial cell-cell contact. We expressed β-actin transcripts impaired in their ability to properly localize monomer synthesis (Δ3'UTR) in MDCK cells to perturb actin filament remodeling and anchoring, and demonstrate the resulting defect in adherens junction structure and function is rescued by inhibiting dynamin mediated endocytosis. Therefore, we demonstrate balancing spatially regulated β-actin translation and dynamin

  17. The Measurement of Reversible Redox Dependent Post-translational Modifications and Their Regulation of Mitochondrial and Skeletal Muscle Function

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kramer, Philip A.; Duan, Jicheng; Qian, Wei-Jun; Marcinek, David J.


    Mitochondrial oxidative stress is a common feature of skeletal myopathies across multiple conditions; however, the mechanism by which it contributes to skeletal muscle dysfunction remains controversial. Oxidative damage to proteins, lipids, and DNA has received the most attention, yet an important role for reversible redox post-translational modifications (PTMs) in pathophysiology is emerging. The possibility that these PTMs can exert dynamic control of muscle function implicates them as a mechanism contributing to skeletal muscle dysfunction in chronic disease. Herein, we discuss the significance of thiol-based redox dependent modifications to mitochondrial, myofibrillar and excitation-contraction (EC) coupling proteins with an emphasis on how these changes could alter skeletal muscle performance under chronically stressed conditions. A major barrier to a better mechanistic understanding of the role of reversible redox PTMs in muscle function is the technical challenges associated with accurately measuring the changes of site-specific redox PTMs. Here we will critically review current approaches with an emphasis on sample preparation artifacts, quantitation, and specificity. Despite these challenges, the ability to accurately quantify reversible redox PTMs is critical to understanding the mechanisms by which mitochondrial oxidative stress contributes to skeletal muscle dysfunction in chronic diseases.

  18. Proteasomal degradation of human CYP1B1: effect of the Asn453Ser polymorphism on the post-translational regulation of CYP1B1 expression. (United States)

    Bandiera, Silvio; Weidlich, Simone; Harth, Volker; Broede, Peter; Ko, Yun; Friedberg, Thomas


    Allelic variations in CYP1B1 are reported to modulate the incidence of several types of cancer. To provide a mechanistic basis for this association, we investigated the impact of nonsilent allelic changes on the intracellular levels and post-translational regulation of CYP1B1 protein. When transiently expressed in COS-1 cells, either in the presence or absence of recombinant cytochrome P450 reductase, the cellular level of the CYP1B1.4 allelic variant (containing a Ser at the amino acid position 453; Ser453) was 2-fold lower compared with the other four allelic CYP1B1 proteins (containing Asn453), as analyzed by both immunoblotting and ethoxyresorufin O-deethylase activity. This difference was caused by post-translational regulation; as in the presence of cycloheximide, the rate of degradation of immunodetectable and enzymatically active CYP1B1.4 was distinctly faster than that of CYP1B1.1. Pulse-chase analysis revealed that the half-life of CYP1B1.4 was a mere 1.6 h compared with 4.8 h for CYP1B1.1. The presence of the proteasome inhibitor MG132 [N-benzoyloxycarbonyl (Z)-Leu-Leuleucinal] increased the stability not only of immunodetectable CYP1B1, but also--unexpectedly given the size of the proteasome access channel--increased the stability of enzymatically active CYP1B1. The data presented herein also demonstrate that CYP1B1 is targeted for its polymorphism-dependent degradation by polyubiquitination but not phosphorylation. Our results importantly provide a mechanism to explain the recently reported lower incidence of endometrial cancer in individuals carrying the CYP1B1*4 compared with the CYP1B1*1 haplo-type. In addition, the mechanistic paradigms revealed herein may explain the strong overexpression of CYP1B1 in tumors compared with nondiseased tissues.

  19. Smurf2 as a novel mitotic regulator: From the spindle assembly checkpoint to tumorigenesis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Moore Finola E


    Full Text Available Abstract The execution of the mitotic program with high fidelity is dependent upon precise spatiotemporal regulation of posttranslational protein modifications. For example, the timely polyubiquitination of critical mitotic regulators by Anaphase Promoting Complex/Cyclosome (APC/C is essential for the metaphase to anaphase transition and mitotic exit. The spindle assembly checkpoint prevents unscheduled activity of APC/C-Cdc20 in early mitosis, allowing bipolar attachment of kinetochores to mitotic spindle and facilitating equal segregation of sister chromatids. The critical effector of the spindle checkpoint, Mitotic arrest deficient 2 (Mad2, is recruited to unattached kinetochores forming a complex with other regulatory proteins to efficiently and cooperatively inhibit APC/C-Cdc20. A weakened and/or dysfunctional spindle checkpoint has been linked to the development of genomic instability in both cell culture and animal models, and evidence suggests that aberrant regulation of the spindle checkpoint plays a critical role in human carcinogenesis. Recent studies have illuminated a network of both degradative and non-degradative ubiquitination events that regulate the metaphase to anaphase transition and mitotic exit. Within this context, our recent work showed that the HECT (Homologous to E6-AP C-terminus-family E3 ligase Smurf2 (Smad specific ubiquitin regulatory factor 2, known as a negative regulator of transforming growth factor-beta (TGF-β signaling, is required for a functional spindle checkpoint by promoting the functional localization and stability of Mad2. Here we discuss putative models explaining the role of Smurf2 as a new regulator in the spindle checkpoint. The dynamic mitotic localization of Smurf2 to the centrosome and other critical mitotic structures provides implications about mitotic checkpoint control dependent on various ubiquitination events. Finally, deregulated Smurf2 activity may contribute to carcinogenesis by

  20. Gene bionetworks that regulate ovarian primordial follicle assembly. (United States)

    Nilsson, Eric; Zhang, Bin; Skinner, Michael K


    Primordial follicle assembly is the process by which ovarian primordial follicles are formed. During follicle assembly oocyte nests break down and a layer of pre-granulosa cells surrounds individual oocytes to form primordial follicles. The pool of primordial follicles formed is the source of oocytes for ovulation during a female's reproductive life. The current study utilized a systems approach to detect all genes that are differentially expressed in response to seven different growth factor and hormone treatments known to influence (increase or decrease) primordial follicle assembly in a neonatal rat ovary culture system. One novel factor, basic fibroblast growth factor (FGF2), was experimentally determined to inhibit follicle assembly. The different growth factor and hormone treatments were all found to affect similar physiological pathways, but each treatment affected a unique set of differentially expressed genes (signature gene set). A gene bionetwork analysis identified gene modules of coordinately expressed interconnected genes and it was found that different gene modules appear to accomplish distinct tasks during primordial follicle assembly. Predictions of physiological pathways important to follicle assembly were validated using ovary culture experiments in which ERK1/2 (MAPK1) activity was increased. A number of the highly interconnected genes in these gene networks have previously been linked to primary ovarian insufficiency (POI) and polycystic ovarian disease syndrome (PCOS). Observations have identified novel factors and gene networks that regulate primordial follicle assembly. This systems biology approach has helped elucidate the molecular control of primordial follicle assembly and provided potential therapeutic targets for the treatment of ovarian disease.

  1. Post-Translational Regulation of AtFER2 Ferritin in Response to Intracellular Iron Trafficking during Fruit Development in Arabidopsis

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Karl Ravet; Brigitte Touraine; Sun A. Kim; Francoise Cellier; Sébastien Thomine; Mary Lou Guerinot; Jean-Francois Briat; Frédéric Gaymard


    Ferritins are major players in plant iron homeostasis. Surprisingly, their overexpression in transgenic plants led only to a moderate increase in seed iron content, suggesting the existence of control checkpoints for iron loading and storage in seeds. This work reports the identification of two of these checkpoints. First, measurement of seed metal con-tent during fruit development in Arabidopsis thaliana reveals a similar dynamic of loading for Fe, Mn, Cu, and Zn. The step controlling metal loading into the seed occurs by the regulation of transport from the hull to the seed. Second, metal loading and ferritin abundance were monitored in different genetic backgrounds affected in vacuolar iron transport (AtVIT1, AtNRAMP3, AtNRAMP4) or plastid iron storage (AtFER1 to 4). This approach revealed (1) a post-translational reg-ulation of ferritin accumulation in seeds, and (2) that ferritin stability depends on the balance of iron allocation between vacuoles and plastids. Thus, the success of ferritin overexpression strategies for iron biofortification, a promising approach to reduce iron-deficiency anemia in developing countries, would strongly benefit from the identification and engineering of mechanisms enabling the translocation of high amounts of iron into seed plastids.

  2. Regulation of Mammary Stem Cell Quiescence via Post-Translational Modification of DeltaNp63alpha (United States)


    were collected by centrifugation and lysed by sonication in the presence of a cocktail of protease inhibitors. Lysates were cleared by centrifugation...Cherukuri P, Li H, Yuan Z, et al. (2008) Reciprocal intraepithelial interactions between TP63 and hedgehog signaling regulate quiescence and activation of

  3. Posttranslational modification and quality control. (United States)

    Wang, Xuejun; Pattison, J Scott; Su, Huabo


    Protein quality control functions to minimize the level and toxicity of misfolded proteins in the cell. Protein quality control is performed by intricate collaboration among chaperones and target protein degradation. The latter is performed primarily by the ubiquitin-proteasome system and perhaps autophagy. Terminally misfolded proteins that are not timely removed tend to form aggregates. Their clearance requires macroautophagy. Macroautophagy serves in intracellular quality control also by selectively segregating defective organelles (eg, mitochondria) and targeting them for degradation by the lysosome. Inadequate protein quality control is observed in a large subset of failing human hearts with a variety of causes, and its pathogenic role has been experimentally demonstrated. Multiple posttranslational modifications can occur to substrate proteins and protein quality control machineries, promoting or hindering the removal of the misfolded proteins. This article highlights recent advances in posttranslational modification-mediated regulation of intracellular quality control mechanisms and its known involvement in cardiac pathology.

  4. Interaction proteins of invertase and invertase inhibitor in cold-stored potato tubers suggested a protein complex underlying post-translational regulation of invertase. (United States)

    Lin, Yuan; Liu, Jun; Liu, Xun; Ou, Yongbin; Li, Meng; Zhang, Huiling; Song, Botao; Xie, Conghua


    The activity of vacuolar invertase (VI) is vital to potato cold-induced sweetening (CIS). A post-translational regulation of VI activity has been proposed which involves invertase inhibitor (VIH), but the mechanism for the interaction between VI and VIH has not been fully understood. To identify the potential partners of VI and VIH, two cDNA libraries were respectively constructed from CIS-resistant wild potato species Solanum berthaultii and CIS-sensitive potato cultivar AC035-01 for the yeast two-hybrid analysis. The StvacINV1 (one of the potato VIs) and StInvInh2B (one of the potato VIHs), previously identified to be associated with potato CIS, were used as baits to screen the two libraries. Through positive selection and sequencing, 27 potential target proteins of StvacINV1 and eight of StInvInh2B were clarified. The Kunitz-type protein inhibitors were captured by StvacINV1 in both libraries and the interaction between them was confirmed by bimolecular fluorescence complementation assay in tobacco cells, reinforcing a fundamental interaction between VI and VIH. Notably, a sucrose non-fermenting-1-related protein kinase 1 was captured by both the baits, suggesting that a protein complex could be necessary for fine turning of the invertase activity. The target proteins clarified in present research provide a route to elucidate the mechanism by which the VI activity can be subtly modulated. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  5. Effects of over-expression of the regulatory enzymes DraT and DraG on the ammonium-dependent post-translational regulation of nitrogenase reductase in Azospirillum brasilense. (United States)

    Huergo, Luciano F; Souza, Emanuel M; Steffens, Maria B R; Yates, M Geoffrey; Pedrosa, Fábio O; Chubatsu, Leda S


    Nitrogen fixation in Azospirillum brasilense is regulated at transcriptional and post-translational levels. Post-translational control occurs through the reversible ADP-ribosylation of dinitrogenase reductase (Fe Protein), mediated by the dinitrogenase reductase ADP-ribosyltransferase (DraT) and dinitrogenase reductase glycohydrolase (DraG). Although the DraT and DraG activities are regulated in vivo, the molecules responsible for such regulation remain unknown. We have constructed broad-host-range plasmids capable of over-expressing, upon IPTG induction, the regulatory enzymes DraT and DraG as six-histidine-N-terminal fused proteins (His). Both DraT-His and DraG-His are functional in vivo. We have analyzed the effects of DraT-His and DraG-His over-expression on the post-translational modification of Fe Protein. The DraT-His over-expression led to Fe Protein modification in the absence of ammonium addition, while cells over-expressing DraG-His showed only partial ADP-ribosylation of Fe Protein by adding ammonium. These results suggest that both DraT-His and DraG-His lose their regulation upon over-expression, possible by titrating out negative regulators.

  6. Experience Affects Critical Period Plasticity in the Visual Cortex through an Epigenetic Regulation of Histone Post-Translational Modifications. (United States)

    Baroncelli, Laura; Scali, Manuela; Sansevero, Gabriele; Olimpico, Francesco; Manno, Ilaria; Costa, Mario; Sale, Alessandro


    During an early phase of enhanced sensitivity called the critical period (CP), monocular deprivation causes a shift in the response of visual cortex binocular neurons in favor of the nondeprived eye, a process named ocular dominance (OD) plasticity. While the time course of the CP for OD plasticity can be modulated by genetic/pharmacological interventions targeting GABAergic inhibition, whether an increased sensory-motor experience can affect this major plastic phenomenon is not known. We report that exposure to environmental enrichment (EE) accelerated the closure of the CP for OD plasticity in the rat visual cortex. Histone H3 acetylation was developmentally regulated in primary visual cortex, with enhanced levels being detectable early in enriched pups, and chromatin immunoprecipitation revealed an increase at the level of the BDNF P3 promoter. Administration of the histone deacetylase inhibitor SAHA (suberoylanilide hydroxamic acid) to animals reared in a standard cage mimicked the increase in H3 acetylation observed in the visual cortex and resulted in an accelerated decay of OD plasticity. Finally, exposure to EE in adulthood upregulated H3 acetylation and was paralleled by a reopening of the CP. These findings demonstrate a critical involvement of the epigenetic machinery as a mediator of visual cortex developmental plasticity and of the impact of EE on OD plasticity. While it is known that an epigenetic remodeling of chromatin structure controls developmental plasticity in the visual cortex, three main questions have remained open. Which is the physiological time course of histone modifications? Is it possible, by manipulating the chromatin epigenetic state, to modulate plasticity levels during the critical period? How can we regulate histone acetylation in the adult brain in a noninvasive manner? We show that the early exposure of rat pups to enriching environmental conditions accelerates the critical period for plasticity in the primary visual cortex

  7. ATP citrate lyase activity is post-translationally regulated by sink strength and impacts the wax, cutin and rubber biosynthetic pathways. (United States)

    Xing, Shufan; van Deenen, Nicole; Magliano, Pasqualina; Frahm, Lea; Forestier, Edith; Nawrath, Christiane; Schaller, Hubert; Gronover, Christian S; Prüfer, Dirk; Poirier, Yves


    Cytosolic acetyl-CoA is involved in the synthesis of a variety of compounds, including waxes, sterols and rubber, and is generated by the ATP citrate lyase (ACL). Plants over-expressing ACL were generated in an effort to understand the contribution of ACL activity to the carbon flux of acetyl-CoA to metabolic pathways occurring in the cytosol. Transgenic Arabidopsis plants synthesizing the polyester polyhydroxybutyrate (PHB) from cytosolic acetyl-CoA have reduced growth and wax content, consistent with a reduction in the availability of cytosolic acetyl-CoA to endogenous pathways. Increasing the ACL activity via the over-expression of the ACLA and ACLB subunits reversed the phenotypes associated with PHB synthesis while maintaining polymer synthesis. PHB production by itself was associated with an increase in ACL activity that occurred in the absence of changes in steady-state mRNA or protein level, indicating a post-translational regulation of ACL activity in response to sink strength. Over-expression of ACL in Arabidopsis was associated with a 30% increase in wax on stems, while over-expression of a chimeric homomeric ACL in the laticifer of roots of dandelion led to a four- and two-fold increase in rubber and triterpene content, respectively. Synthesis of PHB and over-expression of ACL also changed the amount of the cutin monomer octadecadien-1,18-dioic acid, revealing an unsuspected link between cytosolic acetyl-CoA and cutin biosynthesis. Together, these results reveal the complexity of ACL regulation and its central role in influencing the carbon flux to metabolic pathways using cytosolic acetyl-CoA, including wax and polyisoprenoids.

  8. 生物钟的转录后与翻译后水平调控进展%Posttranscriptional and posttranslational regulation of circadian clock

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    俞波; 吴涛; 倪银华; 周静露; 诸葛芬; 孙璐; 傅正伟


    The circadian system in mammals is composed of a master pacemaker in the suprachiasmatic nucleus (SCN) of the hypothalamus and slave clocks in most peripheral cell types.The clock genes and their coding proteins compose the feedback loops ofthe circadian system.As for the regulating mechanism of circadian clock, the modification of core clock transcripts and proteins can significantly affect the phase of circadian clock in addition to the transcriptional regulation.This article briefly reviews the advances on some of the posttranseriptional and posttranslational modifications and their effects on the circadian clock, and also suggests the future research direction.%哺乳动物中的昼夜节律系统由位于下丘脑SCN核内的生物钟主钟和位于多数外周细胞中的子钟组成.在分子水平上,生物钟的节律振荡由生物钟基因及其编码蛋白的转录和翻译形成的自主的反馈环路组成,并接受外界因素的影响与环境周期保持同步.为此,就生物钟的调控机制而言,除了转录水平的基因表达调控外,生物钟转录产物和蛋白质的修饰也可以显著影响生物钟基因的表达时相.讨论了一些转录后与翻译后的修饰作用及其对生物钟的影响,并对其今后的研究方向作了展望.

  9. Spindle assembly checkpoint and its regulators in meiosis. (United States)

    Sun, Shao-Chen; Kim, Nam-Hyung


    BACKGROUND Meiosis is a unique form of cell division in which cells divide twice but DNA is duplicated only once. Errors in chromosome segregation during meiosis will result in aneuploidy, followed by loss of the conceptus during pregnancy or birth defects. During mitosis, cells utilize a mechanism called the spindle assembly checkpoint (SAC) to ensure faithful chromosome segregation. A similar mechanism has been uncovered for meiosis in the last decade, especially in the past several years. METHODS For this review, we included data and relevant information obtained through a PubMed database search for all articles published in English from 1991 through 2011 which included the term 'meiosis', 'spindle assembly checkpoint', or 'SAC'. RESULTS There are 91 studies included. Evidence for the existence of SAC functions in meiosis is provided by studies on the SAC proteins mitotic-arrest deficient-1 (Mad1), Mad2, budding uninhibited by benzimidazole-1 (Bub1), Bub3, BubR1 and Mps1; microtubule-kinetochore attachment regulators Ndc80 complex, chromosomal passenger complex, mitotic centromere-associated kinesin (MCAK), kinetochore null 1 (KNL1) and Mis12 complex and spindle stability regulators. CONCLUSIONS SAC and its regulators exist and function in meiosis, and their malfunctions may cause germ cell aneuploidy. However, species and sexual differences exist. Moreover, interaction of SAC components with other regulators is still poorly understood, which needs further study.

  10. Protocadherin 17 regulates presynaptic assembly in topographic corticobasal Ganglia circuits. (United States)

    Hoshina, Naosuke; Tanimura, Asami; Yamasaki, Miwako; Inoue, Takeshi; Fukabori, Ryoji; Kuroda, Teiko; Yokoyama, Kazumasa; Tezuka, Tohru; Sagara, Hiroshi; Hirano, Shinji; Kiyonari, Hiroshi; Takada, Masahiko; Kobayashi, Kazuto; Watanabe, Masahiko; Kano, Masanobu; Nakazawa, Takanobu; Yamamoto, Tadashi


    Highly topographic organization of neural circuits exists for the regulation of various brain functions in corticobasal ganglia circuits. Although neural circuit-specific refinement during synapse development is essential for the execution of particular neural functions, the molecular and cellular mechanisms for synapse refinement are largely unknown. Here, we show that protocadherin 17 (PCDH17), one of the nonclustered δ2-protocadherin family members, is enriched along corticobasal ganglia synapses in a zone-specific manner during synaptogenesis and regulates presynaptic assembly in these synapses. PCDH17 deficiency in mice causes facilitated presynaptic vesicle accumulation and enhanced synaptic transmission efficacy in corticobasal ganglia circuits. Furthermore, PCDH17(-/-) mice exhibit antidepressant-like phenotypes that are known to be regulated by corticobasal ganglia circuits. Our findings demonstrate a critical role for PCDH17 in the synaptic development of specific corticobasal ganglia circuits and suggest the involvement of PCDH17 in such circuits in depressive behaviors.

  11. Post-translational modifications in neurodegeneration

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Federico Benetti


    Full Text Available Post-translational modifications increase proteome functionality for managing all aspects of normal cell biology. They are based on the covalent attachment of functional groups, leading to phosphorylation, acetylation, glycosylation, acylation, ubiquitination, SUMOylation and oxidation of protein targets. Post-translational modifications occur at any step of protein life cycle, modulating in time and space protein folding, subcellular localization and activity. Aberrant post-translational modifications of one or more culprit proteins may lead to neurodegeneration, as shown in paradigmatic neurological disorders such as Alzheimer’s, Parkinson’s and prion diseases. In this review, we report the most important post-translational modifications found in neurodegenerative disorders, illustrating the pathophysiological mechanisms in which they are involved. This work highlights the lack of a global framework of post-translational modifications in terms of complexity and regulation. Therefore, in the next future many efforts are required to describe the interplay existing between post-translational modifications and their combinatorial patterns on protein targets.

  12. Sodium arsenite down-regulates the expression of X-linked inhibitor of apoptosis protein via translational and post-translational mechanisms in hepatocellular carcinoma

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chen, Hong; Hao, Yuqing; Wang, Lijing; Jia, Dongwei [Gene Research Center, Shanghai Medical College, Fudan University, Shanghai 200032 (China); Ruan, Yuanyuan, E-mail: [Gene Research Center, Shanghai Medical College, Fudan University, Shanghai 200032 (China); Gu, Jianxin [Gene Research Center, Shanghai Medical College, Fudan University, Shanghai 200032 (China)


    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Sodium arsenite down-regulates the protein expression level of XIAP in HCC. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Sodium arsenite inhibits the de novo XIAP synthesis and its IRES activity. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Sodium arsenite decreases XIAP stability and promotes its proteasomal degradation. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Overexpression of XIAP attenuates the pro-apoptotic effect of sodium arsenite. -- Abstract: X-linked inhibitor of apoptosis protein (XIAP) is a member of the inhibitors of apoptosis protein (IAP) family, and has been reported to exhibit elevated expression levels in hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) and promote cell survival, metastasis and tumor recurrence. Targeting XIAP has proven effective for the inhibition of cancer cell proliferation and restoration of cancer cell chemosensitivity. Arsenic (or sodium arsenite) is a potent anti-tumor agent used to treat patients with acute promyelocytic leukemia (APL). Additionally, arsenic induces cell growth inhibition, cell cycle arrest and apoptosis in human HCC cells. In this study, we identified XIAP as a target for sodium arsenite-induced cytotoxicity in HCC. The exposure of HCC cell lines to sodium arsenite resulted in inhibition of XIAP expression in both a dose- and time-dependent manner. Sodium arsenite blocked the de novo XIAP synthesis and the activity of its internal ribosome entry site (IRES) element. Moreover, treatment with sodium arsenite decreased the protein stability of XIAP and induced its ubiquitin-proteasomal degradation. Overexpression of XIAP attenuated the pro-apoptotic effect of sodium arsenite in HCC. Taken together, our data demonstrate that sodium arsenite suppresses XIAP expression via translational and post-translational mechanisms in HCC.

  13. Regulations and Posttranslational Modifications of Hypoxia Inducible Factor-1%缺氧诱导因子-1的调控及其转录后修饰

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    石红联; 常彦忠


    缺氧诱导因子-1(hypoxia inducible factor-1,HIF-1)是一种异源二聚体转录因子,由结构表达型β亚基和氧调节型α亚基组成.在低氧环境下,HIF-1调控一系列促进细胞成活的基因,这些基因涉及血管生成、铁代谢、葡萄糖代谢和细胞增殖与存活.α亚基主要受到诸如乙酰化、羟基化、磷酸化和相扑化等转录后修饰,这些修饰可以稳定或激活HIF-1的活性.除氧环境外,胞内氧化还原稳态、铁代谢、线粒体代谢物和生长因子还可通过影响转录后修饰进而调节HIF-1的活性.此外,近来的研究表明HIF-1在病原学方面也发挥重要作用.在中风和神经退行性疾病这样的脑紊乱疾病中提供潜在神经保护作用.本文总结了HIF-1研究的最新进展,谨以此文献给忻文娟教授80周年诞辰.%Hypoxia inducible factor-1 (HIF-1),a transcriptional factor,is a heterodimer consisting of a constitutively expressed β subunit and an oxygen-regulated α subunit.It regulates a series of genes that participate in angiogenesis,iron metabolism,glucose metabolism,and cell proliferation/survival,which promote cell survival under hypoxic conditions.The α subunit is subjected to posttransletional modifications,such as acetylation,hydroxylation,phosphorylation,and sumoylation.These modifications determine the stabilization and activity of HIF-1.Besides oxygen,cellular redox homeostasis,iron metabolism,mitochondrial metabolites,and growth factors affect the post-translational modification and thus regulate HIF-1 activity.Furthermore,recent studies have demonstrated that HIF-1 plays an important role in the pathogeneses of and provides potential neuroprotection in many brain disorders such as stroke and neurodegenerative diseases.This article summarizes recent progress on these issues and is dedicated to Professor Wenjuan Xin on the occasion of her 80th birthday.

  14. Posttranslational regulation of copper transporters

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van den Berghe, P.V.E.


    The transition metal copper is an essential cofactor for many redox-active enzymes, but excessive copper can generate toxic reactive oxygen species. Copper homeostasis is maintained by highly conserved proteins, to balance copper uptake, distribution and export on the systemic and cellular level. Th

  15. Posttranslational protein modification in Archaea. (United States)

    Eichler, Jerry; Adams, Michael W W


    One of the first hurdles to be negotiated in the postgenomic era involves the description of the entire protein content of the cell, the proteome. Such efforts are presently complicated by the various posttranslational modifications that proteins can experience, including glycosylation, lipid attachment, phosphorylation, methylation, disulfide bond formation, and proteolytic cleavage. Whereas these and other posttranslational protein modifications have been well characterized in Eucarya and Bacteria, posttranslational modification in Archaea has received far less attention. Although archaeal proteins can undergo posttranslational modifications reminiscent of what their eucaryal and bacterial counterparts experience, examination of archaeal posttranslational modification often reveals aspects not previously observed in the other two domains of life. In some cases, posttranslational modification allows a protein to survive the extreme conditions often encountered by Archaea. The various posttranslational modifications experienced by archaeal proteins, the molecular steps leading to these modifications, and the role played by posttranslational modification in Archaea form the focus of this review.

  16. Posttranslational modification of E-cadherin by core fucosylation regulates Src activation and induces epithelial-mesenchymal transition-like process in lung cancer cells. (United States)

    Shao, Kang; Chen, Zhong Yi; Gautam, Suraj; Deng, Nian Hui; Zhou, You; Wu, Xing Zhong


    E-cadherin is often dysregulated in aggressive lung cancer, the mechanism of which cannot always be explained at the level of transcription. In 66 patients with lung cancer, immunohistochemical staining demonstrated that co-localization of E-cadherin and core fucose by Lens culinaris agglutinin was significantly less extensive in tumor than in nontumor tissue. Through gain and loss of fucosylation experiments in the giant lung carcinoma cell lines 95C and 95D, our results revealed that E-cadherin core fucosylation in 95C cells overexpressing α-1, 6-fucosyltransferase (Fut8) inhibited Fut8-95C cell migration, whereas knockdown of Fut8 in 95D cells enhanced migration of short-interfering RNA-targeting Fut8 (siFut8)-95D cells. The level of active Src (phosphorylated Src [Y416]) was significantly reduced in Fut8-95C cells, but elevated in siFut8-95D cells. In protein complexes immunoprecipitated from Fut8-95C cell lysates with anti-E-cadherin, less phosphorylated Src (Y416) and more β-catenin were observed, but immunoprecipitates from siFut8-95D cells, containing less core fucosylated E-cadherin, contained an elevated level of phospho-Src Y416. In Fut8-95C cells, phosphorylation of Akt (Y315, Y326) and GSK-3β (S9) was significantly reduced, but β-catenin (S37) phosphorylation was enhanced. Expression of N-cadherin and Snail1 was also reduced in Fut8-95C cells, but significantly increased in siFut8-95D cells. Intriguingly, when Src kinase activity was inhibited by treatment of cells with PP2 and SU6656, regulation of N-cadherin, Snail1 and cell migration by E-cadherin core fucosylation was abrogated in both Fut8-95C and siFut8-95D cells. Therefore, posttranslational modification of E-cadherin by less core fucosylation recruited and activated Src, and induced an epithelial-mesenchymal transition-like process in lung cancer cells.

  17. 7 CFR 301.45-7 - Assembly and inspection of regulated articles and outdoor household articles. (United States)


    ... 7 Agriculture 5 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Assembly and inspection of regulated articles and outdoor household articles. 301.45-7 Section 301.45-7 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of... QUARANTINE NOTICES Gypsy Moth § 301.45-7 Assembly and inspection of regulated articles and outdoor...

  18. Assessment of posttranslational modification of mitochondrial proteins. (United States)

    Ande, Sudharsana R; Padilla-Meier, G Pauline; Mishra, Suresh


    Mitochondria play vital roles in the maintenance of cellular homeostasis. They are a storehouse of cellular energy and antioxidative enzymes. Because of its immense role and function in the development of an organism, this organelle is required for the survival. Defects in mitochondrial proteins lead to complex mitochondrial disorders and heterogeneous diseases such as cancer, type 2 diabetes, and cardiovascular and neurodegenerative diseases. It is widely known in the literature that some of the mitochondrial proteins are regulated by posttranslational modifications. Hence, designing methods to assess these modifications in mitochondria will be an important way to study the regulatory roles of mitochondrial proteins in greater detail. In this chapter, we outlined procedures to isolate mitochondria from cells and separate the mitochondrial proteins by two-dimensional gel electrophoresis and identify the different posttranslational modifications in them by using antibodies specific to each posttranslational modification.

  19. Regulated growth of diatom cells on self-assembled monolayers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kobayashi Koichi


    Full Text Available Abstract We succeeded in regulating the growth of diatom cells on chemically modified glass surfaces. Glass surfaces were functionalized with -CF3, -CH3, -COOH, and -NH2 groups using the technique of self-assembled monolayers (SAM, and diatom cells were subsequently cultured on these surfaces. When the samples were rinsed after the adhesion of the diatom cells on the modified surfaces, the diatoms formed two dimensional arrays; this was not possible without the rinsing treatment. Furthermore, we examined the number of cells that grew and their motility by time-lapse imaging in order to clarify the interaction between the cells and SAMs. We hope that our results will be a basis for developing biodevices using living photosynthetic diatom cells.

  20. Regulated complex assembly safeguards the fidelity of Sleeping Beauty transposition. (United States)

    Wang, Yongming; Pryputniewicz-Dobrinska, Diana; Nagy, Enikö Éva; Kaufman, Christopher D; Singh, Manvendra; Yant, Steve; Wang, Jichang; Dalda, Anna; Kay, Mark A; Ivics, Zoltán; Izsvák, Zsuzsanna


    The functional relevance of the inverted repeat structure (IR/DR) in a subgroup of the Tc1/mariner superfamily of transposons has been enigmatic. In contrast to mariner transposition, where a topological filter suppresses single-ended reactions, the IR/DR orchestrates a regulatory mechanism to enforce synapsis of the transposon ends before cleavage by the transposase occurs. This ordered assembly process shepherds primary transposase binding to the inner 12DRs (where cleavage does not occur), followed by capture of the 12DR of the other transposon end. This extra layer of regulation suppresses aberrant, potentially genotoxic recombination activities, and the mobilization of internally deleted copies in the IR/DR subgroup, including Sleeping Beauty (SB). In contrast, internally deleted sequences (MITEs) are preferred substrates of mariner transposition, and this process is associated with the emergence of Hsmar1-derived miRNA genes in the human genome. Translating IR/DR regulation to in vitro evolution yielded an SB transposon version with optimized substrate recognition (pT4). The ends of SB transposons excised by a K248A excision(+)/integration(-) transposase variant are processed by hairpin resolution, representing a link between phylogenetically, and mechanistically different recombination reactions, such as V(D)J recombination and transposition. Such variants generated by random mutation might stabilize transposon-host interactions or prepare the transposon for a horizontal transfer.

  1. Regulated complex assembly safeguards the fidelity of Sleeping Beauty transposition (United States)

    Wang, Yongming; Pryputniewicz-Dobrinska, Diana; Nagy, Enikö Éva; Kaufman, Christopher D.; Singh, Manvendra; Yant, Steve; Wang, Jichang; Dalda, Anna; Kay, Mark A.; Ivics, Zoltán; Izsvák, Zsuzsanna


    The functional relevance of the inverted repeat structure (IR/DR) in a subgroup of the Tc1/mariner superfamily of transposons has been enigmatic. In contrast to mariner transposition, where a topological filter suppresses single-ended reactions, the IR/DR orchestrates a regulatory mechanism to enforce synapsis of the transposon ends before cleavage by the transposase occurs. This ordered assembly process shepherds primary transposase binding to the inner 12DRs (where cleavage does not occur), followed by capture of the 12DR of the other transposon end. This extra layer of regulation suppresses aberrant, potentially genotoxic recombination activities, and the mobilization of internally deleted copies in the IR/DR subgroup, including Sleeping Beauty (SB). In contrast, internally deleted sequences (MITEs) are preferred substrates of mariner transposition, and this process is associated with the emergence of Hsmar1-derived miRNA genes in the human genome. Translating IR/DR regulation to in vitro evolution yielded an SB transposon version with optimized substrate recognition (pT4). The ends of SB transposons excised by a K248A excision+/integration- transposase variant are processed by hairpin resolution, representing a link between phylogenetically, and mechanistically different recombination reactions, such as V(D)J recombination and transposition. Such variants generated by random mutation might stabilize transposon-host interactions or prepare the transposon for a horizontal transfer. PMID:27913727

  2. Kinase-Mediated Regulation of 40S Ribosome Assembly in Human Breast Cancer (United States)


    AWARD NUMBER: W81XWH-16-1-0008 TITLE: Kinase-Mediated Regulation of 40S Ribosome Assembly in Human Breast Cancer PRINCIPAL INVESTIGATOR...Jan 2017 4. TITLE AND SUBTITLE Kinase-Mediated Regulation of 40S Ribosome Assembly in Human Breast Cancer 5a. CONTRACT NUMBER 5b. GRANT NUMBER W81XWH...Investigator [PI], Scripps) and John Cleveland (Collaborating/Partnering PI, Moffitt Cancer Center) seek to validate 40S ribosome assembly as a therapeutic

  3. Analysis of posttranslational modifications of proteins by tandem mass spectrometry

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, Martin Røssel; Trelle, Morten B; Thingholm, Tine E;


    Protein activity and turnover is tightly and dynamically regulated in living cells. Whereas the three-dimensional protein structure is predominantly determined by the amino acid sequence, posttranslational modification (PTM) of proteins modulates their molecular function and the spatial...

  4. Inventory control: cytochrome c oxidase assembly regulates mitochondrial translation. (United States)

    Mick, David U; Fox, Thomas D; Rehling, Peter


    Mitochondria maintain genome and translation machinery to synthesize a small subset of subunits of the oxidative phosphorylation system. To build up functional enzymes, these organellar gene products must assemble with imported subunits that are encoded in the nucleus. New findings on the early steps of cytochrome c oxidase assembly reveal how the mitochondrial translation of its core component, cytochrome c oxidase subunit 1 (Cox1), is directly coupled to the assembly of this respiratory complex.

  5. Inventory control: cytochrome oxidase assembly regulates mitochondrial translation (United States)

    Mick, David U.; Fox, Thomas D.; Rehling, Peter


    Mitochondria maintain a genome and translation-machinery to synthesize a small subset of subunits of the oxidative phosphorylation system. These organellar gene products must assemble with imported subunits that are encoded in the nucleus to build up functional enzymes. New findings on the early steps in cytochrome oxidase assembly reveal how the mitochondrial translation of its core component Cox1 is directly coupled to the assembly of this respiratory complex. PMID:21179059

  6. Regulation of mitotic progression by the spindle assembly checkpoint

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lischetti, Tiziana; Nilsson, Jakob


    Equal segregation of sister chromatids during mitosis requires that pairs of kinetochores establish proper attachment to microtubules emanating from opposite poles of the mitotic spindle. The spindle assembly checkpoint (SAC) protects against errors in segregation by delaying sister separation...

  7. Cell-cycle regulation of formin-mediated actin cable assembly. (United States)

    Miao, Yansong; Wong, Catherine C L; Mennella, Vito; Michelot, Alphée; Agard, David A; Holt, Liam J; Yates, John R; Drubin, David G


    Assembly of appropriately oriented actin cables nucleated by formin proteins is necessary for many biological processes in diverse eukaryotes. However, compared with knowledge of how nucleation of dendritic actin filament arrays by the actin-related protein-2/3 complex is regulated, the in vivo regulatory mechanisms for actin cable formation are less clear. To gain insights into mechanisms for regulating actin cable assembly, we reconstituted the assembly process in vitro by introducing microspheres functionalized with the C terminus of the budding yeast formin Bni1 into extracts prepared from yeast cells at different cell-cycle stages. EM studies showed that unbranched actin filament bundles were reconstituted successfully in the yeast extracts. Only extracts enriched in the mitotic cyclin Clb2 were competent for actin cable assembly, and cyclin-dependent kinase 1 activity was indispensible. Cyclin-dependent kinase 1 activity also was found to regulate cable assembly in vivo. Here we present evidence that formin cell-cycle regulation is conserved in vertebrates. The use of the cable-reconstitution system to test roles for the key actin-binding proteins tropomyosin, capping protein, and cofilin provided important insights into assembly regulation. Furthermore, using mass spectrometry, we identified components of the actin cables formed in yeast extracts, providing the basis for comprehensive understanding of cable assembly and regulation.

  8. GmDREB2A;2, a canonical DEHYDRATION-RESPONSIVE ELEMENT-BINDING PROTEIN2-type transcription factor in soybean, is posttranslationally regulated and mediates dehydration-responsive element-dependent gene expression. (United States)

    Mizoi, Junya; Ohori, Teppei; Moriwaki, Takashi; Kidokoro, Satoshi; Todaka, Daisuke; Maruyama, Kyonoshin; Kusakabe, Kazuya; Osakabe, Yuriko; Shinozaki, Kazuo; Yamaguchi-Shinozaki, Kazuko


    Soybean (Glycine max) is an important crop around the world. Abiotic stress conditions, such as drought and heat, adversely affect its survival, growth, and production. The DEHYDRATION-RESPONSIVE ELEMENT-BINDING PROTEIN2 (DREB2) group includes transcription factors that contribute to drought and heat stress tolerance by activating transcription through the cis-element dehydration-responsive element (DRE) in response to these stress stimuli. Two modes of regulation, transcriptional and posttranslational, are important for the activation of gene expression by DREB2A in Arabidopsis (Arabidopsis thaliana). However, the regulatory system of DREB2 in soybean is not clear. We identified a new soybean DREB2 gene, GmDREB2A;2, that was highly induced not only by dehydration and heat but also by low temperature. GmDREB2A;2 exhibited a high transactivation activity via DRE and has a serine/threonine-rich region, which corresponds to a negative regulatory domain of DREB2A that is involved in its posttranslational regulation, including destabilization. Despite the partial similarity between these sequences, the activity and stability of the GmDREB2A;2 protein were enhanced by removal of the serine/threonine-rich region in both Arabidopsis and soybean protoplasts, suggestive of a conserved regulatory mechanism that involves the recognition of serine/threonine-rich sequences with a specific pattern. The heterologous expression of GmDREB2A;2 in Arabidopsis induced DRE-regulated stress-inducible genes and improved stress tolerance. However, there were variations in the growth phenotypes of the transgenic Arabidopsis, the induced genes, and their induction ratios between GmDREB2A;2 and DREB2A. Therefore, the basic function and regulatory machinery of DREB2 have been maintained between Arabidopsis and soybean, although differentiation has also occurred.

  9. The Mammalian Cell Cycle Regulates Parvovirus Nuclear Capsid Assembly (United States)

    Riolobos, Laura; Domínguez, Carlos; Kann, Michael; Almendral, José M.


    It is unknown whether the mammalian cell cycle could impact the assembly of viruses maturing in the nucleus. We addressed this question using MVM, a reference member of the icosahedral ssDNA nuclear parvoviruses, which requires cell proliferation to infect by mechanisms partly understood. Constitutively expressed MVM capsid subunits (VPs) accumulated in the cytoplasm of mouse and human fibroblasts synchronized at G0, G1, and G1/S transition. Upon arrest release, VPs translocated to the nucleus as cells entered S phase, at efficiencies relying on cell origin and arrest method, and immediately assembled into capsids. In synchronously infected cells, the consecutive virus life cycle steps (gene expression, proteins nuclear translocation, capsid assembly, genome replication and encapsidation) proceeded tightly coupled to cell cycle progression from G0/G1 through S into G2 phase. However, a DNA synthesis stress caused by thymidine irreversibly disrupted virus life cycle, as VPs became increasingly retained in the cytoplasm hours post-stress, forming empty capsids in mouse fibroblasts, thereby impairing encapsidation of the nuclear viral DNA replicative intermediates. Synchronously infected cells subjected to density-arrest signals while traversing early S phase also blocked VPs transport, resulting in a similar misplaced cytoplasmic capsid assembly in mouse fibroblasts. In contrast, thymidine and density arrest signals deregulating virus assembly neither perturbed nuclear translocation of the NS1 protein nor viral genome replication occurring under S/G2 cycle arrest. An underlying mechanism of cell cycle control was identified in the nuclear translocation of phosphorylated VPs trimeric assembly intermediates, which accessed a non-conserved route distinct from the importin α2/β1 and transportin pathways. The exquisite cell cycle-dependence of parvovirus nuclear capsid assembly conforms a novel paradigm of time and functional coupling between cellular and virus life

  10. Post-transcriptional and post-translational regulations of drought and heat response in plants: a spider’s web of mechanisms

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Davide eGuerra


    Full Text Available Drought and heat tolerance are complex quantitative traits. Moreover, the adaptive significance of some stress-related traits is more related to plant survival than to agronomic performance. A web of regulatory mechanisms fine-tunes the expression of stress-related traits and integrates both environmental and developmental signals. Both post-transcriptional and post-translational modifications contribute substantially to this network with a pivotal regulatory function of the transcriptional changes related to cellular and plant stress response. Alternative splicing and RNA-mediated silencing control the amount of specific transcripts, while ubiquitin and SUMO modify activity, sub-cellular localization and half-life of proteins. Interactions across these modification mechanisms ensure temporally and spatially appropriate patterns of downstream-gene expression. For key molecular components of these regulatory mechanisms, natural genetic diversity exists among genotypes with different behavior in terms of stress tolerance, with effects upon the expression of adaptive morphological and/or physiological target traits.

  11. Patterning of cell assemblies regulated by adhesion receptors of the cadherin superfamily.



    During morphogenesis, cell-cell association patterns are dynamically altered. We are interested in how cell adhesion molecules can regulate the patterning of cellular assemblies. Cadherins, a group of cell-cell adhesion receptors, are crucial for the organized assembly of many cell types, but they also regulate dynamic aspects of cell association. For example, during neural crest emigration from the neural tube, the cadherin subtypes expressed by crest cells are switched from one subtype to a...

  12. Kinase Mediated Regulation of 40S Ribosome Assembly in Human Breast Cancer (United States)


    AWARD NUMBER: W81XWH-16-1-0009 TITLE: PRINCIPAL INVESTIGATOR: John Cleveland CONTRACTING ORGANIZATION: H. Lee Moffitt Cancer designated by other documentation. Kinase-Mediated Regulation of 40S Ribosome Assembly in Human Breast Cancer REPORT DOCUMENTATION PAGE Form...TITLE AND SUBTITLE 5a. CONTRACT NUMBER Kinase-Mediated Regulation of 40S Ribosome Assembly in Human Breast Cancer 5b. GRANT NUMBER W81XWH-16-1-0009 5c

  13. Posttranslational Protein Modification in Archaea


    Eichler, Jerry; Adams, Michael W. W.


    One of the first hurdles to be negotiated in the postgenomic era involves the description of the entire protein content of the cell, the proteome. Such efforts are presently complicated by the various posttranslational modifications that proteins can experience, including glycosylation, lipid attachment, phosphorylation, methylation, disulfide bond formation, and proteolytic cleavage. Whereas these and other posttranslational protein modifications have been well characterized in Eucarya and B...

  14. Posttranslational modification of a vanadium nitrogenase. (United States)

    Heiniger, Erin K; Harwood, Caroline S


    In microbes that fix nitrogen, nitrogenase catalyzes the conversion of N2 to ammonia in an ATP-demanding reaction. To help conserve energy some bacteria inhibit nitrogenase activity upon exposure to ammonium. The purple nonsulfur phototrophic bacterium Rhodopseudomonas palustris strain CGA009 can synthesize three functional nitrogenase isoenzymes: a molybdenum nitrogenase, a vanadium nitrogenase, and an iron nitrogenase. Previous studies showed that in some alphaproteobacteria, including R. palustris, molybdenum nitrogenase activity is inhibited by ADP-ribosylation when cells are exposed to ammonium. Some iron nitrogenases are also posttranslationally modified. However, the posttranslational modification of vanadium nitrogenase has not been reported. Here, we investigated the regulation of the alternative nitrogenases of R. palustris and determined that both its vanadium nitrogenase and its iron nitrogenase activities were inhibited and posttranslationally modified when cells are exposed to ammonium. Vanadium nitrogenase is not found in all strains of R. palustris, suggesting that it may have been acquired by horizontal gene transfer. Also, phylogenetic analyses of the three nitrogenases suggest that VnfH, the target of ADP-ribosylation, may be the product of a gene duplication of nifH, the molybdenum nitrogenase homolog.

  15. Soft Matter-Regulated Active Nanovalves Locally Self-Assembled in Femtoliter Nanofluidic Channels. (United States)

    Xu, Yan; Shinomiya, Misato; Harada, Atsushi


    Well-tailored thermoresponsive polymer brushes locally self-assembled in tiny nanofluidic channels enable the active regulation of femtoliter-scale fluids. Such soft-matter-regulated active nanovalves within nanofluidic channels can be extended to build well-controlled functional nanofluidic systems, allowing complex fluidic processes to be performed at the nanometer scales.

  16. Post-Translational Regulation of the Glucose-6-Phosphatase Complex by Cyclic Adenosine Monophosphate Is a Crucial Determinant of Endogenous Glucose Production and Is Controlled by the Glucose-6-Phosphate Transporter. (United States)

    Soty, Maud; Chilloux, Julien; Delalande, François; Zitoun, Carine; Bertile, Fabrice; Mithieux, Gilles; Gautier-Stein, Amandine


    The excessive endogenous glucose production (EGP) induced by glucagon participates in the development of type 2 diabetes. To further understand this hormonal control, we studied the short-term regulation by cyclic adenosine monophosphate (cAMP) of the glucose-6-phosphatase (G6Pase) enzyme, which catalyzes the last reaction of EGP. In gluconeogenic cell models, a 1-h treatment by the adenylate cyclase activator forskolin increased G6Pase activity and glucose production independently of any change in enzyme protein amount or G6P content. Using specific inhibitors or protein overexpression, we showed that the stimulation of G6Pase activity involved the protein kinase A (PKA). Results of site-directed mutagenesis, mass spectrometry analyses, and in vitro phosphorylation experiments suggested that the PKA stimulation of G6Pase activity did not depend on a direct phosphorylation of the enzyme. However, the temperature-dependent induction of both G6Pase activity and glucose release suggested a membrane-based mechanism. G6Pase is composed of a G6P transporter (G6PT) and a catalytic unit (G6PC). Surprisingly, we demonstrated that the increase in G6PT activity was required for the stimulation of G6Pase activity by forskolin. Our data demonstrate the existence of a post-translational mechanism that regulates G6Pase activity and reveal the key role of G6PT in the hormonal regulation of G6Pase activity and of EGP.

  17. Posttranslational Modification Biology of Glutamate Receptors and Drug Addiction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Li-Min eMao


    Full Text Available Posttranslational covalent modifications of glutamate receptors remain a hot topic. Early studies have established that this family of receptors, including almost all ionotropic and metabotropic glutamate receptor subtypes, undergoes active phosphorylation at serine, threonine, or tyrosine residues on their intracellular domains. Recent evidence identifies several glutamate receptor subtypes to be direct substrates for palmitoylation at cysteine residues. Other modifications such as ubiquitination and sumoylation at lysine residues also occur to certain glutamate receptors. These modifications are dynamic and reversible in nature and are regulatable by changing synaptic inputs. The regulated modifications significantly impact the receptor in many ways, including interrelated changes in biochemistry (synthesis, subunit assembling and protein-protein interactions, subcellular redistribution (trafficking, endocytosis, synaptic delivery and clustering, and physiology, usually associated with changes in synaptic plasticity. Glutamate receptors are enriched in the striatum and cooperate closely with dopamine to regulate striatal signaling. Emerging evidence shows that modification processes of striatal glutamate receptors are sensitive to addictive drugs, such as psychostimulants (cocaine and amphetamines. Altered modifications are believed to be directly linked to enduring receptor/synaptic plasticity and drug-seeking. This review summarizes several major types of modifications of glutamate receptors and analyzes the role of these modifications in striatal signaling and in the pathogenesis of psychostimulant addiction.

  18. Translational and posttranslational regulation of XIAP by eIF2α and ATF4 promotes ER stress-induced cell death during the unfolded protein response. (United States)

    Hiramatsu, Nobuhiko; Messah, Carissa; Han, Jaeseok; LaVail, Matthew M; Kaufman, Randal J; Lin, Jonathan H


    Endoplasmic reticulum (ER) protein misfolding activates the unfolded protein response (UPR) to help cells cope with ER stress. If ER homeostasis is not restored, UPR promotes cell death. The mechanisms of UPR-mediated cell death are poorly understood. The PKR-like endoplasmic reticulum kinase (PERK) arm of the UPR is implicated in ER stress-induced cell death, in part through up-regulation of proapoptotic CCAAT/enhancer binding protein homologous protein (CHOP). Chop((-)/(-)) cells are partially resistant to ER stress-induced cell death, and CHOP overexpression alone does not induce cell death. These findings suggest that additional mechanisms regulate cell death downstream of PERK. Here we find dramatic suppression of antiapoptosis XIAP proteins in response to chronic ER stress. We find that PERK down-regulates XIAP synthesis through eIF2α and promotes XIAP degradation through ATF4. Of interest, PERK's down-regulation of XIAP occurs independently of CHOP activity. Loss of XIAP leads to increased cell death, whereas XIAP overexpression significantly enhances resistance to ER stress-induced cell death, even in the absence of CHOP. Our findings define a novel signaling circuit between PERK and XIAP that operates in parallel with PERK to CHOP induction to influence cell survival during ER stress. We propose a "two-hit" model of ER stress-induced cell death involving concomitant CHOP up-regulation and XIAP down-regulation both induced by PERK.

  19. Chemical biology approaches for studying posttranslational modifications. (United States)

    Yang, Aerin; Cho, Kyukwang; Park, Hee-Sung


    Posttranslational modification (PTM) is a key mechanism for regulating diverse protein functions, and thus critically affects many essential biological processes. Critical for systematic study of the effects of PTMs is the ability to obtain recombinant proteins with defined and homogenous modifications. To this end, various synthetic and chemical biology approaches, including genetic code expansion and protein chemical modification methods, have been developed. These methods have proven effective for generating site-specific authentic modifications or structural mimics, and have demonstrated their value for in vitro and in vivo functional studies of diverse PTMs. This review will discuss recent advances in chemical biology strategies and their application to various PTM studies.

  20. Importin beta negatively regulates nuclear membrane fusion and nuclear pore complex assembly. (United States)

    Harel, Amnon; Chan, Rene C; Lachish-Zalait, Aurelie; Zimmerman, Ella; Elbaum, Michael; Forbes, Douglass J


    Assembly of a eukaryotic nucleus involves three distinct events: membrane recruitment, fusion to form a double nuclear membrane, and nuclear pore complex (NPC) assembly. We report that importin beta negatively regulates two of these events, membrane fusion and NPC assembly. When excess importin beta is added to a full Xenopus nuclear reconstitution reaction, vesicles are recruited to chromatin but their fusion is blocked. The importin beta down-regulation of membrane fusion is Ran-GTP reversible. Indeed, excess RanGTP (RanQ69L) alone stimulates excessive membrane fusion, leading to intranuclear membrane tubules and cytoplasmic annulate lamellae-like structures. We propose that a precise balance of importin beta to Ran is required to create a correct double nuclear membrane and simultaneously to repress undesirable fusion events. Interestingly, truncated importin beta 45-462 allows membrane fusion but produces nuclei lacking any NPCs. This reveals distinct importin beta-regulation of NPC assembly. Excess full-length importin beta and beta 45-462 act similarly when added to prefused nuclear intermediates, i.e., both block NPC assembly. The importin beta NPC block, which maps downstream of GTPgammaS and BAPTA-sensitive steps in NPC assembly, is reversible by cytosol. Remarkably, it is not reversible by 25 microM RanGTP, a concentration that easily reverses fusion inhibition. This report, using a full reconstitution system and natural chromatin substrates, significantly expands the repertoire of importin beta. Its roles now encompass negative regulation of two of the major events of nuclear assembly: membrane fusion and NPC assembly.

  1. Phosphorylation-induced mechanical regulation of intrinsically disordered neurofilament protein assemblies

    CERN Document Server

    Malka-Gibor, Eti; Laser-Azogui, Adi; Doron, Ofer; Zingerman-Koladko, Irena; Medalia, Ohad; Beck, Roy


    The biological function of protein assemblies was conventionally equated with a unique three-dimensional protein structure and protein-specific interactions. However, in the past 20 years it was found that some assemblies contain long flexible regions that adopt multiple structural conformations. These include neurofilament (NF) proteins that constitute the stress-responsive supportive network of neurons. Herein, we show that NF networks macroscopic properties are tuned by enzymatic regulation of the charge found on the flexible protein regions. The results reveal an enzymatic (phosphorylation) regulation of macroscopic properties such as orientation, stress-response and expansion in flexible protein assemblies. Together with a model explaining the attractive electrostatic interactions induced by enzymatically added charges, we demonstrate that phosphorylation-regulation is far richer and versatile than previously considered.

  2. 1,25-Dihydroxyvitamin D3 Regulates PTHrP Expression via Transcriptional, Post-Transcriptional and Post-Translational Pathways (United States)

    Bhatia, Vandanajay; Mula, Ramanjaneya V.; Falzon, Miriam


    Parathyroid hormone-related protein (PTHrP) increases the growth and osteolytic potential of prostate cancer cells, making it important to control PTHrP expression. PTHrP expression is suppressed by 1,25-dihydroxyvitamin D3 (1,25D). The aim of this study was to identify the pathways via which 1,25D exerts these effects. Our main findings are that 1,25D regulates PTHrP levels via multiple pathways in PC-3 and C4-2 (human prostate cancer) cell lines, and regulation is dependent on VDR expression. The human PTHrP gene has three promoters (P); PC-3 cells preferentially utilize P2 and P3, while C4-2 cells preferentially utilize P1. 1,25D regulates PTHrP transcriptional activity from both P1 and P3. The 1,25D-mediated decrease in PTHrP mRNA levels also involves a post-transcriptional pathway since 1,25D decreases PTHrP mRNA stability. 1,25D also suppresses PTHrP expression directly at the protein level by increasing its degradation. Regulation of PTHrP levels is dependent on VDR expression, as using siRNAs to deplete VDR expression negates the 1,25D-mediated downregulation of PTHrP expression. These results indicate the importance of maintaining adequate 1,25D levels and VDR status to control PTHrP levels. PMID:21664243

  3. Genome-wide protein QTL mapping identifies human plasma kallikrein as a post-translational regulator of serum uPAR levels


    Portelli, Michael; Siedlinski, Mateusz; Stewart, Ceri E.; Postma, Dirkje S; Nieuwenhuis, Maartje A.; Vonk, Judith M; Nurnberg, Peter; Altmuller, Janine; Moffatt, M. F.; Wardlaw, Andrew J.; Parker, Stuart G; Connolly, Martin J.; Koppelman, Gerard H; Sayers, Ian


    The soluble cleaved urokinase plasminogen activator receptor (scuPAR) is a circulating protein detected in multiple diseases, including various cancers, cardiovascular disease, and kidney disease, where elevated levels of scuPAR have been associated with worsening prognosis and increased disease aggressiveness. We aimed to identify novel genetic and biomolecular mechanisms regulating scuPAR levels. Elevated serum scuPAR levels were identified in asthma (n=514) and chronic obstructive pulmonar...

  4. Post-translational glycoprotein modifications regulate colon cancer stem cells and colon adenoma progression in Apc(min/+) mice through altered Wnt receptor signaling. (United States)

    Guo, Huabei; Nagy, Tamas; Pierce, Michael


    Deletion of GnT-V (MGAT5), which synthesizes N-glycans with β(1,6)-branched glycans, reduced the compartment of cancer stem cells (CSC) in the her-2 mouse model of breast cancer, leading to delay of tumor onset. Because GnT-V levels are also commonly up-regulated in colon cancer, we investigated their regulation of colon CSC and adenoma development. Anchorage-independent cell growth and tumor formation induced by injection of colon tumor cells into NOD/SCID mice were positively associated with GnT-V levels, indicating regulation of proliferation and tumorigenicity. Using Apc(min/+) mice with different GnT-V backgrounds, knock-out of GnT-V had no significant effect on the number of adenoma/mouse, but adenoma size was significantly reduced and accompanied increased survival of Apc(min/+) mice with GnT-V deletion (p cells, we found that FZD-7 receptors expressed N-linked β(1,6) branching, indicating that FZD-7 can be modified by GnT-V. The aberrant Wnt signaling observed after modulating GnT-V levels is likely to result from altered N-linked β(1,6) branching on FZD-7, thereby affecting Wnt signaling, the compartment of CSC, and tumor progression.

  5. Posttranslational modifications of proopiomelanocortin in vertebrates and their biological significance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Akiyoshi eTakahashi


    Full Text Available Proopiomelanocortin (POMC is the precursor of several peptide hormones generated in the pituitary gland. After biosynthesis, POMC undergoes several posttranslational modifications, including proteolytic cleavage, acetylation, amidation, phosphorylation, glycosylation, and disulfide linkage formation, which generate mature POMC-derived peptides. Therefore, POMC is a useful model for the investigation of posttranslational modifications. These processes have been extensively investigated in mammals, primarily in rodents. In addition, over the last decade, much information has been obtained about the posttranslational processing of POMC in non-mammalian animals such as fish, amphibians, reptiles, and birds through sequencing and peptide identification by mass spectrometry. One POMC modification, acetylation, is known to modulate the biological activities of POMC-derived alpha-melanocyte-stimulating hormone (alpha-MSH having an acetyl group at N-terminal through potentiation or inhibition. This bidirectional regulation depends on its intrinsic roles in the tissue or cell; for example, alpha-MSH, as well as desacety-alpha-MSH, stimulates pigment dispersion in the xanthophores of a flounder. In contrast, alpha-MSH does not stimulate pigment dispersion in the melanophores of the same species, whereas desacetyl-alpha-MSH does. Regulation of pigment-dispersing activities may be associated with the subtle balance in the expression of receptor genes. In this review, we consider the posttranslational modifications of POMC in vertebrates from an evolutionary aspect, with a focus on the relationship between acetylation and the biological activities of alpha-MSH as an important consequence of posttranslational modification.

  6. Engineering Metal Ion Coordination to Regulate Amyloid Fibril Assembly And Toxicity

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dong, J.; Canfield, J.M.; Mehta, A.K.; Shokes, J.E.; Tian, B.; Childers, W.S.; Simmons, J.A.; Mao, Z.; Scott, R.A.; Warncke, K.; Lynn, D.G.


    Protein and peptide assembly into amyloid has been implicated in functions that range from beneficial epigenetic controls to pathological etiologies. However, the exact structures of the assemblies that regulate biological activity remain poorly defined. We have previously used Zn{sup 2+} to modulate the assembly kinetics and morphology of congeners of the amyloid {beta} peptide (A{beta}) associated with Alzheimer's disease. We now reveal a correlation among A{beta}-Cu{sup 2+} coordination, peptide self-assembly, and neuronal viability. By using the central segment of A{beta}, HHQKLVFFA or A{beta}(13-21), which contains residues H13 and H14 implicated in A{beta}-metal ion binding, we show that Cu{sup 2+} forms complexes with A{beta}(13-21) and its K16A mutant and that the complexes, which do not self-assemble into fibrils, have structures similar to those found for the human prion protein, PrP. N-terminal acetylation and H14A substitution, Ac-A{beta}(13-21)H14A, alters metal coordination, allowing Cu{sup 2+} to accelerate assembly into neurotoxic fibrils. These results establish that the N-terminal region of A{beta} can access different metal-ion-coordination environments and that different complexes can lead to profound changes in A{beta} self-assembly kinetics, morphology, and toxicity. Related metal-ion coordination may be critical to the etiology of other neurodegenerative diseases.

  7. An atomic model of HIV-1 capsid-SP1 reveals structures regulating assembly and maturation. (United States)

    Schur, Florian K M; Obr, Martin; Hagen, Wim J H; Wan, William; Jakobi, Arjen J; Kirkpatrick, Joanna M; Sachse, Carsten; Kräusslich, Hans-Georg; Briggs, John A G


    Immature HIV-1 assembles at and buds from the plasma membrane before proteolytic cleavage of the viral Gag polyprotein induces structural maturation. Maturation can be blocked by maturation inhibitors (MIs), thereby abolishing infectivity. The CA (capsid) and SP1 (spacer peptide 1) region of Gag is the key regulator of assembly and maturation and is the target of MIs. We applied optimized cryo-electron tomography and subtomogram averaging to resolve this region within assembled immature HIV-1 particles at 3.9 angstrom resolution and built an atomic model. The structure reveals a network of intra- and intermolecular interactions mediating immature HIV-1 assembly. The proteolytic cleavage site between CA and SP1 is inaccessible to protease. We suggest that MIs prevent CA-SP1 cleavage by stabilizing the structure, and MI resistance develops by destabilizing CA-SP1.

  8. Regulation of DnaA Assembly and Activity: Taking Directions From the Genome



    To ensure proper timing of chromosome duplication during the cell cycle, bacteria must carefully regulate the activity of initiator protein, DnaA, and its interactions with the unique replication origin, oriC. Although several protein regulators of DnaA are known, recent evidence suggests that DnaA recognition sites, in multiple genomic locations, also play an important role in controlling assembly of pre-replication complexes. In oriC, closely spaced high and low affinity recognition sites d...

  9. Patterning of cell assemblies regulated by adhesion receptors of the cadherin superfamily. (United States)

    Takeichi, M; Nakagawa, S; Aono, S; Usui, T; Uemura, T


    During morphogenesis, cell-cell association patterns are dynamically altered. We are interested in how cell adhesion molecules can regulate the patterning of cellular assemblies. Cadherins, a group of cell-cell adhesion receptors, are crucial for the organized assembly of many cell types, but they also regulate dynamic aspects of cell association. For example, during neural crest emigration from the neural tube, the cadherin subtypes expressed by crest cells are switched from one subtype to another. Artificial perturbation of this switch results in blocking of their escape from the neural tube. Intracellular modulations of cadherin activity also seem to play a role in regulation of cell adhesion. We identified p120ctn as a regulator of cadherin function in carcinoma cells. With such regulators, cells may make a choice as to whether they should maintain stable cell contacts or disrupt their association. Finally, we found another type of cadherin-mediated cell patterning: Flamingo, a seven-pass transmembrane cadherin, regulates planar cell polarity in Drosophila imaginal discs. Thus, the cadherin superfamily receptors control the patterning of cell assemblies through a variety of mechanisms.

  10. Posttranslational Protein Modifications in Plant Metabolism. (United States)

    Friso, Giulia; van Wijk, Klaas J


    Posttranslational modifications (PTMs) of proteins greatly expand proteome diversity, increase functionality, and allow for rapid responses, all at relatively low costs for the cell. PTMs play key roles in plants through their impact on signaling, gene expression, protein stability and interactions, and enzyme kinetics. Following a brief discussion of the experimental and bioinformatics challenges of PTM identification, localization, and quantification (occupancy), a concise overview is provided of the major PTMs and their (potential) functional consequences in plants, with emphasis on plant metabolism. Classic examples that illustrate the regulation of plant metabolic enzymes and pathways by PTMs and their cross talk are summarized. Recent large-scale proteomics studies mapped many PTMs to a wide range of metabolic functions. Unraveling of the PTM code, i.e. a predictive understanding of the (combinatorial) consequences of PTMs, is needed to convert this growing wealth of data into an understanding of plant metabolic regulation.

  11. Electrostatics and charge regulation in polyelectrolyte multilayered assembly. (United States)

    Cherstvy, Andrey G


    We examine the implications of electrostatic interactions on formation of polyelectrolyte multilayers, in application to field-effect based biosensors for label-free detection of charged macromolecules. We present a quantitative model to describe the experimental potentiometric observations and discuss its possibilities and limitations for detection of polyelectrolyte adsorption. We examine the influence of the ionic strength and pH on the sensor response upon polyelectrolyte layer-by-layer formation. The magnitude of potential oscillations on the sensor-electrolyte interface predicted upon repetitive adsorption charge-alternating polymers agrees satisfactorily with experimental results. The model accounts for different screening by mobile ions in electrolyte and inside tightly interdigitated multilayered structure. In particular, we show that sensors' potential oscillations are larger and more persistent at lower salt conditions, while they decay faster with the number of layers at higher salt conditions, in agreement with experiments. The effects of polyelectrolyte layer thickness, substrate potential, and charge regulation on the sensor surface triggered by layer-by-layer deposition are also analyzed.

  12. Pre- and posttranslational upregulation of muscle-specific glycogen synthase in athletes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vestergaard, H; Andersen, P H; Lund, S


    by insulin. We conclude that athletes have increased whole body insulin-stimulated nonoxidative glucose metabolism associated with both pretranslational (mRNA) and posttranslational (enzyme activity) upregulation of GS. However, the immunoreactive mass of GS is normal, emphasizing that posttranslational...... regulation of the GS protein activity is important for the increased glycogen synthesis rate of muscle in endurance-trained individuals....

  13. The E3 Ubiquitin Ligases, HUWE1 and NEDD4-1, Are Involved in the Post-translational Regulation of the ABCG1 and ABCG4 Lipid Transporters* (United States)

    Aleidi, Shereen M.; Howe, Vicky; Sharpe, Laura J.; Yang, Alryel; Rao, Geetha; Brown, Andrew J.; Gelissen, Ingrid C.


    The ATP-binding cassette transporter ABCG1 has an essential role in cellular cholesterol homeostasis, and dysregulation has been associated with a number of high burden diseases. Previous studies reported that ABCG1 is ubiquitinated and degraded via the ubiquitin proteasome system. However, so far the molecular mechanism, including the identity of any of the rate-limiting ubiquitination enzymes, or E3 ligases, is unknown. Using liquid chromatography mass spectrometry, we identified two HECT domain E3 ligases associated with ABCG1, named HUWE1 (HECT, UBA, and WWE domain containing 1, E3 ubiquitin protein ligase) and NEDD4-1 (Neural precursor cell-expressed developmentally down regulated gene 4), of which the latter is the founding member of the NEDD4 family of ubiquitin ligases. Silencing both HUWE1 and NEDD4-1 in cells overexpressing human ABCG1 significantly increased levels of the ABCG1 monomeric and dimeric protein forms, however ABCA1 protein expression was unaffected. In addition, ligase silencing increased ABCG1-mediated cholesterol export to HDL in cells overexpressing the transporter as well as in THP-1 macrophages. Reciprocally, overexpression of both ligases resulted in a significant reduction in protein levels of both the ABCG1 monomeric and dimeric forms. Like ABCG1, ABCG4 protein levels and cholesterol export activity were significantly increased after silencing both HUWE1 and NEDD4-1 in cells overexpressing this closely related ABC half-transporter. In summary, we have identified for the first time two E3 ligases that are fundamental enzymes in the post-translational regulation of ABCG1 and ABCG4 protein levels and cellular cholesterol export activity. PMID:26296893

  14. Drosophila cyfip regulates synaptic development and endocytosis by suppressing filamentous actin assembly. (United States)

    Zhao, Lu; Wang, Dan; Wang, Qifu; Rodal, Avital A; Zhang, Yong Q


    The formation of synapses and the proper construction of neural circuits depend on signaling pathways that regulate cytoskeletal structure and dynamics. After the mutual recognition of a growing axon and its target, multiple signaling pathways are activated that regulate cytoskeletal dynamics to determine the morphology and strength of the connection. By analyzing Drosophila mutations in the cytoplasmic FMRP interacting protein Cyfip, we demonstrate that this component of the WAVE complex inhibits the assembly of filamentous actin (F-actin) and thereby regulates key aspects of synaptogenesis. Cyfip regulates the distribution of F-actin filaments in presynaptic neuromuscular junction (NMJ) terminals. At cyfip mutant NMJs, F-actin assembly was accelerated, resulting in shorter NMJs, more numerous satellite boutons, and reduced quantal content. Increased synaptic vesicle size and failure to maintain excitatory junctional potential amplitudes under high-frequency stimulation in cyfip mutants indicated an endocytic defect. cyfip mutants exhibited upregulated bone morphogenetic protein (BMP) signaling, a major growth-promoting pathway known to be attenuated by endocytosis at the Drosophila NMJ. We propose that Cyfip regulates synapse development and endocytosis by inhibiting actin assembly.

  15. Structural determinants of APOBEC3B non-catalytic domain for molecular assembly and catalytic regulation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Xiao, Xiao; Yang, Hanjing; Arutiunian, Vagan; Fang, Yao; Besse, Guillaume; Morimoto, Cherie; Zirkle, Brett; Chen, Xiaojiang S. (USC)


    The catalytic activity of human cytidine deaminase APOBEC3B (A3B) has been correlated with kataegic mutational patterns within multiple cancer types. The molecular basis of how the N-terminal non-catalytic CD1 regulates the catalytic activity and consequently, biological function of A3B remains relatively unknown. Here, we report the crystal structure of a soluble human A3B-CD1 variant and delineate several structural elements of CD1 involved in molecular assembly, nucleic acid interactions and catalytic regulation of A3B. We show that (i) A3B expressed in human cells exists in hypoactive high-molecular-weight (HMW) complexes, which can be activated without apparent dissociation into low-molecular-weight (LMW) species after RNase A treatment. (ii) Multiple surface hydrophobic residues of CD1 mediate the HMW complex assembly and affect the catalytic activity, including one tryptophan residue W127 that likely acts through regulating nucleic acid binding. (iii) One of the highly positively charged surfaces on CD1 is involved in RNA-dependent attenuation of A3B catalysis. (iv) Surface hydrophobic residues of CD1 are involved in heterogeneous nuclear ribonucleoproteins (hnRNPs) binding to A3B. The structural and biochemical insights described here suggest that unique structural features on CD1 regulate the molecular assembly and catalytic activity of A3B through distinct mechanisms.

  16. Phosphorylation of the viral coat protein regulates RNA virus infection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hoover HS


    Full Text Available Haley S Hoover, C Cheng Kao Department of Molecular and Cellular Biochemistry, Indiana University, Bloomington, IN, USA Abstract: Coat proteins (CPs are the most abundant protein produced during a viral infection. CPs have been shown to regulate the infection processes of RNA viruses, including RNA replication and gene expression. The numerous activities of the CP in infection are likely to require regulation, possibly through posttranslational modifications. Protein posttranslational modifications are involved in signal transduction, expanding and regulating protein function, and responding to changes in the environment. Accumulating evidence suggests that phosphorylation of viral CPs is involved in the regulation of the viral infection process from enabling virion disassembly to regulation of viral protein synthesis and replication. CP phosphorylation also affects viral trafficking and virion assembly. This review focuses on the regulatory roles that phosphorylation of CPs has in the life cycle of viruses with RNA genomes. Keywords: viral capsid protein, posttranslational modification, phosphorylation, protein–RNA interaction

  17. PC1/3 and PC2 gene expression and post-translational endoproteolytic pro-opiomelanocortin processing is regulated by photoperiod in the seasonal Siberian hamster (Phodopus sungorus). (United States)

    Helwig, M; Khorooshi, R M H; Tups, A; Barrett, P; Archer, Z A; Exner, C; Rozman, J; Braulke, L J; Mercer, J G; Klingenspor, M


    A remarkable feature of the seasonal adaptation displayed by the Siberian hamster (Phodopus sungorus) is the ability to decrease food intake and body weight (by up to 40%) in response to shortening photoperiod. The regulating neuroendocrine systems involved in this adaptation and their neuroanatomical and molecular bases are poorly understood. We investigated the effect of photoperiod on the expression of prohormone convertases 1 (PC1/3) and 2 (PC2) and the endoproteolytic processing of the neuropeptide precursor pro-opiomelanocortin (POMC) within key energy balance regulating centres of the hypothalamus. We compared mRNA levels and protein distribution of PC1/3, PC2, POMC, adrenocorticotrophic hormone (ACTH), alpha-melanocyte-stimulating hormone (MSH), beta-endorphin and orexin-A in selected hypothalamic areas of long day (LD, 16:8 h light:dark), short day (SD, 8:16 h light:dark) and natural-day (ND, photoperiod depending on time of the year) acclimated Siberian hamsters. The gene expression of PC2 was significantly higher within the arcuate nucleus (ARC, P < 0.01) in SD and in ND (versus LD), and is reflected in the day length profile between October and April in the latter. PC1/3 gene expression in the ARC and lateral hypothalamus was higher in ND but not in SD compared to the respective LD controls. The immunoreactivity of PC1/3 cleaved neuropeptide ACTH in the ARC and PC1/3-colocalised orexin-A in the lateral hypothalamus were not affected by photoperiod changes. However, increased levels of PC2 mRNA and protein were associated with higher abundance of the mature neuropeptides alpha-MSH and beta-endorphin (P < 0.01) in SD. This study provides a possible explanation for previous paradoxical findings showing lower food intake in SD associated with decreased POMC mRNA levels. Our results suggest that a major part of neuroendocrine body weight control in seasonal adaptation may be effected by post-translational processing mediated by the prohormone convertases PC1

  18. Global analysis of posttranslational protein arginylation.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Catherine C L Wong


    Full Text Available Posttranslational arginylation is critical for embryogenesis, cardiovascular development, and angiogenesis, but its molecular effects and the identity of proteins arginylated in vivo are largely unknown. Here we report a global analysis of this modification on the protein level and identification of 43 proteins arginylated in vivo on highly specific sites. Our data demonstrate that unlike previously believed, arginylation can occur on any N-terminally exposed residue likely defined by a structural recognition motif on the protein surface, and that it preferentially affects a number of physiological systems, including cytoskeleton and primary metabolic pathways. The results of our study suggest that protein arginylation is a general mechanism for regulation of protein structure and function and outline the potential role of protein arginylation in cell metabolism and embryonic development.

  19. COX assembly factor ccdc56 regulates mitochondrial morphology by affecting mitochondrial recruitment of Drp1. (United States)

    Ban-Ishihara, Reiko; Tomohiro-Takamiya, Shiho; Tani, Motohiro; Baudier, Jacques; Ishihara, Naotada; Kuge, Osamu


    Mitochondria are dynamic organelles that alter their morphology in response to cellular signaling and differentiation through balanced fusion and fission. In this study, we found that the mitochondrial inner membrane ATPase ATAD3A interacted with ccdc56/MITRAC12/COA3, a subunit of the cytochrome oxidase (COX)-assembly complex. Overproduction of ccdc56 in HeLa cells resulted in fragmented mitochondrial morphology, while mitochondria were highly elongated in ccdc56-repressed cells by the defective recruitment of the fission factor Drp1. We also found that mild and chronic inhibition of COX led to mitochondrial elongation, as seen in ccdc56-repressed cells. These results indicate that ccdc56 positively regulates mitochondrial fission via regulation of COX activity and the mitochondrial recruitment of Drp1, and thus, suggest a novel relationship between COX assembly and mitochondrial morphology.

  20. Research progress in protein post-translational modification

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)


    Protein post-translational modification plays an important role in organism. It makes the protein obtain more complicated structures, perfect functions, more accurate regulations and more specific operations. The most common protein post- translational modifications include ubiquitylation, phosphorylation, glycosylation, lipodation, methylation, and acetylation and so on. Ubiquitylation plays an essential role in cellular functions such as cellular differentiation, apoptosis, DNA repair, antigen processing, and stress response. Phosphorylation is related to physiological and pathological processes including cellular signal conduction, nervous activity, muscle contraction and proliferation, development and differentiation of cells. Protein glycosylation is of great importance for many cell processes like immunoprotection, virus replication, cell growth, and occurrence of inflammation and so on. Lipodation is vital to signal conduction. Histone methylation and acetylation are responsible for transcription regulation. In vivo, different post-translational modifications do not occur isolatedly, but influence each other's function and cooperate with each other. Understanding what influences the post-translational modifications will help to uncover cellular processes and protein network in molecular level and finally direct more precise drug design targeting molecules. Post-translational modification mimics are set to dominate the next wave of protein therapeutics and become powerful medicinal tools in the 21st century.

  1. Posttranslational modification of the androgen receptor in prostate cancer. (United States)

    van der Steen, Travis; Tindall, Donald J; Huang, Haojie


    The androgen receptor (AR) is important in the development of the prostate by regulating transcription, cellular proliferation, and apoptosis. AR undergoes posttranslational modifications that alter its transcription activity, translocation to the nucleus and stability. The posttranslational modifications that regulate these events are of utmost importance to understand the functional role of AR and its activity. The majority of these modifications occur in the activation function-1 (AF1) region of the AR, which contains the transcriptional activation unit 1 (TAU1) and 5 (TAU5). Identification of the modifications that occur to these regions may increase our understanding of AR activation in prostate cancer and the role of AR in the progression from androgen-dependent to castration-resistant prostate cancer (CRPC). Most of the posttranslational modifications identified to date have been determined using the full-length AR in androgen dependent cells. Further investigations into the role of posttranslational modifications in androgen-independent activation of full-length AR and constitutively active splicing variants are warranted, findings from which may provide new therapeutic options for CRPC.

  2. Tandem affinity purification of histones, coupled to mass spectrometry, identifies associated proteins and new sites of post-translational modification in Saccharomyces cerevisiae. (United States)

    Valero, M Luz; Sendra, Ramon; Pamblanco, Mercè


    Histones and their post-translational modifications contribute to regulating fundamental biological processes in all eukaryotic cells. We have applied a conventional tandem affinity purification strategy to histones H3 and H4 of the yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae. Mass spectrometry analysis of the co-purified proteins revealed multiple associated proteins, including core histones, which indicates that tagged histones may be incorporated to the nucleosome particle. Among the many other co-isolated proteins there are histone chaperones, elements of chromatin remodeling, of nucleosome assembly/disassembly, and of histone modification complexes. The histone chaperone Rtt106p, two members of chromatin assembly FACT complex and Psh1p, an ubiquitin ligase, were the most abundant proteins obtained with both H3-TAP and H4-TAP, regardless of the cell extraction medium stringency. Our mass spectrometry analyses have also revealed numerous novel post-translational modifications, including 30 new chemical modifications in histones, mainly by ubiquitination. We have discovered not only new sites of ubiquitination but that, besides lysine, also serine and threonine residues are targets of ubiquitination on yeast histones. Our results show the standard tandem affinity purification procedure is suitable for application to yeast histones, in order to isolate and characterize histone-binding proteins and post-translational modifications, avoiding the bias caused by histone purification from a chromatin-enriched fraction.

  3. Impaired endothelial shear stress induces podosome assembly via VEGF up-regulation. (United States)

    Fey, Theres; Schubert, Kai Michael; Schneider, Holger; Fein, Evelyn; Kleinert, Eike; Pohl, Ulrich; Dendorfer, Andreas


    Podosomes are dynamic cytoskeletal membrane structures with local adhesive and proteolytic activity. They are critically involved in angiogenesis and vascular adaptive growth. Here, we studied in HUVECs and murine small vessels whether shear stress controls podosome assembly and local proteolytic activity. Podosomes were characterized by immunohistochemistry, and their proteolytic activity was assessed as degradation imprints in fluorescent gelatin that was used as growth substrate. Compared with controls (10 dyn/cm(2)), the number of podosomes formed per time was doubled when cells were exposed to low shear stress (0.3 dyn/cm(2)) or even increased 5-fold under static conditions. This was a result of an enhanced expression of VEGF after reduction of shear stress. Consequently, enhanced podosome formation could be prevented by a VEGF receptor antagonist as well by interruption of VEGF signaling via inhibition of PI3K, Src, or p38. Increase of podosome assembly went along with significantly augmented cell motility. In vivo experiments in mouse arteries confirmed increased endothelial podosome numbers when shear stress was abolished by vessel occlusion. We conclude that shear stress, by reducing VEGF release, inhibits podosome assembly. Hence, endothelial cell-mediated matrix proteolysis and migratory activity are inhibited, thereby stabilizing the structure of the vessel wall.-Fey, T., Schubert, K. M., Schneider, H., Fein, E., Kleinert, E., Pohl, U., Dendorfer, A. Impaired endothelial shear stress induces podosome assembly via VEGF up-regulation.

  4. A pH-regulated quality control cycle for surveillance of secretory protein assembly. (United States)

    Vavassori, Stefano; Cortini, Margherita; Masui, Shoji; Sannino, Sara; Anelli, Tiziana; Caserta, Imma R; Fagioli, Claudio; Mossuto, Maria F; Fornili, Arianna; van Anken, Eelco; Degano, Massimo; Inaba, Kenji; Sitia, Roberto


    To warrant the quality of the secretory proteome, stringent control systems operate at the endoplasmic reticulum (ER)-Golgi interface, preventing the release of nonnative products. Incompletely assembled oligomeric proteins that are deemed correctly folded must rely on additional quality control mechanisms dedicated to proper assembly. Here we unveil how ERp44 cycles between cisGolgi and ER in a pH-regulated manner, patrolling assembly of disulfide-linked oligomers such as IgM and adiponectin. At neutral, ER-equivalent pH, the ERp44 carboxy-terminal tail occludes the substrate-binding site. At the lower pH of the cisGolgi, conformational rearrangements of this peptide, likely involving protonation of ERp44's active cysteine, simultaneously unmask the substrate binding site and -RDEL motif, allowing capture of orphan secretory protein subunits and ER retrieval via KDEL receptors. The ERp44 assembly control cycle couples secretion fidelity and efficiency downstream of the calnexin/calreticulin and BiP-dependent quality control cycles.

  5. The small GTPase Rab29 is a common regulator of immune synapse assembly and ciliogenesis (United States)

    Onnis, A; Finetti, F; Patrussi, L; Gottardo, M; Cassioli, C; Spanò, S; Baldari, C T


    Accumulating evidence underscores the T-cell immune synapse (IS) as a site of intense vesicular trafficking, on which productive signaling and cell activation crucially depend. Although the T-cell antigen receptor (TCR) is known to exploit recycling to accumulate to the IS, the specific pathway that controls this process remains to be elucidated. Here we demonstrate that the small GTPase Rab29 is centrally implicated in TCR trafficking and IS assembly. Rab29 colocalized and interacted with Rab8, Rab11 and IFT20, a component of the intraflagellar transport system that regulates ciliogenesis and participates in TCR recycling in the non-ciliated T cell, as assessed by co-immunoprecipitation and immunofluorescence analysis. Rab29 depletion resulted in the inability of TCRs to undergo recycling to the IS, thereby compromizing IS assembly. Under these conditions, recycling TCRs accumulated in Rab11+ endosomes that failed to polarize to the IS due to defective Rab29-dependent recruitment of the dynein microtubule motor. Remarkably, Rab29 participates in a similar pathway in ciliated cells to promote primary cilium growth and ciliary localization of Smoothened. These results provide a function for Rab29 as a regulator of receptor recycling and identify this GTPase as a shared participant in IS and primary cilium assembly. PMID:26021297

  6. Copper Induces Apoptosis of Neuroblastoma Cells Via Post-translational Regulation of the Expression of Bcl-2-family Proteins and the tx Mouse is a Better Model of Hepatic than Brain Cu Toxicity. (United States)

    Chan, Hsien W; Liu, Tianbing; Verdile, Giuseppe; Bishop, Glenda; Haasl, Ryan J; Smith, Mark A; Perry, George; Martins, Ralph N; Atwood, Craig S


    The basic mechanism(s) by which altered Cu homeostasis is toxic to hepatocytes and neurons, the two major cell types affected in copper storage diseases such as Wilson's disease (WD), remain unclear. Using human M17 neuroblastoma cells as a model to examine Cu toxicity, we found that there was a time- and concentration-dependent induction of neuronal death, such that at 24 h there was a approximately 50 % reduction in viability with 25 muM Cu-glycine(2). Cu-glycine(2) (25:50 muM) treatment for 24 h significantly altered the expression of 296 genes, including 8 genes involved with apoptosis (BCL2-associated athanogene 3, BCL2/adenovirus E1B 19kDa interacting protein caspase 5, regulator of Fas-induced apoptosis, V-jun sarcoma virus 17 oncogene homolog, claudin 5, prostaglandin E receptor 3 and protein tyrosine phosphatase, non-receptor type 6). Surprisingly, changes in the expression of more 'traditional' apoptotic genes (Bcl-2, Bax, Bak and Bad) did not vary more than 20 %. To test whether the induction of apoptosis in neuroblastoma cells was via post-translational mechanisms, we measured the protein expression of these apoptotic markers in M17 neuroblastoma cells treated with Cu-glycine(2) (0-100 muM) for 24-48 h. Compared with glycine treated cells, Cu-glycine(2) reduced Bcl-2 expression by 50 %, but increased Bax and Bak expression by 130% and 400 %, respectively. To assess whether Cu also induced apoptotic cell death in a mouse model of WD, we measured the expression of these apoptotic markers in the liver and brain of mice expressing an ATP7b gene mutation (tx(J) mice) at 10 months of age (near the end of their lives when overt liver pathology is displayed). Changes in the liver expression of these apoptotic markers in tx(J) mice compared to background mice mirrored those of Cu treated neuroblastoma cells. In contrast, few changes in apoptotic protein expression were detected in the brain between tx(J) and background mice, indicating the tx(J) mouse is a good

  7. Negative regulation of active zone assembly by a newly identified SR protein kinase.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ervin L Johnson


    Full Text Available Presynaptic, electron-dense, cytoplasmic protrusions such as the T-bar (Drosophila or ribbon (vertebrates are believed to facilitate vesicle movement to the active zone (AZ of synapses throughout the nervous system. The molecular composition of these structures including the T-bar and ribbon are largely unknown, as are the mechanisms that specify their synapse-specific assembly and distribution. In a large-scale, forward genetic screen, we have identified a mutation termed air traffic controller (atc that causes T-bar-like protein aggregates to form abnormally in motoneuron axons. This mutation disrupts a gene that encodes for a serine-arginine protein kinase (SRPK79D. This mutant phenotype is specific to SRPK79D and is not secondary to impaired kinesin-dependent axonal transport. The srpk79D gene is neuronally expressed, and transgenic rescue experiments are consistent with SRPK79D kinase activity being necessary in neurons. The SRPK79D protein colocalizes with the T-bar-associated protein Bruchpilot (Brp in both the axon and synapse. We propose that SRPK79D is a novel T-bar-associated protein kinase that represses T-bar assembly in peripheral axons, and that SRPK79D-dependent repression must be relieved to facilitate site-specific AZ assembly. Consistent with this model, overexpression of SRPK79D disrupts AZ-specific Brp organization and significantly impairs presynaptic neurotransmitter release. These data identify a novel AZ-associated protein kinase and reveal a new mechanism of negative regulation involved in AZ assembly. This mechanism could contribute to the speed and specificity with which AZs are assembled throughout the nervous system.

  8. The thermodynamics of Pr55Gag-RNA interaction regulate the assembly of HIV (United States)

    Waddington, Lynne; Hijnen, Marcel; Velkov, Tony; McKinstry, William J.


    The interactions that occur during HIV Pr55Gag oligomerization and genomic RNA packaging are essential elements that facilitate HIV assembly. However, mechanistic details of these interactions are not clearly defined. Here, we overcome previous limitations in producing large quantities of full-length recombinant Pr55Gag that is required for isothermal titration calorimetry (ITC) studies, and we have revealed the thermodynamic properties of HIV assembly for the first time. Thermodynamic analysis showed that the binding between RNA and HIV Pr55Gag is an energetically favourable reaction (ΔGenthalpy (ΔH) widens sequentially from: (1) Pr55Gag-Psi RNA binding during HIV genome selection; to (2) Pr55Gag-Guanosine Uridine (GU)-containing RNA binding in cytoplasm/plasma membrane; and then to (3) Pr55Gag-Adenosine(A)-containing RNA binding in immature HIV. These data imply the stepwise increments of heat being released during HIV biogenesis may help to facilitate the process of viral assembly. By mimicking the interactions between A-containing RNA and oligomeric Pr55Gag in immature HIV, it was noted that a p6 domain truncated Pr50Gag Δp6 is less efficient than full-length Pr55Gag in this thermodynamic process. These data suggest a potential unknown role of p6 in Pr55Gag-Pr55Gag oligomerization and/or Pr55Gag-RNA interaction during HIV assembly. Our data provide direct evidence on how nucleic acid sequences and the oligomeric state of Pr55Gag regulate HIV assembly. PMID:28222188

  9. Centriolar SAS-7 acts upstream of SPD-2 to regulate centriole assembly and pericentriolar material formation. (United States)

    Sugioka, Kenji; Hamill, Danielle R; Lowry, Joshua B; McNeely, Marie E; Enrick, Molly; Richter, Alyssa C; Kiebler, Lauren E; Priess, James R; Bowerman, Bruce


    The centriole/basal body is a eukaryotic organelle that plays essential roles in cell division and signaling. Among five known core centriole proteins, SPD-2/Cep192 is the first recruited to the site of daughter centriole formation and regulates the centriolar localization of the other components in C. elegans and in humans. However, the molecular basis for SPD-2 centriolar localization remains unknown. Here we describe a new centriole component, the coiled-coil protein SAS-7, as a regulator of centriole duplication, assembly and elongation. We also show that SAS-7 binds SPD-2 and regulates SPD-2 centriolar recruitment, while SAS-7 centriolar localization is SPD-2-independent. Furthermore, pericentriolar material (PCM) formation is abnormal in sas-7 mutants, and the PCM-dependent induction of cell polarity that defines the anterior-posterior body axis frequently fails. We conclude that SAS-7 functions at the earliest step in centriole duplication yet identified and plays important roles in the orchestration of centriole and PCM assembly.

  10. High Mobility Group Proteins and Their Post-Translational Modifications


    Zhang, Qingchun; Wang, Yinsheng


    The high mobility group (HMG) proteins, including HMGA, HMGB and HMGN, are abundant and ubiquitous nuclear proteins that bind to DNA, nucleosome and other multi-protein complexes in a dynamic and reversible fashion to regulate DNA processing in the context of chromatin. All HMG proteins, like histone proteins, are subjected to extensive post-translational modifications (PTMs), such as lysine acetylation, arginine/lysine methylation and serine/threonine phosphorylation, to modulate their inter...

  11. Dynamic assembly of MinD on phospholipid vesicles regulated by ATP and MinE


    Hu, Zonglin; Gogol, Edward P.; Lutkenhaus, Joe


    Selection of the division site in Escherichia coli is regulated by the min system and requires the rapid oscillation of MinD between the two halves of the cell under the control of MinE. In this study we have further investigated the molecular basis for this oscillation by examining the interaction of MinD with phospholipid vesicles. We found that MinD bound to phospholipid vesicles in the presence of ATP and, upon binding, assembled into a well-ordered helical array that deformed the vesicle...

  12. Planar cell polarity proteins differentially regulate extracellular matrix organization and assembly during zebrafish gastrulation. (United States)

    Dohn, Michael R; Mundell, Nathan A; Sawyer, Leah M; Dunlap, Julie A; Jessen, Jason R


    Zebrafish gastrulation cell movements occur in the context of dynamic changes in extracellular matrix (ECM) organization and require the concerted action of planar cell polarity (PCP) proteins that regulate cell elongation and mediolateral alignment. Data obtained using Xenopus laevis gastrulae have shown that integrin-fibronectin interactions underlie the formation of polarized cell protrusions necessary for PCP and have implicated PCP proteins themselves as regulators of ECM. By contrast, the relationship between establishment of PCP and ECM assembly/remodeling during zebrafish gastrulation is unclear. We previously showed that zebrafish embryos carrying a null mutation in the four-pass transmembrane PCP protein vang-like 2 (vangl2) exhibit increased matrix metalloproteinase activity and decreased immunolabeling of fibronectin. These data implicated for the first time a core PCP protein in the regulation of pericellular proteolysis of ECM substrates and raised the question of whether other zebrafish PCP proteins also impact ECM organization. In Drosophila melanogaster, the cytoplasmic PCP protein Prickle binds Van Gogh and regulates its function. Here we report that similar to vangl2, loss of zebrafish prickle1a decreases fibronectin protein levels in gastrula embryos. We further show that Prickle1a physically binds Vangl2 and regulates both the subcellular distribution and total protein level of Vangl2. These data suggest that the ability of Prickle1a to impact fibronectin organization is at least partly due to effects on Vangl2. In contrast to loss of either Vangl2 or Prickle1a function, we find that glypican4 (a Wnt co-receptor) and frizzled7 mutant gastrula embryos with disrupted non-canonical Wnt signaling exhibit the opposite phenotype, namely increased fibronectin assembly. Our data show that glypican4 mutants do not have decreased proteolysis of ECM substrates, but instead have increased cell surface cadherin protein expression and increased intercellular

  13. 赖氨酸乙酰化作用:更为广泛的蛋白调控方式%Lysine acetylation, a more prevalent posttranslational regulation of protein function

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    黄的; 张华凤


    Acetylation of proteins on lysine residues,including non-histones lysine acetylation, is a prevalent and reversible posttranslational modification. Technological limitations in this field have long impeded the progress in analysis of lysine acetylation's cellular roles. In the past several years,however,quite a number of non-histones lysine acetylation have been brought to light,largely due to the maturation of detection technologies such as high-resolution mass spectrometry and label-free quantification (LFQ). Although the molecular mechanisms underlying cellular regulation of lysine acetylation remain elusive and the detection of highly dynamic lysine acetylation is still a challenge,mounting documented evidence has demonstrated that lysine acetylation is widely involved in such cellular biological activities as cell growth,apoptosis,cytokinetics and cell metabolisms. In this review,we present the progression in this field as well as our current understanding of this modification,starting with the developing detection technologies of lysine acetylation. We also highlight the function of lysine acetylation in the regulation of gene transcription,energy metabolism,cancer development as well as its therapeutic implications.%蛋白质赖氨酸残基上的乙酰化修饰,包括非组蛋白赖氨酸的乙酰化修饰,是一种普遍存在的可逆性翻译后修饰作用,然而检测技术上的限制一直阻碍着赖氨酸乙酰化修饰在细胞中的功能解析和研究.随着赖氨酸乙酰化检测技术的不断成熟,现已发现大量的非组蛋白存在赖氨酸乙酰化修饰的现象.目前,调控细胞内赖氨酸乙酰化的分子机制还不十分清楚,对于活体内高度动态的赖氨酸乙酰化修饰的捕捉尚存困难,但已有越来越多的证据表明,赖氨酸乙酰化修饰广泛地参与细胞的生长、凋亡、动力学、能量代谢等生理活动过程.本文以不断发展的赖氨酸检测技术为出发点,介绍非组蛋白

  14. Regulation of nucleolus assembly by non-coding RNA polymerase II transcripts. (United States)

    Caudron-Herger, Maïwen; Pankert, Teresa; Rippe, Karsten


    The nucleolus is a nuclear subcompartment for tightly regulated rRNA production and ribosome subunit biogenesis. It also acts as a cellular stress sensor and can release enriched factors in response to cellular stimuli. Accordingly, the content and structure of the nucleolus change dynamically, which is particularly evident during cell cycle progression: the nucleolus completely disassembles during mitosis and reassembles in interphase. Although the mechanisms that drive nucleolar (re)organization have been the subject of a number of studies, they are only partly understood. Recently, we identified Alu element-containing RNA polymerase II transcripts (aluRNAs) as important for nucleolar structure and rRNA synthesis. Integrating these findings with studies on the liquid droplet-like nature of the nucleolus leads us to propose a model on how RNA polymerase II transcripts could regulate the assembly of the nucleolus in response to external stimuli and during cell cycle progression.

  15. [Effects of posttranslational modification on the activity of cytochrome P450: current progress]. (United States)

    Li, Yu-hua; Bi, Hui-chang; Huang, Min


    Regulation of the activity of CYP450 has always been research focus of drug metabolism. The effect of compounds on the mRNA and protein expression level of CYP450 is the main purpose of most of the existing reports. In recent years, the protein modification in the posttranslation level has been found to participate in maintaining the proper function of CYP450, thus effect of posttranslational modification on the enzyme activity has been paid more and more attention. Posttranslational modifications including phosphorylation, nitration, and ubiquitination have been described to regulate the activity of CYP450. In this paper, recent developments in the effects of posttranslational modifications on the activity of CYP450 have been reviewed.

  16. Regulation of V-ATPase assembly and function of V-ATPases in tumor cell invasiveness. (United States)

    McGuire, Christina; Cotter, Kristina; Stransky, Laura; Forgac, Michael


    V-ATPases are ATP-driven proton pumps that function within both intracellular compartments and the plasma membrane in a wide array of normal physiological and pathophysiological processes. V-ATPases are composed of a peripheral V(1) domain that hydrolyzes ATP and an integral V(0) domain that transports protons. Regulated assembly of the V-ATPase represents an important mechanism of regulating V-ATPase activity in response to a number of environmental cues. Our laboratory has demonstrated that glucose-dependent assembly of the V-ATPase complex in yeast is controlled by the Ras/cAMP/PKA pathway. By contrast, increased assembly of the V-ATPase during dendritic cell maturation involves the PI-3 kinase and mTORC1 pathways. Recently, we have shown that amino acids regulate V-ATPase assembly in mammalian cells, possibly as a means to maintain adequate levels of amino acids upon nutrient starvation. V-ATPases have also been implicated in cancer cell survival and invasion. V-ATPases are targeted to different cellular membranes by isoforms of subunit a, with a3 targeting V-ATPases to the plasma membrane of osteoclasts. We have shown that highly invasive human breast cancer cell lines express higher levels of the a3 isoform than poorly invasive lines and that knockdown of a3 reduces both expression of V-ATPases at the plasma membrane and in vitro invasion of breast tumor cells. Moreover, overexpression of a3 in a non-invasive breast epithelial line increases both plasma membrane V-ATPases and in vitro invasion. Finally, specific ablation of plasma membrane V-ATPases in highly invasive human breast cancer cells using either an antibody or small molecule approach inhibits both in vitro invasion and migration. These results suggest that plasma membrane and a3-containing V-ATPases represent a novel and important target in the development of therapeutics to limit breast cancer metastasis. This article is part of a Special Issue entitled 'EBEC 2016: 19th European Bioenergetics

  17. Posttranslational isoprenylation of tryptophan in bacteria (United States)

    Sugita, Tomotoshi; Abe, Ikuro


    Posttranslational isoprenylation is generally recognized as a universal modification of the cysteine residues in peptides and the thiol groups of proteins in eukaryotes. In contrast, the Bacillus quorum sensing peptide pheromone, the ComX pheromone, possesses a posttranslationally modified tryptophan residue, and the tryptophan residue is isoprenylated with either a geranyl or farnesyl group at the gamma position to form a tricyclic skeleton that bears a newly formed pyrrolidine, similar to proline. The post-translational dimethylallylation of two tryptophan residues of a cyclic peptide, kawaguchipeptin A, from cyanobacteria has also been reported. Interestingly, the modified tryptophan residues of kawaguchipeptin A have the same scaffold as that of the ComX pheromones, but with the opposite stereochemistry. This review highlights the biosynthetic pathways and posttranslational isoprenylation of tryptophan. In particular, recent studies on peptide modifying enzymes are discussed.

  18. Co- and post-translational protein folding in the ER

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ellgaard, Lars; McCaul, Nicholas; Chatsisvili, Anna


    and the variety of ER-specific protein modifications. Here, we review chaperone-assisted co- and post-translational folding and assembly in the ER and underline the influence of protein modifications on these processes. We emphasize how method development has helped advance the field by allowing researchers......The biophysical rules that govern folding of small, single-domain proteins in dilute solutions are now quite well understood. The mechanisms underlying co-translational folding of multidomain and membrane-spanning proteins in complex cellular environments are often less clear. The endoplasmic...... reticulum (ER) produces a plethora of membrane and secretory proteins, which must fold and assemble correctly before ER exit - if these processes fail, misfolded species accumulate in the ER or are degraded. The ER differs from other cellular organelles in terms of the physicochemical environment...

  19. Kv3 channel assembly, trafficking and activity are regulated by zinc through different binding sites. (United States)

    Gu, Yuanzheng; Barry, Joshua; Gu, Chen


    Zinc, a divalent heavy metal ion and an essential mineral for life, regulates synaptic transmission and neuronal excitability via ion channels. However, its binding sites and regulatory mechanisms are poorly understood. Here, we report that Kv3 channel assembly, localization and activity are regulated by zinc through different binding sites. Local perfusion of zinc reversibly reduced spiking frequency of cultured neurons most likely by suppressing Kv3 channels. Indeed, zinc inhibited Kv3.1 channel activity and slowed activation kinetics, independent of its site in the N-terminal T1 domain. Biochemical assays surprisingly identified a novel zinc-binding site in the Kv3.1 C-terminus, critical for channel activity and axonal targeting, but not for the zinc inhibition. Finally, mutagenesis revealed an important role of the junction between the first transmembrane (TM) segment and the first extracellular loop in sensing zinc. Its mutant enabled fast spiking with relative resistance to the zinc inhibition. Therefore, our studies provide novel mechanistic insights into the multifaceted regulation of Kv3 channel activity and localization by divalent heavy metal ions.

  20. β-Arrestin1 regulates γ-secretase complex assembly and modulates amyloid-β pathology

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Xiaosong Liu; Xiaohui Zhao; Xianglu Zeng; Koen Bossers; Dick F Swaab; Jian Zhao; Gang Pei


    Alzheimer's disease (AD) is a progressive and complex neurodegenerative disease in which the γ-secretasemediated amyloid-β (Aβ) pathology plays an important role.We found that a multifunctional protein,β-arrestin1,facilitated the formation of NCT/APH-1 (anterior pharynx-defective phenotype 1) precomplex and mature γ-secretase complex through its functional interaction with APH-1.Deficiency of β-arrestin1 or inhibition of binding of β-arrestin1 with APH-1 by small peptides reduced Aβ production without affecting Notch processing.Genetic ablation of β-arrestin1 diminished Aβ pathology and behavioral deficits in transgenic AD mice.Moreover,in brains of sporadic AD patients and transgenic AD mice,the expression of β-arrestin1 was upregulated and correlated well with neuropathological severity and senile Aβ plaques.Thus,our study identifies a regulatory mechanism underlying both γ-secretase assembly and AD pathogenesis,and indicates that specific reduction of Aβ pathology can be achieved by regulation of the γ-secretase assembly.

  1. Tandem reporter assay for myristoylated proteins post-translationally (TRAMPP) identifies novel substrates for post-translational myristoylation: PKCε, a case study. (United States)

    Martin, Dale D O; Ahpin, Chrisselle Y; Heit, Ryan J; Perinpanayagam, Maneka A; Yap, Megan C; Veldhoen, Richard A; Goping, Ing Swie; Berthiaume, Luc G


    Myristoylation, the addition of a 14-carbon fatty acid to the N-terminal glycine of a protein, is key to protein-membrane and protein-protein interactions. Typically, myristoylation occurs cotranslationally; however, post-translational myristoylation of caspase-cleaved proteins is now emerging as a well-established protein modification and as a novel regulator of apoptosis. To identify additional post-translationally myristoylated proteins, we engineered a plasmid vector encoding for a caspase-cleavable reporter protein named tandem reporter assay for myristoylation of proteins post-translationally (TRAMPP). pTRAMPP consists of tdTomato-DEVD-"test myristoylation sequence"-enhanced green fluorescent protein (EGFP). After induction of apoptosis, the reporter protein is cleaved by caspases, which frees a new N-terminal glycine residue attached to EGFP that can be myristoylated. We used pTRAMPP in appropriately transfected cells to identify 7 post-translationally myristoylated proteins. First, we confirmed the post-translational myristoylation of two previously identified putative substrates, cytoplasmic dynein intermediate chain 2A and PKCε (ctPKCε), and identified 5 more caspase-cleaved potential substrates for myristoylation that include the antiapoptotic regulator of apoptosis, Mcl-1, and the causative agent of Huntington's disease, huntingtin protein. Further investigation revealed that post-translationally myristoylated ctPKCε localized to membranes and increased Erk signaling and degradation of the proapoptotic protein Bim, which prevented a significant loss of mitochondrial potential of 17% over nonmyristoylated ctPKCε in HeLa cells in the presence of apoptotic stimuli. Taken together, these findings suggest a possible antiapoptotic role for post-translationally myristoylated caspase-cleaved ctPKCε.

  2. Generic concept to program the time domain of self-assemblies with a self-regulation mechanism. (United States)

    Heuser, Thomas; Steppert, Ann-Kathrin; Lopez, Catalina Molano; Zhu, Baolei; Walther, Andreas


    Nature regulates complex structures in space and time via feedback loops, kinetically controlled transformations, and under energy dissipation to allow non-equilibrium processes. Although man-made static self-assemblies realize excellent control over hierarchical structures via molecular programming, managing their temporal destiny by self-regulation is a largely unsolved challenge. Herein, we introduce a generic concept to control the time domain by programming the lifetimes of switchable self-assemblies in closed systems. We conceive dormant deactivators that, in combination with fast promoters, enable a unique kinetic balance to establish an autonomously self-regulating, transient pH-state, whose duration can be programmed over orders of magnitude-from minutes to days. Coupling this non-equilibrium state to pH-switchable self-assemblies allows predicting their assembly/disassembly fate in time, similar to a precise self-destruction mechanism. We demonstrate a platform approach by programming self-assembly lifetimes of block copolymers, nanoparticles, and peptides, enabling dynamic materials with a self-regulation functionality.

  3. Impacts of fullerene derivatives on regulating the structure and assembly of collagen molecules (United States)

    Yin, Xiaohui; Zhao, Lina; Kang, Seung-Gu; Pan, Jun; Song, Yan; Zhang, Mingyi; Xing, Gengmei; Wang, Fei; Li, Jingyuan; Zhou, Ruhong; Zhao, Yuliang


    During cancer development, the fibrous layers surrounding the tumor surface get thin and stiff which facilitates the tumor metastasis. After the treatment of metallofullerene derivatives Gd@C82(OH)22, the fibrous layers become thicker and softer, the metastasis of tumor is then largely suppressed. The effect of Gd@C82(OH)22 was found to be related to their direct interaction with collagen and the resulting impact on the structure of collagen fibrils, the major component of extracellular matrices. In this work we study the interaction of Gd@C82(OH)22 with collagen by molecular dynamics simulations. We find that Gd@C82(OH)22 can enhance the rigidity of the native structure of collagen molecules and promote the formation of an oligomer or a microfibril. The interaction with Gd@C82(OH)22 may regulate further the assembly of collagen fibrils and change the biophysical properties of collagen. The control run with fullerene derivatives C60(OH)24 also indicates that C60(OH)24 can influence the structure and assembly of collagen molecules as well, but to a lesser degree. Both fullerene derivatives can form hydrogen bonds with multiple collagen molecules acting as a ``fullerenol-mediated bridge'' that enhance the interaction within or among collagen molecules. Compared to C60(OH)24, the interaction of Gd@C82(OH)22 with collagen is stronger, resulting in particular biomedical effects for regulating the biophysical properties of collagen fibrils.During cancer development, the fibrous layers surrounding the tumor surface get thin and stiff which facilitates the tumor metastasis. After the treatment of metallofullerene derivatives Gd@C82(OH)22, the fibrous layers become thicker and softer, the metastasis of tumor is then largely suppressed. The effect of Gd@C82(OH)22 was found to be related to their direct interaction with collagen and the resulting impact on the structure of collagen fibrils, the major component of extracellular matrices. In this work we study the interaction

  4. Post-translational modification of PII signal transduction proteins

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mike eMerrick


    Full Text Available The PII proteins constitute one of the most widely distributed families of signal transduction proteins in nature. They are pivotal players in the control of nitrogen metabolism in bacteria and archaea, and are also found in the plastids of plants. Quite remarkably PII proteins control the activities of a diverse range of enzymes, transcription factors and membrane transport proteins, and in all known cases they achieve their regulatory effect by direct interaction with their target. PII proteins in the Proteobacteria and the Actinobacteria are subject to post-translational modification by uridylylation or adenylylation respectively, whilst in some Cyanobacteria they can be modified by phosphorylation. In all these cases the protein’s modification state is influenced by the cellular nitrogen status and is thought to regulate its activity. However in many organisms there is no evidence for modification of PII proteins and indeed the ability of these proteins to respond to the cellular nitrogen status is fundamentally independent of post-translational modification. In this review we explore the role of post-translational modification in PII proteins in the light of recent studies.

  5. Posttranslational modification and trafficking of PIN auxin efflux carriers. (United States)

    Löfke, Christian; Luschnig, Christian; Kleine-Vehn, Jürgen


    Cell-to-cell communication is absolutely essential for multicellular organisms. Both animals and plants use chemicals called hormones for intercellular signaling. However, multicellularity of plants and animals has evolved independently, which led to establishment of distinct strategies in order to cope with variations in an ever-changing environment. The phytohormone auxin is crucial to plant development and patterning. PIN auxin efflux carrier-driven polar auxin transport regulates plant development as it controls asymmetric auxin distribution (auxin gradients), which in turn modulates a wide range of developmental processes. Internal and external cues trigger a number of posttranslational PIN auxin carrier modifications that were demonstrated to decisively influence variations in adaptive growth responses. In this review, we highlight recent advances in the analysis of posttranslational modification of PIN auxin efflux carriers, such as phosphorylation and ubiquitylation, and discuss their eminent role in directional vesicle trafficking, PIN protein de-/stabilization and auxin transport activity. We conclude with updated models, in which we attempt to integrate the mechanistic relevance of posttranslational modifications of PIN auxin carriers for the dynamic nature of plant development.

  6. Proliferating Cell Nuclear Antigen (PCNA) Regulates Primordial Follicle Assembly by Promoting Apoptosis of Oocytes in Fetal and Neonatal Mouse Ovaries (United States)

    Zhang, Yuanwei; Jiang, Xiaohua; Zhang, Huan; Ma, Tieliang; Zheng, Wei; Sun, Rui; Shen, Wei; Sha, Jiahao; Cooke, Howard J.; Shi, Qinghua


    Primordial follicles, providing all the oocytes available to a female throughout her reproductive life, assemble in perinatal ovaries with individual oocytes surrounded by granulosa cells. In mammals including the mouse, most oocytes die by apoptosis during primordial follicle assembly, but factors that regulate oocyte death remain largely unknown. Proliferating cell nuclear antigen (PCNA), a key regulator in many essential cellular processes, was shown to be differentially expressed during these processes in mouse ovaries using 2D-PAGE and MALDI-TOF/TOF methodology. A V-shaped expression pattern of PCNA in both oocytes and somatic cells was observed during the development of fetal and neonatal mouse ovaries, decreasing from 13.5 to 18.5 dpc and increasing from 18.5 dpc to 5 dpp. This was closely correlated with the meiotic prophase I progression from pre-leptotene to pachytene and from pachytene to diplotene when primordial follicles started to assemble. Inhibition of the increase of PCNA expression by RNA interference in cultured 18.5 dpc mouse ovaries strikingly reduced the apoptosis of oocytes, accompanied by down-regulation of known pro-apoptotic genes, e.g. Bax, caspase-3, and TNFα and TNFR2, and up-regulation of Bcl-2, a known anti-apoptotic gene. Moreover, reduced expression of PCNA was observed to significantly increase primordial follicle assembly, but these primordial follicles contained fewer guanulosa cells. Similar results were obtained after down-regulation by RNA interference of Ing1b, a PCNA-binding protein in the UV-induced apoptosis regulation. Thus, our results demonstrate that PCNA regulates primordial follicle assembly by promoting apoptosis of oocytes in fetal and neonatal mouse ovaries. PMID:21253613

  7. ISWI regulates higher-order chromatin structure and histone H1 assembly in vivo.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Davide F V Corona


    Full Text Available Imitation SWI (ISWI and other ATP-dependent chromatin-remodeling factors play key roles in transcription and other processes by altering the structure and positioning of nucleosomes. Recent studies have also implicated ISWI in the regulation of higher-order chromatin structure, but its role in this process remains poorly understood. To clarify the role of ISWI in vivo, we examined defects in chromosome structure and gene expression resulting from the loss of Iswi function in Drosophila. Consistent with a broad role in transcriptional regulation, the expression of a large number of genes is altered in Iswi mutant larvae. The expression of a dominant-negative form of ISWI leads to dramatic alterations in higher-order chromatin structure, including the apparent decondensation of both mitotic and polytene chromosomes. The loss of ISWI function does not cause obvious defects in nucleosome assembly, but results in a significant reduction in the level of histone H1 associated with chromatin in vivo. These findings suggest that ISWI plays a global role in chromatin compaction in vivo by promoting the association of the linker histone H1 with chromatin.

  8. Regulation of mitotic spindle asymmetry by SUMO and the spindle-assembly checkpoint in yeast. (United States)

    Leisner, Christian; Kammerer, Daniel; Denoth, Annina; Britschi, Mirjam; Barral, Yves; Liakopoulos, Dimitris


    During mitosis, the kinetochore microtubules capture and segregate chromosomes, and the astral microtubules position the spindle within the cell. Although the spindle is symmetric, proper positioning of the spindle in asymmetrically dividing cells generally correlates with the formation of morphologically and structurally distinct asters [1]. In budding yeast, the spindle-orientation proteins Kar9 and dynein decorate only one aster of the metaphase spindle and direct it toward the bud [2, 3]. The mechanisms controlling the distribution of Kar9 and dynein remain unclear. Here, we show that SUMO regulates astral-microtubule function in at least two ways. First, Kar9 was sumoylated in vivo. Sumoylation and Cdk1-dependent phosphorylation of Kar9 independently promoted Kar9 asymmetry on the spindle. Second, proper regulation of kinetochore function by SUMO was also required for Kar9 asymmetry. Indeed, activation of the spindle-assembly checkpoint (SAC) due to SUMO and kinetochore defects promoted symmetric redistribution of Kar9 in a Mad2-dependent manner. The control of Kar9 distribution by the SAC was independent of Kar9 sumoylation and phosphorylation. Together, our data reveal that three independent mechanisms contribute to Kar9 asymmetry: Cdk1-dependent phosphorylation, sumoylation, and SAC signaling. Hence, the two seemingly independent spindle domains, kinetochores and astral microtubules, function in a tightly coordinated fashion.

  9. Akt2 negatively regulates assembly of the POSH-MLK-JNK signaling complex. (United States)

    Figueroa, Claudia; Tarras, Samantha; Taylor, Jennifer; Vojtek, Anne B


    We demonstrate that POSH, a scaffold for the JNK signaling pathway, binds to Akt2. A POSH mutant that is unable to bind Akt2 (POSH W489A) exhibits enhanced-binding to MLK3, and this increase in binding is accompanied by increased activation of the JNK signaling pathway. In addition, we show that the association of MLK3 with POSH is increased upon inhibition of the endogenous phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase/Akt signaling pathway. Thus, the assembly of an active JNK signaling complex by POSH is negatively regulated by Akt2. Further, the level of Akt-phosphorylated MLK3 is reduced in cells expressing the Akt2 binding domain of POSH, which acts as a dominant interfering protein. Taken together, our results support a model in which Akt2 binds to a POSH-MLK-MKK-JNK complex and phosphorylates MLK3; phosphorylation of MLK3 by Akt2 results in the disassembly of the JNK complex bound to POSH and down-regulation of the JNK signaling pathway.

  10. Regulating Cell Apoptosis on Layer-by-Layer Assembled Multilayers of Photosensitizer-Coupled Polypeptides and Gold Nanoparticles (United States)

    Xing, Ruirui; Jiao, Tifeng; Ma, Kai; Ma, Guanghui; Möhwald, Helmuth; Yan, Xuehai


    The design of advanced, nanostructured materials by layer-by-layer (LbL) assembly at the molecular level is of great interest because of the broad application of these materials in the biomedical field especially in regulating cell growth, adhesion, movement, differentiation and detachment. Here, we fabricated functional hybrid multilayer films by LbL assembly of biocompatible photosensitizer-coupled polypeptides and collagen-capped gold nanoparticles. The resulting multilayer film can well accommodate cells for adhesion, growth and proliferation. Most significantly, controlled cell apoptosis (detachment) and patterning of the multilayer film is achieved by a photochemical process yielding reactive oxygen species (ROS). Moreover, the site and shape of apoptotic cells can be controlled easily by adjusting the location and shape of the laser beam. The LbL assembled multilayer film with integration of functions provides an efficient platform for regulating cell growth and apoptosis (detachment).

  11. Adaptive Posttranslational Control in Cellular Stress Response Pathways and Its Relationship to Toxicity Testing and Safety Assessment. (United States)

    Zhang, Qiang; Bhattacharya, Sudin; Pi, Jingbo; Clewell, Rebecca A; Carmichael, Paul L; Andersen, Melvin E


    Although transcriptional induction of stress genes constitutes a major cellular defense program against a variety of stressors, posttranslational control directly regulating the activities of preexisting stress proteins provides a faster-acting alternative response. We propose that posttranslational control is a general adaptive mechanism operating in many stress pathways. Here with the aid of computational models, we first show that posttranslational control fulfills two roles: (1) handling small, transient stresses quickly and (2) stabilizing the negative feedback transcriptional network. We then review the posttranslational control pathways for major stress responses-oxidative stress, metal stress, hyperosmotic stress, DNA damage, heat shock, and hypoxia. Posttranslational regulation of stress protein activities occurs by reversible covalent modifications, allosteric or non-allosteric enzymatic regulations, and physically induced protein structural changes. Acting in feedback or feedforward networks, posttranslational control may establish a threshold level of cellular stress. Sub-threshold stresses are handled adequately by posttranslational control without invoking gene transcription. With supra-threshold stress levels, cellular homeostasis cannot be maintained and transcriptional induction of stress genes and other gene programs, eg, those regulating cell metabolism, proliferation, and apoptosis, takes place. The loss of homeostasis with consequent changes in cellular function may lead to adverse cellular outcomes. Overall, posttranslational and transcriptional control pathways constitute a stratified cellular defense system, handling stresses coherently across time and intensity. As cell-based assays become a focus for chemical testing anchored on toxicity pathways, examination of proteomic and metabolomic changes as a result of posttranslational control occurring in the absence of transcriptomic alterations deserves more attention. © The Author 2015

  12. ROCK activity regulates functional tight junction assembly during blastocyst formation in porcine parthenogenetic embryos

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jeongwoo Kwon


    Full Text Available The Rho-associated coiled-coil-containing protein serine/threonine kinases 1 and 2 (ROCK1 and ROCK2 are Rho subfamily GTPase downstream effectors that regulate cell migration, intercellular adhesion, cell polarity, and cell proliferation by stimulating actin cytoskeleton reorganization. Inhibition of ROCK proteins affects specification of the trophectoderm (TE and inner cell mass (ICM lineages, compaction, and blastocyst cavitation. However, the molecules involved in blastocyst formation are not known. Here, we examined developmental competence and levels of adherens/tight junction (AJ/TJ constituent proteins, such as CXADR, OCLN, TJP1, and CDH1, as well as expression of their respective mRNAs, after treating porcine parthenogenetic four-cell embryos with Y-27632, a specific inhibitor of ROCK, at concentrations of 0, 10, 20, 100 µM for 24 h. Following this treatment, the blastocyst development rates were 39.1, 20.7, 10.0, and 0% respectively. In embryos treated with 20 µM treatment, expression levels of CXADR, OCLN, TJP1, and CDH1 mRNA and protein molecules were significantly reduced (P < 0.05. FITC-dextran uptake assay revealed that the treatment caused an increase in TE TJ permeability. Interestingly, the majority of the four-cell and morula embryos treated with 20 µM Y-27643 for 24 h showed defective compaction and cavitation. Taken together, our results indicate that ROCK activity may differentially affect assembly of AJ/TJs as well as regulate expression of genes encoding junctional proteins.

  13. Spindle assembly checkpoint robustness requires Tpr-mediated regulation of Mad1/Mad2 proteostasis. (United States)

    Schweizer, Nina; Ferrás, Cristina; Kern, David M; Logarinho, Elsa; Cheeseman, Iain M; Maiato, Helder


    Tpr is a conserved nuclear pore complex (NPC) protein implicated in the spindle assembly checkpoint (SAC) by an unknown mechanism. Here, we show that Tpr is required for normal SAC response by stabilizing Mad1 and Mad2 before mitosis. Tpr coimmunoprecipitated with Mad1 and Mad2 (hereafter designated as Tpr/Mad1/Mad2 or TM2 complex) during interphase and mitosis, and is required for Mad1–c-Mad2 recruitment to NPCs. Interestingly, Tpr was normally undetectable at kinetochores and dispensable for Mad1, but not for Mad2, kinetochore localization, which suggests that SAC robustness depends on Mad2 levels at kinetochores. Protein half-life measurements demonstrate that Tpr stabilizes Mad1 and Mad2, ensuring normal Mad1–c-Mad2 production in an mRNA- and kinetochore-independent manner. Overexpression of GFP-Mad2 restored normal SAC response and Mad2 kinetochore levels in Tpr-depleted cells. Mechanistically, we provide evidence that Tpr might spatially regulate SAC proteostasis through the SUMO-isopeptidases SENP1 and SENP2 at NPCs. Thus, Tpr is a kinetochore-independent, rate-limiting factor required to mount and sustain a robust SAC response.

  14. Integrin suppresses neurogenesis and regulates brain tissue assembly in planarian regeneration. (United States)

    Bonar, Nicolle A; Petersen, Christian P


    Animals capable of adult regeneration require specific signaling to control injury-induced cell proliferation, specification and patterning, but comparatively little is known about how the regeneration blastema assembles differentiating cells into well-structured functional tissues. Using the planarian Schmidtea mediterranea as a model, we identify β1-integrin as a crucial regulator of blastema architecture. β1-integrin(RNAi) animals formed small head blastemas with severe tissue disorganization, including ectopic neural spheroids containing differentiated neurons normally found in distinct organs. By mimicking aspects of normal brain architecture but without normal cell-type regionalization, these spheroids bore a resemblance to mammalian tissue organoids synthesized in vitro We identified one of four planarian integrin-alpha subunits inhibition of which phenocopied these effects, suggesting that a specific receptor controls brain organization through regeneration. Neoblast stem cells and progenitor cells were mislocalized in β1-integrin(RNAi) animals without significantly altered body-wide patterning. Furthermore, tissue disorganization phenotypes were most pronounced in animals undergoing brain regeneration and not homeostatic maintenance or regeneration-induced remodeling of the brain. These results suggest that integrin signaling ensures proper progenitor recruitment after injury, enabling the generation of large-scale tissue organization within the regeneration blastema.

  15. Angiogenin enhances cell migration by regulating stress fiber assembly and focal adhesion dynamics.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Saisai Wei

    Full Text Available Angiogenin (ANG acts on both vascular endothelial cells and cancer cells, but the underlying mechanism remains elusive. In this study, we carried out a co-immunoprecipitation assay in HeLa cells and identified 14 potential ANG-interacting proteins. Among these proteins, β-actin, α-actinin 4, and non-muscle myosin heavy chain 9 are stress fiber components and involved in cytoskeleton organization and movement, which prompted us to investigate the mechanism of action of ANG in cell migration. Upon confirmation of the interactions between ANG and the three proteins, further studies revealed that ANG co-localized with β-actin and α-actinin 4 at the leading edge of migrating cells. Down-regulation of ANG resulted in fewer but thicker stress fibers with less dynamics, which was associated with the enlargements of focal adhesions. The focal adhesion kinase activity and cell migration capacity were significantly decreased in ANG-deficient cells. Taken together, our data demonstrated that the existence of ANG in the cytoplasm optimizes stress fiber assembly and focal adhesion formation to accommodate cell migration. The finding that ANG promoted cancer cell migration might provide new clues for tumor metastasis research.

  16. Phosphorylation on Ser-279 and Ser-282 of connexin43 regulates endocytosis and gap junction assembly in pancreatic cancer cells (United States)

    Johnson, Kristen E.; Mitra, Shalini; Katoch, Parul; Kelsey, Linda S.; Johnson, Keith R.; Mehta, Parmender P.


    The molecular mechanisms regulating the assembly of connexins (Cxs) into gap junctions are poorly understood. Using human pancreatic tumor cell lines BxPC3 and Capan-1, which express Cx26 and Cx43, we show that, upon arrival at the cell surface, the assembly of Cx43 is impaired. Connexin43 fails to assemble, because it is internalized by clathrin-mediated endocytosis. Assembly is restored upon expressing a sorting-motif mutant of Cx43, which does not interact with the AP2 complex, and by expressing mutants that cannot be phosphorylated on Ser-279 and Ser-282. The mutants restore assembly by preventing clathrin-mediated endocytosis of Cx43. Our results also document that the sorting-motif mutant is assembled into gap junctions in cells in which the expression of endogenous Cx43 has been knocked down. Remarkably, Cx43 mutants that cannot be phosphorylated on Ser-279 or Ser-282 are assembled into gap junctions only when connexons are composed of Cx43 forms that can be phosphorylated on these serines and forms in which phosphorylation on these serines is abolished. Based on the subcellular fate of Cx43 in single and contacting cells, our results document that the endocytic itinerary of Cx43 is altered upon cell–cell contact, which causes Cx43 to traffic by EEA1-negative endosomes en route to lysosomes. Our results further show that gap-junctional plaques formed of a sorting motif–deficient mutant of Cx43, which is unable to be internalized by the clathrin-mediated pathway, are predominantly endocytosed in the form of annular junctions. Thus the differential phosphorylation of Cx43 on Ser-279 and Ser-282 is fine-tuned to control Cx43’s endocytosis and assembly into gap junctions. PMID:23363606

  17. MiR-125b Regulates Primordial Follicle Assembly by Targeting Activin Receptor Type 2a in Neonatal Mouse Ovary. (United States)

    Wang, Shufen; Liu, Jiali; Li, Xinqiang; Ji, Xiaowen; Zhang, Jianfang; Wang, Yue; Cui, Sheng


    The establishment of the primordial follicle pool is crucial for fertility in mammalian females, and the interruption of overall micro-RNA production byDicer1conditional knockout in the female reproductive system results in infertility. However, there are few reports about the functions of individual micro-RNA in regulating primordial follicle assembly. The present study aimed to investigate the function of miR-125b, which is conserved and preferentially expressed in mammalian ovary during primordial follicle assembly. Detection of miR-125b in the developing mouse ovaries by real-time PCR and in situ hybridization showed that it was highly expressed perinatally and specifically located in the ovarian somatic cells. MiR-125b overexpression blocked the process of primordial follicle assembly in cultured newborn mouse ovaries, while its knockdown promoted this process. Further studies showed that miR-125b regulated the activin/Smad2 signaling in neonatal mouse ovary by directly targeting the 3'-untranslated region of activin receptor type 2a (Acvr2a). Overexpression of miR-125b in neonatal mouse ovary suppressed theAcvr2aprotein level, attenuating activin/Smad2 signaling, while knockdown of miR-125b showed the opposite effects. In addition, recombinant human activin A (rh-ActA) down-regulated miR-125b in the neonatal mouse ovary. Overexpression of miR-125b attenuated the promoting effects of rh-ActA on primordial follicle assembly. Taken together, these data suggest that miR-125b blocks the process of primordial follicle assembly, and miR-125b may play this role by regulating the expression ofAcvr2ain the activin/Smad2 signaling pathway. © 2016 by the Society for the Study of Reproduction, Inc.

  18. Molecular cell death platforms and assemblies. (United States)

    Mace, Peter D; Riedl, Stefan J


    Multi-cellular animals have evolved a variety of mechanisms to respond to diverse apoptotic stimuli. In general these proceed through activation of apical caspases and culminate in executioner caspase activation and cell death. Because of the breadth of possible initiators, various molecular platforms are used to trigger different apical caspases. Although some common protein domains are used to assemble the apoptosome, the PIDDosome and death receptor complexes, an array of checks-and-balances are employed to ensure appropriate activation. Notwithstanding, these pathways share the underlying principle of proximity-dependent activation and post-translational modification. Here we will describe our current structural understanding of assembly and regulation of these signaling platforms.

  19. Bub3 is a spindle assembly checkpoint protein regulating chromosome segregation during mouse oocyte meiosis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mo Li

    Full Text Available In mitosis, the spindle assembly checkpoint (SAC prevents anaphase onset until all chromosomes have been attached to the spindle microtubules and aligned correctly at the equatorial metaphase plate. The major checkpoint proteins in mitosis consist of mitotic arrest-deficient (Mad1-3, budding uninhibited by benzimidazole (Bub1, Bub3, and monopolar spindle 1(Mps1. During meiosis, for the formation of a haploid gamete, two consecutive rounds of chromosome segregation occur with only one round of DNA replication. To pull homologous chromosomes to opposite spindle poles during meiosis I, both sister kinetochores of a homologue must face toward the same pole which is very different from mitosis and meiosis II. As a core member of checkpoint proteins, the individual role of Bub3 in mammalian oocyte meiosis is unclear. In this study, using overexpression and RNA interference (RNAi approaches, we analyzed the role of Bub3 in mouse oocyte meiosis. Our data showed that overexpressed Bub3 inhibited meiotic metaphase-anaphase transition by preventing homologous chromosome and sister chromatid segregations in meiosis I and II, respectively. Misaligned chromosomes, abnormal polar body and double polar bodies were observed in Bub3 knock-down oocytes, causing aneuploidy. Furthermore, through cold treatment combined with Bub3 overexpression, we found that overexpressed Bub3 affected the attachments of microtubules and kinetochores during metaphase-anaphase transition. We propose that as a member of SAC, Bub3 is required for regulation of both meiosis I and II, and is potentially involved in kinetochore-microtubule attachment in mammalian oocytes.

  20. Bub3 is a spindle assembly checkpoint protein regulating chromosome segregation during mouse oocyte meiosis. (United States)

    Li, Mo; Li, Sen; Yuan, Ju; Wang, Zhen-Bo; Sun, Shao-Chen; Schatten, Heide; Sun, Qing-Yuan


    In mitosis, the spindle assembly checkpoint (SAC) prevents anaphase onset until all chromosomes have been attached to the spindle microtubules and aligned correctly at the equatorial metaphase plate. The major checkpoint proteins in mitosis consist of mitotic arrest-deficient (Mad)1-3, budding uninhibited by benzimidazole (Bub)1, Bub3, and monopolar spindle 1(Mps1). During meiosis, for the formation of a haploid gamete, two consecutive rounds of chromosome segregation occur with only one round of DNA replication. To pull homologous chromosomes to opposite spindle poles during meiosis I, both sister kinetochores of a homologue must face toward the same pole which is very different from mitosis and meiosis II. As a core member of checkpoint proteins, the individual role of Bub3 in mammalian oocyte meiosis is unclear. In this study, using overexpression and RNA interference (RNAi) approaches, we analyzed the role of Bub3 in mouse oocyte meiosis. Our data showed that overexpressed Bub3 inhibited meiotic metaphase-anaphase transition by preventing homologous chromosome and sister chromatid segregations in meiosis I and II, respectively. Misaligned chromosomes, abnormal polar body and double polar bodies were observed in Bub3 knock-down oocytes, causing aneuploidy. Furthermore, through cold treatment combined with Bub3 overexpression, we found that overexpressed Bub3 affected the attachments of microtubules and kinetochores during metaphase-anaphase transition. We propose that as a member of SAC, Bub3 is required for regulation of both meiosis I and II, and is potentially involved in kinetochore-microtubule attachment in mammalian oocytes.

  1. Assays for Posttranslational Modifications of Intermediate Filament Proteins. (United States)

    Snider, Natasha T; Omary, M Bishr


    Intermediate filament (IF) proteins are known to be regulated by a number of posttranslational modifications (PTMs). Phosphorylation is the best-studied IF PTM, whereas ubiquitination, sumoylation, acetylation, glycosylation, ADP-ribosylation, farnesylation, and transamidation are less understood in functional terms but are known to regulate specific IFs under various contexts. The number and diversity of IF PTMs is certain to grow along with rapid advances in proteomic technologies. Therefore, the need for a greater understanding of the implications of PTMs to the structure, organization, and function of the IF cytoskeleton has become more apparent with the increased availability of data from global profiling studies of normal and diseased specimens. This chapter will provide information on established methods for the isolation and monitoring of IF PTMs along with the key reagents that are necessary to carry out these experiments.

  2. Assays for Post-translational Modifications of Intermediate Filament Proteins (United States)

    Omary, M. Bishr


    Intermediate filament (IF) proteins are known to be regulated by a number of post-translational modifications (PTMs). Phosphorylation is the best studied IF PTM, whereas ubiquitination, sumoylation, acetylation, glycosylation, ADP-ribosylation, farnesylation and transamidation are less understood in functional terms but are known to regulate specific IFs under various contexts. The number and diversity of IF PTMs is certain to grow along with rapid advances in proteomic technologies. Therefore, the need for a greater understanding of the implications of PTMs to the structure, organization, and function of the IF cytoskeleton has become more apparent with the increased availability of data from global profiling studies of normal and diseased specimens. This chapter will provide information on established methods for the isolation and monitoring of IF PTMs along with the key reagents that are necessary to carry out these experiments. PMID:26795469

  3. Post-Translational Modifications of TRP Channels

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Olaf Voolstra


    Full Text Available Transient receptor potential (TRP channels constitute an ancient family of cation channels that have been found in many eukaryotic organisms from yeast to human. TRP channels exert a multitude of physiological functions ranging from Ca2+ homeostasis in the kidney to pain reception and vision. These channels are activated by a wide range of stimuli and undergo covalent post-translational modifications that affect and modulate their subcellular targeting, their biophysical properties, or channel gating. These modifications include N-linked glycosylation, protein phosphorylation, and covalent attachment of chemicals that reversibly bind to specific cysteine residues. The latter modification represents an unusual activation mechanism of ligand-gated ion channels that is in contrast to the lock-and-key paradigm of receptor activation by its agonists. In this review, we summarize the post-translational modifications identified on TRP channels and, when available, explain their physiological role.

  4. Cytosolic iron-sulfur cluster assembly (CIA) system: factors, mechanism, and relevance to cellular iron regulation. (United States)

    Sharma, Anil K; Pallesen, Leif J; Spang, Robert J; Walden, William E


    FeS cluster biogenesis is an essential process in virtually all forms of life. Complex protein machineries that are conserved from bacteria through higher eukaryotes facilitate assembly of the FeS cofactor in proteins. In the last several years, significant strides have been made in our understanding of FeS cluster assembly and the functional overlap of this process with cellular iron homeostasis. This minireview summarizes the present understanding of the cytosolic iron-sulfur cluster assembly (CIA) system in eukaryotes, with a focus on information gained from studies in budding yeast and mammalian systems.

  5. Proteomic analysis of post-translational modifications

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mann, Matthias; Jensen, Ole N


    Post-translational modifications modulate the activity of most eukaryote proteins. Analysis of these modifications presents formidable challenges but their determination generates indispensable insight into biological function. Strategies developed to characterize individual proteins are now...... mass spectrometric peptide sequencing and analysis technologies hold tremendous potential. Finally, stable isotope labeling strategies in combination with mass spectrometry have been applied successfully to study the dynamics of modifications....

  6. Dynamic Lipid-dependent Modulation of Protein Topology by Post-translational Phosphorylation. (United States)

    Vitrac, Heidi; MacLean, David M; Karlstaedt, Anja; Taegtmeyer, Heinrich; Jayaraman, Vasanthi; Bogdanov, Mikhail; Dowhan, William


    Membrane protein topology and folding are governed by structural principles and topogenic signals that are recognized and decoded by the protein insertion and translocation machineries at the time of initial membrane insertion and folding. We previously demonstrated that the lipid environment is also a determinant of initial protein topology, which is dynamically responsive to post-assembly changes in membrane lipid composition. However, the effect on protein topology of post-assembly phosphorylation of amino acids localized within initially cytoplasmically oriented extramembrane domains has never been investigated. Here, we show in a controlled in vitro system that phosphorylation of a membrane protein can trigger a change in topological arrangement. The rate of change occurred on a scale of seconds, comparable with the rates observed upon changes in the protein lipid environment. The rate and extent of topological rearrangement were dependent on the charges of extramembrane domains and the lipid bilayer surface. Using model membranes mimicking the lipid compositions of eukaryotic organelles, we determined that anionic lipids, cholesterol, sphingomyelin, and membrane fluidity play critical roles in these processes. Our results demonstrate how post-translational modifications may influence membrane protein topology in a lipid-dependent manner, both along the organelle trafficking pathway and at their final destination. The results provide further evidence that membrane protein topology is dynamic, integrating for the first time the effect of changes in lipid composition and regulators of cellular processes. The discovery of a new topology regulatory mechanism opens additional avenues for understanding unexplored structure-function relationships and the development of optimized topology prediction tools.

  7. Coordinate regulation of fibronectin matrix assembly by the plasminogen activator system and vitronectin in human osteosarcoma cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    McKeown-Longo Paula J


    Full Text Available Abstract Background Plasminogen activators are known to play a key role in the remodeling of bone matrix which occurs during tumor progression, bone metastasis and bone growth. Dysfunctional remodeling of bone matrix gives rise to the osteoblastic and osteolytic lesions seen in association with metastatic cancers. The molecular mechanisms responsible for the development of these lesions are not well understood. Studies were undertaken to address the role of the plasminogen activator system in the regulation of fibronectin matrix assembly in the osteoblast-like cell line, MG-63. Results Treatment of MG-63 cells with P25, a peptide ligand for uPAR, resulted in an increase in assembly of fibronectin matrix which was associated with an increase in the number of activated β1 integrins on the cell surface. Overexpression of uPAR in MG-63 cells increased the effect of P25 on fibronectin matrix assembly and β1 integrin activation. P25 had no effect on uPAR null fibroblasts, confirming a role for uPAR in this process. The addition of plasminogen activator inhibitor Type I (PAI-1 to cells increased the P25-induced fibronectin polymerization, as well as the number of activated integrins. This positive regulation of PAI-1 on fibronectin assembly was independent of PAI-1's anti-proteinase activity, but acted through PAI-1 binding to the somatomedin B domain of vitronectin. Conclusion These results indicate that vitronectin modulates fibronectin matrix assembly in osteosarcoma cells through a novel mechanism involving cross-talk through the plasminogen activator system.

  8. Mimicking a SURF1 allele reveals uncoupling of cytochrome c oxidase assembly from translational regulation in yeast. (United States)

    Reinhold, Robert; Bareth, Bettina; Balleininger, Martina; Wissel, Mirjam; Rehling, Peter; Mick, David U


    Defects in mitochondrial energy metabolism lead to severe human disorders, mainly affecting tissues especially dependent on oxidative phosphorylation, such as muscle and brain. Leigh Syndrome describes a severe encephalomyopathy in infancy, frequently caused by mutations in SURF1. SURF1, termed Shy1 in Saccharomyces cerevisiae, is a conserved assembly factor for the terminal enzyme of the respiratory chain, cytochrome c oxidase. Although the molecular function of SURF1/Shy1 is still enigmatic, loss of function leads to cytochrome c oxidase deficiency and reduced expression of the central subunit Cox1 in yeast. Here, we provide insights into the molecular mechanisms leading to disease through missense mutations in codons of the most conserved amino acids in SURF1. Mutations affecting G(124) do not compromise import of the SURF1 precursor protein but lead to fast turnover of the mature protein within the mitochondria. Interestingly, an Y(274)D exchange neither affects stability nor localization of the protein. Instead, SURF1(Y274D) accumulates in a 200 kDa cytochrome c oxidase assembly intermediate. Using yeast as a model, we demonstrate that the corresponding Shy1(Y344D) is able to overcome the stage where cytochrome c oxidase assembly links to the feedback regulation of mitochondrial Cox1 expression. However, Shy1(Y344D) impairs the assembly at later steps, most apparent at low temperature and exhibits a dominant-negative phenotype upon overexpression. Thus, exchanging the conserved tyrosine (Y(344)) with aspartate in yeast uncouples translational regulation of Cox1 from cytochrome c oxidase assembly and provides evidence for the dual functionality of Shy1.

  9. Phase transition of spindle-associated protein regulate spindle apparatus assembly. (United States)

    Jiang, Hao; Wang, Shusheng; Huang, Yuejia; He, Xiaonan; Cui, Honggang; Zhu, Xueliang; Zheng, Yixian


    Spindle assembly required during mitosis depends on microtubule polymerization. We demonstrate that the evolutionarily conserved low-complexity protein, BuGZ, undergoes phase transition or coacervation to promote assembly of both spindles and their associated components. BuGZ forms temperature-dependent liquid droplets alone or on microtubules in physiological buffers. Coacervation in vitro or in spindle and spindle matrix depends on hydrophobic residues in BuGZ. BuGZ coacervation and its binding to microtubules and tubulin are required to promote assembly of spindle and spindle matrix in Xenopus egg extract and in mammalian cells. Since several previously identified spindle-associated components also contain low-complexity regions, we propose that coacervating proteins may be a hallmark of proteins that comprise a spindle matrix that functions to promote assembly of spindles by concentrating its building blocks.

  10. Oxidative and other posttranslational modifications in extracellular vesicle biology. (United States)

    Szabó-Taylor, Katalin; Ryan, Brent; Osteikoetxea, Xabier; Szabó, Tamás G; Sódar, Barbara; Holub, Marcsilla; Németh, Andrea; Pálóczi, Krisztina; Pállinger, Éva; Winyard, Paul; Buzás, Edit I


    Extracellular vesicles including exosomes, microvesicles and apoptotic vesicles, are phospholipid bilayer surrounded structures secreted by cells universally, in an evolutionarily conserved fashion. Posttranslational modifications such as oxidation, citrullination, phosphorylation and glycosylation play diverse roles in extracellular vesicle biology. Posttranslational modifications orchestrate the biogenesis of extracellular vesicles. The signals extracellular vesicles transmit between cells also often function via modulating posttranslational modifications of target molecules, given that extracellular vesicles are carriers of several active enzymes catalysing posttranslational modifications. Posttranslational modifications of extracellular vesicles can also contribute to disease pathology by e.g. amplifying inflammation, generating neoepitopes or carrying neoepitopes themselves.

  11. Distinct linkage between post-translational processing and differential secretion of progastrin derivatives in endocrine cells

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bundgaard, J.R.; Rehfeld, Jens Frederik


    Prohormones often undergo extensive cellular processing prior to secretion. These post-translational processing events occur in organelles of the constitutive or regulated secretory pathway. The aim of this study was to examine the relationship between post-translational modifications......-terminal fragments derived from progastrin differ in characteristic manners in levels and patterns of carboxyamidation and tyrosine sulfation in accordance with the secretory pathway taken. Point mutations introduced into a sorting motif disrupt these patterns, suggesting that differences in post-translational...... modifications are attributable to differential intracellular sorting of precursors. The results suggest a two-step sorting mechanism for progastrin leading to differential secretion of processed fragments via different secretory pathways Udgivelsesdato: 2008/2/15...

  12. SUMO: regulating the regulator

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bossis Guillaume


    Full Text Available Abstract Post-translational modifiers of the SUMO (Small Ubiquitin-related Modifier family have emerged as key regulators of protein function and fate. While the past few years have seen an enormous increase in knowledge on SUMO enzymes, substrates, and consequences of modification, regulation of SUMO conjugation is far from being understood. This brief review will provide an overview on recent advances concerning (i the interplay between sumoylation and other post-translational modifications at the level of individual targets and (ii global regulation of SUMO conjugation and deconjugation.

  13. Posttranslational modification of Sirt6 activity by peroxynitrite. (United States)

    Hu, Shuqun; Liu, Hua; Ha, Yonju; Luo, Xuemei; Motamedi, Massoud; Gupta, Mahesh P; Ma, Jian-Xing; Tilton, Ronald G; Zhang, Wenbo


    The mammalian sirtuin 6 (Sirt6) is a site-specific histone deacetylase that regulates chromatin structure and many fundamental biological processes. It inhibits endothelial cell senescence and inflammation, prevents development of cardiac hypertrophy and heart failure, modulates glucose metabolism, and represses tumor growth. The basic molecular mechanisms underlying regulation of Sirt6 enzymatic function are largely unknown. Here we hypothesized that Sirt6 function can be regulated via posttranslational modification, focusing on the role of peroxynitrite, one of the major reactive nitrogen species formed by excessive nitric oxide and superoxide generated during disease processes. We found that incubation of purified recombinant Sirt6 protein with 3-morpholinosydnonimine (SIN-1; a peroxynitrite donor that generates nitric oxide and superoxide simultaneously) increased Sirt6 tyrosine nitration and decreased its intrinsic catalytic activity. Similar results were observed in SIN-1-treated Sirt6, which was overexpressed in HEK293 cells, and in endogenous Sirt6 when human retinal microvascular endothelial cells were treated with SIN-1. To further investigate whether Sirt6 nitration occurs under pathological conditions, we determined Sirt6 nitration and activity in retina using a model of endotoxin-induced retinal inflammation. Our data showed that Sirt6 nitration was increased, whereas its activity was decreased, in this model. With mass spectrometry, we identified that tyrosine 257 in Sirt6 was nitrated after SIN-1 treatment. Mutation of tyrosine 257 to phenylalanine caused loss of Sirt6 activity and abolished SIN-1-induced nitration and decrease in its activity. Mass spectrometry analysis also revealed oxidation of methionine and tryptophan in Sirt6 after SIN-1 treatment. Our results demonstrate a novel regulatory mechanism controlling Sirt6 activity through reactive nitrogen species-mediated posttranslational modification under oxidative and nitrosative stress.

  14. Microtubule assembly affects bone mass by regulating both osteoblast and osteoclast functions: stathmin deficiency produces an osteopenic phenotype in mice. (United States)

    Liu, Hongbin; Zhang, Rongrong; Ko, Seon-Yle; Oyajobi, Babatunde O; Papasian, Christopher J; Deng, Hong-Wen; Zhang, Shujun; Zhao, Ming


    Cytoskeleton microtubules regulate various cell signaling pathways that are involved in bone cell function. We recently reported that inhibition of microtubule assembly by microtubule-targeting drugs stimulates osteoblast differentiation and bone formation. To further elucidate the role of microtubules in bone homeostasis, we characterized the skeletal phenotype of mice null for stathmin, an endogenous protein that inhibits microtubule assembly. In vivo micro-computed tomography (µCT) and histology revealed that stathmin deficiency results in a significant reduction of bone mass in adult mice concurrent with decreased osteoblast and increased osteoclast numbers in bone tissues. Phenotypic analyses of primary calvarial cells and bone marrow cells showed that stathmin deficiency inhibited osteoblast differentiation and induced osteoclast formation. In vitro overexpression studies showed that increased stathmin levels enhanced osteogenic differentiation of preosteoblast MC3T3-E1 cells and mouse bone marrow-derived cells and attenuated osteoclast formation from osteoclast precursor Raw264.7 cells and bone marrow cells. Results of immunofluorescent studies indicated that overexpression of stathmin disrupted radial microtubule filaments, whereas deficiency of stathmin stabilized the microtubule network structure in these bone cells. In addition, microtubule-targeting drugs that inhibit microtubule assembly and induce osteoblast differentiation lost these effects in the absence of stathmin. Collectively, these results suggest that stathmin, which alters microtubule dynamics, plays an essential role in maintenance of postnatal bone mass by regulating both osteoblast and osteoclast functions in bone. \\

  15. Water-Regulated Self-Assembly Structure Transformation and Gelation Behavior Prediction Based on a Hydrazide Derivative. (United States)

    Li, Yajie; Ran, Xia; Li, Qiuyue; Gao, Qiongqiong; Guo, Lijun


    Herein, we report the water-regulated supramolecular self-assembly structure transformation and the predictability of the gelation ability based on an azobenzene derivative bearing a hydrazide group, namely, N-(3,4,5-tributoxyphenyl)-N'-4-[(4-hydroxyphenyl)azophenyl] benzohydrazide (BNB-t4). The regulation effects are demonstrated in the morphological transformation from spherical to lamellar particles then back to spherical in different solvent ratios of n-propanol/water. The self-assembly behavior of BNB-t4 was characterized by minimum gelation concentration, microstructure, thermal, and mechanical stabilities. From the spectroscopy studies, it is suggested that gel formation of BNB-t4 is mainly driven by intermolecular hydrogen bonding, accompanied with the contribution from π-π stacking as well as hydrophobic interactions. The successfully established correlation between the self-assembly behavior and solubility parameters yields a facile way to predict the gelation performance of other molecules in other single or mixed solvents.

  16. Cell-Free Hepatitis B Virus Capsid Assembly Dependent on the Core Protein C-Terminal Domain and Regulated by Phosphorylation (United States)

    Ludgate, Laurie; Liu, Kuancheng; Luckenbaugh, Laurie; Streck, Nicholas; Eng, Stacey; Voitenleitner, Christian; Delaney, William E.


    ABSTRACT Multiple subunits of the hepatitis B virus (HBV) core protein (HBc) assemble into an icosahedral capsid that packages the viral pregenomic RNA (pgRNA). The N-terminal domain (NTD) of HBc is sufficient for capsid assembly, in the absence of pgRNA or any other viral or host factors, under conditions of high HBc and/or salt concentrations. The C-terminal domain (CTD) is deemed dispensable for capsid assembly although it is essential for pgRNA packaging. We report here that HBc expressed in a mammalian cell lysate, rabbit reticulocyte lysate (RRL), was able to assemble into capsids when (low-nanomolar) HBc concentrations mimicked those achieved under conditions of viral replication in vivo and were far below those used previously for capsid assembly in vitro. Furthermore, at physiologically low HBc concentrations in RRL, the NTD was insufficient for capsid assembly and the CTD was also required. The CTD likely facilitated assembly under these conditions via RNA binding and protein-protein interactions. Moreover, the CTD underwent phosphorylation and dephosphorylation events in RRL similar to those seen in vivo which regulated capsid assembly. Importantly, the NTD alone also failed to accumulate in mammalian cells, likely resulting from its failure to assemble efficiently. Coexpression of the full-length HBc rescued NTD assembly in RRL as well as NTD expression and assembly in mammalian cells, resulting in the formation of mosaic capsids containing both full-length HBc and the NTD. These results have important implications for HBV assembly during replication and provide a facile cell-free system to study capsid assembly under physiologically relevant conditions, including its modulation by host factors. IMPORTANCE Hepatitis B virus (HBV) is an important global human pathogen and the main cause of liver cancer worldwide. An essential component of HBV is the spherical capsid composed of multiple copies of a single protein, the core protein (HBc). We have

  17. Supported Lipid Bilayer Platform To Test Inhibitors of the Membrane Attack Complex: Insights into Biomacromolecular Assembly and Regulation. (United States)

    Yorulmaz, Saziye; Jackman, Joshua A; Hunziker, Walter; Cho, Nam-Joon


    Complement activation plays an important role in innate immune defense by triggering formation of the membrane attack complex (MAC), which is a biomacromolecular assembly that exhibits membrane-lytic activity against foreign invaders including various pathogens and biomaterials. Understanding the details of MAC structure and function has been the subject of extensive work involving bulk liposome and erythrocyte assays. However, it is difficult to characterize the mechanism of action of MAC inhibitor drug candidates using the conventional assays. To address this issue, we employ a biomimetic supported lipid bilayer platform to investigate how two MAC inhibitors, vitronectin and clusterin, interfere with MAC assembly in a sequential addition format, as monitored by the quartz crystal microbalance-dissipation (QCM-D) technique. Two experimental strategies based on modular assembly were selected, precincubation of inhibitor and C5b-7 complex before addition to the lipid bilayer or initial addition of inhibitor followed by the C5b-7 complex. The findings indicate that vitronectin inhibits membrane association of C5b-7 via a direct interaction with C5b-7 and via competitive membrane association onto the supported lipid bilayer. On the other hand, clusterin directly interacts with C5b-7 such that C5b-7 is still able to bind to the lipid bilayer, and clusterin affects the subsequent binding of other complement proteins involved in the MAC assembly. Taken together, the findings in this study outline a biomimetic approach based on supported lipid bilayers to explore the interactions between complement proteins and inhibitors, thereby offering insight into MAC assembly and regulation.

  18. 多种翻译后修饰对低氧诱导因子-1α稳定性调控的机制%Mechanism of Multiple Posttranslational Modifications in Regulation of the Stability of Hypoxia-inducible Factor-1α

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王静; 戴爱国


    Hypoxia-inducible factor-1 ( HIF-1 ) , which ubiquitously expressed in organism, is a major transcription factor of cellular response and adaptation to hypoxia. As a crucial regulator in cellular response to stress of hypoxia, HIF-1 modulates the expression of more than 100 target genes involved in cellular adaptation and survival under hypoxia stress. It is a heterodimeric that consists of an oxygen-dependent a subunit and a constitutively expressed β subunit. The α subunit, the expression of which is sensitive in respose to the variation of oxygen concentration, is the functional subunit and determines the activity of HIF-1. Recent findings showed that multiple posttranslational modifications of HIF-1 α could regulate its stability, and alter the transactivational activity of HIF-1 α, thereby involved in the occurrence and development of many diseases such as tumors, hypoxic pulmonary artery hypertension and cardiovascular diseases. This review summarized the ways of multiple posttranslational modifications of HIF-1 α, such as hydroxynation, polyubiquitination, acetylation, phosphorylation and SUMOylation.%低氧诱导因子-1( hypoxia-inducible factor-1,HIF-1)是组织细胞对缺氧感应和调控的一类关键转录因子,在机体中广泛表达.作为细胞低氧应答反应中的重要调节因子,HIF-1能够调节100多种涉及低氧应激下细胞适应和存活的靶基因.HIF-1是由氧依赖的α亚基和细胞内稳定表达的β亚基构成的异源二聚体.其中α亚基对氧浓度变化敏感,是HIF-1的功能性亚基,它的表达活性决定了HIF-1的生物学活性.近期研究发现,HIF-1α的一系列翻译后修饰可改变其稳定性,进而调控其转录激活活性,从而参与肿瘤、低氧性肺动脉高压以及心血管疾病等的发生与发展.本文主要就HIF-1 α的一列系翻译后修饰,如羟基化、泛素化、磷酸化、乙酰化、SUMO化修饰作一综述.

  19. Chemiresistive properties regulated by nanoscale curvature in molecularly-linked nanoparticle composite assembly. (United States)

    Cheng, Han-Wen; Yan, Shan; Han, Li; Chen, Yong; Kang, Ning; Skeete, Zakiya; Luo, Jin; Zhong, Chuan-Jian


    Interparticle spatial properties influence the electrical and functional properties of nanoparticle-structured assemblies. This report describes the nanoscale curvature-induced change in chemiresistive properties of molecularly-linked assemblies of gold nanoparticles on multiwalled carbon nanotubes, which are exploited for sensitive detection of volatile organic compounds. In addition to using linking/capping molecules to define interparticle spatial distances, the nanoscale curvature radius of the carbon nanotubes provides intriguing tunability of the interparticle spatial properties to influence electrical properties, which contrast with those observed for nanoparticle thin films assembled directly on chemiresistor devices. The electrical characteristics of the nanoparticle-nanotube composite give positive response profiles for the vapor molecules that are distinctively different to those observed for conventional nanoparticle thin-film assemblies. The dominant effect of electron coupling on overall chemiresistive properties is shown in relation to that of nanoscale curvature radius on the nanoparticle thin-film sensing properties. Sensing data are also further assessed in correlation with the solubility parameters of the vapor molecule. These findings have significant implications for the design of sensitive interfaces with nanocomposite-structured sensing materials and microfabricated chemiresistor devices.

  20. The Carboxyl Tail of Connexin32 Regulates Gap Junction Assembly in Human Prostate and Pancreatic Cancer Cells* (United States)

    Katoch, Parul; Mitra, Shalini; Ray, Anuttoma; Kelsey, Linda; Roberts, Brett J.; Wahl, James K.; Johnson, Keith R.; Mehta, Parmender P.


    Connexins, the constituent proteins of gap junctions, are transmembrane proteins. A connexin (Cx) traverses the membrane four times and has one intracellular and two extracellular loops with the amino and carboxyl termini facing the cytoplasm. The transmembrane and the extracellular loop domains are highly conserved among different Cxs, whereas the carboxyl termini, often called the cytoplasmic tails, are highly divergent. We have explored the role of the cytoplasmic tail of Cx32, a Cx expressed in polarized and differentiated cells, in regulating gap junction assembly. Our results demonstrate that compared with the full-length Cx32, the cytoplasmic tail-deleted Cx32 is assembled into small gap junctions in human pancreatic and prostatic cancer cells. Our results further document that the expression of the full-length Cx32 in cells, which express the tail-deleted Cx32, increases the size of gap junctions, whereas the expression of the tail-deleted Cx32 in cells, which express the full-length Cx32, has the opposite effect. Moreover, we show that the tail is required for the clustering of cell-cell channels and that in cells expressing the tail-deleted Cx32, the expression of cell surface-targeted cytoplasmic tail alone is sufficient to enhance the size of gap junctions. Our live-cell imaging data further demonstrate that gap junctions formed of the tail-deleted Cx32 are highly mobile compared with those formed of full-length Cx32. Our results suggest that the cytoplasmic tail of Cx32 is not required to initiate the assembly of gap junctions but for their subsequent growth and stability. Our findings suggest that the cytoplasmic tail of Cx32 may be involved in regulating the permeability of gap junctions by regulating their size. PMID:25548281

  1. KSHV encoded LANA recruits Nucleosome Assembly Protein NAP1L1 for regulating viral DNA replication and transcription (United States)

    Gupta, Namrata; Thakker, Suhani; Verma, Subhash C.


    The establishment of latency is an essential for lifelong persistence and pathogenesis of Kaposi’s sarcoma-associated herpesvirus (KSHV). Latency-associated nuclear antigen (LANA) is the most abundantly expressed protein during latency and is important for viral genome replication and transcription. Replication-coupled nucleosome assembly is a major step in packaging the newly synthesized DNA into chromatin, but the mechanism of KSHV genome chromatinization post-replication is not understood. Here, we show that nucleosome assembly protein 1-like protein 1 (NAP1L1) associates with LANA. Our binding assays revealed an association of LANA with NAP1L1 in KSHV-infected cells, which binds through its amino terminal domain. Association of these proteins confirmed their localization in specific nuclear compartments of the infected cells. Chromatin immunoprecipitation assays from NAP1L1-depleted cells showed LANA-mediated recruitment of NAP1L1 at the terminal repeat (TR) region of the viral genome. Presence of NAP1L1 stimulated LANA-mediated DNA replication and persistence of a TR-containing plasmid. Depletion of NAP1L1 led to a reduced nucleosome positioning on the viral genome. Furthermore, depletion of NAP1L1 increased the transcription of viral lytic genes and overexpression decreased the promoter activities of LANA-regulated genes. These results confirmed that LANA recruitment of NAP1L1 helps in assembling nucleosome for the chromatinization of newly synthesized viral DNA.

  2. Formin-like2 regulates Rho/ROCK pathway to promote actin assembly and cell invasion of colorectal cancer. (United States)

    Zeng, Yuanfeng; Xie, Huijun; Qiao, Yudan; Wang, Jianmei; Zhu, Xiling; He, Guoyang; Li, Yuling; Ren, Xiaoli; Wang, Feifei; Liang, Li; Ding, Yanqing


    Formin-like2 (FMNL2) is a member of the diaphanous-related formins family, which act as effectors and upstream modulators of Rho GTPases signaling and control the actin-dependent processes, such as cell motility or invasion. FMNL2 has been identified as promoting the motility and metastasis in colorectal carcinoma (CRC). However, whether FMNL2 regulates Rho signaling to promote cancer cell invasion remains unclear. In this study, we demonstrated an essential role for FMNL2 in the activations of Rho/ROCK pathway, SRF transcription or actin assembly, and subsequent CRC cell invasion. FMNL2 could activate Rho/ROCK pathway, and required ROCK to promote CRC cell invasion. Moreover, FMNL2 promoted the formation of filopodia and stress fiber, and activated the SRF transcription in a Rho-dependent manner. We also demonstrated that FMNL2 was necessary for LPA-induced invasion, RhoA/ROCK activation, actin assembly and SRF activation. FMNL2 was an essential component of LPA signal transduction toward RhoA by directly interacting with LARG. LARG silence inhibited RhoA/ROCK pathway and CRC cell invasion. Collectively, these data indicate that FMNL2, acting as upstream of RhoA by interacting with LARG, can promote actin assembly and CRC cell invasion through a Rho/ROCK-dependent mechanism.

  3. Honing the message: post-transcriptional and post-translational control in attaching and effacing pathogens. (United States)

    Bhatt, Shantanu; Romeo, Tony; Kalman, Daniel


    Bacteria evolve their capacity to cause disease by acquiring virulence genes that are usually clustered in discrete genetic modules termed pathogenicity islands (PAI). Stable integration of PAIs into pre-existing transcriptional networks coordinates expression from PAIs with ancestral genes in response to diverse environmental cues. Such transcriptional controls are evident in the regulation of the locus of enterocyte effacement (LEE), a PAI of enteropathogenic and enterohemorrhagic Escherichia coli. However, recent reports indicate that global post-transcriptional and post-translational regulators, including CsrA, Hfq and ClpXP, fine-tune the transcriptional output from the LEE. In this opinion article, we highlight recent advances in the understanding of post-transcriptional and post-translational regulation in attaching and effacing pathogens.

  4. Rab33B Controls Hepatitis B Virus Assembly by Regulating Core Membrane Association and Nucleocapsid Processing. (United States)

    Bartusch, Christina; Döring, Tatjana; Prange, Reinhild


    Many viruses take advantage of cellular trafficking machineries to assemble and release new infectious particles. Using RNA interference (RNAi), we demonstrate that the Golgi/autophagosome-associated Rab33B is required for hepatitis B virus (HBV) propagation in hepatoma cell lines. While Rab33B is dispensable for the secretion of HBV subviral envelope particles, its knockdown reduced the virus yield to 20% and inhibited nucleocapsid (NC) formation and/or NC trafficking. The overexpression of a GDP-restricted Rab33B mutant phenocopied the effect of deficit Rab33B, indicating that Rab33B-specific effector proteins may be involved. Moreover, we found that HBV replication enhanced Rab33B expression. By analyzing HBV infection cycle steps, we identified a hitherto unknown membrane targeting module in the highly basic C-terminal domain of the NC-forming core protein. Rab33B inactivation reduced core membrane association, suggesting that membrane platforms participate in HBV assembly reactions. Biochemical and immunofluorescence analyses provided further hints that the viral core, rather than the envelope, is the main target for Rab33B intervention. Rab33B-deficiency reduced core protein levels without affecting viral transcription and hampered core/NC sorting to envelope-positive, intracellular compartments. Together, these results indicate that Rab33B is an important player in intracellular HBV trafficking events, guiding core transport to NC assembly sites and/or NC transport to budding sites.

  5. PI3K/mTOR-dependent signaling pathway as a possible regulator of processing bodies’ assembly

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Filonenko V. V.


    Full Text Available Aim. To study the role of PI3K/mTOR signaling pathway in regulation of processing body (PB assembly. Methods. During this study we employed cell imaging technique and Western blot analysis. Results. It was shown that treatment of cells with the specific inhibitors of PI3K/mTOR pathway leads to changes of PBs’ number and size within cells as well as proteasomal degradation of their scaffold protein RCD-8. Conclusions. We speculate that mTOR/PI3K pathway may regulate in part the dynamic of PB formation in the cell by affecting the stability of RCD-8 protein and therefore controle mRNA metabolism

  6. The Self-Made Puzzle: Integrating Self-Assembly and Pattern Formation Under Non-Random Genetic Regulation (United States)

    Doursat, René

    On the one hand, research in self-assembling systems, whether natural or artificial, has traditionally focused on pre-existing components endowed with fixed shapes. Biological development, by contrast, dynamically creates new cells that acquire selective adhesion properties through differentiation induced by their neighborhood. On the other hand, pattern formation phenomena are generally construed as orderly states of activity on top of a continuous 2-D or 3-D substrate. Yet, again, the spontaneous patterning of an organism into domains of gene expression arises within a multicellular medium in perpetual expansion and reshaping. Finally, both phenomena are often thought in terms of stochastic events, whether mixed components that randomly collide in self-assembly, or spots and stripes that occur unpredictably from instabilities in pattern formation. Here too, these notions need significant revision if they are to be extended and applied to embryogenesis. Cells are not randomly mixed but pre-positioned where cell division occurs. Genetic identity domains are not randomly distributed but highly regulated in number and position. In this work, I present a computational model of program-mable and reproducible artificial morphogenesis that integrates self-assembly and pattern formation under the control of a nonrandom gene regulatory network. The specialized properties of cells (division, adhesion, migration) are determined by the gene expression domains to which they belong, while at the same time these domains further expand and segment into subdomains due to the self-assembly of specialized cells. Through this model, I also promote a new discipline, embryomorphic engineering to solve the paradox of "meta-designing" decentralized, autonomous systems.

  7. CDC28 phosphorylates Cac1p and regulates the association of chromatin assembly factor I with chromatin. (United States)

    Jeffery, Daniel C B; Kakusho, Naoko; You, Zhiying; Gharib, Marlene; Wyse, Brandon; Drury, Erin; Weinreich, Michael; Thibault, Pierre; Verreault, Alain; Masai, Hisao; Yankulov, Krassimir


    Chromatin Assembly Factor I (CAF-I) plays a key role in the replication-coupled assembly of nucleosomes. It is expected that its function is linked to the regulation of the cell cycle, but little detail is available. Current models suggest that CAF-I is recruited to replication forks and to chromatin via an interaction between its Cac1p subunit and the replication sliding clamp, PCNA, and that this interaction is stimulated by the kinase CDC7. Here we show that another kinase, CDC28, phosphorylates Cac1p on serines 94 and 515 in early S phase and regulates its association with chromatin, but not its association with PCNA. Mutations in the Cac1p-phosphorylation sites of CDC28 but not of CDC7 substantially reduce the in vivo phosphorylation of Cac1p. However, mutations in the putative CDC7 target sites on Cac1p reduce its stability. The association of CAF-I with chromatin is impaired in a cdc28-1 mutant and to a lesser extent in a cdc7-1 mutant. In addition, mutations in the Cac1p-phosphorylation sites by both CDC28 and CDC7 reduce gene silencing at the telomeres. We propose that this phosphorylation represents a regulatory step in the recruitment of CAF-I to chromatin in early S phase that is distinct from the association of CAF-I with PCNA. Hence, we implicate CDC28 in the regulation of chromatin reassembly during DNA replication. These findings provide novel mechanistic insights on the links between cell-cycle regulation, DNA replication and chromatin reassembly.

  8. CDC28 phosphorylates Cac1p and regulates the association of chromatin assembly factor i with chromatin (United States)

    Jeffery, Daniel CB; Kakusho, Naoko; You, Zhiying; Gharib, Marlene; Wyse, Brandon; Drury, Erin; Weinreich, Michael; Thibault, Pierre; Verreault, Alain; Masai, Hisao; Yankulov, Krassimir


    Chromatin Assembly Factor I (CAF-I) plays a key role in the replication-coupled assembly of nucleosomes. It is expected that its function is linked to the regulation of the cell cycle, but little detail is available. Current models suggest that CAF-I is recruited to replication forks and to chromatin via an interaction between its Cac1p subunit and the replication sliding clamp, PCNA, and that this interaction is stimulated by the kinase CDC7. Here we show that another kinase, CDC28, phosphorylates Cac1p on serines 94 and 515 in early S phase and regulates its association with chromatin, but not its association with PCNA. Mutations in the Cac1p-phosphorylation sites of CDC28 but not of CDC7 substantially reduce the in vivo phosphorylation of Cac1p. However, mutations in the putative CDC7 target sites on Cac1p reduce its stability. The association of CAF-I with chromatin is impaired in a cdc28–1 mutant and to a lesser extent in a cdc7–1 mutant. In addition, mutations in the Cac1p-phosphorylation sites by both CDC28 and CDC7 reduce gene silencing at the telomeres. We propose that this phosphorylation represents a regulatory step in the recruitment of CAF-I to chromatin in early S phase that is distinct from the association of CAF-I with PCNA. Hence, we implicate CDC28 in the regulation of chromatin reassembly during DNA replication. These findings provide novel mechanistic insights on the links between cell-cycle regulation, DNA replication and chromatin reassembly. PMID:25602519

  9. The Nicastrin-like protein Nicalin regulates assembly and stability of the Nicalin-nodal modulator (NOMO) membrane protein complex. (United States)

    Haffner, Christof; Dettmer, Ulf; Weiler, Timotheus; Haass, Christian


    The assembly of the gamma-secretase complex, an Alzheimer disease-related protease required for beta-amyloid generation, is tightly regulated and predominantly limited by the stoichiometrical availability of its components. We have identified a novel endoplasmic reticulum-located protein complex that is regulated in a similar fashion. It contains the recently identified Nodal signaling antagonists Nicalin (a distant homolog of the gamma-secretase component Nicastrin) and NOMO (Nodal modulator). Using an RNA interference approach, we found that Nicalin and NOMO became unstable in the absence of the respective binding partner, suggesting that complex formation has a stabilizing effect. Overexpression of Nicalin resulted in an increase in NOMO, whereas endogenous Nicalin was reduced below the detection limit. Both effects were shown to occur at a post-transcriptional level. Thus, NOMO is most likely produced in excess amounts and either stabilized by Nicalin or rapidly degraded. In contrast, Nicalin levels are limited independently of NOMO. We, therefore, propose that Nicalin controls the assembly and stability of the Nicalin-NOMO complex.

  10. Tryptophan tryptophylquinone biosynthesis: a radical approach to posttranslational modification. (United States)

    Davidson, Victor L; Liu, Aimin


    Protein-derived cofactors are formed by irreversible covalent posttranslational modification of amino acid residues. An example is tryptophan tryptophylquinone (TTQ) found in the enzyme methylamine dehydrogenase (MADH). TTQ biosynthesis requires the cross-linking of the indole rings of two Trp residues and the insertion of two oxygen atoms onto adjacent carbons of one of the indole rings. The diheme enzyme MauG catalyzes the completion of TTQ within a precursor protein of MADH. The preMADH substrate contains a single hydroxyl group on one of the tryptophans and no crosslink. MauG catalyzes a six-electron oxidation that completes TTQ assembly and generates fully active MADH. These oxidation reactions proceed via a high valent bis-Fe(IV) state in which one heme is present as Fe(IV)=O and the other is Fe(IV) with both axial heme ligands provided by amino acid side chains. The crystal structure of MauG in complex with preMADH revealed that catalysis does not involve direct contact between the hemes of MauG and the protein substrate. Rather it is accomplished through long-range electron transfer, which presumably generates radical intermediates. Kinetic, spectrophotometric, and site-directed mutagenesis studies are beginning to elucidate how the MauG protein controls the reactivity of the hemes and mediates the long range electron/radical transfer required for catalysis. This article is part of a Special Issue entitled: Radical SAM enzymes and Radical Enzymology.

  11. Autoantibodies to Posttranslational Modifications in Rheumatoid Arthritis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Agata N. Burska


    Full Text Available Autoantibodies have been associated with human pathologies for a long time, particularly with autoimmune diseases (AIDs. Rheumatoid factor (RF is known since the late 1930s to be associated with rheumatoid arthritis (RA. The discovery of anticitrullinated protein antibodies in the last century has changed this and other posttranslational modifications (PTM relevant to RA have since been described. Such PTM introduce neoepitopes in proteins that can generate novel autoantibody specificities. The recent recognition of these novel specificities in RA provides a unique opportunity to understand human B-cell development in vivo. In this paper, we will review the three of the main classes of PTMs already associated with RA: citrullination, carbamylation, and oxidation. With the advancement of research methodologies it should be expected that other autoantibodies against PTM proteins could be discovered in patients with autoimmune diseases. Many of such autoantibodies may provide significant biomarker potential.

  12. Autoantibodies to Posttranslational Modifications in Rheumatoid Arthritis (United States)

    Burska, Agata N.; Hunt, Laura; Strollo, Rocky; Ryan, Brent J.; Vital, Ed; Nissim, Ahuva; Winyard, Paul G.; Emery, Paul; Ponchel, Frederique


    Autoantibodies have been associated with human pathologies for a long time, particularly with autoimmune diseases (AIDs). Rheumatoid factor (RF) is known since the late 1930s to be associated with rheumatoid arthritis (RA). The discovery of anticitrullinated protein antibodies in the last century has changed this and other posttranslational modifications (PTM) relevant to RA have since been described. Such PTM introduce neoepitopes in proteins that can generate novel autoantibody specificities. The recent recognition of these novel specificities in RA provides a unique opportunity to understand human B-cell development in vivo. In this paper, we will review the three of the main classes of PTMs already associated with RA: citrullination, carbamylation, and oxidation. With the advancement of research methodologies it should be expected that other autoantibodies against PTM proteins could be discovered in patients with autoimmune diseases. Many of such autoantibodies may provide significant biomarker potential. PMID:24782594

  13. Posttranslational Modification Assays on Functional Protein Microarrays. (United States)

    Neiswinger, Johnathan; Uzoma, Ijeoma; Cox, Eric; Rho, HeeSool; Jeong, Jun Seop; Zhu, Heng


    Protein microarray technology provides a straightforward yet powerful strategy for identifying substrates of posttranslational modifications (PTMs) and studying the specificity of the enzymes that catalyze these reactions. Protein microarray assays can be designed for individual enzymes or a mixture to establish connections between enzymes and substrates. Assays for four well-known PTMs-phosphorylation, acetylation, ubiquitylation, and SUMOylation-have been developed and are described here for use on functional protein microarrays. Phosphorylation and acetylation require a single enzyme and are easily adapted for use on an array. The ubiquitylation and SUMOylation cascades are very similar, and the combination of the E1, E2, and E3 enzymes plus ubiquitin or SUMO protein and ATP is sufficient for in vitro modification of many substrates.

  14. Wnt5a Regulates the Assembly of Human Adipose Derived Stromal Vascular Fraction-Derived Microvasculatures.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Venkat M Ramakrishnan

    Full Text Available Human adipose-derived stromal vascular fraction (hSVF cells are an easily accessible, heterogeneous cell system that can spontaneously self-assemble into functional microvasculatures in vivo. However, the mechanisms underlying vascular self-assembly and maturation are poorly understood, therefore we utilized an in vitro model to identify potential in vivo regulatory mechanisms. We utilized passage one (P1 hSVF because of the rapid UEA1+ endothelium (EC loss at even P2 culture. We exposed hSVF cells to a battery of angiogenesis inhibitors and found that the pan-Wnt inhibitor IWP2 produced the most significant hSVF-EC networking decrease (~25%. To determine which Wnt isoform(s and receptor(s may be involved, hSVF was screened by PCR for isoforms associated with angiogenesis, with only WNT5A and its receptor, FZD4, being expressed for all time points observed. Immunocytochemistry confirmed Wnt5a protein expression by hSVF. To see if Wnt5a alone could restore IWP2-induced EC network inhibition, recombinant human Wnt5a (0-150 ng/ml was added to IWP2-treated cultures. The addition of rhWnt5a significantly increased EC network area and significantly decreased the ratio of total EC network length to EC network area compared to untreated controls. To determine if Wnt5a mediates in vivo microvascular self-assembly, 3D hSVF constructs containing an IgG isotype control, anti-Wnt5a neutralizing antibody or rhWnt5a were implanted subcutaneously for 2w in immune compromised mice. Compared to IgG controls, anti-Wnt5a treatment significantly reduced vessel length density by ~41%, while rhWnt5a significantly increased vessel length density by ~62%. However, anti-Wnt5a or rhWnt5a did not significantly affect the density of segments and nodes, both of which measure vascular complexity. Taken together, this data demonstrates that endogenous Wnt5a produced by hSVF plays a regulatory role in microvascular self-assembly in vivo. These findings also suggest that

  15. Primordial follicle assembly was regulated by Notch signaling pathway in the mice. (United States)

    Chen, Chun-Lei; Fu, Xia-Fei; Wang, Lin-Qing; Wang, Jun-Jie; Ma, Hua-Gang; Cheng, Shun-Feng; Hou, Zhu-Mei; Ma, Jin-Mei; Quan, Guo-Bo; Shen, Wei; Li, Lan


    Notch signaling pathway, a highly conserved cell signaling system, exists in most multicellular organisms. The objective of this study was to examine Notch signaling pathway in germ cell cyst breakdown and primordial follicle formation. The receptor and ligand genes of Notch pathway (Notch1, Notch2, Jagged1, Jagged2 and Hes1) were extremely down-regulated after newborn mouse ovaries were cultured then exposed to DAPT or L-685,458 in vitro (P primordial follicles. Down-regulated mRNA expression of specific genes including Lhx8, Figla, Sohlh2 and Nobox, were also observed. The percentages of female germ cells in germ cell cysts and primordial follicles were counted after culture of newborn ovaries for 3 days in vitro. The result showed female germ cells in cysts was remarkably up-regulated while as the oocytes in primordial follicles was significantly down-regulated (P primordial follicle in mice.

  16. Regulation and Quality Control of Adiponectin Assembly by Endoplasmic Reticulum Chaperone ERp44* (United States)

    Hampe, Lutz; Radjainia, Mazdak; Xu, Cheng; Harris, Paul W. R.; Bashiri, Ghader; Goldstone, David C.; Brimble, Margaret A.; Wang, Yu; Mitra, Alok K.


    Adiponectin, a collagenous hormone secreted abundantly from adipocytes, possesses potent antidiabetic and anti-inflammatory properties. Mediated by the conserved Cys39 located in the variable region of the N terminus, the trimeric (low molecular weight (LMW)) adiponectin subunit assembles into different higher order complexes, e.g. hexamers (middle molecular weight (MMW)) and 12–18-mers (high molecular weight (HMW)), the latter being mostly responsible for the insulin-sensitizing activity of adiponectin. The endoplasmic reticulum (ER) chaperone ERp44 retains adiponectin in the early secretory compartment and tightly controls the oxidative state of Cys39 and the oligomerization of adiponectin. Using cellular and in vitro assays, we show that ERp44 specifically recognizes the LMW and MMW forms but not the HMW form. Our binding assays with short peptide mimetics of adiponectin suggest that ERp44 intercepts and converts the pool of fully oxidized LMW and MMW adiponectin, but not the HMW form, into reduced trimeric precursors. These ERp44-bound precursors in the cis-Golgi may be transported back to the ER and released to enhance the population of adiponectin intermediates with appropriate oxidative state for HMW assembly, thereby underpinning the process of ERp44 quality control. PMID:26060250

  17. Post-Translational Modifications of RelB NF-κB Subunit and Associated Functions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Véronique Baud


    Full Text Available The family of NF-κB transcription factors plays a key role in diverse biological processes, such as inflammatory and immune responses, cell survival and tumor development. Beyond the classical NF-κB activation pathway, a second NF-κB pathway has more recently been uncovered, the so-called alternative NF-κB activation pathway. It has been shown that this pathway mainly controls the activity of RelB, a member of the NF-κB family. Post-translational modifications, such as phosphorylation, acetylation, methylation, ubiquitination and SUMOylation, have recently emerged as a strategy for the fine-tuned regulation of NF-κB. Our review discusses recent progress in the understanding of RelB regulation by post-translational modifications and the associated functions in normal and pathological conditions.

  18. Regulated self-assembly of epitaxial silicon-germanium quantum structures and their properties (United States)

    Vandervelde, Thomas Edwin

    Most proposed next generation architectures use quantum dots (QDs) in their design. Current lithography techniques either do not have the resolution required or are too time intensive for practical creation of these architectures. This has led many to suggest that the answer lies in self-assembly of QDs. Many unresolved issues, however, remain before we can implement this concept. The four areas of research discussed in this dissertation improve the fundamental understanding of processes involved in self-assembly. Once we had established that our system was producing the highest quality samples, we were able to say with confidence that the structures we observed were due to intrinsic phenomena, and not the result of contamination. In addition, because the existing standard curves lacked the sensitivity associated with modern analytical equipment, we employed more exploratory techniques (i.e. combinatorial epitaxy) to establish base growth conditions and define the evolution of structures. The examination of various growth conditions yielded the discovery of quantum fortresses (QFs), a novel, self-assembled, Quantum Cellular Automata (QCA)-like structure. We mapped the possible conditions under which these QFs form to gain a further understanding of their evolution. Additionally, we electrically tested their ability to act as SETs and quantum mechanically calculated growth conditions that result in those QFs that would best function as a QCA unit cell. To form a QCA circuit, QFs need to align in specific configurations. We investigated the fundamentals of a new technique to direct QF alignment. We demonstrated that FIB-mediated disruption of 1/10th ML or less is sufficient to guide island formation through the creation of preferential binding sites and denuded zones. In addition, we investigated the effect of altering growth conditions on the ability of large-scale features to align QDs. We also examined the ability of QDs to self-order into superlattice structures

  19. Follistatin288 Regulates Germ Cell Cyst Breakdown and Primordial Follicle Assembly in the Mouse Ovary. (United States)

    Wang, Zhengpin; Niu, Wanbao; Wang, Yijing; Teng, Zhen; Wen, Jia; Xia, Guoliang; Wang, Chao


    In mammals, the primordial follicle pool represents the entire reproductive potential of a female. The transforming growth factor-β (TGF-β) family member activin (ACT) contributes to folliculogenesis, although the exact mechanism is not known. The role of FST288, the strongest ACT-neutralizing isoform of follistatin (FST), during cyst breakdown and primordial follicle formation in the fetal mice ovary was assessed using an in vitro culture system. FST was continuously expressed in the oocytes as well as the cuboidal granulosa cells of growing follicles in perinatal mouse ovaries. Treatment with FST288 delayed germ cell nest breakdown, particularly near the periphery of the ovary, and dramatically decreased the percentage of primordial follicles. In addition, there was a dramatic decrease in proliferation of granulosa cells and somatic cell expression of Notch signaling was impaired. In conclusion, FST288 impacts germ cell nest breakdown and primordial follicle assembly by inhibiting somatic cell proliferation.

  20. Follistatin288 Regulates Germ Cell Cyst Breakdown and Primordial Follicle Assembly in the Mouse Ovary.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhengpin Wang

    Full Text Available In mammals, the primordial follicle pool represents the entire reproductive potential of a female. The transforming growth factor-β (TGF-β family member activin (ACT contributes to folliculogenesis, although the exact mechanism is not known. The role of FST288, the strongest ACT-neutralizing isoform of follistatin (FST, during cyst breakdown and primordial follicle formation in the fetal mice ovary was assessed using an in vitro culture system. FST was continuously expressed in the oocytes as well as the cuboidal granulosa cells of growing follicles in perinatal mouse ovaries. Treatment with FST288 delayed germ cell nest breakdown, particularly near the periphery of the ovary, and dramatically decreased the percentage of primordial follicles. In addition, there was a dramatic decrease in proliferation of granulosa cells and somatic cell expression of Notch signaling was impaired. In conclusion, FST288 impacts germ cell nest breakdown and primordial follicle assembly by inhibiting somatic cell proliferation.

  1. Posttranslational modification of autophagy-related proteins in macroautophagy. (United States)

    Xie, Yangchun; Kang, Rui; Sun, Xiaofang; Zhong, Meizuo; Huang, Jin; Klionsky, Daniel J; Tang, Daolin


    Macroautophagy is an intracellular catabolic process involved in the formation of multiple membrane structures ranging from phagophores to autophagosomes and autolysosomes. Dysfunction of macroautophagy is implicated in both physiological and pathological conditions. To date, 38 autophagy-related (ATG) genes have been identified as controlling these complicated membrane dynamics during macroautophagy in yeast; approximately half of these genes are clearly conserved up to human, and there are additional genes whose products function in autophagy in higher eukaryotes that are not found in yeast. The function of the ATG proteins, in particular their ability to interact with a number of macroautophagic regulators, is modulated by posttranslational modifications (PTMs) such as phosphorylation, glycosylation, ubiquitination, acetylation, lipidation, and proteolysis. In this review, we summarize our current knowledge of the role of ATG protein PTMs and their functional relevance in macroautophagy. Unraveling how these PTMs regulate ATG protein function during macroautophagy will not only reveal fundamental mechanistic insights into the regulatory process, but also provide new therapeutic targets for the treatment of autophagy-associated diseases.

  2. Regulated assembly of vacuolar ATPase is increased during cluster disruption-induced maturation of dendritic cells through a phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase/mTOR-dependent pathway. (United States)

    Liberman, Rachel; Bond, Sarah; Shainheit, Mara G; Stadecker, Miguel J; Forgac, Michael


    The vacuolar (H(+))-ATPases (V-ATPases) are ATP-driven proton pumps composed of a peripheral V1 domain and a membrane-embedded V0 domain. Regulated assembly of V1 and V0 represents an important regulatory mechanism for controlling V-ATPase activity in vivo. Previous work has shown that V-ATPase assembly increases during maturation of bone marrow-derived dendritic cells induced by activation of Toll-like receptors. This increased assembly is essential for antigen processing, which is dependent upon an acidic lysosomal pH. Cluster disruption of dendritic cells induces a semi-mature phenotype associated with immune tolerance. Thus, semi-mature dendritic cells are able to process and present self-peptides to suppress autoimmune responses. We have investigated V-ATPase assembly in bone marrow-derived, murine dendritic cells and observed an increase in assembly following cluster disruption. This increased assembly is not dependent upon new protein synthesis and is associated with an increase in concanamycin A-sensitive proton transport in FITC-loaded lysosomes. Inhibition of phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase with wortmannin or mTORC1 with rapamycin effectively inhibits the increased assembly observed upon cluster disruption. These results suggest that the phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase/mTOR pathway is involved in controlling V-ATPase assembly during dendritic cell maturation.

  3. Recent advances on the posttranslational modifications of EXTs and their roles in plant cell walls

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Velasquez, Melina; Salter, Juan Salgado; Dorosz, Javier Gloazzo;


    The genetic set up and the enzymes that define the O-glycosylation sites and transfer the activated sugars to cell wall glycoprotein Extensins (EXTs) have remained unknown for a long time. We are now beginning to see the emerging components of the molecular machinery that assembles these complex O......-glycoproteins on the plant cell wall. Genes conferring the posttranslational modifications, i.e., proline hydroxylation and subsequent O-glycosylation, of the EXTs have been recently identified. In this review we summarize the enzymes that define the O-glycosylation sites on the O-glycoproteins, i.e., the prolyl 4...

  4. Assembly and interrogation of Alzheimer's disease genetic networks reveal novel regulators of progression.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Soline Aubry

    Full Text Available Alzheimer's disease (AD is a complex multifactorial disorder with poorly characterized pathogenesis. Our understanding of this disease would thus benefit from an approach that addresses this complexity by elucidating the regulatory networks that are dysregulated in the neural compartment of AD patients, across distinct brain regions. Here, we use a Systems Biology (SB approach, which has been highly successful in the dissection of cancer related phenotypes, to reverse engineer the transcriptional regulation layer of human neuronal cells and interrogate it to infer candidate Master Regulators (MRs responsible for disease progression. Analysis of gene expression profiles from laser-captured neurons from AD and controls subjects, using the Algorithm for the Reconstruction of Accurate Cellular Networks (ARACNe, yielded an interactome consisting of 488,353 transcription-factor/target interactions. Interrogation of this interactome, using the Master Regulator INference algorithm (MARINa, identified an unbiased set of candidate MRs causally responsible for regulating the transcriptional signature of AD progression. Experimental assays in autopsy-derived human brain tissue showed that three of the top candidate MRs (YY1, p300 and ZMYM3 are indeed biochemically and histopathologically dysregulated in AD brains compared to controls. Our results additionally implicate p53 and loss of acetylation homeostasis in the neurodegenerative process. This study suggests that an integrative, SB approach can be applied to AD and other neurodegenerative diseases, and provide significant novel insight on the disease progression.

  5. Histone Posttranslational Modifications of CD4+ T Cell in Autoimmune Diseases

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    Zijun Wang


    Full Text Available The complexity of immune system is tempered by precise regulation to maintain stabilization when exposed to various conditions. A subtle change in gene expression may be magnified when drastic changes are brought about in cellular development and function. Posttranslational modifications (PTMs timely alter the functional activity of immune system, and work proceeded in these years has begun to throw light upon it. Posttranslational modifications of histone tails have been mentioned in a large scale of biological developments and disease progression, thereby making them a central field to investigate. Conventional assessments of these changes are centered on the transcription factors and cytokines in T cells regulated by variable histone codes to achieve chromatin remodeling, as well as involved in many human diseases, especially autoimmune diseases. We here put forward an essential review of core posttranslational modulations that regulate T cell function and differentiation in the immune system, with a special emphasis on histone modifications in different T helper cell subsets as well as in autoimmune diseases.

  6. Low-mass galaxy assembly in simulations: regulation of early star formation by radiation from massive stars

    CERN Document Server

    Trujillo-Gomez, Sebastian; Colin, Pedro; Ceverino, Daniel; Arraki, Kenza; Primack, Joel


    Despite recent success in forming realistic disc galaxies at redshift zero, simulations still form the bulk of their stars prematurely. We investigate the process of stellar mass assembly in low-mass simulated galaxies, a dwarf and a typical spiral, focusing on the effects of radiation from young stellar clusters. We employ a novel model of star formation in which stars form deterministically with a small efficiency per free-fall time, as observed in molecular clouds. Stellar feedback includes radiation pressure from massive stars and energy from supernova explosions and stellar winds. In galaxies with masses up to those of typical spirals, radiation efficiently suppresses star formation by dispersing and heating high density gas, mostly in the central regions, preventing the formation of a massive bulge. Once the galaxies reach this radiation-regulated growth regime, their global properties are robust to the specific choice of model parameters. Only when radiative feedback is included, do galaxies exhibit co...

  7. Absolute quantitation of protein posttranslational modification isoform. (United States)

    Yang, Zhu; Li, Ning


    Mass spectrometry has been widely applied in characterization and quantification of proteins from complex biological samples. Because the numbers of absolute amounts of proteins are needed in construction of mathematical models for molecular systems of various biological phenotypes and phenomena, a number of quantitative proteomic methods have been adopted to measure absolute quantities of proteins using mass spectrometry. The liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS) coupled with internal peptide standards, i.e., the stable isotope-coded peptide dilution series, which was originated from the field of analytical chemistry, becomes a widely applied method in absolute quantitative proteomics research. This approach provides more and more absolute protein quantitation results of high confidence. As quantitative study of posttranslational modification (PTM) that modulates the biological activity of proteins is crucial for biological science and each isoform may contribute a unique biological function, degradation, and/or subcellular location, the absolute quantitation of protein PTM isoforms has become more relevant to its biological significance. In order to obtain the absolute cellular amount of a PTM isoform of a protein accurately, impacts of protein fractionation, protein enrichment, and proteolytic digestion yield should be taken into consideration and those effects before differentially stable isotope-coded PTM peptide standards are spiked into sample peptides have to be corrected. Assisted with stable isotope-labeled peptide standards, the absolute quantitation of isoforms of posttranslationally modified protein (AQUIP) method takes all these factors into account and determines the absolute amount of a protein PTM isoform from the absolute amount of the protein of interest and the PTM occupancy at the site of the protein. The absolute amount of the protein of interest is inferred by quantifying both the absolute amounts of a few PTM

  8. Charge regulation as a stabilization mechanism for shell-like assemblies of polyoxometalates. (United States)

    Verhoeff, Aletta A; Kistler, Melissa L; Bhatt, Anish; Pigga, Joe; Groenewold, Jan; Klokkenburg, Mark; Veen, Sandra; Roy, Soumyajit; Liu, Tianbo; Kegel, Willem K


    We show that the equilibrium size of single-layer shells composed of polyoxometalate macroions is inversely proportional to the dielectric constant of the medium in which they are dispersed. This behavior is consistent with a stabilization mechanism based on Coulomb repulsion combined with charge regulation. We estimate the cohesive energy per bond between macroions on the shells to be approximately -6kT. This number is extracted from analysis based on a charge regulation model in combination with a model for defects on a sphere. The value of the cohesive bond energy is in agreement with the model-independent critical aggregate concentration. This observation points to a new class of thermodynamically stable shell-like objects. We point out the possible relevance our findings have for certain surfactant systems.

  9. Cell cycle regulation of tubulin RNA level, tubulin protein synthesis, and assembly of microtubules in Physarum. (United States)

    Schedl, T; Burland, T G; Gull, K; Dove, W F


    The temporal relationship between tubulin expression and the assembly of the mitotic spindle microtubules has been investigated during the naturally synchronous cell cycle of the Physarum plasmodium. The cell cycle behavior of the tubulin isoforms was examined by two-dimensional gel electrophoresis of proteins labeled in vivo and by translation of RNA in vitro. alpha 1-, alpha 2-, beta 1-, and beta 2-tubulin synthesis increases coordinately until metaphase, and then falls, with beta 2 falling more rapidly than beta 1. Nucleic acid hybridization demonstrated that alpha- and beta-tubulin RNAs accumulate coordinately during G2, peaking at metaphase. Quantitative analysis demonstrated that alpha-tubulin RNA increases with apparent exponential kinetics, peaking with an increase over the basal level of greater than 40-fold. After metaphase, tubulin RNA levels fall exponentially, with a short half-life (19 min). Electron microscopic analysis of the plasmodium showed that the accumulation of tubulin RNA begins long before the polymerization of mitotic spindle microtubules. By contrast, the decay of tubulin RNA after metaphase coincides with the depolymerization of the spindle microtubules.

  10. Drosophila laminins act as key regulators of basement membrane assembly and morphogenesis. (United States)

    Urbano, Jose M; Torgler, Catherine N; Molnar, Cristina; Tepass, Ulrich; López-Varea, Ana; Brown, Nicholas H; de Celis, Jose F; Martín-Bermudo, Maria D


    Laminins are heterotrimeric molecules found in all basement membranes. In mammals, they have been involved in diverse developmental processes, from gastrulation to tissue maintenance. The Drosophila genome encodes two laminin alpha chains, one beta and one Gamma, which form two distinct laminin trimers. So far, only mutations affecting one or other trimer have been analysed. In order to study embryonic development in the complete absence of laminins, we mutated the gene encoding the sole laminin beta chain in Drosophila, LanB1, so that no trimers can be made. We show that LanB1 mutant embryos develop until the end of embryogenesis. Electron microscopy analysis of mutant embryos reveals that the basement membranes are absent and the remaining extracellular material appears disorganised and diffuse. Accordingly, abnormal accumulation of major basement membrane components, such as Collagen IV and Perlecan, is observed in mutant tissues. In addition, we show that elimination of LanB1 prevents the normal morphogenesis of most organs and tissues, including the gut, trachea, muscles and nervous system. In spite of the above structural roles for laminins, our results unravel novel functions in cell adhesion, migration and rearrangement. We propose that while an early function of laminins in gastrulation is not conserved in Drosophila and mammals, their function in basement membrane assembly and organogenesis seems to be maintained throughout evolution.

  11. CADM1 controls actin cytoskeleton assembly and regulates extracellular matrix adhesion in human mast cells.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elena P Moiseeva

    Full Text Available CADM1 is a major receptor for the adhesion of mast cells (MCs to fibroblasts, human airway smooth muscle cells (HASMCs and neurons. It also regulates E-cadherin and alpha6beta4 integrin in other cell types. Here we investigated a role for CADM1 in MC adhesion to both cells and extracellular matrix (ECM. Downregulation of CADM1 in the human MC line HMC-1 resulted not only in reduced adhesion to HASMCs, but also reduced adhesion to their ECM. Time-course studies in the presence of EDTA to inhibit integrins demonstrated that CADM1 provided fast initial adhesion to HASMCs and assisted with slower adhesion to ECM. CADM1 downregulation, but not antibody-dependent CADM1 inhibition, reduced MC adhesion to ECM, suggesting indirect regulation of ECM adhesion. To investigate potential mechanisms, phosphotyrosine signalling and polymerisation of actin filaments, essential for integrin-mediated adhesion, were examined. Modulation of CADM1 expression positively correlated with surface KIT levels and polymerisation of cortical F-actin in HMC-1 cells. It also influenced phosphotyrosine signalling and KIT tyrosine autophosphorylation. CADM1 accounted for 46% of surface KIT levels and 31% of F-actin in HMC-1 cells. CADM1 downregulation resulted in elongation of cortical actin filaments in both HMC-1 cells and human lung MCs and increased cell rigidity of HMC-1 cells. Collectively these data suggest that CADM1 is a key adhesion receptor, which regulates MC net adhesion, both directly through CADM1-dependent adhesion, and indirectly through the regulation of other adhesion receptors. The latter is likely to occur via docking of KIT and polymerisation of cortical F-actin. Here we propose a stepwise model of adhesion with CADM1 as a driving force for net MC adhesion.

  12. Posttranslational Modifications and the Immunogenicity of Biotherapeutics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roy Jefferis


    Full Text Available Whilst the amino acid sequence of a protein is determined by its gene sequence, the final structure and function are determined by posttranslational modifications (PTMs, including quality control (QC in the endoplasmic reticulum (ER and during passage through the Golgi apparatus. These processes are species and cell specific and challenge the biopharmaceutical industry when developing a production platform for the generation of recombinant biologic therapeutics. Proteins and glycoproteins are also subject to chemical modifications (CMs both in vivo and in vitro. The individual is naturally tolerant to molecular forms of self-molecules but nonself variants can provoke an immune response with the generation of anti-drug antibodies (ADA; aggregated forms can exhibit enhanced immunogenicity and QC procedures are developed to avoid or remove them. Monoclonal antibody therapeutics (mAbs are a special case because their purpose is to bind the target, with the formation of immune complexes (ICs, a particular form of aggregate. Such ICs may be removed by phagocytic cells that have antigen presenting capacity. These considerations may frustrate the possibility of ameliorating the immunogenicity of mAbs by rigorous exclusion of aggregates from drug product. Alternate strategies for inducing immunosuppression or tolerance are discussed.

  13. Protein folding and misfolding: a paradigm of self-assembly and regulation in complex biological systems. (United States)

    Vendruscolo, Michele; Zurdo, Jesús; MacPhee, Cait E; Dobson, Christopher M


    Understanding biological complexity is one of the grand scientific challenges for the future. A living organism is a highly evolved system made up of a large number of interwoven molecular networks. These networks primarily involve proteins, the macromolecules that enable and control virtually every chemical process that takes place in the cell. Proteins are also key elements in the essential characteristic of living systems, their ability to function and replicate themselves through controlled molecular interactions. Recent progress in understanding the most fundamental aspect of polypeptide self-organization, the process by which proteins fold to attain their active conformations, provides a global platform to gain knowledge about the function of biological systems and the regulatory mechanisms that underpin their ability to adapt to changing conditions. In order to exploit such progress effectively, we are developing a variety of approaches, including procedures that use experimental data to restrain the properties of complex systems in computer simulations, to describe their behaviour under a wide variety of conditions. We believe that such approaches can lead to significant advances in understanding biological complexity, in general, and protein folding and misfolding in particular. These advances would contribute to: a more effective exploitation of the information from genome sequences; more rational therapeutic approaches to diseases, particularly those associated with ageing; the responsible control of our own evolution; and the development of new technologies based on mimicking the principles of biological self-assembly, for instance in nanotechnology. More fundamentally, we believe that this research will result in a more coherent understanding of the origin, evolution and functional properties of living systems.

  14. Role of post-translational modifications on structure, function and pharmacology of class C G protein-coupled receptors

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nørskov-Lauritsen, Lenea; Bräuner-Osborne, Hans


    taste receptors (T1R1-3), one calcium-sensing (CaS) receptor, one GPCR, class C, group 6, subtype A (GPRC6) receptor, and seven orphan receptors. G protein-coupled receptors undergo a number of post-translational modifications, which regulate their structure, function and/or pharmacology. Here, we...

  15. Mea6 controls VLDL transport through the coordinated regulation of COPII assembly (United States)

    Wang, Yaqing; Liu, Liang; Zhang, Hongsheng; Fan, Junwan; Zhang, Feng; Yu, Mei; Shi, Lei; Yang, Lin; Lam, Sin Man; Wang, Huimin; Chen, Xiaowei; Wang, Yingchun; Gao, Fei; Shui, Guanghou; Xu, Zhiheng


    Lipid accumulation, which may be caused by the disturbance in very low density lipoprotein (VLDL) secretion in the liver, can lead to fatty liver disease. VLDL is synthesized in endoplasmic reticulum (ER) and transported to Golgi apparatus for secretion into plasma. However, the underlying molecular mechanism for VLDL transport is still poorly understood. Here we show that hepatocyte-specific deletion of meningioma-expressed antigen 6 (Mea6)/cutaneous T cell lymphoma-associated antigen 5C (cTAGE5C) leads to severe fatty liver and hypolipemia in mice. Quantitative lipidomic and proteomic analyses indicate that Mea6/cTAGE5 deletion impairs the secretion of different types of lipids and proteins, including VLDL, from the liver. Moreover, we demonstrate that Mea6/cTAGE5 interacts with components of the ER coat protein complex II (COPII) which, when depleted, also cause lipid accumulation in hepatocytes. Our findings not only reveal several novel factors that regulate lipid transport, but also provide evidence that Mea6 plays a critical role in lipid transportation through the coordinated regulation of the COPII machinery. PMID:27311593

  16. Spindle assembly checkpoint gene mdf-1 regulates germ cell proliferation in response to nutrition signals in C. elegans. (United States)

    Watanabe, Sonoko; Yamamoto, Takaharu G; Kitagawa, Risa


    When newly hatched Caenorhabditis elegans larvae are starved, their primordial germ cells (PGCs) arrest in the post-S phase. This starvation-induced PGC arrest is mediated by the DAF-18/PTEN-AKT-1/PKB nutrient-sensing pathway. Here, we report that the conserved spindle assembly checkpoint (SAC) component MDF-1/MAD1 is required for the PGC arrest. We identified 2 Akt kinase phosphorylation sites on MDF-1. Expression of a non-phosphorylatable mutant MDF-1 partially suppressed the defect in the starvation-induced PGC arrest in L1 larvae lacking DAF-18, suggesting that MDF-1 regulates germ cell proliferation as a downstream target of AKT-1, thereby demonstrating a functional link between cell-cycle regulation by the SAC components and nutrient sensing by DAF-18-AKT-1 during post-embryonic development. The phosphorylation status of MDF-1 affects its binding to another SAC component, MDF-2/MAD2. The loss of MDF-2 or another SAC component also caused inappropriate germ cell proliferation, but the defect was less severe than that caused by mdf-1 hemizygosity, suggesting that MDF-1 causes the PGC arrest by two mechanisms, one involving MDF-2 and another that is independent of other SAC components.

  17. Architecture and regulation of the HIV-1 assembly and holding compartment in macrophages. (United States)

    Welsch, Sonja; Groot, Fedde; Kräusslich, Hans-Georg; Keppler, Oliver T; Sattentau, Quentin J


    Productive infection of macrophages is central to HIV-1 pathogenesis. Newly formed virions bud into a tubular membranous compartment that is contiguous with the plasma membrane. However, little is known about the structure of this compartment and its potential regulation by infection. Here we characterized this compartment in macrophages using electron tomography and electron microscopy with stereology. We found an intricate, interconnected membrane network that constitutes a preexisting physiologic structure in macrophages but which expands in size upon HIV-1 infection. Membranes required for this expansion were apparently derived from preexisting pools of plasma membrane. Physical connections between this compartment and the extracellular milieu were frequently made by tube-like structures of insufficient diameter for virion passage. We conclude that HIV-1 induces the expansion of a complex membranous labyrinth in macrophages in which the virus buds and can be retained, with potential consequences for transmission and immune evasion.

  18. Architecture and Regulation of the HIV-1 Assembly and Holding Compartment in Macrophages ▿ (United States)

    Welsch, Sonja; Groot, Fedde; Kräusslich, Hans-Georg; Keppler, Oliver T.; Sattentau, Quentin J.


    Productive infection of macrophages is central to HIV-1 pathogenesis. Newly formed virions bud into a tubular membranous compartment that is contiguous with the plasma membrane. However, little is known about the structure of this compartment and its potential regulation by infection. Here we characterized this compartment in macrophages using electron tomography and electron microscopy with stereology. We found an intricate, interconnected membrane network that constitutes a preexisting physiologic structure in macrophages but which expands in size upon HIV-1 infection. Membranes required for this expansion were apparently derived from preexisting pools of plasma membrane. Physical connections between this compartment and the extracellular milieu were frequently made by tube-like structures of insufficient diameter for virion passage. We conclude that HIV-1 induces the expansion of a complex membranous labyrinth in macrophages in which the virus buds and can be retained, with potential consequences for transmission and immune evasion. PMID:21613397

  19. Characterization of a transneuronal cytokine family Cbln--regulation of secretion by heteromeric assembly. (United States)

    Iijima, Takatoshi; Miura, Eriko; Matsuda, Keiko; Kamekawa, Yuichi; Watanabe, Masahiko; Yuzaki, Michisuke


    Cbln1, a member of the C1q and tumor necrosis factor superfamily, plays crucial roles as a cerebellar granule cell-derived transneuronal regulator of synapse integrity and plasticity in Purkinje cells. Although other Cbln family members, Cbln2-Cbln4, have distinct spatial and temporal patterns of expression throughout the CNS, their biochemical and biological properties have remained largely uncharacterized. Here, we demonstrated that in mammalian heterologous cells, Cbln2 and Cbln4 were secreted as N-linked glycoproteins, like Cbln1. In contrast, despite the presence of a functional signal sequence, Cbln3 was not secreted when expressed alone but was retained in the endoplasmic reticulum (ER) or cis-Golgi because of its N-terminal domain. All members of the Cbln family formed not only homomeric but also heteromeric complexes with each other in vitro. Accordingly, when Cbln1 and Cbln3 were co-expressed in heterologous cells, a proportion of the Cbln1 proteins was retained in the ER or cis-Golgi; conversely, some Cbln3 proteins were secreted together with Cbln1. Similarly, in wild-type granule cells expressing Cbln1 and Cbln3, Cbln3 proteins were partially secreted and reached postsynaptic sites on Purkinje cell dendrites, while Cbln3 was almost completely degraded in cbln1-null granule cells. These results indicate that like Cbln1, Cbln2 and Cbln4 may also serve as transneuronal regulators of synaptic functions in various brain regions. Furthermore, heteromer formation between Cbln1 and Cbln3 in cerebellar granule cells may modulate each other's trafficking and signaling pathways; similarly, heteromerization of other Cbln family proteins may also have biological significance in other neurons.

  20. S-sulfhydration: a cysteine posttranslational modification in plant systems. (United States)

    Aroca, Ángeles; Serna, Antonio; Gotor, Cecilia; Romero, Luis C


    Hydrogen sulfide is a highly reactive molecule that is currently accepted as a signaling compound. This molecule is as important as carbon monoxide in mammals and hydrogen peroxide in plants, as well as nitric oxide in both eukaryotic systems. Although many studies have been conducted on the physiological effects of hydrogen sulfide, the underlying mechanisms are poorly understood. One of the proposed mechanisms involves the posttranslational modification of protein cysteine residues, a process called S-sulfhydration. In this work, a modified biotin switch method was used for the detection of Arabidopsis (Arabidopsis thaliana) proteins modified by S-sulfhydration under physiological conditions. The presence of an S-sulfhydration-modified cysteine residue on cytosolic ascorbate peroxidase was demonstrated using liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry analysis, and a total of 106 S-sulfhydrated proteins were identified. Immunoblot and enzyme activity analyses of some of these proteins showed that the sulfide added through S-sulfhydration reversibly regulates the functions of plant proteins in a manner similar to that described in mammalian systems.

  1. Rapid detection, discovery, and identification of post-translationally myristoylated proteins during apoptosis using a bio-orthogonal azidomyristate analog. (United States)

    Martin, Dale D O; Vilas, Gonzalo L; Prescher, Jennifer A; Rajaiah, Gurram; Falck, John R; Bertozzi, Carolyn R; Berthiaume, Luc G


    Myristoylation is the attachment of the 14-carbon fatty acid myristate to the N-terminal glycine residue of proteins. Typically a co-translational modification, myristoylation of proapoptotic cysteinyl-aspartyl proteases (caspase)-cleaved Bid and PAK2 was also shown to occur post-translationally and is essential for their proper localization and proapoptotic function. Progress in the identification and characterization of myristoylated proteins has been impeded by the long exposure times required to monitor incorporation of radioactive myristate into proteins (typically 1-3 months). Consequently, we developed a nonradioactive detection methodology in which a bio-orthogonal azidomyristate analog is specifically incorporated co- or post-translationally into proteins at N-terminal glycines, chemoselectively ligated to tagged triarylphosphines and detected by Western blotting with short exposure times (seconds to minutes). This represents over a million-fold signal amplification in comparison to using radioactive labeling methods. Using rational prediction analysis to recognize putative internal myristoylation sites in caspase-cleaved proteins combined with our nonradioactive chemical detection method, we identify 5 new post-translationally myristoylatable proteins (PKC epsilon, CD-IC2, Bap31, MST3, and the catalytic subunit of glutamate cysteine ligase). We also demonstrate that 15 proteins undergo post-translational myristoylation in apoptotic Jurkat T cells. This suggests that post-translational myristoylation of caspase-cleaved proteins represents a novel mechanism widely used to regulate cell death.

  2. Self-assembly of NH₂-(α,L-lysine)₅-COOH and SDS into nanodiscs or nanoribbons regulated by pH. (United States)

    Zhang, S; Yang, S; Zang, J; Yang, R; Zhao, G; Xu, C


    NH2-(α,l-lysine)5-COOH and SDS can self-assemble into nanodiscs or nanoribbons. We show that pH can regulate not only the diameter of nanodiscs but also the conversion between nanodiscs and nanoribbons. This system can be used as two different templates for fabricating platinum nanowires and nanodiscs.

  3. A novel post-translational modification in nerve terminals: O-linked N-acetylglucosamine phosphorylation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Graham, Mark E; Thaysen-Andersen, Morten; Bache, Nicolai;


    Protein phosphorylation and glycosylation are the most common post-translational modifications observed in biology, frequently on the same protein. Assembly protein AP180 is a synapse-specific phosphoprotein and O-linked beta-N-acetylglucosamine (O-GlcNAc) modified glycoprotein. AP180 is involved...... in the assembly of clathrin coated vesicles in synaptic vesicle endocytosis. Unlike other types of O-glycosylation, O-GlcNAc is nucleocytoplasmic and reversible. It was thought to be a terminal modification, that is, the O-GlcNAc was not found to be additionally modified in any way. We now show that AP180......NAc-P to a Thr residue was confirmed by electron transfer dissociation MS. A second AP180 tryptic peptide was also glycosyl phosphorylated, but the site of modification was not assigned. Sequence similarities suggest there may be a common motif within AP180 involving glycosyl phosphorylation and dual flanking...

  4. Detecting functional divergence after gene duplication through evolutionary changes in posttranslational regulatory sequences. (United States)

    Nguyen Ba, Alex N; Strome, Bob; Hua, Jun Jie; Desmond, Jonathan; Gagnon-Arsenault, Isabelle; Weiss, Eric L; Landry, Christian R; Moses, Alan M


    Gene duplication is an important evolutionary mechanism that can result in functional divergence in paralogs due to neo-functionalization or sub-functionalization. Consistent with functional divergence after gene duplication, recent studies have shown accelerated evolution in retained paralogs. However, little is known in general about the impact of this accelerated evolution on the molecular functions of retained paralogs. For example, do new functions typically involve changes in enzymatic activities, or changes in protein regulation? Here we study the evolution of posttranslational regulation by examining the evolution of important regulatory sequences (short linear motifs) in retained duplicates created by the whole-genome duplication in budding yeast. To do so, we identified short linear motifs whose evolutionary constraint has relaxed after gene duplication with a likelihood-ratio test that can account for heterogeneity in the evolutionary process by using a non-central chi-squared null distribution. We find that short linear motifs are more likely to show changes in evolutionary constraints in retained duplicates compared to single-copy genes. We examine changes in constraints on known regulatory sequences and show that for the Rck1/Rck2, Fkh1/Fkh2, Ace2/Swi5 paralogs, they are associated with previously characterized differences in posttranslational regulation. Finally, we experimentally confirm our prediction that for the Ace2/Swi5 paralogs, Cbk1 regulated localization was lost along the lineage leading to SWI5 after gene duplication. Our analysis suggests that changes in posttranslational regulation mediated by short regulatory motifs systematically contribute to functional divergence after gene duplication.

  5. Synapse-Assembly Proteins Maintain Synaptic Vesicle Cluster Stability and Regulate Synaptic Vesicle Transport in Caenorhabditis elegans. (United States)

    Edwards, Stacey L; Yorks, Rosalina M; Morrison, Logan M; Hoover, Christopher M; Miller, Kenneth G


    The functional integrity of neurons requires the bidirectional active transport of synaptic vesicles (SVs) in axons. The kinesin motor KIF1A transports SVs from somas to stable SV clusters at synapses, while dynein moves them in the opposite direction. However, it is unclear how SV transport is regulated and how SVs at clusters interact with motor proteins. We addressed these questions by isolating a rare temperature-sensitive allele of Caenorhabditis elegans unc-104 (KIF1A) that allowed us to manipulate SV levels in axons and dendrites. Growth at 20° and 14° resulted in locomotion rates that were ∼3 and 50% of wild type, respectively, with similar effects on axonal SV levels. Corresponding with the loss of SVs from axons, mutants grown at 14° and 20° showed a 10- and 24-fold dynein-dependent accumulation of SVs in their dendrites. Mutants grown at 14° and switched to 25° showed an abrupt irreversible 50% decrease in locomotion and a 50% loss of SVs from the synaptic region 12-hr post-shift, with no further decreases at later time points, suggesting that the remaining clustered SVs are stable and resistant to retrograde removal by dynein. The data further showed that the synapse-assembly proteins SYD-1, SYD-2, and SAD-1 protected SV clusters from degradation by motor proteins. In syd-1, syd-2, and sad-1 mutants, SVs accumulate in an UNC-104-dependent manner in the distal axon region that normally lacks SVs. In addition to their roles in SV cluster stability, all three proteins also regulate SV transport.

  6. ATX-LPA1 axis contributes to proliferation of chondrocytes by regulating fibronectin assembly leading to proper cartilage formation (United States)

    Nishioka, Tatsuji; Arima, Naoaki; Kano, Kuniyuki; Hama, Kotaro; Itai, Eriko; Yukiura, Hiroshi; Kise, Ryoji; Inoue, Asuka; Kim, Seok-Hyung; Solnica-Krezel, Lilianna; Moolenaar, Wouter H.; Chun, Jerold; Aoki, Junken


    The lipid mediator lysophosphatidic acid (LPA) signals via six distinct G protein-coupled receptors to mediate both unique and overlapping biological effects, including cell migration, proliferation and survival. LPA is produced extracellularly by autotaxin (ATX), a secreted lysophospholipase D, from lysophosphatidylcholine. ATX-LPA receptor signaling is essential for normal development and implicated in various (patho)physiological processes, but underlying mechanisms remain incompletely understood. Through gene targeting approaches in zebrafish and mice, we show here that loss of ATX-LPA1 signaling leads to disorganization of chondrocytes, causing severe defects in cartilage formation. Mechanistically, ATX-LPA1 signaling acts by promoting S-phase entry and cell proliferation of chondrocytes both in vitro and in vivo, at least in part through β1-integrin translocation leading to fibronectin assembly and further extracellular matrix deposition; this in turn promotes chondrocyte-matrix adhesion and cell proliferation. Thus, the ATX-LPA1 axis is a key regulator of cartilage formation. PMID:27005960

  7. Expression and localization of VCX/Y proteins and their possible involvement in regulation of ribosome assembly during spermatogenesis

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)



    Variable Charge X/Y (VCX/Y) is a human testis-specific gene family that localized on X and Y chromo-somes. In this study, VCY protein was expressed in E. coli in the form of glutathione-S-transferase (GST)fusion protein. With the purified fusion protein as antigen, the anti-GST-VCY antibody was generated andthe localization of VCY protein in human testis was determined by immunohistochemistry. In the testisseminiferous epithelium, VCY proteins were highly expressed in nuclei of germ cells. Using propidium io-dide staining and green fluorescent protein (GFP) tag technologies, VCY and VCX-8r proteins were mainlylocalized in the nucleoli of COS7 cells. In addition, the colocalization for VCY and VCX-8r in COS7 cellswas also observed. With VCY cDNA as bait, a cDNA fragment of acidic ribosomal protein PO was obtainedusing yeast two-hybrid system. All the information above indicates that VCX/Y protein family might beinvolved in the regulation of ribosome assembly during spermatogenesis.

  8. A posttranslational modification cascade involving p38, Tip60, and PRAK mediates oncogene-induced senescence. (United States)

    Zheng, Hui; Seit-Nebi, Alim; Han, Xuemei; Aslanian, Aaron; Tat, John; Liao, Rong; Yates, John R; Sun, Peiqing


    Oncogene-induced senescence is an important tumor-suppressing defense mechanism. However, relatively little is known about the signaling pathway mediating the senescence response. Here, we demonstrate that a multifunctional acetyltransferase, Tip60, plays an essential role in oncogenic ras-induced senescence. Further investigation reveals a cascade of posttranslational modifications involving p38, Tip60, and PRAK, three proteins that are essential for ras-induced senescence. Upon activation by ras, p38 induces the acetyltransferase activity of Tip60 through phosphorylation of Thr158; activated Tip60 in turn directly interacts with and induces the protein kinase activity of PRAK through acetylation of K364 in a manner that depends on phosphorylation of both Tip60 and PRAK by p38. These posttranslational modifications are critical for the prosenescent function of Tip60 and PRAK, respectively. These results have defined a signaling pathway that mediates oncogene-induced senescence, and identified posttranslational modifications that regulate the enzymatic activity and biological functions of Tip60 and PRAK.

  9. Mass Spectrometry Analysis of Lysine Posttranslational Modifications of Tau Protein from Alzheimer's Disease Brain. (United States)

    Thomas, Stefani N; Yang, Austin J


    Recent advances in mass spectrometry (MS)-based proteomics have greatly facilitated the robust identification and quantification of posttranslational modifications (PTMs), including those that are present at substoichiometric site occupancies. The abnormal posttranslational modification and accumulation of the microtubule-associated protein tau has been implicated in the pathogenesis of Alzheimer's disease (AD), and it is thought that the primary mode of regulation of tau occurs through PTMs. Several studies have been published regarding tau phosphorylation; however, other tau PTMs such as ubiquitylation, acetylation, methylation, oxidation, sumoylation, nitration, and glycosylation have not been analyzed as extensively. The comprehensive detection and delineation of these PTMs is critical for drug target discovery and validation. Lysine-directed PTMs including ubiquitylation, acetylation, and methylation play key regulatory roles with respect to the rates of tau turnover and aggregation. MS-based analytical approaches have been used to gain insight into the tau lysine-directed PTM signature that is most closely associated with neurofibrillary lesion formation. This chapter provides details pertaining to the liquid chromatography tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS)-based analysis of the lysine-directed posttranslational modification of tau.

  10. Palmitoylation of plakophilin is required for desmosome assembly (United States)

    Roberts, Brett J.; Johnson, Kristen E.; McGuinn, Kathleen P.; Saowapa, Jintana; Svoboda, Robert A.; Mahoney, My G.; Johnson, Keith R.; Wahl, James K.


    ABSTRACT Desmosomes are prominent adhesive junctions found in various epithelial tissues. The cytoplasmic domains of desmosomal cadherins interact with a host of desmosomal plaque proteins, including plakophilins, plakoglobin and desmoplakin, which, in turn, recruit the intermediate filament cytoskeleton to sites of cell–cell contact. Although the individual components of the desmosome are known, mechanisms regulating the assembly of this junction are poorly understood. Protein palmitoylation is a posttranslational lipid modification that plays an important role in protein trafficking and function. Here, we demonstrate that multiple desmosomal components are palmitoylated in vivo. Pharmacologic inhibition of palmitoylation disrupts desmosome assembly at cell–cell borders. We mapped the site of plakophilin palmitoylation to a conserved cysteine residue present in the armadillo repeat domain. Mutation of this single cysteine residue prevents palmitoylation, disrupts plakophilin incorporation into the desmosomal plaque and prevents plakophilin-dependent desmosome assembly. Finally, plakophilin mutants unable to become palmitoylated act in a dominant-negative manner to disrupt proper localization of endogenous desmosome components and decrease desmosomal adhesion. Taken together, these data demonstrate that palmitoylation of desmosomal components is important for desmosome assembly and adhesion. PMID:25002405

  11. [Nitrogen oxide is involved in the regulation of the Fe-S cluster assembly in proteins and the formation of biofilms by Escherichia coli cells]. (United States)

    Vasil'eva, S V; Streltsova, D A; Starostina, I A; Sanina, N A


    The functions of nitrogen oxide (NO) in the regulation of the reversible processes of Fe-S cluster assembly in proteins and the formation of Escherichia coli biofilms have been investigated. S-nitrosoglutathione (GSNO) and crystalline nitrosyl complexes of iron with sulfur-containing aliphatic ligands cisaconite (CisA) and penaconite have been used as NO donors for the first time. Wild-type E. coli cells of the strain MC4100, mutants deltaiscA and deltasufA, and the double paralog mutant deltaiscA/sufA with deletions in the alternative pathways of Fe2+ supply for cluster assembly (all derived from the above-named strain) were used in this study. Plankton growth of bacterial cultures, the mass of mature biofilms, and the expression of the SoxRS[2Fe-2S] regulon have been investigated and shown to depend on strain genotype, the process of Fe-S cluster assembly in iron-sulfur proteins, NO donor structure, and the presence of Fe2+ chelator ferene in the incubation medium. The antibiotic ciprofloxacine (CF) was used as an inhibitor of E. coli biofilm formation in the positive control. NO donors regulating Fe-S cluster assembly in E. coli have been shown to control plankton growth of the cultures and the process of mature biofilm formation; toxic doses of NO caused a dramatic (3- to 4-fold) stimulation of cell entry into biofilms as a response to nitrosative stress; NO donors CisA and GSNO in physiological concentrations suppressed the formation of mature biofilms, and the activity of these compounds was comparable to that of CE Regulation of both Fe-S cluster assembly in iron-sulfur proteins and biofilm formation by NO is indicative of the connection between these processes in E. coli.

  12. Nucleosome Assembly Protein 1-Like 1 (Nap1l1 Regulates the Proliferation of Murine Induced Pluripotent Stem Cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yuan Yan


    Full Text Available Background/Aims: To investigate whether nucleosome assembly protein 1-like 1 (Nap1l1 regulates the proliferation of induced pluripotent stem cells (iPSC and the potential mechanisms. Methods: Nap1l1-knockdown-iPSC and Nap1l1-overexpression-iPSC were constructed by transfection of lentiviral particles. The proliferation of iPSC was detected by MTT analysis, and cell cycle was analyzed by flow cytometry. Results: Nap1l1 overexpression promoted iPSC proliferation and induced G2/M transition compared to their control iPSC while Nap1l1-knockdown-iPSC dramatically displayed the reduced proliferation and accumulated G2/M phase cells. Further analysis showed that Nap1l1 overexpression in iPSC increased the expression of cyclin B1, downregulated the expression of p21 and p27, while knockdown of Nap1l1 showed the opposite effects. In addition, overexpression of Nap1l1 promoted the phosphorylation of AKT and ERK in iPSC, while knockdown of Nap1l1 inhibited the effects. However, these effects displayed in Nap1l1-overexpression-iPSC were greatly suppressed by the inhibition of AKT or ERK signaling. Conclusions: The results indicate that Nap1l1 promotes the proliferation of iPSC attributable to G2/M transition caused by downregulation of p27 and p21, and upregulation of cyclin B1, the activation of AKT or ERK is involved in the process. The present study has revealed a novel molecular mechanism involved in the proliferation of iPSC.

  13. Site specific protein labeling by enzymatic posttranslational modification. (United States)

    Sunbul, Murat; Yin, Jun


    Site specific protein labeling plays a key role in elucidating the function of the proteins at the molecular level by revealing their locations in the cell, their interaction networks with other cellular components and the dynamic mechanisms of their bio-generation, trafficking and degradation in response to regulatory signals in a biological system. Site specific protein labeling is, in essence, artificial modification of proteins with new chemical entities at the posttranslational stage. Based on the analogy between protein labeling and protein posttranslational modification, enzymatic tools have been developed for site specific and efficient labeling of target proteins with chemical probes of diverse structures and functionalities. This perspective surveys a number of protein labeling methods based on the application of protein posttranslational modification enzymes.

  14. Global histone post-translational modifications and cancer:Biomarkers for diagnosis,prognosis and treatment?

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Shafqat; Ali; Khan; Divya; Reddy; Sanjay; Gupta


    Global alterations in epigenetic landscape are now recognized as a hallmark of cancer. Epigenetic mechanismssuch as DNA methylation,histone modifications,nucleosome positioning and non-coding RNAs are proven to have strong association with cancer. In particular,covalent post-translational modifications of histone proteins are known to play an important role in chromatin remodeling and thereby in regulation of gene expression. Further,histone modifications have also been associated with different aspects of carcinogenesis and have been studied for their role in the better management of cancer patients. In this review,we will explore and discuss how histone modifications are involved in cancer diagnosis,prognosis and treatment.

  15. Post-translational modifications mediated by reactive nitrogen species (United States)

    del Río, Luis A; Barroso, Juan B


    In animal cells, nitric oxide and NO-derived molecules have been shown to mediate post-translational modifications such as S-nitrosylation and protein tyrosine nitration which are associated with cell signalling and pathological processes, respectively. In plant cells, knowledge of the function of these post-translational modifications under physiological and stress conditions is still very rudimentary. In this addendum, we briefly examine how reactive nitrogen species (RNS) can exert important effects on proteins that could mediate signalling processes in plants. PMID:19841652

  16. Generation of protein-derived redox cofactors by posttranslational modification. (United States)

    Davidson, Victor L


    Redox enzymes which catalyze the oxidation and reduction of substrates are ubiquitous in nature. These enzymes typically possess exogenous cofactors to allow them to perform catalytic functions which cannot be accomplished using only amino acid residues. It is now evident that nature also employs an alternative strategy of generating catalytic and redox-active sites in proteins by posttranslational modification of amino acid residues. This review describes the structures and functions of several of these protein-derived cofactors and the diverse mechanisms of posttranslational modification through which they are generated.

  17. Selective posttranslational modification of phage-displayed polypeptides

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tsao, Meng-Lin; Tian, Feng; Schultz, Peter


    The invention relates to posttranslational modification of phage-displayed polypeptides. These displayed polypeptides comprise at least one unnatural amino acid, e.g., an aryl-azide amino acid such as p-azido-L-phenylalanine, or an alkynyl-amino acid such as para-propargyloxyphenylalanine, which are incorporated into the phage-displayed fusion polypeptide at a selected position by using an in vivo orthogonal translation system comprising a suitable orthogonal aminoacyl-tRNA synthetase and a suitable orthogonal tRNA species. These unnatural amino acids advantageously provide targets for posttranslational modifications such as azide-alkyne [3+2]cycloaddition reactions and Staudinger modifications.

  18. Posttranslational lipid modification of Rho family small GTPases. (United States)

    Mitin, Natalia; Roberts, Patrick J; Chenette, Emily J; Der, Channing J


    The Rho family comprises a major branch of the Ras superfamily of small GTPases. A majority of Rho GTPases are synthesized as inactive, cytosolic proteins. They then undergo posttranslational modification by isoprenoid or fatty acid lipids, and together with additional carboxyl-terminal sequences target Rho GTPases to specific membrane and subcellular compartments essential for function. We summarize the use of biochemical and cellular assays and pharmacologic inhibitors instrumental for the study of the role of posttranslational lipid modifications and processing in Rho GTPase biology.

  19. Selective posttranslational modification of phage-displayed polypeptides

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tsao, Meng-Lin; Tian, Feng; Schultz, Peter


    The invention relates to posttranslational modification of phage-displayed polypeptides. These displayed polypeptides comprise at least one unnatural amino acid, e.g., an aryl-azide amino acid such as p-azido-L-phenylalanine, or an alkynyl-amino acid such as para-propargyloxyphenylalanine, which are incorporated into the phage-displayed fusion polypeptide at a selected position by using an in vivo orthogonal translation system comprising a suitable orthogonal aminoacyl-tRNA synthetase and a suitable orthogonal tRNA species. These unnatural amino acids advantageously provide targets for posttranslational modifications such as azide-alkyne [3+2] cycloaddition reactions and Staudinger modifications.

  20. Bio-inspired metal ions regulate the structure evolution of self-assembled peptide-based nanoparticles (United States)

    Xu, An-Ping; Yang, Pei-Pei; Yang, Chao; Gao, Yu-Juan; Zhao, Xiao-Xiao; Luo, Qiang; Li, Xiang-Dan; Li, Li-Zhong; Wang, Lei; Wang, Hao


    We report an assembly and transformation process of a supramolecular module, BP-KLVFF-RGD (BKR) in solution and on specific living cell surfaces for imaging and treatment. The BKR self-assembled into nanoparticles, which further transformed into nanofibers in situ induced by coordination with Ca2+ ions.We report an assembly and transformation process of a supramolecular module, BP-KLVFF-RGD (BKR) in solution and on specific living cell surfaces for imaging and treatment. The BKR self-assembled into nanoparticles, which further transformed into nanofibers in situ induced by coordination with Ca2+ ions. Electronic supplementary information (ESI) available: Experimental details; Fig. S1-S9. See DOI: 10.1039/c6nr03580a

  1. Nucleolar activity and CENP-C regulate CENP-A and CAL1 availability for centromere assembly in meiosis. (United States)

    Kwenda, Lucretia; Collins, Caitriona M; Dattoli, Anna A; Dunleavy, Elaine M


    The centromere-specific histone CENP-A is the key epigenetic determinant of centromere identity. Whereas most histones are removed from mature sperm, CENP-A is retained to mark paternal centromeres. In Drosophila males we show that the centromere assembly factors CAL1 and CENP-C are required for meiotic chromosome segregation, CENP-A assembly and maintenance on sperm, as well as fertility. In meiosis, CENP-A accumulates with CAL1 in nucleoli. Furthermore, we show that CENP-C normally limits the release of CAL1 and CENP-A from nucleoli for proper centromere assembly in meiotic prophase I. Finally, we show that RNA polymerase I transcription is required for efficient CENP-A assembly in meiosis, as well as centromere tethering to nucleoli.

  2. Plant cytoplasmic GAPDH: redox post-translational modifications and moonlighting properties

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mirko eZaffagnini


    Full Text Available Glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate dehydrogenase (GAPDH is a ubiquitous enzyme involved in glycolysis and shown, particularly in animal cells, to play additional roles in several unrelated non-metabolic processes such as control of gene expression and apoptosis. This functional versatility is regulated, in part at least, by redox post-translational modifications that alter GAPDH catalytic activity and influence the subcellular localization of the enzyme. In spite of the well established moonlighting (multifunctional properties of animal GAPDH, little is known about non-metabolic roles of GAPDH in plants. Plant cells contain several GAPDH isoforms with different catalytic and regulatory properties, located both in the cytoplasm and in plastids, and participating in glycolysis and the Calvin-Benson cycle. A general feature of all GAPDH proteins is the presence of an acidic catalytic cysteine in the active site that is overly sensitive to oxidative modifications, including glutathionylation and S-nitrosylation. In Arabidopsis, oxidatively-modified cytoplasmic GAPDH has been successfully used as a tool to investigate the role of reduced glutathione, thioredoxins and glutaredoxins in the control of different types of redox post-translational modifications. Oxidative modifications inhibit GAPDH activity, but might enable additional functions in plant cells. Mounting evidence support the concept that plant cytoplasmic GAPDH may fulfill alternative, non-metabolic functions that are triggered by redox post-translational modifications of the protein under stress conditions. The aim of this review is to detail the molecular mechanisms underlying the redox regulation of plant cytoplasmic GAPDH in the light of its crystal structure, and to provide a brief inventory of the well known redox-dependent multi-facetted properties of animal GAPDH, together with the emerging roles of oxidatively-modified GAPDH in stress signaling pathways in plants.

  3. How posttranslational modification of nitrogenase is circumvented in Rhodopseudomonas palustris strains that produce hydrogen gas constitutively. (United States)

    Heiniger, Erin K; Oda, Yasuhiro; Samanta, Sudip K; Harwood, Caroline S


    Nitrogenase catalyzes the conversion of dinitrogen gas (N(2)) and protons to ammonia and hydrogen gas (H(2)). This is a catalytically difficult reaction that requires large amounts of ATP and reducing power. Thus, nitrogenase is not normally expressed or active in bacteria grown with a readily utilized nitrogen source like ammonium. nifA* mutants of the purple nonsulfur phototrophic bacterium Rhodopseudomonas palustris have been described that express nitrogenase genes constitutively and produce H(2) when grown with ammonium as a nitrogen source. This raised the regulatory paradox of why these mutants are apparently resistant to a known posttranslational modification system that should switch off the activity of nitrogenase. Microarray, mutation analysis, and gene expression studies showed that posttranslational regulation of nitrogenase activity in R. palustris depends on two proteins: DraT2, an ADP-ribosyltransferase, and GlnK2, an NtrC-regulated P(II) protein. GlnK2 was not well expressed in ammonium-grown NifA* cells and thus not available to activate the DraT2 nitrogenase modification enzyme. In addition, the NifA* strain had elevated nitrogenase activity due to overexpression of the nif genes, and this increased amount of expression overwhelmed a basal level of activity of DraT2 in ammonium-grown cells. Thus, insufficient levels of both GlnK2 and DraT2 allow H(2) production by an nifA* mutant grown with ammonium. Inactivation of the nitrogenase posttranslational modification system by mutation of draT2 resulted in increased H(2) production by ammonium-grown NifA* cells.

  4. Cyclisation mechanisms in the biosynthesis of ribosomally synthesised and post-translationally modified peptides (United States)


    Summary Ribosomally synthesised and post-translationally modified peptides (RiPPs) are a large class of natural products that are remarkably chemically diverse given an intrinsic requirement to be assembled from proteinogenic amino acids. The vast chemical space occupied by RiPPs means that they possess a wide variety of biological activities, and the class includes antibiotics, co-factors, signalling molecules, anticancer and anti-HIV compounds, and toxins. A considerable amount of RiPP chemical diversity is generated from cyclisation reactions, and the current mechanistic understanding of these reactions will be discussed here. These cyclisations involve a diverse array of chemical reactions, including 1,4-nucleophilic additions, [4 + 2] cycloadditions, ATP-dependent heterocyclisation to form thiazolines or oxazolines, and radical-mediated reactions between unactivated carbons. Future prospects for RiPP pathway discovery and characterisation will also be highlighted. PMID:27559376

  5. Highly conserved serine residue 40 in HIV-1 p6 regulates capsid processing and virus core assembly

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Solbak Sara MØ


    Full Text Available Abstract Background The HIV-1 p6 Gag protein regulates the final abscission step of nascent virions from the cell membrane by the action of two late assembly (L- domains. Although p6 is located within one of the most polymorphic regions of the HIV-1 gag gene, the 52 amino acid peptide binds at least to two cellular budding factors (Tsg101 and ALIX, is a substrate for phosphorylation, ubiquitination, and sumoylation, and mediates the incorporation of the HIV-1 accessory protein Vpr into viral particles. As expected, known functional domains mostly overlap with several conserved residues in p6. In this study, we investigated the importance of the highly conserved serine residue at position 40, which until now has not been assigned to any known function of p6. Results Consistently with previous data, we found that mutation of Ser-40 has no effect on ALIX mediated rescue of HIV-1 L-domain mutants. However, the only feasible S40F mutation that preserves the overlapping pol open reading frame (ORF reduces virus replication in T-cell lines and in human lymphocyte tissue cultivated ex vivo. Most intriguingly, L-domain mediated virus release is not dependent on the integrity of Ser-40. However, the S40F mutation significantly reduces the specific infectivity of released virions. Further, it was observed that mutation of Ser-40 selectively interferes with the cleavage between capsid (CA and the spacer peptide SP1 in Gag, without affecting cleavage of other Gag products. This deficiency in processing of CA, in consequence, led to an irregular morphology of the virus core and the formation of an electron dense extra core structure. Moreover, the defects induced by the S40F mutation in p6 can be rescued by the A1V mutation in SP1 that generally enhances processing of the CA-SP1 cleavage site. Conclusions Overall, these data support a so far unrecognized function of p6 mediated by Ser-40 that occurs independently of the L-domain function, but selectively

  6. CCDC90A (MCUR1) is a cytochrome c oxidase assembly factor and not a regulator of the mitochondrial calcium uniporter. (United States)

    Paupe, Vincent; Prudent, Julien; Dassa, Emmanuel P; Rendon, Olga Zurita; Shoubridge, Eric A


    Mitochondrial calcium is an important modulator of cellular metabolism. CCDC90A was reported to be a regulator of the mitochondrial calcium uniporter (MCU) complex, a selective channel that controls mitochondrial calcium uptake, and hence was renamed MCUR1. Here we show that suppression of CCDC90A in human fibroblasts produces a specific cytochrome c oxidase (COX) assembly defect, resulting in decreased mitochondrial membrane potential and reduced mitochondrial calcium uptake capacity. Fibroblasts from patients with COX assembly defects due to mutations in TACO1 or COX10 also showed reduced mitochondrial membrane potential and impaired calcium uptake capacity, both of which were rescued by expression of the respective wild-type cDNAs. Deletion of fmp32, a homolog of CCDC90A in Saccharomyces cerevisiae, an organism that lacks an MCU, also produces a COX deficiency, demonstrating that the function of CCDC90A is evolutionarily conserved. We conclude that CCDC90A plays a role in COX assembly and does not directly regulate MCU.

  7. Applications of post-translational modifications of FoxO family proteins in biological functions

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Ying Zhao; Yachen Wang; Wei-Guo Zhu


    The functions of the FoxO family proteins, in particular their transcriptional activities, are modulated by post-translational modifications (PTMs), including phosphorylation, acetylation, ubiquitination, methylation and glycosylation. These PTMs occur in response to different cellular stresses, which in turn regulate the subcellular localization of FoxO family proteins, as well as their half-life, DNA binding, transcriptional activity and ability to interact with other cellular proteins. In this review, we summarize the role of PTMs of FoxO family proteins in linking their biological and functional relevance with various diseases.%The functions of the FoxO family proteins,in particular their transcriptional activities,are modulated by post-translational modifications (PTMs),including phosphorylation,acetylation,ubiquitination,methylation and glycosylation.These PTMs occur in response to different cellular stresses,which in turn regulate the subceilular localization of FoxO family proteins,as well as their half-life,DNA binding,transcriptional activity and ability to interact with other cellular proteins.In this review,we summarize the role of PTMs of FoxO family proteins in linking their biological and functional relevance with various diseases.

  8. 活性氧调控蛋白质修饰影响肿瘤细胞行为机制的研究进展%Study on the mechanisms underlying that reactive oxygen species regulate posttranslational modification of the proteins and affect the behaviors of cancer cells

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    易静; 杨洁


    Reactive oxygen species ( ROS) mainly comprised of super oxide, hydrogen peroxide and hydroxyl free radicals* are the side products of cell metabolism. The level of ROS brings complex impacts on cell fate, leading to complex impacts on the occurrence and progression of the oxidative stress-related human diseases such as cancer, diabetes, and neurodegeneration, but the underlying mechanism remain to be clarified- Our research group aimed in elucidating the mechanisms how different levels of ROS affect the biological events and the fate of cells, i.e. the regulatory role of ROS in signaling determining cell proliferation, differentiation and apoptosis. We specifically focus on the signaling role of ROS-regulated post-translational modifications of proteins, e. g. oxidation, ubiquitination and SUMOylation, and their links to formation* progression and remedy of cancers. Our major findings are: (DThe sensitivity of cancer cells to arsenic* trioxide, cisplatin and doxorubicin and other apoptosis-inducing drugs is positively correlated to the inherent cellular level of ROS. The increase of ROS level by using emodin and some other compounds, or enforced expression of Nox to cause severe oxidative stress can sensitize the apoptotic susceptibility of leukemic cells and solid tumor cells. The underlying mechanisms involve in an inhibition of RhoA, HIF-1, NF-kB and other pro-survival signaling paLhways, and simultaneously an activation of caspase 9 by ROS. (z)The mild oxidative stress existed in cancer cells promotes cancer genesis and progression, which may be via an induction of SENP3 to regulate the profiles of protein SUMOylation and gene expression. We ascertained for the first lime that SUMO protease SENP3 is a redox sensing protein. Being induced by ROS, it is rapidly accumulated andthus regulates the sUMOylation status of a number of substrates in the nucleus, such as p300, PML and p53, leading to an adaptation of cancer cells to stressful environment and the more

  9. Lysine conservation and context in TGFbeta and Wnt signaling suggest new targets and general themes for posttranslational modification. (United States)

    Konikoff, Charlotte E; Wisotzkey, Robert G; Newfeld, Stuart J


    TGFbeta and Wnt pathways play important roles in the development of animals from sponges to humans. In both pathways posttranslational modification as a means of regulating their function, such as lysine modification by ubiquitination and sumoylation, has been observed. However, a gap exists between the immunological observation of posttranslational modification and the identification of the target lysine. To fill this gap, we conducted a phylogenetic analysis of lysine conservation and context in TGFbeta and Wnt pathway receptors and signal transducers and suggest numerous high-probability candidates for posttranslational modification. Further comparison of results from both pathways suggests two general features for biochemical regulation of intercellular signaling: receptors are less frequent targets for modification than signal transduction agonists, and a lysine adjacent to an upstream hydrophobic residue may be a preferred context for modification. Overall the results suggest numerous applications for an evolutionary approach to the biochemical regulation of developmental pathways, including (1) streamlining of the identification of the target lysine, (2) determination of when members of a multigene family acquire distinct activities, (3) application to any conserved protein family, and (4) application to any modification of a specific amino acid.

  10. Regulation of NADPH oxidase activity in phagocytes: relationship between FAD/NADPH binding and oxidase complex assembly. (United States)

    Debeurme, Franck; Picciocchi, Antoine; Dagher, Marie-Claire; Grunwald, Didier; Beaumel, Sylvain; Fieschi, Franck; Stasia, Marie-José


    The X(+)-linked chronic granulomatous disease (X(+)-CGD) variants are natural mutants characterized by defective NADPH oxidase activity but with normal Nox2 expression. According to the three-dimensional model of the cytosolic Nox2 domain, most of the X(+)-CGD mutations are located in/or close to the FAD/NADPH binding regions. A structure/function study of this domain was conducted in X(+)-CGD PLB-985 cells exactly mimicking 10 human variants: T341K, C369R, G408E, G408R, P415H, P415L, Δ507QKT509-HIWAinsert, C537R, L546P, and E568K. Diaphorase activity is defective in all these mutants. NADPH oxidase assembly is normal for P415H/P415L and T341K mutants where mutation occurs in the consensus sequences of NADPH- and FAD-binding sites, respectively. This is in accordance with their buried position in the three-dimensional model of the cytosolic Nox2 domain. FAD incorporation is abolished only in the T341K mutant explaining its absence of diaphorase activity. This demonstrates that NADPH oxidase assembly can occur without FAD incorporation. In addition, a defect of NADPH binding is a plausible explanation for the diaphorase activity inhibition in the P415H, P415L, and C537R mutants. In contrast, Cys-369, Gly-408, Leu-546, and Glu-568 are essential for NADPH oxidase complex assembly. However, according to their position in the three-dimensional model of the cytosolic domain of Nox2, only Cys-369 could be in direct contact with cytosolic factors during oxidase assembly. In addition, the defect in oxidase assembly observed in the C369R, G408E, G408R, and E568K mutants correlates with the lack of FAD incorporation. Thus, the NADPH oxidase assembly process and FAD incorporation are closely related events essential for the diaphorase activity of Nox2.

  11. Alteration and modulation of protein activity by varying post-translational modification

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Thompson, David N.; Reed, David W.; Thompson, Vicki S.; Lacey, Jeffrey A.; Apel, William A.


    Embodiments of the invention include methods of altering the enzymatic activity or solubility of an extremophilic enzyme or post-translationally modifying a protein of interest via using isolated or partially purified glycosyltransferases and/or post-translational modification proteins, extracts of cells comprising glycosyltransferases and/or post-translational modification proteins, and/or in cells comprising one or more glycosyltransferases and/or post-translational modification proteins.

  12. Potential protein post-translational modification in ERp57: A phenotype marker for male fertility


    Viroj Wiwanitkit


    Background : In protein expression, post-translational modification is an important process. It is also an important process in human reproductive science. ERp57 is a molecule that is mentioned for post-translational modification. ERp57 is a component of human sperm acrosome proteins. However, the data on post-translational modifications of ERp57 is limited. Aim: The aim of this work is to assess potential protein post-translational modifications in ERp57 protein. Settings and Design : A desc...

  13. X-Ray Assembler Data (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — Federal regulations require that an assembler who installs one or more certified components of a diagnostic x-ray system submit a report of assembly. This database...

  14. "Hunt"-ing for post-translational modifications that underlie the histone code (United States)

    Taverna, Sean D.; David Allis, C.; Hake, Sandra B.


    Eukaryotic cells package their DNA with histone proteins to form chromatin that can be regulated to enable transcription, DNA repair and replication in response to cellular needs and external stimuli. A wealth of recent studies of post-translational histone modifications and histone variants have led to an explosion of insights into and more questions about how these processes might be regulated. Work from Donald Hunt and colleagues contributed greatly to our understanding of the "histone code" by developing novel methods to study and identify histone modifications in both generic and specialized variant histone proteins. Without his expertise, the field of chromatin biology would not be where it is today. In recognition, we are pleased to contribute to a special issue of the International Journal of Mass Spectrometry dedicated to the many advances pioneered by the Hunt laboratory, which have enhanced the science of many fields and the careers of many scientists.

  15. Quantification of noise in bifunctionality-induced post-translational modification (United States)

    Maity, Alok Kumar; Bandyopadhyay, Arnab; Chattopadhyay, Sudip; Chaudhuri, Jyotipratim Ray; Metzler, Ralf; Chaudhury, Pinaki; Banik, Suman K.


    We present a generic analytical scheme for the quantification of fluctuations due to bifunctionality-induced signal transduction within the members of a bacterial two-component system. The proposed model takes into account post-translational modifications in terms of elementary phosphotransfer kinetics. Sources of fluctuations due to autophosphorylation, kinase, and phosphatase activity of the sensor kinase have been considered in the model via Langevin equations, which are then solved within the framework of linear noise approximation. The resultant analytical expression of phosphorylated response regulators are then used to quantify the noise profile of biologically motivated single and branched pathways. Enhancement and reduction of noise in terms of extra phosphate outflux and influx, respectively, have been analyzed for the branched system. Furthermore, the role of fluctuations of the network output in the regulation of a promoter with random activation-deactivation dynamics has been analyzed.

  16. Deubiquitinase DUBA is a post-translational brake on interleukin-17 production in T cells. (United States)

    Rutz, Sascha; Kayagaki, Nobuhiko; Phung, Qui T; Eidenschenk, Celine; Noubade, Rajkumar; Wang, Xiaoting; Lesch, Justin; Lu, Rongze; Newton, Kim; Huang, Oscar W; Cochran, Andrea G; Vasser, Mark; Fauber, Benjamin P; DeVoss, Jason; Webster, Joshua; Diehl, Lauri; Modrusan, Zora; Kirkpatrick, Donald S; Lill, Jennie R; Ouyang, Wenjun; Dixit, Vishva M


    T-helper type 17 (TH17) cells that produce the cytokines interleukin-17A (IL-17A) and IL-17F are implicated in the pathogenesis of several autoimmune diseases. The differentiation of TH17 cells is regulated by transcription factors such as RORγt, but post-translational mechanisms preventing the rampant production of pro-inflammatory IL-17A have received less attention. Here we show that the deubiquitylating enzyme DUBA is a negative regulator of IL-17A production in T cells. Mice with DUBA-deficient T cells developed exacerbated inflammation in the small intestine after challenge with anti-CD3 antibodies. DUBA interacted with the ubiquitin ligase UBR5, which suppressed DUBA abundance in naive T cells. DUBA accumulated in activated T cells and stabilized UBR5, which then ubiquitylated RORγt in response to TGF-β signalling. Our data identify DUBA as a cell-intrinsic suppressor of IL-17 production.

  17. Posttranslational Modifications of Ribosomal Proteins in Escherichia coli. (United States)

    Nesterchuk, M V; Sergiev, P V; Dontsova, O A


    А number of ribosomal proteins inEscherichia coliundergo posttranslational modifications. Six ribosomal proteins are methylated (S11, L3, L11, L7/L12, L16, and L33), three proteins are acetylated (S5, S18, and L7), and protein S12 is methylthiolated. Extra amino acid residues are added to protein S6. С-terminal amino acid residues are partially removed from protein L31. The functional significance of these modifications has remained unclear. These modifications are not vital to the cells, and it is likely that they have regulatory functions. This paper reviews all the known posttranslational modifications of ribosomal proteins inEscherichia coli. Certain enzymes responsible for the modifications and mechanisms of enzymatic reactions are also discussed.

  18. Cell signaling, post-translational protein modifications and NMR spectroscopy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Theillet, Francois-Xavier [In-cell NMR Group, Department of NMR-Supported Structural Biology, Leibniz Institute of Molecular Pharmacology (FMP Berlin) (Germany); Smet-Nocca, Caroline [Universite Lille Nord de France, CNRS UMR 8576 (France); Liokatis, Stamatios; Thongwichian, Rossukon; Kosten, Jonas [In-cell NMR Group, Department of NMR-Supported Structural Biology, Leibniz Institute of Molecular Pharmacology (FMP Berlin) (Germany); Yoon, Mi-Kyung; Kriwacki, Richard W. [St. Jude Children' s Research Hospital, Department of Structural Biology (United States); Landrieu, Isabelle; Lippens, Guy [Universite Lille Nord de France, CNRS UMR 8576 (France); Selenko, Philipp, E-mail: [In-cell NMR Group, Department of NMR-Supported Structural Biology, Leibniz Institute of Molecular Pharmacology (FMP Berlin) (Germany)


    Post-translationally modified proteins make up the majority of the proteome and establish, to a large part, the impressive level of functional diversity in higher, multi-cellular organisms. Most eukaryotic post-translational protein modifications (PTMs) denote reversible, covalent additions of small chemical entities such as phosphate-, acyl-, alkyl- and glycosyl-groups onto selected subsets of modifiable amino acids. In turn, these modifications induce highly specific changes in the chemical environments of individual protein residues, which are readily detected by high-resolution NMR spectroscopy. In the following, we provide a concise compendium of NMR characteristics of the main types of eukaryotic PTMs: serine, threonine, tyrosine and histidine phosphorylation, lysine acetylation, lysine and arginine methylation, and serine, threonine O-glycosylation. We further delineate the previously uncharacterized NMR properties of lysine propionylation, butyrylation, succinylation, malonylation and crotonylation, which, altogether, define an initial reference frame for comprehensive PTM studies by high-resolution NMR spectroscopy.

  19. Analyzing the posttranslational modification status of Notch using mass spectrometry. (United States)

    Kakuda, Shinako; Haltiwanger, Robert S


    Notch is modified by multiple types of posttranslational modifications, most of which are known to affect Notch function. The extracellular domain (ECD) is modified with N-glycosylation and at least three types of O-glycosylation (O-fucose, O-glucose, and O-GlcNAc), while the intracellular domain is hydroxylated, phosphorylated, and ubiquitinated. In order to analyze the structure and function of the O-glycans decorating the ECD, we have developed semiquantitative mass spectral methods for identifying modifications at individual sites on Notch that are generally applicable to most posttranslational modifications. Here we describe the expression and purification of Notch ECD fragments, digestion of the fragments with proteases to prepare for mass spectral analysis, and identification of peptides modified with O-glycans using mass spectrometry.

  20. Identification of novel post-translational modifications in linker histones from chicken erythrocytes. (United States)

    Sarg, Bettina; Lopez, Rita; Lindner, Herbert; Ponte, Inma; Suau, Pedro; Roque, Alicia


    Chicken erythrocyte nuclei were digested with micrococcal nuclease and fractionated by centrifugation in low-salt buffer into soluble and insoluble fractions. Post-translational modifications of the purified linker histones of both fractions were analyzed by LC-ESI-MS/MS. All six histone H1 subtypes (H1.01, H1.02, H1.03, H1.10, H1.1L and H1.1R) and histone H5 were identified. Mass spectrometry analysis enabled the identification of a wide range of PTMs, including N(α)-terminal acetylation, acetylation, formylation, phosphorylation and oxidation. A total of nine new modifications in chicken linker histones were mapped, most of them located in the N-terminal and globular domains. Relative quantification of the modified peptides showed that linker histone PTMs were differentially distributed among both chromatin fractions, suggesting their relevance in the regulation of chromatin structure. The analysis of our results combined with previously reported data for chicken and some mammalian species showed that most of the modified positions were conserved throughout evolution, highlighting their importance in specific linker histone functions and epigenetics. Post-translational modifications of linker histones could have a role in the regulation of gene expression through the modulation of chromatin higher-order structure and chromatin remodeling. Finding new PTMs in linker histones is the first step to elucidate their role in the histone code. In this manuscript we report nine new post-translational modifications of the linker histones from chicken erythrocytes, one in H5 and eight in the H1 subtypes. Chromatin fractionated by centrifugation in low-salt buffer resulted in two fractions with different contents and compositions of linker histones and enriched in specific core histone PTMs. Of particular interest is the fact that linker histone PTMs were differentially distributed in both chromatin fractions, suggesting specific functions. Future studies are needed to

  1. Histone chaperones link histone nuclear import and chromatin assembly. (United States)

    Keck, Kristin M; Pemberton, Lucy F


    Histone chaperones are proteins that shield histones from nonspecific interactions until they are assembled into chromatin. After their synthesis in the cytoplasm, histones are bound by different histone chaperones, subjected to a series of posttranslational modifications and imported into the nucleus. These evolutionarily conserved modifications, including acetylation and methylation, can occur in the cytoplasm, but their role in regulating import is not well understood. As part of histone import complexes, histone chaperones may serve to protect the histones during transport, or they may be using histones to promote their own nuclear localization. In addition, there is evidence that histone chaperones can play an active role in the import of histones. Histone chaperones have also been shown to regulate the localization of important chromatin modifying enzymes. This review is focused on the role histone chaperones play in the early biogenesis of histones, the distinct cytoplasmic subcomplexes in which histone chaperones have been found in both yeast and mammalian cells and the importins/karyopherins and nuclear localization signals that mediate the nuclear import of histones. We also address the role that histone chaperone localization plays in human disease. This article is part of a Special Issue entitled: Histone chaperones and chromatin assembly.

  2. Posttranslational modification of gluten shapes TCR usage in celiac disease. (United States)

    Qiao, Shuo-Wang; Ráki, Melinda; Gunnarsen, Kristin S; Løset, Geir-Åge; Lundin, Knut E A; Sandlie, Inger; Sollid, Ludvig M


    Posttranslational modification of Ag is implicated in several autoimmune diseases. In celiac disease, a cereal gluten-induced enteropathy with several autoimmune features, T cell recognition of the gluten Ag is heavily dependent on the posttranslational conversion of Gln to Glu residues. Evidence suggests that the enhanced recognition of deamidated gluten peptides results from improved peptide binding to the MHC and TCR interaction with the peptide-MHC complex. In this study, we report that there is a biased usage of TCR Vβ6.7 chain among TCRs reactive to the immunodominant DQ2-α-II gliadin epitope. We isolated Vβ6.7 and DQ2-αII tetramer-positive CD4(+) T cells from peripheral blood of gluten-challenged celiac patients and sequenced the TCRs of a large number of single T cells. TCR sequence analysis revealed in vivo clonal expansion, convergent recombination, semipublic response, and the notable conservation of a non-germline-encoded Arg residue in the CDR3β loop. Functional testing of a prototype DQ2-α-II-reactive TCR by analysis of TCR transfectants and soluble single-chain TCRs indicate that the deamidated residue in the DQ2-α-II peptide poses constraints on the TCR structure in which the conserved Arg residue is a critical element. The findings have implications for understanding T cell responses to posttranslationally modified Ags.

  3. AMS 3.0: prediction of post-translational modifications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Plewczynski Dariusz


    Full Text Available Abstract Background We present here the recent update of AMS algorithm for identification of post-translational modification (PTM sites in proteins based only on sequence information, using artificial neural network (ANN method. The query protein sequence is dissected into overlapping short sequence segments. Ten different physicochemical features describe each amino acid; therefore nine residues long segment is represented as a point in a 90 dimensional space. The database of sequence segments with confirmed by experiments post-translational modification sites are used for training a set of ANNs. Results The efficiency of the classification for each type of modification and the prediction power of the method is estimated here using recall (sensitivity, precision values, the area under receiver operating characteristic (ROC curves and leave-one-out tests (LOOCV. The significant differences in the performance for differently optimized neural networks are observed, yet the AMS 3.0 tool integrates those heterogeneous classification schemes into the single consensus scheme, and it is able to boost the precision and recall values independent of a PTM type in comparison with the currently available state-of-the art methods. Conclusions The standalone version of AMS 3.0 presents an efficient way to indentify post-translational modifications for whole proteomes. The training datasets, precompiled binaries for AMS 3.0 tool and the source code are available at under the Apache 2.0 license scheme.

  4. Profiling post-translational modifications of histones in neural differentiation of embryonic stem cells using liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry. (United States)

    Zheng, Shuzhen; Sun, Ming; Zhang, Kai; Gu, Junjie; Guo, Zhenchang; Tian, Shanshan; Zhai, Guijin; He, Xiwen; Jin, Ying; Zhang, Yukui


    The neural differentiation of embryonic stem cells (ESCs) is of great significance for understanding of the mechanism of diseases. Histone post-translational modifications (HPTMs) play a key role in the regulation of ESCs differentiation. Here, we combined the stable isotope chemical derivatization with nano-HPLC-mass spectrometry (MS) for comprehensive analysis and quantification of histone post-translational modifications (HPTMs) in mouse embryonic stem cells (mESCs) and neural progenitor cells (mNPCs) that was derived from ESCs. We identified 85 core HPTM sites in ESCs and 78HPTM sites in NPCs including some novel lysine modifications. Our quantitative analysis results further revealed the changes of HPTMs from ESCs to NPCs and suggested effect of combinational HPTMs in the differentiation. This study demonstrates that HPLC-MS-based quantitative proteomics has a considerable advantage on quantification of combinational PTMs and expands our understanding of HPTMs in the differentiation.

  5. Post-translational Modifications of Trypanosoma cruzi Canonical and Variant Histones. (United States)

    Picchi, Gisele F A; Zulkievicz, Vanessa; Krieger, Marco A; Zanchin, Nilson T; Goldenberg, Samuel; de Godoy, Lyris M F


    Chagas disease, caused by Trypanosoma cruzi, still affects millions of people around the world. No vaccines nor treatment for chronic Chagas disease are available, and chemotherapy for the acute phase is hindered by limited efficacy and severe side effects. The processes by which the parasite acquires infectivity and survives in different hosts involve tight regulation of gene expression, mainly post-transcriptionally. Nevertheless, chromatin structure/organization of trypanosomatids is similar to other eukaryotes, including histone variants and post-translational modifications. Emerging evidence suggests that epigenetic mechanisms also play an important role in the biology/pathogenesis of these parasites, making epigenetic targets suitable candidates to drug discovery. Here, we present the first comprehensive map of post-translational modifications of T. cruzi canonical and variant histones and show that its histone code can be as sophisticated as that of other eukaryotes. A total of 13 distinct modification types were identified, including rather novel and unusual ones such as alternative lysine acylations, serine/threonine acetylation, and N-terminal methylation. Some histone marks correlate to those described for other organisms, suggesting that similar regulatory mechanisms may be in place. Others, however, are unique to T. cruzi or to trypanosomatids as a group and might represent good candidates for the development of antiparasitic drugs.

  6. Characterization of antimicrobial histone sequences and posttranslational modifications by mass spectrometry. (United States)

    Ouvry-Patat, Séverine A; Schey, Kevin L


    Histones typically play a role in DNA packaging and transcription regulation. These proteins are heavily modified by acetylation, methylation, phosphorylation and/or ubiquitination, and various combinations of these modifications alter histone functions and form the basis of the histone code. Furthermore, histones, including those found in shrimp, have recently been found to possess antimicrobial properties; however, the sequences and posttranslational modifications of shrimp histones are largely unknown. In this study mass spectrometry was used to characterize the primary structure of the shrimp antimicrobial histone. A combination of in-solution digestion and in-gel propionylation/digestion followed by LC-MS-MS and MALDI-TOF-TOF analysis was used. Over 80% of each histone sequence was obtained by in-solution digestion; however, none of the N-terminal domains was sequenced with this method. An in-gel propionylation method was optimized to recover and sequence the extremely hydrophilic histone N-termini. This method was then applied to shrimp hemocyte lysates separated on a 1-D SDS-PAGE gel. Overall, 95% coverage was obtained for the histone sequences as well as the identification of posttranslational sites such as acetylation, methylation and phosphorylation.

  7. Laser bottom hole assembly (United States)

    Underwood, Lance D; Norton, Ryan J; McKay, Ryan P; Mesnard, David R; Fraze, Jason D; Zediker, Mark S; Faircloth, Brian O


    There is provided for laser bottom hole assembly for providing a high power laser beam having greater than 5 kW of power for a laser mechanical drilling process to advance a borehole. This assembly utilizes a reverse Moineau motor type power section and provides a self-regulating system that addresses fluid flows relating to motive force, cooling and removal of cuttings.

  8. Assembly and Regulation of the Membrane Attack Complex Based on Structures of C5b6 and sC5b9

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael A. Hadders


    Full Text Available Activation of the complement system results in formation of membrane attack complexes (MACs, pores that disrupt lipid bilayers and lyse bacteria and other pathogens. Here, we present the crystal structure of the first assembly intermediate, C5b6, together with a cryo-electron microscopy reconstruction of a soluble, regulated form of the pore, sC5b9. Cleavage of C5 to C5b results in marked conformational changes, distinct from those observed in the homologous C3-to-C3b transition. C6 captures this conformation, which is preserved in the larger sC5b9 assembly. Together with antibody labeling, these structures reveal that complement components associate through sideways alignment of the central MAC-perforin (MACPF domains, resulting in a C5b6-C7-C8β-C8α-C9 arc. Soluble regulatory proteins below the arc indicate a potential dual mechanism in protection from pore formation. These results provide a structural framework for understanding MAC pore formation and regulation, processes important for fighting infections and preventing complement-mediated tissue damage.

  9. Crystal structure of the human FOXO3a-DBD/DNA complex suggests the effects of post-translational modification. (United States)

    Tsai, Kuang-Lei; Sun, Yuh-Ju; Huang, Cheng-Yang; Yang, Jer-Yen; Hung, Mien-Chie; Hsiao, Chwan-Deng


    FOXO3a is a transcription factor of the FOXO family. The FOXO proteins participate in multiple signaling pathways, and their transcriptional activity is regulated by several post-translational mechanisms, including phosphorylation, acetylation and ubiquitination. Because these post-translational modification sites are located within the C-terminal basic region of the FOXO DNA-binding domain (FOXO-DBD), it is possible that these post-translational modifications could alter the DNA-binding characteristics. To understand how FOXO mediate transcriptional activity, we report here the 2.7 A crystal structure of the DNA-binding domain of FOXO3a (FOXO3a-DBD) bound to a 13-bp DNA duplex containing a FOXO consensus binding sequence (GTAAACA). Based on a unique structural feature in the C-terminal region and results from biochemical and mutational studies, our studies may explain how FOXO-DBD C-terminal phosphorylation by protein kinase B (PKB) or acetylation by cAMP-response element binding protein (CBP) can attenuate the DNA-binding activity and thereby reduce transcriptional activity of FOXO proteins. In addition, we demonstrate that the methyl groups of specific thymine bases within the consensus sequence are important for FOXO3a-DBD recognition of the consensus binding site.

  10. The clinical significance of posttranslational modification of autoantigens. (United States)

    Zavala-Cerna, Maria G; Martínez-García, Erika A; Torres-Bugarín, Olivia; Rubio-Jurado, Benjamín; Riebeling, Carlos; Nava, Arnulfo


    Posttranslational modifications (PTMs) are defined as covalent modifications occurring in a specific protein amino acid in a time- and signal-dependent manner. Under physiological conditions, proteins are posttranslationally modified to carry out a large number of cellular events from cell signaling to DNA replication. However, an absence, deficiency, or excess in PTMs of a given protein can evolve into a target to trigger autoimmunity, since PTMs arise in the periphery and may not occur in the thymus; hence, proteins with PTMs never tolerize developing thymocytes. Consequently, when PTMs arise during cellular responses, such as inflammation, these modified self-antigens can be taken up and processed by the antigen-presenting cells (APCs). Autoreactive T cells, which recognize peptides presented by APCs, can then infiltrate into host tissue where the modified antigen serves to amplify the autoimmune response, eventually leading to autoimmune pathology. Furthermore, a PTM occurring in an amino acid residue can induce changes in the net charge of the protein, leading to conformational modifications in the tertiary and quaternary structure of the protein, especially interaction with human leukocyte antigen (HLA) molecules. Molecular mimicry (MM) was until now the prevailing hypothesis explaining generation of autoimmunity; nevertheless, experimental animal models need inflammation via infection or other immunogens to ensure autoimmunity; MM alone is not sufficient to develop autoimmunity. PTMs could arise as an additive factor to MM, which is required to start an autoimmune response. PTMs have been found to be present in different pathologic conditions such as rheumatoid arthritis (RA), systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE), antiphospholipid syndrome, and primary biliary cirrhosis. The aim of the present review is to expose protein posttranslational modifications and the evidence suggesting their role in the generation of autoimmunity.

  11. Post-translational modification of osteopontin: Effects on in vitro hydroxyapatite formation and growth

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Boskey, Adele L.; Christensen, Brian Søndergaard; Taleb, Hayat


    -fragment acted as a mineralization inhibitor. In a seeded growth experiment all fragments inhibited mineral proliferation, but the SKK-fragment was the most effective inhibitor. These effects, seen in HA-formation and seeded growth assays in a gelatin gel system and in a pH-stat experiment were lost when......The manuscript tests the hypothesis that posttranslational modification of the SIBLING family of proteins in general and osteopontin in particular modify the abilities of these proteins to regulate in vitro hydroxyapatite (HA) formation. Osteopontin has diverse effects on hydroxyapatite (HA......) mineral crystallite formation and growth depending on the extent of phosphorylation. We hypothesized that different regions of full-length OPN would also have distinct effects on the mineralization process. Thrombin fragmentation of milk OPN (mOPN) was used to test this hypothesis. Three fragments were...

  12. [Post-translational modification (PTM) bioinformatics in China: progresses and perspectives]. (United States)

    Zexian, Liu; Yudong, Cai; Xuejiang, Guo; Ao, Li; Tingting, Li; Jianding, Qiu; Jian, Ren; Shaoping, Shi; Jiangning, Song; Minghui, Wang; Lu, Xie; Yu, Xue; Ziding, Zhang; Xingming, Zhao


    Post-translational modifications (PTMs) are essential for regulating conformational changes, activities and functions of proteins, and are involved in almost all cellular pathways and processes. Identification of protein PTMs is the basis for understanding cellular and molecular mechanisms. In contrast with labor-intensive and time-consuming experiments, the PTM prediction using various bioinformatics approaches can provide accurate, convenient, and efficient strategies and generate valuable information for further experimental consideration. In this review, we summarize the current progresses made by Chineses bioinformaticians in the field of PTM Bioinformatics, including the design and improvement of computational algorithms for predicting PTM substrates and sites, design and maintenance of online and offline tools, establishment of PTM-related databases and resources, and bioinformatics analysis of PTM proteomics data. Through comparing similar studies in China and other countries, we demonstrate both advantages and limitations of current PTM bioinformatics as well as perspectives for future studies in China.

  13. Towards understanding the essence of post-translational modifications for the Mycobacterium tuberculosis immunoproteome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cecile A.C.M. Van Els


    Full Text Available CD4+ T cells are prominent effector cells in controlling Mycobacterium tuberculosis (Mtb infection but may also contribute to immunopathology. Studies probing the CD4+ T cell response from individuals latently infected with Mtb or patients with active tuberculosis using either small or proteome-wide antigen screens so far revealed a multi-antigenic, yet mostly invariable repertoire of immunogenic Mtb proteins. Recent developments in mass spectrometry-based proteomics have highlighted the occurrence of numerous types of post-translational modifications (PTM in proteomes of prokaryotes, including Mtb. Well known PTMs in Mtb are glycosylation, lipidation or phosphorylation, known regulators of protein function or compartmentalization. Other PTM include methylation, acetylation and pupylation, involved in protein stability. While all PTM add variability to the Mtb proteome, relatively little is understood about their role in the anti-Mtb immune responses. Here, we review Mtb protein PTMs and methods to assess their role in protective immunity against Mtb.

  14. The potential of fractional diagonal chromatography strategies for the enrichment of post-translational modifications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Saskia Venne


    Full Text Available More than 450 post-translational modifications (PTMs are known, however, currently only some of those can be enriched and analyzed from complex samples such as cell lysates. Therefore, we need additional methods and concepts to improve our understanding about the dynamic crosstalk of PTMs and the highly context-dependent regulation of protein function by so-called ‘PTM codes’. The mere focus on affinity-based enrichment techniques may not be sufficient to achieve this ambitious goal. However, the complementary use of two-dimensional chromatography-based strategies such as COFRADIC and ChaFRADIC might open new avenues for enriching a variety of so far inaccessible PTMs for large-scale proteome studies.

  15. The complexity of the IGF1 gene splicing, posttranslational modification and bioactivity. (United States)

    Philippou, Anastassios; Maridaki, Maria; Pneumaticos, Spiros; Koutsilieris, Michael


    The insulinlike growth factor-I (IGF-I) is an important factor which regulates a variety of cellular responses in multiple biological systems. The IGF1 gene comprises a highly conserved sequence and contains six exons, which give rise to heterogeneous mRNA transcripts by a combination of multiple transcription initiation sites and alternative splicing. These multiple transcripts code for different precursor IGF-I polypeptides, namely the IGF-IEa, IGF-IEb and IGF-IEc isoforms in humans, which also undergo posttranslational modifications, such as proteolytic processing and glycosylation. IGF-I actions are mediated through its binding to several cell-membrane receptors and the IGF-I domain responsible for the receptor binding is the bioactive mature IGF-I peptide, which is derived after the posttranslational cleavage of the pro-IGF-I isoforms and the removal of their carboxy-terminal E-peptides (that is, the Ea, Eb and Ec). Interestingly, differential biological activities have been reported for the different IGF-I isoforms, or for their E-peptides, implying that IGF-I peptides other than the IGF-I ligand also possess bioactivity and, thus, both common and unique or complementary pathways exist for the IGF-I isoforms to promote biological effects. The multiple peptides derived from IGF-I and the differential expression of its various transcripts in different conditions and pathologies appear to be compatible with the distinct cellular responses observed to the different IGF-I peptides and with the concept of a complex and possibly isoform-specific IGF-I bioactivity. This concept is discussed in the present review, in the context of the broad range of modifications that this growth factor undergoes which might regulate its mechanism(s) of action.

  16. pH-regulated release of dopamine from well-ordered self-assembled monolayers: electrochemical studies. (United States)

    Kazemi, Sayed Habib; Alizadeh, Abdolhamid; Mohamadi, Rahim; Khodaei, Mohammad Mahdi; Kordestani, Davood


    In the present work, gold electrode modified with novel aldehyde-terminated self-assembled monolayers (SAMs) was used for controllable load and release of dopamine molecules by pH triggering. Electrochemical techniques including cyclic voltammetry (CV) and electrochemcial impedance spectroscopy (EIS) were employed to investigate the SAMs characteristic on the gold electrode surface. The electrochemical experiments indicated Faradaic behavior for the electrode surface after its modification with dopamine. Notably, it was observed that decreasing the conditioning pH, results in a decrease of peak currents, presumably due to the hydrolysis of the terminal imine bonds and releasing the dopamine moiety into the solution. Moreover, the preliminary kinetics studies were done for dopamine release from the SAMs surface as a model to design future drug delivery systems. Finally, the rate constant of dopamine release from the SAMs modified surface estimated to be 0.167 day(-1) at pH=3.

  17. Regulation of substituent groups on morphologies and self-assembly of organogels based on some azobenzene imide derivatives (United States)

    Jiao, Tifeng; Wang, Yujin; Zhang, Qingrui; Zhou, Jingxin; Gao, Faming


    In this paper, new azobenzene imide derivatives with different substituent groups were designed and synthesized. Their gelation behaviors in 21 solvents were tested as novel low-molecular-mass organic gelators. It was shown that the alkyl substituent chains and headgroups of azobenzene residues in gelators played a crucial role in the gelation behavior of all compounds in various organic solvents. More alkyl chains in molecular skeletons in present gelators are favorable for the gelation of organic solvents. Scanning electron microscopy and atomic force microscopy observations revealed that the gelator molecules self-assemble into different aggregates, from wrinkle, lamella, and belt to fiber with the change of solvents. Spectral studies indicated that there existed different H-bond formations between amide groups and conformations of methyl chains. The present work may give some insight to the design and character of new organogelators and soft materials with special molecular structures.

  18. Regulation of SUMO Modification

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    P.M. Knipscheer (Puck Maria)


    textabstractThe small ubiquitin related modifier SUMO is a posttranslational modifier that functions in a wide range of cellular processes like intracellular transport, cell cycle regulation, DNA repair and regulation of transcription. SUMO is an 11 kDa protein and is ligated to its target proteins

  19. Overexpression of Ran GTPase Components Regulating Nuclear Export, but not Mitotic Spindle Assembly, Marks Chromosome Instability and Poor Prognosis in Breast Cancer. (United States)

    Vaidyanathan, Srividya; Thangavelu, Pulari U; Duijf, Pascal H G


    Ran GTPase regulates nuclear import, nuclear export, and mitotic spindle assembly. The multifunctional involvement of seventeen Ran GTPase components in these processes has complicated research into how each contributes to cancer development. To assess whether individual and process-specific misexpression of Ran GTPase components contribute to chromosome instability (CIN) and worsen breast cancer patient prognosis. Using publicly available datasets, we studied the degree of misexpression of all Ran GTPase signaling components in breast cancer, assessed their involvement in CIN and used four clinical tests to evaluate whether their misregulation may constitute independent prognostic predictors. A significant majority of Ran GTPase signaling components is overexpressed in breast cancer. Strikingly, spindle assembly components are overexpressed and associated with CIN with only marginal significance and four independent tests indicate that this does not worsen patient outcome. Overexpression of nuclear import components is neither CIN-associated nor clinically significant. In sharp contrast, overexpression of nuclear export components constitutes a strong independent marker for both CIN and poor patient prognosis. We identify Exportin 2/CSE1L, Exportin 3/XPOT, Exportin 5/XPO5, and RANBP1 as novel potential targets. We find that overexpression of Ran GTPase components involved in nuclear export, but not nuclear import or mitotic spindle assembly, is a strong CIN-associated marker for poor breast cancer prognosis. This could mean that increased nuclear export (of, for instance, pRb, p53, p73, BRCA1, p21, p27, E2F4, IκB, survivin), rather than spindle defects, mainly drives CIN and tumorigenesis. Hence, selective inhibitors of nuclear export may be effective for treating the most aggressive and chromosomally unstable breast cancers.

  20. Integration host factor assembly at the cohesive end site of the bacteriophage lambda genome: implications for viral DNA packaging and bacterial gene regulation. (United States)

    Sanyal, Saurarshi J; Yang, Teng-Chieh; Catalano, Carlos Enrique


    Integration host factor (IHF) is an Escherichia coli protein involved in (i) condensation of the bacterial nucleoid and (ii) regulation of a variety of cellular functions. In its regulatory role, IHF binds to a specific sequence to introduce a strong bend into the DNA; this provides a duplex architecture conducive to the assembly of site-specific nucleoprotein complexes. Alternatively, the protein can bind in a sequence-independent manner that weakly bends and wraps the duplex to promote nucleoid formation. IHF is also required for the development of several viruses, including bacteriophage lambda, where it promotes site-specific assembly of a genome packaging motor required for lytic development. Multiple IHF consensus sequences have been identified within the packaging initiation site (cos), and we here interrogate IHF-cos binding interactions using complementary electrophoretic mobility shift (EMS) and analytical ultracentrifugation (AUC) approaches. IHF recognizes a single consensus sequence within cos (I1) to afford a strongly bent nucleoprotein complex. In contrast, IHF binds weakly but with positive cooperativity to nonspecific DNA to afford an ensemble of complexes with increasing masses and levels of condensation. Global analysis of the EMS and AUC data provides constrained thermodynamic binding constants and nearest neighbor cooperativity factors for binding of IHF to I1 and to nonspecific DNA substrates. At elevated IHF concentrations, the nucleoprotein complexes undergo a transition from a condensed to an extended rodlike conformation; specific binding of IHF to I1 imparts a significant energy barrier to the transition. The results provide insight into how IHF can assemble specific regulatory complexes in the background of extensive nonspecific DNA condensation.

  1. The vacuolar-ATPase complex and assembly factors, TMEM199 and CCDC115, control HIF1α prolyl hydroxylation by regulating cellular iron levels. (United States)

    Miles, Anna L; Burr, Stephen P; Grice, Guinevere L; Nathan, James A


    Hypoxia Inducible transcription Factors (HIFs) are principally regulated by the 2-oxoglutarate and Iron(II) prolyl hydroxylase (PHD) enzymes, which hydroxylate the HIFα subunit, facilitating its proteasome-mediated degradation. Observations that HIFα hydroxylation can be impaired even when oxygen is sufficient emphasise the importance of understanding the complex nature of PHD regulation. Here, we use an unbiased genome-wide genetic screen in near-haploid human cells to uncover cellular processes that regulate HIF1α. We identify that genetic disruption of the Vacuolar H+ ATPase (V-ATPase), the key proton pump for endo-lysosomal acidification, and two previously uncharacterised V-ATPase assembly factors, TMEM199 and CCDC115, stabilise HIF1α in aerobic conditions. Rather than preventing the lysosomal degradation of HIF1α, disrupting the V-ATPase results in intracellular iron depletion, thereby impairing PHD activity and leading to HIF activation. Iron supplementation directly restores PHD catalytic activity following V-ATPase inhibition, revealing important links between the V-ATPase, iron metabolism and HIFs.

  2. Heteromultimeric TRPML channel assemblies play a crucial role in the regulation of cell viability models and starvation-induced autophagy. (United States)

    Zeevi, David A; Lev, Shaya; Frumkin, Ayala; Minke, Baruch; Bach, Gideon


    The mucolipin (TRPML) subfamily of transient receptor potential (TRP) cation channels consists of three members that play various roles in the regulation of membrane and protein sorting along endo-lysosomal pathways. Loss-of-function mutations in TRPML1 cause the neurodegenerative lysosomal storage disorder, mucolipidosis type IV (MLIV), whereas a gain-of-function mutation in TRPML3 is principally implicated in the hearing-impaired and abnormally pigmented varitint-waddler mouse. Currently, TRPML2 is not implicated in any pathological disorder, but we have recently shown that it is a functional cation channel that physically interacts with TRPML1 and TRPML3 to potentially regulate lysosomal integrity. Here, we show that mutant TRPMLs heteromultimerize with other mutant and wild-type TRPMLs to regulate cell viability and starvation-induced autophagy, a process that mediates macromolecular and organellar turnover under cell starvation conditions. Heteromultimerization of dominant-negative TRPMLs with constitutively active TRPMLs rescues cells from the cytotoxic effects of TRPML constitutive activity. Moreover, dominant-negative TRPML1 channels, including a mutant channel directly implicated in MLIV pathology, also inhibit starvation-induced autophagy by interacting with and affecting native TRPML channel function. Collectively, our results indicate that heteromultimerization of TRPML channels plays a role in various TRPML-regulated mechanisms.

  3. Nitric Oxide-Mediated Posttranslational Modifications: Impacts at the Synapse

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sophie A. Bradley


    Full Text Available Nitric oxide (NO is an important gasotransmitter molecule that is involved in numerous physiological processes throughout the nervous system. In addition to its involvement in physiological plasticity processes (long-term potentiation, LTP; long-term depression, LTD which can include NMDAR-mediated calcium-dependent activation of neuronal nitric oxide synthase (nNOS, new insights into physiological and pathological consequences of nitrergic signalling have recently emerged. In addition to the canonical cGMP-mediated signalling, NO is also implicated in numerous pathways involving posttranslational modifications. In this review we discuss the multiple effects of S-nitrosylation and 3-nitrotyrosination on proteins with potential modulation of function but limit the analyses to signalling involved in synaptic transmission and vesicular release. Here, crucial proteins which mediate synaptic transmission can undergo posttranslational modifications with either pre- or postsynaptic origin. During normal brain function, both pathways serve as important cellular signalling cascades that modulate a diverse array of physiological processes, including synaptic plasticity, transcriptional activity, and neuronal survival. In contrast, evidence suggests that aging and disease can induce nitrosative stress via excessive NO production. Consequently, uncontrolled S-nitrosylation/3-nitrotyrosination can occur and represent pathological features that contribute to the onset and progression of various neurodegenerative diseases, including Parkinson’s, Alzheimer’s, and Huntington’s.

  4. Potential protein post-translational modification in ERp57: A phenotype marker for male fertility

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Viroj Wiwanitkit


    Full Text Available Background : In protein expression, post-translational modification is an important process. It is also an important process in human reproductive science. ERp57 is a molecule that is mentioned for post-translational modification. ERp57 is a component of human sperm acrosome proteins. However, the data on post-translational modifications of ERp57 is limited. Aim: The aim of this work is to assess potential protein post-translational modifications in ERp57 protein. Settings and Design : A descriptive computational bioinformatics study. Materials and Methods : In this work, potential protein post-translational modifications in ERp57 protein were assessed via a standard bioinformatics technique. Statistical Analysis Used : Bioinformatics analysis. Results : There are three post-translational modifications within ERp57 from bioinformatics analysis. Conclusion : This new knowledge can be useful for better realization on molecular process of male infertility.

  5. Crosstalk in gene expression: coupling and co-regulation of rDNA transcription, pre-ribosome assembly and pre-rRNA processing. (United States)

    Granneman, Sander; Baserga, Susan J


    Ribosomes, the large RNPs that translate mRNA into protein in the cytoplasm of eukaryotic cells, are synthesized in a subcompartment of the nucleus, the nucleolus. There, transcription by Pol I yields a pre-rRNA which is modified, cleaved and assembled with ribosomal proteins to make functional ribosomes. Previously, rRNA transcription and pre-rRNA cleavage in eukaryotes were considered to be separable steps in gene expression. However, recent findings suggest that these two steps in gene expression can be concurrent and are co-regulated. Unexpectedly, optimal rDNA transcription requires the presence of a defined subset of components of the pre-rRNA processing machinery.

  6. Surface Appendages of Archaea: Structure, Function, Genetics and Assembly

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sarah Siu


    Full Text Available Organisms representing diverse subgroupings of the Domain Archaea are known to possess unusual surface structures. These can include ones unique to Archaea such as cannulae and hami as well as archaella (archaeal flagella and various types of pili that superficially resemble their namesakes in Bacteria, although with significant differences. Major advances have occurred particularly in the study of archaella and pili using model organisms with recently developed advanced genetic tools. There is common use of a type IV pili-model of assembly for several archaeal surface structures including archaella, certain pili and sugar binding structures termed bindosomes. In addition, there are widespread posttranslational modifications of archaellins and pilins with N-linked glycans, with some containing novel sugars. Archaeal surface structures are involved in such diverse functions as swimming, attachment to surfaces, cell to cell contact resulting in genetic transfer, biofilm formation, and possible intercellular communication. Sometimes functions are co-dependent on other surface structures. These structures and the regulation of their assembly are important features that allow various Archaea, including thermoacidophilic, hyperthermophilic, halophilic, and anaerobic ones, to survive and thrive in the extreme environments that are commonly inhabited by members of this domain.

  7. Evidence that the spindle assembly checkpoint does not regulate APC(Fzy) activity in Drosophila female meiosis. (United States)

    Batiha, Osamah; Swan, Andrew


    The spindle assembly checkpoint (SAC) plays an important role in mitotic cells to sense improper chromosome attachment to spindle microtubules and to inhibit APC(Fzy)-dependent destruction of cyclin B and Securin; consequent initiation of anaphase until correct attachments are made. In Drosophila , SAC genes have been found to play a role in ensuring proper chromosome segregation in meiosis, possibly reflecting a similar role for the SAC in APC(Fzy) inhibition during meiosis. We found that loss of function mutations in SAC genes, Mad2, zwilch, and mps1, do not lead to the predicted rise in APC(Fzy)-dependent degradation of cyclin B either globally throughout the egg or locally on the meiotic spindle. Further, the SAC is not responsible for the inability of APC(Fzy) to target cyclin B and promote anaphase in metaphase II arrested eggs from cort mutant females. Our findings support the argument that SAC proteins play checkpoint independent roles in Drosophila female meiosis and that other mechanisms must function to control APC activity.

  8. POSTMan (POST-translational modification analysis), a software application for PTM discovery. (United States)

    Arntzen, Magnus Ø; Osland, Christoffer Leif; Raa, Christopher Rasch-Olsen; Kopperud, Reidun; Døskeland, Stein-Ove; Lewis, Aurélia E; D'Santos, Clive S


    Post-translationally modified peptides present in low concentrations are often not selected for CID, resulting in no sequence information for these peptides. We have developed a software POSTMan (POST-translational Modification analysis) allowing post-translationally modified peptides to be targeted for fragmentation. The software aligns LC-MS runs (MS(1) data) between individual runs or within a single run and isolates pairs of peptides which differ by a user defined mass difference (post-translationally modified peptides). The method was validated for acetylated peptides and allowed an assessment of even the basal protein phosphorylation of phenylalanine hydroxylase (PHA) in intact cells.

  9. The LC7 Light Chains of Chlamydomonas Flagellar Dyneins Interact with Components Required for Both Motor Assembly and Regulation (United States)

    DiBella, Linda M.; Sakato, Miho; Patel-King, Ramila S.; Pazour, Gregory J.; King, Stephen M.


    Members of the LC7/Roadblock family of light chains (LCs) have been found in both cytoplasmic and axonemal dyneins. LC7a was originally identified within Chlamydomonas outer arm dynein and associates with this motor's cargo-binding region. We describe here a novel member of this protein family, termed LC7b that is also present in the Chlamydomonas flagellum. Levels of LC7b are reduced ∼20% in axonemes isolated from strains lacking inner arm I1 and are ∼80% lower in the absence of the outer arms. When both dyneins are missing, LC7b levels are diminished to <10%. In oda9 axonemal extracts that completely lack outer arms, LC7b copurifies with inner arm I1, whereas in ida1 extracts that are devoid of I1 inner arms it associates with outer arm dynein. We also have observed that some LC7a is present in both isolated axonemes and purified 18S dynein from oda1, suggesting that it is also a component of both the outer arm and inner arm I1. Intriguingly, in axonemal extracts from the LC7a null mutant, oda15, which assembles ∼30% of its outer arms, LC7b fails to copurify with either dynein, suggesting that it interacts with LC7a. Furthermore, both the outer arm γ heavy chain and DC2 from the outer arm docking complex completely dissociate after salt extraction from oda15 axonemes. EDC cross-linking of purified dynein revealed that LC7b interacts with LC3, an outer dynein arm thioredoxin; DC2, an outer arm docking complex component; and also with the phosphoprotein IC138 from inner arm I1. These data suggest that LC7a stabilizes both the outer arms and inner arm I1 and that both LC7a and LC7b are involved in multiple intradynein interactions within both dyneins. PMID:15304520

  10. Identifying a kinase network regulating FGF14:Nav1.6 complex assembly using split-luciferase complementation.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wei-Chun Hsu

    Full Text Available Kinases play fundamental roles in the brain. Through complex signaling pathways, kinases regulate the strength of protein:protein interactions (PPI influencing cell cycle, signal transduction, and electrical activity of neurons. Changes induced by kinases on neuronal excitability, synaptic plasticity and brain connectivity are linked to complex brain disorders, but the molecular mechanisms underlying these cellular events remain for the most part elusive. To further our understanding of brain disease, new methods for rapidly surveying kinase pathways in the cellular context are needed. The bioluminescence-based luciferase complementation assay (LCA is a powerful, versatile toolkit for the exploration of PPI. LCA relies on the complementation of two firefly luciferase protein fragments that are functionally reconstituted into the full luciferase enzyme by two interacting binding partners. Here, we applied LCA in live cells to assay 12 kinase pathways as regulators of the PPI complex formed by the voltage-gated sodium channel, Nav1.6, a transmembrane ion channel that elicits the action potential in neurons and mediates synaptic transmission, and its multivalent accessory protein, the fibroblast growth factor 14 (FGF14. Through extensive dose-dependent validations of structurally-diverse kinase inhibitors and hierarchical clustering, we identified the PI3K/Akt pathway, the cell-cycle regulator Wee1 kinase, and protein kinase C (PKC as prospective regulatory nodes of neuronal excitability through modulation of the FGF14:Nav1.6 complex. Ingenuity Pathway Analysis shows convergence of these pathways on glycogen synthase kinase 3 (GSK3 and functional assays demonstrate that inhibition of GSK3 impairs excitability of hippocampal neurons. This combined approach provides a versatile toolkit for rapidly surveying PPI signaling, allowing the discovery of new modular pathways centered on GSK3 that might be the basis for functional alterations between the

  11. PTMScout, a Web resource for analysis of high throughput post-translational proteomics studies. (United States)

    Naegle, Kristen M; Gymrek, Melissa; Joughin, Brian A; Wagner, Joel P; Welsch, Roy E; Yaffe, Michael B; Lauffenburger, Douglas A; White, Forest M


    The rate of discovery of post-translational modification (PTM) sites is increasing rapidly and is significantly outpacing our biological understanding of the function and regulation of those modifications. To help meet this challenge, we have created PTMScout, a web-based interface for viewing, manipulating, and analyzing high throughput experimental measurements of PTMs in an effort to facilitate biological understanding of protein modifications in signaling networks. PTMScout is constructed around a custom database of PTM experiments and contains information from external protein and post-translational resources, including gene ontology annotations, Pfam domains, and Scansite predictions of kinase and phosphopeptide binding domain interactions. PTMScout functionality comprises data set comparison tools, data set summary views, and tools for protein assignments of peptides identified by mass spectrometry. Analysis tools in PTMScout focus on informed subset selection via common criteria and on automated hypothesis generation through subset labeling derived from identification of statistically significant enrichment of other annotations in the experiment. Subset selection can be applied through the PTMScout flexible query interface available for quantitative data measurements and data annotations as well as an interface for importing data set groupings by external means, such as unsupervised learning. We exemplify the various functions of PTMScout in application to data sets that contain relative quantitative measurements as well as data sets lacking quantitative measurements, producing a set of interesting biological hypotheses. PTMScout is designed to be a widely accessible tool, enabling generation of multiple types of biological hypotheses from high throughput PTM experiments and advancing functional assignment of novel PTM sites. PTMScout is available at

  12. S-Layer Glycoproteins and Flagellins: Reporters of Archaeal Posttranslational Modifications

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    Ken F. Jarrell


    Full Text Available Many archaeal proteins undergo posttranslational modifications. S-layer proteins and flagellins have been used successfully to study a variety of these modifications, including N-linked glycosylation, signal peptide removal and lipid modification. Use of these well-characterized reporter proteins in the genetically tractable model organisms, Haloferax volcanii, Methanococcus voltae and Methanococcus maripaludis, has allowed dissection of the pathways and characterization of many of the enzymes responsible for these modifications. Such studies have identified archaeal-specific variations in signal peptidase activity not found in the other domains of life, as well as the enzymes responsible for assembly and biosynthesis of novel N-linked glycans. In vitro assays for some of these enzymes have already been developed. N-linked glycosylation is not essential for either Hfx. volcanii or the Methanococcus species, an observation that allowed researchers to analyze the role played by glycosylation in the function of both S-layers and flagellins, by generating mutants possessing these reporters with only partial attached glycans or lacking glycan altogether. In future studies, it will be possible to consider questions related to the heterogeneity associated with given modifications, such as differential or modulated glycosylation.

  13. Protein Phosphatases Involved in Regulating Mitosis: Facts and Hypotheses. (United States)

    Kim, Hyun-Soo; Fernandes, Gary; Lee, Chang-Woo


    Almost all eukaryotic proteins are subject to post-translational modifications during mitosis and cell cycle, and in particular, reversible phosphorylation being a key event. The recent use of high-throughput experimental analyses has revealed that more than 70% of all eukaryotic proteins are regulated by phosphorylation; however, the mechanism of dephosphorylation, counteracting phosphorylation, is relatively unknown. Recent discoveries have shown that many of the protein phosphatases are involved in the temporal and spatial control of mitotic events, such as mitotic entry, mitotic spindle assembly, chromosome architecture changes and cohesion, and mitotic exit. This implies that certain phosphatases are tightly regulated for timely dephosphorylation of key mitotic phosphoproteins and are essential for control of various mitotic processes. This review describes the physiological and pathological roles of mitotic phosphatases, as well as the versatile role of various protein phosphatases in several mitotic events.

  14. Dynein light chain 1 induces assembly of large Bim complexes on mitochondria that stabilize Mcl-1 and regulate apoptosis. (United States)

    Singh, Prafull Kumar; Roukounakis, Aristomenis; Frank, Daniel O; Kirschnek, Susanne; Das, Kushal Kumar; Neumann, Simon; Madl, Josef; Römer, Winfried; Zorzin, Carina; Borner, Christoph; Haimovici, Aladin; Garcia-Saez, Ana; Weber, Arnim; Häcker, Georg


    The Bcl-2 family protein Bim triggers mitochondrial apoptosis. Bim is expressed in nonapoptotic cells at the mitochondrial outer membrane, where it is activated by largely unknown mechanisms. We found that Bim is regulated by formation of large protein complexes containing dynein light chain 1 (DLC1). Bim rapidly inserted into cardiolipin-containing membranes in vitro and recruited DLC1 to the membrane. Bim binding to DLC1 induced the formation of large Bim complexes on lipid vesicles, on isolated mitochondria, and in intact cells. Native gel electrophoresis and gel filtration showed Bim-containing mitochondrial complexes of several hundred kilodaltons in all cells tested. Bim unable to form complexes was consistently more active than complexed Bim, which correlated with its substantially reduced binding to anti-apoptotic Bcl-2 proteins. At endogenous levels, Bim surprisingly bound only anti-apoptotic Mcl-1 but not Bcl-2 or Bcl-XL, recruiting only Mcl-1 into large complexes. Targeting of DLC1 by RNAi in human cell lines induced disassembly of Bim-Mcl-1 complexes and the proteasomal degradation of Mcl-1 and sensitized the cells to the Bcl-2/Bcl-XL inhibitor ABT-737. Regulation of apoptosis at mitochondria thus extends beyond the interaction of monomers of proapoptotic and anti-apoptotic Bcl-2 family members but involves more complex structures of proteins at the mitochondrial outer membrane, and targeting complexes may be a novel therapeutic strategy. © 2017 Singh et al.; Published by Cold Spring Harbor Laboratory Press.

  15. Xp54 and related (DDX6-like) RNA helicases: roles in messenger RNP assembly, translation regulation and RNA degradation (United States)

    Weston, Andrew; Sommerville, John


    The DEAD-box RNA helicase Xp54 is an integral component of the messenger ribonucleoprotein (mRNP) particles of Xenopus oocytes. In oocytes, several abundant proteins bind pre-mRNA transcripts to modulate nuclear export, RNA stability and translational fate. Of these, Xp54, the mRNA-masking protein FRGY2 and its activating protein kinase CK2α, bind to nascent transcripts on chromosome loops, whereas an Xp54-associated factor, RapA/B, binds to the mRNP complex in the cytoplasm. Over-expression, mutation and knockdown experiments indicate that Xp54 functions to change the conformation of mRNP complexes, displacing one subset of proteins to accommodate another. The sequence of Xp54 is highly conserved in a wide spectrum of organisms. Like Xp54, Drosophila Me31B and Caenorhabditis CGH-1 are required for proper meiotic development, apparently by regulating the translational activation of stored mRNPs and also for sorting certain mRNPs into germplasm-containing structures. Studies on yeast Dhh1 and mammalian rck/p54 have revealed a key role for these helicases in mRNA degradation and in earlier remodelling of mRNP for entry into translation, storage or decay pathways. The versatility of Xp54 and related helicases in modulating the metabolism of mRNAs at all stages of their lifetimes marks them out as key regulators of post-transcriptional gene expression. PMID:16769775

  16. Aberrant calcium signaling by transglutaminase-mediated posttranslational modification of inositol 1,4,5-trisphosphate receptors. (United States)

    Hamada, Kozo; Terauchi, Akiko; Nakamura, Kyoko; Higo, Takayasu; Nukina, Nobuyuki; Matsumoto, Nagisa; Hisatsune, Chihiro; Nakamura, Takeshi; Mikoshiba, Katsuhiko


    The inositol 1,4,5-trisphosphate receptor (IP3R) in the endoplasmic reticulum mediates calcium signaling that impinges on intracellular processes. IP3Rs are allosteric proteins comprising four subunits that form an ion channel activated by binding of IP3 at a distance. Defective allostery in IP3R is considered crucial to cellular dysfunction, but the specific mechanism remains unknown. Here we demonstrate that a pleiotropic enzyme transglutaminase type 2 targets the allosteric coupling domain of IP3R type 1 (IP3R1) and negatively regulates IP3R1-mediated calcium signaling and autophagy by locking the subunit configurations. The control point of this regulation is the covalent posttranslational modification of the Gln2746 residue that transglutaminase type 2 tethers to the adjacent subunit. Modification of Gln2746 and IP3R1 function was observed in Huntington disease models, suggesting a pathological role of this modification in the neurodegenerative disease. Our study reveals that cellular signaling is regulated by a new mode of posttranslational modification that chronically and enzymatically blocks allosteric changes in the ligand-gated channels that relate to disease states.

  17. Quantitative proteomic characterization of redox-dependent post-translational modifications on protein cysteines

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Duan, Jicheng; Gaffrey, Matthew J.; Qian, Wei-Jun


    Protein cysteine thiols play a crucial role in redox signaling, regulation of enzymatic activity and protein function, and maintaining redox homeostasis in living systems. The unique chemical reactivity of thiol groups makes cysteine susceptible to oxidative modifications by reactive oxygen and nitrogen species to form a broad array of reversible and irreversible protein post-translational modifications (PTMs). The reversible modifications in particular are one of the major components of redox signaling and are involved in regulation of various cellular processes under physiological and pathological conditions. The biological significance of these redox PTMs in health and diseases has been increasingly recognized. Herein, we review the recent advances of quantitative proteomic approaches for investigating redox PTMs in complex biological systems, including the general considerations of sample processing, various chemical or affinity enrichment strategies, and quantitative approaches. We also highlight a number of redox proteomic approaches that enable effective profiling of redox PTMs for addressing specific biological questions. Although some technological limitations remain, redox proteomics is paving the way towards a better understanding of redox signaling and regulation in human health and diseases.

  18. Histone posttranslational modifications predict specific alternative exon subtypes in mammalian brain.

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    Qiwen Hu


    Full Text Available A compelling body of literature, based on next generation chromatin immunoprecipitation and RNA sequencing of reward brain regions indicates that the regulation of the epigenetic landscape likely underlies chronic drug abuse and addiction. It is now critical to develop highly innovative computational strategies to reveal the relevant regulatory transcriptional mechanisms that may underlie neuropsychiatric disease. We have analyzed chromatin regulation of alternative splicing, which is implicated in cocaine exposure in mice. Recent literature has described chromatin-regulated alternative splicing, suggesting a novel function for drug-induced neuroepigenetic remodeling. However, the extent of the genome-wide association between particular histone modifications and alternative splicing remains unexplored. To address this, we have developed novel computational approaches to model the association between alternative splicing and histone posttranslational modifications in the nucleus accumbens (NAc, a brain reward region. Using classical statistical methods and machine learning to combine ChIP-Seq and RNA-Seq data, we found that specific histone modifications are strongly associated with various aspects of differential splicing. H3K36me3 and H3K4me1 have the strongest association with splicing indicating they play a significant role in alternative splicing in brain reward tissue.

  19. Post-translational modifications of EMT transcriptional factors in cancer metastasis

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    Chang Rui


    Full Text Available Metastasis is an important reason for death of cancer patients which characterized as the formation of secondary cancers at distant sites. Epithelial– mesenchymal transition (EMT is a dynamic process that appear to facilitate tumor metastasis in various cancers by switching epithelial cells into mesenchymal properties. Although previous investigation suggested a key role of EMT transcriptional factors in suppression of E-cadherin, the association of these factors with other cellular regulators in cancer metastasis need to be fully elucidated. Post-translational modifications (PTMs, such as acetylation and phosphorylation, have emerged as an important mechanism to modulate biological behavior of substrate proteins. In this review, we summarized protein modification and subsequent function changes of Snail, Twist and ZEB, as well as their influence on tumor progression. Acetylation of EMT transcriptional factors usually cause nuclear localization and/or protein stabilization thus contribute to E-cadherin repression. Besides, Twist and ZEB were phosphorylated by diverse kinases to promote metastasis in many cancers, while Snail was negatively regulated by phosphorylation to degradation. Then, the potential of therapy for metastasis by targeting PTMs-involved regulation of EMT transcriptional factors were discussed.

  20. The master regulator for biofilm formation in Bacillus subtilis governs the expression of an operon encoding secreted proteins required for the assembly of complex multicellular communities.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Branda, Steven S. (Harvard Medical School, Cambridge, MA); Losick, Richard (Harvard University, Cambridge, MA); Kolter, Roberto (Harvard Medical School, Cambridge, MA); Kearns, Daniel B. (Harvard University, Cambridge, MA); Chu, Frances (Harvard University, Cambridge, MA)


    Wild strains of Bacillus subtilis are capable of forming architecturally complex communities of cells known as biofilms. Critical to biofilm formation is the eps operon, which is believed to be responsible for the biosynthesis of an exopolysaccharide that binds chains of cells together in bundles. We report that transcription of eps is under the negative regulation of SinR, a repressor that was found to bind to multiple sites in the regulatory region of the operon. Mutations in sinR bypassed the requirement in biofilm formation of two genes of unknown function, ylbF and ymcA, and sinI, which is known to encode an antagonist of SinR. We propose that these genes are members of a pathway that is responsible for counteracting SinR-mediated repression. We further propose that SinR is a master regulator that governs the transition between a planktonic state in which the bacteria swim as single cells in liquid or swarm in small groups over surfaces, and a sessile state in which the bacteria adhere to each other to form bundled chains and assemble into multicellular communities.

  1. The Rab GTPase Rab8 as a shared regulator of ciliogenesis and immune synapse assembly: From a conserved pathway to diverse cellular structures (United States)

    Patrussi, Laura; Baldari, Cosima T.


    ABSTRACT Rab GTPases, which form the largest branch of the Ras GTPase superfamily, regulate almost every step of vesicle-mediated trafficking. Among them, Rab8 is an essential participant in primary cilium formation. In a report recently published in the Journal of Cell Science, Finetti and colleagues identify Rab8 as a novel player in vesicular traffic in the non-ciliated T lymphocytes, which contributes to the assembly of the specialized signaling platform known as the immune synapse. By interacting with the v-SNARE VAMP-3, Rab8 is indeed responsible for the final docking/fusion step in T cell receptor (TCR) recycling to the immune synapse. A second important take-home message which comes to light from this work is that VAMP-3 also interacts with Rab8 at the base of the cilium in NIH-3T3 cells, where it regulates ciliary growth and targeting of Smoothened at the plasma membrane. Hence the data presented in this report, in addition to identifying Rab8 as a novel player in vesicular traffic to the immune synapse, reveal how both ciliated and non-ciliated cells take advantage of a conserved pathway to build highly specific cellular structures. PMID:26587735

  2. Integrin-α5 coordinates assembly of posterior cranial placodes in zebrafish and enhances Fgf-dependent regulation of otic/epibranchial cells.

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    Neha Bhat

    Full Text Available Vertebrate sensory organs develop in part from cranial placodes, a series of ectodermal thickenings that coalesce from a common domain of preplacodal ectoderm. Mechanisms coordinating morphogenesis and differentiation of discrete placodes are still poorly understood. We have investigated whether placodal assembly in zebrafish requires Integrin- α5 (itga5, an extracellular matrix receptor initially expressed throughout the preplacodal ectoderm. Morpholino knockdown of itga5 had no detectable effect on anterior placodes (pituitary, nasal and lens, but posterior placodes developed abnormally, resulting in disorganization of trigeminal and epibranchial ganglia and reduction of the otic vesicle. Cell motion analysis in GFP-transgenic embryos showed that cell migration in itga5 morphants was highly erratic and unfocused, impairing convergence and blocking successive recruitment of new cells into these placodes. Further studies revealed genetic interactions between itga5 and Fgf signaling. First, itga5 morphants showed changes in gene expression mimicking modest reduction in Fgf signaling. Second, itga5 morphants showed elevated apoptosis in the otic/epibranchial domain, which was rescued by misexpression of Fgf8. Third, knockdown of the Fgf effector erm had no effect by itself but strongly enhanced defects in itga5 morphants. Finally, proper regulation of itga5 requires dlx3b/4b and pax8, which are themselves regulated by Fgf. These findings support a model in which itga5 coordinates cell migration into posterior placodes and augments Fgf signaling required for patterning of these tissues and cell survival in otic/epibranchial placodes.

  3. Metagenome mining reveals polytheonamides as posttranslationally modified ribosomal peptides. (United States)

    Freeman, Michael F; Gurgui, Cristian; Helf, Maximilian J; Morinaka, Brandon I; Uria, Agustinus R; Oldham, Neil J; Sahl, Hans-Georg; Matsunaga, Shigeki; Piel, Jörn


    It is held as a paradigm that ribosomally synthesized peptides and proteins contain only l-amino acids. We demonstrate a ribosomal origin of the marine sponge-derived polytheonamides, exceptionally potent, giant natural-product toxins. Isolation of the biosynthetic genes from the sponge metagenome revealed a bacterial gene architecture. Only six candidate enzymes were identified for 48 posttranslational modifications, including 18 epimerizations and 17 methylations of nonactivated carbon centers. Three enzymes were functionally validated, which showed that a radical S-adenosylmethionine enzyme is responsible for the unidirectional epimerization of multiple and different amino acids. Collectively, these complex alterations create toxins that function as unimolecular minimalistic ion channels with near-femtomolar activity. This study broadens the biosynthetic scope of ribosomal systems and creates new opportunities for peptide and protein bioengineering.

  4. Chemical posttranslational modification of phage-displayed peptides. (United States)

    Ng, Simon; Tjhung, Katrina F; Paschal, Beth M; Noren, Christopher J; Derda, Ratmir


    Phage-displayed peptide library has fueled the discovery of novel ligands for diverse targets. A new type of phage libraries that displays not only linear and disulfide-constrained cyclic peptides but moieties that cannot be encoded genetically or incorporated easily by bacterial genetic machinery has emerged recently. Chemical posttranslational modification of phage library is one of the simplest approaches to encode nonnatural moieties. It confers the library with new functionality and makes it possible to select and evolve molecules with properties not found in the peptides, for instance, glycopeptides recognized by carbohydrate-binding protein and peptides with photoswitching capability. To this end, we describe the newly emerging techniques to chemically modify the phage library and quantify the efficiency of the reaction with a biotin-capture assay. Finally, we provide the methods to construct N-terminal Ser peptide library that allows site-selective modification of phage.

  5. Recent Progress in Predicting Posttranslational Modification Sites in Proteins. (United States)

    Xu, Yan; Chou, Kuo-Chen


    The posttranslational modification or PTM is a later but subtle step in protein biosynthesis via which to change the properties of a protein by adding a modified group to its one or more amino acid residues. PTMs are responsible for many significant biological processes, and meanwhile for many major diseases as well, such as cancer. Facing the avalanche of biological sequences generated in the post-genomic age, it is important for both basic research and drug development to timely identify the PTM sites in proteins. This Review is devoted to summarize the recent progresses in this area, with a focus on those predictors, which were developed based on the pseudo amino acid composition or PseAAC approach, and for which a publicly accessible web-server has been established. Meanwhile, the future challenge in this area has also been briefly addressed.

  6. A Design Principle for a Posttranslational Biochemical Oscillator

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    Craig C. Jolley


    Full Text Available Multisite phosphorylation plays an important role in biological oscillators such as the circadian clock. Its general role, however, has been elusive. In this theoretical study, we show that a simple substrate with two modification sites acted upon by two opposing enzymes (e.g., a kinase and a phosphatase can show oscillations in its modification state. An unbiased computational analysis of this oscillator reveals two common characteristics: a unidirectional modification cycle and sequestering of an enzyme by a specific modification state. These two motifs cause a substrate to act as a coupled system in which a unidirectional cycle generates single-molecule oscillators, whereas sequestration synchronizes the population by limiting the available enzyme under conditions in which substrate is in excess. We also demonstrate the conditions under which the oscillation period is temperature compensated, an important feature of the circadian clock. This theoretical model will provide a framework for analyzing and synthesizing posttranslational oscillators.

  7. Tsg101 Regulates PI(4,5P2/Ca2+ Signaling for HIV-1 Gag Assembly

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    Lorna S Ehrlich


    Full Text Available Our previous studies identified the 1,4,5-inositol triphosphate receptor (IP3R, a channel mediating release of Ca2+ from ER stores, as a cellular factor differentially associated with HIV-1 Gag that might facilitate ESCRT function in virus budding. Channel opening requires activation that is initiated by binding of 1,4,5-triphosphate (IP3, a product of phospholipase C-mediated PI(4,5P2 hydrolysis. The store emptying that follows stimulates store refilling which requires intact PI(4,5P2. Raising cytosolic Ca2+ promotes viral particle production and our studies indicate that IP3R and the ER Ca2+ store are the physiological providers of Ca2+ for Gag assembly and release. Here, we show that Gag modulates ER store gating and refilling. Cells expressing Gag exhibited a higher cytosolic Ca2+ level originating from the ER store than control cells, suggesting that Gag induced release of store Ca2+. This property required the PTAP motif in Gag that recruits Tsg101, an ESCRT-1 component. Consistent with cytosolic Ca2+ elevation, Gag accumulation at the plasma membrane was found to require continuous IP3R activation. Like other IP3R channel modulators, Gag was detected in physical proximity to the ER and to endogenous IP3R, as indicated respectively by total internal reflection fluorescence and immunoelectron microscopy or indirect immunofluorescence. Reciprocal co-immunoprecipitation suggested that Gag and IP3R proximity is favored when the PTAP motif in Gag is intact. Gag expression was also accompanied by increased PI(4,5P2 accumulation at the plasma membrane, a condition favoring store refilling capacity. Supporting this notion, Gag particle production was impervious to treatment with 2-aminoethoxydiphenyl borate, an inhibitor of a refilling coupling interaction. In contrast, particle production by a Gag mutant lacking the PTAP motif was reduced. We conclude that a functional PTAP L domain, and by inference Tsg101 binding, confers Gag with an ability to

  8. Tsg101 regulates PI(4,5)P2/Ca(2+) signaling for HIV-1 Gag assembly. (United States)

    Ehrlich, Lorna S; Medina, Gisselle N; Photiadis, Sara; Whittredge, Paul B; Watanabe, Susan; Taraska, Justin W; Carter, Carol A


    Our previous studies identified the 1,4,5-inositol trisphosphate receptor (IP3R), a channel mediating release of Ca(2+) from ER stores, as a cellular factor differentially associated with HIV-1 Gag that might facilitate ESCRT function in virus budding. Channel opening requires activation that is initiated by binding of 1,4,5-triphosphate (IP3), a product of phospholipase C (PLC)-mediated PI(4,5)P2 hydrolysis. The store emptying that follows stimulates store refilling which requires intact PI(4,5)P2. Raising cytosolic Ca(2+) promotes viral particle production and our studies indicate that IP3R and the ER Ca(2+) store are the physiological providers of Ca(2+) for Gag assembly and release. Here, we show that Gag modulates ER store gating and refilling. Cells expressing Gag exhibited a higher cytosolic Ca(2+) level originating from the ER store than control cells, suggesting that Gag induced release of store Ca(2+). This property required the PTAP motif in Gag that recruits Tsg101, an ESCRT-1 component. Consistent with cytosolic Ca(2+) elevation, Gag accumulation at the plasma membrane was found to require continuous IP3R activation. Like other IP3R channel modulators, Gag was detected in physical proximity to the ER and to endogenous IP3R, as indicated respectively by total internal reflection fluorescence (TIRF) and immunoelectron microscopy (IEM) or indirect immunofluorescence. Reciprocal co-immunoprecipitation suggested that Gag and IP3R proximity is favored when the PTAP motif in Gag is intact. Gag expression was also accompanied by increased PI(4,5)P2 accumulation at the plasma membrane, a condition favoring store refilling capacity. Supporting this notion, Gag particle production was impervious to treatment with 2-aminoethoxydiphenyl borate, an inhibitor of a refilling coupling interaction. In contrast, particle production by a Gag mutant lacking the PTAP motif was reduced. We conclude that a functional PTAP L domain, and by inference Tsg101 binding, confers Gag

  9. The interplay of post-translational modification and gene therapy

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    Osamor VC


    Full Text Available Victor Chukwudi Osamor,1–3 Shalom N Chinedu,3,4 Dominic E Azuh,3,5 Emeka Joshua Iweala,3,4 Olubanke Olujoke Ogunlana3,4 1Covenant University Bioinformatics Research (CUBRe Unit, Department of Computer and Information Sciences, College of Science and Technology (CST, Covenant University, Ota, Ogun State, Nigeria; 2Institute of Informatics (Computational biology and Bioinformatics, Faculty of Mathematics, Informatics and Mechanics, University of Warsaw (Uniwersytet Warszawski, Warszawa, Poland; 3Covenant University Public Health and Well-being Research Group (CUPHWERG, Covenant University, 4Biochemistry and Molecular Biology Unit, Department of Biological Sciences, College of Science and Technology, Covenant University, Canaan Land, 5Department of Economics and Development Studies, Covenant University, Ota, Ogun State, Nigeria Abstract: Several proteins interact either to activate or repress the expression of other genes during transcription. Based on the impact of these activities, the proteins can be classified into readers, modifier writers, and modifier erasers depending on whether histone marks are read, added, or removed, respectively, from a specific amino acid. Transcription is controlled by dynamic epigenetic marks with serious health implications in certain complex diseases, whose understanding may be useful in gene therapy. This work highlights traditional and current advances in post-translational modifications with relevance to gene therapy delivery. We report that enhanced understanding of epigenetic machinery provides clues to functional implication of certain genes/gene products and may facilitate transition toward revision of our clinical treatment procedure with effective fortification of gene therapy delivery. Keywords: post-translational modification, gene therapy, epigenetics, histone, methylation

  10. Molecular dynamics simulation of phosphorylated KID post-translational modification.

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    Hai-Feng Chen

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Kinase-inducible domain (KID as transcriptional activator can stimulate target gene expression in signal transduction by associating with KID interacting domain (KIX. NMR spectra suggest that apo-KID is an unstructured protein. After post-translational modification by phosphorylation, KID undergoes a transition from disordered to well folded protein upon binding to KIX. However, the mechanism of folding coupled to binding is poorly understood. METHODOLOGY: To get an insight into the mechanism, we have performed ten trajectories of explicit-solvent molecular dynamics (MD for both bound and apo phosphorylated KID (pKID. Ten MD simulations are sufficient to capture the average properties in the protein folding and unfolding. CONCLUSIONS: Room-temperature MD simulations suggest that pKID becomes more rigid and stable upon the KIX-binding. Kinetic analysis of high-temperature MD simulations shows that bound pKID and apo-pKID unfold via a three-state and a two-state process, respectively. Both kinetics and free energy landscape analyses indicate that bound pKID folds in the order of KIX access, initiation of pKID tertiary folding, folding of helix alpha(B, folding of helix alpha(A, completion of pKID tertiary folding, and finalization of pKID-KIX binding. Our data show that the folding pathways of apo-pKID are different from the bound state: the foldings of helices alpha(A and alpha(B are swapped. Here we also show that Asn139, Asp140 and Leu141 with large Phi-values are key residues in the folding of bound pKID. Our results are in good agreement with NMR experimental observations and provide significant insight into the general mechanisms of binding induced protein folding and other conformational adjustment in post-translational modification.

  11. Facile heme vinyl posttranslational modification in a hemoglobin. (United States)

    Preimesberger, Matthew R; Wenke, Belinda B; Gilevicius, Lukas; Pond, Matthew P; Lecomte, Juliette T J


    Iron-protoporphyrin IX, or b heme, is utilized as such by a large number of proteins and enzymes. In some cases, notably the c-type cytochromes, this group undergoes a posttranslational covalent attachment to the polypeptide chain, which adjusts the physicochemical properties of the holoprotein. The hemoglobin from the cyanobacterium Synechocystis sp. PCC 6803 (GlbN), contrary to the archetypical hemoglobin, modifies its b heme covalently. The posttranslational modification links His117, a residue that does not coordinate the iron, to the porphyrin 2-vinyl substituent and forms a hybrid b/c heme. The reaction is an electrophilic addition that occurs spontaneously in the ferrous state of the protein. This apparently facile type of heme modification has been observed in only two cyanobacterial GlbNs. To explore the determinants of the reaction, we examined the behavior of Synechocystis GlbN variants containing a histidine at position 79, which is buried against the porphyrin 4-vinyl substituent. We found that L79H/H117A GlbN bound the heme weakly but nevertheless formed a cross-link between His79 Nε2 and the heme 4-Cα. In addition to this linkage, the single variant L79H GlbN also formed the native His117-2-Cα bond yielding an unprecedented bis-alkylated protein adduct. The ability to engineer the doubly modified protein indicates that the histidine-heme modification in GlbN is robust and could be engineered in different local environments. The rarity of the histidine linkage in natural proteins, despite the ease of reaction, is proposed to stem from multiple sources of negative selection.

  12. Regulation of monoubiquitinated PCNA by DUB autocleavage

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Huang, T.T.; Nijman, S.M.B.; Galardy, P.J.; Cohn, M.A.; Haas, W.; Gygi, S.P.; Ploegh, H.L.; Bernards, R.A.; D'Andrea, A.D.


    Monoubiquitination is a reversible post-translational protein modification that has an important regulatory function in many biological processes, including DNA repair. Deubiquitinating enzymes (DUBs) are proteases that are negative regulators of monoubiquitination, but little is known about their r

  13. Aurora-A is a critical regulator of microtubule assembly and nuclear activity in mouse oocytes, fertilized eggs, and early embryos. (United States)

    Yao, Li-Juan; Zhong, Zhi-Sheng; Zhang, Li-Sheng; Chen, Da-Yuan; Schatten, Heide; Sun, Qing-Yuan


    Aurora-A is a serine/threonine protein kinase that plays a role in cell-cycle regulation. The activity of this kinase has been shown to be required for regulating multiple stages of mitotic progression in somatic cells. In this study, the changes in aurora-;A expression were revealed in mouse oocytes using Western blotting. The subcellular localization of aurora-A during oocyte meiotic maturation, fertilization, and early cleavages as well as after antibody microinjection or microtubule assembly perturbance was studied with confocal microscopy. The quantity of aurora-A protein was high in the germinal vesicle (GV) and metaphase II (MII) oocytes and remained stable during other meiotic maturation stages. Aurora-A concentrated in the GV before meiosis resumption, in the pronuclei of fertilized eggs, and in the nuclei of early embryo blastomeres. Aurora-A was localized to the spindle poles of the meiotic spindle from the metaphase I (MI) stage to metaphase II stage. During early embryo development, aurora-A was found in association with the mitotic spindle poles. Aurora-A was not found in the spindle region when colchicine or staurosporine was used to inhibit microtubule organization, while it accumulated as several dots in the cytoplasm after taxol treatment. Aurora-A antibody microinjection decreased the rate of germinal vesicle breakdown (GVBD) and distorted MI spindle organization. Our results indicate that aurora-A is a critical regulator of cell-cycle progression and microtubule organization during mouse oocyte meiotic maturation, fertilization, and early embryo cleavage.

  14. Enzyme-regulated the changes of pH values for assembling a colorimetric and multistage interconnection logic network with multiple readouts

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Huang, Yanyan; Ran, Xiang; Lin, Youhui [Laboratory of Chemical Biology, Division of Biological Inorganic Chemistry, State Key Laboratory of Rare Earth Resource Utilization, Changchun Institute of Applied Chemistry, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Changchun, Jilin 130022 (China); Graduate School of University of Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100039 (China); Ren, Jinsong, E-mail: [Laboratory of Chemical Biology, Division of Biological Inorganic Chemistry, State Key Laboratory of Rare Earth Resource Utilization, Changchun Institute of Applied Chemistry, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Changchun, Jilin 130022 (China); Qu, Xiaogang [Laboratory of Chemical Biology, Division of Biological Inorganic Chemistry, State Key Laboratory of Rare Earth Resource Utilization, Changchun Institute of Applied Chemistry, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Changchun, Jilin 130022 (China)


    Highlights: • A colorimetric and multistage biological network has been developed. • This system was on the basis of the enzyme-regulated changes of pH values. • This enzyme-based system could assemble large biological circuit. • Two signal transducers (DNA/AuNPs and acid–base indicators) were used. • The compositions of samples could be detected through visual output signals. - Abstract: Based on enzymatic reactions-triggered changes of pH values and biocomputing, a novel and multistage interconnection biological network with multiple easy-detectable signal outputs has been developed. Compared with traditional chemical computing, the enzyme-based biological system could overcome the interference between reactions or the incompatibility of individual computing gates and offer a unique opportunity to assemble multicomponent/multifunctional logic circuitries. Our system included four enzyme inputs: β-galactosidase (β-gal), glucose oxidase (GOx), esterase (Est) and urease (Ur). With the assistance of two signal transducers (gold nanoparticles and acid–base indicators) or pH meter, the outputs of the biological network could be conveniently read by the naked eyes. In contrast to current methods, the approach present here could realize cost-effective, label-free and colorimetric logic operations without complicated instrument. By designing a series of Boolean logic operations, we could logically make judgment of the compositions of the samples on the basis of visual output signals. Our work offered a promising paradigm for future biological computing technology and might be highly useful in future intelligent diagnostics, prodrug activation, smart drug delivery, process control, and electronic applications.

  15. MLL/WDR5 Complex Regulates Kif2A Localization to Ensure Chromosome Congression and Proper Spindle Assembly during Mitosis. (United States)

    Ali, Aamir; Veeranki, Sailaja Naga; Chinchole, Akash; Tyagi, Shweta


    Mixed-lineage leukemia (MLL), along with multisubunit (WDR5, RbBP5, ASH2L, and DPY30) complex catalyzes the trimethylation of H3K4, leading to gene activation. Here, we characterize a chromatin-independent role for MLL during mitosis. MLL and WDR5 localize to the mitotic spindle apparatus, and loss of function of MLL complex by RNAi results in defects in chromosome congression and compromised spindle formation. We report interaction of MLL complex with several kinesin and dynein motors. We further show that the MLL complex associates with Kif2A, a member of the Kinesin-13 family of microtubule depolymerase, and regulates the spindle localization of Kif2A during mitosis. We have identified a conserved WDR5 interaction (Win) motif, so far unique to the MLL family, in Kif2A. The Win motif of Kif2A engages in direct interactions with WDR5 for its spindle localization. Our findings highlight a non-canonical mitotic function of MLL complex, which may have a direct impact on chromosomal stability, frequently compromised in cancer. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  16. The Histone Code of Toxoplasma gondii Comprises Conserved and Unique Posttranslational Modifications (United States)

    Nardelli, Sheila C.; Che, Fa-Yun; Silmon de Monerri, Natalie C.; Xiao, Hui; Nieves, Edward; Madrid-Aliste, Carlos; Angel, Sergio O.; Sullivan, William J.; Angeletti, Ruth H.; Kim, Kami; Weiss, Louis M.


    ABSTRACT Epigenetic gene regulation has emerged as a major mechanism for gene regulation in all eukaryotes. Histones are small, basic proteins that constitute the major protein component of chromatin, and posttranslational modifications (PTM) of histones are essential for epigenetic gene regulation. The different combinations of histone PTM form the histone code for an organism, marking functional units of chromatin that recruit macromolecular complexes that govern chromatin structure and regulate gene expression. To characterize the repertoire of Toxoplasma gondii histone PTM, we enriched histones using standard acid extraction protocols and analyzed them with several complementary middle-down and bottom-up proteomic approaches with the high-resolution Orbitrap mass spectrometer using collision-induced dissociation (CID), higher-energy collisional dissociation (HCD), and/or electron transfer dissociation (ETD) fragmentation. We identified 249 peptides with unique combinations of PTM that comprise the T. gondii histone code. T. gondii histones share a high degree of sequence conservation with human histones, and many modifications are conserved between these species. In addition, T. gondii histones have unique modifications not previously identified in other species. Finally, T. gondii histones are modified by succinylation, propionylation, and formylation, recently described histone PTM that have not previously been identified in parasitic protozoa. The characterization of the T. gondii histone code will facilitate in-depth analysis of how epigenetic regulation affects gene expression in pathogenic apicomplexan parasites and identify a new model system for elucidating the biological functions of novel histone PTM. PMID:24327343

  17. Sequence-Independent Cloning and Post-Translational Modification of Repetitive Protein Polymers through Sortase and Sfp-Mediated Enzymatic Ligation. (United States)

    Ott, Wolfgang; Nicolaus, Thomas; Gaub, Hermann E; Nash, Michael A


    Repetitive protein-based polymers are important for many applications in biotechnology and biomaterials development. Here we describe the sequential additive ligation of highly repetitive DNA sequences, their assembly into genes encoding protein-polymers with precisely tunable lengths and compositions, and their end-specific post-translational modification with organic dyes and fluorescent protein domains. Our new Golden Gate-based cloning approach relies on incorporation of only type IIS BsaI restriction enzyme recognition sites using PCR, which allowed us to install ybbR-peptide tags, Sortase c-tags, and cysteine residues onto either end of the repetitive gene polymers without leaving residual cloning scars. The assembled genes were expressed in Escherichia coli and purified using inverse transition cycling (ITC). Characterization by cloud point spectrophotometry, and denaturing polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis with fluorescence detection confirmed successful phosphopantetheinyl transferase (Sfp)-mediated post-translational N-terminal labeling of the protein-polymers with a coenzyme A-647 dye (CoA-647) and simultaneous sortase-mediated C-terminal labeling with a GFP domain containing an N-terminal GG-motif in a one-pot reaction. In a further demonstration, we installed an N-terminal cysteine residue into an elastin-like polypeptide (ELP) that was subsequently conjugated to a single chain poly(ethylene glycol)-maleimide (PEG-maleimide) synthetic polymer, noticeably shifting the ELP cloud point. The ability to straightforwardly assemble repetitive DNA sequences encoding ELPs of precisely tunable length and to post-translationally modify them specifically at the N- and C- termini provides a versatile platform for the design and production of multifunctional smart protein-polymeric materials.

  18. Osteoclast cytosolic calcium, regulated by voltage-gated calcium channels and extracellular calcium, controls podosome assembly and bone resorption (United States)

    Miyauchi, A.; Hruska, K. A.; Greenfield, E. M.; Duncan, R.; Alvarez, J.; Barattolo, R.; Colucci, S.; Zambonin-Zallone, A.; Teitelbaum, S. L.; Teti, A.


    The mechanisms of Ca2+ entry and their effects on cell function were investigated in cultured chicken osteoclasts and putative osteoclasts produced by fusion of mononuclear cell precursors. Voltage-gated Ca2+ channels (VGCC) were detected by the effects of membrane depolarization with K+, BAY K 8644, and dihydropyridine antagonists. K+ produced dose-dependent increases of cytosolic calcium ([Ca2+]i) in osteoclasts on glass coverslips. Half-maximal effects were achieved at 70 mM K+. The effects of K+ were completely inhibited by dihydropyridine derivative Ca2+ channel blocking agents. BAY K 8644 (5 X 10(-6) M), a VGCC agonist, stimulated Ca2+ entry which was inhibited by nicardipine. VGCCs were inactivated by the attachment of osteoclasts to bone, indicating a rapid phenotypic change in Ca2+ entry mechanisms associated with adhesion of osteoclasts to their resorption substrate. Increasing extracellular Ca2+ ([Ca2+]e) induced Ca2+ release from intracellular stores and Ca2+ influx. The Ca2+ release was blocked by dantrolene (10(-5) M), and the influx by La3+. The effects of [Ca2+]e on [Ca2+]i suggests the presence of a Ca2+ receptor on the osteoclast cell membrane that could be coupled to mechanisms regulating cell function. Expression of the [Ca2+]e effect on [Ca2+]i was similar in the presence or absence of bone matrix substrate. Each of the mechanisms producing increases in [Ca2+]i, (membrane depolarization, BAY K 8644, and [Ca2+]e) reduced expression of the osteoclast-specific adhesion structure, the podosome. The decrease in podosome expression was mirrored by a 50% decrease in bone resorptive activity. Thus, stimulated increases of osteoclast [Ca2+]i lead to cytoskeletal changes affecting cell adhesion and decreasing bone resorptive activity.

  19. Pdx1 is post-translationally modified in vivo and serine 61 is the principal site of phosphorylation.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thomas Frogne

    Full Text Available Maintaining sufficient levels of Pdx1 activity is a prerequisite for proper regulation of blood glucose homeostasis and beta cell function. Mice that are haploinsufficient for Pdx1 display impaired glucose tolerance and lack the ability to increase beta cell mass in response to decreased insulin signaling. Several studies have shown that post-translational modifications are regulating Pdx1 activity through intracellular localization and binding to co-factors. Understanding the signaling cues converging on Pdx1 and modulating its activity is therefore an attractive approach in diabetes treatment. We employed a novel technique called Nanofluidic Proteomic Immunoassay to characterize the post-translational profile of Pdx1. Following isoelectric focusing in nano-capillaries, this technology relies on a pan specific antibody for detection and it therefore allows the relative abundance of differently charged protein species to be examined simultaneously. In all eukaryotic cells tested we find that the Pdx1 protein separates into four distinct peaks whereas Pdx1 protein from bacteria only produces one peak. Of the four peaks in eukaryotic cells we correlate one of them to a phosphorylation Using alanine scanning and mass spectrometry we map this phosphorylation to serine 61 in both Min6 cells and in exogenous Pdx1 over-expressed in HEK293 cells. A single phosphorylation is also present in cultured islets but it remains unaffected by changes in glucose levels. It is present during embryogenesis but is not required for pancreas development.

  20. Identification and characterization of HTLV-1 HBZ post-translational modifications.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nathan Dissinger

    Full Text Available Human T-cell leukemia virus type-1 (HTLV-1 is estimated to infect 15-25 million people worldwide, with several areas including southern Japan and the Caribbean basin being endemic. The virus is the etiological agent of debilitating and fatal diseases, for which there is currently no long-term cure. In the majority of cases of leukemia caused by HTLV-1, only a single viral gene, hbz, and its cognate protein, HBZ, are expressed and their importance is increasingly being recognized in the development of HTLV-1-associated disease. We hypothesized that HBZ, like other HTLV-1 proteins, has properties and functions regulated by post-translational modifications (PTMs that affect specific signaling pathways important for disease development. To date, PTM of HBZ has not been described. We used an affinity-tagged protein and mass spectrometry method to identify seven modifications of HBZ for the first time. We examined how these PTMs affected the ability of HBZ to modulate several pathways, as measured using luciferase reporter assays. Herein, we report that none of the identified PTMs affected HBZ stability or its regulation of tested pathways.

  1. Comparison of peptide mass mapping and electron capture dissociation as assays for histone posttranslational modifications (United States)

    Zhang, Liwen; Freitas, Michael A.


    Posttranslational modifications of core histones play a critical role in the structure of chromatin and the regulation of gene activities. Improved techniques for determining these modification sites may lead to a better understanding of histone regulation at the molecular level. LC-MS peptide mass mapping was performed on pepsin, trypsin and Glu-C digests of bovine thymus H4 using a QqTOF instrument. The well established modification sites of H4 (acetylation of K8, 12, 16 and methylation of K20) were observed in addition to several recently discovered modifications including: methylation of K31, 44, 59 and acetylation of K20, 77, 79. For comparison, electron capture dissociation (ECD) was performed on intact H4 along with several peptides from enzymatic digestion. The results from the ECD experiments of histone H4 indicated the acetylation of K5, 12, 16, 31, 91 and the methylation of K20 and 59 in good agreement with the result from peptide mapping. The work is dedicated to Alan G. Marshall on his 60th birthday. His endeavors in the advancement of FT-ICR facilitated experiments reported herein.

  2. Distribution and posttranslational modification of synaptic ERα in the adult female rat hippocampus. (United States)

    Tabatadze, Nino; Smejkalova, Tereza; Woolley, Catherine S


    Acute 17β-estradiol (E2) signaling in the brain is mediated by extranuclear estrogen receptors. Here we used biochemical methods to investigate the distribution, posttranslational modification, and E2 regulation of estrogen receptor-α (ERα) in synaptosomal fractions isolated by differential centrifugation from the adult female rat hippocampus. We find that ERα is concentrated presynaptically and is highly enriched with synaptic vesicles. Immunoisolation of vesicles using vesicle subtype-specific markers showed that ERα is associated with both glutamate and γ-aminobutyric acid-containing neurotransmitter vesicles as well as with some large dense core vesicles. Experiments using broad spectrum and residue-specific phosphatases indicated that a portion of ERα in synaptosomal fractions is phosphorylated at serine/threonine residues leading to a mobility shift in SDS-PAGE and creating a double band on Western blots. The phosphorylated form of ERα runs in the upper of the two bands and is particularly concentrated with synaptic vesicles. Finally, we used E2 with or without the acyl protein thioesterase 1 inhibitor, Palmostatin B, to show that 20 min of E2 treatment of hippocampal slices depletes ERα from the synaptosomal membrane by depalmitoylation. We found no evidence that E2 regulates phosphorylation of synaptosomal ERα on this time scale. These studies begin to fill the gap between detailed molecular characterization of extranuclear ERα in previous in vitro studies and acute E2 modulation of hippocampal synapses in the adult brain.

  3. Kv3.3 Channels Bind Hax-1 and Arp2/3 to Assemble a Stable Local Actin Network that Regulates Channel Gating. (United States)

    Zhang, Yalan; Zhang, Xiao-Feng; Fleming, Matthew R; Amiri, Anahita; El-Hassar, Lynda; Surguchev, Alexei A; Hyland, Callen; Jenkins, David P; Desai, Rooma; Brown, Maile R; Gazula, Valeswara-Rao; Waters, Michael F; Large, Charles H; Horvath, Tamas L; Navaratnam, Dhasakumar; Vaccarino, Flora M; Forscher, Paul; Kaczmarek, Leonard K


    Mutations in the Kv3.3 potassium channel (KCNC3) cause cerebellar neurodegeneration and impair auditory processing. The cytoplasmic C terminus of Kv3.3 contains a proline-rich domain conserved in proteins that activate actin nucleation through Arp2/3. We found that Kv3.3 recruits Arp2/3 to the plasma membrane, resulting in formation of a relatively stable cortical actin filament network resistant to cytochalasin D that inhibits fast barbed end actin assembly. These Kv3.3-associated actin structures are required to prevent very rapid N-type channel inactivation during short depolarizations of the plasma membrane. The effects of Kv3.3 on the actin cytoskeleton are mediated by the binding of the cytoplasmic C terminus of Kv3.3 to Hax-1, an anti-apoptotic protein that regulates actin nucleation through Arp2/3. A human Kv3.3 mutation within a conserved proline-rich domain produces channels that bind Hax-1 but are impaired in recruiting Arp2/3 to the plasma membrane, resulting in growth cones with deficient actin veils in stem cell-derived neurons.

  4. Assembly of Ebola virus matrix protein VP40 is regulated by latch-like properties of N and C terminal tails.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leslie P Silva

    Full Text Available The matrix protein VP40 coordinates numerous functions in the viral life cycle of the Ebola virus. These range from the regulation of viral transcription to morphogenesis, packaging and budding of mature virions. Similar to the matrix proteins of other nonsegmented, negative-strand RNA viruses, VP40 proceeds through intermediate states of assembly (e.g. octamers but it remains unclear how these intermediates are coordinated with the various stages of the life cycle. In this study, we investigate the molecular basis of synchronization as governed by VP40. Hydrogen/deuterium exchange mass spectrometry was used to follow induced structural and conformational changes in VP40. Together with computational modeling, we demonstrate that both extreme N and C terminal tail regions stabilize the monomeric state through a direct association. The tails appear to function as a latch, released upon a specific molecular trigger such as RNA ligation. We propose that triggered release of the tails permits the coordination of late-stage events in the viral life cycle, at the inner membrane of the host cell. Specifically, N-tail release exposes the L-domain motifs PTAP/PPEY to the transport and budding complexes, whereas triggered C-tail release could improve association with the site of budding.

  5. Global turnover of histone post-translational modifications and variants in human cells

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    Zee Barry M


    Full Text Available Abstract Background Post-translational modifications (PTMs on the N-terminal tails of histones and histone variants regulate distinct transcriptional states and nuclear events. Whereas the functional effects of specific PTMs are the current subject of intense investigation, most studies characterize histone PTMs/variants in a non-temporal fashion and very few studies have reported kinetic information about these histone forms. Previous studies have used radiolabeling, fluorescence microscopy and chromatin immunoprecipitation to determine rates of histone turnover, and have found interesting correlations between increased turnover and increased gene expression. Therefore, histone turnover is an understudied yet potentially important parameter that may contribute to epigenetic regulation. Understanding turnover in the context of histone modifications and sequence variants could provide valuable additional insight into the function of histone replacement. Results In this study, we measured the metabolic rate of labeled isotope incorporation into the histone proteins of HeLa cells by combining stable isotope labeling of amino acids in cell culture (SILAC pulse experiments with quantitative mass spectrometry-based proteomics. In general, we found that most core histones have similar turnover rates, with the exception of the H2A variants, which exhibit a wider range of rates, potentially consistent with their epigenetic function. In addition, acetylated histones have a significantly faster turnover compared with general histone protein and methylated histones, although these rates vary considerably, depending on the site and overall degree of methylation. Histones containing transcriptionally active marks have been consistently found to have faster turnover rates than histones containing silent marks. Interestingly, the presence of both active and silent marks on the same peptide resulted in a slower turnover rate than either mark alone on that same

  6. SIRT1 is a redox-sensitive deacetylase that is post-translationally modified by oxidants and carbonyl stress (United States)

    Caito, Samuel; Rajendrasozhan, Saravanan; Cook, Suzanne; Chung, Sangwoon; Yao, Hongwei; Friedman, Alan E.; Brookes, Paul S.; Rahman, Irfan


    Sirtuin1 (SIRT1) deacetylase levels are decreased in chronic inflammatory conditions and aging where oxidative stress occurs. We determined the mechanism of SIRT1 redox post-translational modifications leading to its degradation. Human lung epithelial cells exposed to hydrogen peroxide (150–250 μM), aldehyde-acrolein (10–30 μM), and cigarette smoke extract (CSE; 0.1–1.5%) in the presence of intracellular glutathione-modulating agents at 1–24 h, and oxidative post-translational modifications were assayed in cells, as well as in lungs of mice lacking and overexpressing glutaredoxin-1 (Glrx1), and wild-type (WT) mice in response to cigarette smoke (CS). CSE and aldehydes dose and time dependently decreased SIRT1 protein levels, with EC50 of 1% for CSE and 30 μM for acrolein at 6 h, and >80% inhibition at 24 h with CSE, which was regulated by modulation of intracellular thiol status of the cells. CS decreased the lung levels of SIRT1 in WT mice, which was enhanced by deficiency of Glrx1 and prevented by overexpression of Glrx1. Oxidants, aldehydes, and CS induced carbonyl modifications on SIRT1 on cysteine residues concomitant with decreased SIRT1 activity. Proteomics studies revealed alkylation of cysteine residue on SIRT1. Our data suggest that oxidants/aldehydes covalently modify SIRT1, decreasing enzymatic activity and marking the protein for proteasomal degradation, which has implications in inflammatory conditions.—Caito, S., Rajendrasozhan, S., Cook, S., Chung, S., Yao, H., Friedman, A. E., Brookes, P. S., Rahman, I. SIRT1 is a redox-sensitive deacetylase that is post-translationally modified by oxidants and carbonyl stress. PMID:20385619

  7. Tyrosine Sulfation as a Protein Post-Translational Modification

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    Yuh-Shyong Yang


    Full Text Available Integration of inorganic sulfate into biological molecules plays an important role in biological systems and is directly involved in the instigation of diseases. Protein tyrosine sulfation (PTS is a common post-translational modification that was first reported in the literature fifty years ago. However, the significance of PTS under physiological conditions and its link to diseases have just begun to be appreciated in recent years. PTS is catalyzed by tyrosylprotein sulfotransferase (TPST through transfer of an activated sulfate from 3'-phosphoadenosine-5'-phosphosulfate to tyrosine in a variety of proteins and peptides. Currently, only a small fraction of sulfated proteins is known and the understanding of the biological sulfation mechanisms is still in progress. In this review, we give an introductory and selective brief review of PTS and then summarize the basic biochemical information including the activity and the preparation of TPST, methods for the determination of PTS, and kinetics and reaction mechanism of TPST. This information is fundamental for the further exploration of the function of PTS that induces protein-protein interactions and the subsequent biochemical and physiological reactions.

  8. Immunogenicity of Biotherapeutics: Causes and Association with Posttranslational Modifications

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    Anshu Kuriakose


    Full Text Available Today, potential immunogenicity can be better evaluated during the drug development process, and we have rational approaches to manage the clinical consequences of immunogenicity. The focus of the scientific community should be on developing sensitive diagnostics that can predict immunogenicity-mediated adverse events in the small fraction of subjects that develop clinically relevant anti-drug antibodies. Here, we discuss the causes of immunogenicity which could be product-related (inherent property of the product or might be picked up during the manufacturing process, patient-related (genetic profile or eating habits, or linked to the route of administration. We describe various posttranslational modifications (PTMs and how they may influence immunogenicity. Over the last three decades, we have significantly improved our understanding about the types of PTMs of biotherapeutic proteins and their association with immunogenicity. It is also now clear that all PTMs do not lead to clinical immunogenicity. We also discuss the mechanisms of immunogenicity (which include T cell-dependent and T cell-independent responses and immunological tolerance. We further elaborate on the management of immunogenicity in preclinical and clinical setting and the unique challenges raised by biosimilars, which may have different immunogenic potential from their parent biotherapeutics.

  9. Implication of Posttranslational Histone Modifications in Nucleotide Excision Repair

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    Shisheng Li


    Full Text Available Histones are highly alkaline proteins that package and order the DNA into chromatin in eukaryotic cells. Nucleotide excision repair (NER is a conserved multistep reaction that removes a wide range of generally bulky and/or helix-distorting DNA lesions. Although the core biochemical mechanism of NER is relatively well known, how cells detect and repair lesions in diverse chromatin environments is still under intensive research. As with all DNA-related processes, the NER machinery must deal with the presence of organized chromatin and the physical obstacles it presents. A huge catalogue of posttranslational histone modifications has been documented. Although a comprehensive understanding of most of these modifications is still lacking, they are believed to be important regulatory elements for many biological processes, including DNA replication and repair, transcription and cell cycle control. Some of these modifications, including acetylation, methylation, phosphorylation and ubiquitination on the four core histones (H2A, H2B, H3 and H4 or the histone H2A variant H2AX, have been found to be implicated in different stages of the NER process. This review will summarize our recent understanding in this area.

  10. Cubilin expression and posttranslational modification in the canine gastrointestinal tract. (United States)

    Xu, D; Fyfe, J C


    Cubilin is an endocytic receptor of the apical brush border membrane that is essential for intrinsic factor-mediated cobalamin absorption in small intestine. However, cubilin is more highly expressed in kidney and yolk sac, and recent molecular characterization of the receptor has focused on these tissues. The aim of this investigation was to examine tissue-specific cubilin expression and posttranslational modifications with an emphasis on the gastrointestinal tract. Intrinsic factor-cobalamin binding activity, cubilin immunoreactivity, and cubilin mRNA levels were determined in multiple segments of canine gastrointestinal mucosa and other tissues. These aspects of cubilin expression varied in parallel, suggesting that the major determinant of regional cubilin expression in the gastrointestinal tract is modulation of cubilin mRNA. Cell fractionation indicated that ileal cubilin is not strongly membrane associated. An approximately 185-kDa brush border specific and two >400-kDa precursor forms of cubilin were identified. Asparagine-linked oligosaccharide modifications characterized by differential glycosidase digestion of affinity-purified cubilin from ileal mucosa and renal cortex differed, but ileal and renal intracellular cubilin comigrated on SDS-PAGE at approximately 400 kDa after oligosaccharide removal, thus reconciling previous conflicting size estimates of the cubilin polypeptide.

  11. Phosphorylation Modulates Ameloblastin Self-assembly and Ca2+ Binding

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    Øystein Stakkestad


    Full Text Available Ameloblastin (AMBN, an important component of the self-assembled enamel extra cellular matrix, contains several in silico predicted phosphorylation sites. However, to what extent these sites actually are phosphorylated and the possible effects of such post-translational modifications are still largely unknown. Here we report on in vitro experiments aimed at investigating what sites in AMBN are phosphorylated by casein kinase 2 (CK2 and protein kinase A (PKA and the impact such phosphorylation has on self-assembly and calcium binding. All predicted sites in AMBN can be phosphorylated by CK2 and/or PKA. The experiments show that phosphorylation, especially in the exon 5 derived part of the molecule, is inversely correlated with AMBN self-assembly. These results support earlier findings suggesting that AMBN self-assembly is mostly dependent on the exon 5 encoded region of the AMBN gene. Phosphorylation was significantly more efficient when the AMBN molecules were in solution and not present as supramolecular assemblies, suggesting that post-translational modification of AMBN must take place before the enamel matrix molecules self-assemble inside the ameloblast cell. Moreover, phosphorylation of exon 5, and the consequent reduction in self-assembly, seem to reduce the calcium binding capacity of AMBN suggesting that post-translational modification of AMBN also can be involved in control of free Ca2+ during enamel extra cellular matrix biomineralization. Finally, it is speculated that phosphorylation can provide a functional crossroad for AMBN either to be phosphorylated and act as monomeric signal molecule during early odontogenesis and bone formation, or escape phosphorylation to be subsequently secreted as supramolecular assemblies that partake in enamel matrix structure and mineralization.

  12. In vitro kinetochore assembly (United States)

    Miell, Matthew D D; Straight, Aaron F


    The kinetochore is the primary site of interaction between chromosomes and microtubules of the mitotic spindle during chromosome segregation. The kinetochore is a complex of more than 100 proteins that transiently assemble during mitosis at a single defined region on each chromosome, known as the centromere. Kinetochore assembly and activity must be tightly regulated to ensure proper microtubule interaction and faithful chromosome segregation because perturbation of kinetochores often results in aneuploidy and cell lethality. As such, cell free and reconstituted systems to analyze kinetochore formation and function are invaluable in probing the biochemical activities of kinetochores. In vitro approaches to studying kinetochores have enabled the manipulation of kinetochore protein structure, function, interactions and regulation that are not possible in cells. Here we outline a cell-free approach for the assembly of centromeres and recruitment of functional kinetochores that enables their manipulation and analysis. PMID:27193846

  13. An integrative analysis of post-translational histone modifications in the marine diatom Phaeodactylum tricornutum

    KAUST Repository

    Veluchamy, Alaguraj


    Background: Nucleosomes are the building blocks of chromatin where gene regulation takes place. Chromatin landscapes have been profiled for several species, providing insights into the fundamental mechanisms of chromatin-mediated transcriptional regulation of gene expression. However, knowledge is missing for several major and deep-branching eukaryotic groups, such as the Stramenopiles, which include the diatoms. Diatoms are highly diverse and ubiquitous species of phytoplankton that play a key role in global biogeochemical cycles. Dissecting chromatin-mediated regulation of genes in diatoms will help understand the ecological success of these organisms in contemporary oceans. Results: Here, we use high resolution mass spectrometry to identify a full repertoire of post-translational modifications on histones of the marine diatom Phaeodactylum tricornutum, including eight novel modifications. We map five histone marks coupled with expression data and show that P. tricornutum displays both unique and broadly conserved chromatin features, reflecting the chimeric nature of its genome. Combinatorial analysis of histone marks and DNA methylation demonstrates the presence of an epigenetic code defining activating or repressive chromatin states. We further profile three specific histone marks under conditions of nitrate depletion and show that the histone code is dynamic and targets specific sets of genes. Conclusions: This study is the first genome-wide characterization of the histone code from a stramenopile and a marine phytoplankton. The work represents an important initial step for understanding the evolutionary history of chromatin and how epigenetic modifications affect gene expression in response to environmental cues in marine environments. © 2015 Veluchamy et al.

  14. Post-translational hydroxylation by 2OG/Fe(II-dependent oxygenases as a novel regulatory mechanism in bacteria

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    Laura M van Staalduinen


    Full Text Available Protein hydroxylation has been well-studied in eukaryotic systems. The structural importance of hydroxylation of specific proline and lysine residues during collagen biosynthesis is well established while, recently, key roles for post-translational hydroxylation in signalling and degradation pathways have been discovered. The function of hydroxylation in signalling is highlighted by its role in the hypoxic response of eukaryotic cells, where oxygen dependent hydroxylation of the hypoxia inducible transcription factor both targets it for degradation and blocks its activation. In contrast, the role of protein hydroxylation has been largely understudied in prokaryotes. Recently, an evolutionarily conserved class of ribosomal oxygenases (ROX that catalyze the hydroxylation of specific residues in the ribosome has been identified in bacteria. ROX activity has been linked to cell growth, and has been found to have a direct impact on bulk protein translation. This discovery of ribosomal protein hydroxylation in bacteria could lead to new therapeutic targets for regulating bacterial growth, as well as, shed light on new prokaryotic hydroxylation signalling pathways. In this review, recent structural and functional studies will be highlighted and discussed, underscoring the regulatory potential of post-translational hydroxylation in bacteria.

  15. Analysis of the Arabidopsis Floral Proteome:Detection of over 2 000 Proteins and Evidence for Posttranslational Modifications

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Baomin Feng; Lianchao Li; Xiaofan Zhou; Bruce Stanley; Hong Ma


    The proteome of the Arabidopsis flower has not been extensively studied previously. Here, we report a proteomic analysis of the wild type Arabidopsis flower. Using both two-dimensional electrophoresis/mass spectrometry (2-DGE/MS) and multi-dimensional protein identification technology (MudPIT) approaches, we identified 2 446 proteins. Although a single experiment or analysis uncovered only a subset of the proteins we identified, a combination of multiple experiments and analyses facilitated the detection of a greater number of proteins. When proteins are grouped according to RNA expression levels revealed by microarray experiments, we found that proteins encoded by genes with relatively high levels of expression were detected with greater frequencies. On the other hand, at the level of the individual genelprotein, there was not a good correlation between protein spot intensity and microarray values. We also obtained strong evidence for post-translational modification from 2-DGE and MudPIT data. We detected proteins that are annotated to function in protein synthesis, folding, modification, and degradation, as well as the presence of regulatory proteins such as transcription factors and protein kinases. Finally, sequence and evolutionary analysis of genes for active methyl group metabolisms suggests that these genes are highly conserved. Our results allow the formulation of hypotheses regarding post-translational regulation of proteins in the flower, providing new understanding about Arabidopsis flower development and physiology.

  16. SIZ1-Dependent Post-Translational Modification by SUMO Modulates Sugar Signaling and Metabolism in Arabidopsis thaliana. (United States)

    Castro, Pedro Humberto; Verde, Nuno; Lourenço, Tiago; Magalhães, Alexandre Papadopoulos; Tavares, Rui Manuel; Bejarano, Eduardo Rodríguez; Azevedo, Herlânder


    Post-translational modification mechanisms function as switches that mediate the balance between optimum growth and the response to environmental stimuli, by regulating the activity of key proteins. SUMO (small ubiquitin-like modifier) attachment, or sumoylation, is a post-translational modification that is essential for the plant stress response, also modulating hormonal circuits to co-ordinate developmental processes. The Arabidopsis SUMO E3 ligase SAP and Miz 1 (SIZ1) is the major SUMO conjugation enhancer in response to stress, and is implicated in several aspects of plant development. Here we report that known SUMO targets are over-represented in multiple carbohydrate-related proteins, suggesting a functional link between sumoylation and sugar metabolism and signaling in plants. We subsequently observed that SUMO-conjugated proteins accumulate in response to high doses of sugar in a SIZ1-dependent manner, and that the null siz1 mutant displays increased expression of sucrose and starch catabolic genes and shows reduced starch levels. We demonstrated that SIZ1 controls germination time and post-germination growth via osmotic and sugar-dependent signaling, respectively. Glucose was specifically linked to SUMO-sugar interplay, with high levels inducing root growth inhibition and aberrant root hair morphology in siz1. The use of sugar analogs and sugar marker gene expression analysis allowed us to implicate SIZ1 in a signaling pathway dependent on glucose metabolism, probably involving modulation of SNF1-related kinase 1 (SnRK1) activity.

  17. A hybrid two-component system of Tannerella forsythia affects autoaggregation and post-translational modification of surface proteins. (United States)

    Niwa, Daisuke; Nishikawa, Kiyoshi; Nakamura, Hiroshi


    Tannerella forsythia is a Gram-negative oral anaerobe closely associated with both periodontal and periapical diseases. The ORF TF0022 of strain ATCC 43037 encodes a hybrid two-component system consisting of an N-terminal histidine kinase and a C-terminal response regulator. Disruption of the TF0022 locus enhanced autoaggregation of the broth-cultured cells. Comparative proteome analyses revealed that two S-layer proteins in the TF0022 mutant exhibited decreased apparent masses by denaturing gel electrophoresis, suggesting a deficiency in post-translational modification. Furthermore, the mutant decreased the production of a glycosyltransferase encoded by TF1061 that is located in a putative glycosylation-related gene cluster. Quantitative real-time PCR revealed reduced transcription of TF1061 and the associated genes in the TF0022 mutant. These results indicate that TF0022 upregulates the expression of the glycosylation-related genes and suggest modulation of the autoaggregation of T. forsythia cells by a possible post-translational modification of cell-surface components.

  18. Software Analysis of Uncorrelated MS1 Peaks for Discovery of Post-Translational Modifications. (United States)

    Pascal, Bruce D; West, Graham M; Scharager-Tapia, Catherina; Flefil, Ricardo; Moroni, Tina; Martinez-Acedo, Pablo; Griffin, Patrick R; Carvalloza, Anthony C


    The goal in proteomics to identify all peptides in a complex mixture has been largely addressed using various LC MS/MS approaches, such as data dependent acquisition, SRM/MRM, and data independent acquisition instrumentation. Despite these developments, many peptides remain unsequenced, often due to low abundance, poor fragmentation patterns, or data analysis difficulties. Many of the unidentified peptides exhibit strong evidence in high resolution MS(1) data and are frequently post-translationally modified, playing a significant role in biological processes. Proteomics Workbench (PWB) software was developed to automate the detection and visualization of all possible peptides in MS(1) data, reveal candidate peptides not initially identified, and build inclusion lists for subsequent MS(2) analysis to uncover new identifications. We used this software on existing data on the autophagy regulating kinase Ulk1 as a proof of concept for this method, as we had already manually identified a number of phosphorylation sites Dorsey, F. C. et al (J. Proteome. Res. 8(11), 5253-5263 (2009)). PWB found all previously identified sites of phosphorylation. The software has been made freely available at . Graphical Abstract ᅟ.

  19. Prediction of post-translational modification sites using multiple kernel support vector machine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    BingHua Wang


    Full Text Available Protein post-translational modification (PTM is an important mechanism that is involved in the regulation of protein function. Considering the high-cost and labor-intensive of experimental identification, many computational prediction methods are currently available for the prediction of PTM sites by using protein local sequence information in the context of conserved motif. Here we proposed a novel computational method by using the combination of multiple kernel support vector machines (SVM for predicting PTM sites including phosphorylation, O-linked glycosylation, acetylation, sulfation and nitration. To largely make use of local sequence information and site-modification relationships, we developed a local sequence kernel and Gaussian interaction profile kernel, respectively. Multiple kernels were further combined to train SVM for efficiently leveraging kernel information to boost predictive performance. We compared the proposed method with existing PTM prediction methods. The experimental results revealed that the proposed method performed comparable or better performance than the existing prediction methods, suggesting the feasibility of the developed kernels and the usefulness of the proposed method in PTM sites prediction.

  20. Anthrax lethal toxin suppresses high glucose induced VEGF over secretion through a post-translational mechanism

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Wei-Wei; Zhang; Xin; Wang; Ping; Xie; Song-Tao; Yuan; Qing-Huai; Liu


    AIM: To prove anthrax lethal toxin(Le Tx) blocks the mitogen activated protein kinases(MAPKs) activation by degrading the MAPK/ERK kinases(MEKs) to suppress vascular endothelial growth factor(VEGF) secretion.METHODS: Human adult retinal pigmented epithelium(ARPE) cells were cultured and treated with normal glucose, high glucose or high glucose with Le Tx for additional 24, 48 or 72 h for viable cell count. Total RNA from the ARPE was isolated for reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction(RT-PCR). The conditioned medium of ARPE cells treated in different group for 48 h was filtered and diluted to detect the concentration of VEGF by enzyme-linked immunosorbant assays.Evaluate the role of MEK/MAPK pathway in the secretion of VEGF by immunoblotting. RESULTS: In this study, we proved high glucose induced activation of the MAPK extracellular signal-regulated kinase(ERK1/2) and p38 in the ARPE cell line was blocked by anthrax Le Tx. Le Tx also inhibited high glucose induced ARPE cell over proliferation.CONCLUSION: Le Tx suppressed high glucose induced VEGF over secretion in the ARPE cells, mainly through a post-translational mechanism.

  1. Proteomics Analysis Reveals Post-Translational Mechanisms for Cold-Induced Metabolic Changes in Arabidopsis

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Tian Li; Alma L.Burlingame; Zhi-Ping Deng; Zhi Yong Wang; Shou-Ling Xu; Juan A.Oses-Prieto; Sunita Putil; Peng Xu; Rui-Ju Wang; Kathy H.Li; David A.Malty; Liz-He An


    Cold-induced changes of gene expression and metabolism are critical for plants to survive freezing. Largely by changing gene expression, exposure to a period of non-freezing low temperatures increases plant tolerance to freezing-a phenomenon known as cold acclimation. Cold also induces rapid metabolic changes, which provide instant protection before temperature drops below freezing point. The molecular mechanisms for such rapid metabolic responses to cold remain largely unknown. Here, we use two-dimensional difference gel electrophoresis (2-D DIGE) analysis of sub-cellular fractions of Arabidopsis thaliana proteome coupled with spot identification by tandem mass spectrometry to identify early cold-responsive proteins in Arabidopsis. These proteins include four enzymes involved in starch degradation, three HSP100 proteins, several proteins in the tricarboxylic acid cycle, and sucrose metabolism. Upon cold treatment, the Disproportionating Enzyme 2 (DPE2), a cytosolic transglucosidase metabolizing maltose to glucose, increased rapidly in the centrifugation pellet fraction and decreased in the soluble fraction. Consistent with cold-induced inactivation of DPE2 enzymatic activity, the dpe2 mutant showed increased freezing tolerance without affecting the C-repeat binding transcription factor (CBF) transcriptional pathway. These results support a model that cold-induced inactivation of DPE2 leads to rapid accumulation of maltose, which is a cold-induced compatible solute that protects cells from freezing damage. This study provides evidence for a key role of rapid post-translational regulation of carbohydrate metabolic enzymes in plant protection against sudden temperature drop.

  2. Dimer interface of bovine cytochrome c oxidase is influenced by local posttranslational modifications and lipid binding. (United States)

    Liko, Idlir; Degiacomi, Matteo T; Mohammed, Shabaz; Yoshikawa, Shinya; Schmidt, Carla; Robinson, Carol V


    Bovine cytochrome c oxidase is an integral membrane protein complex comprising 13 protein subunits and associated lipids. Dimerization of the complex has been proposed; however, definitive evidence for the dimer is lacking. We used advanced mass spectrometry methods to investigate the oligomeric state of cytochrome c oxidase and the potential role of lipids and posttranslational modifications in its subunit interfaces. Mass spectrometry of the intact protein complex revealed that both the monomer and the dimer are stabilized by large lipid entities. We identified these lipid species from the purified protein complex, thus implying that they interact specifically with the enzyme. We further identified phosphorylation and acetylation sites of cytochrome c oxidase, located in the peripheral subunits and in the dimer interface, respectively. Comparing our phosphorylation and acetylation sites with those found in previous studies of bovine, mouse, rat, and human cytochrome c oxidase, we found that whereas some acetylation sites within the dimer interface are conserved, suggesting a role for regulation and stabilization of the dimer, phosphorylation sites were less conserved and more transient. Our results therefore provide insights into the locations and interactions of lipids with acetylated residues within the dimer interface of this enzyme, and thereby contribute to a better understanding of its structure in the natural membrane. Moreover dimeric cytochrome c oxidase, comprising 20 transmembrane, six extramembrane subunits, and associated lipids, represents the largest integral membrane protein complex that has been transferred via electrospray intact into the gas phase of a mass spectrometer, representing a significant technological advance.

  3. Markov chain Monte Carlo based analysis of post-translationally modified VDAC gating kinetics. (United States)

    Tewari, Shivendra G; Zhou, Yifan; Otto, Bradley J; Dash, Ranjan K; Kwok, Wai-Meng; Beard, Daniel A


    The voltage-dependent anion channel (VDAC) is the main conduit for permeation of solutes (including nucleotides and metabolites) of up to 5 kDa across the mitochondrial outer membrane (MOM). Recent studies suggest that VDAC activity is regulated via post-translational modifications (PTMs). Yet the nature and effect of these modifications is not understood. Herein, single channel currents of wild-type, nitrosated, and phosphorylated VDAC are analyzed using a generalized continuous-time Markov chain Monte Carlo (MCMC) method. This developed method describes three distinct conducting states (open, half-open, and closed) of VDAC activity. Lipid bilayer experiments are also performed to record single VDAC activity under un-phosphorylated and phosphorylated conditions, and are analyzed using the developed stochastic search method. Experimental data show significant alteration in VDAC gating kinetics and conductance as a result of PTMs. The effect of PTMs on VDAC kinetics is captured in the parameters associated with the identified Markov model. Stationary distributions of the Markov model suggest that nitrosation of VDAC not only decreased its conductance but also significantly locked VDAC in a closed state. On the other hand, stationary distributions of the model associated with un-phosphorylated and phosphorylated VDAC suggest a reversal in channel conformation from relatively closed state to an open state. Model analyses of the nitrosated data suggest that faster reaction of nitric oxide with Cys-127 thiol group might be responsible for the biphasic effect of nitric oxide on basal VDAC conductance.

  4. SILAC-Based Quantitative Strategies for Accurate Histone Posttranslational Modification Profiling Across Multiple Biological Samples. (United States)

    Cuomo, Alessandro; Soldi, Monica; Bonaldi, Tiziana


    Histone posttranslational modifications (hPTMs) play a key role in regulating chromatin dynamics and fine-tuning DNA-based processes. Mass spectrometry (MS) has emerged as a versatile technology for the analysis of histones, contributing to the dissection of hPTMs, with special strength in the identification of novel marks and in the assessment of modification cross talks. Stable isotope labeling by amino acid in cell culture (SILAC), when adapted to histones, permits the accurate quantification of PTM changes among distinct functional states; however, its application has been mainly confined to actively dividing cell lines. A spike-in strategy based on SILAC can be used to overcome this limitation and profile hPTMs across multiple samples. We describe here the adaptation of SILAC to the analysis of histones, in both standard and spike-in setups. We also illustrate its coupling to an implemented "shotgun" workflow, by which heavy arginine-labeled histone peptides, produced upon Arg-C digestion, are qualitatively and quantitatively analyzed in an LC-MS/MS system that combines ultrahigh-pressure liquid chromatography (UHPLC) with new-generation Orbitrap high-resolution instrument.

  5. jEcho: an Evolved weight vector to CHaracterize the protein's posttranslational modification mOtifs. (United States)

    Zhao, Miaomiao; Zhang, Zhao; Mai, Guoqin; Luo, Youxi; Zhou, Fengfeng


    Protein's posttranslational modification (PTM) represents a major dynamic regulation of protein functions after the translation of polypeptide chains from mRNA molecule. Compared with the costly and labor-intensive wet laboratory characterization of PTMs, the computer-based detection of PTM residues has been a major complementary technique in recent years. Previous studies demonstrated that the PTM-flanking positions convey different contributions to the computational detection of PTM residue, but did not directly translate this observation into the in silico PTM prediction. We propose a weight vector to represent the variant contributions of the PTM-flanking positions and use an evolutionary algorithm to optimize the vector. Even a simple nearest neighbor algorithm with the incorporated optimal weight vector outperforms the currently available algorithms. The algorithm is implemented as an easy-to-use computer program, jEcho version 1.0. The implementation language, Java, makes jEcho platform-independent and visually interactive. The predicted results may be directly exported as publication-quality images or text files. jEcho may be downloaded from .

  6. SUMOylation Confers Posttranslational Stability on NPM-ALK Oncogenic Protein

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Deeksha Vishwamitra


    Full Text Available Nucleophosmin-anaplastic lymphoma kinase–expressing (NPM-ALK+ T-cell lymphoma is an aggressive form of cancer that commonly affects children and adolescents. The expression of NPM-ALK chimeric oncogene results from the chromosomal translocation t(2;5(p23;q35 that causes the fusion of the ALK and NPM genes. This translocation generates the NPM-ALK protein tyrosine kinase that forms the constitutively activated NPM-ALK/NPM-ALK homodimers. In addition, NPM-ALK is structurally associated with wild-type NPM to form NPM/NPM-ALK heterodimers, which can translocate to the nucleus. The mechanisms that sustain the stability of NPM-ALK are not fully understood. SUMOylation is a posttranslational modification that is characterized by the reversible conjugation of small ubiquitin-like modifiers (SUMOs with target proteins. SUMO competes with ubiquitin for substrate binding and therefore, SUMOylation is believed to protect target proteins from proteasomal degradation. Moreover, SUMOylation contributes to the subcellular distribution of target proteins. Herein, we found that the SUMOylation pathway is deregulated in NPM-ALK+ T-cell lymphoma cell lines and primary lymphoma tumors from patients. We also identified Lys24 and Lys32 within the NPM domain as the sites where NPM-ALK conjugates with SUMO-1 and SUMO-3. Importantly, antagonizing SUMOylation by the SENP1 protease decreased the accumulation of NPM-ALK and suppressed lymphoma cell viability, proliferation, and anchorage-independent colony formation. One possible mechanism for the SENP1-mediated decrease in NPM-ALK levels was the increase in NPM-ALK association with ubiquitin, which facilitates its degradation. Our findings propose a model in which aberrancies in SUMOylation contribute to the pathogenesis of NPM-ALK+ T-cell lymphoma. Unraveling such pathogenic mechanisms may lead to devising novel strategies to eliminate this aggressive neoplasm.

  7. SUMOylation Confers Posttranslational Stability on NPM-ALK Oncogenic Protein. (United States)

    Vishwamitra, Deeksha; Curry, Choladda V; Shi, Ping; Alkan, Serhan; Amin, Hesham M


    Nucleophosmin-anaplastic lymphoma kinase-expressing (NPM-ALK+) T-cell lymphoma is an aggressive form of cancer that commonly affects children and adolescents. The expression of NPM-ALK chimeric oncogene results from the chromosomal translocation t(2;5)(p23;q35) that causes the fusion of the ALK and NPM genes. This translocation generates the NPM-ALK protein tyrosine kinase that forms the constitutively activated NPM-ALK/NPM-ALK homodimers. In addition, NPM-ALK is structurally associated with wild-type NPM to form NPM/NPM-ALK heterodimers, which can translocate to the nucleus. The mechanisms that sustain the stability of NPM-ALK are not fully understood. SUMOylation is a posttranslational modification that is characterized by the reversible conjugation of small ubiquitin-like modifiers (SUMOs) with target proteins. SUMO competes with ubiquitin for substrate binding and therefore, SUMOylation is believed to protect target proteins from proteasomal degradation. Moreover, SUMOylation contributes to the subcellular distribution of target proteins. Herein, we found that the SUMOylation pathway is deregulated in NPM-ALK+ T-cell lymphoma cell lines and primary lymphoma tumors from patients. We also identified Lys24 and Lys32 within the NPM domain as the sites where NPM-ALK conjugates with SUMO-1 and SUMO-3. Importantly, antagonizing SUMOylation by the SENP1 protease decreased the accumulation of NPM-ALK and suppressed lymphoma cell viability, proliferation, and anchorage-independent colony formation. One possible mechanism for the SENP1-mediated decrease in NPM-ALK levels was the increase in NPM-ALK association with ubiquitin, which facilitates its degradation. Our findings propose a model in which aberrancies in SUMOylation contribute to the pathogenesis of NPM-ALK+ T-cell lymphoma. Unraveling such pathogenic mechanisms may lead to devising novel strategies to eliminate this aggressive neoplasm.

  8. Zipper-interacting protein kinase is involved in regulation of ubiquitination of the androgen receptor, thereby contributing to dynamic transcription complex assembly. (United States)

    Felten, A; Brinckmann, D; Landsberg, G; Scheidtmann, K H


    We have recently identified apoptosis-antagonizing transcription factor (AATF), tumor-susceptibility gene 101 (TSG101) and zipper-interacting protein kinase (ZIPK) as novel coactivators of the androgen receptor (AR). The mechanisms of coactivation remained obscure, however. Here we investigated the interplay and interdependence between these coactivators and the AR using the endogenous prostate specific antigen (PSA) gene as model for AR-target genes. Chromatin immunoprecipitation in combination with siRNA-mediated knockdown revealed that recruitment of AATF and ZIPK to the PSA enhancer was dependent on AR, whereas recruitment of TSG101 was dependent on AATF. Association of AR and its coactivators with the PSA enhancer or promoter occurred in cycles. Dissociation of AR-transcription complexes was due to degradation because inhibition of the proteasome system by MG132 caused accumulation of AR at enhancer/promoter elements. Moreover, inhibition of degradation strongly reduced transcription, indicating that continued and efficient transcription is based on initiation, degradation and reinitiation cycles. Interestingly, knockdown of ZIPK by siRNA had a similar effect as MG132, leading to reduced transcription but enhanced accumulation of AR at androgen-response elements. In addition, knockdown of ZIPK, as well as overexpression of a dominant-negative ZIPK mutant, diminished polyubiquitination of AR. Furthermore, ZIPK cooperated with the E3 ligase Mdm2 in AR-dependent transactivation, assembled into a single complex on chromatin and phosphorylated Mdm2 in vitro. These results suggest that ZIPK has a crucial role in regulation of ubiquitination and degradation of the AR, and hence promoter clearance and efficient transcription.

  9. Sequence assembly

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Scheibye-Alsing, Karsten; Hoffmann, S.; Frankel, Annett Maria


    Despite the rapidly increasing number of sequenced and re-sequenced genomes, many issues regarding the computational assembly of large-scale sequencing data have remain unresolved. Computational assembly is crucial in large genome projects as well for the evolving high-throughput technologies...

  10. Contribution of Post-translational Phosphorylation to Sarcomere-linked Cardiomyopathy Phenotypes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Margaret V Westfall


    Full Text Available Secondary shifts develop in post-translational phosphorylation of sarcomeric proteins in multi¬ple animal models of inherited cardiomyopathy. These signaling alterations together with the primary mutation are predicted to contribute to the overall cardiac phenotype. As a result, identification and integration of post-translational myofilament signaling responses are identified as priorities for gaining insights into sarcomeric cardiomyopathies. However, significant questions remain about the nature and contribution of post-translational phosphorylation to structural remodeling and cardiac dysfunction in animal models and human patients. This perspective essay discusses specific goals for filling critical gaps about post-translational signaling in response to these inherited mutations, especially within sarcomeric proteins. The discussion focuses primarily on pre-clinical analysis of animal models and defines challenges and future directions in this field.

  11. Posttranslational Protein Modification in the Salivary Glands of Sjögren's Syndrome Patients. (United States)

    Herrera-Esparza, Rafael; Rodríguez-Rodríguez, Mayra; Pérez-Pérez, María Elena; Badillo-Soto, Martha Adriana; Torres-Del-Muro, Felipe; Bollain-Y-Goytia, Juan José; Pacheco-Tovar, Deyanira; Avalos-Díaz, Esperanza


    The present study investigated posttranslational reactions in the salivary glands of patients with Sjögren's syndrome. We analysed the biopsies of primary Sjögren's patients using immunohistochemistry and a tag-purified anticyclic citrullinated protein (CCP) antibody to detect citrullinated peptides, and the presence of peptidylarginine deiminase 2 (PAD2) was assessed simultaneously. The present work demonstrated the weak presence of the PAD2 enzyme in some normal salivary glands, although PAD2 expression was increased considerably in Sjögren's patients. The presence of citrullinated proteins was also detected in the salivary tissues of Sjögren's patients, which strongly supports the in situ posttranslational modification of proteins in this setting. Furthermore, the mutual expression of CCP and PAD2 suggests that this posttranslational modification is enzyme dependent. In conclusion, patients with Sjögren's syndrome expressed the catalytic machinery to produce posttranslational reactions that may result in autoantigen triggering.

  12. Identification of Posttranslational Modification-Dependent Protein Interactions Using Yeast Surface Displayed Human Proteome Libraries. (United States)

    Bidlingmaier, Scott; Liu, Bin


    The identification of proteins that interact specifically with posttranslational modifications such as phosphorylation is often necessary to understand cellular signaling pathways. Numerous methods for identifying proteins that interact with posttranslational modifications have been utilized, including affinity-based purification and analysis, protein microarrays, phage display, and tethered catalysis. Although these techniques have been used successfully, each has limitations. Recently, yeast surface-displayed human proteome libraries have been utilized to identify protein fragments with affinity for various target molecules, including phosphorylated peptides. When coupled with fluorescently activated cell sorting and high throughput methods for the analysis of selection outputs, yeast surface-displayed human proteome libraries can rapidly and efficiently identify protein fragments with affinity for any soluble ligand that can be fluorescently detected, including posttranslational modifications. In this review we compare the use of yeast surface display libraries to other methods for the identification of interactions between proteins and posttranslational modifications and discuss future applications of the technology.

  13. The E2F-DP1 Transcription Factor Complex Regulates Centriole Duplication in Caenorhabditis elegans. (United States)

    Miller, Jacqueline G; Liu, Yan; Williams, Christopher W; Smith, Harold E; O'Connell, Kevin F


    Centrioles play critical roles in the organization of microtubule-based structures, from the mitotic spindle to cilia and flagella. In order to properly execute their various functions, centrioles are subjected to stringent copy number control. Central to this control mechanism is a precise duplication event that takes place during S phase of the cell cycle and involves the assembly of a single daughter centriole in association with each mother centriole . Recent studies have revealed that posttranslational control of the master regulator Plk4/ZYG-1 kinase and its downstream effector SAS-6 is key to ensuring production of a single daughter centriole. In contrast, relatively little is known about how centriole duplication is regulated at a transcriptional level. Here we show that the transcription factor complex EFL-1-DPL-1 both positively and negatively controls centriole duplication in the Caenorhabditis elegans embryo. Specifically, we find that down regulation of EFL-1-DPL-1 can restore centriole duplication in a zyg-1 hypomorphic mutant and that suppression of the zyg-1 mutant phenotype is accompanied by an increase in SAS-6 protein levels. Further, we find evidence that EFL-1-DPL-1 promotes the transcription of zyg-1 and other centriole duplication genes. Our results provide evidence that in a single tissue type, EFL-1-DPL-1 sets the balance between positive and negative regulators of centriole assembly and thus may be part of a homeostatic mechanism that governs centriole assembly.

  14. B-Type Natriuretic Peptide: From Posttranslational Processing to Clinical Measurement

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Goetze, Jens P


    BACKGROUND:Plasma cardiac natriuretic peptides and peptide fragments from their molecular precursors are markers of heart disease. Clinical studies have defined the current diagnostic utility of these markers, whereas biochemical elucidation of peptide structure and posttranslational processing has......-atrial natriuretic peptide and pro-B-type natriuretic peptide are useful plasma markers in heart failure. New data have defined cardiac myocytes as competent endocrine cells in posttranslational processing and cellular secretion....

  15. Reproducible Analysis of Post-Translational Modifications in Proteomes--Application to Human Mutations.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alex S Holehouse

    Full Text Available Protein post-translational modifications (PTMs are an important aspect of protein regulation. The number of PTMs discovered within the human proteome, and other proteomes, has been rapidly expanding in recent years. As a consequence of the rate in which new PTMs are identified, analysis done in one year may result in different conclusions when repeated in subsequent years. Among the various functional questions pertaining to PTMs, one important relationship to address is the interplay between modifications and mutations. Specifically, because the linear sequence surrounding a modification site often determines molecular recognition, it is hypothesized that mutations near sites of PTMs may be more likely to result in a detrimental effect on protein function, resulting in the development of disease.We wrote an application programming interface (API to make analysis of ProteomeScout, a comprehensive database of PTMs and protein information, easy and reproducible. We used this API to analyze the relationship between PTMs and human mutations associated with disease (based on the 'Clinical Significance' annotation from dbSNP. Proteins containing pathogenic mutations demonstrated a significant study bias which was controlled for by analyzing only well-studied proteins, based on their having at least one pathogenic mutation. We found that pathogenic mutations are significantly more likely to lie within eight amino acids of a phosphoserine, phosphotyrosine or ubiquitination site when compared to mutations in general, based on a Fisher's Exact test. Despite the skew of pathogenic mutations occurring on positively charged arginines, we could not account for this relationship based only on residue type. Finally, we hypothesize a potential mechanism for a pathogenic mutation on RAF1, based on its proximity to a phosphorylation site, which represents a subtle regulation difference that may explain why its biochemical effect has failed to be uncovered

  16. New roles for old modifications: emerging roles of N-terminal post-translational modifications in development and disease. (United States)

    Tooley, John G; Schaner Tooley, Christine E


    The importance of internal post-translational modification (PTM) in protein signaling and function has long been known and appreciated. However, the significance of the same PTMs on the alpha amino group of N-terminal amino acids has been comparatively understudied. Historically considered static regulators of protein stability, additional functional roles for N-terminal PTMs are now beginning to be elucidated. New findings show that N-terminal methylation, along with N-terminal acetylation, is an important regulatory modification with significant roles in development and disease progression. There are also emerging studies on the enzymology and functional roles of N-terminal ubiquitylation and N-terminal propionylation. Here, will discuss the recent advances in the functional studies of N-terminal PTMs, recount the new N-terminal PTMs being identified, and briefly examine the possibility of dynamic N-terminal PTM exchange.

  17. Post-translational generation of constitutively active cores from larger phosphatases in the malaria parasite, Plasmodium falciparum: implications for proteomics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adams Brian


    Full Text Available Abstract Background Although the complete genome sequences of a large number of organisms have been determined, the exact proteomes need to be characterized. More specifically, the extent to which post-translational processes such as proteolysis affect the synthesized proteins has remained unappreciated. We examined this issue in selected protein phosphatases of the protease-rich malaria parasite, Plasmodium falciparum. Results P. falciparum encodes a number of Ser/Thr protein phosphatases (PP whose catalytic subunits are composed of a catalytic core and accessory domains essential for regulation of the catalytic activity. Two examples of such regulatory domains are found in the Ca+2-regulated phosphatases, PP7 and PP2B (calcineurin. The EF-hand domains of PP7 and the calmodulin-binding domain of PP2B are essential for stimulation of the phosphatase activity by Ca+2. We present biochemical evidence that P. falciparum generates these full-length phosphatases as well as their catalytic cores, most likely as intermediates of a proteolytic degradation pathway. While the full-length phosphatases are activated by Ca+2, the processed cores are constitutively active and either less responsive or unresponsive to Ca+2. The processing is extremely rapid, specific, and occurs in vivo. Conclusions Post-translational cleavage efficiently degrades complex full-length phosphatases in P. falciparum. In the course of such degradation, enzymatically active catalytic cores are produced as relatively stable intermediates. The universality of such proteolysis in other phosphatases or other multi-domain proteins and its potential impact on the overall proteome of a cell merits further investigation.

  18. Glutathionylation of the aquaporin-2 water channel: a novel post-translational modification modulated by the oxidative stress. (United States)

    Tamma, Grazia; Ranieri, Marianna; Di Mise, Annarita; Centrone, Mariangela; Svelto, Maria; Valenti, Giovanna


    Aquaporin-2 (AQP2) is the vasopressin-regulated water channel that controls renal water reabsorption and urine concentration. AQP2 undergoes different regulated post-translational modifications, including phosphorylation and ubiquitylation, which are fundamental for controlling AQP2 cellular localization, stability, and function. The relationship between AQP2 and S-glutathionylation is of potential interest because reactive oxygen species (ROS), produced under renal failure or nephrotoxic drugs, may influence renal function as well as the expression and the activity of different transporters and channels, including aquaporins. Here, we show for the first time that AQP2 is subjected to S-glutathionylation in kidney and in HEK-293 cells stably expressing AQP2. S-Glutathionylation is a redox-dependent post-translational modification controlling several signal transduction pathways and displaying an acute effect on free cytosolic calcium concentration. Interestingly, we found that in fresh kidney slices, the increased AQP2 S-glutathionylation correlated with tert-butyl hydroperoxide-induced ROS generation. Moreover, we also found that cells expressing wild-type human calcium-sensing receptor (hCaSR-wt) and its gain of function (hCaSR-R990G; hCaSR-N124K) had a significant decrease in AQP2 S-glutathionylation secondary to reduced ROS levels and reduced basal intracellular calcium concentration compared with mock cells. Together, these new findings provide fundamental insight into cell biological aspects of AQP2 function and may be relevant to better understand and explain pathological states characterized by an oxidative stress and AQP2-dependent water reabsorption disturbs. © 2014 by The American Society for Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, Inc.

  19. The assembly of a GTPase–kinase signalling complex by a bacterial catalytic scaffold (United States)

    Selyunin, Andrey S.; Sutton, Sarah E.; Weigele, Bethany A.; Reddick, L. Evan; Orchard, Robert C.; Bresson, Stefan M.; Tomchick, Diana R.; Alto, Neal M.


    The fidelity and specificity of information flow within a cell is controlled by scaffolding proteins that assemble and link enzymes into signalling circuits1,2. These circuits can be inhibited by bacterial effector proteins that post-translationally modify individual pathway components3–6. However, there is emerging evidence that pathogens directly organize higher-order signalling networks through enzyme scaffolding7,8, and the identity of the effectors and their mechanisms of action are poorly understood. Here we identify the enterohaemorrhagic Escherichia coli O157:H7 type III effector EspG as a regulator of endomembrane trafficking using a functional screen, and report ADP-ribosylation factor (ARF) GTPases and p21-activated kinases (PAKs) as its relevant host substrates. The 2.5 Å crystal structure of EspG in complex with ARF6 shows how EspG blocks GTPase-activating-protein-assisted GTP hydrolysis, revealing a potent mechanism of GTPase signalling inhibition at organelle membranes. In addition, the 2.8 Å crystal structure of EspG in complex with the autoinhibitory Iα3-helix of PAK2 defines a previously unknown catalytic site in EspG and provides an allosteric mechanism of kinase activation by a bacterial effector. Unexpectedly, ARF and PAKs are organized on adjacent surfaces of EspG, indicating its role as a ‘catalytic scaffold’ that effectively reprograms cellular events through the functional assembly of GTPase-kinase signalling complex. PMID:21170023

  20. Protein glutaminylation is a yeast-specific posttranslational modification of elongation factor 1A. (United States)

    Jank, Thomas; Belyi, Yury; Wirth, Christophe; Rospert, Sabine; Hu, Zehan; Dengjel, Jörn; Tzivelekidis, Tina; Andersen, Gregers Rom; Hunte, Carola; Schlosser, Andreas; Aktories, Klaus


    Ribosomal translation factors are fundamental for protein synthesis and highly conserved in all kingdoms of life. The essential eukaryotic elongation factor 1A (eEF1A), delivers aminoacyl tRNAs to the A-site of the translating 80S ribosome. Several studies have revealed that eEF1A is posttranslationally modified. Using MS analysis, site-directed mutagenesis, and X-ray structural data analysis of Saccharomyces cerevisiae eEF1A, we identified a posttranslational modification in which the alpha amino group of mono-L-glutamine is covalently linked to the side chain of glutamate 45 in eEF1A. The MS analysis suggested that all eEF1A molecules are modified by this glutaminylation and that this posttranslational modification occurs at all stages of yeast growth. The mutational studies revealed that this glutaminylation is not essential for the normal functions of eEF1A in S. cerevisiae However, eEF1A glutaminylation slightly reduced growth under antibiotic-induced translational stress conditions. Moreover, we identified the same posttranslational modification in eEF1A from Schizosaccharomyces pombe, but not in various other eukaryotic organisms tested despite strict conservation of the Glu-45 residue among these organisms. We therefore conclude that eEF1A glutaminylation is a yeast-specific posttranslational modification, which appears to influence protein translation. Copyright © 2017, The American Society for Biochemistry and Molecular Biology.

  1. [Post-translational ligation of split CFTR severed before TMD2 and its chloride channel function]. (United States)

    Zhu, Fuxiang; Gong, Xiandi; Liu, Zelong; Yang, Shude; Qu, Huige; Chi, Xiaoyan


    Mutations of cystic fibrosis transmembrane conductance regulator (CFTR) gene leads to cystic fibrosis, an autosomal recessive genetic disorder affecting a number of organs including the lung airways, pancreas and sweat glands. In order to investigate the post-translational ligation of CFTR with reconstructed functional chloride ion channel and the split Ssp DnaB intein-mediated protein trans-splicing was explored to co-deliver CFTR gene into eukaryotic cells with two vectors. The human CFTR cDNA was split after Glu838 codon before the second transmembrane dome (TMD2) into two halves of N- and C-parts and fused with the coding sequences of split Ssp DnaB intein. Pair of eukaryotic expression vectors pEGFP-NInt and pEYFP-IntC were constructed by inserting them into the vectors pEGFP-N1 and pEYFP-N1 respectively. The transient expression was carried out for observing the ligation of CFTR by Western blotting and recording the chloride current by patch clamps when cotransfection of the pair of vectors into baby hamster kidney (BHK) cells. The results showed that an obvious protein band proven to be ligated intact CFTR can be seen and a higher chloride current and activity of chloride channel were recorded after cotransfection. These data demonstrated that split Ssp DnaB intein could be used as a strategy in delivering CFTR gene by two vectors providing evidence for application of dual adeno-associated virus (AAV) vectors to overcome the limitation of packaging size in cystic fibrosis gene therapy.

  2. Biotinylation: a novel posttranslational modification linking cell autonomous circadian clocks with metabolism. (United States)

    He, Lan; Hamm, J Austin; Reddy, Alex; Sams, David; Peliciari-Garcia, Rodrigo A; McGinnis, Graham R; Bailey, Shannon M; Chow, Chi-Wing; Rowe, Glenn C; Chatham, John C; Young, Martin E


    Circadian clocks are critical modulators of metabolism. However, mechanistic links between cell autonomous clocks and metabolic processes remain largely unknown. Here, we report that expression of the biotin transporter slc5a6 gene is decreased in hearts of two distinct genetic mouse models of cardiomyocyte-specific circadian clock disruption [i.e., cardiomyocyte-specific CLOCK mutant (CCM) and cardiomyocyte-specific BMAL1 knockout (CBK) mice]. Biotinylation is an obligate posttranslational modification for five mammalian carboxylases: acetyl-CoA carboxylase α (ACCα), ACCβ, pyruvate carboxylase (PC), methylcrotonyl-CoA carboxylase (MCC), and propionyl-CoA carboxylase (PCC). We therefore hypothesized that the cardiomyocyte circadian clock impacts metabolism through biotinylation. Consistent with decreased slc5a6 expression, biotinylation of all carboxylases is significantly decreased (10-46%) in CCM and CBK hearts. In association with decreased biotinylated ACC, oleate oxidation rates are increased in both CCM and CBK hearts. Consistent with decreased biotinylated MCC, leucine oxidation rates are significantly decreased in both CCM and CBK hearts, whereas rates of protein synthesis are increased. Importantly, feeding CBK mice with a biotin-enriched diet for 6 wk normalized myocardial 1) ACC biotinylation and oleate oxidation rates; 2) PCC/MCC biotinylation (and partially restored leucine oxidation rates); and 3) net protein synthesis rates. Furthermore, data suggest that the RRAGD/mTOR/4E-BP1 signaling axis is chronically activated in CBK and CCM hearts. Finally we report that the hepatocyte circadian clock also regulates both slc5a6 expression and protein biotinylation in the liver. Collectively, these findings suggest that biotinylation is a novel mechanism by which cell autonomous circadian clocks influence metabolic pathways.

  3. Post-translational modification of osteopontin: Effects on in vitro hydroxyapatite formation and growth

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Boskey, Adele L., E-mail: [Musculoskeletal Integrity Program, Hospital for Special Surgery, New York, NY (United States); Christensen, Brian, E-mail: [Department of Molecular Biology and Genetics, Aarhus University (Denmark); Taleb, Hayat, E-mail: [Musculoskeletal Integrity Program, Hospital for Special Surgery, New York, NY (United States); Sorensen, Esben S., E-mail: [Department of Molecular Biology and Genetics, Aarhus University (Denmark)


    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Thrombin-cleaved fragments of milk-osteopontin effect hydroxyapatite formation differently. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer N- and C-terminal fragments promoted hydroxyapatite formation and growth. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer A central fragment inhibited hydroxyapatite formation and growth. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Binding to collagen or hydroxyapatite seed crystals modified these effects. -- Abstract: The manuscript tests the hypothesis that posttranslational modification of the SIBLING family of proteins in general and osteopontin in particular modify the abilities of these proteins to regulate in vitro hydroxyapatite (HA) formation. Osteopontin has diverse effects on hydroxyapatite (HA) mineral crystallite formation and growth depending on the extent of phosphorylation. We hypothesized that different regions of full-length OPN would also have distinct effects on the mineralization process. Thrombin fragmentation of milk OPN (mOPN) was used to test this hypothesis. Three fragments were tested in a de novo HA formation assay; an N-terminal fragment (aa 1-147), a central fragment (aa 148-204) denoted SKK-fragment and a C-terminal fragment (aa 205-262). Compared to intact mOPN the C- and N-terminal fragments behaved comparably, promoting HA formation and growth, but the central SKK-fragment acted as a mineralization inhibitor. In a seeded growth experiment all fragments inhibited mineral proliferation, but the SKK-fragment was the most effective inhibitor. These effects, seen in HA-formation and seeded growth assays in a gelatin gel system and in a pH-stat experiment were lost when the protein or fragments were dephosphorylated. Effects of the fully phosphorylated protein and fragments were also altered in the presence of fibrillar collagen. The diverse effects can be explained in terms of the intrinsically disordered nature of OPN and its fragments which enable them to interact with their multiple partners.

  4. Posttranslational modifications of Rab proteins cause effective displacement of GDP dissociation inhibitor. (United States)

    Oesterlin, Lena K; Goody, Roger S; Itzen, Aymelt


    Intracellular vesicular trafficking is regulated by approximately 60 members of the Rab subfamily of small Ras-like GDP/GTP binding proteins. Rab proteins cycle between inactive and active states as well as between cytosolic and membrane bound forms. Membrane extraction/delivery and cytosolic distribution of Rabs is mediated by interaction with the protein GDP dissociation inhibitor (GDI) that binds to prenylated inactive (GDP-bound) Rab proteins. Because the Rab:GDP:GDI complex is of high affinity, the question arises of how GDI can be displaced efficiently from Rab protein in order to allow the necessary recruitment of the Rab to its specific target membrane. While there is strong evidence that DrrA, as a bacterially encoded GDP/GTP exchange factor, contributes to this event, we show here that posttranslational modifications of Rabs can also modulate the affinity for GDI and thus cause effective displacement of GDI from Rab:GDI complexes. These activities have been found associated with the phosphocholination and adenylylation activities of the enzymes AnkX and DrrA/SidM, respectively, from the pathogenic bacterium Legionella pneumophila. Both modifications occur after spontaneous dissociation of Rab:GDI complexes within their natural equilibrium. Therefore, the effective GDI displacement that is observed is caused by inhibition of reformation of Rab:GDI complexes. Interestingly, in contrast to adenylylation by DrrA, AnkX can covalently modify inactive Rabs with high catalytic efficiency even when GDP is bound to the GTPase and hence can inhibit binding of GDI to Rab:GDP complexes. We therefore speculate that human cells could employ similar mechanisms in the absence of infection to effectively displace Rabs from GDI.

  5. [Post-translational ligation and function of dual-vector transferred split CFTR gene]. (United States)

    Zhu, Fu-Xiang; Liu, Ze-Long; Qu, Hui-Ge; Chi, Xiao-Yan


    The mutation of cystic fibrosis transmembrane conductance regulator (CFTR) gene leads to an autosomal recessive genetic disorder cystic fibrosis (CF). The gene therapy for CF using adeno-associated virus (AAV) vectors delivering CFTR gene is restricted by the contents limitation of AAV vectors. In this study the split CFTR genes severed at its regulatory domain were delivered by a dual-vector system with an intein-mediated protein trans-splicing as a technique to investigate the post-translational ligation of CFTR half proteins and its function as a chloride ion channel. A pair of eukaryotic expression vectors was constructed by breaking the human CFTR cDNA before Ser712 codon and fusing with Ssp DnaB intein coding sequences. After co-transfection into baby hamster kidney (BHK) cells followed by transient expression, patch clamps were carried out to record the chloride current of whole-cell and the activity of a single channel, and the ligation of two halves of CFTR was observed by Western blotting. The results showed that the intein-fused half genes co-transfected cells displayed a high whole cell chloride current and activity of a single channel indicating the functional recovery of chloride channel, and an intact CFTR protein band was figured out by CFTR-specific antibodies indicating that intein can efficiently ligate the separately expressed half CFTR proteins. The data demonstrated that protein splicing strategy could be used as a strategy in delivering CFTR gene by two vectors, encouraging our ongoing research program on dual AAV vector system based gene transfer in gene therapy for cystic fibrosis.

  6. Sabot assembly

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bzorgi, Fariborz


    A sabot assembly includes a projectile and a housing dimensioned and configured for receiving the projectile. An air pressure cavity having a cavity diameter is disposed between a front end and a rear end of the housing. Air intake nozzles are in fluid communication with the air pressure cavity and each has a nozzle diameter less than the cavity diameter. In operation, air flows through the plurality of air intake nozzles and into the air pressure cavity upon firing of the projectile from a gun barrel to pressurize the air pressure cavity for assisting in separation of the housing from the projectile upon the sabot assembly exiting the gun barrel.

  7. High-Throughput Liquid-Liquid Fractionation of Multiple Protein Post-Translational Modifications* (United States)

    DeFord, James H.; Nuss, Jonathan E.; Amaning, James; English, Robert D.; Tjernlund, Don; Papaconstantinou, John


    Post-translational protein modifications have contributed significantly to the identification of macromolecular biomarkers of biological processes. We have modified a 2-dimensional HPLC system (Beckman Coulter PF2D ProteomeLab) to create proteome maps of post-translational protein modifications. This system resolves complex protein mixtures by anion exchange chromatofocusing in the first dimension and hydrophobicity (reverse phase chromatography) in the second dimension. The simultaneous identification of multiple protein modifications, accomplished by incorporating a photo diode array (PDA) detector into the PF2D system, facilitates the simultaneous production of three dimensional proteome maps and visualization of both unmodified and post-translationally modified (PTM) proteins at their signature wavelengths within the proteome. We describe procedures for the simultaneous resolution of proteome maps, the identification of proteins modified by nitration, carbonylation, and phosphorylation, and proteins with unique spectra such as the heme containing proteins. PMID:19099502

  8. Low Constitutive Cell Surface Expression of HLA-B Is Caused by a Posttranslational Mechanism Involving Glu180 and Arg239

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dellgren, Christoffer; Ekwelum, Vanessa A. C.; Ormhøj, Maria


    HLA class I cell surface expression is crucial for normal immune responses, and variability in HLA expression may influence the course of infections. We have previously shown that classical HLA class I expression on many human cell types is biased with greatly reduced expression of HLA-B compared...... with HLA-A in the absence of inflammatory signals. In the search for the mechanisms responsible for this discrepancy, we have recently reported that the regulation is mainly posttranslational and that the C-terminal part of the α2 domain and the α3 domain contain the molecular determinants that explain...

  9. Assembling consumption

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Assembling Consumption marks a definitive step in the institutionalisation of qualitative business research. By gathering leading scholars and educators who study markets, marketing and consumption through the lenses of philosophy, sociology and anthropology, this book clarifies and applies...... societies. This is an essential reading for both seasoned scholars and advanced students of markets, economies and social forms of consumption....

  10. Post-translation modification of proteins; methodologies and applications in plant sciences. (United States)

    Bond, A E; Row, P E; Dudley, E


    Proteins have the potential to undergo a variety of post-translational modifications and the different methods available to study these cellular processes has advanced rapidly with the continuing development of proteomic technologies. In this review we aim to detail five major post-translational modifications (phosphorylation, glycosylaion, lipid modification, ubiquitination and redox-related modifications), elaborate on the techniques that have been developed for their analysis and briefly discuss the study of these modifications in selected areas of plant science. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Spatial and Temporal Effects in Protein Post-translational Modification Distributions in the Developing Mouse Brain

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Edwards, Alistair V G; Edwards, Gregory J; Schwämmle, Veit


    Protein post-translational modification (PTM) is a powerful way to modify the behavior of cellular proteins and thereby cellular behavior. Multiple recent studies of evolutionary trends have shown that certain pairs of protein post-translational modifications tend to occur closer to each other than...... for observations of increasingly frequent and diverse protein modification in cell biology. In this study, we use mass spectrometry and proteomic strategies to present biological data showing spatiotemporal PTM co-localization across multiple PTM categories, which display changes over development of the brain...

  12. Identification of nucleosome assembly protein 1 (NAP1) as an interacting partner of plant ribosomal protein S6 (RPS6) and a positive regulator of rDNA transcription

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Son, Ora [Department of Biological Science, Sookmyung Women' s University, Seoul 140-742 (Korea, Republic of); Kim, Sunghan [Department of Biological Science, Sookmyung Women' s University, Seoul 140-742 (Korea, Republic of); Department of Plant Science, Plant Genomics and Breeding Institute, Research Institute of Agriculture and Life Sciences, Seoul National University, Seoul 151-921 (Korea, Republic of); Shin, Yun-jeong [Department of Biological Science, Sookmyung Women' s University, Seoul 140-742 (Korea, Republic of); Kim, Woo-Young [College of Pharmacy, Sookmyung Women' s University, Seoul 140-742 (Korea, Republic of); Koh, Hee-Jong, E-mail: [Department of Plant Science, Plant Genomics and Breeding Institute, Research Institute of Agriculture and Life Sciences, Seoul National University, Seoul 151-921 (Korea, Republic of); Cheon, Choong-Ill, E-mail: [Department of Biological Science, Sookmyung Women' s University, Seoul 140-742 (Korea, Republic of)


    The ribosomal protein S6 (RPS6) is a downstream component of the signaling mediated by the target of rapamycin (TOR) kinase that acts as a central regulator of the key metabolic processes, such as protein translation and ribosome biogenesis, in response to various environmental cues. In our previous study, we identified a novel role of plant RPS6, which negatively regulates rDNA transcription, forming a complex with a plant-specific histone deacetylase, AtHD2B. Here we report that the Arabidopsis RPS6 interacts additionally with a histone chaperone, nucleosome assembly protein 1(AtNAP1;1). The interaction does not appear to preclude the association of RPS6 with AtHD2B, as the AtNAP1 was also able to interact with AtHD2B as well as with an RPS6-AtHD2B fusion protein in the BiFC assay and pulldown experiment. Similar to a positive effect of the ribosomal S6 kinase 1 (AtS6K1) on rDNA transcription observed in this study, overexpression or down regulation of the AtNAP1;1 resulted in concomitant increase and decrease, respectively, in rDNA transcription suggesting a positive regulatory role played by AtNAP1 in plant rDNA transcription, possibly through derepression of the negative effect of the RPS6-AtHD2B complex. - Highlights: • Nucleosome assembly protein 1 (AtNAP1) interacts with RPS6 as well as with AtHD2B. • rDNA transcription is regulated S6K1. • Overexpression or down regulation of AtNAP1 results in concomitant increase or decrease in rDNA transcription.

  13. Data on the kinetics of in vitro assembled chromatin. (United States)

    Völker-Albert, Moritz Carl; Pusch, Miriam Caroline; Schmidt, Andreas; Imhof, Axel


    Here, we use LC-MS/MS and SWATH-MS to describe the kinetics of in vitro assembled chromatin supported by an embryo extract prepared from preblastoderm Drosophila melanogaster embryos (DREX). This system allows easy manipulation of distinct aspects of chromatin assembly such as post-translational histone modifications, the levels of histone chaperones and the concentration of distinct DNA binding factors. In total, 480 proteins have been quantified as chromatin enriched factors and their binding kinetics have been monitored in the time course of 15 min, 1 h and 4 h of chromatin assembly. The data accompanying the manuscript on this approach, Völker-Albert et al., 2016 "A quantitative proteomic analysis of in vitro assembled chromatin" [1], has been deposited to the ProteomeXchange Consortium ( via the PRIDE partner repository with the dataset identifier submission number PRIDE: PXD002537 and PRIDE: PXD003445.

  14. O-GlcNAcylation as a novel ammonia-induced posttranslational protein modification in cultured rat astrocytes. (United States)

    Karababa, Ayşe; Görg, Boris; Schliess, Freimut; Häussinger, Dieter


    Hepatic encephalopathy (HE) is a clinical manifestation of a low grade cerebral edema with a mutual interrelationship between osmotic- and oxidative stress. This leads to RNA oxidation and posttranslational protein modifications such as protein tyrosine nitration with pathophysiological relevance. Here, we report on O-GlcNAcylation as another ammonia-induced posttranslational protein modification in cultured rat astrocytes. NH4Cl induced O-GlcNAcylation of distinct proteins (25-250 kDa) in astrocytes in a dose- and time-dependent manner. Exposure of astrocytes to NH4Cl (5 mmol/l) for 48 h and 72 h significantly increased protein O-GlcNAcylation by about 2-fold and 4-fold, respectively. NH4Cl at a concentration of 1 mmol/l was sufficient to double protein O-GlcNAcylation in astrocytes after 72 h as compared to untreated controls. Ammonia-induced protein O-GlcNAcylation was sensitive towards glutamine-synthetase inhibition by methionine sulfoximine (MSO), but was not induced by hypoosmolarity (205 mosmol/l) or CH3NH3Cl (5 mmol/l). Increased protein O-GlcNAcylation in NH4Cl (5 mmol/l, 48 h)-treated astrocytes was fully reversible within 24 h after withdrawal of NH4Cl from culture medium. Amongst the proteins which are O-GlcNAcylated in response to ammonia, GAPDH was identified. It is concluded that ammonia induces reversible protein O-GlcNAcylation in astrocytes that depends on glutamine synthesis but not on astrocyte swelling per se or ammonia-induced pH-changes. In view of the complex involvement of O-GlcNAcylation in cell regulation, such as energy metabolism, apoptosis and circadian rhythmicity and in pathologies, such as neurodegenerative diseases, O-GlcNAcylation might contribute to the pathophysiology of hepatic encephalopathy.

  15. Posttranslational modification of mitochondrial transcription factor A in impaired mitochondria biogenesis: implications in diabetic retinopathy and metabolic memory phenomenon. (United States)

    Santos, Julia M; Mishra, Manish; Kowluru, Renu A


    Mitochondrial transcription factor A (TFAM) is one of the key regulators of the transcription of mtDNA. In diabetes, despite increase in gene transcripts of TFAM, its protein levels in the mitochondria are decreased and mitochondria copy numbers become subnormal. The aim of this study is to investigate the mechanism(s) responsible for decreased mitochondrial TFAM in diabetes. Using retinal endothelial cells, we have investigated the effect of overexpression of cytosolic chaperone, Hsp70, and TFAM on glucose-induced decrease in mitochondrial TFAM levels, and the transcription of mtDNA-encoded genes, NADH dehydrogenase subunit 6 (ND6) and cytochrome b (Cytb). To investigate the role of posttranslational modifications in subnormal mitochondrial TFAM, ubiquitination of TFAM was assessed, and the results were confirmed in the retina from streptozotocin-induced diabetic rats. While overexpression of Hsp70 failed to prevent glucose-induced decrease in mitochondrial TFAM and transcripts of ND6 and Cytb, overexpression of TFAM ameliorated decrease in its mitochondrial protein levels and transcriptional activity. TFAM was ubiquitinated by high glucose, and PYR-41, an inhibitor of ubiquitination, prevented TFAM ubiquitination and restored the transcriptional activity. Similarly, TFAM was ubiquitinated in the retina from diabetic rats, and it continued to be modified after reinstitution of normal glycemia. Our results clearly imply that the ubiquitination of TFAM impedes its transport to the mitochondria resulting in subnormal mtDNA transcription and mitochondria dysfunction, and inhibition of ubiquitination restores mitochondrial homeostasis. Reversal of hyperglycemia does not provide any benefit to TFAM ubiquitination. Thus, strategies targeting posttranslational modification could provide an avenue to preserve mitochondrial homeostasis, and inhibit the development/progression of diabetic retinopathy.

  16. Post-translational Regulation of Cas9 during G1 Enhances Homology-Directed Repair

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tony Gutschner


    Full Text Available CRISPR/Cas9 induces DNA double-strand breaks that are repaired by cell-autonomous repair pathways, namely, non-homologous end-joining (NHEJ, or homology-directed repair (HDR. While HDR is absent in G1, NHEJ is active throughout the cell cycle and, thus, is largely favored over HDR. We devised a strategy to increase HDR by directly synchronizing the expression of Cas9 with cell-cycle progression. Fusion of Cas9 to the N-terminal region of human Geminin converted this gene-editing protein into a substrate for the E3 ubiquitin ligase complex APC/Cdh1, resulting in a cell-cycle-tailored expression with low levels in G1 but high expression in S/G2/M. Importantly, Cas9-hGem(1/110 increased the rate of HDR by up to 87% compared to wild-type Cas9. Future developments may enable high-resolution expression of genome engineering proteins, which might increase HDR rates further, and may contribute to a better understanding of DNA repair pathways due to spatiotemporal control of DNA damage induction.

  17. Post-translational Modifications of OLIG2 Regulate Glioma Invasion through the TGF-β Pathway. (United States)

    Singh, Shiv K; Fiorelli, Roberto; Kupp, Robert; Rajan, Sindhu; Szeto, Emily; Lo Cascio, Costanza; Maire, Cecile L; Sun, Yu; Alberta, John A; Eschbacher, Jennifer M; Ligon, Keith L; Berens, Michael E; Sanai, Nader; Mehta, Shwetal


    In glioblastoma, invasion and proliferation are presumed to be mutually exclusive events; however, the molecular mechanisms that mediate this switch at the cellular level remain elusive. Previously, we have shown that phospho-OLIG2, a central-nervous-system-specific transcription factor, is essential for tumor growth and proliferation. Here, we show that the modulation of OLIG2 phosphorylation can trigger a switch between proliferation and invasion. Glioma cells with unphosphorylated OLIG2(S10, S13, S14) are highly migratory and invasive, both in vitro and in vivo. Mechanistically, unphosphorylated OLIG2 induces TGF-β2 expression and promotes invasive mesenchymal properties in glioma cells. Inhibition of the TGF-β2 pathway blocks this OLIG2-dependent invasion. Furthermore, ectopic expression of phosphomimetic Olig2 is sufficient to block TGF-β2-mediated invasion and reduce expression of invasion genes (ZEB1 and CD44). Our results not only provide a mechanistic insight into how cells switch from proliferation to invasion but also offer therapeutic opportunities for inhibiting dissemination of gliomas.

  18. Post-translational Modifications of OLIG2 Regulate Glioma Invasion through the TGF-β Pathway

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shiv K. Singh


    Full Text Available In glioblastoma, invasion and proliferation are presumed to be mutually exclusive events; however, the molecular mechanisms that mediate this switch at the cellular level remain elusive. Previously, we have shown that phospho-OLIG2, a central-nervous-system-specific transcription factor, is essential for tumor growth and proliferation. Here, we show that the modulation of OLIG2 phosphorylation can trigger a switch between proliferation and invasion. Glioma cells with unphosphorylated OLIG2S10, S13, S14 are highly migratory and invasive, both in vitro and in vivo. Mechanistically, unphosphorylated OLIG2 induces TGF-β2 expression and promotes invasive mesenchymal properties in glioma cells. Inhibition of the TGF-β2 pathway blocks this OLIG2-dependent invasion. Furthermore, ectopic expression of phosphomimetic Olig2 is sufficient to block TGF-β2-mediated invasion and reduce expression of invasion genes (ZEB1 and CD44. Our results not only provide a mechanistic insight into how cells switch from proliferation to invasion but also offer therapeutic opportunities for inhibiting dissemination of gliomas.

  19. Post-translational modifications of plant cell wall proteins and peptides: A survey from a proteomics point of view. (United States)

    Canut, Hervé; Albenne, Cécile; Jamet, Elisabeth


    Plant cell wall proteins (CWPs) and peptides are important players in cell walls contributing to their assembly and their remodeling during development and in response to environmental constraints. Since the rise of proteomics technologies at the beginning of the 2000's, the knowledge of CWPs has greatly increased leading to the discovery of new CWP families and to the description of the cell wall proteomes of different organs of many plants. Conversely, cell wall peptidomics data are still lacking. In addition to the identification of CWPs and peptides by mass spectrometry (MS) and bioinformatics, proteomics has allowed to describe their post-translational modifications (PTMs). At present, the best known PTMs consist in proteolytic cleavage, N-glycosylation, hydroxylation of P residues into hydroxyproline residues (O), O-glycosylation and glypiation. In this review, the methods allowing the capture of the modified proteins based on the specific properties of their PTMs as well as the MS technologies used for their characterization are briefly described. A focus is done on proteolytic cleavage leading to protein maturation or release of signaling peptides and on O-glycosylation. Some new technologies, like top-down proteomics and terminomics, are described. They aim at a finer description of proteoforms resulting from PTMs or degradation mechanisms. This article is part of a Special Issue entitled: Plant Proteomics--a bridge between fundamental processes and crop production, edited by Dr. Hans-Peter Mock.

  20. Methylation of ribosomal protein S10 by protein-arginine methyltransferase 5 regulates ribosome biogenesis. (United States)

    Ren, Jinqi; Wang, Yaqing; Liang, Yuheng; Zhang, Yongqing; Bao, Shilai; Xu, Zhiheng


    Modulation of ribosomal assembly is a fine tuning mechanism for cell number and organ size control. Many ribosomal proteins undergo post-translational modification, but their exact roles remain elusive. Here, we report that ribosomal protein s10 (RPS10) is a novel substrate of an oncoprotein, protein-arginine methyltransferase 5 (PRMT5). We show that PRMT5 interacts with RPS10 and catalyzes its methylation at the Arg(158) and Arg(160) residues. The methylation of RPS10 at Arg(158) and Arg(160) plays a role in the proper assembly of ribosomes, protein synthesis, and optimal cell proliferation. The RPS10-R158K/R160K mutant is not efficiently assembled into ribosomes and is unstable and prone to degradation by the proteasomal pathway. In nucleoli, RPS10 interacts with nucleophosmin/B23 and is predominantly concentrated in the granular component region, which is required for ribosome assembly. The RPS10 methylation mutant interacts weakly with nucleophosmin/B23 and fails to concentrate in the granular component region. Our results suggest that PRMT5 is likely to regulate cell proliferation through the methylation of ribosome proteins, and thus reveal a novel mechanism for PRMT5 in tumorigenesis.

  1. Glucose-induced posttranslational activation of protein phosphatases PP2A and PP1 in yeast

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Dries Castermans; Ils Somers; Johan Kriel; Wendy Louwet; Stefaan Wera; Matthias Versele; Veerle Janssens; Johan M Thevelein


    The protein phosphatases PP2A and PP1 are major regulators of a variety of cellular processes in yeast and other eukaryotes.Here,we reveal that both enzymes are direct targets of glucose sensing.Addition of glucose to glucosedeprived yeast cells triggered rapid posttranslational activation of both PP2A and PP1.Glucose activation of PP2A is controlled by regulatory subunits Rts1,Cdc55,Rrd1 and Rrd2.It is associated with rapid carboxymethylation of the catalytic subnnits,which is necessary but not sufficient for activation.Glucose activation of PP1 was fully dependent on regulatory subunits Reg1 and Shp1.Absence of Gac1,GIc8,Reg2 or Red1 partially reduced activation while Pig1 and Pig2 inhibited activation.Full activation of PP2A and PP1 was also dependent on subunits classically considered to belong to the other phosphatase.PP2A activation was dependent on PP1 subunits Reg1 and Shpl while PP1 activation was dependent on PP2A subunit Rts1.Rts1 interacted with both Pph21 and Glc7 under different conditions and these interactions were Regl dependent.Regl-GIc7 interaction is responsible for PP1 involvement in the main glucose repression pathway and we show that deletion of Shpl also causes strong derepression of the invertase gene SUC2.Deletion of the PP2A subunits Pph21 and Pph22,Rrd1 and Rrd2,specifically enhanced the derepression level of SUC2,indicating that PP2A counteracts SUC2 derepression.Interestingly,the effect of the regulatory subunit Rtsl was consistent with its role as a subunit of both PP2A and PP1,affecting derepression and repression of SUC2,respectively.We also show that abolished phosphatase activation,except by reg1A,does not completely block Snf1 dephosphorylation after addition of glucose.Finally,we show that glucose activation of the cAMP-PKA (protein kinase A)pathway is required for glucose activation of both PP2A and PP1.Our results provide novel insight into the complex regulatory role of these two major protein phosphatases in glucose

  2. Differential roles of the COOH termini of AAA subunits of PA700 (19 S regulator) in asymmetric assembly and activation of the 26 S proteasome. (United States)

    Gillette, Thomas G; Kumar, Brajesh; Thompson, David; Slaughter, Clive A; DeMartino, George N


    The 26 S proteasome is an energy-dependent protease that degrades proteins modified with polyubiquitin chains. It is assembled from two multi-protein subcomplexes: a protease (20 S proteasome) and an ATPase regulatory complex (PA700 or 19 S regulatory particle) that contains six different AAA family subunits (Rpt1 to -6). Here we show that binding of PA700 to the 20 S proteasome is mediated by the COOH termini of two (Rpt2 and Rpt5) of the six Rpt subunits that constitute the interaction surface between the subcomplexes. COOH-terminal peptides of either Rpt2 or Rpt5 bind to the 20 S proteasome and activate hydrolysis of short peptide substrates. Simultaneous binding of both COOH-terminal peptides had additive effects on peptide substrate hydrolysis, suggesting that they bind to distinct sites on the proteasome. In contrast, only the Rpt5 peptide activated hydrolysis of protein substrates. Nevertheless, the COOH-terminal peptide of Rpt2 greatly enhanced this effect, suggesting that proteasome activation is a multistate process. Rpt2 and Rpt5 COOH-terminal peptides cross-linked to different but specific subunits of the 20 S proteasome. These results reveal critical roles of COOH termini of Rpt subunits of PA700 in the assembly and activation of eukaryotic 26 S proteasome. Moreover, they support a model in which Rpt subunits bind to dedicated sites on the proteasome and play specific, nonequivalent roles in the asymmetric assembly and activation of the 26 S proteasome.

  3. Posttranslational Processing and Modification of Cathepsins and Cystatins

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nobuhiko Katunuma


    Full Text Available Cathepsins are an essential protease family in all living cells. The cathepsins play an essential roles such as protein catabolism and protein synthesis. To targeting to various organella and to regulate their activity, the post translational-processing and modification play an important role Cathepsins are translated in polysome as the pre-pro-mature forms. The pre-peptide is removed cotranslationally and then translocated to Golgi-apparatus and the pro-part is removed and the mature-part is glycosylated, and the mature-part is targeted into the lysosome mediated by mannose-6-phosphate signal and the mature-part is bound with their coenzymes. The degradation of the mature-part is started by the limited proteolysis of the ordered nicked bonds to make hydrophobic peptides. The peptides are incorporated into phagosome or proteasome after ubiquitinated and are degrade into amino-acids. Cystatins are endogenous inhibitors of cathepsins. Cystatin α which is only located in skin is phosphorylated at the near C-terminus by protein kinase-C, and the phosphorylate-cystatin α is incorporated into cornified envelope and conjugated with filaggrin-fiber by transglutaminase to form the linker-fiber of skin. The cystatin α is modified by glutathione or make their dimmer, and they are inactive. Those modifications are regulated by the redox-potential by the glutathione.

  4. Tissue-specific posttranslational modification allows functional targeting of thyrotropin. (United States)

    Ikegami, Keisuke; Liao, Xiao-Hui; Hoshino, Yuta; Ono, Hiroko; Ota, Wataru; Ito, Yuka; Nishiwaki-Ohkawa, Taeko; Sato, Chihiro; Kitajima, Ken; Iigo, Masayuki; Shigeyoshi, Yasufumi; Yamada, Masanobu; Murata, Yoshiharu; Refetoff, Samuel; Yoshimura, Takashi


    Thyroid-stimulating hormone (TSH; thyrotropin) is a glycoprotein secreted from the pituitary gland. Pars distalis-derived TSH (PD-TSH) stimulates the thyroid gland to produce thyroid hormones (THs), whereas pars tuberalis-derived TSH (PT-TSH) acts on the hypothalamus to regulate seasonal physiology and behavior. However, it had not been clear how these two TSHs avoid functional crosstalk. Here, we show that this regulation is mediated by tissue-specific glycosylation. Although PT-TSH is released into the circulation, it does not stimulate the thyroid gland. PD-TSH is known to have sulfated biantennary N-glycans, and sulfated TSH is rapidly metabolized in the liver. In contrast, PT-TSH has sialylated multibranched N-glycans; in the circulation, it forms the macro-TSH complex with immunoglobulin or albumin, resulting in the loss of its bioactivity. Glycosylation is fundamental to a wide range of biological processes. This report demonstrates its involvement in preventing functional crosstalk of signaling molecules in the body.

  5. Tissue-Specific Posttranslational Modification Allows Functional Targeting of Thyrotropin

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Keisuke Ikegami


    Full Text Available Thyroid-stimulating hormone (TSH; thyrotropin is a glycoprotein secreted from the pituitary gland. Pars distalis-derived TSH (PD-TSH stimulates the thyroid gland to produce thyroid hormones (THs, whereas pars tuberalis-derived TSH (PT-TSH acts on the hypothalamus to regulate seasonal physiology and behavior. However, it had not been clear how these two TSHs avoid functional crosstalk. Here, we show that this regulation is mediated by tissue-specific glycosylation. Although PT-TSH is released into the circulation, it does not stimulate the thyroid gland. PD-TSH is known to have sulfated biantennary N-glycans, and sulfated TSH is rapidly metabolized in the liver. In contrast, PT-TSH has sialylated multibranched N-glycans; in the circulation, it forms the macro-TSH complex with immunoglobulin or albumin, resulting in the loss of its bioactivity. Glycosylation is fundamental to a wide range of biological processes. This report demonstrates its involvement in preventing functional crosstalk of signaling molecules in the body.

  6. The Activation-Induced Assembly of an RNA/Protein Interactome Centered on the Splicing Factor U2AF2 Regulates Gene Expression in Human CD4 T Cells. (United States)

    Whisenant, Thomas C; Peralta, Eigen R; Aarreberg, Lauren D; Gao, Nina J; Head, Steven R; Ordoukhanian, Phillip; Williamson, Jamie R; Salomon, Daniel R


    Activation of CD4 T cells is a reaction to challenges such as microbial pathogens, cancer and toxins that defines adaptive immune responses. The roles of T cell receptor crosslinking, intracellular signaling, and transcription factor activation are well described, but the importance of post-transcriptional regulation by RNA-binding proteins (RBPs) has not been considered in depth. We describe a new model expanding and activating primary human CD4 T cells and applied this to characterizing activation-induced assembly of splicing factors centered on U2AF2. We immunoprecipitated U2AF2 to identify what mRNA transcripts were bound as a function of activation by TCR crosslinking and costimulation. In parallel, mass spectrometry revealed the proteins incorporated into the U2AF2-centered RNA/protein interactome. Molecules that retained interaction with the U2AF2 complex after RNAse treatment were designated as "central" interactome members (CIMs). Mass spectrometry also identified a second class of activation-induced proteins, "peripheral" interactome members (PIMs), that bound to the same transcripts but were not in physical association with U2AF2 or its partners. siRNA knockdown of two CIMs and two PIMs caused changes in activation marker expression, cytokine secretion, and gene expression that were unique to each protein and mapped to pathways associated with key aspects of T cell activation. While knocking down the PIM, SYNCRIP, impacts a limited but immunologically important set of U2AF2-bound transcripts, knockdown of U2AF1 significantly impairs assembly of the majority of protein and mRNA components in the activation-induced interactome. These results demonstrated that CIMs and PIMs, either directly or indirectly through RNA, assembled into activation-induced U2AF2 complexes and play roles in post-transcriptional regulation of genes related to cytokine secretion. These data suggest an additional layer of regulation mediated by the activation-induced assembly of RNA

  7. Dump assembly (United States)

    Goldmann, Louis H.


    A dump assembly having a fixed conduit and a rotatable conduit provided with overlapping plates, respectively, at their adjacent ends. The plates are formed with openings, respectively, normally offset from each other to block flow. The other end of the rotatable conduit is provided with means for securing the open end of a filled container thereto. Rotation of the rotatable conduit raises and inverts the container to empty the contents while concurrently aligning the conduit openings to permit flow of material therethrough.

  8. Global analysis of myocardial peptides containing cysteines with irreversible sulfinic and sulfonic Acid post-translational modifications

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Paulech, Jana; Liddy, Kiersten A; Engholm-Keller, Kasper;


    Cysteine (Cys) oxidation is a crucial post-translational modification (PTM) associated with redox signaling and oxidative stress. As Cys is highly reactive to oxidants it forms a range of post-translational modifications, some that are biologically reversible (e.g. disulfides, Cys sulfenic acid...

  9. General Assembly

    CERN Multimedia

    Staff Association


    5th April, 2016 – Ordinary General Assembly of the Staff Association! In the first semester of each year, the Staff Association (SA) invites its members to attend and participate in the Ordinary General Assembly (OGA). This year the OGA will be held on Tuesday, April 5th 2016 from 11:00 to 12:00 in BE Auditorium, Meyrin (6-2-024). During the Ordinary General Assembly, the activity and financial reports of the SA are presented and submitted for approval to the members. This is the occasion to get a global view on the activities of the SA, its financial management, and an opportunity to express one’s opinion, including taking part in the votes. Other points are listed on the agenda, as proposed by the Staff Council. Who can vote? Only “ordinary” members (MPE) of the SA can vote. Associated members (MPA) of the SA and/or affiliated pensioners have a right to vote on those topics that are of direct interest to them. Who can give his/her opinion? The Ordinary General Asse...

  10. Human islets and dendritic cells generate post-translationally modified islet auto-antigens

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    McLaughlin, Rene J; de Haan, Anne; Zaldumbide, Arnaud; de Koning, Eelco J; de Ru, Arnoud H; van Veelen, Peter A; van Lummel, Menno; Roep, Bart O


    Initiation of type 1 diabetes (T1D) requires a break in peripheral tolerance. New insights into neo-epitope formation indicate that post-translational modification of islet auto-antigens, for example via deamidation, may be an important component of disease initiation or exacerbation. Indeed, deamid

  11. Prediction of human protein function from post-translational modifications and localization features

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Lars Juhl; Gupta, Ramneek; Blom, Nikolaj;


    a number of functional attributes that are more directly related to the linear sequence of amino acids, and hence easier to predict, than protein structure. These attributes include features associated with post-translational modifications and protein sorting, but also much simpler aspects...

  12. Determination of posttranslational modifications of photoreceptor differentiation factor NRL: focus on SUMOylation. (United States)

    Roger, Jerome E; Nellissery, Jacob; Swaroop, Anand


    Conjugation of SUMO (small ubiquitin-related modifier 1) is a critical posttranslational modification, with significant impact on protein function/activity. Here, we describe direct SUMOylation of GST (glutathione S-transferase)-fusion protein and immunoprecipitation assays for investigating SUMOylation of any protein of interest. We have employed these methods to examine SUMOylation of the basic-motif leucine zipper transcription factor NRL.

  13. Genetic encoding of the post-translational modification 2-hydroxyisobutyryl-lysine


    Knight, William A.; Cropp, T.Ashton


    We report the synthesis and genetic encoding of a recently discovered posttranslational modification, 2-hydroxyisobutryl-lysine, to the genetic code of E. coli. The production of homogeneous proteins containing this amino acid will facilitate the study of modification in full-length proteins.

  14. Is lys-Ne-acetylation the next big thing in post-translational modifications? (United States)

    Lys-N'-acetylation (KAC) has recently ascended from a posttranslational modification (PTM) of limited distribution to one approaching the abundance of O-phosphorylation. Thousands of KAC-proteins have been identified in archaea, bacteria, and eukarya, and the KAC system of acetyltransferases, deace...

  15. Comparative proteomic analysis of histone post-translational modifications upon ischemia/reperfusion-induced retinal injury

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zhao, Xiaolu; Sidoli, Simone; Wang, Leilei;


    We present a detailed quantitative map of single and coexisting histone post-translational modifications (PTMs) in rat retinas affected by ischemia and reperfusion (I/R) injury. Retinal I/R injury contributes to serious ocular diseases, which can lead to vision loss and blindness. We applied linear...

  16. A comprehensive resource for integrating and displaying protein post-translational modifications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wang Ting-Yuan


    Full Text Available Abstract Background Protein Post-Translational Modification (PTM plays an essential role in cellular control mechanisms that adjust protein physical and chemical properties, folding, conformation, stability and activity, thus also altering protein function. Findings dbPTM (version 1.0, which was developed previously, aimed on a comprehensive collection of protein post-translational modifications. In this update version (dbPTM2.0, we developed a PTM database towards an expert system of protein post-translational modifications. The database comprehensively collects experimental and predictive protein PTM sites. In addition, dbPTM2.0 was extended to a knowledge base comprising the modified sites, solvent accessibility of substrate, protein secondary and tertiary structures, protein domains, protein intrinsic disorder region, and protein variations. Moreover, this work compiles a benchmark to construct evaluation datasets for computational study to identifying PTM sites, such as phosphorylated sites, glycosylated sites, acetylated sites and methylated sites. Conclusion The current release not only provides the sequence-based information, but also annotates the structure-based information for protein post-translational modification. The interface is also designed to facilitate the access to the resource. This effective database is now freely accessible at

  17. Do post-translational beta cell protein modifications trigger type 1 diabetes?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Størling, Joachim; Overgaard, Anne Julie; Brorsson, Caroline Anna;


    forms capable of specifically triggering beta cell destruction. In other immune-mediated diseases, autoantigens targeted by the immune system have undergone post-translational modification (PTM), thereby creating tissue-specific neo-epitopes. In a similar manner, PTM of beta cell proteins might create...

  18. Posttranslational Protein Modification in the Salivary Glands of Sjögren’s Syndrome Patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rafael Herrera-Esparza


    Full Text Available The present study investigated posttranslational reactions in the salivary glands of patients with Sjögren’s syndrome. We analysed the biopsies of primary Sjögren’s patients using immunohistochemistry and a tag-purified anticyclic citrullinated protein (CCP antibody to detect citrullinated peptides, and the presence of peptidylarginine deiminase 2 (PAD2 was assessed simultaneously. The present work demonstrated the weak presence of the PAD2 enzyme in some normal salivary glands, although PAD2 expression was increased considerably in Sjögren’s patients. The presence of citrullinated proteins was also detected in the salivary tissues of Sjögren’s patients, which strongly supports the in situ posttranslational modification of proteins in this setting. Furthermore, the mutual expression of CCP and PAD2 suggests that this posttranslational modification is enzyme dependent. In conclusion, patients with Sjögren’s syndrome expressed the catalytic machinery to produce posttranslational reactions that may result in autoantigen triggering.

  19. Posttranslational modulation on the biological activities of molecular chaperones

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)


    Molecular chaperones are a family of proteins that were first noticed to exist about 45 years ago from their increased transcription under heat shock conditions.As a result,the regulation of their encoding genes has been subject to extensive studies.Recent studies revealed that the biological activities of molecular chaperones can also be effectively modulated at the protein level.The ways of modulation so far elucidated include allosteric effect,covalent modification,protein-protein interaction,and con-formational alteration induced by such macro-environmental conditions as temperature and pH.These latter aspects were reviewed here.Emphasized here is the importance of such immediate structural alterations that lead to an immediate activity increase,providing the immediate protection needed for the cells to survive the stress conditions.

  20. Posttranslational modulation on the biological activities of molecular chaperones

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    CHANG ZengYi


    Molecular chaperones are a family of proteins that were first noticed to exist about 45 years ago from their increased transcription under heat shock conditions. As a result, the regulation of their encoding genes has been subject to extensive studies. Recent studies revealed that the biological activities of molecular chaperones can also be effectively modulated at the protein level. The ways of modulation so far elucidated include allosteric effect, covalent modification, protein-protein interaction, and con-formational alteration induced by such macro-environmental conditions as temperature and pH. These latter aspects were reviewed here. Emphasized here is the importance of such immediate structural alterations that lead to an immediate activity increase, providing the immediate protection needed for the cells to survive the stress conditions.

  1. Proteomics and posttranslational proteomics of seed dormancy and germination. (United States)

    Rajjou, Loïc; Belghazi, Maya; Catusse, Julie; Ogé, Laurent; Arc, Erwann; Godin, Béatrice; Chibani, Kamel; Ali-Rachidi, Sonia; Collet, Boris; Grappin, Philippe; Jullien, Marc; Gallardo, Karine; Job, Claudette; Job, Dominique


    The seed is the dispersal unit of plants and must survive the vagaries of the environment. It is the object of intense genetic and genomic studies because processes related to seed quality affect crop yield and the seed itself provides food for humans and animals. Presently, the general aim of postgenomics analyses is to understand the complex biochemical and molecular processes underlying seed quality, longevity, dormancy, and vigor. Due to advances in functional genomics, the recent past years have seen a tremendous progress in our understanding of several aspects of seed development and germination. Here, we describe the proteomics protocols (from protein extraction to mass spectrometry) that can be used to investigate several aspects of seed physiology, including germination and its hormonal regulation, dormancy release, and seed longevity. These techniques can be applied to the study of both model plants (such as Arabidopsis) and crops.

  2. Beta-actin deficiency with oxidative posttranslational modifications in Rett syndrome erythrocytes: insights into an altered cytoskeletal organization.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alessio Cortelazzo

    Full Text Available Beta-actin, a critical player in cellular functions ranging from cell motility and the maintenance of cell shape to transcription regulation, was evaluated in the erythrocyte membranes from patients with typical Rett syndrome (RTT and methyl CpG binding protein 2 (MECP2 gene mutations. RTT, affecting almost exclusively females with an average frequency of 1∶10,000 female live births, is considered the second commonest cause of severe cognitive impairment in the female gender. Evaluation of beta-actin was carried out in a comparative cohort study on red blood cells (RBCs, drawn from healthy control subjects and RTT patients using mass spectrometry-based quantitative analysis. We observed a decreased expression of the beta-actin isoforms (relative fold changes for spots 1, 2 and 3: -1.82±0.15, -2.15±0.06, and -2.59±0.48, respectively in pathological RBCs. The results were validated by western blotting and immunofluorescence microscopy. In addition, beta-actin from RTT patients also showed a dramatic increase in oxidative posttranslational modifications (PTMs as the result of its binding with the lipid peroxidation product 4-hydroxy-2-nonenal (4-HNE. Our findings demonstrate, for the first time, a beta-actin down-regulation and oxidative PTMs for RBCs of RTT patients, thus indicating an altered cytoskeletal organization.

  3. Lactam-based HDAC inhibitors for anticancer chemotherapy: restoration of RUNX3 by posttranslational modification and epigenetic control. (United States)

    Cho, Misun; Choi, Eunhyun; Kim, Jae Hyun; Kim, Hwan; Kim, Hwan Mook; Lee, Jang Ik; Hwang, Ki-Chul; Kim, Hyun-Jung; Han, Gyoonhee


    Expression and stability of the tumor suppressor runt-related transcription factor 3 (RUNX3) are regulated by histone deacetylase (HDAC). HDAC inhibition alters epigenetic and posttranslational stability of RUNX3, leading to tumor suppression. However, HDAC inhibitors can nonselectively alter global gene expression through chromatin remodeling. Thus, lactam-based HDAC inhibitors were screened to identify potent protein stabilizers that maintain RUNX3 stability by acetylation. RUNX activity and HDAC inhibition were determined for 111 lactam-based analogues through a cell-based RUNX activation and HDAC inhibition assay. 3-[1-(4-Bromobenzyl)-2-oxo-2,5-dihydro-1H-pyrrol-3-yl]-N-hydroxypropanamide (11-8) significantly increased RUNX3 acetylation and stability with relatively low RUNX3 mRNA expression and HDAC inhibitory activity. This compound showed significant antitumor effects, which were stronger than SAHA, in an MKN28 xenograft model. Thus, we propose a novel strategy, in which HDAC inhibitors serve as antitumor chemotherapeutic agents that selectively target epigenetic regulation and protein stability of RUNX3.


    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Steven C. Huber


    Studies have focused on the enzyme sucrose synthase, which plays an important role in the metabolism of sucrose in seeds and tubers. There are three isoforms of SUS in maize, referred to as SUS1, SUS-SH1, and SUS2. SUS is generally considered to be tetrameric protein but recent evidence suggests that SUS can also occur as a dimeric protein. The formation of tetrameric SUS is regulated by sucrose concentration in vitro and this could also be an important factor in the cellular localization of the protein. We found that high sucrose concentrations, which promote tetramer formation, also inhibit the binding of SUS1 to actin filaments in vitro. Previously, high sucrose concentrations were shown to promote SUS association with the plasma membrane. The specific regions of the SUS molecule involved in oligomerization are not known, but we identified a region of the SUS1 moelcule by bioinformatic analysis that was predicted to form a coiled coil. We demonstrated that this sequence could, in fact, self-associate as predicted for a coiled coil, but truncation analysis with the full-length recombinant protein suggested that it was not responsible for formation of dimers or tetramers. However, the coiled coil may function in binding of other proteins to SUS1. Overall, sugar availability may differentially influence the binding of SUS to cellular structures, and these effects may be mediated by changes in the oligomeric nature of the enzyme.

  5. Regulation of Rvb1/Rvb2 by a Domain within the INO80 Chromatin Remodeling Complex Implicates the Yeast Rvbs as Protein Assembly Chaperones

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Coral Y. Zhou


    Full Text Available The hexameric AAA+ ATPases Rvb1 and Rvb2 (Rvbs are essential for diverse processes ranging from metabolic signaling to chromatin remodeling, but their functions are unknown. While originally thought to act as helicases, recent proposals suggest that Rvbs act as protein assembly chaperones. However, experimental evidence for chaperone-like behavior is lacking. Here, we identify a potent protein activator of the Rvbs, a domain in the Ino80 ATPase subunit of the INO80 chromatin-remodeling complex, termed Ino80INS. Ino80INS stimulates Rvbs’ ATPase activity by 16-fold while concomitantly promoting their dodecamerization. Using mass spectrometry, cryo-EM, and integrative modeling, we find that Ino80INS binds asymmetrically along the dodecamerization interface, resulting in a conformationally flexible dodecamer that collapses into hexamers upon ATP addition. Our results demonstrate the chaperone-like potential of Rvb1/Rvb2 and suggest a model where binding of multiple clients such as Ino80 stimulates ATP-driven cycling between hexamers and dodecamers, providing iterative opportunities for correct subunit assembly.

  6. Self-assembly of polyphosphazene immunoadjuvant with poly(ethylene oxide) enables advanced nanoscale delivery modalities and regulated pH-dependent cellular membrane activity. (United States)

    Andrianov, Alexander K; Marin, Alexander; Fuerst, Thomas R


    Water-soluble polyphosphazene polyacids, such as poly[di(carboxylatophenoxy)phosphazene] (PCPP), have been of significant interest due to their unique immunoadjuvant and vaccine delivery properties. We report that PCPP can spontaneously self-assemble into intermolecular complexes with common formulation excipients - polyethers in aqueous solutions at neutral pH through the establishment of hydrogen bonds. The resulting advanced PCPP delivery modalities can range from macromolecular assemblies at the nanoscale level to physically cross-linked hydrogels and the physical state can be modulated through varying polymer ratios and molecular weight of polyether. It has been demonstrated that such macromolecular complexes maintain protein-binding ability - a key characteristics of the delivery system. Importantly, the non-covalent modification of PCPP immunoadjuvant with polyethers introduces pH dependent membrane disruptive activity, which is not characteristic for PCPP itself, and is typically correlated to the ability of macromolecular carrier to facilitate endosomal escape. This can potentially affect the mechanism of immunoadjuvant action displayed by PCPP, afford means for its fine-tuning, as well as provide important insights for understanding the relationship between fundamental physico-chemical characteristics of polyphosphazene immunoadjuvants and their activity in vivo.

  7. General Assembly

    CERN Multimedia

    Staff Association


    Mardi 5 mai à 11 h 00 Salle 13-2-005 Conformément aux statuts de l’Association du personnel, une Assemblée générale ordinaire est organisée une fois par année (article IV.2.1). Projet d’ordre du jour : 1- Adoption de l’ordre du jour. 2- Approbation du procès-verbal de l’Assemblée générale ordinaire du 22 mai 2014. 3- Présentation et approbation du rapport d’activités 2014. 4- Présentation et approbation du rapport financier 2014. 5- Présentation et approbation du rapport des vérificateurs aux comptes pour 2014. 6- Programme 2015. 7- Présentation et approbation du projet de budget 2015 et taux de cotisation pour 2015. 8- Pas de modifications aux Statuts de l'Association du personnel proposée. 9- Élections des membres de la Commission é...

  8. General Assembly

    CERN Multimedia

    Staff Association


    Mardi 5 avril à 11 h 00 BE Auditorium Meyrin (6-2-024) Conformément aux statuts de l’Association du personnel, une Assemblée générale ordinaire est organisée une fois par année (article IV.2.1). Projet d’ordre du jour : Adoption de l’ordre du jour. Approbation du procès-verbal de l’Assemblée générale ordinaire du 5 mai 2015. Présentation et approbation du rapport d’activités 2015. Présentation et approbation du rapport financier 2015. Présentation et approbation du rapport des vérificateurs aux comptes pour 2015. Programme de travail 2016. Présentation et approbation du projet de budget 2016 Approbation du taux de cotisation pour 2017. Modifications aux Statuts de l'Association du personnel proposée. Élections des membres de la Commissio...

  9. General assembly

    CERN Multimedia

    Staff Association


    Mardi 5 mai à 11 h 00 Salle 13-2-005 Conformément aux statuts de l’Association du personnel, une Assemblée générale ordinaire est organisée une fois par année (article IV.2.1). Projet d’ordre du jour : Adoption de l’ordre du jour. Approbation du procès-verbal de l’Assemblée générale ordinaire du 22 mai 2014. Présentation et approbation du rapport d’activités 2014. Présentation et approbation du rapport financier 2014. Présentation et approbation du rapport des vérificateurs aux comptes pour 2014. Programme 2015. Présentation et approbation du projet de budget 2015 et taux de cotisation pour 2015. Pas de modifications aux Statuts de l'Association du personnel proposée. Élections des membres de la Commission électorale. &am...

  10. General Assembly

    CERN Multimedia

    Staff Association


    Conformément aux statuts de l’Association du personnel, une Assemblée générale ordinaire est organisée une fois par année (article IV.2.1). Projet d’ordre du jour : Adoption de l’ordre du jour. Approbation du procès-verbal de l’Assemblée générale ordinaire du 5 avril 2016. Présentation et approbation du rapport d’activités 2016. Présentation et approbation du rapport financier 2016. Présentation et approbation du rapport des vérificateurs aux comptes pour 2016. Programme de travail 2017. Présentation et approbation du projet de budget 2017 Approbation du taux de cotisation pour 2018. Modifications aux Statuts de l'Association du personnel proposées. Élections des membres de la Commission électorale. Élections des vérifica...

  11. MeCP2 post-translational modifications: a mechanism to control its involvement in synaptic plasticity and homeostasis?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elisa eBellini


    Full Text Available Although Rett syndrome (RTT represents one of the most frequent forms of severe intellectual disability in females worldwide, we still have an inadequate knowledge of the many roles played by MeCP2 (whose mutations are responsible for most cases of RTT and their relevance for RTT pathobiology. Several studies support a role of MeCP2 in the regulation of synaptic plasticity and homeostasis. At the molecular level, MeCP2 is described as a repressor capable of inhibiting gene transcription through chromatin compaction. Indeed, it interacts with several chromatin remodeling factors, such as HDAC-containing complexes and ATRX. Other studies have inferred that MeCP2 functions also as an activator; a role in regulating mRNA splicing and in modulating protein synthesis has also been proposed. Further, MeCP2 avidly binds both 5-methyl- and 5-hydroxymethyl-cytosine. Recent evidence suggests that it is the highly disorganized structure of MeCP2, together with its post-translational modifications (PTMs that generate and regulate this functional versatility. Indeed, several reports have demonstrated that differential phosphorylation of MeCP2 is a key mechanism by which the methyl binding protein modulates its affinity for its partners, gene expression and cellular adaptations to stimuli and neuronal plasticity. As logic consequence, generation of phospho-defective Mecp2 knock-in mice has permitted associating alterations in neuronal morphology, circuit formation, and mouse behavioral phenotypes with specific phosphorylation events. MeCP2 undergoes various other PTMs, including acetylation, ubiquitination and sumoylation, whose functional roles remain largely unexplored. These results, together with the genome-wide distribution of MeCP2 and its capability to substitute histone H1, recall the complex regulation of histones and suggest the relevance of quickly gaining a deeper comprehension of MeCP2 PTMs, the respective writers and readers and the consequent

  12. Common formin-regulating sequences in Smy1 and Bud14 are required for the control of actin cable assembly in vivo. (United States)

    Eskin, Julian A; Rankova, Aneliya; Johnston, Adam B; Alioto, Salvatore L; Goode, Bruce L


    Formins comprise a large family of proteins with diverse roles in remodeling the actin cytoskeleton. However, the spatiotemporal mechanisms used by cells to control formin activities are only beginning to be understood. Here we dissected Smy1, which has dual roles in regulating formins and myosin. Using mutagenesis, we identified specific sequences in Smy1 critical for its in vitro inhibitory effects on the FH2 domain of the formin Bnr1. By integrating smy1 alleles targeting those sequences, we genetically uncoupled Smy1's functions in regulating formins and myosin. Quantitative imaging analysis further demonstrated that the ability of Smy1 to directly control Bnr1 activity is crucial in vivo for proper actin cable length, shape, and velocity and, in turn, efficient secretory vesicle transport. A Smy1-like sequence motif was also identified in a different Bnr1 regulator, Bud14, and found to be essential for Bud14 functions in regulating actin cable architecture and function in vivo. Together these observations reveal unanticipated mechanistic ties between two distinct formin regulators. Further, they emphasize the importance of tightly controlling formin activities in vivo to generate specialized geometries and dynamics of actin structures tailored to their physiological roles.

  13. Prostate-specific membrane antigen (PSMA) assembles a macromolecular complex regulating growth and survival of prostate cancer cells "in vitro" and correlating with progression "in vivo". (United States)

    Perico, Maria Elisa; Grasso, Silvia; Brunelli, Matteo; Martignoni, Guido; Munari, Enrico; Moiso, Enrico; Fracasso, Giulio; Cestari, Tiziana; Naim, Hassan Y; Bronte, Vincenzo; Colombatti, Marco; Ramarli, Dunia


    The expression of Prostate Specific-Membrane Antigen (PSMA) increases in high-grade prostate carcinoma envisaging a role in growth and progression. We show here that clustering PSMA at LNCaP or PC3-PSMA cell membrane activates AKT and MAPK pathways thus promoting proliferation and survival. PSMA activity was dependent on the assembly of a macromolecular complex including filamin A, beta1 integrin, p130CAS, c-Src and EGFR. Within this complex beta1 integrin became activated thereby inducing a c-Src-dependent EGFR phosphorylation at Y1086 and Y1173 EGF-independent residues. Silencing or blocking experiments with drugs demonstrated that all the complex components were required for full PSMA-dependent promotion of cell growth and/or survival in 3D culture, but that p130CAS and EGFR exerted a major role. All PSMA complex components were found assembled in multiple samples of two high-grade prostate carcinomas and associated with EGFR phosphorylation at Y1086. The expression of p130CAS and pEGFRY1086 was thus analysed by tissue micro array in 16 castration-resistant prostate carcinomas selected from 309 carcinomas and stratified from GS 3+4 to GS 5+5. Patients with Gleason Score ≤5 resulted negative whereas those with GS≥5 expressed p130CAS and pEGFRY1086 in 75% and 60% of the cases, respectively.Collectively, our results demonstrate for the first time that PSMA recruits a functionally active complex which is present in high-grade patients. In addition, two components of this complex, p130CAS and the novel pEGFRY1086, correlate with progression in castration-resistant patients and could be therefore useful in therapeutic or surveillance strategies of these patients.

  14. B-Type Natriuretic Peptide: From Posttranslational Processing to Clinical Measurement

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Goetze, Jens P


    BACKGROUND:Plasma cardiac natriuretic peptides and peptide fragments from their molecular precursors are markers of heart disease. Clinical studies have defined the current diagnostic utility of these markers, whereas biochemical elucidation of peptide structure and posttranslational processing has...... revealed new plasma peptide forms of potential clinical use.CONTENT:Natriuretic propeptide structures undergo variable degrees of endo- and exoproteolytic cleavages as well as amino acid modifications, which leave the plasma phase of the peptides highly heterogeneous and dependent on cardiac......-atrial natriuretic peptide and pro-B-type natriuretic peptide are useful plasma markers in heart failure. New data have defined cardiac myocytes as competent endocrine cells in posttranslational processing and cellular secretion....

  15. The posttranslational modification cascade to the thiopeptide berninamycin generates linear forms and altered macrocyclic scaffolds. (United States)

    Malcolmson, Steven J; Young, Travis S; Ruby, J Graham; Skewes-Cox, Peter; Walsh, Christopher T


    Berninamycin is a member of the pyridine-containing thiopeptide class of antibiotics that undergoes massive posttranslational modifications from ribosomally generated preproteins. Berninamycin has a 2-oxazolyl-3-thiazolyl-pyridine core embedded in a 35-atom macrocycle rather than typical trithiazolylpyridine cores embedded in 26-atom and 29-atom peptide macrocycles. We describe the cloning of an 11-gene berninamycin cluster from Streptomyces bernensis UC 5144, its heterologous expression in Streptomyces lividans TK24 and Streptomyces venezuelae ATCC 10712, and detection of variant and incompletely processed scaffolds. Posttranslational maturation in S. lividans of both the wild-type berninamycin prepeptide (BerA) and also a T3A mutant generates macrocyclic compounds as well as linear variants, which have failed to form the pyridine and the macrocycle. Expression of the gene cluster in S. venezuelae generates a variant of the 35-atom skeleton of berninamycin, containing a methyloxazoline in the place of a methyloxazole within the macrocyclic framework.

  16. Alternative paradigms for ion channelopathies: disorders of ion channel membrane trafficking and posttranslational modification. (United States)

    Curran, Jerry; Mohler, Peter J


    Channelopathies are a diverse set of disorders associated with defects in ion channel (and transporter) function. Although the vast majority of channelopathies are linked with inherited mutations that alter ion channel biophysical properties, another group of similar disorders has emerged that alter ion channel synthesis, membrane trafficking, and/or posttranslational modifications. In fact, some electrical and episodic disorders have now been identified that are not defects in the ion channel but instead reflect dysfunction in an ion channel (or transporter) regulatory protein. This review focuses on alternative paradigms for physiological disorders associated with protein biosynthesis, folding, trafficking, and membrane retention. Furthermore, the review highlights the role of aberrant posttranslational modifications in acquired channelopathies.

  17. Post-translational modifications of linker histone H1 variants in mammals (United States)

    Starkova, T. Yu; Polyanichko, A. M.; Artamonova, T. O.; Khodorkovskii, M. A.; Kostyleva, E. I.; Chikhirzhina, E. V.; Tomilin, A. N.


    The covalent modifications of the linker histone H1 and the core histones are thought to play an important role in the control of chromatin functioning. Histone H1 variants from K562 cell line (hH1), mouse (mH1) and calf (cH1) thymi were studied by matrix-activated laser desorption/ionization fourier transform ion cyclotron resonance mass-spectroscopy (MALDI-FT-ICR-MS). The proteomics analysis revealed novel post-translational modifications of the histone H1, such as meK34-mH1.4, meK35-cH1.1, meK35-mH1.1, meK75-hH1.2, meK75-hH1.3, acK26-hH1.4, acK26-hH1.3 and acK17-hH1.1. The comparison of the hH1, mH1 and cH1 proteins has demonstrated that the types and positions of the post-translational modifications of the globular domains of the H1.2–H1.4 variants are very conservative. However, the post-translational modifications of the N- and C-terminal tails of H1.2, H1.3 and H1.4 are different. The differences of post-translational modifications in the N- and C-terminal tails of H1.2, H1.3 and H1.4 likely lead to the differences in DNA-H1 and H1-protein interactions.

  18. Mass Spectrometry-Based Detection and Assignment of Protein Posttranslational Modifications


    Doll, S.; Burlingame, AL


    © 2014 American Chemical Society. Recent advances in mass spectrometry (MS)-based proteomics allow the identification and quantitation of thousands of posttranslational modification (PTM) sites in a single experiment. This follows from the development of more effective class enrichment strategies, new high performance instrumentation and bioinformatic algorithms with rigorous scoring strategies. More widespread use of these combined capabilities have led to a vast expansion in our knowledge o...

  19. Mass spectrometric identification of proteins and characterization of their post-translational modifications in proteome analysis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Roepstorff, P; Larsen, Martin Røssel


    dominant strategies for identification of proteins from gels based on peptide mass spectrometric fingerprinting and partial sequencing by mass spectrometry are described. After identification of the proteins the next challenge in proteome analysis is characterization of their post-translational...... modifications. The general problems associated with characterization of these directly from gel separated proteins are described and the current state of art for the determination of phosphorylation, glycosylation and proteolytic processing is illustrated....

  20. Variable elimination in post-translational modification reaction networks with mass-action kinetics

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Feliu, Elisenda; Wiuf, Carsten


    We define a subclass of chemical reaction networks called post-translational modification systems. Important biological examples of such systems include MAPK cascades and two-component systems which are well-studied experimentally as well as theoretically. The steady states of such a system are s...... of the species graph and provide conservation laws. A criterion for when a (maximal) set of independent conservation laws can be derived from cuts is given....

  1. Regulation of Pollen Tube Growth by Transglutaminase

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Giampiero Cai


    Full Text Available In pollen tubes, cytoskeleton proteins are involved in many aspects of pollen germination and growth, from the transport of sperm cells to the asymmetrical distribution of organelles to the deposition of cell wall material. These activities are based on the dynamics of the cytoskeleton. Changes to both actin filaments and microtubules are triggered by specific proteins, resulting in different organization levels suitable for the different functions of the cytoskeleton. Transglutaminases are enzymes ubiquitous in all plant organs and cell compartments. They catalyze the post-translational conjugation of polyamines to different protein targets, such as the cytoskeleton. Transglutaminases are suggested to have a general role in the interaction between pollen tubes and the extracellular matrix during fertilization and a specific role during the self-incompatibility response. In such processes, the activity of transglutaminases is enhanced, leading to the formation of cross-linked products (including aggregates of tubulin and actin. Consequently, transglutaminases are suggested to act as regulators of cytoskeleton dynamics. The distribution of transglutaminases in pollen tubes is affected by both membrane dynamics and the cytoskeleton. Transglutaminases are also secreted in the extracellular matrix, where they may take part in the assembly and/or strengthening of the pollen tube cell wall.

  2. Comparison of Posttranslational Modification and the Functional Impairment of Human Serum Albumin in Commercial Preparations. (United States)

    Miyamura, Shigeyuki; Imafuku, Tadashi; Anraku, Makoto; Taguchi, Kazuaki; Yamasaki, Keishi; Tominaga, Yuna; Maeda, Hitoshi; Ishima, Yu; Watanabe, Hiroshi; Otagiri, Masaki; Maruyama, Toru


    On account of its long circulating half-life, human serum albumin (HSA) is susceptible to posttranslational modifications that can alter its functions. Here, we comprehensively compared the degree of posttranslational modifications with the functional impairment of HSA derived from 5 different commercially available albumin preparations and clarified their relationships. We used electrospray ionization-time of flight mass spectrometry to evaluate the degree of posttranslational modification of the entire HSA molecule that was associated with disease development and found that the fraction of Cys34-cysteinylated HSA (Cys-Cys34-HSA), a major form of oxidative modification, varied substantially among the albumin preparations. Meanwhile, no remarkable difference was found in the degree of glycated or N-terminal truncated HSA among the preparations tested. The nonosmotic pressure maintenance functions of HSA, such as its antioxidative and ligand-binding activities significantly differed among the preparations. Interestingly, the alternations of these functions showed a significantly negative correlation only with the Cys-Cys34-HSA fraction. These findings suggest that the Cys-Cys34-HSA fraction, as estimated by electrospray ionization-time of flight mass spectrometry can be used as a predictive marker for the functional impairment of albumin preparations and that it would be preferable to use albumin preparations with higher contents of functionally effective albumin that correspond to a lower degree of cysteinylation of Cys34 in clinical practice.

  3. Post-translational Modifications of Chicken Myelin Basic Protein Charge Components

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Jeongkwon; Zhang, Rui; Strittmatter, Eric F.; Smith, Richard D.; Zand, Robert


    Purified myelin basic protein (MBP) from various species contains several post-translationally modified forms termed charge components or charge isomers. Chicken MBP contains four charge components denoted as C1, C2, C3 and C8. (The C8 isomer is a complex mixture and was not investigated in this study.) These findings are in contrast to those found for human, bovine and other mammalian MBP’s. Mammalian MBP’s, each of which contain seven or eight charge components depending on the analysis of the CM-52 chromatographic curves and the PAGE gels obtained under basic pH conditions. Chicken MBP components C1, C2 and C3 were treated with trypsin and endoproteinase Glu-C. The resulting digests were analyzed by capillary liquid chromatography combined with either an ion trap tandem mass spectrometer or with a Fourier transform ion cyclotron resonance mass spectrometer. This instrumentation permitted establishing the amino acid composition and the determination of the posttranslational modifications for each of the three charge components C1-C3. With the exception of N-terminal acetylation, the post-translational modifications were partial.

  4. Partial Immunoblotting of 2D-Gels: A Novel Method to Identify Post-Translationally Modified Proteins Exemplified for the Myelin Acetylome (United States)

    Kusch, Kathrin; Uecker, Marina; Liepold, Thomas; Möbius, Wiebke; Hoffmann, Christian; Neumann, Heinz; Werner, Hauke B.; Jahn, Olaf


    Post-translational modifications (PTMs) play a key role in regulating protein function, yet their identification is technically demanding. Here, we present a straightforward workflow to systematically identify post-translationally modified proteins based on two-dimensional gel electrophoresis. Upon colloidal Coomassie staining the proteins are partially transferred, and the investigated PTMs are immunodetected. This strategy allows tracking back the immunopositive antigens to the corresponding spots on the original gel, from which they are excised and mass spectrometrically identified. Candidate proteins are validated on the same membrane by immunodetection using a second fluorescence channel. We exemplify the power of partial immunoblotting with the identification of lysine-acetylated proteins in myelin, the oligodendroglial membrane that insulates neuronal axons. The excellent consistency of the detected fluorescence signals at all levels allows the differential comparison of PTMs across multiple conditions. Beyond PTM screening, our multi-level workflow can be readily adapted to clinical applications such as identifying auto-immune antigens or host-pathogen interactions. PMID:28248254

  5. In-gel NHS-propionate derivatization for histone post-translational modifications analysis in Arabidopsis thaliana. (United States)

    Chen, Jiajia; Gao, Jun; Peng, Maolin; Wang, Yi; Yu, Yanyan; Yang, Pengyuan; Jin, Hong


    Post-translational modifications (PTMs) on histone are highly correlated with genetic and epigenetic regulation of gene expression from chromatin. Mass spectrometry (MS) has developed to be an optimal tool for the identification and quantification of histone PTMs. Derivatization of histones with chemicals such as propionic anhydride, N-hydroxysuccinimide ester (NHS-propionate) has been widely used in histone PTMs analysis in bottom-up MS strategy, which requires high purity for histone samples. However, biological samples are not always prepared with high purity, containing detergents or other interferences in most cases. As an alternative approach, an adaptation of in gel derivatization method, termed In-gel NHS, is utilized for a broader application in histone PTMs analysis and it is shown to be a more time-saving preparation method. The proposed method was optimized for a better derivatization efficiency and displayed high reproducibility, indicating quantification of histone PTMs based on In-gel NHS was achievable. Without any traditional fussy histone purification procedures, we succeeded to quantitatively profile the histone PTMs from Arabidopsis with selective knock down of CLF (clf-29) and the original parental (col) with In-gel NHS method in a rapid way, which indicated the high specificity of CLF on H3K27me3 in Arabidopsis. In-gel NHS quantification results also suggest distinctive histone modification patterns in plants, which is invaluable foundation for future studies on histone modifications in plants.

  6. GRK2 Fine-Tunes Circadian Clock Speed and Entrainment via Transcriptional and Post-translational Control of PERIOD Proteins

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Neel Mehta


    Full Text Available The pacemaker properties of the suprachiasmatic nucleus (SCN circadian clock are shaped by mechanisms that influence the expression and behavior of clock proteins. Here, we reveal that G-protein-coupled receptor kinase 2 (GRK2 modulates the period, amplitude, and entrainment characteristics of the SCN. Grk2-deficient mice show phase-dependent alterations in light-induced entrainment, slower recovery from jetlag, and longer behavioral rhythms. Grk2 ablation perturbs intrinsic rhythmic properties of the SCN, increasing amplitude and decreasing period. At the cellular level, GRK2 suppresses the transcription of the mPeriod1 gene and the trafficking of PERIOD1 and PERIOD2 proteins to the nucleus. Moreover, GRK2 can physically interact with PERIOD1/2 and promote PERIOD2 phosphorylation at Ser545, effects that may underlie its ability to regulate PERIOD1/2 trafficking. Together, our findings identify GRK2 as an important modulator of circadian clock speed, amplitude, and entrainment by controlling PERIOD at the transcriptional and post-translational levels.

  7. A Systems Biology Overview on Human Diabetic Nephropathy: From Genetic Susceptibility to Post-Transcriptional and Post-Translational Modifications. (United States)

    Conserva, Francesca; Gesualdo, Loreto; Papale, Massimo


    Diabetic nephropathy (DN), a microvascular complication occurring in approximately 20-40% of patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM), is characterized by the progressive impairment of glomerular filtration and the development of Kimmelstiel-Wilson lesions leading to end-stage renal failure (ESRD). The causes and molecular mechanisms mediating the onset of T2DM chronic complications are yet sketchy and it is not clear why disease progression occurs only in some patients. We performed a systematic analysis of the most relevant studies investigating genetic susceptibility and specific transcriptomic, epigenetic, proteomic, and metabolomic patterns in order to summarize the most significant traits associated with the disease onset and progression. The picture that emerges is complex and fascinating as it includes the regulation/dysregulation of numerous biological processes, converging toward the activation of inflammatory processes, oxidative stress, remodeling of cellular function and morphology, and disturbance of metabolic pathways. The growing interest in the characterization of protein post-translational modifications and the importance of handling large datasets using a systems biology approach are also discussed.

  8. A Systems Biology Overview on Human Diabetic Nephropathy: From Genetic Susceptibility to Post-Transcriptional and Post-Translational Modifications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Francesca Conserva


    Full Text Available Diabetic nephropathy (DN, a microvascular complication occurring in approximately 20–40% of patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM, is characterized by the progressive impairment of glomerular filtration and the development of Kimmelstiel-Wilson lesions leading to end-stage renal failure (ESRD. The causes and molecular mechanisms mediating the onset of T2DM chronic complications are yet sketchy and it is not clear why disease progression occurs only in some patients. We performed a systematic analysis of the most relevant studies investigating genetic susceptibility and specific transcriptomic, epigenetic, proteomic, and metabolomic patterns in order to summarize the most significant traits associated with the disease onset and progression. The picture that emerges is complex and fascinating as it includes the regulation/dysregulation of numerous biological processes, converging toward the activation of inflammatory processes, oxidative stress, remodeling of cellular function and morphology, and disturbance of metabolic pathways. The growing interest in the characterization of protein post-translational modifications and the importance of handling large datasets using a systems biology approach are also discussed.

  9. Enzyme-regulated the changes of pH values for assembling a colorimetric and multistage interconnection logic network with multiple readouts. (United States)

    Huang, Yanyan; Ran, Xiang; Lin, Youhui; Ren, Jinsong; Qu, Xiaogang


    Based on enzymatic reactions-triggered changes of pH values and biocomputing, a novel and multistage interconnection biological network with multiple easy-detectable signal outputs has been developed. Compared with traditional chemical computing, the enzyme-based biological system could overcome the interference between reactions or the incompatibility of individual computing gates and offer a unique opportunity to assemble multicomponent/multifunctional logic circuitries. Our system included four enzyme inputs: β-galactosidase (β-gal), glucose oxidase (GOx), esterase (Est) and urease (Ur). With the assistance of two signal transducers (gold nanoparticles and acid-base indicators) or pH meter, the outputs of the biological network could be conveniently read by the naked eyes. In contrast to current methods, the approach present here could realize cost-effective, label-free and colorimetric logic operations without complicated instrument. By designing a series of Boolean logic operations, we could logically make judgment of the compositions of the samples on the basis of visual output signals. Our work offered a promising paradigm for future biological computing technology and might be highly useful in future intelligent diagnostics, prodrug activation, smart drug delivery, process control, and electronic applications. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  10. CYP2E1, oxidative stress, post-translational modifications and lipid metabolism. (United States)

    Lakshman, M Raj; Garige, Mamatha; Gong, Maokai A; Leckey, Leslie; Varatharajalu, Ravi; Redman, Robert S; Seth, Devanshi; Haber, Paul S; Hirsch, Kenneth; Amdur, Richard; Shah, Ruchi


    Chronic alcohol-mediated down-regulation of hepatic ST6Gal1 gene leads to defective glycosylation of lipid-carrying apolipoproteins such as apo E and apo J, resulting in defective VLDL assembly and intracellular lipid and lipoprotein transport, which in turn is responsible for alcoholic hepatosteatosis and ALD. The mechanism of ethanol action involves thedepletion of a unique RNA binding protein that specifically interacts with its 3'-UTR region of ST6Gal1 mRNA resulting in its destabilization and consequent appearance of asialoconjugates as alcohol biomarkers. With respect to ETOH effects on Cardio-Vascular Diseases, we conclude that CYP2E1 and ETOH mediated oxidative stress significantly down regulates not only the hepatic PON1 gene expression, but also serum PON1 and HCTLase activities accompanied by depletion of hepatic GSH, the endogenous antioxidant. These results strongly implicate the susceptibility of PON1 to increased ROS production. In contrast, betaine seems to be both hepatoprotective and atheroprotective by reducing hepatosteatosis and restoring not only liver GSH that quenches free radicals, but also the antiatherogenic PON1 gene expression and activity.

  11. Regulation of Connexin-Based Channels by Fatty Acids (United States)

    Puebla, Carlos; Retamal, Mauricio A.; Acuña, Rodrigo; Sáez, Juan C.


    In this mini-review, we briefly summarize the current knowledge about the effects of fatty acids (FAs) on connexin-based channels, as well as discuss the limited information about the impact FAs may have on pannexins (Panxs). FAs regulate diverse cellular functions, some of which are explained by changes in the activity of channels constituted by connexins (Cxs) or Panxs, which are known to play critical roles in maintaining the functional integrity of diverse organs and tissues. Cxs are transmembrane proteins that oligomerize into hexamers to form hemichannels (HCs), which in turn can assemble into dodecamers to form gap junction channels (GJCs). While GJCs communicate the cytoplasm of contacting cells, HCs serve as pathways for the exchange of ions and small molecules between the intra and extracellular milieu. Panxs, as well as Cx HCs, form channels at the plasma membrane that enable the interchange of molecules between the intra and extracellular spaces. Both Cx- and Panx-based channels are controlled by several post-translational modifications. However, the mechanism of action of FAs on these channels has not been described in detail. It has been shown however that FAs frequently decrease GJC-mediated cell-cell communication. The opposite effect also has been described for HC or Panx-dependent intercellular communication, where, the acute FA effect can be reversed upon washout. Additionally, changes in GJCs mediated by FAs have been associated with post-translational modifications (e.g., phosphorylation), and seem to be directly related to chemical properties of FAs (e.g., length of carbon chain and/or degree of saturation), but this possible link remains poorly understood. PMID:28174541

  12. Regulation of Connexin-Based Channels by Fatty Acids. (United States)

    Puebla, Carlos; Retamal, Mauricio A; Acuña, Rodrigo; Sáez, Juan C


    In this mini-review, we briefly summarize the current knowledge about the effects of fatty acids (FAs) on connexin-based channels, as well as discuss the limited information about the impact FAs may have on pannexins (Panxs). FAs regulate diverse cellular functions, some of which are explained by changes in the activity of channels constituted by connexins (Cxs) or Panxs, which are known to play critical roles in maintaining the functional integrity of diverse organs and tissues. Cxs are transmembrane proteins that oligomerize into hexamers to form hemichannels (HCs), which in turn can assemble into dodecamers to form gap junction channels (GJCs). While GJCs communicate the cytoplasm of contacting cells, HCs serve as pathways for the exchange of ions and small molecules between the intra and extracellular milieu. Panxs, as well as Cx HCs, form channels at the plasma membrane that enable the interchange of molecules between the intra and extracellular spaces. Both Cx- and Panx-based channels are controlled by several post-translational modifications. However, the mechanism of action of FAs on these channels has not been described in detail. It has been shown however that FAs frequently decrease GJC-mediated cell-cell communication. The opposite effect also has been described for HC or Panx-dependent intercellular communication, where, the acute FA effect can be reversed upon washout. Additionally, changes in GJCs mediated by FAs have been associated with post-translational modifications (e.g., phosphorylation), and seem to be directly related to chemical properties of FAs (e.g., length of carbon chain and/or degree of saturation), but this possible link remains poorly understood.

  13. De Novo Assembly and Analysis of Tartary Buckwheat (Fagopyrum tataricum Garetn. Transcriptome Discloses Key Regulators Involved in Salt-Stress Response

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Qi Wu


    Full Text Available Soil salinization has been a tremendous obstacle for agriculture production. The regulatory networks underlying salinity adaption in model plants have been extensively explored. However, limited understanding of the salt response mechanisms has hindered the planting and production in Fagopyrum tataricum, an economic and health-beneficial plant mainly distributing in southwest China. In this study, we performed physiological analysis and found that salt stress of 200 mM NaCl solution significantly affected the relative water content (RWC, electrolyte leakage (EL, malondialdehyde (MDA content, peroxidase (POD and superoxide dismutase (SOD activities in tartary buckwheat seedlings. Further, we conducted transcriptome comparison between control and salt treatment to identify potential regulatory components involved in F. tataricum salt responses. A total of 53.15 million clean reads from control and salt-treated libraries were produced via an Illumina sequencing approach. Then we de novo assembled these reads into a transcriptome dataset containing 57,921 unigenes with N50 length of 1400 bp and total length of 44.5 Mb. A total of 36,688 unigenes could find matches in public databases. GO, KEGG and KOG classification suggested the enrichment of these unigenes in 56 sub-categories, 25 KOG, and 273 pathways, respectively. Comparison of the transcriptome expression patterns between control and salt treatment unveiled 455 differentially expressed genes (DEGs. Further, we found the genes encoding for protein kinases, phosphatases, heat shock proteins (HSPs, ATP-binding cassette (ABC transporters, glutathione S-transferases (GSTs, abiotic-related transcription factors and circadian clock might be relevant to the salinity adaption of this species. Thus, this study offers an insight into salt tolerance mechanisms, and will serve as useful genetic information for tolerant elite breeding programs in future.

  14. Arginine methylation regulates the p53 response

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jansson, Martin; Durant, Stephen T; Cho, Er-Chieh;


    Activation of the p53 tumour suppressor protein in response to DNA damage leads to apoptosis or cell-cycle arrest. Enzymatic modifications are widely believed to affect and regulate p53 activity. We describe here a level of post-translational control that has an important functional consequence o...

  15. Targeting of a human iron-sulfur cluster assembly enzyme, nifs, to different subcellular compartments is regulated through alternative AUG utilization. (United States)

    Land, T; Rouault, T A


    Iron-sulfur clusters are prosthetic groups that are required for the function of numerous enzymes in the cell, including enzymes important in respiration, photosynthesis, and nitrogen fixation. Here we report cloning of the human homolog of NifS, a cysteine desulfurase that is proposed to supply the inorganic sulfur in iron-sulfur clusters. In human cells, different forms of NifS that localize either to mitochondria or to the cytosol and nucleus are synthesized from a single transcript through initiation at alternative inframe AUGs, and initiation site selection varies according to the pH of the medium or cytosol. Thus, a novel form of translational regulation permits rapid redistribution of NifS proteins into different compartments of the cell in response to changes in metabolic status.

  16. The sphingolipid long-chain base-Pkh1/2-Ypk1/2 signaling pathway regulates eisosome assembly and turnover. (United States)

    Luo, Guangzuo; Gruhler, Albrecht; Liu, Ying; Jensen, Ole N; Dickson, Robert C


    Eisosomes are recently described fungal structures that play roles in the organization of the plasma membrane and endocytosis. Their major protein components are Pil1 and Lsp1, and previous studies showed that these proteins are phosphorylated by the sphingolipid long-chain base-activated Pkh1 and Pkh2 protein kinases in vitro. We show that Pkh1 and Pkh2 phosphorylate Pil1 and Lsp1 in vivo to produce species B, and that heat stress, which activates Pkh1 and Pkh2, generates a more highly phosphorylated species, C. Cells with low Pkh activity lack species B and C and contain abnormally organized eisosomes. To verify that Pil1 phosphorylation is essential for correct eisosome organization, phosphorylated serine and threonine residues were identified and changed to alanines. A variant Pil1 protein lacking five phosphorylation sites did not form eisosomes during log phase growth, indicating that phosphorylation is critical for eisosome organization. We also found that eisosomes are dynamic structures and disassemble when the Ypk protein kinases, which are activated by the sphingolipid-Pkh signaling pathway, are inactivated or when the sphingolipid signal is pharmacologically blocked with myriocin. We conclude that eisosome formation and turnover are regulated by the sphingolipid-Pkh1/2-Ypk1/2 signaling pathway. These data and previous data showing that endocytosis is regulated by the sphingolipid-Pkh1/2-Ypk1/2 signaling pathway suggest that Pkh1 and -2 respond to changes in membrane sphingolipids and transmit this information to eisosomes via Pil1 phosphorylation. Eisosomes then control endocytosis to align the composition and function of the plasma membrane to match demand.

  17. Molecular chaperones and proteostasis regulation during redox imbalance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Katerina Niforou


    Full Text Available Free radicals originate from both exogenous environmental sources and as by-products of the respiratory chain and cellular oxygen metabolism. Sustained accumulation of free radicals, beyond a physiological level, induces oxidative stress that is harmful for the cellular homeodynamics as it promotes the oxidative damage and stochastic modification of all cellular biomolecules including proteins. In relation to proteome stability and maintenance, the increased concentration of oxidants disrupts the functionality of cellular protein machines resulting eventually in proteotoxic stress and the deregulation of the proteostasis (homeostasis of the proteome network (PN. PN curates the proteome in the various cellular compartments and the extracellular milieu by modulating protein synthesis and protein machines assembly, protein recycling and stress responses, as well as refolding or degradation of damaged proteins. Molecular chaperones are key players of the PN since they facilitate folding of nascent polypeptides, as well as holding, folding, and/or degradation of unfolded, misfolded, or non-native proteins. Therefore, the expression and the activity of the molecular chaperones are tightly regulated at both the transcriptional and post-translational level at organismal states of increased oxidative and, consequently, proteotoxic stress, including ageing and various age-related diseases (e.g. degenerative diseases and cancer. In the current review we present a synopsis of the various classes of intra- and extracellular chaperones, the effects of oxidants on cellular homeodynamics and diseases and the redox regulation of chaperones.

  18. New Approach to Identify Novel Regulators of Myc Oncoprotein Stability (United States)


    degradation complex for c‐Myc. Embo J. 2009;28:500‐512. 2. Hann SR. Role of post‐translational modifications in regulating c‐Myc proteolysis...Vervoorts J, Luscher‐Firzlaff J, Luscher B. The ins and outs of MYC regulation by posttranslational mechanisms. J Biol Chem. 2006;281:34725-34729. 6

  19. Experimental annotation of post-translational features and translated coding regions in the pathogen Salmonella Typhimurium

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Smith Richard D


    Full Text Available Abstract Background Complete and accurate genome annotation is crucial for comprehensive and systematic studies of biological systems. However, determining protein-coding genes for most new genomes is almost completely performed by inference using computational predictions with significant documented error rates (> 15%. Furthermore, gene prediction programs provide no information on biologically important post-translational processing events critical for protein function. Results We experimentally annotated the bacterial pathogen Salmonella Typhimurium 14028, using "shotgun" proteomics to accurately uncover the translational landscape and post-translational features. The data provide protein-level experimental validation for approximately half of the predicted protein-coding genes in Salmonella and suggest revisions to several genes that appear to have incorrectly assigned translational start sites, including a potential novel alternate start codon. Additionally, we uncovered 12 non-annotated genes missed by gene prediction programs, as well as evidence suggesting a role for one of these novel ORFs in Salmonella pathogenesis. We also characterized post-translational features in the Salmonella genome, including chemical modifications and proteolytic cleavages. We find that bacteria have a much larger and more complex repertoire of chemical modifications than previously thought including several novel modifications. Our in vivo proteolysis data identified more than 130 signal peptide and N-terminal methionine cleavage events critical for protein function. Conclusion This work highlights several ways in which application of proteomics data can improve the quality of genome annotations to facilitate novel biological insights and provides a comprehensive proteome map of Salmonella as a resource for systems analysis.

  20. Antimicrobial peptides initiate IL-1 beta posttranslational processing: a novel role beyond innate immunity. (United States)

    Perregaux, David G; Bhavsar, Kanan; Contillo, Len; Shi, Jishu; Gabel, Christopher A


    Human monocytes stimulated with LPS produce large quantities of prointerleukin-1beta, but little of this cytokine product is released extracellularly as the mature biologically active species. To demonstrate efficient proteolytic cleavage and export, cytokine-producing cells require a secondary effector stimulus. In an attempt to identify agents that may serve as initiators of IL-1beta posttranslational processing in vivo, LPS-activated human monocytes were treated with several individual antimicrobial peptides. Two peptides derived from porcine neutrophils, protegrin (PTG)-1 and PTG-3, promoted rapid and efficient release of mature IL-1beta. The PTG-mediated response engaged a mechanism similar to that initiated by extracellular ATP acting via the P2X(7) receptor. Thus, both processes were disrupted by a caspase inhibitor, both were sensitive to ethacrynic acid and CP-424,174, two pharmacological agents that suppress posttranslational processing, and both were negated by elevation of extracellular potassium. Moreover, the PTGs, like ATP, promoted a dramatic change in monocyte morphology and a loss of membrane latency. The PTG response was concentration dependent and was influenced profoundly by components within the culture medium. In contrast, porcine neutrophil antimicrobial peptides PR-26 and PR-39 did not initiate IL-1beta posttranslational processing. The human defensin HNP-1 and the frog peptide magainin 1 elicited export of 17-kDa IL-1beta, but these agents were less efficient than PTGs. As a result of this ability to promote release of potent proinflammatory cytokines such as IL-1beta, select antimicrobial peptides may possess important immunomodulatory functions that extend beyond innate immunity.

  1. PPARγ的翻译后修饰%Posttranslational Modifications of Peroxisome Proliferator-activated Receptor γ

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈勇军; 刘智勇; 沈萍萍


    过氧化物酶体增殖物激活受体γ(peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor gamma,PPARγ)是一种配体依赖性核转录因子,它具有调控细胞分化、脂肪代谢、糖代谢及炎症等多种生物学功能.机体对PPARγ转录活性的调控方式是多种多样的,包括蛋白表达水平、配体以及转录辅助因子等不同层次上的调控.近年来众多证据揭示,蛋白翻译后修饰(posttranslational modifications,PTMs)是机体调节PPARγ转录活性的另一重要方式.目前,已报道的PPARγ翻译后修饰包括磷酸化、泛素化、SUMO化和亚硝基化等,它们能够改变蛋白构象、调控蛋白相互作用、改变受体与配体间的亲和力,从而调控PPARγ下游基因的转录.重要的是,PPARγ的翻译后修饰与一些疾病如糖尿病、动脉粥样硬化、肿瘤等密切相关.本文将主要围绕PPARγ的各种翻译后修饰及其在疾病的发生、发展和治疗中的意义作一综述.%Peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor γ(PPARγ) is a member of the nuclear receptor superfamily of ligand-dependent transcription factors. PPARγ regulates various biological processes such as cell differentiation, lipid metabolism, glucose metabolism and inflammation. It is acknowledged that the transcriptional activity of PPARγ may be fine-tuned by several mechanisms in vivo. For example, the expression level of PPARγ, the availability of its ligand and the association between PPARγ and corepressor/coactivator have been demonstrated to be able to regulate PPARγ activation. In addition, mounting evidence has defined posttranslational modifications (PTMs) as a novel essential factor tightly modulating PPARγ activation recently. Several PTMs of PPARγ including phosphorylation, ubiquitination, sumoylation and S-nitrosylation, might regulate its target genes by tuning protein conformation, protein-protein interactions and the affinity between the receptor and ligand. Importantly, there are some

  2. Protein export according to schedule: architecture, assembly, and regulation of type III secretion systems from plant- and animal-pathogenic bacteria. (United States)

    Büttner, Daniela


    Flagellar and translocation-associated type III secretion (T3S) systems are present in most gram-negative plant- and animal-pathogenic bacteria and are often essential for bacterial motility or pathogenicity. The architectures of the complex membrane-spanning secretion apparatuses of both systems are similar, but they are associated with different extracellular appendages, including the flagellar hook and filament or the needle/pilus structures of translocation-associated T3S systems. The needle/pilus is connected to a bacterial translocon that is inserted into the host plasma membrane and mediates the transkingdom transport of bacterial effector proteins into eukaryotic cells. During the last 3 to 5 years, significant progress has been made in the characterization of membrane-associated core components and extracellular structures of T3S systems. Furthermore, transcriptional and posttranscriptional regulators that control T3S gene expression and substrate specificity have been described. Given the architecture of the T3S system, it is assumed that extracellular components of the secretion apparatus are secreted prior to effector proteins, suggesting that there is a hierarchy in T3S. The aim of this review is to summarize our current knowledge of T3S system components and associated control proteins from both plant- and animal-pathogenic bacteria.

  3. Role of post-translational modifications of HTLV-1 Tax in NF-κB activation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Noula; Shembade; Edward; W; Harhaj


    Human T-cell leukemia virus type 1(HTLV-1),the first human retrovirus discovered,is the etiological agent of adult-T-cell leukemia/lymphoma.The HTLV-1 encoded Tax protein is a potent oncoprotein that deregulates gene expression by constitutively activating nuclear factor-κB(NF-κB).Tax activation of NF-κB is critical for the immortalization and survival of HTLV-1-infected T cells.In this review,we summarize the present knowledge on mechanisms underlying Tax-mediated NF-κB activation,with an emphasis on post-translational modifications of Tax.

  4. Methods for Identifying and Examining HTLV-1 HBZ Post-translational Modifications. (United States)

    Al-Saleem, Jacob; Kvaratskhelia, Mamuka; Green, Patrick L


    Post-translational modifications (PTMs) are chemical alterations to individual amino acids that alter a protein's conformation, stability, and/or function. Several pathogenic viruses have been shown to encode proteins with PTMs, including human T-cell leukemia virus type 1 (HTLV-1) Tax and Rex regulatory proteins. HTLV-1 basic leucine zipper protein (HBZ) was hypothesized to feature PTMs due to its functional activities and interactions with cellular transcription factors and acetyltransferases. Here, we describe the approach used to identify, via mass spectrometry, the PTMs of HBZ. In addition, we describe methods to determine the functional relevance of the identified PTMs.

  5. Elucidating Host-Pathogen Interactions Based on Post-Translational Modifications Using Proteomics Approaches

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ravikumar, Vaishnavi; Jers, Carsten; Mijakovic, Ivan


    Microbes with the capability to survive in the host tissue and efficiently subvert its innate immune responses can cause various health hazards. There is an inherent need to understand microbial infection patterns and mechanisms in order to develop efficient therapeutics. Microbial pathogens...... can be efficiently applied to gain an insight into the molecular mechanisms involved. The measurement of the proteome and post-translationally modified proteome dynamics using mass spectrometry, results in a wide array of information, such as significant changes in protein expression, protein...

  6. Analysis of histone posttranslational modifications from nucleolus-associated chromatin by mass spectrometry. (United States)

    Dillinger, Stefan; Garea, Ana Villar; Deutzmann, Rainer; Németh, Attila


    Chromatin is unevenly distributed within the eukaryote nucleus and it contributes to the formation of morphologically and functionally distinct substructures, called chromatin domains and nuclear bodies. Here we describe an approach to assess specific chromatin features, the histone posttranslational modifications (PTMs), of the largest nuclear sub-compartment, the nucleolus. In this chapter, methods for the isolation of nucleolus-associated chromatin from native or formaldehyde-fixed cells and the effect of experimental procedures on the outcome of mass spectrometry analysis of histone PTMs are compared.

  7. Posttranslational processing of the Epstein-Barr virus-encoded p63/LMP protein.


    Mann, K P; Thorley-Lawson, D


    In this paper we describe the posttranslational processing of the p63/LMP (latent membrane protein) encoded by Epstein-Barr virus in transformed B cells. Specifically, we show that after synthesis, free LMP disappeared with a half-life of about 0.5 h. This was caused by the association of LMP with an insoluble complex. All detectable LMP in the plasma membrane was insoluble. This interaction was resistant to nondenaturing detergents but readily dissociated with 8 M urea or by boiling in 0.5% ...

  8. Dysbiosis may trigger autoimmune diseases via inappropriate posttranslational modification of host proteins

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aaron eLerner


    Full Text Available The gut ecosystem with myriads of microorganisms and the high concentration of immune system cells can be considered as a separate organ on its own. The balanced interaction between the host and microbial cells has been shaped during the long co-evolutionary process. In dysbiotic conditions, however, this balance is compromised and results in abnormal interaction between the host and microbiota. It is hypothesize here that the changed spectrum of microbial enzymes involved in posttranslational modification of proteins may contribute to the aberrant modification of host proteins thus generating autoimmune responses by the host, resulting in autoimmune diseases.

  9. A conotoxin from Conus textile with unusual posttranslational modifications reduces presynaptic Ca2+ influx

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rigby, A C; Lucas-Meunier, E; Kalume, D E


    Cone snails are gastropod mollusks of the genus Conus that live in tropical marine habitats. They are predators that paralyze their prey by injection of venom containing a plethora of small, conformationally constrained peptides (conotoxins). We report the identification, characterization......, and structure of a gamma-carboxyglutamic acid-containing peptide, conotoxin epsilon-TxIX, isolated from the venom of the molluscivorous cone snail, Conus textile. The disulfide bonding pattern of the four cysteine residues, an unparalleled degree of posttranslational processing including bromination...

  10. Strong cation exchange chromatography in analysis of posttranslational modifications: innovations and perspectives. (United States)

    Edelmann, Mariola J


    Strong cation exchange (SCX) chromatography has been utilized as an excellent separation technique that can be combined with reversed-phase (RP) chromatography, which is frequently used in peptide mass spectrometry. Although SCX is valuable as the second component of such two-dimensional separation methods, its application goes far beyond efficient fractionation of complex peptide mixtures. Here I describe how SCX facilitates mapping of the protein posttranslational modifications (PTMs), specifically phosphorylation and N-terminal acetylation. The SCX chromatography has been mainly used for enrichment of these two PTMs, but it might also be beneficial for high-throughput analysis of other modifications that alter the net charge of a peptide.

  11. Dynamics of starch granule biogenesis - the role of redox-regulated enzymes and low-affinity carbohydrate-binding modules

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Blennow, A.; Svensson, Birte


    The deposition and degradation of starch in plants is subject to extensive post-translational regulation. To permit degradation of B-type crystallites present in tuberous and leaf starch these starch types are phosphorylated by glucan, water dikinase (GWD). At the level of post-translational redo...... families and can enable diurnal dynamics of starch-enzyme recognition. Such diurnal changes in starch binding have been indicated for the redox-regulated GWD and SEX4....

  12. Expression, stabilization and purification of membrane proteins via diverse protein synthesis systems and detergents involving cell-free associated with self-assembly peptide surfactants. (United States)

    Zheng, Xuan; Dong, Shuangshuang; Zheng, Jie; Li, Duanhua; Li, Feng; Luo, Zhongli


    G-protein coupled receptors (GPCRs) are involved in regulating most of physiological actions and metabolism in the bodies, which have become most frequently addressed therapeutic targets for various disorders and diseases. Purified GPCR-based drug discoveries have become routine that approaches to structural study, novel biophysical and biochemical function analyses. However, several bottlenecks that GPCR-directed drugs need to conquer the problems including overexpression, solubilization, and purification as well as stabilization. The breakthroughs are to obtain efficient protein yield and stabilize their functional conformation which are both urgently requiring of effective protein synthesis system methods and optimal surfactants. Cell-free protein synthesis system is superior to the high yields and post-translation modifications, and early signs of self-assembly peptide detergents also emerged to superiority in purification of membrane proteins. We herein focus several predominant protein synthesis systems and surfactants involving the novel peptide detergents, and uncover the advantages of cell-free protein synthesis system with self-assembling peptide detergents in purification of functional GPCRs. This review is useful to further study in membrane proteins as well as the new drug exploration.

  13. Association and dissociation of the GlnK-AmtB complex in response to cellular nitrogen status can occur in the absence of GlnK post-translational modification

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mike eMerrick


    Full Text Available PII proteins are pivotal players in the control of nitrogen metabolism in bacteria and archaea, and are also found in the plastids of plants. PII proteins control the activities of a diverse range of enzymes, transcription factors and membrane transport proteins, and their regulatory effect is achieved by direct interaction with their target. Many, but by no means all, PII proteins are subject to post-translational modification of a residue within the T-loop of the protein. The protein’s modification state is influenced by the cellular nitrogen status and in the past this has been considered to regulate PII activity by controlling interaction with target proteins. However the fundamental ability of PII proteins to respond to the cellular nitrogen status has been shown to be dependent on binding of key effector molecules, ATP, ADP and 2-oxoglutarate which brings into question the precise role of post-translational modification. In this study we have used the Escherichia coli PII protein GlnK to examine the influence of post-translational modification (uridylylation on the interaction between GlnK and its cognate target the ammonia channel protein AmtB. We have compared the interaction with AmtB of wild-type GlnK and a variant protein, GlnKTyr51Ala, that cannot be uridylylated. This analysis was carried out both in vivo and in vitro and showed that association and dissociation of the GlnK-AmtB complex is not dependent on the uridylylation state of GlnK. However our in vivo studies show that post-translational modification of GlnK does influence the dynamics of its interaction with AmtB.

  14. Probe tip heating assembly (United States)

    Schmitz, Roger William; Oh, Yunje


    A heating assembly configured for use in mechanical testing at a scale of microns or less. The heating assembly includes a probe tip assembly configured for coupling with a transducer of the mechanical testing system. The probe tip assembly includes a probe tip heater system having a heating element, a probe tip coupled with the probe tip heater system, and a heater socket assembly. The heater socket assembly, in one example, includes a yoke and a heater interface that form a socket within the heater socket assembly. The probe tip heater system, coupled with the probe tip, is slidably received and clamped within the socket.

  15. Novel E3 ubiquitin ligases that regulate histone protein levels in the budding yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rakesh Kumar Singh

    Full Text Available Core histone proteins are essential for packaging the genomic DNA into chromatin in all eukaryotes. Since multiple genes encode these histone proteins, there is potential for generating more histones than what is required for chromatin assembly. The positively charged histones have a very high affinity for negatively charged molecules such as DNA, and any excess of histone proteins results in deleterious effects on genomic stability and cell viability. Hence, histone levels are known to be tightly regulated via transcriptional, posttranscriptional and posttranslational mechanisms. We have previously elucidated the posttranslational regulation of histone protein levels by the ubiquitin-proteasome pathway involving the E2 ubiquitin conjugating enzymes Ubc4/5 and the HECT (Homologous to E6-AP C-Terminus domain containing E3 ligase Tom1 in the budding yeast. Here we report the identification of four additional E3 ligases containing the RING (Really Interesting New Gene finger domains that are involved in the ubiquitylation and subsequent degradation of excess histones in yeast. These E3 ligases are Pep5, Snt2 as well as two previously uncharacterized Open Reading Frames (ORFs YKR017C and YDR266C that we have named Hel1 and Hel2 (for Histone E3 Ligases respectively. Mutants lacking these E3 ligases are sensitive to histone overexpression as they fail to degrade excess histones and accumulate high levels of endogenous histones on histone chaperones. Co-immunoprecipitation assays showed that these E3 ligases interact with the major E2 enzyme Ubc4 that is involved in the degradation related ubiquitylation of histones. Using mutagenesis we further demonstrate that the RING domains of Hel1, Hel2 and Snt2 are required for histone regulation. Lastly, mutants corresponding to Hel1, Hel2 and Pep5 are sensitive to replication inhibitors. Overall, our results highlight the importance of posttranslational histone regulatory mechanisms that employ multiple E3

  16. Clathrin assembly protein CALM plays a critical role in KIT signaling by regulating its cellular transport from early to late endosomes in hematopoietic cells.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shinya Rai

    Full Text Available CALM is implicated in the formation of clathrin-coated vesicles, which mediate endocytosis and intracellular trafficking of growth factor receptors and nutrients. We previously found that CALM-deficient mice suffer from severe anemia due to the impaired clathrin-mediated endocytosis of transferrin receptor in immature erythroblast. However, CALM has been supposed to regulate the growth and survival of hematopoietic stem/progenitor cells. So, in this study, we focused on the function of CALM in these cells. We here show that the number of Linage-Sca-1+KIT+ (LSK cells decreased in the fetal liver of CALM-/- mice. Also, colony forming activity was impaired in CALM-/- LSK cells. In addition, SCF, FLT3, and TPO-dependent growth was severely impaired in CALM-/- LSK cells, while they can normally proliferate in response to IL-3 and IL-6. We also examined the intracellular trafficking of KIT using CALM-/- murine embryonic fibroblasts (MEFs engineered to express KIT. At first, we confirmed that endocytosis of SCF-bound KIT was not impaired in CALM-/- MEFs by the internalization assay. However, SCF-induced KIT trafficking from early to late endosome was severely impaired in CALM-/- MEFs. As a result, although intracellular KIT disappeared 30 min after SCF stimulation in wild-type (WT MEFs, it was retained in CALM-/- MEFs. Furthermore, SCF-induced phosphorylation of cytosolic KIT was enhanced and prolonged in CALM-/- MEFs compared with that in WT MEFs, leading to the excessive activation of Akt. Similar hyperactivation of Akt was observed in CALM-/- KIT+ cells. These results indicate that CALM is essential for the intracellular trafficking of KIT and its normal functions. Also, our data demonstrate that KIT located in the early endosome can activate downstream molecules as a signaling endosome. Because KIT activation is involved in the pathogenesis of some malignancies, the manipulation of CALM function would be an attractive therapeutic strategy.

  17. Cilium assembly and disassembly (United States)


    The primary cilium is an antenna-like, immotile organelle present on most types of mammalian cells, which interprets extracellular signals that regulate growth and development. Although once considered a vestigial organelle, the primary cilium is now the focus of considerable interest. We now know that ciliary defects lead to a panoply of human diseases, termed ciliopathies, and the loss of this organelle may be an early signature event during oncogenic transformation. Ciliopathies include numerous seemingly unrelated developmental syndromes, with involvement of the retina, kidney, liver, pancreas, skeletal system and brain. Recent studies have begun to clarify the key mechanisms that link cilium assembly and disassembly to the cell cycle, and suggest new possibilities for therapeutic intervention. PMID:27350441

  18. Newnes electronics assembly handbook

    CERN Document Server

    Brindley, Keith


    Newnes Electronics Assembly Handbook: Techniques, Standards and Quality Assurance focuses on the aspects of electronic assembling. The handbook first looks at the printed circuit board (PCB). Base materials, basic mechanical properties, cleaning of assemblies, design, and PCB manufacturing processes are then explained. The text also discusses surface mounted assemblies and packaging of electromechanical assemblies, as well as the soldering process. Requirements for the soldering process; solderability and protective coatings; cleaning of PCBs; and mass solder/component reflow soldering are des

  19. Focus on PTEN regulation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Miriam eBermudez-Brito


    Full Text Available The role of PTEN as a tumour suppressor has been for a long time attributed to its lipid phosphatase activity against PI(3,4,5P3, the phospholipid product of the class I PI3Ks. Besides its traditional role as a lipid phosphatase at the plasma membrane, a wealth of data has shown that PTEN can function independently of its phosphatase activity and that PTEN also exists and plays a role in the nucleus, in cytoplasmic organelles and extracellularly. Accumulating evidence has shed light on diverse physiological functions of PTEN which are accompanied by a complex regulation of its expression and activity. PTEN levels and function are regulated transcriptionally, post-transcriptionally and post-translationally. PTEN is also sensitive to regulation by its interacting proteins and its localization. Herein, we summarize the current knowledge on mechanisms that regulate the expression and enzymatic activity of PTEN and its role in human diseases.

  20. Archaeal S-layer glycoproteins: Post-translational modification in the face of extremes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jerry eEichler


    Full Text Available Corresponding to the sole or basic component of the surface (S-layer surrounding the archaeal cell in most known cases, S-layer glycoproteins are in direct contact with the harsh environments that characterize niches where Archaea can thrive. Accordingly, early work examining archaeal S-layer glycoproteins focused on identifying those properties that allow members of this group of proteins to maintain their structural integrity in the face of extremes of temperature, pH and salinity, as well as other physical challenges. However, with expansion of the list of archaeal strains serving as model systems, as well as growth in the number of molecular tools available for the manipulation of these strains, studies on archaeal S-layer glycoproteins are currently more likely to consider the various post-translational modifications these polypeptides undergo. For instance, archaeal S-layer glycoproteins can undergo proteolytic cleavage, both N- and O-glycosylation, lipid-modification and oligomerization. In this mini-review, recent findings related to the post-translational modification of archaeal S-layer glycoproteins are considered.

  1. Differential protein levels and post-translational modifications in spinal cord injury of the rat. (United States)

    Afjehi-Sadat, Leila; Brejnikow, Mika; Kang, Sung Ung; Vishwanath, Vinay; Walder, Nadja; Herkner, Kurt; Redl, Heinz; Lubec, Gert


    Although changes in protein expression in spinal cord injury (SCI) would be of pivotal interest, information so far is limited. It was therefore the aim of the study to determine protein levels and post-translational modifications in the early phase following SCI in the rat. SCI was induced in Sprague-Dawley rats and sham operated rats served as controls. A gel-based proteomic approach using two-dimensional gel electrophoresis followed by quantification with specific software and subsequent identification of differentially expressed proteins by nano-ESI-LC-MS/MS was applied. Proteins of several pathways and cascades were dysregulated in SCI: 14-3-3 epsilon protein, dynein light chain 1, and tubulin beta-5 chain showed higher levels in SCI, whereas adenylyl cyclase associated protein 1, dihydropyrimidinase-related protein 2, F-actin capping protein subunit beta, glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate dehydrogenase, stress-induced phosphoprotein 1 and transthyretin showed lower levels in the injured tissue. Post-translational modifications indicated free oxygen radical attack on proteins in SCI. The occurrence of stress is indicated by deranged stress-induced phosphoprotein 1 and signaling abnormalities are reflected by adenylyl cyclase-associated protein 1 and 14-3-3 epsilon protein. The findings propose the involvement of the corresponding cascades and challenge further work into aberrant signaling and oxidative stress in SCI, which may form the basis for experimental intervention for spinal cord trauma.

  2. The role of lipid post-translational modification in plant developmental processes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mark Paul Running


    Full Text Available Most eukaryotic proteins are post-translationally modified, and modification has profound effects on protein function. One key modification is the attachment of a lipid group to certain amino acids; this typically facilitates subcellular targeting (association with a membrane and protein-protein interactions (by virtue of the large hydrophobic moiety. Most widely recognized are lipid modifications of proteins involved in developmental signaling, but proteins with structural roles are also lipid-modified. The three known types of intracellular protein lipid modifications are S-acylation, N-myristoylation, and prenylation. In plants, genetic analysis of the enzymes involved, along with molecular analysis of select target proteins, has recently shed light on the roles of lipid modification in key developmental processes, such as meristem function, flower development, polar cell elongation, cell differentiation, and hormone responses. In addition, while lipid post-translational mechanisms are generally conserved among eukaryotes, plants differ in the nature and function of target proteins, the effects of lipid modification on target proteins, and the roles of lipid modification in developmental processes.

  3. Post-translational Modifications of Natural Antimicrobial Peptides and Strategies for Peptide Engineering. (United States)

    Wang, Guangshun


    Natural antimicrobial peptides (AMPs) are gene-coded defense molecules discovered in all the three life domains: Eubacteria, Archaea, and Eukarya. The latter covers protists, fungi, plants, and animals. It is now recognized that amino acid composition, peptide sequence, and post-translational modifications determine to a large extent the structure and function of AMPs. This article systematically describes post-translational modifications of natural AMPs annotated in the antimicrobial peptide database ( Currently, 1147 out of 1755 AMPs in the database are modified and classified into more than 17 types. Through chemical modifications, the peptides fold into a variety of structural scaffolds that target bacterial surfaces or molecules within cells. Chemical modifications also confer desired functions to a particular peptide. Meanwhile, these modifications modulate other peptide properties such as stability. Elucidation of the relationship between AMP property and chemical modification inspires peptide engineering. Depending on the objective of our design, peptides may be modified in various ways so that the desired features can be enhanced whereas unwanted properties can be minimized. Therefore, peptide design plays an essential role in developing natural AMPs into a new generation of therapeutic molecules.

  4. Vienna-PTM web server: a toolkit for MD simulations of protein post-translational modifications. (United States)

    Margreitter, Christian; Petrov, Drazen; Zagrovic, Bojan


    Post-translational modifications (PTMs) play a key role in numerous cellular processes by directly affecting structure, dynamics and interaction networks of target proteins. Despite their importance, our understanding of protein PTMs at the atomistic level is still largely incomplete. Molecular dynamics (MD) simulations, which provide high-resolution insight into biomolecular function and underlying mechanisms, are in principle ideally suited to tackle this problem. However, because of the challenges associated with the development of novel MD parameters and a general lack of suitable computational tools for incorporating PTMs in target protein structures, MD simulations of post-translationally modified proteins have historically lagged significantly behind the studies of unmodified proteins. Here, we present Vienna-PTM web server (, a platform for automated introduction of PTMs of choice to protein 3D structures (PDB files) in a user-friendly visual environment. With 256 different enzymatic and non-enzymatic PTMs available, the server performs geometrically realistic introduction of modifications at sites of interests, as well as subsequent energy minimization. Finally, the server makes available force field parameters and input files needed to run MD simulations of modified proteins within the framework of the widely used GROMOS 54A7 and 45A3 force fields and GROMACS simulation package.

  5. Investigation of splicing changes and post-translational processing of LMNA in sporadic inclusion body myositis. (United States)

    Luo, Yue-Bei; Mitrpant, Chalermchai; Johnsen, Russell; Fabian, Vicki; Needham, Merrilee; Fletcher, Sue; Wilton, Steve D; Mastaglia, Frank L


    Some features of sporadic inclusion body myositis (s-IBM) suggest that there is acceleration of the normal ageing process in muscle tissue. LMNA encodes the nuclear lamina proteins lamin A/C through alternative splicing, and aberrant splicing of exon 11 leads to the premature ageing disease, Hutchinson-Gilford progeria syndrome. Progerin, the pathogenic isoform expressed in HGPS tissues, has also been detected at low levels in tissues of normal individuals with aging. We therefore investigated the alternative splicing of LMNA gene transcripts, and the post-translational processing of prelamin A, in s-IBM and control muscle samples. Age-related low level expression of the progerin transcript was detected in both s-IBM and control muscles, but was not increased in s-IBM and there was no increase in progerin protein or demonstrable accumulation of intermediate prelamin isoforms in the s-IBM muscles. However, an age-related shift in the balance of splicing towards lamin A-related transcripts, which was present in normal muscles, was not found in s-IBM. Our findings indicate that while there are changes in the patterns of LMNA splicing in s-IBM muscle which are probably secondary to the underlying pathological process, it is unlikely that aberrant splicing of exon 11 or defective post-translational processing of prelamin A are involved in the pathogenesis of the disease.

  6. Vienna-PTM web server: a toolkit for MD simulations of protein post-translational modifications (United States)

    Margreitter, Christian; Petrov, Drazen; Zagrovic, Bojan


    Post-translational modifications (PTMs) play a key role in numerous cellular processes by directly affecting structure, dynamics and interaction networks of target proteins. Despite their importance, our understanding of protein PTMs at the atomistic level is still largely incomplete. Molecular dynamics (MD) simulations, which provide high-resolution insight into biomolecular function and underlying mechanisms, are in principle ideally suited to tackle this problem. However, because of the challenges associated with the development of novel MD parameters and a general lack of suitable computational tools for incorporating PTMs in target protein structures, MD simulations of post-translationally modified proteins have historically lagged significantly behind the studies of unmodified proteins. Here, we present Vienna-PTM web server (, a platform for automated introduction of PTMs of choice to protein 3D structures (PDB files) in a user-friendly visual environment. With 256 different enzymatic and non-enzymatic PTMs available, the server performs geometrically realistic introduction of modifications at sites of interests, as well as subsequent energy minimization. Finally, the server makes available force field parameters and input files needed to run MD simulations of modified proteins within the framework of the widely used GROMOS 54A7 and 45A3 force fields and GROMACS simulation package. PMID:23703210

  7. Serine phosphorylation of CAPA pyrokinin in cockroaches-a taxon-specific posttranslational modification. (United States)

    Sturm, Sebastian; Predel, Reinhard


    In insects, posttranslational modifications of neuropeptides are largely restricted to C- and N-terminal amino acids. The most common modifications, N-terminal pyroglutamate formation and C-terminal α-amidation, may prevent a fast degradation of these messenger molecules. This is particularly important for peptide hormones. Other common posttranslational modifications of proteins such as glycosylation and phosphorylation seem to be very rare in insect neuropeptides. To check this assumption, we used a computer algorithm to search an extensive data set of MALDI-TOF mass spectra from cockroach tissues for ion signal patterns indicating peptide phosphorylation. The results verify that phosphorylation is indeed very rare. However, a candidate was found and experimentally verified as phosphorylated CAPA pyrokinin (GGGGpSGETSGMWFGPRL-NH2) in the cockroach Lamproblatta albipalpus (Blattidae, Lamproblattinae). Tandem mass spectrometry revealed the phosphorylation site as Ser(5). Phosphorylated CAPA pyrokinin was then also detected in most other cockroach lineages (e.g. Blaberidae, Polyphagidae) but not in closely related blattid species such as Periplaneta americana. This is remarkable since the sequence of CAPA pyrokinin is identical in Lamproblatta and Periplaneta. A consensus sequence of CAPA pyrokinins of cockroaches revealed a conserved motif that suggests phosphorylation by a Four-jointed/FAM20C related kinase.

  8. BAGEL3: Automated identification of genes encoding bacteriocins and (non-)bactericidal posttranslationally modified peptides. (United States)

    van Heel, Auke J; de Jong, Anne; Montalbán-López, Manuel; Kok, Jan; Kuipers, Oscar P


    Identifying genes encoding bacteriocins and ribosomally synthesized and posttranslationally modified peptides (RiPPs) can be a challenging task. Especially those peptides that do not have strong homology to previously identified peptides can easily be overlooked. Extensive use of BAGEL2 and user feedback has led us to develop BAGEL3. BAGEL3 features genome mining of prokaryotes, which is largely independent of open reading frame (ORF) predictions and has been extended to cover more (novel) classes of posttranslationally modified peptides. BAGEL3 uses an identification approach that combines direct mining for the gene and indirect mining via context genes. Especially for heavily modified peptides like lanthipeptides, sactipeptides, glycocins and others, this genetic context harbors valuable information that is used for mining purposes. The bacteriocin and context protein databases have been updated and it is now easy for users to submit novel bacteriocins or RiPPs. The output has been simplified to allow user-friendly analysis of the results, in particular for large (meta-genomic) datasets. The genetic context of identified candidate genes is fully annotated. As input, BAGEL3 uses FASTA DNA sequences or folders containing multiple FASTA formatted files. BAGEL3 is freely accessible at

  9. Tubulin tyrosine ligase like 12 links to prostate cancer through tubulin posttranslational modification and chromosome ploidy. (United States)

    Wasylyk, Christine; Zambrano, Alberto; Zhao, Chunhua; Brants, Jan; Abecassis, Joseph; Schalken, Jack A; Rogatsch, Hermann; Schaefer, Georg; Pycha, Armin; Klocker, Helmut; Wasylyk, Bohdan


    Prostate cancer is a common cause of death, and an important goal is to establish the pathways and functions of causative genes. We isolated RNAs that are differentially expressed in macrodissected prostate cancer samples. This study focused on 1 identified gene, TTLL12, which was predicted to modify tubulins, an established target for tumor therapy. TTLL12 is the most poorly characterized member of a recently discovered 14-member family of proteins that catalyze posttranslational modification of tubulins. We show that human TTLL12 is expressed in the proliferating layer of benign prostate. Expression increases during cancer progression to metastasis. It is highly expressed in many metastatic prostate cancer cell lines. It partially colocalizes with vimentin intermediate filaments and cellular structures containing tubulin, including midbodies, centrosomes, intercellular bridges and the mitotic spindle. Downregulation of TTLL12 affects several posttranslational modifications of tubulin (detyrosination and subsequent deglutamylation and polyglutamylation). Overexpression alters chromosomal ploidy. These results raise the possibility that TTLL12 could contribute to tumorigenesis through effects on the cytoskeleton, tubulin modification and chromosome number stability. This study contributes a step toward developing more selective agents targeting microtubules, an already successful target for tumor therapy.

  10. α-Synuclein posttranslational modification and alternative splicing as a trigger for neurodegeneration. (United States)

    Beyer, Katrin; Ariza, Aurelio


    Lewy body diseases include Parkinson disease and dementia with Lewy bodies and are characterized by the widespread distribution of Lewy bodies in virtually every brain area. The main component of Lewy bodies is alpha-synuclein (AS). Accumulating evidence suggests that AS oligomerization and aggregation are strongly associated with the pathogenesis of Lewy body diseases. AS is a small soluble protein with aggregation-prone properties under certain conditions. These properties are enhanced by posttranslational modifications such as phosphorylation, ubiquitination, nitration, and truncation. Accordingly, Lewy bodies contain abundant phosphorylated, nitrated, and monoubiquitinated AS. However, alternative splicing of the AS gene is also known to modify AS aggregation propensities. Splicing gives rise to four related forms of the protein, the main transcript and those that lack exon 4, exon 6, or both. Since AS structure and properties have been extensively studied, it is possible to predict the consequences of the splicing out of the two aforesaid exons. The present review discusses the latest insights on the mechanisms of AS posttranslational modifications and intends to depict their role in the pathogenesis of Lewy body diseases. The implications of deregulated alternative splicing are examined as well, and a hypothesis for the development of the pure form of dementia with Lewy bodies is proposed.

  11. 顺式高尔基体蛋白GM130影响小鼠卵母细胞纺锤体组装%GM130, a cis-Golgi protein, regulates spindle assembly during mouse oocyte meiotic maturation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张春晖; 钱卫平; 孙洪梅; 孟繁华


    Objective:To identify the role of GM130,a cis-Golgi protein,in regulating meiotic spindle assembly.Methods:GM130 localization was determined by immunofluorescence and confocal microscopy.The expression of GM130 was detected by immunoblotting analysis.Results:The results showed that GM130 was localized to the spindle poles at both metaphase Ⅰ and metaphase Ⅱ stages and associated with the midbody at telophase Ⅰ stage.It showed that GM130 was expressed at all stages by immunoblotting.By nocodazole treatment,it clarified that GM130 localization was consistently dependent on spindle assembly.It also showed that knockdown of GM130 caused abnormal spindle formation and impaired the localization of microtubule organizing center (MTOCs) proteins γ-tubulin and Plk1.Conclusions:GM130 may act as a centrosome-associated protein to regulate spindle assembly.%目的 确定顺式高尔基体蛋白GM130对小鼠卵母细胞纺锤体组装的影响. 方法 免疫荧光法检测GM130在小鼠卵母细胞发育不同时期的亚细胞定位,并用免疫印迹法半定量检测其表达水乎;接着用微管解聚药物诺考达唑处理小鼠MⅠ卵母细胞,明确GM130与微管动力的关系.免疫印迹检测注射GM130特定的寡聚核苷酸(morpholino,MO)后卵母细胞中GM130的表达水平,免疫荧光法检测纺锤体的形态变化及中心体相关蛋白γ-tubulin和Plk1的定位. 结果 M130在卵母细胞减数分裂成熟的不同阶段有不同的特异性定位,主要集中分布在生发泡周围、纺锤体的两极和中体及分散于胞浆.GM130在MⅠ和MⅡ期与中心体相关蛋白p-MEK1/2共定位并与纺锤体的组装密切相关.免疫印迹试验表明GM130在卵母细胞发育的各个时期均有表达.降调GM130的表达后,纺锤体组装异常比例升高,且大多数为拉长的纺锤体;第一极体排出率下降,在排出的极体中,大极体的比率升高,并影响γ-tubulin和Plk1的正确定位. 结论 GM130可能作为一种微

  12. Self-assembled nanomaterials for photoacoustic imaging. (United States)

    Wang, Lei; Yang, Pei-Pei; Zhao, Xiao-Xiao; Wang, Hao


    In recent years, extensive endeavors have been paid to construct functional self-assembled nanomaterials for various applications such as catalysis, separation, energy and biomedicines. To date, different strategies have been developed for preparing nanomaterials with diversified structures and functionalities via fine tuning of self-assembled building blocks. In terms of biomedical applications, bioimaging technologies are urgently calling for high-efficient probes/contrast agents for high-performance bioimaging. Photoacoustic (PA) imaging is an emerging whole-body imaging modality offering high spatial resolution, deep penetration and high contrast in vivo. The self-assembled nanomaterials show high stability in vivo, specific tolerance to sterilization and prolonged half-life stability and desirable targeting properties, which is a kind of promising PA contrast agents for biomedical imaging. Herein, we focus on summarizing recent advances in smart self-assembled nanomaterials with NIR absorption as PA contrast agents for biomedical imaging. According to the preparation strategy of the contrast agents, the self-assembled nanomaterials are categorized into two groups, i.e., the ex situ and in situ self-assembled nanomaterials. The driving forces, assembly modes and regulation of PA properties of self-assembled nanomaterials and their applications for long-term imaging, enzyme activity detection and aggregation-induced retention (AIR) effect for diagnosis and therapy are emphasized. Finally, we conclude with an outlook towards future developments of self-assembled nanomaterials for PA imaging.

  13. Lysine acetylation is a common post-translational modification of key metabolic pathway enzymes of the anaerobe Porphyromonas gingivalis. (United States)

    Butler, Catherine A; Veith, Paul D; Nieto, Matthew F; Dashper, Stuart G; Reynolds, Eric C


    Porphyromonas gingivalis is a Gram-negative anaerobe considered to be a keystone pathogen in the development of the bacterial-associated inflammatory oral disease chronic periodontitis. Although post-translational modifications (PTMs) of proteins are commonly found to modify protein function in eukaryotes and prokaryotes, PTMs such as lysine acetylation have not been examined in P. gingivalis. Lysine acetylation is the addition of an acetyl group to a lysine which removes this amino acid's positive charge and can induce changes in a protein's secondary structure and reactivity. A proteomics based approach combining immune-affinity enrichment with high sensitivity Orbitrap mass spectrometry identified 130 lysine acetylated peptides from 92 P. gingivalis proteins. The majority of these peptides (71) were attributed to 45 proteins with predicted metabolic activity; these proteins could be mapped to several P. gingivalis metabolic pathways where enzymes catalysing sequential reactions within the same pathway were often found acetylated. In particular, the catabolic pathways of complex anaerobic fermentation of amino acids to produce energy had 12 enzymes lysine acetylated. The results suggest that lysine acetylation may be an important mechanism in metabolic regulation in P. gingivalis, which is vital for P. gingivalis survival and adaptation of its metabolism throughout infection. Statement of significance. Porphyromonas gingivalis is a keystone pathogen in the development of chronic periodontitis, an inflammatory disease of the supporting tissues of the teeth. The ability of the pathogen to induce dysbiosis and disease is related to an array of specific virulence factors and metabolic regulation that enables the bacterium to proliferate in an inflamed periodontal pocket. The mechanisms P. gingivalis uses to adapt to a changing and hostile environment are poorly understood and here we show, for the first time, that enzymes of critical metabolic pathways for energy

  14. Autonomous electrochromic assembly

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Berland, Brian Spencer; Lanning, Bruce Roy; Stowell, Jr., Michael Wayne


    This disclosure describes system and methods for creating an autonomous electrochromic assembly, and systems and methods for use of the autonomous electrochromic assembly in combination with a window. Embodiments described herein include an electrochromic assembly that has an electrochromic device, an energy storage device, an energy collection device, and an electrochromic controller device. These devices may be combined into a unitary electrochromic insert assembly. The electrochromic assembly may have the capability of generating power sufficient